Note: This page contains sample records for the topic traditional spectroscopic methods from Science.gov.
While these samples are representative of the content of Science.gov,
they are not comprehensive nor are they the most current set.
We encourage you to perform a real-time search of Science.gov
to obtain the most current and comprehensive results.
Last update: November 12, 2013.
1

Traditional Methods for Mineral Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This chapter describes traditional methods for analysis of minerals involving titrimetric and colorimetric procedures, and the use of ion selective electrodes. Other traditional methods of mineral analysis include gravimetric titration (i.e., insoluble forms of minerals are precipitated, rinse, dried, and weighed) and redox reactions (i.e., mineral is part of an oxidation-reduction reaction, and product is quantitated). However, these latter two methods will not be covered because they currently are used little in the food industry. The traditional methods that will be described have maintained widespread usage in the food industry despite the development of more modern instrumentation such as atomic absorption spectroscopy and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (Chap. 24). Traditional methods generally require chemicals and equipment that are routinely available in an analytical laboratory and are within the experience of most laboratory technicians. Additionally, traditional methods often form the basis for rapid analysis kits (e.g., Quantab®; for salt determination) that are increasingly in demand. Procedures for analysis of minerals of major nutritional or food processing concern are used for illustrative purposes. For additional examples of traditional methods refer to references (1-6). Slight modifications of these traditional methods are often needed for specific foodstuffs to minimize interferences or to be in the range of analytical performance. For analytical requirements for specific foods see the Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC International (5) and related official methods (6).

Ward, Robert E.; Carpenter, Charles E.

2

Calibration method for spectroscopic systems  

DOEpatents

Calibration spots of optically-characterized material placed in the field of view of a spectroscopic system allow calibration of the spectroscopic system. Response from the calibration spots is measured and used to calibrate for varying spectroscopic system operating parameters. The accurate calibration achieved allows quantitative spectroscopic analysis of responses taken at different times, different excitation conditions, and of different targets.

Sandison, David R. (Edgewood, NM)

1998-01-01

3

Plasma diagnostics by spectroscopic methods.  

PubMed

Spectroscopic techniques for the measurement of plasma parameters are reviewed for a range of temperatures up to 10(6) degrees K. Tables and figures of useful data have been prepared or have been collected from the literature for ready application to experimental measurements. The problem of making spatially resolved intensity measurements in an optically thin axisymmetric plasma column is discussed. PMID:20062112

Robinson, D; Lenn, P D

1967-06-01

4

Spectroscopic methods in gas hydrate research.  

PubMed

Gas hydrates are crystalline structures comprising a guest molecule surrounded by a water cage, and are particularly relevant due to their natural occurrence in the deep sea and in permafrost areas. Low molecular weight molecules such as methane and carbon dioxide can be sequestered into that cage at suitable temperatures and pressures, facilitating the transition to the solid phase. While the composition and structure of gas hydrates appear to be well understood, their formation and dissociation mechanisms, along with the dynamics and kinetics associated with those processes, remain ambiguous. In order to take advantage of gas hydrates as an energy resource (e.g., methane hydrate), as a sequestration matrix in (for example) CO(2) storage, or for chemical energy conservation/storage, a more detailed molecular level understanding of their formation and dissociation processes, as well as the chemical, physical, and biological parameters that affect these processes, is required. Spectroscopic techniques appear to be most suitable for analyzing the structures of gas hydrates (sometimes in situ), thus providing access to such information across the electromagnetic spectrum. A variety of spectroscopic methods are currently used in gas hydrate research to determine the composition, structure, cage occupancy, guest molecule position, and binding/formation/dissociation mechanisms of the hydrate. To date, the most commonly applied techniques are Raman spectroscopy and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Diffraction methods such as neutron and X-ray diffraction are used to determine gas hydrate structures, and to study lattice expansions. Furthermore, UV-vis spectroscopic techniques and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) have assisted in structural studies of gas hydrates. Most recently, waveguide-coupled mid-infrared spectroscopy in the 3-20 ?m spectral range has demonstrated its value for in situ studies on the formation and dissociation of gas hydrates. This comprehensive review summarizes the importance of spectroscopic analytical techniques to our understanding of the structure and dynamics of gas hydrate systems, and highlights selected examples that illustrate the utility of these individual methods. PMID:22094590

Rauh, Florian; Mizaikoff, Boris

2011-11-18

5

Selective spectroscopic methods for water analysis  

SciTech Connect

This dissertation explores in large part the development of a few types of spectroscopic methods in the analysis of water. Methods for the determination of some of the most important properties of water like pH, metal ion content, and chemical oxygen demand are investigated in detail. This report contains a general introduction to the subject and the conclusions. Four chapters and an appendix have been processed separately. They are: chromogenic and fluorogenic crown ether compounds for the selective extraction and determination of Hg(II); selective determination of cadmium in water using a chromogenic crown ether in a mixed micellar solution; reduction of chloride interference in chemical oxygen demand determination without using mercury salts; structural orientation patterns for a series of anthraquinone sulfonates adsorbed at an aminophenol thiolate monolayer chemisorbed at gold; and the role of chemically modified surfaces in the construction of miniaturized analytical instrumentation.

Vaidya, B.

1997-06-24

6

Multivariate analysis methods for spectroscopic blood analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Blood tests are an essential tool in clinical medicine with the ability diagnosis or monitor various diseases and conditions; however, the complexities of these measurements currently restrict them to a laboratory setting. P&P Optica has developed and currently produces patented high performance spectrometers and is developing a spectrometer-based system for rapid reagent-free blood analysis. An important aspect of this analysis is the need to extract the analyte specific information from the measured signal such that the analyte concentrations can be determined. To this end, advanced chemometric methods are currently being investigated and have been tested using simulated spectra. A blood plasma model was used to generate Raman, near infrared, and optical rotatory dispersion spectra with glucose as the target analyte. The potential of combined chemometric techniques, where multiple spectroscopy modalities are used in a single regression model to improve the prediction ability was investigated using unfold partial least squares and multiblock partial least squares. Results show improvement in the predictions of glucose levels using the combined methods and demonstrate potential for multiblock chemometrics in spectroscopic blood analysis.

Wood, Michael F. G.; Rohani, Arash; Ghazalah, Rashid; Vitkin, I. Alex; Pawluczyk, Romuald

2012-02-01

7

Apparatus and method for spectroscopic analysis of scattering media  

DOEpatents

Apparatus and method for spectroscopic analysis of scattering media. Subtle differences in materials have been found to be detectable from plots of intensity as a function of wavelength of collected emitted and scattered light versus wavelength of excitation light.

Strobl, Karlheinz (Los Angeles, CA); Bigio, Irving J. (Los Alamos, NM); Loree, Thomas R. (Santa Fe, NM)

1994-01-01

8

Spectroscopic methods for detection of impurities in water  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optical photoluminescence spectroscopic method for detection of impurities, hazardous materials, pesticides, and pollutants in water resources, both qualitatively and quantitatively, is presented. The method is based on synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy (SFS) of organic aromatic compounds, or poly-aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and is carried out by following simultaneously their excitation and emission spectra. The full excitation emission matrix (EEM) generated in this

Natalia V. Strashnikova; Nona Papiashvili; Rivka Cohen-Luria; Shlomo Mark; Guy Shilon; Daniel Khankin; Yehoshua Kalisky; Ofra Kalisky; Abraham H. Parola

2011-01-01

9

A spectroscopic method for determining thickness of quartz wave plate  

Microsoft Academic Search

A spectroscopic method to determine thickness of quartz wave plate is presented. The method is based on chromatic polarization interferometry. With the polarization-resolved transmission spectrum (PRTS) curve, the phase retardation of quartz wave plate can be determined at a wide spectral range from 200 to 2000 nm obviously. Through accurate judgment of extreme points of PRTS curve at long-wave band,

Weiwei Feng; Lihuang Lin; Ligang Chen; Huafeng Zhu; Ruxin Li; Zhizhan Xu

2006-01-01

10

A computer method for the automatic reduction of spectroscopic data.  

PubMed

A computer program, written in Fortran IV and for use with an associated spectral comparator, has been developed at The Naval Research Laboratory for the purpose of automatically reducing spectroscopic data. A Datex digitalizing magnetic tape recorder in conjunction with a modified Jarrell-Ash microphotometer allows the reading of spectral information from a photographic plate at the rate of twentyfive data pairs per second. Spectra of local interest analyzed by this method are (1) absorption, (2) emission, (3) plasma type, obtained from time-resolved spectroscopic techniques, and (4) solar echellegrams obtained from rocket probings of the upper atmosphere. Markedly useful features of the program are its capabilities of (a) recognizing spectral peaks from a background of variable density, (b) obtaining absolute values for the radiance or irradiance. An essential characteristic of the method is the saving of significant amounts of time in the reduction of photographic spectroscopic data. PMID:20062364

Ditzel, E F; Giddings, L E

1967-12-01

11

Forest control and regulation ... a comparison of traditional methods ...  

Treesearch

All Treesearch publications were written or produced by Forest Service personnel ... Title: Forest control and regulation ... a comparison of traditional methods and ... to linear programing, as used in a new computerized planning system called ...

12

Plant roots and spectroscopic methods - analyzing species, biomass and vitality  

PubMed Central

In order to understand plant functioning, plant community composition, and terrestrial biogeochemistry, it is decisive to study standing root biomass, (fine) root dynamics, and interactions belowground. While most plant taxa can be identified by visual criteria aboveground, roots show less distinctive features. Furthermore, root systems of neighboring plants are rarely spatially segregated; thus, most soil horizons and samples hold roots of more than one species necessitating root sorting according to taxa. In the last decades, various approaches, ranging from anatomical and morphological analyses to differences in chemical composition and DNA sequencing were applied to discern species’ identity and biomass belowground. Among those methods, a variety of spectroscopic methods was used to detect differences in the chemical composition of roots. In this review, spectroscopic methods used to study root systems of herbaceous and woody species in excised samples or in situ will be discussed. In detail, techniques will be reviewed according to their usability to discern root taxa, to determine root vitality, and to quantify root biomass non-destructively or in soil cores holding mixtures of plant roots. In addition, spectroscopic methods which may be able to play an increasing role in future studies on root biomass and related traits are highlighted.

Rewald, Boris; Meinen, Catharina

2013-01-01

13

Spectroscopic studies of protein folding: Linear and nonlinear methods  

PubMed Central

Although protein folding is a simple outcome of the underlying thermodynamics, arriving at a quantitative and predictive understanding of how proteins fold nevertheless poses huge challenges. Therefore, both advanced experimental and computational methods are continuously being developed and refined to probe and reveal the atomistic details of protein folding dynamics and mechanisms. Herein, we provide a concise review of recent developments in spectroscopic studies of protein folding, with a focus on new triggering and probing methods. In particular, we describe several laser-based techniques for triggering protein folding/unfolding on the picosecond and/or nanosecond timescales and various linear and nonlinear spectroscopic techniques for interrogating protein conformations, conformational transitions, and dynamics.

Serrano, Arnaldo L; Waegele, Matthias M; Gai, Feng

2012-01-01

14

Spectroscopic methods for detection of impurities in water  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical photoluminescence spectroscopic method for detection of impurities, hazardous materials, pesticides, and pollutants in water resources, both qualitatively and quantitatively, is presented. The method is based on synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy (SFS) of organic aromatic compounds, or poly-aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and is carried out by following simultaneously their excitation and emission spectra. The full excitation emission matrix (EEM) generated in this way provides a 2-D and 3-D fluorescence map of the tested sample and the diagonals through the axes origin provide the synchronous fluorescence spectra at a constant wavelengths differences between the emission and excitation wavelengths, thus enabling multitude components identification. This map contains all the relevant spectroscopic information of the tested sample, and serves as a unique "fingerprint" with a very specific and accurate identification. When compared with pre-determined spectra and calibration curves from a "databank", there is a one-toone correspondence between the image and the specific compound, and it can be identified accurately both qualitatively and quantitatively. This method offers several significant advantages, and it provides a sensitive (ppm detection level), accurate and simple spectroscopic tool to monitor impurities and pollutants in water. The design and performance of the spectrofluorimeter prototype, as well as the software development and analysis of chemical organic compounds and mixtures in water will be discussed in this paper.

Strashnikova, Natalia V.; Papiashvili, Nona; Cohen-Luria, Rivka; Mark, Shlomo; Shilon, Guy; Khankin, Daniel; Kalisky, Yehoshua; Kalisky, Ofra; Parola, Abraham H.

2011-10-01

15

College Students' Perceptions of the Traditional Lecture Method  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fifty-one college students responded to survey questions regarding their perceptions of the traditional lecture method of instruction that they received in a 200-level psychology course. At a time when many professors are being encouraged to use active learning methods instead of lectures, it is important to consider the students' perspective. Do…

Covill, Amy E.

2011-01-01

16

Computational methods for Traditional Chinese Medicine: A survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has been actively researched through various approaches, including computational techniques. A review on basic elements of TCM is provided to illuminate various challenges and progresses in its study using computational methods. Information on various TCM formulations, in particular resources on databases of TCM formulations and their integration to Western medicine, are analyzed in several facets, such

Suryani Lukman; Yulan He; Siu-Cheung Hui

2007-01-01

17

Method of absorbance correction in a spectroscopic heating value sensor  

DOEpatents

A method and apparatus for absorbance correction in a spectroscopic heating value sensor in which a reference light intensity measurement is made on a non-absorbing reference fluid, a light intensity measurement is made on a sample fluid, and a measured light absorbance of the sample fluid is determined. A corrective light intensity measurement at a non-absorbing wavelength of the sample fluid is made on the sample fluid from which an absorbance correction factor is determined. The absorbance correction factor is then applied to the measured light absorbance of the sample fluid to arrive at a true or accurate absorbance for the sample fluid.

Saveliev, Alexei; Jangale, Vilas Vyankatrao; Zelepouga, Sergeui; Pratapas, John

2013-09-17

18

Traditions and Alcohol Use: A Mixed-Methods Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

An integrative mixed-methods analysis examined traditional beliefs as associated with beliefs about self-care during pregnancy and with alcohol abstinence among young adult women from two rural U.S.–Mexico border communities. Quantitative (measured scale) variables and qualitative thematic variables generated from open-ended responses served as within-time predictors of these health-related outcomes. A weaker belief that life is better in big cities was

Felipe González Castro; Kathryn Coe

2007-01-01

19

Analysis of cancer tissues by means of spectroscopic methods  

PubMed Central

The personalized approach in cancer treatment stimulates the search for new analytical techniques, including spectroscopic methods such as Raman spectroscopy, mass spectrometry MALDI (matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization) imaging and high-resolution magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (HR MAS NMR). The purpose of these studies is determination of metabolic profiles of cancer tissues, and their application in diagnostics and therapy of cancers. The review is mainly focused on application of HR MAS NMR technique. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of metabolites by means of this method is described for breast cancer tissues. In the near future HR MAS NMR in vitro studies of metabolic profiles combined with in vivo studies using MRI scanners may be applied as a new diagnostic tool.

Pacholczyk, Barbara; Fabianska, Anna; Kusinska, Renata; Potemski, Piotr; Kordek, Radzislaw

2012-01-01

20

Traditions and alcohol use: a mixed-methods analysis.  

PubMed

An integrative mixed-methods analysis examined traditional beliefs as associated with beliefs about self-care during pregnancy and with alcohol abstinence among young adult women from two rural U.S.-Mexico border communities. Quantitative (measured scale) variables and qualitative thematic variables generated from open-ended responses served as within-time predictors of these health-related outcomes. A weaker belief that life is better in big cities was associated with stronger self-care beliefs during pregnancy. Also, a weaker belief that small towns offer tranquil environments was associated with total abstinence from alcohol. Regarding the Hispanic Paradox, these results suggest that a critical appreciation of cultural traditions can be protective, as this avoids stereotypical or idyllic views of urban or rural lifeways, and promotes self-protective beliefs and behaviors. PMID:17967095

Castro, Felipe González; Coe, Kathryn

2007-10-01

21

Comparing two new camera calibration methods with traditional pinhole calibrations.  

PubMed

Two novel camera calibration methods are compared with traditional pinhole calibration: one new method uses an analytic geometrical version of Snell's law (denoted as the Snell model); the other uses 6x6 matrix-based paraxial ray-tracing (referred to as the paraxial model). Pinhole model uses a perspective projection approximation to give a single lumped result for the multiple optical elements in a camera system. It is mathematically simple, but suffers from accuracy limitations since it does not consider the lens system. The Snell model is mathematically the most complex but potentially has the highest levels of accuracy for the widest range of conditions. The paraxial model has the merit of offering analytical equations for calibration. PMID:19532540

Lin, Psang D; Sung, Chi K

2007-03-19

22

Nonyrast states of 108Cd: Investigation with complementary ??-spectroscopic methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigated 108Cd using a powerful combination of complementary ?? spectroscopic methods. Excited states were populated in the ? decay of 108In and with the 105Pd(?,n) fusion-evaporation reaction near the Coulomb barrier. From ?? angular correlation analyses we found dominant M1 character for decays of three 2+ states between 2.1 and 2.65 MeV, indicating that the fundamental isovector quadrupole excitation in the valence shell, the so-called 2+ms state, is fragmented in 108Cd. Effective lifetimes from the Doppler-shift attenuation method (DSAM) provided lower limits for the absolute transition strengths of the interesting decays. Our findings on mixed-symmetry 2+ states were compared to the neighboring nucleus 112Cd and IBM-2 predictions in the vicinity of the pure U(5) and O(6) dynamical symmetry limits. Furthermore, indications for the 1+ms excitation of 108Cd were found. In total we established more than 120 new states and more than 580 new transitions, 30 spins and 80 multipole mixing ratios were determined and eight effective lifetimes stem from DSAM. This huge amount of new data enabled an investigation of the excitation spectrum even under statistical aspects. We discuss the frequency of spin values below 3.13 MeV in the framework of the constant temperature model.

Gade, A.; Fitzler, A.; Fransen, C.; Jolie, J.; Kasemann, S.; Klein, H.; Linnemann, A.; Werner, V.; von Brentano, P.

2002-09-01

23

Sense or nonsense? Traditional methods of animal parasitic disease control  

Microsoft Academic Search

In recent years, there has been a resurgence of interest in traditional health-care practices in the western as well as in the developing world. In animal health, this has led to further interest in ethnoveterinary research and development, a relatively new field of study that covers traditional practices, ethnobotany and application of animal care practices embedded in local tradition. This

T. W. Schillhorn van Veen

1997-01-01

24

Traditional animal disease control methods in the Philippines.  

PubMed

The authors present a number of animal disease control methods practised in the Philippines which have been handed down from generation to generation. Data were obtained through questionnaires, personal interviews and a literature search. Most of the data collected refer to the Cordillera Autonomous Region. Rituals, incantations and prayers to ward off evil spirits were the most popular practices in the mountain provinces of this region. Sacrifice of animals to appease evil spirits, and thanksgiving rituals to improve fertility and production were also common. In addition, evil spirits may be driven away by burning incense or herbs, tying a red ribbon round the necks of animals or fencing off the perimeter of a pen or corral. A total of fifteen traditional practices is reported. Other indigenous practices worthy of note may also occur within the Muslim and Visayan communities in central and southern areas of the Philippines. PMID:8038445

Topacio, T M; Jovellanos, M L

1994-06-01

25

A spectroscopic method of determining the isotopic composition of magnesium  

Microsoft Academic Search

The composition is determined from the isotopic shift of the Mgl 880.68 nm line. The coefficient of variation for magnesium metal is 1.8%, but 4% for magnesium oxide. Several spectroscopic analyses can be performed in the time needed for one mass-spectrometer analysis, which reduces the error of analysis by a factor two or three.

A. G. Zhiglinskii; E. N. Fafurina

1966-01-01

26

Tradition, tradition  

PubMed Central

Starting with this issue, the Editorial duties for the JCI move to Duke University and the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. As we begin our five-year tenure at the helm of this prestigious journal, the tradition of excellence that these two schools typically display on the basketball court now enters the editorial boardroom.

Rockman, Howard A.

2012-01-01

27

Comparing Traditional and Integrative Learning Methods in Organizational Training Programs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Previous research and anecdotal reports have suggested that when certain teaching approaches are used, students not only learn more but also experience greater satisfaction with the training process. This study examined the effects of integrative-learning-based (IL) training in relation to lecture-based training. Employees enrolled in a 3-day manufacturing resource planning training course were randomly assigned to either IL or traditional

Robert D. Bretz; Robert E. Thompsett

1992-01-01

28

Comparison of Advanced Analysis Techniques to Traditional Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on two transmission lines that demonstrate the need for more sophisticated analysis of transmission systems. Topics covered include the stability of wood H-Frames, ruling span vs. finite element based sag-tension, and complete finite element line modeling as opposed to the modeling of structures, insulators and conductors in isolation. We demonstrate that traditional ruling span based sag-tension can be

Erik Jacobsen

2002-01-01

29

A Comparison of the Kernel Equating Method with Traditional Equating Methods Using SAT[R] Data  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study applied kernel equating (KE) in two scenarios: equating to a very similar population and equating to a very different population, referred to as a distant population, using SAT[R] data. The KE results were compared to the results obtained from analogous traditional equating methods in both scenarios. The results indicate that KE…

Liu, Jinghua; Low, Albert C.

2008-01-01

30

Traditional methods in management of diarrhoeal diseases in Uganda.  

PubMed Central

A total of 292 traditional healers were interviewed in five districts of Uganda to discover how diarrhoeal diseases were treated by them. At least two healers were present in every village visited, and over 42% of their case-load was concerned with diarrhoeal treatment. The investigation showed that a great variety of herbs/plants are used by traditional healers in the treatment of diarrhoeal diseases. All those interviewed used water as the main vehicle for their herbal preparations, the amount prescribed daily ranging from 20 ml to over 100 ml for children (in the case of 54.5% of healers) and 100 ml to over 500 ml for adults (56.6%); 26.4% of healers considered fluid supplements as mandatory and 70.5% advised patients to take as much fluid as possible. Only 3.1% of healers either limited or did not advise fluid intake. These findings indicate that traditional healers could play an important role in interventions to control diarrhoeal diseases using modern oral rehydration therapy if they are assisted to improve their techniques.

Anokbonggo, W. W.; Odoi-Adome, R.; Oluju, P. M.

1990-01-01

31

Combination of simple chemical and spectroscopic methods for the identification of Thai Hom Mali rice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As the Thai Dawk Mali (KDML105) rice variety is popular due to its high sensory after cook, there is an increase in mixing the KDML105 rice with other rice varieties that leads to unqualified KDML105 milled rice products for export and unqualified unmilled rice seeds for next plants. Instead of using traditional time consuming methods based on the disintegration of the rice kernel in an alkali solution and the inspection of rice cooked in boiling water, this paper proposes to analyze the milled rice powder dissolved in our alkali solution via a spectroscopic method. In our study, 0.1 g, 0.2 g, and 0.3 of milled rice powder from four Thai rice varieties, i.e., KDML105, Pathumthani1, Chainat1, and RD6, are selected. Then each milled rice sample is ground and then dissolved in a 10% potassium hydroxide (KOH) solution. At the specified minutes of dissolution, the relative optical transmission spectrum of the milled rice solution in a 500-800 nm wavelength is measured and only its first derivative is used for the identification of the KDML105 milled rice. We find that the use of 0.10 g of the milled rice powder dissolved in our KOH solution for 10 minutes provides the lowest false rejection rate of 15%, indicating that we have a faster approach with less amount of waste produced. With the 0.2-g milled rice powder, 5 minutes of dissolution is needed but with a slightly higher false rejection rate of 18.3%.

Suwansukho, Kajpanya; Sumriddetchkajorn, Sarun; Buranasiri, Prathan

2009-05-01

32

Exploring Non-Traditional Learning Methods in Virtual and Real-World Environments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This paper identifies the commonalities and differences within non-traditional learning methods regarding virtual and real-world environments. The non-traditional learning methods in real-world have been introduced within the following courses: Process Balances, Process Calculation, and Process Synthesis, and within the virtual environment…

Lukman, Rebeka; Krajnc, Majda

2012-01-01

33

Exploring Non-Traditional Learning Methods in Virtual and Real-World Environments  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper identifies the commonalities and differences within non-traditional learning methods regarding virtual and real-world environments. The non-traditional learning methods in real-world have been introduced within the following courses: Process Balances, Process Calculation, and Process Synthesis, and within the virtual environment through…

Lukman, Rebeka; Krajnc, Majda

2012-01-01

34

An Analytical Method for Integrating Environmental and Traditional Design Considerations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Designing products for reduced environmental impact and improved performance requires that a diverse range of characteristics be considered. Such tradeoffs require a practicable method for combining specialized tools into an integrated analytical system. The paper describes how an integrated design tool can be constructed from modules which correspond to different aspects of the problem, such as geometry, materials and mathematical

Paul Jackson; David Wallace; Esther Harold E. Edgerton; Richard Kegg

1997-01-01

35

Chromatographic and spectroscopic methods for the determination of solvent properties of room temperature ionic liquids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Room temperature ionic liquids are novel solvents with favorable environmental and technical features. Synthetic routes to over 200 room temperature ionic liquids are known but for most ionic liquids physicochemical data are generally lacking or incomplete. Chromatographic and spectroscopic methods afford suitable tools for the study of solvation properties under conditions that approximate infinite dilution. Gas–liquid chromatography is suitable for

Colin F. Poole

2004-01-01

36

Study Towards the Development of THR Traditional Method for Dough Leavening Using Chockpea Steep Liquor.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A traditional method using chickpea steep liquor(CSL) as a starter for dough leavening was described. The problems encountered in the production of the traditional baked products were discussed. The CSL is prepared by pouring hot water(90 C) with or witho...

M. A. Humaid S. Tokan F. Hashwa

1989-01-01

37

Characterization of mesoporous materials via flourescent spectroscopic methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are three components that need to be understood to create new porous membranes for industrial applications. 1) To understand appropriate synthesis conditions to create a successful membrane system. 2) To understand how the microstructures generated in synthesis affect the transport properties of that system. 3) To be able to characterize the heterogeneity of the fabricated membrane's transport and physical structure. Presented within this manuscript are new characterization methods to increase the understanding in membrane technology. It will be demonstrated that the novel application of standard fluorescent methods and the development of new fluorescent methods techniques allows for the measurement of molecular interactions and transport properties on length scales capable of providing valuable information in the field of membrane science, as well as expanding new applications in fluorescent techniques.

Kennard, Raymond Russell

38

Traditional postdrowning rescue methods applied in Rural Bangladesh using 10 year verbal autopsy data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Children aged 1 to 4 years in Bangladesh are at the greatest risk of drowning. From the qualitative research, rural communities reported traditional postdrowning rescue methods.ObjectiveThe overall purpose of this study was to assess the postdrowning traditional rescue methods performed on the drowned child in Bangladesh.MethodsIn Matlab surveillance, village health workers collected unstructured verbal autopsy death forms for childhood drowning.

N N Borse; A A Hyder

2010-01-01

39

New Spectroscopic Methods in Gas-Phase Chemical Kinetics  

Microsoft Academic Search

The possibilities provided by the application of advances in laser technology to the solution of problems in gas-phase chemical kinetics have been analysed. The basic principles of various laser methods for producing and recording active chemical species have been described. Examples of the use of lasers to study the reactions of radicals and excited species, in the diagnostics of complex

Oleg M. Sarkisov; S. G. Cheskis

1985-01-01

40

A fourier transform infrared spectroscopic method for determining butylated hydroxytoluene in palm olein and palm oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple, rapid, and direct FTIR spectroscopic method was developed for the determination of BHT content in refined, bleached,\\u000a and deodorized (RBD) palm olein and RBD palm oil. The method used sodium chloride windows with a 50-mm transmission path.\\u000a Fifty stripped oil samples of both RBD palm olein and RBD palm oil were spiked with known amounts of BHT concentrations

W. Ammawath; Y. B. Che Man; R. B. Abdul Rahman; B. S. Baharin

2006-01-01

41

Mature market segmentation: a comparison of artificial neural networks and traditional methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The need for in-depth knowledge of mature market segments and the need to overcome the limitations of using traditional methods\\u000a to segment them motivate this study. The research objectives are (1) to examine neural networks, specifically Kohonen’s self-organising\\u000a maps (SOM), as an alternative to traditional statistical segmentation methods (hierarchical and non-hierarchical cluster analysis)\\u000a and (2) to identify segments in the

Enrique Bigné; Joaquín Aldás-Manzano; Inés Küster; Natalia Vila

2010-01-01

42

Monitoring, Controlling and Safeguarding Radiochemical Streams at Spent Fuel Reprocessing Facilities, Part 2: Gamma-Ray Spectroscopic Methods  

SciTech Connect

The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has established international safeguards standards for fissionable material at spent fuel reprocessing plants to ensure that significant quantities of weapons-useable nuclear material are not diverted from these facilities. For large throughput nuclear facilities, it is difficult to satisfy the IAEA safeguards accountancy goal for detection of abrupt diversion. Currently, methods to verify material control and accountancy (MC&A) at these facilities require time-consuming and resource-intensive destructive assay (DA). Leveraging new on-line non-destructive assay (NDA) process monitoring techniques in conjunction with the traditional and highly precise DA methods may provide an additional measure to nuclear material accountancy which would potentially result in a more timely, cost-effective and resource efficient means for safeguards verification at such facilities. By monitoring process control measurements (e.g. flowrates, temperatures, or concentrations of reagents, products or wastes), abnormal plant operations can be detected. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is developing on-line NDA process monitoring technologies based upon gamma-ray and optical spectroscopic measurements to potentially reduce the time and resource burden associated with current techniques. The Multi-Isotope Process (MIP) Monitor uses gamma spectroscopy and multivariate analysis to identify off-normal conditions in process streams. The spectroscopic monitor continuously measures chemical compositions of the process streams including actinide metal ions (U, Pu, Np), selected fission products, and major stable flowsheet reagents using UV-Vis, Near IR and Raman spectroscopy. Multi-variate analysis is also applied to the optical measurements in order to quantify concentrations of analytes of interest within a complex array of radiochemical streams. This paper will provide an overview of these methods and reports on-going efforts to develop and demonstrate the technologies. This paper is Part 2 of a two part series, and focuses on the gamma spectroscopy based, Multi-Isotope Process (MIP) Monitor method.

Schwantes, Jon M.; Bryan, Samuel A.; Orton, Christopher R.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Fraga, Carlos G.

2012-02-10

43

Numeracy for Nurses: The Case for Traditional Versus Nontraditional Methods for Teaching Drug Calculation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two methods for teaching drug calculation were compared—one using traditional formula- based teaching methods, the other building on students' existing mathematical problem- solving skills. On the basis of quantitative measures, the formula-based approach appeared more effective. However, students' interview responses revealed that the learning experiences of the two student groups were quite different. The findings are supported by other evidence

Roslyn Gillies

44

A comparative clinical study on standardization of Vamana Vidhi by classical and traditional methods  

PubMed Central

Vamana Karma (process of emesis) is considered as Pradhana Karma (prime procedure) meant for inducing therapeutic vomiting, indicated for the purification of Urdhwa Bhaga (upper part) of the body. It is the process by which contents of stomach, including Kapha and Pitta are expelled out of the body through oral route. Acharya Charak and Sushruta have advocated various procedures for Vamana Karma known as classical methods, whereas some traditional methods are also being followed. As very little works has been carried out in the direction of Vamana Karma and as not a single work has been carried out on standardization of Vamana Vidhi comparing to both classical and traditional methods, the present study had been selected. The clinical trial was conducted in a randomized sample of 50 individuals (Both patients and volunteers) resolved into two sub-groups, viz. individuals in Group A was performed Vamana with classical methods and Group B with traditional methods. From the observations and results obtained in the present clinical study, it can be concluded that the method mentioned in classics is very much beneficial from every point of view in comparison to the traditional method. It is very easy, safest, less time-consuming and clinically as well as statistically most effective method without producing any type of complications.

Dass, Ranjip Kumar; Bhatt, Nilesh N.; Thakar, Anup B.; Shukla, Vagish Dutt

2012-01-01

45

A comparative clinical study on standardization of Vamana Vidhi by classical and traditional methods.  

PubMed

Vamana Karma (process of emesis) is considered as Pradhana Karma (prime procedure) meant for inducing therapeutic vomiting, indicated for the purification of Urdhwa Bhaga (upper part) of the body. It is the process by which contents of stomach, including Kapha and Pitta are expelled out of the body through oral route. Acharya Charak and Sushruta have advocated various procedures for Vamana Karma known as classical methods, whereas some traditional methods are also being followed. As very little works has been carried out in the direction of Vamana Karma and as not a single work has been carried out on standardization of Vamana Vidhi comparing to both classical and traditional methods, the present study had been selected. The clinical trial was conducted in a randomized sample of 50 individuals (Both patients and volunteers) resolved into two sub-groups, viz. individuals in Group A was performed Vamana with classical methods and Group B with traditional methods. From the observations and results obtained in the present clinical study, it can be concluded that the method mentioned in classics is very much beneficial from every point of view in comparison to the traditional method. It is very easy, safest, less time-consuming and clinically as well as statistically most effective method without producing any type of complications. PMID:23723669

Dass, Ranjip Kumar; Bhatt, Nilesh N; Thakar, Anup B; Shukla, Vagish Dutt

2012-10-01

46

Anharmonic vibrational analysis of water at CCSD(T) level: Comparison of traditional and explicitly correlated methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Achieving the spectroscopic accuracy in ab initio calculation of harmonic vibrational frequencies and vibrational anharmonicities is challenging due to two well-understood limitations. First, accurate results require a good description of electron correlation. Second, correlated calculations require large one-electron basis sets. It is well known that the convergence of harmonic frequencies with respect to the basis set size is slow. We now report that the convergence of cubic and quartic force constants in traditional CCSD(T) calculations of H2O with Dunning's cc-pVXZ family of basis sets is also frustratingly slow. As an alternative, we explore the performance of R12/B, R12/C and F12/C explicitly correlated methods at the CCSD(T) level. We find that an excellent convergence of harmonic frequencies and cubic force constants is provided by all three explicitly correlated methods with modest R12 basis sets; larger R12 basis sets appear necessary for the accurate description of quartic force constants and vibrational anharmonicities in water.

Kahn, Kalju; Kirtman, Bernard; Noga, Jozef; Ten-no, Seiichiro

2012-12-01

47

Weighted partial least squares method to improve calibration precision for spectroscopic noise-limited data  

SciTech Connect

Multivariate calibration methods have been applied extensively to the quantitative analysis of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectral data. Partial least squares (PLS) methods have become the most widely used multivariate method for quantitative spectroscopic analyses. Most often these methods are limited by model error or the accuracy or precision of the reference methods. However, in some cases, the precision of the quantitative analysis is limited by the noise in the spectroscopic signal. In these situations, the precision of the PLS calibrations and predictions can be improved by the incorporation of weighting in the PLS algorithm. If the spectral noise of the system is known (e.g., in the case of detector-noise-limited cases), then appropriate weighting can be incorporated into the multivariate spectral calibrations and predictions. A weighted PLS (WPLS) algorithm was developed to improve the precision of the analysis in the case of spectral-noise-limited data. This new PLS algorithm was then tested with real and simulated data, and the results compared with the unweighted PLS algorithm. Using near-infrared (NIR) calibration precision when the WPLS algorithm was applied. The best WPLS method improved prediction precision for the analysis of one of the minor components by a factor of nearly 9 relative to the unweighted PLS algorithm.

Haaland, D.M.; Jones, H.D.T.

1997-09-01

48

Spectroscopic method of diagnostics of the bone marrow and peripheral blood  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first results of comparative spectral analysis of the bone marrow and blood taken from one and the same donor are presented and the new potentialities of the spectroscopic method for hematologic diseases diagnostics and for testing the pathologic process together with the morphologic investigations of bone marrow punctates are considered. We present here the results of comparative spectral analysis of the bone marrow and blood taken from one and the same donor. We found out what differences in spectra are for normal and pathology bone marrow composition and what causes this difference.

Kochubey, Vyacheslav I.; Medvedev, Boris A.; Sedova, Yuliya G.; Brill, Grigory E.; Stepanova, Valentina Y.

1994-02-01

49

Interaction of methotrexate with trypsin analyzed by spectroscopic and molecular modeling methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Trypsin is one of important digestive enzymes that have intimate correlation with human health and illness. In this work, the interaction of trypsin with methotrexate was investigated by spectroscopic and molecular modeling methods. The results revealed that methotrexate could interact with trypsin with about one binding site. Methotrexate molecule could enter into the primary substrate-binding pocket, resulting in inhibition of trypsin activity. Furthermore, the thermodynamic analysis implied that electrostatic force, hydrogen bonding, van der Waals and hydrophobic interactions were the main interactions for stabilizing the trypsin-methotrexate system, which agreed well with the results from the molecular modeling study.

Wang, Yanqing; Zhang, Hongmei; Cao, Jian; Zhou, Qiuhua

2013-11-01

50

Comparison of traditional and improved methods for estimating the stability of organic growing media  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organic growing media employed in hydroponic crops could change their characteristics due to organic matter degradation during culture growing season. Traditional methods for measuring the stability of growing media (Biochemical Stability Index, Lemaire) do not take into account the activity of crop roots, nutrients in the growing media or microorganism presence. Three experiments were performed to determine the stability of

I. Domeño; I. Irigoyen; J. Muro

2011-01-01

51

An Aural Learning Project: Assimilating Jazz Education Methods for Traditional Applied Pedagogy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The Aural Learning Project (ALP) was developed to incorporate jazz method components into the author's classical practice and her applied woodwind lesson curriculum. The primary objective was to place a more focused pedagogical emphasis on listening and hearing than is traditionally used in the classical applied curriculum. The components of the…

Gamso, Nancy M.

2011-01-01

52

Increasing Work Group Effectiveness: Combining Corporate Adventure Training with Traditional Team Building Methods.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the goals of team building, scope of team-building interventions, and specific contributions of both experiential (corporate adventure training) and nonexperiential (traditional) methods for increasing work-group effectiveness. A model for effectively combining the two approaches involves establishing goals, clarifying team members'…

Maxwell, Jon

1997-01-01

53

A Comparison of Online and Traditional Instructional Delivery Methods on Learning in College Macroeconomics Courses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This exploratory study centered its investigation in the participants' responses provided in 2 different instructional teaching delivery methods (traditional and online) that utilized active-like teaching learning techniques (case studies, group projects, threaded discussions, class discussions, office hours, lectures, computerized assignments,…

Rivas, Rodolfo R.

2009-01-01

54

A new method for the spectroscopic identification of stellar non-radial pulsation modes. I. The method and numerical tests  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aims.We present the Fourier parameter fit method, a new method for spectroscopically identifying stellar radial and non-radial pulsation modes based on the high-resolution time-series spectroscopy of absorption-line profiles. In contrast to previous methods this one permits a quantification of the statistical significance of the computed solutions. The application of genetic algorithms in seeking solutions makes it possible to search through a large parameter space. Methods: .The mode identification is carried out by minimizing ?^2, using the observed amplitude and phase across the line profile and their modeled counterparts. Computations of the theoretical line profiles are based on a stellar displacement field, which is described as superposition of spherical harmonics and that includes the first order effects of the Coriolis force. Results: .We made numerical tests of the method on a grid of different mono- and multi-mode models for 0 ? ? ? 4 in order to explore its capabilities and limitations. Our results show that whereas the azimuthal order m can be unambiguously identified for low-order modes, the error of ? is in the range of ± 1. The value of m can be determined with higher precision than with other spectroscopic mode identification methods. Improved values for the inclination can be obtained from the analysis of non-axisymmetric pulsation modes. The new method is ideally suited to intermediatley rotating ? Scuti and ? Cephei stars.

Zima, W.

2006-08-01

55

A Quantitative Diagnostic Method Based on Bayesian Networks in Traditional Chinese Medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is one of the most important complementary and alternative medicines. Due to the subjectivity\\u000a and fuzziness of diagnosis in TCM, quantitative model or methods are needed to facilitate the popularization of TCM. In this\\u000a article, a novel quantitative method for syndrome differentiation based on BNs is proposed. First the symptoms are selected\\u000a by a novel mutual

Huiyan Wang; Jie Wang

2006-01-01

56

Correlation between 1 H NMR and traditional methods for determining lipid oxidation of ethyl docosahexaenoate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lipid oxidation includes a complex set of chemical reactions; and no single analytical method is available to give a satisfactory\\u000a description of lipid oxidation status. High-resolution NMR spectroscopy techniques were tested to establish possible correlations\\u000a with traditional analytical methods and to study lipid oxidation products. Ethyl esters of all-cis 4,7,10,13,16,19-docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (22?6n?3), with and without added ?-tocopherol, were oxidized

Eva Falch; Henrik W. Anthonsen; David E. Axelson; Marit Aursand

2004-01-01

57

Detailed spectroscopic analysis of SN 1987A: The distance to the LMC using the SEAM method  

SciTech Connect

Supernova 1987A remains the most well-studied supernova to date. Observations produced excellent broad-band photometric and spectroscopic coverage over a wide wavelength range at all epochs. We model the observed spectra from Day 1 to Day 81 using a hydrodynamical model. We show that good agreement can be obtained at times up to about 60 days, if we allow for extended nickel mixing. Later than about 60 days the observed Balmer lines become stronger than our models can reproduce. We show that this is likely due to a more complicated distribution of gamma-rays than we allow for in our spherically symmetric calculations. We present synthetic light curves in UBVRIJHK and a synthetic bolometric light curve. Using this broad baseline of detailed spectroscopic models we find a distance modulus mu = 18.5 +/- 0.2 using the SEAM method of determining distances to supernovae. We find that the explosion time agrees with that of the neutrino burst and is constrained at 68 percent confidence to within +/- 0.9 days. We argue that the weak Balmer lines of our detailed model calculations casts doubt on the accuracy of the purely photometric EPM method. We also suggest that Type IIP supernovae will be most useful as distance indicators at early times due to a variety of effects.

Mitchell, Robert C.; Baron, E.; Branch, David; Hauschildt, Peter H.; Nugent, Peter E.; Lundqvist, Peter; Blinnikov, Sergei; Pun, Chun S.J.

2002-05-21

58

Comparison of traditional and interactive teaching methods in a UK emergency department.  

PubMed

Didactic teaching remains a core component of undergraduate education, but developing computer assisted learning (CAL) packages may provide useful alternatives. We compared the effectiveness of interactive multimedia-based tutorials with traditional, lecture-based models for teaching arterial blood gas interpretation to fourth year medical students. Participants were randomized to complete a tutorial in either lecture or multimedia format containing identical content. Upon completion, students answered five multiple choice questions assessing post-tutorial knowledge, and provided feedback on their allocated learning method. Marks revealed no significant difference between either group. All lecture candidates rated their teaching as good, compared with 89% of the CAL group. All CAL users found multiple choice questions assessment useful, compared with 83% of lecture participants. Both groups highlighted the importance of interaction. CAL complements other teaching methods, but should be seen as an adjunct to, rather than a replacement for, traditional methods, thus offering students a blended learning environment. PMID:19421067

Armstrong, Peter; Elliott, Tim; Ronald, Julie; Paterson, Brodie

2009-12-01

59

Spectroscopic characterization and quantitative determination of atorvastatin calcium impurities by novel HPLC method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seven process related impurities were identified by LC-MS in the atorvastatin calcium drug substance. These impurities were identified by LC-MS. The structure of impurities was confirmed by modern spectroscopic techniques like 1H NMR and IR and physicochemical studies conducted by using synthesized authentic reference compounds. The synthesized reference samples of the impurity compounds were used for the quantitative HPLC determination. These impurities were detected by newly developed gradient, reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method. The system suitability of HPLC analysis established the validity of the separation. The analytical method was validated according to International Conference of Harmonization (ICH) with respect to specificity, precision, accuracy, linearity, robustness and stability of analytical solutions to demonstrate the power of newly developed HPLC method.

Gupta, Lokesh Kumar

2012-11-01

60

Comparison of a novel surface laser scanning anthropometric technique to traditional methods for facial parameter measurements.  

PubMed

This study was designed to determine if three-dimensional (3D) laser scanning techniques could be used to collect accurate anthropometric measurements, compared with traditional methods. The use of an alternative 3D method would allow for quick collection of data that could be used to change the parameters used for facepiece design, improving fit and protection for a wider variety of faces. In our study, 10 facial dimensions were collected using both the traditional calipers and tape method and a Konica-Minolta Vivid9i laser scanner. Scans were combined using RapidForm XOR software to create a single complete facial geometry of the subject as a triangulated surface with an associated texture image from which to obtain measurements. A paired t-test was performed on subject means in each measurement by method. Nine subjects were used in this study: five males (one African-American and four Caucasian females) and four females displaying a range of facial dimensions. Five measurements showed significant differences (p<0.05), with most accounted for by subject movements or amended by scanning technique modifications. Laser scanning measurements showed high precision and accuracy when compared with traditional methods. Significant differences found can be very small changes in measurements and are unlikely to present a practical difference. The laser scanning technique demonstrated reliable and quick anthropometric data collection for use in future projects in redesigning respirators. PMID:22214207

Joe, Paula S; Ito, Yasushi; Shih, Alan M; Oestenstad, Riedar K; Lungu, Claudiu T

2012-01-01

61

A Comparison of BSCS Versus Traditional Teaching Methods by Testing Student Achievement and Retention of Biology Concepts.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of the Biological Sciences Curriculum Study (BSCS) materials and the inquiry teaching method on student achievement and retention in biology. Teachers were selected who used BSCS materials with inquiry methods, BSCS materials with traditional methods, traditional materials with inquiry methods,…

Montgomery, Jerry L.

62

Method and apparatus for differential spectroscopic atomic-imaging using scanning tunneling microscopy  

DOEpatents

A Method and apparatus for differential spectroscopic atomic-imaging is disclosed for spatial resolution and imaging for display not only individual atoms on a sample surface, but also bonding and the specific atomic species in such bond. The apparatus includes a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) that is modified to include photon biasing, preferably a tuneable laser, modulating electronic surface biasing for the sample, and temperature biasing, preferably a vibration-free refrigerated sample mounting stage. Computer control and data processing and visual display components are also included. The method includes modulating the electronic bias voltage with and without selected photon wavelengths and frequency biasing under a stabilizing (usually cold) bias temperature to detect bonding and specific atomic species in the bonds as the STM rasters the sample. This data is processed along with atomic spatial topography data obtained from the STM raster scan to create a real-time visual image of the atoms on the sample surface.

Kazmerski, Lawrence L. (Lakewood, CO)

1990-01-01

63

Spectroscopic method to measure the superfluid fraction of an ultracold atomic gas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We perform detailed analytical and numerical studies of a recently proposed method for a spectroscopic measurement of the superfluid fraction of an ultracold atomic gas [N. R. Cooper and Z. Hadzibabic, Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.104.030401 104, 030401 (2010)]. Previous theoretical work is extended by explicitly including the effects of nonzero temperature and interactions, and assessing the quantitative accuracy of the proposed measurement for a one-component Bose gas. We show that for suitably chosen experimental parameters the method yields an experimentally detectable signal and a sufficiently accurate measurement. This is illustrated by explicitly considering two key examples: First, for a weakly interacting three-dimensional Bose gas it reproduces the expected result that below the critical temperature the superfluid fraction closely follows the condensate fraction. Second, it allows a clear quantitative differentiation of the superfluid and the condensate density in a strongly interacting Bose gas.

John, S. T.; Hadzibabic, Z.; Cooper, N. R.

2011-02-01

64

Quantitative infrared spectroscopic method for the study of the hydration of ions in aqueous solutions  

SciTech Connect

An infrared spectroscopic method for the study of the hydration of ions in aqueous solutions has been developed. OD stretching bands of isotopically dilute HDO molecules in the first hydration sphere of ions are obtained when the absorption from H/sub 2/O molecules and HDO molecules in the bulk water are removed by a double difference technique. The method is applied to aqueous solutions of Ni(ClO/sub 4/)/sub 2/, Ni(BF/sub 4/)/sub 2/, and Ni(PF/sub 6/)/sub 2/. Coordination numbers of 4.6 +/- 0.8 for the ClO/sub 4//sup -/ anion and 3.9 +/- 0.8 for the BF/sub 4//sup -/ anion are obtained. A systematic study of the influence of different salt and HDO concentrations has been undertaken. It is found that Lambert-Beer's law is valid in the concentration ranges studied.

Kristiansson, O.; Lindgren, J.; de Villepin, J.

1988-05-05

65

A method for comparing traditional and component-based models in information systems re-engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many organisations have become aware of the limitations of their legacy systems to adapt to new technical requirements. Trends\\u000a towards e-commerce applications, platform independence, reusability of pre-built components, capacity for reconfiguration\\u000a and higher reliability have contributed to the need to update current systems. Consequently, legacy systems, typically designed\\u000a and developed using traditional methods, need to be re-engineered into new component-based

Raul Valverde; Mark Toleman; Aileen Cater-Steel

2011-01-01

66

Performance of Traditional and Molecular Methods for Detecting Biological Agents in Drinking Water  

USGS Publications Warehouse

To reduce the impact from a possible bioterrorist attack on drinking-water supplies, analytical methods are needed to rapidly detect the presence of biological agents in water. To this end, 13 drinking-water samples were collected at 9 water-treatment plants in Ohio to assess the performance of a molecular method in comparison to traditional analytical methods that take longer to perform. Two 100-liter samples were collected at each site during each sampling event; one was seeded in the laboratory with six biological agents - Bacillus anthracis (B. anthracis), Burkholderia cepacia (as a surrogate for Bu. pseudomallei), Francisella tularensis (F. tularensis), Salmonella Typhi (S. Typhi), Vibrio cholerae (V. cholerae), and Cryptospordium parvum (C. parvum). The seeded and unseeded samples were processed by ultrafiltration and analyzed by use of quantiative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), a molecular method, and culture methods for bacterial agents or the immunomagnetic separation/fluorescent antibody (IMS/FA) method for C. parvum as traditional methods. Six replicate seeded samples were also processed and analyzed. For traditional methods, recoveries were highly variable between samples and even between some replicate samples, ranging from below detection to greater than 100 percent. Recoveries were significantly related to water pH, specific conductance, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) for all bacteria combined by culture methods, but none of the water-quality characteristics tested were related to recoveries of C. parvum by IMS/FA. Recoveries were not determined by qPCR because of problems in quantifying organisms by qPCR in the composite seed. Instead, qPCR results were reported as detected, not detected (no qPCR signal), or +/- detected (Cycle Threshold or 'Ct' values were greater than 40). Several sample results by qPCR were omitted from the dataset because of possible problems with qPCR reagents, primers, and probes. For the remaining 14 qPCR results (including some replicate samples), F. tularensis and V. cholerae were detected in all samples after ultrafiltration, B. anthracis was detected in 13 and +/- detected in 1 sample, and C. parvum was detected in 9 and +/- detected in 4 samples. Bu. cepacia was detected in nine samples, +/- detected in two samples, and not detected in three samples (for two out of three samples not detected, a different strain was used). The qPCR assay for V. cholerae provided two false positive - but late - signals in one unseeded sample. Numbers found by qPCR after ultrafiltration were significantly or nearly significantly related to those found by traditional methods for B. anthracis, F. tularensis, and V. cholerae but not for Bu. cepacia and C. parvum. A qPCR assay for S. Typhi was not available. The qPCR method can be used to rapidly detect B. anthracis, F. tularensis, and V. cholerae with some certainty in drinking-water samples, but additional work would be needed to optimize and test qPCR for Bu. cepacia and C. parvum and establish relations to traditional methods. The specificity for the V. cholerae assay needs to be further investigated. Evidence is provided that ultrafiltration and qPCR are promising methods to rapidly detect biological agents in the Nation's drinking-water supplies and thus reduce the impact and consequences from intentional bioterrorist events. To our knowledge, this is the first study to compare the use of traditional and qPCR methods to detect biological agents in large-volume drinking-water samples.

Francy, Donna S.; Bushon, Rebecca N.; Brady, Amie M. G.; Bertke, Erin E.; Kephart, Christopher M.; Likirdopulos, Christina A.; Mailot, Brian E.; Schaefer, Frank W., III; Lindquist, H. D. Alan

2009-01-01

67

A 14-year longitudinal comparison study of two treatment methods in clubfoot: Ponseti versus traditional.  

PubMed

The optimal management of idiopathic clubfoot has changed over three decades. Recently there has been an enthusiastic embracing of the Ponseti technique with a move away from the traditional stretch and strap technique. The purpose of this 14-year comparative prospective longitudinal study was to directly assess the differences in results between these two treatment methods. Over the period of this study there were 52,514 births in the local population and all newborns with clubfoot were referred directly to the paediatric orthopaedic surgeon. Patient demographics, the Harrold & Walker Classification, and associated risk factors for clubfoot were collected prospectively and analyzed. If conservative treatment failed to correct the deformity adequately, a radical subtalar release (RSR) was undertaken (the primary outcome measure of the study). There were 114 feet (80 patients): 64 feet treated 'traditionally' and 50 feet with the Ponseti technique. Idiopathic clubfoot was present in 76.25% of patients. Mean time to RSR was 333 and 44.1 weeks for the traditional and Ponseti groups respectively. In the traditional group 65.6% (CI: 53.4 to 76.1%) of feet underwent RSR surgery compared to 25.5% (CI : 15.8 to 383%) in the Ponseti group. When idiopathic clubfoot alone was analysed, these rates reduce to 56.5% (CI: 423 to 69.8%) and 15.8% (CI: 7.4 to 30.4%) respectively. The Relative Risk of requiring RSR in traditional compared to Ponseti groups was 2.58 (CI: 1.59 to 4.19) for all patients and 3.58 (CI: 1.65 to 7.78) for idiopathic clubfoot. Introduction of the Ponseti technique into our institution significantly reduced the need for RSR in fixed clubfoot. PMID:21954763

Boden, Richard A; Nuttall, Graham H; Paton, Robin W

2011-08-01

68

A critical comparison between traditional methods and supercritical carbon dioxide extraction for the determination of tocochromanols in cereals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional methods and a supercritical CO2 (SFE) method for the extraction of tocochromanols (tocopherols and tocotrienols) from cereals were compared. The tested SFE procedure showed no significant selectivity towards the different tocochromanols but the extraction yield obtained (about 85%) can be compared with the conventional extraction techniques like Soxhlet and Folch. Like traditional methods, SFE extracts free and esterified tocochromanols

Alessandra Fratianni; Maria Fiorenza Caboni; Mario Irano; Gianfranco Panfili

2002-01-01

69

Application of a probabilistic neural network in radial-velocity curve analysis of the spectroscopic binary stars HD 152218, HD 143511, HD 27149, and ER Vul  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) to derive the orbital parameters of spectroscopic binary stars. Using measured radial velocity data of four double-lined spectroscopic binary systems HD 152218, HD 143511, HD 27149, and ER Vul, we find corresponding orbital and spectroscopic elements. Our numerical results are in good agreement with those obtained by others using more traditional methods.

Pirkhedri, A.; Ghaderi, K.; Javadi, H. H. S.; Karimizadeh, K.

2012-04-01

70

Apparatus for and method of performing spectroscopic analysis on an article  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method are disclosed for analyzing an article having an entrance and an exit in communication with the entrance. The apparatus comprises: a spectrometer having an emission source with a focal point; a plurality of mirrors; and a detector connected to the spectroscope. The emission source is positioned so that its focal point is substantially coextensive with the entrance of the article. The mirrors comprise: a first mirror positionable adjacent the exit of the article and a second mirror positioned relative to the other of said plurality of mirrors. The first mirror receives scattered emissions exiting the article and substantially collimates the scattered emissions. The second mirror substantially focuses the collimated emissions into a focused emission. The detector receives the focused emission from the mirrors. 6 figs.

Powell, G.L.; Hallman, R.L. Jr.

1999-04-20

71

Investigations on the effect of traditional food processing, preservation and storage methods on vegetable nutrients: A case study in Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effect of traditional food proceesing, preservation and storage methods on vegetable nutrients was studied using cassava, pumpkin and mwage leaves. Traditional cooking method for 90 min for cassava, 50 min for pumpkin and mwage leaves resulted in significant losses in protein, fats and vitamins. Sundrying using traditional mats caused losses of vitamin A of 36.3%, 38.0% and 50.3% for

M. H. Lyimo; S. Nyagwegwe; A. P. Mnkeni

1991-01-01

72

[Comparison of sustainable development status in Heilongjiang Province based on traditional ecological footprint method and emergy ecological footprint method].  

PubMed

By using traditional ecological footprint method and its modification, emergy ecological footprint method, the sustainable development status of Heilongjiang Province in 2005 was analyzed. The results showed that the ecological deficits of Heilongjiang Province in 2005 based on emergy and conventional ecological footprint methods were 1.919 and 0.6256 hm2 x cap(-1), respectively. The ecological footprint value based on the two methods both exceeded its carrying capacity, which indicated that the social and economic development of the study area was not sustainable. Emergy ecological footprint method was used to discuss the relationships between human's material demand and ecosystem resources supply, and more stable parameters such as emergy transformity and emergy density were introduced into emergy ecological footprint method, which overcame some of the shortcomings of conventional ecological method. PMID:19238861

Chen, Chun-feng; Wang, Hong-yan; Xiao, Du-ning; Wang, Da-qing

2008-11-01

73

New method for determination of the photoresist Dill parameters using spectroscopic ellipsometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper a new method to determine photoresist Dill parameters is presented. Based on spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) measurements, this new method is more precise than standard techniques based on transmittance measurements. Indeed, compared to photometry, SE technique is a self calibrated technique which provide directly two independent parameters Tan (Psi) and Cos (Delta) which can be used to extract directly thickness but also optical indices of a layer inside a multilayer structure. Moreover, the wavelength dependence introduces more restrictions for the data analysis since thickness and optical indices can be deduced directly in many cases. We apply this technique to different kinds of photoresist designed for 365nm and 248nm. At each wavelength ellipsometric parameters are simulated directly versus the exposure dose without any assumption on the thickness and on the index of refraction evolution. On 365nm photoresist this new method provides Dill parameters in good agreement with the standard method. On 248nm photoresist we show that the influence of the exposure is more important on the refractive index and on the thickness of the layer than on its absorption.

Boher, Pierre; Defranoux, Christophe; Piel, Jean P.; Stehle, Jean-Louis P.

1999-04-01

74

New method for determination of the photoresist Dill parameters using spectroscopic ellipsometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper a new method to determine photoresist DIll parameters is presented. Based on spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) measurements, this new method is more precise than standard techniques based on transmittance measurements. Indeed, compared to photometry, SE technique is a self calibrated technique which provide directly two independent parameters Tan (Psi) and Cos (Delta) which can be used to extract directly thickness but also optical indices of a layer inside a multilayer structure. Moreover, the wavelength dependence introduces more restrictions for the data analysis since thickness and optical indices can be deduced directly in many cases. We apply this technique to different kinds of photoresist designed for 365nm and 248nm. At each wavelength ellipsometric parameters are simulate directly versus the exposure dose without any assumption on the thickness and on the index of refraction evolution. On 365nm photoresist this new method provides Dill parameters in good agreement with the standard method. On 248nm photoresist we show that the influence of the exposure is more important on the refractive index and on the thickness of the layer than on its absorption.

Boher, Pierre; Defranoux, Christophe; Piel, Jean P.; Stehle, Jean-Louis P.

1999-05-01

75

Elemental and spectroscopic methods with chemometric analysis for characterizing composition and transformation of dissolved organic matter during chicken manure composting.  

PubMed

Dissolved organic matter was extracted from chicken manure after 1, 8, 16, 28 and 40 days of composting and characterized by combining elemental and spectroscopic methods with chemometric analysis to investigate the evolution of composting materials. The elemental and spectroscopic analysis results showed that the composting process was characterized by the biodegradation of aliphatics, polysaccharide and proteins, as well as by the synthesis of aromatic structures, humic-like substances and macromolecules. Principal component analysis and correlation analysis indicated that the data from elemental and spectroscopic analysis fell into three main groups, and corresponded to the biodegradation, aromatization, and humification and polymerization state of the composting materials. Hierarchical cluster analysis indicated rapid biodegradation of organic matter during the first eight days, and the formation of aromatic structures, humic-like materials and macromolecules in dissolved organic matter after eight days. PMID:23240197

He, Xiao-Song; Xi, Bei-Dou; Jiang, Yong-Hai; Li, Ming-Xiao; Yu, Hui-Bin; An, Da; Yang, Yu; Liu, Hong-Liang

2012-09-01

76

[Thinking on methods for formulating development strategy of traditional Chinese medicine standardization].  

PubMed

Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) standardization serves as an important foundation of TCM modernization and internationalization, and TCM standardization strategy is the core of the subject. Recently, some developed countries and developing countries with a better economic basis have set development strategy for TCM standardization. China is at the beginning on TCM standardization strategy study. This paper explored the methods for setting TCM standardization development strategy. Firstly, strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of TCM were analyzed based on SWOT method to set development tactics. On the above basis, the authors defined the total goal and stage goal under the guidance of the relevant laws and regulations. To achieve the strategic goal, priority areas were formed by literature analysis and expert inquiry method, and the safeguard measures were formulated by expert symposium. Secondly, the draft for development strategy of TCM standardization was made based on the above content. Finally, the authors revised and formed the official development strategy of TCM standardization. PMID:21565132

Yuwen, Ya; Han, Xue-jie; Wang, Li-ying; Shi, Nan-nan; Wang, Yong-yan; Lü, Ai-ping

2011-05-01

77

Alcohol or traditional methods versus natural drying for newborn's cord care.  

PubMed

This is a quasi-experimental study that aimed to compare the use of alcohol and traditional methods for newborn's cord care with a no-treatment approach, natural drying. The study also aimed to identify the factors associated with the occurrence of cord infection and time of cord separation. A convenient sample of 70 women with vaginal delivery, full-term and healthy babies was selected from postpartum departments of two university hospitals in Alexandria and Minia. A specially designed interview schedule was developed and utilized to collect data. Swabs were taken from the newborns' umbilical stumps on zero and 3rd day of birth to detect bacterial colonization. Follow-up was carried-out at home to assess methods used for cord care, babies' hygiene, cord infection and time of cord separation. The study revealed that traditional methods of cord care were used by women with higher mean age (30.8 +/- 7.8 years), from Minia (100%) or rural areas (71.4%), while alcohol and natural drying were used by women with lower mean age (27.7 +/- 4.8 and 24.8 +/- 6.5 years) respectively, from Alexandria (76% and 100%) respectively or urban areas (56% and 64.7%) respectively. Alcohol was used for male babies (76%), while traditional methods and natural drying were used for female babies (71.4% & 64.7%) respectively. Incidence of cord infection was significantly lower among natural drying group (35.3%), and no signs of systemic infection were observed among them. Rate of increase of bacterial colonization (from 0-3rd day of birth) was significantly higher in alcohol group (44%). It was relatively similar with presence or absence of cord infection (33.3 & 32.1) respectively. Mean time of cord separation was longer among alcohol group (6.4 +/- 2.4 days), as compared with natural drying group (4.7 +/- 1.9 days) and traditional methods group (3.4 +/- 0.7 days). Bathing baby while cord was attached was carried-out by all women of alcohol and natural drying groups, compared to only 28.6% of traditional methods group. Breast-feeding was significantly related to less incidence of cord infection (P= 0.008) and shorter time of cord separation (P= 0.002). Incidence of cord infection was significantly related to using cloth diaper (P= 0.015), using dry method for skin care (X(2) 2= 7.2917), giving tub bath (X(1)2 = 4.1788) and delaying the bath to the 7th day of birth (P= 0.050). Time of cord separation was significantly shorter with closed cord dressing (X(2)2= 20.4028), in Minia, during spring, among male babies (X(2)2= 15.0352), and in rural areas (X(2)2 = 9.7608). It was significantly longer with bathing the baby while cord was attached (X(2)2 = 27.9354), giving 2-3 baths/week or delaying the bath to the 7th day of birth (P= 0.049) and with using cloth diaper (P= 0.0467). So, moving from an intervention to a non- intervention, particularly in a healthy population should be applied to the healthy naturalistic approach to care advocated in nursing. Also, only through continuing efforts done to examine our assumptions about historic health care routines, will we be able to demonstrate evidence-based practice and to advance nursing care. PMID:16922152

Shoaeib, Fatma Mohamed Nasr El-din; All, Sohair Abu El-Fadle Abdel; El-Barrawy, Mohamed Abbas

2005-01-01

78

Silica gel modified with lumogallion for aluminum determination by spectroscopic methods.  

PubMed

Simple, easy to use and selective method of Al(III) sorption-spectroscopic (SS) determination was proposed. For this purpose, silica modified with tridecyloctadecylammonium chloride(SGII) using adsorption technique and glass slide modified with thin silica-poly(dimethyldiallyl-ammonium chloride) (SGI) composite film obtained by sol-gel technique were worked out. It was shown that lumogallion (LG) easily absorbs on SGI and SGII. Obtained sorbents SGIII and SGIV, respectively, were used for aluminum(III) determination by diffuse reflectance and spectrophotometric methods. The ranges of determination were (mg L(-1)): (0.08-0.54), s(r)< or =0.13, n=4 for SGIII and (0.05-2.0), s(r)< or =0.11, n=4 for SGIV. The detection limits (blank+3sigma) for aluminum were 70 and 30 microg L(-1) using SGIII and SGIV, respectively, where sigma is the standard deviation of blank estimation. The accuracy of the developed spectrophotometric method was examined by the determination of standard addition of aluminum in alcohol-free beverages. The relative error did not exceed 9%. SGIII can be regenerated by 0.05M EDTANa(2)H(2) solution and reused. SGIV was shown to be perspective for determination of aluminum in solution in the range of 0.01-0.13 mg L(-1) by solid phase luminescent technique. PMID:18970238

Nadzhafova, Oksana Yu; Zaporozhets, Olga A; Rachinska, Irina V; Fedorenko, Leonid L; Yusupov, Nikolai

2005-10-15

79

Experiences with Non-traditional Bioassay Methods in a Plutonium Processing Line  

SciTech Connect

An incident in an Savannah River Site (SRS) plutonium processing line (FB-Line) in 1999 highlighted the fact insoluble forms of plutonium exist at SRS that may not be readily monitored with the routine bioassay programs traditionally used at this site. To address this issue, a study was conducted in FB-Line with 21 participants for a year ending in July 2002. The purpose of the study was to examine the use of three non-traditional monitoring methods and, based on this experience, recommend a routine bioassay program that is capable of monitoring workers potentially exposed to insoluble plutonium. These non-traditional monitoring methods are personal air sampling (PAS), thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) of urine samples, and routine fecal bioassay. The main conclusions and recommendations of the study are: (1) A routine TIMS urine bioassay program, which is called the enhanced bioassay program (EBP), is recommended for workers in SRS facilities that have a reasonable potential for exposure to insoluble forms of plutonium. (2) Under certain conditions the EBP could result in onerous work restrictions. A contingency plan involving the use of PAS is recommended in this case. PAS is also recommended for workers who have had historic intakes of plutonium that interfere with the detection and interpretation of future intakes of insoluble plutonium. (3) For the EBP to be successful it must be used only for those workers who have a reasonable potential for exposure to insoluble plutonium, and these workers must take all necessary precautions to avoid cross-contamination of the urine (and follow-up fecal) samples. (4) Fecal bioassay is an important tool for follow-up to abnormal events, but routine fecal bioassay is not recommended. (5) The PAS data clearly shows that workers are exposed to low levels of airborne plutonium, but the participants appear to be unlikely to exceed a committed effective dose equivalent of 100 mrem from these exposures.

La Bone, T.R.

2003-10-17

80

New Orbital Parameters and Radial Velocity Curve Analysis of Spectroscopic Binary Stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We use a Probabilistic Neural Network (PNN) technique to derive the orbital parameters of spectroscopic binary stars. Using measured radial velocity data of five double-lined spectroscopic binary systems (i.e., EQ Tau, V376 And, V776 Cas, V2377 Oph and EE Cet), we find the corresponding orbital and spectroscopic elements. Our numerical results are in good agreement with those obtained by other groups via more traditional methods.

Ghaderi, Kamal; Pirkhedri, Ali; Rostami, Touba; Khodamoradi, Salem; Fatahi, Hedayat

2012-02-01

81

Investigation of the PSF-choice method for reduced lipid contamination in prostate MR spectroscopic imaging.  

PubMed

The purpose of this work was to evaluate a previously proposed approach that aims to improve the point spread function (PSF) of MR spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) to avoid corruption by lipid signal arising from neighboring voxels. Retrospective spatial filtering can be used to alter the PSF; however, this either reduces spatial resolution or requires extending the acquisition in k-space at the cost of increased imaging time. Alternatively, the method evaluated here, PSF-choice, can modify the PSF localization to reduce the contamination from adjacent lipids by conforming the signal response more closely to the desired MRSI voxel grid. This is done without increasing scan time or degrading SNR of important metabolites. PSF-choice achieves improvements in spatial localization through modifications to the radiofrequency excitation pulses. An implementation of this method is reported for MRSI of the prostate, where it is demonstrated that, in 13 of 16 pilot prostate MRSI scans, intravoxel spectral contamination from lipid was significantly reduced when using PSF-choice. Phantom studies were also performed that demonstrate, compared with MRSI with standard Fourier phase encoding, out-of-voxel signal contamination of spectra was significantly reduced in MRSI with PSF-choice. PMID:22648701

Panych, Lawrence P; Roebuck, Joseph R; Chen, Nan-kuei; Tang, Yi; Madore, Bruno; Tempany, Clare M; Mulkern, Robert V

2012-11-01

82

Spectroscopic studies on the interaction between tetrandrine and two serum albumins by chemometrics methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The binding interactions of tetrandrine (TETD) with bovine serum albumin (BSA) and human serum albumin (HSA) have been investigated by spectroscopic methods. These experimental data were further analyzed using multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) method, and the concentration profiles and pure spectra for three species (BSA/HSA, TETD and TETD-BSA/HSA) existed in the interaction procedure, as well as, the apparent equilibrium constants Kapp were evaluated. The binding sites number n and the binding constants K were obtained at various temperatures. The binding distance between TETD and BSA/HSA was 1.455/1.451 nm. The site markers competitive experiments indicated that TETD primarily bound to the tryptophan residue of BSA/HSA within site I. The thermodynamic parameters (?G, ?H and ?S) calculated on the basis of different temperatures revealed that the binding of TETD-BSA was mainly depended on the hydrophobic interaction strongly and electrostatic interaction, and yet the binding of TETD-HSA was strongly relied on the hydrophobic interaction. The results of synchronous fluorescence, 3D fluorescence and FT-IR spectra show that the conformation of proteins has altered in the presence of TETD. In addition, the effect of some common ions on the binding constants between TETD and proteins were also discussed.

Cheng, Zhengjun; Liu, Rong; jiang, Xiaohui

2013-11-01

83

Immediate postabortal contraception with the levonorgestrel intrauterine device, Norplant, and traditional methods.  

PubMed

Women seeking legal first trimester abortion were counseled concerning contraception methods available for use immediately postabortion. Fifty women each accepted hormonal methods that were available only in the clinic and were novel to the country, the levonorgestrel IUD and Norplant implants, whereas another 50 chose either coitus interruptus or abstinence. All were experienced contraceptors, but larger percentages of women selecting the levonorgestrel IUD or implants had used the pill or IUDs previously, were under age 30, and weighed less than 60 kg compared to the other study participants. In the initial 2-6 weeks postabortion, women using the long-acting hormonal methods resumed sexual activity earlier and experienced more bleeding and spotting days than did other study participants, but their hematocrits were not adversely affected. No clinically significant side effects were noted in any group in the 6 weeks following the abortion. At the end of 1 year of follow-up, women using the hormonal methods had experienced no pregnancies and had high rates of continuation. IUD and implant participants had greater weight gain than did the other participants, but their mean weight remained below that of participants using traditional methods. No significant between-group differences in levels or changes in levels from admission were noted in hematocrit and blood pressure. The women found the levonorgestrel implants and IUDs easy and safe to use and highly effective. Bleeding disturbances, including amenorrhea, were the principal features the women disliked. PMID:11672552

Ortayli, N; Bulut, A; Sahin, T; Sivin, I

2001-06-01

84

Mechanism and conformational studies of farrerol binding to bovine serum albumin by spectroscopic methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The mechanism and conformational changes of farrerol binding to bovine serum albumin (BSA) were studied by spectroscopic methods including fluorescence quenching technique, UV-vis absorption, circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy under simulative physiological conditions. The results of fluorescence titration revealed that farrerol could strongly quench the intrinsic fluorescence of BSA through a static quenching procedure. The thermodynamic parameters enthalpy change and entropy change for the binding were calculated to be -29.92 kJ mol -1 and 5.06 J mol -1 K -1 according to the van't Hoff equation, which suggested that the both hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonds play major role in the binding of farrerol to BSA. The binding distance r deduced from the efficiency of energy transfer was 3.11 nm for farrerol-BSA system. The displacement experiments of site markers and the results of fluorescence anisotropy showed that warfarin and farrerol shared a common binding site I corresponding to the subdomain IIA of BSA. Furthermore, the studies of synchronous fluorescence, CD and FT-IR spectroscopy showed that the binding of farrerol to BSA induced conformational changes in BSA.

Zhang, Guowen; Wang, Lin; Fu, Peng; Hu, Mingming

2011-11-01

85

Analysis of interaction between tamoxifen and ctDNA in vitro by multi-spectroscopic methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multi-spectroscopic methods including resonance light scattering (RLS), ultraviolet spectra (UV), fluorescence spectra, 1H NMR spectroscopy, coupled with thermo-denaturation experiments were firstly used to study the interaction of antitumor drug tamoxifen (TMX) with calf thymus (ctDNA) in acetate buffer solutions (pH 4.55). The interaction of TMX with ctDNA could cause a significant enhancement of RLS intensity, the hyperchromic effect, red shift of absorption spectra and the fluorescence quenching of TMX, indicating that there is an inserting interaction between TMX and ctDNA. This inference was confirmed by 1H NMR spectroscopy. The chemical shift of the benzene proton changes significantly which indicates that TMX could insert into the base pairs of ctDNA. These studies are valuable for a better understanding the mode of TMX-ctDNA interaction further, which are important and useful for designing of new ctDNA targeted drug. And the antitumor drug TMX inserted directly into ctDNA in vitro, which can provide a lot of useful information to explore the development of new and highly effective anti-cancer drugs.

Cai, Changqun; Chen, Xiaoming; Ge, Fei

2010-07-01

86

Estimation of ?- and ?-donor properties of heterocyclic thioamides by spectroscopic and magnetic resonance methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The charge-transfer complexes (CTC) of few thioamide: 1-methylimidazoline-2-thione (MMI), 3-methyl-1-ethoxycarbonilimidazoline-2-thione (Carb), 5-methylbenzimidazoline-2-thione (BIZ), benzothiazoline-2-thione (BTZ), benzoxazoline-2-thione (BOZ) as ?-donors and diiodine as ?-acceptor were studied by spectroscopic methods (UV/Vis, 1H NMR). CTC formation constants of thioamides with diiodine were determined using the function of the average-iodine number. The charge-transfer complexes of thioamides as ?-donors with tetracyanoethylene (TCNE) as ?-electron acceptor, were studied by UV-spectroscopy in dichloromethane and chloroform solutions. The mechanism of interaction MMI and Carb with TCNE have been studied by EPR spectroscopy. Spectral characteristics and formation constants are discussed in the terms of electron donor affinity of thioamides and the nature of the organic solvent used. The ionization potentials of donors were estimated from the CT transition energies of their complexes. The photolytic equilibrium constants of five thioamides are determined using pH-metric titrations.

Chernov'yants, Margarita S.; Khohlov, Evgeniy V.; Bondarenko, Gennadiy I.; Burykin, Igor V.

2011-10-01

87

A Comparison of Case Study and Traditional Teaching Methods for Improvement of Oral Communication and Critical-Thinking Skills  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This study compares a traditional paper presentation approach and a case study method for the development and improvement of oral communication skills and critical-thinking skills in a class of junior forensic science majors. A rubric for rating performan

Vance, Diane E.; Noblitt, Lynnette; Smith, Michelle L.

2010-05-01

88

A correlation of spectroscopic parameters from different magnetic resonance spectroscopies for thiazides: a study by NQR, NMR, EPR and DFT methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

A Letter is devoted to a detailed parallel analysis of the spectroscopic parameters such as quadrupole coupling constant (NQR), chemical shift, chemical shift anisotropy, asymmetry parameter (NMR) and hyperfine coupling constant (EPR) for thiazides. The compounds were studied in solid state by the resonance (NQR, NMR and EPR) and density functional theory (DFT) methods. The spectroscopic parameters determined at room

J. N. Latosi?ska

2004-01-01

89

Review of UV spectroscopic, chromatographic, and electrophoretic methods for the cholinesterase reactivating antidote pralidoxime (2-PAM).  

PubMed

Pralidoxime (2-PAM) belongs to the class of monopyridinium oximes with reactivating potency on cholinesterases inhibited by phosphylating organophosphorus compounds (OPC), for example, pesticides and nerve agents. 2-PAM represents an established antidote for the therapy of anticholinesterase poisoning since the late 1950s. Quite high therapeutic concentrations in human plasma (about 13?µg/ml) lead to concentrations in urine being about 100 times higher allowing the use of less sensitive analytical techniques that were used especially in the early years after 2-PAM was introduced. In this time (mid-1950s until the end of the 1970s) 2-PAM was most often analyzed by either paper chromatography or simple UV spectroscopic techniques omitting any sample separation step. These methods were displaced completely after the establishment of column liquid chromatography in the early 1980s. Since then, diverse techniques including cation exchange, size-exclusion, reversed-phase, and ligand-exchange chromatography have been introduced. Today, the most popular method for 2-PAM quantification is ion pair chromatography often combined with UV detection representing more than 50% of all column chromatographic procedures published. Furthermore, electrophoretic approaches by paper and capillary zone electrophoresis have been successfully used but are seldom applied. This review provides a commentary and exhaustive summary of analytical techniques applied to detect 2-PAM in pharmaceutical formulations and biological samples to characterize stability and pharmacokinetics as well as decomposition and biotransformation products. Separation techniques as well as diverse detectors are discussed in appropriate detail allowing comparison of individual preferences and limitations. In addition, novel data on mass spectrometric fragmentation of 2-PAM are provided. PMID:21953823

John, Harald; Blum, Marc-Michael

2011-09-27

90

Web 2.0 at a non-traditional charter school A mixed methods study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In a mixed methods design, I sought to explore teacher and administrator views of technology integration and change in schools. Specifically, I examined a small staff's perspectives towards the integration of Web 2.0 tools and mobile devices into student-centered classroom instruction at a small non-traditional charter school in Southern Georgia. Online surveys and face-to-face interviews were conducted to gather data on the educators' value of technology, the role and integration of technology in the classroom, and their current levels of technology usage. The converged mixed methods results illustrate the following: (a) educators are willing to integrate technologies they value; (b) educators are open to incorporating emerging technologies into the classroom with proper support; (c) educators do not instinctively integrate technology in student-centered ways; (d) educators are open to learning about emerging technologies from their students; (e) teachers and administrators are not equally open to integrating Web 2.0 tools and mobile devices into classrooms. I conclude that teachers and administrators need to critically examine how to apply Web 2.0 technologies and mobile devices to enhance learning in order to remain relevant and meet the needs of their students in the twenty-first century. Keywords: Digital Age, mixed methods, mobile devices, student-centered, teacher and administrator beliefs, Web 2.0 integration

Ollis, Jennifer C.

91

Chemical Characterization of Riverine Dissolved Organic Matter Using a Combination of Spectroscopic and Pyrolytic Methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is now well established that riverine dissolved organic matter (DOM) play a major role in environmental processes. However natural organic matter exhibit different properties depending on their sources and the fractions considered. As a result chemical characterization of DOM has appeared essential for a better understanding of their reactivity. The purpose of this work was to characterize all of the DOM at molecular level, including the non-hydrolysable fraction, which is a major part of this OM. To this aim a new analytical approach had to be considered. A combination of spectroscopic and pyrolytic methods has been applied to various fractions of DOM originating from different catchments (French and Amazonian rivers). The fractions were termed hydrophilic, transphilic and colloids according to the IHSS fractionation procedure, and account for at least 70% of the total dissolved organic carbon. Solid state 13C NMR and FTIR afford information on the nature and relative abundance of the chemical functions occurring in macromolecules. Differential thermogravimetric analysis allows to determine the thermal behaviour of the studied material and hence to optimize analytical pyrolysis conditions. Curie point pyrolysis combined to gas chromatography and mass spectrometry leads to identification of characteristic pyrolysis products, some of them being specific of a macromolecular source. Additional information can be provided by thermochemolysis with tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH). TMAH was shown to allow an increase in the efficiency of the cracking of macromolecular structures and an enhancement of the detection of the polar pyrolysis products especially due to methylation of the alcohol, phenol and acid groups. The results obtained have established the importance of terrestrial contribution to DOM. Hydrophobic fractions mainly originate from lignin-derived units, whereas transphilic fractions mostly contain cellulose units together with lignin derived ones and substantial amount of nitrogen-containing moieties. Characterization of colloidal fraction has indicated the presence of compounds from bacterial origin, especially specific nitrogen-containing molecules that are characteristic pyrolysis products of peptidoglycans, along with lignin-derived units. However pyrolysis has revealed significant differences in the detection of nitrogen-containing molecules, which do not parallel nitrogen content of the fractions. Moreover in hydrophobic and transphilic fractions the molecular structure of these compounds, which are mainly nitrogen- and oxygen- containing molecules, has not allowed to ascertain their origin. As the major biological sources of organic nitrogen (proteins, amino sugars, or tetrapyrrole pigments) involve differences in the main nitrogen functionality, two additional spectroscopic methods, namely X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and solid state 15N NMR, have been used to determine the nitrogen functional groups (amide, amine, and N-heterocycle) present in the different fractions of DOM. The combination of these two methods has revealed the occurrence of different functionality of nitrogen, with relative contributions depending on the considered fraction. It has also appeared that Curie point pyrolysis does not account for the presence of nitrogen in macromolecules with the same efficiency depending on the functional group involved. This study has highlighted the importance of combining different analytical approaches to obtain a whole insight into chemical structure of OM and avoid biased information.

Templier, J.; Derenne, S.

2006-12-01

92

Infrared study of aging of edible oils by oxidative spectroscopic index and MCR-ALS chemometric method.  

PubMed

One of the most suitable analytical techniques used for edible oil quality control is Fourier transform mid infrared spectroscopy (FT-MIR). FT-MIR spectroscopy was used to continuously characterize the aging of various edible oils thanks to a specific aging cell. There were differences in the spectra of fresh and aged oils from different vegetable sources, which provide the basis of a method to classify them according to the oxidative spectroscopic index value. The use of chemometric treatment such as multivariate curve resolution-alternative least square (MCR-ALS) made it possible to extract the spectra of main formed and degraded species. The concentration profiles gave interesting information about the ability of the various oils to support the oxidative treatment and showed that all oils present the same aging process. Both methods led to concordant results in terms of induction times determined by the oxidative spectroscopic index and the appearance of oxidation products revealed by MCR-ALS. PMID:19159793

Le Dréau, Y; Dupuy, N; Artaud, J; Ollivier, D; Kister, J

2008-10-17

93

Cellulose crystallinity and ordering of hemicelluloses in pine and birch pulps as revealed by solid-state NMR spectroscopic methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solid-state 13C NMR spectroscopy was used to determine the degree of cellulose crystallinity (CrI) in kraft, flow-through kraft and polysulphide–anthraquinone (PS–AQ) pulps of pine and birch containing various amounts of hemicelluloses. The applicability of acid hydrolysis and the purely spectroscopic proton spin-relaxation based spectral edition (PSRE) method to remove the interfering hemicellulose signals prior to the determination of CrI were

Tiina Liitiä; Sirkka Liisa Maunu; Bo Hortling; Tarja Tamminen; Osmo Pekkala; Antero Varhimo

2003-01-01

94

Mapping stream habitats with a global positioning system: Accuracy, precision, and comparison with traditional methods  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We tested the precision and accuracy of the Trimble GeoXT??? global positioning system (GPS) handheld receiver on point and area features and compared estimates of stream habitat dimensions (e.g., lengths and areas of riffles and pools) that were made in three different Oklahoma streams using the GPS receiver and a tape measure. The precision of differentially corrected GPS (DGPS) points was not affected by the number of GPS position fixes (i.e., geographic location estimates) averaged per DGPS point. Horizontal error of points ranged from 0.03 to 2.77 m and did not differ with the number of position fixes per point. The error of area measurements ranged from 0.1% to 110.1% but decreased as the area increased. Again, error was independent of the number of position fixes averaged per polygon corner. The estimates of habitat lengths, widths, and areas did not differ when measured using two methods of data collection (GPS and a tape measure), nor did the differences among methods change at three stream sites with contrasting morphologies. Measuring features with a GPS receiver was up to 3.3 times faster on average than using a tape measure, although signal interference from high streambanks or overhanging vegetation occasionally limited satellite signal availability and prolonged measurements with a GPS receiver. There were also no differences in precision of habitat dimensions when mapped using a continuous versus a position fix average GPS data collection method. Despite there being some disadvantages to using the GPS in stream habitat studies, measuring stream habitats with a GPS resulted in spatially referenced data that allowed the assessment of relative habitat position and changes in habitats over time, and was often faster than using a tape measure. For most spatial scales of interest, the precision and accuracy of DGPS data are adequate and have logistical advantages when compared to traditional methods of measurement. ?? 2006 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.

Dauwalter, D. C.; Fisher, W. L.; Belt, K. C.

2006-01-01

95

Molecular structures of gas-phase polyatomic molecules determined by spectroscopic methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spectroscopic data related to the structures of polyatomic molecules in the gas phase have been reviewed, critically evaluated, and compiled. All reported bond distances and angles have been classified as equilibrium (re), average (rz), substitution (rs), or effective (ro) parameters, and have been given a quality rating which is a measure of the parameter uncertainty. The surveyed literature includes work

Marlin D. Harmony; Victor W. Laurie; Robert L. Kuczkowski; R. H. Schwendeman; D. A. Ramsay; Frank J. Lovas; Walter J. Lafferty; Arthur G. Maki

1979-01-01

96

Comparison of traditional and molecular analytical methods for detecting biological agents in raw and drinking water following ultrafiltration  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Aims: To compare the performance of traditional methods to quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) for detecting five biological agents in large-volume drinking-water samples concentrated by ultrafiltration (UF). Methods and Results: Drinking-water samples (100 l) were seeded with Bacillus anthracis, Cryptospordium parvum, Francisella tularensis, Salmonella Typhi, and Vibrio cholerae and concentrated by UF. Recoveries by traditional methods were variable between samples and between some replicates; recoveries were not determined by qPCR. Francisella tularensis and V. cholerae were detected in all 14 samples after UF, B. anthracis was detected in 13, and C. parvum was detected in 9 out of 14 samples. Numbers found by qPCR after UF were significantly or nearly related to those found by traditional methods for all organisms except for C. parvum. A qPCR assay for S. Typhi was not available. Conclusions: qPCR can be used to rapidly detect biological agents after UF as well as traditional methods, but additional work is needed to improve qPCR assays for several biological agents, determine recoveries by qPCR, and expand the study to other areas. Significance and Impact of the Study: To our knowledge, this is the first study to compare the use of traditional and qPCR methods to detect biological agents in large-volume drinking-water samples. ?? 2009 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

Francy, D. S.; Bushon, R. N.; Brady, A. M. G.; Bertke, E. E.; Kephart, C. M.; Likirdopulos, C. A.; Mailot, B. E.; Schaefer, Iii, F. W.; Alan, Lindquist, H. D.

2009-01-01

97

An Effective-Substrate Method to Investigate AN Iron Native Oxide Layer on AN Iron Substrate by Spectroscopic Ellipsometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An effective-substrate method was presented to obtain the optical constants of an iron native oxide layer with unknown optical constants and film thickness on an iron substrate with unknown optical constants by using spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE). "Thick" iron films were deposited on silicon wafer by magnetron sputtering and were exposed to air at room temperature. They were measured by spectroscopic ellipsometry during this procedure at different time points from ten minutes to seven months. Pseudo optical constants were calculated from the initially measured data and were introduced into the modeling work of subsequent measurements as an effective substrate in order to obtain the optical constants and film thickness of the native oxide layer. After obtaining the optical constants of the subsequent native oxide layer, they were employed in the modeling work of the initially measured data and the optical constants of the iron substrate and the film thickness of the initial native oxide layer was obtained.

Gao, Shang; Lian, Jie; Sun, Zhaozong; Wang, Xiao; Li, Ping; Li, Qinghao

2013-03-01

98

Exploring the Ligand-Protein Networks in Traditional Chinese Medicine: Current Databases, Methods, and Applications  

PubMed Central

The traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), which has thousands of years of clinical application among China and other Asian countries, is the pioneer of the “multicomponent-multitarget” and network pharmacology. Although there is no doubt of the efficacy, it is difficult to elucidate convincing underlying mechanism of TCM due to its complex composition and unclear pharmacology. The use of ligand-protein networks has been gaining significant value in the history of drug discovery while its application in TCM is still in its early stage. This paper firstly surveys TCM databases for virtual screening that have been greatly expanded in size and data diversity in recent years. On that basis, different screening methods and strategies for identifying active ingredients and targets of TCM are outlined based on the amount of network information available, both on sides of ligand bioactivity and the protein structures. Furthermore, applications of successful in silico target identification attempts are discussed in detail along with experiments in exploring the ligand-protein networks of TCM. Finally, it will be concluded that the prospective application of ligand-protein networks can be used not only to predict protein targets of a small molecule, but also to explore the mode of action of TCM.

Zhao, Mingzhu; Wei, Dong-Qing

2013-01-01

99

Application methods of infrared thermal images in the health care field of traditional Chinese medicine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Infrared thermal imaging (ITI) is the potential imaging technique for the health care field of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Successful application demands obeying the characteristics and regularity of the ITI of human body and designing rigorous trials. First, the influence of time must be taken into account as the ITI of human body varies with time markedly. Second, relative magnitude is preferred to be the index of the image features. Third, scatter diagrams and the method of least square could present important information for evaluating the health care effect. A double-blind placebo-controlled randomized trial was undertaken to study the influences of Shengsheng capsule, one of the TCM health food with immunity adjustment function, on the ITI of human body. The results showed that the effect of Shengsheng capsule to people with weak constitution or in the period of being weak could be reflected objectively by ITI. The relative efficacy rate was 81.3% for the trial group and 30.0% for the control group, there was significant difference between the two groups (P=0.003). So the sensitivity and objectivity of ITI are of great importance to the health care field of TCM.

Li, Ziru; Zhang, Xusheng

2008-12-01

100

Indigenous yeast population from Georgian aged wines produced by traditional "Kakhetian" method.  

PubMed

The yeast microbiota present in wines produced by the ancient "Kakhetian" method in Georgia (EU) was studied. This technique involves the use of terracotta vessels (amphoras), during spontaneous fermentation, maceration phase and wine ageing. The analysed yeasts were collected from wines after maturation for one year in ten amphoras from a Georgian winery. The 260 isolates were all identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and the majority were classified as flor yeasts by restriction analysis of ITS region. A first technological and molecular screening was used to select 70 strains for further characterization. Both genetic and metabolic characterization discriminated flor from non-flor strains. The combined results obtained by analysis of interdelta region and mtDNA-RFLP yielded 23 different biotypes; no biotype was common to flor and non-flor strains. The wines produced by flor yeasts showed a high content in acetaldehyde, acetic acid, acetoin, whereas the level of other compounds was similar to wines obtained by non-flor strains. This study represents the first report on the composition of yeast microbiota involved in the maturation of this traditional wine. These flor strains represent an interesting yeast population, in possession of peculiar characteristics allowing them to survive during wine ageing, becoming the dominant flora in the final wine. PMID:24010628

Capece, Angela; Siesto, Gabriella; Poeta, Cinzia; Pietrafesa, Rocchina; Romano, Patrizia

2013-08-01

101

Contemporary chinese pulse diagnosis: a modern interpretation of an ancient and traditional method.  

PubMed

Contemporary Chinese pulse diagnosis™ (CCPD) is a system of pulse diagnosis utilized by Dr. John He Feng Shen, OMD, and documented by Dr. Leon Hammer, MD, in the book Chinese Pulse Diagnosis, A Contemporary Approach. It is the traditional method of the Ding medical lineage from the Shanghai region and dates to the 15th century in Chinese language texts. The fundamentals of this system are, however, much older and can be directly traced to the Neijing Suwen. Having been passed from the last direct inheritor of Ding knowledge (Dr. Shen) to modern practitioners of Chinese medicine by way of Dr. Hammer and his students, it represents an important system of advanced diagnosis. Although modern diagnostic technology provides very sophisticated diagnoses, for these instruments to be effective, the disease process must already have a physical manifestation. CCPD, on the other hand, provides the earliest warnings of physiological processes, which if left unchecked may result in the subsequent appearance of a disease. This article describes the derivation and the principles of this system of pulse diagnosis and explores its successful integration into the modern practice of Chinese medicine. PMID:24139459

Bilton, Karen; Hammer, Leon; Zaslawski, Chris

2013-04-24

102

Application of a probabilistic neural network in analysis of the radial velocity curve of spectroscopic binary stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using measured radial velocity data of five double-lined spectroscopic binary systems, HD 89959, HD 143705, HD 146361, HD 165052 and HD 152248, we find corresponding orbital and spectroscopic elements via a Probabilistic Neural Network. Our numerical results are in good agreement with those obtained by others using more traditional methods.

Ghaderi, Kamal; Karami, Kayoomars; Pirkhedri, Ali; Haj Seyyed Javadi, Hamid; Rostami, Touba

2012-12-01

103

An evaluation of analytical streambank flux methods and connections to end-member mixing models: a comparison of a new method and traditional methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, a novel method for estimating gross gains and losses between streams and groundwater is developed and evaluated against two traditional approaches. These three streambank flux estimation methods are distinct in their assumptions on the spatial distribution of the inflowing and outflowing fluxes along the stream. The two traditional methods assume that the fluxes are independent and in a specific sequence, while the third and newly derived method assumes that both fluxes occur simultaneously and uniformly throughout the stream. The analytic expressions in connection to the underlying assumptions are investigated to evaluate the individual and mutual dynamics of the streambank flux estimation methods and to understand the causes for the different performances. The results show that the three methods produce significantly different results and that the mean absolute normalized error can have up to an order of magnitude difference between the methods. These differences between the streambank flux methods are entirely due to the assumptions of the streambank flux spatial dynamics of the methods, and the performances for a particular approach strongly decrease if its assumptions are not fulfilled. An assessment of the three methods through numerical simulations, representing a variety of streambank flux dynamics, show that the method introduced, considering simultaneous stream gains and losses, presents overall the highest performance. These streambank flux methods can also be used in conjunction with other end-member mixing models to acquire even more hydrologic information as both require the same type of input data.

Exner-Kittridge, M.; Salinas, J. L.; Zessner, M.

2013-08-01

104

Re-using traditional animation: methods for semi-automatic segmentation and inbetweening  

Microsoft Academic Search

A large body of traditional animation exists that contains characters with poses, expressions, and appeal not easily achievable with modern 3D techniques. To create new uses for this body of animation, this paper presents components of a system that can help incorporate the animation into re-usable libraries. In particular, we discuss two semi-automatic techniques that allow the re-use of traditional

Christina N. De Juan; Bobby Bodenheimer

2006-01-01

105

A spectroscopic method for identifying terrestrial biocarbonates and application to Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Searching for traces of extinct and/or extant life on Mars is one of the major objectives for remote-sensing and in situ exploration of the planet. In previous laboratory works we have investigated the infrared spectral modifications induced by thermal processing on different carbonate samples, in the form of fresh shells and fossils of different ages, whose biotic origin is easily recognizable. The goal was to discriminate them from their abiotic counterparts. In general, it is difficult to identify biotic signatures, especially when the organisms inducing the carbonate precipitation have low fossilization potential (i.e. microbes, bacteria, archaea). A wide variety of microorganisms are implicated in carbonate genesis, and their direct characterization is very difficult to evaluate by traditional methods, both in ancient sedimentary systems and even in recent environments. In the present work we apply our analysis to problematic carbonate samples, in which there is no clear evidence of controlled or induced biomineralization. This analysis indicates a very likely biotic origin of the aragonite samples under study, in agreement with the conclusion previously reported by Guido et al. (2007) who followed a completely different approach based on a complex set of sedimentary, petrographic, geochemical and biochemical analyses. We show that our method is reliable for discriminating between biotic and abiotic carbonates, and therefore it is a powerful tool in the search for life on Mars in the next generation of space missions to the planet.

Blanco, A.; Orofino, V.; D'Elia, M.; Fonti, S.; Mastandrea, A.; Guido, A.; Russo, F.

2011-06-01

106

Comparison of Traditional Methods with 3D Computer Models in the Instruction of Hepatobiliary Anatomy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study was designed to determine whether an interactive three-dimensional presentation depicting liver and biliary anatomy is more effective for teaching medical students than a traditional textbook format presentation of the same material. Forty-six medical students volunteered for participation in this study. Baseline demographic…

Keedy, Alexander W.; Durack, Jeremy C.; Sandhu, Parmbir; Chen, Eric M.; O'Sullivan, Patricia S.; Breiman, Richard S.

2011-01-01

107

Application methods of infrared thermal images in the health care field of traditional Chinese medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Infrared thermal imaging (ITI) is the potential imaging technique for the health care field of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Successful application demands obeying the characteristics and regularity of the ITI of human body and designing rigorous trials. First, the influence of time must be taken into account as the ITI of human body varies with time markedly. Second, relative magnitude

Ziru Li; Xusheng Zhang

2008-01-01

108

Fiber optic spectroscopic digital imaging sensor and method for flame properties monitoring  

DOEpatents

A system for real-time monitoring of flame properties in combustors and gasifiers which includes an imaging fiber optic bundle having a light receiving end and a light output end and a spectroscopic imaging system operably connected with the light output end of the imaging fiber optic bundle. Focusing of the light received by the light receiving end of the imaging fiber optic bundle by a wall disposed between the light receiving end of the fiber optic bundle and a light source, which wall forms a pinhole opening aligned with the light receiving end.

Zelepouga, Serguei A. (Hoffman Estates, IL); Rue, David M. (Chicago, IL); Saveliev, Alexei V. (Chicago, IL)

2011-03-15

109

A Comparison of Case Study and Traditional Teaching Methods for Improvement of Oral Communication and Critical-Thinking Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study compares a traditional paper presentation approach and a case study method for the development and improvement of oral communication skills and critical-thinking skills in a class of junior forensic science majors. A rubric for rating performance in these skills was designed on the basis of the oral communication competencies developed…

Noblitt, Lynnette; Vance, Diane E.; Smith, Michelle L. DePoy

2010-01-01

110

Traditional Mold Analysis Compared to a DNA-based Method of Mold Analysis with Applications in Asthmatics' Homes  

EPA Science Inventory

Traditional environmental mold analysis is based-on microscopic observations and counting of mold structures collected from the air on a sticky surface or culturing of molds on growth media for identification and quantification. A DNA-based method of mold analysis called mol...

111

A Comparison of Kernel Equating and Traditional Equipercentile Equating Methods and the Parametric Bootstrap Methods for Estimating Standard Errors in Equipercentile Equating  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study used simulation (a) to compare the kernel equating method to traditional equipercentile equating methods under the equivalent-groups (EG) design and the nonequivalent-groups with anchor test (NEAT) design and (b) to apply the parametric bootstrap method for estimating standard errors of equating. A two-parameter logistic item response…

Choi, Sae Il

2009-01-01

112

Using spectroscopic and microscopic methods to probe the structural stability of human adenovirus type 4.  

PubMed

Adenovirus serotype 4 (Ad4) is a major cause of Ad-associated human diseases. Ad4 is also considered to be a potential delivery vector for gene therapy. In this study, multiple spectroscopic techniques together with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were employed to probe viral stability and to improve pharmaceutical formulations of Ad4-based vaccines and DNA carriers. Perturbations of secondary, tertiary and quaternary structure of Ad4 proteins induced by elevated temperatures over a wide pH range (3-8) were analyzed using circular dichroism, UV absorption and intrinsic and extrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy as well as static and dynamic light scattering. The spectroscopic results obtained indicate a decrease in Ad4 stability as pH increases from 4 to 8, similar to the behavior reported previously for Ad2 and Ad5, although the Ad4 virion appears to possess slightly more tolerance to thermal stress. An empirical phase diagram (EPD) approach was used to summarize the data in the form of a colored map. In addition, the different physical states of Ad4 identified by the EPD were confirmed by TEM images. The results obtained in this study reveal both structural similarities among three commonly employed Ad subtypes (2, 4 and 5) as well as unique properties of Ad4. PMID:19946219

He, Feng; Joshi, Sangeeta B; Moore, David S; Shinogle, Heather E; Ohtake, Satoshi; Lechuga-Ballesteros, David; Martin, Russell A; Truong-Le, Vu L; Middaugh, C Russell

2010-02-06

113

A new criterion of photostimulated luminescence (PSL) method to detect irradiated traditional Chinese medicinal herbs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work used a new criterion to analyze 162 varieties (222 batches) of traditional Chinese medicinal herbs based on the European Standard EN 13751 (2009. Foodstuffs—Detection of Irradiated Food Using Photostimulated Luminescence. European Committee for Standardization, Brussels, Belgium). The characteristics of PSL signals are described, and a new criterion is established. Compared to EN 13751, the new criterion uses clearer definition to evaluate instead of the ambiguous descriptions in EN Standard, such as "much greater than" and "within the same order of magnitude". Moreover, the accuracy of the new criterion is as good as or better than EN Standard in regard to classifying irradiated and non-irradiated traditional Chinese medicinal herbs. It can help to avoid false positive result when a non-irradiated herb got a screening PSL measurement above 5000 counts/60 s.

Zhang, Liwen; Lin, Tong; Jiang, Yingqiao; Bi, Fujun

2013-11-01

114

Wife-battering and traditional methods of its control in contemporary Datoga pastoralists of Tanzania  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – The main goal of this project is to study the wife-battering in one of the traditional groups of semi-nomadic herders of Eastern Africa, the Datoga of Northern Tanzania. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – The study examines wife-battering among the Datoga pastoralists of Tanzania. The interviews with 142 women provide the information on types and regularity of wife-beating in the Datoga. Data

Marina L. Butovskaya

2012-01-01

115

A method to compare new and traditional accelerometry data in physical activity monitoring  

Microsoft Academic Search

The accelerometer devices as traditionally used in the epidemiological field for physical activity monitoring (e.g. Actigraph, Actical, and RT3) provide manufacturer-dependent output values called counts that are computed by obscure and proprietary signal processing techniques. This lack of transparency poses a challenge for comparison of historical accelerometer data in counts with data collected using raw accelerometry in S.I. units —

Vincent T. van Hees; Marcelo Pias; Salman Taherian; Ulf Ekelund; Soren Brage

2010-01-01

116

Comparison of traditional methods and mitogen-stimulated direct antiglobulin test for detection of anti-red blood cell autoimmunity  

Microsoft Academic Search

The diagnosis of autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA) is based on a positive direct antiglobulin test (DAT), which is performed\\u000a using various methods with different sensitivities. Recently, mitogen-stimulated (MS)-DAT was suggested to be able to identify\\u000a latent anti-erythrocyte autoimmunity. Traditional methods (tube, microcolumn, and solid phase) and MS-DAT were compared in\\u000a 54 consecutive cases of suspected AIHA, 28 idiopathic AIHA in

Wilma Barcellini; Nicoletta Revelli; Francesca Guia Imperiali; Maria Antonietta Villa; Maria Cristina Manera; Cinzia Paccapelo; Anna Zaninoni; Alberto Zanella

2010-01-01

117

Determining uranium speciation in Fernald soils by molecular spectroscopic methods. FY 1993 progress report  

SciTech Connect

This progress report describes new experimental results and interpretations for data collected from October 1, 1992, through September 30, 1993, as part of the Characterization Task of the Uranium in Soils Integrated Demonstration of the Office of Technology Development, Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management of the US Department of Energy. X-ray absorption, optical luminescence, and Raman vibrational spectroscopies were used to determine uranium speciation in contaminated soils from the US DOE`s former uranium production facility at Fernald, Ohio. These analyses were carried out both before and after application of one of the various decontamination technologies being developed within the Integrated Demonstration. This year the program focused on characterization of the uranium speciation remaining in the soils after decontamination treatment. X-ray absorption and optical luminescence spectroscopic data were collected for approximately 40 Fernald soil samples, which were treated by one or more of the decontamination technologies.

Allen, P.G.; Berg, J.M.; Crisholm-Brause, C.J.; Conradson, S.D.; Donohoe, R.J.; Morris, D.E.; Musgrave, J.A.; Tait, C.D.

1994-07-01

118

Interactive-engagement vs traditional methods: A six-thousand-student survey of mechanics test data  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The complete report from Richard Hake's long-term study of interactive engagement (IE) techniques and their effect on the understanding of physics by non-physics majors. The study analyzed diverse student populations in high schools, colleges, and universities and used pre- and post-instruction testing to determine the gains in each group. IE techniques were shown to improve student's understanding at a significantly higher rate than traditional instruction. Additionally, these IE techniques are applicable to teaching a wide range of topics.

Hake, Richard R.

2007-07-08

119

Paleodemographic age-at-death distributions of two Mexican skeletal collections: A comparison of transition analysis and traditional aging methods.  

PubMed

Traditional methods of aging adult skeletons suffer from the problem of age mimicry of the reference collection, as described by Bocquet-Appel and Masset (1982). Transition analysis (Boldsen et al., 2002) is a method of aging adult skeletons that addresses the problem of age mimicry of the reference collection by allowing users to select an appropriate prior probability. In order to evaluate whether transition analysis results in significantly different age estimates for adults, the method was applied to skeletal collections from Postclassic Cholula and Contact-Period Xochimilco. The resulting age-at-death distributions were then compared with age-at-death distributions for the two populations constructed using traditional aging methods. Although the traditional aging methods result in age-at-death distributions with high young adult mortality and few individuals living past the age of 50, the age-at-death distributions constructed using transition analysis indicate that most individuals who lived into adulthood lived past the age of 50. Am J Phys Anthropol 152:67-78, 2013. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24037796

Bullock, Meggan; Márquez, Lourdes; Hernández, Patricia; Ruíz, Fernando

2013-07-30

120

Macromolecular competition titration method accessing thermodynamics of the unmodified macromolecule-ligand interactions through spectroscopic titrations of fluorescent analogs.  

PubMed

Analysis of thermodynamically rigorous binding isotherms provides fundamental information about the energetics of the ligand-macromolecule interactions and often an invaluable insight about the structure of the formed complexes. The Macromolecular Competition Titration (MCT) method enables one to quantitatively obtain interaction parameters of protein-nucleic acid interactions, which may not be available by other methods, particularly for the unmodified long polymer lattices and specific nucleic acid substrates, if the binding is not accompanied by adequate spectroscopic signal changes. The method can be applied using different fluorescent nucleic acids or fluorophores, although the etheno-derivatives of nucleic acid are especially suitable as they are relatively easy to prepare, have significant blue fluorescence, their excitation band lies far from the protein absorption spectrum, and the modification eliminates the possibility of base pairing with other nucleic acids. The MCT method is not limited to the specific size of the reference nucleic acid. Particularly, a simple analysis of the competition titration experiments is described in which the fluorescent, short fragment of nucleic acid, spanning the exact site-size of the protein-nucleic acid complex, and binding with only a 1:1 stoichiometry to the protein, is used as a reference macromolecule. Although the MCT method is predominantly discussed as applied to studying protein-nucleic acid interactions, it can generally be applied to any ligand-macromolecule system by monitoring the association reaction using the spectroscopic signal originating from the reference macromolecule in the presence of the competing macromolecule, whose interaction parameters with the ligand are to be determined. PMID:21195223

Bujalowski, Wlodzimierz; Jezewska, Maria J

2011-01-01

121

Study of the complexation of different methacrylates with cyclodextrins employing a combination of electrophoretic, chromatographic, and NMR-spectroscopic methods.  

PubMed

The present study describes the application of capillary electromigration techniques; CEC and micellar EKC (MEKC), and the application of spectroscopic methods; 1H NMR and 1H NOESY spectroscopy to investigate interactions between CDs (alpha-CD, statistically methylated beta-CD, hydroxypropyl-beta-CD, and 2-hydroxypropyl-gamma-CD) and different methacrylates (adamantyl, isobornyl, cyclohexyl, and phenyl methacrylate). It is shown that these methods complement each other. While CD-mediated MEKC is a rapid screening technique for comparing complex stabilities in aqueous media, 1H NMR chemical shift analysis provides quantitative data for very strong methacrylate-CD complexes and CD-mediated CEC provides quantitative data for complexes with lower complex forming constants. CD-mediated MEKC did not prove to be suitable for the calculation of complex forming constants. Reasons are discussed. 1H NOESY spectra were used to study spatial relationships between host and guest atoms. PMID:17461118

Al-Rimawi, Fuad; Pyell, Ute

2007-03-01

122

Participatory methods of incorporating scientific with traditional knowledge for volcanic hazard management on Ambae Island, Vanuatu  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ambae Island is the largest of Vanuatu’s active volcanoes. It is also one of the nation’s potentially most dangerous, with 60 million m3 of lake-water perched at over 1340 m in the summit caldera and over the active vent. In 1995, small phreatic explosions, earthquake swarms and heightened gas release led to calls for evacuation preparation and community volcanic hazard awareness programs for the ~9500 inhabitants. Differences in perspective or world-view between the island dwellers adhering to traditional beliefs (Kastom) and external scientists and emergency managers led to a climate of distrust following this crisis. In an attempt to address these issues, rebuild dialogue and respect between communities, outside scientists and administrators, and move forward in volcanic hazard education and planning for Ambae, we adapted and applied Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) approaches. Initial gender-segregated PRA exercises from two representative communities provided a mechanism for cataloguing local traditional viewpoints and hazard perceptions. Ultimately, by combining elements of these viewpoints and perceptions with science-based management structures, we derived volcanic hazard management guidelines, supported by an alert system and map that were more readily accepted by the test communities than the earlier “top-down” plans imposed by outside governmental and scientific agencies. The strength of PRA approaches is that they permit scientists to understand important local perspective issues, including visualisations of volcanic hazards, weaknesses in internal and external communication systems, and gender and hierarchy conflicts, all of which can hinder community emergency management. The approach we describe has much to offer both developing and industrialised communities that wish to improve their awareness programs and mitigative planning. This approach should also enhance communication and understanding between volcanologists and the communities they serve.

Cronin, Shane J.; Gaylord, David R.; Charley, Douglas; Alloway, Brent V.; Wallez, Sandrine; Esau, Job W.

2004-10-01

123

Comparison of traditional methods with 3D computer models in the instruction of hepatobiliary anatomy.  

PubMed

This study was designed to determine whether an interactive three-dimensional presentation depicting liver and biliary anatomy is more effective for teaching medical students than a traditional textbook format presentation of the same material. Forty-six medical students volunteered for participation in this study. Baseline demographic information, spatial ability, and knowledge of relevant anatomy were measured. Participants were randomized into two groups and presented with a computer-based interactive learning module comprised of animations and still images to highlight various anatomical structures (3D group), or a computer-based text document containing the same images and text without animation or interactive features (2D group). Following each teaching module, students completed a satisfaction survey and nine-item anatomic knowledge post-test. The 3D group scored higher on the post-test than the 2D group, with a mean score of 74% and 64%, respectively; however, when baseline differences in pretest scores were accounted for, this difference was not statistically significant (P = 0.33). Spatial ability did not statistically significantly correlate with post-test scores for the 3D group or the 2D group. In the post-test satisfaction survey the 3D group expressed a statistically significantly higher overall satisfaction rating compared to students in the 2D control group (4.5 versus 3.7 out of 5, P = 0.02). While the interactive 3D multimedia module received higher satisfaction ratings from students, it neither enhanced nor inhibited learning of complex hepatobiliary anatomy compared to an informationally equivalent traditional textbook style approach. . PMID:21412990

Keedy, Alexander W; Durack, Jeremy C; Sandhu, Parmbir; Chen, Eric M; O'Sullivan, Patricia S; Breiman, Richard S

2011-03-15

124

Estimating Alcohol Content of Traditional Brew in Western Kenya Using Culturally Relevant Methods: The Case for Cost Over Volume  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional homemade brew is believed to represent the highest proportion of alcohol use in sub-Saharan Africa. In Eldoret,\\u000a Kenya, two types of brew are common: chang’aa, spirits, and busaa, maize beer. Local residents refer to the amount of brew\\u000a consumed by the amount of money spent, suggesting a culturally relevant estimation method. The purposes of this study were\\u000a to analyze

Rebecca K. Papas; John E. Sidle; Emmanuel S. Wamalwa; Thomas O. Okumu; Kendall L. Bryant; Joseph L. Goulet; Stephen A. Maisto; R. Scott Braithwaite; Amy C. Justice

2010-01-01

125

A comparison of traditional and emerging ultrasonic methods for the nondestructive evaluation of polymer matrix composites subjected to impact damage  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the results of a comparison study of three ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods applied to polymer matrix composite (PMC) specimens subjected to impact damage. Samples mainly consisted of various thicknesses of graphite\\/epoxy coupon panels impacted with various energy levels. Traditional pulse-echo and through transmission ultrasonic c-scan techniques were applied to impacted samples and served as the basis

Richard E. Martin; Donald J. Roth; Charles G. Pergantis; Jaswinder S. Sandhu

2004-01-01

126

Interactive-Engagement Versus Traditional Methods: A Six-Thousand-Student Survey of Mechanics Test Data for Introductory Physics Courses  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

A survey of pre/post test data using the Halloun-Hestenes Mechanics Diagnostic test or more recent Force Concept Inventory is reported for 62 introductory physics courses enrolling a total number of students N=6542. A consistent analysis over diverse student populations in high schools, colleges, and universities is obtained if a rough measure of the average effectiveness of a course in promoting conceptual understanding is taken to be the average normalized gain G. The latter is defined as the ratio of the actual average gain (%post-%pre) to the maximum possible average gain (100-%pre). Fourteen "traditional" (T) courses (N=2084) which made little or no use of interactive-engagement (IE) methods achieved an average gain G T-ave=0.23+-0.04 (stad dev). In sharp contrast, 48 courses (N=4458) which made substantial use of IE methods achieved an average gain GIE=0.48 , almost two standard deviations of GIE above that of the traditional courses. Results for 30 (N=3259) of the above 62 courses on the problem-solving Mechanics Baseline test of Hestenes-Wells imply that IE strategies enhance problem-solving ability. The conceptual and problem-solving test results strongly suggest that the classroom use of IE methods can increase mechanics-course effectiveness well beyond that obtained in traditional practice.

Hake, Richard

2006-06-19

127

Interaction of tetramethylpyrazine with two serum albumins by a hybrid spectroscopic method.  

PubMed

The interactions of tetramethylpyrazine (TMPZ) with bovine serum albumin (BSA) and human serum albumin (HSA) have been investigated by various spectroscopic techniques. Fluorescence tests showed that TMPZ could bind to BSA/HSA to form complexes. The binding constants of TMPZ-BSA and TMPZ-HSA complexes were observed to be 1.442 × 10(4) and 3.302 × 10(4)M(-1) at 298K, respectively. The thermodynamic parameters (?G, ?H and ?S) calculated on the basis of different temperatures revealed that the binding of TMPZ-HSA was mainly depended on hydrophobic interaction, and yet the binding of TMPZ-BSA might involve hydrophobic interaction strongly and electrostatic interaction. The results of synchronous fluorescence, three-dimensional fluorescence, UV-vis absorption, FT-IR and CD spectra showed that the conformations of both BSA and HSA altered with the addition of TMPZ. The binding average distance between TMPZ and BSA/HSA was evaluated according to Föster non-radioactive energy transfer theory. In addition, with the aid of site markers (such as, phenylbutazone, ibuprofen and digitoxin), TMPZ primarily bound to tryptophan residues of BSA/HSA within site I (sub-domain II A). PMID:22484270

Cheng, Zhengjun

2012-03-17

128

[The role of the traditional radiological methods in conservative therapy and endodontics].  

PubMed

The traditional radiographic examinations used in restorative dentistry and endodontics are: intraoral radiograph performed in the beta-wing or the paralleling technique, the partial extraoral radiograph (rotational narrow beam), the panoramic radiography and the periapical radiographs with the bisecting technique which is particularly suitable for visualization of the apex. Radiology is a valuable diagnostic means to evaluate the extension of primary caries, to identify secondary and interproximal initial decays and if required let the therapist measure the biological width. Several factors influence the radiographic interpretation of caries: cervical burnout, mach band effect, internal and external resorption, restorative materials for fillings and sub-bases, abrasions and/or erosions. Radiology allows the diagnosis of developmental and acquired abnormalities of the teeth which can have an influence on the treatment itself. Examples are: variations in the shape of the crown and root, dens in dente, enamel hypoplasia, dentinogenesis imperfecta. Radiograms are of major importance in the evaluation of restorative dentistry results: precision of the margins, congruous contact points, fractures. Moreover, it provides the endodontic procedures with useful diagnostic data and permits the measurements during the treatment, supplying the immediate and long term checks too. PMID:9026703

Bianchi, S D; Lojacono, A

1996-12-01

129

Surveying the microbiome of ants: comparing 454 pyrosequencing with traditional methods to uncover bacterial diversity.  

PubMed

We are only beginning to understand the depth and breadth of microbial associations across the eukaryotic tree of life. Reliably assessing bacterial diversity is a key challenge, and next-generation sequencing approaches are facilitating this endeavor. In this study, we used 16S rRNA amplicon pyrosequencing to survey microbial diversity in ants. We compared 454 libraries with Sanger-sequenced clone libraries as well as cultivation of live bacteria. Pyrosequencing yielded 95,656 bacterial 16S rRNA reads from 19 samples derived from four colonies of one ant species. The most dominant bacterial orders in the microbiome of the turtle ant Cephalotes varians were Rhizobiales, Burkholderiales, Opitutales, Xanthomonadales, and Campylobacterales, as revealed through both 454 sequencing and cloning. Even after stringent quality filtering, pyrosequencing recovered 445 microbe operational taxonomic units (OTUs) not detected with traditional techniques. In comparing bacterial communities associated with specific tissues, we found that gut tissues had significantly higher diversity than nongut tissues, and many of the OTUs identified from these groups clustered within ant-specific lineages, indicating a deep coevolutionary history of Cephalotes ants and their associated microbes. These lineages likely function as nutritional symbionts. One of four ant colonies investigated was infected with a Spiroplasma sp. (order Entomoplasmatales), a potential ant pathogen. Our work shows that the microbiome associated with Cephalotes varians is dominated by a few dozen bacterial lineages and that 454 sequencing is a cost-efficient tool to screen ant symbiont diversity. PMID:23124239

Kautz, Stefanie; Rubin, Benjamin E R; Russell, Jacob A; Moreau, Corrie S

2012-11-02

130

Analytical methods for the detection of undeclared synthetic drugs in traditional herbal medicines as adulterants.  

PubMed

Traditional herbal medicines (THMs) are gaining popularity worldwide as an alternative approach to prescription drugs for many reasons including a general perception that they are safe. But recently there have been number of reported studies that reveal adulteration of THMs with undeclared synthetic drugs, which may potentially cause serious toxic adverse effects. This paper reviews the various classes of synthetic drugs that were found to be adulterated in THMs worldwide. The main focus is to highlight newer analytical tools used to detect adulteration. Due to the advancement in hyphenated techniques like liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) and other conventional tools, it has become possible to detect synthetic drugs and their structural analogues as adulterants even if they are present in small quantities. This review also gives an overview of health-related risks after consuming such spurious products and challenges for future perspectives to control such type of malpractices. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:23653249

Haneef, Jamshed; Shaharyar, Mohammad; Husain, Asif; Rashid, Mohd; Mishra, Ravinesh; Siddique, Nadeem A; Pal, Manoj

2013-05-07

131

Spectroscopic methods of process monitoring for safeguards of used nuclear fuel separations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To support the demonstration of a more proliferation-resistant nuclear fuel processing plant, techniques and instrumentation to allow the real-time, online determination of special nuclear material concentrations in-process must be developed. An ideal materials accountability technique for proliferation resistance should provide nondestructive, realtime, on-line information of metal and ligand concentrations in separations streams without perturbing the process. UV-Visible spectroscopy can be adapted for this precise purpose in solvent extraction-based separations. The primary goal of this project is to understand fundamental URanium EXtraction (UREX) and Plutonium-URanium EXtraction (PUREX) reprocessing chemistry and corresponding UV-Visible spectroscopy for application in process monitoring for safeguards. By evaluating the impact of process conditions, such as acid concentration, metal concentration and flow rate, on the sensitivity of the UV-Visible detection system, the process-monitoring concept is developed from an advanced application of fundamental spectroscopy. Systematic benchtop-scale studies investigated the system relevant to UREX or PUREX type reprocessing systems, encompassing 0.01-1.26 M U and 0.01-8 M HNO3. A laboratory-scale TRansUranic Extraction (TRUEX) demonstration was performed and used both to analyze for potential online monitoring opportunities in the TRUEX process, and to provide the foundation for building and demonstrating a laboratory-scale UREX demonstration. The secondary goal of the project is to simulate a diversion scenario in UREX and successfully detect changes in metal concentration and solution chemistry in a counter current contactor system with a UV-Visible spectroscopic process monitor. UREX uses the same basic solvent extraction flowsheet as PUREX, but has a lower acid concentration throughout and adds acetohydroxamic acid (AHA) as a complexant/reductant to the feed solution to prevent the extraction of Pu. By examining UV-Visible spectra gathered in real time, the objective is to detect the conversion from the UREX process, which does not separate Pu, to the PUREX process, which yields a purified Pu product. The change in process chemistry can be detected in the feed solution, aqueous product or in the raffinate stream by identifying the acid concentration, metal distribution and the presence or absence of AHA. A fiber optic dip probe for UV-Visible spectroscopy was integrated into a bank of three counter-current centrifugal contactors to demonstrate the online process monitoring concept. Nd, Fe and Zr were added to the uranyl nitrate system to explore spectroscopic interferences and identify additional species as candidates for online monitoring. This milestone is a demonstration of the potential of this technique, which lies in the ability to simultaneously and directly monitor the chemical process conditions in a reprocessing plant, providing inspectors with another tool to detect nuclear material diversion attempts. Lastly, dry processing of used nuclear fuel is often used as a head-end step before solvent extraction-based separations such as UREX or TRUEX. A non-aqueous process, used fuel treatment by dry processing generally includes chopping of used fuel rods followed by repeated oxidation-reduction cycles and physical separation of the used fuel from the cladding. Thus, dry processing techniques are investigated and opportunities for online monitoring are proposed for continuation of this work in future studies.

Warburton, Jamie Lee

132

Toxicological methods for tracing drug abuse: chromatographic, spectroscopic and biological characterisation of ecstasy derivatives.  

PubMed

Analysis often reveals variability in the composition of ecstasy pills from pure 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) to mixtures of MDMA derivatives, amphetamine, and other unidentified substances. For a comprehensive toxicological analysis one needs to know all steps to MDMA synthesis which may originate impurities. The aim of this study was to synthesise and determine the chemical-physical and in vitro biological properties of a series of MDMA derivatives.3,4-methylendioxyphenyl-2-nitropropene (MDNP) was obtained by condensation of piperonal with an excess of nitroethane in the presence of ammonium acetate. MDNP was then reduced to methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA) by LiAlH3. All compounds were analysed using HPLC and spectroscopic technique [Raman, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), or infrared (IR)] at all the steps of synthesis. In addition, we assessed the biological potentials of these compounds by measuring in vitro their (i) blood cell/whole blood partition coefficient, (ii) binding to plasmatic proteins (Fbp), and (iii) membrane adsorption. Chemical structure was determined with antibody fluorescence polarisation immunoassay (FPIA). This study showed the presence of solid impurities, particularly of a neurotoxic compound of Al3+ in the final products. FPIA identified the aminoethane group close to the substituted benzene ring, but did not detect the two major precursors of MDMA: MDNP and piperonal. Raman spectroscopy is an attractive alternative technique to characterise ecstasy pills and it can identify stereoisomeric forms such as cis-MDNP and trans-MDNP, which exhibit signals at 1650 cm-1 and 1300 cm-1, respectively. PMID:20338868

Belhadj-Tahar, Hafid; Payoux, Pierre; Tafani, Mathieu; Coulais, Yvon; Calet, Serge; Bousseksou, Azzedine

2010-03-01

133

Getting into Shape: An Empirical Comparison of Traditional Truss-Based Morphometric Methods with a Newer Geometric Method Applied to New World Cichlids  

Microsoft Academic Search

Body shape is a difficult, but important, trait to quantify. Researchers have traditionally used multivariate analysis of several linear measures ('trusses') across the body form to quantify shape. Newer geometric morphometric methods claim to better estimate shape because they analyze the geometry among the locations of all landmarks simultaneously rather than the linear distances between pairs of landmarks. We tested

Kevin J. Parsons; Beren W. Robinson; Tomas Hrbek

2003-01-01

134

Ethics, Collaboration, and Presentation Methods for Local and Traditional Knowledge for Understanding Arctic Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Local and traditional knowledge (LTK) provides rich information about the Arctic environment at spatial and temporal scales that scientific knowledge often does not have access to (e.g. localized observations of fine-scale ecological change potentially from many different communities, or local sea ice and conditions prior to 1950s ice charts and 1970s satellite records). Community-based observations and monitoring are an opportunity for Arctic residents to provide ‘frontline’ observations and measurements that are an early warning system for Arctic change. The Exchange for Local Observations and Knowledge of the Arctic (ELOKA) was established in response to the growing number of community-based and community-oriented research and observation projects in the Arctic. ELOKA provides data management and user support to facilitate the collection, preservation, exchange, and use of local observations and knowledge. Managing these data presents unique ethical challenges in terms of appropriate use of rare human knowledge and ensuring that knowledge is not lost from the local communities and not exploited in ways antithetical to community culture and desires. Local Arctic residents must be engaged as true collaborative partners while respecting their perspectives, which may vary substantially from a western science perspective. At the same time, we seek to derive scientific meaning from the local knowledge that can be used in conjunction with quantitative science data. This creates new challenges in terms of data presentation, knowledge representations, and basic issues of metadata. This presentation reviews these challenges, some initial approaches to addressing them, and overall lessons learned and future directions.

Parsons, M. A.; Gearheard, S.; McNeave, C.

2009-12-01

135

Intravenous catheter training system: Computer-based education versus traditional learning methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

BackgroundVirtual reality simulators allow trainees to practice techniques without consequences, reduce potential risk associated with training, minimize animal use, and help to develop standards and optimize procedures. Current intravenous (IV) catheter placement training methods utilize plastic arms, however, the lack of variability can diminish the educational stimulus for the student. This study compares the effectiveness of an interactive, multimedia, virtual

Scott A Engum; Pamela Jeffries; Lisa Fisher

2003-01-01

136

GROUND WATER MONITORING AND SAMPLING: MULTI-LEVEL VERSUS TRADITIONAL METHODS WHATS WHAT?  

EPA Science Inventory

After years of research and many publications, the question still remains: What is the best method to collect representative ground water samples from monitoring wells? Numerous systems and devices are currently available for obtaining both multi-level samples as well as traditi...

137

Performance of Traditional and Molecular Methods for Detecting Biological Agents in Drinking Water  

EPA Science Inventory

USGS Report - To reduce the impact from a possible bioterrorist attack on drinking-water supplies, analytical methods are needed to rapidly detect the presence of biological agents in water. To this end, 13 drinking-water samples were collected at 9 water-treatment plants in Ohio...

138

Photothermal Spectroscopic Measurements by Dual Sampling Method in Intermittent-Contact-Mode Atomic Force Microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have proposed a dual sampling method in intermittent-contact-mode atomic force microscopy with a piezoresistive cantilever for photothermal (PT) measurements. This method realizes a sensitive detection of thermal expansion in a sample by excluding crosstalk from photoabsorption signals generated at the piezoresistive sensor on the cantilever. We have confirmed the feasibility of this method through the excitation photon energy dependence of the PT signal measured on Si and GaAs.

Hara, Kenji; Takahashi, Takuji

2009-08-01

139

An alternant method to the traditional NASA hindlimb unloading model in mice.  

PubMed

The Morey-Holton hindlimb unloading (HU) method is a widely accepted National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) ground-based model for studying disuse-atrophy in rodents. Our study evaluated an alternant method to the gold-standard Morey-Holton HU tail-traction technique in mice. Fifty-four female mice (4-8 mo.) were HU for 14 days (n=34) or 28 days (n=20). Recovery from HU was assessed after 3 days of normal cage ambulation following HU (n=22). Aged matched mice (n=76) served as weight-bearing controls. Prior to HU a tail ring was formed with a 2-0 sterile surgical steel wire that was passed through the 5(th), 6(th), or 7(th) inter-vertebral disc space and shaped into a ring from which the mice were suspended. Vertebral location for the tail-ring was selected to appropriately balance animal body weight without interfering with defecation. We determined the success of this novel HU technique by assessing body weight before and after HU, degree of soleus atrophy, and adrenal mass following HU. Body weight of the mice prior to HU (24.3 ± 2.9g) did not significantly decline immediately after 14d of HU (22.7 ± 1.9g), 28d of HU (21.3 + 2.1g) or after 3 days recovery (24.0 ± 1.8g). Soleus muscle mass significantly declined (-39.1%, and -46.6%) following HU for 14 days and 28 days respectively (p<0.001). Following 3 days of recovery soleus mass significantly increased to 74% of control values. Adrenal weights of HU mice were not different compared to control mice. The success of our novel HU method is evidenced by the maintenance of animal body weight, comparable adrenal gland weights, and soleus atrophy following HU, corresponding to expected literature values. The primary advantages of this HU method include: 1) ease of tail examination during suspension; 2) decreased likelihood of cyanotic, inflamed, and/or necrotic tails frequently observed with tail-taping and HU; 3) no possibility of mice chewing the traction tape and coming out of the suspension apparatus; and 4) rapid recovery and normal cage activity immediately after HU. PMID:21445032

Ferreira, J Andries; Crissey, Jacqueline M; Brown, Marybeth

2011-03-10

140

Comprehensive Chromatographic and Spectroscopic Methods for the Separation and Identification of Intact Glucosinolates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Much effort has been devoted to developing methods for the efficient isolation and identification of glucosinolates. Existing methods for separation involve ion exchange, GLC, and HPLC (mostly after chemical modification by enzymatic sulfate removal and\\/or silylation). We demonstrate a simple and direct strategy for analyzing the glucosinolate content of plant extracts, made possible by a new combination of widely available

Tory Prestera; Jed W. Fahey; W. David Holtzclaw; Chitrananda Abeygunawardana; Joseph L. Kachinski; Paul Talalay

1996-01-01

141

Atomic absorption spectroscopic, conductometric and colorimetric methods for determination of some fluoroquinolone antibacterials using ammonium reineckate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Three accurate, rapid and simple atomic absorption spectrometric (AAS), conductometric and colorimetric methods were developed for the determination of gatifloxacin (GTF), moxifloxacin (MXF) and sparfloxacin (SPF). The proposed methods depend upon the reaction of ammonium reineckate with the studied drugs to form stable precipitate of ion-pair complexes, which was dissolved in acetone. The pink coloured complexes were determined either by

Sheikha M. Al-Ghannam

2008-01-01

142

a Comparative Study of Laser Cleaning of Archaeological Inorganic Materials with Traditional Methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ancient artifacts excavated from archaeological site were covered with different soil contaminates and stains which changed their chemical composition and aesthetic appearance. Ancient inorganic materials such as bronze, glass and pottery covered with different contaminates such as corrosion products, soil deposits, organic stains and gray white encrustations. Lasers are currently being tested for a wide range of conservation applications. Since they are highly controllable and can be selectively applied, lasers can be used to achieve more effective and safer cleaning of archaeological artifacts and protect their surface details. In the present work we investigated in a general way the laser cleaning of bronze corrosion products, glass, and pottery by Q-switched Nd:YAG Lasers. The results were compared with conventional methods. The artifact samples were examined by Light Optical Microscope (LOM) and showed no noticeable damage.

Imam, Hisham; Elsayed, Khaled; Madkour, Fatma

2011-06-01

143

Development of NMR spectroscopic methods for dynamic detection of acetylcholine synthesis by choline acetyltransferase in hippocampal tissue.  

PubMed

Choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) is the key enzyme for acetylcholine (ACh) synthesis and constitutes a reliable marker for the integrity of cholinergic neurons. Cortical ChAT activity is decreased in the brain of patients suffering from Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. The standard method used to measure the activity of ChAT enzyme relies on a very sensitive radiometric assay, but can only be performed on post-mortem tissue samples. Here, we demonstrate the possibility to monitor ACh synthesis in rat brain homogenates in real time using NMR spectroscopy. First, the experimental conditions of the radiometric assay were carefully adjusted to produce maximum ACh levels. This was important for translating the assay to NMR, which has a low intrinsic sensitivity. We then used (15) N-choline and a pulse sequence designed to filter proton polarization by nitrogen coupling before (1) H-NMR detection. ACh signal was resolved from choline signal and therefore it was possible to monitor ChAT-mediated ACh synthesis selectively over time. We propose that the present approach using a labeled precursor to monitor the enzymatic synthesis of ACh in rat brain homogenates through real-time NMR represents a useful tool to detect neurotransmitter synthesis. This method may be adapted to assess the state of the cholinergic system in the brain in vivo in a non-invasive manner using NMR spectroscopic techniques. PMID:23004566

Hall, Hélène; Cuellar-Baena, Sandra; Denisov, Vladimir; Kirik, Deniz

2012-10-10

144

Comparison of traditional and molecular methods of typing isolates of Staphylococcus aureus.  

PubMed Central

Fifty-nine Staphylococcus aureus isolates and 1 isolate of Staphylococcus intermedius were typed by investigators at eight institutions by using either antibiograms, bacteriophage typing, biotyping, immunoblotting, insertion sequence typing with IS257/431, multilocus enzyme electrophoresis, restriction analysis of plasmid DNA, pulsed-field or field inversion gel electrophoresis, restriction analysis of PCR-amplified coagulase gene sequences, restriction fragment length polymorphism typing by using four staphylococcal genes as probes, or ribotyping. Isolates from four well-characterized outbreaks (n = 29) and a collection of organisms from two nursing homes were mixed with epidemiologically unrelated stock strains from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Several isolates were included multiple times either within or between the sets of isolates to analyze the reproducibilities of the typing systems. Overall, the DNA-based techniques and immunoblotting were most effective in grouping outbreak-related strains, recognizing 27 to 29 of the 29 outbreak-related strains; however, they also tended to include 3 to 8 epidemiologically unrelated isolates in the same strain type. Restriction fragment length polymorphism methods with mec gene-associated loci were less useful than other techniques for typing oxacillin-susceptible isolates. Phage typing, plasmid DNA restriction analysis, and antibiogram analysis, the techniques most readily available to clinical laboratories, identified 23 to 26 of 29 outbreak-related isolates and assigned 0 to 6 unrelated isolates to outbreak strain types. No single technique was clearly superior to the others; however, biotyping, because it produced so many subtypes, did not effectively group outbreak-related strains of S. aureus.

Tenover, F C; Arbeit, R; Archer, G; Biddle, J; Byrne, S; Goering, R; Hancock, G; Hebert, G A; Hill, B; Hollis, R

1994-01-01

145

Application of a Probabilistic Neural Network in Radial Velocity Curve Analysis of the Spectroscopic Binary Stars ROXR1 14, RX J1622.7-2325Nw, RR Lyn, 12 Boo and HR 6169  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using measured radial velocity data of five double-lined spectroscopic binary systems ROXR1 14, RX J1622.7-2325Nw, RR Lyn, 12 Boo and HR 6169, we find corresponding orbital and spectroscopic elements via a Probabilistic Neural Network (PNN). Our numerical results are in good agreement with those obtained by others using more traditional methods.

Ghasemisalehabadi, Elahe

146

Characterization of organic and inorganic optoelectronic semiconductor devices using advanced spectroscopic methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this thesis, advanced spectroscopy methods are discussed and applied to gain understanding of the physical properties of organic conjugated molecules, II-VI thin film semiconductors, and vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSEL). Experiments include single photon and two-photon excitation with lasers, with subsequent measurements of the absorption and photoluminescence, as well as photocurrent measurements using tungsten and xenon lamps, measuring

Raoul Schroeder

2001-01-01

147

Spectroscopic studies on distorted structure molecules by using U(2) Lie algebraic method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Resonance Raman spectra of oxygenated and deoxygenated functional erythrocytes are calculated by using Lie algebraic technique at 785 nm. The results are obtained by this method is accuracy with the experimental data. So, the algebraic techniques are appropriate to the Raman spectra of red blood cells.

Karumuri, Srinivasa Rao; Sekhar, J. Vijaya; Sreeram, V.; Uma Maheswara Rao, V.; Basaveswara Rao, M. V.

2011-09-01

148

The compositional characterisation of Romanian grape seed oils using spectroscopic methods.  

PubMed

In the present study, we developed a method for the grape seed oil compositional characterisation using (1)H NMR spectroscopy directly applied on oils without sample derivatisation (as triglycerides). Using (1)H NMR spectroscopy data and systems of chemometric equations, we established the composition of grape seed oils on four classes of fatty acids. Spectral information from (1)H NMR and FT-IR spectroscopy was used to make the differences between grape seed oils and genuine common oils. Applying the PCA (Principal Component Analysis) method to the spectral information, it was evaluated the application potential in authenticity control of grape seed oils from common genuine oils (sunflower, soybean, linseed and rapeseed). PMID:23442710

Hanganu, Anamaria; Toda?c?, Maria-Cristina; Chira, Nicoleta-Aurelia; Maganu, Maria; Ro?ca, Sorin

2012-04-17

149

Physical Methods in Studying Polyoxometalates: Extended HÜCkel Molecular Orbital Calculations and Spectroscopic Properties  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Polyoxometalates (POMs) of vanadium, molybdenum and tungsten and to some extent, niobium and tantalum are very important and\\u000a interesting classes of complexes with great potential in many applications [1–4]. Since in many cases their structures prove to be unchanged in solution, many methods are applicable for studying their\\u000a molecular and electronic structures. These studies are expected to be useful for

L. P. KAZANSKY

150

Spectroscopic Properties of Porphyrin-doped Silica Films by the Liquid Phase Deposition Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Silica films doped with water soluble porphyrin, 5,10,15,20-tetrakis[4-(N-trimethyl)ammonio]phenylporphyrin (TTMAPP), were deposited on the surface of a glass slide at 25–35°C by the liquid phase deposition (LPD) method from saturated hydrofluorosilicic acid or fluorosilicate solutions containing TTMAPP. It was doped as protonated (cationic) or neutral forms depending on the deposition condition. Two forms are reversibly converted by heat treatment or environments.

Toshihiko Nagamura; Hirohisa Smmizu; Hiroyasu Ohkoso

1998-01-01

151

Production of ultracold potassium molecules and development of high sensitivity spectroscopic methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the first part of this dissertation we develop and successfully demonstrate two methods, based on photoassociation of ultracold potassium atoms, for producing ultracold K2 molecules, with sub mK temperatures, in deeply bound vibrational levels of the ground XS+g 1 state. The principal objective has been to develop an ``ultracold molecule factory'' that can be used to support experiments on spectroscopy, collisions, and chemistry of ultracold molecules. In the first experiment the ground-state molecules are produced by the radiative decay of excited, n?191 AS+u 1 state molecules, photoassociated from ultracold potassium atoms in a vapor-cell MOT. The decay is primarily into the vibrational continuum, but a small fraction decays into bound levels of the X state near n = 36. The experimentally observed molecule production rate is about 103 per second. In our second experiment, we use two-step laser excitation to effect an ``R-transfer'' from long-range to intermediate internuclear separations, greatly increasing the efficiency for radiative production of low- n molecules in the X state. Molecules are formed in the Pg1 state by photoassociation, then excited by a second laser to the 51Pu or 61Pu Rydberg states, in selected vibrational levels from n = 13-18. Finally, radiative decay produces very large numbers of X state molecules with n?25 and significant numbers of molecules in very low vibrational levels, including n = 0. We have observed production rates up to about 105 molecules/second per vibrational level. In both experiments the ground-state molecules are detected with a sensitive and selective resonant two- color photoionization with nanosecond pulses. In the second part of this dissertation we demonstrate a novel method for high sensitivity absorption measurements, that combines a phase modulated, high- resolution pulsed laser with an actively stabilized optical cavity to achieve a sensitivity of ~10-9 per cm. This is comparable to the best existing methods for pulsed absorption measurements, but unlike most other methods, it can also be readily extended to the UV region and to Doppler-free spectroscopy.

Nikolov, Anguel Nikolov

2000-10-01

152

Comparison of immunomagnetic separation/adenosine triphosphate rapid method to traditional culture-based method for E. coli and enterococci enumeration in wastewater.  

PubMed

Untreated wastewater samples from California, North Carolina, and Ohio were analyzed by the immunomagnetic separation/adenosine triphosphate (IMS/ATP) method and the traditional culture-based method for E. coli and enterococci concentrations. The IMS/ATP method concentrates target bacteria by immunomagnetic separation and then quantifies captured bacteria by measuring bioluminescence induced by release of ATP from the bacterial cells. Results from this method are available within 1h from the start of sample processing. Significant linear correlations were found between the IMS/ATP results and results from traditional culture-based methods for E. coli and enterococci enumeration for one location in California, two locations in North Carolina, and one location in Ohio (r values ranged from 0.87 to 0.97). No significant linear relation was found for a second location in California that treats a complex mixture of residential and industrial wastewater. With the exception of one location, IMS/ATP showed promise as a rapid method for the quantification of faecal-indicator organisms in wastewater. PMID:19628248

Bushon, Rebecca N; Likirdopulos, Christina A; Brady, Amie M G

2009-06-27

153

The stability investigation of compound Danshen injection (a traditional medicine) with a new high-performance liquid chromatography method  

PubMed Central

Background: Compound Danshen injection (CDSI, a traditional medicine) is an effective drug for the treatment of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. However, the research about its stability is absent. Objective: A new high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed to assay its main effective constituents, i.e., propanoid acid (PA), protocatechuic aldehyde (PHA), salvianolic acid B (SAB), salvianolic acid A (SAA), and rosmarinic acid (RA). Through the newly found method, the stability of CDSI was to be investigated. Materials and Methods: The analysis was performed by a reverse-phase gradient elution using an aqueous mobile phase (containing 0.1% acetic acid) modified by acetonitrile, and detection was made simultaneously at 280 nm and 325 nm. The method was validated for accuracy, precision and limits of detection. The effects of some environmental storage conditions (light and temperature) on the stability of CDSI were investigated. Results: This method is precise, simple, and convenient. The result showed that illumination and temperature had an obvious effect on CDSI's stability. SAA is the most unstable one among the five components. In the condition of common light, it decomposed rapidly to almost 50% after only 4 h, and 100% after 8 h. PA, RA, and PHA might come from Danshen, was also the transformed products from other components in store process. Conclusion: The result indicated that the main active constituents in CDSI suffered from the illumination and temperature greatly. CDSI should be stored at low temperature and kept away from light.

Zhang, Yanqing; Bao, Fengqin; Zhao, Zhixia; Sun, Xiuyu; Qi, Wuqin; Xie, Junbo

2013-01-01

154

Interactions between CdSe/CdS quantum dots and DNA through spectroscopic and electrochemical methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interaction of CdSe/CdS quantum dots (QDs) with Herring sperm-DNA (hs-DNA) has been studied by UV-vis spectroscopy and electrochemical method. Cu(phen) 22+/1+ (phen = 1, 10-phenanthroline) was used as an indicator for electroactive dsDNA or ssDNA. The apparent association constant has been deduced (4.94 × 10 3 M -1 and 2.39 × 10 2 M -1) from the absorption spectral changes of the dsDNA-QDs and ssDNA-QDs. The results of dissociation method suggest that Cu(phen) 22+/1+ is more easily dissociated from dsDNA or ssDNA modified gold electrode (dsDNA/Au or dsDNA/Au) in presence of QDs. The dissociation rate constant ( k) of Cu(phen) 22+/1+ on dsDNA/Au is 4.48 times higher than that in absence of QDs, while k is 2.34 times higher than that in absence of QDs on ssDNA/Au in Tris buffer with low ionic strength (pH 7.0, 0.5 mM NaCl). The results illuminate that hs-DNA has high affinity for QDs due to electrostatic force, hydrogen bonds, and van der Waals interactions, and the binding force of QDs with dsDNA is stronger than ssDNA.

Wang, Qisui; Yang, Lu; Fang, Tingting; Wu, Shuang; Liu, Peng; Min, Xinmin; Li, Xi

2011-09-01

155

Cell-metal interaction studied by cytotoxic and FT-IR spectroscopic methods.  

PubMed

The main purpose of this work is to investigate the possibility of utilizing both a classical biological method to test cytotoxicity and a physical measurement procedure as the FT-IR spectroscopy to study the interaction between cells lines and heavy metals. Jurkart, a lymphocyte cell line, was treated with cadmium chloride, cadmium oxide and the organic germanium compound named Ge-oxy-132. The utilized value of heavy metal concentration allows us to obtain significant results with both methods and with all metals. In fact by using lower values of concentration any effect is revealed after treatment with germanium. The results of the simultaneous measurements by both experimental procedures are here reported for the first time and show that, while the cytotoxic effects of the two cadmium compounds are confirmed, the organic germanium compound reveals a very different and interesting interaction with Jurkart cells. The behaviour of the Jurkart cells upon the uptake of cadmium or organic germanium is very different: while treatment with CdO and CdCl(2) determines proteins denaturation and lipids oxidation in cells until the death, these processes are not revealed after Ge-oxy-132 treatment. PMID:21782662

Gaudenzi, Silvia; Furfaro, Maria Grazia; Pozzi, Deleana; Silvestri, Ida; Congiu Castellano, Agostina

2003-06-01

156

Combining the tape-lift method and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic imaging for forensic applications.  

PubMed

Conventional Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and microscopy have been widely used in forensic science. New opportunities exist to obtain chemical images and to enhance the spatial resolution using attenuated total reflection (ATR) FT-IR spectroscopy coupled with a focal-plane array (FPA) detector. In this paper, the sensitivity limits of FT-IR imaging using three different ATR crystals (Ge, ZnSe, and diamond) in three different optical arrangements for the detection of model particles is discussed. Model systems of ibuprofen and paracetamol particles having sizes below 32 mum were studied. The collection of drug particles was achieved with the aid of two different tapes: common adhesive tape and a film of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). The surface of the film with collected particles was measured directly via ATR-FT-IR imaging. Since the removal of tape from porous surfaces can be difficult, the application of micro ATR-FT-IR imaging directly to the surface of a newspaper contaminated with particles of model drugs is also discussed. In order to assess the feasibility of the chosen method in a forensic case study, the detection of diacetylmorphine hydrochloride traces in PDMS matrix and the finger surface is investigated. The scenarios considered were that of the detection of evidence collected at a crime scene with the tape lift method and the analysis of the finger of an individual after drug handling. The results show broad implications in the detection of drugs of abuse. PMID:17002827

Ricci, Camilla; Chan, K L Andrew; Kazarian, Sergei G

2006-09-01

157

DNA interaction studies of new nano metal based anticancer agent: validation by spectroscopic methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new nano dimensional heterobimetallic Cu-Sn containing complex as a potential drug candidate was designed, synthesized and characterized by analytical and spectral methods. The electronic absorption and electron paramagnetic resonance parameters of the complex revealed that the Cu(II) ion exhibits a square pyramidal geometry with the two pyrazole nitrogen atoms, the amine nitrogen atom and the carboxylate oxygen of the phenyl glycine chloride ligand located at the equatorial sites and the coordinated chloride ion occupying an apical position. 119Sn NMR spectral data showed a hexa-coordinated environment around the Sn(IV) metal ion. TEM, AFM and XRD measurements illustrate that the complex could induce the condensation of CT-DNA to a particulate nanostructure. The interaction of the Cu-Sn complex with CT-DNA was investigated by UV-vis absorption and emission spectroscopy, as well as cyclic voltammetric measurements. The results indicated that the complex interacts with DNA through an electrostatic mode of binding with an intrinsic binding constant Kb = 8.42 × 104 M - 1. The Cu-Sn complex exhibits effective cleavage of pBR322 plasmid DNA by an oxidative cleavage mechanism, monitored at different concentrations both in the absence and in the presence of reducing agents.

Tabassum, Sartaj; Sharma, Girish Chandra; Arjmand, Farukh; Azam, Ameer

2010-05-01

158

Prediction of RDS by amniotic fluid analysis: a comparison of the prognostic value of traditional and recent methods.  

PubMed

The determination of lecithin or even more the lecithin/sphingomyelin (L/S) ratio in amniotic fluid are both well established in the prediction of neonatal RDS. The immunological measurement of phosphatidylglycerol (PG) and the determination of the surfactant/albumin (S/A) ratio by fluorescence polarization (TDx FLMR) have recently been introduced for the detection of fetal lung maturity. In order to compare traditional versus recent methods L/S ratio and PG determination by one dimensional thin-layer chromatography, enzymatic analysis of lecithin, immunological determination of PG by Amniostat-FLMR and the fluorescence polarization of S/A-ratio by the TDx FLMR were all performed in 141 amniotic fluid samples of 122 patients. Only one out of 72 samples was false negative in the enzymatic lecithin determination (sensitivity 88%). All other methods have a sensitivity and a negative predictive value of 100%. The positive predictive values and the specificity varied between 22%-50% and 58%-87% respectively. The false positive rate, which is high for all methods, is lowest for the L/S ratio. This study demonstrates, that the recent methods are reasonable alternatives in all cases with a positive test. In clinical practice they have the advantage, that the result can be obtained in 15 minutes. If the test is predictive for lung immaturity the L/S ratio should be performed in addition to decrease the false positive rate before any clinical decision is made. PMID:1479517

Ragosch, V; Jürgens, S; Lorenz, U; Stolowsky, C; Arabin, B; Weitzel, H K

1992-01-01

159

Estimating alcohol content of traditional brew in Western Kenya using culturally relevant methods: the case for cost over volume.  

PubMed

Traditional homemade brew is believed to represent the highest proportion of alcohol use in sub-Saharan Africa. In Eldoret, Kenya, two types of brew are common: chang'aa, spirits, and busaa, maize beer. Local residents refer to the amount of brew consumed by the amount of money spent, suggesting a culturally relevant estimation method. The purposes of this study were to analyze ethanol content of chang'aa and busaa; and to compare two methods of alcohol estimation: use by cost, and use by volume, the latter the current international standard. Laboratory results showed mean ethanol content was 34% (SD = 14%) for chang'aa and 4% (SD = 1%) for busaa. Standard drink unit equivalents for chang'aa and busaa, respectively, were 2 and 1.3 (US) and 3.5 and 2.3 (Great Britain). Using a computational approach, both methods demonstrated comparable results. We conclude that cost estimation of alcohol content is more culturally relevant and does not differ in accuracy from the international standard. PMID:19015972

Papas, Rebecca K; Sidle, John E; Wamalwa, Emmanuel S; Okumu, Thomas O; Bryant, Kendall L; Goulet, Joseph L; Maisto, Stephen A; Braithwaite, R Scott; Justice, Amy C

2008-11-18

160

Estimating Alcohol Content of Traditional Brew in Western Kenya Using Culturally Relevant Methods: The Case for Cost Over Volume  

PubMed Central

Traditional homemade brew is believed to represent the highest proportion of alcohol use in sub-Saharan Africa. In Eldoret, Kenya, two types of brew are common: chang’aa, spirits, and busaa, maize beer. Local residents refer to the amount of brew consumed by the amount of money spent, suggesting a culturally relevant estimation method. The purposes of this study were to analyze ethanol content of chang’aa and busaa; and to compare two methods of alcohol estimation: use by cost, and use by volume, the latter the current international standard. Laboratory results showed mean ethanol content was 34% (SD = 14%) for chang’aa and 4% (SD = 1%) for busaa. Standard drink unit equivalents for chang’aa and busaa, respectively, were 2 and 1.3 (US) and 3.5 and 2.3 (Great Britain). Using a computational approach, both methods demonstrated comparable results. We conclude that cost estimation of alcohol content is more culturally relevant and does not differ in accuracy from the international standard.

Sidle, John E.; Wamalwa, Emmanuel S.; Okumu, Thomas O.; Bryant, Kendall L.; Goulet, Joseph L.; Maisto, Stephen A.; Braithwaite, R. Scott; Justice, Amy C.

2010-01-01

161

Comparison of Traditional and PCR Methods during Screening for and Confirmation of Aspiculuris tetraptera in a Mouse Facility  

PubMed Central

Pinworm detection in laboratory rodents typically is accomplished by using the tape test or various modifications of fecal flotation test to detect eggs. Direct examination of intestinal contents remains the ‘gold standard’ for pinworm detection, with the limitation of euthanasia of animals. Here, we compare traditional and real-time PCR methodologies during screening for and confirming the presence of Aspiculuris tetraptera. Two sets of pooled fecal samples collected from each of 521 microisolation cages in a mouse facility suspected to be pinworm-positive were tested by PCR and fecal flotation methods. The number of PCR-positive cages was 48 (9.2%) compared with 5 (0.96%) by the fecal flotation method. All of the cages determined to be positive by fecal flotation were positive by PCR. We evaluated 8 positive cages containing 26 mice from the screening group 5 wk later to confirm the initial findings; for 7 of these cages, PCR results from the initial screening were confirmed by fecal centrifugation concentration (FCC) or direct worm detection. Among the 26 mice, 4 were pinworm-positive by FCC, 5 by maceration, and 16 by PCR. All 4 mice positive by FCC were positive by PCR; PCR was positive for 7 of the 9 mice in which pinworms were detected by FCC or maceration. Our study demonstrates that real-time PCR for survival testing of mice for A. tetraptera effectively augments current detection methods for quarantine and routine health monitoring.

Dole, Vandana S; Zaias, Julia; Kyricopoulos-Cleasby, Danielle M; Banu, Laila A; Waterman, Linda L; Sanders, Kevin; Henderson, Kenneth S

2011-01-01

162

CD Spectroscope  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners use an old CD to construct a spectroscope, a device that separates light into its component colors. Learners will hold it up to various light sources to examine how different light has different color strengths. Use this activity to introduce learners to the color spectrum and the tools scientists use to study it.

University, Colorado S.

2009-01-01

163

Synthesis of Black and Red Mercury Sulfide Nano-Powder by Traditional Indian Method for Biomedical Application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of metals and minerals in the traditional Indian system of medicine known as aired is very common and is practiced since seventh century B.C. Metals were reduced to calcined powder form for medicinal purpose. For detoxification, a further step of purification of the metals and minerals with different vegetable extracts was practiced. The people of East India were using mercury and its sulfide as medicine. Gradually this secret was leaked to Arabic physicians who used mercury in skin ointment. Subsequently Italian Physicians adopted Arabic prescriptions of mercurial ointments for skin diseases. In the olden days, metals and minerals were impregnated with decoction and juice of vegetables and animal products like milk and fat for purification. These were then reduced to fine particles by milling with a pestle and mortar. It was known by then that the fineness of the powder had a significant influence on the color, texture, and medicinal properties as is cited by Charak. Nagarjun studied in detail the processing of metals and minerals, particularly mercury and the influence of the processing parameters on the medicinal values. Mercury is unique in many aspects. Indian alchemy developed a wide variety a chemical processes for the ostensible transmutation of metals and preparation of elixir of life, in which mercury occupied a prime position .The present investigation attempts to use the traditional methods as prescribed in the ancient texts to prepare mercury sulfide in both red and black form for medicinal use. XRD, SEM and HRTEM investigations of the sulfides obtained shows that the ancient Indians were able to produce nano-sized powders. Possibly this may be taken as the earliest application of the production and use of nano powder. The study proves that even in ancient time the knowledge of nano particle synthesis was prevalent and used to enhance effectiveness of medicines. Further mercury in the free form is not acceptable in medicines. The ancient physicians could get rid of free mercury by milling and proper choice of the ratio of ingredients as is shown in the investigation by X-ray diffraction studies. In the traditional method for synthesis of mercury sulfide, mercury and pure sulfur were taken and milled in a mortar and pastel. During milling process, the white mercury and yellow sulfur yielded to a gray black colored sulfide. Synthesis of red sulfide of mercury required additional steps of heating and subsequent milling. For therapeutically application, the sulfide thus obtained needed detoxification, which was done using organic extracts. In the present investigation, the same method was followed to synthesize the sapphires and the product was characterized using modern methods like XRD, SEM and HRTEM. With increase in milling time the fineness of the powder increases, which increases the efficacy of the medicine, and free mercury, which is not desirable for medicinal application is found to decrease. The powder obtained at the end of 48 hours of milling is found to be of a size finer than l0nm.

Padhi, Payodhar; Sahoo, G.; Das, K.; Ghosh, Sudipto; Panigrahi, S. C.

2008-10-01

164

Synthesis of Black and Red Mercury Sulfide Nano-Powder by Traditional Indian Method for Biomedical Application  

SciTech Connect

The use of metals and minerals in the traditional Indian system of medicine known as aired is very common and is practiced since seventh century B.C. Metals were reduced to calcined powder form for medicinal purpose. For detoxification, a further step of purification of the metals and minerals with different vegetable extracts was practiced. The people of East India were using mercury and its sulfide as medicine. Gradually this secret was leaked to Arabic physicians who used mercury in skin ointment. Subsequently Italian Physicians adopted Arabic prescriptions of mercurial ointments for skin diseases. In the olden days, metals and minerals were impregnated with decoction and juice of vegetables and animal products like milk and fat for purification. These were then reduced to fine particles by milling with a pestle and mortar. It was known by then that the fineness of the powder had a significant influence on the color, texture, and medicinal properties as is cited by Charak. Nagarjun studied in detail the processing of metals and minerals, particularly mercury and the influence of the processing parameters on the medicinal values. Mercury is unique in many aspects. Indian alchemy developed a wide variety a chemical processes for the ostensible transmutation of metals and preparation of elixir of life, in which mercury occupied a prime position .The present investigation attempts to use the traditional methods as prescribed in the ancient texts to prepare mercury sulfide in both red and black form for medicinal use. XRD, SEM and HRTEM investigations of the sulfides obtained shows that the ancient Indians were able to produce nano-sized powders. Possibly this may be taken as the earliest application of the production and use of nano powder. The study proves that even in ancient time the knowledge of nano particle synthesis was prevalent and used to enhance effectiveness of medicines. Further mercury in the free form is not acceptable in medicines. The ancient physicians could get rid of free mercury by milling and proper choice of the ratio of ingredients as is shown in the investigation by X-ray diffraction studies. In the traditional method for synthesis of mercury sulfide, mercury and pure sulfur were taken and milled in a mortar and pastel. During milling process, the white mercury and yellow sulfur yielded to a gray black colored sulfide. Synthesis of red sulfide of mercury required additional steps of heating and subsequent milling. For therapeutically application, the sulfide thus obtained needed detoxification, which was done using organic extracts. In the present investigation, the same method was followed to synthesize the sapphires and the product was characterized using modern methods like XRD, SEM and HRTEM. With increase in milling time the fineness of the powder increases, which increases the efficacy of the medicine, and free mercury, which is not desirable for medicinal application is found to decrease. The powder obtained at the end of 48 hours of milling is found to be of a size finer than l0nm.

Padhi, Payodhar [Orissa Engineering College, Bhubaneswar (India); Sahoo, G. [Tapaswini Ayurvedic clinic and Research center, Balasore (India); Das, K. [Gopobandhu Ayurvedic Medical College, Puri (India); Ghosh, Sudipto; Panigrahi, S. C. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, IIT, Kharagpur (India)

2008-10-23

165

Studies of the interaction between demeclocycline and human serum albumin by multi-spectroscopic and molecular docking methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study was designed to examine the interaction of demeclocycline (DMCTC) with human serum albumin (HSA) by multi-spectroscopic and molecular docking methods. The inner filter effect was corrected before we calculated the binding parameters. Fluorescence and UV-vis spectroscopy revealed that DMCTC induced the fluorescence quenching of HSA though a static quenching procedure. Thermodynamic analysis by Van Hoff equation found enthalpy change (?H) and entropy change (?S) were -53.01 kJ mol-1 and -65.13 J mol-1 K-1, respectively, which indicated hydrogen bond and van der Waals force were the predominant force in the binding process. According to fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), the specific binding distances between Trp-214 (donor) and DMCTC (acceptor) were 3.18 nm. Through site marker competitive experiments, subdomain IIA of HSA has been assigned to possess the high-affinity binding site of DMCTC. The three dimensional fluorescence showed that the conformation of HSA was changed after its complexation with DMCTC, and the alternations of protein secondary structure were quantitatively calculated from FT-IR with reduction of ?-helices content about 4.8%, ?-sheet from 30.3% to 21.6% and with increases of ?-turn from 15.6% to 22.2%. Furthermore, the binding details between DMCTC and HSA were further confirmed by molecular docking studies, which revealed that DMCTC was bound at subdomain IIA through multiple interactions, such as hydrophobic effect, polar forces and ?-? interactions. Moreover, the coexist metal ions such as Al3+, Fe3+, Cu2+, Cr3+ and Cd2+ can decrease the binding constants of DMCTC-HSA.

Dong, Chengyu; Ma, Shuying; Liu, Ying

2013-02-01

166

Characterization of novel lithium battery cathode materials by spectroscopic methods: the Li5+xFeO? system.  

PubMed

The novel, lithium-rich oxide-phase Li?FeO? (LFO) could, in theory, deliver a specific capacity >900 mAh/g when deployed as a cathode or cathode precursor in a battery with a lithium-based anode. However, research results to date on LFO indicate that less than one of the five Li? cations can be reversibly de-intercalated/re-intercalated during repetitive charging and discharging cycles. In the present research, the system Li5+xFeO? with x values in the range of 0.0-2.0 was investigated by a combination of Raman and X-ray absorption spectroscopic methods supported by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis in order to determine if the Li?FeO? lattice would accommodate additional Li? ions, with concomitant lowering of the valence on the FeIII cations. Both the Raman phonon spectra and the XRD patterns were invariant for all values of x, strongly indicating that additional Li? did not enter the Li?FeO? lattice. Also, Raman spectral results and high-resolution synchrotron XRD data revealed the presence of second-phase Li?O in all samples with x greater than 0.0. Synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy at the Fe k? edge performed on the sample with a Li-Fe ratio of 7.0 (i.e., x = 2.0) showed no evidence for the presence of FeII. This resistance to accepting more lithium into the Li?FeO? structure is attributed to the exceedingly stable nature of high-spin FeIII in tetrahedral "FeIIIO?" structural units of Li?FeO?. Partial substitution of the FeIII with other cations could provide a path toward increasing the reversible Li? content of Li5xFeO?-type phases. PMID:23876729

Maroni, Victor A; Johnson, Christopher S; Rood, Shawn C M; Kropf, A Jeremy; Bass, Dean A

2013-08-01

167

A comparison of traditional and emerging ultrasonic methods for the nondestructive evaluation of polymer matrix composites subjected to impact damage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the results of a comparison study of three ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods applied to polymer matrix composite (PMC) specimens subjected to impact damage. Samples mainly consisted of various thicknesses of graphite/epoxy coupon panels impacted with various energy levels. Traditional pulse-echo and through transmission ultrasonic c-scan techniques were applied to impacted samples and served as the basis for comparison. Specimens were then inspected using acoustography, a large field ultrasonic inspection technique that is analogous to real-time X-ray imaging. Acoustography utilizes a unique, wide area two-dimensional (2-D) detector, called an acousto-optic (AO) sensor, to directly convert ultrasound into visual images; much like an image intensifier in real-time radiography. Finally, a newly developed guided wave scanning system was utilized to inspect the same set of samples. This system uses two transducers in a pitch catch configuration to examine the total (multi-mode) ultrasonic response in its inspection analysis. Several time- and frequency-domain parameters are calculated from the ultrasonic guided wave signal at each scan location to form images. Results are presented for all of the methods demonstrating each technique's detection capabilities and highlighting their advantages and disadvantages.

Martin, Richard E.; Roth, Donald J.; Pergantis, Charles G.; Sandhu, Jaswinder S.

2004-07-01

168

Traditional Mediation.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Four articles address traditional mediation in library services, including the librarian as mediator, the reference librarian as information intermediary, recommitment to patrons' information needs, and mediation in reference service to extend patron success. (87 references) (LRW)|

Hafner, Arthur W.; And Others

1992-01-01

169

Isolation and characterization of two new alkaloids, norpandamarilactonine-A and -B, from Pandanus amaryllifolius by spectroscopic and synthetic methods.  

PubMed

Two new alkaloids, norpandamarilactonine-A (1) and -B (2), which have a pyrrolidinyl-alpha,beta-unsaturated gamma-lactone moiety as in the known pandamarilactonine alkaloids, were isolated from the leaves of Pandanus amaryllifolius. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic analysis and total synthesis. PMID:11575961

Takayama, H; Ichikawa, T; Kitajima, M; Nonato, M G; Aimi, N

2001-09-01

170

Diffuse-Reflectance Mid-IR and NIR Spectroscopic Properties of Mycorrhizal and Non-mycorrhizal roots  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Quantification of mycorrhizae by traditional methods is slow and prone to observer bias. A quick spectroscopic method would allow for the identification of mycorrhizal roots of large sample sets. In this experiment, we measured the diffuse-reflectance Fourier-Transformed Mid-IR and NIR spectral prop...

171

The effectiveness of traditional methods and altered auditory feedback in improving speech rate and intelligibility in speakers with Parkinson's disease.  

PubMed

Communication problems are a frequent symptom for people with Parkinson's disease (PD) which can have a significant impact on their quality-of-life. Deciding on the right management approach can be problematic though, as, with the exception of LSVT, very few studies have been published demonstrating the effectiveness of treatment techniques. The aim of this study was to compare traditional rate reduction methods with altered auditory feedback (AAF) with respect to their effectiveness to reduce speech rate and improve intelligibility in speakers with PD. Ten participants underwent both types of treatments in once weekly sessions for 6 weeks. Outcomes measures were speech rate for passage reading as well as intelligibility on both a passage reading and a monologue task. The results showed that, as a group, there was no significant change in either speech rate or intelligibility resulting from either treatment type. However, individual speakers showed improvements in speech performance as a result of each therapy technique. In most cases, these benefits persisted for at least 6 months post-treatment. Possible reasons for the variable response to treatment, as well as issues to consider when planning to use AAF devices in treatment are discussed. PMID:20626310

Lowit, Anja; Dobinson, Corinne; Timmins, Claire; Howell, Peter; Kröger, Bernd

2010-10-01

172

Problem Analysis of Traditional IT-Security Risk Assessment Methods – An Experience Report from the Insurance and Auditing Domain  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Traditional information technology (IT) security risk assessment approaches are based on an analysis of events, probabilities\\u000a and impacts. In practice, security experts often find it difficult to determine IT risks reliably with precision. In this\\u000a paper, we review the risk determination steps of traditional risk assessment approaches and report on our experience of using\\u000a such approaches. Our experience is based

Stefan Taubenberger; Jan Jürjens; Yijun Yu; Bashar Nuseibeh

173

A Safety Program that Integrated Behavior-Based Safety and Traditional Safety Methods and Its Effects on Injury Rates of Manufacturing Workers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The present research examines the effects of a complex safety program that combined Behavior-Based Safety (BBS) and traditional safety methods. The study was conducted in an automobile parts plant in Mexico. Two sister plants served as comparison. Some of the components of the safety programs addressed behaviors of managers and included methods

Hermann, Jaime A.; Ibarra, Guillermo V.; Hopkins, B. L.

2010-01-01

174

Method to estimate the electron temperature and neutral density in a plasma from spectroscopic measurements using argon atom and ion collisional-radiative models  

SciTech Connect

We present a method to infer the electron temperature in argon plasmas using a collisional-radiative model for argon ions and measurements of electron density to interpret absolutely calibrated spectroscopic measurements of argon ion (Ar II) line intensities. The neutral density, and hence the degree of ionization of this plasma, can then be estimated using argon atom (Ar I) line intensities and a collisional-radiative model for argon atoms. This method has been tested for plasmas generated on two different devices at the University of Texas at Austin: the helicon experiment and the helimak experiment. We present results that show good correlation with other measurements in the plasma.

Sciamma, Ella M.; Bengtson, Roger D.; Rowan, W. L.; Lee, Charles A.; Berisford, Dan; Lee, Kevin; Gentle, K. W. [University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Keesee, Amy [West Virginia University, P.O. Box 6315, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506 (United States)

2008-10-15

175

Raman spectroscopic analysis of human tissue engineered oral mucosa constructs (EVPOME) perturbed by physical and biochemical methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We show the application of near-infrared Raman Spectroscopy to in-vitro monitoring of the viability of tissue constructs (EVPOMEs). During their two week production period EVPOME may encounter thermal, chemical or biochemical stresses that could cause development to cease, rendering the affected constructs useless. We discuss the development of a Raman spectroscopic technique to study EVPOMEs noninvasively, with the ultimate goal of applying it in-vivo. We identify Raman spectroscopic failure indicators for EVPOMEs, which are stressed by temperature, and discuss the implications of varying calcium concentration and pre-treatment of the human keratinocytes with Rapamycin. In particular, Raman spectra show correlation of the peak height ratios of CH2 deformation to phenylalanine ring breathing, providing a Raman metric to distinguish between viable and nonviable constructs. We also show the results of singular value decomposition analysis, demonstrating the applicability of Raman spectroscopic technique to both distinguish between stressed and non-stressed EVPOME constructs, as well as between EVPOMEs and bare AlloDerm® substrates, on which the oral keratinocytes have been cultured. We also discuss complications arising from non-uniform thickness of the AlloDerm® substrate and the cultured constructs, as well as sampling protocols used to detect local stress and other problems that may be encountered in the constructs.

Khmaladze, Alexander; Ganguly, Arindam; Raghavan, Mekhala; Kuo, Shiuhyang; Cole, Jacqueline H.; Marcelo, Cynthia L.; Feinberg, Stephen E.; Izumi, Kenji; Morris, Michael D.

2012-02-01

176

Traditional and innovative methods applied to a crystalline aquifer for characterizing fault zone hydrology at different scales  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Crystalline rocks aquifers are difficult to characterize since flow is mainly localized in few fractures or faults. In particular, the geometry of the main flow paths and the connections of the aquifer with the sub-surface are often poorly constrained. Here, we present results from different geophysical and hydraulic methods to quantify fault zone hydrology of a crystalline confined aquifer (Ploemeur, French Brittany). This outstandingly productive crystalline rock aquifer is exploited at a rate of about 10 6 m3 per year since 1991. The pumping site is located at the intersection of two main structures: the contact zone between granite roof and overlying micaschists, and a steeply dipping fault striking North 20°, with combined dextral strike-slip and normal components. Core samples and borehole optical imagery reveals that the contact zone at the granite roof consists of alternating deformed granitic sheets and enclaves of micaschists, pegmatite and aplite dykes, as well as quartz veins. Locally, this contact is marked by mylonites and pegmatite-bearing breccias that are often but not systematically associated with major borehole inflows. Other significant inflows are localized within single fractures independently of the lithologies encountered. At the borehole scale the structural and hydraulic properties of the aquifer are thus highly variable. At the site scale - typically a kilometer squared - the water levels are monitored in 22 boreholes, 100 meters deep in average. The connectivity of the main flow paths and the hydraulic properties are relatively well constrained and quantified thanks to cross-borehole flowmeter tests and traditional pumping tests. In complement, long-base tiltmeters monitoring and ground-surface leveling allows to monitor sub-surface deformation. It provides a quantification of the hydro-mechanical properties of the aquifer and better constraints about the geometry of the main fault zone. Surprisingly, the storage coefficient of the confined aquifer is relatively high, in agreement with ground-surface deformation measurements that suggest a relativity high compressibility of the fault zone. At larger scale, we show through a high-resolution gravimetric survey that the highly fractured contact between granite and micaschists, which constitutes the main path for groundwater flow, is a gently dipping structure. A 3D gravimetric model confirms also the presence of sub-vertical faults that may constitute important drains for the aquifer recharge. In addition, groundwater temperature monitoring allows to shows that the main water supply comes from a depth of at least 300 meters. Such a depth in a low relief region involves relatively deep groundwater circulation that can be achieved only thanks to major permeable fault zone. This field example shows the advantages and limitations of some traditional and innovative methods to characterize fault zone hydrology in crystalline bedrock aquifers.

Bour, O.; Ruelleu, S.; Le Borgne, T.; Boudin, F.; Moreau, F.; Durand, S.; Longuevergne, L.

2011-12-01

177

Setting Passing Scores on Passage-Based Tests: A Comparison of Traditional and Single-Passage Bookmark Methods  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, a variation of the bookmark standard setting procedure for passage-based tests is proposed in which separate ordered item booklets are created for the items associated with each passage. This variation is compared to the traditional bookmark procedure for a fifth-grade reading test. The results showed that the single-passage…

Skaggs, Gary; Hein, Serge F.; Awuor, Risper

2007-01-01

178

A COMPARISON OF SELF-DIRECTED LEARNING IN A VIRTUAL WORLD ENVIRONMENT TO TRADITIONAL SCIENCE TEACHING METHODS1  

Microsoft Academic Search

Four ninth grade science classes in a rural Upstate New York school were randomly assigned to learn an introductory genetics unit for three class periods in either an online, multi-user, virtual world computer environment or in a traditional classroom setting using lecture, worksheets and model building. The groups were then reversed for a second three day trial. Quizzes were given

Catherine Norton; Margaret Corbit; Ebonie Greene; Luis Ormaechea

2008-01-01

179

Synthesis of Black and Red Mercury Sulfide Nano-Powder by Traditional Indian Method for Biomedical Application  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of metals and minerals in the traditional Indian system of medicine known as aired is very common and is practiced since seventh century B.C. Metals were reduced to calcined powder form for medicinal purpose. For detoxification, a further step of purification of the metals and minerals with different vegetable extracts was practiced. The people of East India were

Payodhar Padhi; G. Sahoo; K. Das; Sudipto Ghosh; S. C. Panigrahi

2008-01-01

180

Silica surface characterization as a function of formation and surface treatment using traditional methods and proteins as surface probes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous works have shown that cells proliferate differently depending on the chemistry of the glass on which they are growing. Since proteins form the bonds between cells and glass, the hypothesis of this study is that proteins can distinguish between surface chemical variations of glass. This theory was examined through the use of various silica forms, a few select proteins, four surface treatment procedures, and a variety of characterization techniques. The silica forms include amorphous slides, cane, fiber, microspheres, fumed silica and quartz crystal terminals. The proteins selected were human serum albumin, mouse Immunoglobulin G, streptavidin, antimouse IgG, and biotin. The surface treatments utilized to bring about chemical variation on the silica surface were HF acid etching, ethanol cleaning, water plasma treatments, and 1000°C heat treatments. The characterization techniques encompassed both traditional material techniques and biological methods. The techniques studied were atomic force microscopy (AFM), chemical force microscopy (CFM), glancing incidence X-ray analysis (GIXA), fluorescence spectrometry, polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), and bicinchoninic acid (BCA) assay. It was the main goal of this project to determine the feasibility of these techniques in utilizing proteins as glass surface probes. Proteins were adsorbed to all of the various forms and the binding ability was studied by either stripping off the protein and quantifying them, or by deductive reasoning through the use of "depleted" protein solutions. Fluorimetry and BCA assay both utilized the depleted solutions, but the high error associated with this protocol was prohibitive. SDS-PAGE with streptavidin was very difficult due to staining problems, however the IgG proteins were able to be quantified with some success. GIXA showed that the protein layer thickness is monolayer in nature, which agrees well with the AFM fluid tapping data on protein height, but in addition showed features on the order of ten protein agglomerations. CFM is by far the most promising technique for utilizing proteins as surface probes. Functionalized tips of -COOH, streptavidin and -CH3 are able to discern between surface treatments, but not forms. A general conclusion is that adhesion forces are greatest for -COOH, then streptavidin, and least for -CH3.

Korwin-Edson, Michelle Lynn

181

COMPARISON OF THE TRADITIONAL RECALL-BASED VERSUS A NEW LIST-BASED METHOD FOR COMPUTING SEMANTIC CLUSTERING ON THE CALIFORNIA VERBAL LEARNING TEST: EVIDENCE FROM ALZHEIMER'S DISEASE  

PubMed Central

For over 50 years, cognitive psychologists and neuropsychologists have relied almost exclusively on a method for computing semantic clustering on list-learning tasks (recall-based formula) that was derived from an outdated assumption about how learning occurs. A new procedure for computing semantic clustering (list-based formula) was developed for the CVLT-II to correct the shortcomings of the traditional method. In the present study we compared the clinical utility of the traditional recall-based method versus the new list-based method using results from the original CVLT administered to 87 patients with Alzheimer’s disease and 86 matched normal control participants. Logistic regression and score distribution analyses indicated that the new list-based method enhances the detection of differences in semantic-clustering ability between the groups.

Delis, Dean C.; Fine, Eric M.; Stricker, John L.; Houston, Wes S.; Wetter, Spencer R.; Cobell, Krystal; Jacobson, Mark W.; Salmon, David P.; Bondi, Mark W.

2011-01-01

182

A single center's experience with the bedside subdural evacuating port system: a useful alternative to traditional methods for chronic subdural hematoma evacuation.  

PubMed

Object The traditional methods for managing symptomatic chronic subdural hematoma (SDH) include evacuation via a bur hole or craniotomy, both with or without drain placement. Because chronic SDH frequently occurs in elderly patients with multiple comorbidities, the bedside approach afforded by the subdural evacuating port system (SEPS) is an attractive alternative method that is performed under local anesthesia and conscious sedation. The goal of this study was to evaluate the radiographic and clinical outcomes of SEPS as compared with traditional methods. Methods A prospectively maintained database of 23 chronic SDHs treated by bur hole or craniotomy and of 23 chronic SDHs treated by SEPS drainage at Tufts Medical Center was compiled, and a retrospective chart review was performed. Information regarding demographics, comorbidities, presenting symptoms, and outcome was collected. The volume of SDH before and after treatment was semiautomatically measured using imaging software. Results There was no significant difference in initial SDH volume (94.5 cm(3) vs 112.6 cm(3), respectively; p = 0.25) or final SDH volume (31.9 cm(3) vs 28.2 cm(3), respectively; p = 0.65) between SEPS drainage and traditional methods. In addition, there was no difference in mortality (4.3% vs 9.1%, respectively; p = 0.61), length of stay (11 days vs 9.1 days, respectively; p = 0.48), or stability of subdural evacuation (94.1% vs 83.3%, respectively; p = 0.60) for the SEPS and traditional groups at an average follow-up of 12 and 15 weeks, respectively. Only 2 of 23 SDHs treated by SEPS required further treatment by bur hole or craniotomy due to inadequate evacuation of subdural blood. Conclusions The SEPS is a safe and effective alternative to traditional methods of evacuation of chronic SDHs and should be considered in patients presenting with a symptomatic chronic SDH. PMID:23259822

Safain, Mina; Roguski, Marie; Antoniou, Alexander; Schirmer, Clemens M; Schirmer, Clemens S; Malek, Adel M; Riesenburger, Ron

2012-12-21

183

The effects of problem based learning and traditional teaching methods on students’ academic achievements, conceptual developments and scientific process skills according to their graduated high school types  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of this study is to determine the effects of problem based learning (PBL) and traditional teaching methods (TTM) on students’ academic achievements, conceptual developments and scientific process skills according to their graduated high school types. In this research, the pre\\/post test control group design was applied and the research was conducted with 46 students attended of 1th class

Asl?han Kartal Ta?o?lu; Mustafa Bakaç

2010-01-01

184

Estimation of Efficiency, Sustainability and Constraints in SRI (System of Rice Intensification) vis-a-vis Traditional Methods of Paddy Cultivation in North Coastal Zone of Andhra Pradesh  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study has assessed the economics and sustainability of SRI (system of rice intensification) and traditional methods of paddy cultivation in North Coastal Zone of Andhra Pradesh for the period 2008-09, based on the data of costs and returns of crop. Apart from budgeting techniques, benefit-cost ratio (BCR), yield gap analysis, sustainability index and response priority index have been employed

I. V. Y. Rama Rao

2011-01-01

185

Trichinellosis: a possible link between human infection and the traditional earth-oven or ‘mumu’ method of cooking in Morehead District, Western Province, Papua New Guinea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To investigate if the traditional method of cooking pig meat in an earth-oven or mumu, as practiced by people in Morehead District, Western Province, Papua New Guinea (PNG), could be a source of infection with Trichinella papuae and of the disease trichinellosis.Procedure: As the locality lacks suitable river stones normally used in a mumu in PNG, people use various

Ifor L. Owen; Leslie Muke; Hugh L. Davies

2008-01-01

186

Does the use of rehabilitative ultrasound imaging (RUSI) as visual feedback enhance retention of muscle contractions compared to traditional methods of instruction including verbal and tactile cueing?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Overall Clinical Bottom Line: After a complete appraisal of nine articles, we conclude that the addition of rehabilitative ultrasound imaging (RUSI) to traditional methods of teaching muscle contractions (transverse abdominis (TrA), multifidus, pelvic floor and external anal sphincter) utilizing verbal and tactile cueing is no more beneficial in enhancing retention of these skills in symptomatic (low back pain, pelvic floor

Laura Higham; Stacy Carman

2008-01-01

187

A Focus on Problems of National Interest in the College General Chemistry Laboratory: The Effects of the Problem-Oriented Method Compared with Those of the Traditional Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was designed to assess the effects of the problem-oriented method compared to those of the traditional approach in general chemistry at the college level. The problem-oriented course included topics such as air and water pollution, drug addiction and analysis, tetraethyl-lead additives, insecticides in the environment, and recycling of…

Neman, Robert Lynn

188

A Method for Assessing Institution-Wide Responsiveness to Adult Undergraduates in Traditional Colleges and Universities. ASHE 1988 Annual Meeting Paper.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An effective method for assessing responsiveness to adult undergraduates in institutions serving primarily traditional-age students is described. Information from previous literature was applied to the University of Massachusetts at Amherst in order to gather quantitative data on usage of certain practices plus a sense of campus receptivity to,…

Greenland, Annette E.

189

A Focus on Problems of National Interest in the College General Chemistry Laboratory: The Effects of the Problem-Oriented Method Compared with Those of the Traditional Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study was designed to assess the effects of the problem-oriented method compared to those of the traditional approach in general chemistry at the college level. The problem-oriented course included topics such as air and water pollution, drug addiction and analysis, tetraethyl-lead additives, insecticides in the environment, and recycling of…

Neman, Robert Lynn

190

Components Detected by Means of SolidPhase Microextraction and Gas Chromatography\\/Mass Spectrometry in the Headspace of Artisan Fresh Goat Cheese Smoked by Traditional Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The study of the headspace components of fresh smoked goat cheese, was carried out by means of solid- phase microextraction using a polyacrylate fiber fol- lowed by gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry. The samples studied were six artisan Palmero cheeses man- ufactured following traditional methods and smoked using pine needles. The cheese regions studied were exterior, interior, and a cross section. In

M. D. Guillén; M. L. Ibargoitia; P. Sopelana; G. Palencia; M. Fresno

2004-01-01

191

Comparative study of an argon plasma and an argon copper plasma produced by an ICP torch at atmospheric pressure based on spectroscopic methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of the paper is to test the accuracy of classical spectroscopic methods in the visible domain dedicated to measurements of temperature and electron density in order to conclude about the validity of thermal disequilibrium. The influence of various factors is studied: accuracy of the intensity calibration, Abel inversion of the experimental spectra, excitation temperature deduced from the relative method, absolute excitation temperature, influence of the transition probability accuracy, influence of the Biberman factor value, electron temperature from the line-to-continuum intensity ratio, electron density deduced from Stark broadening, and electron density deduced from the continuum intensity. This spectroscopic investigation is carried out for argon plasma and argon copper plasma both produced by means of an ICP torch operating at atmospheric pressure. Results are given with uncertainties for each evaluated parameter. We show that, first, the electron temperature deduced from the line-to-continuum intensity ratio has to be considered with great care; second, for argon plasma no evidence of thermal disequilibrium can be discerned, whereas for argon copper plasma a small disequilibrium of 1.2 to 1.4 at most is experimentally observed.

Bussière, W.; Vacher, D.; Menecier, S.; André, P.

2011-08-01

192

A Single Chiroptical Spectroscopic Method May Not Be Able To Establish the Absolute Configurations of Diastereomers: Dimethylesters of Hibiscus and Garcinia Acids  

PubMed Central

Electronic circular dichroism (ECD), optical rotatory dispersion (ORD), and vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) spectra of hibiscus acid dimethyl ester have been measured and analyzed in combination with quantum chemical calculations of corresponding spectra. These results, along with those reported previously for garcinia acid dimethyl ester, reveal that none of these three (ECD, ORD, or VCD) spectroscopic methods, in isolation, can unequivocally establish the absolute configurations of diastereomers. This deficiency is eliminated when a combined spectral analysis of either ECD and VCD or ORD and VCD methods is used. It is also found that the ambiguities in the assignment of absolute configurations of diastereomers may also be overcome when unpolarized vibrational absorption is included in the spectral analysis.

Polavarapu, Prasad L.; Donahue, Emily A.; Shanmugam, Ganesh; Scalmani, Giovanni; Hawkins, Edward K.; Rizzo, Carmelo; Ibnusaud, Ibrahim; Thomas, Grace; Habel, Deenamma; Sebastian, Dellamol

2013-01-01

193

Simple method to examine the work function of transparent conducting oxide for traditional and organic based photovoltaics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transparent conducting oxides (TCOs) are key components in both traditional and organic based optoelectronic devices. In photovoltaic applications in which TCOs are employed as transparent electrical contacts, the matching of the TCO work function to that of the active material is critical to device performance. We report the adaptation of a commercial electrostatic voltmeter to measure the work function of In-Zn-O and other TCO materials relevant to photovoltaics. The applicability of this technique to high-throughput combinatorial studies of compositionally graded TCO libraries will be presented. We will also examine correlations between the observed work function and other material properties in these TCO libraries. The relationship between device performance and the measured work function will also be assessed.

Berry, Joseph; Reese, Matthew; Perkins, John; Ginley, David

2007-03-01

194

Science-Technology-Society literacy in college non-majors biology: Comparing problem\\/case studies based learning and traditional expository methods of instruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study used a multiple response model (MRM) on selected items from the Views on Science-Technology-Society (VOSTS) survey to examine science-technology-society (STS) literacy among college non-science majors' taught using Problem\\/Case Studies Based Learning (PBL\\/CSBL) and traditional expository methods of instruction. An initial pilot investigation of 15 VOSTS items produced a valid and reliable scoring model which can be used to

John S. Peters

2006-01-01

195

Two novel butanol rhamnosides from an Indian traditional herb, Euphorbia hirta.  

PubMed

Two novel butanol rhamnopyranosides (1 and 2), along with nine known compounds (3-11), have been isolated from various non-polar and polar extracts of an Indian traditional herb, Euphorbia hirta. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated as n-butyl-1-O-beta-L-rhamnopyranoside (1) and n-butyl-1-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside (2) by spectroscopic methods including IR, HR-FABMS, 1D and 2D NMR techniques. PMID:19401919

Mallavadhani, U V; Narasimhan, K

2009-01-01

196

A budget impact analysis comparing use of a modern fecal management system to traditional fecal management methods in two canadian hospitals.  

PubMed

Research suggests that fecal management systems (FMS) offer advantages, including potential cost savings, over traditional methods of caring for patients with little or no bowel control and liquid or semi-liquid stool. A budget impact model accounting for material costs of managing fecal incontinence was developed, and 1 year of experiential data from two hospitals' ICUs were applied to it. Material costs were estimated for traditional methods (ie, use of absorbent briefs/pads, skin cleansers, moisturizers) and compared with material costs of using a modern FMS for both average (normal-range weight) and complex (bariatric with wounds) ICU patients at hospital 1 and any ICU patient at hospital 2. Reductions in daily material costs per ICU patient using FMS versus traditional methods were reported by hospital 1 ($93.74 versus $143.89, average patient; $150.55 versus $476.41, complex patient) and by hospital 2 ($61.15 versus $104.85 per patient). When extrapolated to the total number of patients expected to use FMS at each institution, substantial annual cost savings were projected (hospital 1: $57,216; hospital 2: $627,095). In addition, total nursing time per day for managing fecal incontinence (ie, changing, cleaning, repositioning patients, changing pads, linens, and the like) was estimated at hospital 1, showing substantial reductions with FMS (120 minutes versus 348 minutes for average patients; 240 minutes versus 760 minutes for complex). Nursing time was not included in cost calculations to keep the analysis conservative. Results of this study suggest the materials cost of using the FMS in ICU patients was substantially lower than the cost of traditional fecal incontinence management protocols of care in both hospitals. Comparative studies using patient level data, materials, and nursing time costs, as well as complication rates, are warranted. PMID:23221016

Langill, Mike; Yan, Songkai; Kommala, Dheerendra; Michenko, Michael

2012-12-01

197

Treatment of 140 cerebral palsied children with a combined method based on traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and western medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: To observe and evaluate a method that is effective and practical for treatment of cerebral palsied (CP) children in China. Method: The patient's age and disease type and individual specific conditions were considered in choosing therapy methods accordingly: Chinese herbs, acupuncture, auricular seed pressure, point finger pressing, massage, orthopedic hand manipulation, physiotherapy, occupational therapy, language therapy, etc. Meanwhile we

ZHOU Xue-juan; ZHENG Kun

198

Synthesis, spectroscopic and structural studies on YOF, LaOF and GdOF nanocrystals doped with Eu3+, synthesized via stearic acid method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanocrystalline Eu3+ doped REOF oxofluorides (where RE = Y, La, Gd) were synthesized using stearic acid as the reaction medium. Optimal conditions for the synthesis of pure and single-phased oxyfluorides were found. The obtained products were analysed using thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray analysis, transmission electron microscopy and the Rietveld method. The influence of calcination temperature on the physicochemical properties was studied. Spectroscopic properties of the tetragonal and rhombohedral oxyfluoride nanocrystals were investigated using excitation and emission spectra and luminescence lifetime measurements. Effectiveness of the Eu3+ dopant red emission intensity and energy transfer processes were examined in relation to the structure and the presence of the RE ion in oxyfluorides studied. The highest luminescence efficiency was observed for the GdOF:Eu3+ nanomaterial. Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters were calculated and analysed.

Grzyb, Tomasz; W?c?awiak, Mariusz; P?dzi?ski, Tomasz; Lis, Stefan

2013-10-01

199

Quercetin immobilized on silica gel as a solid phase reagent for tin(IV) determination by using the sorption-spectroscopic method.  

PubMed

New chelating sorbents are prepared by 3,3',4',5,7-pentahydroxyflavone adsorption from butanol and acetone-hexane (1:4) solutions, characterized by isotherm of sorption, IR-spectroscopy and studied for pre-concentrating and sorption-spectroscopic determination of Sn(IV). The solid-phase Quercetin with satisfactory analytical characteristics was formed by adsorption from acetone-hexane (1:4) mixture. The quantitative recovery of Sn(IV) from aqueous solution with modified sorbent was observed at pH 1.8-2.2. The tolerance limits of heavy metal ions in the sorption of Sn(IV) are reported. The limit of Sn detection is 0.06 mg l(-1). The linearity of calibration graph has been observed up to 1.2 mg l(-1). The method has been applied to determine Sn in high purity zinc materials. PMID:18968375

Zaporozhets, O A; Ivanko, L S; Marchenko, I V; Orlichenko, E V; Sukhan, V V

2001-08-30

200

Virtual Reality Anatomy: Is It Comparable with Traditional Methods in the Teaching of Human Forearm Musculoskeletal Anatomy?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The use of cadavers to teach anatomy is well established, but limitations with this approach have led to the introduction of alternative teaching methods. One such method is the use of three-dimensional virtual reality computer models. An interactive, three-dimensional computer model of human forearm anterior compartment musculoskeletal anatomy…

Codd, Anthony M.; Choudhury, Bipasha

2011-01-01

201

The Effect of Instructional Delivery Methods on the Critical Thinking Disposition of Distance Learners and Traditional On-campus Learners  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of critical thinking skills in agricultural audiences has been identified as an important need. While several studies have examined the effect of teacher delivery methods that foster higher order thinking, levels of cognition, and critical thinking in agricultural education, few studies have addressed delivery methods fostering critical thinking in agricultural distance education courses. The purpose of this casual

John C. Ricketts; Tracy Irani

202

Benchmarking a new closed-form thermal analysis technique against a traditional lumped parameter, finite-difference method  

SciTech Connect

A benchmarking effort was conducted to determine the accuracy of a new analytic generic geology thermal repository model developed at LLNL relative to a more traditional, numerical, lumped parameter technique. The fast-running analytical thermal transport model assumes uniform thermal properties throughout a homogenous storage medium. Arrays of time-dependent heat sources are included geometrically as arrays of line segments and points. The solver uses a source-based linear superposition of closed form analytical functions from each contributing point or line to arrive at an estimate of the thermal evolution of a generic geologic repository. Temperature rise throughout the storage medium is computed as a linear superposition of temperature rises. It is modeled using the MathCAD mathematical engine and is parameterized to allow myriad gridded repository geometries and geologic characteristics [4]. It was anticipated that the accuracy and utility of the temperature field calculated with the LLNL analytical model would provide an accurate 'birds-eye' view in regions that are many tunnel radii away from actual storage units; i.e., at distances where tunnels and individual storage units could realistically be approximated as physical lines or points. However, geometrically explicit storage units, waste packages, tunnel walls and close-in rock are not included in the MathCAD model. The present benchmarking effort therefore focuses on the ability of the analytical model to accurately represent the close-in temperature field. Specifically, close-in temperatures computed with the LLNL MathCAD model were benchmarked against temperatures computed using geometrically-explicit lumped-parameter, repository thermal modeling technique developed over several years at ANL using the SINDAG thermal modeling code [5]. Application of this numerical modeling technique to underground storage of heat generating nuclear waste streams within the proposed YMR Site has been widely reported [6]. New SINDAG thermal models presented here share this same basic modeling approach.

Huff, K. D.; Bauer, T. H. (Nuclear Engineering Division)

2012-08-20

203

Tradition in Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses the influence of tradition in science on selection of scientific problems and methods and on the use of concepts as tools for research work. Indicates that future research studies will be directed toward the change of fundamental concepts in such fields as astrophysics, molecular biology, and environmental science. (CC)|

Heisenberg, Werner

1973-01-01

204

Tradition in Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the influence of tradition in science on selection of scientific problems and methods and on the use of concepts as tools for research work. Indicates that future research studies will be directed toward the change of fundamental concepts in such fields as astrophysics, molecular biology, and environmental science. (CC)

Heisenberg, Werner

1973-01-01

205

Raman spectroscopic method for the determination of medroxyprogesterone acetate in a pharmaceutical suspension: validation of quantifying abilities, uncertainty assessment and comparison with the high performance liquid chromatography reference method.  

PubMed

An alternative fast and non-destructive validated Raman spectroscopic analytical procedure, requiring no sample preparation, was compared with the industrially applied HPLC reference method (Pfizer Manufacturing Belgium) for the quantitative determination of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) in DepoProvera suspensions (150 mg mL(-1), Pfizer). The Raman calibration model was developed by plotting the peak intensity of the baseline-corrected and normalized spectral band (corrected by external standard measurements) between 1595 and 1620 cm(-1) against known MPA concentrations in standards. At this band, no spectral interferences from the suspension medium are observed. The most suitable model for the calibration data (straight line or higher order polynomial) was determined by evaluating the fit and predictive properties of the models. In a second step, the developed Raman spectroscopic analytical method was validated by calculating the accuracy profile on the basis of the analysis results of validation samples. Furthermore, based on the data of the accuracy profile, the measurement uncertainty was determined. Finally, as the aim of the alternative method is to replace the destructive, time-consuming HPLC method, requiring sample preparation, it needs to be demonstrated that the new Raman method performs at least as good as the HPLC method. Therefore, the performance (precision and bias) of both methods was compared. A second order polynomial calibration curve through the calibration data supplies the best predictive properties and gives an acceptable fit. From the accuracy profile, it was concluded that at the target concentration (150 mg mL(-1)), 95 out 100 future routine measurements will be included within the acceptance limits (5%). Comparison of the alternative method with the reference method at the target concentration indicates that the Raman method performs at least as good as the HPLC method for precision (repeatability and intermediate precision) and bias. The fast and non-destructive Raman method hence provides an alternative for the destructive and time-consuming HPLC procedure. PMID:17418181

De Beer, T R M; Baeyens, W R G; Vermeire, A; Broes, D; Remon, J P; Vervaet, C

2007-03-12

206

Assessment of the variations in fat content in normal liver using a fast MR imaging method in comparison with results obtained by spectroscopic imaging.  

PubMed

A recently published Dixon-based MRI method for quantifying liver fat content using dual-echo breath-hold gradient echo imaging was validated by phantom experiments and compared with results of biopsy in two patients (Radiology 2005;237:1048-1055). We applied this method in ten healthy volunteers and compared the outcomes with the results of MR spectroscopy (MRS), the gold standard in quantifying liver fat content. Novel was the use of spectroscopic imaging yielding the variations in fat content across the liver rather than a single value obtained by single voxel MRS. Compared with the results of MRS, liver fat content according to MRI was too high in nine subjects (range 3.3-10.7% vs. 0.9-7.7%) and correct in one (21.1 vs. 21.3%). Furthermore, in one of the ten subjects the MRI fat content according to the Dixon-based MRI method was incorrect due to a (100-x) versus x percent lipid content mix-up. The second problem was fixed by a minor adjustment of the MRI algorithm. Despite systematic overestimation of liver fat contents by MRI, Spearman's correlation between the adjusted MRI liver fat contents with MRS was high (r = 0.927, P < 0.001). Even after correction of the algorithm, the problem remaining with the Dixon-based MRI method for the assessment of liver fat content,is that, at the lower end range, liver fat content is systematically overestimated by 4%. PMID:17999066

Irwan, Roy; Edens, Mireille A; Sijens, Paul E

2007-11-13

207

Traditional Chinese Biotechnology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The earliest industrial biotechnology originated in ancient China and developed into a vibrant industry in traditional Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar. It is now a significant component of the Chinese economy valued annually at about 150 billion RMB. Although the production methods had existed and remained basically unchanged for centuries, modern developments in biotechnology and related fields in the last decades have greatly impacted on these industries and led to numerous technological innovations. In this chapter, the main biochemical processes and related technological innovations in traditional Chinese biotechnology are illustrated with recent advances in functional microbiology, microbial ecology, solid-state fermentation, enzymology, chemistry of impact flavor compounds, and improvements made to relevant traditional industrial facilities. Recent biotechnological advances in making Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar are reviewed.

Xu, Yan; Wang, Dong; Fan, Wen Lai; Mu, Xiao Qing; Chen, Jian

208

Talk it up! Integrating traditional telephone research methodologies with e-Social Science tools, methods and practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opportunities for expanding the use of the telephone in social science research are now available through the integration of telephone research methods with new and emerging digital technology. This paper discusses some aspects of the use of the telephone in social science research and reports on the use of the telephone in research on the use of mobile communications technology

Collette Snowden

209

Recent analytical approaches in quality control of traditional Chinese medicines--a review.  

PubMed

Traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) are gaining more and more attention all over the world, due to their specific theory and long historical clinical practice. But the uncontrollable quality is a bottleneck for its modernization and globalization. This paper reviewed the recent analytical methods in the quality control of TCMs, including screening strategies of bioactive markers from TCMs through biochromatographic methods, the traditional chromatographic methods, DNA methods, as well as the spectroscopic methods, including FT-IR, NIR and NMR. The comprehensive methods, such as fingerprint and multi-component quantification are emphasized; hyphenated techniques, like HPLC-MS, GC-MS, CE-MS, LC-NMR, chemometric methods, and combination of chemical and biological methods, such as biofingerprint, metabolic fingerprint are now more and more widely used in TCMs. In a few word, the analysis and quality control of TCMs are moving towards an integrative and comprehensive direction, in order to better address the inherent holistic nature of TCMs. PMID:19951752

Jiang, Yong; David, Bruno; Tu, Pengfei; Barbin, Yves

2009-10-20

210

The culture of traditional preservice elementary science methods students compared to the culture of science: A dilemma for teacher educators  

Microsoft Academic Search

An emergent design qualitative study generated grounded theory explaining what happened when a professor taught five preservice\\u000a elementary science methods classes modeling inquiry. Data sources included classroom observations, interviews, students’ reflective\\u000a journals, and artifacts from other student assignments. Member checking was done with individuals and groups during each course\\u000a and in exit interviews Findings suggested students’ expectations for learning and

Barbara S. Spector; Paschal N. Strong

2001-01-01

211

Analyses of bacterial communities in meju, a Korean traditional fermented soybean bricks, by cultivation-based and pyrosequencing methods.  

PubMed

Despite the importance of meju as a raw material used to make Korean soy sauce (ganjang) and soybean paste (doenjang), little is known about the bacterial diversity of Korean meju. In this study, the bacterial communities in meju were examined using both culture-dependent and independent methods in order to evaluate the diversity of the bacterial population. Analyses of the 16S rRNA gene sequences of the bacterial strains isolated from meju samples showed that the dominant species were related to members of the genera Bacillus, Enterococcus, and Pediococcus. The community DNAs extracted from nine different meju samples were analyzed by barcoded pyrosequencing method targeting of the V1 to V3 hypervariable regions of the 16S rRNA gene. In total, 132,374 sequences, with an average read length of 468 bp, were assigned to several phyla, with Firmicutes (93.6%) representing the predominant phylum, followed by Proteobacteria (4.5%) and Bacteroidetes (0.8%). Other phyla accounted for less than 1% of the total bacterial sequences. Most of the Firmicutes were Bacillus and lactic acid bacteria, mainly represented by members of the genera Enterococcus, Lactococcus, and Leuconostoc, whose ratio varied among different samples. In conclusion, this study indicated that the bacterial communities in meju were very diverse and a complex microbial consortium containing various microorganisms got involved in meju fermentation than we expected before. PMID:21717316

Kim, Yi-Seul; Kim, Min-Cheol; Kwon, Soon-Wo; Kim, Soo-Jin; Park, In-Cheol; Ka, Jong-Ok; Weon, Hang-Yeon

2011-06-30

212

FUNDAMENTAL AREAS OF PHENOMENOLOGY (INCLUDING APPLICATIONS): The Self-Heating Effect of Quantum Cascade Lasers Based on a Spectroscopic Method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the self-heating effect of mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers by using a direct-based pulse injecting current and spectroscopy method. Based on the characterization system, the thermal characteristics of gas source MBE grown 8.4 ?m InP-based GaInAs/AlInAs DFB-QCLs are evaluated. The method and characterization system are also useful in evaluating the thermal characteristics of other types of mid-infrared diode lasers.

Wei, Lin; Li, Ai-Zhen; Zhang, Yong-Gang; Li, Yao-Yao

2009-08-01

213

Multi-spectroscopic method study the interaction of anti-inflammatory drug ketoprofen and calf thymus DNA and its analytical application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interactions of the anti-inflammatory drug ketoprofen with calf thymus DNA (ctDNA) in aqueous solution have been studied by multi-spectroscopic method including resonance light scattering (RLS) technique, ultraviolet spectra (UV), 1H NMR, etc. The characteristics of RLS spectra, the effective factors and optimum conditions of the reaction have been unequivocally investigated. Mechanism investigations have shown that ketoprofen can bind to ctDNA by groove binding and form large particles, which resulted in the enhancement of RLS intensity. In Critic acid-Na 2HPO 4 buffer (pH = 6.5), ketoprofen has a maximum peak 451.5 nm and the RLS intensity is remarkably enhanced by trace amount of ctDNA due to the interaction between ketoprofen and ctDNA. The enhancement of RLS signal is directly proportional to the concentration of ctDNA in the range of 1.20 × 10 -6-1.0 × 10 -5 mol/L, and its detection limit (3 ?) is 1.33 × 10 -9 mol/L. The method is simple, rapid, practical and relatively free from interference generated by coexisting substance, and was applied to the determination of trace amounts of nucleic acid in synthetic samples with satisfactory results.

Guo, Hongqin; Cai, Changqun; Gong, Hang; Chen, Xiaoming

2011-06-01

214

Reflectance near-infrared spectroscopic method with Chemometric techniques for simultaneous determination of Chondroitin, glucosamine, and methyl sulfonyl methane.  

PubMed

Reflectance near-IR (RNIR) spectroscopy was used for the simultaneous determination of chondroitin (CH), glucosamine (GO), and methyl sulfonyl methane (MSM) in tablets. Simple sample preparation was done by grinding, sieving, and compression of the tablets for improving RNIR spectra. Principal component regression and partial least squares (PLS-1 and PLS-2) were successfully applied to quantify the three components in the studied mixture using information included in RNIR spectra in the range of 4350-9100 cm(-1). The calibration model was developed with drug concentration ranges of 14.5-44.2% (w/w) for CH, 18.4-55.3% (w/w) for GO, and 6-18.6% (w/w) for MSM with addition of tablet excipients to the calibration set in the same ratio as in the tested tablets. The calibration models were evaluated by internal validation, cross-validation, and external validation using synthetic and pharmaceutical preparations. The proposed method was applied for analysis of six batches of the pharmaceutical product. The results of the proposed method were compared with the results of the pharmacopoeial method for the same batch of the pharmaceutical product. No significant differences between the results were found. The RNIR method is accurate and precise, and can be used for QC of pharmaceutical products. PMID:22970568

El-Gindy, Alaa; Attia, Khalid Abdel-Salam; Nassar, Mohammad Wafaa; Seda, Hamed Hamed Abu; Shoeib, Maisra Al-Shabrawi

215

In vitro digestion combined with cellular assay to determine the antioxidant activity in Chinese bayberry (Myrica rubra Sieb. et Zucc.) fruits: A comparison with traditional methods.  

PubMed

The traditional method of chemical extraction (i.e., extracts), combined with chemical antioxidant activity assays cannot assess the real antioxidant activity. In vitro digestion (i.e., digesta) with a cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) assay was developed for the determination of antioxidant activity in Chinese bayberry fruits. In this study, pretreatment methods were studied and the results showed that digesta had more free phenolic acids (FPA) but less total phenolic content (TPC) and total anthocyanin content (TAC) than extracts. Antioxidant activity assays, including ABTS, FRAP, DPPH, ORAC and CAA, were compared. Digesta had lower ABTS, FRAP and DPPH values but higher CAA values than extracts. FPA were better correlated with the chemical antioxidant assays in digesta. The correlations were high between TPC and CAA values in digesta (R(2)=0.96) but not extracts (R(2)=0.58). Higher correlations were also obtained between CAA and chemical assays in digesta. PMID:24176355

Huang, Haizhi; Sun, Yujing; Lou, Shuting; Li, Hao; Ye, Xingqian

2013-09-21

216

Mass Spectroscopic Fingerprinting Method for Differentiation Between Scutellaria lateriflora and the Germander (Teucrium canadense and T. chamaedrys) Species  

PubMed Central

Scutellaria lateriflora, commonly known as skullcap, is used as an ingredient in numerous herbal products. However, it has been occasionally adulterated/contaminated with Teucrium canadense and T. chamaedrys, commonly known as germander, which contain hepatotoxic diterpenes. Due to the morphological similarities between the two genera, analytical methodologies to distinguish authentic S. lateriflora from the Teucrium species are needed to ensure public safety. In this study, a direct-injection electrospray ionization/MS method was used to generate spectral fingerprints of extracts from 21 skullcap and germander samples at a rate of 90 s/sample. MS fingerprints were analyzed by principal component analysis. The newly developed method offers a rapid and easy way to differentiate between skullcap and germander samples.

Chen, Pei; Lin, Long-Ze; Harnly, James M.

2013-01-01

217

Traditional Chinese Biotechnology  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The earliest industrial biotechnology originated in ancient China and developed into a vibrant industry in traditional Chinese\\u000a liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar. It is now a significant component of the Chinese economy valued annually at about\\u000a 150 billion RMB. Although the production methods had existed and remained basically unchanged for centuries, modern developments\\u000a in biotechnology and related fields

Yan Xu; Dong Wang; Wen Lai Fan; Xiao Qing Mu; Jian Chen

2010-01-01

218

Comparison of Fluorescence, 31P NMR, and 7Li NMR Spectroscopic Methods for Investigating Li +\\/Mg 2+ Competition for Biomolecules  

Microsoft Academic Search

The biochemical action of lithium in the treatment of manic-depressive illness is still unknown. One hypothesis is that Li+ competes for Mg2+-binding sites in biomolecules. We report here our studies on metal ion competition by three distinct methods: fluorescence, 31P NMR, and 7Li NMR spectroscopy, using ATP as a model ligand. By fluorescence spectroscopy, we used the dye, furaptra, by

Louis Amari; Brian Layden; Qinfen Rong; Carlos F. G. C. Geraldes; Duarte Mota de Freitas

1999-01-01

219

A method for the separation of beryllium from spectral interfering elements in inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopic analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A quick, simple and effective chromatographic method for the separation of beryllium from a wide range of elements is described. The elements selected comprise elements which can interfere with the determination of beryllium by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) and elements which commonly occur in environmental and industrial sample matrices. Beryllium is separated from all possible ICP-AES spectral interfering

Daniel R. McAlister; E. Philip Horwitz

2005-01-01

220

Study on photophysical and aggregation induced emission recognition of 1,8-naphthalimide probe for casein by spectroscopic method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel water-soluble 1,8-naphthalimide derivative 1, bearing two acetic carboxylic groups, exhibited fluorescent turn-on recognition for casein based on the aggregation induced emission (AIE) character. The photophysical properties of 1 consisting of donor and acceptor units were investigated in different solutions. The fluorescence intensity decreased through taking advantage of twisted intramolecular charge transfer (TICT) and self-association emission with increasing solvent polarity. Moreover, the spectral red-shift and intensity quench in protic solvents were caused by the excited-state hydrogen bond strengthening effect. Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations revealed that 1 exhibited a strong TICT character. The AIE mechanism of 1 with casein was due to 1 docked in the hydrophobic cavity between sub-micelles and bound with Tyr and Trp residues, resulting in the aggregation of 1 on the casein surface and emission enhancement. Based on this, a novel casein assay method was developed. The proposed exhibited a good linear range from 0.1 to 22 ?g mL-1, with the detection limit of 2.8 ng mL-1. Satisfactory reproducibility, reversibility and a short response time were realized. This method was applied to the determination of casein in milk powder samples and the results were in good agreement with the result of Biuret method.

Sun, Yang; Liu, Zhen; Liang, Xuhua; Fan, Jun; Han, Quan

2013-05-01

221

Challenging tradition in Nigeria.  

PubMed

In Nigeria since 1987, the National Association of Nigeria Nurses and Midwives (NSNNM) has used traditional medial and traditional health care workers to curtail the practice of female circumcision. Other harmful traditions are being changed also, such as early marriage, taboos of pregnancy and childbirth, and scarification. 30,000 member of NANNM are involved in this effort to halt the harmful practices themselves and to change community opinion. The program involved national and state level workshops on harmful health consequences of traditional practices and instruction on how to conduct focus group discussions to assess women's beliefs and practices. The focus groups were found to be a particularly successful method of opening up discussion of taboo topics and expressing deep emotions. The response to the knowledge that circumcision was not necessary was rage and anger, which was channeled into advocacy roles or change in the practice. The result was the channeled into advocacy roles for change in the practice. The result was the development of books, leaflets and videos. One community group designed a dress with a decorative motif of tatoos and bodily cuts to symbolize circumcision and scarring. Plays and songs were written and performed. Artists provided models of female genitalia both before and after circumcision. The campaign has been successful in bringing this issue to the public attention in prominent ways, such a national television, health talk shows, and women;s magazines. One of the most important results of the effort has been the demonstration that culture and tradition can be changed from within, rather than from outside imposition of values and beliefs. PMID:12284522

Supriya, K E

1991-01-01

222

Biophysical studies on the interactions of jatrorrhizine with bovine serum albumin by spectroscopic and molecular modeling methods.  

PubMed

The interaction between jatrorrhizine (JAT) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) has been studied. The studies were carried out in a buffer medium at pH 7.4 using fluorescence spectroscopy, UV-vis spectroscopy, and molecular modeling methods. The results of fluorescence quenching and UV-vis absorption spectra experiments indicated the formation of the complex of BSA-JAT. Binding parameters were determined using the Stern-Volmer equation and Scatchard equation. The results of thermodynamic parameters ?G, ?H and ?S at different temperatures indicate that the electrostatic interactions and hydrogen bonds play a major role for JAT-BSA association. Site marker competitive displacement experiments and molecular modeling calculation demonstrating that JAT is mainly located within the hydrophobic pocket of the subdomain IIIA of BSA. Furthermore, The distance between donor (BSA) and acceptor (JAT) was estimated according to fluorescence resonance energy transfer. PMID:23645029

Mi, Ran; Li, Pei-Qi; Hu, Yan-Jun; Fan, Xiao-Yang; Li, Hai-Ying; Yu, Xue-Cheng; Ouyang, Yu

2013-05-05

223

A new spectroscopic method for resolving the electronic symmetry properties of the highly excited molecules produced in photoexcitation.  

PubMed

A novel method of spectroscopy for highly excited states of molecules in the valence excitation range has been established through the detection of metastable hydrogen atoms in the 2s state formed by photoexcitation. The detector for the metastable hydrogen atom is composed of a stack of parallel plate electrodes that creates a localized electric field and triggers the emission of the Lyman-alpha photon from the atom and a chevron pair of microchannel plates that detects the photon. For linear molecules, the angle-resolved detection of the metastable hydrogen atom enables us to measure cross sections in which electronic symmetries of highly excited molecular states are resolved. Such symmetry-resolved cross section measurements were carried out for doubly excited states of H(2). PMID:20590226

Odagiri, Takeshi; Kumagai, Yoshiaki; Tanabe, Takehiko; Nakano, Motoyoshi; Suzuki, Isao H; Kitajima, Masashi; Kouchi, Noriyuki

2010-06-01

224

Spectroscopic investigations on the synthesis of nano-hydroxyapatite from calcined eggshell by hydrothermal method using cationic surfactant as template  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present work reports the successful synthesis of nano-hydroxyapatite, Ca 10(PO 4) 6(OH) 2 (denoted HAP) from calcined eggshell by hydrothermal method using cationic surfactant (CTAB) as regulator of nucleation and crystal growth. The reaction involved in the synthesis was studied elaborately. The influence of reaction temperature, ageing time and CTAB concentration on the synthesis of nano-HAP are also studied in addition to the effect of sintering temperature on the crystal growth. Spectral characterization involving Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques were performed for functional group analysis and phase identification of the materials, respectively. Thermal stability of nano-HAP was investigated by thermal analysis (TG/DTA). The physical characteristics, such as morphology and particle size of the synthesized nano-HAP were assessed thoroughly by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques. The results have revealed that well-crystallized nano-HAP was synthesized by hydrothermal treatment at 160 °C for 10 h with the addition of CTAB at critical micelle concentration (CMC). It was also found that the synthesized nano-HAP was thermally stable up to 1100 °C.

Prabakaran, K.; Rajeswari, S.

2009-12-01

225

Spectroscopic investigations on the photodegradation of toluidine blue dye using cadmium sulphide nanoparticles prepared by a novel method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel method to prepare cadmium sulphide nanoparticles (CdS NPs) possessing nearly uniform size was adopted using eggshell membrane (ESM), under different pH conditions. Significant yield of CdS NPs with smallest possible size was obtained by increasing the pH of the reaction medium from acidic to alkaline. The above prepared CdS NPs have been characterized by UV-vis absorption as well as emission spectra, powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The efficiency of the above prepared CdS NPs as a catalyst for the photodegradation of toluidine blue (TB) dye, as a function of pH as well as the ratio between the catalyst and the substrate was studied after irradiation with UV light. The results showed that an efficient interaction took place between the catalyst and the substrate to cause degradation of the selected dye. A maximum degradation of toluidine blue dye (90%) was observed at pH 8 which is higher than that of the efficiencies at pH 4 and pH 6.

Neelakandeswari, N.; Sangami, G.; Dharmaraj, N.; Taek, Nam Ki; Kim, Hak Yong

2011-05-01

226

[Research of the EEMD method to pulse analysis of traditional Chinese medicine based on different amplitudes of the added white noise].  

PubMed

The ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) can be used to overcome the mode mixing problem of empirical mode decomposition (EMD) effectively. The EEMD method and Hilbert-Huang Transform (HHT) can be used to analyze pulse signals of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). The amplitudes of the added white noise were about 0.1 and 0.2 time standard deviation of the investigated signal respectively. The difference of average frequency and average energy of every mode between normal pulse, slippery pulse, wiry pulse and wiry-slippery pulse were demonstrated based on different amplitudes of the added white noise. The results showed that it is more in line with clinical practice when the amplitude of the added white noise is about 0.2 time standard deviation of the investigated signal. PMID:21485176

Yan, Haixia; Qin, Kairong; Wang, Yiqin; Li, Fufeng; Run, Fengying; Hong, Yujian; Hao, Jiming

2011-02-01

227

Quality of life, coping strategies and support needs of women seeking Traditional Chinese Medicine for infertility and viable pregnancy in Australia: a mixed methods approach  

PubMed Central

Background Infertility affects about 15% of couples in Western-societies with most progressing to fertility clinics for treatment. Despite being common, infertility is often experienced as a lonely road for affected couples. In this paper we expand on our previously published findings of women’s experiences with infertility or difficulty of viable pregnancy who had sought Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) therapy in Australia, and focus on women’s quality of life, coping strategies, and support needs. Methods We applied mixed methods using the Tuebingen Quality of Life and the COPE questionnaires and in-depth interviews with 25 women with primary or secondary infertility, recurrent miscarriages or unexplained stillbirth, and who had consulted a TCM practitioner. We used a thematic approach to analyse the interviews, and descriptive statistics to evaluate questionnaire responses. Results Women reported through both questionnaires and interviews compromised quality of life due to the high level of distress, guilt, grief, and frustration caused by infertility. However, our women represented a highly motivated sample, actively seeking alternative support. While the TCM approach to infertility management increased women’s sense of personal agency and control through education and continuity of care, the need for greater understanding and support on a societal level remains. Conclusions In infertility, ongoing emotional and instrumental support is pivotal to the wellbeing and quality of life of the affected. Traditional Chinese Medicine addresses some support needs in infertility not routinely available in the Western model of care. More peer-led and professional-led support groups are greatly needed for women experiencing infertility to help break isolation and raise awareness of integrative approaches to fertility management.

2013-01-01

228

Science-Technology-Society literacy in college non-majors biology: Comparing problem/case studies based learning and traditional expository methods of instruction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study used a multiple response model (MRM) on selected items from the Views on Science-Technology-Society (VOSTS) survey to examine science-technology-society (STS) literacy among college non-science majors' taught using Problem/Case Studies Based Learning (PBL/CSBL) and traditional expository methods of instruction. An initial pilot investigation of 15 VOSTS items produced a valid and reliable scoring model which can be used to quantitatively assess student literacy on a variety of STS topics deemed important for informed civic engagement in science related social and environmental issues. The new scoring model allows for the use of parametric inferential statistics to test hypotheses about factors influencing STS literacy. The follow-up cross-institutional study comparing teaching methods employed Hierarchical Linear Modeling (HLM) to model the efficiency and equitability of instructional methods on STS literacy. A cluster analysis was also used to compare pre and post course patterns of student views on the set of positions expressed within VOSTS items. HLM analysis revealed significantly higher instructional efficiency in the PBL/CSBL study group for 4 of the 35 STS attitude indices (characterization of media vs. school science; tentativeness of scientific models; cultural influences on scientific research), and more equitable effects of traditional instruction on one attitude index (interdependence of science and technology). Cluster analysis revealed generally stable patterns of pre to post course views across study groups, but also revealed possible teaching method effects on the relationship between the views expressed within VOSTS items with respect to (1) interdependency of science and technology; (2) anti-technology; (3) socioscientific decision-making; (4) scientific/technological solutions to environmental problems; (5) usefulness of school vs. media characterizations of science; (6) social constructivist vs. objectivist views of theories; (7) impact of cultural religious/ethical views on science; (8) tentativeness of scientific models, evidence and predictions; (9) civic control of technological developments. This analysis also revealed common relationships between student views which would not have been revealed under the original unique response model (URM) of VOSTS and also common viewpoint patterns that warrant further qualitative exploration.

Peters, John S.

229

Spectroscopic Methods of Steroid Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modern chemical laboratories contain equipment capable of measuring many of the physical properties of single chemical compounds and mixtures of compounds, particularly their spectral properties, which can, if interpreted correctly, provide valuable information about both structure (of single compounds) and composition (of mixtures). Over the past 50 years, the author have witnessed enormous progress in the technical capabilities of this equipment. Automation and speed of analysis have greatly improved the ease of use and the versatility of the technology.

Kasal, Alexander; Budesinsky, Milos; Griffiths, William J.

230

Electron Spectroscopic Methods in Teaching.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses electron-loss spectroscopy and the experimentally observed excitation energies in terms of qualitative MO theory. Reviews information on photoelectron spectroscopy and electron transmission spectroscopy and their relation to the occupied and unoccupied orbital levels. Focuses on teaching applications. (ML)|

Allan, Michael

1987-01-01

231

NMR-spectroscopic analysis of mixtures: from structure to function  

PubMed Central

NMR spectroscopy as a particularly information-rich method offers unique opportunities for improving the structural and functional characterization of metabolomes, which will be essential for advancing the understanding of many biological processes. Whereas traditionally NMR spectroscopy was mostly relegated to the characterization of pure compounds, the last few years have seen a surge of interest in using NMR spectroscopic techniques for characterizing complex metabolite mixtures. Development of new methods was motivated partly by the realization that using NMR for the analysis of metabolite mixtures can help identify otherwise inaccessible small molecules, for example compounds that are prone to chemical decomposition and thus cannot be isolated. Furthermore, comparative metabolomics and statistical analyses of NMR-spectra have proven highly effective at identifying novel and known metabolites that correlate with changes in genotype or phenotype. In this review, we provide an overview of the range of NMR spectroscopic techniques recently developed for characterizing metabolite mixtures, including methods used in discovery-oriented natural product chemistry, in the study of metabolite biosynthesis and function, or for comparative analyses of entire metabolomes.

Forseth, Ry R.; Schroeder, Frank C.

2010-01-01

232

Comparison of one-particle basis set extrapolation to explicitly correlated methods for the calculation of accurate quartic force fields, vibrational frequencies, and spectroscopic constants: application to H2O, N2H+, NO2+, and C2H2.  

PubMed

One-particle basis set extrapolation is compared with one of the new R12 methods for computing highly accurate quartic force fields (QFFs) and spectroscopic data, including molecular structures, rotational constants, and vibrational frequencies for the H(2)O, N(2)H(+), NO(2)(+), and C(2)H(2) molecules. In general, agreement between the spectroscopic data computed from the best R12 and basis set extrapolation methods is very good with the exception of a few parameters for N(2)H(+) where it is concluded that basis set extrapolation is still preferred. The differences for H(2)O and NO(2)(+) are small and it is concluded that the QFFs from both approaches are more or less equivalent in accuracy. For C(2)H(2), however, a known one-particle basis set deficiency for C-C multiple bonds significantly degrades the quality of results obtained from basis set extrapolation and in this case the R12 approach is clearly preferred over one-particle basis set extrapolation. The R12 approach used in the present study was modified in order to obtain high precision electronic energies, which are needed when computing a QFF. We also investigated including core-correlation explicitly in the R12 calculations, but conclude that current approaches are lacking. Hence core-correlation is computed as a correction using conventional methods. Considering the results for all four molecules, it is concluded that R12 methods will soon replace basis set extrapolation approaches for high accuracy electronic structure applications such as computing QFFs and spectroscopic data for comparison to high-resolution laboratory or astronomical observations, provided one uses a robust R12 method as we have done here. The specific R12 method used in the present study, CCSD(T)(R12), incorporated a reformulation of one intermediate matrix in order to attain machine precision in the electronic energies. Final QFFs for N(2)H(+) and NO(2)(+) were computed, including basis set extrapolation, core-correlation, scalar relativity, and higher-order correlation and then used to compute highly accurate spectroscopic data for all isotopologues. Agreement with high-resolution experiment for (14)N(2)H(+) and (14)N(2)D(+) was excellent, but for (14)N(16)O(2)(+) agreement for the two stretching fundamentals is outside the expected residual uncertainty in the theoretical values, and it is concluded that there is an error in the experimental quantities. It is hoped that the highly accurate spectroscopic data presented for the minor isotopologues of N(2)H(+) and NO(2)(+) will be useful in the interpretation of future laboratory or astronomical observations. PMID:21197977

Huang, Xinchuan; Valeev, Edward F; Lee, Timothy J

2010-12-28

233

Developing a library of authenticated Traditional Chinese Medicinal (TCM) plants for systematic biological evaluation -- Rationale, methods and preliminary results from a Sino-American collaboration?  

PubMed Central

While the popularity of and expenditures for herbal therapies (aka “ethnomedicines”) have increased globally in recent years, their efficacy, safety, mechanisms of action, potential as novel therapeutic agents, cost-effectiveness, or lack thereof, remain poorly defined and controversial. Moreover, published clinical trials evaluating the efficacy of herbal therapies have rightfully been criticized, post hoc, for their lack of quality assurance and reproducibility of study materials, as well as a lack of demonstration of plausible mechanisms and dosing effects. In short, clinical botanical investigations have suffered from the lack of a cohesive research strategy which draws on the expertise of all relevant specialties. With this as background, US and Chinese co-investigators with expertise in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), botany, chemistry and drug discovery, have jointly established a prototype library consisting of 202 authenticated medicinal plant and fungal species that collectively represent the therapeutic content of the majority of all commonly prescribed TCM herbal prescriptions. Currently housed at Harvard University, the library consists of duplicate or triplicate kilogram quantities of each authenticated and processed species, as well as “detanninized” extracts and sub-fractions of each mother extract. Each species has been collected at 2–3 sites, each separated geographically by hundreds of miles, with precise GPS documentation, and authenticated visually and chemically prior to testing for heavy metals and/or pesticides contamination. An explicit decision process has been developed whereby samples with the least contamination were selected to undergo ethanol extraction and HPLC sub-fractionation in preparation for high throughput screening across a broad array of biological targets including cancer biology targets. As envisioned, the subfractions in this artisan collection of authenticated medicinal plants will be tested for biological activity individually and in combinations (i.e., “complex mixtures”) consistent with traditional ethnomedical practice. This manuscript summarizes the rationale, methods and preliminary “proof of principle” for the establishment of this prototype, authenticated medicinal plant library. It is hoped that these methods will foster scientific discoveries with therapeutic potential and enhance efforts to systematically evaluate commonly used herbal therapies worldwide.

Eisenberg, David M.; Harris, Eric S.J.; Littlefield, Bruce A.; Cao, Shugeng; Craycroft, Jane A.; Scholten, Robert; Bayliss, Peter; Fu, Yanling; Wang, Wenquan; Qiao, Yanjiang; Zhao, Zhongzhen; Chen, Hubiao; Liu, Yong; Kaptchuk, Ted; Hahn, William C.; Wang, Xiaoxing; Roberts, Thomas; Shamu, Caroline E.; Clardy, Jon

2011-01-01

234

Simultaneous quantitative determination of nine active chemical compositions in traditional Chinese medicine Glycyrrhiza by RP-HPLC with full-time five-wavelength fusion method.  

PubMed

A new, simple, accurate and reliable full-time five-wavelength fusion method for the simultaneous separation and determination of nine active chemical compositions (liquiritin apioside, liquiritin, isoliquiritin apioside, ononin, isoliquiritin, liquiritigenin, calycosin, isoliquiritigenin, Glycyrrhizic acid monoammonium salt) in traditional Chinese medicine Glycyrrhiza was developed using reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) coupled with a diode-array detector (DAD). The chromatographic separation was performed on an Agilent TC-C18 column with gradient elution using 0.04% methanoic acid (A) and acetonitrile (B) at a flow rate of 1.0 mL min(-1) and UV detection at 248 nm, 250 nm, 276 nm, 362 nm, 370 nm. The standard curves were linear over the range of 2.1379-12.8272 ?g for liquiritin apioside, 3.9299-23.5794 ?g for liquiritin, 1.0432-6.2592 ?g for isoliquiritin apioside, 0.8764-5.8584 ?g for ononin, 1.0701-6.4205 ?g for isoliquiritin, 1.3685-8.2111 ?g for liquiritigenin, 0.3927-2.3563 ?g for calycosin, 0.2498- 1.4986 ?g for isoliquiritigenin, 2.0094-12.0564 ?g for Glycyrrhizic acid monoammonium salt, respectively (r(2) > 0.9997). The recoveries and relative standard deviation (RSD) varied from 95.09% to 103.54% and 1.09% to 2.36%, respectively. The precision for all the analytes was less than 2.52%. The method indicated good performance in terms of precision, accuracy and linearity. The method enabled the simultaneous determination of nine active chemical compositions for quality control of Glycyrrhiza. PMID:23336517

Wu, Yin-Ping; Meng, Xian-Sheng; Bao, Yong-Rui; Wang, Shuai; Kang, Ting-Guo

2013-01-01

235

Chemical and Physical Methods to Analyze a Multicomponent Traditional Chinese Herbal Prescription Using LC-MS/MS, Electron Microscope, and Congo Red Staining.  

PubMed

This study develops several chemical and physical methods to evaluate the quality of a traditional Chinese formulation, Jia-Wei-Xiao-Yao-San. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) coupled with electrospray ionization was used to measure the herbal biomarkers of saikosaponin A, saikosaponin D, ferulic acid, and paeoniflorin from this herbal formula. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) and light microscopy photographs with Congo red staining were used to identify the cellulose fibers if raw herbal powder had been added to the herbal pharmaceutical product. Moreover, water solubility and crude fiber content examination were used to inspect for potential herbal additives to the herbal pharmaceutical products. The results demonstrate that the contents of the herbal ingredients of saikosaponin A, saikosaponin D, ferulic acid, and paeoniflorin were around 0.351?±?0.017, 0.136?±?0.010, 0.140?±?0.005, and 2.281?±?0.406?mg/g, respectively, for this herbal pharmaceutical product. The physical examination data demonstrate that the raw herbal powder had rough, irregular, lumpy, filamentous, and elongated shapes, as well as strong Congo red staining. In addition, water solubility and crude fiber content were not consistent in the herbal pharmaceutical products. PMID:23997802

Lu, Chia-Ming; Hou, Mei-Ling; Lin, Lie-Chwen; Tsai, Tung-Hu

2013-08-12

236

Chemical and Physical Methods to Analyze a Multicomponent Traditional Chinese Herbal Prescription Using LC-MS/MS, Electron Microscope, and Congo Red Staining  

PubMed Central

This study develops several chemical and physical methods to evaluate the quality of a traditional Chinese formulation, Jia-Wei-Xiao-Yao-San. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) coupled with electrospray ionization was used to measure the herbal biomarkers of saikosaponin A, saikosaponin D, ferulic acid, and paeoniflorin from this herbal formula. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) and light microscopy photographs with Congo red staining were used to identify the cellulose fibers if raw herbal powder had been added to the herbal pharmaceutical product. Moreover, water solubility and crude fiber content examination were used to inspect for potential herbal additives to the herbal pharmaceutical products. The results demonstrate that the contents of the herbal ingredients of saikosaponin A, saikosaponin D, ferulic acid, and paeoniflorin were around 0.351?±?0.017, 0.136?±?0.010, 0.140?±?0.005, and 2.281?±?0.406?mg/g, respectively, for this herbal pharmaceutical product. The physical examination data demonstrate that the raw herbal powder had rough, irregular, lumpy, filamentous, and elongated shapes, as well as strong Congo red staining. In addition, water solubility and crude fiber content were not consistent in the herbal pharmaceutical products.

Lu, Chia-Ming; Lin, Lie-Chwen; Tsai, Tung-Hu

2013-01-01

237

A generalized series approach to MR spectroscopic imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of precise spatial localization of spectral information in magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopic imaging is addressed. A novel method, called GSLIM (generalized spectral location by imaging), is proposed to make possible the marriage of high-resolution proton imaging with spectroscopic imaging and localization. This method improves on the conventional Fourier series inversion method used in chemical shift imaging (CSI) and

Zhi-Pei Liang; Paul C. Lauterbur

1991-01-01

238

How effective are traditional methods of compositional analysis in providing an accurate material balance for a range of softwood derived residues?  

PubMed Central

Background Forest residues represent an abundant and sustainable source of biomass which could be used as a biorefinery feedstock. Due to the heterogeneity of forest residues, such as hog fuel and bark, one of the expected challenges is to obtain an accurate material balance of these feedstocks. Current compositional analytical methods have been standardised for more homogenous feedstocks such as white wood and agricultural residues. The described work assessed the accuracy of existing and modified methods on a variety of forest residues both before and after a typical pretreatment process. Results When “traditional” pulp and paper methods were used, the total amount of material that could be quantified in each of the six softwood-derived residues ranged from 88% to 96%. It was apparent that the extractives present in the substrate were most influential in limiting the accuracy of a more representative material balance. This was particularly evident when trying to determine the lignin content, due to the incomplete removal of the extractives, even after a two stage water-ethanol extraction. Residual extractives likely precipitated with the acid insoluble lignin during analysis, contributing to an overestimation of the lignin content. Despite the minor dissolution of hemicellulosic sugars, extraction with mild alkali removed most of the extractives from the bark and improved the raw material mass closure to 95% in comparison to the 88% value obtained after water-ethanol extraction. After pretreatment, the extent of extractive removal and their reaction/precipitation with lignin was heavily dependent on the pretreatment conditions used. The selective removal of extractives and their quantification after a pretreatment proved to be even more challenging. Regardless of the amount of extractives that were originally present, the analytical methods could be refined to provide reproducible quantification of the carbohydrates present in both the starting material and after pretreatment. Conclusion Despite the challenges resulting from the heterogeneity of the initial biomass substrates a reasonable summative mass closure could be obtained before and after steam pretreatment. However, method revision and optimisation was required, particularly the effective removal of extractives, to ensure that representative and reproducible values for the major lignin and carbohydrate components.

2013-01-01

239

A comparative study on the pharmacokinetics of a traditional Chinese herbal preparation with the single herb extracts in rats by LC-MS/MS method.  

PubMed

The Er-Mu preparation (EMP) is a well-known traditional Chinese prescription that has been clinically employed for the treatment of asthma and bronchial inflammation for hundreds of years. Neomangiferin, mangiferin, peimine, peiminine, timosaponin BII and timosaponin AIII are the major active ingredients of EMP for their anti-inflammatory or anti-asthmatic effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetics of the target compounds from the recipe of EMP and the single herb extracts of Anemarrhenae asphodeloides Bge. (ARR) and Fritillariae cirrhosae D.Don (FCB), and the influence of compatibility on the pharmacokinetics of the main active ingredients. The rats were randomly assigned to three groups and orally administered with the recipe of EMP and the single herb extracts of ARR and FCB, respectively. The concentrations of the target compounds in rat plasma were determined by an optimal liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS) and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) with a multi-switching monitoring mode coupled with simple protein precipitation method, and the main pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated. Significant differences (p<0.05) were found in the pharmacokinetic parameters of neomangiferin, mangiferin, peimine and peiminine between the single ARR or FCB extract and the combination treatment (p<0.05). The developed HPLC-ESI-MS method by switching positive and negative ESI sources in a single run was successfully applied to study the pharmacokinetics of six compounds in SD rat, which was powerful in terms of sensitivity, selectivity, time savings and solvent consumption in the quantitative analysis of complex herbal medicines. It was surmised that formula compatibility could significantly influence the pharmacokinetics of EMP and our study has preliminarily elucidated the priority in the compatible administration of EMP based on pharmacokinetic studies. PMID:23624157

Sun, Ying-guang; Du, Ying-feng; Yang, Kai; Chang, Lu; Cao, Liang; Ren, Yan-ping; Sun, Qian; Wang, Qiao; Zhang, Lan-tong; Lv, Pin-tian

2013-04-06

240

Traditional Agriculture and Permaculture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses benefits of combining traditional agricultural techniques with the concepts of "permaculture," a framework for revitalizing traditions, culture, and spirituality. Describes school, college, and community projects that have assisted American Indian communities in revitalizing sustainable agricultural practices that incorporate cultural…

Pierce, Dick

1997-01-01

241

Traditional Agriculture and Permaculture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses benefits of combining traditional agricultural techniques with the concepts of "permaculture," a framework for revitalizing traditions, culture, and spirituality. Describes school, college, and community projects that have assisted American Indian communities in revitalizing sustainable agricultural practices that incorporate cultural…

Pierce, Dick

1997-01-01

242

Building a Spectroscope  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn about the variations of white light in this Moveable Museum unit, in which they build a pocket-sized spectroscope from readily available materials and examine different light sources in school, at home, and around their town or city. The seven-page PDF guide includes suggested general background readings for educators, activity and safety notes, step-by-step directions, and a spectroscope template.

243

High-energy spectroscopic astrophysics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

After three decades of intense research in X-ray and gamma-ray astronomy, the time was ripe to summarize basic knowledge on X-ray and gamma-ray spectroscopy for interested students and researchers ready to become involved in new high-energy missions. This volume exposes both the scientific basics and modern methods of high-energy spectroscopic astrophysics. The emphasis is on physical principles and observing methods rather than a discussion of particular classes of high-energy objects, but many examples and new results are included in the three chapters as well.

Güdel, Manuel; Walter, Roland

244

[Spectroscopic and dynamical studies of highly energized small polyatomic molecules]. [Stimulated emission pumping  

SciTech Connect

Stimulated emission pumping (SEP) spectroscopy was used on acetylene and on formyl radical. An attempt was made for pattern recognition based on statistics; a method was invented that combined CNPI (complete nuclear permutation-inversion) group theory and SCC (spectral cross-correlation). But the direction away from statistical pattern recognition back to traditional spectroscopic pattern recognition was taken. Vibrational states and quantum numbers are discussed. For the formyl radical, the fluorescence excitation spectrum was recorded and a rotational analysis of the 0[sup 0][sub 0] band performed.

Not Available

1992-01-01

245

How the Internet Is Changing the Implementation of Traditional Research Methods, People's Daily Lives, and the Way in Which Developmental Scientists Conduct Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Recent years have seen an impressive increase in web-based research, of which we review and discuss two main types. First, researchers can create online versions of traditional questionnaires. Using the internet in this way usually does not compromise the psychometric properties of such measures, and participants are typically not less…

Denissen, Jaap J. A.; Neumann, Linus; van Zalk, Maarten

2010-01-01

246

How the Internet Is Changing the Implementation of Traditional Research Methods, People's Daily Lives, and the Way in Which Developmental Scientists Conduct Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent years have seen an impressive increase in web-based research, of which we review and discuss two main types. First, researchers can create online versions of traditional questionnaires. Using the internet in this way usually does not compromise the psychometric properties of such measures, and participants are typically not less…

Denissen, Jaap J. A.; Neumann, Linus; van Zalk, Maarten

2010-01-01

247

Due process traditionalism.  

PubMed

In important cases, the Supreme Court has limited the scope of "substantive due process" by reference to tradition, but it has yet to explain why it has done so. Due process traditionalism might be defended in several distinctive ways. The most ambitious defense draws on a set of ideas associated with Edmund Burke and Friedrich Hayek, who suggested that traditions have special credentials by virtue of their acceptance by many minds. But this defense runs into three problems. Those who have participated in a tradition may not have accepted any relevant proposition; they might suffer from a systematic bias; and they might have joined a cascade. An alternative defense sees due process traditionalism as a second-best substitute for two preferable alternatives: a purely procedural approach to the Due Process Clause, and an approach that gives legislatures the benefit of every reasonable doubt. But it is not clear that in these domains, the first-best approaches are especially attractive; and even if they are, the second-best may be an unacceptably crude substitute. The most plausible defense of due process traditionalism operates on rule-consequentialist grounds, with the suggestion that even if traditions are not great, they are often good, and judges do best if they defer to traditions rather than attempting to specify the content of "liberty" on their own. But the rule-consequentialist defense depends on controversial and probably false assumptions about the likely goodness of traditions and the institutional incapacities of judges. PMID:18595214

Sunstein, Cass R

2008-06-01

248

Learning from traditional architects  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on lessons that can be learned from looking at the history of traditional architecture. When architects stayed aloof from the common building activities during the Industrial Revolution, a low standard of building resulted, and the needs of the people were made subservient to the needs of industry. Can we apply lessons from traditional architec- ture to software?

Lorraine Johnston

2001-01-01

249

Subterranean Traditions of Youth  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because of tensions inherent in the modern position of youth, they have been vulnerable to a variety of deviant patterns. These deviant patterns manifest a spirit of rebelliousness and have taken three major forms in Amer ican life: delinquency, radicalism, and Bohemianism. Each has been a subterranean tradition of American youth. The subterranean tradition of delinquency, which is guided by

David Matza

1961-01-01

250

Fashion, Tradition, and Democracy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fashion is said to corrode tradition, if only because it does not take the past seriously. Mark Taylor contends that until fashion appeared in the mid-fourteenth century preservation was more important than invention and innovation. Taylor also connects fashion to advertising and advertising to the disruption of tradition. Fashion involves useless, wasteful change; it is about the making and selling

Joshua Miller

251

Traditional Native Poetry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|While Native myths and legends were educational tools to transmit tribal beliefs and history, traditional American Indian poetry served a ritualistic function in everyday life. Few traditional Native songs, which all poems were, survive; only Mayan and Aztec poems were written, and most of these were burned by a Spanish bishop. In addition, many…

Grant, Agnes

1985-01-01

252

Direct electrochemistry and electrocatalysis of anthraquinone-monosulfonate/polyaniline hybrid film synthesized by a novel electrochemical doping-dedoping-redoping method on pre-activated spectroscopically pure graphite surface.  

PubMed

Polyaniline (PANI) film in the form of emeraldine salt (ES) doped with anthraquinone-2-sulfonate (AQS) was synthesized by a novel electrochemical doping-dedoping-redoping method on pre-activated spectroscopically pure graphite electrode surface. SEM showed the highly porous microstructure with sponge-like morphology of the AQS/PANI hybrid film, which has more available active sites for facilitating electron transfer and energy efficiency of redox reactions. FTIR and UV-vis spectra demonstrated the incorporation of AQS into the conductive PANI matrix. Cyclic voltammetric (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscope (EIS), rotating ring-disk electrode (RRDE) and chronoamperometry (CA) techniques indicated that the AQS/PANI composite has high electrocatalytic activity and remarkable stability for the two-electron reduction of oxygen via an electrochemical-chemical mechanism at the base of the porous PANI film. The acid centers of PANI (protonated imine group) played an important role not only in two internal redox transform processes, but also in an external charge transfer reaction during the electrocatalytic reduction of oxygen. The incorporation of anionic AQS groups into PANI matrix to prepare electroactive PANI using the electrochemical doping-dedoping-redoping method is conceptually new, and may be extended to the development of new functional materials from many other conducting polymers and quinonoid compounds for wide applications in catalysis, sensors, molecular electronics, and so on. PMID:21212886

Zhang, Guoquan; Yang, Fenglin

2011-01-07

253

Prototype Portable Ultrasonic Spectroscope.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A portable ultrasonic system designated as the Model 5030 Ultrasonic Spectroscope, has been completed. This system displays both the time-domain rf signal and the spectral content of selected portions of the signal on a single CRT. This advancement signif...

B. J. Spencer G. M. Elfbaum J. L. Hunerwadel K. A. Fowler

1973-01-01

254

A Spectroscopic-Based Laboratory Experiment for Protein Conformational Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article describes a practical experiment for teaching basic spectroscopic techniques to introduce the topic of protein conformational change to students in the field of molecular biology, biochemistry, or structural biology. The spectroscopic methods employed in the experiment are absorbance, for protein concentration measurements, and…

Ramos, Carlos Henrique I.

2004-01-01

255

X-Ray Absorption And EPR Spectroscopic Studies of the Biotransformations of Chromium(Vi) in Mammalian Cells. Is Chromodulin An Artifact of Isolation Methods?  

SciTech Connect

Very different biological activities are usually ascribed to Cr(VI) (a toxin and carcinogen) and Cr(III) (an antidiabetic agent), although recent evidence suggests that both these types of actions are likely to arise from cellular uptake of varying concentrations of Cr(VI). The first systematic study of XANES spectra of Cr(III) complexes formed in Cr(VI)-treated mammalian cells (A549, HepG2, V79, and C2C12 cell lines), and in subcellular fractions of A549 cells, has been performed using a library of XANES spectra of model Cr(III) complexes. The results of multiple linear regression analyses of XANES spectra, in combination with multiple-scattering fits of XAFS spectra, indicate that Cr(III) formed in Cr(VI)-treated cells is most likely to bind to carboxylato, amine, and imidazole residues of amino acids, and to a lesser extent to hydroxo or aqua ligands. A combination of XANES and EPR spectroscopic data for Cr(VI)-treated cells indicates that the main component of Cr(III) formed in such cells is bound to high-molecular-mass ligands (>30 kDa, probably proteins), but significant redistribution of Cr(III) occurs during the cell lysis, which leads to the formation of a low-molecular-mass (<30 kDa) Cr(III)-containing fraction. The spectroscopic (XANES, XAFS, and EPR) properties of this fraction were strikingly similar to those of the purported natural Cr(III)-containing factor, chromodulin, that was reported to be isolated from the reaction of Cr(VI) with liver. These data support the hypothesis that a chromodulin-like species, which is formed from such a reaction, is an artifact of the reported isolation procedure.

Levina, A.; Harris, H.H.; Lay, P.A.; /Sydney U.

2007-07-10

256

Spectroscopic measurements of solar wind generation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spectroscopically observable quantities are described which are sensitive to the primary plasma parameters of the solar wind's source region. The method is discussed in which those observable quantities are used as constraints in the construction of empirical models of various coronal structures. Simulated observations are used to examine the fractional contributions to observed spectral intensities from coronal structures of interest which co-exist with other coronal structures along simulated lines-of-sight. The sensitivity of spectroscopic observables to the physical parameters within each of those structures is discussed.

Kohl, J. L.; Withbroe, G. L.; Zapata, C. A.; Noci, G.

1983-11-01

257

Breaking with tradition.  

PubMed

The author discusses why healthcare security directors need to find more creative and innovative ways of providing cost-efficient services. Non-traditional partnerships, he notes, are needed. PMID:10124915

Connolly, C P

258

The "Natural Law Tradition."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A discussion of natural law outlines some of the theory and tradition surrounding it and examines its relationship to the social science and legal curriculum and to the teaching of jurisprudence. (MSE)

Finnis, John

1986-01-01

259

Oral Tradition Journal  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Stretching back thousands of years, the oral traditions that have enriched and documented human existence remain a subject of much fascination. The Oral Tradition Journal was founded in 1986 in order to "serve as an international and interdisciplinary forum for discussion of worldwide oral traditions and related forms." The journal is based at the University of Missouri, and visitors to the site can search the entire run of the journal on this site by keyword or author. Clicking over to the "Browse the Journal" area, visitors can look over back issues that include special issues on the Serbo-Croatian oral tradition, performance literature, and the performance artistry of Bob Dylan. The site is a real treat for anyone interested in the subject, and visitors can also learn how to submit their own work for possible inclusion in a forthcoming volume.

2008-01-01

260

Quantitative analysis of electron spectroscopic imaging series  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed new methods to quantify the data acquired by electron spectroscopic imaging (ESI) which are based on recording series of energy filtered images across inner shell loss edges or in the low loss region. From the series of ESI images, electron energy loss (EEL) spectra can be extracted for any given image area, i.e. each individual pixel or

J Mayer; U Eigenthaler; J. M Plitzko; F Dettenwanger

1997-01-01

261

The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the status of the 2012 edition of the HITRAN molecular spectroscopic compilation. The new edition replaces the previous HITRAN edition of 2008 and its updates during the intervening years. The HITRAN molecular absorption compilation is comprised of six major components structured into folders that are freely accessible on the internet. These folders consist of the traditional line-by-line spectroscopic parameters required for high-resolution radiative-transfer codes, infrared absorption cross-sections for molecules not yet amenable to representation in a line-by-line form, ultraviolet spectroscopic parameters, aerosol indices of refraction, collision-induced absorption data, and general tables such as partition sums that apply globally to the data. The new HITRAN is greatly extended in terms of accuracy, spectral coverage, additional absorption phenomena, and validity. Molecules and isotopologues have been added that address the issues of atmospheres beyond the Earth. Also discussed is a new initiative that casts HITRAN into a relational database format that offers many advantages over the long-standing sequential text-based structure that has existed since the initial release of HITRAN in the early 1970s.

Rothman, L. S.; Gordon, I. E.; Babikov, Y.; Barbe, A.; Chris Benner, D.; Bernath, P. F.; Birk, M.; Bizzocchi, L.; Boudon, V.; Brown, L. R.; Campargue, A.; Chance, K.; Cohen, E. A.; Coudert, L. H.; Devi, V. M.; Drouin, B. J.; Fayt, A.; Flaud, J.-M.; Gamache, R. R.; Harrison, J. J.; Hartmann, J.-M.; Hill, C.; Hodges, J. T.; Jacquemart, D.; Jolly, A.; Lamouroux, J.; Le Roy, R. J.; Li, G.; Long, D. A.; Lyulin, O. M.; Mackie, C. J.; Massie, S. T.; Mikhailenko, S.; Müller, H. S. P.; Naumenko, O. V.; Nikitin, A. V.; Orphal, J.; Perevalov, V.; Perrin, A.; Polovtseva, E. R.; Richard, C.; Smith, M. A. H.; Starikova, E.; Sung, K.; Tashkun, S.; Tennyson, J.; Toon, G. C.; Tyuterev, Vl. G.; Wagner, G.

2013-11-01

262

Antioxidant and type 2 diabetes related functional properties of phytic acid extract from Kenyan local food ingredients: effects of traditional processing methods.  

PubMed

Emerging scientific evidences reveal that phytic acid has several positive effects on human health. The antioxidant and type 2 diabetes related enzyme inhibition properties of phytic acid extract prepared from raw and traditionally processed local grains and vegetables collected from Kenya were evaluated. Phytic acid content of raw grains and vegetables ranged between 2.81-3.01 and 0.29-3.23 g/100 g DM, respectively. The phytic acid extract from raw samples revealed 59%-89% of DPPH radical scavenging capacity, 27-3,526 mmol Fe(II)/g extract of reducing power, 20%-72% of ?-amylase inhibition activity and 8%-91% of ?-glucosidase inhibition activity. Cooking and roasting improved the antioxidant and health relevant functionality of phytic acid extracts obtained from Kenyan local vegetables and grains, respectively. PMID:21895422

Kunyanga, Catherine N; Imungi, Jasper K; Okoth, Michael W; Biesalski, Hans K; Vadivel, Vellingiri

263

[Central composite design-response surface method optimize of fang-bing nasal inhalant from components of traditional Chinese medicine for sedative and sleep aiding].  

PubMed

To obtain the optimal preparation technology of Fang-bing nasal inhalant from components of traditional Chinese medicine by central composite design, with an apparatus containing nasal inhalant that simulated the expiration and inspiration of nose, the dissolution in vitro of different optimized inhalant samples designed through central composite design were investigated. The accumulative release of linalool, borneol, menthol was detected with GC. Response surface methodology was used to optimize the conditions of preparation technology by establishing multiple linear regression and second-order quadratic models. Then, deviation was carried out through comparing the observed and predicted values. It was showed that the coefficient of correlation of second-order quadratic model was high. The related coefficient reached 0.999 3, 0.998 0, 0.944 9, separately. The optimum conditions of preparation technology were as following: 84.39% of alcohol concentration, the weight of starch 1.45 g and the weight of carmellose sodium (CMC-Na for short) 1.22 g. The deviations between observed and predicated values showed -0.36%, 1.52%, 2.40%, separately. In this experiment, the established model can describe the good relation between factors and indexes from preparation technology of Fang-bing nasal inhalant and the outcome of prediction is well. This optimal Fang-bing nasal inhalant was used to study its in vivo effect on model rats deprived from sleep and showed sedative and sleep aiding, which will bring an instruction on inhalants of components from traditional Chinese medicine. PMID:23833948

Li, Su-Yun; Jiang, Meng-Li; Zhang, Li-Hong; Xiao, Xiao-Jin; Li, Xiao-Dong

2013-04-01

264

[Spectroscopic and dynamical studies of highly energized small polyatomic molecules]. Technical progress report, February 1, 1990--June 30, 1992  

SciTech Connect

Stimulated emission pumping (SEP) spectroscopy was used on acetylene and on formyl radical. An attempt was made for pattern recognition based on statistics; a method was invented that combined CNPI (complete nuclear permutation-inversion) group theory and SCC (spectral cross-correlation). But the direction away from statistical pattern recognition back to traditional spectroscopic pattern recognition was taken. Vibrational states and quantum numbers are discussed. For the formyl radical, the fluorescence excitation spectrum was recorded and a rotational analysis of the 0{sup 0}{sub 0} band performed.

Not Available

1992-12-31

265

In Defense of Tradition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A disturbing trend is developing in higher education which may jeopardize the quality and importance of the classical tradition in education. This trend is exemplified by demands that the liberal arts be made relevant and comprehensible to the student and that they be related in some way to the search for a good job. The great classical…

Pekich, John

266

Traditional Islamic Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An historical and descriptive account of the Islamic school system is presented. Traditional Islamic schools began with the founding of Islam in the seventh century A.D.; the madrasas or Islamic universities were considered to be among the world's finest higher education institutes. Although Islamic scholarship began to wane in the 14th century,…

Pollak, Susan

267

Non-Traditional Wraps  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article presents a recipe for non-traditional wraps. In this article, the author describes how adults and children can help with the recipe and the skills involved with this recipe. The bigger role that children can play in the making of the item the more they are apt to try new things and appreciate the texture and taste.|

Owens, Buffy

2009-01-01

268

Traditional Cherokee Food.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A collection for children and teachers of traditional Cherokee recipes emphasizes the art, rather than the science, of cooking. The hand-printed, illustrated format is designed to communicate the feeling of Cherokee history and culture and to encourage readers to collect and add family recipes. The cookbook could be used as a starting point for…

Hendrix, Janey B.

269

Traditional Family Values  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a What is “traditionalism” and how does it relate to family values? What are the family values that concern parental responsibility\\u000a in raising children? Who do the Puerto Ricans say should be the decision maker in the family? Should women with small children\\u000a work outside the home? Should husbands share responsibility for housework? Should a wife always obey her husband? Should

Mary Cuadrado; Louis Lieberman

270

Traditional Balsamic Vinegar  

Microsoft Academic Search

The term ‘balsamic vinegar’ is frequently applied to describe sauces, condiments and dressings with particular sweet taste.\\u000a In Italy there are two types of balsamic vinegar: ‘balsamic vinegar of Modena’ and ‘traditional balsamic vinegar’. The first\\u000a is a flavoured wine vinegar obtained by blending cooked must and wine vinegar and, in some cases, by adding a small amount\\u000a of caramel.

Paolo Giudici; Maria Gullo; Lisa Solieri

271

Effects of extrusion and traditional processing methods on antinutrients and in vitro digestibility of protein and starch in faba and kidney beans  

Microsoft Academic Search

Comparative effects of extrusion cooking and conventional processing methods on protein content and reduction of antinutritional factor (phytic acid, condensed tannins, polyphenols, trypsin, chymotrypsin, ?-amylase inhibitors and haemagglutinating activity) levels in Vicia faba and Phaseolus vulgaris seeds were studied. In vitro protein and starch digestibilities were assessed. P. vulgaris seeds showed highest levels of condensed tannins, chymotrypsin and ?-amylase inhibitory

R. Alonso; A. Aguirre; F. Marzo

2000-01-01

272

In vitro activity of imazalil against Penicillium expansum: Comparison of the CLSI M38-A broth microdilution method with traditional techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

Penicillium expansum is one of the most important pathogens that cause blue mold in stored apples and is regarded as the major producer of the mycotoxin patulin. Imazalil is one of the fungicides used in Spain to control postharvest blue mold, but development of fungal resistance has been reported in P. digitatum and P. italicum. The most common used methods

R. Cabañas; M. L. Abarca; M. R. Bragulat; F. J. Cabañes

2009-01-01

273

Development of a Moodle Course for Schoolchildren's Table Tennis Learning Based on Competence Motivation Theory: Its Effectiveness in Comparison to Traditional Training Method  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Based on Competence Motivation Theory (CMT), a Moodle course for schoolchildren's table tennis learning was developed (The URL is http://www.bssepp.com, and this course allows guest access). The effects of the course on students' knowledge, perceived competence and interest were evaluated through quantitative methods. The sample of the study…

Zou, Junhua; Liu, Qingtang; Yang, Zongkai

2012-01-01

274

Validated spectrophotometric method for the determination, spectroscopic characterization and thermal structural analysis of duloxetine with 1,2-naphthoquinone-4-sulphonate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel, selective, sensitive and simple spectrophotometric method was developed and validated for the determination of the antidepressant duloxetine hydrochloride in pharmaceutical preparation. The method was based on the reaction of duloxetine hydrochloride with 1,2-naphthoquinone-4-sulphonate (NQS) in alkaline media to yield orange colored product. The formation of this complex was also confirmed by UV-visible, FTIR, 1H NMR, Mass spectra techniques and thermal analysis. This method was validated for various parameters according to ICH guidelines. Beer's law is obeyed in a range of 5.0-60 ?g/mL at the maximum absorption wavelength of 480 nm. The detection limit is 0.99 ?g/mL and the recovery rate is in a range of 98.10-99.57%. The proposed methods was validated and applied to the determination of duloxetine hydrochloride in pharmaceutical preparation. The results were statistically analyzed and compared to those of a reference UV spectrophotometric method.

Ulu, Sevgi Tatar; Elmali, Fikriye Tuncel

2012-03-01

275

Polyphasic Study of the Spatial Distribution of Microorganisms in Mexican Pozol, a Fermented Maize Dough, Demonstrates the Need for Cultivation-Independent Methods To Investigate Traditional Fermentations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of microorganisms in pozol balls, a fermented maize dough, was investigated by a polypha- sic approach in which we used both culture-dependent and culture-independent methods, including microbial enumeration, fermentation product analysis, quantification of microbial taxa with 16S rRNA-targeted oligo- nucleotide probes, determination of microbial fingerprints by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), and 16S ribosomal DNA gene sequencing. Our

FREDERIC AMPE; NABIL BEN OMAR; CLAIRE MOIZAN; CARMEN WACHER

1999-01-01

276

Spectroscopic Imaging with Prospective Motion Correction and Retrospective Phase Correction  

PubMed Central

Motion-induced artefacts in magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging are much harder to recognize than in imaging experiments and can therefore lead to erroneous interpretation. A method for prospective motion correction based on an optical tracking system has recently been proposed and has already been successfully applied to single voxel spectroscopy. In this work, the utility of prospective motion correction in combination with retrospective phase correction is evaluated for spectroscopic imaging in the human brain. Retrospective phase correction, based on the interleaved reference scan method, is used to correct for motion-induced frequency shifts and ensure correct phasing of the spectra across the whole spectroscopic imaging slice. It is demonstrated that the presented correction methodology can reduce motion-induced degradation of spectroscopic imaging data.

Lange, Thomas; Maclaren, Julian; Buechert, Martin; Zaitsev, Maxim

2011-01-01

277

Confocal light absorption and scattering spectroscopic microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a novel optical method for observing submicrometer intracellular structures in living cells, which is called confocal light absorption and scattering spectroscopic (CLASS) microscopy. It combines confocal microscopy, a well-established high-resolution microscopic technique, with light-scattering spectroscopy. CLASS microscopy requires no exogenous labels and is capable of imaging and continuously monitoring individual viable cells, enabling the observation of cell and organelle functioning at scales of the order of 100 nm.

Fang, Hui; Qiu, Le; Vitkin, Edward; Zaman, Munir M.; Andersson, Charlotte; Salahuddin, Saira; Kimerer, Lauren M.; Cipolloni, Patsy B.; Modell, Mark D.; Turner, Bradley S.; Keates, Sarah E.; Bigio, Irving; Itzkan, Irving; Freedman, Steven D.; Bansil, Rama; Hanlon, Eugene B.; Perelman, Lev T.

2007-04-01

278

The traditional and new methods of accounting for the factors distorting the flow over a model in large transonic wind tunnels  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The report presents a brief review of the investigation methods and results obtained for the key problems of the test procedure in the industrial sub- and transonic TSAGI wind tunnels. Among these are the flow calibration in 'empty wind tunnels', the wall interference minimization, and the interference with supporting devices. These problems can be solved only in the combination of the calculation and theoretical investigations with the tests carried out first in pilot facilities and then in large wind tunnels. As examples are given the results of the flow calibration both in the conventional conditions of a uniform test section flow and in a flow with the side wall boundary layer suction which is typical for two-dimensional model tests. The flow boundary influence is investigated by the calculation and experimental method of corrections which works well at angles of attack up to 50 degrees at M = 0.9. Good results are also obtained owing to the application of the adaptive perforation to reduce the wall interference on a large-scale civil plane model (blockage is 3.16 percent). The introduction of corrections for the sting-induced flow distortion over the model afterbody is discussed shortly.

Neyland, V. M.

1994-07-01

279

Validating Raman spectroscopic calibrations of phonon deformation potentials in silicon single crystals: A comparison between ball-on-ring and micro-indentation methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Of main interest in the present work is a quantitative comparison between the phonon deformation potential (PDP) values determined for silicon single crystals by two different calibration methods: (i) a macroscopic method exploiting the stress field developed in a ball-on-ring (biaxial) bending configuration; and (ii) a microscopic method using the residual stress field stored around an indentation print. A comparison between the two methods helps to establish the reliability limits for experimental stress analyses in the (001), (011), and (111) planes of silicon devices by means of polarized Raman spectroscopy. Emphasis is also placed on evaluating the degree of precision involved with using a closed-form equation (i.e., as proposed by other authors), which describes the stress state when different crystallographic planes of the Si sample are loaded in the ball-on- ring jig. A comparison between stress profiles obtained by such equations and those computed by the finite element method (FEM) in the loaded disk reveals a clear discrepancy for the (011) plane. Such a discrepancy could be attributed to elastic coupling and anisotropic effects (particularly relevant along the <011> direction), which can lead to errors up to 15% in computing the stress field stored in the silicon lattice.

Miyatake, Takahiro; Pezzotti, Giuseppe

2011-11-01

280

Comparison of some dispersion-corrected and traditional functionals with CCSD(T) and MP2 ab initio methods: Dispersion, induction, and basis set superposition error  

PubMed Central

We compare dispersion and induction interactions for noble gas dimers and for Ne, methane, and 2-butyne with HF and LiF using a variety of functionals (including some specifically parameterized to evaluate dispersion interactions) with ab initio methods including CCSD(T) and MP2. We see that inductive interactions tend to enhance dispersion and may be accompanied by charge-transfer. We show that the functionals do not generally follow the expected trends in interaction energies, basis set superposition errors (BSSE), and interaction distances as a function of basis set size. The functionals parameterized to treat dispersion interactions often overestimate these interactions, sometimes by quite a lot, when compared to higher level calculations. Which functionals work best depends upon the examples chosen. The B3LYP and X3LYP functionals, which do not describe pure dispersion interactions, appear to describe dispersion mixed with induction about as accurately as those parametrized to treat dispersion. We observed significant differences in high-level wavefunction calculations in a basis set larger than those used to generate the structures in many of the databases. We discuss the implications for highly parameterized functionals based on these databases, as well as the use of simple potential energy for fitting the parameters rather than experimentally determinable thermodynamic state functions that involve consideration of vibrational states.

Roy, Dipankar; Marianski, Mateusz; Maitra, Neepa T.; Dannenberg, J. J.

2012-01-01

281

Comparison of some dispersion-corrected and traditional functionals with CCSD(T) and MP2 ab initio methods: Dispersion, induction, and basis set superposition error  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We compare dispersion and induction interactions for noble gas dimers and for Ne, methane, and 2-butyne with HF and LiF using a variety of functionals (including some specifically parameterized to evaluate dispersion interactions) with ab initio methods including CCSD(T) and MP2. We see that inductive interactions tend to enhance dispersion and may be accompanied by charge-transfer. We show that the functionals do not generally follow the expected trends in interaction energies, basis set superposition errors (BSSE), and interaction distances as a function of basis set size. The functionals parameterized to treat dispersion interactions often overestimate these interactions, sometimes by quite a lot, when compared to higher level calculations. Which functionals work best depends upon the examples chosen. The B3LYP and X3LYP functionals, which do not describe pure dispersion interactions, appear to describe dispersion mixed with induction about as accurately as those parametrized to treat dispersion. We observed significant differences in high-level wavefunction calculations in a basis set larger than those used to generate the structures in many of the databases. We discuss the implications for highly parameterized functionals based on these databases, as well as the use of simple potential energy for fitting the parameters rather than experimentally determinable thermodynamic state functions that involve consideration of vibrational states.

Roy, Dipankar; Marianski, Mateusz; Maitra, Neepa T.; Dannenberg, J. J.

2012-10-01

282

New application of a traditional analytical method--arsenic removal from water works sludge during iron(III) chloride coagulant production.  

PubMed

The Marsh Test, the original means of determination of arsenic by hydride generation, has been modified to remove arsenic from water works sludge, with iron used instead of zinc as the main agent. Water works sludge (main compound iron(III) oxyhydrate) generated during groundwater treatment can be enriched in arsenic up to several gkg(-1). Acidic dissolution of this sludge to produce FeCl3 coagulant liberates the arsenic. Addition of elemental iron reduces this dissolved As(V) mainly to dispersed elemental As(0) particles, which can be removed by filtration. If the reaction temperature is kept below 50 degrees C, more than 99% of the arsenic can be removed from the coagulant solution and less than 10% will escape as gaseous arsine (AsH3). Severe foaming and silicic acid gel formation occurs during the acidic dissolution, however. For technical and economic reasons the use of the water works sludge for FeCl3 coagulant production is not competitive when compared with other recycling methods. PMID:11767889

Maier, D; Maier, M; Oberacker, F

2001-11-01

283

Comparison of fluorescence, (31)P NMR, and (7)Li NMR spectroscopic methods for investigating Li(+)/Mg(2+) competition for biomolecules.  

PubMed

The biochemical action of lithium in the treatment of manic-depressive illness is still unknown. One hypothesis is that Li(+) competes for Mg(2+)-binding sites in biomolecules. We report here our studies on metal ion competition by three distinct methods: fluorescence, (31)P NMR, and (7)Li NMR spectroscopy, using ATP as a model ligand. By fluorescence spectroscopy, we used the dye, furaptra, by measuring the increases in Mg(2+) levels in an ATP solution as Li(+) levels were increased in the solution. This increase in Mg(2+) levels was indicated by increases in the fluorescence intensity ratio (335/370) of furaptra. By (31)P NMR spectroscopy, this competition was demonstrated by changes in the (31)P NMR spectrum of ATP. The Li(+)/Mg(2+) competition was indicated by predictable changes in the separation between the alpha and beta resonances of the phosphates of ATP. For (7)Li NMR spectroscopy, spin-lattice relaxation measurements were used, which provided free Li(+) concentrations that could be used for determining the free Mg(2+) values in ATP solutions. The values of the free Mg(2+) concentrations obtained by all three methods were in good agreement. The fluorescence and (7)Li NMR methods, however, proved to be more sensitive to low concentrations of Li(+) than the (31)P NMR method. PMID:10405286

Amari, L; Layden, B; Rong, Q; Geraldes, C F; Mota de Freitas, D

1999-07-15

284

Polymorphism of 2-nitroaniline studied by calorimetric (DSC), structural (X-ray diffraction) and spectroscopic (FT-IR, Raman, UV–Vis) methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The separation and growth methods of three ortho-nitroaniline (o-NA) polymorphs were found. The irreversible character of the ??? and ??? phase transitions was revealed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurements and microscopic hot stage observations. The X-ray structure of the ?-form was determined and compared with the ? phase structure solved by Daneshwar et al. [N.N. Daneshwar et al. Acta

Tomasz Zych; Tomasz Misiaszek; M. Magdalena Szostak

2007-01-01

285

Electron spectroscopic tomography of specific chromatin domains.  

PubMed

The eukaryotic genome is packaged within the nucleus as poly-nucleosome 10 nm chromatin fibres. The nucleosome core particle, the fundamental chromatin subunit, consists of a DNA molecule wrapped around a histone octamer. Biochemical modifications of both the DNA and histone proteins have been characterized that influence chromatin structure and function. These modifications include DNA methylation, histone variants and posttranslational modifications of the core histone protein tails. An outstanding area for investigation in the field of nuclear cell biology is the characterization of the functional relation between these biochemical modifications and the underlying chromatin structure and nuclear sub-compartmentalization. Electron spectroscopic tomography is a high-resolution microscopy technique that facilitates visualization of individual 10 nm chromatin fibres in three dimensions. The method, therefore, has a role to play in exploring the relationships of the epigenome and nuclear organization. Correlating immunofluorescence microscopy with electron spectroscopic tomography provides a powerful approach to relate epigenetic marks with high resolution chromatin organization. PMID:23980008

Even-Faitelson, Liron; Fussner, Eden; Li, Ren; Strauss, Mike; Bazett-Jones, David P

2013-01-01

286

Bioclimatic architecture and Traditional Houses in Diyarbakir  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today although a contemporary house or apartment is built with new materials according to technology and regulations to provide a satisfactory microclimate within the building, it is difficult to say they are successful comparing with a house that is constructed with traditional methods and materials even built by a non-architect. In this paper microclimatic elements of traditional Diyarbakýr houses are

Can Tuncay Akin

2006-01-01

287

The American Thanksgiving Tradition  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Located at the Plimoth Plantation Web site, this collection of material related to the First Thanksgiving will be of great interest to those seeking to learn more about the facts and myths surrounding this famous event in American history. While most of the factual information about this meal comes from first-hand accounts written by William Bradford and Edward Winslow, these accounts are best understood by also studying household traditions, cooking techniques, and religious practices. The site consists primarily of brief essays that elucidate these various nuances of this legendary meal, including pieces on who exactly was in attendance at the 1621 First Thanksgiving, first-hand accounts about the meal, the bill of fare at the meal, and a piece that dispels the popular myth that popcorn was served at this meal. Perhaps the best part of the site are the modern recipe equivalents for the dishes served at the First Thanksgiving, including roast fowl, seethed cod, and hominy pudding.

288

Determination of structural and vibrational spectroscopic features of neutral and anion forms of dinicotinic acid by using NMR, infrared and Raman experimental methods combined with DFT and HF.  

PubMed

In this study; the experimental (NMR, infrared and Raman) and theoretical (HF and DFT) analysis of dinicotinic acid were presented. (1)H and (13)C NMR spectra were recorded in DMSO solution and chemical shifts were calculated by using the gauge-invariant atomic orbital (GIAO) method. The vibrational spectra of dinicotinic acid were recorded by FT-Raman and FT-IR spectra in the range of 4000-10 cm(-1) and 4000-400 cm(-1), respectively. To determine the most stable neutral conformer of molecule, the selected torsion angle was changed every 10° and molecular energy profile was calculated from 0° to 360°. The geometrical parameters and energies were obtained for all conformers form from density functional theory (DFT/B3LYP) and HF with 6-311++G(d,p) basis set calculations. However, the results of the most stable neutral and two anion forms (anion(-1) and anion(-2) forms) of dinicotinic acid are reported here. The complete assignments were performed on the basis of the total energy distribution (TED) of the vibrational wavenumbers, calculated with scaled quantum mechanics (SQM) method and PQS program. PMID:23747433

Kose, E; Bardak, F; Atac, A; Karabacak, M; Cipiloglu, M A

2013-05-23

289

Determination of structural and vibrational spectroscopic features of neutral and anion forms of dinicotinic acid by using NMR, infrared and Raman experimental methods combined with DFT and HF  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study; the experimental (NMR, infrared and Raman) and theoretical (HF and DFT) analysis of dinicotinic acid were presented. 1H and 13C NMR spectra were recorded in DMSO solution and chemical shifts were calculated by using the gauge-invariant atomic orbital (GIAO) method. The vibrational spectra of dinicotinic acid were recorded by FT-Raman and FT-IR spectra in the range of 4000-10 cm-1 and 4000-400 cm-1, respectively. To determine the most stable neutral conformer of molecule, the selected torsion angle was changed every 10° and molecular energy profile was calculated from 0° to 360°. The geometrical parameters and energies were obtained for all conformers form from density functional theory (DFT/B3LYP) and HF with 6-311++G(d,p) basis set calculations. However, the results of the most stable neutral and two anion forms (anion-1 and anion-2 forms) of dinicotinic acid are reported here. The complete assignments were performed on the basis of the total energy distribution (TED) of the vibrational wavenumbers, calculated with scaled quantum mechanics (SQM) method and PQS program.

Kose, E.; Bardak, F.; Atac, A.; Karabacak, M.; Cipiloglu, M. A.

2013-10-01

290

Spectroscopic optical coherence elastography  

PubMed Central

We present an optical technique to image the frequency-dependent complex mechanical response of a viscoelastic sample. Three-dimensional hyperspectral data, comprising two-dimensional B-mode images and a third dimension corresponding to vibration frequency, were acquired from samples undergoing external mechanical excitation in the audio-frequency range. We describe the optical coherence tomography (OCT) signal when vibration is applied to a sample and detail the processing and acquisition techniques used to extract the local complex mechanical response from three-dimensional data that, due to a wide range of vibration frequencies, possess a wide range of sample velocities. We demonstrate frequency-dependent contrast of the displacement amplitude and phase of a silicone phantom containing inclusions of higher stiffness. Measurements of an ex vivo tumor margin demonstrate distinct spectra between adipose and tumor regions, and images of displacement amplitude and phase demonstrated spatially-resolved contrast. Contrast was also observed in displacement amplitude and phase images of a rat muscle sample. These results represent the first demonstration of mechanical spectroscopy based on B-mode OCT imaging. Spectroscopic optical coherence elastography (S-OCE) provides a high-resolution imaging capability for the detection of tissue pathologies that are characterized by a frequency-dependent viscoelastic response.

Adie, Steven G.; Liang, Xing; Kennedy, Brendan F.; John, Renu; Sampson, David D.; Boppart, Stephen A.

2010-01-01

291

Spectroscopic studies of glass structure  

SciTech Connect

Today`s understanding of the molecular-level structure of inorganic glasses has been transformed by the availability of a wide range of sensitive spectroscopic probes. Today we can relate glass composition to quantitative distributions of glass-forming cations and to changes in oxygen bonding and modifying cation geometries. Future spectroscopic studies will result in improved descriptions of anion and cation geometries and should provide glass scientists with the capability to optimize atomic arrangements for specific optical, electrical, and thermal properties.

Brow, R.K.

1994-08-01

292

Improvement of near infrared spectroscopic (NIRS) analysis of caffeine in roasted Arabica coffee by variable selection method of stability competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (SCARS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coffee is the most heavily consumed beverage in the world after water, for which quality is a key consideration in commercial trade. Therefore, caffeine content which has a significant effect on the final quality of the coffee products requires to be determined fast and reliably by new analytical techniques. The main purpose of this work was to establish a powerful and practical analytical method based on near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and chemometrics for quantitative determination of caffeine content in roasted Arabica coffees. Ground coffee samples within a wide range of roasted levels were analyzed by NIR, meanwhile, in which the caffeine contents were quantitative determined by the most commonly used HPLC-UV method as the reference values. Then calibration models based on chemometric analyses of the NIR spectral data and reference concentrations of coffee samples were developed. Partial least squares (PLS) regression was used to construct the models. Furthermore, diverse spectra pretreatment and variable selection techniques were applied in order to obtain robust and reliable reduced-spectrum regression models. Comparing the respective quality of the different models constructed, the application of second derivative pretreatment and stability competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (SCARS) variable selection provided a notably improved regression model, with root mean square error of cross validation (RMSECV) of 0.375 mg/g and correlation coefficient (R) of 0.918 at PLS factor of 7. An independent test set was used to assess the model, with the root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of 0.378 mg/g, mean relative error of 1.976% and mean relative standard deviation (RSD) of 1.707%. Thus, the results provided by the high-quality calibration model revealed the feasibility of NIR spectroscopy for at-line application to predict the caffeine content of unknown roasted coffee samples, thanks to the short analysis time of a few seconds and non-destructive advantages of NIRS.

Zhang, Xuan; Li, Wei; Yin, Bin; Chen, Weizhong; Kelly, Declan P.; Wang, Xiaoxin; Zheng, Kaiyi; Du, Yiping

2013-10-01

293

Improvement of near infrared spectroscopic (NIRS) analysis of caffeine in roasted Arabica coffee by variable selection method of stability competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (SCARS).  

PubMed

Coffee is the most heavily consumed beverage in the world after water, for which quality is a key consideration in commercial trade. Therefore, caffeine content which has a significant effect on the final quality of the coffee products requires to be determined fast and reliably by new analytical techniques. The main purpose of this work was to establish a powerful and practical analytical method based on near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and chemometrics for quantitative determination of caffeine content in roasted Arabica coffees. Ground coffee samples within a wide range of roasted levels were analyzed by NIR, meanwhile, in which the caffeine contents were quantitative determined by the most commonly used HPLC-UV method as the reference values. Then calibration models based on chemometric analyses of the NIR spectral data and reference concentrations of coffee samples were developed. Partial least squares (PLS) regression was used to construct the models. Furthermore, diverse spectra pretreatment and variable selection techniques were applied in order to obtain robust and reliable reduced-spectrum regression models. Comparing the respective quality of the different models constructed, the application of second derivative pretreatment and stability competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (SCARS) variable selection provided a notably improved regression model, with root mean square error of cross validation (RMSECV) of 0.375 mg/g and correlation coefficient (R) of 0.918 at PLS factor of 7. An independent test set was used to assess the model, with the root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of 0.378 mg/g, mean relative error of 1.976% and mean relative standard deviation (RSD) of 1.707%. Thus, the results provided by the high-quality calibration model revealed the feasibility of NIR spectroscopy for at-line application to predict the caffeine content of unknown roasted coffee samples, thanks to the short analysis time of a few seconds and non-destructive advantages of NIRS. PMID:23786975

Zhang, Xuan; Li, Wei; Yin, Bin; Chen, Weizhong; Kelly, Declan P; Wang, Xiaoxin; Zheng, Kaiyi; Du, Yiping

2013-05-29

294

Evaluation of Indian Traditional Medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

India has an ancient heritage of traditional medicine. The materia medica of India provides a great deal of information on the folklore practices and traditional aspects of therapeutically important natural products. Indian traditional medicine is based on various systems including Ayurveda, Siddha, and Unani. The evaluation of these drugs is primarily based on phytochemical, pharmacological, and allied approaches including various

Pulok K. Mukherjee

2001-01-01

295

Improving the classification accuracy for IR spectroscopic diagnosis of stomach and colon malignancy using non-linear spectral feature extraction methods.  

PubMed

Non-linear feature extraction methods, neighborhood preserving embedding (NPE) and supervised NPE (SNPE), were employed to effectively represent the IR spectral features of stomach and colon biopsy tissues for classification, and improve the classification accuracy for diagnosis of malignancy. The motivation was to utilize the NPE and SNPE's capability of capturing non-linear spectral behaviors by simultaneously preserving local relationships in order that minute spectral differences among classes would be effectively recognized. NPE and SNPE derive an optimal embedding feature such that the local neighborhood structure can be preserved in reduced spaces (variables). The IR spectra collected from stomach and colon tissues were represented by several new variables through NPE and SNPE, and also by using the principal component analysis (PCA). Then, the feature-extracted variables were subsequently classified into normal, adenoma and cancer tissues by using both k-nearest neighbor (k-NN) and support vector machine (SVM), and the resulting accuracies were compared with each other. In both cases, the combination of SNPE-SVM provided the best classification performance, and the accuracy was substantially improved compared to when PCA-SVM was used. Overall results demonstrate that NPE and SNPE could be potential feature-representation strategies useful in biomedical diagnosis based on vibrational spectroscopy where effective recognition of minute spectral differences is critical. PMID:23687649

Lee, Sanguk; Kim, Kyoungok; Lee, Hyeseon; Jun, Chi-Hyuck; Chung, Hoeil; Park, Jong-Jae

2013-07-21

296

Combination of chiroptical, absorption and fluorescence spectroscopic methods reveals multiple, hydrophobicity-driven human serum albumin binding of the antimalarial atovaquone and related hydroxynaphthoquinone compounds.  

PubMed

High-affinity human serum albumin (HSA) binding of the C3-substituted antimalarial 2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone derivative atovaquone (ATQ) has been demonstrated and studied by circular dichroism (CD), UV/VIS absorption, fluorescence spectroscopy and affinity chromatography methods. The analysis of induced CD data generated upon HSA binding of ATQ revealed two high-affinity binding sites (K(a) ? 2 × 10(6) M(-1)). CD interaction studies and displacement of specific fluorescent and radioactive marker ligands indicated the contribution of both principal drug binding sites of HSA to complexation of ATQ, and also suggested the possibility of simultaneous binding of ATQ and some other drugs (e.g. warfarin, phenylbutazone, diazepam). Comparison of UV/VIS spectra of ATQ measured in aqueous solutions indicated the prevalence of the anionic species formed by dissociation of the 2-hydroxyl group. HSA binding of related natural hydroxynaphthoquinones, lapachol and lawsone also induces similar CD spectra. The much weaker binding affinity of lawsone (K(a) ? 10(4) M(-1)) bearing no C3 substituent highlights the importance of hydrophobic interactions in the strong HSA binding of ATQ and lapachol. Since neither drug exhibited significant binding to serum ?(1)-acid glycoprotein, HSA must be the principal plasma protein for the binding and transportation of 2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone-type compounds which are ionized at physiological pH values. PMID:20737064

Zsila, Ferenc; Fitos, Ilona

2010-08-24

297

Raman spectroscopic study of the electrical properties of 6H-SiC crystals grown by hydrogen-assisted physical vapor transport method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Raman spectroscopy has been used to determine the carrier concentration of 6H-SiC crystal so as to understand the effects of hydrogen on the electrical property of 6H-SiC crystal grown by hydrogen-assisted physical vapor transport method. The spatial distribution of the carrier concentration is determined in a longitudinally-cut sample grown by an on-off hydrogen supply based on the empirical relationship between the frequency of the LO-phonon-plasmon-coupled modes (LOPC modes) and carrier concentration. It is found that the carrier concentration dramatically drops when the supply of hydrogen turns on and decreases more quickly in the hydrogen-assisted region than that in the undoped region. It is proposed that the vapor phase shifts toward more C-rich condition in case of hydrogen-assisted growth. As a consequence, the N incorporation in 6H-SiC crystal is depressed and the inactive electrically center Vc+H complexes are formed during hydrogen-assisted physical vapor transport SiC crystal growth.

Peng, Yan; Xu, Xiangang; Hu, Xiaobo; Jiang, Kai; Song, Sheng; Gao, Yuqiang; Xu, Huayong

2010-05-01

298

Redesigning traditional media and assessing entertainment value with online comics  

Microsoft Academic Search

As traditional media make the transition to the web, the need for a systematic way of assessing the entertainment value of interfaces becomes increasingly important. In this paper we describe an experiment using online manipulations of traditional paper comic books to a) evaluate the effectiveness of different online presentations of a traditional entertainment medium and b) contrast systematic evaluation methods

Juan Casares; Karen Cross; Andrea Klein; Stavros Polyviou; Daniel Yocum

2001-01-01

299

The mass ratio in spectroscopic binaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The process of formation of binary and multiple stars is not yet fully understood. Possibilities range from simultaneous processes of condensation from the primeval nebula, to isolated star formation and eventual capture to form a double system. Models exist that predict success probabilities for each theoretical process, and comparison with observational data is crucial. Spectroscopic binaries are specially suited to be used as observational data, since several biases that can arise from general catalogues of binary stars can be avoided, including dominance of systems with large separations between components. A very important parameter in these studies is the mass ratio, the quocient of the masses of primary and secundary members. The histogram of mass ratios provides crucial information to models of binary formation, linked to condensation processes and evolutionaty rates.In this case, spectroscopic binaries can be chosen as the observational sample, provided that the spectrum of the primary is from a non-evolved, main-sequence star,whose mass can be derived reliably from its spectral type. Defining an adequate limiting magnitude (6.5), one avoids bias from eclipsing systems with high inclinations, since nearly all systems up to 6.5 mag were detected. In this paper, a critical review is presented of the existing methods for deriving the distribution of the mass ratios from spectroscopic binary orbital data. After showing the incorrectness of some results published in the litterature, the available data (Batten's 8th Catalogue, 1989) is discussed. Simulations for several distributions of mass ratios (constant, quadratic, etc) are performed. It is shown that the existing data permits only to assert that the spectroscopic binaries with small mass ratios (q < 0.4) are more frequent that those with large mass ratios (q = 0.9 to 1.0).

Ducati, J. R.; Penteado, E. M.; Turcati, R.

2003-08-01

300

Near-dissociation expansion representation of large spectroscopic data sets: The B(3?0u+ <-- X(1?g+) system of I2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The utility of near-dissociation expansion (NDE) functions for efficiently representing large spectroscopic data sets is demonstrated by an application to 14712 lines of the visible B-X absorption spectrum of I2. In addition to providing a more compact representation of the input data than is obtainable using traditional methods, this approach has a unique ability to provide reliable predictions for vibrational levels lying above the highest one observed. Considerations governing choice of the number of parameters to include in an expansion and of the number of significant digits to quote for each of the resulting parameters are critically discussed.

Tromp, John W.; Le Roy, Robert J.

1985-02-01

301

Comparative spectroscopic analysis of urinary calculi inhibition by Larrea Tridentata infusion and NDGA chemical extract  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present comparative spectroscopic study we try to understand calcium oxalate kidney stone formation as well as its inhibition by using a traditional medicine approach with Larrea Tridentata (LT) herbal extracts and nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA), which is a chemical extract of the LT bush. The samples were synthesized without and with LT or NDGA using a simplified single diffusion gel growth technique. While the use of infusion from LT decreases the sizes of calcium oxalate crystals and also changes their structure from monohydrate for pure crystals to dihydrate for crystals grown with different amounts of inhibitor, both Raman and infrared absorption spectroscopic techniques, which are the methods of analysis employed in this work, reveal that NDGA is not responsible for the change in the morphology of calcium oxalate crystals and does not contribute significantly to the inhibition process. The presence of NDGA slightly affects the structure of the crystals by modifying the strength of the C-C bonds as seen in the Raman data. Also, the current infrared absorption results demonstrate the presence of NDGA in the samples through a vibrational line that corresponds to the double bond between carbon atoms of the ester group of NDGA.

Manciu, Felicia

2012-10-01

302

An online coupled peritoneal macrophage/cell membrane chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry method to screen for anti-inflammatory components from the Chinese traditional medicine Chloranthus multistachys Pei.  

PubMed

Cell membrane chromatography (CMC) is a chromatographic biological affinity method that uses specific cell membranes as the stationary phase. In this study, a novel peritoneal macrophage/cell membrane chromatography (PM/CMC)-online-high performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS) method was established to screen for the anti-inflammatory components from traditional Chinese medicines using hydrocortisone and dexamethasone as standards. The stationary phase of the CMC employed mouse peritoneal macrophage cell membranes. This method was applied to the purification and identification of components in extracts of Chloranthus multistachys Pei. The major component retained by CMC was identified as isofraxidin by HPLC/MS. In vitro experiments revealed that IF was able to inhibit the production of nitric oxide and tumor necrosis factor-? in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated mice and peritoneal macrophages in a dose-dependent manner. The results demonstrated that the PM/CMC-online-HPLC/MS is an effective screening system for the rapid detection, enrichment, and identification of target components from complex samples. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:23760986

Li, Weifeng; Xing, Wei; Wang, Sicen; Fan, Ting; Huang, Huimin; Niu, Xiaofeng; He, Langchong

2013-06-13

303

Response of benthic infauna and epifauna to ocean disposal of red clay dredged material in the New York Bight: A study using sediment-profile imaging, surface imaging and traditional methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In 1997, approximately 1 million cubic yards of consolidated red clay was dredged from Newark Bay in New Jersey and deposited on the seafloor at an open-water dredged material disposal site located on the inner continental shelf of the New York Bight. To address concerns about the ability of benthic organisms to colonize the seafloor deposits of this compact, organic-poor red clay, monitoring surveys were conducted in 1998 (1 year after disposal) and 2002 (5 years after disposal). The surveys used a combination of sediment imaging and traditional grab sampling methods to characterize physical and biological conditions over the surface of the red clay deposits in comparison to nearby reference areas consisting of either naturally-occurring, sandy surface sediments or deposits of unconsolidated, muddy dredged material. Sediment-surface and sediment-profile images (SPI) collected in summer 2002 indicated that the surface of the red clay deposits had become much smoother and more heterogeneous in texture compared to images collected in 1998. The images also indicated that these deposits had become colonized to a much greater degree by relatively abundant and diverse infaunal and epifaunal communities compared to 1998. Taxonomic analysis of benthic grab samples confirmed the imaging results and indicated relatively high infaunal organism abundance and diversity over the red clay deposits in 2002 compared to the reference areas. However, the structure of the benthic community inhabiting the red clay was fundamentally different from the communities in the reference areas, due to the differences in sediment texture and composition. The combination of imaging and traditional taxonomic approaches used in this study provided much greater insight on the red clay colonization process than either approach by itself.

Valente, Raymond M.

2006-10-01

304

Tradition, Discipline, Literary History  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In its attempt to respond to changing historical realities the university has undergone significant transformations, most of which, however, have focused on teaching material, tools, methods or practices adapted to the new demands. Taking as a case study the literary disciplines, this article focuses on the theoretical, mostly implicit,…

Kargiotis, Dimitrios

2007-01-01

305

Confocal light scattering and absorption spectroscopic microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a novel optical method for observing submicron intracellular structures in living cells which is called confocal light absorption and scattering spectroscopic (CLASS) microscopy. It combines confocal microscopy, a well-established high-resolution microscopic technique, with light scattering spectroscopy (LSS). CLASS microscopy requires no exogenous labels and is capable of imaging and continuously monitoring individual viable cells, enabling the observation of cell and organelle functioning at scales on the order of 100 nm. In addition, it provides not only size information but also information about the biochemical and physical properties of the cell.

Qiu, Le; Vitkin, Edward; Salahuddin, Saira; Zaman, Munir M.; Andersson, Charlotte; Freedman, Steven D.; Hanlon, Eugene B.; Itzkan, Irving; Perelman, Lev T.

2008-05-01

306

A DVD Spectroscope: A Simple, High-Resolution Classroom Spectroscope  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Digital versatile disks (DVDs) have successfully made up an inexpensive but high-resolution spectroscope suitable for classroom experiments that can easily be made with common material and gives clear and fine spectra of various light sources and colored material. The observed spectra can be photographed with a digital camera, and such images can…

Wakabayashi, Fumitaka; Hamada, Kiyohito

2006-01-01

307

Alternative Approaches to Traditional Topics in Algebra  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Students who otherwise seem unreachable through traditional approaches to algebra require some alternative teaching methods. So do teachers who seek to add elements of freshness and innovation to their classrooms or who simply appreciate variety. This article offers some unconventional techniques for teaching a few conventional algebra topics.…

Coburn, John W.

2010-01-01

308

Tablet computers and the traditional lecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

A nationwide call has requested educators to emphasize methods that will encourage student participation and engagement during class. Concurrently, technology and ubiquitous computing have been making advancements onto campuses of higher education. This paper will discuss the research that is merging these two events and creating a platform using Tablet PCs that can be used in the traditional classroom setting.

Mitchell D. Theys; Kimberly Lawless; Stephen George

2005-01-01

309

Spectroscopic assessment of Australian cotton waxes.  

PubMed

An investigation into the spectroscopic analysis of cotton waxes on Australian cottons was undertaken. The chemical composition of cotton wax is complex and contains a number of lipid classes. Infrared transmission spectroscopy coupled with principal component analysis was found to be capable of discriminating between solvent-extracted cotton waxes with differences in their alkyl functionality. Based on high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) results, these differences were associated with an increase in levels of the alkane wax component. On the basis of these results, a photo-acoustic spectroscopic method was developed that could be used to distinguish raw cottons on the basis of these differences. This method was utilized to screen cottons from the Cotton Seed Distributors 2001 seed trial. A preliminary assessment of the scouring and dyeing properties of the various cottons, identified using the photo-acoustic method, was carried out. The results tended to confirm that cottons with increased alkyl functionality, most likely associated with alkane wax, were more difficult to remove and residual wax on the fiber acted as a barrier to dyestuff penetration, thus lowering color yield. PMID:17132453

Church, Jeffrey S; Woodhead, Andrea L

2006-11-01

310

Frame Tales and Oral Tradition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Frame tales, medieval literary works in which characters become narrators by telling stories of their own, owe a great debt to oral tradition and transmission. Oral tradition provides much of the raw material for these texts, while at the same time providing medieval audiences and modern readers cues for understanding them. Frame tales depict oral storytelling events in such a

Bonnie D. Irwin

2003-01-01

311

Traditional Korean Child Rearing Practices.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study describes traditional Korean child rearing and its relation to personality, social development, and their implications for education. Topics addressed include the family structure, traditional value orientation, the prenatal period, patterns of interaction in infancy, the baby as a vulnerable being, the baby as a spiritual being, the…

Han, Myunghee; Washington, Ernest D.

312

Traditional Korean Child Rearing Practices.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study describes traditional Korean child rearing and its relation to personality, social development, and their implications for education. Topics addressed include the family structure, traditional value orientation, the prenatal period, patterns of interaction in infancy, the baby as a vulnerable being, the baby as a spiritual being, the…

Han, Myunghee; Washington, Ernest D.

313

Aspects of Traditional Inupiat Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Traditional Inupiat society was, and is, about knowing the right time to be in the right place, with the right tools to take advantage of a temporary abundance of resources. Sharing the necessary knowledge about the natural world with the next generation was critical. The example of learning to hunt is used to demonstrate features of traditional

Ongtooguk, Paul

2000-01-01

314

Spectroscopic Properties of Asteroid Families  

Microsoft Academic Search

Asteroid families have been the target of several dedicated campaigns of spectroscopic observations during the last 10 years. Preliminary studies were mainly devoted to obtain a confirmation of the cosmochemical reliability of groupings identified by purely statistical analyses of the distributions of objects in the space of the orbital proper elements. These early attempts led to some spectacular confirmations of

A. Cellino; S. J. Bus; A. Doressoundiram; D. Lazzaro

2002-01-01

315

Spectroscopic and Laser Characterization Emerald.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The spectroscopic characteristics and laser properties of emerald were investigated. The laser measurements showed that the emerald laser tuning range was 720-842 nm and exhibited a high gain and high efficiency in the 760-790 nm range. Under a crystal gr...

S. T. Lai B. H. Chai

1986-01-01

316

Spectroscopic Properties of Alexandrite Crystals.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Details of the optical-spectroscopic properties of alexandrite (BeAl sub 2 0 sub 4: Cr 3+ crystals were studied by different laser-spectroscopy techniques. The temperature dependences of the fluorescence lifetimes and widths of the zero-phonon lines were ...

R. C. Powell L. Xi X. Gang G. J. Quarles

1985-01-01

317

Build an Overhead Projector Spectroscope  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity guide includes instructions for building a spectroscope using a standard classroom overhead projector. Learners can participate in the construction of the device or simply use it to explore light and the color spectrum. Learners can experiment with colored acetate film filters and bottles of colored solutions to see how they absorb and transmit light.

Katz, David A.

2002-01-01

318

Approaching Traditional Literature in Non-Traditional Ways.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Presents three brief essays that discuss approaching traditional literature (Thornton Wilder's "Our Town," Mark Twain "Adventures of Huckleberry Finn," and Geoffrey Chaucer's "Canterbury Tales") in imaginative ways in high school English and vocational/technical classrooms. (RS)|

Tensen, Tracy Anderson; And Others

1996-01-01

319

Improving the traditional earth construction: a case study of Botswana  

Microsoft Academic Search

The traditional societies developed earth as one of the most important construction materials by taking cognizance of the strength requirements, durability of resulting structures and the environmental concern in processing and using the material. Over the years, however, modern earth construction has replaced the traditional methods. Unfortunately, these methods are also accompanied by high energy consumption and environmental degradation. This

Alfred B. Ngowi

1997-01-01

320

Preparation effects on iron and calcium in traditional Pima foods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The iron and calcium contents of traditional Pima Indian foods were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy before and after preparation. Samples for analysis were obtained from Pima informants living on the Gila River Indian Reservation who demonstrated food preparation methods.The results indicated that traditional methods of food preparation such as baking bread in ashes or grinding foods with stone grinding

Ruth Greenhouse

1981-01-01

321

Aurorae in Australian Aboriginal Traditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transient celestial phenomena feature prominently in the astronomical knowledge and traditions of Aboriginal Australians. In this paper, I collect accounts of the Aurora Australis from the literature regarding Aboriginal culture. Using previous studies of meteors, eclipses, and comets in Aboriginal traditions, I anticipate that the physical properties of aurora, such as their generally red colour as seen from southern Australia, will be associated with fire, death, blood, and evil spirits. The survey reveals this to be the case and also explores historical auroral events in Aboriginal cultures, aurorae in rock art, and briefly compares Aboriginal auroral traditions with other global indigenous groups, including the Maori of New Zealand.

Hamacher, Duane W.

2013-07-01

322

Infrared spectroscopic imaging for noninvasive detection of latent fingerprints.  

PubMed

The capability of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic imaging to provide detailed images of unprocessed latent fingerprints while also preserving important trace evidence is demonstrated. Unprocessed fingerprints were developed on various porous and nonporous substrates. Data-processing methods used to extract the latent fingerprint ridge pattern from the background material included basic infrared spectroscopic band intensities, addition and subtraction of band intensity measurements, principal components analysis (PCA) and calculation of second derivative band intensities, as well as combinations of these various techniques. Additionally, trace evidence within the fingerprints was recovered and identified. PMID:17209909

Crane, Nicole J; Bartick, Edward G; Perlman, Rebecca Schwartz; Huffman, Scott

2007-01-01

323

About the problems to interpret spectroscopic data from plasmas  

SciTech Connect

Continued developments of quantitative spectroscopy and related atomic physics are originating from inertial and magnetic fusion research. In almost all experimental facilities, non-equilibrium phenomena are now a central issue and the interpretation of related spectroscopic data is a great challenge. We discuss new general diagnostic/spectroscopic approaches and usual point of views: high density methods and high density atomic physics for magnetic fusion research like ITER and the Virtual Contour Shape Kinetic Theory VCSKT which unifies low and high density plasma regimes and therefore allows to employ complex satellite transitions in non-equilibrium, non-LTE and non-Coronal plasmas.

Rosmej, F. B.; Guedda, E. H.; Stamm, R. [Universite de Provence et CNRS, UMR 6633, Centre St. Jerome, PIIM-DGP, case 232, Av. Escadrille Niemen, 13397 Marseille Cedex 20 (France); Lisitsa, V. S. [Russian Research Center ' Kurchatov Institute', 123182 Moscow (Russian Federation); Capes, H. [DRFC, Association Euratom-CEA, 13108 Saint Paul lez Durance Cedex (France)

2006-01-15

324

Velocity Curve Analysis of Spectroscopic Binary Stars AI Phe, GM Dra, HD 93917 and V502 Oph by Nonlinear Regression  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce a new method to derive the orbital parameters of spectroscopic binary stars by nonlinear least squares of (o-c). Using the measured radial velocity data of the four double lined spectroscopic binary systems, AI Phe, GM Dra, HD 93917 and V502 Oph, we derived both the orbital and combined spectroscopic elements of these systems. Our numerical results are in good agreement with the those obtained using the method of Lehmann-Filhé.

Karami, K.; Mohebi, R.

2007-08-01

325

Compact Disk Spectroscopes Revisited!  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent article by Tim Knauer1 indicates again that the CD provides a wonderful learning resource for physics teachers and students. There is much to be learned by examining the nature of the way information is stored and retrieved on the disk as well as the physical medium itself. Books such as Muller's Upgrading and Repairing PC's2 provide a useful compendium of the properties of the medium as well as the methods of encoding.

Byrne, Aidan

2003-03-01

326

Optical Spectroscopic Diagnostics Of Dusty Plasma In RF Discharge  

SciTech Connect

The parameters of the buffer plasma containing dust particles were measured by means of spectroscopic methods. The change in the emission spectrum of the buffer plasma with addition of dust was observed. It seems to relate to changing in temperature and number density of electrons due to the influence of dusts.

Orazbayev, S. A.; Jumagulov, M. N.; Dosbolayev, M. K.; Silamiya, M.; Ramazanov, T. S. [IETP, Al Farabi Kazakh National University, 96a, Tole bi, Almaty, 050012 (Kazakhstan); Boufendi, L. [Universite d'Orleans, 14 Rue d'Issoudun, B.P. 6744-45067 Orleans Cedex 2 (France)

2011-11-29

327

MR Spectroscopic Changes in the Rat Hippocampus following Proton Radiosurgery  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose: To identify MR spectroscopic changes in the rat hippocampus following proton radiosurgery. Methods and Materials: A group of 12 rats were treated with Bragg peak proton beam irradiation involving the right hippocampus. Single doses of 30 CGE, 50 CGE, 70 CGE, 90 CGE were delivered to groups of 3 animals using single fraction technique. Animals were imaged using a

J. D. Rabinov; L. L. Cheng; P. L. Lee; J. L. Brisman; J. S. Loeffler; A. J. Cole; G. R. Cosgrove; M. R. Bussiere; T. Chaves; R. G. Gonzalez

2006-01-01

328

Raman spectroscopic studies on bacteria  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Routine clinical microbiological identification of pathogenic micro-organisms is largely based on nutritional and biochemical tests. Laboratory results can be presented to a clinician after 2 - 3 days for most clinically relevant micro- organisms. Most of this time is required to obtain pure cultures and enough biomass for the tests to be performed. In the case of severely ill patients, this unavoidable time delay associated with such identification procedures can be fatal. A novel identification method based on confocal Raman microspectroscopy will be presented. With this method it is possible to obtain Raman spectra directly from microbial microcolonies on the solid culture medium, which have developed after only 6 hours of culturing for most commonly encountered organisms. Not only does this technique enable rapid (same day) identifications, but also preserves the sample allowing it to be double-checked with traditional tests. This, combined with the speed and minimal sample handling indicate that confocal Raman microspectroscopy has much potential as a powerful new tool in clinical diagnostic microbiology.

Maquelin, K.; Choo-Smith, Lin-P'ing; Endtz, H. P.; Bruining, Hajo A.; Puppels, Gerwin J.

2000-11-01

329

Bibliography on African Traditional Religion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Compiled by Chidi Denis Isizoh, this bibliography contains books, journal articles, and selections from larger works that focus on traditional religions in Africa. Citations include items in French and German as well as English.

Isizoh, Chidi D.

1998-01-01

330

Tunepal: the traditional musician's toolbox  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we present Tunepal, a search engine and music retrieval tool for traditional musicians that runs on an iPhone\\/iPod Touch (2nd generation)\\/iPad. Tunepal connects musicians the scores and metadata of 13,290 traditional Irish, Welsh, Scottish and Breton dance tunes. These tunes are drawn from community sources, such as the website thesession.org and \\

Bryan Duggan

2010-01-01

331

The Critical Tradition in Bulgaria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The critical tradition in Bulgaria includes all philosophical studies concerned directly or indirectly with Kant’s philosophy. In this sense, it can be called the Kantian trend in the Bulgarian philosophical tradition. Compared with other philosophical schools, such as Rehmke’s philosophy, dialectical materialism, etc., Kantianism develops relatively steadily, neither achieving lasting pre-eminence over other trends nor losing ground altogether. In the

Dimitar Tsatsov

2001-01-01

332

Algebraic methods in vibrational spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

These lectures review some advances in the algebraic description of molecules from two point of views: structure and dynamics. We start by presenting the basic ideas involved in the traditional description of molecular structure in configuration space, where the Born-Oppenheimer and rotor-rigid approximations are assumed to be valid. We then focus on the vibrational degrees of freedom in order to introduce the traditional algebraic realization in terms of bosonic operators of harmonic oscillators. This analysis allows the algebraic methods based on dynamical unitary groups to be introduced as a anharmonization procedure where the local bosonic operators are translated into operators satisfying the su(2) commutation relations. Some examples of the vibrational spec-troscopic description are presented. Concerned with the dynamical point of view an algebraic model to describe collinear collisions in the semiclassical approximation is presented.

Lemus, Renato [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 70-543, 04510 Mexico, DF (Mexico)

2011-03-21

333

Knockout, Transfer and Spectroscopic Factors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As derived quantities rather than observables, spectroscopic factors extracted from fits to data are model dependent. The main source of uncertainty is the choice of binding potential, but other factors such as adequate modeling of the reaction mechanism, the Perey effect, choice of distorting nuclear potentials etc. can also play a significant role. Recently, there has been some discussion of apparent discrepancies in spectroscopic factors derived from knockout reactions compared to those obtained from low-energy direct reactions. It should be possible to reconcile these discrepancies and we explore this prospect by attempting to describe the ^10Be(d,t)^9Be data of Nucl. Phys. A157, 305 (1970) using the ^10Be/^9Be form factors from a recent knockout study, Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 162502 (2011). The influence of such factors as choice of distorting potentials and multi-step reactions paths will be explored.

Kemper, Kirby; Keeley, Nicholas; Rusek, Krzysztof

2011-10-01

334

NIRSPEC brown dwarf spectroscopic survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

The NIRSPEC Brown Dwarf Spectroscopic Survey is a project to obtain a consistent set of high-quality near-IR spectra for each spectral class and sub-class of low-mass and\\/or sub- stellar objects to provide a new data base for models of the atmosphere of brown dwarfs and extra-solar giant planets. Most of the current targets are L-dwarfs and T-dwarfs discovered by the

Mavourneen K. Wilcox; Ian S. McLean; Eric E. Becklin; Donald F. Figer; Andrea M. Gilbert; James R. Graham; James E. Larkin; N. A. Levenson; Harry I. Teplitz; J. D. Kirkpatrick; Adam J. Burgasser

2000-01-01

335

Spectroscopic radiation portal monitor prototype  

Microsoft Academic Search

A spectroscopic radiation portal monitor (SPM) prototype consisting of four 10.16-cmtimes10.16-cmtimes40.64-cm sodium iodide (NaI) crystals has been constructed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The prototype was put through a variety of tests, including measurements of the absolute detection efficiency of unshielded sources and the detection efficiency and isotopic identification capability of the detector for shielded isotopic sources. The monitor's

Kathleen R. McCormick; David C. Stromswold; James H. Ely; John E. Schweppe; Richard T. Kouzes

2005-01-01

336

Optoacoustic spectroscopic imaging of radiolucent foreign bodies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the leading causes of medical malpractice claims in emergency medicine is the misdiagnosis of the presence of foreign bodies. Radiolucent foreign bodies are especially difficult to differentiate from surrounding soft tissue, gas, and bone. Current imaging modalities employed for the detection of foreign bodies include: X-ray computed tomography, magnetic resonance, and ultrasound; however, there is no consensus as to which modality is optimal for diagnosis. Because many radiolucent foreign bodies have sufficient contrast for imaging in the optical domain, we are exploring the use of laser-induced optoacoustic imaging for the detection of foreign bodies, especially in craniofacial injuries, in which the foreign bodies are likely to lie within the penetration depth of visible and near infrared wavelengths. Tissue-simulating phantoms containing various common foreign bodies have been constructed. Images of these phantoms have been successfully generated using two laser-based optoacoustic imaging methods with different detection modalities. In order to enhance the image contrast, common foreign bodies are being scanned over a wide range of wavelengths to obtain the spectroscopic properties of the materials commonly associated with these foreign bodies. This spectroscopic characterization will help select specific wavelengths to be used for imaging specific objects and provide useful diagnostic data about the material properties of the object.

Page, Leland; Maswadi, Saher; Glickman, Randolph D.

2010-03-01

337

New spectroscopic components in multiple systems. V.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aims: This paper aims to improve the knowledge of orbits, physical parameters, and statistics of nearby multiple systems. Methods: Radial velocities were measured with a correlation spectrometer during 2001-2006 to determine or improve the spectroscopic orbits of the components of some visual multiple systems. We compiled all available observational data and estimated masses and orbital periods in these hierarchical multiple systems. The masses and ages of evolved components are derived by fitting isochrones. Results: We determined three new spectroscopic orbits of close sub-systems (HD 52452B, 157358Aab, 219877B) and improved one more orbit (HD 139461). The composite-spectrum system HD 157358Aab was resolved by speckle-interferometry, and its preliminary combined orbit was computed to guide future interferometric observations. A tentative 21-day orbit for HD 219877A based on published velocities is computed. Table 4 is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/465/257

Tokovinin, A. A.; Gorynya, N. A.

2007-04-01

338

Spectroscopic detection of nitrogen concentrations in sagebrush  

SciTech Connect

The ability to estimate foliar nitrogen (N) in semi-arid landscapes can yield information on nutritional status and improve our limited understanding of controls on canopy photosynthesis. We examined two spectroscopic methods for estimating sagebrush dried leaf and live shrub N content: first derivative reflectance (FDR) and continuum removal. Both methods used partial least squares (PLS) regression to select wavebands most significantly correlated with N concentrations in the samples. Sagebrush dried leaf spectra produced PLS models (R2 = 0.76–0.86) that could predict N concentrations within the dataset more accurately than PLS models generated from live shrub spectra (R2 = 0.41–0.63). Inclusion of wavelengths associated with leaf water in the FDR transformations appeared to improve regression results. Findings are encouraging and warrant further exploration into sagebrush reflectance spectra to characterize N concentrations.

J. J. MITCHELL; N. F. GLENN; T.T. SANKEY; D. R. DERRYBERRY; R. C. HRUSKA; M. O. Anderson

2012-07-01

339

Herbal medicinal oils in traditional Persian medicine.  

PubMed

Abstract Context: In Iran, conventional production methods of herbal oils are widely used by local practitioners. Administration of oils is rooted in traditional knowledge with a history of more than 3000 years. Scientific evaluation of these historical documents can be valuable for finding new potential use in current medicine. Objective: The current study (i) compiled an inventory of herbal oils used in ancient and medieval Persia and (ii) compared the preparation methods and therapeutic applications of ancient times to current findings of medicinal properties in the same plant species. Materials and methods: Information on oils, preparation methods and related clinical administration was obtained from ancient Persian documents and selected manuscripts describing traditional Persian medicine. Moreover, we investigated the efficacy of medicinal plant species used for herbal oils through a search of the PubMed, Scopus and Google Scholar databases. Results: In Iran, the application of medicinal oils date back to ancient times. In medieval Persian documents, 51 medicinal oils produced from 31 plant species, along with specific preparation methods, were identified. Flowers, fruits and leaves were most often used. Herbal oils have been traditionally administered via oral, topical and nasal routes for gastrointestinal, musculoskeletal, and neural diseases, respectively. According to current investigations, most of the cited medicinal plant species were used for their anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties. Conclusions: Medicinal oils are currently available in Iranian medicinal plant markets and are prepared using traditional procedures for desirable clinical outcomes. Other than historical clarification, the present study provides data on clinical applications of the oils that should lead to future opportunities to investigate their potential medicinal use. PMID:23746335

Hamedi, Azadeh; Zarshenas, Mohammad M; Sohrabpour, Maryam; Zargaran, Arman

2013-06-07

340

Spectroscopic factors and asymptotic normalization coefficients for 0p-shell nuclei: Recent updates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extended tables are presented for spectroscopic factors, asymptotic normalization coefficients and rms radii of one-nucleon overlap functions for 0p-shell nuclei calculated in the source term approach using shell model wave functions. The tabulated data includes both new results and updates on previously published values. They are compared with recent results obtained in ab initio calculations, and with experimental data, where available. The reduction of spectroscopic factors with respect to traditional shell model values as well as its neutron-proton asymmetry is also discussed.

Timofeyuk, N. K.

2013-10-01

341

[Traditional medicine in Ethiopia in childhood diseases].  

PubMed

Parents of 100 paediatric patients hospitalized in the Gondar College of Medical Sciences were interviewed on their knowledge of and experience with indigenous medicine in the region. The result has provided an orienting review of methods used for common childhood disorders and attitudes towards traditional and modern medicine, resp. and some understanding of ideas of the rural population on the "etiology" of some diseases. Among the methods some are dangerous. Traditional medicine is the primary (and often the only) source of health care for major parts of the population in developing countries. Some knowledge of this system is also necessary for modern style medical staff working in such regions for a variety of reasons. Some of these aspects are discussed. PMID:2796127

Schneider, P; Shewangizaw, E; Tayé, E; Gebrehiwot, T; Worku, S; Oppermann, J; Leupold, W; Teka, T

1989-08-01

342

Traditional healthful fermented products of Japan  

Microsoft Academic Search

A variety of fermentation products, such as foods containing probiotic bacteria, black rice vinegar (kurosu), soy sauce (shoyu), soybean-barley paste (miso), natto and tempeh, are sold in food stores in Japan. These fermented food products are produced by traditional methods that exploit mixed cultures\\u000a of various non-toxic microorganisms. These microorganisms include lactic acid bacteria, acetic acid bacteria, sake yeast, koji

Yoshikatsu Murooka; Mitsuo Yamshita

2008-01-01

343

Visualizing the zero order basis of the spectroscopic Hamiltonian  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent works have shown that a generalization of the spectroscopic effective Hamiltonian can describe spectra in surprising regions, such as isomerization barriers. In this work, we seek to explain why the effective Hamiltonian is successful where there was reason to doubt that it would work at all. All spectroscopic Hamiltonians have an underlying abstract zero-order basis (ZOB) which is the ``ideal'' basis for a given form and parameterization of the Hamiltonian. Without a physical model there is no way to transform this abstract basis into a coordinate representation. To this end, we present a method of obtaining the coordinate space representation of the abstract ZOB of a spectroscopic effective Hamiltonian. This method works equally well for generalized effective Hamiltonians that encompass above-barrier multiwell behavior, and standard effective Hamiltonians for the vicinity of a single potential minimum. Our approach relies on a set of converged eigenfunctions obtained from a variational calculation on a potential surface. By making a one-to-one correspondence between the energy eigenstates of the effective Hamiltonian and those of the coordinate space Hamiltonian, a physical representation of the abstract ZOB is calculated. We find that the ZOB basis naturally adjusts its complexity depending on the underlying nature of phase space, which allows spectroscopic Hamiltonians to succeed for systems sampling multiple stationary points.

Barnes, George L.; Kellman, Michael E.

2012-01-01

344

Visualizing the zero order basis of the spectroscopic Hamiltonian.  

PubMed

Recent works have shown that a generalization of the spectroscopic effective Hamiltonian can describe spectra in surprising regions, such as isomerization barriers. In this work, we seek to explain why the effective Hamiltonian is successful where there was reason to doubt that it would work at all. All spectroscopic Hamiltonians have an underlying abstract zero-order basis (ZOB) which is the "ideal" basis for a given form and parameterization of the Hamiltonian. Without a physical model there is no way to transform this abstract basis into a coordinate representation. To this end, we present a method of obtaining the coordinate space representation of the abstract ZOB of a spectroscopic effective Hamiltonian. This method works equally well for generalized effective Hamiltonians that encompass above-barrier multiwell behavior, and standard effective Hamiltonians for the vicinity of a single potential minimum. Our approach relies on a set of converged eigenfunctions obtained from a variational calculation on a potential surface. By making a one-to-one correspondence between the energy eigenstates of the effective Hamiltonian and those of the coordinate space Hamiltonian, a physical representation of the abstract ZOB is calculated. We find that the ZOB basis naturally adjusts its complexity depending on the underlying nature of phase space, which allows spectroscopic Hamiltonians to succeed for systems sampling multiple stationary points. PMID:22260571

Barnes, George L; Kellman, Michael E

2012-01-14

345

Traditional healers and cancer prevention.  

PubMed

The increase in the incidence of cancer in South Africa necessitates the expansion of preventative efforts. This study shows that traditional healers in Atteridgeville are consulted by a range of people in their communities, have a basic knowledge of cancer, provide health education to their patients and are willing to participate in cancer preventative strategies. They are therefore ideally suited to augment the services of westernized health care workers. The issue of professionalization is explored and a procedure is suggested whereby the training of traditional healers can be enhanced so as to facilitate their professionalization and their collaboration with other health care workers in the prevention of cancer. PMID:11949155

Steyn, M; Muller, A

2000-09-01

346

A Culture Seen Through Cuisine: Traditional Zanzibari Recipes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Zanzibari cuisine was studied through the collecting of traditional and typical recipes. Along with the ingredients and cooking methods, further information about Zanzibari culinary traditions was gathered, such as historical origins of certain dishes, their special religious and ceremonial uses, as well as any superstitions or beliefs surrounding particular foods. All of this information was then compiled into a cookbook.

Lizzie Resta

2008-01-01

347

Turn-taking: A critical analysis of the research tradition  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the following we present a radical critique of the assumptions, concepts, methods, statistics and interpretation of data, and theories that have characterized the recent research tradition concerned with turn-taking. The principal representative of this tradition is the “simplest systematics” of Sacks, Schegloff, and Jefferson (1974). Attempts to describe the generalizable properties of turn-taking have quite inappropriately and unsuccessfully been

Daniel C. O'Connell; Sabine Kowal; Erika Kaltenbacher

1990-01-01

348

Blending Online and Traditional Instruction in the Mathematics Classroom.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes the MathOnline system at the University of Colorado (Colorado Springs), a learning delivery method that, in addition to blending synchronous and asynchronous learning, combines traditional mathematics instruction with distance learning. Student surveys indicate the system greatly enhances traditional learners' educational experiences…

Abrams, Gene; Haefner, Jeremy

2002-01-01

349

Interactivity on Traditional Media Web Sites  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study compares the radio industry's use of interactivity to that of other traditional media on the Web such as newspapers and television stations, along the dimensions of audience-oriented interactivity and source-oriented interactivity. A content analysis of 112 traditional radio station Web sites, 282 traditional newspaper Web sites, and 128 traditional television station Web sites found that traditional radio station

Michelle Seelig

2008-01-01

350

Analytical, Nutritional and Clinical Methods Advance technology in virgin olive oil production from traditional and de-stoned pastes: Influence of the introduction of a heat exchanger on oil quality  

Microsoft Academic Search

An experimental investigation was carried out to evaluate the quality of virgin olive oils obtained when a de-stoner were used for the olive paste preparation in comparison to the use of a traditional stone mill. In order to improve the slightly differences of oil yields due to the use of the de-stoner also a heat exchanger has been introduced in

Paolo Amirante; Maria Lisa Clodoveo; Giacomo Dugo; Alessandro Leone; Antonia Tamborrino

351

UV-fluorescence spectroscopic technique in the diagnosis of breast, ovarian, uterus, and cervix cancer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Malignant breast tumors can be separated from benign and normal tissues using uv-fluorescence spectroscopic technique. Using the same method one can also distinguish cancerous tissues from noncancerous ones in case of cervix, uterus and ovary.

Das, Bidyut B.; Glassman, W. L.; Alfano, Robert R.; Cleary, Joseph; Prudente, R.; Celmer, Edward J.; Lubicz, Stephanie

1991-06-01

352

Spectroscopic Studies of Zinc Benzenethiolate Complexes: Electron Transfer to Methyl Viologen. (Reannouncement with New Availability Information).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Mononuclear and tetranuclear zinc benzenethiolate complexes are studied by both spectroscopic and electrochemical methods. Zn(SPh)4 2- and Zn4(SPh)102- represent tetrahedral fragments of the cubic zinc sulfide lattice. The structured absorption spectra of...

T. Turk U. Resch M. A. Fox A. Vogler

1992-01-01

353

CSP spectroscopic classifications of optical transients  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carnegie Supernova Project reports four spectroscopic classifications using optical spectra obtained with the Nordic Optical Telescope (+Alfosc) and the Las Campanas Observatory du Pont Telescope (+WFCCD).

Morrell, N.; Hsiao, E. Y.; Stritzinger, M.; Taddia, F.; Hadjiyska, E.; Walker, E. S.; Rabinowitz, D.; Baltay, C.; Ellman, N.; McKinnon, R.; Feindt, U.; Nugent, P.

2013-04-01

354

Laser spectroscopic measurement of helium isotope ratios.  

SciTech Connect

A sensitive laser spectroscopic method has been applied to the quantitative determination of the isotope ratio of helium at the level of {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He = 10{sup -7}--10{sup -5}. The resonant absorption of 1083 nm laser light by the metastable {sup 3}He atoms in a discharge cell was measured with the frequency modulation saturation spectroscopy technique while the abundance of {sup 4}He was measured by a direct absorption technique. The results on three different samples extracted from the atmosphere and commercial helium gas were in good agreement with values obtained with mass spectrometry. The achieved 3{sigma} detection limit of {sup 3}He in helium is 4 x 10{sup -9}. This demonstration required a 200 {mu}L STP sample of He. The sensitivity can be further improved, and the required sample size reduced, by several orders of magnitude with the addition of cavity enhanced spectroscopy.

Wang, L.-B.; Mueller, P.; Holt, R. J.; Lu, Z.-T.; O'Connor, T. P.; Sano, Y.; Sturchio, N.; Univ. of Illinois; Univ. of Tokyo; Univ. of Illinois at Chicago

2003-06-13

355

Spectroscopic evaluation of time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The lanthanide trivalence ion and its chelates are used for marking substance in time-resolved fluorescence immunoassay(TRFIA), marking the protein, hormone, antibody, nucleic acid probe or biologic alive cell, to measure the concentration of the analysis substance inside the reaction system with time-resolved fluorometry after the reaction system occurred, and attain the quantitative analysis's purpose. TRFIA has been therefore become a kind of new and more sensitive measure method after radioisotope marking, enzymatic marking, chemiluminescence, electrochemiluminescence, it primarily is decided by the special physics and chemistry characteristic of lanthanide trivalence ion and its chelates. In this paper, the result of spectroscopic evaluation of europium trivalence ion and its chelate, and the principle of time-resolved technology and fluorescence-enhanced technology is reported. At the same time, the experiment shows that excitation wavelength chosen between 336 and 337nm benefits the excitation and the energy transfer of chelate diketone of europium trivalence ion.

Guo, Zhouyi; Tian, Zhen; Jia, Yali

2003-12-01

356

Spectroscopic Properties of Chlorophyll f.  

PubMed

The absorption and fluorescence spectra of chlorophyll f (newly discovered in 2010) have been measured in acetone and methanol at different temperatures. The spectral analysis and assignment are compared with the spectra of chlorophyll a and d under the same experimental conditions. The spectroscopic properties of these chlorophylls have further been studied by the aid of density functional CAM-B3LYP and high-level symmetric adapted coupled-cluster configuration interaction calculations. The main Q and Soret bands and possible sidebands of chlorophylls have been determined. The photophysical properties of chlorophyll f are discussed. PMID:23614570

Li, Yaqiong; Cai, Zheng-Li; Chen, Min

2013-05-06

357

Spectroscopic classification of LSQ transients  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the optical spectroscopic classification of four supernovae candidates. The targets were supplied by the La Silla-Quest survey (see Hadjiyska et al., ATel #3812). All observations were performed on 25th Aug 2013 with the 4.2m William Herschel Telescope using ISIS, with R300B (3300 - 6000A, 3.4A resolution), R158R (5250 - 9746A, 7.2A resolution) and a dichroic at 5300A. Classifications were done with SNID (Blondin & Tonry, 2007, ApJ, 666, 1024) and GELATO (Harutyunyan et al., 2008, A&A, 488, 383).

Wright, D.; Polshaw, J.; Fraser, M.; Smartt, S. J.; Kotak, R.; Smith, K.; Young, D.; Inserra, C.; Nicholl, M.; Baltay, C.; Ellman, N.; Hadjiyska, E.; McKinnon, R.; Rabinowitz, D.; Walker, E. S.; Feindt, U.; Kowalski, M.; Nugent, P.

2013-08-01

358

Exposing the Traditional Marriage Agenda  

Microsoft Academic Search

The success of a social justice movement, especially with regard to issues upon which the public will be voting, depends in significant part on how the issues are defined or framed. Anti-same-sex marriage campaigns frequently urge voters to vote in favor of laws defining marriage as between a man and a woman in order to “protect traditional marriage.” Instead of

Jessica Feinberg

2012-01-01

359

Traditional Navajo Maps and Wayfinding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An example of the way finding process when using verbal and other traditional maps among the Navajo Indians of the southwestern United States is presented. The scholarly literature on the Southwest offers examples of verbal maps that construct both linear space, such as trails, and broad geographical space, including hunting territories and large…

Francis, Harris; Kelley, Klara

2005-01-01

360

Education and the Aesopic Tradition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose for this study, as set forth in chapter one, is to describe the history and use of Aesop's fables as part of the Western pedagogical tradition. A second intention is to demonstrate how the different uses of the fables by various cultures reflect specific social, political, and economic concerns of the societies from which they are…

Provenzo, Eugene Francis, Jr.

361

Traditional fallows in Latin America  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional fallow systems of Latin America have not been extensively studied from either a socioeconomic or biophysical viewpoint. Only in the past decade have some of these systems — modified shifting cultivation in the Amazon, the bracatinga (Mimosa scabrella) fallow of southeastern Brazil, the babassu (Attalea spp.) system of the Amazon margins, and short bush fallows mostly for Phaseolus bean

D. C. L. Kass; E. Somarriba

1999-01-01

362

Education and the Aesopic Tradition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The purpose for this study, as set forth in chapter one, is to describe the history and use of Aesop's fables as part of the Western pedagogical tradition. A second intention is to demonstrate how the different uses of the fables by various cultures reflect specific social, political, and economic concerns of the societies from which they are…

Provenzo, Eugene Francis, Jr.

363

Foucault and the Critical Tradition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present paper motivates one possible answer to the question, “What remains of the Enlightenment?” by reinterpreting the relation between Foucault and the critical tradition. The Enlightenment has left us with “normative superstition,” or a healthy form of skepticism about the justification of modern institutions and ideals. Along these lines, I adopt an interpretation of Foucault that diverges from the

Kory P. Schaff

2002-01-01

364

Organic vs. traditional potato powder  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work the profile of primary metabolites in potato (Solanum tuberosum L., cultivar Agria) grown under organic vs traditional farming system was studied, and the influence of heat processing (for producing potato powder) on nutritionally important compounds such as essential amino acids, proteins and carbohydrates was evaluated. The potato powder was obtained by means of a drum dryer using

Petronia Carillo; Domenico Cacace; Stefania De Pascale; Mariateresa Rapacciuolo; Amodio Fuggi

365

Traditional healers and community health.  

PubMed

A review of projects in various countries suggests that traditional healers, if properly trained, can contribute significantly to the work of primary care teams. Recommendations are offered with a view to making the best possible use of this valuable resource. PMID:1418332

Hoff, W

1992-01-01

366

Traditional Navajo Maps and Wayfinding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An example of the way finding process when using verbal and other traditional maps among the Navajo Indians of the southwestern United States is presented. The scholarly literature on the Southwest offers examples of verbal maps that construct both linear space, such as trails, and broad geographical space, including hunting territories and large…

Francis, Harris; Kelley, Klara

2005-01-01

367

Africanisms in Gullah Oral Tradition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Sea Islands off the coast of South Carolina, Georgia, and Northern Florida retain almost every element of African culture, including language, oral tradition, folklore, and aesthetics. Examines the African influence in the lifestyle of the Gullah people of the Sea Islands, especially in terms of their concept of time. (AF)

Holloway, Joseph E.

1989-01-01

368

Acoustics of Chinese traditional theatres  

Microsoft Academic Search

Chinese traditional theatre is unique in the world as an architectural form. The Chinese opera evolved into maturity as early as the Song and Yuan Dynasties, 11th-14th centuries, and Chinese theatrical buildings developed accordingly. As the Chinese opera plays on the principle of imaginary actions, no realistic stage settings are required. But Chinese audiences have placed great demands on vocal

J. Q. Wang

2002-01-01

369

Two traditions of interaction research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper compares Bales' Interaction Process Analysis (IPA) with Sacks' Conver- sation Analysis (CA), arguing that CA has answered several questions that originally motivated the development of IPA, and while doing so, it has re-specified the phenomena of interaction research. These two research traditions are in many ways diametrically opposed: the former is quantitative, theory-oriented and aims at global characterizations

Anssi Peräkylä

2004-01-01

370

Spectroscopic imaging in electron microscopy  

SciTech Connect

In the scanning transmission electron microscope, multiple signals can be simultaneously collected, including the transmitted and scattered electron signals (bright field and annular dark field or Z-contrast images), along with spectroscopic signals such as inelastically scattered electrons and emitted photons. In the last few years, the successful development of aberration correctors for the electron microscope has transformed the field of electron microscopy, opening up new possibilities for correlating structure to functionality. Aberration correction not only allows for enhanced structural resolution with incident probes into the sub-angstrom range, but can also provide greater probe currents to facilitate mapping of intrinsically weak spectroscopic signals at the nanoscale or even the atomic level. In this issue of MRS Bulletin, we illustrate the power of the new generation of electron microscopes with a combination of imaging and spectroscopy. We show the mapping of elemental distributions at atomic resolution and also the mapping of electronic and optical properties at unprecedented spatial resolution, with applications ranging from graphene to plasmonic nanostructures, and oxide interfaces to biology.

Pennycook, Stephen J [ORNL; Colliex, C. [Universite Paris Sud, Orsay, France

2012-01-01

371

THE SPECTROSCOPIC DIVERSITY OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE  

SciTech Connect

We present 2603 spectra of 462 nearby Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia), including 2065 previously unpublished spectra, obtained during 1993-2008 through the Center for Astrophysics Supernova Program. There are on average eight spectra for each of the 313 SNe Ia with at least two spectra. Most of the spectra were obtained with the FAST spectrograph at the Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory 1.5 m telescope and reduced in a consistent manner, making this data set well suited for studies of SN Ia spectroscopic diversity. Using additional data from the literature, we study the spectroscopic and photometric properties of SNe Ia as a function of spectroscopic class using the classification schemes of Branch et al. and Wang et al. The width-luminosity relation appears to be steeper for SNe Ia with broader lines, although the result is not statistically significant with the present sample. Based on the evolution of the characteristic Si II {lambda}6355 line, we propose improved methods for measuring velocity gradients, revealing a larger range than previously suspected, from {approx}0 to {approx}400 km s{sup -1} day{sup -1} considering the instantaneous velocity decline rate at maximum light. We find a weaker and less significant correlation between Si II velocity and intrinsic B - V color at maximum light than reported by Foley et al., owing to a more comprehensive treatment of uncertainties and host galaxy dust. We study the extent of nuclear burning and the presence of unburnt carbon in the outermost layers of the ejecta and report new detections of C II {lambda}6580 in 23 early-time SN Ia spectra. The frequency of C II detections is not higher in SNe Ia with bluer colors or narrower light curves, in conflict with the recent results of Thomas et al. Based on nebular spectra of 27 SNe Ia, we find no relation between the FWHM of the iron emission feature at {approx}4700 A and {Delta}m{sub 15}(B) after removing the two low-luminosity SN 1986G and SN 1991bg, suggesting that the peak luminosity is not strongly dependent on the kinetic energy of the explosion for most SNe Ia. Finally, we confirm the correlation of velocity shifts in some nebular lines with the intrinsic B - V color of SNe Ia at maximum light, although several outliers suggest a possible non-monotonic behavior for the largest blueshifts.

Blondin, S. [Centre de Physique des Particules de Marseille, Aix-Marseille Universite, CNRS/IN2P3, 163 avenue de Luminy, 13288 Marseille Cedex 9 (France); Matheson, T. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Kirshner, R. P.; Mandel, K. S.; Challis, P. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Berlind, P.; Calkins, M. [F. L. Whipple Observatory, 670 Mt. Hopkins Road, P.O. Box 97, Amado, AZ 85645 (United States); Garnavich, P. M. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, 225 Nieuwland Science Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Jha, S. W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers University, 136 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Modjaz, M. [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, New York University, 4 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003 (United States); Riess, A. G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Schmidt, B. P., E-mail: blondin@cppm.in2p3.fr [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Australian National University, Mount Stromlo and Siding Spring Observatories, Via Cotter Road, Weston Creek, PO 2611 (Australia)

2012-05-15

372

Spectroscopic evidence for helicity in explosive events  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Aims: We report spectroscopic observations in support of a novel view of transition region explosive events, observations that lend empirical evidence that at least in some cases explosive events may be nothing else but spinning narrow spicule-like structures. Methods: Our spectra of textbook explosive events with simultaneous Doppler flow of a red and a blue component are extreme cases of high spectroscopic velocities that lack apparent motion, to be expected if interpreted as a pair of collimated, linearly moving jets. The awareness of this conflict led us to the alternative interpretation of redshift and blueshift as a spinning motion of a small plasma volume. In contrast to the bidirectional jet scenario, a small volume of spinning plasma would be fully compatible with the observation of flows without detectable apparent motion. We suspect that these small volumes could be spicule-like structures and try to find evidence for this. We show observations of helical motion in macrospicules and argue that these features - if scaled down to a radius comparable to the slit size of a spectrometer - should have a spectroscopic signature similar to that observed in explosive events, which is admittedly not easily detectable by imagers. Despite of this difficulty, evidence of helicity in spicules has been reported in the literature. This led us to the new insight that the same narrow spinning structures may be the drivers in both cases, structures that imagers observe as spicules and that in spectrometers cross the slit and are seen as explosive events. Results: We arrive at a concept that supports the idea that explosive events and spicules are different manifestations of the same helicity-driven scenario. In contrast to the conventional view of explosive events as linear bidirectional jets that are triggered by a reconnection event in the transition region, this new interpretation is compatible with the observational results. Consequently, in this case a photospheric or subphotospheric trigger has to be assumed. Conclusions: We suggest that explosive events/spicules are to be compared to the unwinding of a loaded torsional spring.

Curdt, W.; Tian, H.

2011-08-01

373

The Spectroscopic Diversity of Type Ia Supernovae  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present 2603 spectra of 462 nearby Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia), including 2065 previously unpublished spectra, obtained during 1993-2008 through the Center for Astrophysics Supernova Program. There are on average eight spectra for each of the 313 SNe Ia with at least two spectra. Most of the spectra were obtained with the FAST spectrograph at the Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory 1.5 m telescope and reduced in a consistent manner, making this data set well suited for studies of SN Ia spectroscopic diversity. Using additional data from the literature, we study the spectroscopic and photometric properties of SNe Ia as a function of spectroscopic class using the classification schemes of Branch et al. and Wang et al. The width-luminosity relation appears to be steeper for SNe Ia with broader lines, although the result is not statistically significant with the present sample. Based on the evolution of the characteristic Si II ?6355 line, we propose improved methods for measuring velocity gradients, revealing a larger range than previously suspected, from ~0 to ~400 km s-1 day-1 considering the instantaneous velocity decline rate at maximum light. We find a weaker and less significant correlation between Si II velocity and intrinsic B - V color at maximum light than reported by Foley et al., owing to a more comprehensive treatment of uncertainties and host galaxy dust. We study the extent of nuclear burning and the presence of unburnt carbon in the outermost layers of the ejecta and report new detections of C II ?6580 in 23 early-time SN Ia spectra. The frequency of C II detections is not higher in SNe Ia with bluer colors or narrower light curves, in conflict with the recent results of Thomas et al. Based on nebular spectra of 27 SNe Ia, we find no relation between the FWHM of the iron emission feature at ~4700 Å and ?m 15(B) after removing the two low-luminosity SN 1986G and SN 1991bg, suggesting that the peak luminosity is not strongly dependent on the kinetic energy of the explosion for most SNe Ia. Finally, we confirm the correlation of velocity shifts in some nebular lines with the intrinsic B - V color of SNe Ia at maximum light, although several outliers suggest a possible non-monotonic behavior for the largest blueshifts. Based in part on observations obtained at the F. L. Whipple Observatory, which is operated by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, the MMT Observatory, a joint facility of the Smithsonian Institution and the University of Arizona, and with the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile.

Blondin, S.; Matheson, T.; Kirshner, R. P.; Mandel, K. S.; Berlind, P.; Calkins, M.; Challis, P.; Garnavich, P. M.; Jha, S. W.; Modjaz, M.; Riess, A. G.; Schmidt, B. P.

2012-05-01

374

Ginseng in Traditional Herbal Prescriptions  

PubMed Central

Panax ginseng Meyer has been widely used as a tonic in traditional Korean, Chinese, and Japanese herbal medicines and in Western herbal preparations for thousands of years. In the past, ginseng was very rare and was considered to have mysterious powers. Today, the efficacy of drugs must be tested through well-designed clinical trials or meta-analyses, and ginseng is no exception. In the present review, we discuss the functions of ginseng described in historical documents and describe how these functions are taken into account in herbal prescriptions. We also discuss the findings of experimental pharmacological research on the functions of ginseng in ginseng-containing prescriptions and how these prescriptions have been applied in modern therapeutic interventions. The present review on the functions of ginseng in traditional prescriptions helps to demystify ginseng and, as a result, may contribute to expanding the use of ginseng or ginseng-containing prescriptions.

Park, Ho Jae; Kim, Dong Hyun; Park, Se Jin; Kim, Jong Min; Ryu, Jong Hoon

2012-01-01

375

Some properties of spectroscopic binary stars  

SciTech Connect

The masses of the components, the mass ratio, the semiaxis of the orbit, and the orbit angular momentum have been calculated for 826 spectroscopic binary stars. The distributions of the stars with respect to these parameters and their correlations are analyzed. The dependence of the statistical properties of spectroscopic binaries on their origin and evolution is discussed.

Kraicheva, Z.T.; Popova, E.I.; Tutukov, A.V.; Yungel'son, L.R.

1978-11-01

376

Automated heuristic analysis of spectroscopic data  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spectroscopic data consists of a set of numbers which may be plotted on a graph. These numbers indicate a range of values rather than a single discrete value. It is straightforward to assign a meaning to a single value, but interpreting the meaning of a range of values requires more judgment. In nuclear physics, spectroscopic data is related to the

Hank Simon

1988-01-01

377

Spectroscopic Optical Coherence Tomography and Microscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Imaging biological tissues using optical coherence tomography is enhanced with spectroscopic analysis, providing new metrics for functional imaging. Recent advances in spectroscopic optical coherence tomography (SOCT) include techniques for the discrimination of endogenous tissue types and for the detection of exogenous contrast agents. In this paper, we review these techniques and their associated signal processing algorithms, while highlighting their potential

Amy L. Oldenburg; Chenyang Xu; Stephen A. Boppart

2007-01-01

378

Traditional Medicine for Memory Enhancement  

Microsoft Academic Search

In traditional practices of medicine, numerous plants have been used to alleviate memory impairment both in healthy individuals\\u000a and those with disease states which are now recognised as specific cognitive disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD). An\\u000a ethnopharmacological approach has provided leads to identify plants and their compounds that may have potential to modulate\\u000a cognitive abilities by different modes of

Melanie-Jayne R. Howes; Peter J. Houghton

379

Health traditions of Sikkim Himalaya  

PubMed Central

Ancient medical systems are still prevalent in Sikkim, popularly nurtured by Buddhist groups using the traditional Tibetan pharmacopoeia overlapping with Ayurvedic medicine. Traditional medical practices and their associated cultural values are based round Sikkim’s three major communities, Lepcha, Bhutia and Nepalis. In this study, a semi-structured questionnaire was prepared for folk healers covering age and sex, educational qualification, source of knowledge, types of practices, experience and generation of practice, and transformation of knowledge. These were administered to forty-eight folk healers identified in different parts of Sikkim. 490 medicinal plants find their habitats in Sikkim because of its large variations in altitude and climate. For 31 commonly used by these folk healers, we present botanical name, family, local name, distribution, and parts used, together with their therapeutic uses, mostly Rheumatoid arthritis, Gout, Gonorrhea, Fever, Viral flu, asthma, Cough and Cold, indigestion, Jaundice etc. A case treated by a folk healer is also recounted. This study indicates that, in the studied area, Sikkim’s health traditions and folk practices are declining due to shifts in socio-economic patterns, and unwillingness of the younger generation to adopt folk healing as a profession.

Panda, Ashok Kumar; Misra, Sangram

2010-01-01

380

Acoustics of Chinese traditional theatres  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chinese traditional theatre is unique in the world as an architectural form. The Chinese opera evolved into maturity as early as the Song and Yuan Dynasties, 11th-14th centuries, and Chinese theatrical buildings developed accordingly. As the Chinese opera plays on the principle of imaginary actions, no realistic stage settings are required. But Chinese audiences have placed great demands on vocal performance since ancient times. Pavilion stages that are small in area, open on three sides, and thrusting into the audience area are commonly found in traditional theatres, both the courtyard type and auditorium type. The pavilion stage is backed with a wall and a low ceiling (flat or domed). The stage functions as a reflecting shell, which enhances the sound to the audience and provides self-support to the singer. Numerous theatres of this kind exist and function in good condition to the present time. Acoustical measurements show that the sound strength and clarity in audience areas is satisfactory in moderate size courtyard traditional theatres. [Work supported by NSF.

Wang, J. Q.

2002-11-01

381

Gradient Moment Compensated Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopic Imaging  

PubMed Central

Spectroscopic imaging applications outside of the brain can suffer from artifacts due to inherent long scan times and susceptibility to motion. A fast spectroscopic imaging sequence has been devised with reduced sensitivity to motion. The sequence uses oscillating readout gradients and acquires k-space data in a spiral out–in fashion, which allows fast k-space coverage. We show that a spiral out–in readout acquisition is characterized by small gradient moments, reducing sensitivity to motion-induced artifacts. Data are acquired comparing the sequence to normal phase encoded spectroscopic imaging and conventional spiral spectroscopic imaging protocols. In addition, in vivo data are acquired from the liver, demonstrating potential usage as a multivoxel fat/water spectroscopic imaging tool. Results indicate that in the presence of motion, ghosting effects are reduced while metabolite signal increases of approximately 10% can be achieved.

Kim, Dong-Hyun; Gu, Meng; Spielman, Daniel M.

2010-01-01

382

Spectroscopic analysis of immobilised redox enzymes under direct electrochemical control.  

PubMed

This article reviews recent developments in spectroscopic analysis of electrode-immobilised enzymes under direct, unmediated electrochemical control. These methods unite the suite of spectroscopic methods available for characterisation of structural, electronic and coordination changes in proteins with the exquisite control over complex redox enzymes that can be achieved in protein film electrochemistry in which immobilised protein molecules exchange electrons directly with an electrode. This combination is particularly powerful in studies of highly active enzymes where redox states can be controlled even under fast electrocatalytic turnover. We examine examples in which UV-visible, IR, Raman and MCD spectroscopy have been combined with direct electrochemistry to probe redox-dependent chemistry, and consider future opportunities for 'direct' spectroelectrochemistry of immobilised enzymes. PMID:22057715

Ash, Philip A; Vincent, Kylie A

2011-11-07

383

Spirit, Action and Health: Traditional Relationship  

Microsoft Academic Search

The intention of this research is to provide historically and currently relevant information and views of the relationship of spirit, action and health from traditional, indigenous perspectives. It is based in the Welsh, Celtic and European traditions of the author's ancestry and includes and honors perspectives from diverse traditions. The traditional relationship of spirit, action and health is explored in

Anne Shordike

2002-01-01

384

The Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array is a Small Explorer (SMEX) mission scheduled for launch in August 2011. NuSTAR will be the first focusing high energy satellite sensitive in the hard X-ray band, and will probe the X-ray sky approximately two orders of magnitude more sensitively than currently achievable. NuSTAR will answer fundamental questions about the Universe: How are black holes distributed through the cosmos, and what is their contribution to the Cosmic X-ray Background? How were the heavy elements forged in the explosions of massive stars? What powers the relativistic jets in the most extreme active galaxies? This presentation will discuss the current status of NuSTAR and the baseline, 2-year science program.

Harrison, Fiona; NuSTAR Team

2010-01-01

385

Remote spectroscopic identification of bloodstains.  

PubMed

Blood detection and identification at crime scenes are crucial for harvesting forensic evidence. Unfortunately, most tests for the identification of blood are destructive and time consuming. We present a fast and nondestructive identification test for blood, using noncontact reflectance spectroscopy. We fitted reflectance spectra of 40 bloodstains and 35 nonbloodstains deposited on white cotton with spectroscopic features of the main compounds of blood. Each bloodstain was measured 30 times to account for aging effects. The outcome of the blood measurements was compared with the reflectance of blood-mimicking stains and various body fluids. We found that discrimination between blood and nonblood deposited on white cotton is possible with a specificity of 100% and a sensitivity of 98%. In conclusion, a goodness of fit between the sample's reflectance and the blood component fit may allow identification of blood at crime scenes by remote spectroscopy. PMID:21827464

Bremmer, Rolf H; Edelman, Gerda; Vegter, Tessa Dijn; Bijvoets, Ted; Aalders, Maurice C G

2011-08-09

386

Spectroscopic characterization of III-V semiconductor nanomaterials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

III-V semiconductor materials form a broad basis for optoelectronic applications, including the broad basis of the telecom industry as well as smaller markets for high-mobility transistors. In a somewhat analogous manner as the traditional silicon logic industry has so heavily depended upon process manufacturing development, optoelectronics often relies instead on materials innovations. This thesis focuses particularly on III-V semiconductor nanomaterials, detailed characterization of which is invaluable for translating the exhibited behavior into useful applications. Specifically, the original research described in these thesis chapters is an investigation of semiconductors at a fundamental materials level, because the nanostructures in which they appear crystallize in quite atypical forms for the given semiconductors. Rather than restricting the experimental approaches to any one particular technique, many different types of optical spectroscopies are developed and applied where relevant to elucidate the connection between the crystalline structure and exhibited properties. In the first chapters, for example, a wurtzite crystalline form of the prototypical zincblende III-V binary semiconductor, GaAs, is explored through polarization-dependent Raman spectroscopy and temperature-dependent photoluminescence, as well as second-harmonic generation (SHG). The altered symmetry properties of the wurtzite crystalline structure are particularly evident in the Raman and SHG polarization dependences, all within a bulk material realm. A rather different but deeply elegant aspect of crystalline symmetry in GaAs is explored in a separate study on zincblende GaAs samples quantum-confined in one direction, i.e. quantum well structures, whose quantization direction corresponds to the (110) direction. The (110) orientation modifies the low-temperature electron spin relaxation mechanisms available compared to the usual (001) samples, leading to altered spin coherence times explored through a novel spectroscopic technique first formulated for the rather different purpose of dispersion engineering for slow-light schemes. The frequency-resolved technique combined with the unusual (110) quantum wells in a furthermore atypical waveguide experimental geometry has revealed fascinating behavior of electron spin splitting which points to the possibility of optically orienting electron spins with linearly polarized light---an experimental result supporting a theoretical description of the phenomenon itself only a few years old. Lastly, to explore a space of further-restricted dimensionality, the final chapters describe InP semiconductor nanowires with dimensions small enough to be considered truly one-dimensional. Like the bulk GaAs of the first few chapters, the InP nanowires here crystallize in a wurtzite structure. In the InP nanowire case, though, the experimental techniques explored for characterization are temperature-dependent time-integrated photoluminescence at the single-wire level (including samples with InAsP insertions) and time-resolved photoluminescence at the ensemble level. The carrier dynamics revealed through these time-resolved studies are the first of their kind for wurtzite InP nanowires. The chapters are thus ordered as a progression from three (bulk), to two (quantum well), to one (nanowire), to zero dimensions (axially-structured nanowire), with the uniting theme the emphasis on connecting the semiconductor nanomaterials' crystallinity to its exhibited properties by relevant experimental spectroscopic techniques, whether these are standard methods or effectively invented for the case at hand.

Crankshaw, Shanna Marie

387

Transition moment directions and selected spectroscopic properties of Ivabradine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Based on the Kawski-Gryczynski method the value of angle ? = 38° between absorption and fluorescence transition moments of Ivabradine was determined. Such a high value of ? is responsible for low emission anisotropy of Ivabradine in a rigid polyvinyl alcohol matrix and in anhydrous glycerol despite the elongated shape of the fluorophore. Selected steady-state and time-resolved spectroscopic results support the analysis.

Synak, A.; Pikul, P.; Bojarski, P.; Nowakowska, J.; Wiczk, W.; ?ukaszewicz, A.; Kubicki, A. A.

2013-01-01

388

Transition moment directions and selected spectroscopic properties of Ivabradine.  

PubMed

Based on the Kawski-Gryczynski method the value of angle ?=38° between absorption and fluorescence transition moments of Ivabradine was determined. Such a high value of ? is responsible for low emission anisotropy of Ivabradine in a rigid polyvinyl alcohol matrix and in anhydrous glycerol despite the elongated shape of the fluorophore. Selected steady-state and time-resolved spectroscopic results support the analysis. PMID:23103456

Synak, A; Pikul, P; Bojarski, P; Nowakowska, J; Wiczk, W; ?ukaszewicz, A; Kubicki, A A

2012-09-28

389

Latin American traditions and perspectives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Educational and related non-pedagogical issues are generally described and discussed. Implicitly or explicitly, the theology of liberation, educación popular and traditional education tend to perpetuate male/female roles and very often incite violence. Peace education in Latin America should concentrate more on the pathology of the violent man. The so-called `weaknesses' associated with women and their `powerlessness' in Western civilization are precisely those which are absolutely essential to our survival. It is important for women to reject Western patterns of violence and participate actively in finding a viable alternative.

Garcia, Celina

1983-09-01

390

[Traditional Chinese medicine in urology.  

PubMed

Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is an ancient holistic medicine based on the doctrine of Tao and Qi. Tao represents an alteration from which the polarity of Yin and Yang arises and Qi is the vitality which circulates through the body. Therapeutic concepts of TCM include acupuncture, herbal therapy, nutrition and Tuina, a form of manual therapy. TCM is now gaining increased acceptance in the Western society as a complementary therapy. Acupuncture and herbal therapy are the main forms of implementation of TCM in urology. PMID:23754610

Hüsch, T; Tsaur, I; Reiter, M; Mager, R; Haferkamp, A

2013-06-12

391

Composition of traditional Hopi foods.  

PubMed

Foods produced by the modern Hopi Indians and prepared in traditional ways are generally good sources of essential minerals, especially if plant ash or native crude salt are added in preparation. The predominant whole grain, mature maize-corn products are relatively high in phytate, which may interfere with absorption of some of the minerals present. The use of culinary ash may have played a critical role in maintenance of nutritional health in the presence of interfering substances in the diet, especially if animal foods were in limited supply. PMID:447979

Kuhnlein, H V; Calloway, D H; Harland, B F

1979-07-01

392

[Traditional treatment of cataract in Niger. Apropos of 22 cases].  

PubMed

Empiric treatment of cataracts by couching is still commonly performed by traditional healers in West Africa. In the ophthalmology department in the regional hospital of Zinder, in Niger, 22 cases have been identified and their complications treated medically and surgically. The semiotic analysis demonstrated the diversity of methods used, sometimes successfully by the traditional healers. Apart from the classical technics of luxation in the vitreous, we have observed a number of cases with integrity of the posterior capsule and disappearance of the nucleus. These last observations have lead us to believe that certain traditional healers may use local plants with phakolytic effects in their pharmacopia. PMID:8496567

Mariotti, J M; Amza, A

1993-01-01

393

Spectroscopic characteristics of polar plumes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Extreme ultraviolet observations of plumes in polar coronal holes are presented and their spectroscopic signatures discussed. The study focuses on the base of plumes seen on the disk of the Sun with the Coronal Diagnostic Spectrometer (CDS) on the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) satellite. Spectroscopic diagnostic techniques are applied to characterise the plumes in terms of density, temperature, emission measure and element abundance. Attention is drawn to the particular limitations of some of the techniques when applied to plume structures. In particular, we revisit the Widing & Feldman (1992) findings of a plume having a large first ionization potential (FIP) effect of 10, showing that instead the Skylab data are consistent with no FIP effect. We present for the first time CDS-GIS (grazing incidence spectrometer) observations of a plume. These observations have been used to confirm the results obtained from normal incidence (NIS) observations. We find that polar plumes exhibit the same characteristics as the Elephant's Trunk equatorial plume. The most striking characteristic of the plume bases is that they are near-isothermal with a peak emission measure at transition region temperatures =~ 8 x 105 K. At these temperatures, plumes have averaged densities Nlo {e} =~ 1.2 x 109 cm-3, about twice the value of the surrounding coronal hole region. Element abundances in the plumes are found to be close to photospheric, with the exception of neon which appears to be depleted by 0.2 dex relative to oxygen. The absence of a significant FIP effect in plumes is consistent with fast solar wind plasma, although it is not sufficient to prove a link between the two. Finally, we present a comparison between GIS spectra and the SOHO EIT (EUV Imaging Telescope) broad-band images, showing that temperatures derived from the EIT ratio technique are largely overestimated, for plumes and coronal holes. This is partly due to the fact that the so called ``Fe XII 195 Å'' and ``Fe XV 284 Å'' filters are not isothermal, and in coronal holes and plumes lower-temperature lines dominate the EIT signal.

Del Zanna, G.; Bromage, B. J. I.; Mason, H. E.

2003-02-01

394

Flavour substances of Chinese traditional smoke-cured bacon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Flavour components from Chinese traditional smoke-cured bacon were trapped by condensing and dissolving in organic solvent (ether and n-pentane), using the nitrogen purge-and-steam distillation (NPSD) method. Qualitative and quantitative characterizations of the extract were performed by means of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector, respectively. Using Chinese traditional smoke-cured bacon, under the condition of stewing,

Yu Ai-Nong; Sun Bao-Guo

2005-01-01

395

Comparison of Centering Pregnancy to Traditional Care in Hispanic Mothers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective To compare maternal and infant outcomes in Hispanic women participating in the Centering Pregnancy Model (CPM) to those receiving\\u000a prenatal care via the traditional model and determine acceptability of the CPM. Methods Forty-nine women (n = 24 CPM; n = 25 traditional) participated in this quasi-experimental prospective comparative design. Participants self selected the\\u000a model of care delivery. Data were collected via questionnaires at the

Bethany Robertson; Dawn M. Aycock; Laura A. Darnell

2009-01-01

396

Advanced APD-Based Spectroscopic Radiation Monitor.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

In response to DOE needs, RMD, Inc. proposed to develop an advanced, spectroscopic, radiation-imaging instrument based upon recent advancements in detector technology. This research was to provide an effective solution to critical DOE remediation problems...

J. F. Christian M. Woodring

2004-01-01

397

EOS Family: A Spectroscopic Study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Eos family detected by Hirayama in 1918 has been always considered to be compositionally homogeneous. To investigate the composition and the homogeneity of the members of this family, we started a spectroscopic survey at the European Southern Observatory (ESO) with wavelength coverage ranging from 4800 to 9200 Å. We observed 45 Eos asteroid members, which constitutes the first large survey of this family. Our results reveal the Eos objects have spectral signature characterizing the whole family: a maximum at ? ˜ 8000-8500 Å and a reflectivity gradient spanning a continuous range. Only two of the 45 investigated objects seem to be interlopers. While the lower range of this spectral distribution has been easily connected with CO-CV chondrites, we have found no satisfactory meteorite counterpart to the upper range. We have interpreted the spread out of Eos spectra to be the results of compositional variation among the Eos members, implying that the Eos parent body was partially differentiated. Moreover, a space weathering effect has been proven to be present, but with a minor role played in the diversity of Eos family, the major role being the compositional variation.

Doressoundiram, A.; Barucci, M. A.; Fulchignoni, M.; Florczak, M.

1998-01-01

398

Adaptive optics photoacoustic spectroscopic imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For decreasing wavefront error and obtaining higher resolution image of biological tissues, an adaptive optics photoacoustic spectroscopic imaging (AOPSI) system is proposed in this paper. In this system, an adaptive optics (AO) sub-system consisting of a Shack-Hartmann wavefront sensor (SHWS) and a liquid crystal on silicon (LCOS) is designed to correct the wavefront aberration of the illuminating light for getting high resolution image. The photoacoustic (PA) signals of AOPSI generated by irradiating the sample with a tunable optical parametric oscillator (OPO) lasers emitting light at 680-950 nm are received by a broadband ultrasound transducer. The received data are rearranged according to the wavelength sequences and decoded for image reconstruction. Moreover, the PA spectroscopy is used to obtain different wavelength PA images, with which one can accurately distinguish organization structures and identify organizational components, etc. The final simulation results demonstrated that when the wavefront errors were corrected by the AO system, the AOPSI images showed significant quality improvement which will be helpful to enhance the ability and application of PA imaging.

Jian, Xiaohua; Cui, Yaoyao; Xiang, Yongjia; Han, Zhile; Gu, Tianming; Lv, Tiejun

2013-01-01

399

NIRSPEC brown dwarf spectroscopic survey  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NIRSPEC Brown Dwarf Spectroscopic Survey is a project to obtain a consistent set of high-quality near-IR spectra for each spectral class and sub-class of low-mass and/or sub- stellar objects to provide a new data base for models of the atmosphere of brown dwarfs and extra-solar giant planets. Most of the current targets are L-dwarfs and T-dwarfs discovered by the 2MASS. The survey is begin performed with the recently-commissioned near-IR spectrometer, NIRSPEC, a 1-5 micrometers cryogenic spectrograph at the WM Keck Observatory on Mauna Kea, using resolving powers of R equals 2,500-25,000. Preliminary results for four sources, three L-dwarfs and one T-dwarf, are presented here. Spectra from 1.13-2.33 micrometers at an average resolution of R equals 2,500 illustrate the development of deep steam bands and the weakening of FeH through the L-sequence, and the emergence of methane bands in the T-dwarfs. Complex detail in the spectra are the result of blending of numerous unresolved molecular transitions.

Wilcox, Mavourneen K.; McLean, Ian S.; Becklin, Eric E.; Figer, Donald F.; Gilbert, Andrea M.; Graham, James R.; Larkin, James E.; Levenson, N. A.; Teplitz, Harry I.; Kirkpatrick, J. D.; Burgasser, Adam J.

2000-06-01

400

Stephen Crane and the New-York Tribune: A Case Study in Traditional and NonTraditional Authorship Attribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes how traditional andnon-traditional methods were used to identifyseventeen previously unknown articles that webelieve to be by Stephen Crane, published inthe New-York Tribune between 1889 and1892. The articles, printed without byline inwhat was at the time New York City's mostprestigious newspaper, report on activities ina string of summer resort towns on New Jersey'snorthern shore. Scholars had previouslyidentified fourteen

David I. Holmes; Michael Robertson; Roxanna Paez

2001-01-01

401

Assessing Site-Isolation of Amine Groups on Aminopropyl-Functionalized SBA-15 Materials via Spectroscopic and Reactivity Probes  

SciTech Connect

The average degree of separation and the accessibility of aminopropyl groups on SBA-15 silica materials prepared using different silane grafting approaches are compared. Three specific synthetic approaches are used: (1) the traditional grafting of 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane in toluene, (2) a protection/deprotection method using benzyl- or trityl-spacer groups, and (3) a cooperative dilution method where 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane and methyltrimethoxysilane are co-condensed on the silica surface as a silane mixture. The site-isolation and accessibility of the amine groups are probed via three methods: (a) evaluation of pyrene groups adsorbed onto the solids using fluorescence spectroscopy, (b) the reactions of chlorodimethyl(2,3,4,5-tetramethyl-2,4-cyclopentadien-1-yl)silane (Cp'Si(Me){sub 2}Cl) and chloro(cyclopenta-2,4-dienyl)dimethylsilane (CpSi(Me){sub 2}Cl) with the tethered amine sites, and (c) comparison of the reactivity of zirconium constrained-geometry-inspired catalysts (CGCs) prepared using the Cp'Si(Me){sub 2}-modified aminosilicas in the catalytic polymerization of ethylene to produce poly(ethylene). The spectroscopic probe of site-isolation suggests that both the protection/deprotection method and the cooperative dilution method yield similarly isolated amine sites that are markedly more isolated than sites on traditional aminosilica. In contrast, both reactivity probes show that the protection/deprotection strategy leads to more uniformly accessible amine groups. It is proposed that the reactivity probes are more sensitive tests for accessibility and site-isolation in this case.

Hicks, Jason C [Georgia Institute of Technology; Dabestani, Reza T [ORNL; Buchanan III, A C [ORNL; Jones, Christopher W [Georgia Institute of Technology

2008-01-01

402

New status of traditional childrens songs: \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently there has been an increasing emphasis on traditional Japanese music in educational policy. Under such a political trend, music educators have to take responsibility for children's development, not merely teaching the heritage of the past. For us it is an important task to develop school music curriculum involving traditional Japanese music. Warabe-uta, traditional children's songs, is a prototype of

Ritsuko Kojima

403

Non-Traditional Transfer Student Attrition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Current literature focuses on traditional student attrition and on transfer transition, but little information is available on the non-traditional transfer student experience. The following study explores the process of non-traditional transfer student attrition through an investigation that illustrates the importance of past student experiences,…

Monroe, Anne

2006-01-01

404

Infusing Qualitative Traditions in Counseling Research Designs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Research traditions serve as a blueprint or guide for a variety of design decisions throughout qualitative inquiry. This article presents 6 qualitative research traditions: grounded theory, phenomenology, consensual qualitative research, ethnography, narratology, and participatory action research. For each tradition, the authors describe its…

Hays, Danica G.; Wood, Chris

2011-01-01

405

Microbiological characteristics of Greek traditional cheeses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cheesemaking in Greece has a centuries-old tradition and ancient Greeks considered the cheese as a divine invention and gift. Numerous traditional cheeses are made throughout Greece today and twenty of them were recognized as PDO. As a total, Greek traditional cheeses are grouped, according to their technology of manufacture, as: cheeses in brine, soft cheeses, semi-hard cheeses, hard cheeses and

Evanthia Litopoulou-Tzanetaki; Nikolaos Tzanetakis

406

Infrared spectroscopic ellipsometry in semiconductor manufacturing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Infrared spectroscopic ellipsometry (IRSE) metrology is an emerging technology in semiconductor production environment. Infineon Technologies SC300 implemented the first worldwide automated IRSE in a class 1 clean room in 2002. Combining properties of IR light -- large wavelength, low absorption in silicon -- with a short focus optics -- no backside reflection -- which allow model-based analysis, a large number of production applications were developed. Part of Infineon IRSE development roadmap is now focused on depth monitoring for arrays of 3D dry-etched structures. In trench DRAM manufacturing, the areal density is high, and critical dimensions are much lower than mid-IR wavelength. Therefore, extensive use of effective medium theory is made to model 3D structures. IR-SE metrology is not limited by shrinking critical dimensions, as long as the areal density is above a specific cut-off value determined by trenches dimensions, trench-filling and surrounding materials. Two applications for depth monitoring are presented. 1D models were developed and successfully applied to the DRAM trench capacitor structures. Modeling and correlation to reference methods are shown as well as dynamic repeatability and gauge capability results. Limitations of the current tool configuration are reviewed for shallow structures.

Guittet, Pierre-Yves; Mantz, Ulrich; Weidner, Peter; Stehle, Jean-Louis; Bucchia, Marc; Bourtault, Sophie; Zahorski, Dorian

2004-05-01

407

Spectroscopic generalized ellipsometry based on fourier analysis.  

PubMed

The extension of a spectroscopic ellipsometer that consists of a fixed polarizer, a rotating polarizer, a sample, and a fixed analyzer (PRPSE) to generalized ellipsometry to determining the generalized ellipsometric angles and the optical functions of an anisotropic medium is reported. The PRPSE configuration eliminates the polarization sensitivity of the light source. A general numerical technique has been derived to characterize the optical properties of the anisotropic material without intermediate generalized ellipsometric angles. The proposed method is experimentally verified for uniaxial mercuric iodide. The ordinary and the extraordinary refractive and absorption indices, respectively, N(o) = n(o)--ik(o) and N(e) = n(e)--ik(e), can be extracted directly from the Fourier coefficients measured by the PRPSE on a HgI(2) crystal face that contains the optical axis. The orientations of the optical axis with respect to the plane of incidence were also determined by direct analysis of the measured Fourier coefficients. Measurements were made of reflection across a spectral range of 1.5-4.13 eV at one angle of incidence (Phi = 70 degrees ) for several azimuths phi of the optical axis with respect to the plane of incidence. The generalized ellipsometric angles were obtained from numerical inversion by changes of both polarizer and analyzer azimuth angles P and A. PMID:18323969

En Naciri, A; Johann, L; Kleim, R

1999-08-01

408

Traditional beliefs against weighing children regularly.  

PubMed

Weighing children is one of the simplest, cheapest, and quickest methods of assessing the nutritional status of children. Regular weighing of children and recording the results on growth charts can be used to monitor the growth pattern of individual children and may promote early detection and prevention of growth-faltering due to illness or malnutrition. This paper considers the traditional beliefs against weighing children regularly among some populations in Tamil Nadu, India. The reason why mothers were reluctant to have their children weighed was most commonly the fear that the investigator might cast an evil eye. Every time the evil eye was suspected, a traditional purification ritual had to be followed. Other reasons given were that the child would lose weight and might suffer other illnesses, such as fever or diarrhea. 1 mother felt there was no use in weighin the child. Most mothers gave a combination of reasons. It has been abserved that mothers often allow their children to be weighed in exchange for some benefit each time. Another feeling among mothers is that weighin is related to sale of goods, be it meat or other materials: they do not want to sell their children. Regular weighing is only a diagnostic tool, and for credibility it needs to be seen to be connected with health care and nutrition intervention programs, in the form of food or nutrition education on the best use of available food. PMID:3765070

Abel, R

1986-01-01

409

EEL spectroscopic tomography: towards a new dimension in nanomaterials analysis.  

PubMed

Electron tomography is a widely spread technique for recovering the three dimensional (3D) shape of nanostructured materials. Using a spectroscopic signal to achieve a reconstruction adds a fourth chemical dimension to the 3D structure. Up to date, energy filtering of the images in the transmission electron microscope (EFTEM) is the usual spectroscopic method even if most of the information in the spectrum is lost. Unlike EFTEM tomography, the use of electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) spectrum images (SI) for tomographic reconstruction retains all chemical information, and the possibilities of this new approach still remain to be fully exploited. In this article we prove the feasibility of EEL spectroscopic tomography at low voltages (80 kV) and short acquisition times from data acquired using an aberration corrected instrument and data treatment by Multivariate Analysis (MVA), applied to Fe(x)Co((3-x))O(4)@Co(3)O(4) mesoporous materials. This approach provides a new scope into materials; the recovery of full EELS signal in 3D. PMID:22974761

Yedra, Lluís; Eljarrat, Alberto; Arenal, Raúl; Pellicer, Eva; Cabo, Moisés; López-Ortega, Alberto; Estrader, Marta; Sort, Jordi; Baró, Maria Dolors; Estradé, Sònia; Peiró, Francesca

2012-07-24

410

Semiclassical mean-trajectory approximation for nonlinear spectroscopic response functions.  

PubMed

Observables in nonlinear and multidimensional infrared spectroscopy may be calculated from nonlinear response functions. Numerical challenges associated with the fully quantum-mechanical calculation of these dynamical response functions motivate the development of semiclassical methods based on the numerical propagation of classical trajectories. The Herman-Kluk frozen Gaussian approximation to the quantum propagator has been demonstrated to produce accurate linear and third-order spectroscopic response functions for thermal ensembles of anharmonic oscillators. However, the direct application of this propagator to spectroscopic response functions is numerically impractical. We analyze here the third-order response function with Herman-Kluk dynamics with the two related goals of understanding the origins of the success of the approximation and developing a simplified representation that is more readily implemented numerically. The result is a semiclassical approximation to the nth-order spectroscopic response function in which an integration over n pairs of classical trajectories connected by distributions of discontinuous transitions is collapsed to a single phase-space integration, in which n continuous trajectories are linked by deterministic transitions. This significant simplification is shown to retain a full description of quantum effects. PMID:19045039

Gruenbaum, Scott M; Loring, Roger F

2008-09-28

411

Spectroscopic features of cytochrome P450 reaction intermediates  

PubMed Central

Preface Cytochromes P450 constitute a broad class of heme monooxygenase enzymes with more than 11,500 isozymes which have been identified in organisms from all biological kingdoms [1]. These enzymes are responsible for catalyzing dozens chemical oxidative transformations such as hydroxylation, epoxidation, N-demethylation, etc., with very broad range of substrates [2-3]. Historically these enzymes received their name from ‘pigment 450’ due to the unusual position of the Soret band in UV-Vis absorption spectra of the reduced CO-saturated state [4-5]. Despite detailed biochemical characterization of many isozymes, as well as later discoveries of other ‘P450-like heme enzymes’ such as nitric oxide synthase and chloroperoxidase, the phenomenological term ‘cytochrome P450’ is still commonly used as indicating an essential spectroscopic feature of the functionally active protein which is now known to be due to the presence of a thiolate ligand to the heme iron [6]. Heme proteins with an imidazole ligand such as myoglobin and hemoglobin as well as an inactive form of P450 are characterized by Soret maxima at 420 nm [7]. This historical perspective highlights the importance of spectroscopic methods for biochemical studies in general, and especially for heme enzymes, where the presence of the heme iron and porphyrin macrocycle provides rich variety of specific spectroscopic markers available for monitoring chemical transformations and transitions between active intermediates of catalytic cycle.

Luthra, Abhinav; Denisov, Ilia G.; Sligar, Stephen G.

2010-01-01

412

QUANTIFYING PHOTOMETRIC REDSHIFT ERRORS IN THE ABSENCE OF SPECTROSCOPIC REDSHIFTS  

SciTech Connect

Much of the science that is made possible by multiwavelength redshift surveys requires the use of photometric redshifts. But as these surveys become more ambitious, and as we seek to perform increasingly accurate measurements, it becomes crucial to take proper account of the photometric redshift uncertainties. Ideally the uncertainties can be directly measured using a comparison with spectroscopic redshifts, but this may yield misleading results since spectroscopic samples are frequently small and not representative of the parent photometric samples. We present a simple and powerful empirical method to constrain photometric redshift uncertainties in the absence of spectroscopic redshifts. Close pairs of galaxies on the sky have a significant probability of being physically associated and therefore of lying at nearly the same redshift. The difference in photometric redshifts in close pairs is therefore a measure of the redshift uncertainty. Some observed close pairs will arise from chance projections along the line of sight, but it is straightforward to perform a statistical correction for this effect. We demonstrate the technique using both simulated data and actual observations, and discuss how its usefulness can be limited by the presence of systematic photometric redshift errors. Finally, we use this technique to show how photometric redshift accuracy can depend on galaxy type.

Quadri, Ryan F.; Williams, Rik J., E-mail: quadri@strw.leidenuniv.n [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, NL-2300 RA, Leiden (Netherlands)

2010-12-10

413

QUANTIFYING THE BIASES OF SPECTROSCOPICALLY SELECTED GRAVITATIONAL LENSES  

SciTech Connect

Spectroscopic selection has been the most productive technique for the selection of galaxy-scale strong gravitational lens systems with known redshifts. Statistically significant samples of strong lenses provide a powerful method for measuring the mass-density parameters of the lensing population, but results can only be generalized to the parent population if the lensing selection biases are sufficiently understood. We perform controlled Monte Carlo simulations of spectroscopic lens surveys in order to quantify the bias of lenses relative to parent galaxies in velocity dispersion, mass axis ratio, and mass-density profile. For parameters typical of the SLACS and BELLS surveys, we find (1) no significant mass axis ratio detection bias of lenses relative to parent galaxies; (2) a very small detection bias toward shallow mass-density profiles, which is likely negligible compared to other sources of uncertainty in this parameter; (3) a detection bias toward smaller Einstein radius for systems drawn from parent populations with group- and cluster-scale lensing masses; and (4) a lens-modeling bias toward larger velocity dispersions for systems drawn from parent samples with sub-arcsecond mean Einstein radii. This last finding indicates that the incorporation of velocity-dispersion upper limits of non-lenses is an important ingredient for unbiased analyses of spectroscopically selected lens samples. In general, we find that the completeness of spectroscopic lens surveys in the plane of Einstein radius and mass-density profile power-law index is quite uniform, up to a sharp drop in the region of large Einstein radius and steep mass-density profile, and hence that such surveys are ideally suited to the study of massive field galaxies.

Arneson, Ryan A.; Brownstein, Joel R.; Bolton, Adam S., E-mail: arnesonr@uci.edu, E-mail: joelbrownstein@astro.utah.edu, E-mail: bolton@astro.utah.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States)

2012-07-01

414

MR Spectroscopy and Spectroscopic Imaging of the Brain  

PubMed Central

Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and the related technique of magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) are widely used in both clinical and preclinical research for the non-invasive evaluation of brain metabolism. They are also used in medical practice, although their ultimate clinical value continues to be a source of discussion. This chapter reviews the general information content of brain spectra and commonly used protocols for both MRS and MRSI and also touches on data analysis methods and quantitation. The main focus is on proton MRS for application in humans, but many of the methods are also applicable to other nuclei and studies of animal models as well.

Zhu, He; Barker, Peter B.

2012-01-01

415

Mayo Clinic: Tradition and Heritage  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Heeding the words of their father, one Dr. W.W. Mayo, ÂNo one is big enough to be independent of othersÂ, Dr. William J. Mayo and Dr. Charles H. Mayo helped create one of the worldÂs first private integrated group practices of medicine. Now known as the Mayo Clinic, the story of their work is closely intertwined with the story of American medical history. As an attempt to bring this story to the web-browsing public, staff members at the Clinic recently created this historical timeline that offers some perspective on their institutional history. With their mouse in hand, visitors can move across the interactive timeline, which deploys high-quality photographs and short descriptions in its quest to document the ClinicÂs various achievements, such as the creation of the first heart bypass machine in 1955. Finally, online visitors can get up close and personal to some of the artifacts that are close to the Mayo Clinic traditions, including a 1904 photograph of some of the medical staff at the Clinic.

2006-01-01

416

Primary study on the application of Serum Pharmacology in Chinese traditional medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the paper, two main methods, which are Serum Pharmacology and Traditional Pharmacology, were adopted to study Chinese traditional medicine, such as Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE), ginsenosides (GS) and compound GG (GBE+GS), pharmacology in vitro. The results showed that there were evident difference between the results of Serum Pharmacology and that of Traditional Pharmacology. There was no significant difference between

Wang Bochu; Zhu Liancai; Chen Qi

2005-01-01

417

Reflections of Communal Understanding and Patterns of Modern Social Life in Traditional School Education in Turkey  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Contemporary traditional education understanding and applications have always been criticized in Turkey. The characteristics of traditional education are the following: class-centered teaching and crowded classrooms, teacher-oriented education, intensive curriculum, traditional teaching methods, and verbal evaluation of student success. Positive…

Duruhan, Kemal

2007-01-01

418

Selected Attitudes Dealing with Individualized and Traditional Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An investigation was done to ascertain the effectiveness of individualized instructional methods as compared with traditional instructional methods in vocational food service programs at the community college level. Subjects, forty-three hotel/motel restaurant management students, were divided into subgroups: students who transferred from another…

Leeking, Linda L.

419

Langtidshallbarhet vid Underhalls-Malning av Traefoenster. Jaemfoerelse Mellan Traditionell Ommalning och Foensterrenovering Enligt A13 Metoden (Long-Term Performance of Organic Coatings on Wooden Window Frames; Comparison between Traditional Repainting and Renovation According to the A13 Method).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Two methods for renovation and repainting of wooden window frames were compared with respect to long-term performance of organic coating system. One of the methods, named A13, as based on a very thorough preparation of the surface of wood, where all old c...

B. Carlsson K. Wernstahl S. A. Bylander

1997-01-01

420

Spectroscopic studies (FTIR, FT-Raman and UV), potential energy surface scan, normal coordinate analysis and NBO analysis of (2R,3R,4R,5S)-1-(2-hydroxyethyl)-2-(hydroxymethyl) piperidine-3,4,5-triol by DFT methods.  

PubMed

This work presents the characterization of (2R,3R,4R,5S)-1-(2-hydroxyethyl)-2-(hydroxymethyl)piperidine-3,4,5-triol (abbreviated as HEHMPT) by quantum chemical calculations and spectral techniques. The spectroscopic properties were investigated by FT-IR, FT-Raman and UV-Vis techniques. The FT-IR spectrum (4000-400 cm(-1)) and FT-Raman spectrum (4000-100 cm(-1)) in solid phase was recorded for HEHMPT. The UV-Vis absorption spectrum of the HEHMPT that dissolved in water was recorded in the range of 100-400 nm. The structural and spectroscopic data of the molecule were obtained from B3LYP and M06-2X with 6-31G(d,p) basis set calculations. The theoretical wavenumbers were scaled and compared with experimental FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra. The complete assignments were performed on the basis of the normal co-ordinate analysis (NCA), experimental results and potential energy distribution (PED) of the vibrational modes, calculated with scaled quantum mechanics (SQM) method, interpreted in terms of fundamental modes. The stable geometry of the compound has been determined from the potential energy surface scan. The stability of molecule has been analyzed by NBO analysis. The molecule orbital contributions were studied by using the total (TDOS), partial (PDOS), and overlap population (OPDOS) density of states. The electronic properties like UV spectral analysis and HOMO-LUMO energies were reported. The calculated HOMO and LUMO energies shows that charge transfer interactions taking place within the molecule. Mulliken population analysis on atomic charges is also calculated. PMID:23454843

Isac Paulraj, E; Muthu, S

2013-02-06

421

Contraception: traditional and religious attitudes.  

PubMed

Humans have tried to control fertility for centuries. Primitive, preliterate societies practiced infanticide and abortion. When primitive women understood the advantages of conception control, they tried, when possible, to use contraception. In the 4th century B.C., Plato and Aristotle advocated a one-child family. Greek medical literature reported a hollow tube inserted through the cervix into the uterus and a potion as contraceptives. Islamic physicians had much knowledge about conception control. The attitudes toward contraception. In the 5th century B.C., Saint Augustine condemned contraception, even among married couples. The condom emerged in the early modern period. Yet, they were usually worn to protect against disease, e.g., bilharzia in Egypt and syphilis in Europe. The cervical cap and the diaphragm are examples of occlusive pessaries. By 1880, contraceptives and spermicides were advertised. In 1928, the IUD joined the existing contraceptives. Today we have combined oral contraceptives. Judaic law requires husbands to fulfill their wives sexual needs, separate from their duty to procreate. It also calls men, not women, to procreate and forbids men from masturbating, thus Judaic law does not forbid women from practicing contraception. The Roman Catholic church forbids contraceptive use because it is a sin against nature. Some Protestant denominations have allowed contraceptive use. Islamic law states that children are gifts from Allah. Some Moslems believe that they must have many children, but Allah and the Prophet state that children have rights to education and future security. These rights allow couples to prevent pregnancy. Neither Hinduism nor Buddhism prohibit contraceptive use. Differences in husband-wife communication, sex roles, access to contraceptives, and traditional family values will have more of an effect on contraceptive use and fertility than theological barriers or the social class of religious groups. PMID:8365507

Schenker, J G; Rabenou, V

1993-04-01

422

Traditionality of children's interests as related to their parents' gender stereotypes and traditionality of occupations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study tested the common hypothesis that parents' gender stereotypes, maternal employment status, and the traditionality of parents' occupations, are associated with the traditionality of children's vocational interests. The traditionality of preschool children's (n=113) interests was examined by an instrument developed for the current study. Parents were administered the Attitudes toward Women Scale, and traditionality of their occupations was assessed.

Azy Barak; Shoshana Feldman; Ayelet Noy

1991-01-01

423

A Raman spectroscopic approach for the cultivation-free identification of microbes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the last years the identification of microorganisms by means of different IR and Raman spectroscopic techniques has become quite popular. Most of the studies however apply the various vibrational spectroscopic methods to bulk samples which require at least a short cultivation time of several hours. Nevertheless, bulk identification methods achieve high classification rates which enable even the discrimination between closely related strains or the distinction between resistance capabilities. However, applying micro-Raman spectroscopy with visible excitation wavelengths enables for the detection of single microorganisms. Especially for time critical process like the fast diagnosis of severe diseases or the identification of bacterial contamination on food samples or pharmaceuticals, a cultivation-free identification of bacteria is required. In doing so, we established different isolation techniques in combination with Raman spectroscopic identification. Isolating bacteria from different matrixes always has an impact on the Raman spectroscopic identification capability. Therefore, these isolation techniques have to be specially designed to fulfill the spectroscopic requirements. In total the method should enable the identification of pathogens within the first 3 hours.

Rösch, Petra; Stöckel, Stephan; Meisel, Susann; Münchberg, Ute; Kloß, Sandra; Kusic, Dragana; Schumacher, Wilm; Popp, Jürgen

2011-11-01

424

Spectroscopic Study of Sulfates Applied to Mars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Definitive evidence for sulfates on Mars has been presented in 2004, including the Mars Exploration Rover Moessbauer spectroscopic identification of jarosite in Meridiani Planum and the Mars Express OMEGA visible/near infrared spectroscopic identification of kieserite in Valles Marineris and elsewhere. In addition to Moessbauer and VIS/NIR, other spectroscopic techniques can be employed for determining which sulfate minerals are present on Mars. This study focuses on the use of the thermal infrared range of the electromagnetic spectrum and the study of sulfates using emission spectroscopy to uniquely identify sulfate minerals. The fundamental molecular vibrational modes of sulfates are present in thermal infrared spectra. These modes influence the overtones and combination bands seen in VIS/NIR data. Clearly sulfate minerals are important Martian geologic materials and, because sulfates form under diverse environmental conditions, can help understand the specific formational and chemical settings that once existed on Mars.

Lane, M. D.

2004-12-01

425

Infrared spectroscopic imaging of renal tumor tissue  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic imaging has been used to probe the biochemical composition of human renal tumor tissue and adjacent normal tissue. Freshly resected renal tumor tissue from surgery was prepared as a thin cryosection and examined by FTIR spectroscopic imaging. Tissue types could be discriminated by utilizing a combination of fuzzy k-means cluster analysis and a supervised classification algorithm based on a linear discriminant analysis. The spectral classification is compared and contrasted with the histological stained image. It is further shown that renal tumor cells have spread in adjacent normal tissue. This study demonstrates that FTIR spectroscopic imaging can potentially serve as a fast and objective approach for discrimination of renal tumor tissue from normal tissue and even in the detection of tumor infiltration in adjacent tissue.

Šablinskas, Valdas; Urbonien?, Vidita; Ceponkus, Justinas; Laurinavicius, Arvydas; Dasevicius, Darius; Jankevi?ius, Feliksas; Hendrixson, Vaiva; Koch, Edmund; Steiner, Gerald

2011-09-01

426

Matrix solid-phase dispersion extraction followed by HPLC-diode array detection method for the determination of major constituents in a traditional Chinese medicine Folium isatidis (Da-qing-ye).  

PubMed

A simple and low-cost method based on matrix solid-phase dispersion (MSPD) extraction, HPLC separation, and diode array detection has been developed for the determination of indigo and indirubin in Folium isatidis. The experimental parameters that may affect the MSPD method, including dispersing sorbent, ratio of dispersing sorbent to sample, elution solvent, and volume of the elution solvent were examined and optimized. The optimized conditions were determined to be that C18 was used as dispersing sorbent, the ratio of C18 to sample mass was selected to be 4:1, and 10 mL of N,N-dimethyl formamide was used as elution solvent. The highest extraction yields of the two compounds were obtained under the optimized conditions. The method showed good linearity (r > 0.9995) and precision (RSD < 3.0%) for indigo and indirubin, with the limits of detection of 18 and 22.5 ng/mL, respectively. The recoveries were in the range of 90.33-100.74% with RSD values ranging from 1.7 to 3.6%. Comparing to ultrasonic and Soxhlet methods, the proposed MSPD procedure was more convenient and less time-consuming with reduced requirements on sample and solvent amounts. The proposed procedure was applied to analyzed three real samples that were collected from different localities. PMID:22997033

Zhang, Qi; Hong, Bo; Zheng, Lihong; Wang, Xiuhua; Cai, Defu

2012-09-01

427

High resolution spectroscopic diagnostic techniques for investigation of plasmas in electrical discharges  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors describe the investigation of pulsed power systems using recently developed spectroscopic techniques. These methods allow for nonperturbing measurements with relatively high spectral, temporal and spatial resolutions. Spatial resolution along the line of sight is obtained by locally doping the plasma with various species whose emission is then utilized. A few methods developed for doping solid and gaseous materials

R. Arad; Y. Maron

1998-01-01

428

Chapter 15 Isolation of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae Mitochondria for Mössbauer, Epr, and Electronic Absorption Spectroscopic Analyses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Methods are presented to aid in the study of iron metabolism in isolated mitochondria. The “iron?ome” of mitochondria, including the type and concentration of all Fe?containing species in the organelle, is evaluated by integrating the results of four spectroscopic methods, including Mössbauer spectroscopy, electron paramagnetic resonance, electronic absorption spectroscopy, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Although this systems biology approach

Paul A. Lindahl; Jessica Garber Morales; Ren Miao

2009-01-01

429

Teaching the non-traditional student  

Microsoft Academic Search

Teaching the non-traditional student is an enlightening experience. To be involved in a classroom situation with a group of non-traditional students is to be in a classroom where the presence of enthusiasm and excitement is easily felt. The non-traditional student brings with him\\/her a wealth of experience, both personal and work related. This injection of experience and enthusiasm adds immensely

R. J. Hofinger; F. R. Lehman

1995-01-01

430

Traditional Knowledge Strengthens NOAA's Environmental Education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environmental education efforts are increasingly recognizing the value of traditional knowledge, or indigenous science, as a basis to teach the importance of stewardship. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Pacific Services Center incorporates Polynesian indigenous science into formal and informal education components of its environmental literacy program. By presenting indigenous science side by side with NOAA science, it becomes clear that the scientific results are the same, although the methods may differ. The platforms for these tools span a vast spectrum, utilizing media from 3-D visualizations to storytelling and lecture. Navigating the Pacific Islands is a Second Life project in which users navigate a virtual Polynesian voyaging canoe between two islands, one featuring native Hawaiian practices and the other where users learn about NOAA research and ships. In partnership with the University of Hawai‘i Waikiki Aquarium, the Nana I Ke Kai (Look to the Sea) series focuses on connecting culture and science during cross-discipline, publicly held discussions between cultural practitioners and research scientists. The Indigenous Science Video Series is a multi-use, animated collection of short films that showcase the efforts of NOAA fisheries management and ship navigation in combination with the accompanying Polynesian perspectives. Formal education resources and lesson plans for grades 3-5 focusing on marine science have also been developed and incorporate indigenous science practices as examples of conservation success. By merging traditional knowledge and stewardship practices with NOAA science in educational tools and resources, NOAA's Pacific Services Center is helping to build and increase environmental literacy through the development of educational tools and resources that are applicable to place-based understanding and approaches.

Stovall, W. K.; McBride, M. A.; Lewinski, S.; Bennett, S.

2010-12-01

431

Crystal growth, structural and spectroscopic analysis of hypoxanthinium chloride monohydrate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Protonated form of hypoxanthinium chloride monohydrate single crystal has been grown from dilute hydrochloric acid. Single crystal X-ray analysis was carried out and the titled crystal belong to the monoclinic P2 1/ c space group. Hypoxanthine is protonated at N(1) with the hypoxanthine cations, linked to chlorine anion via weak bifurcated N-H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds and interconnected by hydrogen bonding contacts of the type N-H⋯O. Infrared, Raman and UV spectroscopic tools were applied to characterize hypoxanthinium chloride monohydrate. By applying group theoretical methods the internal and external modes of vibrations of the title crystal have been identified and discussed.

Kalyanaraman, S.; Krishnakumar, V.; Ganesan, K.

2007-07-01

432

Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with photo-diode array and quadrupole/time-of-flight mass spectrometry based chemical profiling approach to evaluate the influence of preparation methods on the holistic quality of Qiong-Yu-Gao, a traditional complex herbal medicine.  

PubMed

Qiong-Yu-Gao (QYG), consisting of Rehmanniae Radix (RR), Poriae (PO) and Ginseng Radix (GR), is a commonly used tonic traditional complex herbal medicine (CHM). So far, three different methods have been documented for preparation of QYG, i.e. method 1 (M1): mixing powders of GR and PO with decoction of RR; method 2 (M2): combining the decoction of RR and PO with the decoction of GR; method 3 (M3): decocting the mixture of RR, GR and PO. In present study, an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with photo-diode array and quadrupole/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-PDA-QTOF-MS/MS) based chemical profiling approach was developed to investigate the influence of the three preparation methods on the holistic quality of QYG. All detected peaks were unambiguously identified by comparing UV spectra, accurate mass data/characteristic mass fragments and retention times with those of reference compounds, and/or tentatively assigned by matching empirical molecular formula with that of known compounds, and/or elucidating quasi-molecular ions and fragment ions referring to information available in literature. A total of 103 components, mainly belonging to ginsenosides, phenethylalcohol glycosides, iridoid glycosides and triterpenoid acids, were identified, of which 5 degraded ginsenosides were putatively determined to be newly generated during preparation procedures of QYG samples. Triterpenoid acids and malonyl-ginsenosides were detected only in M1 samples, while degraded ginsenosides were merely detectable in M2/M3 samples. The possible reasons for the difference among chemical profiles of QYG samples prepared with three methods were also discussed. It could be concluded that preparation method do significantly affect the holistic quality of QYG. The influence of the altered chemical profiles on the bioactivity of QYG needs further investigation. The present study demonstrated that UHPLC-PDA-QTOF-MS/MS based chemical profiling approach is efficient and reliable for evaluating the holistic quality of traditional CHM. PMID:23880467

Xu, Jin-Di; Mao, Qian; Shen, Hong; Zhu, Ling-Ying; Li, Song-Lin; Yan, Ru

2013-07-10

433

Communicating new ideas to traditional villagers (an Indonesian case).  

PubMed

Recent cases derived from a series of communication research projects conducted in remote villages on the island of Sulawesi, Indonesia, are presented. These cases, which indicate the tremendously complex problem of communicating new ideas to traditional villages, also reflect the equally complex problem of social marketing. Indonesian, villagers remain very traditional, but their communication environment has been undergoing marked changes over the past decade or so. Overwhelming media exposure has pushed these people towards a modern environment filled with new knowledge and experiences. In view of the importance of changing attitudes and behavior of traditional villagers -- to realize modernization for the rural society -- the government of Indonesia has been using a host of communication means and channels. These include all the viable traditional or indigenous communication systems, but mainly face-to-face communication. Traditional dances, story-telling, and music are no longer interesting to the rural people themselves, and, apparently, no real developmental message can be transmitted by traditional "mass media." Among the 50 respondents randomly selected from the isolated village of Gelang (Case I), only 17% claimed to have listened to news in addition to music and songs. 67% of the respondents explained that information carrying novel ideas or methods usually attract them, but they are always reluctant to accept the new ideas for real application. Case II is about the effect of movie exposure on traditional villagers. As many as 73% of 50 respondents explained that the knowledge of the peasant-fisherman has increased considerably with regard to the urban way of life, as a result of movie attendance. The informants indicated that many villagers were disgusted by feature films or theatrical ones and that 62% of the villagers had yet to go to a movie. Case III involved the communication of new methods of medication to rural societies, including traditional medicinemen and women. Villagers were taught to cure diarrhea with oral rehydration. The result is that diarrhea has not reached epidemic proportions in the province of South Sulawesi at any time during the past 3 years. In sum, communicating new values to traditional people is an arduous task. There are a number of related variables that often influence the process of communication of new ideas to traditional villagers. PMID:12314265

Muis, A

1984-01-01

434

Raman Spectroscopic Investigation of Dyes in Spices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, a number of synthetic colorants for spices have been investigated by means of Raman spectroscopy, resonance Raman spectroscopy, and surface enhanced (resonance) Raman spectroscopy (SER(S)). The aim of the study was the determination of limits of detection for each dye separately and in binary mixtures of dyes in spiked samples of the spices. Most of the investigated dyes have been azo dyes, some being water-soluble, the other being fat-soluble. Investigating the composition of food preparations is an ongoing and important branch of analytical sciences. On one hand, new ingredients have to be analyzed with regard to their contents, on the other hand, raw materials that have been tampered have to be eliminated from food production processes. In the last decades, the various Raman spectroscopic methods have proven to be successful in many areas of life and materials sciences. The ability of Raman spectroscopy to distinguish even structural very similar analytes by means of their vibrational fingerprint will also be important in this study. Nevertheless, Raman scattering is a very weak process that is oftentimes overlaid by matrix interferences or fluorescence. In order to achieve limits of detection in the nanomolar range, the signal intensity has to be increased. According to the well-known equations, there are several ways of achieving this increase: •increasing sample concentration •increasing laser power •decreasing the laser wavelength •using electronic resonance •increasing the local electromagnetic field In this study, nearly all of the above-mentioned principles were applied. In a first step, all dyes were investigated in solution at different concentrations to determine a limit of detection. In the second step, spiked spice samples have been extracted with a variety of solvents and process parameters tested. To lower the limit of detection even further, SERS spectroscopy has been used as well in as out of electronic resonance.

Uhlemann, Ute; Ramoji, Anuradha; Rösch, Petra; da Costa Filho, Paulo Augusto; Robert, Fabien; Popp, Jürgen

2010-08-01

435

Phylogenies reveal predictive power of traditional medicine in bioprospecting  

PubMed Central

There is controversy about whether traditional medicine can guide drug discovery, and investment in bioprospecting informed by ethnobotanical data has fluctuated. One view is that traditionally used medicinal plants are not necessarily efficacious and there are no robust methods for distinguishing those which are most likely to be bioactive when selecting species for further testing. Here, we reconstruct a genus-level molecular phylogenetic tree representing the 20,000 species found in the floras of three disparate biodiversity hotspots: Nepal, New Zealand, and the Cape of South Africa. Borrowing phylogenetic methods from community ecology, we reveal significant clustering of the 1,500 traditionally used species, and provide a direct measure of the relatedness of the three medicinal floras. We demonstrate shared phylogenetic patterns across the floras: related plants from these regions are used to treat medical conditions in the same therapeutic areas. This finding strongly indicates independent discovery of plant efficacy, an interpretation corroborated by the presence of a significantly greater proportion of known bioactive species in these plant groups than in random samples. We conclude that phylogenetic cross-cultural comparisons can focus screening efforts on a subset of traditionally used plants that are richer in bioactive compounds, and could revitalize the use of traditional knowledge in bioprospecting.

Saslis-Lagoudakis, C. Haris; Savolainen, Vincent; Williamson, Elizabeth M.; Forest, Felix; Wagstaff, Steven J.; Baral, Sushim R.; Watson, Mark F.; Pendry, Colin A.; Hawkins, Julie A.

2012-01-01

436

Precise radial velocities of giant stars. III. Spectroscopic stellar parameters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context: A radial velocity survey of about 380 G and K giant stars is ongoing at Lick observatory. For each star we have a high signal to noise ratio template spectrum, which we use to determine spectroscopic stellar parameters. Aims: The aim of this paper is to present spectroscopic stellar parameters, i.e. effective temperature, surface gravity, metallicity and rotational velocity for our sample of G and K giant stars. Methods: Effective temperatures, surface gravities and metallicities are determined from the equivalent width of iron lines, by imposing excitation and ionisation equilibrium through stellar atmosphere models. Rotational velocities are determined from the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of moderate spectral lines. A calibration between the FWHM and total broadening (rotational velocity and macro turbulence) is obtained from stars in common between our sample and the sample from Gray (1989, ApJ, 347, 1021). Macro turbulence is determined from the macro turbulence vs. spectral type relations from Gray (2005, The Observation and Analysis of Stellar Photospheres). Results: The metallicity we derive is essentially equal to the literature values, while the effective temperature and surface gravity are slightly higher