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1

Traditional Methods for Mineral Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This chapter describes traditional methods for analysis of minerals involving titrimetric and colorimetric procedures, and the use of ion selective electrodes. Other traditional methods of mineral analysis include gravimetric titration (i.e., insoluble forms of minerals are precipitated, rinse, dried, and weighed) and redox reactions (i.e., mineral is part of an oxidation-reduction reaction, and product is quantitated). However, these latter two methods will not be covered because they currently are used little in the food industry. The traditional methods that will be described have maintained widespread usage in the food industry despite the development of more modern instrumentation such as atomic absorption spectroscopy and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (Chap. 24). Traditional methods generally require chemicals and equipment that are routinely available in an analytical laboratory and are within the experience of most laboratory technicians. Additionally, traditional methods often form the basis for rapid analysis kits (e.g., Quantab®; for salt determination) that are increasingly in demand. Procedures for analysis of minerals of major nutritional or food processing concern are used for illustrative purposes. For additional examples of traditional methods refer to references (1-6). Slight modifications of these traditional methods are often needed for specific foodstuffs to minimize interferences or to be in the range of analytical performance. For analytical requirements for specific foods see the Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC International (5) and related official methods (6).

Ward, Robert E.; Carpenter, Charles E.

2

Calibration method for spectroscopic systems  

DOEpatents

Calibration spots of optically-characterized material placed in the field of view of a spectroscopic system allow calibration of the spectroscopic system. Response from the calibration spots is measured and used to calibrate for varying spectroscopic system operating parameters. The accurate calibration achieved allows quantitative spectroscopic analysis of responses taken at different times, different excitation conditions, and of different targets. 3 figs.

Sandison, D.R.

1998-11-17

3

New mass spectroscopic methods for waste management.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Photophysics Group at Oak Ridge National Laboratory has developed two new optical mass spectroscopic methods which can provide important applications to waste management programs. The first method involves the invention of an isotopically selective ra...

C. H. Chen W. R. Garrett S. L. Allman R. C. Phillips

1992-01-01

4

Mass spectroscopic apparatus and method  

DOEpatents

The disclosure is directed to a method and apparatus for ionization modulated mass spectrometric analysis. Analog or digital data acquisition and processing can be used. Ions from a time variant source are detected and quantified. The quantified ion output is analyzed using a computer to provide a two-dimensional representation of at least one component present within an analyte.

Bomse, David S. (Santa Fe, NM); Silver, Joel A. (Santa Fe, NM); Stanton, Alan C. (Santa Fe, NM)

1991-01-01

5

Spectroscopic chemical analysis methods and apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spectroscopic chemical analysis methods and apparatus are disclosed which employ deep ultraviolet (e.g. in the 200 nm to 300 nm spectral range) electron beam pumped wide bandgap semiconductor lasers, incoherent wide bandgap semiconductor light emitting devices, and hollow cathode metal ion lasers to perform non-contact, non-invasive detection of unknown chemical analytes. These deep ultraviolet sources enable dramatic size, weight and power consumption reductions of chemical analysis instruments. Chemical analysis instruments employed in some embodiments include capillary and gel plane electrophoresis, capillary electrochromatography, high performance liquid chromatography, flow cytometry, flow cells for liquids and aerosols, and surface detection instruments. In some embodiments, Raman spectroscopic detection methods and apparatus use ultra-narrow-band angle tuning filters, acousto-optic tuning filters, and temperature tuned filters to enable ultra-miniature analyzers for chemical identification. In some embodiments Raman analysis is conducted simultaneously with native fluorescence spectroscopy to provide high levels of sensitivity and specificity in the same instrument.

Hug, William F. (Inventor); Reid, Ray D. (Inventor)

2010-01-01

6

Spectroscopic chemical analysis methods and apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spectroscopic chemical analysis methods and apparatus are disclosed which employ deep ultraviolet (e.g. in the 200 nm to 300 nm spectral range) electron beam pumped wide bandgap semiconductor lasers, incoherent wide bandgap semiconductor light emitting devices, and hollow cathode metal ion lasers to perform non-contact, non-invasive detection of unknown chemical analytes. These deep ultraviolet sources enable dramatic size, weight and power consumption reductions of chemical analysis instruments. Chemical analysis instruments employed in some embodiments include capillary and gel plane electrophoresis, capillary electrochromatography, high performance liquid chromatography, flow cytometry, flow cells for liquids and aerosols, and surface detection instruments. In some embodiments, Raman spectroscopic detection methods and apparatus use ultra-narrow-band angle tuning filters, acousto-optic tuning filters, and temperature tuned filters to enable ultra-miniature analyzers for chemical identification. In some embodiments Raman analysis is conducted simultaneously with native fluorescence spectroscopy to provide high levels of sensitivity and specificity in the same instrument.

Hug, William F. (Inventor); Reid, Ray D. (Inventor)

2009-01-01

7

Spectroscopic methods in gas hydrate research.  

PubMed

Gas hydrates are crystalline structures comprising a guest molecule surrounded by a water cage, and are particularly relevant due to their natural occurrence in the deep sea and in permafrost areas. Low molecular weight molecules such as methane and carbon dioxide can be sequestered into that cage at suitable temperatures and pressures, facilitating the transition to the solid phase. While the composition and structure of gas hydrates appear to be well understood, their formation and dissociation mechanisms, along with the dynamics and kinetics associated with those processes, remain ambiguous. In order to take advantage of gas hydrates as an energy resource (e.g., methane hydrate), as a sequestration matrix in (for example) CO(2) storage, or for chemical energy conservation/storage, a more detailed molecular level understanding of their formation and dissociation processes, as well as the chemical, physical, and biological parameters that affect these processes, is required. Spectroscopic techniques appear to be most suitable for analyzing the structures of gas hydrates (sometimes in situ), thus providing access to such information across the electromagnetic spectrum. A variety of spectroscopic methods are currently used in gas hydrate research to determine the composition, structure, cage occupancy, guest molecule position, and binding/formation/dissociation mechanisms of the hydrate. To date, the most commonly applied techniques are Raman spectroscopy and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Diffraction methods such as neutron and X-ray diffraction are used to determine gas hydrate structures, and to study lattice expansions. Furthermore, UV-vis spectroscopic techniques and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) have assisted in structural studies of gas hydrates. Most recently, waveguide-coupled mid-infrared spectroscopy in the 3-20 ?m spectral range has demonstrated its value for in situ studies on the formation and dissociation of gas hydrates. This comprehensive review summarizes the importance of spectroscopic analytical techniques to our understanding of the structure and dynamics of gas hydrate systems, and highlights selected examples that illustrate the utility of these individual methods. PMID:22094590

Rauh, Florian; Mizaikoff, Boris

2012-01-01

8

Spectroscopic chemical analysis methods and apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spectroscopic chemical analysis methods and apparatus are disclosed which employ deep ultraviolet (e.g. in the 200 nm to 300 nm spectral range) electron beam pumped wide bandgap semiconductor lasers, incoherent wide bandgap semiconductor light emitting devices, and hollow cathode metal ion lasers to perform non-contact, non-invasive detection of unknown chemical analytes. These deep ultraviolet sources enable dramatic size, weight and power consumption reductions of chemical analysis instruments. Chemical analysis instruments employed in some embodiments include capillary and gel plane electrophoresis, capillary electrochromatography, high performance liquid chromatography, flow cytometry, flow cells for liquids and aerosols, and surface detection instruments. In some embodiments, Raman spectroscopic detection methods and apparatus use ultra-narrow-band angle tuning filters, acousto-optic tuning filters, and temperature tuned filters to enable ultra-miniature analyzers for chemical identification. In some embodiments Raman analysis is conducted along with photoluminescence spectroscopy (i.e. fluorescence and/or phosphorescence spectroscopy) to provide high levels of sensitivity and specificity in the same instrument.

Hug, William F. (Inventor); Reid, Ray D. (Inventor); Bhartia, Rohit (Inventor)

2013-01-01

9

Spectroscopic Chemical Analysis Methods and Apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This invention relates to non-contact spectroscopic methods and apparatus for performing chemical analysis and the ideal wavelengths and sources needed for this analysis. It employs deep ultraviolet (200- to 300-nm spectral range) electron-beam-pumped wide bandgap semiconductor lasers, incoherent wide bandgap semiconductor lightemitting devices, and hollow cathode metal ion lasers. Three achieved goals for this innovation are to reduce the size (under 20 L), reduce the weight [under 100 lb (.45 kg)], and reduce the power consumption (under 100 W). This method can be used in microscope or macroscope to provide measurement of Raman and/or native fluorescence emission spectra either by point-by-point measurement, or by global imaging of emissions within specific ultraviolet spectral bands. In other embodiments, the method can be used in analytical instruments such as capillary electrophoresis, capillary electro-chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography, flow cytometry, and related instruments for detection and identification of unknown analytes using a combination of native fluorescence and/or Raman spectroscopic methods. This design provides an electron-beampumped semiconductor radiation-producing method, or source, that can emit at a wavelength (or wavelengths) below 300 nm, e.g. in the deep ultraviolet between about 200 and 300 nm, and more preferably less than 260 nm. In some variations, the method is to produce incoherent radiation, while in other implementations it produces laser radiation. In some variations, this object is achieved by using an AlGaN emission medium, while in other implementations a diamond emission medium may be used. This instrument irradiates a sample with deep UV radiation, and then uses an improved filter for separating wavelengths to be detected. This provides a multi-stage analysis of the sample. To avoid the difficulties related to producing deep UV semiconductor sources, a pumping approach has been developed that uses ballistic electron beam injection directly into the active region of a wide bandgap semiconductor material.

Hug, William F.; Reid, Ray D.

2012-01-01

10

Objective Structured Clinical Examinations (OSCEs) Compared With Traditional Assessment Methods  

PubMed Central

Objectives. To compare objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs) and traditional assessment methods among recent pharmacy graduates. Methods. Individual student performance in OSCEs was compared with performance on traditional pharmacy-practice examinations at the same level of program study. Results. A moderate correlation was found between individual attainment in OSCE examinations and on traditional pharmacy practice examinations at the same level. Conclusions. OSCEs add value to traditional methods of assessment because the 2 evaluation methods measure different competencies.

Kravitz, Laura

2011-01-01

11

[Tunnel preparations. Traditional and alternative methods].  

PubMed

Alternative, conservative techniques for treatment of initial approximal carious lesions in the premolar-molar region are described. Beside the "traditional" tunnel preparation a modified technique is described, in which the proximal enamel wall is left untouched, unless the carious lesion has perforated the amelodentinal junction. The internal Class I-cavity is filled with a radiopaque glass ionomer cement and a composite resin. During 2 years 282 approximal surfaces have been treated and in the 1-year follow-up study is shown that both techniques have sufficient success rate to encourage further use and study. The advantages of these techniques compared to Class II-restorations with amalgam or composite resins are discussed and judged as considerable. PMID:2097805

Hasselrot, L

1990-11-01

12

Further evaluation of traditional icing scaling methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report provides additional evaluations of two methods to scale icing test conditions; it also describes a hybrid technique for use when scaled conditions are outside the operating envelope of the test facility. The first evaluation is of the Olsen method which can be used to scale the liquid-water content in icing tests, and the second is the AEDC (Ruff) method which is used when the test model is less than full size. Equations for both scaling methods are presented in the paper, and the methods were evaluated by performing icing tests in the NASA Lewis Icing Research Tunnel (IRT). The Olsen method was tested using 53 cm diameter NACA 0012 airfoils. Tests covered liquid-water-contents which varied by as much as a factor of 1.8. The Olsen method was generally effective in giving scale ice shapes which matched the reference shapes for these tests. The AEDC method was tested with NACA 0012 airfoils with chords from 18 cm to 53 cm. The 53 cm chord airfoils were used in reference tests, and 1/2 and 1/3 scale tests were made at conditions determined by applying the AEDC scaling method. The scale and reference airspeeds were matched in these tests. The AEDC method was found to provide fairly effective scaling for 1/2 size tests, but for 1/3 size models, scaling was generally less effective. In addition to these two scaling methods, a hybrid approach was also tested in which the Olsen method was used to adjust the LWC after size was scaled using the constant Weber number method. This approach was found to be an effective way to test when scaled conditions would otherwise be outside the capability of the test facility.

Anderson, David N.

1996-01-01

13

Traditional Methods for Isolation of Listeria monocytogenes.  

PubMed

Conventional methods for the detection of Listeria monocytogenes in foods and environmental samples relies on selective pre-enrichment, enrichment, and plating. This is followed by confirmation of suspected colonies by testing a limited number of biochemical markers. PMID:24792545

Magalhães, Rui; Mena, Cristina; Ferreira, Vânia; Almeida, Gonçalo; Silva, Joana; Teixeira, Paula

2014-01-01

14

Reapplication of Traditional Hydrological Forecasting Methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the end of the last Century Jozsef Pech, who was the head of the Hydrological Fore- casting Department in Hungary, developed graphical methods for hydrological fore- casting. These methods made possible to solve non- linear forecasting problems. To involve non-linearity into the models handmade drawings were applied. Basic ideas of these methods are still useful nowadays. Computers make easier the enormous graph- ical work that had to be carried out a century ago. In our investigation all the graphs, nomograms and equations of Pech were put into a computer, after adjusting them to the present hydrological boundary conditions. Routing of floods in time and space are shown on 3D maps. Connected water-level data from upstream and downstream gauges along with the propagation times are also displayed as surfaces. These graphs help to analyse flood events. Based on these analyses, computerised forecasting tools were made for the practical use of the models. The so-updated model has been tested on the Tisza, a river having countless of tributaries. In the last two years three extreme flood events have been experienced along this river, which have turned the attention towards the application of accurate flood forecasting methods. As Pech developed his model exactly for the Tisza its reapplication is very actual issue. As 1D hydraulic models are also being developed for this river (that also enable flood forecasting) it will be possible to compare the accuracy of the different methods. It may happen that methods developed by our forefathers will prove to be applicable in our times too.

Kontur, I.; Keve, G.

15

Apparatus and method for spectroscopic analysis of scattering media  

DOEpatents

Apparatus and method for spectroscopic analysis of scattering media. Subtle differences in materials have been found to be detectable from plots of intensity as a function of wavelength of collected emitted and scattered light versus wavelength of excitation light.

Strobl, Karlheinz (Los Angeles, CA) [Los Angeles, CA; Bigio, Irving J. (Los Alamos, NM) [Los Alamos, NM; Loree, Thomas R. (Santa Fe, NM) [Santa Fe, NM

1994-01-01

16

Spectroscope  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners construct their own spectroscope as they explore and observe spectra from familiar light sources. Learners can be challenged to make technological improvements to their spectroscopes and/or participate in extension activities that expand their understanding of different kinds of spectra and sharpen their observing skills.

Observatory, Mcdonald

2008-01-01

17

Spectroscope  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity (posted on March 12, 2011), learners follow the steps to construct a spectroscope, a tool used to analyze light and color. First, learners use relatively simple materials to construct the device. Then, learners look through their spectroscopes at a variety of different light sources including incandescents, LEDs, compact fluorescents, sun light, etc. and compare what they observe. This resource includes a few examples of how certain chemicals form different colors of light.

Center, Oakland D.

2011-01-01

18

Student Attitudes to Traditional and Online Methods of Delivery  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Rapid developments in education technology have provided educators and students new options in a constantly changing, competitive teaching and learning environment. As the number of online teaching resources continue to increase, research into student attitudes toward traditional and online methods of delivery is important in order to determine…

Wong, Lily; Fong, Michelle

2014-01-01

19

Event sorting methods of ?-ray spectroscopic data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presents several sorting methods of ?-ray events which were implemented in the data acquisition, processing and visualization system, developed at the Institute of Physics of the Slovak Academy of Sciences. The sorting methods using various shapes of gates (conditions) are presented, including rectangular windows, polygons, gates defined by arithmetic functions, spherical, ellipsoidal and composed gates. The examples illustrating the use of these methods are presented as well.

Morhá?, Miroslav; Matoušek, Vladislav

2011-03-01

20

Traditions and Alcohol Use: A Mixed-Methods Analysis  

PubMed Central

An integrative mixed-methods analysis examined traditional beliefs as associated with beliefs about self-care during pregnancy and with alcohol abstinence among young adult women from two rural U.S.–Mexico border communities. Quantitative (measured scale) variables and qualitative thematic variables generated from open-ended responses served as within-time predictors of these health-related outcomes. A weaker belief that life is better in big cities was associated with stronger self-care beliefs during pregnancy. Also, a weaker belief that small towns offer tranquil environments was associated with total abstinence from alcohol. Regarding the Hispanic Paradox, these results suggest that a critical appreciation of cultural traditions can be protective, as this avoids stereotypical or idyllic views of urban or rural lifeways, and promotes self-protective beliefs and behaviors.

Castro, Felipe Gonzalez; Coe, Kathryn

2011-01-01

21

Scanning Tunneling Microscopy methods for spectroscopic imaging of subsurface interfaces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new method for spatially-resolved, spectroscopic investigation of subsurface interface structure has been developed. The method, Ballistic Electron Emission Microscopy (BEEM), is based on Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) techniques. BEEM combines STM vacuum tunneling with unique ballistic electron spectroscopy capabilities. BEEM enables, for the first time, direct imaging of subsurface interface electronic properties with nanometer spatial resolution. STM topographic images of surface structure and BEEM images of subsurface properties are obtained simultaneously. BEEM capabilities are demonstrated by investigation of important metal-semiconductor interfaces.

Bell, L. D.; Kaiser, W. J.

1988-01-01

22

Quantitative comparison of analysis methods for spectroscopic optical coherence tomography  

PubMed Central

Spectroscopic optical coherence tomography (sOCT) enables the mapping of chromophore concentrations and image contrast enhancement in tissue. Acquisition of depth resolved spectra by sOCT requires analysis methods with optimal spectral/spatial resolution and spectral recovery. In this article, we quantitatively compare the available methods, i.e. the short time Fourier transform (STFT), wavelet transforms, the Wigner-Ville distribution and the dual window method through simulations in tissue-like media. We conclude that all methods suffer from the trade-off in spectral/spatial resolution, and that the STFT is the optimal method for the specific application of the localized quantification of hemoglobin concentration and oxygen saturation.

Bosschaart, Nienke; van Leeuwen, Ton G.; Aalders, Maurice C. G.; Faber, Dirk J.

2013-01-01

23

Spectroscopic Methods of Remote Sensing for Vegetation Characterization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Imaging spectroscopy (IS), often referred to as hyperspectral remote sensing, is one of the latest innovations in a very long history of spectroscopy. Spectroscopic methods have been used for understanding the composition of the world around us, as well as, the solar system and distant parts of the universe. Continuous sampling of the electromagnetic spectrum in narrow bands is what separates IS from previous forms of remote sensing. Terrestrial imaging spectrometers often have hundreds of channels that cover the wavelength range of reflected solar radiation, including the visible, near-infrared (NIR), and shortwave infrared (SWIR) regions. In part due to the large number of channels, a wide variety of methods have been applied to extract information from IS data sets. These can be grouped into several broad classes, including: multi-channel indices, statistical procedures, full spectrum mixing models, and spectroscopic methods. Spectroscopic methods carry on the more than 150 year history of laboratory-based spectroscopy applied to material identification and characterization. Spectroscopic methods of IS relate the positions and shapes of spectral features resolved by airborne and spaceborne sensors to the biochemical and physical composition of vegetation in a pixel. The chlorophyll 680nm, water 980nm, water 1200nm, SWIR 1700nm, SWIR 2100nm, and SWIR 2300nm features have been the subject of study. Spectral feature analysis (SFA) involves isolating such an absorption feature using continuum removal (CR) and calculating descriptors of the feature, such as center position, depth, width, area, and asymmetry. SFA has been applied to quantify pigment and non-pigment biochemical concentrations in leaves, plants, and canopies. Spectral feature comparison (SFC) utilizes CR of features in each pixel's spectrum and linear regression with continuum-removed features in reference spectra in a library of known vegetation types to map vegetation species and communities. SFC has been applied to map the distributions of minerals in soils and rocks; however, its application to characterize vegetation cover has been less widespread than SFA. Using IS data and the USGS Processing Routines in IDL for Spectroscopic Measurements (PRISM; http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2011/1155/), this talk will examine requirements for and limitations in applying SFA and SFC to characterize vegetation. A time series of Airborne Visible/InfraRed Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data collected in the marshes of Louisiana following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill will be used to examine the impact of varying leaf water content on the shapes of the SWIR 1700, 2100, and 2300 nm features and the implications of these changes on vegetation identification and biochemical estimation. The USGS collection of HyMap data over Afghanistan, the largest terrestrial coverage of IS data to date, will be used to demonstrate the characterization of vegetation in arid and semi-arid regions, in which chlorophyll absorption is often weak and soil and rock mineral absorption features overlap vegetation features. Hyperion data, overlapping the HyMap data, will be presented to illustrate the complications that arise when signal-to-noise is low. The benefits of and challenges to applying a spectroscopic remote sensing approach to imaging spectrometer data will be discussed.

Kokaly, R. F.

2013-12-01

24

New background correction method for liquid chromatography with diode array detection, infrared spectroscopic detection and Raman spectroscopic detection  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method to eliminate the background spectrum (EBS) during analyte elution in column liquid chromatography (LC) coupled to spectroscopic techniques is proposed. This method takes into account the shape and also intensity differences of the background eluent spectrum. This allows the EBS method to make a better estimation of the background eluent spectrum during analyte elution. This is an

Hans F. M. Boelens; Reyer J. Dijkstra; Paul H. C. Eilers; Fiona Fitzpatrick; Johan A. Westerhuis

2004-01-01

25

Advances in spectroscopic methods for quantifying soil carbon  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The current gold standard for soil carbon (C) determination is elemental C analysis using dry combustion. However, this method requires expensive consumables, is limited by the number of samples that can be processed (~100/d), and is restricted to the determination of total carbon. With increased interest in soil C sequestration, faster methods of analysis are needed, and there is growing interest in methods based on diffuse reflectance spectroscopy in the visible, near-infrared or mid-infrared spectral ranges. These spectral methods can decrease analytical requirements and speed sample processing, be applied to large landscape areas using remote sensing imagery, and be used to predict multiple analytes simultaneously. However, the methods require localized calibrations to establish the relationship between spectral data and reference analytical data, and also have additional, specific problems. For example, remote sensing is capable of scanning entire watersheds for soil carbon content but is limited to the surface layer of tilled soils and may require difficult and extensive field sampling to obtain proper localized calibration reference values. The objective of this chapter is to discuss the present state of spectroscopic methods for determination of soil carbon.

Reeves, James B., III; McCarty, Gregory W.; Calderon, Francisco; Hively, W. Dean

2012-01-01

26

Molecular Methods for Identification of Microorganisms in Traditional Meat Products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traditional fermentations are those that have been used for centuries and even pre-date written historical records. Fermentation processes have been developed to upgrade plant and animal materials, to yield a more acceptable food, to add flavor, to prevent the growth of pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms, and to preserve food without refrigeration (Hesseltine & Wang, 1980). Among fermented foods, sausages are the meat products with a longer history and tradition. It is often assumed that sausages were invented by the Sumerians, in what is Iraq today, around 3000 BC. Chinese sausage làcháng, which consisted of goat and lamb meat, was first mentioned in 589 BC. Homer, the poet of The Ancient Greece, mentioned a kind of blood sausage in the Odyssey (book 20, verse 25), and Epicharmus (ca. 550 BC-ca. 460 BC) wrote a comedy entitled “The Sausage”.

Cocolin, Luca; Dolci, Paola; Rantsiou, Kalliopi

27

Traditional methods in management of diarrhoeal diseases in Uganda.  

PubMed Central

A total of 292 traditional healers were interviewed in five districts of Uganda to discover how diarrhoeal diseases were treated by them. At least two healers were present in every village visited, and over 42% of their case-load was concerned with diarrhoeal treatment. The investigation showed that a great variety of herbs/plants are used by traditional healers in the treatment of diarrhoeal diseases. All those interviewed used water as the main vehicle for their herbal preparations, the amount prescribed daily ranging from 20 ml to over 100 ml for children (in the case of 54.5% of healers) and 100 ml to over 500 ml for adults (56.6%); 26.4% of healers considered fluid supplements as mandatory and 70.5% advised patients to take as much fluid as possible. Only 3.1% of healers either limited or did not advise fluid intake. These findings indicate that traditional healers could play an important role in interventions to control diarrhoeal diseases using modern oral rehydration therapy if they are assisted to improve their techniques.

Anokbonggo, W. W.; Odoi-Adome, R.; Oluju, P. M.

1990-01-01

28

A Comparison of the Kernel Equating Method with Traditional Equating Methods Using SAT[R] Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study applied kernel equating (KE) in two scenarios: equating to a very similar population and equating to a very different population, referred to as a distant population, using SAT[R] data. The KE results were compared to the results obtained from analogous traditional equating methods in both scenarios. The results indicate that KE results…

Liu, Jinghua; Low, Albert C.

2008-01-01

29

Characterization of cell-penetrating lipopeptide micelles by spectroscopic methods.  

PubMed

The transport of bioactive compounds to the site of action is a great challenge. A promising approach to overcome application-related problems is the development of targeting colloidal transport systems, such as micelles which are equipped with uptake mediating moieties. Here, we investigated a set of novel lipopeptides which exhibit a surfactant-like structure due to attachment of two palmitoyl chains to the N-terminus of cationic or anionic amino acid sequences. We analyzed the association behavior of these lipopeptides by using 5(6)-carboxyfluorescein (CF)-labeled derivatives as a fluorescent probe and different spectroscopic methods such as fluorescence anisotropy and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS). The photophysical properties as well as the diffusion and rotational movements of the CF-labeled lipopeptides were exploited to determine the cmc and the size of the micelles consisting of lipopeptides. We could distinguish cationic and anionic lipopeptides by their association behavior and by studying the interactions with mouse brain capillary endothelial cells (b.end3). The cationic derivatives turned out to be very strong surfactants with a very low cmc in the micromolar range (0.5-14 ?M). The unique combination of micelle-forming property and cell-penetrating ability can pave the road for the development of a novel class of efficient drug carrier systems. PMID:24188016

Gehne, Sören; Sydow, Karl; Dathe, Margitta; Kumke, Michael U

2013-11-21

30

Monitoring, Controlling and Safeguarding Radiochemical Streams at Spent Fuel Reprocessing Facilities, Part 1: Optical Spectroscopic Methods  

SciTech Connect

Abstract: The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has established international safeguards standards for fissionable material at spent fuel reprocessing plants to ensure that significant quantities of weapons-useable nuclear material are not diverted from these facilities. For large throughput nuclear facilities, it is difficult to satisfy the IAEA safeguards accountancy goal for detection of abrupt diversion. Currently, methods to verify material control and accountancy (MC&A) at these facilities require time-consuming and resource-intensive destructive assay (DA). Leveraging new on-line non-destructive assay (NDA) process monitoring techniques in conjunction with the traditional and highly precise DA methods may provide an additional measure to nuclear material accountancy which would potentially result in a more timely, cost-effective and resource efficient means for safeguards verification at such facilities. By monitoring process control measurements (e.g. flowrates, temperatures, or concentrations of reagents, products or wastes), abnormal plant operations can be detected. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is developing on-line NDA process monitoring technologies based upon gamma-ray and optical spectroscopic measurements to potentially reduce the time and resource burden associated with current techniques. The Multi-Isotope Process (MIP) Monitor uses gamma spectroscopy and multivariate analysis to identify off-normal conditions in process streams. The spectroscopic monitor continuously measures chemical compositions of the process streams including actinide metal ions (U, Pu, Np), selected fission products, and major stable flowsheet reagents using UV-Vis, Near IR and Raman spectroscopy. Multi-variate analysis is also applied to the optical measurements in order to quantify concentrations of analytes of interest within a complex array of radiochemical streams. This paper will provide an overview of these methods and reports on-going efforts to develop and demonstrate the technologies. This paper is Part 1 of a two part series, and focuses on the optical spectroscopy based process monitoring methods.

Bryan, Samuel A.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Schwantes, Jon M.; Orton, Christopher R.; Peterson, James M.; Casella, Amanda J.

2012-02-07

31

Improvement in the traditional processing method and nutritional quality of traditional extruded cassava-based snack (modified Ajogun)  

PubMed Central

This study was carried out to investigate and improve the traditional processing method and nutritional quality of the traditional cassava snack (Ajogun). Cassava root (Manihot esculenta Crantz L.) of TME 419 variety was processed into mash (40% moisture content). The cassava mash was mixed into different blends to produce fried traditional “Ajogun”, fried and baked extrudates (modified Ajogun) as snacks. These products were analyzed to determine the proximate composition including carbohydrate, fat, protein, fiber, ash, and moisture contents and functional properties such as bulk density. The results obtained for the moisture, fat, protein, and ash contents showed significant difference (P < 0.05) between the control sample and the extrudates. However, there was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in the carbohydrate and fiber contents between the three samples. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in the bulk density of the snacks. Also, sensory evaluation was carried out on the cassava-based snacks using the 9-point hedonic scale to determine the degree of acceptability. Results obtained showed significant difference (P < 0.05) between the extrudates and control sample in terms of appearance, taste, flavor, color, aroma, texture, and overall acceptability. The highest acceptability level of the product was at 8.04 for the control sample (traditional Ajogun). This study has shown that “Ajogun”, which is a lesser known cassava product, is rich in protein and fat.

Obadina, Adewale O; Oyewole, Olusola B; Williams, Oluwasolabomi E

2013-01-01

32

Improvement in the traditional processing method and nutritional quality of traditional extruded cassava-based snack (modified Ajogun).  

PubMed

This study was carried out to investigate and improve the traditional processing method and nutritional quality of the traditional cassava snack (Ajogun). Cassava root (Manihot esculenta Crantz L.) of TME 419 variety was processed into mash (40% moisture content). The cassava mash was mixed into different blends to produce fried traditional "Ajogun", fried and baked extrudates (modified Ajogun) as snacks. These products were analyzed to determine the proximate composition including carbohydrate, fat, protein, fiber, ash, and moisture contents and functional properties such as bulk density. The results obtained for the moisture, fat, protein, and ash contents showed significant difference (P < 0.05) between the control sample and the extrudates. However, there was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in the carbohydrate and fiber contents between the three samples. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in the bulk density of the snacks. Also, sensory evaluation was carried out on the cassava-based snacks using the 9-point hedonic scale to determine the degree of acceptability. Results obtained showed significant difference (P < 0.05) between the extrudates and control sample in terms of appearance, taste, flavor, color, aroma, texture, and overall acceptability. The highest acceptability level of the product was at 8.04 for the control sample (traditional Ajogun). This study has shown that "Ajogun", which is a lesser known cassava product, is rich in protein and fat. PMID:24804039

Obadina, Adewale O; Oyewole, Olusola B; Williams, Oluwasolabomi E

2013-07-01

33

Extending traditional planning methods to evaluate the potential for cascading failures in electric power grids  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method of extending traditional planning methods and tools to evaluate the potential for cascading failures in electric power grids will be presented. By expanding on traditional transmission planning and reliability analysis methods, a study technique that produces reasonable and verifiable assessments of electric grid vulnerability to widespread blackout is possible. The methodology also provides an objective measure of the

S. S. Miller

2008-01-01

34

Traditional Ground Stroke Versus Volley Method of Teaching Beginning Tennis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study of college women in beginning tennis classes indicated that students instructed by the volley method of teaching tennis improved significantly over those instructed by the ground stroke method, particularly in their forehand drives. (JD)

Burrus-Bammel, Lei Lane

1976-01-01

35

Case Method in Japanese Teacher Education: Traditions and Our Experiments.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The case method is a key tool that teachers can use to develop their practical knowledge and practical thinking styles in both preservice and inservice education. The case method in Japanese teacher education has been a major approach for more than 100 years. The approach to case method described here has been implemented in five settings: (1) the…

Sato, Manabu

36

Infrared Spectroscopic Methods for the Study of Lubricant Oxidation Products  

Microsoft Academic Search

Data processing techniques have been developed for the manipulation and enhancement of spectroscopic data. They have been applied to the infrared spectra of degraded base oils and lubricants to provide information on oxidation processes and additive depletion. Samples have been acquired from oils that have been subjected to laboratory scale oxidation and from lubricants during standard engine tests. Results are

John P. Coates; Lynn C. Setti

1986-01-01

37

Traditional Probabilistic Risk Assessment Methods for Digital Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

At present, there are no consensus methods for quantifying the reliability of digital systems. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) currently is undertaking assessments of the reliability of digital instrumentation and control (I&C) systems, using...

G. Martinez-Guridi J. Lehner M. Yue P. Samanta T. L. Chu

2008-01-01

38

Spectroscopic methods for the photodiagnosis of nonmelanoma skin cancer.  

PubMed

The importance of dermatological noninvasive imaging techniques has increased over the last decades, aiming at diagnosing nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC). Technological progress has led to the development of various analytical tools, enabling the in vivo/in vitro examination of lesional human skin with the aim to increase diagnostic accuracy and decrease morbidity and mortality. The structure of the skin layers, their chemical composition, and the distribution of their compounds permits the noninvasive photodiagnosis of skin diseases, such as skin cancers, especially for early stages of malignant tumors. An important role in the dermatological diagnosis and disease monitoring has been shown for promising spectroscopic and imaging techniques, such as fluorescence, diffuse reflectance, Raman and near-infrared spectroscopy, optical coherence tomography, and confocal laser-scanning microscopy. We review the use of these spectroscopic techniques as noninvasive tools for the photodiagnosis of NMSC. PMID:23264965

Drakaki, Eleni; Vergou, Theognosia; Dessinioti, Clio; Stratigos, Alexander J; Salavastru, Carmen; Antoniou, Christina

2013-06-01

39

Spectroscopic methods for the photodiagnosis of nonmelanoma skin cancer.  

PubMed

The importance of dermatological noninvasive imaging techniques has increased over the last decades, aiming at diagnosing nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC). Technological progress has led to the development of various analytical tools, enabling the in vivo/in vitro examination of lesional human skin with the aim to increase diagnostic accuracy and decrease morbidity and mortality. The structure of the skin layers, their chemical composition, and the distribution of their compounds permits the noninvasive photodiagnosis of skin diseases, such as skin cancers, especially for early stages of malignant tumors. An important role in the dermatological diagnosis and disease monitoring has been shown for promising spectroscopic and imaging techniques, such as fluorescence, diffuse reflectance, Raman and near-infrared spectroscopy, optical coherence tomography, and confocal laser-scanning microscopy. We review the use of these spectroscopic techniques as noninvasive tools for the photodiagnosis of NMSC. PMID:23748702

Drakaki, Eleni; Vergou, Theognosia; Dessinioti, Clio; Stratigos, Alexander J; Salavastru, Carmen; Antoniou, Christina

2013-01-01

40

Spectroscopic methods for the photodiagnosis of nonmelanoma skin cancer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The importance of dermatological noninvasive imaging techniques has increased over the last decades, aiming at diagnosing nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC). Technological progress has led to the development of various analytical tools, enabling the in vivo/in vitro examination of lesional human skin with the aim to increase diagnostic accuracy and decrease morbidity and mortality. The structure of the skin layers, their chemical composition, and the distribution of their compounds permits the noninvasive photodiagnosis of skin diseases, such as skin cancers, especially for early stages of malignant tumors. An important role in the dermatological diagnosis and disease monitoring has been shown for promising spectroscopic and imaging techniques, such as fluorescence, diffuse reflectance, Raman and near-infrared spectroscopy, optical coherence tomography, and confocal laser-scanning microscopy. We review the use of these spectroscopic techniques as noninvasive tools for the photodiagnosis of NMSC.

Drakaki, Eleni; Vergou, Theognosia; Dessinioti, Clio; Stratigos, Alexander J.; Salavastru, Carmen; Antoniou, Christina

2013-06-01

41

Internal evaluation: a synthesis of traditional methods and industrial engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

In evaluation as it has been practiced, requirements for specialized training have caused a trade-off between rigor of method and the extent of program staff’s involvement in the evaluation process. There is a way to remove the trade-off between “rigor” and “use,” by applying industrial engineering (IE) tools that, though sophisticated and powerful, are packaged to facilitate use by people

JONATHAN A. MORELL

2000-01-01

42

Weighted partial least squares method to improve calibration precision for spectroscopic noise-limited data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Multivariate calibration methods have been applied extensively to the quantitative analysis of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectral data. Partial least squares (PLS) methods have become the most widely used multivariate method for quantitative spectroscopic analyses. Most often these methods are limited by model error or the accuracy or precision of the reference methods. However, in some cases, the precision of

David M. Haaland; Howland D. T. Jones

1998-01-01

43

Development and validation of a spectroscopic method to predict wheat protein digestibility.  

PubMed

The CP digestibility is traditionally measured by chemical analyses of CP and marker concentration in digesta and diets. Potentially, CP digestibility can also be predicted by marker concentrations and spectral analyses of digesta and diet. Spectroscopy is a rapid, nondestructive method to ascertain qualitative and quantitative chemical information. Based on Beer's law, a spectroscopic method was developed to predict in vivo CP digestibility. To validate, samples of digesta and diet of wheat grain with predetermined apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of CP were scanned on a Fourier transform midinfrared (FTIR) instrument with a single-reflection attenuated total reflectance attachment. The AID of CP was calculated from peak intensities of spectra and measured marker concentrations in digesta and diet and then compared with in vivo AID of CP. The AID of CP of a wheat-based diet was predicted accurately with a deviation of 0.68 ± 0.86% from in vivo AID of CP ranging from 60.4 to 87.8%. Functional group digestibility based on the peak at 1,643 cm(-1) or the Amide I region was strongly correlated (r ? 0.99; P < 0.001) with in vivo AID of CP. In conclusion, instead of predictions based on calibrations, CP digestibility can also be potentially predicted directly from FTIR spectra. PMID:23365397

Wang, L F; Swift, M L; Zijlstra, R T

2012-12-01

44

Quality control of traditional chinese medicine by monoclonal antibody method.  

PubMed

In a previous study, we reported the preparation, characterization, variation, specificity, and sensitivity of an anti-aristolochic acid-II (AA-II) monoclonal antibody. The preparation procedure was as follows. AA-II conjugated with bovine serum albumin was used as an antigen for immunizing BALB/c mice. Splenocytes isolated from the immunized mice were fused with an aminopterin-sensitive mouse myeloma cell line to produce hybridoma cells secreting a mono-clonal antibody (MAb) against AA-II. The selected MAb was subsequently cloned. Hapten number, isotype, and an esti-mated dissociation constant (KD) of the secreted MAb were determined. This MAb was used to establish an ELISA method. The linear range was 0.19-13 µg/ml. Anti-AA-II MAb showed extremely high specificity for AA-II, low cross-reactivity (CR) against other AAs or aristololactam-I, and negligible CR (<0.5%) toward other natural compounds with different chemical structures. This study describes the successful application of the ELISA method using anti-AA-II MAb to determine AA-II concentration in several crude drugs derived from Aristolochia species. The highest AA-II concentration (2.82 µg/mg) was observed in the stem of A. manshuriensis, followed by that in the fruit of A. contorta (0.81 µg/mg). In case of A. indica, AA-II concentration in the root was higher than that in the aerial parts. These data indicated that the established ELISA method can be used for the quality control of crude drugs derived from Aristolochia plants. PMID:21143136

Shang, Ming-Ying; Tian, Min; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Li, Xiao-Wei; Cai, Shao-Qing; Shoyama, Yukihiro

2011-03-01

45

Study Towards the Development of THR Traditional Method for Dough Leavening Using Chockpea Steep Liquor.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A traditional method using chickpea steep liquor(CSL) as a starter for dough leavening was described. The problems encountered in the production of the traditional baked products were discussed. The CSL is prepared by pouring hot water(90 C) with or witho...

M. A. Humaid S. Tokan F. Hashwa

1989-01-01

46

Mature market segmentation: a comparison of artificial neural networks and traditional methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The need for in-depth knowledge of mature market segments and the need to overcome the limitations of using traditional methods\\u000a to segment them motivate this study. The research objectives are (1) to examine neural networks, specifically Kohonen’s self-organising\\u000a maps (SOM), as an alternative to traditional statistical segmentation methods (hierarchical and non-hierarchical cluster analysis)\\u000a and (2) to identify segments in the

Enrique Bigné; Joaquín Aldás-Manzano; Inés Küster; Natalia Vila

2010-01-01

47

Spectroscopically Enhanced Method and System for Multi-Factor Biometric Authentication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes a spectroscopic method and system for preventing spoofing of biometric authentication. One of its focus is to enhance biometrics authentication with a spectroscopic method in a multifactor manner such that a person's unique ‘spectral signatures’ or ‘spectral factors’ are recorded and compared in addition to a non-spectroscopic biometric signature to reduce the likelihood of imposter getting authenticated. By using the ‘spectral factors’ extracted from reflectance spectra of real fingers and employing cluster analysis, it shows how the authentic fingerprint image presented by a real finger can be distinguished from an authentic fingerprint image embossed on an artificial finger, or molded on a fingertip cover worn by an imposter. This paper also shows how to augment two widely used biometrics systems (fingerprint and iris recognition devices) with spectral biometrics capabilities in a practical manner and without creating much overhead or inconveniencing their users.

Pishva, Davar

48

Comparison of DFT with Traditional Methods for the Calculation of Vibrational Frequencies and Bond Energies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The vibrational frequencies of MO2 are computed at many levels of theory, including HF, B3LYP, BP86, CASSCF, MP2, and CCSD(T). The computed results are compared with the available experimental results. Most of the methods fail for at least one state of the systems considered. The accuracy of the results and the origin of the observed failures are discussed. The B3LYP bond energies are compared with traditional methods for a variety of systems, ranging from FeCOn+ to SiCln and its positive ions. The cases where B3LYP differs from the traditional methods are discussed.

Bauschlicher, Charles W.; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

1997-01-01

49

A comparative clinical study on standardization of Vamana Vidhi by classical and traditional methods  

PubMed Central

Vamana Karma (process of emesis) is considered as Pradhana Karma (prime procedure) meant for inducing therapeutic vomiting, indicated for the purification of Urdhwa Bhaga (upper part) of the body. It is the process by which contents of stomach, including Kapha and Pitta are expelled out of the body through oral route. Acharya Charak and Sushruta have advocated various procedures for Vamana Karma known as classical methods, whereas some traditional methods are also being followed. As very little works has been carried out in the direction of Vamana Karma and as not a single work has been carried out on standardization of Vamana Vidhi comparing to both classical and traditional methods, the present study had been selected. The clinical trial was conducted in a randomized sample of 50 individuals (Both patients and volunteers) resolved into two sub-groups, viz. individuals in Group A was performed Vamana with classical methods and Group B with traditional methods. From the observations and results obtained in the present clinical study, it can be concluded that the method mentioned in classics is very much beneficial from every point of view in comparison to the traditional method. It is very easy, safest, less time-consuming and clinically as well as statistically most effective method without producing any type of complications.

Dass, Ranjip Kumar; Bhatt, Nilesh N.; Thakar, Anup B.; Shukla, Vagish Dutt

2012-01-01

50

Docosahexaenoic acid content is significantly higher in ghrita prepared by traditional Ayurvedic method  

PubMed Central

Background: Ghee (clarified butter) also known as ghrita, has been utilized for thousands of years in Ayurveda. Ghee is mostly prepared by traditional method in Indian households or by direct cream method at industry level. Ayurvedic classics mention that ghrita made from cow milk is superior. However, there is no scientific comparison available on preparation methods and essential fatty acids content of ghrita. Objective: To investigate fatty acid composition of ghrita prepared by traditional/Ayurvedic method and commercial method (direct cream method). Materials and Methods: Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME) extracted from ghrita samples were analysed on Gas Chromatography (GC) Shimadzu B using capillary column BPX70 (0.32 mm*60 m, ID of 0.25 mm). The fatty acids in the samples were identified by comparing peaks with the external standard 68A (Nu-Chek-Prep, Inc.USA). Significant differences between the experimental groups were assessed by analysis of variance. Results: Distribution of fatty acids was compared in ghrita samples prepared by traditional method and direct cream method which is commercially used. Saturated fatty acids were predominant in both the groups. Mono unsaturated fatty acids and poly unsaturated fatty acids were in the range of 17-18% and 3-6% respectively. DHA content was significantly higher in ghee prepared by traditional method using curd starter fermentation. Conclusion: The findings suggested that ghrita prepared by traditional ayurvedic methods contains higher amount of DHA; Omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, which is a major component of retinal and brain tissues and remains important in prevention of various diseases.

Joshi, Kalpana S.

2014-01-01

51

Learning About Violence Against Women in Research Methods: A Comparison to Traditional Pedagogy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study examined whether a community-engaged class in undergraduate psychology research methods was able to educate students about violence against women without sacrificing acquisition of research methods knowledge. We compared student outcomes in a traditional research methods course to those in a community-engaged research methods course. Students in the community-engaged course completed a research project on violence against women

Anne P. DePrince; Sarah J. Priebe; A. Taylor Newton

2011-01-01

52

Computer game-based and traditional learning method: a comparison regarding students' knowledge retention  

PubMed Central

Background Educational computer games are examples of computer-assisted learning objects, representing an educational strategy of growing interest. Given the changes in the digital world over the last decades, students of the current generation expect technology to be used in advancing their learning requiring a need to change traditional passive learning methodologies to an active multisensory experimental learning methodology. The objective of this study was to compare a computer game-based learning method with a traditional learning method, regarding learning gains and knowledge retention, as means of teaching head and neck Anatomy and Physiology to Speech-Language and Hearing pathology undergraduate students. Methods Students were randomized to participate to one of the learning methods and the data analyst was blinded to which method of learning the students had received. Students’ prior knowledge (i.e. before undergoing the learning method), short-term knowledge retention and long-term knowledge retention (i.e. six months after undergoing the learning method) were assessed with a multiple choice questionnaire. Students’ performance was compared considering the three moments of assessment for both for the mean total score and for separated mean scores for Anatomy questions and for Physiology questions. Results Students that received the game-based method performed better in the pos-test assessment only when considering the Anatomy questions section. Students that received the traditional lecture performed better in both post-test and long-term post-test when considering the Anatomy and Physiology questions. Conclusions The game-based learning method is comparable to the traditional learning method in general and in short-term gains, while the traditional lecture still seems to be more effective to improve students’ short and long-term knowledge retention.

2013-01-01

53

Bias in Diet Determination: Incorporating Traditional Methods in Bayesian Mixing Models  

PubMed Central

There are not “universal methods” to determine diet composition of predators. Most traditional methods are biased because of their reliance on differential digestibility and the recovery of hard items. By relying on assimilated food, stable isotope and Bayesian mixing models (SIMMs) resolve many biases of traditional methods. SIMMs can incorporate prior information (i.e. proportional diet composition) that may improve the precision in the estimated dietary composition. However few studies have assessed the performance of traditional methods and SIMMs with and without informative priors to study the predators’ diets. Here we compare the diet compositions of the South American fur seal and sea lions obtained by scats analysis and by SIMMs-UP (uninformative priors) and assess whether informative priors (SIMMs-IP) from the scat analysis improved the estimated diet composition compared to SIMMs-UP. According to the SIMM-UP, while pelagic species dominated the fur seal’s diet the sea lion’s did not have a clear dominance of any prey. In contrast, SIMM-IP’s diets compositions were dominated by the same preys as in scat analyses. When prior information influenced SIMMs’ estimates, incorporating informative priors improved the precision in the estimated diet composition at the risk of inducing biases in the estimates. If preys isotopic data allow discriminating preys’ contributions to diets, informative priors should lead to more precise but unbiased estimated diet composition. Just as estimates of diet composition obtained from traditional methods are critically interpreted because of their biases, care must be exercised when interpreting diet composition obtained by SIMMs-IP. The best approach to obtain a near-complete view of predators’ diet composition should involve the simultaneous consideration of different sources of partial evidence (traditional methods, SIMM-UP and SIMM-IP) in the light of natural history of the predator species so as to reliably ascertain and weight the information yielded by each method.

Franco-Trecu, Valentina; Drago, Massimiliano; Riet-Sapriza, Federico G.; Parnell, Andrew; Frau, Rosina; Inchausti, Pablo

2013-01-01

54

An Aural Learning Project: Assimilating Jazz Education Methods for Traditional Applied Pedagogy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Aural Learning Project (ALP) was developed to incorporate jazz method components into the author's classical practice and her applied woodwind lesson curriculum. The primary objective was to place a more focused pedagogical emphasis on listening and hearing than is traditionally used in the classical applied curriculum. The components of the…

Gamso, Nancy M.

2011-01-01

55

A Comparison of Traditional Worksheet and Linear Programming Methods for Teaching Manure Application Planning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compares traditional manure application planning techniques calculated to meet agronomic nutrient needs on a field-by-field basis with plans developed using computer-assisted linear programming optimization methods. Linear programming provided the most economical and environmentally sound manure application strategy. (Contains 15 references.) (MDH)

Schmitt, M. A.; And Others

1994-01-01

56

A COMPARISON OF AUTOMATED AND TRADITIONAL METHODS FOR THE EXTRACTION OF ARSENICALS FROM FISH  

EPA Science Inventory

An automated extractor employing accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) has been compared with a traditional sonication method of extraction for the extraction of arsenicals from fish tissue. Four different species of fish and a standard reference material, DORM-2, were subjected t...

57

Origin of palladium black by an infrared spectroscopic method  

SciTech Connect

Metal blacks are used as catalysts in a number of organic synthesis processes. Using the method of matrix insulation of blacks obtained from organometallic compounds in the inert atmosphere the IR spectra have been recorded for carbon monoxide adsorbed on actual palladium blacks. The controllable mild conditions for reduction of the initial complex by hydrazine hydrate provide a means of separating the intermediate states of this process. By discontinuing at various stages the reduction of the organometallic complex being investigated the authors have obtained IR spectra of carbon monoxide characterizing the stages of forming the metallic palladium black.

Vozdvizhenskii, V.F.; Levintova, T.D.; Sokol'skii, D.V.

1987-03-01

58

[Determination methods for inspection of the complexion in traditional Chinese medicine: a review].  

PubMed

Inspection of the complexion is one of the characteristics of traditional Chinese medical diagnosis. Traditional Chinese medicine puts high emphasis on inspection of the complexion and there exists detailed discussion on inspection of facial expression in Neijing. The so-called inspection of facial expression is a method to diagnose diseases according to the theory of five Zang-organs matching five elements and five colors by distinguishing various changes of facial color, such as green, red, yellow, white and black based on yin and yang doctrine and five elements theory. Nowadays, more and more experts have introduced color optical theory and modern devices into the modern research field of traditional Chinese medical diagnosis with the development of color optical theory and the renewal of determining devices, such as digital camera, color differentiation meter and spectrophotometer, to make the research more scientific and objective and avoid the deviations caused by human factors. The modern study of traditional Chinese medicine diagnosis has made fare progress, consequently enriching the contents of its facial color observation and giving a more scientific explanation of it. However, the devices being used now are still disunited; the data may be unilateral and cannot contain the whole information. So the most important task is to invent and use scientific devices conforming better with the theory of five colors observation in traditional Chinese medicine. PMID:19671406

Lu, Lu-Ming; Chen, Xiao; Xu, Jia-Tuo

2009-08-01

59

Monitoring, Controlling and Safeguarding Radiochemical Streams at Spent Fuel Reprocessing Facilities, Part 2: Gamma-Ray Spectroscopic Methods  

SciTech Connect

The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has established international safeguards standards for fissionable material at spent fuel reprocessing plants to ensure that significant quantities of weapons-useable nuclear material are not diverted from these facilities. For large throughput nuclear facilities, it is difficult to satisfy the IAEA safeguards accountancy goal for detection of abrupt diversion. Currently, methods to verify material control and accountancy (MC&A) at these facilities require time-consuming and resource-intensive destructive assay (DA). Leveraging new on-line non-destructive assay (NDA) process monitoring techniques in conjunction with the traditional and highly precise DA methods may provide an additional measure to nuclear material accountancy which would potentially result in a more timely, cost-effective and resource efficient means for safeguards verification at such facilities. By monitoring process control measurements (e.g. flowrates, temperatures, or concentrations of reagents, products or wastes), abnormal plant operations can be detected. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is developing on-line NDA process monitoring technologies based upon gamma-ray and optical spectroscopic measurements to potentially reduce the time and resource burden associated with current techniques. The Multi-Isotope Process (MIP) Monitor uses gamma spectroscopy and multivariate analysis to identify off-normal conditions in process streams. The spectroscopic monitor continuously measures chemical compositions of the process streams including actinide metal ions (U, Pu, Np), selected fission products, and major stable flowsheet reagents using UV-Vis, Near IR and Raman spectroscopy. Multi-variate analysis is also applied to the optical measurements in order to quantify concentrations of analytes of interest within a complex array of radiochemical streams. This paper will provide an overview of these methods and reports on-going efforts to develop and demonstrate the technologies. This paper is Part 2 of a two part series, and focuses on the gamma spectroscopy based, Multi-Isotope Process (MIP) Monitor method.

Schwantes, Jon M.; Bryan, Samuel A.; Orton, Christopher R.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Fraga, Carlos G.

2012-02-10

60

Advances of vibrational spectroscopic methods in phytomics and bioanalysis.  

PubMed

During the last couple of years great advances in vibrational spectroscopy including near-infrared (NIR), mid-infrared (MIR), attenuated total reflection (ATR) and imaging and also mapping techniques could be achieved. On the other hand spectral treatment features have improved dramatically allowing filtering out relevant information from spectral data much more efficiently and providing new insights into the biochemical composition. These advances offer new possible quality control strategies in phytomics and enable to get deeper insights into biochemical background in terms of medicinal relevant questions. It is the aim of the present article pointing out the technical and methodological advancements in the NIR and MIR field and to demonstrate the individual methods efficiency by discussing distinct selected applications. PMID:23787354

Huck, Christian W

2014-01-01

61

Raman spectroscopic instrumentation and plasmonic methods for material characterization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The advent of nanotechnology has led to incredible growth in how we consume, make and approach advanced materials. By exploiting nanoscale material properties, unique control of optical, thermal, mechanical, and electrical characteristics becomes possible. This thesis describes the development of a novel localized surface plasmon resonant (LSPR) color sensitive photosensor, based on functionalization of gold nanoparticles onto tianium dioxide nanowires and sensing by a metal-semiconducting nanowire-metal photodiode structure. This LSPR photosensor has been integrated into a system that incorporates Raman spectroscopy, microfluidics, optical trapping, and sorting flow cytometry into a unique material characterization system called the microfluidic optical fiber trapping Raman sorting flow cytometer (MOFTRSFC). Raman spectroscopy is utilized as a powerful molecular characterization technique used to analyze biological, mineralogical and nanomaterial samples. To combat the inherently weak Raman signal, plasmonic methods have been applied to exploit surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR), increasing Raman intensity by up to 5 orders of magnitude. The resultant MOFTRSFC system is a prototype instrument that can effectively trap, analyze, and sort micron-sized dielectric particles and biological cells. Raman spectroscopy has been presented in several modalities, including the development of a portable near-infrared Raman spectrometer and other emerging technologies.

Tanaka, Kazuki

62

Monitoring, Controlling and Safeguarding Radiochemical Streams at Spent Fuel Reprocessing Facilities with Optical and Gamma-Ray Spectroscopic Methods  

SciTech Connect

The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has established international safeguards standards for fissionable material at spent fuel reprocessing plants to ensure that significant quantities of weapons-useable nuclear material are not diverted from these facilities. For large throughput nuclear facilities, it is difficult to satisfy the IAEA safeguards accountancy goal for detection of abrupt diversion. Currently, methods to verify material control and accountancy (MC&A) at these facilities require time-consuming and resourceintensive destructive assay (DA). Leveraging new on-line non-destructive assay (NDA) process monitoring techniques in conjunction with the traditional and highly precise DA methods may provide an additional measure to nuclear material accountancy which would potentially result in a more timely, cost-effective and resource efficient means for safeguards verification at such facilities. By monitoring process control measurements (e.g. flowrates, temperatures, or concentrations of reagents, products or wastes), abnormal plant operations can be detected. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is developing on-line NDA process monitoring technologies based upon gamma-ray and optical spectroscopic measurements to potentially reduce the time and resource burden associated with current techniques. The Multi-Isotope Process (MIP) Monitor uses gamma spectroscopy and multivariate analysis to identify offnormal conditions in process streams. The spectroscopic monitor continuously measures chemical compositions of the process streams including actinide metal ions (U, Pu, Np), selected fission products, and major stable flowsheet reagents using UV-Vis, Near IR and Raman spectroscopy. Multi-variate analysis is also applied to the optical measurements in order to quantify concentrations of analytes of interest within a complex array of radiochemical streams. This paper will provide an overview of these methods and reports on-going efforts to develop and demonstrate the technologies.

Schwantes, Jon M.; Bryan, Samuel A.; Orton, Christopher R.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Fraga, Carlos G.

2012-11-06

63

Application of Spectroscopic Methods for Characterization of the Composition of Piassava  

Microsoft Academic Search

AbstractSpectroscopic methods—infrared absorption, atomic emission spectroscopy, and x-ray diffraction—were used for the characterization of the organic and inorganic composition and structure of piassava. The analysis of the infrared spectra revealed that pias-sava fibers consist mainly of cellulose, lignin, and hemicellulose, and that this chemical composition is similar to that of jute. The infrared spectra together with the x-ray diffraction of

Z. A. El-Sayed

1995-01-01

64

CE Method with Partial Filling Techniques for Screening of Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitor in Traditional Chinese Medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

A combination of electrophoretically mediated microanalysis (EMMA) methodology with a partial filling technique was developed\\u000a for screening of xanthine oxidase (XOD) inhibitors in substances used in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). In order to achieve\\u000a sufficient separation, a micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) method was employed for the separation. The enzyme\\u000a activity was determined by the quantification of the peak area of

Lichun Zhang; Kun Hu; Xiangtang Li; Shulin Zhao

2011-01-01

65

Application of Spectroscopic Methods for Structural Analysis of Chitin and Chitosan  

PubMed Central

Chitin, the second most important natural polymer in the world, and its N-deacetylated derivative chitosan, have been identified as versatile biopolymers for a broad range of applications in medicine, agriculture and the food industry. Two of the main reasons for this are firstly the unique chemical, physicochemical and biological properties of chitin and chitosan, and secondly the unlimited supply of raw materials for their production. These polymers exhibit widely differing physicochemical properties depending on the chitin source and the conditions of chitosan production. The presence of reactive functional groups as well as the polysaccharide nature of these biopolymers enables them to undergo diverse chemical modifications. A complete chemical and physicochemical characterization of chitin, chitosan and their derivatives is not possible without using spectroscopic techniques. This review focuses on the application of spectroscopic methods for the structural analysis of these compounds.

Kumirska, Jolanta; Czerwicka, Malgorzata; Kaczynski, Zbigniew; Bychowska, Anna; Brzozowski, Krzysztof; Thoming, Jorg; Stepnowski, Piotr

2010-01-01

66

Structures and Encapsulation Motifs of Functional Molecules Probed by Laser Spectroscopic and Theoretical Methods  

PubMed Central

We report laser spectroscopic and computational studies of host/guest hydration interactions between functional molecules (hosts) and water (guest) in supersonic jets. The examined hosts include dibenzo-18-crown-6-ether (DB18C6), benzo-18-crown-6-ether (B18C6) and calix[4]arene (C4A). The gaseous complexes between the functional molecular hosts and water are generated under jet-cooled conditions. Various laser spectroscopic methods are applied for these species: the electronic spectra are observed by laser-induced fluorescence (LIF), mass-selected resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) and ultraviolet-ultraviolet hole-burning (UV-UV HB) spectroscopy, whereas the vibrational spectra for each individual species are observed by infrared-ultraviolet double resonance (IR-UV DR) spectroscopy. The obained results are analyzed by first principles electronic structure calculations. We discuss the conformations of the host molecules, the structures of the complexes, and key interactions forming the specific complexes.

Kusaka, Ryoji; Inokuchi, Yoshiya; Xantheas, Sotiris S.; Ebata, Takayuki

2010-01-01

67

How to measure the effects of fluoride treatments in clinical trials? Assessment: modern versus traditional methods.  

PubMed

In recent years there has been a pronounced change in the epidemiology and disease pattern of dental caries. In the current context, traditional methods of caries assessment, discriminating lesions at cavitation, are clinically inappropriate, and obsolete for research requiring detection of a very early phase of mineral loss. Modern prospective caries studies require sensitive methods permitting the measurement of small changes in tooth mineral content, and objective, quantitative measurements of such changes are now possible in a single caries lesion. For longitudinal studies there are noninvasive methods for assessment of new lesions as well as quantitative changes (progression or regression) in existing lesions. Among as yet unresolved issues are improved methods to assess the current activity of a lesion, methods for detection and quantification of secondary caries and root caries, calibration of methodologies between different research institutes, and methods capable of assessment of the whole continuum in the development of a caries lesion, from initial loss of mineral to cavitation. PMID:11359055

Angmar-Månsson, B

2001-01-01

68

Analytical brightness compensation algorithm for traditional polygon-based method in computer-generated holography.  

PubMed

In three-dimensional (3D) holographic display, current brightness compensation algorithm of the traditional polygon-based method experimentally obtains the compensation factor, which depends on the fabrication process. In this paper, we proposed an analytical brightness compensation method discarding the influence of the fabrication. The surface property function with the flat power spectral density and the compensation factor obtained from the simplified relationship between the original and the rotated frequencies are used to analytically compensate the radiant energy of the tilted polygon. The optical reconstruction results show the proposed method could effectively compensate the brightness and ensure the further shading process. The proposed method separates the brightness compensation from the fabrication process, which is important for deepening the investigation of the hologram fabrication and achieving realistic 3D reconstruction. PMID:23842184

Pan, Yijie; Wang, Yongtian; Liu, Juan; Li, Xin; Jia, Jia; Zhang, Zhao

2013-06-20

69

A new criterion of photostimulated luminescence (PSL) method to detect irradiated traditional Chinese medicinal herbs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work used a new criterion to analyze 162 varieties (222 batches) of traditional Chinese medicinal herbs based on the European Standard EN 13751 (2009. Foodstuffs—Detection of Irradiated Food Using Photostimulated Luminescence. European Committee for Standardization, Brussels, Belgium). The characteristics of PSL signals are described, and a new criterion is established. Compared to EN 13751, the new criterion uses clearer definition to evaluate instead of the ambiguous descriptions in EN Standard, such as "much greater than" and "within the same order of magnitude". Moreover, the accuracy of the new criterion is as good as or better than EN Standard in regard to classifying irradiated and non-irradiated traditional Chinese medicinal herbs. It can help to avoid false positive result when a non-irradiated herb got a screening PSL measurement above 5000 counts/60 s. This new criterion of photostimulated luminescence method can be applied to identify the irradiation status of traditional Chinese medicinal herbs, even if the medicinal herbs were irradiated at a low dose (0.3 kGy) or stored in the dark at room temperature for 24 months after the irradiation treatment.

Zhang, Liwen; Lin, Tong; Jiang, Yingqiao; Bi, Fujun

2013-11-01

70

Seventy-meter antenna performance predictions: GTD analysis compared with traditional ray-tracing methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A comparative analysis was performed, using both the Geometrical Theory of Diffraction (GTD) and traditional pathlength error analysis techniques, for predicting RF antenna gain performance and pointing corrections. The NASA/JPL 70 meter antenna with its shaped surface was analyzed for gravity loading over the range of elevation angles. Also analyzed were the effects of lateral and axial displacements of the subreflector. Significant differences were noted between the predictions of the two methods, in the effect of subreflector displacements, and in the optimal subreflector positions to focus a gravity-deformed main reflector. The results are of relevance to future design procedure.

Schredder, J. M.

1988-01-01

71

[Thinking on methods for formulating development strategy of traditional Chinese medicine standardization].  

PubMed

Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) standardization serves as an important foundation of TCM modernization and internationalization, and TCM standardization strategy is the core of the subject. Recently, some developed countries and developing countries with a better economic basis have set development strategy for TCM standardization. China is at the beginning on TCM standardization strategy study. This paper explored the methods for setting TCM standardization development strategy. Firstly, strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of TCM were analyzed based on SWOT method to set development tactics. On the above basis, the authors defined the total goal and stage goal under the guidance of the relevant laws and regulations. To achieve the strategic goal, priority areas were formed by literature analysis and expert inquiry method, and the safeguard measures were formulated by expert symposium. Secondly, the draft for development strategy of TCM standardization was made based on the above content. Finally, the authors revised and formed the official development strategy of TCM standardization. PMID:21565132

Yuwen, Ya; Han, Xue-jie; Wang, Li-ying; Shi, Nan-nan; Wang, Yong-yan; Lü, Ai-ping

2011-05-01

72

Comparing student achievement in the problem-based learning classroom and traditional teaching methods classroom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Significant numbers of students fail high school chemistry, preventing them from graduating. Starting in the 2013-2014 school year, 100% of the students must pass a science assessment for schools to meet Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) in accordance to No Child Left Behind (NCLB). Failure to meet AYP results in sanctions, such as state management or closure of a school or replacing a school staff. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the teaching strategy, Problem Based Learning (PBL), will improve student achievement in high school chemistry to a greater degree than traditional teaching methods. PBL is a student-centered, inquiry-based teaching method based on the constructivist learning theory. The research question looked at whether there was a difference in student achievement between students a high school chemistry classroom using PBL and students in a classroom using traditional teaching methods as measured by scores on a 20-question quiz. The research study used a quasi-experimental pretest/posttest control group design. An independent samples t-test compared gains scores between the pretest and posttest. Analysis of quiz scores indicated that there was not a significant difference (t(171) = 1.001, p = .318) in student achievement between the teaching methods. Because there was not a significant difference, each teacher can decide which teaching method best suites the subject matter and the learning styles of the students. This study adds research based data to help teachers and schools choose one teaching method over another so that students may gain knowledge, develop problem-solving skills, and life-long learning skills that will bring about social change in the form of a higher quality of life for the students and community as a whole.

Dobbs, Vicki

73

Experiences with Non-traditional Bioassay Methods in a Plutonium Processing Line  

SciTech Connect

An incident in an Savannah River Site (SRS) plutonium processing line (FB-Line) in 1999 highlighted the fact insoluble forms of plutonium exist at SRS that may not be readily monitored with the routine bioassay programs traditionally used at this site. To address this issue, a study was conducted in FB-Line with 21 participants for a year ending in July 2002. The purpose of the study was to examine the use of three non-traditional monitoring methods and, based on this experience, recommend a routine bioassay program that is capable of monitoring workers potentially exposed to insoluble plutonium. These non-traditional monitoring methods are personal air sampling (PAS), thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) of urine samples, and routine fecal bioassay. The main conclusions and recommendations of the study are: (1) A routine TIMS urine bioassay program, which is called the enhanced bioassay program (EBP), is recommended for workers in SRS facilities that have a reasonable potential for exposure to insoluble forms of plutonium. (2) Under certain conditions the EBP could result in onerous work restrictions. A contingency plan involving the use of PAS is recommended in this case. PAS is also recommended for workers who have had historic intakes of plutonium that interfere with the detection and interpretation of future intakes of insoluble plutonium. (3) For the EBP to be successful it must be used only for those workers who have a reasonable potential for exposure to insoluble plutonium, and these workers must take all necessary precautions to avoid cross-contamination of the urine (and follow-up fecal) samples. (4) Fecal bioassay is an important tool for follow-up to abnormal events, but routine fecal bioassay is not recommended. (5) The PAS data clearly shows that workers are exposed to low levels of airborne plutonium, but the participants appear to be unlikely to exceed a committed effective dose equivalent of 100 mrem from these exposures.

La Bone, T.R.

2003-10-17

74

[Sample pretreatment methods of pesticide residues in Panax notoginseng of Chinese traditional medicine].  

PubMed

Two sample pretreatment methods of pesticide residues in Panax notoginseng of Chinese traditional medicine were developed. For Method I, the residues were extracted from homogenized tissue with n-hexane-dichloromethane (6:4) by means of ultrasonication, the crude extract was purified by an Envi-carb/NH2 solid-phase extraction (SPE) column. For Method II, matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) technique was used for extracting and cleaning up. The eluates were concentrated by rotary evaporation, and then were redissolved in dichloromethane prior to GC-MS determination. The determination was performed in selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode with the external calibration for quantitative analysis. Under the optimal conditions, the results indicated that the methods are easier and faster, the recoveries of method I for the spiked standards at concentration of 0.01, 0.5, and 2.0 mg x kg(-1) were 81.90%-102.10% with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 3.60%-7.10%. The recoveries of method II were 96.26%-104.20% with the RSDs of 3.52%-7.94%. The detection limits (S/N) for residues of pesticides were in the range of 0.48-1.34 ng x g(-1). The results indicated that these multiresidue analysis methods can meet the requirements for determination of residue pesticides and can be appropriate for trace analysis of residue pesticides in Panax notoginseng. PMID:24417086

Wu, Na; Liu, Wei; Yan, He-Ping; Fan, Ai-Ping; Huang, Du-Shu; Zhou, Bo; Chen, Xian-Lan; Xu, Shi-Juan; Shi, Ling

2013-10-01

75

Huygens Titan Probe Trajectory Reconstruction Using Traditional Methods and the Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories II  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On January 14, 2005, ESA's Huygens probe separated from NASA's Cassini spacecraft, entered the Titan atmosphere and landed on its surface. As part of NASA Engineering Safety Center Independent Technical Assessment of the Huygens entry, descent, and landing, and an agreement with ESA, NASA provided results of all EDL analyses and associated findings to the Huygens project team prior to probe entry. In return, NASA was provided the flight data from the probe so that trajectory reconstruction could be done and simulation models assessed. Trajectory reconstruction of the Huygens entry probe at Titan was accomplished using two independent approaches: a traditional method and a POST2-based method. Results from both approaches are discussed in this paper.

Striepe, Scott A.; Blanchard, Robert C.; Kirsch, Michael F.; Fowler, Wallace T.

2007-01-01

76

Comparison of Satellite Surveying to Traditional Surveying Methods for the Resources Industry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modern ground-based survey methods involve detailed survey, which provides three-space co-ordinates for surveyed points, to a high level of accuracy. The instruments are operated by surveyors, who process the raw results to create survey location maps for the subject of the survey. Such surveys are conducted for a location or region and referenced to the earth global co- ordinate system with global positioning system (GPS) positioning. Due to this referencing the survey is only as accurate as the GPS reference system. Satellite survey remote sensing utilise satellite imagery which have been processed using commercial geographic information system software. Three-space co-ordinate maps are generated, with an accuracy determined by the datum position accuracy and optical resolution of the satellite platform.This paper presents a case study, which compares topographic surveying undertaken by traditional survey methods with satellite surveying, for the same location. The purpose of this study is to assess the viability of satellite remote sensing for surveying in the resources industry. The case study involves a topographic survey of a dune field for a prospective mining project area in Pakistan. This site has been surveyed using modern surveying techniques and the results are compared to a satellite survey performed on the same area.Analysis of the results from traditional survey and from the satellite survey involved a comparison of the derived spatial co- ordinates from each method. In addition, comparisons have been made of costs and turnaround time for both methods.The results of this application of remote sensing is of particular interest for survey in areas with remote and extreme environments, weather extremes, political unrest, poor travel links, which are commonly associated with mining projects. Such areas frequently suffer language barriers, poor onsite technical support and resources.

Osborne, B. P.; Osborne, V. J.; Kruger, M. L.

77

Modified method for preparation of Halubai-an Indian traditional sweet.  

PubMed

Halubai, a traditional Indian sweet is conventionally prepared by soaking and grinding whole cereals/millets to a fine paste, straining it through a cloth and cooking the resultant dispersion until it starts gelatinizing. Cooking is continued further with the addition of jaggery water, stirring constantly with intermittent addition of ghee. This process involves many unit operations, which are energy and time consuming. Hence a modified method was developed which is energy efficient and time saving without compromising the quality of the product. One fine fraction (200 mesh, BS) of cereal/millet flours were used in modified method instead of whole cereals. Sensory and instrumental analysis of the samples showed that quality of Halubai prepared using modified method was comparable to that of samples from conventional method. Correlation studies on sensory data of Halubai showed positive relation for the set (r?=?0.94) and smoothness (r?=?0.84); and negative relation for stickiness (r?=?-0.94) with the overall quality. Modified method of Halubai preparation which was simple and energy efficient, resulted in products with good sensory quality. PMID:24741169

Asha, M R; Ravi, Ramasamy; Srinivasan, Bharath Kumar; Rao Patil, Swapna Babu; Prakash, Maya

2014-04-01

78

Novel spectroscopic methods for determination of Cromolyn sodium and Oxymetazoline hydrochloride in binary mixture.  

PubMed

New accurate, sensitive and selective spectrophotometric and spectrofluorimetric methods were developed and subsequently validated for determination of Cromolyn sodium (CS) and Oxymetazoline HCl (OXY) in binary mixture. These methods include 'H-point standard addition method (HPSAM) and area under the curve (AUC)' spectrophotometric method and first derivative synchronous fluorescence spectroscopic (FDSFS) method. For spectrophotometric methods, absorbances were recorded at 241.5nm and 274.9nm for HPSAM and the wavelength was selected in ranges 232.0-254.0nm and 216.0-229.0nm for AUC method, where the concentration was obtained by applying Cramer's rule. For FDSFS method, the first-derivative synchronous fluorescence signal was measured at 290.0nm, using ??=145.0nm. The suggested methods were validated according to International Conference of Harmonization (ICH) guidelines and the results revealed that they were precise and reproducible. All the obtained results were statistically compared with those of the reported method and there was no significant difference. PMID:24820323

Abdel-Aziz, Omar; El-Kosasy, A M; Magdy, N; El Zahar, N M

2014-10-15

79

Quantitative infrared spectroscopic method for the study of the hydration of ions in aqueous solutions  

SciTech Connect

An infrared spectroscopic method for the study of the hydration of ions in aqueous solutions has been developed. OD stretching bands of isotopically dilute HDO molecules in the first hydration sphere of ions are obtained when the absorption from H/sub 2/O molecules and HDO molecules in the bulk water are removed by a double difference technique. The method is applied to aqueous solutions of Ni(ClO/sub 4/)/sub 2/, Ni(BF/sub 4/)/sub 2/, and Ni(PF/sub 6/)/sub 2/. Coordination numbers of 4.6 +/- 0.8 for the ClO/sub 4//sup -/ anion and 3.9 +/- 0.8 for the BF/sub 4//sup -/ anion are obtained. A systematic study of the influence of different salt and HDO concentrations has been undertaken. It is found that Lambert-Beer's law is valid in the concentration ranges studied.

Kristiansson, O.; Lindgren, J.; de Villepin, J.

1988-05-05

80

Novel carbazole-pyridine copolymers by an economical method: synthesis, spectroscopic and thermochemical studies  

PubMed Central

Summary The synthesis, as well as spectroscopic and thermochemical studies of a novel class of carbazole-4-phenylpyridine co-polymers are described. The synthesis was carried out by a simple and cheaper method compared to the lengthy methods usually adopted for the preparation of carbazole–pyridine copolymers which involve costly catalysts. Thus, two series of polymers were synthesized by a modified Chichibabin reaction, i.e., by the condensation of diacetylated N-alkylcarbazoles with 3-substituted benzaldehydes in the presence of ammonium acetate in refluxing acetic acid. All the polymers were characterized by FTIR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, UV–vis spectroscopy, fluorimetry, TGA and DSC. The weight average molecular masses (M w) of the polymers were estimated by the laser light scattering (LLS) technique.

Irfan, Madiha; Samra, Shahid Ameen

2011-01-01

81

Spectroscopic method to measure the superfluid fraction of an ultracold atomic gas  

SciTech Connect

We perform detailed analytical and numerical studies of a recently proposed method for a spectroscopic measurement of the superfluid fraction of an ultracold atomic gas [N. R. Cooper and Z. Hadzibabic, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 030401 (2010)]. Previous theoretical work is extended by explicitly including the effects of nonzero temperature and interactions, and assessing the quantitative accuracy of the proposed measurement for a one-component Bose gas. We show that for suitably chosen experimental parameters the method yields an experimentally detectable signal and a sufficiently accurate measurement. This is illustrated by explicitly considering two key examples: First, for a weakly interacting three-dimensional Bose gas it reproduces the expected result that below the critical temperature the superfluid fraction closely follows the condensate fraction. Second, it allows a clear quantitative differentiation of the superfluid and the condensate density in a strongly interacting Bose gas.

John, S. T.; Hadzibabic, Z.; Cooper, N. R. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, J. J. Thomson Ave. Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom)

2011-02-15

82

Data processing method applying principal component analysis and spectral angle mapper for imaging spectroscopic sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A data processing method for hyperspectral images is presented. Each image contains the whole diffuse reflectance spectra of the analyzed material for all the spatial positions along a specific line of vision. This data processing method is composed of two blocks: data compression and classification unit. Data compression is performed by means of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and the spectral interpretation algorithm for classification is the Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM). This strategy of classification applying PCA and SAM has been successfully tested on the raw material on-line characterization in the tobacco industry. In this application case the desired raw material (tobacco leaves) should be discriminated from other unwanted spurious materials, such as plastic, cardboard, leather, candy paper, etc. Hyperspectral images are recorded by a spectroscopic sensor consisting of a monochromatic camera and a passive Prism- Grating-Prism device. Performance results are compared with a spectral interpretation algorithm based on Artificial Neural Networks (ANN).

García-Allende, P. B.; Conde, O. M.; Mirapeix, J.; Cubillas, A. M.; López-Higuera, J. M.

2007-07-01

83

Ceramic microstructures and their elucidation by imaging, diffraction and spectroscopic methods  

SciTech Connect

The development and potential utilization of ceramic materials is dependent on a systematic effort involving processing, characterization and appropriate property measurements. The methods of characterization are numerous and it is important to employ the one that is appropriate to the problem both in terms of its information content and the achievable level of resolution. With the incorporation of fine probe forming capabilities in a transmission electron microscope and the development of related diffraction, imaging and spectroscopic methods, it is now possible to obtain structural and chemical information from the same region of the sample at high spatial resolution. In this review, recent advances along with representative examples in the application of high resolution electron microscopy (HREM), convergent beam electron diffraction (CBED), low atomic number element microanalysis by x-ray emission spectroscopy (XES), fine structures in electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) and specific site occupancy determination by channeling experiments are discussed.

Kirshnan, K.M.

1992-02-01

84

Method and apparatus for differential spectroscopic atomic-imaging using scanning tunneling microscopy  

DOEpatents

A Method and apparatus for differential spectroscopic atomic-imaging is disclosed for spatial resolution and imaging for display not only individual atoms on a sample surface, but also bonding and the specific atomic species in such bond. The apparatus includes a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) that is modified to include photon biasing, preferably a tuneable laser, modulating electronic surface biasing for the sample, and temperature biasing, preferably a vibration-free refrigerated sample mounting stage. Computer control and data processing and visual display components are also included. The method includes modulating the electronic bias voltage with and without selected photon wavelengths and frequency biasing under a stabilizing (usually cold) bias temperature to detect bonding and specific atomic species in the bonds as the STM rasters the sample. This data is processed along with atomic spatial topography data obtained from the STM raster scan to create a real-time visual image of the atoms on the sample surface.

Kazmerski, Lawrence L. (Lakewood, CO)

1990-01-01

85

Laser apparatus and method for microscopic and spectroscopic analysis and processing of biological cells  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method are disclosed for microscopic and spectroscopic analysis and processing of biological cells. The apparatus comprises a laser having an analysis region within the laser cavity for containing one or more biological cells to be analyzed. The presence of a cell within the analysis region in superposition with an activated portion of a gain medium of the laser acts to encode information about the cell upon the laser beam, the cell information being recoverable by an analysis means that preferably includes an array photodetector such as a CCD camera and a spectrometer. The apparatus and method may be used to analyze biomedical cells including blood cells and the like, and may include processing means for manipulating, sorting, or eradicating cells after analysis. 20 figs.

Gourley, P.L.; Gourley, M.F.

1997-03-04

86

Laser apparatus and method for microscopic and spectroscopic analysis and processing of biological cells  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method for microscopic and spectroscopic analysis and processing of biological cells. The apparatus comprises a laser having an analysis region within the laser cavity for containing one or more biological cells to be analyzed. The presence of a cell within the analysis region in superposition with an activated portion of a gain medium of the laser acts to encode information about the cell upon the laser beam, the cell information being recoverable by an analysis means that preferably includes an array photodetector such as a CCD camera and a spectrometer. The apparatus and method may be used to analyze biomedical cells including blood cells and the like, and may include processing means for manipulating, sorting, or eradicating cells after analysis thereof.

Gourley, Paul L. (12508 Loyola, NE., Albuquerque, NM 87112) [12508 Loyola, NE., Albuquerque, NM 87112; Gourley, Mark F. (7509 Spring Lake Dr., Apt. B1, Bethesda, MD 20817) [7509 Spring Lake Dr., Apt. B1, Bethesda, MD 20817

1997-01-01

87

In vivo evaluation of the penetration of topically applied drugs into human skin by spectroscopic methods.  

PubMed

Spectroscopic techniques are reported on which allow to study in vivo the penetration behaviour of topically applied light-absorbing drugs into human skin. Remittance spectroscopy, a purely optical method, provides a good tool in both, skin adaptation by use of a remote viewing head coupled to the spectrometer via optical fibres, and adequate sensitivity for the detection of small amounts of the applied drugs. The measuring depth in the skin is determined by the wavelength-dependent optical penetration depth, which itself depends on light absorption and light scattering. In the UV-spectral region the optical penetration depth is of the order of the thickness of the stratum corneum (UV-A) or of only a superficial part of it (UV-B, UV-C). Fluorescence spectroscopy, another optical method, offers two kinds of drug detection, a direct one in case of self-fluorescent drugs or an indirect one being based on the light absorption of the drug, which may give rise to a screening of the self-fluorescence of the skin itself or of an applied marker. The measuring depth is comparable to that achieved with remittance spectroscopy. A third method is photothermal spectroscopy which is determined by thermal properties of the skin in addition to optical properties. Photothermal spectroscopy is unique in that it allows depth profiles of drug concentration to be measured non-invasively, as the photothermal measuring depth can be changed by varying the modulation frequency of the intensity-modulated incident light. Results of measurements demonstrating the potentials of these spectroscopic methods are presented. PMID:8352952

Sennhenn, B; Giese, K; Plamann, K; Harendt, N; Kölmel, K

1993-01-01

88

Web 2.0 at a non-traditional charter school A mixed methods study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a mixed methods design, I sought to explore teacher and administrator views of technology integration and change in schools. Specifically, I examined a small staff's perspectives towards the integration of Web 2.0 tools and mobile devices into student-centered classroom instruction at a small non-traditional charter school in Southern Georgia. Online surveys and face-to-face interviews were conducted to gather data on the educators' value of technology, the role and integration of technology in the classroom, and their current levels of technology usage. The converged mixed methods results illustrate the following: (a) educators are willing to integrate technologies they value; (b) educators are open to incorporating emerging technologies into the classroom with proper support; (c) educators do not instinctively integrate technology in student-centered ways; (d) educators are open to learning about emerging technologies from their students; (e) teachers and administrators are not equally open to integrating Web 2.0 tools and mobile devices into classrooms. I conclude that teachers and administrators need to critically examine how to apply Web 2.0 technologies and mobile devices to enhance learning in order to remain relevant and meet the needs of their students in the twenty-first century. Keywords: Digital Age, mixed methods, mobile devices, student-centered, teacher and administrator beliefs, Web 2.0 integration

Ollis, Jennifer C.

89

Denoising spectroscopic data by means of the improved least-squares deconvolution method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. The MOST, CoRoT, and Kepler space missions have led to the discovery of a large number of intriguing, and in some cases unique, objects among which are pulsating stars, stars hosting exoplanets, binaries, etc. Although the space missions have delivered photometric data of unprecedented quality, these data are lacking any spectral information and we are still in need of ground-based spectroscopic and/or multicolour photometric follow-up observations for a solid interpretation. Aims: The faintness of most of the observed stars and the required high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of spectroscopic data both imply the need to use large telescopes, access to which is limited. In this paper, we look for an alternative, and aim for the development of a technique that allows the denoising of the originally low S/N (typically, below 80) spectroscopic data, making observations of faint targets with small telescopes possible and effective. Methods: We present a generalization of the original least-squares deconvolution (LSD) method by implementing a multicomponent average profile and a line strengths correction algorithm. We tested the method on simulated and real spectra of single and binary stars, among which are two intrinsically variable objects. Results: The method was successfully tested on the high-resolution spectra of Vega and a Kepler star, KIC 04749989. Application to the two pulsating stars, 20 Cvn and HD 189631, showed that the technique is also applicable to intrinsically variable stars: the results of frequency analysis and mode identification from the LSD model spectra for both objects are in good agreement with the findings from literature. Depending on the S/N of the original data and spectral characteristics of a star, the gain in S/N in the LSD model spectrum typically ranges from 5 to 15 times. Conclusions: The technique introduced in this paper allows an effective denoising of the originally low S/N spectroscopic data. The high S/N spectra obtained this way can be used to determine fundamental parameters and chemical composition of the stars. The restored LSD model spectra contain all the information on line profile variations present in the original spectra of pulsating stars, for example. The method is applicable to both high- (>30 000) and low- (<30 000) resolution spectra, although the information that can be extracted from the latter is limited by the resolving power itself. Based on the data gathered with the hermes spectrograph, installed at the Mercator Telescope, operated on the island of La Palma by the Flemish Community, at the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias and supported by the Fund for Scientific Research of Flanders (FWO), Belgium, the Research Council of K.U. Leuven, Belgium, the Fonds National de la Recherche Scientifique (F.R.S.-FNRS), Belgium, the Royal Observatory of Belgium, the Observatoire de Genève, Switzerland, and the Thüringer Landessternwarte Tautenburg, Germany.Based on the data extracted from the ELODIE archive and the ESO Science Archive Facility under request number TVanReeth63233.The software presented in this work is available upon request from: Andrew.Tkachenko@ster.kuleuven.be

Tkachenko, A.; Van Reeth, T.; Tsymbal, V.; Aerts, C.; Kochukhov, O.; Debosscher, J.

2013-12-01

90

Dual window method for processing spectroscopic optical coherence tomography signals with high spectral and spatial resolution  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The generation of spectroscopic optical coherence tomography (SOCT) signals suffers from an inherent trade off between spatial and spectral resolution. Here, we present a dual window (DW) method that uses two Gaussian windows to simultaneously obtain high spectral and spatial resolution. We show that the DW method probes the Winger time-frequency distribution (TFD) with two orthogonal windows set by the standard deviation of the Gaussian windows used for processing. We also show that in the limit of an infinitesimally narrow window, combined with a large window, this method is equivalent to the Kirkwood & Richaczek TFD and, if the real part is taken, it is equivalent to the Margenau & Hill (MH) TFD. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the method by simulating a signal with four components separated in depth or center frequency. Six TFD are compared: the ideal, the Wigner, the MH, narrow window short time Fourier transform (STFT), wide window STFT, and the DW. The results show that the DW method contains features of the Wigner TFD, and that it contains the highest spatial and spectral resolution that is free of artifacts. This method can enable powerful applications, including accurate acquisition of the spectral information for cancer diagnosis.

Robles, Francisco E.; Graf, Robert N.; Wax, Adam

2009-02-01

91

Apparatus for and method of performing spectroscopic analysis on an article  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method are disclosed for analyzing an article having an entrance and an exit in communication with the entrance. The apparatus comprises: a spectrometer having an emission source with a focal point; a plurality of mirrors; and a detector connected to the spectroscope. The emission source is positioned so that its focal point is substantially coextensive with the entrance of the article. The mirrors comprise: a first mirror positionable adjacent the exit of the article and a second mirror positioned relative to the other of said plurality of mirrors. The first mirror receives scattered emissions exiting the article and substantially collimates the scattered emissions. The second mirror substantially focuses the collimated emissions into a focused emission. The detector receives the focused emission from the mirrors. 6 figs.

Powell, G.L.; Hallman, R.L. Jr.

1999-04-20

92

Apparatus for and method of performing spectroscopic analysis on an article  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for and method of analyzing an article having an entrance and an exit in communication with the entrance. The apparatus comprises: a spectrometer having an emission source with a focal point; a plurality of mirrors; and a detector connected to the spectroscope. The emission source is positioned so that its focal point is substantially coextensive with the entrance of the article. The mirrors comprise: a first mirror positionable adjacent the exit of the article and a second mirror positioned relative to the other of said plurality of mirrors. The first mirror receives scattered emissions exiting the article and substantially collimates the scattered emissions. The second mirror substantially focuses the collimated emissions into a focused emission. The detector receives the focused emission from the mirrors.

Powell, George Louis (Oak Ridge, TN); Hallman, Jr., Russell Louis (Knoxville, TN)

1999-01-01

93

Spectroscopic studies of copper ions doped in tellurate glasses obtained by sol - gel method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The preparation of copper nitrate doped tellurate glasses by sol- gel method and spectroscopic studies of this tellurate system are reported. FTIR spectroscopy results show that this glass consists of [TeO6], [TeO4] and [TeO3] structural units and indicate that six- coordinated tellurium (VI) in [TeO6] units were partially changed to fourcoordinated tellurium (IV) in [TeO4] units during the doping with Cu(NO3)2. EPR spectra of the studied glasses were obtained due to the presence of Cu2+ paramagnetic ions and reveal the local order in matrix, the distribution and valence state of cooper ions. Thus, the EPR spectra show a partially resolved parallel hyperfine structure and no resolved perpendicular structure. The EPR spectra could be a superposition of two signals, one due to isolated Cu2+ ions in axial neighborhood, and the other due to the presence of magnetically coupled Cu2+ species.

Dehelean, A.; Rada, S.; Danciu, V.; Culea, E.; Stan, M.; Popa, A.; Raita, O.

2012-02-01

94

Magnetic and Mössbauer spectroscopic studies of NiZn ferrite nanoparticles synthesized by a combustion method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The properties of nanocrystalline Ni0.5Zn0.5Fe2O4 synthesized by an auto-combustion method have been investigated by magnetic measurements and Mössbauer spectroscopy. The as-synthesized single phase nanosized ferrite powder is annealed at different temperatures in the range 673 1,273 K to obtain nanoparticles of different sizes. The powders are characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, vibrating sample magnetometer, transmission electron microscopy and Mössbauer spectroscopy. The as-synthesized powder with average particle size of ~9 nm is superparamagnetic. Magnetic transition temperature increases up to 665 K for the nanosized powder as compared to the transition temperature of 548 K for the bulk ferrite. This has been confirmed as due to the abnormal cation distribution, as evidenced from room temperature Mössbauer spectroscopic studies.

Sreeja, V.; Vijayanand, S.; Deka, S.; Joy, P. A.

2008-04-01

95

Mapping stream habitats with a global positioning system: Accuracy, precision, and comparison with traditional methods  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We tested the precision and accuracy of the Trimble GeoXT??? global positioning system (GPS) handheld receiver on point and area features and compared estimates of stream habitat dimensions (e.g., lengths and areas of riffles and pools) that were made in three different Oklahoma streams using the GPS receiver and a tape measure. The precision of differentially corrected GPS (DGPS) points was not affected by the number of GPS position fixes (i.e., geographic location estimates) averaged per DGPS point. Horizontal error of points ranged from 0.03 to 2.77 m and did not differ with the number of position fixes per point. The error of area measurements ranged from 0.1% to 110.1% but decreased as the area increased. Again, error was independent of the number of position fixes averaged per polygon corner. The estimates of habitat lengths, widths, and areas did not differ when measured using two methods of data collection (GPS and a tape measure), nor did the differences among methods change at three stream sites with contrasting morphologies. Measuring features with a GPS receiver was up to 3.3 times faster on average than using a tape measure, although signal interference from high streambanks or overhanging vegetation occasionally limited satellite signal availability and prolonged measurements with a GPS receiver. There were also no differences in precision of habitat dimensions when mapped using a continuous versus a position fix average GPS data collection method. Despite there being some disadvantages to using the GPS in stream habitat studies, measuring stream habitats with a GPS resulted in spatially referenced data that allowed the assessment of relative habitat position and changes in habitats over time, and was often faster than using a tape measure. For most spatial scales of interest, the precision and accuracy of DGPS data are adequate and have logistical advantages when compared to traditional methods of measurement. ?? 2006 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.

Dauwalter, D. C.; Fisher, W. L.; Belt, K. C.

2006-01-01

96

Field camp: Using traditional methods to train the next generation of petroleum geologists  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The summer field camp experience provides many students with their best opportunity to learn the scientific process by making observations and collecting, recording, evaluating, and interpreting geologic data. Field school projects enhance student professional development by requiring cooperation and interpersonal interaction, report writing to communicate interpretations, and the development of project management skills to achieve a common goal. The field school setting provides students with the opportunity to observe geologic features and their spatial distribution, size, and shape that will impact the student's future careers as geoscientists. The Les Huston Geology Field Camp (a.k.a. Oklahoma Geology Camp) near Ca??on City, Colorado, focuses on time-tested traditional methods of geological mapping and fieldwork to accomplish these goals. The curriculum consists of an introduction to field techniques (pacing, orienteering, measuring strike and dip, and using a Jacob's staff), sketching outcrops, section measuring (one illustrating facies changes), three mapping exercises (of increasing complexity), and a field geophysics project. Accurate rock and contact descriptions are emphasized, and attitudes and contacts are mapped in the field. Mapping is done on topographic maps at 1:12,000 and 1:6000 scales; air photos are provided. Global positioning system (GPS)-assisted mapping is allowed, but we insist that locations be recorded in the field and confirmed using visual observations. The course includes field trips to the Cripple Creek and Leadville mining districts, Floris-sant/Guffey volcano area, Pikes Peak batholith, and the Denver Basin. Each field trip is designed to emphasize aspects of geology that are not stressed in the field exercises. Students are strongly encouraged to accurately describe geologic features and gather evidence to support their interpretations of the geologic history. Concise reports are a part of each major exercise. Students are grouped into teams to (1) introduce the team concept and develop interpersonal skills that are fundamental components of many professions, (2) ensure safety, and (3) mix students with varying academic backgrounds and physical strengths. This approach has advantages and disadvantages. Students with academic strengths in specific areas assist those with less experience, thereby becoming engaged in the teaching process. However, some students contribute less to fi nal map projects than others, and assigning grades to individual team members can be diffi cult. The greatest challenges we face involve group dynamics and student personalities. We continue to believe that traditional fi eld methods, aided by (but not relying upon) new technologies, are the key to constructing and/or interpreting geologic maps. The requirement that students document fi eld evidence using careful observations teaches skills that will be benefi cial throughout their professional careers. ??2009 The Geological Society of America. All rights reserved.

Puckette, J. O.; Suneson, N. H.

2009-01-01

97

Method Evaluation: Coupling of Geochemical Proxies with Traditional Paleoecological Indicators in Marsh Sediments  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Paleoclimatic and paleoecological research in estuaries is very important for understanding both marine and terrestrial responses to climate change. Marsh environments, characterized by high accumulation rates of up to 1 cm/yr and minimal mixing, offer the potential to obtain good quality paleo-records. The Hudson River Estuary in New York is an ideal study location as the estuary functions for millions of people and climate change directly affects New York City. The traditional method of paleoclimatic analysis in marshes includes the analysis of pollen, spores, and macrofossils (i.e. fossil seeds, leaves, and foraminifera) as well as the measurement of sediment physical properties. However, palynological analysis is very time consuming, making it difficult to analyze sediment cores at high resolution and with robust spatial coverage to gain a regional perspective. We are developing a new rapid analysis that provides a more efficient paleoclimate technique for marsh sediments, using X-ray fluorescence with a field portable analyzer. However, the use of geochemical proxies can be complicated by the complexity of the governing ecology, highly variable matrix, and the organic-rich nature of the sediments. We will discuss the potential and limitation of the method, including the calibration of the method to analyze wet and dry marsh sediments. We will present a comparison of elemental distribution and elemental ratio profiles with pollen, macrofossil, and sediment profiles during late Holocene from several Hudson Estuary marshes (i.e. Piermont Marsh, Iona Island Marsh, and Tivoli North Bay Marsh). Work to date suggests that geochemical proxies can be used to identify droughts, hydrological shifts, fires, and landscape alteration. Examples of key elements include Ti, K, and Zn. We will also present base-line modern analog study of the elemental composition of sediments originating from major tributaries of the Hudson Estuary and their application of sediment source indicators and hydrological changes in geological records.

Sritrairat, S.; Kenna, T. C.; Peteet, D. M.

2009-12-01

98

Comparison of traditional and molecular analytical methods for detecting biological agents in raw and drinking water following ultrafiltration  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Aims: To compare the performance of traditional methods to quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) for detecting five biological agents in large-volume drinking-water samples concentrated by ultrafiltration (UF). Methods and Results: Drinking-water samples (100 l) were seeded with Bacillus anthracis, Cryptospordium parvum, Francisella tularensis, Salmonella Typhi, and Vibrio cholerae and concentrated by UF. Recoveries by traditional methods were variable between samples and between some replicates; recoveries were not determined by qPCR. Francisella tularensis and V. cholerae were detected in all 14 samples after UF, B. anthracis was detected in 13, and C. parvum was detected in 9 out of 14 samples. Numbers found by qPCR after UF were significantly or nearly related to those found by traditional methods for all organisms except for C. parvum. A qPCR assay for S. Typhi was not available. Conclusions: qPCR can be used to rapidly detect biological agents after UF as well as traditional methods, but additional work is needed to improve qPCR assays for several biological agents, determine recoveries by qPCR, and expand the study to other areas. Significance and Impact of the Study: To our knowledge, this is the first study to compare the use of traditional and qPCR methods to detect biological agents in large-volume drinking-water samples. ?? 2009 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

Francy, D. S.; Bushon, R. N.; Brady, A. M. G.; Bertke, E. E.; Kephart, C. M.; Likirdopulos, C. A.; Mailot, B. E.; Schaefer, Iii, F. W.; Alan, Lindquist, H. D.

2009-01-01

99

New method for determination of the photoresist Dill parameters using spectroscopic ellipsometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper a new method to determine photoresist Dill parameters is presented. Based on spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) measurements, this new method is more precise than standard techniques based on transmittance measurements. Indeed, compared to photometry, SE technique is a self calibrated technique which provide directly two independent parameters Tan (Psi) and Cos (Delta) which can be used to extract directly thickness but also optical indices of a layer inside a multilayer structure. Moreover, the wavelength dependence introduces more restrictions for the data analysis since thickness and optical indices can be deduced directly in many cases. We apply this technique to different kinds of photoresist designed for 365nm and 248nm. At each wavelength ellipsometric parameters are simulated directly versus the exposure dose without any assumption on the thickness and on the index of refraction evolution. On 365nm photoresist this new method provides Dill parameters in good agreement with the standard method. On 248nm photoresist we show that the influence of the exposure is more important on the refractive index and on the thickness of the layer than on its absorption.

Boher, Pierre; Defranoux, Christophe; Piel, Jean P.; Stehle, Jean-Louis P.

1999-04-01

100

New method for determination of the photoresist Dill parameters using spectroscopic ellipsometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper a new method to determine photoresist DIll parameters is presented. Based on spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) measurements, this new method is more precise than standard techniques based on transmittance measurements. Indeed, compared to photometry, SE technique is a self calibrated technique which provide directly two independent parameters Tan (Psi) and Cos (Delta) which can be used to extract directly thickness but also optical indices of a layer inside a multilayer structure. Moreover, the wavelength dependence introduces more restrictions for the data analysis since thickness and optical indices can be deduced directly in many cases. We apply this technique to different kinds of photoresist designed for 365nm and 248nm. At each wavelength ellipsometric parameters are simulate directly versus the exposure dose without any assumption on the thickness and on the index of refraction evolution. On 365nm photoresist this new method provides Dill parameters in good agreement with the standard method. On 248nm photoresist we show that the influence of the exposure is more important on the refractive index and on the thickness of the layer than on its absorption.

Boher, Pierre; Defranoux, Christophe; Piel, Jean P.; Stehle, Jean-Louis P.

1999-05-01

101

Application methods of infrared thermal images in the health care field of traditional Chinese medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Infrared thermal imaging (ITI) is the potential imaging technique for the health care field of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Successful application demands obeying the characteristics and regularity of the ITI of human body and designing rigorous trials. First, the influence of time must be taken into account as the ITI of human body varies with time markedly. Second, relative magnitude is preferred to be the index of the image features. Third, scatter diagrams and the method of least square could present important information for evaluating the health care effect. A double-blind placebo-controlled randomized trial was undertaken to study the influences of Shengsheng capsule, one of the TCM health food with immunity adjustment function, on the ITI of human body. The results showed that the effect of Shengsheng capsule to people with weak constitution or in the period of being weak could be reflected objectively by ITI. The relative efficacy rate was 81.3% for the trial group and 30.0% for the control group, there was significant difference between the two groups (P=0.003). So the sensitivity and objectivity of ITI are of great importance to the health care field of TCM.

Li, Ziru; Zhang, Xusheng

2008-12-01

102

Contemporary Chinese pulse diagnosis: a modern interpretation of an ancient and traditional method.  

PubMed

Contemporary Chinese pulse diagnosis™ (CCPD) is a system of pulse diagnosis utilized by Dr. John He Feng Shen, OMD, and documented by Dr. Leon Hammer, MD, in the book Chinese Pulse Diagnosis, A Contemporary Approach. It is the traditional method of the Ding medical lineage from the Shanghai region and dates to the 15th century in Chinese language texts. The fundamentals of this system are, however, much older and can be directly traced to the Neijing Suwen. Having been passed from the last direct inheritor of Ding knowledge (Dr. Shen) to modern practitioners of Chinese medicine by way of Dr. Hammer and his students, it represents an important system of advanced diagnosis. Although modern diagnostic technology provides very sophisticated diagnoses, for these instruments to be effective, the disease process must already have a physical manifestation. CCPD, on the other hand, provides the earliest warnings of physiological processes, which if left unchecked may result in the subsequent appearance of a disease. This article describes the derivation and the principles of this system of pulse diagnosis and explores its successful integration into the modern practice of Chinese medicine. PMID:24139459

Bilton, Karen; Hammer, Leon; Zaslawski, Chris

2013-10-01

103

How to standardize the pulse-taking method of traditional Chinese medicine pulse diagnosis.  

PubMed

The aim of this report is to propose standard pulse taking procedure of Traditional Chinese Medicine Pulse Diagnosis. In order to acquire full information from taking a wrist pulse, this proposal adopts a tactile sensor with 12 sensing points at one sensing position, such as Cun, Guan, or Chi. Simultaneously Palpation (SP) and Pressing with One Finger (PWOF) are adopted to explore their differences of the detected pulse signals. According to vertical dynamic characteristics, the results of a Pearson product moment reveal that the correlation coefficients of PWOF and SP are highly correlated from Fu to Chen. In addition, according to unique characteristics of body state, the results of a paired samples t test reveal that the SP and PWOF are indifferent at a specific pulse taking depth. Hence, if using the pulse-taking instrument with tactile sensors, it is concluded that pulse signals taken by familiar SP and PWOF methods are shown in statistical indifferences among seven parameters (Vppmean,Vppmax, HR, LENGTH, WIDTH, AS, and DS). PMID:23384544

Chung, Yu-Feng; Hu, Chung-Shing; Yeh, Cheng-Chang; Luo, Ching-Hsing

2013-05-01

104

GROUND WATER MONITORING AND SAMPLING: MULTI-LEVEL VERSUS TRADITIONAL METHODS ? WHAT?S WHAT?  

EPA Science Inventory

Recent studies have been conducted to evaluate different sampling techniques for determining VOC concentrations in groundwater. Samples were obtained using multi-level and traditional sampling techniques in three monitoring wells at the Raymark Superfund site in Stratford, CT. Ve...

105

Silica gel modified with lumogallion for aluminum determination by spectroscopic methods.  

PubMed

Simple, easy to use and selective method of Al(III) sorption-spectroscopic (SS) determination was proposed. For this purpose, silica modified with tridecyloctadecylammonium chloride(SGII) using adsorption technique and glass slide modified with thin silica-poly(dimethyldiallyl-ammonium chloride) (SGI) composite film obtained by sol-gel technique were worked out. It was shown that lumogallion (LG) easily absorbs on SGI and SGII. Obtained sorbents SGIII and SGIV, respectively, were used for aluminum(III) determination by diffuse reflectance and spectrophotometric methods. The ranges of determination were (mg L(-1)): (0.08-0.54), s(r)< or =0.13, n=4 for SGIII and (0.05-2.0), s(r)< or =0.11, n=4 for SGIV. The detection limits (blank+3sigma) for aluminum were 70 and 30 microg L(-1) using SGIII and SGIV, respectively, where sigma is the standard deviation of blank estimation. The accuracy of the developed spectrophotometric method was examined by the determination of standard addition of aluminum in alcohol-free beverages. The relative error did not exceed 9%. SGIII can be regenerated by 0.05M EDTANa(2)H(2) solution and reused. SGIV was shown to be perspective for determination of aluminum in solution in the range of 0.01-0.13 mg L(-1) by solid phase luminescent technique. PMID:18970238

Nadzhafova, Oksana Yu; Zaporozhets, Olga A; Rachinska, Irina V; Fedorenko, Leonid L; Yusupov, Nikolai

2005-10-15

106

Re-using traditional animation: methods for semi-automatic segmentation and inbetweening  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large body of traditional animation exists that contains characters with poses, expressions, and appeal not easily achievable with modern 3D techniques. To create new uses for this body of animation, this paper presents components of a system that can help incorporate the animation into re-usable libraries. In particular, we discuss two semi-automatic techniques that allow the re-use of traditional

Christina N. De Juan; Bobby Bodenheimer

2006-01-01

107

Designing clinical studies that take into account traditional East Asian medicine's systems and methods - with focus on pattern identification.  

PubMed

This article is based on two presentations held at Chinese medicine conference in Rothenburg (2013), Germany and at the 19th Anniversary of Korean Institute of Oriental Medicine (KIOM) International Symposium of Current Research Trends in Traditional Medicine - Pattern of Identification (2013). In designing clinical studies, it is a research question that leads to appropriate study design. However, they are mostly diagnostic procedures and techniques that are the key points to reflect the application of systems and methods in all forms of medicine - traditional East Asian medicine (TEAM) is no exception. The challenges within TEAM based on research reflect in different systems of medicine/theories such as traditional Japanese acupuncture, traditional Korean acupuncture and traditional Chinese acupuncture. This diversity of medical systems and methods applied in East Asia seems to have been fruitful within the different countries and traditional medicines have found their places within the respective countries health systems. The existing diversity, from a clinician's point of view, may be viewed as a treasure when dealing with patients in the 'real world'. On the other hand, this diversity seems to challenge the scientific mind worldwide, especially when it comes to research. Hence, there is a gap between clinical practice and research. PMID:24788085

Alraek, Terje

2014-05-01

108

Investigation of a traditional catalyst by contemporary methods: Parallel electron spectroscopic and catalytic studies on Pt black  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results of electron spectroscopy (XPS and UPS) of platinum black catalyst measured in various states of the catalyst have been summarized. XPS showed up to almost 50% carbon and up to 20% oxygen on a sample stored in air. These, however, had almost no influence on the chemical state of Pt, except for the appearance of minor surface oxide. A Pt purity of ˜90% could be reached by regeneration with O 2 and H 2. The C 1s peak contained several components from individual C atoms to graphitic and polymeric hydrocarbon layers. Thus, the active catalyst was not clean Pt but metallic Pt; the impurities exerting little influence on catalytic activity. Regeneration and deactivation led also to slight structural rearrangement, as detected by XRD. Intentional deactivation with hydrocarbon-hydrogen mixtures was monitored by XPS, UPS and catalytic tests. Correlation was found between catalytic activity and selectivity in hexane reaction and the amount - and also the chemical state - of carbon accumulated during deactivating runs. A short summary of electron spectroscopy of supported Pt catalysts is also given. The main underlying idea regards solid catalyst and reactants as a dynamic system, including also solid-state changes of the former.

Paál, Zoltán; Schlögl, Robert

2009-06-01

109

Traditional and novel methods to assess and prevent chemotherapy-related cardiac dysfunction noninvasively.  

PubMed

The field of cardio-oncology is challenged to address an ever greater spectrum of cardiotoxicity associated with combination chemotherapy, greater dose intensity, extremes of age, and enhanced patient survival which exposes more protracted risk of developing congestive heart failure (CHF). Recent reports of chemotherapy-induced hypertension as a common adverse effect of angiogenesis inhibitors and immunosuppressants clarify the need for routine blood pressure (BP) monitoring and guideline-based management of hypertension as an integral strategy to preserve LV function. Serial monitoring of radionuclide left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) in adults and echocardiography in children continues to provide outcome based, cost-effective prevention of CHF in high risk patients receiving chemotherapy. To optimize treatment and monitoring strategies to eliminate late-onset LV dysfunction and CHF, traditional and novel candidate methods for assessment of chemotherapy-induced LV dysfunction are reviewed. These include serial assessment of LV volume indices by gated SPECT ERNA and gated SPECT MPI, 3D echocardiography and contrast 2D echocardiography; longitudinal strain imaging, diastolic functional parameters, (123)I-MIBG, (111)In-Antimyosin antibody imaging, and (99m)Tc-Annexin V apoptosis imaging, biomarkers including troponins and BNP; genetic markers, and both functional and tissue characterization techniques with T1 weighted and T2 weighted images with cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR). In our quest to optimize strategies for long-term cancer survival and prevention of CHF for patients receiving chemotherapy, rigorous modality and guideline-specific clinical outcome trials are required. A new multi-modality monitoring approach is proposed, which integrates evidence-based strengths of CMR, echocardiography, ERNA, biomarkers, and BP management for surveillance and validation of cardiotoxicity and prevention of clinical heart failure in patients receiving a broad spectrum of cancer therapies. PMID:23572315

Schwartz, Ronald G; Jain, Diwakar; Storozynsky, Eugene

2013-06-01

110

Spectroscopic studies on the interaction between tetrandrine and two serum albumins by chemometrics methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The binding interactions of tetrandrine (TETD) with bovine serum albumin (BSA) and human serum albumin (HSA) have been investigated by spectroscopic methods. These experimental data were further analyzed using multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) method, and the concentration profiles and pure spectra for three species (BSA/HSA, TETD and TETD-BSA/HSA) existed in the interaction procedure, as well as, the apparent equilibrium constants Kapp were evaluated. The binding sites number n and the binding constants K were obtained at various temperatures. The binding distance between TETD and BSA/HSA was 1.455/1.451 nm. The site markers competitive experiments indicated that TETD primarily bound to the tryptophan residue of BSA/HSA within site I. The thermodynamic parameters (?G, ?H and ?S) calculated on the basis of different temperatures revealed that the binding of TETD-BSA was mainly depended on the hydrophobic interaction strongly and electrostatic interaction, and yet the binding of TETD-HSA was strongly relied on the hydrophobic interaction. The results of synchronous fluorescence, 3D fluorescence and FT-IR spectra show that the conformation of proteins has altered in the presence of TETD. In addition, the effect of some common ions on the binding constants between TETD and proteins were also discussed.

Cheng, Zhengjun; Liu, Rong; jiang, Xiaohui

2013-11-01

111

Comparability of a Three-Dimensional Structure in Biopharmaceuticals Using Spectroscopic Methods  

PubMed Central

Protein structure depends on weak interactions and covalent bonds, like disulfide bridges, established according to the environmental conditions. Here, we present the validation of two spectroscopic methodologies for the measurement of free and unoxidized thiols, as an attribute of structural integrity, using 5,5?-dithionitrobenzoic acid (DTNB) and DyLight Maleimide (DLM) as derivatizing agents. These methods were used to compare Rituximab and Etanercept products from different manufacturers. Physicochemical comparability was demonstrated for Rituximab products as DTNB showed no statistical differences under native, denaturing, and denaturing-reducing conditions, with Student's t-test P values of 0.6233, 0.4022, and 0.1475, respectively. While for Etanercept products no statistical differences were observed under native (P = 0.0758) and denaturing conditions (P = 0.2450), denaturing-reducing conditions revealed cysteine contents of 98% and 101%, towards the theoretical value of 58, for the evaluated products from different Etanercept manufacturers. DLM supported equality between Rituximab products under native (P = 0.7499) and denaturing conditions (P = 0.8027), but showed statistical differences among Etanercept products under native conditions (P < 0.001). DLM suggested that Infinitam has fewer exposed thiols than Enbrel, although DTNB method, circular dichroism (CD), fluorescence (TCSPC), and activity (TNF? neutralization) showed no differences. Overall, this data revealed the capabilities and drawbacks of each thiol quantification technique and their correlation with protein structure.

Abad-Javier, Mario E.; Romero-Diaz, Alexis J.; Villasenor-Ortega, Francisco; Perez, Nestor O.; Flores-Ortiz, Luis F.

2014-01-01

112

Optical caries diagnostics: comparison of laser spectroscopic PNC method with method of laser integral fluorescence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this research we present the results of approbation of two methods of optical caries diagnostics: PNC-spectral diagnostics and caries detection by laser integral fluorescence. The research was conducted in a dental clinic. PNC-method analyses parameters of probing laser radiation and PNC-spectrums of stimulated secondary radiations: backscattering and endogenous fluorescence of caries-involved bacterias. He-Ne-laser ((lambda) =632,8 nm, 1-2mW) was used as a source of probing (stimulated) radiation. For registration of signals, received from intact and pathological teeth PDA-detector was applied. PNC-spectrums were processed by special algorithms, and were displayed on PC monitor. The method of laser integral fluorescence was used for comparison. In this case integral power of fluorescence of human teeth was measured. As a source of probing (stimulated) radiation diode lasers ((lambda) =655 nm, 0.1 mW and 630nm, 1mW) and He-Ne laser were applied. For registration of signals Si-photodetector was used. Integral power was shown in a digital indicator. Advantages and disadvantages of these methods are described in this research. It is disclosed that the method of laser integral power of fluorescence has the following characteristics: simplicity of construction and schema-technical decisions. However the method of PNC-spectral diagnostics are characterized by considerably more sensitivity in diagnostics of initial caries and capability to differentiate pathologies of various stages (for example, calculus/initial caries). Estimation of spectral characteristics of PNC-signals allows eliminating a number of drawbacks, which are character for detection by method of laser integral fluorescence (for instance, detection of fluorescent fillings, plagues, calculus, discolorations generally, amalgam, gold fillings as if it were caries.

Masychev, Victor I.

2000-11-01

113

Determination of Cephalexin Monohydrate in Pharmaceutical Dosage Form by Stability-Indicating RP-UFLC and UV Spectroscopic Methods  

PubMed Central

An ultra-fast liquid chromatographic method and two UV spectroscopic methods were developed for the determination of cephalexin monohydrate in pharmaceutical dosage forms. Isocratic separation was performed on an Enable C18G column (250 mm × 4.6 mm i.d., 5 ?m) using methanol:0.01 M TBAHS (50:50, v/v) as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min. The PDA detection wavelength was set at 254 nm. The UV spectroscopic method was performed at 261 nm and at 256–266 nm for the AUC method using a phosphate buffer (pH=5.5). The linearity was observed over a concentration range of 1.0–120 ?g/ml for UFLC and both of the UV spectroscopic methods (correlation coefficient=0.999). The developed methods were validated according to ICH guidelines. The relative standard deviation values for the intraday and interday precision studies were < 2%, and the accuracy was > 99% for all of the three methods. The developed methods were used successfully for the determination of cephalexin in dry syrup formulation.

Panda, Sagar Suman; Ravi Kumar, Bera V. V.; Dash, Rabisankar; Mohanta, Ganeswar

2013-01-01

114

Traditional healers and the potential for collaboration with the national tuberculosis programme in Vanuatu: results from a mixed methods study  

PubMed Central

Background This study was conducted in the Pacific island nation of Vanuatu. Our objective was to assess knowledge, attitudes and practice of traditional healers who treat lung diseases and tuberculosis (TB), including their willingness to collaborate with the national TB programme. Methods This was a descriptive study using both qualitative and quantitative methods. Quantitative analysis was based on the responses provided to closed-ended questions, and we used descriptive analysis (frequencies) to describe the knowledge, attitudes and practice of the traditional healers towards TB. Qualitative analysis was based on open-ended questions permitting fuller explanations. We used thematic analysis and developed a posteriori inductive categories to draw original and unbiased conclusions. Results Nineteen traditional healers were interviewed; 18 were male. Fifteen of the healers reported treating short wind (a local term to describe lung, chest or breathing illnesses) which they attributed to food, alcohol, smoking or pollution from contact with menstrual blood, and a range of other physical and spiritual causes. Ten said that they would treat TB with leaf medicine. Four traditional healers said that they would not treat TB. Twelve of the healers had referred someone to a hospital for a strong wet-cough and just over half of the healers (9) reported a previous collaboration with the Government health care system. Eighteen of the traditional healers would be willing to collaborate with the national TB programme, with or without compensation. Conclusions Traditional healers in Vanuatu treat lung diseases including TB. Many have previously collaborated with the Government funded health care system, and almost all of them indicated a willingness to collaborate with the national TB programme. The engagement of traditional healers in TB management should be considered, using an evidence based and culturally sensitive approach.

2014-01-01

115

Chromatographic and spectroscopic methods for the determination of solvent properties of room temperature ionic liquids.  

PubMed

Room temperature ionic liquids are novel solvents with favorable environmental and technical features. Synthetic routes to over 200 room temperature ionic liquids are known but for most ionic liquids physicochemical data are generally lacking or incomplete. Chromatographic and spectroscopic methods afford suitable tools for the study of solvation properties under conditions that approximate infinite dilution. Gas-liquid chromatography is suitable for the determination of gas-liquid partition coefficients and activity coefficients as well as thermodynamic constants derived from either of these parameters and their variation with temperature. The solvation parameter model can be used to define the contribution from individual intermolecular interactions to the gas-liquid partition coefficient. Application of chemometric procedures to a large database of system constants for ionic liquids indicates their unique solvent properties: low cohesion for ionic liquids with weakly associated ions compared with non-ionic liquids of similar polarity; greater hydrogen-bond basicity than typical polar non-ionic solvents; and a range of dipolarity/polarizability that encompasses the same range as occupied by the most polar non-ionic liquids. These properties can be crudely related to ion structures but further work is required to develop a comprehensive approach for the design of ionic liquids for specific applications. Data for liquid-liquid partition coefficients is scarce by comparison with gas-liquid partition coefficients. Preliminary studies indicate the possibility of using the solvation parameter model for interpretation of liquid-liquid partition coefficients determined by shake-flask procedures as well as the feasibility of using liquid-liquid chromatography for the convenient and rapid determination of liquid-liquid partition coefficients. Spectroscopic measurements of solvatochromic and fluorescent probe molecules in room temperature ionic liquids provide insights into solvent intermolecular interactions although interpretation of the different and generally uncorrelated "polarity" scales is sometimes ambiguous. All evidence points to the ionic liquids as a unique class of polar solvents suitable for technical development. In terms of designer solvents, however, further work is needed to fill the gaps in our knowledge of the relationship between ion structures and physicochemical properties. PMID:15214660

Poole, Colin F

2004-05-28

116

Mechanism and conformational studies of farrerol binding to bovine serum albumin by spectroscopic methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mechanism and conformational changes of farrerol binding to bovine serum albumin (BSA) were studied by spectroscopic methods including fluorescence quenching technique, UV-vis absorption, circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy under simulative physiological conditions. The results of fluorescence titration revealed that farrerol could strongly quench the intrinsic fluorescence of BSA through a static quenching procedure. The thermodynamic parameters enthalpy change and entropy change for the binding were calculated to be -29.92 kJ mol -1 and 5.06 J mol -1 K -1 according to the van't Hoff equation, which suggested that the both hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonds play major role in the binding of farrerol to BSA. The binding distance r deduced from the efficiency of energy transfer was 3.11 nm for farrerol-BSA system. The displacement experiments of site markers and the results of fluorescence anisotropy showed that warfarin and farrerol shared a common binding site I corresponding to the subdomain IIA of BSA. Furthermore, the studies of synchronous fluorescence, CD and FT-IR spectroscopy showed that the binding of farrerol to BSA induced conformational changes in BSA.

Zhang, Guowen; Wang, Lin; Fu, Peng; Hu, Mingming

2011-11-01

117

Toxic interaction between acid yellow 23 and trypsin: spectroscopic methods coupled with molecular docking.  

PubMed

Acid yellow 23 (AY23) is a pervasive azo dye used in many fields which is potentially harmful to the environment and human health. This paper studied the toxic effects of AY23 on trypsin by spectroscopic and molecular docking methods. The addition of AY23 effectively quenched the intrinsic fluorescence of trypsin via static quenching with association constants of K(290 K) = 3.67 × 10(5) L mol(-1) and K(310 K) = 1.83 × 10(5) L mol(-1). The calculated thermodynamic parameters conformed that AY23 binds to trypsin predominantly via electrostatic forces with one binding site. Conformational investigations indicated the skeletal structure of trypsin unfolded and the microenvironment of tryptophan changed with the addition of AY23. Molecular docking study showed that AY23 interacted with the His 57 and Lys 224 residue of trypsin and led to the inhibition of enzyme activity. This study offers a more comprehensive picture of AY23-trypsin interaction and indicates their interaction may perform toxic effects within the organism. PMID:22807329

Wang, Jing; Liu, Rutao; Qin, Pengfei

2012-09-01

118

Comparison of Traditional Methods with 3D Computer Models in the Instruction of Hepatobiliary Anatomy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was designed to determine whether an interactive three-dimensional presentation depicting liver and biliary anatomy is more effective for teaching medical students than a traditional textbook format presentation of the same material. Forty-six medical students volunteered for participation in this study. Baseline demographic…

Keedy, Alexander W.; Durack, Jeremy C.; Sandhu, Parmbir; Chen, Eric M.; O'Sullivan, Patricia S.; Breiman, Richard S.

2011-01-01

119

Comparison of Traditional Methods With 3D Computer Models in the Instruction of Hepatobiliary Anatomy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes a study determining whether an interactive three-dimensional presentation depicting liver and biliary anatomy is more effective for teaching medical students than a traditional textbook format presentation. Outcomes provided are based on pre post test data and student perceptions.

2011-03-01

120

The Effects of Chinese Traditional Processing Method on Components in Semen Sinapis Albae  

Microsoft Academic Search

Techniques of infrared (IR) spectrophotometry, High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and HPLC-mass spectrometry are employed in this study to reveal the changes of the components in Semen sinapis Albae during the Chinese traditional processing. While the degradation of proteins and polysaccarides can be observed, sinapine in this drug can be known to decompose immediately after 15 mins during processing. A

Lifang Liu; Hui Zhou; Suqin Sun; Qiang Wang; Genxi Li

121

A Comparison of Case Study and Traditional Teaching Methods for Improvement of Oral Communication and Critical-Thinking Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compares a traditional paper presentation approach and a case study method for the development and improvement of oral communication skills and critical-thinking skills in a class of junior forensic science majors. A rubric for rating performance in these skills was designed on the basis of the oral communication competencies developed…

Noblitt, Lynnette; Vance, Diane E.; Smith, Michelle L. DePoy

2010-01-01

122

Dual window method for processing spectroscopic optical coherence tomography signals with simultaneously high spectral and temporal resolution  

PubMed Central

Current methods for analysis of spectroscopic optical coherence tomography (SOCT) signals suffer from an inherent tradeoff between time (depth) and frequency (wavelength) resolution. Here, we present a dual window (DW) method for reconstructing time frequency distributions (TFDs) that applies two orthogonal Gaussian windows that independently determine the spectral and temporal resolution. The effectiveness of the method is demonstrated in simulations and in processing of measured OCT signals that contain fields which vary in time and frequency. The DW method yields TFDs that maintain high spectral and temporal resolution and are free from the artifacts and limitations commonly observed with other processing methods.

Robles, Francisco; Graf, Robert N.; Wax, Adam

2010-01-01

123

A Comparison of Kernel Equating and Traditional Equipercentile Equating Methods and the Parametric Bootstrap Methods for Estimating Standard Errors in Equipercentile Equating  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study used simulation (a) to compare the kernel equating method to traditional equipercentile equating methods under the equivalent-groups (EG) design and the nonequivalent-groups with anchor test (NEAT) design and (b) to apply the parametric bootstrap method for estimating standard errors of equating. A two-parameter logistic item response…

Choi, Sae Il

2009-01-01

124

Spectroscopic bulge-disc decomposition: a new method to study the evolution of lenticular galaxies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new method for spectroscopic bulge-disc decomposition is presented, in which the spatial light profile in a two-dimensional spectrum is decomposed wavelength by wavelength into bulge and disc components, allowing separate one-dimensional spectra for each component to be constructed. This method has been applied to observations of a sample of nine lenticular galaxies (S0s) in the Fornax Cluster in order to obtain clean high-quality spectra of their individual bulge and disc components. So far this decomposition has only been fully successful when applied to galaxies with clean light profiles, without contamination from dust lanes, etc. This has consequently limited the number of galaxies that could be separated into bulge and disc components. The Lick index stellar population analysis of the component spectra reveals that in those galaxies where the bulge and disc could be distinguished, the bulges have systematically higher metallicities and younger stellar populations than the discs. This correlation is consistent with a picture in which S0 formation comprises the shutting down of star formation in the disc accompanied by a final burst of star formation in the bulge. Similarly, a trend was found to exist whereby galaxies with younger stellar populations have higher metallicities. The variation in spatial-fit parameters with wavelength also allows us to measure approximate colour gradients in the individual components. Such gradients were detected separately in both bulges and discs, in the sense that redder light is systematically more centrally concentrated in all components. However, a search for radial variations in the absorption line strengths determined for the individual components revealed that, although they can be sensitively detected where present, they are absent from the vast majority of S0 discs and bulges. The absence of gradients in line indices for most galaxies implies that the colour gradient cannot be attributed to age or metallicity variations and is therefore most likely associated with varying degrees of obscuration by dust.

Johnston, E. J.; Aragón-Salamanca, A.; Merrifield, M. R.; Bedregal, A. G.

2012-05-01

125

The Use of Matrix Methods in the Modeling of Spectroscopic Data Sets  

PubMed Central

We describe a general approach to the model-based analysis of sets of spectroscopic data that is built upon the techniques of matrix analysis. A model hypothesis may often be expressed by writing a matrix of measured spectra as the product of a matrix of spectra of individual molecular species and a matrix of corresponding species populations as a function of experimental conditions. The modeling procedure then requires the simultaneous determination of a set of species spectra and a set of model parameters (from which the populations are derived), such that this product yields an optimal description of the measured spectra. This procedure may be implemented as an optimization problem in the space of the (possibly nonlinear) model parameters alone, coupled with the efficient solution of a corollary linear optimization problem using matrix decomposition methods to obtain a set of species spectra corresponding to any set of model parameters. Known species spectra, as well as other information and assumptions about spectral shapes, may be incorporated into this general framework, using parametrized analytical functional forms and basis-set techniques. The method by which assumed relationships between global features (e.g., peak positions) of different species spectra may be enforced in the modeling without otherwise specifying the shapes of the spectra will be shown. We also consider the effect of measurement errors on this approach and suggest extensions of the matrix-based least-squares procedures applicable to situations in which measurement errors may not be assumed to be normally distributed. A generalized analysis procedure is introduced for cases in which the species spectra vary with experimental conditions.

Henry, Eric R.

1997-01-01

126

Review of UV spectroscopic, chromatographic, and electrophoretic methods for the cholinesterase reactivating antidote pralidoxime (2-PAM).  

PubMed

Pralidoxime (2-PAM) belongs to the class of monopyridinium oximes with reactivating potency on cholinesterases inhibited by phosphylating organophosphorus compounds (OPC), for example, pesticides and nerve agents. 2-PAM represents an established antidote for the therapy of anticholinesterase poisoning since the late 1950s. Quite high therapeutic concentrations in human plasma (about 13?µg/ml) lead to concentrations in urine being about 100 times higher allowing the use of less sensitive analytical techniques that were used especially in the early years after 2-PAM was introduced. In this time (mid-1950s until the end of the 1970s) 2-PAM was most often analyzed by either paper chromatography or simple UV spectroscopic techniques omitting any sample separation step. These methods were displaced completely after the establishment of column liquid chromatography in the early 1980s. Since then, diverse techniques including cation exchange, size-exclusion, reversed-phase, and ligand-exchange chromatography have been introduced. Today, the most popular method for 2-PAM quantification is ion pair chromatography often combined with UV detection representing more than 50% of all column chromatographic procedures published. Furthermore, electrophoretic approaches by paper and capillary zone electrophoresis have been successfully used but are seldom applied. This review provides a commentary and exhaustive summary of analytical techniques applied to detect 2-PAM in pharmaceutical formulations and biological samples to characterize stability and pharmacokinetics as well as decomposition and biotransformation products. Separation techniques as well as diverse detectors are discussed in appropriate detail allowing comparison of individual preferences and limitations. In addition, novel data on mass spectrometric fragmentation of 2-PAM are provided. PMID:21953823

John, Harald; Blum, Marc-Michael

2012-01-01

127

Quantifying Prefibrillar Amyloids in vitro by Using a "Thioflavin-Like" Spectroscopic Method  

PubMed Central

In Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and other neurodegenerative disorders, proteins accumulate into ordered aggregates, called amyloids. Recent evidence suggests that these structures include both large, insoluble fibrils and smaller, prefibrillar structures, such as dimers, oligomers, and protofibrils. Recently, focus has shifted to the prefibrillar aggregates because they are highly neurotoxic and their levels appear to correlate with cognitive impairment. Thus, there is interest in finding methods for specifically quantifying these structures. One of the classic ways of detecting amyloid formation is through the fluorescence of the benzothiazole dye, thioflavin T (ThT). This reagent has been a “workhorse” of the amyloid field because it is robust and inexpensive. However, one of its limitations is that it does not distinguish between prefibrillar and fibrillar aggregates. We screened a library of 37 indoles for those that selectively change fluorescence in the presence of prefibrillar amyloid-?(A?). From this process, we selected the most promising example, tryptophanol (TROL), to use in a quantitative “thioflavin-like” assay. Using this probe in combination with electron microscopy, we found that prefibrils are largely depleted during A? aggregation in vitro but that they remain present after the apparent saturation of the ThT signal. These results suggest that a combination of TROL and ThT provides greater insight into the process of amyloid formation by A?. In addition, we found that TROL also recognizes other amyloid-prone proteins, including ataxin-3, amylin, and CsgA. Thus, this assay might be an inexpensive spectroscopic method for quantifying amyloid prefibrils in vitro.

Reinke, Ashley A.; Abulwerdi, Gelareh A.

2011-01-01

128

Chemical Characterization of Riverine Dissolved Organic Matter Using a Combination of Spectroscopic and Pyrolytic Methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is now well established that riverine dissolved organic matter (DOM) play a major role in environmental processes. However natural organic matter exhibit different properties depending on their sources and the fractions considered. As a result chemical characterization of DOM has appeared essential for a better understanding of their reactivity. The purpose of this work was to characterize all of the DOM at molecular level, including the non-hydrolysable fraction, which is a major part of this OM. To this aim a new analytical approach had to be considered. A combination of spectroscopic and pyrolytic methods has been applied to various fractions of DOM originating from different catchments (French and Amazonian rivers). The fractions were termed hydrophilic, transphilic and colloids according to the IHSS fractionation procedure, and account for at least 70% of the total dissolved organic carbon. Solid state 13C NMR and FTIR afford information on the nature and relative abundance of the chemical functions occurring in macromolecules. Differential thermogravimetric analysis allows to determine the thermal behaviour of the studied material and hence to optimize analytical pyrolysis conditions. Curie point pyrolysis combined to gas chromatography and mass spectrometry leads to identification of characteristic pyrolysis products, some of them being specific of a macromolecular source. Additional information can be provided by thermochemolysis with tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH). TMAH was shown to allow an increase in the efficiency of the cracking of macromolecular structures and an enhancement of the detection of the polar pyrolysis products especially due to methylation of the alcohol, phenol and acid groups. The results obtained have established the importance of terrestrial contribution to DOM. Hydrophobic fractions mainly originate from lignin-derived units, whereas transphilic fractions mostly contain cellulose units together with lignin derived ones and substantial amount of nitrogen-containing moieties. Characterization of colloidal fraction has indicated the presence of compounds from bacterial origin, especially specific nitrogen-containing molecules that are characteristic pyrolysis products of peptidoglycans, along with lignin-derived units. However pyrolysis has revealed significant differences in the detection of nitrogen-containing molecules, which do not parallel nitrogen content of the fractions. Moreover in hydrophobic and transphilic fractions the molecular structure of these compounds, which are mainly nitrogen- and oxygen- containing molecules, has not allowed to ascertain their origin. As the major biological sources of organic nitrogen (proteins, amino sugars, or tetrapyrrole pigments) involve differences in the main nitrogen functionality, two additional spectroscopic methods, namely X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and solid state 15N NMR, have been used to determine the nitrogen functional groups (amide, amine, and N-heterocycle) present in the different fractions of DOM. The combination of these two methods has revealed the occurrence of different functionality of nitrogen, with relative contributions depending on the considered fraction. It has also appeared that Curie point pyrolysis does not account for the presence of nitrogen in macromolecules with the same efficiency depending on the functional group involved. This study has highlighted the importance of combining different analytical approaches to obtain a whole insight into chemical structure of OM and avoid biased information.

Templier, J.; Derenne, S.

2006-12-01

129

Comparison of traditional methods and mitogen-stimulated direct antiglobulin test for detection of anti-red blood cell autoimmunity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diagnosis of autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) is based on a positive direct antiglobulin test (DAT), which is performed\\u000a using various methods with different sensitivities. Recently, mitogen-stimulated (MS)-DAT was suggested to be able to identify\\u000a latent anti-erythrocyte autoimmunity. Traditional methods (tube, microcolumn, and solid phase) and MS-DAT were compared in\\u000a 54 consecutive cases of suspected AIHA, 28 idiopathic AIHA in

Wilma Barcellini; Nicoletta Revelli; Francesca Guia Imperiali; Maria Antonietta Villa; Maria Cristina Manera; Cinzia Paccapelo; Anna Zaninoni; Alberto Zanella

2010-01-01

130

Characterization of Mannitol Polymorphic Forms in Lyophilized Protein Formulations Using a Multivariate Curve Resolution (MCR)Based Raman Spectroscopic Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  To develop a novel multivariate curve resolution (MCR)-based Raman spectroscopic method to characterize and quantify five\\u000a known mannitol solid-state forms in lyophilized protein formulations.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and Methods  The multivariate quantitation method was developed based on second derivative Raman spectra of three anhydrous crystalline\\u000a forms (?-, ?-, and ?-mannitol), a hemihydrate and an amorphous mannitol form. The method showed a 5% quantitation

Yong Xie; Wenjin Cao; Sampathkumar Krishnan; Hong Lin; Nina Cauchon

2008-01-01

131

Paleodemographic age-at-death distributions of two Mexican skeletal collections: a comparison of transition analysis and traditional aging methods.  

PubMed

Traditional methods of aging adult skeletons suffer from the problem of age mimicry of the reference collection, as described by Bocquet-Appel and Masset (1982). Transition analysis (Boldsen et al., 2002) is a method of aging adult skeletons that addresses the problem of age mimicry of the reference collection by allowing users to select an appropriate prior probability. In order to evaluate whether transition analysis results in significantly different age estimates for adults, the method was applied to skeletal collections from Postclassic Cholula and Contact-Period Xochimilco. The resulting age-at-death distributions were then compared with age-at-death distributions for the two populations constructed using traditional aging methods. Although the traditional aging methods result in age-at-death distributions with high young adult mortality and few individuals living past the age of 50, the age-at-death distributions constructed using transition analysis indicate that most individuals who lived into adulthood lived past the age of 50. PMID:24037796

Bullock, Meggan; Márquez, Lourdes; Hernández, Patricia; Ruíz, Fernando

2013-09-01

132

Application of a probabilistic neural network in analysis of the radial velocity curve of spectroscopic binary stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using measured radial velocity data of five double-lined spectroscopic binary systems, HD 89959, HD 143705, HD 146361, HD 165052 and HD 152248, we find corresponding orbital and spectroscopic elements via a Probabilistic Neural Network. Our numerical results are in good agreement with those obtained by others using more traditional methods.

Ghaderi, Kamal; Karami, Kayoomars; Pirkhedri, Ali; Haj Seyyed Javadi, Hamid; Rostami, Touba

2012-12-01

133

Structural studies of oxalohydroxamic acid by single crystal X-ray diffraction and spectroscopic methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structure of oxalohydroxamic acid has been investigated by X-ray and spectroscopic analyses. It has been shown that oxalohydroxamic acid exists in the oxamic form in the solid as well as in solution. The variable-temperature nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies reveal an exchange of OH and NH protons, the exchange being faster at higher temperatures. The kinetic and the thermodynamic

A. Sameena Begum; V. K. Jain; C. L. Khetrapal; N. C. Shivaprakash

1987-01-01

134

Gradualism: A Method for Primary Instruction on Spectroscopic Analysis in Introductory Organic Chemistry  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pedagogical style of gradualism is described for the instruction of spectroscopic analysis in the introductory organic chemistry laboratory. Gradualism is defined as a series of steps or lessons that build one upon the other until the student is able to solve complex problems. Each step is briefly described as part of a pre-laboratory study assignment with follow-up application by

Christopher W. Alexander; Gary L. Asleson; Charles F. Beam; Marion T. Doig; Frederick J. Heldrich; Shannon Studer-Martinez

1999-01-01

135

Polychloroprene Structure Study. Ii. A Quantitative Infrared Spectroscopic Method for Polychloroprene Microstructure Investigation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A quantitative ir spectroscopic determination was developed using low-mol.-wt. compds. (cis-4-chloro-4-octene, cis-5-chloro-5 decene, trans-4-chloro-4-octene, and 2-chloro-1-hexens) as model polychloroprene (I) units representing various modes of monomer ...

E. O. Azhandzhyan L. G. Melkonyan

1968-01-01

136

Rapid and Inexpensive Method for the Spectroscopic Determination of Innate Immune Activity of Crocodilians  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have employed a spectroscopic assay based on the hemolysis of sheep red blood cells (SRBCs) to assess the immune system of the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis). The assay is based on the hemolytic disruption of the SRBCs by the immunological proteins in the crocodilian serum. Incubation of 1% SRBCs (vIv) with alligator serum resulted in hemolysis that was measured

Mark Merchant; Tony Hammack; Paige Sanders; Jessica Dronette

2006-01-01

137

An Effective-Substrate Method to Investigate AN Iron Native Oxide Layer on AN Iron Substrate by Spectroscopic Ellipsometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An effective-substrate method was presented to obtain the optical constants of an iron native oxide layer with unknown optical constants and film thickness on an iron substrate with unknown optical constants by using spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE). "Thick" iron films were deposited on silicon wafer by magnetron sputtering and were exposed to air at room temperature. They were measured by spectroscopic ellipsometry during this procedure at different time points from ten minutes to seven months. Pseudo optical constants were calculated from the initially measured data and were introduced into the modeling work of subsequent measurements as an effective substrate in order to obtain the optical constants and film thickness of the native oxide layer. After obtaining the optical constants of the subsequent native oxide layer, they were employed in the modeling work of the initially measured data and the optical constants of the iron substrate and the film thickness of the initial native oxide layer was obtained.

Gao, Shang; Lian, Jie; Sun, Zhaozong; Wang, Xiao; Li, Ping; Li, Qinghao

2013-03-01

138

Remote determination of exposure degree and iron concentration of lunar soils using VIS-NIR spectroscopic methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On the Moon, space weathering processes such as micrometeorite bombardment alter the optical properties of lunar soils. As a consequence, lunar soil optical properties are a function not only of composition, but of degree of exposure on the lunar surface as well. In order to accurately assess the compositional properties of the lunar surface using remotely acquired visible and near-infrared spectroscopic data, it is thus necessary either (1) to compare optical properties only of soils characterized by similar degrees of exposure or (2) to otherwise normalize or remove the optical effects due to exposure. Laboratory spectroscopic data for lunar soils are used to develop and test remote spectrocopic methods for determining degree of exposure and for distinguishing between the optical effects due to exposure and those due to composition. A method employing a ratio between reflectances within and outside of the 1 micrometer Fe(2+) crystal field absorption band was developed for remotely identifying highland soils that have reached a steady-state maturity. The relative optical properties of these soils are a function solely of composition and as such can be directly compared. Spectroscopic techniques for accurate quantitative determination of iron content for lunar highland soils are investigated as well. It is shown that approximations of the 1 micrometer Fe(2+) absorption band depth using few to several channel multispectral data or spectroscopic data of inadequate spectral range cannot be used with confidence for compositional analysis. However, band depth measurements derived from continuum-removed high spectral resolution data can be used to calculate the weight percent FeO and relative proportion of iron-bearing silicates in mature lunar highland and mare/highland mixture soils. A preliminary effort to calibrate telescopic band depth to laboratory soil measurements is described.

Fischer, Erich M.; Pieters, Carle M.

1994-01-01

139

A Universal Fiber-Optic Spectroscope for Studying the Modulated Reflection of Semiconductor Structures  

Microsoft Academic Search

A universal fiber-optic spectroscope has been developed that allows one to study state-of-the-art semiconductor structures by various methods employing the modulated reflection of light. Among these are both the well-known traditional methods of photoreflection and electroreflection and the new methods of longitudinal current modulated reflection and below-bandgap photoreflection. The possibilities of the spectroscope are demonstrated by studies of the semiconductor

A. E. Sotnikov; M. A. Chernikov; O. A. Ryabushkin

2004-01-01

140

Interactive-Engagement Versus Traditional Methods: A Six-Thousand-Student Survey of Mechanics Test Data for Introductory Physics Courses  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A survey of pre/post test data using the Halloun-Hestenes Mechanics Diagnostic test or more recent Force Concept Inventory is reported for 62 introductory physics courses enrolling a total number of students N=6542. A consistent analysis over diverse student populations in high schools, colleges, and universities is obtained if a rough measure of the average effectiveness of a course in promoting conceptual understanding is taken to be the average normalized gain G. The latter is defined as the ratio of the actual average gain (%post-%pre) to the maximum possible average gain (100-%pre). Fourteen "traditional" (T) courses (N=2084) which made little or no use of interactive-engagement (IE) methods achieved an average gain G T-ave=0.23+-0.04 (stad dev). In sharp contrast, 48 courses (N=4458) which made substantial use of IE methods achieved an average gain GIE=0.48 , almost two standard deviations of GIE above that of the traditional courses. Results for 30 (N=3259) of the above 62 courses on the problem-solving Mechanics Baseline test of Hestenes-Wells imply that IE strategies enhance problem-solving ability. The conceptual and problem-solving test results strongly suggest that the classroom use of IE methods can increase mechanics-course effectiveness well beyond that obtained in traditional practice.

Hake, Richard

2006-06-19

141

Electronic structure and molecular spectroscopic constants of ScN and ScP investigated by several quantum chemistry methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electronic structure of the ScN and ScP molecules is a subject of controversy and turns out to be a challenging problem in quantum chemistry. We show that the ground-state electronic structure for both molecules depends critically on the choice of methods used which incorporate different ways of accounting for electron correlation. A parallel ab initio, DFT and TD-DFT study is performed for this purpose and uses sufficiently flexible basis sets able to reproduce accurate electronic structures, as well as correct spectroscopic constants. In the ab initio methodology, results have been obtained with methods such as Hartree-Fock (HF), Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MPn), direct configuration interaction (CI), quadratic configuration interaction (QC), coupled cluster configuration interaction (CC), complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) and multireference configuration interaction (CIPSI) methods. In the DFT methodology, various 'pure' and 'hybrid' density functionals are used and the corresponding results are compared to sophisticated ab initio methods and to available experimental data. All the methods used show that the ground state of both molecules is 1?+, but two electronic structure natures, 1?+ open-shell or 1?+ closed-shell, are competitive and depend on the method employed. All the ab initio methods based on a single determinant wavefunction suffer seriously in predicting clearly the exact nature of the ground state or its correct structural and spectroscopic parameters. However, the ab initio methods based on a multiconfigurational wavefunction appear to be successful in describing correctly, within one shot, the electronic structure and the molecular spectroscopic constants. The ground state, particularly for the ScN molecule, presents an unusual electronic structure: the presence of degenerate determinants, quasidegeneracy with other states and one avoided crossing in the region around the equilibrium distances. The bonding of the ground state is a two open-shell 1?+ state described as a ? double bond and a ? dative bond; the real triple bond 1?+ state, i.e. closed-shell state, is found to lie higher in energy. The potential energy curves of the low-lying electronic states, the derived electronic structures and various molecular spectroscopic constants are presented and discussed for each method employed.

Daoudi, Abdelali; Filali Baba, Mohamed; Elkhattabi, Souad; Rogemond, François; Chermette, Henry

142

Assessment of standing balance deficits in people who have undergone anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using traditional and modern analysis methods.  

PubMed

Modern methods of assessing standing balance such as wavelet and entropy analysis could provide insight into postural control mechanisms in clinical populations. The aim of this study was to examine what effect anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) has on traditional and modern measures of balance. Ninety subjects, 45 who had undergone ACLR and 45 matched controls, performed single leg static standing balance tests on their surgical or matched limb on a Nintendo Wii Balance Board. Data were analysed in the anterior-posterior axis of movement, which is known to be affected by ACLR. The traditional measures of path velocity, amplitude and standard deviation were calculated in this plane. Additionally, sample entropy and discrete wavelet transform derived assessment of path velocity in four distinct frequency bands related to (1) spinal reflexive loops and muscle activity, (2) cerebellar, (3) vestibular, and (4) visual mechanisms of postural control were derived. The ACLR group had significantly increased values in all traditional measures and all four frequency bands. No significant difference was observed for sample entropy. This indicated that whilst postural sway was amplified in the ACLR group, the overall mechanism used by the patient group to maintain balance was similar to that of the control group. In conclusion, modern methods of signal analysis may provide additional insight into standing balance mechanisms in clinical populations. Future research is required to determine if these results provide important and unique information which is of benefit to clinicians. PMID:24433669

Clark, Ross A; Howells, Brooke; Pua, Yong-Hao; Feller, Julian; Whitehead, Tim; Webster, Kate E

2014-03-21

143

Surveying the Microbiome of Ants: Comparing 454 Pyrosequencing with Traditional Methods To Uncover Bacterial Diversity  

PubMed Central

We are only beginning to understand the depth and breadth of microbial associations across the eukaryotic tree of life. Reliably assessing bacterial diversity is a key challenge, and next-generation sequencing approaches are facilitating this endeavor. In this study, we used 16S rRNA amplicon pyrosequencing to survey microbial diversity in ants. We compared 454 libraries with Sanger-sequenced clone libraries as well as cultivation of live bacteria. Pyrosequencing yielded 95,656 bacterial 16S rRNA reads from 19 samples derived from four colonies of one ant species. The most dominant bacterial orders in the microbiome of the turtle ant Cephalotes varians were Rhizobiales, Burkholderiales, Opitutales, Xanthomonadales, and Campylobacterales, as revealed through both 454 sequencing and cloning. Even after stringent quality filtering, pyrosequencing recovered 445 microbe operational taxonomic units (OTUs) not detected with traditional techniques. In comparing bacterial communities associated with specific tissues, we found that gut tissues had significantly higher diversity than nongut tissues, and many of the OTUs identified from these groups clustered within ant-specific lineages, indicating a deep coevolutionary history of Cephalotes ants and their associated microbes. These lineages likely function as nutritional symbionts. One of four ant colonies investigated was infected with a Spiroplasma sp. (order Entomoplasmatales), a potential ant pathogen. Our work shows that the microbiome associated with Cephalotes varians is dominated by a few dozen bacterial lineages and that 454 sequencing is a cost-efficient tool to screen ant symbiont diversity.

Rubin, Benjamin E. R.; Russell, Jacob A.; Moreau, Corrie S.

2013-01-01

144

Laparoscopic ventral hernia repair: are there comparative advantages over traditional methods of repair?  

PubMed

Recent studies have noted advantages of laparoscopic over open repair of ventral hernias. Because few reports have involved comparison with traditional repair we report a comparison between laparoscopic and open approaches. We retrospectively reviewed the records of patients undergoing ventral hernia repair over a 28-month period. Patients were grouped into three categories: laparoscopic repair with mesh, open repair with mesh, and open repair without mesh. There were 295 ventral hernia repairs and there was no difference in age, gender, operative complications, or hospital stay between the groups. Mesh and defect size was greater in the laparoscopic group. The overall postoperative complication rate was greater in the open group with mesh. Yet when specific wound complications were analyzed there was no difference between the groups. Furthermore a death occurred in the laparoscopic group from an unrecognized bowel injury. The recurrence rate was greatest in the open repair without mesh group. Finally hospital cost was greatest in the laparoscopic group and third-party reimbursement was better for the open techniques. We were unable to demonstrate a significant advantage to laparoscopic ventral hernia repair. Although many patients with large fascial defects were well served with this approach it may not be a better option for these patients. PMID:11893110

Wright, Byron E; Niskanen, Brian D; Peterson, Debra J; Ney, Arthur L; Odland, Mark D; VanCamp, Joan; Zera, Richard T; Rodriguez, Jorge L

2002-03-01

145

Evaluation of two methods for monitoring surface cleanliness-ATP bioluminescence and traditional hygiene swabbing.  

PubMed

The minimum bacterial detection limits and operator reproducibility of the Biotrace Clean-Tracetrade mark Rapid Cleanliness Test and traditional hygiene swabbing were determined. Areas (100 cm2) of food grade stainless steel were separately inoculated with known levels of Staphylococcus aureus (NCTC 6571) and Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922). Surfaces were sampled either immediately after inoculation while still wet, or after 60 min when completely dry. For both organisms the minimum detection limit of the ATP Clean-Tracetrade mark Rapid Cleanliness Test was 10(4) cfu/100 cm2 (p < 0.05) and was the same for wet and dry surfaces. Both organism type and surface status (i.e. wet or dry) influenced the minimum detection limits of hygiene swabbing, which ranged from 10(2) cfu/100 cm2 to >10(7) cfu/100 cm2. Hygiene swabbing percentage recovery rates for both organisms were less than 0.1% for dried surfaces but ranged from 0.33% to 8.8% for wet surfaces. When assessed by six technically qualified operators, the Biotrace Clean-Tracetrade mark Rapid Cleanliness Test gave superior reproducibility for both clean and inoculated surfaces, giving mean coefficients of variation of 24% and 32%, respectively. Hygiene swabbing of inoculated surfaces gave a mean CV of 130%. The results are discussed in the context of hygiene monitoring within the food industry. PMID:10398558

Davidson, C A; Griffith, C J; Peters, A C; Fielding, L M

1999-01-01

146

A Method of Classifying Tongue Colors for Traditional Chinese Medicine Diagnosis Based on the CIELAB Color Space  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Objective tongue color analysis is an important research point for tongue diagnosis in Traditional Chinese Medicine. In this paper a research based on the clinical process of diagnosing tongue color is reported. The color data in RGB color space were first transformed into the data in CIELAB color space, and the color gamut of the displayed tongue was obtained. Then a numerical method of tongue color classification based on the Traditional Chinese Medicine (for example: light white tongue, light red tongue, red tongue) was developed. The conclusion is that this research can give the description and classification of the tongue color close to those given by human vision and may be carried out in clinical diagnosis.

Li, Bocong; Huang, Qingmei; Lu, Yan; Chen, Songhe; Liang, Rong; Wang, Zhaoping

147

Getting into Shape: An Empirical Comparison of Traditional Truss-Based Morphometric Methods with a Newer Geometric Method Applied to New World Cichlids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Body shape is a difficult, but important, trait to quantify. Researchers have traditionally used multivariate analysis of several linear measures ('trusses') across the body form to quantify shape. Newer geometric morphometric methods claim to better estimate shape because they analyze the geometry among the locations of all landmarks simultaneously rather than the linear distances between pairs of landmarks. We tested

Kevin J. Parsons; Beren W. Robinson; Tomas Hrbek

2003-01-01

148

The evaluation of a new method to extract spectroscopic factors using asymptotic normalization coefficients and the astrophysical ^14C(n,?)^15C reaction rate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new method to determine spectroscopic factors (SFs) that utilizes asymptotic normalization coefficients (ANCs) has been tested at Texas A&M, using ^15C as a test case. The method would use the ANC to fix the external contribution to a non-peripheral reaction which would otherwise be free to vary to unphysical values in a traditional approach. The investigation consisted of two parts. First, the ANC for the ^14C+n configuration in ^15C was determined from the heavy ion neutron transfer reaction ^13C(^14C,^15C)^12C and the inverse kinematics reaction d(^14C,p)^15C. Both of these reactions were measured at sufficiently low energy to be peripheral. Next, a non-peripheral reaction ^14C(d,p)^15C was measured with an incident deuteron energy of 60 MeV, and this reaction was used along with the previously determined ANC to attempt to find the SF. The ANC was also used to calculate the astrophysical neutron direct capture rate for ^14C(n,?)^15C, which was compared with recent direct experimental results.

McCleskey, M.; Mukhamedzhanov, A. M.; Trache, L.; Banu, A.; Goldberg, V.; Roeder, B. T.; Simmons, E. N.; Spiridon, A.; Tribble, R. E.

2011-10-01

149

Ethics, Collaboration, and Presentation Methods for Local and Traditional Knowledge for Understanding Arctic Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Local and traditional knowledge (LTK) provides rich information about the Arctic environment at spatial and temporal scales that scientific knowledge often does not have access to (e.g. localized observations of fine-scale ecological change potentially from many different communities, or local sea ice and conditions prior to 1950s ice charts and 1970s satellite records). Community-based observations and monitoring are an opportunity for Arctic residents to provide ‘frontline’ observations and measurements that are an early warning system for Arctic change. The Exchange for Local Observations and Knowledge of the Arctic (ELOKA) was established in response to the growing number of community-based and community-oriented research and observation projects in the Arctic. ELOKA provides data management and user support to facilitate the collection, preservation, exchange, and use of local observations and knowledge. Managing these data presents unique ethical challenges in terms of appropriate use of rare human knowledge and ensuring that knowledge is not lost from the local communities and not exploited in ways antithetical to community culture and desires. Local Arctic residents must be engaged as true collaborative partners while respecting their perspectives, which may vary substantially from a western science perspective. At the same time, we seek to derive scientific meaning from the local knowledge that can be used in conjunction with quantitative science data. This creates new challenges in terms of data presentation, knowledge representations, and basic issues of metadata. This presentation reviews these challenges, some initial approaches to addressing them, and overall lessons learned and future directions.

Parsons, M. A.; Gearheard, S.; McNeave, C.

2009-12-01

150

Comparison of modified automatic Dumas method and the traditional Kjeldahl method for nitrogen determination in infant food.  

PubMed

This study compares 2 methods for determining nitrogen and protein in various types of infant food: the Kjeldahl method, developed in 1883, which is time consuming and labor intensive, and a newer, automatic method, based on the Dumas method. In each category of infant food considered, the results obtained from both methods are shown to be comparable; however, the modified Dumas method is quicker, easier, and does not pollute the laboratory environment. PMID:3571115

Bellomonte, G; Costantini, A; Giammarioli, S

1987-01-01

151

Molecular identification of coliform bacteria isolated from drinking water reservoirs with traditional methods and the Colilert-18 system.  

PubMed

The accuracy of a traditional method (lactose utilization with acid and gas production) for the detection of coliform bacteria and E. coli was tested in comparison with method ISO 9308-1 (based on acid formation from lactose) and the Colilert-18 system (detection of beta-galactosidase). A total of 345 isolates were identified after isolation from water samples using API 20E strips. The Colilert-18 led to the highest number of positive findings (95% of the isolates were assigned to coliforms), whereas the ISO-9308-1 method resulted only in 29% coliform findings. With the traditional method only 15% were rated positive. Most of the isolates were identified by the API 20E system as Enterobacter spp. (species of the Enterobacter cloacae complex), Serratia spp., Citrobacter spp.and Klebsiella spp.; but species identification remained vague in several cases. A more detailed identification of 126 pure cultures by using 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and analysis of the hsp60 gene resulted in the identification of Enterobacter nimipressuralis, E. amnigenus, E. asburiae, E. hormaechei, and Serratia fonticola as predominat coliforms. These species are beta-galactosidase positive, but show acid formation from lactose often after a prolonged incubation time. They are often not of fecal origin and may interfere with the ability to accurately detect coliforms of fecal origin. PMID:17870668

Kämpfer, Peter; Nienhüser, Anita; Packroff, Gabriele; Wernicke, Frank; Mehling, Arnd; Nixdorf, Katja; Fiedler, Stefanie; Kolauch, Claudia; Esser, Michael

2008-07-01

152

GROUND WATER MONITORING AND SAMPLING: MULTI-LEVEL VERSUS TRADITIONAL METHODS WHATS WHAT?  

EPA Science Inventory

After years of research and many publications, the question still remains: What is the best method to collect representative ground water samples from monitoring wells? Numerous systems and devices are currently available for obtaining both multi-level samples as well as traditi...

153

Performance of Traditional and Molecular Methods for Detecting Biological Agents in Drinking Water  

EPA Science Inventory

USGS Report - To reduce the impact from a possible bioterrorist attack on drinking-water supplies, analytical methods are needed to rapidly detect the presence of biological agents in water. To this end, 13 drinking-water samples were collected at 9 water-treatment plants in Ohio...

154

Investigations on the Interaction between Cuprous Oxide Nanocubes and Bovine Serum Albumin with Comprehensive Spectroscopic Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interaction between cuprous oxide (Cu2O) nanocubes and bovine serum albumin (BSA) was investigated from a spectroscopic angle under simulative physiological conditions.\\u000a Under pH 7.4, Cu2O could effectively quench the intrinsic fluorescence of BSA via static quenching. The apparent binding constant (K\\u000a A) was 3.23, 1.91, and 1.20?×?104 M-1 at 298, 304, and 310 K, respectively, and the number of binding sites

Peng Ju; Hai Fan; Tao Liu; Lin Cui; Shiyun Ai; Xiaona Wu

155

Mining unusual and rare stellar spectra from large spectroscopic survey data sets using the outlier-detection method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The large number of spectra obtained from sky surveys such as the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and the survey executed by the Large sky Area Multi-Object fibre Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST, also called GuoShouJing Telescope) provide us with opportunities to search for peculiar or even unknown types of spectra. In response to the limitations of existing methods, a novel outlier-mining method, the Monte Carlo Local Outlier Factor (MCLOF), is proposed in this paper, which can be used to highlight unusual and rare spectra from large spectroscopic survey data sets. The MCLOF method exposes outliers automatically and efficiently by marking each spectrum with a number, i.e. using outlier index as a flag for an unusual and rare spectrum. The Local Outlier Factor (LOF) represents how unusual and rare a spectrum is compared with other spectra and the Monte Carlo method is used to compute the global LOF for each spectrum by randomly selecting samples in each independent iteration. Our MCLOF method is applied to over half a million stellar spectra (classified as STAR by the SDSS Pipeline) from the SDSS data release 8 (DR8) and a total of 37 033 spectra are selected as outliers with signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) ? 3 and outlier index ?0.85. Some of these outliers are shown to be binary stars, emission-line stars, carbon stars and stars with unusual continuum. The results show that our proposed method can efficiently highlight these unusual spectra from the survey data sets. In addition, some relatively rare and interesting spectra are selected, indicating that the proposed method can also be used to mine rare, even unknown, spectra. The proposed method can be applicable not only to spectral survey data sets but also to other types of survey data sets. The spectra of all peculiar objects selected by our MCLOF method are available from a user-friendly website: http://sciwiki.lamost.org/Miningdr8/.

Wei, Peng; Luo, Ali; Li, Yinbi; Pan, Jingchang; Tu, Liangping; Jiang, Bin; Kong, Xiao; Shi, Zhixin; Yi, Zhenping; Wang, Fengfei; Liu, Jie; Zhao, Yongheng

2013-05-01

156

Preferences for teaching methods in a baccalaureate nursing program: how second-degree and traditional students differ.  

PubMed

Accelerated baccalaureate nursing programs are in great demand in the United States. Currently there are 197 such programs, but little research has been conducted on student characteristics and program outcomes. This quantitative study explores preferences of second-degree students and traditional generic students with regard to teaching methods and relationships with faculty. The results indicate that statistically significant differences exist between the two groups of students. Three areas of significance are ability for self-directed learning, expectations of faculty and classroom structure, and obtaining a grade that really matters. PMID:17944259

Walker, Jean T; Martin, Tina M; Haynie, Lisa; Norwood, Anne; White, Jill; Grant, LaVerne

2007-01-01

157

[Development of a rapid screening method for discovering neuroprotective components from traditional Chinese medicine].  

PubMed

This study developed a method for rapid screening neuroprotective compounds with FDA (fluorescein diacetate) labeled SH-SYSY cells, which was injuried by Glu (L-glutamic acid). The cell viability was determined by fluorescence automatic mi-croscopy screening system. Then, neuroprotective components from Gegen Qinlian decoction were screened by the proposed method. The results demonstrated that 4 chemical components, C15, D06, D07 and E05 from Gegen Qinlian decoction, showed significantly neuroprotective effects. Furthermore, 8 compounds (i. e. daidzin, 3'-methoxydaidzin, liquiritin apioside, 6-C-L-alpha-arabinopyranosyl-8-C-beta-D-glucopyranosyl chrysin, isoliquiritin apioside, baicalin, oroxylin-A-7-O-fP-D-glucuronide and wogonoside) were identified from these active components by LC-Q/TOF-MS technology (liquid chromatography quadrupole time of flight tandem mass spectrometry). These 8 compounds may be the potential neuroprotective substances in Gegen Qinlian decoction. PMID:23947142

Guo, Min; Zhang, Yu-Feng; Wang, Yi; Zhao, Xiao-Ping

2013-05-01

158

Analysis of Garment Production Methods. Part 1: Comparison of Cost and Production Between a Traditional Bundle System and a Unit Production System Installation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report compares the costs and productivity relationships between the traditional bundle system method of apparel production with the new production method referred to as the Unit Production System (UPS). In the former system large bundles (quantities...

J. Korngruen

1992-01-01

159

Can pore-scale methods overcome limitations of traditional hydraulic property measurement techniques?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conventional methods of determining transport properties on core samples using information from hydraulic conductivity, water retention curves, electrical properties, or formation factor have substantial shortcomings: (1) they represent quasi-1D flow; (2) possess no a priori information on sample's representativity in terms of its internal heterogeneity; (3) measurements may seriously alter sample properties, e.g. sample saturation and through-flow can mobilize fine material potentially causing pore blockage; also, saturation in the laboratory may cause swelling or mineral dissolution of some materials hence affecting the measured hydraulic properties, while full saturation may never occur under field conditions; (4) they require standard shape and size for coring material, thus representing serious limitations for fragile, consolidated, or cemented samples; (5) often represent quasi-static processes, while flow under field conditions is highly dynamic; (6) some fitting parameters are invoked to represent pore-connectivity or "tortuosity" and used in cross-property relationships without real physical meaning (e.g., linkage between water retention curve and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity. Based on experimental data from a broad range of porous materials we show how these shortcomings can be overcame via pore-scale modeling using structural and surface property information. In particular we use following datasets: 1) deep vadose zones for arid environment (central Australia), 2) shallow-to-deep aquifers (Central Russian Upland), 3) agricultural soils known for their preferential flow (Central Russian Upland), and 4) extremely stony forest soils (Russian Far East). Several approaches exist for acquisition of structural information, with the most information-rich being X-ray microtomography. Alternatively, 2D thin-sections may be used with higher spatial resolution but with limited information on connectivity; reconstruction methods (sequential and stochastic) can help resolve the latter limitation. Finally, we illustrate how our pore-scale methods fit in a broader upscaling approach and improve large-scale modeling; current limitations and future challenges are also discussed.

Gerke, Kirill; Vasilyev, Roman; Korost, Dmitry; Karsanina, Marina; Mallants, Dirk; Gorbunova, Ella; Shein, Evgeny; Gartsman, Boris; Bedrikovetsky, Pavel; Tairova, Aliya; Skvortsova, Elena

2013-04-01

160

An alternant method to the traditional NASA hindlimb unloading model in mice.  

PubMed

The Morey-Holton hindlimb unloading (HU) method is a widely accepted National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) ground-based model for studying disuse-atrophy in rodents. Our study evaluated an alternant method to the gold-standard Morey-Holton HU tail-traction technique in mice. Fifty-four female mice (4-8 mo.) were HU for 14 days (n=34) or 28 days (n=20). Recovery from HU was assessed after 3 days of normal cage ambulation following HU (n=22). Aged matched mice (n=76) served as weight-bearing controls. Prior to HU a tail ring was formed with a 2-0 sterile surgical steel wire that was passed through the 5(th), 6(th), or 7(th) inter-vertebral disc space and shaped into a ring from which the mice were suspended. Vertebral location for the tail-ring was selected to appropriately balance animal body weight without interfering with defecation. We determined the success of this novel HU technique by assessing body weight before and after HU, degree of soleus atrophy, and adrenal mass following HU. Body weight of the mice prior to HU (24.3 ± 2.9g) did not significantly decline immediately after 14d of HU (22.7 ± 1.9g), 28d of HU (21.3 + 2.1g) or after 3 days recovery (24.0 ± 1.8g). Soleus muscle mass significantly declined (-39.1%, and -46.6%) following HU for 14 days and 28 days respectively (p<0.001). Following 3 days of recovery soleus mass significantly increased to 74% of control values. Adrenal weights of HU mice were not different compared to control mice. The success of our novel HU method is evidenced by the maintenance of animal body weight, comparable adrenal gland weights, and soleus atrophy following HU, corresponding to expected literature values. The primary advantages of this HU method include: 1) ease of tail examination during suspension; 2) decreased likelihood of cyanotic, inflamed, and/or necrotic tails frequently observed with tail-taping and HU; 3) no possibility of mice chewing the traction tape and coming out of the suspension apparatus; and 4) rapid recovery and normal cage activity immediately after HU. PMID:21445032

Ferreira, J Andries; Crissey, Jacqueline M; Brown, Marybeth

2011-01-01

161

An Alternant Method to the Traditional NASA Hindlimb Unloading Model in Mice  

PubMed Central

The Morey-Holton hindlimb unloading (HU) method is a widely accepted National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) ground-based model for studying disuse-atrophy in rodents 4-6. Our study evaluated an alternant method to the gold-standard Morey-Holton HU tail-traction technique in mice. Fifty-four female mice (4-8 mo.) were HU for 14 days (n=34) or 28 days (n=20). Recovery from HU was assessed after 3 days of normal cage ambulation following HU (n=22). Aged matched mice (n=76) served as weight-bearing controls. Prior to HU a tail ring was formed with a 2-0 sterile surgical steel wire that was passed through the 5th, 6th, or 7th inter-vertebral disc space and shaped into a ring from which the mice were suspended. Vertebral location for the tail-ring was selected to appropriately balance animal body weight without interfering with defecation. We determined the success of this novel HU technique by assessing body weight before and after HU, degree of soleus atrophy, and adrenal mass following HU. Body weight of the mice prior to HU (24.3 ± 2.9g) did not significantly decline immediately after 14d of HU (22.7 ± 1.9g), 28d of HU (21.3 + 2.1g) or after 3 days recovery (24.0 ± 1.8g). Soleus muscle mass significantly declined (-39.1%, and -46.6%) following HU for 14 days and 28 days respectively (p<0.001). Following 3 days of recovery soleus mass significantly increased to 74% of control values. Adrenal weights of HU mice were not different compared to control mice. The success of our novel HU method is evidenced by the maintenance of animal body weight, comparable adrenal gland weights, and soleus atrophy following HU, corresponding to expected literature values 2, 7, 8. The primary advantages of this HU method include: 1) ease of tail examination during suspension; 2) decreased likelihood of cyanotic, inflamed, and/or necrotic tails frequently observed with tail-taping and HU; 3) no possibility of mice chewing the traction tape and coming out of the suspension apparatus; and 4) rapid recovery and normal cage activity immediately after HU.

Ferreira, J. Andries; Crissey, Jacqueline M.; Brown, Marybeth

2011-01-01

162

Using Neural Networks for 13C NMR Chemical Shift Prediction-Comparison with Traditional Methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interpretation of 13C chemical shifts is essential for structure elucidation of organic molecules by NMR. In this article, we present an improved neural network approach and compare its performance to that of commonly used approaches. Specifically, our recently proposed neural network ( J. Chem. Inf. Comput. Sci. 2000, 40, 1169-1176) is improved by introducing an extended hybrid numerical description of the carbon atom environment, resulting in a standard deviation (std. dev.) of 2.4 ppm for an independent test data set of ˜42,500 carbons. Thus, this neural network allows fast and accurate 13C NMR chemical shift prediction without the necessity of access to molecule or fragment databases. For an unbiased test dataset containing 100 organic structures the accuracy of the improved neural network was compared to that of a prediction method based on the HOSE code ( hierarchically ordered spherical description of environment) using S PECI NFO. The results show the neural network predictions to be of quality (std. dev.=2.7 ppm) comparable to that of the HOSE code prediction (std. dev.=2.6 ppm). Further we compare the neural network predictions to those of a wide variety of other 13C chemical shift prediction tools including incremental methods (C HEMD RAW, S PECT OOL), quantum chemical calculation (G AUSSIAN, C OSMOS), and HOSE code fragment-based prediction (S PECI NFO, ACD/CNMR, P REDICTI T NMR) for the 47 13C-NMR shifts of Taxol, a natural product including many structural features of organic substances. The smallest standard deviations were achieved here with the neural network (1.3 ppm) and S PECI NFO (1.0 ppm).

Meiler, Jens; Maier, Walter; Will, Martin; Meusinger, Reinhard

2002-08-01

163

Detection of periodontopathogenic bacteria in pregnant women by traditional anaerobic culture method and by a commercial molecular genetic method  

Microsoft Academic Search

To culture facultative and strict anaerobic bacteria is a well-established method for analyzing subgingival plaque samples. Micro-IDent® and micro-IDent®Plus (HAIN Lifescience GmbH, Nehren, Germany) tests are two commercially available rapid PCR-based methods for the identification and quantification of putative periodontopathogen bacteria. In this study, we compared these commercial PCR-based hybridization methods with conventional anaerobic culture technique. A total of 36

Gabriella Terhes; Márta Radnai; István Gorzó; Elisabeth Nagy

2010-01-01

164

A comparison of traditional and recently developed methods for monitoring surface hygiene within the food industry: an industry trial.  

PubMed

A rapid, instrument-free, hygiene monitoring system, based on protein detection, was assessed as a means to evaluate the cleanliness of food contact surfaces within four different food processing environments. Its performance was compared to that of both ATP bioluminescence and a traditional agar-based microbiological method. Each surface was sampled using all three hygiene monitoring systems both before and after each of the production plants had carried out their normal cleaning procedures. In both cases, there was a significant difference (p < 0.05) between the number of surfaces that were passed or failed using each of the tests. In general the number of surfaces that were deemed acceptable for food production increased after cleaning but the level of agreement between test methods differed depending on the type of production facility sampled. Protein detection was most likely to fail surfaces within the baking facility, whereas ATP bioluminescence and traditional microbiology were most likely to fail surfaces within a frozen ready-meal and a cheese production unit respectively. The implications of these results are discussed in relation to plant trials of hygiene monitoring systems, the cleaning process itself, failures in disinfection, as well as the need for a combined methodological approach for monitoring cleanliness. PMID:12590780

Moore, Ginny; Griffith, Chris

2002-12-01

165

Raman Spectroscopic Methods for Classification of Normal and Malignant Hypopharyngeal Tissues: An Exploratory Study  

PubMed Central

Laryngeal cancer is more common in males. The present study is aimed at exploration of potential of conventional Raman spectroscopy in classifying normal from a malignant laryngopharyngeal tissue. We have recorded Raman spectra of twenty tissues (aryepiglottic fold) using an in-house built Raman setup. The spectral features of mean malignant spectrum suggests abundance proteins whereas spectral features of mean normal spectrum indicate redundancy of lipids. PCA was employed as discriminating algorithm. Both, unsupervised and supervised modes of analysis as well as match/mismatch “limit test” methodology yielded clear classification among tissue types. The findings of this study demonstrate the efficacy of conventional Raman spectroscopy in classification of normal and malignant laryngopharyngeal tissues. A rigorous evaluation of the models with development of suitable fibreoptic probe may enable real-time Raman spectroscopic diagnosis of laryngopharyngeal cancers in future.

Pujary, Parul; Maheedhar, K.; Krishna, C. Murali; Pujary, Kailesh

2011-01-01

166

A Parallel Spectroscopic Method for Examining Dynamic Phenomena on the Millisecond Time Scale  

PubMed Central

An infrared spectroscopic technique based on planar array infrared (PAIR) spectroscopy has been developed that allows the acquisition of spectra from multiple samples simultaneously. Using this technique, it is possible to acquire spectra over a spectral range of 950–1900cm?1 with a temporal resolution of 2.2ms. The performance of this system was demonstrated by determining the shear-induced orientational response of several low molecular weight liquid crystals. Five different liquid crystals were examined in combination with five different alignment layers, and both primary and secondary screens were demonstrated. Implementation of this high throughput PAIR technique resulted in a reduction in acquisition time as compared to both step-scan and ultra-rapid-scanning FTIR spectroscopy.

Snively, Christopher M.; Chase, D. Bruce; Rabolt, John F.

2009-01-01

167

Integral Field Spectroscopic Data Reduction Method for High Resolution Infrared Observation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce a technical approach for reducing three-dimensional infrared (IR) spectroscopic data generated by integral field spectroscopy or slit-scanning observations. The first part of data reduction using IRAF presents a guideline for processing spectral images from long-slit IR spectroscopy. Multichannel image reconstruction, Image Analysis and Display (MIRIAD) is used in the later part to construct and analyze the data cubes which contain spatial and kinematic information of the objects. This technic has been applied to a sample data set of diffuse 2.1218 ?m H2 1-0 S(1) emission features observed by slit-scanning around Sgr A East in the Galactic center. Details of image processing for the high-dispersion infrared data are described to suggest a sequence of contamination cleaning and distortion correction. Practical solutions for handling data cubes are presented for survey observations with various configurations of slit positioning.

Lee, Sungho; Pak, Soojong; Choi, Minho

2010-12-01

168

Vibrational spectroscopic methods to characterize the bionanoparticles originating from newly developed self-forming synthetic PEGylated lipids (QuSomes)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vibrational spectroscopy has been used to elucidate the temperature dependence of structural and conformational changes in lipids and liposomes. In this work, the thermal properties of lipid-based nanovesicles originating from a newly developed self-forming synthetic PEGylated lipids has been investigated by variable-temperature Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) absorption and Raman spectroscopic methods. Thermally-induced changes in infrared and Raman spectra of these artificial lipid based nanovesicles composed of 1,2-dimyristoyl-rac-glycerol-3-dodecaethylene glycol (GDM-12) and 1,2-distearoyl-rac-glycerol-3-triicosaethylene glycol (GDS-23) were acquired by using a thin layered FTIR spectrometer in conjunction with a unique custom built temperature-controlled demountable liquid cell and variable-temperature controlled Raman microscope, respectively. The lipids under consideration have long hydrophobic acyl chains and contain various units of hydrophilic polyethylene glycol headgroups. In contrast to conventional phospholipids, this new kind of lipid is forming liposomes or nanovesicles spontaneously upon hydration, without supplying external activation energy. We have found that the thermal stability of such PEGylated lipids and nanovesicles differs greatly depending upon the acyl chain-lengths as well as associated head group units. However, the thermal behavior observed from both spectroscopic vibrational techniques are in good agreement.

Bista, Rajan K.; Bruch, Reinhard F.; Covington, Aaron M.

2011-02-01

169

Models of near-field spectroscopic studies: comparison between Finite-Element and Finite-Difference methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We compare the numerical results obtained by the Finite Element Method (FEM) and the Finite Difference Time Domain Method (FDTD) for near-field spectroscopic studies and intensity map computations. We evaluate their respective efficiencies and we show that an accurate description of the dispersion and of the geometry of the material must be included for a realistic modeling. In particular for the nano-objects, we show that a grid size around ??a ? 4?a/? (expressed in ? units) as well as a Drude-Lorentz' model of dispersion for FDTD should be used in order to describe more accurately the confinement of the light around the nanostructures (i.e. the high gradients of the electromagnetic field) and to assure the convergence to the physical solution.

Grosges, Thomas; Vial, Alexandre; Barchiesi, Dominique

2005-10-01

170

Three heads are better than one: A mixed methods study examining collaborative versus traditional test-taking with nursing students.  

PubMed

Patient care requires a collaborative teamwork approach; therefore, nursing programs must provide students with ample opportunities to hone teamwork skills. Although collaborative testing (CT) has been utilized in higher education for decades, its uptake in nursing education has only recently surfaced. The purpose of this mixed methods study was to examine CT versus traditional test-taking with undergraduate nursing students in a Western Canadian university. Using a cross-over design, surveys, and focus groups, nursing students' experiences of learning, retention of course content, and teamwork were explored. A convenience sample of 70 students was recruited. In this paper, we present the results along with recommendations for future research. The treatment effect was highly significant with CT scores being an average of 7.99 units higher than traditional test-taking scores when the test was allocated a total score of 100. However, the two formative tests were weighted minimally resulting in participating students' overall grades being increased by an average of 1.2 out of 100. Of practical significance, students perceived that CT helped them understand the course material better and they appreciated the opportunity to practice effective communication within a group to prepare for future practice. PMID:24484780

Martin, Donna; Friesen, Eunice; De Pau, Antonina

2014-06-01

171

Exporting simulation technology to the Philippines: a comparative study of traditional versus simulation methods for teaching intravenous cannulation.  

PubMed

This study examines effectiveness of a donated Laerdal Virtual I.V. simulator when compared with traditional methods of teaching intravenous (IV) cannulation to third year medical students in the Philippines. Forty novice Filipino medical students viewed an instructional video on how to start intravenous lines and were then randomly divided into two groups of twenty. The "Traditional" group observed an IV insertion on an actual patient performed by an experienced practitioner, and then subsequently performed an IV on an actual patient which was videotaped. The "Simulation" group practiced the Virtual I.V. simulator until they successfully completed level three using the "doctor" setting. These students then performed an IV on an actual patient which was videotaped. The videotapes for both groups were reviewed by two pre-trained (Inter-rater reliability of > or =0.84) observers who were blinded to the group using a previously validated checklist for IV insertion. Students trained on the Virtual I.V. showed significantly greater success in successfully starting an IV on an actual patient (40% VS. 15%, p<0.05), decreased constrictive band time (p<.05), increased raw score on the check list (p<.03), and decreased overall time to start an IV (p<.05). The technology was well received but wider application in the non western world is limited by lack of in country company support and the relative expense. PMID:19377182

Sotto, Juan Alejandro R; Ayuste, Eduardo C; Bowyer, Mark W; Almonte, Josefina R; Dofitas, Rodney B; Lapitan, Marie C M; Pimentel, Elisabeth A; Ritter, E Matthew; Wherry, David C

2009-01-01

172

Simultaneous Quantification of Ten Active Components in Traditional Chinese Formula Sijunzi Decoction Using a UPLC-PDA Method  

PubMed Central

Sijunzi decoction (SJZT), a traditional Chinese formula (TCMF) consisting of four herbs, has been widely used for the treatment of various gastrointestinal symptoms. However, its modernization process is hindered by the lack of a powerful quality control method that covers the major active components in the formula. The aim of this study was to establish a UPLC method for the quantitative determination of ten active components in Sijunzi decoction including ginsenoside Rg1, Re, Rb1, liquiritin, liquiritigenin, glycyrrhizic acid, atractylenolide I, atractylenolide II, atractylenolide III, and pachymic acid. Separation was achieved using an ACQUITY UPLC BEHC18 column (2.1?mm × 100?mm, 1.7??m) with a gradient elution program consisting of acetonitrile and 0.1% phosphoric acid solution. The detection wavelengths were set at 203, 254, 222, and 267?nm. The method was validated for linearity, accuracy, precision, limit of detection, and limit of quantification. The validated method was successfully applied to the simultaneous quantification of ten active compounds from several finished batches of SJZT. This validated that UPLC method is expected to provide a new basis for the quality control of SJZT.

An, Kang; Jin-rui, Guo; Zhen, Zhang; Xiao-long, Wang

2014-01-01

173

Comparison of immunomagnetic separation/adenosine triphosphate rapid method to traditional culture-based method for E. coli and enterococci enumeration in wastewater.  

PubMed

Untreated wastewater samples from California, North Carolina, and Ohio were analyzed by the immunomagnetic separation/adenosine triphosphate (IMS/ATP) method and the traditional culture-based method for E. coli and enterococci concentrations. The IMS/ATP method concentrates target bacteria by immunomagnetic separation and then quantifies captured bacteria by measuring bioluminescence induced by release of ATP from the bacterial cells. Results from this method are available within 1h from the start of sample processing. Significant linear correlations were found between the IMS/ATP results and results from traditional culture-based methods for E. coli and enterococci enumeration for one location in California, two locations in North Carolina, and one location in Ohio (r values ranged from 0.87 to 0.97). No significant linear relation was found for a second location in California that treats a complex mixture of residential and industrial wastewater. With the exception of one location, IMS/ATP showed promise as a rapid method for the quantification of faecal-indicator organisms in wastewater. PMID:19628248

Bushon, Rebecca N; Likirdopulos, Christina A; Brady, Amie M G

2009-11-01

174

Comparison of a novel distillation method versus a traditional distillation method in a model gin system using liquid/liquid extraction.  

PubMed

This research studied a novel form of distillation (high vacuum distillation) as a method for preserving volatile aroma chemicals important to the organoleptic attributes of a four botanical model gin as well as the degradation products generated during the heating required in traditional methods of gin distillation. A 2 (5) factorial experiment was conducted in a partially confounded incomplete block design and analyzed using the PROC MIXED procedure from SAS. A model gin was made of dried juniper berries (Juniperus communis), coriander seed (Coriandrum sativum), angelica root (Angelica archangelica), and dry lemon peel (Citrus limonum). This was distilled on a traditional still utilizing atmospheric pressure and a heating mantel to initiate phase separation as well as a novel still (high vacuum) utilizing high vacuum pressures below 0.1 mmHg and temperatures below -15 degrees C to initiate phase separation. The degradation products (alpha-pinene, alpha-phellandrene, E-caryophyllene, and beta-myrcene) were present at greater levels (approximately 10 times) in the traditional still-made gin as compared to the novel gin. PMID:18771269

Greer, Derek; Pfahl, Les; Rieck, Jim; Daniels, Tim; Garza, Oscar

2008-10-01

175

Assessment of new cationic porphyrin binding to plasma proteins by planar microarray and spectroscopic methods.  

PubMed

Porphyrins have a unique aromatic structure determining particular photochemical properties that make them promising photosensitizers for anticancer therapy. Previously, we synthesized a set of artificial porphyrins by modifying side-chain functional groups and introducing different metals into the core structure. Here, we have performed a comparative study of the binding properties of 29 cationic porphyrins with plasma proteins by using microarray and spectroscopic approaches. The porphyrins were noncovalently immobilized onto hydrogel-covered glass slides and probed to bio-conjugated human and bovine serum albumins, as well as to human hemoglobin. The signal detection was carried out at the near-infrared fluorescence wavelength (800?nm) that enabled the effect of intrinsic visible wavelength fluorescence emitted by the porphyrins tested to be discarded. Competition assays on porphyrin microarrays indicated that long-chain fatty acids (FAs) (palmitic and stearic acids) decrease porphyrin binding to both serum albumin and hemoglobin. The binding affinity of different types of cationic porphyrins for plasma proteins was quantitatively assessed in the absence and presence of FAs by fluorescent and absorption spectroscopy. Molecular docking analysis confirmed results that new porphyrins and long-chain FAs compete for the common binding site FA1 in human serum albumin and meso-substituted functional groups in porphyrins play major role in the modulation of conformational rearrangements of the protein. PMID:22871064

Gyulkhandanyan, Aram; Gyulkhandanyan, Lusine; Ghazaryan, Robert; Fleury, Fabrice; Angelini, Marie; Gyulkhandanyan, Grigor; Sakanyan, Vehary

2013-04-01

176

The spectroscopic and the QTAIM properties of pyridine and phenanthroline derivatives using experimental and computational methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The experimental and theoretical properties of ligands consisting of pyridine and phenanthroline derivatives have been studied. The results show a very high correlation between the experimental and theoretical spectroscopic properties of the ligands such as the IR, NMR chemical shift and UV. The carboxylic units in the ligands lead to increase in the dipole and anisotropic properties of the molecules while the methyl group lead to increase in the isotropic shielding tensor of the molecules. Most of the observed UV ?max in the ligands are predominantly excitation of electrons from the HOMO-2 or HOMO-1 or HOMO to the LUMO of the ligands. The ligand 2,2-dicarboxylphenanthroline (dcphn) is predicted to be the best starting material for non-linear optical (NLO) application due to its far higher first static hyperpolarizability tensor compare to other ligands and its lowest band gap. The same ligand can also be best for DNA binding because it has the lowest value of LUMO. The atomic charge of the nitrogen is found to be highly correlated with molecular HOMO, LUMO and non-Lewis orbital. The 15N NMR chemical shift is found to be highly correlated atomic anisotropy, energy and intra-atomic isotropic shielding tensor.

Adeniyi, Adebayo A.; Ajibade, Peter A.

2014-07-01

177

The spectroscopic and the QTAIM properties of pyridine and phenanthroline derivatives using experimental and computational methods.  

PubMed

The experimental and theoretical properties of ligands consisting of pyridine and phenanthroline derivatives have been studied. The results show a very high correlation between the experimental and theoretical spectroscopic properties of the ligands such as the IR, NMR chemical shift and UV. The carboxylic units in the ligands lead to increase in the dipole and anisotropic properties of the molecules while the methyl group lead to increase in the isotropic shielding tensor of the molecules. Most of the observed UV ?max in the ligands are predominantly excitation of electrons from the HOMO-2 or HOMO-1 or HOMO to the LUMO of the ligands. The ligand 2,2-dicarboxylphenanthroline (dcphn) is predicted to be the best starting material for non-linear optical (NLO) application due to its far higher first static hyperpolarizability tensor compare to other ligands and its lowest band gap. The same ligand can also be best for DNA binding because it has the lowest value of LUMO. The atomic charge of the nitrogen is found to be highly correlated with molecular HOMO, LUMO and non-Lewis orbital. The (15)N NMR chemical shift is found to be highly correlated atomic anisotropy, energy and intra-atomic isotropic shielding tensor. PMID:24691368

Adeniyi, Adebayo A; Ajibade, Peter A

2014-07-15

178

Interaction of tetramethylpyrazine with two serum albumins by a hybrid spectroscopic method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interactions of tetramethylpyrazine (TMPZ) with bovine serum albumin (BSA) and human serum albumin (HSA) have been investigated by various spectroscopic techniques. Fluorescence tests showed that TMPZ could bind to BSA/HSA to form complexes. The binding constants of TMPZ-BSA and TMPZ-HSA complexes were observed to be 1.442 × 104 and 3.302 × 104 M-1 at 298 K, respectively. The thermodynamic parameters (?G, ?H and ?S) calculated on the basis of different temperatures revealed that the binding of TMPZ-HSA was mainly depended on hydrophobic interaction, and yet the binding of TMPZ-BSA might involve hydrophobic interaction strongly and electrostatic interaction. The results of synchronous fluorescence, three-dimensional fluorescence, UV-vis absorption, FT-IR and CD spectra showed that the conformations of both BSA and HSA altered with the addition of TMPZ. The binding average distance between TMPZ and BSA/HSA was evaluated according to Föster non-radioactive energy transfer theory. In addition, with the aid of site markers (such as, phenylbutazone, ibuprofen and digitoxin), TMPZ primarily bound to tryptophan residues of BSA/HSA within site I (sub-domain II A).

Cheng, Zhengjun

179

Suitability of the traditional microbial indicators and their enumerating methods in the assessment of fecal pollution of subtropical freshwater environments.  

PubMed

Twenty-four freshwater sampling sites (11 river water, 6 spring water, and 7 groundwater) were selected from 4 sampling areas located in the northern and central parts of Taiwan. A total of 125 water samples were collected during a 5-month sampling period, and the numbers of total heterotrophic bacteria, total coliforms, fecal coliforms, enterococci, Aeromonas hydrophila, and Salmonella spp. were enumerated. Besides the traditional membrane filtration method, total coliforms and Escherichia coli were also simultaneously enumerated using the Colilert (Quanti-Tray/2000) method. On average, 94% and 80% of the water samples assessed with the Colilert method had equal or higher total coliform and E. coli counts, respectively, as compared with the membrane filtration method. Furthermore, when m-FC agar was used to enumerate fecal coliforms, 18% of the samples failed to yield the typical bluish colonies, while E. coli were counted in the same samples using the Colilert method. The data indicate that the m-FC agar culture method is inadequate for the enumeration of fecal coliforms in subtropical water samples. Significant correlations were observed between the total number of bacteria and various indicator bacteria in river water samples, but no such correlations were found for groundwater and spring water. This finding suggested that the river water was polluted by anthropogenic sources. The counts of total coliforms, E. coli, and other indicator bacteria were significantly correlated in all river water samples, while in groundwater and spring water, significant (p<0.01) correlation was only observed with enterococcal counts. The presence of total coliforms/E. coli generally implies the presence of fecal pollution possibly including pathogenic enteric bacteria. However, no Salmonella spp. were detected in any of the 107 water samples analyzed. The results of this study suggest that the use of these commonly employed microbial indicators for assessing subtropical water quality, especially in a pristine body of water (ie, mountain spring and groundwater), is highly questionable. PMID:14723262

Chao, Kuo-Kuang; Chao, Chen-Ching; Chao, Wei-Liang

2003-12-01

180

Estimating Alcohol Content of Traditional Brew in Western Kenya Using Culturally Relevant Methods: The Case for Cost Over Volume  

PubMed Central

Traditional homemade brew is believed to represent the highest proportion of alcohol use in sub-Saharan Africa. In Eldoret, Kenya, two types of brew are common: chang’aa, spirits, and busaa, maize beer. Local residents refer to the amount of brew consumed by the amount of money spent, suggesting a culturally relevant estimation method. The purposes of this study were to analyze ethanol content of chang’aa and busaa; and to compare two methods of alcohol estimation: use by cost, and use by volume, the latter the current international standard. Laboratory results showed mean ethanol content was 34% (SD = 14%) for chang’aa and 4% (SD = 1%) for busaa. Standard drink unit equivalents for chang’aa and busaa, respectively, were 2 and 1.3 (US) and 3.5 and 2.3 (Great Britain). Using a computational approach, both methods demonstrated comparable results. We conclude that cost estimation of alcohol content is more culturally relevant and does not differ in accuracy from the international standard.

Sidle, John E.; Wamalwa, Emmanuel S.; Okumu, Thomas O.; Bryant, Kendall L.; Goulet, Joseph L.; Maisto, Stephen A.; Braithwaite, R. Scott; Justice, Amy C.

2010-01-01

181

Spectroscopic methods of process monitoring for safeguards of used nuclear fuel separations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To support the demonstration of a more proliferation-resistant nuclear fuel processing plant, techniques and instrumentation to allow the real-time, online determination of special nuclear material concentrations in-process must be developed. An ideal materials accountability technique for proliferation resistance should provide nondestructive, realtime, on-line information of metal and ligand concentrations in separations streams without perturbing the process. UV-Visible spectroscopy can be adapted for this precise purpose in solvent extraction-based separations. The primary goal of this project is to understand fundamental URanium EXtraction (UREX) and Plutonium-URanium EXtraction (PUREX) reprocessing chemistry and corresponding UV-Visible spectroscopy for application in process monitoring for safeguards. By evaluating the impact of process conditions, such as acid concentration, metal concentration and flow rate, on the sensitivity of the UV-Visible detection system, the process-monitoring concept is developed from an advanced application of fundamental spectroscopy. Systematic benchtop-scale studies investigated the system relevant to UREX or PUREX type reprocessing systems, encompassing 0.01-1.26 M U and 0.01-8 M HNO3. A laboratory-scale TRansUranic Extraction (TRUEX) demonstration was performed and used both to analyze for potential online monitoring opportunities in the TRUEX process, and to provide the foundation for building and demonstrating a laboratory-scale UREX demonstration. The secondary goal of the project is to simulate a diversion scenario in UREX and successfully detect changes in metal concentration and solution chemistry in a counter current contactor system with a UV-Visible spectroscopic process monitor. UREX uses the same basic solvent extraction flowsheet as PUREX, but has a lower acid concentration throughout and adds acetohydroxamic acid (AHA) as a complexant/reductant to the feed solution to prevent the extraction of Pu. By examining UV-Visible spectra gathered in real time, the objective is to detect the conversion from the UREX process, which does not separate Pu, to the PUREX process, which yields a purified Pu product. The change in process chemistry can be detected in the feed solution, aqueous product or in the raffinate stream by identifying the acid concentration, metal distribution and the presence or absence of AHA. A fiber optic dip probe for UV-Visible spectroscopy was integrated into a bank of three counter-current centrifugal contactors to demonstrate the online process monitoring concept. Nd, Fe and Zr were added to the uranyl nitrate system to explore spectroscopic interferences and identify additional species as candidates for online monitoring. This milestone is a demonstration of the potential of this technique, which lies in the ability to simultaneously and directly monitor the chemical process conditions in a reprocessing plant, providing inspectors with another tool to detect nuclear material diversion attempts. Lastly, dry processing of used nuclear fuel is often used as a head-end step before solvent extraction-based separations such as UREX or TRUEX. A non-aqueous process, used fuel treatment by dry processing generally includes chopping of used fuel rods followed by repeated oxidation-reduction cycles and physical separation of the used fuel from the cladding. Thus, dry processing techniques are investigated and opportunities for online monitoring are proposed for continuation of this work in future studies.

Warburton, Jamie Lee

182

Toxicological methods for tracing drug abuse: chromatographic, spectroscopic and biological characterisation of ecstasy derivatives.  

PubMed

Analysis often reveals variability in the composition of ecstasy pills from pure 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) to mixtures of MDMA derivatives, amphetamine, and other unidentified substances. For a comprehensive toxicological analysis one needs to know all steps to MDMA synthesis which may originate impurities. The aim of this study was to synthesise and determine the chemical-physical and in vitro biological properties of a series of MDMA derivatives.3,4-methylendioxyphenyl-2-nitropropene (MDNP) was obtained by condensation of piperonal with an excess of nitroethane in the presence of ammonium acetate. MDNP was then reduced to methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA) by LiAlH3. All compounds were analysed using HPLC and spectroscopic technique [Raman, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), or infrared (IR)] at all the steps of synthesis. In addition, we assessed the biological potentials of these compounds by measuring in vitro their (i) blood cell/whole blood partition coefficient, (ii) binding to plasmatic proteins (Fbp), and (iii) membrane adsorption. Chemical structure was determined with antibody fluorescence polarisation immunoassay (FPIA). This study showed the presence of solid impurities, particularly of a neurotoxic compound of Al3+ in the final products. FPIA identified the aminoethane group close to the substituted benzene ring, but did not detect the two major precursors of MDMA: MDNP and piperonal. Raman spectroscopy is an attractive alternative technique to characterise ecstasy pills and it can identify stereoisomeric forms such as cis-MDNP and trans-MDNP, which exhibit signals at 1650 cm-1 and 1300 cm-1, respectively. PMID:20338868

Belhadj-Tahar, Hafid; Payoux, Pierre; Tafani, Mathieu; Coulais, Yvon; Calet, Serge; Bousseksou, Azzedine

2010-03-01

183

Raman spectroscopic sensing using whispering gallery microresonators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate Raman spectroscopic sensing using whispering gallery microresonators as a label-free method toward single particle detection. Whispering gallery mode microresonators are used as platforms to perform sensitive particle detection by exploiting the strong, evanescent field of a resonant mode exposed on the surface of the microresonator. Particles adhered to the microresonator surface interact with the field and scatter photons circulating within the resonator. In particular, Raman scattered photons are detected, providing molecular-specific "fingerprint" information regarding the adhered particles. The exploitation of a resonant mode allows for enhancement of generated Raman signal over traditional methods of spontaneous Raman scattering. Preliminary proof-of-concept experimental results are shown.

Edwards, Perry; Janisch, Corey; Peng, Bo; Ozdemir, Sahin K.; Yang, Lan; Liu, Zhiwen

2013-09-01

184

Synthesis of Black and Red Mercury Sulfide Nano-Powder by Traditional Indian Method for Biomedical Application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of metals and minerals in the traditional Indian system of medicine known as aired is very common and is practiced since seventh century B.C. Metals were reduced to calcined powder form for medicinal purpose. For detoxification, a further step of purification of the metals and minerals with different vegetable extracts was practiced. The people of East India were using mercury and its sulfide as medicine. Gradually this secret was leaked to Arabic physicians who used mercury in skin ointment. Subsequently Italian Physicians adopted Arabic prescriptions of mercurial ointments for skin diseases. In the olden days, metals and minerals were impregnated with decoction and juice of vegetables and animal products like milk and fat for purification. These were then reduced to fine particles by milling with a pestle and mortar. It was known by then that the fineness of the powder had a significant influence on the color, texture, and medicinal properties as is cited by Charak. Nagarjun studied in detail the processing of metals and minerals, particularly mercury and the influence of the processing parameters on the medicinal values. Mercury is unique in many aspects. Indian alchemy developed a wide variety a chemical processes for the ostensible transmutation of metals and preparation of elixir of life, in which mercury occupied a prime position .The present investigation attempts to use the traditional methods as prescribed in the ancient texts to prepare mercury sulfide in both red and black form for medicinal use. XRD, SEM and HRTEM investigations of the sulfides obtained shows that the ancient Indians were able to produce nano-sized powders. Possibly this may be taken as the earliest application of the production and use of nano powder. The study proves that even in ancient time the knowledge of nano particle synthesis was prevalent and used to enhance effectiveness of medicines. Further mercury in the free form is not acceptable in medicines. The ancient physicians could get rid of free mercury by milling and proper choice of the ratio of ingredients as is shown in the investigation by X-ray diffraction studies. In the traditional method for synthesis of mercury sulfide, mercury and pure sulfur were taken and milled in a mortar and pastel. During milling process, the white mercury and yellow sulfur yielded to a gray black colored sulfide. Synthesis of red sulfide of mercury required additional steps of heating and subsequent milling. For therapeutically application, the sulfide thus obtained needed detoxification, which was done using organic extracts. In the present investigation, the same method was followed to synthesize the sapphires and the product was characterized using modern methods like XRD, SEM and HRTEM. With increase in milling time the fineness of the powder increases, which increases the efficacy of the medicine, and free mercury, which is not desirable for medicinal application is found to decrease. The powder obtained at the end of 48 hours of milling is found to be of a size finer than l0nm.

Padhi, Payodhar; Sahoo, G.; Das, K.; Ghosh, Sudipto; Panigrahi, S. C.

2008-10-01

185

Synthesis of Black and Red Mercury Sulfide Nano-Powder by Traditional Indian Method for Biomedical Application  

SciTech Connect

The use of metals and minerals in the traditional Indian system of medicine known as aired is very common and is practiced since seventh century B.C. Metals were reduced to calcined powder form for medicinal purpose. For detoxification, a further step of purification of the metals and minerals with different vegetable extracts was practiced. The people of East India were using mercury and its sulfide as medicine. Gradually this secret was leaked to Arabic physicians who used mercury in skin ointment. Subsequently Italian Physicians adopted Arabic prescriptions of mercurial ointments for skin diseases. In the olden days, metals and minerals were impregnated with decoction and juice of vegetables and animal products like milk and fat for purification. These were then reduced to fine particles by milling with a pestle and mortar. It was known by then that the fineness of the powder had a significant influence on the color, texture, and medicinal properties as is cited by Charak. Nagarjun studied in detail the processing of metals and minerals, particularly mercury and the influence of the processing parameters on the medicinal values. Mercury is unique in many aspects. Indian alchemy developed a wide variety a chemical processes for the ostensible transmutation of metals and preparation of elixir of life, in which mercury occupied a prime position .The present investigation attempts to use the traditional methods as prescribed in the ancient texts to prepare mercury sulfide in both red and black form for medicinal use. XRD, SEM and HRTEM investigations of the sulfides obtained shows that the ancient Indians were able to produce nano-sized powders. Possibly this may be taken as the earliest application of the production and use of nano powder. The study proves that even in ancient time the knowledge of nano particle synthesis was prevalent and used to enhance effectiveness of medicines. Further mercury in the free form is not acceptable in medicines. The ancient physicians could get rid of free mercury by milling and proper choice of the ratio of ingredients as is shown in the investigation by X-ray diffraction studies. In the traditional method for synthesis of mercury sulfide, mercury and pure sulfur were taken and milled in a mortar and pastel. During milling process, the white mercury and yellow sulfur yielded to a gray black colored sulfide. Synthesis of red sulfide of mercury required additional steps of heating and subsequent milling. For therapeutically application, the sulfide thus obtained needed detoxification, which was done using organic extracts. In the present investigation, the same method was followed to synthesize the sapphires and the product was characterized using modern methods like XRD, SEM and HRTEM. With increase in milling time the fineness of the powder increases, which increases the efficacy of the medicine, and free mercury, which is not desirable for medicinal application is found to decrease. The powder obtained at the end of 48 hours of milling is found to be of a size finer than l0nm.

Padhi, Payodhar [Orissa Engineering College, Bhubaneswar (India); Sahoo, G. [Tapaswini Ayurvedic clinic and Research center, Balasore (India); Das, K. [Gopobandhu Ayurvedic Medical College, Puri (India); Ghosh, Sudipto; Panigrahi, S. C. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, IIT, Kharagpur (India)

2008-10-23

186

Supervised methods for symptom name recognition in free-text clinical records of traditional Chinese medicine: an empirical study.  

PubMed

Clinical records of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) are documented by TCM doctors during their routine diagnostic work. These records contain abundant knowledge and reflect the clinical experience of TCM doctors. In recent years, with the modernization of TCM clinical practice, these clinical records have begun to be digitized. Data mining (DM) and machine learning (ML) methods provide an opportunity for researchers to discover TCM regularities buried in the large volume of clinical records. There has been some work on this problem. Existing methods have been validated on a limited amount of manually well-structured data. However, the contents of most fields in the clinical records are unstructured. As a result, the previous methods verified on the well-structured data will not work effectively on the free-text clinical records (FCRs), and the FCRs are, consequently, required to be structured in advance. Manually structuring the large volume of TCM FCRs is time-consuming and labor-intensive, but the development of automatic methods for the structuring task is at an early stage. Therefore, in this paper, symptom name recognition (SNR) in the chief complaints, which is one of the important tasks to structure the FCRs of TCM, is carefully studied. The SNR task is reasonably treated as a sequence labeling problem, and several fundamental and practical problems in the SNR task are studied, such as how to adapt a general sequence labeling strategy for the SNR task according to the domain-specific characteristics of the chief complaints and which sequence classifier is more appropriate to solve the SNR task. To answer these questions, a series of elaborate experiments were performed, and the results are explained in detail. PMID:24070769

Wang, Yaqiang; Yu, Zhonghua; Chen, Li; Chen, Yunhui; Liu, Yiguang; Hu, Xiaoguang; Jiang, Yongguang

2014-02-01

187

Comparative study between original and traditional method in establishing a chronic sinus node damage model in rabbit.  

PubMed

Sick Sinus Syndrome is a common and refractory arrhythmia, needing further study in which setting up a credible sinus node damage model is important. To explore the feasibility and superiority of an original formaldehyde pinpoint pressing permeation (FPPP) method for building a chronic sinus node damage (CSND) model, 5 rabbits were chosen from 35 as a sham-operation group, and the remaining were randomly divided into two groups: the formaldehyde wet compressing (FWC) group, in which models were established by applying a cotton bud dipped in 20% formaldehyde onto the sinus node (SN) area, and the FPPP group, in which models were established by injecting formaldehyde into the SN area through a self-made pinpointing and injecting electrode. We found that in both groups, the HR at 2 h, 24 h, 1 wk, and 2 wk after modeling decreased compared with premodeling; sinoatrial conduction time, sinus node recovery time, and corrected sinus node recovery time were prolonged compared with premodeling. The indexes mentioned shortened by 2 wk after modeling compared with 2 h in the FWC group, whereas they were stable after modeling in the FPPP group. The modeling achievement ratio in the FPPP group was higher and the death rate was lower. Under light microscope, paraffin sections of the SN tissue and cells showed severe injury in both groups. The results indicate that the CSND models in rabbits can be successfully established by the FPPP method, with higher achievement ratio, lower death rate, better stabilization effect, and less damaging comparing with the traditional method. PMID:22898552

Liu, Ru-xiu; Wang, Yan-li; Li, Hui-bo; Wang, Ni-na; Bao, Mei-jing; Xu, Li-ya

2012-12-01

188

Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic method for the quantitative trace analysis of transition-metal carbonyl-labeled bioligands.  

PubMed

A quantitative FT-IR spectroscopic method has been developed for the trace analysis in chlorinated organic solvents of transition-metal carbonyl-labeled bioligands. In order to illustrate the widespread analytical potential of the method, three derivatives of the female hormonal steroid 17 beta-estradiol, containing Cr(CO)3, Cp2Mo2(CO)4 (Cp = eta 5-C5H5), and Co2(CO)6 as labels, and the anticonvulsant drug phenobarbital, labeled with (eta 5-C5H4)Mn(CO)3, were examined. The cobalt carbonyl marker proved to be the best sulted for quantitative analysis purposes, and the minimum tracer quantity detectable for this particular marker (64 scans, 4-cm-1 resolution, 3.5 min) was optimized in CCl4 solution at about 300 fmol (or 0.3 pmol, 180 pg) by using an ultralow volume (23.0 microL), gold light-pipe IR solution cell and a liquid nitrogen cooled, InSb (indium antimonide) IR detector. The repeatability of this radically different analytical procedure over the concentration range 1.0 x 10(-6) to 5.0 x 10(-8) M was good (coefficient of variance less than or equal to 6%) and the method provides the basis for a new immunological test--carbonylmetalloimmunoassay (CMIA). PMID:1759715

Salmain, M; Vessières, A; Jaouen, G; Butler, I S

1991-10-15

189

Tradition and Innovation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

"The articles in this issue were selected because, in one way or another, they all touched on the notion of tradition and innovation." Storytelling and tribal dances are examples of past, traditional methods of passing cultural knowledge from elders to youth. Contemporary youth have replaced tradtional rites of passage with their own inventions…

Katter, Eldon, Ed.

1995-01-01

190

A spectroscopic method for determining lignin content of softwood and hardwood kraft pulps  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rapid method for determining the kappa number of unbleached and oxygen-delignified kraft pulps in the range 3–35 is presented. This novel method was based on the multivariate analysis of VIS spectral data on pulp samples. The calculated models and the test results indicated that partial least squares (PLS) and principal component regression (PCR) models yielded similar results, PLS being

Petteri Malkavaara; Raimo Alén

1998-01-01

191

Chemical differentiation of Da-Cheng-Qi-Tang, a Chinese medicine formula, prepared by traditional and modern decoction methods using UPLC/Q-TOFMS-based metabolomics approach.  

PubMed

In order to evaluate chemical consistency between traditional and modern decoctions of Da-Cheng-Qi-Tang (DCQT), a classical Chinese medicine formula commonly used in the treatment of digestive diseases, an ultra performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-Q-TOFMS) combined with multivariate statistical analysis was established to globally characterize the chemical profile and discover differentiating chemical markers. Two kinds of decoctions, namely traditional decoction (multi-step decoction of constituent herbs), and modern decoction (one-step decoction of all herbs), were prepared and subjected to UPLC-MS analysis, the datasets of tR-m/z pairs, ion intensities and sample codes were processed with supervised orthogonal partial least squared discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) to comprehensively compare the chemical difference between these two kinds of decoction samples. The global chemical difference was found between traditional and modern decoctions, and rhein, sennoside A/B, diosmetin, magnoloside B and naringin were the components contributing most to these differences. Based on the fact that traditional decoction of DCQT presents the higher concentration of rhein and sennoside A/B, mainly contributed to laxative activity of DCQT, the purgative effect of traditional decoction might be more potent, compared with modern decoction. However, the comparative study on purgative effect of traditional and modern DCQT remains to be further investigated using pharmacological approaches. Our findings also provide the early scientific evidence of traditional decoction method of DCQT. PMID:23685412

Wan, Jian-Bo; Bai, Xu; Cai, Xiu-Jiang; Rao, Yi; Wang, Yue-Sheng; Wang, Yi-Tao

2013-09-01

192

Atomic absorption spectroscopic, conductometric and colorimetric methods for determination of some fluoroquinolone antibacterials using ammonium reineckate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three accurate, rapid and simple atomic absorption spectrometric (AAS), conductometric and colorimetric methods were developed for the determination of gatifloxacin (GTF), moxifloxacin (MXF) and sparfloxacin (SPF). The proposed methods depend upon the reaction of ammonium reineckate with the studied drugs to form stable precipitate of ion-pair complexes, which was dissolved in acetone. The pink coloured complexes were determined either by AAS or colorimetrically at ?max 525 nm directly using the dissolved complex. Using conductometric titration, the studied drugs could be evaluated in 50% (v/v) acetone. The optimizations of various experimental conditions were described. Optimum concentration ranges for the determination of GTF, MXF and SPF were 5.0-150, 40-440 ?g mL -1 and 0.10-1.5 mg mL -1 using atomic absorption (AAS), conductometric and colorimetric methods, respectively. Detection and quantification limits are ranges from 1.5 to 2.3 ?g mL -1 using AAS method or 30-45 ?g mL -1 using colorimetric method. The proposed procedures have been applied successfully to the analysis of these drugs in pharmaceutical formulations and the results are favourably comparable to the reference methods.

Al-Ghannam, Sheikha M.

2008-04-01

193

Spectrophotometric method for the determination, validation, spectroscopic and thermal analysis of diphenhydramine in pharmaceutical preparation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A sensitive, simple and rapid spectrophotometric method was developed for the determination of diphenhydramine in pharmaceutical preparation. The method was based on the charge-transfer complex of the drug, as n-electron donor, with 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano- p-benzoquinone (DDQ), as ?-acceptor. The formation of this complex was also confirmed by UV-vis, FTIR and 1H NMR spectra techniques and thermal analysis. The proposed method was validated according to the ICH guidelines with respect to linearity, limit of detection, limit of quantification, accuracy, precision, recovery and robustness. The linearity range for concentrations of diphenhydramine was found to be 12.5-150 ?g/mL with acceptable correlation coefficients. The detection and quantification limits were found to be 2.09 and 6.27 ?g/mL, respectively. The proposed and references methods were applied to the determination of drug in syrup. This preparation were also analyzed with an reference method and statistical comparison by t- and F-tests revealed that there was no significant difference between the results of the two methods with respect to mean values and standard deviations at the 95% confidence level.

Ulu, Sevgi Tatar; Elmali, Fikriye Tuncel

2010-09-01

194

Determination of genetic structure of germplasm collections: are traditional hierarchical clustering methods appropriate for molecular marker data?  

PubMed

Despite the availability of newer approaches, traditional hierarchical clustering remains very popular in genetic diversity studies in plants. However, little is known about its suitability for molecular marker data. We studied the performance of traditional hierarchical clustering techniques using real and simulated molecular marker data. Our study also compared the performance of traditional hierarchical clustering with model-based clustering (STRUCTURE). We showed that the cophenetic correlation coefficient is directly related to subgroup differentiation and can thus be used as an indicator of the presence of genetically distinct subgroups in germplasm collections. Whereas UPGMA performed well in preserving distances between accessions, Ward excelled in recovering groups. Our results also showed a close similarity between clusters obtained by Ward and by STRUCTURE. Traditional cluster analysis can provide an easy and effective way of determining structure in germplasm collections using molecular marker data, and, the output can be used for sampling core collections or for association studies. PMID:21472410

Odong, T L; van Heerwaarden, J; Jansen, J; van Hintum, T J L; van Eeuwijk, F A

2011-07-01

195

Multi-spectroscopic methods combined with molecular modeling dissect the interaction mechanisms of ractopamine and calf thymus DNA.  

PubMed

The toxic interaction of ractopamine (RAC) with calf thymus DNA (ct DNA) was studied in vitro using multi-spectroscopic methods and molecular modeling methods. The hypochromic effect without a noticeable shift in UV-vis absorption indicated that the minor groove binding mode existed in the interaction between RAC and DNA. The fluorescence quenching of RAC was observed with the increasing addition of DNA and was proved to be the static quenching. The binding constant and the binding site sizes were 4.13 × 10(3) and 0.97, respectively. The thermodynamic calculation demonstrated that the hydrogen bond and van der Waals were main acting forces. This result further confirmed the existence of groove binding mode. Afterwards, we found another interaction mode, electrostatic binding mode through the fluorescence polarization, ionic effects and denatured DNA experiments. Circular dichroism spectroscopy (CD) was then employed to monitor the conformation changes of DNA. Molecular modeling studies illustrated the visual display of the binding mode and the detailed information of the H-bond. PMID:22610465

Chai, Jun; Wang, Juyuan; Xu, Qifei; Hao, Fang; Liu, Rutao

2012-07-01

196

Comparison of laser spectroscopic PNC method with laser integral fluorescence in optical caries diagnostics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this research we represent the results of approbation of two methods of optical caries diagnostics: PNC-spectral diagnostics and caries detection by laser integral fluorescence. The research was conducted in a dental clinic. PNC-method analyzes parameters of probing laser radiation and PNC-spectrums of stimulated secondary radiations: backscattering and endogenous fluorescence of caries- involved bacteria. Ia-Ne laser ((lambda) equals632.8 nm, 1-2 mW) was used as a source of probing (stimulated) radiation. For registration of signals, received from intact and pathological teeth PDA-detector was applied. PNC-spectrums were processed by special algorithms, and were displayed on PC monitor. The method of laser integral fluorescence was used for comparison. In this case integral power of fluorescence of human teeth was measured. As a source of probing (stimulated) radiation diode lasers ((lambda) equals655 nm, 0.1 mW and 630 nm, 1 mW) and Ia-Na laser were applied. For registration of signals Si-photodetector was used. Integral power was shown in a digital indicator. Advantages and disadvantages of these methods are described in this research. It is disclosed that the method of laser integral power of fluorescence has the following characteristics: simplicity of construction and schema-technical decisions. However the method of PNC-spectral diagnostics are characterized by considerably more sensitivity in diagnostics of initial caries and capability to differentiate pathologies of various stages (for example, calculus/initial caries). Estimation of spectral characteristics of PNC-signals allows eliminating a number of drawbacks, which are character for detection by method of laser integral fluorescence (for instance, detection of fluorescent fillings, plagues, calculus, discolorations generally, amalgam, gold fillings as if it were caries).

Masychev, Victor I.

2001-05-01

197

A Safety Program that Integrated Behavior-Based Safety and Traditional Safety Methods and Its Effects on Injury Rates of Manufacturing Workers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present research examines the effects of a complex safety program that combined Behavior-Based Safety (BBS) and traditional safety methods. The study was conducted in an automobile parts plant in Mexico. Two sister plants served as comparison. Some of the components of the safety programs addressed behaviors of managers and included methods

Hermann, Jaime A.; Ibarra, Guillermo V.; Hopkins, B. L.

2010-01-01

198

A Comparative Study of an Audio-Tutorial and a Traditional Method of Teaching Intermediate College Algebra to the Community College Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study tested and compared the effects of an audio-tutorial method and a traditional lecture method of instruction for an Intermediate College Algebra course and investigated how improvements should be made for the commercially-prepared and teacher-made audio-tutorial materials. A sample of 186 students was randomly selected from the…

Chinn, James Albert

199

The effect of the buttonhole method vs. the traditional method of AV fistula cannulation on hemostasis, needle stick pain, pre-needle stick anxiety, and presence of aneurysms in ambulatory patients on hemodialysis.  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of the buttonhole method to the traditional method of cannulation on time to hemostasis, needle stick pain, pre-needle stick anxiety, and aneurysm size. Forty-five participants from two naturally occurring groups were accessed at four monthly intervals from a chronic dialysis unit yielding 170 units of data. Results supported the buttonhole method of cannulation as advantageous as opposed to the traditional method of AV fistula cannulation. PMID:21928609

Pergolotti, April; Rich, Ellen; Lock, Kathleen

2011-01-01

200

EVALUATION OF EXTRACTION AND SPECTROSCOPIC METHODS FOR PB SPECIATION IN AN AMENDED SOIL  

EPA Science Inventory

Immobilization of pyromorphite (Pbs(PO4hCI) via P amendments to Pb contaminated soils is proving to be a viable method of remediation. However, the issue of ascertaining the amount of soil Pb converted to pyromorphite is difficult in heterogeneous soil systems. Previous attempts ...

201

DNA interaction studies of new nano metal based anticancer agent: validation by spectroscopic methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new nano dimensional heterobimetallic Cu-Sn containing complex as a potential drug candidate was designed, synthesized and characterized by analytical and spectral methods. The electronic absorption and electron paramagnetic resonance parameters of the complex revealed that the Cu(II) ion exhibits a square pyramidal geometry with the two pyrazole nitrogen atoms, the amine nitrogen atom and the carboxylate oxygen of the

Sartaj Tabassum; Girish Chandra Sharma; Farukh Arjmand; Ameer Azam

2010-01-01

202

Spectroscopic method for measuring plasma magnetic fields having arbitrary distributions of direction and amplitude.  

PubMed

An approach for measurements of magnetic fields, based on the comparison of the magnetic-field-induced contributions to the line shapes of different fine-structure components of an atomic multiplet, is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. Contrary to the methods based on detecting an anisotropy in either the emitted radiation or in the dispersion properties of the medium, the present method is applicable when the field direction or amplitude vary significantly in the region viewed or during the time of observation. The technique can be used even when the line shapes are Stark or Doppler dominated. It has potential applications in laser-matter interactions, plasmas driven by high-current pulses, and astrophysics. PMID:17677852

Stambulchik, E; Tsigutkin, K; Maron, Y

2007-06-01

203

[Interaction between ambroxol hydrochloride and human serum albumin studied by spectroscopic and molecular modeling methods].  

PubMed

In the present paper, the interaction between ambroxol hydrochloride (ABX) and human serum albumin (HSA) was studied under simulative physiological condition by spectroscopy and molecular modeling method. Stern-Volmer curvers at different temperatures and UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy showed that ABX quenched the fluorescence of HSA mainly through dynamic quenching mode. On the basis of the thermodynamic data, the main binding force between them is hydrophobic interaction. According to the theory of Forster non-radiation energy transfer, the binding distance between the donor and the acceptor was 3.01 nm. The effect of ABX on the conformation of HSA was analyzed by the synchronous and three-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy. Furthermore, using the molecular modeling method, the interaction between them was predicted from molecular angle: ABX might locate in the subdomain III A of HSA. PMID:21714251

Liang, Jing; Feng, Su-Ling

2011-04-01

204

A quantitative solid-state Raman spectroscopic method for control of fungicides.  

PubMed

A new analytical procedure using solid-state Raman spectroscopy within the THz-region for the quantitative determination of mixtures of different conformations of trifloxystrobin (EE, EZ, ZE and ZZ), tebuconazole (1), and propiconazole (2) as an effective method for the fungicide product quality monitoring programmes and control has been developed and validated. The obtained quantities were controlled independently by the validated hybrid HPLC electrospray ionization (ESI) tandem mass spectrometric (MS) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) MS methods in the condensed phase. The quantitative dependences were obtained on the twenty binary mixtures of the analytes and were further tested on the three trade fungicide products, containing mixtures of trifloxystrobin-tebuconazole and trifloxystrobin-propiconazole, as an emissive concentrate or water soluble granules of the active ingredients. The present methods provided sufficient sensitivity as reflected by the metrologic quantities, evaluating the concentration limit of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ), linear limit (LL), measurement accuracy and precision, true quantity value, trueness of measurement and more. PMID:22679621

Ivanova, Bojidarka; Spiteller, Michael

2012-07-21

205

Spectroscopic Observations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a series of three activities about light and spectra. First, learners will construct their own spectroscope, observe common light sources, record the observed spectra, and compare their findings. Next, learners will use their spectroscopes to observe the spectra from different gas tubes and compare each observed spectrum to known spectra. Finally, they will observe a solar spectrum created by a prism, view a solar spectrum on paper, and attempt to determine the elements present in the Sun. This activity requires spectroscope posters and gratings available from the Stanford Solar Center (http://solar-center.stanford.edu/posters/), fluorescent and incandescent light sources, and emission lamps and power sources. This activity is from the Stanford Solar Center's All About the Sun: Sun and Stars activity guide for Grades 5-8 and can also accompany the Stanford Solar Center's Build Your Own Spectroscope activity.

206

Hardware and Methods of the Optical End-to-End Test of the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE), currently being tested and scheduled for a 1999 launch, is an astrophysics satellite designed to provide high spectral resolving power (Lambda/(Delta)Lambda = 24,000-30,000) over the interval 90.5-118.7 nm. The FUSE optical path consists of four co-aligned, normal incidence, off-axis parabolic, primary mirrors which illuminate separate Rowland circle spectrograph channels equipped with holographic gratings and delay line microchannel plate detectors. We describe the hardware and methods used for the optical end-to-end test of the FUSE instrument during satellite integration and test. Cost and schedule constraints forced us to devise a simplified version of the planned optical test which occurred in parallel with satellite thermal-vacuum testing. The optical test employed a collimator assembly which consisted of four co-aligned, 15" Cassegrain telescopes which were positioned above the FUSE instrument, providing a collimated beam for each optical channel. A windowed UV light source, remotely adjustable in three axes, was mounted at the focal plane of each collimator. Problems with the UV light sources, including high F-number and window failures, were the only major difficulties encountered during the test. The test succeeded in uncovering a significant problem with the secondary structure used for the instrument closeout cavity and, furthermore, showed that the mechanical solution was successful. The hardware was also used extensively for simulations of science observations, providing both UV light for spectra and visible light for the fine error sensor camera.

Conard, Steven J.; Redman, Kevin W.; Barkhouser, Robert H.; McGuffey, Doug B.; Smee, Stephen; Ohl, Raymond G.; Kushner, Gary

1999-01-01

207

Spectroscopic properties of Yb doped YLF grown by a vertical Bridgman method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Laser crystals of LiYF4 (YLF) doped with 5–64at.% of trivalent ytterbium ions (Yb3+) were grown by a vertical Bridgman method. As crystal growth materials of YbF3 and YF3 including YOF impurities caused opaque crystal, the YOF reduction procedure using PbF2 was essential before starting the crystal growth. We derived seven energy levels from the 2F7\\/2 and 2F5\\/2 manifolds of Yb3+:YLF

Akira Sugiyama; Masamichi Katsurayama; Yutaka Anzai; Taiju Tsuboi

2006-01-01

208

Analysis of binding interaction between (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC) and ?-lactoglobulin by multi-spectroscopic method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The binding interaction between (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC) with bovine ?-lactoglobulin (?LG) was investigated by fluorescence, circular dichroism (CD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy methods. The binding parameters were determined by Stern-Volmer equation and the thermodynamic parameters were calculated according to the van't Hoff equation. The results suggested that ?LG was bound by EGC, which resulted in change of native conformation of ?LG. van der Waals interactions and hydrogen bonding probably played major roles in the binding process. Our study is helpful for further elucidation of binding interactions between catechins with milk proteins, which would contribute to the development of novel milk products.

Wu, Xuli; Wu, Hui; Liu, Meixia; Liu, Zhigang; Xu, Hong; Lai, Furao

2011-11-01

209

Retrieval of terahertz spectroscopic signatures in the presence of rough surface scattering using wavelet methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Scattering of terahertz waves by surface roughness can obscure spectral signatures of chemicals at these frequencies. We demonstrate this effect using controlled levels of surface scattering on ?-lactose monohydrate pellets. Furthermore, we show an implementation of wavelet methods that can retrieve terahertz spectral information from rough surface targets. We use a multiresolution analysis of the rough-surface-scattered signal utilizing the maximal overlap discrete wavelet transform (MODWT) to extract the resonant signature of lactose. We present a periodic extension technique to circumvent the circular boundary conditions of MODWT, which can be robustly used in an automated terahertz stand-off detection device.

Arbab, M. H.; Winebrenner, D. P.; Thorsos, E. I.; Chen, A.

2010-11-01

210

Interactions between CdSe/CdS quantum dots and DNA through spectroscopic and electrochemical methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interaction of CdSe/CdS quantum dots (QDs) with Herring sperm-DNA (hs-DNA) has been studied by UV-vis spectroscopy and electrochemical method. Cu(phen) 22+/1+ (phen = 1, 10-phenanthroline) was used as an indicator for electroactive dsDNA or ssDNA. The apparent association constant has been deduced (4.94 × 10 3 M -1 and 2.39 × 10 2 M -1) from the absorption spectral changes of the dsDNA-QDs and ssDNA-QDs. The results of dissociation method suggest that Cu(phen) 22+/1+ is more easily dissociated from dsDNA or ssDNA modified gold electrode (dsDNA/Au or dsDNA/Au) in presence of QDs. The dissociation rate constant ( k) of Cu(phen) 22+/1+ on dsDNA/Au is 4.48 times higher than that in absence of QDs, while k is 2.34 times higher than that in absence of QDs on ssDNA/Au in Tris buffer with low ionic strength (pH 7.0, 0.5 mM NaCl). The results illuminate that hs-DNA has high affinity for QDs due to electrostatic force, hydrogen bonds, and van der Waals interactions, and the binding force of QDs with dsDNA is stronger than ssDNA.

Wang, Qisui; Yang, Lu; Fang, Tingting; Wu, Shuang; Liu, Peng; Min, Xinmin; Li, Xi

2011-09-01

211

Combining the tape-lift method and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic imaging for forensic applications.  

PubMed

Conventional Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and microscopy have been widely used in forensic science. New opportunities exist to obtain chemical images and to enhance the spatial resolution using attenuated total reflection (ATR) FT-IR spectroscopy coupled with a focal-plane array (FPA) detector. In this paper, the sensitivity limits of FT-IR imaging using three different ATR crystals (Ge, ZnSe, and diamond) in three different optical arrangements for the detection of model particles is discussed. Model systems of ibuprofen and paracetamol particles having sizes below 32 mum were studied. The collection of drug particles was achieved with the aid of two different tapes: common adhesive tape and a film of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). The surface of the film with collected particles was measured directly via ATR-FT-IR imaging. Since the removal of tape from porous surfaces can be difficult, the application of micro ATR-FT-IR imaging directly to the surface of a newspaper contaminated with particles of model drugs is also discussed. In order to assess the feasibility of the chosen method in a forensic case study, the detection of diacetylmorphine hydrochloride traces in PDMS matrix and the finger surface is investigated. The scenarios considered were that of the detection of evidence collected at a crime scene with the tape lift method and the analysis of the finger of an individual after drug handling. The results show broad implications in the detection of drugs of abuse. PMID:17002827

Ricci, Camilla; Chan, K L Andrew; Kazarian, Sergei G

2006-09-01

212

Structural and spectroscopic properties of an aliphatic boronic acid studied by combination of experimental and theoretical methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Boronic acids have emerged as one of the most useful class of organoboron molecules, with application in synthesis, catalysis, analytical chemistry, supramolecular chemistry, biology, and medicine. In this study, the structural and spectroscopic properties of n-butylboronic acid were investigated using experimental and theoretical approaches. X-ray crystallography method provided structural information on the studied compound in the solid state. Infrared and Raman spectroscopy served as tools for the data collection on vibrational modes of the analyzed system. Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics simulations in solid state were carried out at 100 and 293 K to investigate an environmental and temperature influence on molecular properties of the n-butylboronic acid. Analysis of interatomic distances of atoms involved in the intermolecular hydrogen bond was performed to study the proton motion in the crystal. Subsequently, Fourier transform of autocorrelation functions of atomic velocities and dipole moment was applied to study the vibrational properties of the compound. In addition, the inclusion of quantum nature of proton motion was performed for O-H stretching vibrational mode by application of the envelope method for intermolecular hydrogen-bonded system. The second part of the computational study consists of simulations performed in vacuo. Monomeric and dimeric forms of the n-butylboronic acid were investigated using density functional theory and Møller-Plesset second-order perturbation method. The basis set superposition error was estimated. Finally, atoms in molecules (AIM) theory was applied to study electron density topology and properties of the intermolecular hydrogen bond. Successful reproduction of the molecular properties of the n-butylboronic acid by computational methodologies, presented in the manuscript, indicates the way for future studies of large boron-containing organic systems of importance in biology or materials science.

Cyra?ski, Micha? K.; Jezierska, Aneta; Klimentowska, Paulina; Panek, Jaros?aw J.; ?ukowska, Gra?yna Z.; Sporzy?ski, Andrzej

2008-03-01

213

Spectroscopic characterization of porous nanohydroxyapatite synthesized by a novel amino acid soft solution freezing method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we have reported a novel method to synthesize nanoporous hydroxyapatite (HAP) powders by freezing organic-inorganic soft solutions. The formation of porous and crystalline HAP nanopowder was achieved via calcining the samples at 600 °C followed by sintering at temperatures ranging from 900 °C to 1100 °C. The samples were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) techniques. The results showed the formation of a carbon free nanoporous hydroxyapatite powders due to the decomposition of organic template enclosing the precipitated HAP. It was also observed that the rapid grain growth with retainment of pores while the crystallinity of the HAP nanopowder increased with the increase in sintering temperature which is substantiated from the XRD and SEM results. Such organized porous materials can act as a better biomaterial for bone tissue engineering.

Gopi, D.; Indira, J.; Prakash, V. Collins Arun; Kavitha, L.

2009-09-01

214

Characterization of the Interaction between Eupatorin and Bovine Serum Albumin by Spectroscopic and Molecular Modeling Methods  

PubMed Central

This study investigated the interaction between eupatorin and bovine serum albumin (BSA) using ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) absorption, fluorescence, synchronous fluorescence, circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopies, and molecular modeling at pH 7.4. Results of UV-vis and fluorescence spectroscopies illustrated that BSA fluorescence was quenched by eupatorin via a static quenching mechanism. Thermodynamic parameters revealed that hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions played major roles in the interaction. Moreover, the efficiency of energy transfer, and the distance between BSA and acceptor eupatorin, were calculated. The effects of eupatorin on the BSA conformation were analyzed using UV-vis, CD, and synchronous fluorescence. Finally, the binding of eupatorin to BSA was modeled using the molecular docking method.

Xu, Hongliang; Yao, Nannan; Xu, Haoran; Wang, Tianshi; Li, Guiying; Li, Zhengqiang

2013-01-01

215

The Factors that Affect Computer Assisted Education Implementations in the Chemistry Education and Comparison of Traditional and Computer Assisted Education Methods in REDOX Subject  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract: The objective of the ,research ,is to learn if learning level ,of the ,university students in redox ,subject of chemistry education change when they use traditional learning method and computer supported method, and to compare,these two methods,by measuring,their success through,pre- test and final test. And also some,factors that may ,affect the students and the implementations ,such as attitudes ,of

?nci MORG?L; Özge ÖZYALÇIN OSKAY; Soner YAVUZ; Seçil ARDA

216

PDT in the thoracic cavity: Spectroscopic methods and fluence modeling for treatment planning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

PDT for the thoracic cavity provides a promising cancer treatment modality, but improvements in treatment planning, particularly in PDT dosimetry, can be made to improve uniformity of light delivery. When a cavity of arbitrary geometry is illuminated, the fluence increases due to multiple-scattered photons, referred to as the Integrating Sphere Effect (ISE). Current pleural PDT treatment protocol at the University of Pennsylvania monitors light fluence (hereafter simply fluence, measured in W/cm2) via seven isotropic detectors sutured at different locations in thoracic cavity of a patient. This protocol monitors light at discrete locations, but does not provide a measurement of fluence for the thoracic cavity as a whole. Current calculation of light fluence includes direct light only and thus does not account for the unique optical properties of each tissue type present, which in turn affects the accuracy of the calculated light distribution in the surrounding tissue and, in turn, the overall cell death and treatment efficacy. Treatment planning for pleural PDT can be improved, in part, by considering the contribution of scattered light, which is affected by the two factors of geometry and in vivo optical properties. We expanded the work by Willem Star in regards to the ISE in a spherical cavity. A series of Monte Carlo (MC) simulations were run for semi-infinite planar, spherical, and ellipsoidal geometries for a range of optical properties. The results of these simulations are compared to theory and numerical solutions for fluence in the cavity and at the cavity-medium boundary. The development via MC simulations offers a general method of calculating the required light fluence specialized to each patient, based on the treatment surface area. The scattered fluence calculation is dependent on in vivo optical properties (?a and ?s') of the tissues treated. Diffuse reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopy methods are used to determine the optical properties and oxygenation (reflectance measurements) and drug concentration (fluorescence measurements) of different tissues in vivo, before and after treatment, in patients enrolled the Phase I HPPH study ongoing at the University of Pennsylvania. This work aims to provide the building blocks essential to pleural PDT treatment planning by more accurately calculating the required fluence using a model that accounts for the effects of treatment geometry and optical properties measured in vivo.

Meo, Julia Lauren

217

DNA interaction studies of new nano metal based anticancer agent: validation by spectroscopic methods.  

PubMed

A new nano dimensional heterobimetallic Cu-Sn containing complex as a potential drug candidate was designed, synthesized and characterized by analytical and spectral methods. The electronic absorption and electron paramagnetic resonance parameters of the complex revealed that the Cu(II) ion exhibits a square pyramidal geometry with the two pyrazole nitrogen atoms, the amine nitrogen atom and the carboxylate oxygen of the phenyl glycine chloride ligand located at the equatorial sites and the coordinated chloride ion occupying an apical position. (119)Sn NMR spectral data showed a hexa-coordinated environment around the Sn(IV) metal ion. TEM, AFM and XRD measurements illustrate that the complex could induce the condensation of CT-DNA to a particulate nanostructure. The interaction of the Cu-Sn complex with CT-DNA was investigated by UV-vis absorption and emission spectroscopy, as well as cyclic voltammetric measurements. The results indicated that the complex interacts with DNA through an electrostatic mode of binding with an intrinsic binding constant K(b) = 8.42 x 10(4) M( - 1). The Cu-Sn complex exhibits effective cleavage of pBR322 plasmid DNA by an oxidative cleavage mechanism, monitored at different concentrations both in the absence and in the presence of reducing agents. PMID:20407140

Tabassum, Sartaj; Chandra Sharma, Girish; Arjmand, Farukh; Azam, Ameer

2010-05-14

218

Intermolecular interaction of prednisolone with bovine serum albumin: Spectroscopic and molecular docking methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The intermolecular interaction of prednisolone with bovine serum albumin (BSA) was studied using fluorescence, circular dichroism (CD) and molecular docking methods. The experimental results showed that the fluorescence quenching of the BSA at 338 nm by prednisolone resulted from the formation of prednisolone-BSA complex. The number of binding sites (n) for prednisolone binding on BSA was approximately equal to 1. Base on the sign and magnitude of the enthalpy and entropy changes (?H0 = -149.6 kJ mol-1 and ?S0 = -370.7 J mol-1 K-1) and the results of molecular docking, it could be suggested that the interaction forces were mainly Van der Waals and hydrogen bonding interactions. Moreover, in the binding process of BSA with prednisolone, prednisolone molecule can be inserted into the hydrophobic cavity of subdomain IIIA (site II) of BSA. The distance between prednisolone and Trp residue of BSA was calculated as 2.264 nm according to Forster's non-radiative energy transfer theory.

Shi, Jie-hua; Zhu, Ying-Yao; Wang, Jing; Chen, Jun; Shen, Ya-Jing

2013-02-01

219

Apparatus and methods for compensation of blood volume effects on NIR spectroscopic measurements of blood analytes  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

The present invention provides a method for measuring a blood analyte concentration of a body part comprising removing a portion or all of the blood from the body part to produce a modified body part, and recording a first absorbance value of the modified body part. This is followed by filling the body part with blood to produce a filled body part, and recording a second absorbance value of the filled body part. A difference spectrum is obtained by subtracting the first absorbance values from the second absorbance values, and a calibration algorithm for the blood analyte is applied to the difference spectrum, thereby measuring the concentration of the blood analyte. Also provided is an apparatus for determining the concentration of a blood analyte of a body part. The apparatus comprising a chamber of a size and shape to receive the body part, where the chamber comprises an element for withdrawing and reintroducing blood from the body part, when the body part is inserted within the chamber. The chamber also comprising one or more than one port for introducing electromagnetic radiation into the chamber and onto that body part, and collecting remaining electromagnetic radiation following interaction with the body part.

2009-11-03

220

Vibrational spectroscopic study and NBO analysis on tranexamic acid using DFT method.  

PubMed

In this work, we reported the vibrational spectra of tranexamic acid (TA) by experimental and quantum chemical calculation. The solid phase FT-Raman and FT-IR spectra of the title compound were recorded in the region 4000 cm(-1) to 100 cm(-1) and 4000 cm(-1) to 400 cm(-1) respectively. The molecular geometry, harmonic vibrational frequencies and bonding features of TA in the ground state have been calculated by using density functional theory (DFT) B3LYP method with standard 6-31G(d,p) basis set. The scaled theoretical wavenumber showed very good agreement with the experimental values. The vibrational assignments were performed on the basis of the potential energy distribution (PED) of the vibrational modes. Stability of the molecule, arising from hyperconjugative interactions and charge delocalization, has been analyzed using Natural Bond Orbital (NBO) analysis. The results show that ED in the ?(*) and ?(*) antibonding orbitals and second order delocalization energies E(2) confirm the occurrence of intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) within the molecule. The electrostatic potential mapped onto an isodensity surface has been obtained. The calculated HOMO and LUMO energies show that charge transfer occurs within the molecule. The thermodynamic properties (heat capacity, entropy, and enthalpy) of the title compound at different temperatures were calculated in gas phase. PMID:24747330

Muthu, S; Prabhakaran, A

2014-08-14

221

Vibrational spectroscopic study and NBO analysis on tranexamic acid using DFT method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, we reported the vibrational spectra of tranexamic acid (TA) by experimental and quantum chemical calculation. The solid phase FT-Raman and FT-IR spectra of the title compound were recorded in the region 4000 cm-1 to 100 cm-1 and 4000 cm-1 to 400 cm-1 respectively. The molecular geometry, harmonic vibrational frequencies and bonding features of TA in the ground state have been calculated by using density functional theory (DFT) B3LYP method with standard 6-31G(d,p) basis set. The scaled theoretical wavenumber showed very good agreement with the experimental values. The vibrational assignments were performed on the basis of the potential energy distribution (PED) of the vibrational modes. Stability of the molecule, arising from hyperconjugative interactions and charge delocalization, has been analyzed using Natural Bond Orbital (NBO) analysis. The results show that ED in the ?* and ?* antibonding orbitals and second order delocalization energies E(2) confirm the occurrence of intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) within the molecule. The electrostatic potential mapped onto an isodensity surface has been obtained. The calculated HOMO and LUMO energies show that charge transfer occurs within the molecule. The thermodynamic properties (heat capacity, entropy, and enthalpy) of the title compound at different temperatures were calculated in gas phase.

Muthu, S.; Prabhakaran, A.

2014-08-01

222

A method for the quantitative gamma spectroscopic analysis of an unusually shaped unknown source.  

PubMed

An unmarked cylindrical device, identified as a ceramic high voltage capacitor, needed its radioactivity assessed so that proper disposal and shipping requirements could be met. Using a high purity germanium detector, naturally occurring 232Th was identified as the source of radioactivity. A series of point source measurements was made along the length of the item's axis using 60Co, having a gamma ray of nearly the same energy as one of the primary 232Th progeny photopeaks. These measurements were then numerically integrated to determine the response of the detector to a line source. A correction for the self shielding of the item was estimated using Monte Carlo simulations. The item was found to contain approximately 1.85 x 10(5) Bq of uniformly distributed 232Th. The overall method has application to any unusually shaped source, with point source measurements performed using an appropriate radionuclide used to establish an overall sensitivity of the detector, including its dead layer, to the radioactivity in a simple geometric representation of the object. An estimation of self shielding from Monte Carlo is then applied to that result. PMID:19125054

Kearfott, Kimberlee J; Dewey, Steven C

2009-02-01

223

Rietveld refinement and spectroscopic studies of sodium lead fluoroapatite lacunaire synthesized by hydrothermal method  

SciTech Connect

The structure of NaPb{sub 9}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}F(H{sub 2}O){sub 0.33}, isostructural with apatite, was determined by X-ray powder diffraction methods and the result of Rietveld refinement is P6{sub 3}/m, a = 9.76396(8) A and c = 7.27520(9) A. The final refinement led to R{sub F} = 5.4%, R{sub B} = 6.6%. In the tunnel, the water molecule (O{sub w}) and F{sup -} ions appear to be located in 2b and 4e sites, with occupancies of 0.028(6) and 0.075(8), respectively. In the M(1) and M(2) sites the occupancies of Pb and Na are 0.282(3)/0.051(3) and 0.467(5)/0.033(5), respectively. The formula assigned to the compound is [Pb{sub 3.38(4)}Na{sub 0.62(4)}](1)[Pb{sub 5.60(6)}Na{sub 0.40(6)}](2)(PO{sub =} 4){sub 6}F{sub 0.90(10)}(H{sub 2}O){sub 0.33(7)}{open_square}{sub 0.77(17)}, where {open_square} = vacancy. The assignment of the observed frequencies in the Raman and infrared spectra is discussed on the basis of a unit-cell group analysis and by comparison with fluor and chloroapatite analogs. The result of {sup 31}P and {sup 23}Na magic angle spinning-nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS-NMR) spectroscopies confirmed the structural results.

Toumi, M. [Laboratoire de L'Etat Solide (LES), Faculte des Sciences de Sfax, Route de Soukra Km 3.5, BP 802, 3018 Sfax (Tunisia)], E-mail: mohamed.toumi@fss.rnu.tn; Mhiri, T. [Laboratoire de L'Etat Solide (LES), Faculte des Sciences de Sfax, Route de Soukra Km 3.5, BP 802, 3018 Sfax (Tunisia)

2008-06-03

224

Setting Passing Scores on Passage-Based Tests: A Comparison of Traditional and Single-Passage Bookmark Methods  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, a variation of the bookmark standard setting procedure for passage-based tests is proposed in which separate ordered item booklets are created for the items associated with each passage. This variation is compared to the traditional bookmark procedure for a fifth-grade reading test. The results showed that the single-passage…

Skaggs, Gary; Hein, Serge F.; Awuor, Risper

2007-01-01

225

Silica surface characterization as a function of formation and surface treatment using traditional methods and proteins as surface probes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous works have shown that cells proliferate differently depending on the chemistry of the glass on which they are growing. Since proteins form the bonds between cells and glass, the hypothesis of this study is that proteins can distinguish between surface chemical variations of glass. This theory was examined through the use of various silica forms, a few select proteins, four surface treatment procedures, and a variety of characterization techniques. The silica forms include amorphous slides, cane, fiber, microspheres, fumed silica and quartz crystal terminals. The proteins selected were human serum albumin, mouse Immunoglobulin G, streptavidin, antimouse IgG, and biotin. The surface treatments utilized to bring about chemical variation on the silica surface were HF acid etching, ethanol cleaning, water plasma treatments, and 1000°C heat treatments. The characterization techniques encompassed both traditional material techniques and biological methods. The techniques studied were atomic force microscopy (AFM), chemical force microscopy (CFM), glancing incidence X-ray analysis (GIXA), fluorescence spectrometry, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), and bicinchoninic acid (BCA) assay. It was the main goal of this project to determine the feasibility of these techniques in utilizing proteins as glass surface probes. Proteins were adsorbed to all of the various forms and the binding ability was studied by either stripping off the protein and quantifying them, or by deductive reasoning through the use of "depleted" protein solutions. Fluorimetry and BCA assay both utilized the depleted solutions, but the high error associated with this protocol was prohibitive. SDS-PAGE with streptavidin was very difficult due to staining problems, however the IgG proteins were able to be quantified with some success. GIXA showed that the protein layer thickness is monolayer in nature, which agrees well with the AFM fluid tapping data on protein height, but in addition showed features on the order of ten protein agglomerations. CFM is by far the most promising technique for utilizing proteins as surface probes. Functionalized tips of -COOH, streptavidin and -CH3 are able to discern between surface treatments, but not forms. A general conclusion is that adhesion forces are greatest for -COOH, then streptavidin, and least for -CH3.

Korwin-Edson, Michelle Lynn

226

Recognizing impact glass on Mars using surface texture, mechanical properties, and mid-infrared spectroscopic methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A primary goal of future Mars sample return missions is to obtain samples whose isotopic ages can be used to place absolute time constraints on the relative Martian crater chronology. Thus, identifying the origin of surface material as impact or volcanic prior to its return to Earth will be critical. This dissertation focuses on four strategies for identifying and characterizing impact melt breccias from both landed and orbital perspectives. In Part 1, the geology of Viking 2 Landing (VL2) site is re-evaluated using recently acquired orbital data. Measurements of relict landform topography indicate that a layer of sedimentary material at least 120 m thick has been eroded from the site. Crater counts indicate an extreme deficiency of small-diameter craters (<500 m), indicating that resurfacing has continued up to the present. Thermal inertia data over the site is consistent with some rocks being impact-emplaced and possibly impact-derived. In Part 2, three textural characteristics were identified as potential discriminants between vesicular impact and volcanic glasses: vesicle shape (elongation), orientation, and spatial density. Additionally, a theoretical model was developed to constrain the conditions necessary for the preservation of deformed bubble textures. The results suggest that deformed bubbles are unlikely to be preserved in typical Martian basalts or basaltic andesites. Part 3 is an endeavor to extract science from mission support operations. First, a method for determining the bulk density of rocks via a pushing (i.e., by a robotic spacecraft arm) was developed and applied to VL2 rock-pushing data. Although the large measurement uncertainties preclude drawing firm conclusions, the results demonstrate the feasibility of the technique. Second, results from the Rock Abrasion Tool (RAT) on the Spirit rover were analyzed to infer the mechanical strength of ground surfaces. Rocks in the Columbia Hills were found to be mechanically consistent with impact melt breccias. In Part 4, systematic variations in glass mid-infrared reststrahlen band positions were determined with variations in glass chemistry, degree of crystallinity, and quench rate. Results indicate that the spectra of rapidly quenched glasses with a high fictive temperature exhibit shifts to shorter wavelengths, causing them to appear more silica-rich.

Bradley, James Thomson

227

Comparison of the Effects of Cooperative Learning and Traditional Learning Methods on the Improvement of Drug-Dose Calculation Skills of Nursing Students Undergoing Internships  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of cooperative learning and traditional learning methods on the development of drug-calculation skills. Design: Final-year nursing students ("n" = 85) undergoing internships during the 2010-2011 academic year at a nursing school constituted the study group of this…

Basak, Tulay; Yildiz, Dilek

2014-01-01

228

Studies of the interaction between demeclocycline and human serum albumin by multi-spectroscopic and molecular docking methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study was designed to examine the interaction of demeclocycline (DMCTC) with human serum albumin (HSA) by multi-spectroscopic and molecular docking methods. The inner filter effect was corrected before we calculated the binding parameters. Fluorescence and UV-vis spectroscopy revealed that DMCTC induced the fluorescence quenching of HSA though a static quenching procedure. Thermodynamic analysis by Van Hoff equation found enthalpy change (?H) and entropy change (?S) were -53.01 kJ mol-1 and -65.13 J mol-1 K-1, respectively, which indicated hydrogen bond and van der Waals force were the predominant force in the binding process. According to fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), the specific binding distances between Trp-214 (donor) and DMCTC (acceptor) were 3.18 nm. Through site marker competitive experiments, subdomain IIA of HSA has been assigned to possess the high-affinity binding site of DMCTC. The three dimensional fluorescence showed that the conformation of HSA was changed after its complexation with DMCTC, and the alternations of protein secondary structure were quantitatively calculated from FT-IR with reduction of ?-helices content about 4.8%, ?-sheet from 30.3% to 21.6% and with increases of ?-turn from 15.6% to 22.2%. Furthermore, the binding details between DMCTC and HSA were further confirmed by molecular docking studies, which revealed that DMCTC was bound at subdomain IIA through multiple interactions, such as hydrophobic effect, polar forces and ?-? interactions. Moreover, the coexist metal ions such as Al3+, Fe3+, Cu2+, Cr3+ and Cd2+ can decrease the binding constants of DMCTC-HSA.

Dong, Chengyu; Ma, Shuying; Liu, Ying

2013-02-01

229

Characterization of novel lithium battery cathode materials by spectroscopic methods: the Li5+xFeO? system.  

PubMed

The novel, lithium-rich oxide-phase Li?FeO? (LFO) could, in theory, deliver a specific capacity >900 mAh/g when deployed as a cathode or cathode precursor in a battery with a lithium-based anode. However, research results to date on LFO indicate that less than one of the five Li? cations can be reversibly de-intercalated/re-intercalated during repetitive charging and discharging cycles. In the present research, the system Li5+xFeO? with x values in the range of 0.0-2.0 was investigated by a combination of Raman and X-ray absorption spectroscopic methods supported by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis in order to determine if the Li?FeO? lattice would accommodate additional Li? ions, with concomitant lowering of the valence on the FeIII cations. Both the Raman phonon spectra and the XRD patterns were invariant for all values of x, strongly indicating that additional Li? did not enter the Li?FeO? lattice. Also, Raman spectral results and high-resolution synchrotron XRD data revealed the presence of second-phase Li?O in all samples with x greater than 0.0. Synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy at the Fe k? edge performed on the sample with a Li-Fe ratio of 7.0 (i.e., x = 2.0) showed no evidence for the presence of FeII. This resistance to accepting more lithium into the Li?FeO? structure is attributed to the exceedingly stable nature of high-spin FeIII in tetrahedral "FeIIIO?" structural units of Li?FeO?. Partial substitution of the FeIII with other cations could provide a path toward increasing the reversible Li? content of Li5xFeO?-type phases. PMID:23876729

Maroni, Victor A; Johnson, Christopher S; Rood, Shawn C M; Kropf, A Jeremy; Bass, Dean A

2013-08-01

230

Near-infrared diode laser based spectroscopic detection of ammonia: a comparative study of photoacoustic and direct optical absorption methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A photoacoustic spectroscopic (PAS) and a direct optical absorption spectroscopic (OAS) gas sensor, both using continuous-wave room-temperature diode lasers operating at 1531.8 nm, were compared on the basis of ammonia detection. Excellent linear correlation between the detector signals of the two systems was found. Although the physical properties and the mode of operation of both sensors were significantly different, their performances were found to be remarkably similar, with a sub-ppm level minimum detectable concentration of ammonia and a fast response time in the range of a few minutes.

Bozoki, Zoltan; Mohacsi, Arpad; Szabo, Gabor; Bor, Zsolt; Erdelyi, Miklos; Chen, Weidong; Tittel, Frank K.

2002-01-01

231

A Method of Classifying Tongue Colors for Traditional Chinese Medicine Diagnosis Based on the CIELAB Color Space  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Objective tongue color analysis is an important research point for tongue diagnosis in Traditional Chinese Medicine. In this\\u000a paper a research based on the clinical process of diagnosing tongue color is reported. The color data in RGB color space were\\u000a first transformed into the data in CIELAB color space, and the color gamut of the displayed tongue was obtained. Then

Bocong Li; Qingmei Huang; Yan Lu; Songhe Chen; Rong Liang; Zhaoping Wang

2008-01-01

232

CD Spectroscope  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners use an old CD to construct a spectroscope, a device that separates light into its component colors. Learners will hold it up to various light sources to examine how different light has different color strengths. Use this activity to introduce learners to the color spectrum and the tools scientists use to study it.

University, Colorado S.

2009-01-01

233

Traditional ELISA methods for antibody affinity determination fail to reveal the presence of low affinity antibodies in antisera: an alternative approach.  

PubMed

Traditionally used methods of antibody affinity determination either by ELISA or by the surface plasmon resonance technique do not allow detection of the presence of low-affinity antibodies in samples of high-affinity antibodies. In this paper we demonstrate the possibility to reveal their presence and to determine the affinities of both categories of antibodies as well as the ratio of their concentrations. This is especially important since by using traditional methods for antibody affinity evaluation the admixture of low-affinity antibodies in a sample diminishes the accuracy in determination of specific antibody affinity. In addition, the presence of an admixture of low-affinity antibodies may be an important biological characteristic of the system under study; their revelation and the evaluation of their binding parameters may be valuable in many cases for obtaining a more complete characterization of the binding properties of the multiple antibodies generated in an immune response. PMID:20033900

Bobrovnik, Sergei A; Demchenko, Miroslava; Komisarenko, Sergei; Stevens, Fred

2010-01-01

234

Infrared spectroscopic method for analysis of Mg 2Ca(SO 4) 3 in mixtures with MgSO 4 and/or CaSO 4  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mg 2Ca(SO 4) 3 is prepared from, and may be found in, mixtures with MgSO 4 and CaSO 4. Such mixtures frequently occur in the ash produced by various types of coal combustion, especially in filter cakes from pressurized fluidized bed combustion with dolomite as a SO x sorbent. Previously, qualitative analyses could be performed for Mg 2Ca(SO 4) 3 in these mixtures, but no quantitative analytical method was available. An infrared spectroscopic method has been developed that provides reasonably quantitative results for Mg 2Ca(SO 4) 3, MgSO 4,and CaSO 4 in their mixtures.

Smith, Duane H.; Seshadri, Kal S.

1999-04-01

235

Is DNA barcoding actually cheaper and faster than traditional morphological methods: results from a survey of freshwater bioassessment efforts in the United States?  

PubMed

Taxonomic identification accounts for a substantial portion of cost associated with bioassessment programs across the United States. New analytical approaches, such as DNA barcoding have been promoted as a way to reduce monitoring costs and improve efficiency, yet this assumption has not been thoroughly evaluated. We address this question by comparing costs for traditional morphology-based bioassessment, the standard Sanger sequencing-based DNA barcoding approach, and emerging next-generation (NGS) molecular methods. Market demand for molecular approaches is also assessed through a survey of the level of freshwater bioassessment effort in the United States across multiple habitat types (lakes, streams, wetlands) and indicators (benthic invertebrates, fish, algae). All state and regional level programs administered by public agencies and reported via agency web sites were included in the survey. Costs were based on surveys of labs and programs willing to provide such information. More than 19,500 sites are sampled annually across the United States, with the majority of effort occurring in streams. Benthic invertebrates are the most commonly used indicator, but algae and fish comprise between 35% and 21% of total sampling effort, respectively. We estimate that between $104 and $193 million is spent annually on routine freshwater bioassessment in the United States. Approximately 30% of the bioassessment costs are comprised of the cost to conduct traditional morphology-based taxonomy. Current barcoding costs using Sanger sequencing are between 1.7 and 3.4 times as expensive as traditional taxonomic approaches, excluding the cost of field sampling (which is common to both approaches). However, the cost of NGS methods are comparable (or slightly less expensive) than traditional methods depending on the indicator. The promise of barcoding as a cheaper alternative to current practices is not yet realized, although molecular methods may provide other benefits, such as a faster sample processing and increased taxonomic resolution. PMID:24755838

Stein, Eric D; Martinez, Maria C; Stiles, Sara; Miller, Peter E; Zakharov, Evgeny V

2014-01-01

236

Is DNA Barcoding Actually Cheaper and Faster than Traditional Morphological Methods: Results from a Survey of Freshwater Bioassessment Efforts in the United States?  

PubMed Central

Taxonomic identification accounts for a substantial portion of cost associated with bioassessment programs across the United States. New analytical approaches, such as DNA barcoding have been promoted as a way to reduce monitoring costs and improve efficiency, yet this assumption has not been thoroughly evaluated. We address this question by comparing costs for traditional morphology-based bioassessment, the standard Sanger sequencing-based DNA barcoding approach, and emerging next-generation (NGS) molecular methods. Market demand for molecular approaches is also assessed through a survey of the level of freshwater bioassessment effort in the United States across multiple habitat types (lakes, streams, wetlands) and indicators (benthic invertebrates, fish, algae). All state and regional level programs administered by public agencies and reported via agency web sites were included in the survey. Costs were based on surveys of labs and programs willing to provide such information. More than 19,500 sites are sampled annually across the United States, with the majority of effort occurring in streams. Benthic invertebrates are the most commonly used indicator, but algae and fish comprise between 35% and 21% of total sampling effort, respectively. We estimate that between $104 and $193 million is spent annually on routine freshwater bioassessment in the United States. Approximately 30% of the bioassessment costs are comprised of the cost to conduct traditional morphology-based taxonomy. Current barcoding costs using Sanger sequencing are between 1.7 and 3.4 times as expensive as traditional taxonomic approaches, excluding the cost of field sampling (which is common to both approaches). However, the cost of NGS methods are comparable (or slightly less expensive) than traditional methods depending on the indicator. The promise of barcoding as a cheaper alternative to current practices is not yet realized, although molecular methods may provide other benefits, such as a faster sample processing and increased taxonomic resolution.

Stein, Eric D.; Martinez, Maria C.; Stiles, Sara; Miller, Peter E.; Zakharov, Evgeny V.

2014-01-01

237

Simultaneous quantification of six major phenolic acids in the roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza and four related traditional Chinese medicinal preparations by HPLC–DAD method  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high-performance liquid chromatographic method was applied to the determination of danshensu, protocatechuic aldehyde, rosmarinic acid, lithospermic acid, salvianolic acid B and salvianolic acid A in the roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza and four related traditional Chinese medicinal preparations. The six phenolic acids were simultaneously analyzed with a Zorbax Extend C18 column by gradient elution using 0.026% (v\\/v) phosphoric acid and

Ai-Hua Liu; Lie Li; Man Xu; Yan-Hua Lin; Hong-Zhu Guo; De-An Guo

2006-01-01

238

Laboratory spectroscopic diagnostics of TLE-like air plasmas: methods to derive the rotational (gas) temperature in TLEs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laboratory low pressure (0.1 mbar < p < 2 mbar) glow air discharges have been studies by optical emission spectroscopy to illustrate several spectroscopic techniques that, depending on the available spectral resolution, could be implemented by different field spectrographs to experimentally quantify the gas temperature associated with Transient Luminous Events (TLEs) occurring at different altitudes including blue jets, giant blue jets and sprites. The laboratory air plasmas investigated have been analysed from the near UV (300 nm) to the near IR (1060 nm) with high (up to 0.01 nm) and low (2 nm) spectral resolution commercial grating spectrographs and by an in-house developed intensified CCD grating spectrograph that we have recently developed in our group at IAA - CSIC for TLE spectral diagnostic surveys with 0.45 nm spectral resolution. We discuss the results of laboratory tests and comment on the convenience of using one or another technique for rotational (gas) temperature determination during TLE spectroscopic campaigns. Finally, we will also show a comparison of the vibrational distribution function (VDF) of N2(B) obtained from (a) experiments in low pressure laboratory air plasmas produced in conditions similar to TLEs, (b) spectroscopic emissions from real TLE air plasmas and (c) compute from kinetic modeling.

Gordillo-Vazquez, F.; Parra-Rojas, F.; Passas, M.; Carrasco, E.; Luque, A.; Tanarro, I.; Simek, M.

2013-12-01

239

Raman spectroscopic analysis of human tissue engineered oral mucosa constructs (EVPOME) perturbed by physical and biochemical methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show the application of near-infrared Raman Spectroscopy to in-vitro monitoring of the viability of tissue constructs (EVPOMEs). During their two week production period EVPOME may encounter thermal, chemical or biochemical stresses that could cause development to cease, rendering the affected constructs useless. We discuss the development of a Raman spectroscopic technique to study EVPOMEs noninvasively, with the ultimate goal of applying it in-vivo. We identify Raman spectroscopic failure indicators for EVPOMEs, which are stressed by temperature, and discuss the implications of varying calcium concentration and pre-treatment of the human keratinocytes with Rapamycin. In particular, Raman spectra show correlation of the peak height ratios of CH2 deformation to phenylalanine ring breathing, providing a Raman metric to distinguish between viable and nonviable constructs. We also show the results of singular value decomposition analysis, demonstrating the applicability of Raman spectroscopic technique to both distinguish between stressed and non-stressed EVPOME constructs, as well as between EVPOMEs and bare AlloDerm® substrates, on which the oral keratinocytes have been cultured. We also discuss complications arising from non-uniform thickness of the AlloDerm® substrate and the cultured constructs, as well as sampling protocols used to detect local stress and other problems that may be encountered in the constructs.

Khmaladze, Alexander; Ganguly, Arindam; Raghavan, Mekhala; Kuo, Shiuhyang; Cole, Jacqueline H.; Marcelo, Cynthia L.; Feinberg, Stephen E.; Izumi, Kenji; Morris, Michael D.

2012-02-01

240

A comparative study on the traditional Indian Shodhana and Chinese processing methods for aconite roots by characterization and determination of the major components  

PubMed Central

Background Aconitum is an indispensable entity of the traditional medicine therapy in Ayurveda and Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), in spite of its known fatal toxicity characteristics. The prolonged use of this drug, irrespective of its known lethal effects, is governed by the practice of effective detoxification processes that have been used for decades. However, the processing methods of Ayurveda and TCM are different, and no comparative study has been carried out to evaluate their differences. The objective of the present study was to carry out comparative chemical profiling of the roots of Aconitum heterophyllum Wall, A. carmichaelii Debx., and A. kusnezoffii Reichb. after application of two detoxification methods used in Ayurveda and one method used in TCM . Results Analysis of the processed samples was carried out by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography combined with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF/MS). The results obtained in the study demonstrate that all three processing methods used in Ayurveda and TCM effectively extract the diester diterpenoid alkaloids and led to their conversion into monoester diterpenoid alkaloids. The efficiency of the processes in reduction of toxic alkaloid contents can be stated as: Processing with water?>?Shodhana with cow milk?>?Shodhana with cow urine. The analysis method was validated as per ICH-Q2R1 guidelines and all the parameters were found to comply with the recommendations stated in the guidelines. Conclusions There have been no reports till date, to compare the processing methods used in Ayurveda with the methods used in TCM for detoxification of aconite roots. Our study demonstrates that, these methods used in both the traditional systems of medicine, efficiently detoxify the aconite roots. Amongst the three selected procedures, the TCM method of decoction with water is the most efficient. Through experimental evidences, we prove the conversion of toxic diester diterpenoid alkaloids to relatively safer monoester diterpenoid alkaloids. Thus, this study demonstrates that comparative study on the traditional experiences accumulated in different medical systems is useful for expanding their respective applications.

2013-01-01

241

Tradition in Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the influence of tradition in science on selection of scientific problems and methods and on the use of concepts as tools for research work. Indicates that future research studies will be directed toward the change of fundamental concepts in such fields as astrophysics, molecular biology, and environmental science. (CC)

Heisenberg, Werner

1973-01-01

242

Two novel butanol rhamnosides from an Indian traditional herb, Euphorbia hirta  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two novel butanol rhamnopyranosides (1 and 2), along with nine known compounds (3–11), have been isolated from various non-polar and polar extracts of an Indian traditional herb, Euphorbia hirta. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated as n-butyl-1-O-?-L-rhamnopyranoside (1) and n-butyl-1-O-?-L-rhamnopyranoside (2) by spectroscopic methods including IR, HR-FABMS, 1D and 2D NMR techniques.

U. V. Mallavadhani; K. Narasimhan

2009-01-01

243

Virtual Reality Anatomy: Is It Comparable with Traditional Methods in the Teaching of Human Forearm Musculoskeletal Anatomy?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of cadavers to teach anatomy is well established, but limitations with this approach have led to the introduction of alternative teaching methods. One such method is the use of three-dimensional virtual reality computer models. An interactive, three-dimensional computer model of human forearm anterior compartment musculoskeletal anatomy…

Codd, Anthony M.; Choudhury, Bipasha

2011-01-01

244

Digital assist: A comparison of two note-taking methods (traditional vs. digital pen) for students with emotional behavioral disorders  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High school biology classes traditionally follow a lecture format to disseminate content and new terminology. With the inclusive practices of No Child Left Behind, the Common Core State Standards, and end-of-course exam requirement for high school diplomas, classes include a large range of achievement levels and abilities. Teachers assume, often incorrectly, that students come to class prepared to listen and take notes. In a standard diploma, high school biology class in a separate school for students with emotional and behavioral disorders, five students participated in a single-subject, alternating treatment design study that compared the use of regular pens and digital pens to take notes during 21 lecture sessions. Behavior measures were threefold between the two interventions: (a) quantity of notes taken per minute during lectures, (b) quantity of notes or notations taken during review pauses, and (c) percent of correct responses on the daily comprehension quizzes. The study's data indicated that two students were inclined to take more lecture notes when using the digital pen. Two students took more notes with the regular pen. One student demonstrated no difference in her performance with either pen type. Both female students took more notes per minute, on average, than the three males regardless of pen type. During the review pause, three of the five students only added notes or notations to their notes when using the regular pen. The remaining two students did not add to their notes. Quiz scores differed in favor of the regular pen. All five participants earned higher scores on quizzes given during regular pen sessions. However, the differences were minor, and recommendations are made for specific training in note-taking, the pause strategy, and digital pen fluency which may produce different results for both note-taking and quiz scores.

Rody, Carlotta A.

245

Spectroscopic detection  

DOEpatents

In embodiments, spectroscopic monitor monitors modulated light signals to detect low levels of contaminants and other compounds in the presence of background interference. The monitor uses a spectrometer that includes a transmissive modulator capable of causing different frequency ranges to move onto and off of the detector. The different ranges can include those with the desired signal and those selected to subtract background contributions from those with the desired signal. Embodiments of the system are particularly useful for monitoring metal concentrations in combustion effluent.

Woskov, Paul P. (Bedford, MA); Hadidi, Kamal (Cambridge, MA)

2003-01-01

246

Raman spectroscopic method for the determination of medroxyprogesterone acetate in a pharmaceutical suspension: validation of quantifying abilities, uncertainty assessment and comparison with the high performance liquid chromatography reference method  

Microsoft Academic Search

An alternative fast and non-destructive validated Raman spectroscopic analytical procedure, requiring no sample preparation, was compared with the industrially applied HPLC reference method (Pfizer Manufacturing Belgium) for the quantitative determination of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) in DepoProvera® suspensions (150mgmL?1, Pfizer). The Raman calibration model was developed by plotting the peak intensity of the baseline-corrected and normalized spectral band (corrected by external

T. R. M. De Beer; W. R. G. Baeyens; A. Vermeire; D. Broes; J. P. Remon; C. Vervaet

2007-01-01

247

The culture of traditional preservice elementary science methods students compared to the culture of science: A dilemma for teacher educators  

Microsoft Academic Search

An emergent design qualitative study generated grounded theory explaining what happened when a professor taught five preservice\\u000a elementary science methods classes modeling inquiry. Data sources included classroom observations, interviews, students’ reflective\\u000a journals, and artifacts from other student assignments. Member checking was done with individuals and groups during each course\\u000a and in exit interviews Findings suggested students’ expectations for learning and

Barbara S. Spector; Paschal N. Strong

2001-01-01

248

Grafting computer projected simulations and interactive engagement methods within a traditional classroom setting: The influence on secondary level students' understanding of Newtonian mechanics and on attitudes towards physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research explored the effects of a constructivist approach using computer projected simulations (CPS) and interactive engagement (IE) methods on 12th grade school students. The treatment lasted 18 weeks during the 1999-2000 fall semester and seeked to evaluate three variations in students': (1)conceptual understanding of Newtonian mechanics as measured by the Force Concept Inventory (FCI), (2)modification of their views about science as measured by the Views About Science Survey (VASS), and (3)achievement on traditional examinations, as measured by their end of semester grades. Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) was applied to determine the differences between the mean scores of the experimental group students, and students of the control group, who were exposed to traditional teaching methods only. The FCI data analysis showed that, after 18 weeks, conceptual understanding of Newtonian mechanics had markedly improved only in the experimental group (F(1,99) = 44.739, p < .001). By contrast, there was no statistically significant difference in students' performance on the VASS instrument for both groups (F(1,99) = .033, p = .856), confirming previous and comparable findings for studies of short implementation period. The lack of statistically significant difference between the control and experimental groups in graded achievement, while controlling for students' previous achievement, was unexpected (F(1,99) = 1.178, p = .280). It is suggested that in this particular setting, the influence of a technical factor may have been overlooked: the monitored and systematic drill exercises using elaborate math formulae to prepare students for traditional math-loaded exams. Still, despite being intentionally deprived of such preparation throughout the study, students of the experimental group did not achieve less than their counterpart, and in addition, they had gained a satisfactory understanding of Newtonian mechanics. This result points unmistakably at a plausible positive correlation between a better grasp of basic concepts in physics in a challenging and active engagement environment, and unproblematic achievement in traditional exams. Despite the modest sample size of the studied groups, students here, as elsewhere in the world, show a manifest readiness and capacity to master proper understanding of Newtonian mechanics when induced by the IE methods in a constructivist, semi-Socratic, environment.

Zoubeir, Wassim Fouad

249

Into the environment of mosquito-borne disease: A spatial analysis of vector distribution using traditional and remotely sensed methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spatially explicit information is increasingly available for infectious disease modeling. However, such information is reluctantly or inappropriately incorporated. My dissertation research uses spatially explicit data to assess relationships between landscape and mosquito species distribution and discusses challenges regarding accurate predictive risk modeling. The goal of my research is to use remotely sensed environmental information and spatial statistical methods to better understand mosquito-borne disease epidemiology for improvement of public health responses. In addition to reviewing the progress of spatial infectious disease modeling, I present four research projects. I begin by evaluating the biases in surveillance data and build up to predictive modeling of mosquito species presence. In the first study I explore how mosquito surveillance trap types influence estimations of mosquito populations. Then. I use county-based human surveillance data and landscape variables to identify risk factors for West Nile virus disease. The third study uses satellite-based vegetation indices to identify spatial variation among West Nile virus vectors in an urban area and relates the variability to virus transmission dynamics. Finally, I explore how information from three satellite sensors of differing spatial and spectral resolution can be used to identify and distinguish mosquito habitat across central Connecticut wetlands. Analyses presented here constitute improvements to the prediction of mosquito distribution and therefore identification of disease risk factors. Current methods for mosquito surveillance data collection are labor intensive and provide an extremely limited, incomplete picture of the species composition and abundance. Human surveillance data offers additional challenges with respect to reporting bias and resolution, but is nonetheless informative in identifying environmental risk factors and disease transmission dynamics. Remotely sensed imagery supports mosquito and human disease surveillance data by providing spatially explicit, line resolution information about environmental factors relevant to vector-borne disease processes. Together, surveillance and remotely sensed environmental data facilitate improved description and modeling of disease transmission. Remote sensing can be used to develop predictive maps of mosquito distribution in relation to disease risk. This has implications for increased accuracy of mosquito control efforts. The projects presented in this dissertation enhance current public health capacities by examining the applications of spatial modeling with respect to mosquito-borne disease.

Brown, Heidi E.

250

Traditional statistical methods for evaluating prediction models are uninformative as to clinical value: towards a decision analytic framework  

PubMed Central

Cancer prediction models are becoming ubiquitous, yet we generally have no idea whether they do more good than harm. This is because current statistical methods for evaluating prediction models are uninformative as to their clinical value. Prediction models are typically evaluated in terms of discrimination or calibration. However, it is generally unclear how high discrimination needs to be before it is considered “high enough”; similarly, there are no rationale guidelines as to the degree of miscalibration that would discount clinical use of a model. Classification tables do present the results of models in more clinically relevant terms, but it is not always clear which of two models is preferable on the basis of a particular classification table, or even whether either model should be used at all. Recent years have seen the development of straightforward decision analytic techniques that evaluate prediction models in terms of their consequences. This depends on the simple approach of weighting true and false positives differently, to reflect that, for example, delaying the diagnosis of a cancer is more harmful than an unnecessary biopsy. Such decision analytic techniques hold the promise of determining whether clinical implementation of prediction models would do more good than harm.

Vickers, Andrew J.; Cronin, Angel M.

2010-01-01

251

The Nishino Breathing Method and Ki-energy (Life-energy): A Challenge to Traditional Scientific Thinking.  

PubMed

The breathing method, which was developed and is being taught by Kozo Nishino, a Japanese Ki-expert, is for raising the levels of Ki-energy (life-energy or the vitality) of an individual. It is neither a therapy nor a healing technique. However, many of his students have experienced an improvement in their health, and in some cases, they were able to overcome health problems by themselves. Since this is an interesting subject from the standpoint of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), we have been collaborating with Nishino to conduct a scientific investigation of his Ki-energy. We found that Nishino's Ki-energy can inhibit cell division of cancer cells, protect isolated mitochondria from heat deterioration and reduce lipid peroxidation in heat-treated mitochondria. Although Ki-energy may consist of several different energy forms, we found that at least one of them is near-infrared radiation between the wavelength range of 0.8 and 2.7 microm. Another interesting observation at his school is the Taiki-practice (paired Ki-practice). During this practice, Nishino can 'move' his students without any physical contact. Many of them run, jump or roll on the floor when they receive his Ki-energy. We studied this and propose that 'information' is conveyed through the air between two individuals by Ki-energy. This may be called a five sense-independent, life-to-life communication by Ki. All of our results suggest that we should re-evaluate the Cartesian dualism (separation of mind and body) which has been a fundamental principle of modern science for the past three centuries. PMID:16786048

Ohnishi, S Tsuyoshi; Ohnishi, Tomoko

2006-06-01

252

High-expression ?(1) adrenergic receptor/cell membrane chromatography method based on a target receptor to screen active ingredients from traditional Chinese medicines.  

PubMed

?-Adrenergic receptors are important targets for drug discovery. We have developed a new ?1 -adrenergic receptor cell membrane chromatography (?1 AR-CMC) with offline ultra-performance LC (UPLC) and MS method for screening active ingredients from traditional Chinese medicines. In this study, Chinese hamster ovary-S cells with high ?1 AR expression levels were established and used to prepare a cell membrane stationary phase in a ?1 AR-CMC model. The retention fractions were separated and identified by the UPLC-MS system. The screening results found that isoimperatorin from Rhizoma et Radix Notopterygii was the targeted component that could act on ?1 AR in similar manner of metoprolol as a control drug. In addition, the biological effects of active component were also investigated in order to search for a new type of ?1 AR antagonist. It will be a useful method for drug discovery as a leading compound resource. PMID:24272943

Yue, Yuan; Xue, Hui; Wang, Xin; Yang, Qian; Song, Yanhong; Li, Xiaoni

2014-02-01

253

Revisiting regional flood frequency analysis in Slovakia: the region-of-influence method vs. traditional regional approaches  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During the last 10-15 years, the Slovak hydrologists and water resources managers have been devoting considerable efforts to develop statistical tools for modelling probabilities of flood occurrence in a regional context. Initially, these models followed concepts to regional flood frequency analysis that were based on fixed regions, later the Hosking and Wallis's (HW; 1997) theory was adopted and modified. Nevertheless, it turned out to be that delineating homogeneous regions using these approaches is not a straightforward task, mostly due to the complex orography of the country. In this poster we aim at revisiting flood frequency analyses so far accomplished for Slovakia by adopting one of the pooling approaches, i.e. the region-of-influence (ROI) approach (Burn, 1990). In the ROI approach, unique pooling groups of similar sites are defined for each site under study. The similarity of sites is defined through Euclidean distance in the space of site attributes that had also proved applicability in former cluster analyses: catchment area, afforested area, hydrogeological catchment index and the mean annual precipitation. The homogeneity of the proposed pooling groups is evaluated by the built-in homogeneity test by Lu and Stedinger (1992). Two alternatives of the ROI approach are examined: in the first one the target size of the pooling groups is adjusted to the target return period T of the estimated flood quantiles, while in the other one, the target size is fixed, regardless of the target T. The statistical models of the ROI approach are inter-compared by the conventional regionalization approach based on the HW methodology where the parameters of flood frequency distributions were derived by means of L-moment statistics and a regional formula for the estimation of the index flood was derived by multiple regression methods using physiographic and climatic catchment characteristics. The inter-comparison of different frequency models is evaluated by means of the root mean square error of data from Monte Carlo simulations. The analysis is based on the annual peak discharges from 168 small and mid-sized catchments from Slovakia. The study is supported by the Grant Agency of AS CR under project B300420801; the Slovak Research and Development Agency under the contract No. APVV-0443-07 and the Slovak VEGA Grant Agency under the project No. 1/0103/10. Burn, D.H., 1990: Evaluation of regional flood frequency analysis with a region of influence approach. Water Resources Research, 26(10), 2257-2265. Hosking, J.R.M., Wallis, J.R., 1997: Regional frequency analysis: an approach based on L-moments. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. Lu, L.-H., Stedinger, J.R., 1992: Sampling variance of normalized GEV/PWM quantile estimators and a regional homogeneity test. Journal of Hydrology, 138(1-2), 223-245.

Gaál, Ladislav; Kohnová, Silvia; Szolgay, Ján.

2010-05-01

254

Challenging tradition in Nigeria.  

PubMed

In Nigeria since 1987, the National Association of Nigeria Nurses and Midwives (NSNNM) has used traditional medial and traditional health care workers to curtail the practice of female circumcision. Other harmful traditions are being changed also, such as early marriage, taboos of pregnancy and childbirth, and scarification. 30,000 member of NANNM are involved in this effort to halt the harmful practices themselves and to change community opinion. The program involved national and state level workshops on harmful health consequences of traditional practices and instruction on how to conduct focus group discussions to assess women's beliefs and practices. The focus groups were found to be a particularly successful method of opening up discussion of taboo topics and expressing deep emotions. The response to the knowledge that circumcision was not necessary was rage and anger, which was channeled into advocacy roles or change in the practice. The result was the channeled into advocacy roles for change in the practice. The result was the development of books, leaflets and videos. One community group designed a dress with a decorative motif of tatoos and bodily cuts to symbolize circumcision and scarring. Plays and songs were written and performed. Artists provided models of female genitalia both before and after circumcision. The campaign has been successful in bringing this issue to the public attention in prominent ways, such a national television, health talk shows, and women;s magazines. One of the most important results of the effort has been the demonstration that culture and tradition can be changed from within, rather than from outside imposition of values and beliefs. PMID:12284522

Supriya, K E

1991-01-01

255

Hybrid coupled cluster methods based on the split virtual orbitals: barrier heights of reactions and spectroscopic constants of open-shell diatomic molecules.  

PubMed

We report an efficient implementation of the coupled cluster (CC) singles, doubles, and a hybrid treatment of triples based on the split virtual orbitals (SVO-CCSD(T)-h) method [J. Chem. Phys.2012, 136, 044101]. In this approach, virtual orbitals are split into two subsets, and correspondingly triple excitations are divided into active and inactive subsets. The active triple excitations are treated with the CCSDt (CC singles, doubles, and active triples) method, while the inactive triple excitations are treated with the CCSD(T) (CC singles, doubles, and perturbative triples) method. In the present work, the use of semicanonical molecular orbitals allows the CCSD(T)-like equations in SVO-CCSD(T)-h to be solved without iteration. As a result, the present SVO-CCSD(T)-h scheme does not need a large disk space to store the large number of triple excitation amplitudes, which is required by the original scheme. Test applications indicate that the present method can give results almost identical to those of the original scheme. The present method is then applied to investigate the reaction barriers for a number of simple reactions and spectroscopic constants including the equilibrium bond lengths and vibrational frequencies in several open-shell diatomic molecules. The SVO-CCSD(T)-h method is demonstrated to provide a significant improvement upon the CCSD(T) method in many cases. PMID:23270485

Kou, Zhuangfei; Shen, Jun; Xu, Enhua; Li, Shuhua

2013-01-24

256

Exploring potential chemical markers by metabolomics method for studying the processing mechanism of traditional Chinese medicine using RPLC-Q-TOF/MS: a case study of Radix Aconiti  

PubMed Central

Background Pao zhi is a common traditional approach that usually occurs before most herbs are prescribed whereby during processing, secondary plant metabolites are transformed, thus helping to increase potency, reduce toxicity and altering their effects. Using Radix Aconiti (Chuan Wu, CW) as a model herb, suitable chemical markers are crucial for studying the processing mechanisms of these herbs. Results In this study, the comprehensive metabolomic characters of CW and Prepared CW (ZCW) by RPLC-Q-TOF/MS were investigated to guarantee clinical safety. Multivariate analyses successfully identified specific metabolite changes between CW and ZCW. In addition, 22 key biomarkers responsible for the detoxifying actions of pao zhi were discovered. The processing mechanism of CW were discussed according to the identified metabolites. This method is efficient, providing more accurate characterisations of traditional pao zhi detoxification. Conclusions The proposed strategy proves that RPLC-Q-TOF/MS-based metabolomic analysis does not only explore chemical markers but can also provide a comprehensive understanding of the transformation mechanisms underlying pao zhi.

2013-01-01

257

Synthesis, spectroscopic and structural studies on YOF, LaOF and GdOF nanocrystals doped with Eu3+, synthesized via stearic acid method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanocrystalline Eu3+ doped REOF oxofluorides (where RE = Y, La, Gd) were synthesized using stearic acid as the reaction medium. Optimal conditions for the synthesis of pure and single-phased oxyfluorides were found. The obtained products were analysed using thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray analysis, transmission electron microscopy and the Rietveld method. The influence of calcination temperature on the physicochemical properties was studied. Spectroscopic properties of the tetragonal and rhombohedral oxyfluoride nanocrystals were investigated using excitation and emission spectra and luminescence lifetime measurements. Effectiveness of the Eu3+ dopant red emission intensity and energy transfer processes were examined in relation to the structure and the presence of the RE ion in oxyfluorides studied. The highest luminescence efficiency was observed for the GdOF:Eu3+ nanomaterial. Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters were calculated and analysed.

Grzyb, Tomasz; W?c?awiak, Mariusz; P?dzi?ski, Tomasz; Lis, Stefan

2013-10-01

258

In vitro studies on the interaction between human serum albumin and fosfomycin disodium salt, an antibiotic drug by multi-spectroscopic and molecular docking methods.  

PubMed

The interaction between the human serum albumin (HSA) and drug, fosfomycin disodium salt (FOS) has been studied by different spectroscopic techniques. The experimental results showed a static quenching mechanism in the interaction of FOS with HSA. The number of binding sites, n and observed binding constant K a were measured by fluorescence quenching method. The thermodynamic parameters ?G°, ?H° and ?S° were calculated according to van't Hoff equation. The calculated distance r between FOS and the protein is evaluated according to the theory of Förster energy transfer. A change in the secondary structure of the protein was evident from the circular dichroism measurements, synchronous fluorescence and three-dimensional fluorescence spectra. PMID:24443227

Meti, Manjunath D; Byadagi, Kirthi S; Nandibewoor, Sharanappa T; Joshi, Shrinivas D; More, Uttam A; Chimatadar, Shivamurti A

2014-04-01

259

Interaction of coomassie brilliant blue G250 with human serum albumin: Probing of the binding mechanism and binding site by spectroscopic and molecular modeling methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interaction between coomassie brilliant blue G250 and human serum albumin was investigated by spectroscopic methods such as fluorescence quenching, synchronous fluorescence , 3D fluorescence spectra, circular dichroism spectra and UV-vis absorption as well as molecular modeling. The fluorescence quenching of human serum albumin by coomassie brilliant blue G250 was attributed to static interaction. The binding reaction was mainly enthalpy-driven. Both van der Waals and hydrogen bonding forces played major roles in stabilizing the coomassie brilliant blue G250-human serum albumin complex. The Stern-Volmer quenching constant ( KSV) and corresponding thermodynamic parameters (? H?, ? G? and ? S?) were determined. Site marker competitive experiments indicated that coomassie brilliant blue G250 bound to site I (subdomain IIA) of human serum albumin. Molecular docking study further confirmed the binding mode obtained by experimental study. The conformational investigation demonstrated very minor micro-environmental and conformational changes in human serum albumin molecules.

Li, Yue-Sheng; Ge, Yu-Shu; Zhang, Yue; Zhang, Ai-Qing; Sun, Shao-Fa; Jiang, Feng-Lei; Liu, Yi

2010-04-01

260

Insight into the roles of earthworm in vermicomposting of sewage sludge by determining the water-extracts through chemical and spectroscopic methods.  

PubMed

This work illustrated the effects of earthworm in vermicomposting (Eisenia fetida) by determining the water-extracts through chemical and spectroscopic methods. A field experiment with sludge as the only feed was subjected to vermicomposting and the control (without worms) for three weeks. Compared to the control, vermicomposting resulted in lower pH and water-extractable organic carbon (WEOC) along with higher electrical conductivity (EC). Moreover, vermicomposting caused nearly two times higher content of water-extractable nitrate (WEN-NO3(-)) than the control. Furthermore, fourier transform infrared spectra (FT-IR) revealed that vermicomposting promoted the hydrolysis/transformation of macromolecular organic matters and accelerated the degradation of polysaccharide-like and protein-like materials. Fluorescence spectroscopy also reflected vermicomposting led to higher humification degree than the control. In all, this study supplies a new view to assess the roles of earthworm in vermicomposting of sewage sludge by evaluating the water extracts. PMID:24384315

Yang, Jian; Lv, Baoyi; Zhang, Jie; Xing, Meiyan

2014-02-01

261

Are traditional methods of determining nest predators and nest fates reliable? An experiment with Wood Thrushes (Hylocichla mustelina) using miniature video cameras  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We used miniature infrared video cameras to monitor Wood Thrush (Hylocichla mustelina) nests during 1998-2000. We documented nest predators and examined whether evidence at nests can be used to predict predator identities and nest fates. Fifty-six nests were monitored; 26 failed, with 3 abandoned and 23 depredated. We predicted predator class (avian, mammalian, snake) prior to review of video footage and were incorrect 57% of the time. Birds and mammals were underrepresented whereas snakes were over-represented in our predictions. We documented ???9 nest-predator species, with the southern flying squirrel (Glaucomys volans) taking the most nests (n = 8). During 2000, we predicted fate (fledge or fail) of 27 nests; 23 were classified correctly. Traditional methods of monitoring nests appear to be effective for classifying success or failure of nests, but ineffective at classifying nest predators.

Williams, G. E.; Wood, P. B.

2002-01-01

262

Quality of life, coping strategies and support needs of women seeking Traditional Chinese Medicine for infertility and viable pregnancy in Australia: a mixed methods approach  

PubMed Central

Background Infertility affects about 15% of couples in Western-societies with most progressing to fertility clinics for treatment. Despite being common, infertility is often experienced as a lonely road for affected couples. In this paper we expand on our previously published findings of women’s experiences with infertility or difficulty of viable pregnancy who had sought Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) therapy in Australia, and focus on women’s quality of life, coping strategies, and support needs. Methods We applied mixed methods using the Tuebingen Quality of Life and the COPE questionnaires and in-depth interviews with 25 women with primary or secondary infertility, recurrent miscarriages or unexplained stillbirth, and who had consulted a TCM practitioner. We used a thematic approach to analyse the interviews, and descriptive statistics to evaluate questionnaire responses. Results Women reported through both questionnaires and interviews compromised quality of life due to the high level of distress, guilt, grief, and frustration caused by infertility. However, our women represented a highly motivated sample, actively seeking alternative support. While the TCM approach to infertility management increased women’s sense of personal agency and control through education and continuity of care, the need for greater understanding and support on a societal level remains. Conclusions In infertility, ongoing emotional and instrumental support is pivotal to the wellbeing and quality of life of the affected. Traditional Chinese Medicine addresses some support needs in infertility not routinely available in the Western model of care. More peer-led and professional-led support groups are greatly needed for women experiencing infertility to help break isolation and raise awareness of integrative approaches to fertility management.

2013-01-01

263

Culture-independent analysis of the microbial composition of the African traditional fermented foods poto poto and dégué by using three different DNA extraction methods.  

PubMed

The microbial composition of the traditional fermented foods poto poto (a maize dough from the Rep. of Congo) and dégué (a millet dough from Burkina Faso) was studied by a culture-independent approach using TTGE to separate the amplified target V3 region of the 16S rRNA gene from total microbial community, followed by DNA sequencing and homology search. Three different extraction methods were used. Guanidium thiocyanate-based DNA extraction provided better performance regarding purity and DNA yield, allowing the detection of a higher number of DNA bands by TTGE in poto poto. By contrast, all three methods yielded similar results for dégué samples, indicating that the performance of the DNA extraction method largely depends on the food composition. Sequencing of DNA bands from TTGE gels corresponding to poto poto samples revealed the presence of Lactobacillus gasseri, Enterococcus sp., Escherichia coli, Lactobacillus plantarum/paraplantarum, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii, Bacillus sp., Lactobacillus reuteri and Lactobacillus casei. The following bacteria were identified in dégué: L. gasseri, Enterococcus sp., E. coli, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus brevis, and L. casei. PMID:16842876

Abriouel, Hikmate; Ben Omar, Nabil; López, Rosario Lucas; Martínez-Cañamero, Madgalena; Keleke, Simon; Gálvez, Antonio

2006-10-01

264

Selection method of quasi-continuous wavelength combination with applications to the near-infrared spectroscopic analysis of soil organic matter.  

PubMed

Equidistant combination multiple linear regression (EC-MLR) for the quasi-continuous wavelength selection of spectroscopic analysis was proposed and successfully applied to the reagent-free determination of soil organic matter with near-infrared spectroscopy. For comparison, the continuous-mode moving window partial least squares (MWPLS) and the discrete-mode successive projections algorithm (SPA) were improved by considering the stability and applied to the same analysis object as well. All methods exhibited good effect, but the modeling accuracy, stability, and validation effect of EC-MLR were better than that of the other two methods. Compared with MWPLS, the optimal EC-MLR model contained only 16 wavelengths, and method complexity was substantially reduced. Compared with SPA-MLR, the optimal EC-MLR model could easily undergo spectral preprocessing to improve predictive capability. Moreover, appropriate equidistant discrete wavelength combination with EC-MLR corresponded to the spectral absorption band with proper resolution and can effectively overcome co-linearity interruption for the MLR model. Thus, the EC-MLR method has great potential in practical application and instrument design. PMID:24666942

Pan, Tao; Li, Minmiao; Chen, Jiemei

2014-03-01

265

A dynamic multiple reaction monitoring method for the multiple components quantification of complex traditional Chinese medicine preparations: Niuhuang Shangqing pill as an example.  

PubMed

It is a challenging task to simultaneously and quantitatively analyze multiple components in DFF [Da-Fu-Fang, namely, complex traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) preparations containing more than ten TCMs] due to their numerous and extreme complex chemical compositions possessing a wide variety of chemical and physical features, and their very low content. Rather than using a conventional mass spectrometry (MS) method with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM), in the current study, this challenge was addressed by using dynamic multiple reaction monitoring (DMRM). Using a DFF, Niuhuang Shangqing pill, which is composed of 19 TCMs, as a model, a rapid (one run in 20min), sensitive [lower limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantitation (LOQ) were achieved comparable with MRM] and accessible (a standard HPLC/MS/MS instrumentation was employed) MS method was successfully developed for the simultaneous quantification of 41 bioactive components which represented 15 of the 19 medicinal plants. A comparison of LOD and LOQ using MRM and DMRM was made to quantitatively reveal that the latter demonstrated advantages over the former. Meanwhile, a standard operating procedure concerning the development of a new DMRM method was recommended. The MS data were obtained in the positive ion mode with electrospray ionization as the ion source, acetonitrile and water as mobile phase and a Kinetex C18 core-shell column (100mm×2.10mm, 2.6?m, Phenomenex Inc.) as the analytical column. This method was then applied to 32 batches of samples. It transpired, through principal component analysis and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis, that the consistency of the products was relatively good within one company, but poor among different companies among the 32 samples; one failed to qualify in terms of the Chinese Pharmacopeia. This work illustrated that the proposed DMRM method was particularly suitable for quantifying the trace components in DFF and capable of ensuring the quality of DFF. PMID:23647610

Liang, Jian; Wu, Wan-ying; Sun, Guo-xiang; Wang, Dan-dan; Hou, Jin-jun; Yang, Wen-zhi; Jiang, Bao-hong; Liu, Xuan; Guo, De-an

2013-06-14

266

Spectroscopic diffraction phase microscopy.  

PubMed

We present spectroscopic diffraction phase microscopy (sDPM) as a method capable of measuring quantitative phase images at multiple wavelengths. sDPM uses a spatial light modulator at the Fourier plane of a lens to select desired wavelengths from the white light illumination of a grating. The quantitative phase information at different wavelengths allows us to decouple the refractive index and the thickness from the phase shift induced by biological cells. We demonstrate the capability of the setup by dispersion measurements of microsphere beads and RBCs. PMID:23381283

Pham, Hoa; Bhaduri, Basanta; Ding, Huafeng; Popescu, Gabriel

2012-08-15

267

Fouriertransform infrared spectroscopic imaging of prostate histopathology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Vibrational spectroscopic imaging techniques have emerged as powerful methods of obtaining sensitive spatially resolved molecular information from microscopic samples. The data obtained from such techniques reflect the intrinsic molecular chemistry of the sample and in particular yield a wealth of information regarding functional groups which comprise the majority of important molecules found in cells and tissue. These spectroscopic imaging techniques

Daniel Celestino Fernandez

2003-01-01

268

Developing a library of authenticated Traditional Chinese Medicinal (TCM) plants for systematic biological evaluation--rationale, methods and preliminary results from a Sino-American collaboration.  

PubMed

While the popularity of and expenditures for herbal therapies (aka "ethnomedicines") have increased globally in recent years, their efficacy, safety, mechanisms of action, potential as novel therapeutic agents, cost-effectiveness, or lack thereof, remain poorly defined and controversial. Moreover, published clinical trials evaluating the efficacy of herbal therapies have rightfully been criticized, post hoc, for their lack of quality assurance and reproducibility of study materials, as well as a lack of demonstration of plausible mechanisms and dosing effects. In short, clinical botanical investigations have suffered from the lack of a cohesive research strategy which draws on the expertise of all relevant specialties. With this as background, US and Chinese co-investigators with expertise in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), botany, chemistry and drug discovery, have jointly established a prototype library consisting of 202 authenticated medicinal plant and fungal species that collectively represent the therapeutic content of the majority of all commonly prescribed TCM herbal prescriptions. Currently housed at Harvard University, the library consists of duplicate or triplicate kilogram quantities of each authenticated and processed species, as well as "detanninized" extracts and sub-fractions of each mother extract. Each species has been collected at 2-3 sites, each separated geographically by hundreds of miles, with precise GPS documentation, and authenticated visually and chemically prior to testing for heavy metals and/or pesticides contamination. An explicit decision process has been developed whereby samples with the least contamination were selected to undergo ethanol extraction and HPLC sub-fractionation in preparation for high throughput screening across a broad array of biological targets including cancer biology targets. As envisioned, the subfractions in this artisan collection of authenticated medicinal plants will be tested for biological activity individually and in combinations (i.e., "complex mixtures") consistent with traditional ethnomedical practice. This manuscript summarizes the rationale, methods and preliminary "proof of principle" for the establishment of this prototype, authenticated medicinal plant library. It is hoped that these methods will foster scientific discoveries with therapeutic potential and enhance efforts to systematically evaluate commonly used herbal therapies worldwide. PMID:21108995

Eisenberg, David M; Harris, Eric S J; Littlefield, Bruce A; Cao, Shugeng; Craycroft, Jane A; Scholten, Robert; Bayliss, Peter; Fu, Yanling; Wang, Wenquan; Qiao, Yanjiang; Zhao, Zhongzhen; Chen, Hubiao; Liu, Yong; Kaptchuk, Ted; Hahn, William C; Wang, Xiaoxing; Roberts, Thomas; Shamu, Caroline E; Clardy, Jon

2011-01-01

269

Simultaneous quantitative determination of nine active chemical compositions in traditional Chinese medicine Glycyrrhiza by RP-HPLC with full-time five-wavelength fusion method.  

PubMed

A new, simple, accurate and reliable full-time five-wavelength fusion method for the simultaneous separation and determination of nine active chemical compositions (liquiritin apioside, liquiritin, isoliquiritin apioside, ononin, isoliquiritin, liquiritigenin, calycosin, isoliquiritigenin, Glycyrrhizic acid monoammonium salt) in traditional Chinese medicine Glycyrrhiza was developed using reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) coupled with a diode-array detector (DAD). The chromatographic separation was performed on an Agilent TC-C18 column with gradient elution using 0.04% methanoic acid (A) and acetonitrile (B) at a flow rate of 1.0 mL min(-1) and UV detection at 248 nm, 250 nm, 276 nm, 362 nm, 370 nm. The standard curves were linear over the range of 2.1379-12.8272 ?g for liquiritin apioside, 3.9299-23.5794 ?g for liquiritin, 1.0432-6.2592 ?g for isoliquiritin apioside, 0.8764-5.8584 ?g for ononin, 1.0701-6.4205 ?g for isoliquiritin, 1.3685-8.2111 ?g for liquiritigenin, 0.3927-2.3563 ?g for calycosin, 0.2498- 1.4986 ?g for isoliquiritigenin, 2.0094-12.0564 ?g for Glycyrrhizic acid monoammonium salt, respectively (r(2) > 0.9997). The recoveries and relative standard deviation (RSD) varied from 95.09% to 103.54% and 1.09% to 2.36%, respectively. The precision for all the analytes was less than 2.52%. The method indicated good performance in terms of precision, accuracy and linearity. The method enabled the simultaneous determination of nine active chemical compositions for quality control of Glycyrrhiza. PMID:23336517

Wu, Yin-Ping; Meng, Xian-Sheng; Bao, Yong-Rui; Wang, Shuai; Kang, Ting-Guo

2013-01-01

270

Determination of the weight percentage gain and of the acetyl group content of acetylated wood by means of different infrared spectroscopic methods.  

PubMed

The weight percentage gain (WPG) and the acetyl group content of wood due to acetylation with acetic anhydride have been analyzed by means of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR). Band height ratios (BHR) (1240/1030 (1230/1030) and 1745/1030 (1740/1030)) of the bands at 1745 (1740), 1240 (1230), and 1030 cm-1 were calculated from FTIR-KBr and FTIR-ATR (attenuated total reflection) spectra. The good linear correlation with a coefficient of determination of about 0.94 over a range from 0 to 27% WPG existing between BHRs and WPG and acetyl group content, respectively, requires only a few samples to calibrate FTIR. Partial least-squares regression models based on second derivatives of the NIR spectra in the wavenumber range from 6080 to 5760 cm-1 resulted in a R2 value of 0.99, number of PLS components (rank) between 3 and 5, root-mean-square error of cross-validation between 0.6 and 0.79%, and a residual prediction deviation up to 10. Although a wide range of input parameters (i.e., various wood species and different procedures of acetylation) was used, highly satisfactory results were obtained. Both FTIR and NIR spectroscopic means fulfill the need for determining the WPG and the acetyl content of acetylated wood. By reason of its additional potential for on-line process control, the NIR method may even outperform the FTIR method. PMID:18197697

Stefke, Barbara; Windeisen, Elisabeth; Schwanninger, Manfred; Hinterstoisser, Barbara

2008-02-15

271

Chemical and Physical Methods to Analyze a Multicomponent Traditional Chinese Herbal Prescription Using LC-MS/MS, Electron Microscope, and Congo Red Staining  

PubMed Central

This study develops several chemical and physical methods to evaluate the quality of a traditional Chinese formulation, Jia-Wei-Xiao-Yao-San. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) coupled with electrospray ionization was used to measure the herbal biomarkers of saikosaponin A, saikosaponin D, ferulic acid, and paeoniflorin from this herbal formula. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) and light microscopy photographs with Congo red staining were used to identify the cellulose fibers if raw herbal powder had been added to the herbal pharmaceutical product. Moreover, water solubility and crude fiber content examination were used to inspect for potential herbal additives to the herbal pharmaceutical products. The results demonstrate that the contents of the herbal ingredients of saikosaponin A, saikosaponin D, ferulic acid, and paeoniflorin were around 0.351?±?0.017, 0.136?±?0.010, 0.140?±?0.005, and 2.281?±?0.406?mg/g, respectively, for this herbal pharmaceutical product. The physical examination data demonstrate that the raw herbal powder had rough, irregular, lumpy, filamentous, and elongated shapes, as well as strong Congo red staining. In addition, water solubility and crude fiber content were not consistent in the herbal pharmaceutical products.

Lu, Chia-Ming; Lin, Lie-Chwen; Tsai, Tung-Hu

2013-01-01

272

Application of molecular genetics method for differentiating Martes zibellina L. heart from its adulterants in traditional Chinese medicine based on mitochondrial cytochrome b gene.  

PubMed

The use of Martes zibellina L. heart as a famous kind of traditional Chinese medicine has been documented for many years in China. Identification of its authenticity as raw materials became a key in controlling of herbal preparations. In this study, the characteristics of mitochondrial cytochrome b (Cyt b) gene from four species of Martes were explored, and a specific molecular genetics technique for identifying the heart of M. zibellina L. in addition to some close relatives from their counterfeits was established. The bioinformatics was carried out to design the primers for the Cyt b gene based on the different species of Martes. PCR and sequencing technology were performed. The mt DNA was extracted from all of fresh M. zibellina L., Martes melampus. Martes flavigula. Martes martes heart samples and dry M. zibellina L. heart powder through the modified alkaline extracting method in addition to its counterfeits including the chicken heart, duck heart, goose heart, rabbit heart and Mustela vison. The complete mt DNA was separated from all samples used in the study, and the Cyt b gene with 310 bp segments was amplified only from M. zibellina L. heart as DNA template by the PCR technique. The sequencing indicated that the segment amplified by the PCR was homologous with the species of M. zibellina in GenBank. The data revealed that the primers and selected segment could be used as the genetic markers to identify M. zibellina L. heart from its counterfeits among different animal species. PMID:23919324

Li, Mingcheng; Xia, Wei; Wang, Miao; Yang, Mingyan; Zhang, Lihua; Guo, Jie

2014-02-01

273

Components detected by means of solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in the headspace of artisan fresh goat cheese smoked by traditional methods.  

PubMed

The study of the headspace components of fresh smoked goat cheese, was carried out by means of solid-phase microextraction using a polyacrylate fiber followed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The samples studied were six artisan Palmero cheeses manufactured following traditional methods and smoked using pine needles. The cheese regions studied were exterior, interior, and a cross section. In total, more than 320 components were detected, the exterior region being the richest in components, among which were acids, alcohols, esters, hydrocarbons, aldehydes, ketones, furan and pyran derivatives, terpenes and sesquiterpenes, nitrogen derivatives, phenol, guaiacol and syringol derivatives, ethers, and others. In addition to typical cheese components, typical smoke components were also detected; these latter were present especially in the headspace of the exterior region and only those in significant concentrations in the exterior region were also detected in the interior. The main components were acids and phenolic derivatives. These latter compounds play an important role in the flavor of this cheese, and their relative proportions together with the presence of specific smoke components derived from pine leaves may be considered of interest in order to distinguish this cheese from others smoked with different vegetable matter. PMID:14762071

Guillén, M D; Ibargoitia, M L; Sopelana, P; Palencia, G; Fresno, M

2004-02-01

274

Family Traits and Traditions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners play a matching game with their families to discover common inherited traits and traditions. Learners distinguish between inherited traits and learned traditions. This genetics activity is available in English and Spanish.

Utah, University O.

2006-01-01

275

Correlation mapping: rapid method for identification of histological features and pathological classification in mid infrared spectroscopic images of lymph nodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, a novel technique for rapid image analysis of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) data obtained from human lymph nodes is explored. It uses the mathematical principle of orthogonality as a method to quickly and efficiently obtain tissue and pathology information from a spectral image cube. It requires less computational power and time compared to most forms of cluster

Martin Isabelle; Keith Rogers; Nicholas Stone

2010-01-01

276

Favorite Family Traditions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students use the text The Relatives Came by Cynthia Rylant as a springboard for discussion about family traditions. After identifying the traditions observed by the relatives, students meet in small groups to brainstorm new traditions that could arise from the families gathering together during the winter. The lesson is concluded by having each student write about their own favorite family tradition and share it with a small group.

2012-12-08

277

Aplicacion de metodos espectroscopicos para estudiar efectos de la radiacion en polimeros. (Application of spectroscopic methods to the study of ionizing radiation effects in polymers).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In general the interaction of ionizing radiation with polymers generates physic-chemical changes. Aiming to quantity these changes, three spectroscopic analytical techniques were used (UV, IR and EPR) and the chemical corrosion technique was used for thre...

G. Jimenez

1995-01-01

278

Atomic absorption spectroscopic, conductometric and colorimetric methods for determination of fluoroquinolone antibiotics using ammonium reineckate ion-pair complex formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three accurate, rapid and simple atomic absorption spectrometric, conductometric and colorimetric methods were developed for the determination of norfloxacin (NRF), ciprofloxacin (CIP), ofloxacin (OFL) and enrofloxacin (ENF). The proposed methods depend upon the reaction of ammonium reineckate with the studied drugs to form stable precipitate of ion-pair complexes, which was dissolved in acetone. The pink coloured complexes were determined either by AAS or colorimetrically at ?max 525 nm directly using the dissolved complex. Using conductometric titration, the studied drugs could be evaluated in 50% (v/v) acetone in the range 5.0-65, 4.0-48, 5.0-56 and 6.0-72 ?g ml -1 of NRF, CPF, OFL and ENF, respectively. The optimizations of various experimental conditions were described. The results obtained showed good recoveries of 99.15±1.15, 99.30±1.40, 99.60±1.50, and 99.00±1.25% with relative standard deviations of 0.81, 1.06, 0.97, and 0.69% for NRF, CPF, OFL, and ENF, respectively. Applications of the proposed methods to representative pharmaceutical formulations are successfully presented.

Ragab, Gamal H.; Amin, Alaa S.

2004-03-01

279

Development and Validation of a Stability-indicating UV Spectroscopic Method for Candesartan in Bulk and Formulations.  

PubMed

A simple, specific, accurate and stability-indicating UV- Spectrophotometric method was developed for the estimation of candesartan cilexitil, using a Shimadzu, model 1700 spectrophotometer and a mobile phase composed of methanol: water in the ratio of 9:1 at wave length (?(max)) 254 nm. Linearity was established for candesartan in the range of 10-90 ?g/ml. The percentage recovery of was found to be in the range of 99.76-100.79%. The drug was subjected to acid, alkali and neutral hydrolysis, oxidation, dry heat, UV light and photolytic degradation. Validation experiments performed to demonstrate system suitability, specificity, precision, linearity, accuracy, interday assay, intraday assay, robustness, ruggedness, LOD, and LOQ. While estimating the commercial formulation there was no interference of excipients and other additives. Hence this method can be used for routine determination of candesartan cilexetil in bulk and their pharmaceutical dosage forms. The proposed method for stability study shows that there was appreciable degradation found in stress condition of candesartan. PMID:23112408

Pradhan, K K; Mishra, U S; Pattnaik, S; Panda, C K; Sahu, K C

2011-11-01

280

Study on photophysical and aggregation induced emission recognition of 1,8-naphthalimide probe for casein by spectroscopic method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel water-soluble 1,8-naphthalimide derivative 1, bearing two acetic carboxylic groups, exhibited fluorescent turn-on recognition for casein based on the aggregation induced emission (AIE) character. The photophysical properties of 1 consisting of donor and acceptor units were investigated in different solutions. The fluorescence intensity decreased through taking advantage of twisted intramolecular charge transfer (TICT) and self-association emission with increasing solvent polarity. Moreover, the spectral red-shift and intensity quench in protic solvents were caused by the excited-state hydrogen bond strengthening effect. Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations revealed that 1 exhibited a strong TICT character. The AIE mechanism of 1 with casein was due to 1 docked in the hydrophobic cavity between sub-micelles and bound with Tyr and Trp residues, resulting in the aggregation of 1 on the casein surface and emission enhancement. Based on this, a novel casein assay method was developed. The proposed exhibited a good linear range from 0.1 to 22 ?g mL-1, with the detection limit of 2.8 ng mL-1. Satisfactory reproducibility, reversibility and a short response time were realized. This method was applied to the determination of casein in milk powder samples and the results were in good agreement with the result of Biuret method.

Sun, Yang; Liu, Zhen; Liang, Xuhua; Fan, Jun; Han, Quan

2013-05-01

281

Development and Validation of a Stability-indicating UV Spectroscopic Method for Candesartan in Bulk and Formulations  

PubMed Central

A simple, specific, accurate and stability-indicating UV- Spectrophotometric method was developed for the estimation of candesartan cilexitil, using a Shimadzu, model 1700 spectrophotometer and a mobile phase composed of methanol: water in the ratio of 9:1 at wave length (?max) 254 nm. Linearity was established for candesartan in the range of 10-90 ?g/ml. The percentage recovery of was found to be in the range of 99.76-100.79%. The drug was subjected to acid, alkali and neutral hydrolysis, oxidation, dry heat, UV light and photolytic degradation. Validation experiments performed to demonstrate system suitability, specificity, precision, linearity, accuracy, interday assay, intraday assay, robustness, ruggedness, LOD, and LOQ. While estimating the commercial formulation there was no interference of excipients and other additives. Hence this method can be used for routine determination of candesartan cilexetil in bulk and their pharmaceutical dosage forms. The proposed method for stability study shows that there was appreciable degradation found in stress condition of candesartan.

Pradhan, K. K.; Mishra, U. S.; Pattnaik, S.; Panda, C. K.; Sahu, K. C.

2011-01-01

282

Proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic detection of oligomannosidic n glycans in alpha-mannosidosis: a method of monitoring treatment.  

PubMed

In Alpha-mannosidosis (MIM 248500) the patients accumulate mainly unbranched oligosaccharide chains in the lysosomes in all body tissues, including the brain. With ensuing therapeutic modalities in man (BMT and ERT) non-invasive methods of monitoring the effect of treatment are needed. Paramount is the possible effect of the treatment on the brain, since this organ is regarded as difficult to reach because of the blood-brain barrier. We therefore performed proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) of the brain in two untreated patients, and a 16-year-old patient treated with BMT at the age of 10 to assess whether this non-invasive method could be applied in the monitoring of the accumulation of abnormal chemicals in the brain of patients. We found an abnormal peak that was not present in the treated patient. A similar pattern was also found in MRS of urine from patients, reflecting the concentration of oligosaccharides in serum and tissues. We therefore conclude that MRS can be a useful method to monitor the effect of treatment for Alpha-Mannosidosis. PMID:21541723

Avenarius, Derk Frederik Matthaus; Svendsen, John-Sigurd; Malm, Dag

2011-10-01

283

Study on photophysical and aggregation induced emission recognition of 1,8-naphthalimide probe for casein by spectroscopic method.  

PubMed

A novel water-soluble 1,8-naphthalimide derivative 1, bearing two acetic carboxylic groups, exhibited fluorescent turn-on recognition for casein based on the aggregation induced emission (AIE) character. The photophysical properties of 1 consisting of donor and acceptor units were investigated in different solutions. The fluorescence intensity decreased through taking advantage of twisted intramolecular charge transfer (TICT) and self-association emission with increasing solvent polarity. Moreover, the spectral red-shift and intensity quench in protic solvents were caused by the excited-state hydrogen bond strengthening effect. Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations revealed that 1 exhibited a strong TICT character. The AIE mechanism of 1 with casein was due to 1 docked in the hydrophobic cavity between sub-micelles and bound with Tyr and Trp residues, resulting in the aggregation of 1 on the casein surface and emission enhancement. Based on this, a novel casein assay method was developed. The proposed exhibited a good linear range from 0.1 to 22 ?g mL(-1), with the detection limit of 2.8 ng mL(-1). Satisfactory reproducibility, reversibility and a short response time were realized. This method was applied to the determination of casein in milk powder samples and the results were in good agreement with the result of Biuret method. PMID:23454708

Sun, Yang; Liu, Zhen; Liang, Xuhua; Fan, Jun; Han, Quan

2013-05-01

284

Nitranilic acid hexahydrate, a novel benchmark system of the Zundel cation in an intrinsically asymmetric environment: spectroscopic features and hydrogen bond dynamics characterised by experimental and theoretical methods.  

PubMed

Nitranilic acid (2,5-dihydroxy-3,6-dinitro-2,5-cyclohexadiene-1,4-dione) as a strong dibasic acid in acidic aqueous media creates the Zundel cation, H5O2(+). The structural unit in a crystal comprises (H5O2)2(+) (2,5-dihydroxy-3,6-dinitro-1,4-benzoquinonate)(2-) dihydrate where the Zundel cation reveals no symmetry, being an ideal case for studying proton dynamics and its stability. The Zundel cation and proton transfer dynamics are studied by variable-temperature X-ray diffraction, IR and solid-state NMR spectroscopy, and various quantum chemical methods, including periodic DFT calculations, ab initio molecular dynamics simulation, and quantization of nuclear motion along three fully coupled internal coordinates. The Zundel cation features a short H-bond with the O···O distance of 2.433(2) Å with an asymmetric placement of hydrogen. The proton potential is of a single well type and, due to the non-symmetric surroundings, of asymmetric shape. The formation of the Zundel cation is facilitated by the electronegative NO2 groups. The employed spectroscopic techniques supported by calculations confirm the presence of a short H-bond with a complex proton dynamics. PMID:24281720

Mol?anov, Krešimir; Stare, Jernej; Vener, Mikhail V; Koji?-Prodi?, Biserka; Mali, Gregor; Grdadolnik, Jože; Moha?ek-Grošev, Vlasta

2014-01-21

285

New spectroscopic method for aqueous solutions: Raman ?-function dispersion for NaClO4 in water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new Raman method is exemplified by ??-RT[? ln(I?/IREF)/?X1]T,P,n2,n3 for ternary NaClO4/D2O/H2O, or by ??-RT[? ln(I?/IREF)/?X2]T,P for binary NaClO4/H2O solutions. (Fundamental differences exist between ? and the chemical potential ?.) I? is the Raman intensity at ?, IREF is the reference intensity, e.g., at the isosbestic frequency, X2 is the H2O and X1 the small D2O mol fraction, and n2 and n3 are constant mols of H2O and NaClO4, respectively. Maxima (max) and minima (min) were observed in ? versus ? (cm-1) ?max-?min=??max. ??max=8050+/-100 cal/mol H2O for the coupled, binary solution OH stretch, and ??max=4200+/-200 cal/mol H bond for the decoupled, ternary solution OD stretch. The perchlorate ion breaks the H bonds in water. 8050 cal/mol H2O corresponds to the maximum tetrahedral ??max value for two H bonds, i.e., ??max=4025 cal/mol H bond, in agreement with the HDO ??max=4200+/-200 cal/mol H bond. [??max is not the H bond enthalpy (energy).] Minima occur in ? at the peak ? values corresponding to the HDO/H2O and H2O ices, and maxima in ? at 2637+/-5 cm-1 (OD) and 3575+/-10 cm-1 (OH) correspond to the peak OD and OH stretching ? values from dense supercritical water. Enthalpy dispersion curves were also determined for saturated, binary, and ternary NaClO4 solutions and for D2O in H2O. The ?-function method is shown to be applicable to infrared absorbance spectra.

Walrafen, George E.

2005-03-01

286

A mass spectroscopic method for analysis of AHH-inducing and other polychlorinated biphenyl congeners and selected pesticides in fish  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The 209 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners exhibit a wide range in toxicity to fish, birds, and mammals. This paper discusses the use of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry negative chemical ionization (GC/MS-NCI) to quantify congeners of highly suspected toxicity such as IUPAC #77 (3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl) and #126 (3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl). GC/MS analysis time needed to produce the necessary resolution was reduced to 1 h per sample or standard, allowing an autosampler to inject 12 samples in 24 hours, plus 12 standards/QC samples. Identification and quantification of some 60+ congeners and several selected pesticides and estimation of total PCBs are also possible within the 1 h analysis. For congeners of high chlorination (penta through octa), the method exhibited excellent sensitivity, such that we could not locate a fish which exhibited PCB levels below our calibrated quantitation range. NCI was not as sensitive for mono through tri and for some tetrachlorinated PCB congeners, an exception being PCB #77, for which sensitivity was of the same order as for the more highly chlorinated biphenyls. Long term stability was excellent. Over a 6-mo period, results of replicate analyses for PCB congeners and pesticides in a composited sample of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from Lake Michigan had a relative standard deviation of 12% of the mean. Over the same time period, mean recoveries for samples spiked at concentrations similar to those in Lake Michigan lake trout were 90-102%. Response was linear over a wide range of concentrations for each of the analyzed compounds. This method is now being used for routine analysis of PCB congeners and selected pesticides in our laboratory.

Schmidt, Larry J.; Hesselberg, Robert J.

1992-01-01

287

Evaluation of six plant species used traditionally in the treatment and control of diabetes mellitus in South Africa using in vitro methods.  

PubMed

Abstract Context: Numerous plants are used by the local communities of South Africa for the treatment and management of type II diabetes. Objectives: For this study, we undertook a survey of the plants sold for the management of diabetes in the town of Newcastle, South Africa. Identified plants were subsequently evaluated for their in vitro antidiabetic activity. Materials and methods: Plants were identified through an interview with a herbalist at the market. Antidiabetic activity of extracts of purchased plants was evaluated using in vitro ?-amylase and ?-glucosidase activity, as well as islets of Langerhans excretory activity. Results: Senna alexandrina Mill. (Fabaceae), Cymbopogon citrates Stapf. (Poaceae), Cucurbita pepo L. (Cucuribitaceae), Nuxia floribunda Benth. (Stilbaceae), Hypoxis hemerocallidea Fisch. and Mey (Hypoxidaceae), and Cinnamomum cassia Blume (Lauraceae) were identified. The hexane extract of S. alexandrina (EC50?=?0.083?mg/ml), ethyl acetate extract of H. hemerocallidea (EC50?=?0.29?mg/ml), and methanol extracts of Cymbopogon citratus (EC50?=?0.31?mg/ml) and Cinnamomum cassia (EC50?=?0.12?mg/ml) had the highest ?-amylase inhibitory activity, albeit lower than acarbose (EC50?=?0.50?mg/ml). All the plants had good ?-glucosidase inhibitory activity (>50%) with the exception of some methanol (Cinnamomum cassia, N. floribunda, and Cymbopogon citratus) and acetone extracts (Cucurbita pepo and N. floribunda). Only the H. hemerocallidea acetone extract had an insulin stimulatory effect (2.5?U/ml at 8??g/ml). Conclusion: All the evaluated plants demonstrated inhibitory activity against the specific GIT enzyme systems evaluated. Only H. hemerocallidea had insulin secretory activity, adding evidence to the traditional use of these purchased plants in the management of the type II diabetic post-prandial hyperglycemia. PMID:24559378

Boaduo, N K K; Katerere, D; Eloff, J N; Naidoo, V

2014-06-01

288

Characterization of intermolecular interaction between cyanidin-3-glucoside and bovine serum albumin: Spectroscopic and molecular docking methods.  

PubMed

The intermolecular interaction between cyanidin-3-glucoside (Cy-3-G) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) was investigated using fluorescence, circular dichroism and molecular docking methods. The experimental results revealed that the fluorescence quenching of BSA at 338?nm by Cy-3-G resulted from the formation of Cy-3-G-BSA complex. The number of binding sites (n) for Cy-3-G binding on BSA was approximately equal to 1. The experimental and molecular docking results revealed that after binding Cy-3-G to BSA, Cy-3-G is closer to the Tyr residue than the Trp residue, the secondary structure of BSA almost not change, the binding process of Cy-3-G with BSA is spontaneous, and Cy-3-G can be inserted into the hydrophobic cavity of BSA (site II') in the binding process of Cy-3-G with BSA. Moreover, based on the sign and magnitude of the enthalpy and entropy changes (?H(0) ?=?- 29.64?kcal/mol and ?S(0) ?=?- 69.51?cal/mol?K) and the molecular docking results, it can be suggested that the main interaction forces of Cy-3-G with BSA are Van der Waals and hydrogen bonding interactions. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:24123897

Shi, Jie-Hua; Wang, Jing; Zhu, Ying-Yao; Chen, Jun

2014-08-01

289

Spectroscopic investigations on the synthesis of nano-hydroxyapatite from calcined eggshell by hydrothermal method using cationic surfactant as template.  

PubMed

The present work reports the successful synthesis of nano-hydroxyapatite, Ca(10)(PO(4))(6)(OH)(2) (denoted HAP) from calcined eggshell by hydrothermal method using cationic surfactant (CTAB) as regulator of nucleation and crystal growth. The reaction involved in the synthesis was studied elaborately. The influence of reaction temperature, ageing time and CTAB concentration on the synthesis of nano-HAP are also studied in addition to the effect of sintering temperature on the crystal growth. Spectral characterization involving Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques were performed for functional group analysis and phase identification of the materials, respectively. Thermal stability of nano-HAP was investigated by thermal analysis (TG/DTA). The physical characteristics, such as morphology and particle size of the synthesized nano-HAP were assessed thoroughly by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques. The results have revealed that well-crystallized nano-HAP was synthesized by hydrothermal treatment at 160 degrees C for 10 h with the addition of CTAB at critical micelle concentration (CMC). It was also found that the synthesized nano-HAP was thermally stable up to 1100 degrees C. PMID:19836296

Prabakaran, K; Rajeswari, S

2009-12-01

290

Development of a method for nondestructive NIR transmittance spectroscopic analysis of acetaminophen and caffeine anhydrate in intact bilayer tablets.  

PubMed

Calibration models for nondestructive NIR analysis of API (active pharmaceutical ingredient) contents in two separate layers of intact bilayer tablets were established. These models will enable the use of NIR transmittance spectroscopy in bilayer tableting processes for the control of API contents in separate layers. Acetaminophen and caffeine anhydrate were used as APIs, and tablets were made by the direct compression method. Their NIR spectra were measured in the transmittance mode. The reference assay was performed by HPLC. Calibration models were generated by the partial least-squares (PLS) regression. The initial calibration generated models with insufficient linearity and accuracy because the fluctuation range of tablet thickness was excessively large and irrelevant information on the thickness fluctuation was included in the models. By narrowing the fluctuation range to determine the proper range for acceptable prediction accuracy, it was confirmed that calibration models with less irrelevant information can be generated when the range was 4.30+/-0.06 mm or narrower. Furthermore, the fluctuation range of 4.30+/-0.06 mm was considered to be empirically valid in covering the fluctuation actually observed in ordinary tableting processes. Thus, the sample tablets within this range were used to generate the final calibration models, and calibration models sufficient in linearity and accuracy were established. In addition, it was proven that controlling the irradiated side was unnecessary. Namely, it is not necessary to keep the same side of sampled tablets for the online NIR analysis during bilayer tableting. It is useful, in order to obtain adequate calibration models, to evaluate the variable factors that affect the linearity and accuracy of the generated models and restrict the range of models or use a subset of prepared samples. Loading vectors, explained variances, and correlation coefficients between components and scores are important for the evaluation of variable factors. PMID:20547027

Ito, Masatomo; Suzuki, Tatsuya; Yada, Shuichi; Nakagami, Hiroaki; Teramoto, Hiroshi; Yonemochi, Etsuo; Terada, Katsuhide

2010-11-01

291

Enhancement of Electron Spin Echo Envelope Modulation Spectroscopic Methods to Investigate the Secondary Structure of Membrane Proteins  

PubMed Central

This paper reports on a significant improvement of a new structural biology approach designed to probe the secondary structure of membrane proteins using the pulsed EPR technique of Electron Spin Echo Envelope Modulation (ESEEM) spectroscopy. Previously, we showed that we could characterize an ?-helical secondary structure with ESEEM spectroscopy using a 2H-labeled Val side chain coupled with site-directed spin-labeling (SDSL). In order to further develop this new approach, molecular dynamic (MD) simulations were conducted on several different hydrophobic residues that are commonly found in membrane proteins. 2H-SL distance distributions from the MD results indicated that 2H-labeled Leu was a very strong candidate to significantly improve this ESEEM approach. In order to test this hypothesis, the secondary structure of the ?-helical M2? peptide of the acetylcholine receptor (AChR) incorporated into a bicelle was investigated with 2H-labeled Leu d10 at position 10 (i) and nitroxide spin labels positioned 1, 2, 3 and 4 residues away (denoted i+1 to i+4) with ESEEM spectroscopy. The ESEEM data reveal a unique pattern that is characteristic of an ?-helix (3.6 residues per turn). Strong 2H modulation was detected for the i+3 and i+4 samples, but not for the i+2 sample. The 2H modulation depth observed for 2H-labeled d10 Leu was significantly enhanced (x4) when compared to previous ESEEM measurements that used 2H-labeled d8 Val. Computational studies indicate that deuterium nuclei on the Leu sidechain are closer to the spin label when compared to Val. The enhancement of 2H modulation and the corresponding Fourier Transform (FT) peak intensity for 2H-labeled Leu significantly reduces the ESEEM data acquisition time for Leu when compared to Val. This research demonstrates that a different 2H-labeled amino acid residue can be used as an efficient ESEEM probe further substantiating this important biophysical technique. Finally, this new method can provide pertinent qualitative structural information on membrane proteins in a short time (few minutes) at low sample concentrations (~50 ?M).

Liu, Lishan; Sahu, Indra D.; Mayo, Daniel J.; McCarrick, Robert M.; Troxel, Kaylee; Zhou, Andy; Shockley, Erin; Lorigan, Gary A.

2012-01-01

292

[Study of interaction between levofloxacin and human serum albumin by multi-spectroscopic and molecular modeling methods].  

PubMed

Levofloxacin (LVFX) is widely used in clinical treatment due to it has a broad spectrum of in vitro activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Human serum albumin (HSA) is the most abundant protein in plasma and constitutes approximately half of the protein founds in human blood. And more than 90% of the drugs used in people are bound to HSA. So it is commonly used for the investigation of drug-serum albumin interaction because the binding will significantly influence the absorption, distribution, metabolism excretion, stability and toxicity of the drugs. Therefore, detailed investigating the interaction of LVFX with HSA is very important to understand the pharmacokinetic behavior of the LVFX. In this paper, the interaction of LVFX and HSA has been studied fluorescence, UV, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and molecular modeling method. The results indicated that LVFX induced the intrinsic fluorescence quenching of HSA though a static quenching procedure, and the effective binding constants (K(a)) were calculated to be 9.44 x 10(4) L x mol(-1) (294 K) and 2.74 x 10(4) L x mol(-1) (310 K) by used of the Stern-Volmer equation. According to the Vant's Hoff equation, the reaction was characterized by negative enthalpy (deltaH = -59.00 kJ x mol(-1)) and negative entropy (delta S = - 105.38 J x mol(-1) x K(-1)), indicated that the predominant forces in the LVFX-HSA complex were hydrogen bonding and van der Waals forces. By displacement measurements, the specific binding of LVFX in the vicinity of Site I of HSA was clarified. The binding distance of 3.66 nm between Trp214 and HSA was obtained by the Förster theory on resonance energy transfer. Furthermore, the binding details between LVFX and HSA were further confirmed by molecular docking studies, which were consistent with the experimental results. The alternations of protein secondary structure were calculated from FT-IR spectra. Upon formation of LVFX-HSA complexes, the amount of alpha-helical structures were decrease, but the numbers of beta-sheet structures, beta-turn structures and random structures were increase, respectively. This result indicated that LVFX induced unfolding of the polypeptides of HSA. PMID:25007630

Huang, Fang; Dong, Cheng-Yu; Zhang, Li-Yang; Liu, Ying

2014-04-01

293

Isobaric Analog States for Neutron Spectroscopic Factors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A survey of the modified R-matrix method for extraction of neutron spectroscopic factors from isobaric analog resonances in proton elastic scattering polarization and cross section excitation functions is presented for several parent analog states in Zirc...

W. J. Thompson J. L. Ellis

1969-01-01

294

How the Internet Is Changing the Implementation of Traditional Research Methods, People's Daily Lives, and the Way in Which Developmental Scientists Conduct Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent years have seen an impressive increase in web-based research, of which we review and discuss two main types. First, researchers can create online versions of traditional questionnaires. Using the internet in this way usually does not compromise the psychometric properties of such measures, and participants are typically not less…

Denissen, Jaap J. A.; Neumann, Linus; van Zalk, Maarten

2010-01-01

295

African Traditional Religion (ATR)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The African Traditional Religion (ATR) site which hosts the on Bibliography on African Traditional Religion contains several more items of interest, including articles and documents exploring the contact points of ATR with Islam and Christianity, country-by-country statistics on adherents of ATR, and a number of related links.

Isizoh, Chidi D.

1998-01-01

296

Family Customs and Traditions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recognizing the importance of maintaining open communication with immediate and extended family members, this book provides a compilation of ideas for family traditions and customs that are grounded in compassion and human kindness. The traditions were gathered from families in the United States and Canada who responded to advertisements in…

MacGregor, Cynthia

297

Comparison of one-particle basis set extrapolation to explicitly correlated methods for the calculation of accurate quartic force fields, vibrational frequencies, and spectroscopic constants: application to H2O, N2H+, NO2+, and C2H2.  

PubMed

One-particle basis set extrapolation is compared with one of the new R12 methods for computing highly accurate quartic force fields (QFFs) and spectroscopic data, including molecular structures, rotational constants, and vibrational frequencies for the H(2)O, N(2)H(+), NO(2)(+), and C(2)H(2) molecules. In general, agreement between the spectroscopic data computed from the best R12 and basis set extrapolation methods is very good with the exception of a few parameters for N(2)H(+) where it is concluded that basis set extrapolation is still preferred. The differences for H(2)O and NO(2)(+) are small and it is concluded that the QFFs from both approaches are more or less equivalent in accuracy. For C(2)H(2), however, a known one-particle basis set deficiency for C-C multiple bonds significantly degrades the quality of results obtained from basis set extrapolation and in this case the R12 approach is clearly preferred over one-particle basis set extrapolation. The R12 approach used in the present study was modified in order to obtain high precision electronic energies, which are needed when computing a QFF. We also investigated including core-correlation explicitly in the R12 calculations, but conclude that current approaches are lacking. Hence core-correlation is computed as a correction using conventional methods. Considering the results for all four molecules, it is concluded that R12 methods will soon replace basis set extrapolation approaches for high accuracy electronic structure applications such as computing QFFs and spectroscopic data for comparison to high-resolution laboratory or astronomical observations, provided one uses a robust R12 method as we have done here. The specific R12 method used in the present study, CCSD(T)(R12), incorporated a reformulation of one intermediate matrix in order to attain machine precision in the electronic energies. Final QFFs for N(2)H(+) and NO(2)(+) were computed, including basis set extrapolation, core-correlation, scalar relativity, and higher-order correlation and then used to compute highly accurate spectroscopic data for all isotopologues. Agreement with high-resolution experiment for (14)N(2)H(+) and (14)N(2)D(+) was excellent, but for (14)N(16)O(2)(+) agreement for the two stretching fundamentals is outside the expected residual uncertainty in the theoretical values, and it is concluded that there is an error in the experimental quantities. It is hoped that the highly accurate spectroscopic data presented for the minor isotopologues of N(2)H(+) and NO(2)(+) will be useful in the interpretation of future laboratory or astronomical observations. PMID:21197977

Huang, Xinchuan; Valeev, Edward F; Lee, Timothy J

2010-12-28

298

Comparison of one-particle basis set extrapolation to explicitly correlated methods for the calculation of accurate quartic force fields, vibrational frequencies, and spectroscopic constants: Application to H2O, N2H+, NO2+, and C2H2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One-particle basis set extrapolation is compared with one of the new R12 methods for computing highly accurate quartic force fields (QFFs) and spectroscopic data, including molecular structures, rotational constants, and vibrational frequencies for the H2O, N2H+, NO2+, and C2H2 molecules. In general, agreement between the spectroscopic data computed from the best R12 and basis set extrapolation methods is very good with the exception of a few parameters for N2H+ where it is concluded that basis set extrapolation is still preferred. The differences for H2O and NO2+ are small and it is concluded that the QFFs from both approaches are more or less equivalent in accuracy. For C2H2, however, a known one-particle basis set deficiency for C-C multiple bonds significantly degrades the quality of results obtained from basis set extrapolation and in this case the R12 approach is clearly preferred over one-particle basis set extrapolation. The R12 approach used in the present study was modified in order to obtain high precision electronic energies, which are needed when computing a QFF. We also investigated including core-correlation explicitly in the R12 calculations, but conclude that current approaches are lacking. Hence core-correlation is computed as a correction using conventional methods. Considering the results for all four molecules, it is concluded that R12 methods will soon replace basis set extrapolation approaches for high accuracy electronic structure applications such as computing QFFs and spectroscopic data for comparison to high-resolution laboratory or astronomical observations, provided one uses a robust R12 method as we have done here. The specific R12 method used in the present study, CCSD(T)R12, incorporated a reformulation of one intermediate matrix in order to attain machine precision in the electronic energies. Final QFFs for N2H+ and NO2+ were computed, including basis set extrapolation, core-correlation, scalar relativity, and higher-order correlation and then used to compute highly accurate spectroscopic data for all isotopologues. Agreement with high-resolution experiment for 14N2H+ and 14N2D+ was excellent, but for 14N16O2+ agreement for the two stretching fundamentals is outside the expected residual uncertainty in the theoretical values, and it is concluded that there is an error in the experimental quantities. It is hoped that the highly accurate spectroscopic data presented for the minor isotopologues of N2H+ and NO2+ will be useful in the interpretation of future laboratory or astronomical observations.

Huang, Xinchuan; Valeev, Edward F.; Lee, Timothy J.

2010-12-01

299

A rapid method for simultaneous determination of zearalenone, ?-zearalenol, ?-zearalenol, zearalanone, ?-zearalanol and ?-zearalanol in traditional Chinese medicines by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rapid and reliable ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC–MS\\/MS) method for simultaneous determination of zearalenone (ZEN), ?-zearalenol (?-ZOL), ?-zearalenol (?-ZOL), zearalanone (ZAN), ?-zearalanol (?-ZAL) and ?-zearalanol (?-ZAL) in traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) was developed. The development of the method and investigations of the matrix influence were described in particular. After evaluation of the matrix effects of different TCMs, i.e.,

Zheng Han; Yiping Ren; Hailong Zhou; Lianjun Luan; Zengxuan Cai; Yongjiang Wu

2011-01-01

300

Oral Tradition Journal  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Stretching back thousands of years, the oral traditions that have enriched and documented human existence remain a subject of much fascination. The Oral Tradition Journal was founded in 1986 in order to "serve as an international and interdisciplinary forum for discussion of worldwide oral traditions and related forms." The journal is based at the University of Missouri, and visitors to the site can search the entire run of the journal on this site by keyword or author. Clicking over to the "Browse the Journal" area, visitors can look over back issues that include special issues on the Serbo-Croatian oral tradition, performance literature, and the performance artistry of Bob Dylan. The site is a real treat for anyone interested in the subject, and visitors can also learn how to submit their own work for possible inclusion in a forthcoming volume.

2008-01-01

301

Traditional indigenous healing: Part I  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional indigenous healing is widely used today, as it has been since time immemorial. This article describes the following areas in regards to traditional healing: (a) an explanation of indigenous peoples, (b) a definition of traditional indigenous healing, (c) a portrayal of traditional healers, (d) health within indigenous culture, (e) traditional healing techniques, (f) utilization of traditional healing, (g) how

Roxanne Struthers; Valerie S. Eschiti; Beverly Patchell

2004-01-01

302

Improved Spectroscopic Parameters for Transiting Planet Hosts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report homogeneous spectroscopic determinations of the effective temperature, metallicity, and projected rotational velocity for the host stars of 56 transiting planets. Our analysis is based primarily on the stellar parameter classification (SPC) technique. We investigate systematic errors by examining subsets of the data with two other methods that have often been used in previous studies (Spectroscopy Made Easy (SME) and MOOG). The SPC and SME results, both based on comparisons between synthetic spectra and actual spectra, show strong correlations between T eff, [Fe/H], and log g when solving for all three quantities simultaneously. In contrast the MOOG results, based on a more traditional curve-of-growth approach, show no such correlations. To combat the correlations and improve the accuracy of the temperatures and metallicities, we repeat the SPC analysis with a constraint on log g based on the mean stellar density that can be derived from the analysis of the transit light curves. Previous studies that have not taken advantage of this constraint have been subject to systematic errors in the stellar masses and radii of up to 20% and 10%, respectively, which can be larger than other observational uncertainties, and which also cause systematic errors in the planetary mass and radius.

Torres, Guillermo; Fischer, Debra A.; Sozzetti, Alessandro; Buchhave, Lars A.; Winn, Joshua N.; Holman, Matthew J.; Carter, Joshua A.

2012-10-01

303

Antibacterial effects on dry-fast and traditional water-based surgical scrubbing methods: A two-time points experimental study.  

PubMed

This study determined the in-use effects of dry-fast and traditional hand-washing surgical scrubs among operating room staff members. This is a static group comparison study with purposive sampling. A total of 156 staff members were recruited in an operating room in a medical center located in southern Taiwan. The participants were divided into traditional and dry-fast hand-washing groups. Microbial counts were measured right after the two groups finished surgical scrubbing and at the completion of surgery. The results showed that the use of dry-fast antisepsis has a better persistent effect (P?=?0.001), more nurses chose dry-fast antisepsis than surgeons (P?=?0.012), and the post-operation number of colonies for nurses was significantly higher than that for surgeons (P?=?0.003). Operating room nurses are long-term and frequent users of antibacterial agents, and their requirement of skin protection is higher. The dry-fast technique has the advantage of being less irritating to the skin and less time consuming; therefore, brush-free and dry-fast antisepsis is recommended. PMID:23992610

Chen, Shu-Hwa; Chou, Chuan-Yu; Huang, Jui-Chen; Tang, Ya-Fen; Kuo, Yur-Ren; Chien, Li-Yu

2014-06-01

304

Frequency domain optical coherence tomography with subsequent depth resolved spectroscopic image analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present a method to obtain additional depth resolved spectroscopic information from standard frequency domain optical coherence tomography (FDOCT) images. This method utilizes Fourier transforms of signal peaks within the complex FDOCT depth profiles to extract depth resolved spectroscopic information. For verification of the depth resolved spectroscopic image analysis method, theoretical simulations as well as experimental studies are demonstrated. Both

Christoph Kasseck; Volker Jaedicke; Nils C. Gerhardt; Hubert Welp; Martin R. Hofmann

2010-01-01

305

[Central composite design-response surface method optimize of fang-bing nasal inhalant from components of traditional Chinese medicine for sedative and sleep aiding].  

PubMed

To obtain the optimal preparation technology of Fang-bing nasal inhalant from components of traditional Chinese medicine by central composite design, with an apparatus containing nasal inhalant that simulated the expiration and inspiration of nose, the dissolution in vitro of different optimized inhalant samples designed through central composite design were investigated. The accumulative release of linalool, borneol, menthol was detected with GC. Response surface methodology was used to optimize the conditions of preparation technology by establishing multiple linear regression and second-order quadratic models. Then, deviation was carried out through comparing the observed and predicted values. It was showed that the coefficient of correlation of second-order quadratic model was high. The related coefficient reached 0.999 3, 0.998 0, 0.944 9, separately. The optimum conditions of preparation technology were as following: 84.39% of alcohol concentration, the weight of starch 1.45 g and the weight of carmellose sodium (CMC-Na for short) 1.22 g. The deviations between observed and predicated values showed -0.36%, 1.52%, 2.40%, separately. In this experiment, the established model can describe the good relation between factors and indexes from preparation technology of Fang-bing nasal inhalant and the outcome of prediction is well. This optimal Fang-bing nasal inhalant was used to study its in vivo effect on model rats deprived from sleep and showed sedative and sleep aiding, which will bring an instruction on inhalants of components from traditional Chinese medicine. PMID:23833948

Li, Su-Yun; Jiang, Meng-Li; Zhang, Li-Hong; Xiao, Xiao-Jin; Li, Xiao-Dong

2013-04-01

306

Building a Spectroscope  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn about the variations of white light in this Moveable Museum unit, in which they build a pocket-sized spectroscope from readily available materials and examine different light sources in school, at home, and around their town or city. The seven-page PDF guide includes suggested general background readings for educators, activity and safety notes, step-by-step directions, and a spectroscope template.

307

Specular spectroscopic scatterometry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Scatterometry is one of the few metrology candidates that has true in situ\\/in-line potential for deep submicrometer critical dimension (CD) and profile analysis. Most existing scatterometers are designed to measure multiple incident angles at a single wavelength on periodic gratings. We extend this idea by deploying specular spectroscopic scatterometry. Specular spectroscopic scatterometry (SS) is designed to measure the zeroth-order diffraction

Xinhui Niu; Nickhil Jakatdar; Junwei Bao; Costas J. Spanos

2001-01-01

308

Value of Traditions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Presents pro and con comments with regards to 1975 APA presidential address under the heading of the value of traditions. Other comments are subsumed under the headings of biological versus social evolution, and the genetic basis of behavior especially of altruism. (Author/AM)

Brewer, Marilynn B.; And Others

1976-01-01

309

Literacy in Traditional Societies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This series of essays derives from an interest in communications, in media and their effect upon human intercourse. Primarily, this concern with the technology of the intellect centers upon the effect of literacy on human culture, especially in 'traditional' or pre-industrial societies. In most of the essays, the effects of literacy are considered…

Goody, Jack, Ed.

310

Looking beyond Traditional Evaluation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The article describes the evaluation of the home economics specialized adviser program in Illinois Extension regions, including specific recommendations for program revisions. The evaluation was based on the Provus Discrepancy Evaluation Model, which provides an alternative to traditional evaluation techniques by considering descriptions of…

Harriman, Lynda; McKenna, Constance

1978-01-01

311

Traditional Cherokee Food.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A collection for children and teachers of traditional Cherokee recipes emphasizes the art, rather than the science, of cooking. The hand-printed, illustrated format is designed to communicate the feeling of Cherokee history and culture and to encourage readers to collect and add family recipes. The cookbook could be used as a starting point for…

Hendrix, Janey B.

312

Reinventing the Rhetorical Tradition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 19 conference papers in this collection deal with the relationship of various rhetorical theories and their practical applications to the rhetorical traditions that they are superseding. The papers deal with many topics, including the following: (1) a multidisciplinary approach to writing instruction; (2) the importance of writing as a human…

Freedman, Aviva, Ed.; Pringle, Ian, Ed.

313

Non-Traditional Wraps  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a recipe for non-traditional wraps. In this article, the author describes how adults and children can help with the recipe and the skills involved with this recipe. The bigger role that children can play in the making of the item the more they are apt to try new things and appreciate the texture and taste.

Owens, Buffy

2009-01-01

314

Child Psychotherapy: Converging Traditions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper I outline some of the ways in which I believe the psychoanalytic traditions in North America and in Great Britain are influencing each other. I identify points of convergence and divergence at this moment in the evolution of psychoanalytic theory and technique. I then point out some of the implications of relational perspectives in…

Altman, Neil

2004-01-01

315

Direct electrochemistry and electrocatalysis of anthraquinone-monosulfonate/polyaniline hybrid film synthesized by a novel electrochemical doping-dedoping-redoping method on pre-activated spectroscopically pure graphite surface.  

PubMed

Polyaniline (PANI) film in the form of emeraldine salt (ES) doped with anthraquinone-2-sulfonate (AQS) was synthesized by a novel electrochemical doping-dedoping-redoping method on pre-activated spectroscopically pure graphite electrode surface. SEM showed the highly porous microstructure with sponge-like morphology of the AQS/PANI hybrid film, which has more available active sites for facilitating electron transfer and energy efficiency of redox reactions. FTIR and UV-vis spectra demonstrated the incorporation of AQS into the conductive PANI matrix. Cyclic voltammetric (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscope (EIS), rotating ring-disk electrode (RRDE) and chronoamperometry (CA) techniques indicated that the AQS/PANI composite has high electrocatalytic activity and remarkable stability for the two-electron reduction of oxygen via an electrochemical-chemical mechanism at the base of the porous PANI film. The acid centers of PANI (protonated imine group) played an important role not only in two internal redox transform processes, but also in an external charge transfer reaction during the electrocatalytic reduction of oxygen. The incorporation of anionic AQS groups into PANI matrix to prepare electroactive PANI using the electrochemical doping-dedoping-redoping method is conceptually new, and may be extended to the development of new functional materials from many other conducting polymers and quinonoid compounds for wide applications in catalysis, sensors, molecular electronics, and so on. PMID:21212886

Zhang, Guoquan; Yang, Fenglin

2011-02-28

316

Solid phase excitation-emission fluorescence method for the classification of complex substances: Cortex Phellodendri and other traditional Chinese medicines as examples.  

PubMed

A novel, simple and direct fluorescence method for analysis of complex substances and their potential substitutes has been researched and developed. Measurements involved excitation and emission (EEM) fluorescence spectra of powdered, complex, medicinal herbs, Cortex Phellodendri Chinensis (CPC) and the similar Cortex Phellodendri Amurensis (CPA); these substances were compared and discriminated from each other and the potentially adulterated samples (Caulis mahoniae (CM) and David poplar bark (DPB)). Different chemometrics methods were applied for resolution of the complex spectra, and the excitation spectra were found to be the most informative; only the rank-ordering PROMETHEE method was able to classify the samples with single ingredients (CPA, CPC, CM) or those with binary mixtures (CPA/CPC, CPA/CM, CPC/CM). Interestingly, it was essential to use the geometrical analysis for interactive aid (GAIA) display for a full understanding of the classification results. However, these two methods, like the other chemometrics models, were unable to classify composite spectral matrices consisting of data from samples of single ingredients and binary mixtures; this suggested that the excitation spectra of the different samples were very similar. However, the method is useful for classification of single-ingredient samples and, separately, their binary mixtures; it may also be applied for similar classification work with other complex substances. PMID:22920634

Gu, Yao; Ni, Yongnian; Kokot, Serge

2012-09-13

317

Divide-and-conquer-based linear-scaling approach for traditional and renormalized coupled cluster methods with single, double, and noniterative triple excitations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have reported the divide-and-conquer (DC)-based linear-scaling correlation treatment of coupled-cluster method with single and double excitations (CCSD) [Kobayashi and Nakai, J. Chem. Phys. 129, 044103 (2009)]. In the DC-CCSD method, the CCSD equations derived from subsystem orbitals are solved for each subsystem in order to obtain the total correlation energy by summing up subsystem contributions using energy density analysis. In this study, we extend the DC-CCSD method for treating noniterative perturbative triple excitations using CCSD T1 and T2 amplitudes, namely, CCSD(T). In the DC-CCSD(T) method, the so-called (T) corrections are also computed for each subsystem. Numerical assessments indicate that DC-CCSD(T) reproduces the CCSD(T) results with high accuracy and significantly less computational cost. We further extend the DC-based correlation method to renormalized CCSD(T) [Kowalski and Piecuch, J. Chem. Phys. 113, 18 (2000)] for avoiding the divergence that occurs in multireference problems such as bond dissociation.

Kobayashi, Masato; Nakai, Hiromi

2009-09-01

318

Development of a Moodle Course for Schoolchildren's Table Tennis Learning Based on Competence Motivation Theory: Its Effectiveness in Comparison to Traditional Training Method  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Based on Competence Motivation Theory (CMT), a Moodle course for schoolchildren's table tennis learning was developed (The URL is http://www.bssepp.com, and this course allows guest access). The effects of the course on students' knowledge, perceived competence and interest were evaluated through quantitative methods. The sample of the study…

Zou, Junhua; Liu, Qingtang; Yang, Zongkai

2012-01-01

319

A Spectroscopic-Based Laboratory Experiment for Protein Conformational Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a practical experiment for teaching basic spectroscopic techniques to introduce the topic of protein conformational change to students in the field of molecular biology, biochemistry, or structural biology. The spectroscopic methods employed in the experiment are absorbance, for protein concentration measurements, and…

Ramos, Carlos Henrique I.

2004-01-01

320

X-Ray Absorption And EPR Spectroscopic Studies of the Biotransformations of Chromium(Vi) in Mammalian Cells. Is Chromodulin An Artifact of Isolation Methods?  

SciTech Connect

Very different biological activities are usually ascribed to Cr(VI) (a toxin and carcinogen) and Cr(III) (an antidiabetic agent), although recent evidence suggests that both these types of actions are likely to arise from cellular uptake of varying concentrations of Cr(VI). The first systematic study of XANES spectra of Cr(III) complexes formed in Cr(VI)-treated mammalian cells (A549, HepG2, V79, and C2C12 cell lines), and in subcellular fractions of A549 cells, has been performed using a library of XANES spectra of model Cr(III) complexes. The results of multiple linear regression analyses of XANES spectra, in combination with multiple-scattering fits of XAFS spectra, indicate that Cr(III) formed in Cr(VI)-treated cells is most likely to bind to carboxylato, amine, and imidazole residues of amino acids, and to a lesser extent to hydroxo or aqua ligands. A combination of XANES and EPR spectroscopic data for Cr(VI)-treated cells indicates that the main component of Cr(III) formed in such cells is bound to high-molecular-mass ligands (>30 kDa, probably proteins), but significant redistribution of Cr(III) occurs during the cell lysis, which leads to the formation of a low-molecular-mass (<30 kDa) Cr(III)-containing fraction. The spectroscopic (XANES, XAFS, and EPR) properties of this fraction were strikingly similar to those of the purported natural Cr(III)-containing factor, chromodulin, that was reported to be isolated from the reaction of Cr(VI) with liver. These data support the hypothesis that a chromodulin-like species, which is formed from such a reaction, is an artifact of the reported isolation procedure.

Levina, A.; Harris, H.H.; Lay, P.A.; /Sydney U.

2007-07-10

321

Studying Light: Spectroscopes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity about spectroscopy, learners build a spectroscope, learn about graphing spectra, and then identify elements in gas tubes using their spectra. The activity concludes as learners graph the spectra of different materials. Essential materials required for this activity include spectrum light tubes, the power source for spectrum light tubes, and diffraction grating material.

322

MAMA Spectroscopic Throughputs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This activity sets new baseline post-SM4 sensitivity/throughput measurements for all the STIS/MAMA spectroscopic modes, and establishes if there changes with respect to perfomance prior to the LVPS failure. It also checks the NUV focus of STIS and its dependence on wavelength.;

Lennon, Daniel

2008-07-01

323

Handmade compact disc spectroscope  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astronomy data center held some programs for the open house day of 2005, and a program of handmade compact disc spectroscope in craft corner received a favorable review. We report a summary of the program and the product in this article.

Kawanomoto, Satoshi

2006-10-01

324

Isolation and detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) from cattle in Ireland using both traditional culture and molecular based methods  

PubMed Central

Background Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) causes a chronic gastroenteritis affecting many species. Johne's disease is one of the most widespread and economically important disease of ruminants. Since 1992 and the opening of the European market, the exposure and the transmission of MAP in cattle herds considerably increased. Improvements in diagnostic strategies for Ireland and elsewhere are urgently required. In total, 290 cattle from seven Irish herds with either a history or a strong likelihood of paratuberculosis infection were selected by a veterinary team over 2 years. Faecal samples (290) were collected and screened for MAP by a conventional culture method and two PCR assays. In order to further evaluate the usefulness of molecular testing, a nested PCR was also assessed. Results M. paratuberculosis was isolated and cultured from 23 faecal samples (7.9%) on solid medium. From a molecular perspective, 105 faecal samples (36%) were PCR positive for MAP specific DNA. A complete correlation (100%) was observed between the results of both molecular targets (IS900 and ISMAP02). Sensitivity was increased by ~10% with the inclusion of a nested PCR for ISMAP02 (29 further samples were positive). When culturing and PCR were retrospectively compared, every culture positive faecal sample also yielded a PCR positive result for both targets. Alternatively, however not every PCR positive sample (n = 105, 36%) produced a corresponding culture isolate. Interestingly though when analysed collectively at the herd level, the correlation between culture and PCR results was 100% (ie every herd which recorded at least 1 early PCR +ve result later yielded culture positive samples within that herd). Conclusion PCR on bovine faecal samples is a fast reliable test and should be applied routinely when screening for MAP within herds suspected of paratuberculosis. Nested PCR increases the threshold limit of detection for MAP DNA by approximately 10% but proved to be problematic in this study. Although slow and impractical, culturing is still regarded as one of the most reliable methods for detecting MAP among infected cattle.

2010-01-01

325

Neutron Spectroscopic Factors from Isobaric Analog States.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The spectroscopic factors S sub n of bound neutron states are usually found from (d,p) stripping reactions. An alternative method of finding S sub n for medium-to-heavy nuclei is to analyze isobaric analog resonances observed in (p,p) scattering from thes...

W. J. Thompson J. L. Adams D. Robson

1968-01-01

326

Comparison of some dispersion-corrected and traditional functionals with CCSD(T) and MP2 ab initio methods: dispersion, induction, and basis set superposition error.  

PubMed

We compare dispersion and induction interactions for noble gas dimers and for Ne, methane, and 2-butyne with HF and LiF using a variety of functionals (including some specifically parameterized to evaluate dispersion interactions) with ab initio methods including CCSD(T) and MP2. We see that inductive interactions tend to enhance dispersion and may be accompanied by charge-transfer. We show that the functionals do not generally follow the expected trends in interaction energies, basis set superposition errors (BSSE), and interaction distances as a function of basis set size. The functionals parameterized to treat dispersion interactions often overestimate these interactions, sometimes by quite a lot, when compared to higher level calculations. Which functionals work best depends upon the examples chosen. The B3LYP and X3LYP functionals, which do not describe pure dispersion interactions, appear to describe dispersion mixed with induction about as accurately as those parametrized to treat dispersion. We observed significant differences in high-level wavefunction calculations in a basis set larger than those used to generate the structures in many of the databases. We discuss the implications for highly parameterized functionals based on these databases, as well as the use of simple potential energy for fitting the parameters rather than experimentally determinable thermodynamic state functions that involve consideration of vibrational states. PMID:23039587

Roy, Dipankar; Marianski, Mateusz; Maitra, Neepa T; Dannenberg, J J

2012-10-01

327

Application of correlation constrained multivariate curve resolution alternating least-squares methods for determination of compounds of interest in biodiesel blends using NIR and UV-visible spectroscopic data.  

PubMed

This study describes two applications of a variant of the multivariate curve resolution alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) method with a correlation constraint. The first application describes the use of MCR-ALS for the determination of biodiesel concentrations in biodiesel blends using near infrared (NIR) spectroscopic data. In the second application, the proposed method allowed the determination of the synthetic antioxidant N,N'-Di-sec-butyl-p-phenylenediamine (PDA) present in biodiesel mixtures from different vegetable sources using UV-visible spectroscopy. Well established multivariate regression algorithm, partial least squares (PLS), were calculated for comparison of the quantification performance in the models developed in both applications. The correlation constraint has been adapted to handle the presence of batch-to-batch matrix effects due to ageing effects, which might occur when different groups of samples were used to build a calibration model in the first application. Different data set configurations and diverse modes of application of the correlation constraint are explored and guidelines are given to cope with different type of analytical problems, such as the correction of matrix effects among biodiesel samples, where MCR-ALS outperformed PLS reducing the relative error of prediction RE (%) from 9.82% to 4.85% in the first application, or the determination of minor compound with overlapped weak spectroscopic signals, where MCR-ALS gave higher (RE (%)=3.16%) for prediction of PDA compared to PLS (RE (%)=1.99%), but with the advantage of recovering the related pure spectral profile of analytes and interferences. The obtained results show the potential of the MCR-ALS method with correlation constraint to be adapted to diverse data set configurations and analytical problems related to the determination of biodiesel mixtures and added compounds therein. PMID:24840439

de Oliveira, Rodrigo Rocha; de Lima, Kássio Michell Gomes; Tauler, Romà; de Juan, Anna

2014-07-01

328

A comparative study of caffeine and theophylline binding to Mg(II) and Ca(II) ions: studied by FTIR and UV spectroscopic methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interactions of calcium and magnesium ions with caffeine and theophylline have been investigated in aqueous solution at physiological pH. Fourier Transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and absorption spectra were used to determine the cation binding mode and the association constants. Our spectroscopic results showed that calcium and magnesium ions do not complex with caffeine strongly and the weak interactions between caffeine and Mg 2+ and Ca 2+ might be via O6 atom. In Ca 2+-theophylline complex, binding between Ca 2+ with C?O and N7 is observed, however in Mg 2+-theophylline complex, binding between Mg 2+ and N7 is more likely. The k values of these complexes are as follows: k(caffeine-Ca)=29.8 M -1, k(caffeine-Mg)=22.4 M -1, k(theophylline-Ca)=59.8 M -1 and k(theophylline-Mg)=33.8 M -1. These values are evidence for a weak cation interaction in these metal complexes.

Nafisi, Shohreh; Shamloo, Delaram Sadraii; Mohajerani, Nasser; Omidi, Akram

2002-08-01

329

Spectroscopic patterns encode unimolecular dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This thesis investigates the unimolecular vibrational dynamics of acetylene with up to 15,000 cm-1 of internal energy, as encoded by dispersed fluorescence spectra of the acetylene S 1 --> S0 system. Above 10,000 cm -1 of vibrational energy, these spectra are extremely congested and cannot be analyzed using conventional spectroscopic assignment procedures. Instead, a numerical pattern recognition technique entitled Extended Cross Correlation (XCC) is introduced which utilizes methods of robust estimation to identify a priori unknown patterns that are repeated in multiple spectra. In particular, the XCC identifies spectroscopic patterns in the dispersed fluorescence spectra that are associated with approximately conserved polyad quantum numbers. This pattern recognition analysis makes possible detailed modelling, using an effective Hamiltonian, of the acetylene unimolecular vibrational dynamics up to 15,000 cm-1. Of special interest are the large-amplitude bending motions of acetylene at high energy (22 quanta of bend excitation), which are investigated using techniques of quantum, semiclassical, and nonlinear classical mechanics. At 15,000 cm-1, the classical mechanics associated with the bending system is profoundly different from that at low energy, where normal mode motions (trans and cis bend) dominate. Specifically, classical chaos coexists with stable classical motions that are unrelated to the normal mode motions. The most stable large amplitude bending motions include ``local bend'' (one hydrogen bending) and ``counter-rotation'' (the two hydrogens undergoing circular motion at opposite ends of the molecule) motions. The existence of these stable motions at high energy is a manifestation of a normal-to- local transition in the bend degrees of freedom that is analogous to, but substantially more complicated than, the well-known normal-to-local transitions in the stretch degrees of freedom of ABA molecules. In addition to the XCC, two additional numerical tools for spectroscopic analysis are discussed: Hybrid Linear Pattern Analysis (HLPA) and Robust Baseline Estimation (RBE). HLPA is a hybrid of conventional least-squares fitting and XCC which is applicable when certain patterns contained in a spectroscopic data set are known a priori but others are not. HLPA is applied to investigate the kinetics of intermolecular energy transfer in atmospheric simulation experiments involving carbon monoxide. RBE is a technique for baseline removal; that is, it permits the separation of the sharp features in a spectrum from a continuous, slowly varying baseline. (Copies available exclusively from MIT Libraries, Rm. 14- 0551, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307. Ph. 617-253-5668; Fax 617-253-1690.)

Jacobson, Matthew Paul

1999-12-01

330

Evaluation of Indian Traditional Medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

India has an ancient heritage of traditional medicine. The materia medica of India provides a great deal of information on the folklore practices and traditional aspects of therapeutically important natural products. Indian traditional medicine is based on various systems including Ayurveda, Siddha, and Unani. The evaluation of these drugs is primarily based on phytochemical, pharmacological, and allied approaches including various

Pulok K. Mukherjee

2001-01-01

331

Smartphone security limitations: conflicting traditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Smartphones are becoming a dominant form of mobile computing in the United States, and more slowly, the world. The smartphone, as a platform, blends a traditional general computing platform with a specialized mobile phone platform. However, each platform comes with its own tradition of social practices and policies. The general computing tradition is historically open, allowing its owners, i.e., users

Nathaniel Husted; Hassen Saïdi; Ashish Gehani

2011-01-01

332

Spectroscopic Binary Stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Historically, spectroscopic binary stars were binary systems whose nature was discovered by the changing DOPPLER EFFECT or shift of the spectral lines of one or both of the component stars. The observed Doppler shift is a combination of that produced by the constant RADIAL VELOCITY (i.e. line-of-sight velocity) of the center of mass of the whole system, and the variable shift resulting from the o...

Batten, A.; Murdin, P.

2000-11-01

333

Diterpenoid alkaloids from the Chinese traditional herbal "Fuzi" and their cytotoxic activity.  

PubMed

Ten diterpenoid alkaloids, including eight aconitine-type C??-diterpenoid alkaloids and two hetisine-type C??-diterpenoid alkaloids, were isolated from the secondary roots of Aconitum carmichaeli Debx., known as "Fuzi" in Chinese traditional herbal medicine. Their structures were established on the basis of their spectroscopic data and comparison with those of the literature. Among these alkaloids, chasmanine, oxonitine and 15-acetylsongoramine were isolated for the first time from this medicinal plant. The cytotoxic activity of the alkaloids were tested against several cell lines by the MTT method in which aconitine, hypaconitine, mesaconitne and oxonitine were found to strongly inhibit the growth of the HePG2 cell line, which showed that the existence and quantity of the ester groups have a significant influence on the cytotoxicity of the diterpenoid alkaloids. PMID:22628040

Gao, Feng; Li, Yuan-Yuan; Wang, Dan; Huang, Xing; Liu, Qian

2012-01-01

334

TV Succeeds After Traditional Methods Fail  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Available from: Special Education in Canada, Dave Muir, Subscription Manager, 12 Doucett Place, Scarborough, Ontario M1G 3M2. Tape recorded television programs were used to increase reading comprehension and word attack skills of special education students. (CL)

Fowlie, George; Porteous, Jean

1977-01-01

335

Analysis of pesticide residues using the Quick Easy Cheap Effective Rugged and Safe (QuEChERS) pesticide multiresidue method in traditional Chinese medicine by gas chromatography with electron capture detection.  

PubMed

The Quick Easy Cheap Effective Rugged and Safe multiresidue method (QuEChERS) has been validated for the extraction of 15 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in completely different matrices of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). The method employed a rapid, simple and cost-effective procedure. The spiking levels for the recovery experiments were 0.1, 0.5 and 2.0 mg kg(-1). Mean recoveries mostly ranged between 76.0% and 114.0% (96.0% on average), and relative standard deviations (RSD) were generally below 10% (4.72% on average). Based on these results, the methodology has been proven to be highly efficient and robust and thus suitable for monitoring the MRL compliance of a wide range of commodity. The contamination status of 15 OCPs on 80 different TCMs marketed in China, and a total of 400 samples were also performed using a previously validated method. 15 OCPs were benzene hexachloride (BHC, including ?-BHC, ?-BHC, ?-BHC, ?-BHC), hexachlorobenzene, heptachlor, heptachlor epoxide, aldrin, p, p'-DDE, p, p'-DDD, o, p'-DDT, p, p'-DDT, mirex, endrin, dieldrin. This study indicates that the proposed method is useful for analyzing OCPs in TCM. PMID:21741067

Xu, Rong; Wu, Jianwei; Liu, Yougang; Zhao, Runhuai; Chen, Bo; Yang, Meihua; Chen, Jun

2011-08-01

336

Spectroscopic analysis technique for arc-welding process control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spectroscopic analysis of the light emitted by thermal plasmas has found many applications, from chemical analysis to monitoring and control of industrial processes. Particularly, it has been demonstrated that the analysis of the thermal plasma generated during arc or laser welding can supply information about the process and, thus, about the quality of the weld. In some critical applications (e.g. the aerospace sector), an early, real-time detection of defects in the weld seam (oxidation, porosity, lack of penetration, ...) is highly desirable as it can reduce expensive non-destructive testing (NDT). Among others techniques, full spectroscopic analysis of the plasma emission is known to offer rich information about the process itself, but it is also very demanding in terms of real-time implementations. In this paper, we proposed a technique for the analysis of the plasma emission spectrum that is able to detect, in real-time, changes in the process parameters that could lead to the formation of defects in the weld seam. It is based on the estimation of the electronic temperature of the plasma through the analysis of the emission peaks from multiple atomic species. Unlike traditional techniques, which usually involve peak fitting to Voigt functions using the Levenberg-Marquardt recursive method, we employ the LPO (Linear Phase Operator) sub-pixel algorithm to accurately estimate the central wavelength of the peaks (allowing an automatic identification of each atomic species) and cubic-spline interpolation of the noisy data to obtain the intensity and width of the peaks. Experimental tests on TIG-welding using fiber-optic capture of light and a low-cost CCD-based spectrometer, show that some typical defects can be easily detected and identified with this technique, whose typical processing time for multiple peak analysis is less than 20msec. running in a conventional PC.

Mirapeix, Jesús; Cobo, Adolfo; Conde, Olga; Quintela, María Ángeles; López-Higuera, José-Miguel

2005-09-01

337

Quality assessment of internet pharmaceutical products using traditional and non-traditional analytical techniques.  

PubMed

This work investigated the use of non-traditional analytical methods to evaluate the quality of a variety of pharmaceutical products purchased via internet sites from foreign sources and compared the results with those obtained from conventional quality assurance methods. Traditional analytical techniques employing HPLC for potency, content uniformity, chromatographic purity and drug release profiles were used to evaluate the quality of five selected drug products (fluoxetine hydrochloride, levothyroxine sodium, metformin hydrochloride, phenytoin sodium, and warfarin sodium). Non-traditional techniques, such as near infrared spectroscopy (NIR), NIR imaging and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), were employed to verify the results and investigate their potential as alternative testing methods. Two of 20 samples failed USP monographs for quality attributes. The additional analytical methods found 11 of 20 samples had different formulations when compared to the U.S. product. Seven of the 20 samples arrived in questionable containers, and 19 of 20 had incomplete labeling. Only 1 of the 20 samples had final packaging similar to the U.S. products. The non-traditional techniques complemented the traditional techniques used and highlighted additional quality issues for the products tested. For example, these methods detected suspect manufacturing issues (such as blending), which were not evident from traditional testing alone. PMID:16266793

Westenberger, Benjamin J; Ellison, Christopher D; Fussner, Andrew S; Jenney, Susan; Kolinski, Richard E; Lipe, Terra G; Lyon, Robbe C; Moore, Terry W; Revelle, Larry K; Smith, Anjanette P; Spencer, John A; Story, Kimberly D; Toler, Duckhee Y; Wokovich, Anna M; Buhse, Lucinda F

2005-12-01

338

An online coupled peritoneal macrophage/cell membrane chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry method to screen for anti-inflammatory components from the Chinese traditional medicine Chloranthus multistachys Pei.  

PubMed

Cell membrane chromatography (CMC) is a chromatographic biological affinity method that uses specific cell membranes as the stationary phase. In this study, a novel peritoneal macrophage/cell membrane chromatography (PM/CMC)-online-high performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS) method was established to screen for the anti-inflammatory components from traditional Chinese medicines using hydrocortisone and dexamethasone as standards. The stationary phase of the CMC employed mouse peritoneal macrophage cell membranes. This method was applied to the purification and identification of components in extracts of Chloranthus multistachys Pei. The major component retained by CMC was identified as isofraxidin by HPLC/MS. In vitro experiments revealed that IF was able to inhibit the production of nitric oxide and tumor necrosis factor-? in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated mice and peritoneal macrophages in a dose-dependent manner. The results demonstrated that the PM/CMC-online-HPLC/MS is an effective screening system for the rapid detection, enrichment, and identification of target components from complex samples. PMID:23760986

Li, Weifeng; Xing, Wei; Wang, Sicen; Fan, Ting; Huang, Huimin; Niu, Xiaofeng; He, Langchong

2013-11-01

339

TRADITIONAL BUILDING IN PERU  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary The analysis of current building methods in Peru still reveals an extremely wide use of earth as basic material all around the country, even if it is diffused less and less every year due to the social bias that considers earth building poor and not modern enough, neither comfortable, if compared to brick or concrete building. In the past

Lorenzo Jurina; Monica Righetti

340

Spectroscopic topological Stokes polarimeter  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we have developed a spectroscopic topological Stokes polarimeter using an axisymmetrical quarter wave plate (AQWP). The AQWP is fabricated by the alignment of segments of quarter wave films. The azimuthal angles of the polarization element are changed in according with its own segment. This element works as same the technique as the rotating quarter wave plate. In the experiment, we evaluated birefringence distribution of the AQWP. By changing a position of polarized singularity point in the beam spot, we can measure states of polarization. We demonstrate that the change of polarization states is corresponded with the change of the polarized singularity points.

Wakayama, Toshitaka; Otani, Yukitoshi; Yoshizawa, Toru

2010-11-01

341

Validated spectrophotometric method for the determination, spectroscopic characterization and thermal structural analysis of duloxetine with 1,2-naphthoquinone-4-sulphonate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel, selective, sensitive and simple spectrophotometric method was developed and validated for the determination of the antidepressant duloxetine hydrochloride in pharmaceutical preparation. The method was based on the reaction of duloxetine hydrochloride with 1,2-naphthoquinone-4-sulphonate (NQS) in alkaline media to yield orange colored product. The formation of this complex was also confirmed by UV-visible, FTIR, 1H NMR, Mass spectra techniques and thermal analysis. This method was validated for various parameters according to ICH guidelines. Beer's law is obeyed in a range of 5.0-60 ?g/mL at the maximum absorption wavelength of 480 nm. The detection limit is 0.99 ?g/mL and the recovery rate is in a range of 98.10-99.57%. The proposed methods was validated and applied to the determination of duloxetine hydrochloride in pharmaceutical preparation. The results were statistically analyzed and compared to those of a reference UV spectrophotometric method.

Ulu, Sevgi Tatar; Elmali, Fikriye Tuncel

2012-03-01

342

A comparison of the ability of Bellucia dichotoma Cogn. (Melastomataceae) extract to inhibit the local effects of Bothrops atrox venom when pre-incubated and when used according to traditional methods.  

PubMed

Bellucia dichotoma Cogn. (Melastomataceae) is one of various plant species used in folk medicine in the west of the state of Pará, Brazil, to treat snake bites. Many studies have been carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of anti-snake bite plants, but few of these use the same preparation methods and doses as those traditionally used by the local populations. This study therefore compared inhibition of the main local effects of B. atrox venom (BaV) by aqueous extract of B. dichotoma (AEBd) administered according to traditional methods and pre-incubated with BaV). The concentrations of phenolic compounds (tannins and flavonoids) in AEBd were determined by colorimetric assays. The effectiveness of AEBd in inhibiting the hemorrhagic and edematogenic activities of BaV was evaluated in mice in four different experimental in vivo protocols: (1) pre-incubation (venom:extract, w/w); (2) pre-treatment (p.o.); (3) post-treatment (p.o.); and (4) AEBd (p.o.) in combination with Bothrops antivenom (BA) (i.v.). To assess in vitro inhibition of BaV phospholipase A2 activity, the pre-incubation method or incorporation of AEBd or BA in agarose gels were used. The effect of AEBd on BaV was determined by SDS-PAGE, zymography and Western blot. Colorimetric assays revealed higher concentrations of (condensed and hydrolyzable) tannins than flavonoids in AEBd. Hemorrhagic activity was completely inhibited using the pre-incubation protocol. However, with pre-treatment there was no significant inhibition for the concentrations tested, and with the post-treatment only the 725 mg/kg dose of AEBd was able to inhibit 40.5% (p = 0.001) of the hemorrhagic activity of BaV. Phospholipase A2 activity was only inhibited when AEBd was pre-incubated with BaV. BaV-induced edema was completely inhibited with pre-incubation (p < 0.05) and significantly reduced (p < 0.05) with pre- and post-treatment (p.o.) for the concentrations tested. The reduction in local edema was even greater when AEBd was administered in combination with BA. The SDS-PAGE profiles showed that several of the BaV protein (SDS-PAGE) and enzyme (zymography) bands were not detected when the venom was pre-incubated, and Western blot revealed that this was not caused by the AEBd enzymes observed in the zymogram. The "pseudo inhibition" observed after pre-incubation in this study may be due to the presence of tannins in the extract, which could act as chelating agents, removing metalloproteins and Ca(2+) ions and thus inhibiting hemorrhagin and PLA2 activity. However, when administered according to traditional methods, B. dichotoma extract was effective in blocking BaV-induced edematogenic activity and had an additional effect on inhibition of this activity by BA. PMID:24814014

Mourão de Moura, Valéria; Serra Bezerra, Adrielle N; Veras Mourão, Rosa Helena; Varjão Lameiras, Juliana L; Almeida Raposo, Juliana D; Luckwu de Sousa, Rafael; Boechat, Antônio Luiz; Bezerra de Oliveira, Ricardo; de Menezes Chalkidis, Hipocrátes; Dos-Santos, Maria Cristina

2014-07-01

343

[A high throughput coupled with high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for determination of aflatoxin B1, B2, G1, G2 in 10 traditional Chinese medicines].  

PubMed

As the dilution procedure was applied, a simple, rapid and cost-effective high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for determination of aflatoxin B1, B2, G1, and G2 was successfully by performed in a total 83 samples of 10 traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs), which were collected from 5 different hospital pharmacies and 5 different medical stores in Guangzhou city. Matrix effects of these 10 TCMs were ranged from 80.23% to 115.5% in low, intermediate and high concentration levels, indicating that the negative effect was overcome in this study. Meanwhile, the analysis method was proved to be stable and reliable during the whole analysis using Semen Armeniacae Amarum spiked 3 concentration levels of standard solution as quality control samples and the RSD < 6.6% was obtained. The contamination levels of 83 investigated samples were 13.89% and 17.02% in hospital pharmacies and medical stores, respectively. The result was presented to provide relevant reference and supplement to those researchers in TCMs analysis and screening. PMID:24761645

Zheng, Run-Sheng; Xu, Hui; Peng, Yuan-Xia; Wang, Wen-Li; Zhan, Ruo-Ting; Chen, Wei-Wen

2014-01-01

344

Non-Traditional Approaches to Student Evaluation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Walker-Grant Middle School has moved from the traditional failure-oriented method of measuring student progress to one that measures continuous student progress. The concept of standards for each grade and subject was replaced by the concept of "taking the child where he is and working from that point." Under the old system, a student's grade was…

Duff, Charles F.

345

Alternative Approaches to Traditional Topics in Algebra  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students who otherwise seem unreachable through traditional approaches to algebra require some alternative teaching methods. So do teachers who seek to add elements of freshness and innovation to their classrooms or who simply appreciate variety. This article offers some unconventional techniques for teaching a few conventional algebra topics.…

Coburn, John W.

2010-01-01

346

Determination of the asymptotic normalization coefficients for C14 + n ?C15, the C14(n,?)C15 reaction rate, and evaluation of a new method to determine spectroscopic factors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The C14 + n ?C15 system has been used as a test case in the evaluation of a new method to determine spectroscopic factors that uses the asymptotic normalization coefficient (ANC). The method proved to be unsuccessful for this case. As part of this experimental program, the ANCs for the 15C ground state and first excited state were determined using a heavy-ion neutron transfer reaction as well as the inverse kinematics (d,p) reaction, measured at the Texas A&M Cyclotron Institute. The values C2s1/22=1.88±0.18 fm-1 for the ground state and C1d5/22=4.25±0.38×10-3 fm-1 for the first excited state (Eexc=740 keV) were obtained. The ANCs were used to evaluate the astrophysical direct neutron capture rate on C14, which was then compared with the most recent direct measurement and found to be in good agreement. A study of the C15 SF via its mirror nucleus F15 and a new insight into deuteron stripping theory are also presented.

McCleskey, M.; Mukhamedzhanov, A. M.; Trache, L.; Tribble, R. E.; Banu, A.; Eremenko, V.; Goldberg, V. Z.; Lui, Y.-W.; McCleskey, E.; Roeder, B. T.; Spiridon, A.; Carstoiu, F.; Burjan, V.; Hons, Z.; Thompson, I. J.

2014-04-01

347

Spectroscopic Imaging with Prospective Motion Correction and Retrospective Phase Correction  

PubMed Central

Motion-induced artefacts in magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging are much harder to recognize than in imaging experiments and can therefore lead to erroneous interpretation. A method for prospective motion correction based on an optical tracking system has recently been proposed and has already been successfully applied to single voxel spectroscopy. In this work, the utility of prospective motion correction in combination with retrospective phase correction is evaluated for spectroscopic imaging in the human brain. Retrospective phase correction, based on the interleaved reference scan method, is used to correct for motion-induced frequency shifts and ensure correct phasing of the spectra across the whole spectroscopic imaging slice. It is demonstrated that the presented correction methodology can reduce motion-induced degradation of spectroscopic imaging data.

Lange, Thomas; Maclaren, Julian; Buechert, Martin; Zaitsev, Maxim

2011-01-01

348

The Non-Traditional Student.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The non-traditional student, or adult learner, is making up the new majority in secondary education, creating several implications for community colleges. The average non-traditional student is an adult, age 25 or older, who has returned to school either full-time or part-time. The student must balance school with employment, family, and financial…

Ely, Eileen E.

349

The Non-Traditional Student.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The document describes thirteen types of non-traditional students, as identified by the University of Toledo Community and Technical College (Ohio), and the student services available to them at this institution. Non-traditional student types include those who did not do well in high school, those who interrupt their education for at least one…

Somogye, R. J.; Draheim, E. H.

350

Cherokee Stickball: A Changing Tradition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the history of Cherokee stickball, a ball game dating back at least to the 1500s that was once used (as an alternative to war) for resolving grievances between tribes and townships. Describes traditional aspects of Cherokee stickball and notes the steady decline of the game and its traditional rules and ceremonies. (LP)

Olson, Ted

1993-01-01

351

Bringing Traditional Teachings to Leadership  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this article is to examine how our Kootegan Yix Meh Towlth (traditional governance) might contribute to the development and implementation of a culturally relevant Sliammon governance model. Our Uk woom he heow (ancestors) lived their everyday lives guided by a complex system of practices and beliefs based on our Ta-ow (traditional

Washington, Siemthlut Michelle

2005-01-01

352

A comparison of spectroscopic methods for detecting the starlight scattered by transiting hot Jupiters, with an application to Subaru data for HD 209458b and HD 189733b  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The measurement of the light scattered from extrasolar planets informs atmospheric and formation models. With the discovery of many hot Jupiter planets orbiting nearby stars, this motivates the development of robust methods of characterization from follow-up observations. In this paper, we discuss two methods for determining the planetary albedo in transiting systems. First, the most widely used method for measuring the light scattered by hot Jupiters is investigated for application for typical echelle spectra of a transiting planet system, showing that a detection requires high-signal-to-noise-ratio data of bright planets. Secondly, a new Fourier analysis method is also presented, which is model-independent and utilizes the benefits of the reduced number of unknown parameters in transiting systems. This approach involves solving for the planet and stellar spectra in Fourier space by least squares. The sensitivities of the methods are determined via Monte Carlo simulations for a range of planet-to-star flux ratios. We find the Fourier analysis method to be better suited to the ideal case of typical observations of a well-constrained transiting system than the Collier Cameron et al. method. To guide future observations of transiting planets with ground-based capabilities, the expected sensitivity to the planet-to-star flux ratio is quantified as a function of the signal-to-noise ratio and wavelength range. We apply the Fourier analysis method for extracting the light scattered by transiting hot Jupiters from high-resolution spectra to echelle spectra of HD 209458 and HD 189733. Unfortunately, we are unable to improve on the previous upper limit of the planet-to-star flux ratio for HD 209458b set by space-based observations. A 1? upper limit on the planet-to-star flux ratio of HD 189733b is measured in the wavelength range of 558.83-599.56 nm yielding ? < 4.5 × 10-4. This limit is not sufficiently strong to constrain models. Improvement in the measurement of the upper limit of the planet-to-star flux ratio of this system, with ground-based capabilities, requires data with a higher signal-to-noise ratio and increased stability of the telescope.

Langford, Sally V.; Wyithe, J. Stuart B.; Turner, Edwin L.; Jenkins, Edward B.; Narita, Norio; Liu, Xin; Suto, Yasushi; Yamada, Toru

2011-07-01

353

Trends in Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic imaging is a relatively new method that has received great attention as a\\u000a new field of analytical chemistry. The greatest benefit of this technique lies in the high molecular sensitivity combined\\u000a with a spatial resolution down to a few micrometers. Another advantage is the ability to probe samples under native conditions,\\u000a which allows new insights

Gerald Steiner; Edmund Koch

2009-01-01

354

Traditional healthful fermented products of Japan.  

PubMed

A variety of fermentation products, such as foods containing probiotic bacteria, black rice vinegar (kurosu), soy sauce (shoyu), soybean-barley paste (miso), natto and tempeh, are sold in food stores in Japan. These fermented food products are produced by traditional methods that exploit mixed cultures of various non-toxic microorganisms. These microorganisms include lactic acid bacteria, acetic acid bacteria, sake yeast, koji molds and natto bacteria. Many traditional fermented foods have been studied and their effects on metabolism and/or immune system have been demonstrated in animal and/or human cells. This review summarizes the scientific basis for the effects of these traditional food products, which are currently produced commercially in Japan. PMID:18461373

Murooka, Yoshikatsu; Yamshita, Mitsuo

2008-08-01

355

Improving the traditional earth construction: a case study of Botswana  

Microsoft Academic Search

The traditional societies developed earth as one of the most important construction materials by taking cognizance of the strength requirements, durability of resulting structures and the environmental concern in processing and using the material. Over the years, however, modern earth construction has replaced the traditional methods. Unfortunately, these methods are also accompanied by high energy consumption and environmental degradation. This

Alfred B. Ngowi

1997-01-01

356

Kazakh Traditional Dance Gesture Recognition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Full body gesture recognition is an important and interdisciplinary research field which is widely used in many application spheres including dance gesture recognition. The rapid growth of technology in recent years brought a lot of contribution in this domain. However it is still challenging task. In this paper we implement Kazakh traditional dance gesture recognition. We use Microsoft Kinect camera to obtain human skeleton and depth information. Then we apply tree-structured Bayesian network and Expectation Maximization algorithm with K-means clustering to calculate conditional linear Gaussians for classifying poses. And finally we use Hidden Markov Model to detect dance gestures. Our main contribution is that we extend Kinect skeleton by adding headwear as a new skeleton joint which is calculated from depth image. This novelty allows us to significantly improve the accuracy of head gesture recognition of a dancer which in turn plays considerable role in whole body gesture recognition. Experimental results show the efficiency of the proposed method and that its performance is comparable to the state-of-the-art system performances.

Nussipbekov, A. K.; Amirgaliyev, E. N.; Hahn, Minsoo

2014-04-01

357

Spectroscopic null ellipsometer using a variable retarder.  

PubMed

We describe a polarizer-compensator-sample-analyzer (PCSA) null ellipsometer in which a variable retarder is used as the compensator and either the polarizer or the analyzer is held at a fixed azimuthal angle. Ellipsometric angles ? and ? are determined directly from the azimuth of the rotating component and the compensator delay, respectively. A Soleil-Babinet compensator with quartz plates is used as the variable delay element and the delay at any wavelength is calculated from the independently measured delay at 632.8 nm and a knowledge of the dispersion of quartz. The thicknesses of thin silicon dioxide films on a silicon wafer were determined both spectroscopically and at a single wavelength and show excellent agreement with those determined using a traditional single wavelength PCSA null ellipsometer. PMID:21221159

Watkins, Lionel R; Shamailov, Sophie S

2011-01-01

358

High-definition infrared spectroscopic imaging.  

PubMed

The quality of images from an infrared (IR) microscope has traditionally been limited by considerations of throughput and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). An understanding of the achievable quality as a function of instrument parameters, from first principals is needed for improved instrument design. Here, we first present a model for light propagation through an IR spectroscopic imaging system based on scalar wave theory. The model analytically describes the propagation of light along the entire beam path from the source to the detector. The effect of various optical elements and the sample in the microscope is understood in terms of the accessible spatial frequencies by using a Fourier optics approach and simulations are conducted to gain insights into spectroscopic image formation. The optimal pixel size at the sample plane is calculated and shown much smaller than that in current mid-IR microscopy systems. A commercial imaging system is modified, and experimental data are presented to demonstrate the validity of the developed model. Building on this validated theoretical foundation, an optimal sampling configuration is set up. Acquired data were of high spatial quality but, as expected, of poorer SNR. Signal processing approaches were implemented to improve the spectral SNR. The resulting data demonstrated the ability to perform high-definition IR imaging in the laboratory by using minimally-modified commercial instruments. PMID:23317676

Reddy, Rohith K; Walsh, Michael J; Schulmerich, Matthew V; Carney, P Scott; Bhargava, Rohit

2013-01-01

359

High-Definition Infrared Spectroscopic Imaging  

PubMed Central

The quality of images from an infrared (IR) microscope has traditionally been limited by considerations of throughput and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). An understanding of the achievable quality as a function of instrument parameters, from first principals is needed for improved instrument design. Here, we first present a model for light propagation through an IR spectroscopic imaging system based on scalar wave theory. The model analytically describes the propagation of light along the entire beam path from the source to the detector. The effect of various optical elements and the sample in the microscope is understood in terms of the accessible spatial frequencies by using a Fourier optics approach and simulations are conducted to gain insights into spectroscopic image formation. The optimal pixel size at the sample plane is calculated and shown much smaller than that in current mid-IR microscopy systems. A commercial imaging system is modified, and experimental data are presented to demonstrate the validity of the developed model. Building on this validated theoretical foundation, an optimal sampling configuration is set up. Acquired data were of high spatial quality but, as expected, of poorer SNR. Signal processing approaches were implemented to improve the spectral SNR. The resulting data demonstrated the ability to perform high-definition IR imaging in the laboratory by using minimally-modified commercial instruments.

Reddy, Rohith K.; Walsh, Michael J.; Schulmerich, Matthew V.; Carney, P. Scott; Bhargava, Rohit

2013-01-01

360

Aurorae in Australian Aboriginal Traditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transient celestial phenomena feature prominently in the astronomical knowledge and traditions of Aboriginal Australians. In this paper, I collect accounts of the Aurora Australis from the literature regarding Aboriginal culture. Using previous studies of meteors, eclipses, and comets in Aboriginal traditions, I anticipate that the physical properties of aurora, such as their generally red colour as seen from southern Australia, will be associated with fire, death, blood, and evil spirits. The survey reveals this to be the case and also explores historical auroral events in Aboriginal cultures, aurorae in rock art, and briefly compares Aboriginal auroral traditions with other global indigenous groups, including the Maori of New Zealand.

Hamacher, Duane W.

2013-07-01

361

Traditional soyfoods: processing and products.  

PubMed

Although soyfoods have been consumed for more than 1000 years, only for the past 15 years have they made an inroad into Western cultures and diets. Soyfoods are typically divided into two categories: nonfermented and fermented. Traditional nonfermented soyfoods include fresh green soybeans, whole dry soybeans, soy nuts, soy sprouts, whole-fat soy flour, soymilk and soymilk products, tofu, okara and yuba. Traditional fermented soyfoods include tempeh, miso, soy sauces, natto and fermented tofu and soymilk products. This paper presents a brief overview of processing techniques used in the manufacture of traditional soyfoods. PMID:7884535

Golbitz, P

1995-03-01

362

X-ray absorption spectroscopic and magnetic characterization of cobalt-doped zinc oxide nanocrystals prepared by the molten-salt method  

Microsoft Academic Search

The local atomic arrangement and electronic structure of the Co-doped Zn1?xCoxO nanocrystal have been quantitatively examined along with its magnetic properties. According to our analysis using powder X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, and Zn K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), phase-pure wurzite-structured Zn1?xCoxO nanocrystals have been successfully synthesized via the molten-salt method. The Co K-edge XAS analysis clearly demonstrates that all the

Ah Reum Han; Seong-Ju Hwang; Yongnan Zhao; Young-Uk Kwon

2008-01-01

363

Determination of structural and vibrational spectroscopic features of neutral and anion forms of dinicotinic acid by using NMR, infrared and Raman experimental methods combined with DFT and HF  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study; the experimental (NMR, infrared and Raman) and theoretical (HF and DFT) analysis of dinicotinic acid were presented. 1H and 13C NMR spectra were recorded in DMSO solution and chemical shifts were calculated by using the gauge-invariant atomic orbital (GIAO) method. The vibrational spectra of dinicotinic acid were recorded by FT-Raman and FT-IR spectra in the range of 4000-10 cm-1 and 4000-400 cm-1, respectively. To determine the most stable neutral conformer of molecule, the selected torsion angle was changed every 10° and molecular energy profile was calculated from 0° to 360°. The geometrical parameters and energies were obtained for all conformers form from density functional theory (DFT/B3LYP) and HF with 6-311++G(d,p) basis set calculations. However, the results of the most stable neutral and two anion forms (anion-1 and anion-2 forms) of dinicotinic acid are reported here. The complete assignments were performed on the basis of the total energy distribution (TED) of the vibrational wavenumbers, calculated with scaled quantum mechanics (SQM) method and PQS program.

Kose, E.; Bardak, F.; Atac, A.; Karabacak, M.; Cipiloglu, M. A.

2013-10-01

364

Growth by the induced nucleated floating crystal (INFC) method and spectroscopic properties of KY 1- xNd x(WO 4) 2 laser materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Double molybdates and tungstates of alkaline yttrium or gadolinium element beloning to the monoclinic structure are beginning to appear like very promising laser materials. They can be easily doped by IR laser rare-earth ions such as neodymium, ytterbium or erbium and, in addition, it is also possible to take benefit of the nonlinear properties of the host in so-called Raman shifter solid-state laser crystals. Unfortunately, it is difficult to grow high quality single crystals by using the usual pulling methods. The INFC method, previously used for the growth of KNbO 3 crystals, is also suitable for pure or doped tungstates/molybdates. We report in this work the first experiments on pure or Nd 3+-doped KY(WO 4) 2. Contrary to classical growth methods (Kyropoulos, Czochralski, floating zone), no crystal seed supply is used: by continuous growth from a nucleus, created by controlled local transient supersaturation on the melt surface, large enough (13 x 13 x 5 mm), high optical quality crystals are made in one day (growth rate: 0.5 mm/h). During the early stage of growth, the crystals float freely. When they become too heavy, they must be kept up by a pumping device to avoid sinking. Floating crystal are unstrained because mechanical stresses and internal thermal gradients are lowered in the growing solid. No inclusions and striations are observed owing to solvent rejection and dope feeding promoted by the thermal convection on the liquid. Melt composition was 63 mol% of K 2WO 4 and 37 mol% of KY 1- xNd x(Wo 4) 2, x varying from 0-5 at%. The growth temperature, measured by a pyrometer, controlled by a PID 818P Eurotherm controller, was 925°C during the growth time. The optical properties have been studied. The first data obtained on the infrared emission from 4F{3}/{2} to 4I{9}/{2}, {11}/{2}, {13}/{2} under ˜ 800 nm excitation, that is to say a laser-diode pump one, will be given. Life-time and branching ratio measurements at room-temperature will be also added. Site-selection laser spectroscopy at low temperature has been performed in order to probe the multicenter existence of Nd 3+ ions.

Métrat, G.; Muhlstein, N.; Brenier, A.; Boulon, G.

1997-07-01

365

Spatially resolved energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopic method for in-situ evaluation of mechanical properties during the growth of a C - Pt composite nanowire  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A core-shell type C-Pt composite nanowire is fabricated using focused ion and electron beam induced chemical vapor deposition techniques. Using information from spatially resolved energy dispersive x-ray spectra, we detect the resonance vibration in the C-Pt composite nanowire. We use this method to measure the Young's moduli of the constituents (C, Pt) of the composite nanowire and also estimate the density of the FEB CVD grown Pt shell surrounding the C core. By measuring the resonance characteristics of the composite nanowire we estimate a Pt shell growth rate of ˜0.9 nms-1. The study is analyzed to suggest that the Pt shell growth mechanism is primarily governed by the sticking coefficient of the organometallic vapor on the C nanowire core.

Banerjee, Amit; Banerjee, S. S.

2014-05-01

366

Aplisulfamines, New Sulfoxide-Containing Metabolites from an Aplidium Tunicate: Absolute Stereochemistry at Chiral Sulfur and Carbon Atoms Assigned Through an Original Combination of Spectroscopic and Computational Methods  

PubMed Central

Two new sulfoxide-containing metabolites, aplisulfamines A (1) and B (2), have been isolated from an Aplidium sp. collected in the Bay of Naples. Their planar structure and geometry of a double bond were readily determined by using standard methods, mainly NMR spectroscopy. An original approach was used to assign the absolute configuration at the three contiguous chiral centers present in the structures of both aplisulfamines, two at carbon and one at sulfur. This involved Electronic Circular Dichroism (ECD) studies, J-based configuration analysis and Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations and represents an interesting integration of modern techniques in stereoanalysis, which could contribute to the enhancement of theoretical protocols recently applied to solve stereochemical aspects in structure elucidation.

Aiello, Anna; Fattorusso, Ernesto; Imperatore, Concetta; Luciano, Paolo; Menna, Marialuisa; Vitalone, Rocco

2012-01-01

367

Bibliography on African Traditional Religion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Compiled by Chidi Denis Isizoh, this bibliography contains books, journal articles, and selections from larger works that focus on traditional religions in Africa. Citations include items in French and German as well as English.

Isizoh, Chidi D.

1998-01-01

368

Infrared spectroscopic imaging of kidney tumor tissue  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Infrared spectroscopic imaging of cancerous kidney tissue was performed by means of FTIR microscopy. The spectra of thin tissue cryosections were collected with 64x64 MCT FPA detector and imaging area was increased up to 5.4×5.4 mm by mapping by means of PC controlled x,y stage. Chemical images of the samples were constructed using statistical treatment of the raw spectra. Several unsupervised and supervised statistical methods were used. The imaging results are compared with results of the standard histopathological analysis. It was concluded that application of method of cluster analysis ensures the best contrast of the images. It was found that border between cancerous and normal tissues visible in the infrared spectroscopic image corresponds with the border visible in histopathological image. Closer examination of the infrared spectroscopic image reveals that small domains of cancerous cells are found beyond the border in areas distant from the border up to 3 mm. Such domains are not visible in the histopathological images. The smallest domains found in the infrared images are approx. 60 ?m.

Sablinskas, V.; Steiner, G.; Koch, E.; Ceponkus, J.; Pucetaite, M.; Strazdaite, S.; Urboniene, V.; Jankevicius, F.

2011-02-01

369

Was the Monetarist Tradition Invented?  

Microsoft Academic Search

In 1969, Harry Johnson charged that Milton Friedman 'invented' a Chicago oral quantity theory tradition, the idea being that in order to launch a monetarist counter-revolution, Friedman needed to establish a linkage with pre-Keynesian orthodoxy. This paper shows that there was a distinct pre-Keynesian Chicago quantity-theory tradition that advocated increased government expenditure during the Great Depression in order to put

George S Tavlas

1998-01-01

370

Polymorphism of 2-nitroaniline studied by calorimetric (DSC), structural (X-ray diffraction) and spectroscopic (FT-IR, Raman, UV Vis) methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The separation and growth methods of three ortho-nitroaniline ( o-NA) polymorphs were found. The irreversible character of the ? ? ? and ? ? ? phase transitions was revealed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurements and microscopic hot stage observations. The X-ray structure of the ?-form was determined and compared with the ? phase structure solved by Daneshwar et al. [N.N. Daneshwar et al. Acta Crystallogr., Sect. B 34 (1978) 2507]. Intramolecular hydrogen bonding (intra H-bond) interactions are dominant in both structures. The IR and Raman spectral features of the solutions and of three polycrystalline o-NA polymorphs are specific for intramolecular resonance assisted H-bonds (RAHB's). The DFT calculations facilitated the almost complete assignments of bands to normal vibrations and the analysis of the measured spectra. The manifestations of weak inter H-bonds in the ? and ? crystals and in the vibrational spectra of all polymorphs are observed as well; the strongest inter H-bonds occur in the ? polymorph. The differences in lowest electronic transition energies of three ?, ? and ? layers explain their different colours: the yellowish-green of the ? form and the orange ones of the ?- and ?- phases. The least stable ? form is probably an amorphous one with the weakest inter H-bonds. The differences in relative orientations of the -NH 2, -NO 2 groups and phenyl rings in the ?- and ?-phases indicate that the o-NA polymorphism has conformational character.

Zych, Tomasz; Misiaszek, Tomasz; Szostak, M. Magdalena

2007-11-01

371

Molecular structure, vibrational spectroscopic (FT-IR, FT-Raman), UV and NBO analysis of 2-chlorobenzonitrile by density functional method.  

PubMed

In this work, we will report a combined experimental and theoretical study on molecular structure, vibrational spectra, NBO and UV spectral analysis of 2-chlorobenzonitrile (2-ClBN). The FT-IR solid phase (4000-400 cm(-1)), and FT-Raman spectra (3500-50 cm(-1)) of 2-ClBN was recorded. The molecular geometry, harmonic vibrational frequencies and bonding features of 2-ClBN in the ground state have been calculated by using the density functional methods (BLYP, B3LYP) with 6-31G(d,p) as basis set. The assignments of the vibrational spectra have been carried out with the help of normal co-ordinate analysis (NCA) following the Scaled Quantum Mechanical Force Field Methodology (SQMFF). Stability of the molecule arising from hyper conjugative interactions, charge delocalization has been analyzed using natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis. The results show that charge in electron density (ED) in the ?* and ?* anti bonding orbitals and E2 energies confirms the occurrence of ICT (Intra molecular Charge Transfer) within the molecule. The UV spectrum was measured in ethanol solution. The energy and oscillator strength calculated by Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory (TD-DFT) results complements with the experimental findings. The calculated HOMO and LUMO energies also confirm that charge transfer occurs within the molecule. Finally calculated results were applied to simulated Infrared and Raman spectra of the title compound which show good agreement with observed spectra. PMID:21190895

Krishnan, Akhil R; Saleem, H; Subashchandrabose, S; Sundaraganesan, N; Sebastain, S

2011-02-01

372

Molecular structure, vibrational spectroscopic (FT-IR, FT-Raman), UV and NBO analysis of 2-chlorobenzonitrile by density functional method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, we will report a combined experimental and theoretical study on molecular structure, vibrational spectra, NBO and UV spectral analysis of 2-chlorobenzonitrile (2-ClBN). The FT-IR solid phase (4000-400 cm -1), and FT-Raman spectra (3500-50 cm -1) of 2-ClBN was recorded. The molecular geometry, harmonic vibrational frequencies and bonding features of 2-ClBN in the ground state have been calculated by using the density functional methods (BLYP, B3LYP) with 6-31G(d,p) as basis set. The assignments of the vibrational spectra have been carried out with the help of normal co-ordinate analysis (NCA) following the Scaled Quantum Mechanical Force Field Methodology (SQMFF). Stability of the molecule arising from hyper conjugative interactions, charge delocalization has been analyzed using natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis. The results show that charge in electron density (ED) in the ?* and ?* anti bonding orbitals and E2 energies confirms the occurrence of ICT (Intra molecular Charge Transfer) within the molecule. The UV spectrum was measured in ethanol solution. The energy and oscillator strength calculated by Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory (TD-DFT) results complements with the experimental findings. The calculated HOMO and LUMO energies also confirm that charge transfer occurs within the molecule. Finally calculated results were applied to simulated Infrared and Raman spectra of the title compound which show good agreement with observed spectra.

Krishnan, Akhil R.; Saleem, H.; Subashchandrabose, S.; Sundaraganesan, N.; Sebastain, S.

2011-02-01

373

The spectroscopic (FT-IR, FT-Raman), MESP, first order hyperpolarizability, NBO analysis, HOMO and LUMO analysis of 1,5-dimethyl napthalene by density functional method.  

PubMed

The Fourier-transform infrared and FT-Raman spectra of 1,5-Dimethyl Napthalene (15DMN) was recorded in the region 4000-400cm(-1) and 3500-50cm(-1) respectively. Quantum chemical calculations of energies, geometrical structure and vibrational wavenumbers of 6M2C were carried out by density functional theory (DFT/B3LYP) method with 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. The difference between the observed and scaled wavenumber values of most of the fundamentals is very small. The values of the total dipole moment (?) and the first order hyperpolarizability (?) of the investigated compound were computed using B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) calculations. The calculated results also show that 15DMN might have microscopic non-linear optical, MESP, NBO analysis with non-zero values. A detailed interpretation of infrared and Raman spectra of 15DMN is also reported. The calculated HOMO7-LUMO energy gap shows that charge transfer occur within the molecule. The molecular electrostatic potential map shows that the negative potential sites are on the electronegative atoms as well as the positive potential sites are around the hydrogen atoms. PMID:24915765

Arivazhagan, M; Subhasini, V P; Kavitha, R; Senthilkumar, R

2014-10-15

374

Comprehensive study of the interaction between a potential antiprion cationic porphyrin and human prion protein at different pH by using multiple spectroscopic methods.  

PubMed

Cationic porphyrins are potential antiprion drugs; however, the action mechanisms remain poorly understood. Herein, the interaction between a cationic porphyrin and recombinant human prion protein (rPrP(C)) was comprehensively studied by using surface plasmon resonance (SPR), fluorescence, resonance light scattering (RLS), and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. The experimental results showed that the interaction between the cationic porphyrin and rPrP(C) was pH dependent. The equilibrium association constants obtained from SPR spectroscopy were 4.12 × 10(3) M(-1) at pH 4.0, 1.74 × 10(5) M(-1) at pH 6.0, and 5.98 × 10(5) M(-1) at pH 7.0. The binding constants at 298?K obtained from the fluorescence quenching method were 7.286 × 10(4) M(-1) at pH 4.0 and 1.457 × 10(5) M(-1) at pH 6.0. The thermodynamic parameters such as enthalpy change, entropy change, and free energy change were calculated, and the results indicated hydrogen bonds and van der Waals interactions played a major role in the binding reaction. The RLS experiment was performed to study the influence of porphyrin on the rPrP(C) aggregation at different pH values. The CD experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of porphyrin on the secondary structure and thermal stability of rPrP(C). Finally, the comparison of SPR measurement and fluorescence quenching measurement was discussed. PMID:23280556

Xiao, Chang-Qing; Feng, Bo-Ya; Ge, Yu-Su; Fan, Xiao-Yang; Jiang, Feng-Lei; Xiao, Gengfu; Liu, Yi

2013-03-01

375

Spectroscopic Parameters of Lumbar Intervertebral Disc Material  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are numerous methods of investigating intervertebral disc. Visualization methods are widely used in clinical practice. Histological, imunohistochemical and biochemical methods are more used in scientific research. We propose that a new spectroscopic investigation would be useful in determining intervertebral disc material, especially when no histological specimens are available. Purpose: to determine spectroscopic parameters of intervertebral disc material; to determine emission spectra common for all intervertebral discs; to create a background for further spectroscopic investigation where no histological specimen will be available. Material and Methods: 20 patients, 68 frozen sections of 20 ?m thickness from operatively removed intervertebral disc hernia were excited by Nd:YAG microlaser STA-01-TH third harmonic 355 nm light throw 0, 1 mm fiber. Spectrophotometer OceanOptics USB2000 was used for spectra collection. Mathematical analysis of spectra was performed by ORIGIN multiple Gaussian peaks analysis. Results: In each specimen of disc hernia were found distinct maximal spectral peaks of 4 types supporting the histological evaluation of mixture content of the hernia. Fluorescence in the spectral regions 370-700 nm was detected in the disc hernias. The main spectral component was at 494 nm and the contribution of the components with the peak wavelength values at 388 nm, 412 nm and 435+/-5 nm were varying in the different groups of samples. In comparison to average spectrum of all cases, there are 4 groups of different spectral signatures in the region 400-500 nm in the patient groups, supporting a clinical data on different clinical features of the patients. Discussion and Conclusion: besides the classical open discectomy, new minimally invasive techniques of treating intervertebral disc emerge (PLDD). Intervertebral disc in these techniques is assessed by needle, no histological specimen is taken. Spectroscopic investigation via fiber optics through the needle can give additional information of needle position, assuring the needle tip is directed into intervertebral disc material. Spectroscopic analysis of intervertebral disc removed during open surgery, creates background for further investigation on intervertebral disc degeneration spectral classification.

Terbetas, G.; Kozlovskaja, A.; Varanius, D.; Graziene, V.; Vaitkus, J.; Vaitkuviene, A.

2009-06-01

376

Validation of an in-line Raman spectroscopic method for continuous active pharmaceutical ingredient quantification during pharmaceutical hot-melt extrusion.  

PubMed

A calibration model for in-line API determination was developed based on Raman spectra collected during hot-melt extrusion. This predictive model was validated by calculating the accuracy profile based on the analysis results of validation experiments. Furthermore, based on the data of the accuracy profile, the measurement uncertainty was determined. Finally, the robustness of the model was evaluated. A Raman probe was implemented in the die of a twin-screw extruder, to monitor the drug concentration during extrusion of physical mixtures containing 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35% (w/w) metoprolol tartrate (MPT) in Eudragit(®) RS PO, an amorphous copolymer of acrylic and methacrylic acid esters with a low content of quaternary ammonium groups, which are present as salts. Several different calibration models for the prediction of the MPT content were developed, based on the use of single spectra or averaged spectra, and using partial least squares (PLS) regression or multivariate curve resolution (MCR). These predictive models were validated by extruding and monitoring mixtures containing 17.5, 22.5, 25.0, 27.5 and 32.5% (w/w) MPT. Each validated concentration was monitored on three different days, by two different operators. The ?-expectation tolerance intervals were calculated for each model and for each of the validated MPT concentration levels (? was set at 95%), and acceptance limits were set at 10% (relative bias), indicating that at least 95% of future measurements should not deviate more than 10% from the true value. The only model where these acceptance limits were not exceeded was the MCR model based on averaged Raman spectra. The uncertainty measurements for this model showed that the unknown true value can be found at a maximum of ±7.00% around the measured result, with a confidence level of 95%. The robustness of this model was evaluated via an experimental design varying throughput, screw speed and barrel temperature. The robustness designs showed no significant influence of any of the process settings on the predicted concentration values. Raman spectroscopy proved to be a fast, non-destructive and reliable method for the quantification of MPT during hot-melt extrusion. From the accuracy profile of the MCR model based on averaged spectra, it was concluded that for each MPT concentration in the validated concentration range, 95 out 100 future routine measurements will be included within the acceptance limits (10%). PMID:24331054

Saerens, L; Segher, N; Vervaet, C; Remon, J P; De Beer, T

2014-01-01

377

SDSS Spectroscopic Survey of Stars.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In addition to optical photometry of unprecedented quality, the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) is also producing a massive spectroscopic database. They discuss determination of stellar parameters, such as effective temperature, gravity and metallicity fr...

A. Uomoto C. A. Prieto D. Schlegel N. Bond T. Beers Z. Ivezic

2007-01-01

378

Comparative spectroscopic analysis of urinary calculi inhibition by Larrea Tridentata infusion and NDGA chemical extract  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present comparative spectroscopic study we try to understand calcium oxalate kidney stone formation as well as its inhibition by using a traditional medicine approach with Larrea Tridentata (LT) herbal extracts and nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA), which is a chemical extract of the LT bush. The samples were synthesized without and with LT or NDGA using a simplified single diffusion gel growth technique. While the use of infusion from LT decreases the sizes of calcium oxalate crystals and also changes their structure from monohydrate for pure crystals to dihydrate for crystals grown with different amounts of inhibitor, both Raman and infrared absorption spectroscopic techniques, which are the methods of analysis employed in this work, reveal that NDGA is not responsible for the change in the morphology of calcium oxalate crystals and does not contribute significantly to the inhibition process. The presence of NDGA slightly affects the structure of the crystals by modifying the strength of the C-C bonds as seen in the Raman data. Also, the current infrared absorption results demonstrate the presence of NDGA in the samples through a vibrational line that corresponds to the double bond between carbon atoms of the ester group of NDGA.

Manciu, Felicia

2012-10-01

379

Spectroscopic planetary detection  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The Sun-as-a-star was monitored using the McMath Fourier transform spectometer (FTS) on Kitt Peak in 1983. In 1985 the first measurement was made using the laser heterodyne technique. The FTS measurements now extend for three years, with errors of order 3 meters/sec at a given epoch. Over this 3 year period, a 33 meter/sec change was measured in the apparent velocity of integrated sunlight. The sense of the effect is that a greater blueshift is seen near solar minimum, which is consistent with expectations based on considering the changing morphology of solar granular convection. Presuming this effect is solar-cycle-related, it will mimic the Doppler reflex produced by a planetary companion of approximately two Jupiter masses, with an 11 year orbital period. Thus, Jupiter itself is below the threshold for detection by spectroscopic means, without an additional technique for discrimination. However, for planetary companions in shorter period orbits (P approx. 3 years) the threshold for unambiguous detection is well below one Jupiter mass.

Deming, D.; Espenak, F.; Hillman, J. J.; Kostiuk, T.; Mumma, M. J.; Jennings, D. E.

1986-01-01

380

Cheese cultures: transforming American tastes and traditions.  

PubMed

Although the history of cheesemaking in the United States tells largely a tale of industrialization, there is a submerged yet continuous history of small-batch, hands-on, artisan cheese manufacture. This tradition, carried on in artisan cheese factories across the country, although concentrated in Wisconsin, is often overlooked by a new generation of artisan cheesemakers. Continuities in fabrication methods shared by preindustrial and post-industrial artisan creameries have been obscured by changes in the organization and significance of artisan production over the last one hundred years. Making cheese by hand has morphed from chore to occupation to vocation; from economic trade to expressive endeavor; from a craft to an art. American artisan cheesemaking tradition was invented and reinvented as a tradition of innovation. Indeed, ideological commitment to innovation as modern, progressive, American—and thus a marketable value—further obscures continuities between past and present, artisan factories, and new farmstead production. The social disconnect between the current artisan movement and American's enduring cheesemaking tradition reproduces class hierarchies even as it reflects growing equity in gendered occupational opportunities. PMID:21568042

Paxson, Heather

2010-01-01

381

New Antiasthmatic Drugs from Traditional Medicine?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several plants are used in traditional medicine for the treatment of bronchial asthma. We are trying to identify the active compound(s) and their mode of action. For the isolation and identification of the active principles, different chromatographic methods, HPLC, MPLC, elementary analysis, UV, mass, 1H- and 13C-NMR spectroscopy are used. Whole plant extracts, fractionated extracts and pure compounds are tested

W. Dorsch; H. Wagner

1991-01-01

382

Nonlinear spectroscopic studies of chiral media  

SciTech Connect

Molecular chirality plays an important role in chemistry, biology, and medicine. Traditional optical techniques for probing chirality, such as circular dichroism and Raman optical activity rely on electric-dipole forbidden transitions. As a result, their intrinsic low sensitivity limits their use to probe bulk chirality rather than chiral surfaces, monolayers or thin films often important for chemical or biological systems. Contrary to the traditional chirality probes, chiral signal in sum-frequency generation (SFG) is electric-dipole allowed both on chiral surface and in chiral bulk making it a much more promising tool for probing molecular chirality. SFG from a chiral medium was first proposed in 1965, but had never been experimentally confirmed until this thesis work was performed. This thesis describes a set of experiments successfully demonstrating that chiral SFG responses from chiral monolayers and liquids are observable. It shows that, with tunable inputs, SFG can be used as a sensitive spectroscopic tool to probe chirality in both electronic and vibrational resonances of chiral molecules. The monolayer sensitivity is feasible in both cases. It also discusses the relevant theoretical models explaining the origin and the strength of the chiral signal in vibrational and electronic SFG spectroscopies.

Belkin, Mikhail Alexandrovich

2004-05-20

383

Endoscopic versus traditional saphenous vein harvesting: a prospective, randomized trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Saphenous vein harvested with a traditional longitudinal technique often results in leg wound complications. An alternative endoscopic harvest technique may decrease these complications.Methods. One hundred twelve patients scheduled for elective coronary artery bypass grafting were prospectively randomized to have vein harvested using either an endoscopic (group A, n = 54) or traditional technique (group B, n = 58). Groups

Keith B Allen; Gary L Griffith; David A Heimansohn; Robert J Robison; Robert G Matheny; John J Schier; Edward B Fitzgerald; Carl J Shaar

1998-01-01

384

Application of traditional culture symbol in modern product design  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of this paper is to present a new method for modern product design by applying traditional cultural symbol to fit the cultural meanings of new products and complexity of people' life style. Based on the elements of semiotics and Peirce's symbol system theory, the studies analyze the essence of traditional culture symbol and composing of product symbol and

Wu Zhi-jun; Na Cheng-ai

2006-01-01

385

A Culture Seen Through Cuisine: Traditional Zanzibari Recipes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zanzibari cuisine was studied through the collecting of traditional and typical recipes. Along with the ingredients and cooking methods, further information about Zanzibari culinary traditions was gathered, such as historical origins of certain dishes, their special religious and ceremonial uses, as well as any superstitions or beliefs surrounding particular foods. All of this information was then compiled into a cookbook.

Lizzie Resta

2008-01-01

386

The Traditional/Communicative Dichotomy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

When considering the question of "traditional" versus "communicative", the first essential is definition. This article first of all attempts to clarify these ill-defined concepts before considering the degree to which they may or may not be dichotomous. The results of a small-scale study are reported involving a survey of teaching approaches…

Griffiths, Carol

2011-01-01

387

Is Traditional Educational Media Dead?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the influence of films on the author and concludes that traditional media has not died out, but rather has changed due to technology. Films are now watched on television as well as at a cinema; radio is more pervasive; and newspapers are still valued. (LRW)

Ljubic, Milan

2000-01-01

388

Contemporary Literature/Traditional Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An upper school English program has been experimenting with ways to reinforce its traditional literary curriculum with contemporary works. Three contemporary novels in particular (Naylor's "The Women of Brewster Place," Walker's "The Color Purple," and Miller's "A Canticle for Leibowitz") have been found to foster a sense of continuity with the…

Spencer, Jamieson

389

From Traditional to Virtual Mentoring.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The tradition of a mentoring relationship is embedded in a personal/business relationship between a wise teacher and someone who needs to learn a trade. Learning sessions have occurred over the years in many types of settings, including one-on-one mentoring, conferences, meetings, telephone, and fax. As society looks to technology as a vital…

Kirk, James J.; Olinger, Jennifer

390

Mentoring Youth: Trend and Tradition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article aims to encourage dialogue about the shift from traditional to contemporary mentoring and to ask what can be learned from inquiry into optimal mentor relationships and how we might utilize these findings within more formal mentoring schemes. It discusses current government initiatives, and makes recommendations and suggestions for…

Bennetts, Christine

2003-01-01

391

Mentoring youth: Trend and tradition  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article aims to encourage dialogue about the shift from traditional to contemporary mentoring and to ask what can be learned from inquiry into optimal mentor relationships and how we might utilise these findings within more formal mentoring schemes. It examines research into optimal mentor relationships and provides a model for understanding these alliances. It discusses current government initiatives, and

Christine Bennetts

2003-01-01

392

Mixing Block and Traditional Scheduling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Boone, North Carolina, Watauga High School has developed an alternative schedule that blends traditional and block schedules. This composite schedule originated in the late 1990s when their faculty members and administrators were struggling to determine if the school should change to a full block schedule. The board of education encouraged…

Childers, Gary L.; Ireland, Rebecca Weeks

2005-01-01

393

"Friluftsliv": Traditional Norwegian Outdoor Life.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Nature and outdoor life are part of Norway's national identity, as exemplified by a long history of nature-inspired art and literature, the formation of outdoor organizations since the turn of the century, and the development of skiing. Norwegian traditional outdoor life is characterized as travelling with respectful use of nature, to achieve a…

Tellnes, Atle

1992-01-01

394

Many-body approach to proton emission and spectroscopic factors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A formal study of the proton emission process is presented. The decay width for the process is re-derived in a time-dependent formalism that makes use of the two-potential approach by Gurvitz and Kalbermann and places special emphasis on the proper treatment of many-body effects. We demonstrate that the many-body aspects of the problem are contained in an overall normalization factor for the decay width. While this result agrees with traditional approaches to proton emission, we find that the usual interpretation of the normalization as the square root of a spectroscopic factor is not necessarily correct. This result has important consequences for extracting spectroscopic factors from proton emission experiments. (This work was performed in part under the auspices of the U. S. Department of Energy by the University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract No. W-7405-Eng-48.)

Escher, Jutta; Al-Khalili, Jim; Barbieri, Carlo; Jennings, Byron; Sparenberg, Jean-Marc

2003-10-01

395

Analytical, Nutritional and Clinical Methods Advance technology in virgin olive oil production from traditional and de-stoned pastes: Influence of the introduction of a heat exchanger on oil quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental investigation was carried out to evaluate the quality of virgin olive oils obtained when a de-stoner were used for the olive paste preparation in comparison to the use of a traditional stone mill. In order to improve the slightly differences of oil yields due to the use of the de-stoner also a heat exchanger has been introduced in

Paolo Amirante; Maria Lisa Clodoveo; Giacomo Dugo; Alessandro Leone; Antonia Tamborrino

396

Spectroscopic measurement of an atomic wave function  

SciTech Connect

We present a simple spectroscopic method based on Autler-Townes spectroscopy to determine the center-of-mass atomic wave function. The detection of spontaneously emitted photons from a three-level atom, in which two upper levels are driven by a classical standing light, yields information about the position and momentum distribution of the atom [A. M. Herkommer, W. P. Schleich, and M. S. Zubairy, J. Mod. Opt. 44, 2507 (1997)]. In this paper, we show that both the amplitude and phase information of the center-of-mass atomic wave function can be obtained from these distributions after a series of conditional measurements on the atom and the emitted photon.

Kapale, Kishore T. [Institute for Quantum Studies, and Department of Physics, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843-4242 (United States); Qamar, Shahid [Institute for Quantum Studies, and Department of Physics, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843-4242 (United States); Department of Physics and Applied Mathematics, Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Science, Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan); Zubairy, M. Suhail [Institute for Quantum Studies, and Department of Physics, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843-4242 (United States); Department of Electronics, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad (Pakistan)

2003-02-01

397

Spectroscopic analysis of insulating crystal fibers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new technique is described for investigating the optical properties of solid-state laser materials using single-crystal fibers grown by a laser-heated pedestal-growth technique. Single-crystal fiber samples can be prepared more rapidly and less expensively than crystals grown by more conventional methods; however, they are smaller and less uniform, making spectroscopic measurements difficult. A simple procedure for extracting the optical absorption and emission spectra of insulating crystal fibers is demonstrated with a titanium-doped sapphire fiber sample; results are comparable to those from Czochralski-grown material.

Buoncristiani, A. M.; Byvik, C. E.; Albin, S.

1988-01-01

398

A new method for an objective, ?2-based spectroscopic analysis of early-type stars. First results from its application to single and binary B- and late O-type stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. A precise quantitative spectral analysis, encompassing atmospheric parameter and chemical elemental abundance determination, is time-consuming due to its iterative nature and the multi-parameter space to be explored, especially when done by the naked eye. Aims: A robust automated fitting technique that is as trustworthy as traditional methods would allow for large samples of stars to be analyzed in a consistent manner in reasonable time. Methods: We present a semi-automated quantitative spectral analysis technique for early-type stars based on the concept of ?2 minimization. The method's main features are as follows: far less subjectivity than the naked eye, correction for inaccurate continuum normalization, consideration of the whole useful spectral range, and simultaneous sampling of the entire multi-parameter space (effective temperature, surface gravity, microturbulence, macroturbulence, projected rotational velocity, radial velocity, and elemental abundances) to find the global best solution, which is also applicable to composite spectra. Results: The method is fast, robust, and reliable as seen from formal tests and from a comparison with previous analyses. Conclusions: Consistent quantitative spectral analyses of large samples of early-type stars can be performed quickly with very high accuracy. Based on observations made with ESO Telescopes at the La Silla Paranal Observatory under program IDs 074.D-0021(A), 088.A-9003(A), and 091.C-0713(A). Based on observations made with the Nordic Optical Telescope, operated by the Nordic Optical Telescope Scientific Association at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos, La Palma, Spain, of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, proposal 41-027. Figures 2 and 3 are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

Irrgang, A.; Przybilla, N.; Heber, U.; Böck, M.; Hanke, M.; Nieva, M.-F.; Butler, K.

2014-05-01

399

Spectroscopic investigation of protein corona  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanotechnology has revolutionalized the landscape of modern science and technology, including materials, electronics, therapeutics, bioimaging, sensing, and the environment. Research in the past decade has examined the fate of nanomaterials in vitro and in vivo, as well as the interactions between nanoparticles and biological and ecosystems using primarily toxicological and ecotoxicological approaches. However, due to the versatility in the physical and physicochemical properties of nanoparticles, and due to the vast complexity of their hosting systems, the solubility, transformation, and biocompatibility of nanomaterials are still poorly understood. Nanotechnology has been undergoing tremendous development in recent decades, driven by realized perceived applications of nanomaterials in electronics, therapeutics, imaging, sensing, environmental remediation, and consumer products. Nanoparticles on entering the blood stream undergo an identity change, they become coated with proteins. There are different kind of proteins present in blood. Proteins compete for getting coated over the surface of nanoparticle and this whole entity of proteins coated over nanoparticle surface is called Protein Corona. Proteins tightly bound to the surface of nanoparticle form hard corona and the ones loosely bound on the outer surface form soft corona. This dissertation is aimed at spectroscopic investigation of Protein Corona. Chapter I of this dissertation offers a comprehensive review of the literature based on nanomaterials with the focus on carbon based nanomaterilas and introduction to Protein Corona. Chapter II is based different methods used for Graphene Synthesis,different types of defects and doping. In Chapter III influence of defects on Graphene Protein Corona was investigated. Chapter IV is based on the study of Apoptosis induced cell death by Gold and silver nanoparticles. In vitro study of effect of Protein Corona on toxicity of cells was done.

Choudhary, Poonam

400

Ginseng in Traditional Herbal Prescriptions  

PubMed Central

Panax ginseng Meyer has been widely used as a tonic in traditional Korean, Chinese, and Japanese herbal medicines and in Western herbal preparations for thousands of years. In the past, ginseng was very rare and was considered to have mysterious powers. Today, the efficacy of drugs must be tested through well-designed clinical trials or meta-analyses, and ginseng is no exception. In the present review, we discuss the functions of ginseng described in historical documents and describe how these functions are taken into account in herbal prescriptions. We also discuss the findings of experimental pharmacological research on the functions of ginseng in ginseng-containing prescriptions and how these prescriptions have been applied in modern therapeutic interventions. The present review on the functions of ginseng in traditional prescriptions helps to demystify ginseng and, as a result, may contribute to expanding the use of ginseng or ginseng-containing prescriptions.

Park, Ho Jae; Kim, Dong Hyun; Park, Se Jin; Kim, Jong Min; Ryu, Jong Hoon

2012-01-01

401

Superoxide and traditional Chinese medicines.  

PubMed

In traditional Chinese medicinal practices, herbs are classified as 'cold', 'neutral', or 'hot'. Fluorometric analysis of herbs with 'cold' properties revealed that these herbs produce large amounts of superoxide. In contrast, herbs with 'hot' properties have scavenging activities. We believe that this electron transfer to form superoxide and the scavenging of superoxide may elucidate the phenomena of the 'yin' (represented by 'cold') and 'yang' (represented by 'hot') respectively. PMID:8719977

Lin, W S; Chan, W C; Hew, C S

1995-11-01

402