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1

Rigor in Traditional Quantitative Methods.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper offers reasons for using traditional quantitative research methods and illustrates some of the considerations demanding rigor in a study on gender discrimination in school-administrator salaries. Traditional quantitative methods provide a meaningful language based on numbers and objectivity, and they are less time-consuming and complex…

Pounder, Diana G.

2

Traditional Methods for Mineral Analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This chapter describes traditional methods for analysis of minerals involving titrimetric and colorimetric procedures, and the use of ion selective electrodes. Other traditional methods of mineral analysis include gravimetric titration (i.e., insoluble forms of minerals are precipitated, rinse, dried, and weighed) and redox reactions (i.e., mineral is part of an oxidation-reduction reaction, and product is quantitated). However, these latter two methods will not be covered because they currently are used little in the food industry. The traditional methods that will be described have maintained widespread usage in the food industry despite the development of more modern instrumentation such as atomic absorption spectroscopy and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (Chap. 24). Traditional methods generally require chemicals and equipment that are routinely available in an analytical laboratory and are within the experience of most laboratory technicians. Additionally, traditional methods often form the basis for rapid analysis kits (e.g., Quantab®; for salt determination) that are increasingly in demand. Procedures for analysis of minerals of major nutritional or food processing concern are used for illustrative purposes. For additional examples of traditional methods refer to references (1-6). Slight modifications of these traditional methods are often needed for specific foodstuffs to minimize interferences or to be in the range of analytical performance. For analytical requirements for specific foods see the Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC International (5) and related official methods (6).

Ward, Robert E.; Carpenter, Charles E.

3

Calibration method for spectroscopic systems  

DOEpatents

Calibration spots of optically-characterized material placed in the field of view of a spectroscopic system allow calibration of the spectroscopic system. Response from the calibration spots is measured and used to calibrate for varying spectroscopic system operating parameters. The accurate calibration achieved allows quantitative spectroscopic analysis of responses taken at different times, different excitation conditions, and of different targets.

Sandison, David R. (Edgewood, NM)

1998-01-01

4

Calibration method for spectroscopic systems  

DOEpatents

Calibration spots of optically-characterized material placed in the field of view of a spectroscopic system allow calibration of the spectroscopic system. Response from the calibration spots is measured and used to calibrate for varying spectroscopic system operating parameters. The accurate calibration achieved allows quantitative spectroscopic analysis of responses taken at different times, different excitation conditions, and of different targets. 3 figs.

Sandison, D.R.

1998-11-17

5

Job Search Methods: Internet versus Traditional.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In 1998, 15 percent of unemployed job seekers used the Internet to seek jobs, as did half of all job seekers with online access from home. Internet search rates exceeded those of traditional methods, but Internet job seekers were more likely to use traditional methods as well. Unemployed blacks and Hispanics used the Internet least in job…

Kuhn, Peter; Skuterud, Mikal

2000-01-01

6

Mass spectroscopic apparatus and method  

DOEpatents

The disclosure is directed to a method and apparatus for ionization modulated mass spectrometric analysis. Analog or digital data acquisition and processing can be used. Ions from a time variant source are detected and quantified. The quantified ion output is analyzed using a computer to provide a two-dimensional representation of at least one component present within an analyte.

Bomse, David S. (Santa Fe, NM); Silver, Joel A. (Santa Fe, NM); Stanton, Alan C. (Santa Fe, NM)

1991-01-01

7

Spectroscopic chemical analysis methods and apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spectroscopic chemical analysis methods and apparatus are disclosed which employ deep ultraviolet (e.g. in the 200 nm to 300 nm spectral range) electron beam pumped wide bandgap semiconductor lasers, incoherent wide bandgap semiconductor light emitting devices, and hollow cathode metal ion lasers to perform non-contact, non-invasive detection of unknown chemical analytes. These deep ultraviolet sources enable dramatic size, weight and power consumption reductions of chemical analysis instruments. Chemical analysis instruments employed in some embodiments include capillary and gel plane electrophoresis, capillary electrochromatography, high performance liquid chromatography, flow cytometry, flow cells for liquids and aerosols, and surface detection instruments. In some embodiments, Raman spectroscopic detection methods and apparatus use ultra-narrow-band angle tuning filters, acousto-optic tuning filters, and temperature tuned filters to enable ultra-miniature analyzers for chemical identification. In some embodiments Raman analysis is conducted simultaneously with native fluorescence spectroscopy to provide high levels of sensitivity and specificity in the same instrument.

Hug, William F. (Inventor); Reid, Ray D. (Inventor)

2010-01-01

8

Spectroscopic methods in gas hydrate research.  

PubMed

Gas hydrates are crystalline structures comprising a guest molecule surrounded by a water cage, and are particularly relevant due to their natural occurrence in the deep sea and in permafrost areas. Low molecular weight molecules such as methane and carbon dioxide can be sequestered into that cage at suitable temperatures and pressures, facilitating the transition to the solid phase. While the composition and structure of gas hydrates appear to be well understood, their formation and dissociation mechanisms, along with the dynamics and kinetics associated with those processes, remain ambiguous. In order to take advantage of gas hydrates as an energy resource (e.g., methane hydrate), as a sequestration matrix in (for example) CO(2) storage, or for chemical energy conservation/storage, a more detailed molecular level understanding of their formation and dissociation processes, as well as the chemical, physical, and biological parameters that affect these processes, is required. Spectroscopic techniques appear to be most suitable for analyzing the structures of gas hydrates (sometimes in situ), thus providing access to such information across the electromagnetic spectrum. A variety of spectroscopic methods are currently used in gas hydrate research to determine the composition, structure, cage occupancy, guest molecule position, and binding/formation/dissociation mechanisms of the hydrate. To date, the most commonly applied techniques are Raman spectroscopy and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Diffraction methods such as neutron and X-ray diffraction are used to determine gas hydrate structures, and to study lattice expansions. Furthermore, UV-vis spectroscopic techniques and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) have assisted in structural studies of gas hydrates. Most recently, waveguide-coupled mid-infrared spectroscopy in the 3-20 ?m spectral range has demonstrated its value for in situ studies on the formation and dissociation of gas hydrates. This comprehensive review summarizes the importance of spectroscopic analytical techniques to our understanding of the structure and dynamics of gas hydrate systems, and highlights selected examples that illustrate the utility of these individual methods. PMID:22094590

Rauh, Florian; Mizaikoff, Boris

2012-01-01

9

Spectroscopic chemical analysis methods and apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spectroscopic chemical analysis methods and apparatus are disclosed which employ deep ultraviolet (e.g. in the 200 nm to 300 nm spectral range) electron beam pumped wide bandgap semiconductor lasers, incoherent wide bandgap semiconductor light emitting devices, and hollow cathode metal ion lasers to perform non-contact, non-invasive detection of unknown chemical analytes. These deep ultraviolet sources enable dramatic size, weight and power consumption reductions of chemical analysis instruments. Chemical analysis instruments employed in some embodiments include capillary and gel plane electrophoresis, capillary electrochromatography, high performance liquid chromatography, flow cytometry, flow cells for liquids and aerosols, and surface detection instruments. In some embodiments, Raman spectroscopic detection methods and apparatus use ultra-narrow-band angle tuning filters, acousto-optic tuning filters, and temperature tuned filters to enable ultra-miniature analyzers for chemical identification. In some embodiments Raman analysis is conducted along with photoluminescence spectroscopy (i.e. fluorescence and/or phosphorescence spectroscopy) to provide high levels of sensitivity and specificity in the same instrument.

Hug, William F. (Inventor); Reid, Ray D. (Inventor); Bhartia, Rohit (Inventor)

2013-01-01

10

Optical spectroscopic methods for intraoperative diagnosis.  

PubMed

Molecular analytical methods are increasingly needed for a quick and reliable analysis of tissue in an operating room to provide more information during operations. In this Trends article, we highlight the current state and the developments of optical spectroscopic methods as intra operative tools. The clinical problem and challenges are illustrated on the example of brain tumor surgery. While fluorescence microscopy is already used, vibrational spectroscopy techniques will complement the standard method for brain tissue diagnostics. New portable instruments are currently available and can be stationed in the operating room for quick evaluation of tissue. The promise and limitations of fluorescence and vibrational spectroscopy as intraoperative tools are surveyed in this report. PMID:24136252

Steiner, Gerald; Kirsch, Matthias

2014-01-01

11

Spectroscopic Techniques: Cavity-Enhanced Methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cavity enhanced spectroscopy (CES) methodology provides a much higher degree of sensitivity than that available from conventional absorption spectrometers. The aim of this chapter is to present the fundamentals of the method, and the various modifications and extensions that have been developed. In order to set the stage, the limitations of traditional absorption spectrometers are first discussed, followed by a description of cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS), the most popular CES embodiment. A few other well-known CES approaches are also described in detail. The chapter concludes with a discussion of recent work on extending CRDS to the study of liquids and solids.

Paldus, Barbara; Kachanov, Alexander

12

Apparatus and method for spectroscopic analysis of scattering media  

DOEpatents

Apparatus and method for spectroscopic analysis of scattering media. Subtle differences in materials have been found to be detectable from plots of intensity as a function of wavelength of collected emitted and scattered light versus wavelength of excitation light.

Strobl, Karlheinz (Los Angeles, CA); Bigio, Irving J. (Los Alamos, NM); Loree, Thomas R. (Santa Fe, NM)

1994-01-01

13

Further evaluation of traditional icing scaling methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report provides additional evaluations of two methods to scale icing test conditions; it also describes a hybrid technique for use when scaled conditions are outside the operating envelope of the test facility. The first evaluation is of the Olsen method which can be used to scale the liquid-water content in icing tests, and the second is the AEDC (Ruff) method which is used when the test model is less than full size. Equations for both scaling methods are presented in the paper, and the methods were evaluated by performing icing tests in the NASA Lewis Icing Research Tunnel (IRT). The Olsen method was tested using 53 cm diameter NACA 0012 airfoils. Tests covered liquid-water-contents which varied by as much as a factor of 1.8. The Olsen method was generally effective in giving scale ice shapes which matched the reference shapes for these tests. The AEDC method was tested with NACA 0012 airfoils with chords from 18 cm to 53 cm. The 53 cm chord airfoils were used in reference tests, and 1/2 and 1/3 scale tests were made at conditions determined by applying the AEDC scaling method. The scale and reference airspeeds were matched in these tests. The AEDC method was found to provide fairly effective scaling for 1/2 size tests, but for 1/3 size models, scaling was generally less effective. In addition to these two scaling methods, a hybrid approach was also tested in which the Olsen method was used to adjust the LWC after size was scaled using the constant Weber number method. This approach was found to be an effective way to test when scaled conditions would otherwise be outside the capability of the test facility.

Anderson, David N.

1996-01-01

14

Spectroscope  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners construct their own spectroscope as they explore and observe spectra from familiar light sources. Learners can be challenged to make technological improvements to their spectroscopes and/or participate in extension activities that expand their understanding of different kinds of spectra and sharpen their observing skills.

Observatory, Mcdonald

2008-01-01

15

BRIDGING AGILE & TRADITIONAL DEVELOPMENT METHODS: A PROJECT MANAGEMENT PERSPECTIVE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Today, Companies are reporting success meeting rapidly changing customer needs through Agile Development Methods. Many of these same Companies are finding they must collaborate with Organizations employing more traditional development processes, especially on large DOD projects. While it has been argued that Agile Methods are compatible with traditional disciplined processes, actual project experience indicates conflicts can arise. This paper identifies

Paul E. McMahon

16

Traditional multiplicity adjustment methods in clinical trials.  

PubMed

This tutorial discusses important statistical problems arising in clinical trials with multiple clinical objectives based on different clinical variables, evaluation of several doses or regiments of a new treatment, analysis of multiple patient subgroups, etc. Simultaneous assessment of several objectives in a single trial gives rise to multiplicity. If unaddressed, problems of multiplicity can undermine integrity of statistical inferences. The tutorial reviews key concepts in multiple hypothesis testing and introduces main classes of methods for addressing multiplicity in a clinical trial setting. General guidelines for the development of relevant and efficient multiple testing procedures are presented on the basis of application-specific clinical and statistical information. Case studies with common multiplicity problems are used to motivate and illustrate the statistical methods presented in the tutorial, and software implementation of the multiplicity adjustment methods is discussed. PMID:24114861

Dmitrienko, Alex; D'Agostino, Ralph

2013-12-20

17

Spectroscope  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity (posted on March 12, 2011), learners follow the steps to construct a spectroscope, a tool used to analyze light and color. First, learners use relatively simple materials to construct the device. Then, learners look through their spectroscopes at a variety of different light sources including incandescents, LEDs, compact fluorescents, sun light, etc. and compare what they observe. This resource includes a few examples of how certain chemicals form different colors of light.

Center, Oakland D.

2011-01-01

18

Plant roots and spectroscopic methods - analyzing species, biomass and vitality.  

PubMed

In order to understand plant functioning, plant community composition, and terrestrial biogeochemistry, it is decisive to study standing root biomass, (fine) root dynamics, and interactions belowground. While most plant taxa can be identified by visual criteria aboveground, roots show less distinctive features. Furthermore, root systems of neighboring plants are rarely spatially segregated; thus, most soil horizons and samples hold roots of more than one species necessitating root sorting according to taxa. In the last decades, various approaches, ranging from anatomical and morphological analyses to differences in chemical composition and DNA sequencing were applied to discern species' identity and biomass belowground. Among those methods, a variety of spectroscopic methods was used to detect differences in the chemical composition of roots. In this review, spectroscopic methods used to study root systems of herbaceous and woody species in excised samples or in situ will be discussed. In detail, techniques will be reviewed according to their usability to discern root taxa, to determine root vitality, and to quantify root biomass non-destructively or in soil cores holding mixtures of plant roots. In addition, spectroscopic methods which may be able to play an increasing role in future studies on root biomass and related traits are highlighted. PMID:24130565

Rewald, Boris; Meinen, Catharina

2013-01-01

19

Plant roots and spectroscopic methods - analyzing species, biomass and vitality  

PubMed Central

In order to understand plant functioning, plant community composition, and terrestrial biogeochemistry, it is decisive to study standing root biomass, (fine) root dynamics, and interactions belowground. While most plant taxa can be identified by visual criteria aboveground, roots show less distinctive features. Furthermore, root systems of neighboring plants are rarely spatially segregated; thus, most soil horizons and samples hold roots of more than one species necessitating root sorting according to taxa. In the last decades, various approaches, ranging from anatomical and morphological analyses to differences in chemical composition and DNA sequencing were applied to discern species’ identity and biomass belowground. Among those methods, a variety of spectroscopic methods was used to detect differences in the chemical composition of roots. In this review, spectroscopic methods used to study root systems of herbaceous and woody species in excised samples or in situ will be discussed. In detail, techniques will be reviewed according to their usability to discern root taxa, to determine root vitality, and to quantify root biomass non-destructively or in soil cores holding mixtures of plant roots. In addition, spectroscopic methods which may be able to play an increasing role in future studies on root biomass and related traits are highlighted. PMID:24130565

Rewald, Boris; Meinen, Catharina

2013-01-01

20

Spectroscopic studies of protein folding: Linear and nonlinear methods  

PubMed Central

Although protein folding is a simple outcome of the underlying thermodynamics, arriving at a quantitative and predictive understanding of how proteins fold nevertheless poses huge challenges. Therefore, both advanced experimental and computational methods are continuously being developed and refined to probe and reveal the atomistic details of protein folding dynamics and mechanisms. Herein, we provide a concise review of recent developments in spectroscopic studies of protein folding, with a focus on new triggering and probing methods. In particular, we describe several laser-based techniques for triggering protein folding/unfolding on the picosecond and/or nanosecond timescales and various linear and nonlinear spectroscopic techniques for interrogating protein conformations, conformational transitions, and dynamics. PMID:22109973

Serrano, Arnaldo L; Waegele, Matthias M; Gai, Feng

2012-01-01

21

Scanning Tunneling Microscopy methods for spectroscopic imaging of subsurface interfaces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new method for spatially-resolved, spectroscopic investigation of subsurface interface structure has been developed. The method, Ballistic Electron Emission Microscopy (BEEM), is based on Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) techniques. BEEM combines STM vacuum tunneling with unique ballistic electron spectroscopy capabilities. BEEM enables, for the first time, direct imaging of subsurface interface electronic properties with nanometer spatial resolution. STM topographic images of surface structure and BEEM images of subsurface properties are obtained simultaneously. BEEM capabilities are demonstrated by investigation of important metal-semiconductor interfaces.

Bell, L. D.; Kaiser, W. J.

1988-01-01

22

Arterial Pulse System: Modern Methods For Traditional Indian Medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ayurveda is one of the most comprehensive healing systems in the world and has classified the body system according to the theory of Tridosha to overcome ailments. Diagnosis similar to the traditional pulse-based method requires a system of clean input signals, and extensive experiments for obtaining classification features. In this paper we briefly describe our system of generating pulse waveforms

Aniruddha Joshi; Sharat Chandran; V. K. Jayaraman; B. D. Kulkarni

2007-01-01

23

Quantitative comparison of analysis methods for spectroscopic optical coherence tomography  

PubMed Central

Spectroscopic optical coherence tomography (sOCT) enables the mapping of chromophore concentrations and image contrast enhancement in tissue. Acquisition of depth resolved spectra by sOCT requires analysis methods with optimal spectral/spatial resolution and spectral recovery. In this article, we quantitatively compare the available methods, i.e. the short time Fourier transform (STFT), wavelet transforms, the Wigner-Ville distribution and the dual window method through simulations in tissue-like media. We conclude that all methods suffer from the trade-off in spectral/spatial resolution, and that the STFT is the optimal method for the specific application of the localized quantification of hemoglobin concentration and oxygen saturation. PMID:24298417

Bosschaart, Nienke; van Leeuwen, Ton G.; Aalders, Maurice C. G.; Faber, Dirk J.

2013-01-01

24

Traditions and Alcohol Use: A Mixed-Methods Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

An integrative mixed-methods analysis examined traditional beliefs as associated with beliefs about self-care during pregnancy and with alcohol abstinence among young adult women from two rural U.S.–Mexico border communities. Quantitative (measured scale) variables and qualitative thematic variables generated from open-ended responses served as within-time predictors of these health-related outcomes. A weaker belief that life is better in big cities was

Felipe González Castro; Kathryn Coe

2007-01-01

25

Microplate spectroscopic methods for determination of the organophosphate soman.  

PubMed

Two microplate spectroscopic methods for determination of organophosphates, based on inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity, have been elaborated and evaluated for determination of the chemical weapon agent soman. The principal difference between the methods is that one measures reaction substrate concentration (elaborated from Hestrin), while the other measures reaction product (elaborated from Ellman). The linear ranges of the two methods were found to be similar. Although the limit of quantification was lower for the Ellman method (110 pM), the sensitivity coefficient was in favor of the Hestrin method (1.55-fold higher). The effects of the main soman hydrolysis products were consistent for the two methods: both methylphosphonic acid and pinacolyl methylphosphonic acid did not inhibit acetylcholinesterase activity. The main components of decontaminating solutions showed differential effects: while monoethanolamine had no influence upon results obtained by either method, hydrogen peroxide interfered with the Ellman method at far lower concentrations than with the Hestrin method. In practical applications involving samples containing hydrogen peroxide, the method based on Hestrin should be regarded as much more specific for OP determination than the Ellman method. PMID:20411202

Prokofieva, Daria Stanislavovna; Voitenko, Natalia Gennadievna; Gustyleva, Lyudmila Konstantinovna; Babakov, Vladimir Nikolaevich; Savelieva, Elena Igorevna; Jenkins, Richard Owen; Goncharov, Nikolay Vasilievich

2010-06-01

26

Traditions and Alcohol Use: A Mixed-Methods Analysis  

PubMed Central

An integrative mixed-methods analysis examined traditional beliefs as associated with beliefs about self-care during pregnancy and with alcohol abstinence among young adult women from two rural U.S.–Mexico border communities. Quantitative (measured scale) variables and qualitative thematic variables generated from open-ended responses served as within-time predictors of these health-related outcomes. A weaker belief that life is better in big cities was associated with stronger self-care beliefs during pregnancy. Also, a weaker belief that small towns offer tranquil environments was associated with total abstinence from alcohol. Regarding the Hispanic Paradox, these results suggest that a critical appreciation of cultural traditions can be protective, as this avoids stereotypical or idyllic views of urban or rural lifeways, and promotes self-protective beliefs and behaviors. PMID:17967095

Castro, Felipe Gonzalez; Coe, Kathryn

2011-01-01

27

Unconventional dentistry in India - an insight into the traditional methods.  

PubMed

Unconventional medicine (UM) has been known and practised since the recorded history of civilization. Some unconventional practices may be viewed as "the continuity of traditions, religious beliefs, and even quackery that non-specialists practice." These practices have been associated with religious beliefs and the spiritual domain as well as with the physical domain. In ancient Old World civilizations, UM was performed by skilled experts or wise men; in today's Western civilization, practitioners may or may not be licensed, and some are charlatans. Dentistry, like medicine, is a traditional, science-based, highly regulated healthcare profession that serves increasingly sophisticated and demanding clients. Today, traditional dental practice is dealing with an array of challenges to the established professional system; these challenges are generally termed "alternative" (or complementary, unconventional, or integrative). Genuine alternatives are comparable methods of equal value that have met scientific and regulatory criteria for safety and effectiveness. Because "alternative care" has become politicized and is often a misnomer - referring to practices that are not alternative to, complementary to, or integrating with conventional health care - the more accurate term "unconventional" is used. PMID:25161919

Boloor, Vinita Ashutosh; Hosadurga, Rajesh; Rao, Anupama; Jenifer, Haziel; Pratap, Sruthy

2014-07-01

28

Advances in spectroscopic methods for quantifying soil carbon  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The current gold standard for soil carbon (C) determination is elemental C analysis using dry combustion. However, this method requires expensive consumables, is limited by the number of samples that can be processed (~100/d), and is restricted to the determination of total carbon. With increased interest in soil C sequestration, faster methods of analysis are needed, and there is growing interest in methods based on diffuse reflectance spectroscopy in the visible, near-infrared or mid-infrared spectral ranges. These spectral methods can decrease analytical requirements and speed sample processing, be applied to large landscape areas using remote sensing imagery, and be used to predict multiple analytes simultaneously. However, the methods require localized calibrations to establish the relationship between spectral data and reference analytical data, and also have additional, specific problems. For example, remote sensing is capable of scanning entire watersheds for soil carbon content but is limited to the surface layer of tilled soils and may require difficult and extensive field sampling to obtain proper localized calibration reference values. The objective of this chapter is to discuss the present state of spectroscopic methods for determination of soil carbon.

Reeves, James B., III; McCarty, Gregory W.; Calderon, Francisco; Hively, W. Dean

2012-01-01

29

Do new wipe materials outperform traditional lead dust cleaning methods?  

PubMed

Government guidelines have traditionally recommended the use of wet mopping, sponging, or vacuuming for removal of lead-contaminated dust from hard surfaces in homes. The emergence of new technologies, such as the electrostatic dry cloth and wet disposable clothes used on mopheads, for removal of dust provides an opportunity to evaluate their ability to remove lead compared with more established methods. The purpose of this study was to determine if relative differences exist between two new and two older methods for removal of lead-contaminated dust (LCD) from three wood surfaces that were characterized by different roughness or texture. Standard leaded dust, <75 ?m, was deposited by gravity onto the wood specimens. Specimens were cleaned using an automated device. Electrostatic dry cloths (dry Swiffer), wet Swiffer cloths, paper shop towels with non-ionic detergent, and vacuuming were used for cleaning LCD from the specimens. Lead analysis was by anodic stripping voltammetry. After the cleaning study was conducted, a study of the coefficient of friction was performed for each wipe material. Analysis of variance was used to evaluate the surface and cleaning methods. There were significant interactions between cleaning method and surface types, p = 0.007. Cleaning method was found be a significant factor in removal of lead, p <0.001, indicating that effectiveness of each cleaning methods is different. However, cleaning was not affected by types of surfaces. The coefficient of friction, significantly different among the three wipes, is likely to influence the cleaning action. Cleaning method appears to be more important than texture in LCD removal from hard surfaces. There are some small but important factors in cleaning LCD from hard surfaces, including the limits of a Swiffer mop to conform to curved surfaces and the efficiency of the wetted shop towel and vacuuming for cleaning all surface textures. The mean percentage reduction in lead dust achieved by the traditional methods (vacuuming and wet wiping) was greater and more consistent compared to the new methods (electrostatic dry cloth and wet Swiffer mop). Vacuuming and wet wiping achieved lead reductions of 92% ± 4% and 91%, ± 4%, respectively, while the electrostatic dry cloth and wet Swiffer mops achieved lead reductions of only 89 ± 8% and  81 ± 17%, respectively. PMID:22746281

Lewis, Roger D; Ong, Kee Hean; Emo, Brett; Kennedy, Jason; Brown, Christopher A; Condoor, Sridhar; Thummalakunta, Laxmi

2012-01-01

30

Monitoring, Controlling and Safeguarding Radiochemical Streams at Spent Fuel Reprocessing Facilities, Part 1: Optical Spectroscopic Methods  

SciTech Connect

Abstract: The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has established international safeguards standards for fissionable material at spent fuel reprocessing plants to ensure that significant quantities of weapons-useable nuclear material are not diverted from these facilities. For large throughput nuclear facilities, it is difficult to satisfy the IAEA safeguards accountancy goal for detection of abrupt diversion. Currently, methods to verify material control and accountancy (MC&A) at these facilities require time-consuming and resource-intensive destructive assay (DA). Leveraging new on-line non-destructive assay (NDA) process monitoring techniques in conjunction with the traditional and highly precise DA methods may provide an additional measure to nuclear material accountancy which would potentially result in a more timely, cost-effective and resource efficient means for safeguards verification at such facilities. By monitoring process control measurements (e.g. flowrates, temperatures, or concentrations of reagents, products or wastes), abnormal plant operations can be detected. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is developing on-line NDA process monitoring technologies based upon gamma-ray and optical spectroscopic measurements to potentially reduce the time and resource burden associated with current techniques. The Multi-Isotope Process (MIP) Monitor uses gamma spectroscopy and multivariate analysis to identify off-normal conditions in process streams. The spectroscopic monitor continuously measures chemical compositions of the process streams including actinide metal ions (U, Pu, Np), selected fission products, and major stable flowsheet reagents using UV-Vis, Near IR and Raman spectroscopy. Multi-variate analysis is also applied to the optical measurements in order to quantify concentrations of analytes of interest within a complex array of radiochemical streams. This paper will provide an overview of these methods and reports on-going efforts to develop and demonstrate the technologies. This paper is Part 1 of a two part series, and focuses on the optical spectroscopy based process monitoring methods.

Bryan, Samuel A.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Schwantes, Jon M.; Orton, Christopher R.; Peterson, James M.; Casella, Amanda J.

2012-02-07

31

Spectroscopic Temperature Determination after the Two-Line Method for Time-Varying Temperatures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Theoretical analysis and experimental results indicate that spectroscopic temperature measurements after the 2-line method, applying an integrating rather than a time-resolving technique, yield both too high and too low temperatures if the temperature in ...

R. F. Neubauer

1976-01-01

32

Spectroscopic Temperature Determination after the 2-Line Method for Time-Varying Temperatures.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Theoretical analysis and experimental results indicate that spectroscopic temperature measurements following the 2-line method - applying an integrating rather than a time-resolving technique - yield both too high and too low temperatures, if the temperat...

R. F. Neubauer

1975-01-01

33

Spectroscopic methods for the photodiagnosis of nonmelanoma skin cancer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The importance of dermatological noninvasive imaging techniques has increased over the last decades, aiming at diagnosing nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC). Technological progress has led to the development of various analytical tools, enabling the in vivo/in vitro examination of lesional human skin with the aim to increase diagnostic accuracy and decrease morbidity and mortality. The structure of the skin layers, their chemical composition, and the distribution of their compounds permits the noninvasive photodiagnosis of skin diseases, such as skin cancers, especially for early stages of malignant tumors. An important role in the dermatological diagnosis and disease monitoring has been shown for promising spectroscopic and imaging techniques, such as fluorescence, diffuse reflectance, Raman and near-infrared spectroscopy, optical coherence tomography, and confocal laser-scanning microscopy. We review the use of these spectroscopic techniques as noninvasive tools for the photodiagnosis of NMSC.

Drakaki, Eleni; Vergou, Theognosia; Dessinioti, Clio; Stratigos, Alexander J.; Salavastru, Carmen; Antoniou, Christina

2013-06-01

34

Feminist Policy Analysis: Expanding Traditional Social Work Methods  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an effort to move the methodology of policy analysis beyond the traditional and artificial position of being objective and value-free, this article is a call to those working and teaching in social work to consider a feminist policy analysis lens. A review of standard policy analysis models is presented alongside feminist models. Such a…

Kanenberg, Heather

2013-01-01

35

Non-Deterministic, Non-Traditional Methods (NDNTM)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The review effort identified research opportunities related to the use of nondeterministic, nontraditional methods to support aerospace design. The scope of the study was restricted to structural design rather than other areas such as control system design. Thus, the observations and conclusions are limited by that scope. The review identified a number of key results. The results include the potential for NASA/AF collaboration in the area of a design environment for advanced space access vehicles. The following key points set the context and delineate the key results. The Principal Investigator's (PI's) context for this study derived from participation as a Panel Member in the Air Force Scientific Advisory Board (AF/SAB) Summer Study Panel on 'Whither Hypersonics?' A key message from the Summer Study effort was a perceived need for a national program for a space access vehicle whose operating characteristics of cost, availability, deployability, and reliability most closely match the NASA 3rd Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV). The Panel urged the AF to make a significant joint commitment to such a program just as soon as the AF defined specific requirements for space access consistent with the AF Aerospace Vision 2020. The review brought home a concurrent need for a national vehicle design environment. Engineering design system technology is at a time point from which a revolution as significant as that brought about by the finite element method is possible, this one focusing on information integration on a scale that far surpasses current design environments. The study therefore fully supported the concept, if not some of the details of the Intelligent Synthesis Environment (ISE). It became abundantly clear during this study that the government (AF, NASA) and industry are not moving in the same direction in this regard, in fact each is moving in its own direction. NASA/ISE is not yet in an effective leadership position in this regard. However, NASA does have complementary software interoperability efforts that should be a part of any major ISE program. Software standards that assure interoperability of data systems and modeling representations are enabling for the proposed research advocated herein and should be a major element in the ISE initiative. The international standard for data interchange is known by the acronym 'STEP.' The NASA participation and lead for that effort is at the Goddard Space Flight Center. NASA/GRC is leading an effort to define CAD geometry standards through the Object Management Group (OMG). To enable the design environment so necessary to the above national vision for a unique space vehicle will require an integrating software environment with interoperability standards that allow the development and widespread deployment of tools and toolsets, rather than traditional "shrink-wrapped" software used by engineers today.

Cruse, Thomas A.; Chamis, Christos C. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

36

Development and validation of a spectroscopic method to predict wheat protein digestibility.  

PubMed

The CP digestibility is traditionally measured by chemical analyses of CP and marker concentration in digesta and diets. Potentially, CP digestibility can also be predicted by marker concentrations and spectral analyses of digesta and diet. Spectroscopy is a rapid, nondestructive method to ascertain qualitative and quantitative chemical information. Based on Beer's law, a spectroscopic method was developed to predict in vivo CP digestibility. To validate, samples of digesta and diet of wheat grain with predetermined apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of CP were scanned on a Fourier transform midinfrared (FTIR) instrument with a single-reflection attenuated total reflectance attachment. The AID of CP was calculated from peak intensities of spectra and measured marker concentrations in digesta and diet and then compared with in vivo AID of CP. The AID of CP of a wheat-based diet was predicted accurately with a deviation of 0.68 ± 0.86% from in vivo AID of CP ranging from 60.4 to 87.8%. Functional group digestibility based on the peak at 1,643 cm(-1) or the Amide I region was strongly correlated (r ? 0.99; P < 0.001) with in vivo AID of CP. In conclusion, instead of predictions based on calibrations, CP digestibility can also be potentially predicted directly from FTIR spectra. PMID:23365397

Wang, L F; Swift, M L; Zijlstra, R T

2012-12-01

37

Direct biocatalytic synthesis of functionalized catechols: a green alternative to traditional methods with high effective  

E-print Network

Direct biocatalytic synthesis of functionalized catechols: a green alternative to traditional species. The yields and the ease of preparation of these compounds are compared with traditional chemical, see ref. 9) are calculated and compared with those obtained by traditional methods to indicate

Hudlicky, Tomas

38

Improvement in the traditional processing method and nutritional quality of traditional extruded cassava-based snack (modified Ajogun)  

PubMed Central

This study was carried out to investigate and improve the traditional processing method and nutritional quality of the traditional cassava snack (Ajogun). Cassava root (Manihot esculenta Crantz L.) of TME 419 variety was processed into mash (40% moisture content). The cassava mash was mixed into different blends to produce fried traditional “Ajogun”, fried and baked extrudates (modified Ajogun) as snacks. These products were analyzed to determine the proximate composition including carbohydrate, fat, protein, fiber, ash, and moisture contents and functional properties such as bulk density. The results obtained for the moisture, fat, protein, and ash contents showed significant difference (P < 0.05) between the control sample and the extrudates. However, there was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in the carbohydrate and fiber contents between the three samples. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in the bulk density of the snacks. Also, sensory evaluation was carried out on the cassava-based snacks using the 9-point hedonic scale to determine the degree of acceptability. Results obtained showed significant difference (P < 0.05) between the extrudates and control sample in terms of appearance, taste, flavor, color, aroma, texture, and overall acceptability. The highest acceptability level of the product was at 8.04 for the control sample (traditional Ajogun). This study has shown that “Ajogun”, which is a lesser known cassava product, is rich in protein and fat. PMID:24804039

Obadina, Adewale O; Oyewole, Olusola B; Williams, Oluwasolabomi E

2013-01-01

39

Improvement in the traditional processing method and nutritional quality of traditional extruded cassava-based snack (modified Ajogun).  

PubMed

This study was carried out to investigate and improve the traditional processing method and nutritional quality of the traditional cassava snack (Ajogun). Cassava root (Manihot esculenta Crantz L.) of TME 419 variety was processed into mash (40% moisture content). The cassava mash was mixed into different blends to produce fried traditional "Ajogun", fried and baked extrudates (modified Ajogun) as snacks. These products were analyzed to determine the proximate composition including carbohydrate, fat, protein, fiber, ash, and moisture contents and functional properties such as bulk density. The results obtained for the moisture, fat, protein, and ash contents showed significant difference (P < 0.05) between the control sample and the extrudates. However, there was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in the carbohydrate and fiber contents between the three samples. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in the bulk density of the snacks. Also, sensory evaluation was carried out on the cassava-based snacks using the 9-point hedonic scale to determine the degree of acceptability. Results obtained showed significant difference (P < 0.05) between the extrudates and control sample in terms of appearance, taste, flavor, color, aroma, texture, and overall acceptability. The highest acceptability level of the product was at 8.04 for the control sample (traditional Ajogun). This study has shown that "Ajogun", which is a lesser known cassava product, is rich in protein and fat. PMID:24804039

Obadina, Adewale O; Oyewole, Olusola B; Williams, Oluwasolabomi E

2013-07-01

40

Arsenic burden of cooked rice: Traditional and modern methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Arsenic contamination of rice by irrigation with contaminated groundwater and secondarily increased soil arsenic compounds the arsenic burden of populations dependent on subsistence rice-diets. The arsenic concentration of cooked rice is known to increase with the arsenic concentration of the cooking water but the effects of cooking methods have not been defined. We tested the three major rice cooking procedures

M. K. Sengupta; M. A. Hossain; A. Mukherjee; S. Ahamed; B. Das; B. Nayak; A. Pal; D. Chakraborti

2006-01-01

41

Interrater Reliability of Diagnostic Methods in Traditional Indian Ayurvedic Medicine  

PubMed Central

This study assesses the interrater reliability of Ayurvedic pulse (nadi), tongue (jivha), and body constitution (prakriti) assessments. Fifteen registered Ayurvedic doctors with 3–15 years of experience independently examined twenty healthy subjects. Subjects completed self-assessment questionnaires and software analyses for prakriti assessment. Weighted kappa statistics for all 105 pairs of doctors were computed for the pulse, tongue, and prakriti data sets. According to the Landis-Koch scale, the pairwise kappas ranged from poor to slight, slight to fair, and fair to moderate for pulse, tongue, and prakriti assessments, respectively. The average pairwise kappa for pulse, tongue, and prakriti was 0.07, 0.17, and 0.28, respectively. For each data set and pair of doctors, the null hypothesis of random rating was rejected for just twelve pairs of doctors for prakriti, one pair of doctors for pulse examination, and no pairs of doctors for tongue assessment. Thus, the results demonstrate a low level of reliability for all types of assessment made by doctors. There was significant evidence against random rating by software and questionnaire use and by the diagnosis preferred by the majority of doctors. Prakriti assessment appears reliable when questionnaire and software assessment are used, while other diagnostic methods have room for improvement. PMID:24191170

Bilgrau, Anders Ellern; Toft, Egon; Prasad, Ramjee

2013-01-01

42

A UV spectroscopic method for monitoring aromatic hydrocarbons dissolved in water  

Microsoft Academic Search

An enhanced UV spectrometric method is applied to trace measurements of aromatic hydrocarbons dissolved in water. This approach gains selectivity and sensitivity by the use of optically generated first and second derivatives of transmission spectra. The augmented spectroscopic technique is combined with chemometric algorithms like principal component regression or partial least squares which are used for calibration of the spectrometer

F. Vogt; M. Tacke; M. Jakusch; B. Mizaikoff

2000-01-01

43

Spectroscopic temperature determination after the two-line method for time-varying temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theoretical analysis and experimental results indicate that spectroscopic temperature measurements after the 2-line method, applying an integrating rather than a time-resolving technique, yield both too high and too low temperatures if the temperature in the gas varies with time. Temperatures were measured for a rotating arc (T = 8000 K and T = 12000 K) and within a hot jet

R. F. Neubauer

1976-01-01

44

Spectroscopic temperature determination after the 2-line method for time-varying temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

Theoretical analysis and experimental results indicate that spectroscopic temperature measurements following the 2-line method - applying an integrating rather than a time-resolving technique - yield both too high and too low temperatures, if the temperature in the gas varies with time. Temperatures were measured for a rotating arc (T = 8,000 K and T = 12,000 K) and within a

R. F. Neubauer

1975-01-01

45

Users of traditional methods of contraception in Bangladesh: 1981-91.  

PubMed

This paper examines the changing patterns of knowledge, attitude and use of traditional methods of contraception, compared to modern methods, over the last five contraceptive prevalence surveys in Bangladesh (1981-91). The results show that knowledge of at least one method of family planning is universal in Bangladesh and usage is higher at all ages for women who are using modern methods than for those who are using traditional methods. Educated women and those in employment are more likely to use modern contraceptive methods. PMID:8698706

Rahman, M M; Islam, M N; Islam, M M

1996-07-01

46

RICE UNIVERSITY Usability of New Electronic Voting Systems and Traditional Methods  

E-print Network

RICE UNIVERSITY Usability of New Electronic Voting Systems and Traditional Methods: Comparisons Between Sequential and Direct Access Electronic Voting Interfaces, Paper Ballots, Punch Cards, and Lever Master of Arts APPROVED, THESIS COMMITTEE _______________________________ Michael D. Byrne, Ph. D., Chair

Byrne, Mike

47

Advances of vibrational spectroscopic methods in phytomics and bioanalysis.  

PubMed

During the last couple of years great advances in vibrational spectroscopy including near-infrared (NIR), mid-infrared (MIR), attenuated total reflection (ATR) and imaging and also mapping techniques could be achieved. On the other hand spectral treatment features have improved dramatically allowing filtering out relevant information from spectral data much more efficiently and providing new insights into the biochemical composition. These advances offer new possible quality control strategies in phytomics and enable to get deeper insights into biochemical background in terms of medicinal relevant questions. It is the aim of the present article pointing out the technical and methodological advancements in the NIR and MIR field and to demonstrate the individual methods efficiency by discussing distinct selected applications. PMID:23787354

Huck, Christian W

2014-01-01

48

Raman spectroscopic instrumentation and plasmonic methods for material characterization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The advent of nanotechnology has led to incredible growth in how we consume, make and approach advanced materials. By exploiting nanoscale material properties, unique control of optical, thermal, mechanical, and electrical characteristics becomes possible. This thesis describes the development of a novel localized surface plasmon resonant (LSPR) color sensitive photosensor, based on functionalization of gold nanoparticles onto tianium dioxide nanowires and sensing by a metal-semiconducting nanowire-metal photodiode structure. This LSPR photosensor has been integrated into a system that incorporates Raman spectroscopy, microfluidics, optical trapping, and sorting flow cytometry into a unique material characterization system called the microfluidic optical fiber trapping Raman sorting flow cytometer (MOFTRSFC). Raman spectroscopy is utilized as a powerful molecular characterization technique used to analyze biological, mineralogical and nanomaterial samples. To combat the inherently weak Raman signal, plasmonic methods have been applied to exploit surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR), increasing Raman intensity by up to 5 orders of magnitude. The resultant MOFTRSFC system is a prototype instrument that can effectively trap, analyze, and sort micron-sized dielectric particles and biological cells. Raman spectroscopy has been presented in several modalities, including the development of a portable near-infrared Raman spectrometer and other emerging technologies.

Tanaka, Kazuki

49

Monitoring, Controlling and Safeguarding Radiochemical Streams at Spent Fuel Reprocessing Facilities, Part 2: Gamma-Ray Spectroscopic Methods  

SciTech Connect

The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has established international safeguards standards for fissionable material at spent fuel reprocessing plants to ensure that significant quantities of weapons-useable nuclear material are not diverted from these facilities. For large throughput nuclear facilities, it is difficult to satisfy the IAEA safeguards accountancy goal for detection of abrupt diversion. Currently, methods to verify material control and accountancy (MC&A) at these facilities require time-consuming and resource-intensive destructive assay (DA). Leveraging new on-line non-destructive assay (NDA) process monitoring techniques in conjunction with the traditional and highly precise DA methods may provide an additional measure to nuclear material accountancy which would potentially result in a more timely, cost-effective and resource efficient means for safeguards verification at such facilities. By monitoring process control measurements (e.g. flowrates, temperatures, or concentrations of reagents, products or wastes), abnormal plant operations can be detected. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is developing on-line NDA process monitoring technologies based upon gamma-ray and optical spectroscopic measurements to potentially reduce the time and resource burden associated with current techniques. The Multi-Isotope Process (MIP) Monitor uses gamma spectroscopy and multivariate analysis to identify off-normal conditions in process streams. The spectroscopic monitor continuously measures chemical compositions of the process streams including actinide metal ions (U, Pu, Np), selected fission products, and major stable flowsheet reagents using UV-Vis, Near IR and Raman spectroscopy. Multi-variate analysis is also applied to the optical measurements in order to quantify concentrations of analytes of interest within a complex array of radiochemical streams. This paper will provide an overview of these methods and reports on-going efforts to develop and demonstrate the technologies. This paper is Part 2 of a two part series, and focuses on the gamma spectroscopy based, Multi-Isotope Process (MIP) Monitor method.

Schwantes, Jon M.; Bryan, Samuel A.; Orton, Christopher R.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Fraga, Carlos G.

2012-02-10

50

Monitoring, Controlling and Safeguarding Radiochemical Streams at Spent Fuel Reprocessing Facilities with Optical and Gamma-Ray Spectroscopic Methods  

SciTech Connect

The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has established international safeguards standards for fissionable material at spent fuel reprocessing plants to ensure that significant quantities of weapons-useable nuclear material are not diverted from these facilities. For large throughput nuclear facilities, it is difficult to satisfy the IAEA safeguards accountancy goal for detection of abrupt diversion. Currently, methods to verify material control and accountancy (MC&A) at these facilities require time-consuming and resourceintensive destructive assay (DA). Leveraging new on-line non-destructive assay (NDA) process monitoring techniques in conjunction with the traditional and highly precise DA methods may provide an additional measure to nuclear material accountancy which would potentially result in a more timely, cost-effective and resource efficient means for safeguards verification at such facilities. By monitoring process control measurements (e.g. flowrates, temperatures, or concentrations of reagents, products or wastes), abnormal plant operations can be detected. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is developing on-line NDA process monitoring technologies based upon gamma-ray and optical spectroscopic measurements to potentially reduce the time and resource burden associated with current techniques. The Multi-Isotope Process (MIP) Monitor uses gamma spectroscopy and multivariate analysis to identify offnormal conditions in process streams. The spectroscopic monitor continuously measures chemical compositions of the process streams including actinide metal ions (U, Pu, Np), selected fission products, and major stable flowsheet reagents using UV-Vis, Near IR and Raman spectroscopy. Multi-variate analysis is also applied to the optical measurements in order to quantify concentrations of analytes of interest within a complex array of radiochemical streams. This paper will provide an overview of these methods and reports on-going efforts to develop and demonstrate the technologies.

Schwantes, Jon M.; Bryan, Samuel A.; Orton, Christopher R.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Fraga, Carlos G.

2012-11-06

51

Comparison of Traditional Design Nonlinear Programming Optimization and Stochastic Methods for Structural Design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Structural design generated by traditional method, optimization method and the stochastic design concept are compared. In the traditional method, the constraints are manipulated to obtain the design and weight is back calculated. In design optimization, the weight of a structure becomes the merit function with constraints imposed on failure modes and an optimization algorithm is used to generate the solution. Stochastic design concept accounts for uncertainties in loads, material properties, and other parameters and solution is obtained by solving a design optimization problem for a specified reliability. Acceptable solutions were produced by all the three methods. The variation in the weight calculated by the methods was modest. Some variation was noticed in designs calculated by the methods. The variation may be attributed to structural indeterminacy. It is prudent to develop design by all three methods prior to its fabrication. The traditional design method can be improved when the simplified sensitivities of the behavior constraint is used. Such sensitivity can reduce design calculations and may have a potential to unify the traditional and optimization methods. Weight versus reliabilitytraced out an inverted-S-shaped graph. The center of the graph corresponded to mean valued design. A heavy design with weight approaching infinity could be produced for a near-zero rate of failure. Weight can be reduced to a small value for a most failure-prone design. Probabilistic modeling of load and material properties remained a challenge.

Patnaik, Surya N.; Pai, Shantaram S.; Coroneos, Rula M.

2010-01-01

52

Comparison of DFT with Traditional Methods for the Calculation of Vibrational Frequencies and Bond Energies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The vibrational frequencies of MO2 are computed at many levels of theory, including HF, B3LYP, BP86, CASSCF, MP2, and CCSD(T). The computed results are compared with the available experimental results. Most of the methods fail for at least one state of the systems considered. The accuracy of the results and the origin of the observed failures are discussed. The B3LYP bond energies are compared with traditional methods for a variety of systems, ranging from FeCOn+ to SiCln and its positive ions. The cases where B3LYP differs from the traditional methods are discussed.

Bauschlicher, Charles W.; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

1997-01-01

53

Comparing Traditional and Technological Methods for Studying English as a Second Language (ESL)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While there are many options available for studying English as a second language (ESL), students and instructors may not be aware of which learning strategy would be most effective. To help them make informed choices about their education, this study compared traditional classroom methods with online technological methods for studying ESL at…

Manko, Barbara Ann

2010-01-01

54

Docosahexaenoic acid content is significantly higher in ghrita prepared by traditional Ayurvedic method  

PubMed Central

Background: Ghee (clarified butter) also known as ghrita, has been utilized for thousands of years in Ayurveda. Ghee is mostly prepared by traditional method in Indian households or by direct cream method at industry level. Ayurvedic classics mention that ghrita made from cow milk is superior. However, there is no scientific comparison available on preparation methods and essential fatty acids content of ghrita. Objective: To investigate fatty acid composition of ghrita prepared by traditional/Ayurvedic method and commercial method (direct cream method). Materials and Methods: Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME) extracted from ghrita samples were analysed on Gas Chromatography (GC) Shimadzu B using capillary column BPX70 (0.32 mm*60 m, ID of 0.25 mm). The fatty acids in the samples were identified by comparing peaks with the external standard 68A (Nu-Chek-Prep, Inc.USA). Significant differences between the experimental groups were assessed by analysis of variance. Results: Distribution of fatty acids was compared in ghrita samples prepared by traditional method and direct cream method which is commercially used. Saturated fatty acids were predominant in both the groups. Mono unsaturated fatty acids and poly unsaturated fatty acids were in the range of 17-18% and 3-6% respectively. DHA content was significantly higher in ghee prepared by traditional method using curd starter fermentation. Conclusion: The findings suggested that ghrita prepared by traditional ayurvedic methods contains higher amount of DHA; Omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, which is a major component of retinal and brain tissues and remains important in prevention of various diseases. PMID:24948858

Joshi, Kalpana S.

2014-01-01

55

Learning About Violence Against Women in Research Methods: A Comparison to Traditional Pedagogy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current study examined whether a community-engaged class in undergraduate psychology research methods was able to educate students about violence against women without sacrificing acquisition of research methods knowledge. We compared student outcomes in a traditional research methods course to those in a community-engaged research methods course. Students in the community-engaged course completed a research project on violence against women

Anne P. DePrince; Sarah J. Priebe; A. Taylor Newton

2011-01-01

56

Ghanaian cocoa bean fermentation characterized by spectroscopic and chromatographic methods and chemometrics.  

PubMed

Export of cocoa beans is of great economic importance in Ghana and several other tropical countries. Raw cocoa has an astringent, unpleasant taste, and flavor, and has to be fermented, dried, and roasted to obtain the characteristic cocoa flavor and taste. In an attempt to obtain a deeper understanding of the changes in the cocoa beans during fermentation and investigate the possibility of future development of objective methods for assessing the degree of fermentation, a novel combination of methods including cut test, colorimetry, fluorescence spectroscopy, NIR spectroscopy, and GC-MS evaluated by chemometric methods was used to examine cocoa beans sampled at different durations of fermentation and samples representing fully fermented and dried beans from all cocoa growing regions of Ghana. Using colorimetry it was found that samples moved towards higher a* and b* values as fermentation progressed. Furthermore, the degree of fermentation could, in general, be well described by the spectroscopic methods used. In addition, it was possible to link analysis of volatile compounds with predictions of fermentation time. Fermented and dried cocoa beans from the Volta and the Western regions clustered separately in the score plots based on colorimetric, fluorescence, NIR, and GC-MS indicating regional differences in the composition of Ghanaian cocoa beans. The study demonstrates the potential of colorimetry and spectroscopic methods as valuable tools for determining the fermentation degree of cocoa beans. Using GC-MS it was possible to demonstrate the formation of several important aroma compounds such 2-phenylethyl acetate, propionic acid, and acetoin and the breakdown of others like diacetyl during fermentation. Practical Application: The present study demonstrates the potential of using colorimetry and spectroscopic methods as objective methods for determining cocoa bean quality along the processing chain. Development of objective methods for determining cocoa bean quality will be of great importance for quality insurance within the fields of cocoa processing and raw material control in chocolate producing companies. PMID:20722952

Aculey, Patrick C; Snitkjaer, Pia; Owusu, Margaret; Bassompiere, Marc; Takrama, Jemmy; Nørgaard, Lars; Petersen, Mikael A; Nielsen, Dennis S

2010-08-01

57

Structures and Encapsulation Motifs of Functional Molecules Probed by Laser Spectroscopic and Theoretical Methods  

PubMed Central

We report laser spectroscopic and computational studies of host/guest hydration interactions between functional molecules (hosts) and water (guest) in supersonic jets. The examined hosts include dibenzo-18-crown-6-ether (DB18C6), benzo-18-crown-6-ether (B18C6) and calix[4]arene (C4A). The gaseous complexes between the functional molecular hosts and water are generated under jet-cooled conditions. Various laser spectroscopic methods are applied for these species: the electronic spectra are observed by laser-induced fluorescence (LIF), mass-selected resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) and ultraviolet-ultraviolet hole-burning (UV-UV HB) spectroscopy, whereas the vibrational spectra for each individual species are observed by infrared-ultraviolet double resonance (IR-UV DR) spectroscopy. The obained results are analyzed by first principles electronic structure calculations. We discuss the conformations of the host molecules, the structures of the complexes, and key interactions forming the specific complexes. PMID:22319310

Kusaka, Ryoji; Inokuchi, Yoshiya; Xantheas, Sotiris S.; Ebata, Takayuki

2010-01-01

58

Application of Spectroscopic Methods for Structural Analysis of Chitin and Chitosan  

PubMed Central

Chitin, the second most important natural polymer in the world, and its N-deacetylated derivative chitosan, have been identified as versatile biopolymers for a broad range of applications in medicine, agriculture and the food industry. Two of the main reasons for this are firstly the unique chemical, physicochemical and biological properties of chitin and chitosan, and secondly the unlimited supply of raw materials for their production. These polymers exhibit widely differing physicochemical properties depending on the chitin source and the conditions of chitosan production. The presence of reactive functional groups as well as the polysaccharide nature of these biopolymers enables them to undergo diverse chemical modifications. A complete chemical and physicochemical characterization of chitin, chitosan and their derivatives is not possible without using spectroscopic techniques. This review focuses on the application of spectroscopic methods for the structural analysis of these compounds. PMID:20559489

Kumirska, Jolanta; Czerwicka, Ma?gorzata; Kaczy?ski, Zbigniew; Bychowska, Anna; Brzozowski, Krzysztof; Thöming, Jorg; Stepnowski, Piotr

2010-01-01

59

Investigation on the interaction of pyrene with bovine serum albumin using spectroscopic methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper was designed to investigate the interaction of pyrene with bovine serum albumin (BSA) under physiological condition by spectroscopic methods. Spectroscopic analysis of the emission quenching revealed that the quenching mechanism of BSA by pyrene was static. The binding sites and constants of pyrene-BSA complex were observed to be 1.20 and 2.63 × 106 L mol-1 at 298 K, respectively. The enthalpy change (?H) and entropy change (?S) revealed that van der Waals forces and hydrogen bonds stabilized the pyrene-BSA complex. Energy transfer from tryptophan to pyrene occurred by a FRET (fluorescence resonance energy transfer) mechanism, and the distance (r = 2.72 nm) had been determined. The results of synchronous, three-dimensional fluorescence, and circular dichroism spectra showed that the pyrene induced conformational changes of BSA.

Xu, Chengbin; Gu, Jiali; Ma, Xiping; Dong, Tian; Meng, Xuelian

60

Spectroscopic and thermal investigations on the charge transfer interaction between risperidone as a schizophrenia drug with some traditional ?-acceptors: Part 2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The focus of present investigation was to assess the utility of non-expensive techniques in the evaluation of risperidone (Ris) in solid and solution states with different traditional ?-acceptors and subsequent incorporation of the analytical determination into pharmaceutical formulation for a faster release of risperidone. Charge-transfer complexes (CTC) of risperidone with picric acid (PA), 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-p-benzoquinon (DDQ), tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ), tetracyano ethylene (TCNE), tetrabromo-p-quinon (BL) and tetrachloro-p-quinon (CL) have been studied spectrophotometrically in absolute methanol at room temperature. The stoichiometries of the complexes were found to be 1:1 ratio by the photometric molar ratio between risperidone and the ?-acceptors. The equilibrium constants, molar extinction coefficient (?CT) and spectroscopic-physical parameters (standard free energy (?Go), oscillator strength (f), transition dipole moment (?), resonance energy (RN) and ionization potential (ID)) of the complexes were determined upon the modified Benesi-Hildebrand equation. Risperidone in pure form was applied in this study. The results indicate that the formation constants for the complexes depend on the nature of electron acceptors and donor, and also the spectral studies of the complexes were determined by (infrared, Raman, and 1H NMR) spectra and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). The most stable mono-protonated form of Ris is characterized by the formation of +Nsbnd H (pyrimidine ring) intramolecular hydrogen bonded. In the high-wavenumber spectral region ˜3400 cm-1, the bands of the +Nsbnd H stretching vibrations and of the pyrimidine nitrogen atom could be potentially useful to discriminate the investigated forms of Ris. The infrared spectra of both Ris complexes are confirming the participation of +Nsbnd H pyrimidine ring in the donor-acceptor interaction.

El-Habeeb, Abeer A.; Al-Saif, Foziah A.; Refat, Moamen S.

2013-03-01

61

Bias in diet determination: incorporating traditional methods in Bayesian mixing models.  

PubMed

There are not "universal methods" to determine diet composition of predators. Most traditional methods are biased because of their reliance on differential digestibility and the recovery of hard items. By relying on assimilated food, stable isotope and Bayesian mixing models (SIMMs) resolve many biases of traditional methods. SIMMs can incorporate prior information (i.e. proportional diet composition) that may improve the precision in the estimated dietary composition. However few studies have assessed the performance of traditional methods and SIMMs with and without informative priors to study the predators' diets. Here we compare the diet compositions of the South American fur seal and sea lions obtained by scats analysis and by SIMMs-UP (uninformative priors) and assess whether informative priors (SIMMs-IP) from the scat analysis improved the estimated diet composition compared to SIMMs-UP. According to the SIMM-UP, while pelagic species dominated the fur seal's diet the sea lion's did not have a clear dominance of any prey. In contrast, SIMM-IP's diets compositions were dominated by the same preys as in scat analyses. When prior information influenced SIMMs' estimates, incorporating informative priors improved the precision in the estimated diet composition at the risk of inducing biases in the estimates. If preys isotopic data allow discriminating preys' contributions to diets, informative priors should lead to more precise but unbiased estimated diet composition. Just as estimates of diet composition obtained from traditional methods are critically interpreted because of their biases, care must be exercised when interpreting diet composition obtained by SIMMs-IP. The best approach to obtain a near-complete view of predators' diet composition should involve the simultaneous consideration of different sources of partial evidence (traditional methods, SIMM-UP and SIMM-IP) in the light of natural history of the predator species so as to reliably ascertain and weight the information yielded by each method. PMID:24224031

Franco-Trecu, Valentina; Drago, Massimiliano; Riet-Sapriza, Federico G; Parnell, Andrew; Frau, Rosina; Inchausti, Pablo

2013-01-01

62

Bias in Diet Determination: Incorporating Traditional Methods in Bayesian Mixing Models  

PubMed Central

There are not “universal methods” to determine diet composition of predators. Most traditional methods are biased because of their reliance on differential digestibility and the recovery of hard items. By relying on assimilated food, stable isotope and Bayesian mixing models (SIMMs) resolve many biases of traditional methods. SIMMs can incorporate prior information (i.e. proportional diet composition) that may improve the precision in the estimated dietary composition. However few studies have assessed the performance of traditional methods and SIMMs with and without informative priors to study the predators’ diets. Here we compare the diet compositions of the South American fur seal and sea lions obtained by scats analysis and by SIMMs-UP (uninformative priors) and assess whether informative priors (SIMMs-IP) from the scat analysis improved the estimated diet composition compared to SIMMs-UP. According to the SIMM-UP, while pelagic species dominated the fur seal’s diet the sea lion’s did not have a clear dominance of any prey. In contrast, SIMM-IP’s diets compositions were dominated by the same preys as in scat analyses. When prior information influenced SIMMs’ estimates, incorporating informative priors improved the precision in the estimated diet composition at the risk of inducing biases in the estimates. If preys isotopic data allow discriminating preys’ contributions to diets, informative priors should lead to more precise but unbiased estimated diet composition. Just as estimates of diet composition obtained from traditional methods are critically interpreted because of their biases, care must be exercised when interpreting diet composition obtained by SIMMs-IP. The best approach to obtain a near-complete view of predators’ diet composition should involve the simultaneous consideration of different sources of partial evidence (traditional methods, SIMM-UP and SIMM-IP) in the light of natural history of the predator species so as to reliably ascertain and weight the information yielded by each method. PMID:24224031

Franco-Trecu, Valentina; Drago, Massimiliano; Riet-Sapriza, Federico G.; Parnell, Andrew; Frau, Rosina; Inchausti, Pablo

2013-01-01

63

A COMPARISON OF AUTOMATED AND TRADITIONAL METHODS FOR THE EXTRACTION OF ARSENICALS FROM FISH  

EPA Science Inventory

An automated extractor employing accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) has been compared with a traditional sonication method of extraction for the extraction of arsenicals from fish tissue. Four different species of fish and a standard reference material, DORM-2, were subjected t...

64

An Aural Learning Project: Assimilating Jazz Education Methods for Traditional Applied Pedagogy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Aural Learning Project (ALP) was developed to incorporate jazz method components into the author's classical practice and her applied woodwind lesson curriculum. The primary objective was to place a more focused pedagogical emphasis on listening and hearing than is traditionally used in the classical applied curriculum. The components of the…

Gamso, Nancy M.

2011-01-01

65

Interaction of methotrexate with trypsin analyzed by spectroscopic and molecular modeling methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Trypsin is one of important digestive enzymes that have intimate correlation with human health and illness. In this work, the interaction of trypsin with methotrexate was investigated by spectroscopic and molecular modeling methods. The results revealed that methotrexate could interact with trypsin with about one binding site. Methotrexate molecule could enter into the primary substrate-binding pocket, resulting in inhibition of trypsin activity. Furthermore, the thermodynamic analysis implied that electrostatic force, hydrogen bonding, van der Waals and hydrophobic interactions were the main interactions for stabilizing the trypsin-methotrexate system, which agreed well with the results from the molecular modeling study.

Wang, Yanqing; Zhang, Hongmei; Cao, Jian; Zhou, Qiuhua

2013-11-01

66

The Effects of the Creative Movement Teaching Method and the Traditional Teaching Method on Elementary School Children's Self-esteem  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the present study was to investigate the influence of two physical education teaching methods, the creative movement teaching method and the traditional teaching method, on self-esteem components. Specifically, the target of the study was to examine if the teaching of creative movement in physical education classes could influence a child's self-esteem. One hundred and seven (N=107) fifth

Kalliopi Theodorakou; Yannis Zervas

2003-01-01

67

Detailed spectroscopic analysis of SN 1987A: The distance to the LMC using the SEAM method  

SciTech Connect

Supernova 1987A remains the most well-studied supernova to date. Observations produced excellent broad-band photometric and spectroscopic coverage over a wide wavelength range at all epochs. We model the observed spectra from Day 1 to Day 81 using a hydrodynamical model. We show that good agreement can be obtained at times up to about 60 days, if we allow for extended nickel mixing. Later than about 60 days the observed Balmer lines become stronger than our models can reproduce. We show that this is likely due to a more complicated distribution of gamma-rays than we allow for in our spherically symmetric calculations. We present synthetic light curves in UBVRIJHK and a synthetic bolometric light curve. Using this broad baseline of detailed spectroscopic models we find a distance modulus mu = 18.5 +/- 0.2 using the SEAM method of determining distances to supernovae. We find that the explosion time agrees with that of the neutrino burst and is constrained at 68 percent confidence to within +/- 0.9 days. We argue that the weak Balmer lines of our detailed model calculations casts doubt on the accuracy of the purely photometric EPM method. We also suggest that Type IIP supernovae will be most useful as distance indicators at early times due to a variety of effects.

Mitchell, Robert C.; Baron, E.; Branch, David; Hauschildt, Peter H.; Nugent, Peter E.; Lundqvist, Peter; Blinnikov, Sergei; Pun, Chun S.J.

2002-05-21

68

Spectroscopic characterization and quantitative determination of atorvastatin calcium impurities by novel HPLC method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seven process related impurities were identified by LC-MS in the atorvastatin calcium drug substance. These impurities were identified by LC-MS. The structure of impurities was confirmed by modern spectroscopic techniques like 1H NMR and IR and physicochemical studies conducted by using synthesized authentic reference compounds. The synthesized reference samples of the impurity compounds were used for the quantitative HPLC determination. These impurities were detected by newly developed gradient, reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method. The system suitability of HPLC analysis established the validity of the separation. The analytical method was validated according to International Conference of Harmonization (ICH) with respect to specificity, precision, accuracy, linearity, robustness and stability of analytical solutions to demonstrate the power of newly developed HPLC method.

Gupta, Lokesh Kumar

2012-11-01

69

Novel spectroscopic methods for determination of Cromolyn sodium and Oxymetazoline hydrochloride in binary mixture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New accurate, sensitive and selective spectrophotometric and spectrofluorimetric methods were developed and subsequently validated for determination of Cromolyn sodium (CS) and Oxymetazoline HCl (OXY) in binary mixture. These methods include ‘H-point standard addition method (HPSAM) and area under the curve (AUC)' spectrophotometric method and first derivative synchronous fluorescence spectroscopic (FDSFS) method. For spectrophotometric methods, absorbances were recorded at 241.5 nm and 274.9 nm for HPSAM and the wavelength was selected in ranges 232.0-254.0 nm and 216.0-229.0 nm for AUC method, where the concentration was obtained by applying Cramer's rule. For FDSFS method, the first-derivative synchronous fluorescence signal was measured at 290.0 nm, using ?? = 145.0 nm. The suggested methods were validated according to International Conference of Harmonization (ICH) guidelines and the results revealed that they were precise and reproducible. All the obtained results were statistically compared with those of the reported method and there was no significant difference.

Abdel-Aziz, Omar; El-Kosasy, A. M.; Magdy, N.; El Zahar, N. M.

2014-10-01

70

Spectroscopic method to measure the superfluid fraction of an ultracold atomic gas  

SciTech Connect

We perform detailed analytical and numerical studies of a recently proposed method for a spectroscopic measurement of the superfluid fraction of an ultracold atomic gas [N. R. Cooper and Z. Hadzibabic, Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 030401 (2010)]. Previous theoretical work is extended by explicitly including the effects of nonzero temperature and interactions, and assessing the quantitative accuracy of the proposed measurement for a one-component Bose gas. We show that for suitably chosen experimental parameters the method yields an experimentally detectable signal and a sufficiently accurate measurement. This is illustrated by explicitly considering two key examples: First, for a weakly interacting three-dimensional Bose gas it reproduces the expected result that below the critical temperature the superfluid fraction closely follows the condensate fraction. Second, it allows a clear quantitative differentiation of the superfluid and the condensate density in a strongly interacting Bose gas.

John, S. T.; Hadzibabic, Z.; Cooper, N. R. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, J. J. Thomson Ave. Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom)

2011-02-15

71

Denoising spectroscopic data by means of the improved least-squares deconvolution method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. The MOST, CoRoT, and Kepler space missions have led to the discovery of a large number of intriguing, and in some cases unique, objects among which are pulsating stars, stars hosting exoplanets, binaries, etc. Although the space missions have delivered photometric data of unprecedented quality, these data are lacking any spectral information and we are still in need of ground-based spectroscopic and/or multicolour photometric follow-up observations for a solid interpretation. Aims: The faintness of most of the observed stars and the required high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of spectroscopic data both imply the need to use large telescopes, access to which is limited. In this paper, we look for an alternative, and aim for the development of a technique that allows the denoising of the originally low S/N (typically, below 80) spectroscopic data, making observations of faint targets with small telescopes possible and effective. Methods: We present a generalization of the original least-squares deconvolution (LSD) method by implementing a multicomponent average profile and a line strengths correction algorithm. We tested the method on simulated and real spectra of single and binary stars, among which are two intrinsically variable objects. Results: The method was successfully tested on the high-resolution spectra of Vega and a Kepler star, KIC 04749989. Application to the two pulsating stars, 20 Cvn and HD 189631, showed that the technique is also applicable to intrinsically variable stars: the results of frequency analysis and mode identification from the LSD model spectra for both objects are in good agreement with the findings from literature. Depending on the S/N of the original data and spectral characteristics of a star, the gain in S/N in the LSD model spectrum typically ranges from 5 to 15 times. Conclusions: The technique introduced in this paper allows an effective denoising of the originally low S/N spectroscopic data. The high S/N spectra obtained this way can be used to determine fundamental parameters and chemical composition of the stars. The restored LSD model spectra contain all the information on line profile variations present in the original spectra of pulsating stars, for example. The method is applicable to both high- (>30 000) and low- (<30 000) resolution spectra, although the information that can be extracted from the latter is limited by the resolving power itself. Based on the data gathered with the hermes spectrograph, installed at the Mercator Telescope, operated on the island of La Palma by the Flemish Community, at the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias and supported by the Fund for Scientific Research of Flanders (FWO), Belgium, the Research Council of K.U. Leuven, Belgium, the Fonds National de la Recherche Scientifique (F.R.S.-FNRS), Belgium, the Royal Observatory of Belgium, the Observatoire de Genève, Switzerland, and the Thüringer Landessternwarte Tautenburg, Germany.Based on the data extracted from the ELODIE archive and the ESO Science Archive Facility under request number TVanReeth63233.The software presented in this work is available upon request from: Andrew.Tkachenko@ster.kuleuven.be

Tkachenko, A.; Van Reeth, T.; Tsymbal, V.; Aerts, C.; Kochukhov, O.; Debosscher, J.

2013-12-01

72

Methods for Sight Word Recognition in Kindergarten: Traditional Flashcard Method vs. Multisensory Approach  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A quasi-experimental action research with a pretest-posttest same subject design was implemented to determine if there is a different effect of the flash card method and the multisensory approach on kindergarteners' achievement in sight word recognition, and which method is more effective if there is any difference. Instrumentation for pretest and…

Phillips, William E.; Feng, Jay

2012-01-01

73

[Comparison of sustainable development status in Heilongjiang Province based on traditional ecological footprint method and emergy ecological footprint method].  

PubMed

By using traditional ecological footprint method and its modification, emergy ecological footprint method, the sustainable development status of Heilongjiang Province in 2005 was analyzed. The results showed that the ecological deficits of Heilongjiang Province in 2005 based on emergy and conventional ecological footprint methods were 1.919 and 0.6256 hm2 x cap(-1), respectively. The ecological footprint value based on the two methods both exceeded its carrying capacity, which indicated that the social and economic development of the study area was not sustainable. Emergy ecological footprint method was used to discuss the relationships between human's material demand and ecosystem resources supply, and more stable parameters such as emergy transformity and emergy density were introduced into emergy ecological footprint method, which overcame some of the shortcomings of conventional ecological method. PMID:19238861

Chen, Chun-feng; Wang, Hong-yan; Xiao, Du-ning; Wang, Da-qing

2008-11-01

74

Apparatus for and method of performing spectroscopic analysis on an article  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for and method of analyzing an article having an entrance and an exit in communication with the entrance. The apparatus comprises: a spectrometer having an emission source with a focal point; a plurality of mirrors; and a detector connected to the spectroscope. The emission source is positioned so that its focal point is substantially coextensive with the entrance of the article. The mirrors comprise: a first mirror positionable adjacent the exit of the article and a second mirror positioned relative to the other of said plurality of mirrors. The first mirror receives scattered emissions exiting the article and substantially collimates the scattered emissions. The second mirror substantially focuses the collimated emissions into a focused emission. The detector receives the focused emission from the mirrors.

Powell, George Louis (Oak Ridge, TN); Hallman, Jr., Russell Louis (Knoxville, TN)

1999-01-01

75

Seventy-meter antenna performance predictions: GTD analysis compared with traditional ray-tracing methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A comparative analysis was performed, using both the Geometrical Theory of Diffraction (GTD) and traditional pathlength error analysis techniques, for predicting RF antenna gain performance and pointing corrections. The NASA/JPL 70 meter antenna with its shaped surface was analyzed for gravity loading over the range of elevation angles. Also analyzed were the effects of lateral and axial displacements of the subreflector. Significant differences were noted between the predictions of the two methods, in the effect of subreflector displacements, and in the optimal subreflector positions to focus a gravity-deformed main reflector. The results are of relevance to future design procedure.

Schredder, J. M.

1988-01-01

76

Traditional and modern plant breeding methods with examples in rice (Oryza sativa L.).  

PubMed

Plant breeding can be broadly defined as alterations caused in plants as a result of their use by humans, ranging from unintentional changes resulting from the advent of agriculture to the application of molecular tools for precision breeding. The vast diversity of breeding methods can be simplified into three categories: (i) plant breeding based on observed variation by selection of plants based on natural variants appearing in nature or within traditional varieties; (ii) plant breeding based on controlled mating by selection of plants presenting recombination of desirable genes from different parents; and (iii) plant breeding based on monitored recombination by selection of specific genes or marker profiles, using molecular tools for tracking within-genome variation. The continuous application of traditional breeding methods in a given species could lead to the narrowing of the gene pool from which cultivars are drawn, rendering crops vulnerable to biotic and abiotic stresses and hampering future progress. Several methods have been devised for introducing exotic variation into elite germplasm without undesirable effects. Cases in rice are given to illustrate the potential and limitations of different breeding approaches. PMID:23551250

Breseghello, Flavio; Coelho, Alexandre Siqueira Guedes

2013-09-01

77

[Thinking on methods for formulating development strategy of traditional Chinese medicine standardization].  

PubMed

Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) standardization serves as an important foundation of TCM modernization and internationalization, and TCM standardization strategy is the core of the subject. Recently, some developed countries and developing countries with a better economic basis have set development strategy for TCM standardization. China is at the beginning on TCM standardization strategy study. This paper explored the methods for setting TCM standardization development strategy. Firstly, strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of TCM were analyzed based on SWOT method to set development tactics. On the above basis, the authors defined the total goal and stage goal under the guidance of the relevant laws and regulations. To achieve the strategic goal, priority areas were formed by literature analysis and expert inquiry method, and the safeguard measures were formulated by expert symposium. Secondly, the draft for development strategy of TCM standardization was made based on the above content. Finally, the authors revised and formed the official development strategy of TCM standardization. PMID:21565132

Yuwen, Ya; Han, Xue-jie; Wang, Li-ying; Shi, Nan-nan; Wang, Yong-yan; Lü, Ai-ping

2011-05-01

78

Comparing student achievement in the problem-based learning classroom and traditional teaching methods classroom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Significant numbers of students fail high school chemistry, preventing them from graduating. Starting in the 2013-2014 school year, 100% of the students must pass a science assessment for schools to meet Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) in accordance to No Child Left Behind (NCLB). Failure to meet AYP results in sanctions, such as state management or closure of a school or replacing a school staff. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the teaching strategy, Problem Based Learning (PBL), will improve student achievement in high school chemistry to a greater degree than traditional teaching methods. PBL is a student-centered, inquiry-based teaching method based on the constructivist learning theory. The research question looked at whether there was a difference in student achievement between students a high school chemistry classroom using PBL and students in a classroom using traditional teaching methods as measured by scores on a 20-question quiz. The research study used a quasi-experimental pretest/posttest control group design. An independent samples t-test compared gains scores between the pretest and posttest. Analysis of quiz scores indicated that there was not a significant difference (t(171) = 1.001, p = .318) in student achievement between the teaching methods. Because there was not a significant difference, each teacher can decide which teaching method best suites the subject matter and the learning styles of the students. This study adds research based data to help teachers and schools choose one teaching method over another so that students may gain knowledge, develop problem-solving skills, and life-long learning skills that will bring about social change in the form of a higher quality of life for the students and community as a whole.

Dobbs, Vicki

79

Automatic diagnosis of melanoma using machine learning methods on a spectroscopic system  

PubMed Central

Background Early and accurate diagnosis of melanoma, the deadliest type of skin cancer, has the potential to reduce morbidity and mortality rate. However, early diagnosis of melanoma is not trivial even for experienced dermatologists, as it needs sampling and laboratory tests which can be extremely complex and subjective. The accuracy of clinical diagnosis of melanoma is also an issue especially in distinguishing between melanoma and mole. To solve these problems, this paper presents an approach that makes non-subjective judgements based on quantitative measures for automatic diagnosis of melanoma. Methods Our approach involves image acquisition, image processing, feature extraction, and classification. 187 images (19 malignant melanoma and 168 benign lesions) were collected in a clinic by a spectroscopic device that combines single-scattered, polarized light spectroscopy with multiple-scattered, un-polarized light spectroscopy. After noise reduction and image normalization, features were extracted based on statistical measurements (i.e. mean, standard deviation, mean absolute deviation, L 1 norm, and L 2 norm) of image pixel intensities to characterize the pattern of melanoma. Finally, these features were fed into certain classifiers to train learning models for classification. Results We adopted three classifiers – artificial neural network, naïve bayes, and k-nearest neighbour to evaluate our approach separately. The naive bayes classifier achieved the best performance - 89% accuracy, 89% sensitivity and 89% specificity, which was integrated with our approach in a desktop application running on the spectroscopic system for diagnosis of melanoma. Conclusions Our work has two strengths. (1) We have used single scattered polarized light spectroscopy and multiple scattered unpolarized light spectroscopy to decipher the multilayered characteristics of human skin. (2) Our approach does not need image segmentation, as we directly probe tiny spots in the lesion skin and the image scans do not involve background skin. The desktop application for automatic diagnosis of melanoma can help dermatologists get a non-subjective second opinion for their diagnosis decision. PMID:25311811

2014-01-01

80

Huygens Titan Probe Trajectory Reconstruction Using Traditional Methods and the Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories II  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On January 14, 2005, ESA's Huygens probe separated from NASA's Cassini spacecraft, entered the Titan atmosphere and landed on its surface. As part of NASA Engineering Safety Center Independent Technical Assessment of the Huygens entry, descent, and landing, and an agreement with ESA, NASA provided results of all EDL analyses and associated findings to the Huygens project team prior to probe entry. In return, NASA was provided the flight data from the probe so that trajectory reconstruction could be done and simulation models assessed. Trajectory reconstruction of the Huygens entry probe at Titan was accomplished using two independent approaches: a traditional method and a POST2-based method. Results from both approaches are discussed in this paper.

Striepe, Scott A.; Blanchard, Robert C.; Kirsch, Michael F.; Fowler, Wallace T.

2007-01-01

81

Time of flight diffraction: an alternate non-destructive testing procedure to replace traditional methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Time-of-flight-diffraction Technique (TOFD) is considered as one of the fastest methods of Non-destructive testing (NDT) since a weld can be characterized to a certain degree with one single scan along its length with two probes. An image of the complete weld is created showing component and, more importantly, any defect information. In this paper a comprehensive review of the TOFD technique covering many aspects, e.g. accuracy, coverage, resolution, repeatability, and last not least speed where the real value of TOFD lies-despite its few inherent limitations is presented. This paper presents the results of experimental investigations carried out using various NDT techniques including TOFD on specimens such as welds with various types of defects. The results of these investigations are compared and the feasibility of using TOFD as an alternative NDT procedure to replace the traditional NDT methods of inspecting fabricated pressure vessel components are examined.

Prabhakaran, K. G.; Wong, Brian Stephen; Teng, Yeo Yan

2005-04-01

82

Comparison of Satellite Surveying to Traditional Surveying Methods for the Resources Industry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Modern ground-based survey methods involve detailed survey, which provides three-space co-ordinates for surveyed points, to a high level of accuracy. The instruments are operated by surveyors, who process the raw results to create survey location maps for the subject of the survey. Such surveys are conducted for a location or region and referenced to the earth global co- ordinate system with global positioning system (GPS) positioning. Due to this referencing the survey is only as accurate as the GPS reference system. Satellite survey remote sensing utilise satellite imagery which have been processed using commercial geographic information system software. Three-space co-ordinate maps are generated, with an accuracy determined by the datum position accuracy and optical resolution of the satellite platform.This paper presents a case study, which compares topographic surveying undertaken by traditional survey methods with satellite surveying, for the same location. The purpose of this study is to assess the viability of satellite remote sensing for surveying in the resources industry. The case study involves a topographic survey of a dune field for a prospective mining project area in Pakistan. This site has been surveyed using modern surveying techniques and the results are compared to a satellite survey performed on the same area.Analysis of the results from traditional survey and from the satellite survey involved a comparison of the derived spatial co- ordinates from each method. In addition, comparisons have been made of costs and turnaround time for both methods.The results of this application of remote sensing is of particular interest for survey in areas with remote and extreme environments, weather extremes, political unrest, poor travel links, which are commonly associated with mining projects. Such areas frequently suffer language barriers, poor onsite technical support and resources.

Osborne, B. P.; Osborne, V. J.; Kruger, M. L.

83

Passive control methods of Kerala traditional architecture for a comfortable indoor environment: Comparative investigation during various periods of rainy season  

Microsoft Academic Search

The traditional architecture of Kerala, a state in India lying along its southwest coast, is known for its use of natural and passive methods for a comfortable indoor environment. Although there have been attempts to analyze the traditional architecture of Kerala, they were focused only on qualitative approach. An investigation was thus initiated by the authors to understand the passive

M. A. Naseer; T. Zacharia Varghese

2010-01-01

84

An interactive dynamic model for integrating knowledge management methods and knowledge sharing technology in a traditional classroom  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports an interactive dynamic model using Continuous Knowledge Management methods and Knowledge Sharing technology to integrate the acquisition of skills and relevant information (knowledge level) into diverse, individualized, concurrent learning processes in a traditional classroom setting. As opposed to a passive introduction of technology to facilitate the traditional learning processes a Web based active learning and continuous evaluation

Vir V. Phoha

2001-01-01

85

Characterization of organic matter from composting of different residues by physicochemical and spectroscopic methods.  

PubMed

Chemical and spectroscopic methods were used to characterize organic matter transformations during the composting process. Four different residue mixtures were studied: P1--garden trimmings (GT) only, P2 - GT plus fresh cattle manure, P3--GT plus orange pomace and P4--GT plus filter cake. The thermophilic phase was not reached in P1 compost, but the P2, P3 and P4 composts showed all three typical process phases. The thermophilic phase and CEC/C ratio stabilized after 90 days, while C/N ratio and the ash content stabilized after 60 days. The increasing E(4)/E(6) ratio indicated oxidation reactions occurring during the process in the material from P2, P3 and P4. The (13)C NMR and FTIR results suggested extraction of both pectin and lignin in the HA-like fraction. The CEC/C ratio, temperature and E(4)/E(6) ratio showed that within 90 days P2, P3 and P4 composts were humified. However, material from P1 did not show characteristics of humified compost. From these data, it is apparent that C/N ratio and ash content are not reliable methods for monitoring the composting process. PMID:19954966

Fialho, Lucimar Lopes; Lopes da Silva, Wilson Tadeu; Milori, Débora M B P; Simões, Marcelo Luiz; Martin-Neto, Ladislau

2010-03-01

86

Modified method for preparation of Halubai-an Indian traditional sweet.  

PubMed

Halubai, a traditional Indian sweet is conventionally prepared by soaking and grinding whole cereals/millets to a fine paste, straining it through a cloth and cooking the resultant dispersion until it starts gelatinizing. Cooking is continued further with the addition of jaggery water, stirring constantly with intermittent addition of ghee. This process involves many unit operations, which are energy and time consuming. Hence a modified method was developed which is energy efficient and time saving without compromising the quality of the product. One fine fraction (200 mesh, BS) of cereal/millet flours were used in modified method instead of whole cereals. Sensory and instrumental analysis of the samples showed that quality of Halubai prepared using modified method was comparable to that of samples from conventional method. Correlation studies on sensory data of Halubai showed positive relation for the set (r?=?0.94) and smoothness (r?=?0.84); and negative relation for stickiness (r?=?-0.94) with the overall quality. Modified method of Halubai preparation which was simple and energy efficient, resulted in products with good sensory quality. PMID:24741169

Asha, M R; Ravi, Ramasamy; Srinivasan, Bharath Kumar; Rao Patil, Swapna Babu; Prakash, Maya

2014-04-01

87

A new method for an objective, $\\chi^2$-based spectroscopic analysis of early-type stars  

E-print Network

A precise quantitative spectral analysis - encompassing atmospheric parameter and chemical elemental abundance determination - is time consuming due to its iterative nature and the multi-parameter space to be explored, especially when done "by eye". A robust automated fitting technique that is as trustworthy as traditional methods would allow for large samples of stars to be analyzed in a consistent manner in reasonable time. We present a semi-automated quantitative spectral analysis technique for early-type stars based on the concept of $\\chi^2$ minimization. The method's main features are: far less subjective than typical "by eye" methods, correction for inaccurate continuum normalization, consideration of the whole useful spectral range, simultaneous sampling of the entire multi-parameter space (effective temperature, surface gravity, microturbulence, macroturbulence, projected rotational velocity, radial velocity, elemental abundances) to find the global best solution, applicable also to composite spectra...

Irrgang, Andreas; Heber, Ulrich; Böck, Moritz; Hanke, Manfred; Nieva, Maria-Fernanda; Butler, Keith

2014-01-01

88

The interaction of plant-growth regulators with serum albumin: molecular modeling and spectroscopic methods.  

PubMed

The affinity between two plant-growth regulators (PGRs) and human serum albumin (HSA) was investigated by molecular modeling techniques and spectroscopic methods. The results of molecular modeling simulations revealed that paclobutrazol (PAC) could bind on both site I and site II in HSA where the interaction was easier, while uniconazole (UNI) could not bind with HSA. Furthermore, the results of fluorescence spectroscopy, three-dimensional (3D) fluorescence spectroscopy and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy suggested that PAC had a strong ability to quench the intrinsic fluorescence of HSA. The binding affinity (Kb) and the amounts of binding sites (n) between PAC and HSA at 291 K were estimated as 2.37×10(5) mol L(-1) and 1, respectively, which confirm that PAC mainly binds on site II of HSA. An apparent distance between the Trp214 and PAC was 4.41 nm. Additionally, the binding of PAC induced the conformational changes of disulfide bridges of HSA with the decrease of ?-helix content. These studies provide more information on the potential toxicological effects and environmental risk assessment of PGRs. PMID:24569069

Dong, Sheying; Li, Zhiqin; Shi, Ling; Huang, Guiqi; Chen, Shuangli; Huang, Tinglin

2014-05-01

89

Fast method for brain image segmentation: application to proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging.  

PubMed

The interpretation of brain metabolite concentrations measured by quantitative proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) is assisted by knowledge of the percentage of gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) within each MRSI voxel. Usually, this information is determined from T(1)-weighted magnetic resonance images (MRI) that have a much higher spatial resolution than the MRSI data. While this approach works well, it is time-consuming. In this article, a rapid data acquisition and analysis procedure for image segmentation is described, which is based on collection of several, thick slice, fast spin echo images (FSE) of different contrast. Tissue segmentation is performed with linear "Eigenimage" filtering and normalization. The method was compared to standard segmentation techniques using high-resolution 3D T(1)-weighted MRI in five subjects. Excellent correlation between the two techniques was obtained, with voxel-wise regression analysis giving GM: R2 = 0.893 +/- 0.098, WM: R2 = 0.892 +/- 0.089, ln(CSF): R2 = 0.831 +/- 0.082). Test-retest analysis in one individual yielded an excellent agreement of measurements with R2 higher than 0.926 in all three tissue classes. Application of FSE/EI segmentation to a sample proton MRSI dataset yielded results similar to prior publications. It is concluded that FSE imaging in conjunction with Eigenimage analysis is a rapid and reliable way of segmenting brain tissue for application to proton MRSI. PMID:16187272

Bonekamp, David; Horská, Alena; Jacobs, Michael A; Arslanoglu, Atilla; Barker, Peter B

2005-11-01

90

Quantifying prefibrillar amyloids in vitro by using a "thioflavin-like" spectroscopic method.  

PubMed

In Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other neurodegenerative disorders, proteins accumulate into ordered aggregates, called amyloids. Recent evidence suggests that these structures include both large, insoluble fibrils and smaller, prefibrillar structures, such as dimers, oligomers, and protofibrils. Recently, focus has shifted to the prefibrillar aggregates because they are highly neurotoxic and their levels appear to correlate with cognitive impairment. Thus, there is interest in finding methods for specifically quantifying these structures. One of the classic ways of detecting amyloid formation is through the fluorescence of the benzothiazole dye, thioflavin T (ThT). This reagent has been a "workhorse" of the amyloid field because it is robust and inexpensive. However, one of its limitations is that it does not distinguish between prefibrillar and fibrillar aggregates. We screened a library of 37 indoles for those that selectively change fluorescence in the presence of prefibrillar amyloid-beta (Abeta). From this process, we selected the most promising example, tryptophanol (TROL), to use in a quantitative "thioflavin-like" assay. Using this probe in combination with electron microscopy, we found that prefibrils are largely depleted during Abeta aggregation in vitro but that they remain present after the apparent saturation of the ThT signal. These results suggest that a combination of TROL and ThT provides greater insight into the process of amyloid formation by Abeta. In addition, we found that TROL also recognizes other amyloid-prone proteins, including ataxin-3, amylin, and CsgA. Thus, this assay might be an inexpensive spectroscopic method for quantifying amyloid prefibrils in vitro. PMID:20677203

Reinke, Ashley A; Abulwerdi, Gelareh A; Gestwicki, Jason E

2010-09-01

91

dTGS: Method for Effective Components Identification from Traditional Chinese Medicine Formula and Mechanism Analysis  

PubMed Central

Because of the complexity of the components in Traditional Chinese Medicine formula (TCM formula), it is still a challenge to identify its effective components, to elucidate the mechanism of the components, and to discover the relationship between components and therapy objectives. In this paper, a method called directed TCM grammar systems (dTGS) for effective component identification was proposed using entity grammar systems (EGS) as the theoretical framework. The component-disease relationship of a TCM formula (i.e., Bai-Hu decoction plus Wasting-Thirsting formula, BHDWT) and one disease (i.e., type 2 diabetes mellitus) treated with it was studied, and the effective component groups (ECGs) were identified. 19 compounds were found acting on 20 proteins in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) disease network, and 15 compounds were determined as the candidate effective components. Results indicated that this method can be used to identify the effective components and provide an innovative way to elucidate the molecular mechanism of TCM formulas. PMID:24454516

Luo, Ji; Ren, Yinglong; Gu, Hao; Wang, Yun

2013-01-01

92

Methodical study on plaque characterization using integrated vascular ultrasound, strain and spectroscopic photoacoustic imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carotid atherosclerosis has been identified as a potential risk factor for cerebrovascular events, but information about its direct effect on the risk of recurrent stroke is limited due to incomplete diagnosis. The combination of vascular ultrasound, strain rate and spectroscopic photoacoustics could improve the timely diagnosis of plaque status and risk of rupturing. Current ultrasound techniques can noninvasively image the anatomy of carotid arteries. The spatio-temporal variation in displacement of different regions within the arterial wall can be derived from ultrasound radio frequency data; therefore an ultrasound based strain rate imaging modality can be used to reveal changes in arterial mechanical properties. Additionally, spectroscopic photoacoustic imaging can provide information on the optical absorption properties of arterial tissue and it can be used to identify the location of specific tissue components, such as lipid pools. An imaging technique combining ultrasound, strain rate and spectroscopic photoacoustics was tested on an excised atherosclerotic rabbit aorta. The ultrasound image illustrates inhomogeneities in arterial wall thickness, the strain rate indicates the arterial segment with reduced elasticity and the spectroscopic photoacoustic image illustrates the accumulation of lipids. The results demonstrated that ultrasound, strain rate and spectroscopic photoacoustic imaging are complementary. Thus the integration of the three imaging modalities advances the characterization of atherosclerotic plaques.

Graf, Iulia M.; Su, Jimmy; Yeager, Doug; Amirian, James; Smalling, Richard; Emelianov, Stanislav

2011-03-01

93

Mapping stream habitats with a global positioning system: Accuracy, precision, and comparison with traditional methods  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We tested the precision and accuracy of the Trimble GeoXT??? global positioning system (GPS) handheld receiver on point and area features and compared estimates of stream habitat dimensions (e.g., lengths and areas of riffles and pools) that were made in three different Oklahoma streams using the GPS receiver and a tape measure. The precision of differentially corrected GPS (DGPS) points was not affected by the number of GPS position fixes (i.e., geographic location estimates) averaged per DGPS point. Horizontal error of points ranged from 0.03 to 2.77 m and did not differ with the number of position fixes per point. The error of area measurements ranged from 0.1% to 110.1% but decreased as the area increased. Again, error was independent of the number of position fixes averaged per polygon corner. The estimates of habitat lengths, widths, and areas did not differ when measured using two methods of data collection (GPS and a tape measure), nor did the differences among methods change at three stream sites with contrasting morphologies. Measuring features with a GPS receiver was up to 3.3 times faster on average than using a tape measure, although signal interference from high streambanks or overhanging vegetation occasionally limited satellite signal availability and prolonged measurements with a GPS receiver. There were also no differences in precision of habitat dimensions when mapped using a continuous versus a position fix average GPS data collection method. Despite there being some disadvantages to using the GPS in stream habitat studies, measuring stream habitats with a GPS resulted in spatially referenced data that allowed the assessment of relative habitat position and changes in habitats over time, and was often faster than using a tape measure. For most spatial scales of interest, the precision and accuracy of DGPS data are adequate and have logistical advantages when compared to traditional methods of measurement. ?? 2006 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.

Dauwalter, D. C.; Fisher, W. L.; Belt, K. C.

2006-01-01

94

Chemical Characterization of Riverine Dissolved Organic Matter Using a Combination of Spectroscopic and Pyrolytic Methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It is now well established that riverine dissolved organic matter (DOM) play a major role in environmental processes. However natural organic matter exhibit different properties depending on their sources and the fractions considered. As a result chemical characterization of DOM has appeared essential for a better understanding of their reactivity. The purpose of this work was to characterize all of the DOM at molecular level, including the non-hydrolysable fraction, which is a major part of this OM. To this aim a new analytical approach had to be considered. A combination of spectroscopic and pyrolytic methods has been applied to various fractions of DOM originating from different catchments (French and Amazonian rivers). The fractions were termed hydrophilic, transphilic and colloids according to the IHSS fractionation procedure, and account for at least 70% of the total dissolved organic carbon. Solid state 13C NMR and FTIR afford information on the nature and relative abundance of the chemical functions occurring in macromolecules. Differential thermogravimetric analysis allows to determine the thermal behaviour of the studied material and hence to optimize analytical pyrolysis conditions. Curie point pyrolysis combined to gas chromatography and mass spectrometry leads to identification of characteristic pyrolysis products, some of them being specific of a macromolecular source. Additional information can be provided by thermochemolysis with tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH). TMAH was shown to allow an increase in the efficiency of the cracking of macromolecular structures and an enhancement of the detection of the polar pyrolysis products especially due to methylation of the alcohol, phenol and acid groups. The results obtained have established the importance of terrestrial contribution to DOM. Hydrophobic fractions mainly originate from lignin-derived units, whereas transphilic fractions mostly contain cellulose units together with lignin derived ones and substantial amount of nitrogen-containing moieties. Characterization of colloidal fraction has indicated the presence of compounds from bacterial origin, especially specific nitrogen-containing molecules that are characteristic pyrolysis products of peptidoglycans, along with lignin-derived units. However pyrolysis has revealed significant differences in the detection of nitrogen-containing molecules, which do not parallel nitrogen content of the fractions. Moreover in hydrophobic and transphilic fractions the molecular structure of these compounds, which are mainly nitrogen- and oxygen- containing molecules, has not allowed to ascertain their origin. As the major biological sources of organic nitrogen (proteins, amino sugars, or tetrapyrrole pigments) involve differences in the main nitrogen functionality, two additional spectroscopic methods, namely X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and solid state 15N NMR, have been used to determine the nitrogen functional groups (amide, amine, and N-heterocycle) present in the different fractions of DOM. The combination of these two methods has revealed the occurrence of different functionality of nitrogen, with relative contributions depending on the considered fraction. It has also appeared that Curie point pyrolysis does not account for the presence of nitrogen in macromolecules with the same efficiency depending on the functional group involved. This study has highlighted the importance of combining different analytical approaches to obtain a whole insight into chemical structure of OM and avoid biased information.

Templier, J.; Derenne, S.

2006-12-01

95

Investigation of a traditional catalyst by contemporary methods: Parallel electron spectroscopic and catalytic studies on Pt black  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Results of electron spectroscopy (XPS and UPS) of platinum black catalyst measured in various states of the catalyst have been summarized. XPS showed up to almost 50% carbon and up to 20% oxygen on a sample stored in air. These, however, had almost no influence on the chemical state of Pt, except for the appearance of minor surface oxide. A Pt purity of ˜90% could be reached by regeneration with O 2 and H 2. The C 1s peak contained several components from individual C atoms to graphitic and polymeric hydrocarbon layers. Thus, the active catalyst was not clean Pt but metallic Pt; the impurities exerting little influence on catalytic activity. Regeneration and deactivation led also to slight structural rearrangement, as detected by XRD. Intentional deactivation with hydrocarbon-hydrogen mixtures was monitored by XPS, UPS and catalytic tests. Correlation was found between catalytic activity and selectivity in hexane reaction and the amount - and also the chemical state - of carbon accumulated during deactivating runs. A short summary of electron spectroscopy of supported Pt catalysts is also given. The main underlying idea regards solid catalyst and reactants as a dynamic system, including also solid-state changes of the former.

Paál, Zoltán; Schlögl, Robert

2009-06-01

96

Field camp: Using traditional methods to train the next generation of petroleum geologists  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The summer field camp experience provides many students with their best opportunity to learn the scientific process by making observations and collecting, recording, evaluating, and interpreting geologic data. Field school projects enhance student professional development by requiring cooperation and interpersonal interaction, report writing to communicate interpretations, and the development of project management skills to achieve a common goal. The field school setting provides students with the opportunity to observe geologic features and their spatial distribution, size, and shape that will impact the student's future careers as geoscientists. The Les Huston Geology Field Camp (a.k.a. Oklahoma Geology Camp) near Ca??on City, Colorado, focuses on time-tested traditional methods of geological mapping and fieldwork to accomplish these goals. The curriculum consists of an introduction to field techniques (pacing, orienteering, measuring strike and dip, and using a Jacob's staff), sketching outcrops, section measuring (one illustrating facies changes), three mapping exercises (of increasing complexity), and a field geophysics project. Accurate rock and contact descriptions are emphasized, and attitudes and contacts are mapped in the field. Mapping is done on topographic maps at 1:12,000 and 1:6000 scales; air photos are provided. Global positioning system (GPS)-assisted mapping is allowed, but we insist that locations be recorded in the field and confirmed using visual observations. The course includes field trips to the Cripple Creek and Leadville mining districts, Floris-sant/Guffey volcano area, Pikes Peak batholith, and the Denver Basin. Each field trip is designed to emphasize aspects of geology that are not stressed in the field exercises. Students are strongly encouraged to accurately describe geologic features and gather evidence to support their interpretations of the geologic history. Concise reports are a part of each major exercise. Students are grouped into teams to (1) introduce the team concept and develop interpersonal skills that are fundamental components of many professions, (2) ensure safety, and (3) mix students with varying academic backgrounds and physical strengths. This approach has advantages and disadvantages. Students with academic strengths in specific areas assist those with less experience, thereby becoming engaged in the teaching process. However, some students contribute less to fi nal map projects than others, and assigning grades to individual team members can be diffi cult. The greatest challenges we face involve group dynamics and student personalities. We continue to believe that traditional fi eld methods, aided by (but not relying upon) new technologies, are the key to constructing and/or interpreting geologic maps. The requirement that students document fi eld evidence using careful observations teaches skills that will be benefi cial throughout their professional careers. ??2009 The Geological Society of America. All rights reserved.

Puckette, J. O.; Suneson, N. H.

2009-01-01

97

Optical spectroscopic methods for probing the conformational stability of immobilised enzymes.  

PubMed

We report the development of biophysical techniques based on circular dichroism (CD), diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform (DRIFT) and tryptophan (Trp) fluorescence to investigate in situ the structure of enzymes immobilised on solid particles. Their applicability is demonstrated using subtilisin Carlsberg (SC) immobilised on silica gel and Candida antartica lipase B immobilised on Lewatit VP.OC 1600 (Novozyme 435). SC shows nearly identical secondary structure in solution and in the immobilised state as evident from far UV CD spectra and amide I vibration bands. Increased near UV CD intensity and reduced Trp fluorescence suggest a more rigid tertiary structure on the silica surface. After immobilised SC is inactivated, these techniques reveal: a) almost complete loss of near UV CD signal, suggesting loss of tertiary structure; b) a shift in the amide I vibrational band from 1658 cm(-1) to 1632 cm(-1), indicating a shift from alpha-helical structure to beta-sheet; c) a substantial blue shift and reduced dichroism in the far UV CD, supporting a shift to beta-sheet structure; d) strong increase in Trp fluorescence intensity, which reflects reduced intramolecular quenching with loss of tertiary structure; and e) major change in fluorescence lifetime distribution, confirming a substantial change in Trp environment. DRIFT measurements suggest that pressing KBr discs may perturb protein structure. With the enzyme on organic polymer it was possible to obtain near UV CD spectra free of interference by the carrier material. However, far UV CD, DRIFT and fluorescence measurements showed strong signals from the organic support. In conclusion, the spectroscopic methods described here provide structural information hitherto inaccessible, with their applicability limited by interference from, rather than the particulate nature of, the support material. PMID:19360797

Ganesan, Ashok; Moore, Barry D; Kelly, Sharon M; Price, Nicholas C; Rolinski, Olaf J; Birch, David J S; Dunkin, Ian R; Halling, Peter J

2009-07-13

98

Contemporary Chinese pulse diagnosis: a modern interpretation of an ancient and traditional method.  

PubMed

Contemporary Chinese pulse diagnosis™ (CCPD) is a system of pulse diagnosis utilized by Dr. John He Feng Shen, OMD, and documented by Dr. Leon Hammer, MD, in the book Chinese Pulse Diagnosis, A Contemporary Approach. It is the traditional method of the Ding medical lineage from the Shanghai region and dates to the 15th century in Chinese language texts. The fundamentals of this system are, however, much older and can be directly traced to the Neijing Suwen. Having been passed from the last direct inheritor of Ding knowledge (Dr. Shen) to modern practitioners of Chinese medicine by way of Dr. Hammer and his students, it represents an important system of advanced diagnosis. Although modern diagnostic technology provides very sophisticated diagnoses, for these instruments to be effective, the disease process must already have a physical manifestation. CCPD, on the other hand, provides the earliest warnings of physiological processes, which if left unchecked may result in the subsequent appearance of a disease. This article describes the derivation and the principles of this system of pulse diagnosis and explores its successful integration into the modern practice of Chinese medicine. PMID:24139459

Bilton, Karen; Hammer, Leon; Zaslawski, Chris

2013-10-01

99

Remote determination of exposure degree and iron concentration of lunar soils using VIS-NIR spectroscopic methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On the Moon, space weathering processes such as micrometeorite bombardment alter the optical properties of lunar soils. As a consequence, lunar soil optical properties are a function not only of composition, but of degree of exposure on the lunar surface as well. In order to accurately assess the compositional properties of the lunar surface using remotely acquired visible and near-infrared spectroscopic data, it is thus necessary either (1) to compare optical properties only of soils characterized by similar degrees of exposure or (2) to otherwise normalize or remove the optical effects due to exposure. Laboratory spectroscopic data for lunar soils are used to develop and test remote spectrocopic methods for determining degree of exposure and for distinguishing between the optical effects due to exposure and those due to composition. A method employing a ratio between reflectances within and outside of the 1 micrometer Fe(2+) crystal field absorption band was developed for remotely identifying highland soils that have reached a steady-state maturity. The relative optical properties of these soils are a function solely of composition and as such can be directly compared. Spectroscopic techniques for accurate quantitative determination of iron content for lunar highland soils are investigated as well. It is shown that approximations of the 1 micrometer Fe(2+) absorption band depth using few to several channel multispectral data or spectroscopic data of inadequate spectral range cannot be used with confidence for compositional analysis. However, band depth measurements derived from continuum-removed high spectral resolution data can be used to calculate the weight percent FeO and relative proportion of iron-bearing silicates in mature lunar highland and mare/highland mixture soils. A preliminary effort to calibrate telescopic band depth to laboratory soil measurements is described.

Fischer, Erich M.; Pieters, Carle M.

1994-01-01

100

Artificial Immune Recognition System with Nonlinear Resource Allocation Method and Application to Traditional Malay Music Genre Classification  

Microsoft Academic Search

Artificial Immune Recognition System (AIRS) has shown an effective performance on several machine learning problems. In this\\u000a study, the resource allocation method of AIRS was changed with a nonlinear method. This new algorithm, AIRS with nonlinear\\u000a resource allocation method, was used as a classifier in Traditional Malay Music (TMM) genre classification. Music genre classification\\u000a has a great important role in

Shahram Golzari; Shyamala Doraisamy; Nur Izura Udzir; Noris Mohd. Norowi

2008-01-01

101

[Research on our hospital inventory management status quo of traditional Chinese medicine drugs and treatment method].  

PubMed

Under the background of the new medical reform, a large variety of traditional Chinese medicine from complicated sources, Chinese traditional medicine of actor of true and false of the quality directly affect the drug safety and clinical efficacy, but also relate to the social and economic benefits of hospital. Along with the development of the modern management of medical institutions and drug circulation circulation system reform in our country, the hospital drug inventory, supply and management work is an important topic for the pharmaceutical trading. However, there is always contradiction, dispensary need to supple pharmacy, in order to satisfy the demands of hospital patients with normal diagnosis and treatment work. However, if the drug inventory is too much, not only increases the drug monitoring problem, at the same time, but also causes storage costs rise. Therefore, completing scientific and reasonable storage and management becomes urgent problems at present. Wherefore, our country administration of traditional Chinese medicine in 2007 promulgated the "Chinese traditional medicine yinpian management norms in hospital", aims to standardize management of Chinese traditional medicine quality and improve the safety of drugs. The author through looking up information and visiting survey, to understand the currently existing problems, and summarizes the literature inland and abroad in recent years Chinese medicine drug inventory management work experience, in view of status quo of Chinese medicine inventory management in China, put forward the solution. To guarantee TCM pharmacy management more standardized, more standard, to adapt to the new reform of Chinese traditional medicine industry, improve the management level of hospital, defend the hospital's reputation and the patient's interests. PMID:24956868

Zhang, Ying-Nan; Xu, Wen

2014-03-01

102

Traditional healers and the potential for collaboration with the national tuberculosis programme in Vanuatu: results from a mixed methods study  

PubMed Central

Background This study was conducted in the Pacific island nation of Vanuatu. Our objective was to assess knowledge, attitudes and practice of traditional healers who treat lung diseases and tuberculosis (TB), including their willingness to collaborate with the national TB programme. Methods This was a descriptive study using both qualitative and quantitative methods. Quantitative analysis was based on the responses provided to closed-ended questions, and we used descriptive analysis (frequencies) to describe the knowledge, attitudes and practice of the traditional healers towards TB. Qualitative analysis was based on open-ended questions permitting fuller explanations. We used thematic analysis and developed a posteriori inductive categories to draw original and unbiased conclusions. Results Nineteen traditional healers were interviewed; 18 were male. Fifteen of the healers reported treating short wind (a local term to describe lung, chest or breathing illnesses) which they attributed to food, alcohol, smoking or pollution from contact with menstrual blood, and a range of other physical and spiritual causes. Ten said that they would treat TB with leaf medicine. Four traditional healers said that they would not treat TB. Twelve of the healers had referred someone to a hospital for a strong wet-cough and just over half of the healers (9) reported a previous collaboration with the Government health care system. Eighteen of the traditional healers would be willing to collaborate with the national TB programme, with or without compensation. Conclusions Traditional healers in Vanuatu treat lung diseases including TB. Many have previously collaborated with the Government funded health care system, and almost all of them indicated a willingness to collaborate with the national TB programme. The engagement of traditional healers in TB management should be considered, using an evidence based and culturally sensitive approach. PMID:24758174

2014-01-01

103

Individual and group learning of the Highway Code: comparing board game and traditional methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effectiveness of the use of a board?game version of the Highway Code with senior secondary school pupils was compared to that of the traditional read and memorize approach. To isolate variance attributable to interactivity in learning, this was done in both individual and group settings. Pretests and posttests of subject knowledge in the four experimental conditions showed that use

A. R. Gray; K. J. Topping; W. B. Carcary

1998-01-01

104

Comparison of Traditional Methods with 3D Computer Models in the Instruction of Hepatobiliary Anatomy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was designed to determine whether an interactive three-dimensional presentation depicting liver and biliary anatomy is more effective for teaching medical students than a traditional textbook format presentation of the same material. Forty-six medical students volunteered for participation in this study. Baseline demographic…

Keedy, Alexander W.; Durack, Jeremy C.; Sandhu, Parmbir; Chen, Eric M.; O'Sullivan, Patricia S.; Breiman, Richard S.

2011-01-01

105

Comparison of Traditional Methods With 3D Computer Models in the Instruction of Hepatobiliary Anatomy  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This article describes a study determining whether an interactive three-dimensional presentation depicting liver and biliary anatomy is more effective for teaching medical students than a traditional textbook format presentation. Outcomes provided are based on pre post test data and student perceptions.

2011-03-01

106

A Comparison of Traditional and Technology-Assisted Instructional Methods in the Business Communication Classroom  

Microsoft Academic Search

In their study of 261 students enrolled in eight sections of a business communication course, three taught in a traditional classroom setting and the others delivered in a hybrid, half-time online format, the authors found that all students measurably improved their writing skills. On another dimension of interest, however, students in the online hybrid course demonstrated a higher rate of

Diza Sauers; Robyn C. Walker

2004-01-01

107

Traditional Mold Analysis Compared to a DNA-based Method of Mold Analysis with Applications in Asthmatics' Homes  

EPA Science Inventory

Traditional environmental mold analysis is based-on microscopic observations and counting of mold structures collected from the air on a sticky surface or culturing of molds on growth media for identification and quantification. A DNA-based method of mold analysis called mol...

108

A Comparison of Case Study and Traditional Teaching Methods for Improvement of Oral Communication and Critical-Thinking Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compares a traditional paper presentation approach and a case study method for the development and improvement of oral communication skills and critical-thinking skills in a class of junior forensic science majors. A rubric for rating performance in these skills was designed on the basis of the oral communication competencies developed…

Noblitt, Lynnette; Vance, Diane E.; Smith, Michelle L. DePoy

2010-01-01

109

How do Millennial Engineering and Technology Students Experience Learning Through Traditional Teaching Methods Employed in the University Setting?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The purpose of the study was to document and analyze how Millennial engineering and technology students experience learning in large lecture classrooms. To help achieve this purpose, perceptions Millennials have toward traditional teaching methods employed in large lecture classes were analyzed and discussed. Additionally, this study documented how Millennials experienced technology within large lecture classrooms. A learning model depicting how

Elizabeth A Howard

2011-01-01

110

Do Children with Autism Learn To Read More Readily by Computer Assisted Instruction or Traditional Book Methods?: A Pilot Study.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Comparison of basic reading instruction by either computer assisted instruction or traditional book methods with eight children (ages 3-5) with autism found all children spent more time on task in the computer condition and that five of the eight children could reliably identify at least three words after the computer assisted learning. (Contains…

Williams, Christine; Wright, Barry; Callaghan, Gillian; Coughlan, Brian

2002-01-01

111

Traditional media.  

PubMed

Traditional folk media (such as folk theater, dance and textile arts) offer health program managers a potentially powerful method of reaching rural villagers. While modern mass media (such as radio, television, printed matter) may extend messages to larger audiences at lower cost per person reached, their dependence on centralized, urban facilities and staff and their need for uniform, fixed messages often make them less responsive to local situations and specific audience needs. Traditional media use local language and symbols in a format which is familiar, credible and accessible to rural villagers. To be truly appropriate, traditional media (like other technologies) must be adapted to the overall approach, message, and intended audience with which they are used. Integration with modern media may be successful but must be approached cautiously. Evaluation is critical both for adjusting the specific project and for better assessment of the net effectiveness of folk media communication strategies. With appropriate matching of a strategy's central components and thorough consideration of implemenatation and management issues (integration, training, evaluation, funding), traditional fold media can become an extremely effective means of communicating health information. This issue outlines the guidelines for use of traditional media in health communication activities, with special emphasis on live drama puppetry, song and dance, storytelling and proverbs, and pictures, PMID:12268713

1987-01-01

112

Spectroscopic methods for the determination of surface-active substances in water (a review)  

SciTech Connect

Synthetic surfactants, for their ability to mingle with and transform chemicals more toxic in nature such as petroleum products, oils, pesticides, and chlorinated hydrocarbons into substances that easily permeate and move through the hydrosphere into water reservoirs and other exposure pathways, pose a grave danger to water quality control. This paper reviews predominantly the spectrophotometric procedures available for monitoring these surfactants but also discusses fluorimetric, infrared spectroscopic, and atomic absorption procedures, and compares a wide range of solvents and reagents for the extraction and preparatory activation of the surfactants.

Subbotina, E.I.; Dedkov, Yu.M.

1987-12-01

113

Simultaneous quantitation of five active principles in a pharmaceutical preparation: development and validation of a near infrared spectroscopic method.  

PubMed

A near infrared spectroscopic method for the simultaneous determination of the active principles paracetamol, ascorbic acid, dextrometorphan hydrobromide, caffeine and chlorpheniramine maleate in a pharmaceutical preparation was developed. The five active principles are quantified using a partial least-squares regression method (PLS1). The proposed method is applicable over a wide analyte concentration range (0.04-6.50 wt.%), so it requires careful selection of the calibration set. Also, there is the difficulty of ensuring thorough homogenization of the product. The method was validated in accordance with the ICH standard and the EMEA validation guidelines for NIR spectroscopy by determining its selectivity, linearity, accuracy, precision and robustness. Based on the results, it is an effective alternative to existing choices (HPLC and redox titrimetry) for the same purpose. PMID:16359847

Blanco, M; Alcalá, M

2006-02-01

114

Investigation of vibrational and electronic properties of oxide nanopowders by spectroscopic methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Raman spectroscopy technique has been successfully used to study the microscopic nature of structural and/or morphological properties of investigated nanopowders. The phonon confinement model has been applied for the estimation of nanocrystals dimensions (TiO2 and CeO2), as well as the correlation length (ZnO), from the frequency shift and asymmetrical broadening of Raman optical phonon modes. The particle size distribution in nanopowders has been estimated from the low frequency Raman spectra, using the fact that the acoustic phonon modes in nanosized TiO2 and CeO2 can be well described by the elastic continuum model. In addition, the appearance of surface optical phonon modes has been predicted theoretically by the dielectric functions approach and detected experimentally in the Raman spectra of ZnO nanopowders, whereas the resonant behaviour of the first and second order ZnO Raman modes has been used for estimation of the electron-phonon interaction in this kind of nanomaterial. The optical properties of oxide nanopowders have been investigated by spectroscopic ellipsometry and photoluminescence spectroscopy. It has been shown that bandgap energy, as well as the energies of the other interband electronic transitions in investigated nanopowders can be determined by spectroscopic ellipsometry. On the other side, the existence of the broad bands in visible region of the photoluminescence spectra of TiO2 and ZnO nanopowders points out to the various electronic transitions mediated by defect levels within the bandgap.

Š?epanovi?, Maja; Gruji?-Broj?in, Mirjana; Doh?evi?-Mitrovi?, Zorana; Popovi?, Zoran V.

2010-11-01

115

Comparison of immunomagnetic separation\\/adenosine triphosphate rapid method to traditional culture-based method for E. coli and enterococci enumeration in wastewater  

Microsoft Academic Search

Untreated wastewater samples from California, North Carolina, and Ohio were analyzed by the immunomagnetic separation\\/adenosine triphosphate (IMS\\/ATP) method and the traditional culture-based method for E. coli and enterococci concentrations. The IMS\\/ATP method concentrates target bacteria by immunomagnetic separation and then quantifies captured bacteria by measuring bioluminescence induced by release of ATP from the bacterial cells. Results from this method are

Rebecca N. Bushon; Christina A. Likirdopulos; Amie M. G. Brady

2009-01-01

116

Structural, Spectroscopic, and Magnetic Properties of Eu(3+)-Doped GdVO4 Nanocrystals Synthesized by a Hydrothermal Method.  

PubMed

New interesting aspects of the spectroscopic properties, magnetism, and method of synthesis of gadolinium orthovanadates doped with Eu(3+) ions are discussed. Gd1-xEuxVO4 (x = 0, 0.05, 0.2) bifunctional luminescent materials with complex magnetic properties were synthesized by a microwave-assisted hydrothermal method. Products were formed in situ without previous precipitation. The crystal structures and morphologies of the obtained nanomaterials were analyzed by X-ray diffraction and transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Crystallographic data were analyzed using Rietveld refinement. The products obtained were nanocrystalline with average grain sizes of 70-80 nm. The qualitative and quantitative elemental composition as well as mapping of the nanocrystals was proved using energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The spectroscopic properties of red-emitting nanophosphors were characterized by their excitation and emission spectra and luminescence decays. Magnetic measurements were performed by means of vibrating sample magnetometry. GdVO4 and Gd0.8Eu0.2VO4 exhibited paramagnetic behavior with a weak influence of antiferromagnetic couplings between rare-earth ions. In the substituted sample, an additional magnetic contribution connected with the population of low-lying excited states of europium was observed. PMID:25383487

Szczeszak, Agata; Grzyb, Tomasz; Sniadecki, Zbigniew; Andrzejewska, Nina; Lis, Stefan; Matczak, Micha?; Nowaczyk, Grzegorz; Jurga, Stefan; Idzikowski, Bogdan

2014-12-01

117

Inclusion interaction of chloramphenicol and heptakis (2,6-di- O-methyl)-?-cyclodextrin: Phase solubility and spectroscopic methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The inclusion interaction between chloramphenicol and heptakis (2,6-di- O-methyl)-?-cyclodextrin (DMBCD) had been investigated by phase solubility and spectroscopic methods such as UV-vis spectroscopy, circular dichroism, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1H NMR) as well as 2D-ROESY spectra. Phase solubility analysis showed A L-type diagram with DMBCD, which suggested the formation of 1:1 inclusion complex of DMBCD with chloramphenicol. The estimated stability constant ( Ks) of the inclusion complex of chloramphenicol with DMBCD is 493 M -1 at 293 K. The solubility enhancement of chloramphenicol in the presence of DMBCD is stronger than that in the presence of ?-CD, HP-?-CD and M-?-CD. The results obtained by spectroscopic methods showed that the nitrophenyl moiety of chloramphenicol is deeply inserted into inner cavity of DMBCD from the narrow rim of DMBCD, which the inclusion model of chloramphenicol with DMBCD differs from that with ?-CD.

Shi, Jie-Hua; Zhou, Ya-fang

2011-12-01

118

Determining uranium speciation in Fernald soils by molecular spectroscopic methods. FY 1993 progress report  

SciTech Connect

This progress report describes new experimental results and interpretations for data collected from October 1, 1992, through September 30, 1993, as part of the Characterization Task of the Uranium in Soils Integrated Demonstration of the Office of Technology Development, Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management of the US Department of Energy. X-ray absorption, optical luminescence, and Raman vibrational spectroscopies were used to determine uranium speciation in contaminated soils from the US DOE`s former uranium production facility at Fernald, Ohio. These analyses were carried out both before and after application of one of the various decontamination technologies being developed within the Integrated Demonstration. This year the program focused on characterization of the uranium speciation remaining in the soils after decontamination treatment. X-ray absorption and optical luminescence spectroscopic data were collected for approximately 40 Fernald soil samples, which were treated by one or more of the decontamination technologies.

Allen, P.G.; Berg, J.M.; Crisholm-Brause, C.J.; Conradson, S.D.; Donohoe, R.J.; Morris, D.E.; Musgrave, J.A.; Tait, C.D.

1994-07-01

119

[Study of determination method for heavy metals and harmful elements residues in four traditional Chinese medicine injections].  

PubMed

Methods for determination of heavy metals and harmful residues in traditional Chinese medicine injection were established. Graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry was used for determination of lead, cadmium and copper, atomic fluorescence spectrometry for arsenic and mercury. The preprocessing method was optimized. The average recoveries of 5 elements were between 91% and 112% while the precisions were less than 2%. The determination limit of lead, cadmium, copper, arsenic and mercury were 0.28, 0.014, 0.49, 0.19, 0.061 microg x L(-1), respectively. The proposed method was simple, sensitive, accurate and reliable, and could be used widely. PMID:19260306

Nie, Li-xing; Jin, Hong-yu; Wang, Gang-li; Tian, Jin-gai; Lin, Rui-chao

2008-12-01

120

Flow Through Diffusion Cell Method: A Better Approach to Study Drug Release Behavior as Compared to Traditional Dissolution Test Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Co?polymeric hydrogels consisting of N?vinyl?2?pyrrolidone (NVP) and acrylic acid (AAc) were synthesized and evaluated for release of a model drug, i.e., vitamin B12. Release studies in simulated gastric fluid (pH 1.2) and intestinal fluid (pH 7.4), at 37°C, showed the hydrogels to be pH sensitive. An in vitro release study by ‘traditional dissolution test’ (TDT) showed that percent drug released

S. K. Bajpai; Seema Dubey; Sutanjay Saxena

2006-01-01

121

Interaction between hesperetin and human serum albumin revealed by spectroscopic methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Hesperetin (5,7,3?-trihydroxyl-4?-methoxyl-flavanone) is an important bioactive compound in Chinese traditional medicine and has multiple biological and pharmacological activities. The interaction of hesperetin with human serum albumin (HSA) has been investigated by UV absorption, fluorescence and Fourier transformed infrared spectrometry. Fluorescence results showed that one molecule of protein combined with one molecule of drug at the molar ratio of drug to

Meng-Xia Xie; Xiao-Yun Xu; Ying-Dian Wang

2005-01-01

122

Assessment of standing balance deficits in people who have undergone anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using traditional and modern analysis methods.  

PubMed

Modern methods of assessing standing balance such as wavelet and entropy analysis could provide insight into postural control mechanisms in clinical populations. The aim of this study was to examine what effect anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) has on traditional and modern measures of balance. Ninety subjects, 45 who had undergone ACLR and 45 matched controls, performed single leg static standing balance tests on their surgical or matched limb on a Nintendo Wii Balance Board. Data were analysed in the anterior-posterior axis of movement, which is known to be affected by ACLR. The traditional measures of path velocity, amplitude and standard deviation were calculated in this plane. Additionally, sample entropy and discrete wavelet transform derived assessment of path velocity in four distinct frequency bands related to (1) spinal reflexive loops and muscle activity, (2) cerebellar, (3) vestibular, and (4) visual mechanisms of postural control were derived. The ACLR group had significantly increased values in all traditional measures and all four frequency bands. No significant difference was observed for sample entropy. This indicated that whilst postural sway was amplified in the ACLR group, the overall mechanism used by the patient group to maintain balance was similar to that of the control group. In conclusion, modern methods of signal analysis may provide additional insight into standing balance mechanisms in clinical populations. Future research is required to determine if these results provide important and unique information which is of benefit to clinicians. PMID:24433669

Clark, Ross A; Howells, Brooke; Pua, Yong-Hao; Feller, Julian; Whitehead, Tim; Webster, Kate E

2014-03-21

123

Assessment of new cationic porphyrin binding to plasma proteins by planar microarray and spectroscopic methods.  

PubMed

Porphyrins have a unique aromatic structure determining particular photochemical properties that make them promising photosensitizers for anticancer therapy. Previously, we synthesized a set of artificial porphyrins by modifying side-chain functional groups and introducing different metals into the core structure. Here, we have performed a comparative study of the binding properties of 29 cationic porphyrins with plasma proteins by using microarray and spectroscopic approaches. The porphyrins were noncovalently immobilized onto hydrogel-covered glass slides and probed to bio-conjugated human and bovine serum albumins, as well as to human hemoglobin. The signal detection was carried out at the near-infrared fluorescence wavelength (800?nm) that enabled the effect of intrinsic visible wavelength fluorescence emitted by the porphyrins tested to be discarded. Competition assays on porphyrin microarrays indicated that long-chain fatty acids (FAs) (palmitic and stearic acids) decrease porphyrin binding to both serum albumin and hemoglobin. The binding affinity of different types of cationic porphyrins for plasma proteins was quantitatively assessed in the absence and presence of FAs by fluorescent and absorption spectroscopy. Molecular docking analysis confirmed results that new porphyrins and long-chain FAs compete for the common binding site FA1 in human serum albumin and meso-substituted functional groups in porphyrins play major role in the modulation of conformational rearrangements of the protein. PMID:22871064

Gyulkhandanyan, Aram; Gyulkhandanyan, Lusine; Ghazaryan, Robert; Fleury, Fabrice; Angelini, Marie; Gyulkhandanyan, Grigor; Sakanyan, Vehary

2013-04-01

124

The spectroscopic and the QTAIM properties of pyridine and phenanthroline derivatives using experimental and computational methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The experimental and theoretical properties of ligands consisting of pyridine and phenanthroline derivatives have been studied. The results show a very high correlation between the experimental and theoretical spectroscopic properties of the ligands such as the IR, NMR chemical shift and UV. The carboxylic units in the ligands lead to increase in the dipole and anisotropic properties of the molecules while the methyl group lead to increase in the isotropic shielding tensor of the molecules. Most of the observed UV ?max in the ligands are predominantly excitation of electrons from the HOMO-2 or HOMO-1 or HOMO to the LUMO of the ligands. The ligand 2,2-dicarboxylphenanthroline (dcphn) is predicted to be the best starting material for non-linear optical (NLO) application due to its far higher first static hyperpolarizability tensor compare to other ligands and its lowest band gap. The same ligand can also be best for DNA binding because it has the lowest value of LUMO. The atomic charge of the nitrogen is found to be highly correlated with molecular HOMO, LUMO and non-Lewis orbital. The 15N NMR chemical shift is found to be highly correlated atomic anisotropy, energy and intra-atomic isotropic shielding tensor.

Adeniyi, Adebayo A.; Ajibade, Peter A.

2014-07-01

125

Interaction of tetramethylpyrazine with two serum albumins by a hybrid spectroscopic method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interactions of tetramethylpyrazine (TMPZ) with bovine serum albumin (BSA) and human serum albumin (HSA) have been investigated by various spectroscopic techniques. Fluorescence tests showed that TMPZ could bind to BSA/HSA to form complexes. The binding constants of TMPZ-BSA and TMPZ-HSA complexes were observed to be 1.442 × 104 and 3.302 × 104 M-1 at 298 K, respectively. The thermodynamic parameters (?G, ?H and ?S) calculated on the basis of different temperatures revealed that the binding of TMPZ-HSA was mainly depended on hydrophobic interaction, and yet the binding of TMPZ-BSA might involve hydrophobic interaction strongly and electrostatic interaction. The results of synchronous fluorescence, three-dimensional fluorescence, UV-vis absorption, FT-IR and CD spectra showed that the conformations of both BSA and HSA altered with the addition of TMPZ. The binding average distance between TMPZ and BSA/HSA was evaluated according to Föster non-radioactive energy transfer theory. In addition, with the aid of site markers (such as, phenylbutazone, ibuprofen and digitoxin), TMPZ primarily bound to tryptophan residues of BSA/HSA within site I (sub-domain II A).

Cheng, Zhengjun

126

The spectroscopic and the QTAIM properties of pyridine and phenanthroline derivatives using experimental and computational methods.  

PubMed

The experimental and theoretical properties of ligands consisting of pyridine and phenanthroline derivatives have been studied. The results show a very high correlation between the experimental and theoretical spectroscopic properties of the ligands such as the IR, NMR chemical shift and UV. The carboxylic units in the ligands lead to increase in the dipole and anisotropic properties of the molecules while the methyl group lead to increase in the isotropic shielding tensor of the molecules. Most of the observed UV ?max in the ligands are predominantly excitation of electrons from the HOMO-2 or HOMO-1 or HOMO to the LUMO of the ligands. The ligand 2,2-dicarboxylphenanthroline (dcphn) is predicted to be the best starting material for non-linear optical (NLO) application due to its far higher first static hyperpolarizability tensor compare to other ligands and its lowest band gap. The same ligand can also be best for DNA binding because it has the lowest value of LUMO. The atomic charge of the nitrogen is found to be highly correlated with molecular HOMO, LUMO and non-Lewis orbital. The (15)N NMR chemical shift is found to be highly correlated atomic anisotropy, energy and intra-atomic isotropic shielding tensor. PMID:24691368

Adeniyi, Adebayo A; Ajibade, Peter A

2014-07-15

127

The Real-Time Case Method: A New Approach to an Old Tradition  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article, the authors report on a new type of case study, called real-time case method (RTCM), which was produced and taught at four business schools. This new method of developing cases was applied in a course on entrepreneurship. The authors describe it and evaluate its effectiveness. RTCM was conducted over the course of one university…

Theroux, James; Kilbane, Clare

2004-01-01

128

A comparative study of traditional lecture methods and interactive lecture methods in introductory geology courses for non-science majors at the college level  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In recent years there has been a national call for reform in undergraduate science education. The goal of this reform movement in science education is to develop ways to improve undergraduate student learning with an emphasis on developing more effective teaching practices. Introductory science courses at the college level are generally taught using a traditional lecture format. Recent studies have shown incorporating active learning strategies within the traditional lecture classroom has positive effects on student outcomes. This study focuses on incorporating interactive teaching methods into the traditional lecture classroom to enhance student learning for non-science majors enrolled in introductory geology courses at a private university. Students' experience and instructional preferences regarding introductory geology courses were identified from survey data analysis. The information gained from responses to the questionnaire was utilized to develop an interactive lecture introductory geology course for non-science majors. Student outcomes were examined in introductory geology courses based on two teaching methods: interactive lecture and traditional lecture. There were no significant statistical differences between the groups based on the student outcomes and teaching methods. Incorporating interactive lecture methods did not statistically improve student outcomes when compared to traditional lecture teaching methods. However, the responses to the survey revealed students have a preference for introductory geology courses taught with lecture and instructor-led discussions and students prefer to work independently or in small groups. The results of this study are useful to individuals who teach introductory geology courses and individuals who teach introductory science courses for non-science majors at the college level.

Hundley, Stacey A.

129

Ethics, Collaboration, and Presentation Methods for Local and Traditional Knowledge for Understanding Arctic Change  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Local and traditional knowledge (LTK) provides rich information about the Arctic environment at spatial and temporal scales that scientific knowledge often does not have access to (e.g. localized observations of fine-scale ecological change potentially from many different communities, or local sea ice and conditions prior to 1950s ice charts and 1970s satellite records). Community-based observations and monitoring are an opportunity for Arctic residents to provide ‘frontline’ observations and measurements that are an early warning system for Arctic change. The Exchange for Local Observations and Knowledge of the Arctic (ELOKA) was established in response to the growing number of community-based and community-oriented research and observation projects in the Arctic. ELOKA provides data management and user support to facilitate the collection, preservation, exchange, and use of local observations and knowledge. Managing these data presents unique ethical challenges in terms of appropriate use of rare human knowledge and ensuring that knowledge is not lost from the local communities and not exploited in ways antithetical to community culture and desires. Local Arctic residents must be engaged as true collaborative partners while respecting their perspectives, which may vary substantially from a western science perspective. At the same time, we seek to derive scientific meaning from the local knowledge that can be used in conjunction with quantitative science data. This creates new challenges in terms of data presentation, knowledge representations, and basic issues of metadata. This presentation reviews these challenges, some initial approaches to addressing them, and overall lessons learned and future directions.

Parsons, M. A.; Gearheard, S.; McNeave, C.

2009-12-01

130

Modified Fowler-Milne method for the spectroscopic determination of thermal plasma temperature without the measurement of continuum radiation.  

PubMed

A technique based on the Fowler-Milne method for the spectroscopic determination of thermal plasma temperatures without measuring continuum radiation is presented. This technique avoids the influence of continuum radiation with the combined line and continuum emission coefficients to derive the plasma temperatures. The amount of continuum emission coefficient is estimated by using an expression related to the Biberman factors. Parameters that affect the accuracy of the proposed technique and errors in the measured plasma temperatures are analyzed. It is shown that, by using the Ar I 696.5 nm line with a bandwidth of 3.27 nm without taking into account the continuum radiation, the plasma temperature measured will be lower on the order of up to 1000-3000 K for temperatures from 20,000 to 24,000 K. The theoretically predicted temperature errors are in good agreement with the experimental results, indicating that the proposed technique is reliable for plasma temperature measurement. PMID:21280813

Ma, Shuiliang; Gao, Hongming; Wu, Lin

2011-01-01

131

Modified Fowler-Milne method for the spectroscopic determination of thermal plasma temperature without the measurement of continuum radiation  

SciTech Connect

A technique based on the Fowler-Milne method for the spectroscopic determination of thermal plasma temperatures without measuring continuum radiation is presented. This technique avoids the influence of continuum radiation with the combined line and continuum emission coefficients to derive the plasma temperatures. The amount of continuum emission coefficient is estimated by using an expression related to the Biberman factors. Parameters that affect the accuracy of the proposed technique and errors in the measured plasma temperatures are analyzed. It is shown that, by using the Ar I 696.5 nm line with a bandwidth of 3.27 nm without taking into account the continuum radiation, the plasma temperature measured will be lower on the order of up to 1000-3000 K for temperatures from 20 000 to 24 000 K. The theoretically predicted temperature errors are in good agreement with the experimental results, indicating that the proposed technique is reliable for plasma temperature measurement.

Ma Shuiliang [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding Production Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Plasma Research Laboratory, Australian National University, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia); Gao Hongming; Wu Lin [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding Production Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

2011-01-15

132

Spectroscopic methods of process monitoring for safeguards of used nuclear fuel separations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To support the demonstration of a more proliferation-resistant nuclear fuel processing plant, techniques and instrumentation to allow the real-time, online determination of special nuclear material concentrations in-process must be developed. An ideal materials accountability technique for proliferation resistance should provide nondestructive, realtime, on-line information of metal and ligand concentrations in separations streams without perturbing the process. UV-Visible spectroscopy can be adapted for this precise purpose in solvent extraction-based separations. The primary goal of this project is to understand fundamental URanium EXtraction (UREX) and Plutonium-URanium EXtraction (PUREX) reprocessing chemistry and corresponding UV-Visible spectroscopy for application in process monitoring for safeguards. By evaluating the impact of process conditions, such as acid concentration, metal concentration and flow rate, on the sensitivity of the UV-Visible detection system, the process-monitoring concept is developed from an advanced application of fundamental spectroscopy. Systematic benchtop-scale studies investigated the system relevant to UREX or PUREX type reprocessing systems, encompassing 0.01-1.26 M U and 0.01-8 M HNO3. A laboratory-scale TRansUranic Extraction (TRUEX) demonstration was performed and used both to analyze for potential online monitoring opportunities in the TRUEX process, and to provide the foundation for building and demonstrating a laboratory-scale UREX demonstration. The secondary goal of the project is to simulate a diversion scenario in UREX and successfully detect changes in metal concentration and solution chemistry in a counter current contactor system with a UV-Visible spectroscopic process monitor. UREX uses the same basic solvent extraction flowsheet as PUREX, but has a lower acid concentration throughout and adds acetohydroxamic acid (AHA) as a complexant/reductant to the feed solution to prevent the extraction of Pu. By examining UV-Visible spectra gathered in real time, the objective is to detect the conversion from the UREX process, which does not separate Pu, to the PUREX process, which yields a purified Pu product. The change in process chemistry can be detected in the feed solution, aqueous product or in the raffinate stream by identifying the acid concentration, metal distribution and the presence or absence of AHA. A fiber optic dip probe for UV-Visible spectroscopy was integrated into a bank of three counter-current centrifugal contactors to demonstrate the online process monitoring concept. Nd, Fe and Zr were added to the uranyl nitrate system to explore spectroscopic interferences and identify additional species as candidates for online monitoring. This milestone is a demonstration of the potential of this technique, which lies in the ability to simultaneously and directly monitor the chemical process conditions in a reprocessing plant, providing inspectors with another tool to detect nuclear material diversion attempts. Lastly, dry processing of used nuclear fuel is often used as a head-end step before solvent extraction-based separations such as UREX or TRUEX. A non-aqueous process, used fuel treatment by dry processing generally includes chopping of used fuel rods followed by repeated oxidation-reduction cycles and physical separation of the used fuel from the cladding. Thus, dry processing techniques are investigated and opportunities for online monitoring are proposed for continuation of this work in future studies.

Warburton, Jamie Lee

133

Performance of Traditional and Molecular Methods for Detecting Biological Agents in Drinking Water  

EPA Science Inventory

USGS Report - To reduce the impact from a possible bioterrorist attack on drinking-water supplies, analytical methods are needed to rapidly detect the presence of biological agents in water. To this end, 13 drinking-water samples were collected at 9 water-treatment plants in Ohio...

134

GROUND WATER MONITORING AND SAMPLING: MULTI-LEVEL VERSUS TRADITIONAL METHODS WHATS WHAT?  

EPA Science Inventory

After years of research and many publications, the question still remains: What is the best method to collect representative ground water samples from monitoring wells? Numerous systems and devices are currently available for obtaining both multi-level samples as well as traditi...

135

Can pore-scale methods overcome limitations of traditional hydraulic property measurement techniques?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conventional methods of determining transport properties on core samples using information from hydraulic conductivity, water retention curves, electrical properties, or formation factor have substantial shortcomings: (1) they represent quasi-1D flow; (2) possess no a priori information on sample's representativity in terms of its internal heterogeneity; (3) measurements may seriously alter sample properties, e.g. sample saturation and through-flow can mobilize fine material potentially causing pore blockage; also, saturation in the laboratory may cause swelling or mineral dissolution of some materials hence affecting the measured hydraulic properties, while full saturation may never occur under field conditions; (4) they require standard shape and size for coring material, thus representing serious limitations for fragile, consolidated, or cemented samples; (5) often represent quasi-static processes, while flow under field conditions is highly dynamic; (6) some fitting parameters are invoked to represent pore-connectivity or "tortuosity" and used in cross-property relationships without real physical meaning (e.g., linkage between water retention curve and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity. Based on experimental data from a broad range of porous materials we show how these shortcomings can be overcame via pore-scale modeling using structural and surface property information. In particular we use following datasets: 1) deep vadose zones for arid environment (central Australia), 2) shallow-to-deep aquifers (Central Russian Upland), 3) agricultural soils known for their preferential flow (Central Russian Upland), and 4) extremely stony forest soils (Russian Far East). Several approaches exist for acquisition of structural information, with the most information-rich being X-ray microtomography. Alternatively, 2D thin-sections may be used with higher spatial resolution but with limited information on connectivity; reconstruction methods (sequential and stochastic) can help resolve the latter limitation. Finally, we illustrate how our pore-scale methods fit in a broader upscaling approach and improve large-scale modeling; current limitations and future challenges are also discussed.

Gerke, Kirill; Vasilyev, Roman; Korost, Dmitry; Karsanina, Marina; Mallants, Dirk; Gorbunova, Ella; Shein, Evgeny; Gartsman, Boris; Bedrikovetsky, Pavel; Tairova, Aliya; Skvortsova, Elena

2013-04-01

136

a Comparative Study of Laser Cleaning of Archaeological Inorganic Materials with Traditional Methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ancient artifacts excavated from archaeological site were covered with different soil contaminates and stains which changed their chemical composition and aesthetic appearance. Ancient inorganic materials such as bronze, glass and pottery covered with different contaminates such as corrosion products, soil deposits, organic stains and gray white encrustations. Lasers are currently being tested for a wide range of conservation applications. Since they are highly controllable and can be selectively applied, lasers can be used to achieve more effective and safer cleaning of archaeological artifacts and protect their surface details. In the present work we investigated in a general way the laser cleaning of bronze corrosion products, glass, and pottery by Q-switched Nd:YAG Lasers. The results were compared with conventional methods. The artifact samples were examined by Light Optical Microscope (LOM) and showed no noticeable damage.

Imam, Hisham; Elsayed, Khaled; Madkour, Fatma

2011-06-01

137

Potential of a spectroscopic measurement method using adding-doubling to retrieve the bulk optical properties of dense microalgal media.  

PubMed

In the context of algal mass cultivation, current techniques used for the characterization of algal cells require time-consuming sample preparation and a large amount of costly, standard instrumentation. As the physical and chemical properties of the algal cells strongly affect their optical properties, the optical characterization is seen as a promising method to provide an early diagnosis in the context of mass cultivation monitoring. This article explores the potential of a spectroscopic measurement method coupled with the inversion of the radiative transfer theory for the retrieval of the bulk optical properties of dense algal samples. Total transmittance and total reflectance measurements were performed over the 380-1020 nm range on dense algal samples with a double integrating sphere setup. The bulk absorption and scattering coefficients were thus extracted over the 380-1020 nm range by inverting the radiative transfer theory using inverse-adding-doubling computations. The experimental results are presented and discussed; the configuration of the optical setup remains a critical point. The absorption coefficients obtained for the four samples of this study appear not to be more informative about pigment composition than would be classical methods in analytical spectroscopy; however, there is a real added value in measuring the reduced scattering coefficient, as it appears to be strongly correlated to the size distribution of the algal cells. PMID:25198389

Bellini, Sarah; Bendoula, Ryad; Latrille, Eric; Roger, Jean-Michel

2014-10-01

138

A rapid and accurate spectroscopic method for alkalinity measurements in sea water samples  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors propose a new spectrophotometric method for the determination of sea water alkalinity. The method consists to neutralize all the basic species taken into account in the alkalinity expression by a weak acid (formic acid) mixed with a pH sensitive dye, the Bromo-Phenol Blue, which has a dissociation constant close to those of formic acid. The neutralization reaction leads

Gérard Sarazin; Gil Michard; François Prevot

1999-01-01

139

Spectroscopic holography - A new method for mode analysis of randomly excited structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A method was developed for analyzing modes and amplitudes of vibration of a randomly excited object. Time-average holography, in which the reference beam was mechanically excited at any given frequency in the spectral range of the random excitation, was applied. The phase of the exciting vibration of the reference beam was locked to the phase of the specific frequency in the random band. This method was applied as successfully as for objects excited with swept sinusoidal vibration.

Politch, Jacob

1990-08-01

140

The CREATE Method Does Not Result in Greater Gains in Critical Thinking than a More Traditional Method of Analyzing the Primary Literature †  

PubMed Central

Analysis of the primary literature in the undergraduate curriculum is associated with gains in student learning. In particular, the CREATE (Consider, Read, Elucidate hypotheses, Analyze and interpret the data, and Think of the next Experiment) method is associated with an increase in student critical thinking skills. We adapted the CREATE method within a required cell biology class and compared the learning gains of students using CREATE to those of students involved in less structured literature discussions. We found that while both sets of students had gains in critical thinking, students who used the CREATE method did not show significant improvement over students engaged in a more traditional method for dissecting the literature. Students also reported similar learning gains for both literature discussion methods. Our study suggests that, at least in our educational context, the CREATE method does not lead to higher learning gains than a less structured way of reading primary literature. PMID:24358379

Segura-Totten, Miriam; Dalman, Nancy E.

2013-01-01

141

Development of ultraviolet spectroscopic method for the estimation of metronidazole benzoate from pharmaceutical formulation  

PubMed Central

Background: The present study was undertaken with an objective to develop a simple, accurate, cost-effective and reproducible ultraviolet spectrophotometric method for the estimation of metronidazole benzoate (MB) from pharmaceutical formulations. Materials and Methods: The analysis was performed on ?max 268 nm by using 0.1 NHCl as diluents. The proposed method was validated on International Conference Harmonization guideline including the parameters viz., accuracy, linearity, precision, specificity and reproducibility. The proposed method was also used to access the content of MB in two commercial brands of Indian market. Results: Beer's law was obeyed in the concentration range of 1-10 ?g/ml having regression equation y = 0.078 x-0.012. The accuracy value for 4 ?g/ml and 5 ?g/ml concentration of MB was found to be 99.37% and 98.9% respectively. The relative standard deviation of interday and intraday was lesser than 1%. The developed method was applied on two different marketed brands and contents of MB were found to be 98.62% and 98.59% incompliance with labeled claim. The results were under the limit of acceptance statistically. Conclusion: It was concluded that the proposed method can be used for routine analysis of MB in bulk and commercial formulations. PMID:25097394

Mishra, Arun K.; Kumar, Arvind; Mishra, Amrita; Mishra, Hari V.

2014-01-01

142

Comparison of immunomagnetic separation/adenosine triphosphate rapid method to traditional culture-based method for E. coli and enterococci enumeration in wastewater  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Untreated wastewater samples from California, North Carolina, and Ohio were analyzed by the immunomagnetic separation/adenosine triphosphate (IMS/ATP) method and the traditional culture-based method for E. coli and enterococci concentrations. The IMS/ATP method concentrates target bacteria by immunomagnetic separation and then quantifies captured bacteria by measuring bioluminescence induced by release of ATP from the bacterial cells. Results from this method are available within 1 h from the start of sample processing. Significant linear correlations were found between the IMS/ATP results and results from traditional culture-based methods for E. coli and enterococci enumeration for one location in California, two locations in North Carolina, and one location in Ohio (r??values ranged from 0.87 to 0.97). No significant linear relation was found for a second location in California that treats a complex mixture of residential and industrial wastewater. With the exception of one location, IMS/ATP showed promise as a rapid method for the quantification of faecal-indicator organisms in wastewater.

Bushon, R.N.; Likirdopulos, C.A.; Brady, A.M.G.

2009-01-01

143

Simultaneous Quantification of Ten Active Components in Traditional Chinese Formula Sijunzi Decoction Using a UPLC-PDA Method  

PubMed Central

Sijunzi decoction (SJZT), a traditional Chinese formula (TCMF) consisting of four herbs, has been widely used for the treatment of various gastrointestinal symptoms. However, its modernization process is hindered by the lack of a powerful quality control method that covers the major active components in the formula. The aim of this study was to establish a UPLC method for the quantitative determination of ten active components in Sijunzi decoction including ginsenoside Rg1, Re, Rb1, liquiritin, liquiritigenin, glycyrrhizic acid, atractylenolide I, atractylenolide II, atractylenolide III, and pachymic acid. Separation was achieved using an ACQUITY UPLC BEHC18 column (2.1?mm × 100?mm, 1.7??m) with a gradient elution program consisting of acetonitrile and 0.1% phosphoric acid solution. The detection wavelengths were set at 203, 254, 222, and 267?nm. The method was validated for linearity, accuracy, precision, limit of detection, and limit of quantification. The validated method was successfully applied to the simultaneous quantification of ten active compounds from several finished batches of SJZT. This validated that UPLC method is expected to provide a new basis for the quality control of SJZT. PMID:24963442

An, Kang; Jin-rui, Guo; Zhen, Zhang; Xiao-long, Wang

2014-01-01

144

Comparison of a novel distillation method versus a traditional distillation method in a model gin system using liquid/liquid extraction.  

PubMed

This research studied a novel form of distillation (high vacuum distillation) as a method for preserving volatile aroma chemicals important to the organoleptic attributes of a four botanical model gin as well as the degradation products generated during the heating required in traditional methods of gin distillation. A 2 (5) factorial experiment was conducted in a partially confounded incomplete block design and analyzed using the PROC MIXED procedure from SAS. A model gin was made of dried juniper berries (Juniperus communis), coriander seed (Coriandrum sativum), angelica root (Angelica archangelica), and dry lemon peel (Citrus limonum). This was distilled on a traditional still utilizing atmospheric pressure and a heating mantel to initiate phase separation as well as a novel still (high vacuum) utilizing high vacuum pressures below 0.1 mmHg and temperatures below -15 degrees C to initiate phase separation. The degradation products (alpha-pinene, alpha-phellandrene, E-caryophyllene, and beta-myrcene) were present at greater levels (approximately 10 times) in the traditional still-made gin as compared to the novel gin. PMID:18771269

Greer, Derek; Pfahl, Les; Rieck, Jim; Daniels, Tim; Garza, Oscar

2008-10-01

145

Three heads are better than one: a mixed methods study examining collaborative versus traditional test-taking with nursing students.  

PubMed

Patient care requires a collaborative teamwork approach; therefore, nursing programs must provide students with ample opportunities to hone teamwork skills. Although collaborative testing (CT) has been utilized in higher education for decades, its uptake in nursing education has only recently surfaced. The purpose of this mixed methods study was to examine CT versus traditional test-taking with undergraduate nursing students in a Western Canadian university. Using a cross-over design, surveys, and focus groups, nursing students' experiences of learning, retention of course content, and teamwork were explored. A convenience sample of 70 students was recruited. In this paper, we present the results along with recommendations for future research. The treatment effect was highly significant with CT scores being an average of 7.99 units higher than traditional test-taking scores when the test was allocated a total score of 100. However, the two formative tests were weighted minimally resulting in participating students' overall grades being increased by an average of 1.2 out of 100. Of practical significance, students perceived that CT helped them understand the course material better and they appreciated the opportunity to practice effective communication within a group to prepare for future practice. PMID:24484780

Martin, Donna; Friesen, Eunice; De Pau, Antonina

2014-06-01

146

Energy transduction in the functional membrane of photosynthesis results by pulse spectroscopic methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

1. Methods The functional membrane of photosynthesis performs molecular events which are also realized in membranes of photoreceptors, mitochondria, nerves and muscles. These events are light quanta phenomena, electron transfer, electrical field generation, ion translocation, ATP synthesis and hydrolysis respectively. Therefore photosynthesis provides a good example for studying principles of molecular dynamics and energetics in biomembranes in general. The molecular

H. T. Witt

1972-01-01

147

A spectroscopic temperature measurement of converging detonations by the emission spectral matching method  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emission of CN violet bands from a converging point is analyzed using a microdensitometer. To determine the temperature at the converging point of a detonation, a method of matching the entire emission spectra is utilized. The anticipated emission spectra of the observed band can be calculated theoretically with a combination of the gasdynamic quantities, assuming Boltzmann distributions for rotational,

T. Sugimura; T. Fujiwara

1981-01-01

148

The molecular spectroscopic methods of CBR-temperature measurement in epochs with large redshifts  

Microsoft Academic Search

Investigations of the properties of the matter in earlier cosmological epochs by using methods of studying of the interstellar gas clouds at large cosmological distances by analyzing QSO absorption line systems is reviewed. It is suggested that it is also possible to detect the absorption lines of the most abundant molecules such as CO, OH, CH, and CN in QSO

V. K. Khersonskii; I. E. Val'tts

1990-01-01

149

EVALUATION OF EXTRACTION AND SPECTROSCOPIC METHODS FOR PB SPECIATION IN AN AMENDED SOIL  

EPA Science Inventory

Immobilization of pyromorphite (Pbs(PO4hCI) via P amendments to Pb contaminated soils is proving to be a viable method of remediation. However, the issue of ascertaining the amount of soil Pb converted to pyromorphite is difficult in heterogeneous soil systems. Previous attempts ...

150

A noncalibration spectroscopic method to estimate ether extract and fatty acid digestibility of feed and its validation with flaxseed and field pea in pigs.  

PubMed

Digestibility of ether extract (EE) or fatty acids (FA) is traditionally measured by chemical analyses for EE or GLC methods for FA combined with marker concentration in diet and digesta or feces. Digestibility of EE or FA may be predicted by marker concentrations and spectral analyses of diet and digesta or feces. On the basis of Beer's law, a noncalibration spectroscopic method, which used functional group digestibility (FGD) determined with marker concentration and peak intensity of spectra of diets and undigested residues (digesta or feces), was developed to predict the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of total FA and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of EE. To validate, 4 diets containing 30% flaxseed and field pea coextruded with 4 extruder treatments and a wheat and soybean basal diet with predetermined AID of total FA and ATTD of EE were used. Samples of ingredients, diets, and freeze-dried digesta and feces were scanned on a Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) instrument with a single-reflection attenuated total reflection (ATR) accessory. The intensity of either the methylene (CH2) antisymmetric stretching peak at 2,923 cm(-1) (R(2) = 0.90, P < 0.01) or the symmetric stretching peak at 2,852 cm(-1) (R(2) = 0.86, P < 0.01) of ingredients, diet, and digesta spectra was related strongly to the concentration of total FA. The AID of total FA of diets measured using GLC was predicted by the spectroscopic method using FGD at 2,923 and 2,852 cm(-1) (R(2) = 0.75, P < 0.01) with a bias of 0.54 (SD = 3.78%) and -1.35 (SD = 3.74%), respectively. The accumulated peak intensity in the region between 1,766 and 1,695 cm(-1) of spectra was related to EE concentration in ingredients and diets (R(2) = 0.61, P = 0.01) and feces (R(2) = 0.88, P < 0.01). The relation was improved by using second-derivative spectra of the sum of peak intensities at 1,743 and 1,710 cm(-1) for ingredients and diets (R(2) = 0.90, P = 0.01) and at 1,735 and 1,710 cm(-1) for feces (R(2) = 0.92, P < 0.01). The ATTD of EE of test diets determined with proximate analysis was estimated by the FGD of nonderivative spectra with or without baseline (R(2) = 0.90, P < 0.01) with a bias of 3.15 (SD = 3.14%) and 3.50 (SD = 3.24%), respectively. In conclusion, instead of using GLC methods or predictions based on calibrations, the AID of total FA and ATTD of EE can also be estimated directly from ATR FT-IR spectra, provided the ratio of marker in the diet and undigested residue is known. PMID:25186953

Wang, L F; Swift, M L; Zijlstra, R T

2014-10-01

151

[Interaction between ambroxol hydrochloride and human serum albumin studied by spectroscopic and molecular modeling methods].  

PubMed

In the present paper, the interaction between ambroxol hydrochloride (ABX) and human serum albumin (HSA) was studied under simulative physiological condition by spectroscopy and molecular modeling method. Stern-Volmer curvers at different temperatures and UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy showed that ABX quenched the fluorescence of HSA mainly through dynamic quenching mode. On the basis of the thermodynamic data, the main binding force between them is hydrophobic interaction. According to the theory of Forster non-radiation energy transfer, the binding distance between the donor and the acceptor was 3.01 nm. The effect of ABX on the conformation of HSA was analyzed by the synchronous and three-dimensional fluorescence spectroscopy. Furthermore, using the molecular modeling method, the interaction between them was predicted from molecular angle: ABX might locate in the subdomain III A of HSA. PMID:21714251

Liang, Jing; Feng, Su-Ling

2011-04-01

152

RAPID COMMUNICATION: Note on the temperature measurements in surface treatment reactors using the spectroscopic method  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors investigate the validity of the rotational distribution of N2+(B) to N2+(X) emissions as a tool to determine the substrate temperature in surface treatment reactors. They show that the method is not valid for processes involving pure nitrogen at p>1.3*102 Pa. In N2-H2 mixtures, however, they show that the technique can be used for temperature measurements for all pressure

A. Brand; J. L. R. Muzart; A. R. de Souza

1990-01-01

153

An infrared spectroscopic based method for mercury(II) detection in aqueous solutions.  

PubMed

A new method that uses solid phase extraction (SPE) coupled with FTIR spectroscopy to detect Hg(II) in aqueous samples is described. The technique is envisioned for on-site, field evaluation rather than lab-based techniques. This paper presents the "proof of principle" of this new approach toward measurements of Hg(II) in water and identifies mass transport issues that would need to be overcome in order to migrate from a lab based method to field operation. The SPE material supported on a Si wafer is derivatized with an acylthiosemicarbazide, which undergoes a reaction in the presence of aqueous Hg(II) to form an oxadiazole ring. The progress of the reaction is monitored by IR spectroscopy. Following EPA guidelines, the method of detection limit (MDL) for the SPE/IR was 5 ?g of Hg(II)cm(-2). In a 1L sample and a 1cm(2) Si wafer, this translates to a detection limit of 5 ppb. This system shows a high selectivity toward aqueous Hg(II) over other thiophilic heavy metal ions such as Pb(II), Cd(II), Fe(III), and Zn(II) and other metal ions such as Ni(II), Mn(II), Co(II), Cu(II), In(III), Ru(III), Na(I), and Ag(I) in aqueous solutions. PMID:22560281

Chandrasoma, Asela; Hamid, Amer Al Abdel; Bruce, Alice E; Bruce, Mitchell R M; Tripp, Carl P

2012-05-30

154

Spectroscopic Observations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is a series of three activities about light and spectra. First, learners will construct their own spectroscope, observe common light sources, record the observed spectra, and compare their findings. Next, learners will use their spectroscopes to observe the spectra from different gas tubes and compare each observed spectrum to known spectra. Finally, they will observe a solar spectrum created by a prism, view a solar spectrum on paper, and attempt to determine the elements present in the Sun. This activity requires spectroscope posters and gratings available from the Stanford Solar Center (http://solar-center.stanford.edu/posters/), fluorescent and incandescent light sources, and emission lamps and power sources. This activity is from the Stanford Solar Center's All About the Sun: Sun and Stars activity guide for Grades 5-8 and can also accompany the Stanford Solar Center's Build Your Own Spectroscope activity.

155

Identification of pyrazosulfuron-ethyl binding affinity and binding site subdomain IIA in human serum albumin by spectroscopic methods.  

PubMed

Pyrazosulfuron-ethyl (PY) is a sulfonylurea herbicide developed by DuPont which has been widely used for weed control in cereals. The determination of PY binding affinity and binding site in human serum albumin (HSA) by spectroscopic methods is the subject of this work. From the fluorescence emission, circular dichroism and three-dimensional fluorescence results, the interaction of PY with HSA caused secondary structure changes in the protein. Fluorescence data demonstrated that the quenching of HSA fluorescence by PY was the result of the formation of HSA-PY complex at 1:1 molar ratio, a static mechanism was confirmed to lead to the fluorescence quenching. Hydrophobic probe 8-anilino-1-naphthalenesulfonic acid (ANS) displacement results show that hydrophobic patches are the major sites for PY binding on HSA. The thermodynamic parameters DeltaH degrees and DeltaS degrees were calculated to be -36.32 kJ mol(-1) and -35.91 J mol(-1)K(-1), which illustrated van der Waals forces and hydrogen bonds interactions were the dominant intermolecular force in stabilizing the complex. Also, site marker competitive experiments showed that the binding of PY to HSA took place primarily in subdomain IIA (Sudlow's site I). What presented in this paper binding research enriches our knowledge of the interaction between sulfonylurea herbicides and the physiologically important protein HSA. PMID:20064739

Ding, Fei; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Xi; Wu, Li-Jun; Zhang, Li; Sun, Ying

2010-03-01

156

Identification of pyrazosulfuron-ethyl binding affinity and binding site subdomain IIA in human serum albumin by spectroscopic methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pyrazosulfuron-ethyl (PY) is a sulfonylurea herbicide developed by DuPont which has been widely used for weed control in cereals. The determination of PY binding affinity and binding site in human serum albumin (HSA) by spectroscopic methods is the subject of this work. From the fluorescence emission, circular dichroism and three-dimensional fluorescence results, the interaction of PY with HSA caused secondary structure changes in the protein. Fluorescence data demonstrated that the quenching of HSA fluorescence by PY was the result of the formation of HSA-PY complex at 1:1 molar ratio, a static mechanism was confirmed to lead to the fluorescence quenching. Hydrophobic probe 8-anilino-1-naphthalenesulfonic acid (ANS) displacement results show that hydrophobic patches are the major sites for PY binding on HSA. The thermodynamic parameters ? H° and ? S° were calculated to be -36.32 kJ mol -1 and -35.91 J mol -1 K -1, which illustrated van der Waals forces and hydrogen bonds interactions were the dominant intermolecular force in stabilizing the complex. Also, site marker competitive experiments showed that the binding of PY to HSA took place primarily in subdomain IIA (Sudlow's site I). What presented in this paper binding research enriches our knowledge of the interaction between sulfonylurea herbicides and the physiologically important protein HSA.

Ding, Fei; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Xi; Wu, Li-Jun; Zhang, Li; Sun, Ying

2010-03-01

157

Combining the tape-lift method and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic imaging for forensic applications.  

PubMed

Conventional Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and microscopy have been widely used in forensic science. New opportunities exist to obtain chemical images and to enhance the spatial resolution using attenuated total reflection (ATR) FT-IR spectroscopy coupled with a focal-plane array (FPA) detector. In this paper, the sensitivity limits of FT-IR imaging using three different ATR crystals (Ge, ZnSe, and diamond) in three different optical arrangements for the detection of model particles is discussed. Model systems of ibuprofen and paracetamol particles having sizes below 32 mum were studied. The collection of drug particles was achieved with the aid of two different tapes: common adhesive tape and a film of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). The surface of the film with collected particles was measured directly via ATR-FT-IR imaging. Since the removal of tape from porous surfaces can be difficult, the application of micro ATR-FT-IR imaging directly to the surface of a newspaper contaminated with particles of model drugs is also discussed. In order to assess the feasibility of the chosen method in a forensic case study, the detection of diacetylmorphine hydrochloride traces in PDMS matrix and the finger surface is investigated. The scenarios considered were that of the detection of evidence collected at a crime scene with the tape lift method and the analysis of the finger of an individual after drug handling. The results show broad implications in the detection of drugs of abuse. PMID:17002827

Ricci, Camilla; Chan, K L Andrew; Kazarian, Sergei G

2006-09-01

158

PDT in the thoracic cavity: Spectroscopic methods and fluence modeling for treatment planning  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

PDT for the thoracic cavity provides a promising cancer treatment modality, but improvements in treatment planning, particularly in PDT dosimetry, can be made to improve uniformity of light delivery. When a cavity of arbitrary geometry is illuminated, the fluence increases due to multiple-scattered photons, referred to as the Integrating Sphere Effect (ISE). Current pleural PDT treatment protocol at the University of Pennsylvania monitors light fluence (hereafter simply fluence, measured in W/cm2) via seven isotropic detectors sutured at different locations in thoracic cavity of a patient. This protocol monitors light at discrete locations, but does not provide a measurement of fluence for the thoracic cavity as a whole. Current calculation of light fluence includes direct light only and thus does not account for the unique optical properties of each tissue type present, which in turn affects the accuracy of the calculated light distribution in the surrounding tissue and, in turn, the overall cell death and treatment efficacy. Treatment planning for pleural PDT can be improved, in part, by considering the contribution of scattered light, which is affected by the two factors of geometry and in vivo optical properties. We expanded the work by Willem Star in regards to the ISE in a spherical cavity. A series of Monte Carlo (MC) simulations were run for semi-infinite planar, spherical, and ellipsoidal geometries for a range of optical properties. The results of these simulations are compared to theory and numerical solutions for fluence in the cavity and at the cavity-medium boundary. The development via MC simulations offers a general method of calculating the required light fluence specialized to each patient, based on the treatment surface area. The scattered fluence calculation is dependent on in vivo optical properties (?a and ?s') of the tissues treated. Diffuse reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopy methods are used to determine the optical properties and oxygenation (reflectance measurements) and drug concentration (fluorescence measurements) of different tissues in vivo, before and after treatment, in patients enrolled the Phase I HPPH study ongoing at the University of Pennsylvania. This work aims to provide the building blocks essential to pleural PDT treatment planning by more accurately calculating the required fluence using a model that accounts for the effects of treatment geometry and optical properties measured in vivo.

Meo, Julia Lauren

159

Study on the digitized and quantified evaluating method for the super information cluster of traditional Chinese medicine ultraviolet spectral fingerprints  

PubMed Central

The theories of ultraviolet spectral fingerprint (UVFP) index, information index, fluctuation index, information fluctuation index combined with the quantified UV fingerprint method (QUFM) had been established and put into practice in the Ginkgo Tablets (GT) quality evaluation. The flowing injection analysis (FIA) coupled with a diode array detector was applied as a novel method to obtain the UVFP in the region of 190-400 nm at which the absorption can reflect all the information of the chemical constituents contained ???*, n??* and n??* transition. The result showed that all batches were qualified (Grade ?3) except S8 for its too high contents. It was proved that this method made the expression of superposed information in UVFP of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) digitized and simple. What’s more, an approach which can test the total chemical content with the chromophoric characteristics in the complex system of TCM rapidly, simply and accurately was achieved by the application of QUFM. In one word, it made the exploration of the general characteristic information of the molecular absorption complex TCM in the ultraviolet regions feasible and possible. PMID:25332974

Li, Lifeng; Liu, Zhongbo; Li, Yanfei

2013-01-01

160

Chemometric optimization of the robustness of the near infrared spectroscopic method in wheat quality control.  

PubMed

A chemometric approach was applied for the optimization of the robustness of the NIRS method for wheat quality control. Due to the high number of experimental (n=6) and response variables to be studied (n=7) the optimization experiment was divided into two stages: screening stage in order to evaluate which of the considered variables were significant, and optimization stage to optimize the identified factors in the previously selected experimental domain. The significant variables were identified by using fractional factorial experimental design, whilst Box-Wilson rotatable central composite design (CCRD) was run to obtain the optimal values for the significant variables. The measured responses included: moisture, protein and wet gluten content, Zeleny sedimentation value and deformation energy. In order to achieve the minimal variation in responses, the optimal factor settings were found by minimizing the propagation of error (POE). The simultaneous optimization of factors was conducted by desirability function. The highest desirability of 87.63% was accomplished by setting up experimental conditions as follows: 19.9°C for sample temperature, 19.3°C for ambient temperature and 240V for instrument voltage. PMID:25281098

Poji?, Milica; Raki?, Dušan; Lazi?, Zivorad

2015-01-01

161

Vibrational spectroscopic study and NBO analysis on tranexamic acid using DFT method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, we reported the vibrational spectra of tranexamic acid (TA) by experimental and quantum chemical calculation. The solid phase FT-Raman and FT-IR spectra of the title compound were recorded in the region 4000 cm-1 to 100 cm-1 and 4000 cm-1 to 400 cm-1 respectively. The molecular geometry, harmonic vibrational frequencies and bonding features of TA in the ground state have been calculated by using density functional theory (DFT) B3LYP method with standard 6-31G(d,p) basis set. The scaled theoretical wavenumber showed very good agreement with the experimental values. The vibrational assignments were performed on the basis of the potential energy distribution (PED) of the vibrational modes. Stability of the molecule, arising from hyperconjugative interactions and charge delocalization, has been analyzed using Natural Bond Orbital (NBO) analysis. The results show that ED in the ?* and ?* antibonding orbitals and second order delocalization energies E(2) confirm the occurrence of intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) within the molecule. The electrostatic potential mapped onto an isodensity surface has been obtained. The calculated HOMO and LUMO energies show that charge transfer occurs within the molecule. The thermodynamic properties (heat capacity, entropy, and enthalpy) of the title compound at different temperatures were calculated in gas phase.

Muthu, S.; Prabhakaran, A.

2014-08-01

162

A method for the quantitative gamma spectroscopic analysis of an unusually shaped unknown source.  

PubMed

An unmarked cylindrical device, identified as a ceramic high voltage capacitor, needed its radioactivity assessed so that proper disposal and shipping requirements could be met. Using a high purity germanium detector, naturally occurring 232Th was identified as the source of radioactivity. A series of point source measurements was made along the length of the item's axis using 60Co, having a gamma ray of nearly the same energy as one of the primary 232Th progeny photopeaks. These measurements were then numerically integrated to determine the response of the detector to a line source. A correction for the self shielding of the item was estimated using Monte Carlo simulations. The item was found to contain approximately 1.85 x 10(5) Bq of uniformly distributed 232Th. The overall method has application to any unusually shaped source, with point source measurements performed using an appropriate radionuclide used to establish an overall sensitivity of the detector, including its dead layer, to the radioactivity in a simple geometric representation of the object. An estimation of self shielding from Monte Carlo is then applied to that result. PMID:19125054

Kearfott, Kimberlee J; Dewey, Steven C

2009-02-01

163

Insights into in vitro binding of parecoxib to human serum albumin by spectroscopic methods.  

PubMed

Herein, we report the effect of parecoxib on the structure and function of human serum albumin (HSA) by using fluorescence, circular dichroism (CD), Fourier transforms infrared (FTIR), three-dimensional (3D) fluorescence spectroscopy, and molecular docking techniques. The Stern-Volmer quenching constants KSV and the corresponding thermodynamic parameters ?H, ?G, and ?S have been estimated by the fluorescence quenching method. The results indicated that parecoxib binds spontaneously with HSA through van der Waals forces and hydrogen bonds with binding constant of 3.45 × 10(4) M(-1) at 298 K. It can be seen from far-UV CD spectra that the ?-helical network of HSA is disrupted and its content decreases from 60.5% to 49.6% at drug:protein = 10:1. Protein tertiary structural alterations induced by parecoxib were also confirmed by FTIR and 3D fluorescence spectroscopy. The molecular docking study indicated that parecoxib is embedded into the hydrophobic pocket of HSA. PMID:24939449

Shang, Shujun; Liu, Qingling; Gao, Jiandong; Zhu, Yulin; Liu, Jingying; Wang, Kaiyan; Shao, Wei; Zhang, Shudong

2014-10-01

164

Investigation on interaction between Ligupurpuroside A and pepsin by spectroscopic and docking methods.  

PubMed

Ligupurpuroside A is one of the major glycoside in Ku-Din-Cha, a type of Chinese functional tea. In order to better understand its digestion and metabolism in humans, the interaction between Ligupurpuroside A and pepsin has been investigated by fluorescence spectra, UV-vis absorption spectra and synchronous fluorescence spectra along with molecular docking method. The fluorescence experiments indicate that Ligupurpuroside A can effectively quench the intrinsic fluorescence of pepsin through a combined quenching way at the low concentration of Ligupurpuroside A, and a static quenching procedure at the high concentration. The binding constant, binding sites of Ligupurpuroside A with pepsin have been calculated. The thermodynamic analysis suggests that non-covalent reactions, including electrostatic force, hydrophobic interaction and hydrogen bond are the main forces stabilizing the complex. According to the Förster's non-radiation energy transfer theory, the binding distance between pepsin and Ligupurpuroside A was calculated to be 3.15nm, which implies that energy transfer occurs between pepsin and Ligupurpuroside A. Conformation change of pepsin was observed from UV-vis absorption spectra and synchronous fluorescence spectra under experimental conditions. In addition, all these experimental results have been validated by the protein-ligand docking studies which show that Ligupurpuroside A is located in the cleft between the domains of pepsin. PMID:25078459

Shen, Liangliang; Xu, Hong; Huang, Fengwen; Li, Yi; Xiao, Huafeng; Yang, Zhen; Hu, Zhangli; He, Zhendan; Zeng, Zheling; Li, Yinong

2015-01-25

165

[Study on two different aromas styles of tobacco from Guizhou by characteristics spectroscopic methods].  

PubMed

This paper made use of three-dimensional fluorescence and ultraviolet-absorption spectrum to analyze the spectral characteristics of etroleum ether extract from Guizhou flue-cured tobacco and the overall characteristic spectral information of tobacco chemical substances were obtained. The three dimensional fluorescence and ultraviolet-visible absorption spectrum of each petroleum ether extract of flue-cured tobacco from different areas are generally similar, but their intensity is different. There have three characteristic peaks in three dimensional fluorescence spectra: I: Ex/Em = 297/326 nm, II: Ex/Em = 250/330 nm, III: Ex/Em = 225/336 nm respectively and meanwhile the order of these peaks intensity is I > III > II. The ultraviolet-visible absorption spectrum in 300-300 nm range presents four characteristic absorption peaks, whose maximum absorption wavelength are 329, 419, 445 and 419 nm respectively. Meanwhile, in accord with the relative intensity of characteristic peaks, it is known that there exist differences in the relative contents of the total chemical substances obtained from different flavor styles of the flue-cured tobacco. The clustering analysis results of three-dimensional fluorescence intensity score (D) and intensity ratio (R) show that in a certain range of distance coefficient, the flue-cured tobacco from different regions in Guizhou can be clearly divided into two classes "mildly sweet "and "alcohol sweet ". The classification can be well achieved in the smaller distance coefficient according to the ratio cluster of fluorescence intensity instead of the score cluster of fluorescence intensity. The method of three-dimensional fluorescence was better than that of ultraviolet-visible spectrometry in the matter of the clustering characteristic. PMID:25208411

Ran, Xia; Mu, Lan; Liu, Ren-Xiang; Cong, Hang; Zhang, Qing-Min; Wang, Fang

2014-03-01

166

Synthesis of Black and Red Mercury Sulfide Nano-Powder by Traditional Indian Method for Biomedical Application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of metals and minerals in the traditional Indian system of medicine known as aired is very common and is practiced since seventh century B.C. Metals were reduced to calcined powder form for medicinal purpose. For detoxification, a further step of purification of the metals and minerals with different vegetable extracts was practiced. The people of East India were using mercury and its sulfide as medicine. Gradually this secret was leaked to Arabic physicians who used mercury in skin ointment. Subsequently Italian Physicians adopted Arabic prescriptions of mercurial ointments for skin diseases. In the olden days, metals and minerals were impregnated with decoction and juice of vegetables and animal products like milk and fat for purification. These were then reduced to fine particles by milling with a pestle and mortar. It was known by then that the fineness of the powder had a significant influence on the color, texture, and medicinal properties as is cited by Charak. Nagarjun studied in detail the processing of metals and minerals, particularly mercury and the influence of the processing parameters on the medicinal values. Mercury is unique in many aspects. Indian alchemy developed a wide variety a chemical processes for the ostensible transmutation of metals and preparation of elixir of life, in which mercury occupied a prime position .The present investigation attempts to use the traditional methods as prescribed in the ancient texts to prepare mercury sulfide in both red and black form for medicinal use. XRD, SEM and HRTEM investigations of the sulfides obtained shows that the ancient Indians were able to produce nano-sized powders. Possibly this may be taken as the earliest application of the production and use of nano powder. The study proves that even in ancient time the knowledge of nano particle synthesis was prevalent and used to enhance effectiveness of medicines. Further mercury in the free form is not acceptable in medicines. The ancient physicians could get rid of free mercury by milling and proper choice of the ratio of ingredients as is shown in the investigation by X-ray diffraction studies. In the traditional method for synthesis of mercury sulfide, mercury and pure sulfur were taken and milled in a mortar and pastel. During milling process, the white mercury and yellow sulfur yielded to a gray black colored sulfide. Synthesis of red sulfide of mercury required additional steps of heating and subsequent milling. For therapeutically application, the sulfide thus obtained needed detoxification, which was done using organic extracts. In the present investigation, the same method was followed to synthesize the sapphires and the product was characterized using modern methods like XRD, SEM and HRTEM. With increase in milling time the fineness of the powder increases, which increases the efficacy of the medicine, and free mercury, which is not desirable for medicinal application is found to decrease. The powder obtained at the end of 48 hours of milling is found to be of a size finer than l0nm.

Padhi, Payodhar; Sahoo, G.; Das, K.; Ghosh, Sudipto; Panigrahi, S. C.

2008-10-01

167

Field test comparison of an autocorrelation technique for determining grain size using a digital 'beachball' camera versus traditional methods  

USGS Publications Warehouse

This extensive field test of an autocorrelation technique for determining grain size from digital images was conducted using a digital bed-sediment camera, or 'beachball' camera. Using 205 sediment samples and >1200 images from a variety of beaches on the west coast of the US, grain size ranging from sand to granules was measured from field samples using both the autocorrelation technique developed by Rubin [Rubin, D.M., 2004. A simple autocorrelation algorithm for determining grain size from digital images of sediment. Journal of Sedimentary Research, 74(1): 160-165.] and traditional methods (i.e. settling tube analysis, sieving, and point counts). To test the accuracy of the digital-image grain size algorithm, we compared results with manual point counts of an extensive image data set in the Santa Barbara littoral cell. Grain sizes calculated using the autocorrelation algorithm were highly correlated with the point counts of the same images (r2 = 0.93; n = 79) and had an error of only 1%. Comparisons of calculated grain sizes and grain sizes measured from grab samples demonstrated that the autocorrelation technique works well on high-energy dissipative beaches with well-sorted sediment such as in the Pacific Northwest (r2 ??? 0.92; n = 115). On less dissipative, more poorly sorted beaches such as Ocean Beach in San Francisco, results were not as good (r2 ??? 0.70; n = 67; within 3% accuracy). Because the algorithm works well compared with point counts of the same image, the poorer correlation with grab samples must be a result of actual spatial and vertical variability of sediment in the field; closer agreement between grain size in the images and grain size of grab samples can be achieved by increasing the sampling volume of the images (taking more images, distributed over a volume comparable to that of a grab sample). In all field tests the autocorrelation method was able to predict the mean and median grain size with ???96% accuracy, which is more than adequate for the majority of sedimentological applications, especially considering that the autocorrelation technique is estimated to be at least 100 times faster than traditional methods.

Barnard, P.L.; Rubin, D.M.; Harney, J.; Mustain, N.

2007-01-01

168

Non-Traditional Instruction.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The focus of this paper is to present non-traditional or alternate instructional methods in remedial mathematics education at the community college level. However, these methods will apply to credit math courses as well as courses from other disciplines. With the large number of students needing remediation and the United States traditionally

O'Rourke, Jeannette

169

Combination of spectroscopic and computational methods to get an understanding of supramolecular chemistry of drugs: from simple host systems to biomolecules.  

PubMed

Circular dichroism (CD) spectra of non-covalent ligand : biomolecule couples contain information on the equilibrium geometries of the associated structures that can be retrieved upon comparison of the sign and intensity of the experimental CD bands with the quantum mechanically calculated rotational strengths of low energy supramolecular complexes, obtained from molecular modelling methods. For both chiral and achiral ligands this approach proved useful to reach a structure based rationale of ground and excited state properties of the non-covalent ligand : protein associates. In this Perspective we illustrate the potential of this method focusing on the main achievements of our recent spectroscopic, conformational and photochemical studies on drug-albumin complexes and collocate it in the frame of current methodologies of molecular modelling and spectroscopic investigation of ligand : biomolecule binding. PMID:22006101

Monti, Sandra; Manet, Ilse; Marconi, Giancarlo

2011-12-21

170

Study on the interaction of Co (III) DiAmsar with serum albumins: Spectroscopic and molecular docking methods.  

PubMed

This study was designed to examine the interaction of cobalt-3,6,10,13,16,19-hexaazabicyclo[6.6.6]eicosane-1,8-diamine (Co(III) DiAmsar) as a hexadentate ligand with human serum albumin (HSA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) under physiological conditions in Tris-HCl buffer solution at pH 7.4. To this aim, at first, Co (III) DiAmsar was synthesized and characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and mass spectroscopy and then its interaction with HSA and BSA was investigated by means of various spectroscopic methods (Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), UV-visible (UV-vis), fluorescence, and cyclic voltammetry (CV)) and molecular docking technique. The results of fluorescence titration revealed that the Co (III) DiAmsar strongly quench the intrinsic fluorescence of HSA and BSA through a static quenching procedure. Binding constants (Ka) and the number of binding sites (n?1) were calculated using Stern-Volmer equations. The ?G parameters at different temperatures were calculated. Subsequently, the values of ?H and ?S were also calculated, which revealed that the van der Waals and hydrogen bonding interaction splay a major role in Co (III) DiAmsar-HSA and Co (III) DiAmsar-BSA associations. The distance r between donor (HSA and BSA) and acceptor (Co (III) DiAmsar) was obtained according to fluorescence resonance energy transfer. The data obtained by the molecular modeling study revealed the surrounding residues of HSA and BSA around Co (III) DiAmsar. PMID:25105263

Farahani, Bahman Vasheghani; Bardajee, Ghasem Rezanejade; Rajabi, Farzaneh Hosseinpour; Hooshyar, Zari

2015-01-25

171

Exploring the methods of using the Chinese traditional folk-custom color cultural representations on the industrial design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introducing the traditional folk-custom color cultural expressions to the industrial design, both solves the issue of the traditional culture always lacked in the domestic universities design-education contents, and explores to solve the problem of the national culture elements been lacked when we creates the national brands on the social innovative designs. The article firstly summarizes the forms of the Chinese

Yuexi Zhou; Ximiao Zhang

2011-01-01

172

Comparative study between original and traditional method in establishing a chronic sinus node damage model in rabbit.  

PubMed

Sick Sinus Syndrome is a common and refractory arrhythmia, needing further study in which setting up a credible sinus node damage model is important. To explore the feasibility and superiority of an original formaldehyde pinpoint pressing permeation (FPPP) method for building a chronic sinus node damage (CSND) model, 5 rabbits were chosen from 35 as a sham-operation group, and the remaining were randomly divided into two groups: the formaldehyde wet compressing (FWC) group, in which models were established by applying a cotton bud dipped in 20% formaldehyde onto the sinus node (SN) area, and the FPPP group, in which models were established by injecting formaldehyde into the SN area through a self-made pinpointing and injecting electrode. We found that in both groups, the HR at 2 h, 24 h, 1 wk, and 2 wk after modeling decreased compared with premodeling; sinoatrial conduction time, sinus node recovery time, and corrected sinus node recovery time were prolonged compared with premodeling. The indexes mentioned shortened by 2 wk after modeling compared with 2 h in the FWC group, whereas they were stable after modeling in the FPPP group. The modeling achievement ratio in the FPPP group was higher and the death rate was lower. Under light microscope, paraffin sections of the SN tissue and cells showed severe injury in both groups. The results indicate that the CSND models in rabbits can be successfully established by the FPPP method, with higher achievement ratio, lower death rate, better stabilization effect, and less damaging comparing with the traditional method. PMID:22898552

Liu, Ru-xiu; Wang, Yan-li; Li, Hui-bo; Wang, Ni-na; Bao, Mei-jing; Xu, Li-ya

2012-12-01

173

DIAGNOSTIC CARDIAC CATHETERIZATION USING THE MEDRAD AVANTA FLUID MANAGEMENT SYSTEM AS COMPARED TO THE TRADITIONAL MANUAL INJECTION METHOD  

SciTech Connect

Nearly 4 million patient procedures performed annually in US cardiac catheterization laboratories utilize contrast media to achieve vessel opacification. The amount of contrast media used is variable and depends on the complexity of the procedure, the method of contrast delivery as well as the skill-level of the operator. Since the total amount of contrast used for each procedure can have both patient safety and economic implications, it is essential for cardiologists to have the ability to control contrast delivery such that optimal angiographic image quality is achieved using the least amount of contrast. Although the complication rate associated with cardiac catheterization remains low, the most common serious complication, contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN), is associated with poor prognosis and a high mortality rate. Numerous interventional strategies for preventing and reducing the severity of CIN have demonstrated varying degrees of clinical benefit, but none has been shown to reliably prevent this serious complication. To date, the most effective approach for reducing the risk of CIN is to properly hydrate the patient and to minimize the amount of contrast media administered. Automated injection systems are intended for use in virtually all cardiac catheterization procedures and have numerous features which can provide potential advantages over traditional methods. With automated injection technology the operator is able to control and precisely monitor contrast delivery. Additionally, the MEDRAD Avanta Fluid Management Injection System utilizes a sterile contrast reservoir which eliminates the need to discard unused contrast in individual opened containers following each procedure. Considering that an average of 50% of opened contrast media is wasted using manual injection methods, this savings can provide a substantial economic benefit. Automated systems also facilitate the use of smaller (5 French) catheter sizes. Precise flow control and the use of smaller diameter catheters have both been shown to reduce the volume of contrast administered. The use of smaller size catheters also permits more rapid hemostasis, thus allowing shorter ambulation time without the need for costly wound closure devices. These factors can result in enhanced patient satisfaction as well as more efficient management of post-procedure rooms. The intent of this study was to demonstrate that using the MEDRAD Avanta Fluid Management Injection System (MEDRAD, INC., Pittsburgh, PA) for coronary diagnostic procedures can produce a reduction in the volume of contrast administered without loss of operational quality or efficiency. In addition, this study will explore procedure time and efficiency in an effort to minimize the amount of ionizing radiation delivered to the patient as well as the diagnostic team members. Study Design This is a post-market study designed to collect data during diagnostic cardiac catheterization when utilizing 5FR or 6FR catheters in conjunction with the Avanta Fluid Management System or a manual manifold injection method control group. A minimum of 420 patients scheduled for diagnostic cardiac catheterization will be enrolled in the study cohort. Patients will be assigned into the following two groups. Group 1: Catheterization with 5FR or 6FR catheters, using the traditional manual manifold injection method for contrast media delivery which is defined as manual hand injection of contrast media through a 3 or 4 port manifold and left ventriculography performed via standard fixed rate power injection. Group 2: Catheterization with 5FR or 6FR catheters, using the MEDRAD Avanta system for contrast media delivery. Study endpoints include volume of contrast media administered during diagnostic cardiac catheterization, volume of contrast media wasted post-procedure, procedure time (defined as the time from first catheter insertion to last diagnostic catheter removal), fluoroscopy time and angiographic image quality. The study demonstrated that use of the Advanta system reduced overall contrast utilization by decreasing th

Winniford, Michael D

2013-02-08

174

Lactic acid bacteria ecology of three traditional fermented sausages produced in the North of Italy as determined by molecular methods.  

PubMed

In this study the bacterial biodiversity during the maturation process of three traditional sausages produced in the North of Italy (Salame bergamasco, Salame cremonese and Salame mantovano) was investigated by using culture-dependent and -independent methods. Eleven plants, in the three provinces considered here, were selected because starter cultures were never used in the production. The bacterial ecology, as determined by plate counts, was dominated by lactic acid bacteria (LAB), with minor contribution of coagulase negative cocci and yeasts. After molecular identification of 486 LAB strains, the species more frequently isolated were Lactobacillus sakei and Lactobacillus curvatus. This evidence was also confirmed by PCR-Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE). All the samples analyzed were characterized by the constant presence of L. sakei and L. curvatus bands. A richer biodiversity was only detected at the beginning of maturation. The results obtained by the molecular characterization of the L. sakei and L. curvatus and by the cluster analysis of the DGGE profiles highlighted a plant-specific population, rather than a geographic characterization of the products, underlining how the environmental and processing conditions are able to select specific microbiota responsible for the main transformations during the fermentation and ripening of the sausages. PMID:20416781

Cocolin, Luca; Dolci, Paola; Rantsiou, Kalliopi; Urso, Rosalinda; Cantoni, Carlo; Comi, Giuseppe

2009-05-01

175

CD Spectroscope  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners use an old CD to construct a spectroscope, a device that separates light into its component colors. Learners will hold it up to various light sources to examine how different light has different color strengths. Use this activity to introduce learners to the color spectrum and the tools scientists use to study it.

University, Colorado S.

2009-01-01

176

A Safety Program that Integrated Behavior-Based Safety and Traditional Safety Methods and Its Effects on Injury Rates of Manufacturing Workers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The present research examines the effects of a complex safety program that combined Behavior-Based Safety (BBS) and traditional safety methods. The study was conducted in an automobile parts plant in Mexico. Two sister plants served as comparison. Some of the components of the safety programs addressed behaviors of managers and included methods

Hermann, Jaime A.; Ibarra, Guillermo V.; Hopkins, B. L.

2010-01-01

177

Spectroscopic database  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several aspects of quantitative atmospheric spectroscopy are considered, using a classification of the molecules according to the gas amounts in the stratosphere and upper troposphere, and reviews of quantitative atmospheric high-resolution spectroscopic measurements and field measurements systems are given. Laboratory spectroscopy and spectral analysis and prediction are presented with a summary of current laboratory spectroscopy capabilities. Spectroscopic data requirements for accurate derivation of atmospheric composition are discussed, where examples are given for space-based remote sensing experiments of the atmosphere: the ATMOS (Atmospheric Trace Molecule) and UARS (Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite) experiment. A review of the basic parameters involved in the data compilations; a summary of information on line parameter compilations already in existence; and a summary of current laboratory spectroscopy studies are used to assess the data base.

Husson, N.; Barbe, A.; Brown, L. R.; Carli, B.; Goldman, A.; Pickett, H. M.; Roche, A. E.; Rothman, L. S.; Smith, M. A. H.

1985-01-01

178

Setting Passing Scores on Passage-Based Tests: A Comparison of Traditional and Single-Passage Bookmark Methods  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this study, a variation of the bookmark standard setting procedure for passage-based tests is proposed in which separate ordered item booklets are created for the items associated with each passage. This variation is compared to the traditional bookmark procedure for a fifth-grade reading test. The results showed that the single-passage…

Skaggs, Gary; Hein, Serge F.; Awuor, Risper

2007-01-01

179

A Comparison of the Effectiveness between Computer Aided Drafting and the Traditional Drafting Techniques as Methods of Teaching Pictorial and Multiview Drawings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of teaching multiview and pictorial drawing using traditional methods and using computer-aided drafting (CAD). Research used a quasi-experimental design; subjects were 37 full- and part-time undergraduate students in industrial technology or technology education courses. The students were…

Kashef, Ali E.

180

Comparison of the Effects of Cooperative Learning and Traditional Learning Methods on the Improvement of Drug-Dose Calculation Skills of Nursing Students Undergoing Internships  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of cooperative learning and traditional learning methods on the development of drug-calculation skills. Design: Final-year nursing students ("n" = 85) undergoing internships during the 2010-2011 academic year at a nursing school constituted the study group of this…

Basak, Tulay; Yildiz, Dilek

2014-01-01

181

A Focus on Problems of National Interest in the College General Chemistry Laboratory: The Effects of the Problem-Oriented Method Compared with Those of the Traditional Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was designed to assess the effects of the problem-oriented method compared to those of the traditional approach in general chemistry at the college level. The problem-oriented course included topics such as air and water pollution, drug addiction and analysis, tetraethyl-lead additives, insecticides in the environment, and recycling of…

Neman, Robert Lynn

182

Researches of the atmosphere carried out at the Kharkov National University of RadioElectronics (Ukraine): traditions, methods and results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Over many years a number of scientific subdivisions at Kharkov National University of RadioElectronics (KhNURE, Ukraine) has been carrying out researches of the atmosphere, these subdivisions have the settled scientific traditions and known scientific schools. The sources of some directions in the atmospheric researches are related to the International Geophysical Year 1957\\/8 and the subsequent prestigious international geophysical projects, and

Svitlana Kolomiyets; Mykola Slipchenko; Mykhaylo Lagutin; Volodymyr Kartashchov; Stanislav Babkin; Volodymyr Chumakov; Georgiy Nesterenko

2008-01-01

183

Modern vs. Traditional.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article discusses traditional methods, such as the grammar-translation, and modern methods, the communicative approach, for teaching English-as-a-foreign-language in China. The relationship between linguistic accuracy and communicative competence, student-centered orientation, and the role of the teacher are highlighted. (Author/VWL)

Zhenhui, Rao

1999-01-01

184

Investigation of a half-wave method for birefringence or thickness measurements of a thick, semitransparent, uniaxial, anisotropic substrate by use of spectroscopic ellipsometry.  

PubMed

A half-wave method of measurement of wafer birefringence that is based on interference fringes recorded from a uniaxial wafer by use of a standard phase-modulated spectroscopic ellipsometer is investigated. The birefringence of uniaxial wafers is calculated from the extremal points in the recorded oscillating intensities. A formalism is developed to incorporate the change in birefringence with wavelength as a correction factor. The correction explains the overestimation of the birefringence from previous similar research on thick uniaxial sapphire substrates. The enhanced derivative of the birefringence that is due to polarization-dependent intraconduction band transitions is detected. Furthermore, for well-characterized wafers it is shown that this method can be used in wafer-thickness mapping of 4H-SiC and similar uniaxial high-bandgap semiconductors. PMID:18350056

Kildemo, M; Mooney, M; Sudre, C; Kelly, P V

2000-09-01

185

Studies on the interactions of SAP-1 (an N-terminal truncated form of cystatin S) with its binding partners by CD-spectroscopic and molecular docking methods.  

PubMed

SAP-1 is a 113 amino acid long single-chain protein which belongs to the type 2 cystatin gene family. In our previous study, we have purified SAP-1 from human seminal plasma and observed its cross-class inhibitory property. At this time, we report the interaction of SAP-1 with diverse proteases and its binding partners by CD-spectroscopic and molecular docking methods. The circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopic studies demonstrate that the conformation of SAP-1 is changed after its complexation with proteases, and the alterations in protein secondary structure are quantitatively calculated with increase of ?-helices and reduction of ?-strand content. To get insight into the interactions between SAP-1 and proteases, we make an effort to model the three-dimensional structure of SAP-1 by molecular modeling and verify its stability and viability through molecular dynamics simulations and finally complexed with different proteases using ClusPro 2.0 Server. A high degree of shape complementarity is examined within the complexes, stabilized by a number of hydrogen bonds (HBs) and hydrophobic interactions. Using HB analyses in different protein complexes, we have identified a series of key residues that may be involved in the interactions between SAP-1 and proteases. These findings will assist to understand the mechanism of inhibition of SAP-1 for different proteases and provide intimation for further research. PMID:24261636

Yadav, Vikash Kumar; Mandal, Rahul Shubhra; Puniya, Bhanwar Lal; Singh, Sarman; Yadav, Savita

2015-01-01

186

Is DNA Barcoding Actually Cheaper and Faster than Traditional Morphological Methods: Results from a Survey of Freshwater Bioassessment Efforts in the United States?  

PubMed Central

Taxonomic identification accounts for a substantial portion of cost associated with bioassessment programs across the United States. New analytical approaches, such as DNA barcoding have been promoted as a way to reduce monitoring costs and improve efficiency, yet this assumption has not been thoroughly evaluated. We address this question by comparing costs for traditional morphology-based bioassessment, the standard Sanger sequencing-based DNA barcoding approach, and emerging next-generation (NGS) molecular methods. Market demand for molecular approaches is also assessed through a survey of the level of freshwater bioassessment effort in the United States across multiple habitat types (lakes, streams, wetlands) and indicators (benthic invertebrates, fish, algae). All state and regional level programs administered by public agencies and reported via agency web sites were included in the survey. Costs were based on surveys of labs and programs willing to provide such information. More than 19,500 sites are sampled annually across the United States, with the majority of effort occurring in streams. Benthic invertebrates are the most commonly used indicator, but algae and fish comprise between 35% and 21% of total sampling effort, respectively. We estimate that between $104 and $193 million is spent annually on routine freshwater bioassessment in the United States. Approximately 30% of the bioassessment costs are comprised of the cost to conduct traditional morphology-based taxonomy. Current barcoding costs using Sanger sequencing are between 1.7 and 3.4 times as expensive as traditional taxonomic approaches, excluding the cost of field sampling (which is common to both approaches). However, the cost of NGS methods are comparable (or slightly less expensive) than traditional methods depending on the indicator. The promise of barcoding as a cheaper alternative to current practices is not yet realized, although molecular methods may provide other benefits, such as a faster sample processing and increased taxonomic resolution. PMID:24755838

Stein, Eric D.; Martinez, Maria C.; Stiles, Sara; Miller, Peter E.; Zakharov, Evgeny V.

2014-01-01

187

A vascular smooth muscle\\/cell membrane chromatography–offline-gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry method for recognition, separation and identification of active components from traditional Chinese medicines  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe an analytical method of vascular smooth muscle cell membrane chromatography (VSM\\/CMC) combined with gas chromatography\\/mass spectrometry (GC\\/MS) for recognition, separation and identification of active components from traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs). VSM cells by means of primary culture with rat thoracic aortas were used for preparation of the stationary phase in the CMC model. Retention components by the VSM–CMC

Xiaofang Hou; Mingzhe Zhou; Qiao Jiang; Sicen Wang; Langchong He

2009-01-01

188

Development of an HPLC Method for the Quality Evaluation of ‘Ge-Gen-Qin-Lian’ Tablets Derived from Traditional Chinese Medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

‘Ge-Gen-Qin-Lian’ tablets, made from three important medicinal plants (Radix Puerariae, Radix Scutellaria, and Rhizoma Coptidis), are derived from a traditional Chinese medicine named ‘Ge-Gen-Qin-Lian-Tang’. ‘Ge-Gen-Qin-Lian’ tablets are a widely used\\u000a botanical drug in China, and can be purchased at the counter. In this study, an HPLC method was developed for the quantification\\u000a of five important components (puerarin, berberine, baicalin, baicalein

H. B. Qu; Y. H. Ma; K. Yu; Y. Y. Cheng

2007-01-01

189

Modernization of traditional acupuncture using multimodal computer-based high-tech methods-recent results of blue laser and teleacupuncture from the Medical University of Graz.  

PubMed

Basic and clinical research in traditional Chinese and Korean acupuncture has been performed at the Research Unit of Biomedical Engineering in Anesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine and the Traditional Chinese Medicine Research Center at the Medical University of Graz since 1997. This publication focuses on the latest innovative aspects that underline the further enhancement and development of acupuncture. In this context, novel biomedical and neuroscientific methods are of paramount importance for the fast and efficient modernization of the ancient Asian healing method. Traditional and future oriented acupuncture stimulation methods can be divided into manual needle, laser needle (blue, red and infrared laser light) and electrical punctual stimulation at the body, hand and ear. Special emphasis in this research article is given to totally new technical and methodological investigations, e.g. the first data published worldwide in medicine obtained with new blue laser acupuncture equipment. In this regard, critical summary and recent results from peripheral and central measurements during acupuncture stimulation using high-tech bioengineering assessment are given. In addition, we describe the first teleacupuncture performed between Asia and Europe. PMID:20633493

Litscher, Gerhard

2009-09-01

190

Comparing two methods of education (virtual versus traditional) on learning of Iranian dental students: a post-test only design study  

PubMed Central

Background The importance of using technologies such as e-learning in different disciplines is discussed in the literature. Researchers have measured the effectiveness of e-learning in a number of fields. Considering the lack of research on the effectiveness of online learning in dental education particularly in Iran, the advantages of these learning methods and the positive university atmosphere regarding the use of online learning. This study, therefore, aims to compare the effects of two methods of teaching (virtual versus traditional) on student learning. Methods This post-test only design study approached 40, fifth year dental students of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. From this group, 35 students agreed to participate. These students were randomly allocated into two groups, experimental (virtual learning) and comparison (traditional learning). To ensure similarity between groups, we compared GPAs of all participants by the Mann–Whitney U test (P?>?0.05). The experimental group received a virtual learning environment courseware package specifically designed for this study, whereas the control group received the same module structured in a traditional lecture form. The virtual learning environment consisted of online and offline materials. Two identical valid, reliable post-tests that consisted of 40 multiple choice questions (MCQs) and 4 essay questions were administered immediately (15 min) after the last session and two months later to assess for knowledge retention. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 20. Results A comparison of the mean knowledge score of both groups showed that virtual learning was more effective than traditional learning (effect size?=?0.69). Conclusion The newly designed virtual learning package is feasible and will result in more effective learning in comparison with lecture-based training. However further studies are needed to generalize the findings of this study. PMID:24597923

2014-01-01

191

A comparative study on the traditional Indian Shodhana and Chinese processing methods for aconite roots by characterization and determination of the major components  

PubMed Central

Background Aconitum is an indispensable entity of the traditional medicine therapy in Ayurveda and Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), in spite of its known fatal toxicity characteristics. The prolonged use of this drug, irrespective of its known lethal effects, is governed by the practice of effective detoxification processes that have been used for decades. However, the processing methods of Ayurveda and TCM are different, and no comparative study has been carried out to evaluate their differences. The objective of the present study was to carry out comparative chemical profiling of the roots of Aconitum heterophyllum Wall, A. carmichaelii Debx., and A. kusnezoffii Reichb. after application of two detoxification methods used in Ayurveda and one method used in TCM . Results Analysis of the processed samples was carried out by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography combined with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF/MS). The results obtained in the study demonstrate that all three processing methods used in Ayurveda and TCM effectively extract the diester diterpenoid alkaloids and led to their conversion into monoester diterpenoid alkaloids. The efficiency of the processes in reduction of toxic alkaloid contents can be stated as: Processing with water?>?Shodhana with cow milk?>?Shodhana with cow urine. The analysis method was validated as per ICH-Q2R1 guidelines and all the parameters were found to comply with the recommendations stated in the guidelines. Conclusions There have been no reports till date, to compare the processing methods used in Ayurveda with the methods used in TCM for detoxification of aconite roots. Our study demonstrates that, these methods used in both the traditional systems of medicine, efficiently detoxify the aconite roots. Amongst the three selected procedures, the TCM method of decoction with water is the most efficient. Through experimental evidences, we prove the conversion of toxic diester diterpenoid alkaloids to relatively safer monoester diterpenoid alkaloids. Thus, this study demonstrates that comparative study on the traditional experiences accumulated in different medical systems is useful for expanding their respective applications. PMID:24156713

2013-01-01

192

A new microwave spectroscope  

E-print Network

A NEW MICROWAVE SPECTROSCOPE A Dissertation By Andrew E. Sail* June 1951 Approved as to style and content by Chairman of Com ttee A NEW MICROWAVE SPECTROSCOPE A Dissertation Submitted to the Faculty of the Agricultural and Mechanical.... THEORETICAL APPROACH TO THE DESIGNING OP A MICROWAVE SPECTROSCOPE .................... 7 III. DESIGN OF THE EXPERIMENTAL MICROWAVE SPECTROSCOPE .......................... 14 Microwave Source .............................. 17 Microwave Circuit...

Salis, Andrew E.

2013-10-04

193

Two novel butanol rhamnosides from an Indian traditional herb, Euphorbia hirta  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two novel butanol rhamnopyranosides (1 and 2), along with nine known compounds (3–11), have been isolated from various non-polar and polar extracts of an Indian traditional herb, Euphorbia hirta. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated as n-butyl-1-O-?-L-rhamnopyranoside (1) and n-butyl-1-O-?-L-rhamnopyranoside (2) by spectroscopic methods including IR, HR-FABMS, 1D and 2D NMR techniques.

U. V. Mallavadhani; K. Narasimhan

2009-01-01

194

Two novel butanol rhamnosides from an Indian traditional herb, Euphorbia hirta.  

PubMed

Two novel butanol rhamnopyranosides (1 and 2), along with nine known compounds (3-11), have been isolated from various non-polar and polar extracts of an Indian traditional herb, Euphorbia hirta. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated as n-butyl-1-O-beta-L-rhamnopyranoside (1) and n-butyl-1-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranoside (2) by spectroscopic methods including IR, HR-FABMS, 1D and 2D NMR techniques. PMID:19401919

Mallavadhani, U V; Narasimhan, K

2009-01-01

195

Virtual Reality Anatomy: Is It Comparable with Traditional Methods in the Teaching of Human Forearm Musculoskeletal Anatomy?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of cadavers to teach anatomy is well established, but limitations with this approach have led to the introduction of alternative teaching methods. One such method is the use of three-dimensional virtual reality computer models. An interactive, three-dimensional computer model of human forearm anterior compartment musculoskeletal anatomy…

Codd, Anthony M.; Choudhury, Bipasha

2011-01-01

196

Insight into the roles of earthworm in vermicomposting of sewage sludge by determining the water-extracts through chemical and spectroscopic methods.  

PubMed

This work illustrated the effects of earthworm in vermicomposting (Eisenia fetida) by determining the water-extracts through chemical and spectroscopic methods. A field experiment with sludge as the only feed was subjected to vermicomposting and the control (without worms) for three weeks. Compared to the control, vermicomposting resulted in lower pH and water-extractable organic carbon (WEOC) along with higher electrical conductivity (EC). Moreover, vermicomposting caused nearly two times higher content of water-extractable nitrate (WEN-NO3(-)) than the control. Furthermore, fourier transform infrared spectra (FT-IR) revealed that vermicomposting promoted the hydrolysis/transformation of macromolecular organic matters and accelerated the degradation of polysaccharide-like and protein-like materials. Fluorescence spectroscopy also reflected vermicomposting led to higher humification degree than the control. In all, this study supplies a new view to assess the roles of earthworm in vermicomposting of sewage sludge by evaluating the water extracts. PMID:24384315

Yang, Jian; Lv, Baoyi; Zhang, Jie; Xing, Meiyan

2014-02-01

197

What Role Do Traditional Beliefs Play in Treatment Seeking and Delay for Buruli Ulcer Disease?–Insights from a Mixed Methods Study in Cameroon  

PubMed Central

Background Victims of Buruli ulcer disease (BUD) frequently report to specialized units at a late stage of the disease. This delay has been associated with local beliefs and a preference for traditional healing linked to a reportedly mystical origin of the disease. We assessed the role beliefs play in determining BUD sufferers’ choice between traditional and biomedical treatments. Methods Anthropological fieldwork was conducted in community and clinical settings in the region of Ayos and Akonolinga in Central Cameroon. The research design consisted of a mixed methods study, triangulating a qualitative strand based on ethnographic research and quantitative data obtained through a survey presented to all patients at the Ayos and Akonolinga hospitals (N?=?79) at the time of study and in four endemic communities (N?=?73) belonging to the hospitals’ catchment area. Results The analysis of BUD sufferers’ health-seeking behaviour showed extremely complex therapeutic itineraries, including various attempts and failures both in the biomedical and traditional fields. Contrary to expectations, nearly half of all hospital patients attributed their illness to mystical causes, while traditional healers admitted patients they perceived to be infected by natural causes. Moreover, both patients in hospitals and in communities often combined elements of both types of treatments. Ultimately, perceptions regarding the effectiveness of the treatment, the option for local treatment as a cost prevention strategy and the characteristics of the doctor-patient relationship were more determinant for treatment choice than beliefs. Discussion The ascription of delay and treatment choice to beliefs constitutes an over-simplification of BUD health-seeking behaviour and places the responsibility directly on the shoulders of BUD sufferers while potentially neglecting other structural elements. While more efficacious treatment in the biomedical sector is likely to reduce perceived mystical involvement in the disease, additional decentralization could constitute a key element to reduce delay and increase adherence to biomedical treatment. PMID:22623964

Peeters Grietens, Koen; Toomer, Elizabeth; Um Boock, Alphonse; Hausmann-Muela, Susanna; Peeters, Hans; Kanobana, Kirezi; Gryseels, Charlotte; Ribera, Joan Muela

2012-01-01

198

Digital assist: A comparison of two note-taking methods (traditional vs. digital pen) for students with emotional behavioral disorders  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High school biology classes traditionally follow a lecture format to disseminate content and new terminology. With the inclusive practices of No Child Left Behind, the Common Core State Standards, and end-of-course exam requirement for high school diplomas, classes include a large range of achievement levels and abilities. Teachers assume, often incorrectly, that students come to class prepared to listen and take notes. In a standard diploma, high school biology class in a separate school for students with emotional and behavioral disorders, five students participated in a single-subject, alternating treatment design study that compared the use of regular pens and digital pens to take notes during 21 lecture sessions. Behavior measures were threefold between the two interventions: (a) quantity of notes taken per minute during lectures, (b) quantity of notes or notations taken during review pauses, and (c) percent of correct responses on the daily comprehension quizzes. The study's data indicated that two students were inclined to take more lecture notes when using the digital pen. Two students took more notes with the regular pen. One student demonstrated no difference in her performance with either pen type. Both female students took more notes per minute, on average, than the three males regardless of pen type. During the review pause, three of the five students only added notes or notations to their notes when using the regular pen. The remaining two students did not add to their notes. Quiz scores differed in favor of the regular pen. All five participants earned higher scores on quizzes given during regular pen sessions. However, the differences were minor, and recommendations are made for specific training in note-taking, the pause strategy, and digital pen fluency which may produce different results for both note-taking and quiz scores.

Rody, Carlotta A.

199

Benchmarking a new closed-form thermal analysis technique against a traditional lumped parameter, finite-difference method  

SciTech Connect

A benchmarking effort was conducted to determine the accuracy of a new analytic generic geology thermal repository model developed at LLNL relative to a more traditional, numerical, lumped parameter technique. The fast-running analytical thermal transport model assumes uniform thermal properties throughout a homogenous storage medium. Arrays of time-dependent heat sources are included geometrically as arrays of line segments and points. The solver uses a source-based linear superposition of closed form analytical functions from each contributing point or line to arrive at an estimate of the thermal evolution of a generic geologic repository. Temperature rise throughout the storage medium is computed as a linear superposition of temperature rises. It is modeled using the MathCAD mathematical engine and is parameterized to allow myriad gridded repository geometries and geologic characteristics [4]. It was anticipated that the accuracy and utility of the temperature field calculated with the LLNL analytical model would provide an accurate 'birds-eye' view in regions that are many tunnel radii away from actual storage units; i.e., at distances where tunnels and individual storage units could realistically be approximated as physical lines or points. However, geometrically explicit storage units, waste packages, tunnel walls and close-in rock are not included in the MathCAD model. The present benchmarking effort therefore focuses on the ability of the analytical model to accurately represent the close-in temperature field. Specifically, close-in temperatures computed with the LLNL MathCAD model were benchmarked against temperatures computed using geometrically-explicit lumped-parameter, repository thermal modeling technique developed over several years at ANL using the SINDAG thermal modeling code [5]. Application of this numerical modeling technique to underground storage of heat generating nuclear waste streams within the proposed YMR Site has been widely reported [6]. New SINDAG thermal models presented here share this same basic modeling approach.

Huff, K. D.; Bauer, T. H. (Nuclear Engineering Division)

2012-08-20

200

Relevance of V?k??yurveda and other traditional methods for organic production of nursery seedlings of useful plants.  

PubMed

Plant propagation is critical to augment the resource and has been the main concern for farmers and planters through history. India has evolved the science of V?k??yurveda to address the above issue. An effort is made here to review V?k??yurveda literature related to nursery techniques. Different libraries were visited and relevant review material obtained by hand search and from databases. Interaction with Sanskrit scholars and eminent scientists working in the field of V?k??yurveda, as well as the efforts of the authors of this paper, helped in the selection of pertinent literature. In the absence of original texts, authentic translations of the publications were referred. A conscious decision was made to limit the search to the fields of seed storage, pretreatment and nutrition of seedlings. To have a comparative account recent trends and literature on nursery technology were also examined. This was supplemented by interviews with traditional organic farmers. Our survey revealed that the time period of the literature pertaining to V?k??yurveda ranges from BCE 1200 to the present times. The subject has evolved from morphological descriptions and uses of plants, in texts such as ?gveda and Atharvaveda, to treatises dedicated solely to the art of growing plants like K??i-Par??ara and V?k??yurveda. It is also evident that there were important periods when more works appeared across subjects such as water divining, soil types, seed collection and storage, propagation, germination and sprouting, watering regimen, pest, and disease control. The review revealed that valuable information pertaining to nursery techniques is available in V?k??yurveda, which can be used in the development of nursery protocol. This will not only help in effective organic nursery management, but also ensure the health and livelihood security of the communities involved and effective waste management. PMID:25161333

Suresh, Geetha; Haridasan, K; Krishnamurthy, Kulithala Viswanathan

2013-07-01

201

Spectroscopic evaluation of thymol dissolved by different methods and influence on acaricidal activity against larvae of Rhipicephalus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae).  

PubMed

The acaricidal activity of three thymol formulations was investigated at five concentrations (1.25, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, and 10.0 mg/ml) on Rhipicephalus microplus larvae, and the behavior of its solubility in these formulations was analyzed. The thymol was dissolved in distilled water plus 1 % dimethylsulfoxide as adjuvant under two heating regimes (water bath in formulation 1 and hot plate in formulation 2) as well as without heating in 50 % ethanol and 50 % water (v/v). The acaricidal activity was assessed by the modified larval packet test, and the solubilization behavior was investigated by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, based on the Beer-Lambert law. With formulations 1 and 2, the mortality was greater than 95 % starting at the thymol concentrations of 5.0 and 7.5 mg/ml, respectively, while with formulation 3, this mortality level was reached starting at a concentration of 2.5 mg/ml, showing that the addition of ethanol in the solution enhanced the acaricidal action of thymol. This result was supported by the LC 90 values, which were 3.3, 2.4, and 1.6 mg/ml of thymol for formulations 1, 2, and 3, respectively. This result is related to the better solubility of thymol in the hydroethanolic formulation, since the spectroscopic analysis revealed that the thymol dissolved more completely in this formulation. This fact was evident once the R (2) obtained from the linear regression analysis of the relation absorbance × concentration of the formulations 1, 2, and 3 approached the optimal value (R (2)?=?1) in the following sequence: 1, 2, and 3 (0.717, 0.901, and 0.968, respectively). PMID:22797607

Daemon, Erik; Monteiro, Caio Márcio Oliveira; Maturano, Ralph; Senra, Tatiane Oliveira Souza; Calmon, Fernanda; Faza, Aline; de Azevedo Prata, Márcia Cristina; Georgopoulos, Stéfanos Leite; de Oliveira, Luiz Fernando Cappa

2012-11-01

202

An Improved MLVF Method and Its Comparison with Traditional MLVF, spa Typing, MLST/SCCmec and PFGE for the Typing of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus  

PubMed Central

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has become an important nosocomial pathogen, causing considerable morbidity and mortality. During the last 20 years, a variety of genotyping methods have been introduced for screening the prevalence of MRSA. In this study, we developed and evaluated an improved approach capillary gel electrophoresis based multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat fingerprinting (CGE/MLVF) for rapid MRSA typing. A total of 42 well-characterized strains and 116 non-repetitive clinical MRSA isolates collected from six hospitals in northeast China between 2009 and 2010 were tested. The results obtained by CGE/MLVF against clinical isolates were compared with traditional MLVF, spa typing, Multilocus sequence typing/staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (MLST/SCCmec) and pulse field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The discriminatory power estimated by Simpson’s index of diversity was 0.855 (28 types), 0.855 (28 patterns), 0.623 (11 types), 0.517 (8 types) and 0.854 (28 patterns) for CGE/MLVF, traditional MLVF, spa typing, MLST/SCCmec and PFGE, respectively. All methods tested showed a satisfied concordance in clonal complex level calculated by adjusted Rand’s coefficient. CGE/MLVF showed better reproducibility and accuracy than traditional MLVF and PFGE methods. In addition, the CGE/MLVF has potential to produce portable results. In conclusion, CGE/MLVF is a rapid and easy to use MRSA typing method with lower cost, good reproducibility and high discriminatory power for monitoring the outbreak and clonal spread of MRSA isolates. PMID:24406728

Du, Xue-Fei; Xiao, Meng; Liang, Hong-Yan; Sun, Zhe; Jiang, Yue-Hong; Chen, Guo-Yu; Meng, Xiao-Yu; Zou, Gui-Ling; Zhang, Li; Liu, Ya-Li; Zhang, Hui; Sun, Hong-Li; Jiang, Xiao-Feng; Xu, Ying-Chun

2014-01-01

203

[The complement fixation reaction: a traditional, updated method for the detection of antibodies in the diagnosis of infections].  

PubMed

Complement-fixation (CF) is still an important basic serologic test for the diagnosis of infectious diseases. In several areas of microbiology (viral, bacterial, parasitic and fungal) it has served as a reference standard against which other methods have been compared. Its partial displacement by other techniques, as advocated in some recent literature, is often unfounded and uncritical; displacement is mostly due not to problems inherent in the method, but rather to the lack of reagents of satisfactory quality. The CF technique has been greatly improved in recent years. Improvements include the replacement of reaction tubes with microtiter 96-well plate systems, the availability of semi-automated and automated pipetting devices, the wide range of commercially offered antigens (over 60, by far larger than the range of antigens available for other test systems), an extreme stability of freeze-dried reagents with shelf-lives over decades and, last but not least, low reagent costs (particularly if compared with some other methods). For some diseases CF is still the method of choice (Campylobacter jejuni, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Influenza A and B and some other respiratory viruses). CF has been recognized as a confirmatory test for Lyme disease (B. burgdorferi) and, probably, for Legionellosis. It has been used routinely for the follow-up of antibiotic treatment in syphilis and, recently, in Helicobacter pylori infections. A positive CF result is also indicative for the treatment of complications in Entamoeba histolytica carriers.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7651069

Jung, M; Brunner, S; Dobec, M

1995-01-01

204

Into the environment of mosquito-borne disease: A spatial analysis of vector distribution using traditional and remotely sensed methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spatially explicit information is increasingly available for infectious disease modeling. However, such information is reluctantly or inappropriately incorporated. My dissertation research uses spatially explicit data to assess relationships between landscape and mosquito species distribution and discusses challenges regarding accurate predictive risk modeling. The goal of my research is to use remotely sensed environmental information and spatial statistical methods to better

Heidi E. Brown

2007-01-01

205

Talk it up! Integrating traditional telephone research methodologies with e-Social Science tools, methods and practices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Opportunities for expanding the use of the telephone in social science research are now available through the integration of telephone research methods with new and emerging digital technology. This paper discusses some aspects of the use of the telephone in social science research and reports on the use of the telephone in research on the use of mobile communications technology

Collette Snowden

206

An Interactive Dynamic Model for Integrating Knowledge Management Methods and Knowledge Sharing Technology in a Traditional Classroom  

E-print Network

An Interactive Dynamic Model for Integrating Knowledge Management Methods and Knowledge Sharing and empiricalknowledgecollected during the learning process. Knowledge Management, an emerging area of Artificial Intelligence advantage and for sharing of technology. The Web-based model of knowledge management discussed here allows

Phoha, Vir V.

207

Determination of uncertainty in parameters extracted from single spectroscopic measurements  

E-print Network

The ability to quantify uncertainty in information extracted from spectroscopic measurements is important in numerous fields. The traditional approach of repetitive measurements may be impractical or impossible in some ...

Bechtel, Kate L.

208

Selection method of quasi-continuous wavelength combination with applications to the near-infrared spectroscopic analysis of soil organic matter.  

PubMed

Equidistant combination multiple linear regression (EC-MLR) for the quasi-continuous wavelength selection of spectroscopic analysis was proposed and successfully applied to the reagent-free determination of soil organic matter with near-infrared spectroscopy. For comparison, the continuous-mode moving window partial least squares (MWPLS) and the discrete-mode successive projections algorithm (SPA) were improved by considering the stability and applied to the same analysis object as well. All methods exhibited good effect, but the modeling accuracy, stability, and validation effect of EC-MLR were better than that of the other two methods. Compared with MWPLS, the optimal EC-MLR model contained only 16 wavelengths, and method complexity was substantially reduced. Compared with SPA-MLR, the optimal EC-MLR model could easily undergo spectral preprocessing to improve predictive capability. Moreover, appropriate equidistant discrete wavelength combination with EC-MLR corresponded to the spectral absorption band with proper resolution and can effectively overcome co-linearity interruption for the MLR model. Thus, the EC-MLR method has great potential in practical application and instrument design. PMID:24666942

Pan, Tao; Li, Minmiao; Chen, Jiemei

2014-03-01

209

Traditional Chinese Biotechnology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The earliest industrial biotechnology originated in ancient China and developed into a vibrant industry in traditional Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar. It is now a significant component of the Chinese economy valued annually at about 150 billion RMB. Although the production methods had existed and remained basically unchanged for centuries, modern developments in biotechnology and related fields in the last decades have greatly impacted on these industries and led to numerous technological innovations. In this chapter, the main biochemical processes and related technological innovations in traditional Chinese biotechnology are illustrated with recent advances in functional microbiology, microbial ecology, solid-state fermentation, enzymology, chemistry of impact flavor compounds, and improvements made to relevant traditional industrial facilities. Recent biotechnological advances in making Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar are reviewed.

Xu, Yan; Wang, Dong; Fan, Wen Lai; Mu, Xiao Qing; Chen, Jian

210

Comparison with traditional calibration Wide Area Camera Calibration Using  

E-print Network

Comparison with traditional calibration Wide Area Camera Calibration Using Virtual Calibration calibration object to solve for camera position. A space in which a comparison with traditional calibration method compares favorably with traditional calibration methods. Traditional calibration Virtual

Stanford University

211

Spectroscopic diffraction phase microscopy.  

PubMed

We present spectroscopic diffraction phase microscopy (sDPM) as a method capable of measuring quantitative phase images at multiple wavelengths. sDPM uses a spatial light modulator at the Fourier plane of a lens to select desired wavelengths from the white light illumination of a grating. The quantitative phase information at different wavelengths allows us to decouple the refractive index and the thickness from the phase shift induced by biological cells. We demonstrate the capability of the setup by dispersion measurements of microsphere beads and RBCs. PMID:23381283

Pham, Hoa; Bhaduri, Basanta; Ding, Huafeng; Popescu, Gabriel

2012-08-15

212

Total phosphorus reference condition for subalpine lakes: a comparison among traditional methods and a new process-based watershed approach.  

PubMed

Different methods for estimating the total phosphorus (TP) reference conditions of lakes have rarely been compared. This work tests the uncertainty and accuracy of the most frequently used approaches (Morpho-edaphic index -MEI-, export coefficient, diatoms and pigment-inferred TP models) for 35 subalpine lakes. Furthermore, we propose a new process-based watershed approach that was tested on a subalpine environment and consists of combining a space for time substitution with a space for space substitution. The possible presence of uncontaminated or less contaminated environments inside or next to the watershed can be exploited by training a hydrological transport watershed model according to the uncontaminated conditions and then applying the calibration to the entire watershed, which reconstructs a natural or semi-natural TP load scenario. We found that the root mean square error (RMSE) for the MEI is 4 ?g L(-1). However, its application is limited for lakes that present with an alkalinity ?1 meq L(-1). For lakes with a higher alkalinity, we observed a loss of predictive capability that results from the lower solubility of phosphorus under conditions of high calcium content. The export coefficient model was applied with a mean export coefficient and presents similar prediction capabilities as the MEI. The chlorophyll-inferred TP model shows a higher uncertainty (RMSE = 8 ?g L(-1)); however, it produced fewer underestimations and overestimations. With regards to the diatom-inferred TP model, we are only able to evaluate an uncertainty of 5 ?g L(-1) at the European level. Finally, the proposed process-based watershed approach adequately predicted the reference condition of the selected lake and had an uncertainty lower than the other methods (2 ?g L(-1)). We conclude by revealing the potential and limitations of this approach in the field of ecological lake modelling more and more attracted by TP pristine load inputs in studies on the effects of climate change and eutrophication of lakes. PMID:25014886

Salerno, Franco; Viviano, Gaetano; Carraro, Elisa; Manfredi, Emanuela Chiara; Lami, Andrea; Musazzi, Simona; Marchetto, Aldo; Guyennon, Nicolas; Tartari, Gianni; Copetti, Diego

2014-12-01

213

Pyrosequencing for assessing diversity of eukaryotic microbes: analysis of data on marine planktonic ciliates and comparison with traditional methods.  

PubMed

Assessing microbial diversity requires analysis of all three domains of life, including eukaryotic microbes. We examined the diversity of two ecologically important clades of microbial eukaryotes, ciliates in the subclasses Oligotrichia and Choreotrichia (class Spirotrichea), by comparing pyrosequencing to Sanger-sequenced clone libraries and microscopy. Using samples from a large temperate estuary (Long Island Sound, USA), we gained three major insights. First, richness estimates varied by up to one order of magnitude either using different criteria for pyrosequence processing or among pyrosequencing, cloning and microscopy, while taxon identification was almost always coherent. Error-correcting algorithms for pyrosequences ('denoising') reduced discrepancies in richness but also removed known morphospecies from the data. Second, although most of the pyrosequenced operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were distributed within known orders and families, we found evidence of a previously uncharacterized or unknown clade even in these ciliate lineages that have a rich history of morphological description. Third, pyrosequencing allowed the detection of OTUs that were either dominant or extremely rare in different samples. Our findings confirm the potential of pyrosequencing for quantifying microbial diversity, but also highlight the importance of careful evaluation of pyrosequence processing for using this method to address ecological questions. PMID:24444191

Santoferrara, Luciana F; Grattepanche, Jean-David; Katz, Laura A; McManus, George B

2014-09-01

214

Study of XAFS spectroscopic methods of speciation using mixtures of Cu(I) and Cu(II) chlorides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Speciation concerns determination of the chemical forms along with the relative quantities of the different species in a given sample. The aim of the present work is to make a comparative study of the different methods of speciation using X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy. For this purpose, mixtures have been prepared by mixing CuCl2 and CuCl in different proportions. The X-ray absorption spectra have been recorded at the copper K-edge in the mixtures and the two chlorides separately. The different characteristic features of the XANES spectra of the two chlorides, useful for speciation, have been identified. Firstly, Principal component analysis (PCA) and target transformation (TT) methods have been used to check the number and identity of components in the mixtures. After the identification of the components, the percentages of the species in the mixtures have been quantitatively determined by linear combination fitting (LCF) of XANES, derivative XANES, and EXAFS (k3chi and k2chi) spectra. The other methods of speciation which have been employed are normalized difference absorption edge spectra analysis (NDAES), methods based on derivative XANES spectra of species and the method based on the relative position of the absorption edge. Results obtained from these methods have been compared and their relative merits discussed. It is probably for the first time that such a study has been done. The first section in your paper

Gaur, A.; Shrivastava, B. D.; Khalid, S.

2013-04-01

215

The Nishino Breathing Method and Ki-energy (Life-energy): A Challenge to Traditional Scientific Thinking.  

PubMed

The breathing method, which was developed and is being taught by Kozo Nishino, a Japanese Ki-expert, is for raising the levels of Ki-energy (life-energy or the vitality) of an individual. It is neither a therapy nor a healing technique. However, many of his students have experienced an improvement in their health, and in some cases, they were able to overcome health problems by themselves. Since this is an interesting subject from the standpoint of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), we have been collaborating with Nishino to conduct a scientific investigation of his Ki-energy. We found that Nishino's Ki-energy can inhibit cell division of cancer cells, protect isolated mitochondria from heat deterioration and reduce lipid peroxidation in heat-treated mitochondria. Although Ki-energy may consist of several different energy forms, we found that at least one of them is near-infrared radiation between the wavelength range of 0.8 and 2.7 microm. Another interesting observation at his school is the Taiki-practice (paired Ki-practice). During this practice, Nishino can 'move' his students without any physical contact. Many of them run, jump or roll on the floor when they receive his Ki-energy. We studied this and propose that 'information' is conveyed through the air between two individuals by Ki-energy. This may be called a five sense-independent, life-to-life communication by Ki. All of our results suggest that we should re-evaluate the Cartesian dualism (separation of mind and body) which has been a fundamental principle of modern science for the past three centuries. PMID:16786048

Ohnishi, S Tsuyoshi; Ohnishi, Tomoko

2006-06-01

216

Improved method to visualize lipid distribution within arterial vessel walls by 1.7 ?m spectroscopic spectral-domain optical coherence tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report an improved method to visualize lipid distribution in axial and lateral direction within arterial vessel walls by spectroscopic spectral-domain Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) at 1.7?m wavelength for identification of lipidrich plaque that is suspected to cause coronary events. In our previous method, an extended InGaAs-based line camera detects an OCT interferometric spectrum from 1607 to 1766 nm, which is then divided into twenty subbands, and A-scan OCT profile is calculated for each subband, resulting in a tomographic spectrum. This tomographic spectrum is decomposed into lipid spectrum having an attenuation peak at 1730 nm and non-lipid spectrum independent of wavelength, and the weight of each spectrum, that is, lipid and non-lipid score is calculated. In this paper, we present an improved algorithm, in which we have combined the lipid score and the non-lipid score to derive a corrected lipid score. We have found that the corrected lipid score is better than the raw lipid score in that the former is more robust against false positive occurring due to abrupt change in reflectivity at vessel surface. In addition, we have optimized spatial smoothing filter and reduced false positive and false negative due to detection noise and speckle. We have verified this improved algorithm by the use of measuring data of normal porcine coronary artery and lard as a model of lipid-rich plaque and confirmed that both the sensitivity and the specificity of lard are 92%.

Hirano, Mitsuharu; Tonosaki, Shozo; Ueno, Takahiro; Tanaka, Masato; Hasegawa, Takemi

2014-02-01

217

Spectroscopic method for temperature measurements in active zone of AlxGa1-xAs DQW laser diodes  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new method for measurement of bulk temperature in the laser diode active zone using the spectral position of the peak gain is offered. The facet and bulk temperatures of a few diodes with output power from 1 to 10 W are measured. The obtained results allow us to conclude that the main reason for bulk temperature increasing is ohmic

A. J. Semjonov; B. Kolesov

1995-01-01

218

Mass spectroscopic fingerprinting method for differentiation between Scutellaria lateriflora and the germander (Teucrium canadense and T. chamaedrys) species.  

PubMed

Scutellaria lateriflora, commonly known as skullcap, is used as an ingredient in numerous herbal products. However, it has been occasionally adulterated/contaminated with Teucrium canadense and T. chamaedrys, commonly known as germander, which contain hepatotoxic diterpenes. Due to the morphological similarities between the two genera, analytical methodologies to distinguish authentic S. lateriflora from the Teucrium species are needed to ensure public safety. In this study, a direct-injection electrospray ionization/MS method was used to generate spectral fingerprints of extracts from 21 skullcap and germander samples at a rate of 90 s/sample. MS fingerprints were analyzed by principal component analysis. The newly developed method offers a rapid and easy way to differentiate between skullcap and germander samples. PMID:20922946

Chen, Pei; Lin, Long-Ze; Harnly, James M

2010-01-01

219

Mass Spectroscopic Fingerprinting Method for Differentiation Between Scutellaria lateriflora and the Germander (Teucrium canadense and T. chamaedrys) Species  

PubMed Central

Scutellaria lateriflora, commonly known as skullcap, is used as an ingredient in numerous herbal products. However, it has been occasionally adulterated/contaminated with Teucrium canadense and T. chamaedrys, commonly known as germander, which contain hepatotoxic diterpenes. Due to the morphological similarities between the two genera, analytical methodologies to distinguish authentic S. lateriflora from the Teucrium species are needed to ensure public safety. In this study, a direct-injection electrospray ionization/MS method was used to generate spectral fingerprints of extracts from 21 skullcap and germander samples at a rate of 90 s/sample. MS fingerprints were analyzed by principal component analysis. The newly developed method offers a rapid and easy way to differentiate between skullcap and germander samples. PMID:20922946

Chen, Pei; Lin, Long-Ze; Harnly, James M.

2013-01-01

220

Structural and spectroscopic properties of LaOF:Eu3+ nanocrystals prepared by the sol-gel Pechini method.  

PubMed

A new method was used to obtain Eu(3+)-doped LaOF nanocrystals. The obtained nanocrystals were synthesized for the first time using a modified Pechini sol-gel method. The products were analyzed by X-ray powder diffraction and the Rietveld method. Optimal conditions for the synthesis were found. Luminescent properties of the tetragonal and rhombohedral LaOF:Eu(3+) nanocrystals were investigated by collecting excitation and luminescence spectra. The most effective dopant concentrations in both hosts were found. Luminescent lifetimes were also measured. The time-resolved luminescent traces showed both a growth and a decay, which pointed to energy transfer processes between Eu(3+) ions in the LaOF host. In order to explain these phenomena, an adequate mechanism has been proposed. Intensity parameters ?(2), ?(4) and quantum efficiencies were calculated using the Judd-Ofelt theory, allowing for an extensive study of the luminescent properties of Eu(3+) ion in the LaOF matrix. PMID:21805994

Grzyb, Tomasz; Lis, Stefan

2011-09-01

221

Traditional Irrigated Agriculture in Oman  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional methods were developed to allow farmers to live in harmony with a harsh environment. The farming techniques employed required only limited inputs of capital and caused minimal disturbance to the environment. The patterns of production were truly sustainable and skills were passed from generation to generation. Traditional surface irrigation systems of aflaj provide more than 60 percent of the

Ahmed Salim Al-Marshudi

2001-01-01

222

A new method of observing weak extended x-ray sources with the Reuven Ramaty High-Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager  

SciTech Connect

We present a new method, fan-beam modulation, for observing weak extended x-ray sources with the Reuven Ramaty High-Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI). This space-based solar x-ray and {gamma}-ray telescope has much greater sensitivity than previous experiments in the 3-25 keV range, but is normally not well suited to detecting extended sources since their signal is not modulated by RHESSI's rotating grids. When the spacecraft is offpointed from the target source, however, the fan-beam modulation time-modulates the transmission by shadowing resulting from exploiting the finite thickness of the grids. In this article we detail how the technique is implemented and verify its consistency with sources with clear known signals that have occurred during RHESSI offpointing: microflares and the Crab Nebula. In both cases the results are consistent with previous and complementary measurements. Preliminary work indicates that this new technique allows RHESSI to observe the integrated hard x-ray spectrum of weak extended sources on the quiet Sun.

Hannah, Iain G.; Hurford, Gordon J.; Hudson, Hugh S.; Lin, Robert P. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720-7450 (United States)

2007-02-15

223

Spectroscopic and molecular structure investigation of 2-furanacrylic acid monomer and dimer using HF and DFT methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present work, we reported a combined experimental and theoretical study on molecular structure and vibrational spectra of 2-furanacrylic acid (abbreviated as 2FAA). The FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra of 2FAA have been recorded in the regions 4000-400 and 4000-100 cm-1. The spectra were interpreted in terms of fundamentals modes, combination and overtone bands. The monomer and dimer structures of the title molecule have been obtained from Hartree-Fock (HF) and density functional theory (DFT) B3LYP methods with 6-311++G(d,p) as basis set calculations. The vibrational frequencies were calculated by DFT method and compared with the experimental frequencies, which yield good agreement between observed and calculated frequencies. Intermolecular OH⋯O hydrogen bonds are discussed in dimer structure of the molecule. The infrared and Raman spectra were also predicted from the calculated intensities. The polarizability and first order hyperpolarizabilty of the title molecule were calculated and interpreted. A study on the electronic properties, such as excitation energies, oscillator strength, wavelengths, HOMO and LUMO energies, are performed by time-dependent DFT (TD-DFT) approach. In addition, Milliken atomic charges, possible charge transfer, natural bond orbital (NBO) and AIM topological analysis were performed. Moreover, molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) and the thermodynamic properties (heat capacity, entropy, and enthalpy) of the title compound at different temperatures were calculated in gas phase.

Ghalla, H.; Issaoui, N.; Govindarajan, M.; Flakus, H. T.; Jamroz, M. H.; Oujia, B.

2014-02-01

224

Are traditional methods of determining nest predators and nest fates reliable? An experiment with Wood Thrushes (Hylocichla mustelina) using miniature video cameras  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We used miniature infrared video cameras to monitor Wood Thrush (Hylocichla mustelina) nests during 1998-2000. We documented nest predators and examined whether evidence at nests can be used to predict predator identities and nest fates. Fifty-six nests were monitored; 26 failed, with 3 abandoned and 23 depredated. We predicted predator class (avian, mammalian, snake) prior to review of video footage and were incorrect 57% of the time. Birds and mammals were underrepresented whereas snakes were over-represented in our predictions. We documented ???9 nest-predator species, with the southern flying squirrel (Glaucomys volans) taking the most nests (n = 8). During 2000, we predicted fate (fledge or fail) of 27 nests; 23 were classified correctly. Traditional methods of monitoring nests appear to be effective for classifying success or failure of nests, but ineffective at classifying nest predators.

Williams, G.E.; Wood, P.B.

2002-01-01

225

A mass spectroscopic method for analysis of AHH-inducing and other polychlorinated biphenyl congeners and selected pesticides in fish  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The 209 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners exhibit a wide range in toxicity to fish, birds, and mammals. This paper discusses the use of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry negative chemical ionization (GC/MS-NCI) to quantify congeners of highly suspected toxicity such as IUPAC #77 (3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl) and #126 (3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl). GC/MS analysis time needed to produce the necessary resolution was reduced to 1 h per sample or standard, allowing an autosampler to inject 12 samples in 24 hours, plus 12 standards/QC samples. Identification and quantification of some 60+ congeners and several selected pesticides and estimation of total PCBs are also possible within the 1 h analysis. For congeners of high chlorination (penta through octa), the method exhibited excellent sensitivity, such that we could not locate a fish which exhibited PCB levels below our calibrated quantitation range. NCI was not as sensitive for mono through tri and for some tetrachlorinated PCB congeners, an exception being PCB #77, for which sensitivity was of the same order as for the more highly chlorinated biphenyls. Long term stability was excellent. Over a 6-mo period, results of replicate analyses for PCB congeners and pesticides in a composited sample of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from Lake Michigan had a relative standard deviation of 12% of the mean. Over the same time period, mean recoveries for samples spiked at concentrations similar to those in Lake Michigan lake trout were 90-102%. Response was linear over a wide range of concentrations for each of the analyzed compounds. This method is now being used for routine analysis of PCB congeners and selected pesticides in our laboratory.

Schmidt, Larry J.; Hesselberg, Robert J.

1992-01-01

226

Quality of life, coping strategies and support needs of women seeking Traditional Chinese Medicine for infertility and viable pregnancy in Australia: a mixed methods approach  

PubMed Central

Background Infertility affects about 15% of couples in Western-societies with most progressing to fertility clinics for treatment. Despite being common, infertility is often experienced as a lonely road for affected couples. In this paper we expand on our previously published findings of women’s experiences with infertility or difficulty of viable pregnancy who had sought Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) therapy in Australia, and focus on women’s quality of life, coping strategies, and support needs. Methods We applied mixed methods using the Tuebingen Quality of Life and the COPE questionnaires and in-depth interviews with 25 women with primary or secondary infertility, recurrent miscarriages or unexplained stillbirth, and who had consulted a TCM practitioner. We used a thematic approach to analyse the interviews, and descriptive statistics to evaluate questionnaire responses. Results Women reported through both questionnaires and interviews compromised quality of life due to the high level of distress, guilt, grief, and frustration caused by infertility. However, our women represented a highly motivated sample, actively seeking alternative support. While the TCM approach to infertility management increased women’s sense of personal agency and control through education and continuity of care, the need for greater understanding and support on a societal level remains. Conclusions In infertility, ongoing emotional and instrumental support is pivotal to the wellbeing and quality of life of the affected. Traditional Chinese Medicine addresses some support needs in infertility not routinely available in the Western model of care. More peer-led and professional-led support groups are greatly needed for women experiencing infertility to help break isolation and raise awareness of integrative approaches to fertility management. PMID:23570255

2013-01-01

227

Challenging tradition in Nigeria.  

PubMed

In Nigeria since 1987, the National Association of Nigeria Nurses and Midwives (NSNNM) has used traditional medial and traditional health care workers to curtail the practice of female circumcision. Other harmful traditions are being changed also, such as early marriage, taboos of pregnancy and childbirth, and scarification. 30,000 member of NANNM are involved in this effort to halt the harmful practices themselves and to change community opinion. The program involved national and state level workshops on harmful health consequences of traditional practices and instruction on how to conduct focus group discussions to assess women's beliefs and practices. The focus groups were found to be a particularly successful method of opening up discussion of taboo topics and expressing deep emotions. The response to the knowledge that circumcision was not necessary was rage and anger, which was channeled into advocacy roles or change in the practice. The result was the channeled into advocacy roles for change in the practice. The result was the development of books, leaflets and videos. One community group designed a dress with a decorative motif of tatoos and bodily cuts to symbolize circumcision and scarring. Plays and songs were written and performed. Artists provided models of female genitalia both before and after circumcision. The campaign has been successful in bringing this issue to the public attention in prominent ways, such a national television, health talk shows, and women;s magazines. One of the most important results of the effort has been the demonstration that culture and tradition can be changed from within, rather than from outside imposition of values and beliefs. PMID:12284522

Supriya, K E

1991-01-01

228

Near-infrared spectroscopic observation of the ageing process in archaeological wood using a deuterium exchange method.  

PubMed

The ageing degradation of the fine wood structure of dry-exposed archaeological wood was investigated by Fourier transform near-infrared spectroscopy with the aid of a deuterium exchange method. The archaeological wood sample was taken from an old wooden temple in Japan (late 7th century), which has been designated as a UNESCO world heritage site. Comparing the analytical results with those of a modern wood sample of the same species, the ageing process of archaeological wood was clarified as a change in the state of order on a macromolecular structural level. It can be concluded from NIR spectra that the amorphous region, and partially semi-crystalline region, in cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin decreased by the ageing degradation, whereas the crystalline region in cellulose was not affected by the ageing. The accessibility of the diffusant to effect H/D-exchange was monitored by an OH-related absorption band obtained from FT-NIR transmission spectroscopy and characteristically varied with the ageing process of the wood samples, the absorption bands characteristic of a specific state of order and the diffusion agent. Finally, we proposed a morphological model to describe the variation of the fine structure of the microfibrils in the cell wall with ageing degradation. The state of microfibrils changed loosely by ageing, so that elementary fibrils were arranged loosely under 5 A, whereas several elementary fibrils in the modern wood were arranged in very close proximity under 3 A to each other. PMID:15724168

Tsuchikawa, Satoru; Yonenobu, Hitoshi; Siesler, H W

2005-03-01

229

Spectroscopic investigations on the synthesis of nano-hydroxyapatite from calcined eggshell by hydrothermal method using cationic surfactant as template  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present work reports the successful synthesis of nano-hydroxyapatite, Ca 10(PO 4) 6(OH) 2 (denoted HAP) from calcined eggshell by hydrothermal method using cationic surfactant (CTAB) as regulator of nucleation and crystal growth. The reaction involved in the synthesis was studied elaborately. The influence of reaction temperature, ageing time and CTAB concentration on the synthesis of nano-HAP are also studied in addition to the effect of sintering temperature on the crystal growth. Spectral characterization involving Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques were performed for functional group analysis and phase identification of the materials, respectively. Thermal stability of nano-HAP was investigated by thermal analysis (TG/DTA). The physical characteristics, such as morphology and particle size of the synthesized nano-HAP were assessed thoroughly by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques. The results have revealed that well-crystallized nano-HAP was synthesized by hydrothermal treatment at 160 °C for 10 h with the addition of CTAB at critical micelle concentration (CMC). It was also found that the synthesized nano-HAP was thermally stable up to 1100 °C.

Prabakaran, K.; Rajeswari, S.

2009-12-01

230

Chiral selectors for enantioresolution and quantitation of the antidepressant drug fluoxetine in pharmaceutical formulations by (19)F NMR spectroscopic method.  

PubMed

(19)F NMR spectroscopy was applied to the quantitative determination of fluoxetine enantiomers using different chiral recognition agents in pharmaceutical formulations. Several parameters affecting the enantioresolution including the type and concentration of chiral selector, concentration of fluoxetine and temperature were studied. The chiral selectors investigated are the cyclic oligosaccharides alpha-, beta- and gamma-cyclodextrin and a diamino derivative of methylated alpha-cyclodextrin (DAM-alpha-CD), linear polysaccharides (maltodextrin with dextrose equivalents of 4.0-7.0, 13.0-17.0 and 16.5-19.5) and the macrocyclic antibiotic vancomycin. Among the chiral selectors used, DAM-alpha-CD turned out to give the best resolution of the (19)F NMR signals of (R)- and (S)-fluoxetine. The calibration curve was linear for (R)- and (S)-fluoxetine over the range 0.10-1.35 mgmL(-1), the detection limits (S/N=3) being 5.9 and 7.5 microgmL(-1) for the pure solutions of (R)- and (S)-fluoxetine, respectively. The recovery studies performed on pharmaceutical samples ranged from about 90 to 110% with relative standard deviations of <8%. The results showed that the proposed method is rapid, precise and accurate. Applying statistical Student's t-test revealed insignificant difference between the real and measured contents at the 95% confidence level. PMID:17904479

Shamsipur, Mojtaba; Dastjerdi, Leila Shafiee; Haghgoo, Soheila; Armspach, Dominique; Matt, Dominique; Aboul-Enein, Hassan Y

2007-10-01

231

Hardware and methods of the optical end-to-end test of the Far-Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer (FUSE)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The FUSE, successfully launched in June 1999, is an astrophysics satellite designed to provide high spectral resolving power over the interval 90.5-118.7 nm. The FUSE optical path consists of four co-aligned, normal incidence, off-axis parabolic mirrors which illuminate separate Rowland circle spectrograph channels equipped with holographic gratings and delay line microchannel plate detectors. We describe the hardware and methods used for the optical 'end- to-end' test of the FUSE instrument during satellite integration and test. Cost and schedule constraints forced us to devise a simplified version of the planned optical test which occurred in parallel with satellite thermal- vacuum testing. The optical test employed a collimator assembly which consisted of four co-aligned, 381 mm diameter Cassegrain telescopes positioned above the FUSE instrument, providing a collimated beam for each optical channel. A windowed UV light source, remotely adjustable in three axes, was mounted at the focal plane of each collimator. Problems with the UV light sources, including high f-number and window failures, were the only major difficulties encountered during the test. The test succeeded in uncovering a significant problem with the secondary structure used for the instrument cavity and, furthermore, showed that the mechanical solution was successful, the hardware was also used extensively for simulations of science observations, providing both UV light for spectra and visible light for the fine error sensor camera.

Conard, Steven J.; Redman, Kevin W.; Barkhouser, Robert H.; McGuffey, Douglas B.; Smee, Stephen; Ohl, Raymond G.; Kushner, Gary D.

1999-10-01

232

Investigation of trypsin-CdSe quantum dot interactions via spectroscopic methods and effects on enzymatic activity.  

PubMed

The paper presents the interactions between trypsin and water soluble cadmium selenide (CdSe) quantum dots investigated by spectrophotometric methods. CdSe quantum dots have strong ability to quench the intrinsic fluorescence of trypsin by a static quenching mechanism. The quenching has been studied at three different temperatures where the results revealed that electrostatic interactions exist between CdSe quantum dots and trypsin and are responsible to stabilize the complex. The Scatchard plot from quenching revealed 1 binding site for quantum dots by trypsin, the same has been confirmed by making isothermal titrations of quantum dots against trypsin. The distance between donor and acceptor for trypsin-CdSe quantum dot complexes is calculated to be 2.8 nm by energy transfer mechanisms. The intrinsic fluorescence of CdSe quantum dots has also been enhanced by the trypsin, and is linear for concentration of trypsin ranging 1-80 ?l. All the observations evidence the formation of trypsin-CdSe quantum dot conjugates, where trypsin retains the enzymatic activity which in turn is temperature and pH dependent. PMID:25011044

Kaur, Gurvir; Tripathi, S K

2015-01-01

233

Adapting traditional healing practices.  

PubMed

The Aboriginal people in Canada have been noted to have low self-esteem, subsequently increasing their risk of HIV. To this effect, two traditional healing practices are being used to help these people avoid HIV infection, and to live more healthily and positively if they are infected. The first method is the Medicine Wheel, which is a traditional model used to represent the complex interrelationship among all living things and show how their immune system is physically affected by their emotions and worries. Many Aboriginal AIDS Organizations, counselors and others are now using this AIDS teaching Wheel model. Meanwhile, the second method is the Sharing Circles, which provide an environment where people feel safe to talk about HIV and give participants a sense of support and a means for expression without stigma or judgement. As a result, many people who attend HIV circles begin to take better care of themselves and of others. Overall, it is emphasized that these traditional healing practices can be effectively adapted for use in HIV counseling and education. PMID:12296176

Weiser, J

1999-01-01

234

Land use/cover classification of small areas by conventional digital camcorder imagery: A comparative performance of traditional and advanced methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study aims to investigate the performance of digital camcorder datasets for land cover classification. The chosen study area was the Universiti Sains Malaysia campus in Penang, Peninsular Malaysia. We encountered difficulties in obtaining cloud-free scenes because Malaysia is an equatorial region. This problem can be overcome by using airborne images. Digital images were taken from a low-altitude light aircraft (Cessna 172Q) at an average altitude of 2.44 km above sea level. The color image was separated into three bands (i.e., red, green, and blue) for multispectral analysis. We compared the performance of traditional methods (i.e., minimum distance and maximum likelihood) and advanced methods (i.e., frequency-based contextual and neural network (NN) techniques). The classified land cover map was geometrically corrected to provide a geocode map. This study presents preliminary findings vis-à-vis the potential application of an ordinary digital camcorder in local urban studies. The NN classifier produced the best result among the tested methods. A high degree of accuracy was achieved by the NN technique.

Sim, C. K.; Lim, H. S.; Mat Jafri, M. Z.; Abdullah, K.

2013-05-01

235

Enhancement of Electron Spin Echo Envelope Modulation Spectroscopic Methods to Investigate the Secondary Structure of Membrane Proteins  

PubMed Central

This paper reports on a significant improvement of a new structural biology approach designed to probe the secondary structure of membrane proteins using the pulsed EPR technique of Electron Spin Echo Envelope Modulation (ESEEM) spectroscopy. Previously, we showed that we could characterize an ?-helical secondary structure with ESEEM spectroscopy using a 2H-labeled Val side chain coupled with site-directed spin-labeling (SDSL). In order to further develop this new approach, molecular dynamic (MD) simulations were conducted on several different hydrophobic residues that are commonly found in membrane proteins. 2H-SL distance distributions from the MD results indicated that 2H-labeled Leu was a very strong candidate to significantly improve this ESEEM approach. In order to test this hypothesis, the secondary structure of the ?-helical M2? peptide of the acetylcholine receptor (AChR) incorporated into a bicelle was investigated with 2H-labeled Leu d10 at position 10 (i) and nitroxide spin labels positioned 1, 2, 3 and 4 residues away (denoted i+1 to i+4) with ESEEM spectroscopy. The ESEEM data reveal a unique pattern that is characteristic of an ?-helix (3.6 residues per turn). Strong 2H modulation was detected for the i+3 and i+4 samples, but not for the i+2 sample. The 2H modulation depth observed for 2H-labeled d10 Leu was significantly enhanced (x4) when compared to previous ESEEM measurements that used 2H-labeled d8 Val. Computational studies indicate that deuterium nuclei on the Leu sidechain are closer to the spin label when compared to Val. The enhancement of 2H modulation and the corresponding Fourier Transform (FT) peak intensity for 2H-labeled Leu significantly reduces the ESEEM data acquisition time for Leu when compared to Val. This research demonstrates that a different 2H-labeled amino acid residue can be used as an efficient ESEEM probe further substantiating this important biophysical technique. Finally, this new method can provide pertinent qualitative structural information on membrane proteins in a short time (few minutes) at low sample concentrations (~50 ?M). PMID:22908896

Liu, Lishan; Sahu, Indra D.; Mayo, Daniel J.; McCarrick, Robert M.; Troxel, Kaylee; Zhou, Andy; Shockley, Erin; Lorigan, Gary A.

2012-01-01

236

Traditional Animation Keyframe Animation  

E-print Network

Animation Traditional Animation Keyframe Animation Interpolating Rotation Forward/Inverse Kinematics Traditional Animation Keyframe Animation Interpolating Rotation Forward/Inverse Kinematics #12;Overview · Animation techniques ­Performance-based (motion capture) ­Traditional animation (frame

Treuille, Adrien

237

THIS MONTHS TOPIC: TRADITIONAL  

E-print Network

THIS MONTHS TOPIC: TRADITIONAL KNOWLEDGE The Inuit view of how the Arctic is changing WITH SPECIAL GUESTS: Tusaqtuut Traditional Inuit Knowledge Initiative Elders Chairperson Jamesie Mike, Pangnirtung Tusaqtuut Traditional Knowledge Initiative Directors Project Director Meeka Mike, Iqaluit, Nunavut Southern

Garousi, Vahid

238

A Non-Biological Method for Screening Active Components against Influenza Virus from Traditional Chinese Medicine by Coupling a LC Column with Oseltamivir Molecularly Imprinted Polymers  

PubMed Central

To develop a non-biological method for screening active components against influenza virus from traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) extraction, a liquid chromatography (LC) column prepared with oseltamivir molecularly imprinted polymer (OSMIP) was employed with LC-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). From chloroform extracts of compound TCM liquid preparation, we observed an affinitive component m/z 249, which was identified to be matrine following analysis of phytochemical literatures, OSMIP-LC column on-line of control compounds and MS/MS off-line. The results showed that matrine had similar bioactivities with OS against avian influenza virus H9N2 in vitro for both alleviating cytopathic effect and hemagglutination inhibition and that the stereostructures of these two compounds are similar while their two-dimensional structures were different. In addition, our results suggested that the bioactivities of those affinitive compounds were correlated with their chromatographic behaviors, in which less difference of the chromatographic behaviors might have more similar bioactivities. This indicates that matrine is a potential candidate drug to prevent or cure influenza for human or animal. In conclusion, the present study showed that molecularly imprinted polymers can be used as a non-biological method for screening active components against influenza virus from TCM. PMID:24386385

Yang, Ya-Jun; Li, Jian-Yong; Liu, Xi-Wang; Zhang, Ji-Yu; Liu, Yu-Rong; Li, Bing

2013-01-01

239

Developing a library of authenticated Traditional Chinese Medicinal (TCM) plants for systematic biological evaluation--rationale, methods and preliminary results from a Sino-American collaboration.  

PubMed

While the popularity of and expenditures for herbal therapies (aka "ethnomedicines") have increased globally in recent years, their efficacy, safety, mechanisms of action, potential as novel therapeutic agents, cost-effectiveness, or lack thereof, remain poorly defined and controversial. Moreover, published clinical trials evaluating the efficacy of herbal therapies have rightfully been criticized, post hoc, for their lack of quality assurance and reproducibility of study materials, as well as a lack of demonstration of plausible mechanisms and dosing effects. In short, clinical botanical investigations have suffered from the lack of a cohesive research strategy which draws on the expertise of all relevant specialties. With this as background, US and Chinese co-investigators with expertise in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), botany, chemistry and drug discovery, have jointly established a prototype library consisting of 202 authenticated medicinal plant and fungal species that collectively represent the therapeutic content of the majority of all commonly prescribed TCM herbal prescriptions. Currently housed at Harvard University, the library consists of duplicate or triplicate kilogram quantities of each authenticated and processed species, as well as "detanninized" extracts and sub-fractions of each mother extract. Each species has been collected at 2-3 sites, each separated geographically by hundreds of miles, with precise GPS documentation, and authenticated visually and chemically prior to testing for heavy metals and/or pesticides contamination. An explicit decision process has been developed whereby samples with the least contamination were selected to undergo ethanol extraction and HPLC sub-fractionation in preparation for high throughput screening across a broad array of biological targets including cancer biology targets. As envisioned, the subfractions in this artisan collection of authenticated medicinal plants will be tested for biological activity individually and in combinations (i.e., "complex mixtures") consistent with traditional ethnomedical practice. This manuscript summarizes the rationale, methods and preliminary "proof of principle" for the establishment of this prototype, authenticated medicinal plant library. It is hoped that these methods will foster scientific discoveries with therapeutic potential and enhance efforts to systematically evaluate commonly used herbal therapies worldwide. PMID:21108995

Eisenberg, David M; Harris, Eric S J; Littlefield, Bruce A; Cao, Shugeng; Craycroft, Jane A; Scholten, Robert; Bayliss, Peter; Fu, Yanling; Wang, Wenquan; Qiao, Yanjiang; Zhao, Zhongzhen; Chen, Hubiao; Liu, Yong; Kaptchuk, Ted; Hahn, William C; Wang, Xiaoxing; Roberts, Thomas; Shamu, Caroline E; Clardy, Jon

2011-01-01

240

Developing a library of authenticated Traditional Chinese Medicinal (TCM) plants for systematic biological evaluation -- Rationale, methods and preliminary results from a Sino-American collaboration?  

PubMed Central

While the popularity of and expenditures for herbal therapies (aka “ethnomedicines”) have increased globally in recent years, their efficacy, safety, mechanisms of action, potential as novel therapeutic agents, cost-effectiveness, or lack thereof, remain poorly defined and controversial. Moreover, published clinical trials evaluating the efficacy of herbal therapies have rightfully been criticized, post hoc, for their lack of quality assurance and reproducibility of study materials, as well as a lack of demonstration of plausible mechanisms and dosing effects. In short, clinical botanical investigations have suffered from the lack of a cohesive research strategy which draws on the expertise of all relevant specialties. With this as background, US and Chinese co-investigators with expertise in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), botany, chemistry and drug discovery, have jointly established a prototype library consisting of 202 authenticated medicinal plant and fungal species that collectively represent the therapeutic content of the majority of all commonly prescribed TCM herbal prescriptions. Currently housed at Harvard University, the library consists of duplicate or triplicate kilogram quantities of each authenticated and processed species, as well as “detanninized” extracts and sub-fractions of each mother extract. Each species has been collected at 2–3 sites, each separated geographically by hundreds of miles, with precise GPS documentation, and authenticated visually and chemically prior to testing for heavy metals and/or pesticides contamination. An explicit decision process has been developed whereby samples with the least contamination were selected to undergo ethanol extraction and HPLC sub-fractionation in preparation for high throughput screening across a broad array of biological targets including cancer biology targets. As envisioned, the subfractions in this artisan collection of authenticated medicinal plants will be tested for biological activity individually and in combinations (i.e., “complex mixtures”) consistent with traditional ethnomedical practice. This manuscript summarizes the rationale, methods and preliminary “proof of principle” for the establishment of this prototype, authenticated medicinal plant library. It is hoped that these methods will foster scientific discoveries with therapeutic potential and enhance efforts to systematically evaluate commonly used herbal therapies worldwide. PMID:21108995

Eisenberg, David M.; Harris, Eric S.J.; Littlefield, Bruce A.; Cao, Shugeng; Craycroft, Jane A.; Scholten, Robert; Bayliss, Peter; Fu, Yanling; Wang, Wenquan; Qiao, Yanjiang; Zhao, Zhongzhen; Chen, Hubiao; Liu, Yong; Kaptchuk, Ted; Hahn, William C.; Wang, Xiaoxing; Roberts, Thomas; Shamu, Caroline E.; Clardy, Jon

2011-01-01

241

Modernization of Traditional Acupuncture Using Multimodal Computer-based High-tech Methods—Recent Results of Blue Laser and Teleacupuncture From the Medical University of Graz  

Microsoft Academic Search

Basic and clinical research in traditional Chinese and Korean acupuncture has been performed at the Research Unit of Biomedical Engineering in Anesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine and the Traditional Chinese Medicine Research Center at the Medical University of Graz since 1997. This publication focuses on the latest innovative aspects that underline the further enhancement and development of acupuncture. In this

Gerhard Litscher

2009-01-01

242

Application of molecular genetics method for differentiating Martes zibellina L. heart from its adulterants in traditional Chinese medicine based on mitochondrial cytochrome b gene.  

PubMed

The use of Martes zibellina L. heart as a famous kind of traditional Chinese medicine has been documented for many years in China. Identification of its authenticity as raw materials became a key in controlling of herbal preparations. In this study, the characteristics of mitochondrial cytochrome b (Cyt b) gene from four species of Martes were explored, and a specific molecular genetics technique for identifying the heart of M. zibellina L. in addition to some close relatives from their counterfeits was established. The bioinformatics was carried out to design the primers for the Cyt b gene based on the different species of Martes. PCR and sequencing technology were performed. The mt DNA was extracted from all of fresh M. zibellina L., Martes melampus. Martes flavigula. Martes martes heart samples and dry M. zibellina L. heart powder through the modified alkaline extracting method in addition to its counterfeits including the chicken heart, duck heart, goose heart, rabbit heart and Mustela vison. The complete mt DNA was separated from all samples used in the study, and the Cyt b gene with 310 bp segments was amplified only from M. zibellina L. heart as DNA template by the PCR technique. The sequencing indicated that the segment amplified by the PCR was homologous with the species of M. zibellina in GenBank. The data revealed that the primers and selected segment could be used as the genetic markers to identify M. zibellina L. heart from its counterfeits among different animal species. PMID:23919324

Li, Mingcheng; Xia, Wei; Wang, Miao; Yang, Mingyan; Zhang, Lihua; Guo, Jie

2014-02-01

243

Chemical and Physical Methods to Analyze a Multicomponent Traditional Chinese Herbal Prescription Using LC-MS/MS, Electron Microscope, and Congo Red Staining.  

PubMed

This study develops several chemical and physical methods to evaluate the quality of a traditional Chinese formulation, Jia-Wei-Xiao-Yao-San. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) coupled with electrospray ionization was used to measure the herbal biomarkers of saikosaponin A, saikosaponin D, ferulic acid, and paeoniflorin from this herbal formula. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) and light microscopy photographs with Congo red staining were used to identify the cellulose fibers if raw herbal powder had been added to the herbal pharmaceutical product. Moreover, water solubility and crude fiber content examination were used to inspect for potential herbal additives to the herbal pharmaceutical products. The results demonstrate that the contents of the herbal ingredients of saikosaponin A, saikosaponin D, ferulic acid, and paeoniflorin were around 0.351?±?0.017, 0.136?±?0.010, 0.140?±?0.005, and 2.281?±?0.406?mg/g, respectively, for this herbal pharmaceutical product. The physical examination data demonstrate that the raw herbal powder had rough, irregular, lumpy, filamentous, and elongated shapes, as well as strong Congo red staining. In addition, water solubility and crude fiber content were not consistent in the herbal pharmaceutical products. PMID:23997802

Lu, Chia-Ming; Hou, Mei-Ling; Lin, Lie-Chwen; Tsai, Tung-Hu

2013-01-01

244

Chemical and Physical Methods to Analyze a Multicomponent Traditional Chinese Herbal Prescription Using LC-MS/MS, Electron Microscope, and Congo Red Staining  

PubMed Central

This study develops several chemical and physical methods to evaluate the quality of a traditional Chinese formulation, Jia-Wei-Xiao-Yao-San. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) coupled with electrospray ionization was used to measure the herbal biomarkers of saikosaponin A, saikosaponin D, ferulic acid, and paeoniflorin from this herbal formula. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) and light microscopy photographs with Congo red staining were used to identify the cellulose fibers if raw herbal powder had been added to the herbal pharmaceutical product. Moreover, water solubility and crude fiber content examination were used to inspect for potential herbal additives to the herbal pharmaceutical products. The results demonstrate that the contents of the herbal ingredients of saikosaponin A, saikosaponin D, ferulic acid, and paeoniflorin were around 0.351?±?0.017, 0.136?±?0.010, 0.140?±?0.005, and 2.281?±?0.406?mg/g, respectively, for this herbal pharmaceutical product. The physical examination data demonstrate that the raw herbal powder had rough, irregular, lumpy, filamentous, and elongated shapes, as well as strong Congo red staining. In addition, water solubility and crude fiber content were not consistent in the herbal pharmaceutical products. PMID:23997802

Lu, Chia-Ming; Lin, Lie-Chwen; Tsai, Tung-Hu

2013-01-01

245

NMR-spectroscopic analysis of mixtures: from structure to function  

PubMed Central

NMR spectroscopy as a particularly information-rich method offers unique opportunities for improving the structural and functional characterization of metabolomes, which will be essential for advancing the understanding of many biological processes. Whereas traditionally NMR spectroscopy was mostly relegated to the characterization of pure compounds, the last few years have seen a surge of interest in using NMR spectroscopic techniques for characterizing complex metabolite mixtures. Development of new methods was motivated partly by the realization that using NMR for the analysis of metabolite mixtures can help identify otherwise inaccessible small molecules, for example compounds that are prone to chemical decomposition and thus cannot be isolated. Furthermore, comparative metabolomics and statistical analyses of NMR-spectra have proven highly effective at identifying novel and known metabolites that correlate with changes in genotype or phenotype. In this review, we provide an overview of the range of NMR spectroscopic techniques recently developed for characterizing metabolite mixtures, including methods used in discovery-oriented natural product chemistry, in the study of metabolite biosynthesis and function, or for comparative analyses of entire metabolomes. PMID:21071261

Forseth, Ry R.; Schroeder, Frank C.

2010-01-01

246

A comparative study on the pharmacokinetics of a traditional Chinese herbal preparation with the single herb extracts in rats by LC-MS/MS method.  

PubMed

The Er-Mu preparation (EMP) is a well-known traditional Chinese prescription that has been clinically employed for the treatment of asthma and bronchial inflammation for hundreds of years. Neomangiferin, mangiferin, peimine, peiminine, timosaponin BII and timosaponin AIII are the major active ingredients of EMP for their anti-inflammatory or anti-asthmatic effects. The aim of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetics of the target compounds from the recipe of EMP and the single herb extracts of Anemarrhenae asphodeloides Bge. (ARR) and Fritillariae cirrhosae D.Don (FCB), and the influence of compatibility on the pharmacokinetics of the main active ingredients. The rats were randomly assigned to three groups and orally administered with the recipe of EMP and the single herb extracts of ARR and FCB, respectively. The concentrations of the target compounds in rat plasma were determined by an optimal liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS) and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) with a multi-switching monitoring mode coupled with simple protein precipitation method, and the main pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated. Significant differences (p<0.05) were found in the pharmacokinetic parameters of neomangiferin, mangiferin, peimine and peiminine between the single ARR or FCB extract and the combination treatment (p<0.05). The developed HPLC-ESI-MS method by switching positive and negative ESI sources in a single run was successfully applied to study the pharmacokinetics of six compounds in SD rat, which was powerful in terms of sensitivity, selectivity, time savings and solvent consumption in the quantitative analysis of complex herbal medicines. It was surmised that formula compatibility could significantly influence the pharmacokinetics of EMP and our study has preliminarily elucidated the priority in the compatible administration of EMP based on pharmacokinetic studies. PMID:23624157

Sun, Ying-guang; Du, Ying-feng; Yang, Kai; Chang, Lu; Cao, Liang; Ren, Yan-ping; Sun, Qian; Wang, Qiao; Zhang, Lan-tong; Lv, Pin-tian

2013-01-01

247

Retrieval of greenhouse gases from space-based spectroscopic measurements with the photon pathlength probability density function method: application to GOSAT observations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite “IBUKI” (GOSAT) is the world’s first satellite to observe concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) through the atmosphere. The spacecraft is in orbit since 23rd January, 2009. A large number of high-resolution spectroscopic observational data of reflected sunlight measured with the Thermal And Near-infrared Sensor for carbon Observation-Fourier Transform Spectrometer (TANSO-FTS) are available from the National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES). The major source of error in retrieving gas amounts from space-based measurements of reflected sunlight is atmospheric light scattering. Several algorithms have been developed in different groups throughout the world to process the GOSAT data for retrieving global and temporal distributions of the gas amounts. These algorithms mainly differ in how they account for atmospheric light scattering. This presentation describes application of the photon Path length Probability Density Function (PPDF) method to process GOSAT observations from three TANSO-FTS Short-Wavelength InfraRed (SWIR) bands (centered at 0.76 µm, 1.6 µm, and 2.0 µm). The retrieval procedure includes constrained minimization of the residual between the modeled and observed GOSAT spectra. We retrieve the column-averaged dry air mole fractions of the greenhouse gases (XCO2 and XCH4) simultaneously with PPDF parameters from each GOSAT single sounding. PPDF parameters characterize light path shortening and light path lengthening that could take place depending on the amount and location of thin clouds and aerosols as well as depending on surface properties. As a part of validation study, we compared PPDF-based gas retrievals with those derived from FTS ground-based measurements over twelve sites included in the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON). The sites are located in both the Southern (3 sites) and the Northern (9 sites) Hemispheres. TCCON is a reliable reference source of greenhouse gas measurements due to the direct solar-viewing geometry, which virtually eliminates the impact of atmospheric light scattering on the measurements. Both seasonal trends and pairwise GOSAT-TCCON statistical comparisons have been considered. We also evaluated XCO2 and XCH4 retrievals globally using atmospheric transport model.

Oshchepkov, Sergey; Morino, Isamu; Yoshida, Yukio; Yokota, Tatsuya; Bril, Andrey

248

Traditional Agriculture and Permaculture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses benefits of combining traditional agricultural techniques with the concepts of "permaculture," a framework for revitalizing traditions, culture, and spirituality. Describes school, college, and community projects that have assisted American Indian communities in revitalizing sustainable agricultural practices that incorporate cultural…

Pierce, Dick

1997-01-01

249

Family Traits and Traditions  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners play a matching game with their families to discover common inherited traits and traditions. Learners distinguish between inherited traits and learned traditions. This genetics activity is available in English and Spanish.

Utah, University O.

2006-01-01

250

Spectroscopic Detection of Pathogens  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this LDRD Research project was to provide a preliminary examination of the use of infrared spectroscopy as a tool to detect the changes in cell cultures upon activation by an infectious agent. Due to a late arrival of funding, only 5 months were available to transfer and setup equipment at UTTM,develop cell culture lines, test methods of in-situ activation and collect kinetic data from activated cells. Using attenuated total reflectance (ATR) as a sampling method, live cell cultures were examined prior to and after activation. Spectroscopic data were collected from cells immediately after activation in situ and, in many cases for five successive hours. Additional data were collected from cells activated within a test tube (pre-activated), in both transmission mode as well as in ATR mode. Changes in the infrared data were apparent in the transmission data collected from the pre-activated cells as well in some of the pre-activated ATR data. Changes in the in-situ activated spectral data were only occasionally present due to (1) the limited time cells were studied and (2) incomplete activation. Comparison of preliminary data to infrared bands reported in the literature suggests the primary changes seen are due an increase in ribonucleic acid (RNA) production. This work will be continued as part of a 3 year DARPA grant.

ALAM,M. KATHLEEN; TIMLIN,JERILYN A.; MARTIN,LAURA E.; HJELLE,DRIAN; LYONS,RICK; GARRISON,KRISTIN

2000-11-01

251

Traditional Pricing or Something Else?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

It is argued tha alternate pricing methods for college textbooks--including net pricing, net billing, and single copy order pricing--would be detrimental to college bookstores. Publishers are urged to continue with the traditional method, and other publisher practices that could help bookstore managers are suggested. (JMD)

Epple, John H.

1980-01-01

252

IMPROVED SPECTROSCOPIC PARAMETERS FOR TRANSITING PLANET HOSTS  

SciTech Connect

We report homogeneous spectroscopic determinations of the effective temperature, metallicity, and projected rotational velocity for the host stars of 56 transiting planets. Our analysis is based primarily on the stellar parameter classification (SPC) technique. We investigate systematic errors by examining subsets of the data with two other methods that have often been used in previous studies (Spectroscopy Made Easy (SME) and MOOG). The SPC and SME results, both based on comparisons between synthetic spectra and actual spectra, show strong correlations between T{sub eff}, [Fe/H], and log g when solving for all three quantities simultaneously. In contrast the MOOG results, based on a more traditional curve-of-growth approach, show no such correlations. To combat the correlations and improve the accuracy of the temperatures and metallicities, we repeat the SPC analysis with a constraint on log g based on the mean stellar density that can be derived from the analysis of the transit light curves. Previous studies that have not taken advantage of this constraint have been subject to systematic errors in the stellar masses and radii of up to 20% and 10%, respectively, which can be larger than other observational uncertainties, and which also cause systematic errors in the planetary mass and radius.

Torres, Guillermo; Holman, Matthew J.; Carter, Joshua A. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Fischer, Debra A. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Sozzetti, Alessandro [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Torino, I-10025 Pino Torinese (Italy); Buchhave, Lars A. [Niels Bohr Institute, Copenhagen University, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Winn, Joshua N., E-mail: gtorres@cfa.harvard.edu [Department of Physics, and Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

2012-10-01

253

Spectroscopic signatures of isomnerization  

E-print Network

This thesis explores spectroscopic signatures of isomerization, especially new patterns that emerge and report on chemically relevant portions of the potential energy surface, such as the transition state. The most important ...

Baraban, Joshua Herschel Goldblum

2013-01-01

254

Build Your Own Spectroscope  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an activity about spectroscopy. Learners will build a spectroscope and use it to observe various types of lights. This activity requires spectroscope kits and diffraction gratings available from the Stanford Solar Center (http://solar-center.stanford.edu/posters/) and fluorescent and incandescent light sources. A variety of resources accompany this activity, including PowerPoint presentations, online videos, activities, and activity guides for both grades 2-4 and grades 5-8.

255

Building a Spectroscope  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Students learn about the variations of white light in this Moveable Museum unit, in which they build a pocket-sized spectroscope from readily available materials and examine different light sources in school, at home, and around their town or city. The seven-page PDF guide includes suggested general background readings for educators, activity and safety notes, step-by-step directions, and a spectroscope template.

256

Antioxidant and Type 2 Diabetes Related Functional Properties of Phytic Acid Extract from Kenyan Local Food Ingredients: Effects of Traditional Processing Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emerging scientific evidences reveal that phytic acid has several positive effects on human health. The antioxidant and type 2 diabetes related enzyme inhibition properties of phytic acid extract prepared from raw and traditionally processed local grains and vegetables collected from Kenya were evaluated. Phytic acid content of raw grains and vegetables ranged between 2.81–3.01 and 0.29–3.23 g\\/100 g DM, respectively.

Catherine N. Kunyanga; Jasper K. Imungi; Michael W. Okoth; Hans K. Biesalski; Vellingiri Vadivel

2011-01-01

257

The Scottish Political Economy Tradition  

Microsoft Academic Search

Political economy is attracting renewed interest, given the crisis in orthodox economics. This artic le focuses on the Scottish tradition in political economy, which took its character from the style of reasoning engendered by the Enlighte nment, and the issues, moral and practical, to which that reasoning w as addressed. It is style of reasoning and method of enquiry which

Sheila C. Dow

1987-01-01

258

African Traditional Religion (ATR)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The African Traditional Religion (ATR) site which hosts the on Bibliography on African Traditional Religion contains several more items of interest, including articles and documents exploring the contact points of ATR with Islam and Christianity, country-by-country statistics on adherents of ATR, and a number of related links.

Isizoh, Chidi D.

1998-01-01

259

Traditional Native Poetry.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

While Native myths and legends were educational tools to transmit tribal beliefs and history, traditional American Indian poetry served a ritualistic function in everyday life. Few traditional Native songs, which all poems were, survive; only Mayan and Aztec poems were written, and most of these were burned by a Spanish bishop. In addition, many…

Grant, Agnes

1985-01-01

260

Family Customs and Traditions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recognizing the importance of maintaining open communication with immediate and extended family members, this book provides a compilation of ideas for family traditions and customs that are grounded in compassion and human kindness. The traditions were gathered from families in the United States and Canada who responded to advertisements in…

MacGregor, Cynthia

261

Studying Light: Spectroscopes  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity about spectroscopy, learners build a spectroscope, learn about graphing spectra, and then identify elements in gas tubes using their spectra. The activity concludes as learners graph the spectra of different materials. Essential materials required for this activity include spectrum light tubes, the power source for spectrum light tubes, and diffraction grating material.

262

Traditional Housing Designs.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Use of timber for housing construction in developing countries, with special reference to traditional building design - covers (1) the critical shortage of adequate dwellings; problems of providing appropriate building materials; need for use of available...

1986-01-01

263

Titration vs. Tradition  

Microsoft Academic Search

The way titration curves are traditionally taught in the undergraduate curriculum is reviewed, and a more rational approach is advocated. A spreadsheet is then used to illustrate the various properties of titration curves and to fit titration data.

Robert de Levie

1996-01-01

264

The traditional method of oral as-needed pain medication delivery compared to an oral patient-controlled analgesia device following total knee arthroplasty.  

PubMed

As-needed (PRN) oral pain medication is an essential part of multimodal pain therapy. Medication delivery is often delayed because of multiple demands upon nursing time in a busy postoperative nursing unit. Postoperative pain control was compared using either the manual delivery of PRN oral pain medication or a bedside oral patient-controlled analgesia device. Thirty patients in each group completed a survey on the day of discharge, and additional data were collected by chart reviews. Device patients had significantly better pain scores than the usual care group on postoperative Day 2 and within the last 24 hours prior to discharge. The device group reported statistically less pain interference overall with general activity, mood, physical therapy, sleep, and appetite. Use of an oral patient-controlled analgesia device may improve pain management and patient function following total knee arthroplasty compared to the traditional delivery of oral PRN pain medication. PMID:25058727

Lambert, Teresa L; Cata, Denise M

2014-01-01

265

Passive solar in China: traditional and new  

SciTech Connect

The authors' observations of a tradition of passive solar architecture in northern China are described. Tendencies for modern buildings to depart from this tradition are noted. Major passive solar research programs are discussed and experimental buildings are illustrated. It is concluded that the Chinese could realize a major advantage by combining their strong tradition of passive solar architecture with modern insulation methods and improved glazing systems.

Balcomb, J.D.; Balcomb, S.A.

1986-04-01

266

Study on the interaction between methyl jasmonate and the coiled-coil domain of rice blast resistance protein Pi36 by spectroscopic methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interaction between the coiled-coil domain of rice blast resistance protein Pi36 and methyl-jasmonate (MeJA) was studied by fluorescence and UV-vis spectroscopic techniques. The quenching mechanism of fluorescence of MeJA by this domain was discussed to be a static quenching procedure. Fluorescence quenching was explored to measure the number of binding sites n and apparent binding constants K. The thermodynamics parameters ?H, ?G, ?S were also calculated. The results indicate the binding reaction was not entropy-driven but enthalpy-driven, and hydrophobic binding played major role in the interaction. The binding sites of MeJA with the coiled-coil structural domain of rice blast resistance protein Pi36 were found to approach the microenvironment of both Tyr and Trp by the synchronous fluorescence spectrometry. The distance r between donor (the coiled-coil domain of rice blast resistance protein Pi36) and acceptor (MeJA) was obtained according to Förster theory of non-radioactive energy transfer.

Liu, Xin Q.; Zhang, Dan; Zhang, Xiang M.; Wang, Chun T.; Liu, Xue Q.; Tan, Yan P.; Wu, Yun H.

2012-03-01

267

The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the status of the 2012 edition of the HITRAN molecular spectroscopic compilation. The new edition replaces the previous HITRAN edition of 2008 and its updates during the intervening years. The HITRAN molecular absorption compilation is comprised of six major components structured into folders that are freely accessible on the internet. These folders consist of the traditional line-by-line spectroscopic parameters required for high-resolution radiative-transfer codes, infrared absorption cross-sections for molecules not yet amenable to representation in a line-by-line form, ultraviolet spectroscopic parameters, aerosol indices of refraction, collision-induced absorption data, and general tables such as partition sums that apply globally to the data. The new HITRAN is greatly extended in terms of accuracy, spectral coverage, additional absorption phenomena, and validity. Molecules and isotopologues have been added that address the issues of atmospheres beyond the Earth. Also discussed is a new initiative that casts HITRAN into a relational database format that offers many advantages over the long-standing sequential text-based structure that has existed since the initial release of HITRAN in the early 1970s.

Rothman, L. S.; Gordon, I. E.; Babikov, Y.; Barbe, A.; Chris Benner, D.; Bernath, P. F.; Birk, M.; Bizzocchi, L.; Boudon, V.; Brown, L. R.; Campargue, A.; Chance, K.; Cohen, E. A.; Coudert, L. H.; Devi, V. M.; Drouin, B. J.; Fayt, A.; Flaud, J.-M.; Gamache, R. R.; Harrison, J. J.; Hartmann, J.-M.; Hill, C.; Hodges, J. T.; Jacquemart, D.; Jolly, A.; Lamouroux, J.; Le Roy, R. J.; Li, G.; Long, D. A.; Lyulin, O. M.; Mackie, C. J.; Massie, S. T.; Mikhailenko, S.; Müller, H. S. P.; Naumenko, O. V.; Nikitin, A. V.; Orphal, J.; Perevalov, V.; Perrin, A.; Polovtseva, E. R.; Richard, C.; Smith, M. A. H.; Starikova, E.; Sung, K.; Tashkun, S.; Tennyson, J.; Toon, G. C.; Tyuterev, Vl. G.; Wagner, G.

2013-11-01

268

Women, ‘tradition’ and reconstruction  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses the tension between the ANC's commitment to gender equality and its engagement within the new government with what I term ‘the politics of traditionalism’. These politics have been most evident in the deadly struggle to out?manoeuvre the Inkatha Freedom Party (IFP), while convincing it to participate in the elections, a struggle in which the Zulu king has

Cherryl Walker

1994-01-01

269

In Defense of Tradition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A disturbing trend is developing in higher education which may jeopardize the quality and importance of the classical tradition in education. This trend is exemplified by demands that the liberal arts be made relevant and comprehensible to the student and that they be related in some way to the search for a good job. The great classical…

Pekich, John

270

Child Psychotherapy: Converging Traditions  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this paper I outline some of the ways in which I believe the psychoanalytic traditions in North America and in Great Britain are influencing each other. I identify points of convergence and divergence at this moment in the evolution of psychoanalytic theory and technique. I then point out some of the implications of relational perspectives in…

Altman, Neil

2004-01-01

271

Divide-and-conquer-based linear-scaling approach for traditional and renormalized coupled cluster methods with single, double, and noniterative triple excitations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have reported the divide-and-conquer (DC)-based linear-scaling correlation treatment of coupled-cluster method with single and double excitations (CCSD) [Kobayashi and Nakai, J. Chem. Phys. 129, 044103 (2009)]. In the DC-CCSD method, the CCSD equations derived from subsystem orbitals are solved for each subsystem in order to obtain the total correlation energy by summing up subsystem contributions using energy density analysis. In this study, we extend the DC-CCSD method for treating noniterative perturbative triple excitations using CCSD T1 and T2 amplitudes, namely, CCSD(T). In the DC-CCSD(T) method, the so-called (T) corrections are also computed for each subsystem. Numerical assessments indicate that DC-CCSD(T) reproduces the CCSD(T) results with high accuracy and significantly less computational cost. We further extend the DC-based correlation method to renormalized CCSD(T) [Kowalski and Piecuch, J. Chem. Phys. 113, 18 (2000)] for avoiding the divergence that occurs in multireference problems such as bond dissociation.

Kobayashi, Masato; Nakai, Hiromi

2009-09-01

272

The traditional and new methods of accounting for the factors distorting the flow over a model in large transonic wind tunnels  

Microsoft Academic Search

The report presents a brief review of the investigation methods and results obtained for the key problems of the test procedure in the industrial sub- and transonic TSAGI wind tunnels. Among these are the flow calibration in 'empty wind tunnels', the wall interference minimization, and the interference with supporting devices. These problems can be solved only in the combination of

V. M. Neyland

1994-01-01

273

Continual Reassessment Method vs. Traditional Empirically Based Design: Modifications Motivated by Phase I Trials in Pediatric Oncology by the Pediatric Brain Tumor Consortium  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article we provide additional support for the use of a model-based design in pediatric Phase I trials and present our modifications to the continual reassessment method (CRM), which were largely motivated by specific challenges we encountered in the context of the Pediatric Brain Tumor Consortium trials. We also summarize the results of our extensive simulations studying the operating

Arzu Onar; Mehmet Kocak; James M. Boyett

2009-01-01

274

Traditional Chinese drug therapy.  

PubMed

More than 4,000 years old, traditional Chinese medicine continues to be widely practiced in China and in western countries. Traditional Chinese medicine teaches that good health is the result of harmony and balance between five basic elements: earth, water, fire, wood and metal. Also important to health are the two types of energy Yin and Yang, constituting a vital substance that circulates through the body. Drug therapy has been one of the means used in Chinese medicine to keep these elements and the flow of energy in balance. Many of the same herbs used thousands of years ago in China could be the source of new pharmaceuticals in Western medicine. PMID:14747850

Borchardt, John K

2003-12-01

275

The traditional sampling approach The traditional approach is defined as  

E-print Network

The traditional sampling approach The traditional approach is defined as the types of activities on the traditional approach is a foray, or blitz, in which groups of experts and dedicated vol- unteers conduct of the scientists interested in participating. The Smokies ATBI Science Plan calls for a traditional sampling

Bernard, Ernest

276

Traditional Ideologies, Nontraditional Lives  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study examined how blue-collar couples whoalternate work shifts and share the care of theirchildren reconcile their traditional gender ideologieswith their nontraditional lives. In-depth interviews were conducted with twenty-three alternatingshift couples in which the husband was a blue-collarworker. Ninety-six per cent of the participants wereWhite, and the remainder were Hispanic. The results suggested that despite their nontraditionalbehavior, these couples maintained

Francine M. Deutsch; Susan E. Saxon

1998-01-01

277

Supporting traditional instructional methods with a constructivist approach to learning: Promoting conceputal change and understanding of stoichiometry using e-learning tools  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stoichiometry is a fundamental topic in chemistry that measures a quantifiable relationship between atoms, molecules, etc. Stoichiometry is usually taught using expository teaching methods. Students are passively given information, in the hopes they will retain the transmission of information to be able to solve stoichiometry problems masterfully. Cognitive science research has shown that this kind of instructional teaching method is not very effecting in meaningful learning practice. Instead, students must take ownership of their learning. The students need to actively construct their own knowledge by receiving, interpreting, integrating and reorganizing that information into their own mental schemas. In the absence of active learning practices, tools must be created in such a way to be able to scaffold difficult problems by encoding opportunities necessary to make the construction of knowledge memorable, thereby creating a usable knowledge base. Using an online e-learning tool and its potential to create a dynamic and interactive learning environment may facilitate the learning of stoichiometry. The study entailed requests from volunteer students, IRB consent form, a baseline questionnaire, random assignment of treatment, pre- and post-test assessment, and post assessment survey. These activities were given online. A stoichiometry-based assessment was given in a proctored examination at the University of Texas at Arlington (UTA) campus. The volunteer students who took part in these studies were at least 18 of age and were enrolled in General Chemistry 1441, at the University of Texas at Arlington. Each participant gave their informed consent to use their data in the following study. Students were randomly assigned to one of 4 treatments groups based on teaching methodology, (Dimensional Analysis, Operational Method, Ratios and Proportions) and a control group who just received instruction through lecture only. In this study, an e-learning tool was created to demonstrate several methodologies, on how to solve stoichiometry, which are all supported by chemical education research. Comparisons of student performance based on pre- and post-test assessment, and a stoichiometry-based examination was done to determine if the information provided within the e-learning tool yielded greater learning outcomes compared to the students in the absence of scaffold learning material. The e-learning tool was created to help scaffold the problem solving process necessary to help students (N=394) solve stoichiometry problems. Therein the study investigated possible predictors for success on a stoichiometry based examination, students' conceptual understanding of solving stoichiometry problems, and their explanation of reasoning. It was found that the way the student answered a given stoichiometry question (i.e. whether the student used dimensional analysis, operational method or any other process) was not statistically relevant (p=0.05). More importantly, if the students were able to describe their thought process clearly, these students scored significantly higher on stoichiometry test (mean 84, p<0.05). This finding has major implications in teaching the topic, as lecturers tend to stress and focus on the method rather than the process on how to solve stoichiometry problems.

Abayan, Kenneth Munoz

278

Application of a rapid and efficient quantitative analysis method for traditional Chinese medicines: the case study of quality assessment of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge.  

PubMed

A reference extractive, containing multiple active known compounds, has been considered to be an alternative to individual reference standards. However, in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia (ChP) the great majority of reference extractives have been primarily used for qualitative identification by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and few studies on the applicability of reference extractives for quantitative analysis have been presented. Using Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge as an example in this paper, we first present a preliminary discussion on the feasibility and applicability of reference extractives for the quantitative analysis of TCMs. The reference extractive of S. miltiorrhiza Bunge, comprised of three pharmacological marker compounds, namely cryptotanshinone, tanshinone I and tanshinone IIA, was prepared from purchased Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge by extraction with acetone under reflux, followed by silica gel column chromatography with stepwise elution with petroleum ether-ethyl acetate (25:1, v/v, 4.5 BV) to remove the non-target components and chloroform-methanol (10:1, v/v; 3 BV) to yield a crude reference extractive solution. After concentration, the solution was further purified by preparative reversed-phase HPLC on a C18 column with isocratic elution with 77% methanol aqueous solution to yield the total reference extractive of S. miltiorrhiza Bunge. Thereafter, the reference extractive was applied to the quality assessment of S. miltiorrhiza Bunge using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with diode array detection (DAD). The validation of the method, including linearity, sensitivity, repeatability, stability and recovery testing, indicated that this method was valid, reliable and sensitive, with good reproducibility. The developed method was successfully applied to quantify seven batches of samples collected from different regions in China and the results were also similar to those obtained using reference standards, with relative standard deviation (RSD) <3%. Preparation of a reference extractive of S. miltiorrhiza Bunge was significantly less expensive and time consuming than preparation of a corresponding reference standard. Quantitative analysis using a reference extractive was shown to be simple, low-cost, time-saving and practical, with high sensitivity and good stability; and is, therefore, a strong alternative to the use of reference standards. PMID:23765231

Jing, Wen-Guang; Zhang, Jun; Zhang, Li-Yan; Wang, Dong-Zhe; Wang, Yue-Sheng; Liu, An

2013-01-01

279

Isolation and detection of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) from cattle in Ireland using both traditional culture and molecular based methods  

PubMed Central

Background Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) causes a chronic gastroenteritis affecting many species. Johne's disease is one of the most widespread and economically important disease of ruminants. Since 1992 and the opening of the European market, the exposure and the transmission of MAP in cattle herds considerably increased. Improvements in diagnostic strategies for Ireland and elsewhere are urgently required. In total, 290 cattle from seven Irish herds with either a history or a strong likelihood of paratuberculosis infection were selected by a veterinary team over 2 years. Faecal samples (290) were collected and screened for MAP by a conventional culture method and two PCR assays. In order to further evaluate the usefulness of molecular testing, a nested PCR was also assessed. Results M. paratuberculosis was isolated and cultured from 23 faecal samples (7.9%) on solid medium. From a molecular perspective, 105 faecal samples (36%) were PCR positive for MAP specific DNA. A complete correlation (100%) was observed between the results of both molecular targets (IS900 and ISMAP02). Sensitivity was increased by ~10% with the inclusion of a nested PCR for ISMAP02 (29 further samples were positive). When culturing and PCR were retrospectively compared, every culture positive faecal sample also yielded a PCR positive result for both targets. Alternatively, however not every PCR positive sample (n = 105, 36%) produced a corresponding culture isolate. Interestingly though when analysed collectively at the herd level, the correlation between culture and PCR results was 100% (ie every herd which recorded at least 1 early PCR +ve result later yielded culture positive samples within that herd). Conclusion PCR on bovine faecal samples is a fast reliable test and should be applied routinely when screening for MAP within herds suspected of paratuberculosis. Nested PCR increases the threshold limit of detection for MAP DNA by approximately 10% but proved to be problematic in this study. Although slow and impractical, culturing is still regarded as one of the most reliable methods for detecting MAP among infected cattle. PMID:20875096

2010-01-01

280

How to Build a Spectroscope  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This site from the Exploratorium provides instructions to make a spectroscope from a shoebox and a diffraction grating. Such a spectroscope is used to show that a white light is really made up of the combination of colors called a spectrum. The site contains photographs and step-by-step instructions to easily build the instrument.

2006-07-18

281

Validating Raman spectroscopic calibrations of phonon deformation potentials in silicon single crystals: A comparison between ball-on-ring and micro-indentation methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Of main interest in the present work is a quantitative comparison between the phonon deformation potential (PDP) values determined for silicon single crystals by two different calibration methods: (i) a macroscopic method exploiting the stress field developed in a ball-on-ring (biaxial) bending configuration; and (ii) a microscopic method using the residual stress field stored around an indentation print. A comparison between the two methods helps to establish the reliability limits for experimental stress analyses in the (001), (011), and (111) planes of silicon devices by means of polarized Raman spectroscopy. Emphasis is also placed on evaluating the degree of precision involved with using a closed-form equation (i.e., as proposed by other authors), which describes the stress state when different crystallographic planes of the Si sample are loaded in the ball-on- ring jig. A comparison between stress profiles obtained by such equations and those computed by the finite element method (FEM) in the loaded disk reveals a clear discrepancy for the (011) plane. Such a discrepancy could be attributed to elastic coupling and anisotropic effects (particularly relevant along the <011> direction), which can lead to errors up to 15% in computing the stress field stored in the silicon lattice.

Miyatake, Takahiro; Pezzotti, Giuseppe

2011-11-01

282

Are AB Initio Quantum Chemistry Methods Able to Predict Vibrational States up to the Dissociation Limit for Multi-Electron Molecules Close to Spectroscopic Accuracy?  

Microsoft Academic Search

The aim of the study was to explore the limits of initio methods towards the description of excited vibrational levels up to the dissociation limit for molecules having more than two electrons. To this end a high level ab initio potential energy function was constructed for the four-electron LiH molecule in order to accurately predict a complete set of bound

Péter G. Szalay; Filip Holka; Julien Fremont; Michael Rey; Vladimir G. Tyuterev

2011-01-01

283

Galaxy Luminosity Functions from Deep Spectroscopic Samples of Rich Clusters  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a new spectroscopic sample and methods accounting for spectroscopic sampling fractions that vary in magnitude and surface brightness, we present R-band galaxy luminosity functions (GLFs) for six nearby galaxy clusters with redshifts of 4000 km s-1

Daniel Christlein; Ann I. Zabludoff

2003-01-01

284

Crystal growth and spectroscopic properties of MoO 3 and WO 3 doped Bi 4Ge 3O 12 by optical floating zone method  

Microsoft Academic Search

MoO3 and WO3 doped Bi4Ge3O12 (BGO) crystals were grown by the optical floating zone (OFZ) method. The structure of doped crystals was determined by XRD. The fluorescence spectra and fluorescence decay curves of these BGO crystals at room temperature were also studied. The emission intensity of BGO crystals increased with WO3 dopant but decreased with MoO3 dopant. A heavily WO3

Pingsheng Yu; Anhua Wu; Liangbi Su; Xin Guo; YaBin Wang; Hengyu Zhao; Yan Yang; Qiuhong Yang; Jun Xu

2010-01-01

285

Determination of structural and vibrational spectroscopic features of neutral and anion forms of dinicotinic acid by using NMR, infrared and Raman experimental methods combined with DFT and HF  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study; the experimental (NMR, infrared and Raman) and theoretical (HF and DFT) analysis of dinicotinic acid were presented. 1H and 13C NMR spectra were recorded in DMSO solution and chemical shifts were calculated by using the gauge-invariant atomic orbital (GIAO) method. The vibrational spectra of dinicotinic acid were recorded by FT-Raman and FT-IR spectra in the range of 4000-10 cm-1 and 4000-400 cm-1, respectively. To determine the most stable neutral conformer of molecule, the selected torsion angle was changed every 10° and molecular energy profile was calculated from 0° to 360°. The geometrical parameters and energies were obtained for all conformers form from density functional theory (DFT/B3LYP) and HF with 6-311++G(d,p) basis set calculations. However, the results of the most stable neutral and two anion forms (anion-1 and anion-2 forms) of dinicotinic acid are reported here. The complete assignments were performed on the basis of the total energy distribution (TED) of the vibrational wavenumbers, calculated with scaled quantum mechanics (SQM) method and PQS program.

Kose, E.; Bardak, F.; Atac, A.; Karabacak, M.; Cipiloglu, M. A.

2013-10-01

286

Vibrational spectroscopic studies, normal co-ordinate analysis, first order hyperpolarizability, HOMO-LUMO of midodrine by using density functional methods.  

PubMed

The FTIR (4000-400 cm(-1)), FT-Raman (4000-100 cm(-1)) and UV-Visible (400-200 nm) spectra of midodrine were recorded in the condensed state. The complete vibrational frequencies, optimized geometry, intensity of vibrational bands and atomic charges were obtained by using Density Functional Theory (DFT) with the help of 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. The first order hyperpolarizability (?) and related properties (?, ? and ??) of this molecular system were calculated by using DFT/6-311++G(d,p) method based on the finite-field approach. The assignments of the vibrational spectra have been carried out with the help of Normal Co-ordinate Analysis (NCA) following the scaled quantum mechanical force methodology. Stability of the molecule arising from hyper conjugative interactions, charge delocalization has been analyzed using NBO analysis. From the recorded UV-Visible spectrum, the electronic properties such as excitation energies, oscillator strength and wavelength are calculated by DFT in water and gas methods using 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. The calculated HOMO and LUMO energies confirm that charge transfer occurs within the molecule. Besides MEP, NLO and thermodynamic properties were also calculated and interpreted. The electron density-based local reactivity descriptor such as Fukui functions was calculated to explain the chemical selectivity or reactivity site in midodrine. PMID:25011041

Shahidha, R; Al-Saadi, Abdulaziz A; Muthu, S

2015-01-01

287

Standard test method for determination of impurities in plutonium: acid dissolution, ion exchange matrix separation, and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopic (ICP/AES) analysis  

E-print Network

1.1 This specification covers blended uranium trioxide (UO3), U3O8, or mixtures of the two, powders that are intended for conversion into a sinterable uranium dioxide (UO2) powder by means of a direct reduction process. The UO2 powder product of the reduction process must meet the requirements of Specification C 753 and be suitable for subsequent UO2 pellet fabrication by pressing and sintering methods. This specification applies to uranium oxides with a 235U enrichment less than 5 %. 1.2 This specification includes chemical, physical, and test method requirements for uranium oxide powders as they relate to the suitability of the powder for storage, transportation, and direct reduction to UO2 powder. This specification is applicable to uranium oxide powders for such use from any source. 1.3 The scope of this specification does not comprehensively cover all provisions for preventing criticality accidents, for health and safety, or for shipping. Observance of this specification does not relieve the user of th...

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

2003-01-01

288

High-Definition Infrared Spectroscopic Imaging  

PubMed Central

The quality of images from an infrared (IR) microscope has traditionally been limited by considerations of throughput and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). An understanding of the achievable quality as a function of instrument parameters, from first principals is needed for improved instrument design. Here, we first present a model for light propagation through an IR spectroscopic imaging system based on scalar wave theory. The model analytically describes the propagation of light along the entire beam path from the source to the detector. The effect of various optical elements and the sample in the microscope is understood in terms of the accessible spatial frequencies by using a Fourier optics approach and simulations are conducted to gain insights into spectroscopic image formation. The optimal pixel size at the sample plane is calculated and shown much smaller than that in current mid-IR microscopy systems. A commercial imaging system is modified, and experimental data are presented to demonstrate the validity of the developed model. Building on this validated theoretical foundation, an optimal sampling configuration is set up. Acquired data were of high spatial quality but, as expected, of poorer SNR. Signal processing approaches were implemented to improve the spectral SNR. The resulting data demonstrated the ability to perform high-definition IR imaging in the laboratory by using minimally-modified commercial instruments. PMID:23317676

Reddy, Rohith K.; Walsh, Michael J.; Schulmerich, Matthew V.; Carney, P. Scott; Bhargava, Rohit

2013-01-01

289

Aplisulfamines, New Sulfoxide-Containing Metabolites from an Aplidium Tunicate: Absolute Stereochemistry at Chiral Sulfur and Carbon Atoms Assigned Through an Original Combination of Spectroscopic and Computational Methods  

PubMed Central

Two new sulfoxide-containing metabolites, aplisulfamines A (1) and B (2), have been isolated from an Aplidium sp. collected in the Bay of Naples. Their planar structure and geometry of a double bond were readily determined by using standard methods, mainly NMR spectroscopy. An original approach was used to assign the absolute configuration at the three contiguous chiral centers present in the structures of both aplisulfamines, two at carbon and one at sulfur. This involved Electronic Circular Dichroism (ECD) studies, J-based configuration analysis and Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations and represents an interesting integration of modern techniques in stereoanalysis, which could contribute to the enhancement of theoretical protocols recently applied to solve stereochemical aspects in structure elucidation. PMID:22363220

Aiello, Anna; Fattorusso, Ernesto; Imperatore, Concetta; Luciano, Paolo; Menna, Marialuisa; Vitalone, Rocco

2012-01-01

290

Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopic analysis of ethyl ester yield in the transesterification of vegetable oil: an accurate method for a truly quantitative analysis.  

PubMed

Biodiesel has recently gained importance as an alternative to fossil diesel. However, the development of more efficient biodiesel formation processes still depends on the use of fast and accurate analytical techniques to evaluate the conversion degree of the transesterification reaction. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has been used for this purpose, but some experimental details still need to be addressed. Therefore, in this communication, the experimental conditions for a truly quantitative NMR analysis of biodiesel formation are presented. The longitudinal relaxation time (T(1) ), which is the determining factor for quantitative analysis, was measured using an inversion-recovery method, and a maximum value of 2.35?s was obtained for a biodiesel sample. A linear determination coefficient of r(2) ?=?0.99 was obtained when a time delay between pulses longer than 5T(1) ?=15?s was used, whereas strong deviations were observed when using shorter delays. PMID:22307949

Mambrini, Giovanni Pimenta; Ribeiro, Caue; Colnago, Luiz Alberto

2012-01-01

291

Improvement of near infrared spectroscopic (NIRS) analysis of caffeine in roasted Arabica coffee by variable selection method of stability competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (SCARS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coffee is the most heavily consumed beverage in the world after water, for which quality is a key consideration in commercial trade. Therefore, caffeine content which has a significant effect on the final quality of the coffee products requires to be determined fast and reliably by new analytical techniques. The main purpose of this work was to establish a powerful and practical analytical method based on near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and chemometrics for quantitative determination of caffeine content in roasted Arabica coffees. Ground coffee samples within a wide range of roasted levels were analyzed by NIR, meanwhile, in which the caffeine contents were quantitative determined by the most commonly used HPLC-UV method as the reference values. Then calibration models based on chemometric analyses of the NIR spectral data and reference concentrations of coffee samples were developed. Partial least squares (PLS) regression was used to construct the models. Furthermore, diverse spectra pretreatment and variable selection techniques were applied in order to obtain robust and reliable reduced-spectrum regression models. Comparing the respective quality of the different models constructed, the application of second derivative pretreatment and stability competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (SCARS) variable selection provided a notably improved regression model, with root mean square error of cross validation (RMSECV) of 0.375 mg/g and correlation coefficient (R) of 0.918 at PLS factor of 7. An independent test set was used to assess the model, with the root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of 0.378 mg/g, mean relative error of 1.976% and mean relative standard deviation (RSD) of 1.707%. Thus, the results provided by the high-quality calibration model revealed the feasibility of NIR spectroscopy for at-line application to predict the caffeine content of unknown roasted coffee samples, thanks to the short analysis time of a few seconds and non-destructive advantages of NIRS.

Zhang, Xuan; Li, Wei; Yin, Bin; Chen, Weizhong; Kelly, Declan P.; Wang, Xiaoxin; Zheng, Kaiyi; Du, Yiping

2013-10-01

292

Improvement of near infrared spectroscopic (NIRS) analysis of caffeine in roasted Arabica coffee by variable selection method of stability competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (SCARS).  

PubMed

Coffee is the most heavily consumed beverage in the world after water, for which quality is a key consideration in commercial trade. Therefore, caffeine content which has a significant effect on the final quality of the coffee products requires to be determined fast and reliably by new analytical techniques. The main purpose of this work was to establish a powerful and practical analytical method based on near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and chemometrics for quantitative determination of caffeine content in roasted Arabica coffees. Ground coffee samples within a wide range of roasted levels were analyzed by NIR, meanwhile, in which the caffeine contents were quantitative determined by the most commonly used HPLC-UV method as the reference values. Then calibration models based on chemometric analyses of the NIR spectral data and reference concentrations of coffee samples were developed. Partial least squares (PLS) regression was used to construct the models. Furthermore, diverse spectra pretreatment and variable selection techniques were applied in order to obtain robust and reliable reduced-spectrum regression models. Comparing the respective quality of the different models constructed, the application of second derivative pretreatment and stability competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (SCARS) variable selection provided a notably improved regression model, with root mean square error of cross validation (RMSECV) of 0.375 mg/g and correlation coefficient (R) of 0.918 at PLS factor of 7. An independent test set was used to assess the model, with the root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of 0.378 mg/g, mean relative error of 1.976% and mean relative standard deviation (RSD) of 1.707%. Thus, the results provided by the high-quality calibration model revealed the feasibility of NIR spectroscopy for at-line application to predict the caffeine content of unknown roasted coffee samples, thanks to the short analysis time of a few seconds and non-destructive advantages of NIRS. PMID:23786975

Zhang, Xuan; Li, Wei; Yin, Bin; Chen, Weizhong; Kelly, Declan P; Wang, Xiaoxin; Zheng, Kaiyi; Du, Yiping

2013-10-01

293

Data Acquisition System for Instructional Spectroscopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article aims to present the software for data acquisition developed in scientific initiation program - IC, for use in the design of a spectrometer built by students. The program was built in C++, a language in wide use today. The origin of spectra used is a simplified model of rustic spectroscope. This equipment basically consists of a box that does not allow light to enter, except through a slit made in the side of it, a diffraction media and a camera for data acquisition. After the image acquisition, one executes the data processing, followed by the usual steps of reduction and analysis of this type of tool. We have implemented a method for calibrating the spectroscope, through which one can compare the incidence of the photons with characteristic of each monochromatic wave. The final result is a one-dimensional spectrum that can be subsequently analyzed.

Almeida, C. B. S. B.; Hetem, A.

2014-10-01

294

Optimal slit orientation for long multi-object spectroscopic exposures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Historically, long-slit spectroscopic observations were carried out using the parallactic angle for the slit orientation if slit loss was an important consideration (either to maximize the signal-to-noise or to do spectrophotometry). This requires periodic realignment of the slit position angle as the parallactic angle changes. This is not possible for multi-slit observations where one slit position angle must be chosen for the entire exposure. Common wisdom suggests using the parallactic angle at the meridian (HA=0). In this paper, I examine what the best strategy is for long, multi-slit exposures. I find that in extreme cases (very long exposure time) the best choice is to orient the slit perpendicular to the parallactic angle at the meridian. There are two effects to consider: the increasing dispersion with increasing airmass and the changing angle between the parallactic angle and the slit. In the case of traditional slit orientation, the two effects amplify each other, thus rendering a significant fraction of the observation useless. Using the perpendicular orientation, the two processes work against each other, thus most of the observation remains useful. I will use, as an example, our 8 h Lockman Hole observations using the Keck telescope, but generic methods are given to evaluate a particular observation. I also make the tools available to the community.

Szokoly, G. P.

2005-11-01

295

Are AB Initio Quantum Chemistry Methods Able to Predict Vibrational States up to the Dissociation Limit for Multi-Electron Molecules Close to Spectroscopic Accuracy?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The aim of the study was to explore the limits of initio methods towards the description of excited vibrational levels up to the dissociation limit for molecules having more than two electrons. To this end a high level ab initio potential energy function was constructed for the four-electron LiH molecule in order to accurately predict a complete set of bound vibrational levels corresponding to the electronic ground state. It was composed from: a) an ab initio non-relativistic potential obtained at the MR-CISD level including size-extensivity corrections and quintuple-sextuple ? extrapolation of the basis, b) MVD (Mass-velocity-Darwin) relativistic corrections obtained at icMR-CISD/cc-pwCV5Z level, and c) DBOC (Diagonal Born-Oppenheimer correction) obtained at the MR-CISD/cc-pwCVTZ level. Finally, the importance of non-adiabatic effects was also tested by using atomic masses in the vibrational kinetic energy operator and by calculation of non-adiabatic coupling by ab initio methods. The calculated vibrational levels were compared with those obtained from experimental data [J.A. Coxon and C.S. Dickinson, J. Chem. Phys., 2004, 121, 9378]. Our best estimate of the potential curve results in vibrational energies with a RMS deviation of only ˜1 wn\\ for the entire set of all empirically determined vibrational levels known so far. These results represent a drastic improvement over previous theoretical predictions of vibrational levels of ^7LiH up to dissociation, D_0, which was predicted to be 19594 Cm-1. In addition, rotational levels have also been calculated. The RMS deviation between our ab initio calculations and empirical results by Coxon and Dickinson for rotational spacings ? E = E(v, J = 1)-E(v, J = 0) over all available vibrational states of ^7LiH from v = 0 to v= 20 is 0.010 wn (with nuclear masses) and 0.006 wn (with atomic masses). Note that for high vibrational states with v > 6 this falls within the uncertainty of the measurements.

Szalay, Péter G.; Holka, Filip; Fremont, Julien; Rey, Michael; Tyuterev, Vladimir G.

2011-06-01

296

Elemental and structural analysis of silicon forms in herbal drugs using silicon-29 MAS NMR and WD-XRF spectroscopic methods.  

PubMed

The objective of this work was to study concentration of silicon and its structural forms present in herbal drugs. Equisetum arvense and Urtica dioica L. from teapot bags, dietary supplements (tablets and capsules) containing those herbs, dry extract obtained from a teapot bag of E. arvense, and samples of the latter herb harvested in wild habitat over four months were studied using wavelength dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (WD-XRF) and high-resolution solid-state (29)Si NMR. The highest concentration of Si, ca. 27mg/g, was found in the herbal material from the teapot bags containing E. arvense. The Si content in natural E. arvense (whole plants) increased from May to August by ca. 7mg/g, reaching value 26mg/g. Three different silicon forms were detected in the studied herbal samples: Si(OSi)4 (Q(4)), Si(OH)(OSi)3 (Q(3)) and Si(OH)2(OSi)2 (Q(2)). Those sites were populated in E. arvense in the following order: Q(4)?Q(3)>Q(2). A dramatic, ca. 50-fold decrease of the Si concentration during the infusion process was observed. The infusion process and the subsequent drying procedure augmented population of the Q(4) sites at the cost of the Q(2) sites. The WD-XRF and (29)Si NMR methods occurred useful and complementary in the study of herbal materials. PMID:21813258

Pajchel, L; Nykiel, P; Kolodziejski, W

2011-12-01

297

The spectroscopic (FT-IR, FT-Raman), MESP, first order hyperpolarizability, NBO analysis, HOMO and LUMO analysis of 1,5-dimethyl napthalene by density functional method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Fourier-transform infrared and FT-Raman spectra of 1,5-Dimethyl Napthalene (15DMN) was recorded in the region 4000-400 cm-1 and 3500-50 cm-1 respectively. Quantum chemical calculations of energies, geometrical structure and vibrational wavenumbers of 6M2C were carried out by density functional theory (DFT/B3LYP) method with 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. The difference between the observed and scaled wavenumber values of most of the fundamentals is very small. The values of the total dipole moment (?) and the first order hyperpolarizability (?) of the investigated compound were computed using B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) calculations. The calculated results also show that 15DMN might have microscopic non-linear optical, MESP, NBO analysis with non-zero values. A detailed interpretation of infrared and Raman spectra of 15DMN is also reported. The calculated HOMO7-LUMO energy gap shows that charge transfer occur within the molecule. The molecular electrostatic potential map shows that the negative potential sites are on the electronegative atoms as well as the positive potential sites are around the hydrogen atoms.

Arivazhagan, M.; Subhasini, V. P.; Kavitha, R.; Senthilkumar, R.

2014-10-01

298

The spectroscopic (FT-IR, FT-Raman), MESP, first order hyperpolarizability, NBO analysis, HOMO and LUMO analysis of 1,5-dimethyl napthalene by density functional method.  

PubMed

The Fourier-transform infrared and FT-Raman spectra of 1,5-Dimethyl Napthalene (15DMN) was recorded in the region 4000-400cm(-1) and 3500-50cm(-1) respectively. Quantum chemical calculations of energies, geometrical structure and vibrational wavenumbers of 6M2C were carried out by density functional theory (DFT/B3LYP) method with 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. The difference between the observed and scaled wavenumber values of most of the fundamentals is very small. The values of the total dipole moment (?) and the first order hyperpolarizability (?) of the investigated compound were computed using B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) calculations. The calculated results also show that 15DMN might have microscopic non-linear optical, MESP, NBO analysis with non-zero values. A detailed interpretation of infrared and Raman spectra of 15DMN is also reported. The calculated HOMO7-LUMO energy gap shows that charge transfer occur within the molecule. The molecular electrostatic potential map shows that the negative potential sites are on the electronegative atoms as well as the positive potential sites are around the hydrogen atoms. PMID:24915765

Arivazhagan, M; Subhasini, V P; Kavitha, R; Senthilkumar, R

2014-10-15

299

Spectroscopic and molecular modeling methods to investigate the interaction between 5-Hydroxymethyl-2-furfural and calf thymus DNA using ethidium bromide as a probe.  

PubMed

In this work, the interaction of 5-Hydroxymethyl-2-furfural (5-HMF) with calf thymus DNA (ctDNA) under simulated physiological conditions (Tris-HCl buffer of pH 7.40), was explored by UV absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy and molecular modeling method, using ethidium bromide (EB) as a fluorescence probe of DNA. The fluorescence quenching mechanism of EB-ctDNA by 5-HMF was confirmed to be a static quenching, which derived from the formation of a new complex. The binding constants of 5-HMF with DNA in the presence of EB were calculated to be 2.17×10(3), 4.24×10(3) and 6.95×10(3) L mol(-1) at 300, 305 and 310 K, respectively. The calculated thermodynamic parameters, enthalpy change ?H and entropy change ?S, suggested that both hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonds played a predominant role in the binding of 5-HMF to DNA. According to the UV absorption spectroscopy and melting temperature (Tm) curve results, the binding mode of 5-HMF with DNA was indicative of a non-intercalative binding, which was supposed to be a groove binding. The molecular modeling results showed that 5-HMF could bind into the hydrophobic region of ctDNA and supported the conclusions obtained from the above experiments. PMID:24463243

Zhu, Jinhua; Chen, Lanlan; Dong, Yingying; Li, Jiazhong; Liu, Xiuhua

2014-04-24

300

Traditional Chinese medicine recognition based on FNN  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fuzzy logic neural network based method is proposed. The method is only used to recognize the composition of traditional Chinese medicine and Chinese pharmaceutical medicine. The network is built on the idea of ART while referring to a normal fuzzy neural network. The network takes on two-phase modus operandi: first, study the network structure by samples; and then study

Yibo Li; Xiaoyuan Huang

2002-01-01

301

Action Learning in a Traditional Educational Setting  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional course-taught learning methods in Management education are challenged for their efficacy. A major problem is that in the quest to secure and please management students, the sort of choice is allowed which would allow management students to stay within their comfort zones. Here, already-held skills and competencies are refined. A method is suggested to take students out of the

Alma Whiteley

1992-01-01

302

Traditional and nontraditional internships in government  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Traditional and nontraditional methods for training technical writers-editors within the federal government are discussed. It is concluded that cooperative education that combines work experience with classroom instruction provides an excellent method for locating and training competent and reliable young professionals.

Stohrer, Freda F.; Pinelli, Thomas E.

1980-01-01

303

Impact of different tillage practices on molecular characteristics of humic acids in a long-term field experiment - an application of three different spectroscopic methods.  

PubMed

The present paper describes changes in soil organic carbon (SOC) and extractable humic acids (HAs) in a long-term field experiment with different tillage treatments (minimum tillage (MT), reduced tillage (RT) and conventional tillage (CT)). This field experiment is located in the east of Vienna in a Pannonian climate and it was started in 1988. The methodological approach included elemental analyses, FT-IR, 13C NMR and fluorimetric measurements. Both MT and RT revealed significant depth gradients of yields of extractable HAs. In CT no depth gradient was observable, neither for HA yields nor for observed molecular characteristics. This indicated a destruction of the gradient by mixing of the soil in CT. Especially MT showed an increase of aromatic moieties with depth, suggesting an increased humification of HAs in the lower soil layers. Gradients with similar trends were indicated for the carbonylic, the amidic and probably the hydroxylic groups in HAs extracted from MT and RT samples. The data revealed with FT-IR and solid-state 13C NMR spectroscopy were convincing, plausible and meaningful, the highly sensitive fluorescence spectroscopy was limited because of strong quenching by inner filter effects, compromising data reliability. However, the fluorescence results based on a defined HAs concentration (and comparing soils from the same site) were in line with results from the other methods (13C NMR and FT-IR). As a consequence, the influence of tillage treatments can be followed by absence or presence of depth gradients of the according molecular characteristics in extracted HAs. PMID:18789814

Tatzber, Michael; Stemmer, Michael; Spiegel, Heide; Katzlberger, Christian; Haberhauer, Georg; Gerzabek, Martin H

2008-11-15

304

Spectroscopic Parameters of Lumbar Intervertebral Disc Material  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

There are numerous methods of investigating intervertebral disc. Visualization methods are widely used in clinical practice. Histological, imunohistochemical and biochemical methods are more used in scientific research. We propose that a new spectroscopic investigation would be useful in determining intervertebral disc material, especially when no histological specimens are available. Purpose: to determine spectroscopic parameters of intervertebral disc material; to determine emission spectra common for all intervertebral discs; to create a background for further spectroscopic investigation where no histological specimen will be available. Material and Methods: 20 patients, 68 frozen sections of 20 ?m thickness from operatively removed intervertebral disc hernia were excited by Nd:YAG microlaser STA-01-TH third harmonic 355 nm light throw 0, 1 mm fiber. Spectrophotometer OceanOptics USB2000 was used for spectra collection. Mathematical analysis of spectra was performed by ORIGIN multiple Gaussian peaks analysis. Results: In each specimen of disc hernia were found distinct maximal spectral peaks of 4 types supporting the histological evaluation of mixture content of the hernia. Fluorescence in the spectral regions 370-700 nm was detected in the disc hernias. The main spectral component was at 494 nm and the contribution of the components with the peak wavelength values at 388 nm, 412 nm and 435±5 nm were varying in the different groups of samples. In comparison to average spectrum of all cases, there are 4 groups of different spectral signatures in the region 400-500 nm in the patient groups, supporting a clinical data on different clinical features of the patients. Discussion and Conclusion: besides the classical open discectomy, new minimally invasive techniques of treating intervertebral disc emerge (PLDD). Intervertebral disc in these techniques is assessed by needle, no histological specimen is taken. Spectroscopic investigation via fiber optics through the needle can give additional information of needle position, assuring the needle tip is directed into intervertebral disc material. Spectroscopic analysis of intervertebral disc removed during open surgery, creates background for further investigation on intervertebral disc degeneration spectral classification.

Terbetas, G.; Kozlovskaja, A.; Varanius, D.; Graziene, V.; Vaitkus, J.; Vaitkuviene, A.

2009-06-01

305

Spectroscopic optical coherence elastography  

PubMed Central

We present an optical technique to image the frequency-dependent complex mechanical response of a viscoelastic sample. Three-dimensional hyperspectral data, comprising two-dimensional B-mode images and a third dimension corresponding to vibration frequency, were acquired from samples undergoing external mechanical excitation in the audio-frequency range. We describe the optical coherence tomography (OCT) signal when vibration is applied to a sample and detail the processing and acquisition techniques used to extract the local complex mechanical response from three-dimensional data that, due to a wide range of vibration frequencies, possess a wide range of sample velocities. We demonstrate frequency-dependent contrast of the displacement amplitude and phase of a silicone phantom containing inclusions of higher stiffness. Measurements of an ex vivo tumor margin demonstrate distinct spectra between adipose and tumor regions, and images of displacement amplitude and phase demonstrated spatially-resolved contrast. Contrast was also observed in displacement amplitude and phase images of a rat muscle sample. These results represent the first demonstration of mechanical spectroscopy based on B-mode OCT imaging. Spectroscopic optical coherence elastography (S-OCE) provides a high-resolution imaging capability for the detection of tissue pathologies that are characterized by a frequency-dependent viscoelastic response. PMID:21164898

Adie, Steven G.; Liang, Xing; Kennedy, Brendan F.; John, Renu; Sampson, David D.; Boppart, Stephen A.

2010-01-01

306

Spectroscopic studies of glass structure  

SciTech Connect

Today`s understanding of the molecular-level structure of inorganic glasses has been transformed by the availability of a wide range of sensitive spectroscopic probes. Today we can relate glass composition to quantitative distributions of glass-forming cations and to changes in oxygen bonding and modifying cation geometries. Future spectroscopic studies will result in improved descriptions of anion and cation geometries and should provide glass scientists with the capability to optimize atomic arrangements for specific optical, electrical, and thermal properties.

Brow, R.K.

1994-08-01

307

SDSS spectroscopic survey of stars  

SciTech Connect

In addition to optical photometry of unprecedented quality, the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) is also producing a massive spectroscopic database. They discuss determination of stellar parameters, such as effective temperature, gravity and metallicity from SDSS spectra, describe correlations between kinematics and metallicity, and study their variation as a function of the position in the Galaxy. They show that stellar parameter estimates by Beers et al. show a good correlation with the position of a star in the g-r vs. u-g color-color diagram, thereby demonstrating their robustness as well as a potential for photometric parameter estimation methods. Using Beers et al. parameters, they find that the metallicity distribution of the Milky Way stars at a few kpc from the galactic plane is bimodal with a local minimum at [Z/Z{sub {circle_dot}}] {approx} -1.3. The median metallicity for the low-metallicity [Z/Z{sub {circle_dot}}] < =1.3 subsample is nearly independent of Galactic cylindrical coordinates R and z, while it decreases with z for the high-metallicity [Z/Z{sub {circle_dot}}] > -1.3 sample. they also find that the low-metallicity sample has {approx} 2.5 times larger velocity dispersion and that it does not rotate (at the {approx} 10 km/s level), while the rotational velocity of the high-metallicity sample decreases smoothly with the height above the galactic plane.

Ivezic, Zeljko; Schlegel, D.; Uomoto, A.; Bond, N.; Beers, T.; Allende Prieto, C.; Wilhelm, R.; Lee, Y.Sun; Sivarani, T.; Juric, M.; Lupton, R.; /Washington U., Seattle,

2007-01-01

308

Enhancing forensic science with spectroscopic imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This presentation outlines the research we are developing in the area of Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic imaging with the focus on materials of forensic interest. FTIR spectroscopic imaging has recently emerged as a powerful tool for characterisation of heterogeneous materials. FTIR imaging relies on the ability of the military-developed infrared array detector to simultaneously measure spectra from thousands of different locations in a sample. Recently developed application of FTIR imaging using an ATR (Attenuated Total Reflection) mode has demonstrated the ability of this method to achieve spatial resolution beyond the diffraction limit of infrared light in air. Chemical visualisation with enhanced spatial resolution in micro-ATR mode broadens the range of materials studied with FTIR imaging with applications to pharmaceutical formulations or biological samples. Macro-ATR imaging has also been developed for chemical imaging analysis of large surface area samples and was applied to analyse the surface of human skin (e.g. finger), counterfeit tablets, textile materials (clothing), etc. This approach demonstrated the ability of this imaging method to detect trace materials attached to the surface of the skin. This may also prove as a valuable tool in detection of traces of explosives left or trapped on the surfaces of different materials. This FTIR imaging method is substantially superior to many of the other imaging methods due to inherent chemical specificity of infrared spectroscopy and fast acquisition times of this technique. Our preliminary data demonstrated that this methodology will provide the means to non-destructive detection method that could relate evidence to its source. This will be important in a wider crime prevention programme. In summary, intrinsic chemical specificity and enhanced visualising capability of FTIR spectroscopic imaging open a window of opportunities for counter-terrorism and crime-fighting, with applications ranging from analysis of trace evidence (e.g. in soil), tablets, drugs, fibres, tape explosives, biological samples to detection of gunshot residues and imaging of fingerprints.

Ricci, Camilla; Kazarian, Sergei G.

2006-09-01

309

Parent experience of traditional versus collaborative child assessment.  

E-print Network

??Collaborative child assessment combines traditional assessment methods with techniques aimed at increasing the therapeutic benefit of assessment for children and parents. Previous studies have found… (more)

Matson, May Fraser

2011-01-01

310

A comparison of the ability of Bellucia dichotoma Cogn. (Melastomataceae) extract to inhibit the local effects of Bothrops atrox venom when pre-incubated and when used according to traditional methods.  

PubMed

Bellucia dichotoma Cogn. (Melastomataceae) is one of various plant species used in folk medicine in the west of the state of Pará, Brazil, to treat snake bites. Many studies have been carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of anti-snake bite plants, but few of these use the same preparation methods and doses as those traditionally used by the local populations. This study therefore compared inhibition of the main local effects of B. atrox venom (BaV) by aqueous extract of B. dichotoma (AEBd) administered according to traditional methods and pre-incubated with BaV). The concentrations of phenolic compounds (tannins and flavonoids) in AEBd were determined by colorimetric assays. The effectiveness of AEBd in inhibiting the hemorrhagic and edematogenic activities of BaV was evaluated in mice in four different experimental in vivo protocols: (1) pre-incubation (venom:extract, w/w); (2) pre-treatment (p.o.); (3) post-treatment (p.o.); and (4) AEBd (p.o.) in combination with Bothrops antivenom (BA) (i.v.). To assess in vitro inhibition of BaV phospholipase A2 activity, the pre-incubation method or incorporation of AEBd or BA in agarose gels were used. The effect of AEBd on BaV was determined by SDS-PAGE, zymography and Western blot. Colorimetric assays revealed higher concentrations of (condensed and hydrolyzable) tannins than flavonoids in AEBd. Hemorrhagic activity was completely inhibited using the pre-incubation protocol. However, with pre-treatment there was no significant inhibition for the concentrations tested, and with the post-treatment only the 725 mg/kg dose of AEBd was able to inhibit 40.5% (p = 0.001) of the hemorrhagic activity of BaV. Phospholipase A2 activity was only inhibited when AEBd was pre-incubated with BaV. BaV-induced edema was completely inhibited with pre-incubation (p < 0.05) and significantly reduced (p < 0.05) with pre- and post-treatment (p.o.) for the concentrations tested. The reduction in local edema was even greater when AEBd was administered in combination with BA. The SDS-PAGE profiles showed that several of the BaV protein (SDS-PAGE) and enzyme (zymography) bands were not detected when the venom was pre-incubated, and Western blot revealed that this was not caused by the AEBd enzymes observed in the zymogram. The "pseudo inhibition" observed after pre-incubation in this study may be due to the presence of tannins in the extract, which could act as chelating agents, removing metalloproteins and Ca(2+) ions and thus inhibiting hemorrhagin and PLA2 activity. However, when administered according to traditional methods, B. dichotoma extract was effective in blocking BaV-induced edematogenic activity and had an additional effect on inhibition of this activity by BA. PMID:24814014

Mourão de Moura, Valéria; Serra Bezerra, Adrielle N; Veras Mourão, Rosa Helena; Varjão Lameiras, Juliana L; Almeida Raposo, Juliana D; Luckwu de Sousa, Rafael; Boechat, Antônio Luiz; Bezerra de Oliveira, Ricardo; de Menezes Chalkidis, Hipocrátes; Dos-Santos, Maria Cristina

2014-07-01

311

Characterization of clinohumite by selected spectroscopic methods.  

PubMed

Clinohumite, a humite group mineral, originated from Pamir Mountains, USSR, is used in the present work. Optical absorption, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), near infrared (NIR) and Mössbauer techniques are used in the characterization of the mineral sample. The optical absorption spectrum indicates that Fe(II) impurity is present in two sites with distorted octahedral structure. NIR results are attributed to water fundamentals. EPR studies on powder sample confirm the presence of Mn(II) in three different sites and also an iron impurity. Mössbauer studies confirm the presence of iron impurity in two different sites. PMID:16527527

Reddy, S Lakshmi; Reddy, N C Gangi; Reddy, G Siva; Reddy, B Jagannatha; Frost, Ray L

2006-11-01

312

[A high throughput coupled with high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for determination of aflatoxin B1, B2, G1, G2 in 10 traditional Chinese medicines].  

PubMed

As the dilution procedure was applied, a simple, rapid and cost-effective high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for determination of aflatoxin B1, B2, G1, and G2 was successfully by performed in a total 83 samples of 10 traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs), which were collected from 5 different hospital pharmacies and 5 different medical stores in Guangzhou city. Matrix effects of these 10 TCMs were ranged from 80.23% to 115.5% in low, intermediate and high concentration levels, indicating that the negative effect was overcome in this study. Meanwhile, the analysis method was proved to be stable and reliable during the whole analysis using Semen Armeniacae Amarum spiked 3 concentration levels of standard solution as quality control samples and the RSD < 6.6% was obtained. The contamination levels of 83 investigated samples were 13.89% and 17.02% in hospital pharmacies and medical stores, respectively. The result was presented to provide relevant reference and supplement to those researchers in TCMs analysis and screening. PMID:24761645

Zheng, Run-Sheng; Xu, Hui; Peng, Yuan-Xia; Wang, Wen-Li; Zhan, Ruo-Ting; Chen, Wei-Wen

2014-01-01

313

Traditional West Coast Native Medicine  

PubMed Central

An important part of the complex culture of the Native people of Canada's Pacific coast is the traditional system of medicine each culture has developed. Population loss from epidemics and the influence of dominant European cultures has resulted in loss of many aspects of traditional medicine. Although some Native practices are potentially hazardous, continuation of traditional approaches to illness remains an important part of health care for many Native people. The use of “devil's club” plant by the Haida people illustrates that Native medicine has both spiritual and physical properties. Modern family practice shares many important foundations with traditional healing systems. PMID:21253031

Deagle, George

1988-01-01

314

Reading Gains of Traditional and Non-Traditional Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Concerned with how effectively nontraditional students (defined as older than average students with goals, motivations, and learning needs that differ from traditional-age students) function in an off-campus setting, a series of studies examined traditional and nontraditional students' performance in on-campus and off-campus reading programs. Two…

Heerman, Charles E.; Sheen, Sy-yng Violet

315

Alternative Approaches to Traditional Topics in Algebra  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students who otherwise seem unreachable through traditional approaches to algebra require some alternative teaching methods. So do teachers who seek to add elements of freshness and innovation to their classrooms or who simply appreciate variety. This article offers some unconventional techniques for teaching a few conventional algebra topics.…

Coburn, John W.

2010-01-01

316

Spectroscopic study of laser irradiated chromatin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The effects of three UV excimer laser radiations, with wavelengths of 193, 248 and 282 nm respectively, on the structure of chromatin (the complex of deoxyribonucleic acid with proteins that exists in eukaryotic cells nuclei) were investigated. The chromatin was extracted from livers of Winstar rats. The spectroscopic methods used are: fluorescence (Förster) resonance energy transfer (FRET), time resolved fluorescence and steady-state fluorescence. A chromatin deoxyribonucleic acid radiolysis, a chromatin proteins damage and a change of the global chromatin structure on lasers action were indicated by this study. It exists some small differences between the actions of these three laser radiations.

Radu, Liliana; Mihailescu, I.; Gazdaru, Doina; Preoteasa, V.

2013-04-01

317

Spectroscopic measurement of an atomic wave function  

SciTech Connect

We present a simple spectroscopic method based on Autler-Townes spectroscopy to determine the center-of-mass atomic wave function. The detection of spontaneously emitted photons from a three-level atom, in which two upper levels are driven by a classical standing light, yields information about the position and momentum distribution of the atom [A. M. Herkommer, W. P. Schleich, and M. S. Zubairy, J. Mod. Opt. 44, 2507 (1997)]. In this paper, we show that both the amplitude and phase information of the center-of-mass atomic wave function can be obtained from these distributions after a series of conditional measurements on the atom and the emitted photon.

Kapale, Kishore T. [Institute for Quantum Studies, and Department of Physics, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843-4242 (United States); Qamar, Shahid [Institute for Quantum Studies, and Department of Physics, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843-4242 (United States); Department of Physics and Applied Mathematics, Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Science, Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan); Zubairy, M. Suhail [Institute for Quantum Studies, and Department of Physics, Texas A and M University, College Station, Texas 77843-4242 (United States); Department of Electronics, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad (Pakistan)

2003-02-01

318

Spectroscopic investigation of protein corona  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanotechnology has revolutionalized the landscape of modern science and technology, including materials, electronics, therapeutics, bioimaging, sensing, and the environment. Research in the past decade has examined the fate of nanomaterials in vitro and in vivo, as well as the interactions between nanoparticles and biological and ecosystems using primarily toxicological and ecotoxicological approaches. However, due to the versatility in the physical and physicochemical properties of nanoparticles, and due to the vast complexity of their hosting systems, the solubility, transformation, and biocompatibility of nanomaterials are still poorly understood. Nanotechnology has been undergoing tremendous development in recent decades, driven by realized perceived applications of nanomaterials in electronics, therapeutics, imaging, sensing, environmental remediation, and consumer products. Nanoparticles on entering the blood stream undergo an identity change, they become coated with proteins. There are different kind of proteins present in blood. Proteins compete for getting coated over the surface of nanoparticle and this whole entity of proteins coated over nanoparticle surface is called Protein Corona. Proteins tightly bound to the surface of nanoparticle form hard corona and the ones loosely bound on the outer surface form soft corona. This dissertation is aimed at spectroscopic investigation of Protein Corona. Chapter I of this dissertation offers a comprehensive review of the literature based on nanomaterials with the focus on carbon based nanomaterilas and introduction to Protein Corona. Chapter II is based different methods used for Graphene Synthesis,different types of defects and doping. In Chapter III influence of defects on Graphene Protein Corona was investigated. Chapter IV is based on the study of Apoptosis induced cell death by Gold and silver nanoparticles. In vitro study of effect of Protein Corona on toxicity of cells was done.

Choudhary, Poonam

319

Traditional Korean Child Rearing Practices.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study describes traditional Korean child rearing and its relation to personality, social development, and their implications for education. Topics addressed include the family structure, traditional value orientation, the prenatal period, patterns of interaction in infancy, the baby as a vulnerable being, the baby as a spiritual being, the…

Han, Myunghee; Washington, Ernest D.

320

Pan-Hispanic Oral Tradition  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are concerned here with the oral traditions of Hispanic or Iberian peoples: speakers of Spanish (Castilian), Portuguese, Catalan, and Judeo- Spanish, and also various Spanish and Portuguese creoles in South America, Africa, and Asia. Basque, as an indigenous language of the Iberian Peninsula, should also definitely be counted as part of the Hispanic world. Oral tradition involves any manifestation

Samuel G. Armistead

2004-01-01

321

Bringing Traditional Teachings to Leadership  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this article is to examine how our Kootegan Yix Meh Towlth (traditional governance) might contribute to the development and implementation of a culturally relevant Sliammon governance model. Our Uk woom he heow (ancestors) lived their everyday lives guided by a complex system of practices and beliefs based on our Ta-ow (traditional

Washington, Siemthlut Michelle

2005-01-01

322

Research: Traditional vs. Electronic Classes.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of the study was to compare electronic and traditional versions of a graduate-level introductory research class. Students were permitted to select the instructional delivery type they wanted, with the traditional option offered by one instructor and the electronic option offered by a second instructor. There were 71 participants in the…

Kennedy, Robert L.; Suter, W. Newton

323

Cherokee Stickball: A Changing Tradition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the history of Cherokee stickball, a ball game dating back at least to the 1500s that was once used (as an alternative to war) for resolving grievances between tribes and townships. Describes traditional aspects of Cherokee stickball and notes the steady decline of the game and its traditional rules and ceremonies. (LP)

Olson, Ted

1993-01-01

324

The Non-Traditional Student.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The non-traditional student, or adult learner, is making up the new majority in secondary education, creating several implications for community colleges. The average non-traditional student is an adult, age 25 or older, who has returned to school either full-time or part-time. The student must balance school with employment, family, and financial…

Ely, Eileen E.

325

A DVD Spectroscope: A Simple, High-Resolution Classroom Spectroscope  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Digital versatile disks (DVDs) have successfully made up an inexpensive but high-resolution spectroscope suitable for classroom experiments that can easily be made with common material and gives clear and fine spectra of various light sources and colored material. The observed spectra can be photographed with a digital camera, and such images can…

Wakabayashi, Fumitaka; Hamada, Kiyohito

2006-01-01

326

A new method for an objective, ?2-based spectroscopic analysis of early-type stars. First results from its application to single and binary B- and late O-type stars  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. A precise quantitative spectral analysis, encompassing atmospheric parameter and chemical elemental abundance determination, is time-consuming due to its iterative nature and the multi-parameter space to be explored, especially when done by the naked eye. Aims: A robust automated fitting technique that is as trustworthy as traditional methods would allow for large samples of stars to be analyzed in a consistent manner in reasonable time. Methods: We present a semi-automated quantitative spectral analysis technique for early-type stars based on the concept of ?2 minimization. The method's main features are as follows: far less subjectivity than the naked eye, correction for inaccurate continuum normalization, consideration of the whole useful spectral range, and simultaneous sampling of the entire multi-parameter space (effective temperature, surface gravity, microturbulence, macroturbulence, projected rotational velocity, radial velocity, and elemental abundances) to find the global best solution, which is also applicable to composite spectra. Results: The method is fast, robust, and reliable as seen from formal tests and from a comparison with previous analyses. Conclusions: Consistent quantitative spectral analyses of large samples of early-type stars can be performed quickly with very high accuracy. Based on observations made with ESO Telescopes at the La Silla Paranal Observatory under program IDs 074.D-0021(A), 088.A-9003(A), and 091.C-0713(A). Based on observations made with the Nordic Optical Telescope, operated by the Nordic Optical Telescope Scientific Association at the Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos, La Palma, Spain, of the Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, proposal 41-027. Figures 2 and 3 are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

Irrgang, A.; Przybilla, N.; Heber, U.; Böck, M.; Hanke, M.; Nieva, M.-F.; Butler, K.

2014-05-01

327

Kazakh Traditional Dance Gesture Recognition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Full body gesture recognition is an important and interdisciplinary research field which is widely used in many application spheres including dance gesture recognition. The rapid growth of technology in recent years brought a lot of contribution in this domain. However it is still challenging task. In this paper we implement Kazakh traditional dance gesture recognition. We use Microsoft Kinect camera to obtain human skeleton and depth information. Then we apply tree-structured Bayesian network and Expectation Maximization algorithm with K-means clustering to calculate conditional linear Gaussians for classifying poses. And finally we use Hidden Markov Model to detect dance gestures. Our main contribution is that we extend Kinect skeleton by adding headwear as a new skeleton joint which is calculated from depth image. This novelty allows us to significantly improve the accuracy of head gesture recognition of a dancer which in turn plays considerable role in whole body gesture recognition. Experimental results show the efficiency of the proposed method and that its performance is comparable to the state-of-the-art system performances.

Nussipbekov, A. K.; Amirgaliyev, E. N.; Hahn, Minsoo

2014-04-01

328

Algebraic methods in vibrational spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

These lectures review some advances in the algebraic description of molecules from two point of views: structure and dynamics. We start by presenting the basic ideas involved in the traditional description of molecular structure in configuration space, where the Born-Oppenheimer and rotor-rigid approximations are assumed to be valid. We then focus on the vibrational degrees of freedom in order to introduce the traditional algebraic realization in terms of bosonic operators of harmonic oscillators. This analysis allows the algebraic methods based on dynamical unitary groups to be introduced as a anharmonization procedure where the local bosonic operators are translated into operators satisfying the su(2) commutation relations. Some examples of the vibrational spec-troscopic description are presented. Concerned with the dynamical point of view an algebraic model to describe collinear collisions in the semiclassical approximation is presented.

Lemus, Renato [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 70-543, 04510 Mexico, DF (Mexico)

2011-03-21

329

The Role of Traditional Healers and Traditional Medicine in Bali  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, I will explore the various types of traditional healers (balian) of contemporary Bali, and the roles that they play, as well as how traditional medicines are used as one of the alternative forms of supporting the healing process.\\u000aIn Bali, we believe in two different worlds: the visible world (sekala) and the invisible world (niskala). We, the

AryatiNiWayanPasek

2010-01-01

330

Spectroscope: Fingerprinting the Luminous Suspects  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This is an activity about spectroscopy. Learners will build a spectroscope with a scale for measuring wavelength and use it to observe various light sources. They will identify spectral lines in more than one light source and analyze the collected data. This activity requires diffraction grating material, several light sources, and gas emission lamps and power sources.

331

Build an Overhead Projector Spectroscope  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity guide includes instructions for building a spectroscope using a standard classroom overhead projector. Learners can participate in the construction of the device or simply use it to explore light and the color spectrum. Learners can experiment with colored acetate film filters and bottles of colored solutions to see how they absorb and transmit light.

Katz, David A.

2002-01-01

332

Aurorae in Australian Aboriginal Traditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transient celestial phenomena feature prominently in the astronomical knowledge and traditions of Aboriginal Australians. In this paper, I collect accounts of the Aurora Australis from the literature regarding Aboriginal culture. Using previous studies of meteors, eclipses, and comets in Aboriginal traditions, I anticipate that the physical properties of aurora, such as their generally red colour as seen from southern Australia, will be associated with fire, death, blood, and evil spirits. The survey reveals this to be the case and also explores historical auroral events in Aboriginal cultures, aurorae in rock art, and briefly compares Aboriginal auroral traditions with other global indigenous groups, including the Maori of New Zealand.

Hamacher, Duane W.

2013-07-01

333

Optical wavelength selection for improved spectroscopic photoacoustic imaging?  

PubMed Central

Spectroscopic photoacoustic imaging has the potential to become a powerful tool that can estimate distributions of optically absorbing chromophores in the body. We have developed an algorithm to select imaging wavelengths for spectroscopic photoacoustics given the spectra of expected chromophores. The algorithm uses the smallest singular value of a matrix constructed from the absorption spectra as a criterion to remove extraneous wavelengths. The method performed significantly better than an approach where evenly spaced wavelengths were used in the presence of noise and wavelength-dependent attenuation of light in tissue. Finally, the algorithm was applied to photoacoustic imaging of a phantom containing indocyanine green dye and silica-coated gold nanorods, demonstrating significant improvements in the ability to estimate relative contrast agent concentrations compared to the case where evenly spaced wavelengths were chosen. In summary, our work provides a versatile framework to select optical wavelengths and evaluate sets of absorbers for spectroscopic photoacoustic imaging.

Luke, Geoffrey P.; Nam, Seung Yun; Emelianov, Stanislav Y.

2013-01-01

334

Calibration of the SDSS\\/SEGUE Spectroscopic Pipeline  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe an ongoing effort to validate the estimated atmospheric parameters (Teff, log g, [Fe\\/H]) obtained from SDSS spectroscopy (R = 2000) and ugriz photometry, which are being employed for both the previous SDSS-I and the ongoing SEGUE surveys. The spectroscopic pipeline makes use of a number of methods for the estimation of each parameter, with estimated internal errors in

T. Sivarani; T. C. Beers; Y. Lee; C. Rockosi; D. Lai; B. Yanny; D. Tucker; J. A. Smith; R. Wilhelm; C. Allende Prieto; J. Norris; H. Morrison; B. Plez

2005-01-01

335

Review of Spectroscopic Data for Measurements of Stratospheric Species  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results and recommendations from a two day workshop are discussed. A review of the current status of experimental and theoretical spectroscopic data on molecules of stratospheric interest is given along with recommendations for additional research. Methods for disseminating new and existing data are also discussed.

Goldman, A. (editor); Hoell, J. M., Jr. (editor)

1980-01-01

336

Trojan War and Cultural Tradition  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In the western cultural tradition no story, exempting the Bible, has inspired more artists, writers, painters, sculptors and\\u000a so on, than the Trojan War. This is evident from the masterpieces of paintings and sculptures already presented in the previous\\u000a chapters, representing a small part only of the tradition developed through the centuries. It is remarkable that various artists\\u000a place the

S. A. Paipetis

337

Classifying traditional Chinese painting images  

Microsoft Academic Search

More and more traditional Chinese painting art images are digitalized and exhibited on the Internet. Effective browsing and retrieving them is an imperative problem need to be addressed. This paper proposes a scheme to classify traditional Chinese paintings. The algorithm uses three low-level features to achieve such a high-level classification: Ohta histogram, color coherence vector and auto-correlation. An accuracy of

Shuqiang Jiang; Wen GaolZ; Weiqiang Wang

2003-01-01

338

Spectroscopic metallicities of Vega-like stars  

E-print Network

Aims: To determine the metallicities of 113 Southern Hemisphere Vega-like candidate stars in relation to the Exoplanet host group and field stars. Methods: We applied two spectroscopic methods of abundance determinations: equivalent width measurements together with the ATLAS9 (Kurucz 1993) model atmospheres and the WIDTH9 program, and a comparison of observed spectra with the grid of synthetic spectra of Munari et al. (2005). Results: For the Vega-like group, the metallicities are indistinguishable from those of field stars not known to be associated with planets or disks. This result is quite different from the metallicities of Exoplanet host stars which are metal-rich in comparison to field stars.

C. Saffe; M. Gomez; O. Pintado; E. Gonzalez

2008-05-26

339

Optoacoustic spectroscopic imaging of radiolucent foreign bodies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the leading causes of medical malpractice claims in emergency medicine is the misdiagnosis of the presence of foreign bodies. Radiolucent foreign bodies are especially difficult to differentiate from surrounding soft tissue, gas, and bone. Current imaging modalities employed for the detection of foreign bodies include: X-ray computed tomography, magnetic resonance, and ultrasound; however, there is no consensus as to which modality is optimal for diagnosis. Because many radiolucent foreign bodies have sufficient contrast for imaging in the optical domain, we are exploring the use of laser-induced optoacoustic imaging for the detection of foreign bodies, especially in craniofacial injuries, in which the foreign bodies are likely to lie within the penetration depth of visible and near infrared wavelengths. Tissue-simulating phantoms containing various common foreign bodies have been constructed. Images of these phantoms have been successfully generated using two laser-based optoacoustic imaging methods with different detection modalities. In order to enhance the image contrast, common foreign bodies are being scanned over a wide range of wavelengths to obtain the spectroscopic properties of the materials commonly associated with these foreign bodies. This spectroscopic characterization will help select specific wavelengths to be used for imaging specific objects and provide useful diagnostic data about the material properties of the object.

Page, Leland; Maswadi, Saher; Glickman, Randolph D.

2010-03-01

340

Single nanoparticle tracking spectroscopic microscope  

DOEpatents

A system that can maintain and track the position of a single nanoparticle in three dimensions for a prolonged period has been disclosed. The system allows for continuously imaging the particle to observe any interactions it may have. The system also enables the acquisition of real-time sequential spectroscopic information from the particle. The apparatus holds great promise in performing single molecule spectroscopy and imaging on a non-stationary target.

Yang, Haw (Moraga, CA); Cang, Hu (Berkeley, CA); Xu, Cangshan (Berkeley, CA); Wong, Chung M. (San Gabriel, CA)

2011-07-19

341

Design of an Interactive Playground Based on Traditional Children's Play  

E-print Network

Design of an Interactive Playground Based on Traditional Children's Play Daniel Tetteroo, Dennis Reidsma, Betsy van Dijk, and Anton Nijholt University of Twente, Department of Human Media Interaction d for interactive playground design, based on traditional children's play. This method combines the rich interaction

Nijholt, Anton

342

A Comparison of Collaborative and Traditional Instruction in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although collaborative instructional techniques have become popular in college courses, it is unclear whether collaborative techniques can replace more traditional instructional methods. We examined the efficacy of collaborative courses (in-class, collaborative activities with no lectures) compared to traditional lecture courses (in-class,…

Gubera, Chip; Aruguete, Mara S.

2013-01-01

343

Endoscopic versus traditional saphenous vein harvesting: a prospective, randomized trial  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background. Saphenous vein harvested with a traditional longitudinal technique often results in leg wound complications. An alternative endoscopic harvest technique may decrease these complications.Methods. One hundred twelve patients scheduled for elective coronary artery bypass grafting were prospectively randomized to have vein harvested using either an endoscopic (group A, n = 54) or traditional technique (group B, n = 58). Groups

Keith B Allen; Gary L Griffith; David A Heimansohn; Robert J Robison; Robert G Matheny; John J Schier; Edward B Fitzgerald; Carl J Shaar

1998-01-01

344

Spectroscopic investigation of old planetaries V. Distance scales  

E-print Network

We use the results of our recent NLTE model atmosphere analysis of central stars of old planetary nebulae (PN) to calculate distances. We perform a comparison with three other methods (trigonometric parallaxes, interstellar NaD lines, and Shklovsky distances) and discuss the problem of the PNe distance scale. The result of the comparison of our spectroscopic distances with the trigonometric distances is that the spectroscopic distances are 55% larger. Since using trigonometric parallaxes with large relative measurement errors can introduce systematic errors, we carried out a Monte Carlo simulation of the biases introduced by selection effects and measurement errors. It turns out that a difference between both distance scales of the observed size is expected for the present day data if the underlying distance scales are identical. Thus our finding is essentially a confirmation of the spectroscopic distance scale! Good agreement is found between the spectroscopic distances and distances derived from the interstellar NaD lines. All three independent methods of distance measurement indicate that the widely used "statistical" distance scales of the Shklovsky type are too short for old PNe. A correlation with nebular radii exists. The most likely explanation is an underestimate of the nebula masses for large PN. Implications for the nebula masses are discussed. Estimates of the PNe space density and birthrate, which are based on Shklovsky type distances, therefore give too large values.

Ralf Napiwotzki

2000-12-01

345

Spectroscopic phase microscopy for quantifying hemoglobin concentrations in intact red blood cells  

E-print Network

We report a practical method for label-free quantification of specific molecules using spectroscopic imaging of sample-induced phase shifts. Diffraction phase microscopy equipped with various wavelengths of light source ...

Park, YongKeun

346

Novel high-resolved spectroscopic studies of positive streamer corona  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have developed a fully self-consistent method of diagnostics of streamer discharge plasmas based on analysis of absolute intensities of the second positive (SPS) and first negative (FNS) systems of molecular nitrogen. The theory of the method combines a spectroscopic technique for calculation of temporal waveforms of the nitrogen absolute SPS and FNS (0,0)-band emission and a self-consistent semi-analytical parametric

Yuri V. Shcherbakov

2007-01-01

347

Acquisition of the EELS data cube by tomographic spectroscopic imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

The EELS data cube combines spatial and spectral information because it has an EELS spectrum in each pixel of a spatial image.\\u000a The two major methods of acquiring it are image-spectroscopy (or an Energy Filtered Series or EFS) and spectrum-imaging. In\\u000a [1] we proposed a new method: Tomographic Spectroscopic Imaging (TSI). A proper defocus of the energy filter induces a

W. Broek; J. Verbeeck; S. Backer; D. Schryvers; P. Scheunders

348

Mixing Block and Traditional Scheduling  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Boone, North Carolina, Watauga High School has developed an alternative schedule that blends traditional and block schedules. This composite schedule originated in the late 1990s when their faculty members and administrators were struggling to determine if the school should change to a full block schedule. The board of education encouraged…

Childers, Gary L.; Ireland, Rebecca Weeks

2005-01-01

349

Traditional agroforestry practices in Zimbabwe  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional agroforestry systems in the communal areas of Zimbabwe are described. There are systems centered on main fields, on home gardens, on homesites and on grazing areas. In the main fields, the major tree-related management practice is the conservation of preferred indigenous fruit trees. Fruit trees are also the focus of forestry activities around the gardens and the homesite; but

B. M. Campbell; J. M. Clarke; D. J. Gumbo

1991-01-01

350

Contemporary Literature/Traditional Curriculum.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An upper school English program has been experimenting with ways to reinforce its traditional literary curriculum with contemporary works. Three contemporary novels in particular (Naylor's "The Women of Brewster Place," Walker's "The Color Purple," and Miller's "A Canticle for Leibowitz") have been found to foster a sense of continuity with the…

Spencer, Jamieson

351

Open Universities: A British Tradition?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book challenges the notion that the open university is a recent invention and argues that in Britain there is a long and varied tradition of similar developments, and that there has been a significant 20th century reduction in the openness of universities, particularly in the period from the 1950s to the 1970s. Selected examples of open…

Bell, Robert; Tight, Malcolm

352

Exposing the Traditional Marriage Agenda  

Microsoft Academic Search

The success of a social justice movement, especially with regard to issues upon which the public will be voting, depends in significant part on how the issues are defined or framed. Anti-same-sex marriage campaigns frequently urge voters to vote in favor of laws defining marriage as between a man and a woman in order to “protect traditional marriage.” Instead of

Jessica Feinberg

2012-01-01

353

Traditional Navajo Maps and Wayfinding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An example of the way finding process when using verbal and other traditional maps among the Navajo Indians of the southwestern United States is presented. The scholarly literature on the Southwest offers examples of verbal maps that construct both linear space, such as trails, and broad geographical space, including hunting territories and large…

Francis, Harris; Kelley, Klara

2005-01-01

354

Traditional healers and community health.  

PubMed

A review of projects in various countries suggests that traditional healers, if properly trained, can contribute significantly to the work of primary care teams. Recommendations are offered with a view to making the best possible use of this valuable resource. PMID:1418332

Hoff, W

1992-01-01

355

Working with Traditional Cultural Properties  

E-print Network

identity #12;Inyan Karan Mountain · a location associated with the traditional beliefs of a Native American historic contexts · Examine relationship to broader Catholic cultural area; refer to criteria garden/farm; 80 + acres Founding of St. Benedict Academy and Indian School Community of 300 sisters

Minnesota, University of

356

Exploring the Catholic Intellectual Tradition  

E-print Network

, passions, delights, triumphs, frustrations, and tragedies - oriented (God willing) toward Christ. May generously offered his passion for and a lifetime of experience teaching the Catholic intellectual tradition their most intimate encounters with Christ. A key challenge posed by St. Ignatius is for us to "find God

Huang, Jianyu

357

Traditional Teacher Education Still Matters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fresh from teaching his first full school year the author reflects on his traditional teacher preparation path into the classroom and finds he was instilled with a common sense of ethics, compassion, a demand for reflective practice, and a robust guiding philosophy. As a college student, he learned theory and was able to augment that with…

Jacobs, Nick

2013-01-01

358

Tribal Colleges and Traditional Knowledge.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compares the recent advances of Western science to ancient views of Native American tribes. Indicates that "advances" such as chaos theory and zoopharmacognosy are long-standing elements of Native American traditional knowledge. Suggests that tribal colleges must assert themselves and become the primary symbols of authority on tribal culture. (MAB)

Deloria, Vine, Jr.

1993-01-01

359

Wound care with traditional, complementary and alternative medicine  

PubMed Central

Wound care is constantly evolving with the advances in medicine. Search for the ideal dressing material still continues as wound care professionals are faced with several challenges. Due to the emergence of multi-resistant organisms and a decrease in newer antibiotics, wound care professionals have revisited the ancient healing methods by using traditional and alternative medicine in wound management. People's perception towards traditional medicine has also changed and is very encouraging. The concept of moist wound healing has been well accepted and traditional medicine has also incorporated this method to fasten the healing process. Several studies using herbal and traditional medicine from different continents have been documented in wound care management. Honey has been used extensively in wound care practice with excellent results. Recent scientific evidences and clinical trials conducted using traditional and alternative medicine in wound therapy holds good promise in the future. PMID:23162243

Dorai, Ananda A.

2012-01-01

360

Synthesis and spectroscopic characterization of cannabinolic acid.  

PubMed

Cannabinoids, the main constituents of the cannabis plant, are being increasingly studied for their medicinal properties. Cannabinolic acid (CBNA; 1) was synthesized from tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA; 2), a major constituent of the cannabis plant, by aromatization using selenium dioxide mixed with trimethylsilyl polyphosphate as catalyst in chloroform. Purification was achieved by centrifugal partition chromatography, and the final product had a purity of over 96% by GC analysis. Spectroscopic data on CBNA such as 1H-NMR and IR, and molar extinction coefficients, as well as chromatographic data are presented as useful references for further research on CBNA. The developed method allows production of CBNA on a preparative scale, making it available for further studies on its biological activities as well as use as a reference standard for analytical procedures. PMID:17354173

Bastola, Krishna Prasad; Hazekamp, Arno; Verpoorte, Robert

2007-03-01

361

Operating Environments in Schools of Open and Traditional Design  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Author proposed a set of concepts and methods for the measurement of educational environments. He compared the activity-with-facility (synomorph) patterns of schools of both open-plan and traditional architecture. (Editor/RK)

Gump, Paul V.

1974-01-01

362

Spectroscopic signature for ferroelectric ice  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Various forms of ice exist within our galaxy. Particularly intriguing type of ice - ‘ferroelectric ice' was discovered experimentally and is stable in temperatures below 72 K. This form of ice can generate enormous electric fields and can play an important role in planetary formation. In this letter we present Car-Parrinello simulation of infrared spectra of ferroelectric ice and compare them with spectra of hexagonal ice. Librational region of the spectra can be treated as spectroscopic signature of ice XI and can be of help to identify ferroelectric ice in the Universe.

Wójcik, Marek J.; G?ug, Maciej; Boczar, Marek; Boda, ?ukasz

2014-09-01

363

MK Classifications of Spectroscopic Binaries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New MK spectral classifications are given for 145 spectroscopic binaries (SBs) with AF primaries because two-dimensional types are lacking for more than one-third of the AF SBs with known orbital elements in the current catalog. Compared with the classifications by Morgan, Keenan, and their students, the new classifications give types that are 1.1 ± 0.2 subclasses later and 0.7 ± 0.1 luminosity classes fainter. Also listed are selected published MK types from Brian Skiff's recent compilation.

Abt, Helmut A.

2009-01-01

364

Spectroscopic classification of LSQ transients  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the optical spectroscopic classification of four supernovae candidates. The targets were supplied by the La Silla-Quest survey (see Hadjiyska et al., ATel #3812). All observations were performed on 25th Aug 2013 with the 4.2m William Herschel Telescope using ISIS, with R300B (3300 - 6000A, 3.4A resolution), R158R (5250 - 9746A, 7.2A resolution) and a dichroic at 5300A. Classifications were done with SNID (Blondin & Tonry, 2007, ApJ, 666, 1024) and GELATO (Harutyunyan et al., 2008, A&A, 488, 383).

Wright, D.; Polshaw, J.; Fraser, M.; Smartt, S. J.; Kotak, R.; Smith, K.; Young, D.; Inserra, C.; Nicholl, M.; Baltay, C.; Ellman, N.; Hadjiyska, E.; McKinnon, R.; Rabinowitz, D.; Walker, E. S.; Feindt, U.; Kowalski, M.; Nugent, P.

2013-08-01

365

Linking the near-surface camera-based phenological metrics with leaf chemical and spectroscopic properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plant phenology is an important indicator of climate change. Near-surface cameras provide a way to continuously monitor plant canopy development at the scale of several hundred meters, which is rarely feasible by either traditional phenological monitoring methods or remote sensing. Thus, digital cameras are being deployed in national networks such as the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) and PhenoCam. However, it is unclear how the camera-based phenological metrics are linked with plant physiology as measured from leaf chemical and spectroscopic properties throughout the growing season. We used the temporal trajectories of leaf chemical properties (chlorophyll a and b, carotenoids, leaf water content, leaf carbon/nitrogen content) and leaf reflectance/transmittance (300 to 2500 nm) to understand the temporal changes of camera-based phenological metrics (e.g., relative greenness), which was acquired from our Standalone Phenological Observation System installed on a tower on the island of Martha's Vineyard, MA (dominant species: Quercus alba). Leaf chemical and spectroscopic properties of three oak trees near the tower were measured weekly from June to November, 2011. We found that the chlorophyll concentration showed similar temporal trajectories to the relative greenness. However, the change of chlorophyll concentration lagged behind the change of relative greenness for about 20 days both in the spring and the fall. The relative redness is a better indicator of leaf senescence in the fall than the relative greenness. We derived relative greenness from leaf spectroscopy and found that the relative greenness from camera matched well with that from the spectroscopy in the mid-summer, but this relationship faded as leaves start to fall, exposing the branches and soil background. This work suggests that we should be cautious to interpret camera-based phenological metrics, and the relative redness could potentially be a useful indicator of fall senescence.

Yang, X.; Tang, J.; Mustard, J. F.; Schmitt, J.

2012-12-01

366

Hummatu,DaturastramoniumL..HortusMalabaricus TRADITIONAL  

E-print Network

Hummatu,DaturastramoniumL..HortusMalabaricus INDIAN TRADITIONAL KNOWLEDGEHISTORY, INFLUENCES will explore the many sources of traditional botanical-medical knowledge of India, examine its contributions

Udgaonkar, Jayant B.

367

THE SPECTROSCOPIC DIVERSITY OF TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE  

SciTech Connect

We present 2603 spectra of 462 nearby Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia), including 2065 previously unpublished spectra, obtained during 1993-2008 through the Center for Astrophysics Supernova Program. There are on average eight spectra for each of the 313 SNe Ia with at least two spectra. Most of the spectra were obtained with the FAST spectrograph at the Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory 1.5 m telescope and reduced in a consistent manner, making this data set well suited for studies of SN Ia spectroscopic diversity. Using additional data from the literature, we study the spectroscopic and photometric properties of SNe Ia as a function of spectroscopic class using the classification schemes of Branch et al. and Wang et al. The width-luminosity relation appears to be steeper for SNe Ia with broader lines, although the result is not statistically significant with the present sample. Based on the evolution of the characteristic Si II {lambda}6355 line, we propose improved methods for measuring velocity gradients, revealing a larger range than previously suspected, from {approx}0 to {approx}400 km s{sup -1} day{sup -1} considering the instantaneous velocity decline rate at maximum light. We find a weaker and less significant correlation between Si II velocity and intrinsic B - V color at maximum light than reported by Foley et al., owing to a more comprehensive treatment of uncertainties and host galaxy dust. We study the extent of nuclear burning and the presence of unburnt carbon in the outermost layers of the ejecta and report new detections of C II {lambda}6580 in 23 early-time SN Ia spectra. The frequency of C II detections is not higher in SNe Ia with bluer colors or narrower light curves, in conflict with the recent results of Thomas et al. Based on nebular spectra of 27 SNe Ia, we find no relation between the FWHM of the iron emission feature at {approx}4700 A and {Delta}m{sub 15}(B) after removing the two low-luminosity SN 1986G and SN 1991bg, suggesting that the peak luminosity is not strongly dependent on the kinetic energy of the explosion for most SNe Ia. Finally, we confirm the correlation of velocity shifts in some nebular lines with the intrinsic B - V color of SNe Ia at maximum light, although several outliers suggest a possible non-monotonic behavior for the largest blueshifts.

Blondin, S. [Centre de Physique des Particules de Marseille, Aix-Marseille Universite, CNRS/IN2P3, 163 avenue de Luminy, 13288 Marseille Cedex 9 (France); Matheson, T. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, 950 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Kirshner, R. P.; Mandel, K. S.; Challis, P. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Berlind, P.; Calkins, M. [F. L. Whipple Observatory, 670 Mt. Hopkins Road, P.O. Box 97, Amado, AZ 85645 (United States); Garnavich, P. M. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, 225 Nieuwland Science Hall, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Jha, S. W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers University, 136 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Modjaz, M. [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, New York University, 4 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003 (United States); Riess, A. G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Schmidt, B. P., E-mail: blondin@cppm.in2p3.fr [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Australian National University, Mount Stromlo and Siding Spring Observatories, Via Cotter Road, Weston Creek, PO 2611 (Australia)

2012-05-15

368

The Tibetan Tradition of Geography  

E-print Network

THE TIBETAN TRADITION OF GEOGRAPHY - TURREL V. WYLIE Geography. as a scientific description of the physical world, did not develop in Tibet in a manner analogous to that of western civiliza­ tions. Physical geography with its study of the earth... types of aeography­ physical, economic, and topographic-did not develop because they represent an objective description of the phenomenal world. NOTES ,. The system of Tibetan transcription used in this article is that des­ cribed in Wylie, " A...

Wylie, Turrel V.

369

Evaluating indices of traditional ecological knowledge: a methodological contribution  

PubMed Central

Background New quantitative methods to collect and analyze data have produced novel findings in ethnobiology. A common application of quantitative methods in ethnobiology is to assess the traditional ecological knowledge of individuals. Few studies have addressed reliability of indices of traditional ecological knowledge constructed with different quantitative methods. Methods We assessed the associations among eight indices of traditional ecological knowledge from data collected from 650 native Amazonians. We computed Spearman correlations, Chronbach's alpha, and principal components factor analysis for the eight indices. Results We found that indices derived from different raw data were weakly correlated (rho<0.5), whereas indices derived from the same raw data were highly correlated (rho>0.5; p < 0.001). We also found a relatively high internal consistency across data from the eight indices (Chronbach's alpha = 0.78). Last, results from a principal components factor analysis of the eight indices suggest that the eight indices were positively related, although the association was low when considering only the first factor. Conclusion A possible explanation for the relatively low correlation between indices derived from different raw data, but relatively high internal consistency of the eight indices is that the methods capture different aspects of an individual's traditional ecological knowledge. To develop a reliable measure of traditional ecological knowledge, researchers should collect raw data using a variety of methods and then generate an aggregated measure that contains data from the various components of traditional ecological knowledge. Failure to do this will hinder cross-cultural comparisons. PMID:16638119

Reyes-Garcia, Victoria; Vadez, Vincent; Tanner, Susan; McDade, Thomas; Huanca, Tomas; Leonard, William R

2006-01-01

370

Seaweed cultivation: Traditional way and its reformation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seaweed cultivation or phycoculture has been developed rather fast in recent years. The total production of cultivated seaweed at present is about 6250×103 tons fresh weight. The total cultivation area is estimated as 200×103 hectare. The annual total value of cultivated seaweeds has been estimated to be more than 3 billion US dollars. Phycoculture provides many job opportunities for the coastal region people, has the potential to improve marine environments and thus even induce global change. All traditional cultivation methods and techniques are based on or start from the individual plant or the cultivated seaweed population. Modern biological science and biotechnology achievements have benefited agriculture a lot, but traditional seaweed cultivation has not changed much since its founding. This is because seaweed cultivation has been quite conservative for quite a long period and has accumulated many problems requiring solution. Four main problems might be the most universal ones holding back further development of the industry. New ways of seaweed cultivation must be developed, new techniques must be perfected, and new problems solved. This paper mainly discusses the main problems of traditional seaweed cultivation at present and its possible further development and reformation in the future.

Fei, Xiu-Geng; Bao, Ying; Lu, Shan

1999-09-01

371

Health traditions of Sikkim Himalaya  

PubMed Central

Ancient medical systems are still prevalent in Sikkim, popularly nurtured by Buddhist groups using the traditional Tibetan pharmacopoeia overlapping with Ayurvedic medicine. Traditional medical practices and their associated cultural values are based round Sikkim’s three major communities, Lepcha, Bhutia and Nepalis. In this study, a semi-structured questionnaire was prepared for folk healers covering age and sex, educational qualification, source of knowledge, types of practices, experience and generation of practice, and transformation of knowledge. These were administered to forty-eight folk healers identified in different parts of Sikkim. 490 medicinal plants find their habitats in Sikkim because of its large variations in altitude and climate. For 31 commonly used by these folk healers, we present botanical name, family, local name, distribution, and parts used, together with their therapeutic uses, mostly Rheumatoid arthritis, Gout, Gonorrhea, Fever, Viral flu, asthma, Cough and Cold, indigestion, Jaundice etc. A case treated by a folk healer is also recounted. This study indicates that, in the studied area, Sikkim’s health traditions and folk practices are declining due to shifts in socio-economic patterns, and unwillingness of the younger generation to adopt folk healing as a profession. PMID:21547046

Panda, Ashok Kumar; Misra, Sangram

2010-01-01

372

Traditional Medicine ProgrammeACKNOWLEDGEMENTS  

E-print Network

Although modern medicine is well developed in most of the world, large sections of the population in developing countries still rely on the traditional practitioners, medicinal plants and herbal medicines for their primary care. Moreover during the past decades, public interest in natural therapies has increased greatly in industrialized countries, with expanding use of medicinal plants and herbal medicines. The many and various forms of traditional medicinal products have evolved against widely different ethnological, cultural, climatic, geographical, and even philosophical backgrounds. The evaluation of these products and ensuring their safety and efficacy through registration and regulation present important challenges. The purpose of this document is to share national experiences in formulating policies on traditional medicinal products and in introducing measures for their registration and regulation, and to facilitate information exchange on these subjects among Member States. The document, at present, only covers 52 countries, but after a few years it will be updated and expanded in the light of experience. Further contributions from governments, institutions, and others would be greatly appreciated.

Dr Xiaorui Zhang

373

Acoustics of Chinese traditional theatres  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chinese traditional theatre is unique in the world as an architectural form. The Chinese opera evolved into maturity as early as the Song and Yuan Dynasties, 11th-14th centuries, and Chinese theatrical buildings developed accordingly. As the Chinese opera plays on the principle of imaginary actions, no realistic stage settings are required. But Chinese audiences have placed great demands on vocal performance since ancient times. Pavilion stages that are small in area, open on three sides, and thrusting into the audience area are commonly found in traditional theatres, both the courtyard type and auditorium type. The pavilion stage is backed with a wall and a low ceiling (flat or domed). The stage functions as a reflecting shell, which enhances the sound to the audience and provides self-support to the singer. Numerous theatres of this kind exist and function in good condition to the present time. Acoustical measurements show that the sound strength and clarity in audience areas is satisfactory in moderate size courtyard traditional theatres. [Work supported by NSF.

Wang, J. Q.

2002-11-01

374

Spectroscopic characterizations of organic/inorganic nanocomposites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present study, pure and 0.3 wt%, 0.4 wt%, as well as 0.5 wt% L-arginine doped potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) crystals were grown using solution growth techniques and further subjected to infrared (IR) absorption and Raman studies for confirmation of chemical group functionalization for investigating the incorporation mechanism of the L-arginine organic material into the KDP crystal structure. Infrared spectroscopic analysis suggests that structural changes are occurring for the L-arginine molecule as a result of its interaction with the KPD crystal. Infrared spectroscopic technique confirms the disturbance of the N-H, C-H and C-N bonds of the amino acid, suggesting successful incorporation of L-arginine into the KDP crystals. Raman analysis also reveals modification of the N-H, C-H and C-N bonds of the amino acid, implying successful inclusion of L-arginine into the KDP crystals. With the help of Gaussian software, a prediction of possible incorporation mechanisms of the organic material was obtained from comparison of the simulated infrared and Raman vibrational spectra with the experimental results. Furthermore, we also studied the effect of L-arginine doping on the thermal stability of the grown KDP crystal by employing Thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA). TGA suggests that increasing the level of L-arginine doping speeds the decomposition process and it weakens the KDP crystal, which indicates successful doping of the KDP crystals with L-arginine amino acid. Urinary stones are one of the oldest and most widely spread diseases in humans, animals and birds. Many remedies have been employed through the ages for the treatment of urinary stones. Recent medicinal measures reflect the modern advances, which are based on surgical removal, percutaneous techniques and extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL). Although these procedures are valuable, they are quite expensive for most people. Furthermore, recurrence of these diseases is awfully frequent with these procedures and the patients have to be subjected to careful follow up for several years. In contrast, in traditional therapeutic systems, most of the remedies were taken from plants and they proved to be helpful. However, the rationale behind their use is not thoroughly established through systematic pharmacological and clinical studies. In this regard, in the present investigation, with a view towards acquiring more insights, we have performed a detailed study of kidney stone formation and growth inhibition based on a traditional medicine approach with herbal extracts. The intricacy of calculi formation (i.e. nucleation, transformation, and aggregation) in a natural system such as urine is replicated to a certain extent in the present study by using a simplified single diffusion gel growth technique. Crystals were synthesized in a static gel environment without and with the presence of 1% and 2% concentration of Rotula Aquatica Lour (RAL) herbal extracts and further subjected to Raman, infrared absorption, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and photoluminescence to analyze the effects of RAL on the growth of manganese-based calculi. Raman spectroscopy clearly provided an indication of the newberyite type of crystal as well as information on the chemical interaction between crystal and inhibitor. It also indicates the presence of organic components due to the RAL plant material. Infrared absorption spectroscopy indicates the presence of a strong reflecting component in the inhibitor as well as the newberyite type of crystal. XPS results indicated the presence of metallic zinc in the crystal with inhibitor. Furthermore, a considerable increase in the intensity of the magnesium and oxygen lines are noticed with the addition of the herbal extract, which suggest that the inhibitor chemical composition includes a substantial quantity of Mg and O. XPS analysis also demonstrates the presence of modified phosphorus oxidation states and suggest that they might make a contribution, too. The photoluminescence spectra of the crystal with inhibitor indicate the p

Govani, Jayesh R.

375

Enhancing forensic science with spectroscopic imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

This presentation outlines the research we are developing in the area of Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic imaging with the focus on materials of forensic interest. FTIR spectroscopic imaging has recently emerged as a powerful tool for characterisation of heterogeneous materials. FTIR imaging relies on the ability of the military-developed infrared array detector to simultaneously measure spectra from thousands of

Camilla Ricci; Sergei G. Kazarian

2006-01-01

376

Laparoscopic colectomy vs traditional colectomy for diverticulitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcome of patients undergoing laparoscopic colectomy for diverticulitis.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Methods  Fourteen consecutive patients undergoing laparoscopic sigmoid colectomy (LSC) for diverticulitis were evaluated. Medical records\\u000a from a control group of 14 matched patients undergoing traditional open sigmoid colectomy (OSC) for diverticulitis were reviewed\\u000a for comparison.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Results  Mean age, operative time, morbidity, and mortality of the

M. A. Liberman; E. H. Phillips; B. J. Carroll; M. Fallas; R. Rosenthal

1996-01-01

377

Traditional Information Technology Planning in Larger  

E-print Network

1 Traditional Information Technology Planning in Larger Organizations The Traditional Systems and Valacich, 1998. Modern Systems Analysis and Design, Chapter 7) #12;2 The Traditional Systems Development Life Cycle (SDLC) IT Project Identification & Selection The Traditional Systems Development Life Cycle

Schweik, Charles M.

378

Spectroscopic investigation of the interaction between ?-cyclodextrin and ascorbic acid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Inclusion compound of vitamin C (ascorbic acid) with ?-cyclodextrin (?-CD), prepared by different methods (kneading, co-precipitation and freeze-drying) has been caracterized by several spectroscopic techniques (FTIR, 1H NMR, UV-Vis), powder X-ray diffraction and DSC technique. Based on the chemical shifts observed in the 1H-NMR and on FTIR spectra the tentative conclusion is that vitamin C probably enters the cyclodextrin torus forming the inclusion complex.

Bratu, Ioan; Muresan-Pop, Marieta; Kacso, Irina; F?rca?, Sorin I.

2009-08-01

379

Statistical analysis of single-lined red giant spectroscopic binaries  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article reports a statistical analysis of the orbital elements (period, eccentricity, mass function) performed on a sample of 194 single-lined red giant spectroscopic binaries. From the eccentricity-period diagram, the authors deduce a circularization cut-off period of 70 days and find an eccentricity-period correlation that seemingly does not result from an observational bias. With the aid of two complementary methods,

H. M. J. Boffin; G. Paulus; N. Cerf

1992-01-01

380

Alternatives to traditional complete dentures.  

PubMed

Specific alternatives to traditional complete denture therapy have been controversial because of the uncertainties surrounding effectiveness of retention. This article addresses the importance of retention, border molding, diagnosis, and treatment planning, and the meticulous attention to detail required throughout the treatment course of these alternative modalities. Indications, advantages, and limitations are also presented. Although these alternatives are not routinely used in making complete dentures, they have been successfully used for the treatment of the edentulous patient. Alternatives serve as valuable prosthodontic treatment options that greatly enhance denture aesthetics, and should be considered for edentulous patients. PMID:24286647

Olvera, Norma; Jones, John D

2014-01-01

381

Latin American traditions and perspectives  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Educational and related non-pedagogical issues are generally described and discussed. Implicitly or explicitly, the theology of liberation, educación popular and traditional education tend to perpetuate male/female roles and very often incite violence. Peace education in Latin America should concentrate more on the pathology of the violent man. The so-called `weaknesses' associated with women and their `powerlessness' in Western civilization are precisely those which are absolutely essential to our survival. It is important for women to reject Western patterns of violence and participate actively in finding a viable alternative.

Garcia, Celina

1983-09-01

382

[Traditional Chinese medicine in urology].  

PubMed

Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is an ancient holistic medicine based on the doctrine of Tao and Qi. Tao represents an alteration from which the polarity of Yin and Yang arises and Qi is the vitality which circulates through the body. Therapeutic concepts of TCM include acupuncture, herbal therapy, nutrition and Tuina, a form of manual therapy. TCM is now gaining increased acceptance in the Western society as a complementary therapy. Acupuncture and herbal therapy are the main forms of implementation of TCM in urology. PMID:23754610

Hüsch, T; Tsaur, I; Reiter, M; Mager, R; Haferkamp, A

2014-11-01

383

Information visualization: Beyond traditional engineering  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This presentation addresses a different aspect of the human-computer interface; specifically the human-information interface. This interface will be dominated by an emerging technology called Information Visualization (IV). IV goes beyond the traditional views of computer graphics, CADS, and enables new approaches for engineering. IV specifically must visualize text, documents, sound, images, and video in such a way that the human can rapidly interact with and understand the content structure of information entities. IV is the interactive visual interface between humans and their information resources.

Thomas, James J.

1995-01-01

384

Multifunction Imaging and Spectroscopic Instrument  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A proposed optoelectronic instrument would perform several different spectroscopic and imaging functions that, heretofore, have been performed by separate instruments. The functions would be reflectance, fluorescence, and Raman spectroscopies; variable-color confocal imaging at two different resolutions; and wide-field color imaging. The instrument was conceived for use in examination of minerals on remote planets. It could also be used on Earth to characterize material specimens. The conceptual design of the instrument emphasizes compactness and economy, to be achieved largely through sharing of components among subsystems that perform different imaging and spectrometric functions. The input optics for the various functions would be mounted in a single optical head. With the exception of a targeting lens, the input optics would all be aimed at the same spot on a specimen, thereby both (1) eliminating the need to reposition the specimen to perform different imaging and/or spectroscopic observations and (2) ensuring that data from such observations can be correlated with respect to known positions on the specimen. The figure schematically depicts the principal components and subsystems of the instrument. The targeting lens would collect light into a multimode optical fiber, which would guide the light through a fiber-selection switch to a reflection/ fluorescence spectrometer. The switch would have four positions, enabling selection of spectrometer input from the targeting lens, from either of one or two multimode optical fibers coming from a reflectance/fluorescence- microspectrometer optical head, or from a dark calibration position (no fiber). The switch would be the only moving part within the instrument.

Mouroulis, Pantazis

2004-01-01

385

Traditional Grammar: An Interactive Book  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Is traditional grammar dead? Donald Hardy, a professor of English at Northern Illinois University, doesn't think so. He recently posted this "e-grammar" on the Web to help teach users how to distinguish their nouns from their verbs, their nominative cases from their subjunctives, and their present perfect from their past. The descriptions are clear and concise, while quizzes at the end of each chapter as well as five practice exams allow readers to test their retention and keep track electronically of their score. (We were not convinced, however, that the typical exemplifications of the rules that are the core of each chapter truly constitute an "interactive" aspect of the text as the introduction claims.)

386

Benford Analysis: A useful paradigm for spectroscopic analysis  

E-print Network

Benford's law is a statistical inference to predict the frequency of significant digits in naturally occurring numerical databases. In such databases this law predicts a higher occurrence of the digit 1 in the most significant place and decreasing occurrences to other larger digits. Although counter-intuitive at first sight, Benford's law has seen applications in a wide variety of fields like physics, earth-science, biology, finance etc. In this work, we have explored the use of Benford's law for various spectroscopic applications. Although, we use NMR signals as our databases, the methods described here may also be extended to other spectroscopic techniques. In particular, with the help of Benford analysis, we demonstrate the detection of weak NMR signals and spectral corrections. We also explore a potential application of Benford analysis in the image-processing of MRI data.

Bhole, Gaurav; Mahesh, T S

2014-01-01

387

AN H-BAND SPECTROSCOPIC METALLICITY CALIBRATION FOR M DWARFS  

SciTech Connect

We present an empirical near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopic method for estimating M dwarf metallicities, based on features in the H band, as well as an implementation of a similar published method in the K band. We obtained R {approx} 2000 NIR spectra of a sample of M dwarfs using the NASA IRTF-SpeX spectrograph, including 22 M dwarf metallicity calibration targets that have FGK companions with known metallicities. The H-band and K-band calibrations provide equivalent fits to the metallicities of these binaries, with an accuracy of {+-}0.12 dex. We derive the first empirically calibrated spectroscopic metallicity estimate for the giant planet-hosting M dwarf GJ 317, confirming its supersolar metallicity. Combining this result with observations of eight other M dwarf planet hosts, we find that M dwarfs with giant planets are preferentially metal-rich compared to those that host less massive planets. Our H-band calibration relies on strongly metallicity-dependent features in the H band, which will be useful in compositional studies using mid- to high-resolution NIR M dwarf spectra, such as those produced by multiplexed surveys like SDSS-III APOGEE. These results will also be immediately useful for ongoing spectroscopic surveys of M dwarfs.

Terrien, Ryan C.; Mahadevan, Suvrath; Bender, Chad F.; Deshpande, Rohit; Ramsey, Lawrence W.; Bochanski, John J., E-mail: rct151@psu.edu [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

2012-03-10

388

Coalition Threading: Combining Traditional and Non-Traditional Parallelism to Maximize Scalability  

E-print Network

Coalition Threading: Combining Traditional and Non-Traditional Parallelism to Maximize Scalability@cs.ucsd.edu ABSTRACT Non-traditional parallelism provides parallel speedup for a single thread without the need that seeks the ideal combination of traditional and non-traditional threading to make the best use

Simunic, Tajana

389

Leadership in Software Development: Comparing Perceptions of Agile and Traditional Project Managers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information systems development has always been a focal point of IS research. The most widely understood traditional methods for developing information systems are based on the “waterfall” life cycle model. Recently, agile methods have drawn increasing attention from IS practitioners and researchers worldwide, as a response to the shortcomings of the traditional methods. However, the impact of agile methods on

Haibo Yang; Sid Huff; Diane Strode

2009-01-01

390

Determination of depleted uranium in environmental samples by gamma-spectroscopic techniques  

Microsoft Academic Search

The military use of depleted uranium initiated the need for an efficient and reliable method to detect and quantify DU contamination in environmental samples. This paper presents such a method, based on the gamma spectroscopic determination of 238U and 235U. The main advantage of this method is that it allows for a direct determination of the U isotope ratio, while

D. J Karangelos; M. J Anagnostakis; E. P Hinis; S. E Simopoulos; Z. S Zunic

2004-01-01

391

Effects of cold boundary layers on spectroscopic temperature measurements in combustion gas flows  

Microsoft Academic Search

A study of the effect of cold wall boundary layers on spectroscopic temperature measurements in combustion gas flows is presented. Numerical calculations are made for the monochromatic and integrated line reversal and relative intensity methods. For the monochromatic line reversal method we have shown that there exists an optimum optical depth for making the measurement and for which the method

J. W. Daily; C. H. Kruger

1976-01-01

392

Improved spectroscopic parameters for transiting planet hosts  

E-print Network

We report homogeneous spectroscopic determinations of the effective temperature, metallicity, and projected rotational velocity for the host stars of 56 transiting planets. Our analysis is based primarily on the stellar ...

Winn, Joshua Nathan

393

Asiago spectroscopic observation of two CRTS transients  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Asiago Transient Classification Program (Tomasella et al. 2014, AN, 335, 841) reports the spectroscopic observation of two targets supplied by the Catalina Real-Time Transient Survey CRTS (http://crts.caltech.edu).

Tomasella, L.; Benetti, S.; Cappellaro, E.; Elias-Rosa, N.; Ochner, P.; Pastorello, A.; Turatto, M.

2014-09-01

394

Interaction of salmon gonadotropin subunits : spectroscopic studies  

E-print Network

Interaction of salmon gonadotropin subunits : spectroscopic studies R. SALESSE, J. GARNIER, B en Josas, France Summary. Pituitary gonadotropins of female and male pacific salmon Oncorhynchus) and in salmon (Donaldson et al., 1972), although physicochemical, biological or immunological evidence for two

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

395

Spectroscopic Temperature Measurements in Interior Ballistic Environments.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Spectroscopic temperature measurements during the interior ballistic cycle of a 20 mm test fixture gun and inside the muzzle flash of a 7.62 mm rifle are described. The investigation yields information on temperature distribution in the burning propellant...

G. Klingenberg, H. Mach

1984-01-01

396

Vibrational spectroscopic characterization of fluoroquinolones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quinolones are important gyrase inhibitors. Even though they are used as active agents in many antibiotics, the detailed mechanism of action on a molecular level is so far not known. It is of greatest interest to shed light on this drug-target interaction to provide useful information in the fight against growing resistances and obtain new insights for the development of new powerful drugs. To reach this goal, on a first step it is essential to understand the structural characteristics of the drugs and the effects that are caused by the environment in detail. In this work we report on Raman spectroscopical investigations of a variety of gyrase inhibitors (nalidixic acid, oxolinic acid, cinoxacin, flumequine, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, lomefloxacin, ofloxacin, enoxacin, sarafloxacin and moxifloxacin) by means of micro-Raman spectroscopy excited with various excitation wavelengths, both in the off-resonance region (532, 633, 830 and 1064 nm) and in the resonance region (resonance Raman spectroscopy at 244, 257 and 275 nm). Furthermore DFT calculations were performed to assign the vibrational modes, as well as for an identification of intramolecular hydrogen bonding motifs. The effect of small changes in the drug environment was studied by adding successively small amounts of water until physiological low concentrations of the drugs in aqueous solution were obtained. At these low concentrations resonance Raman spectroscopy proved to be a useful and sensitive technique. Supplementary information was obtained from IR and UV/vis spectroscopy.

Neugebauer, U.; Szeghalmi, A.; Schmitt, M.; Kiefer, W.; Popp, J.; Holzgrabe, U.

2005-05-01

397

Designing Smart Living Objects Enhancing vs. Distracting Traditional Human-object Interaction  

E-print Network

Designing Smart Living Objects ­ Enhancing vs. Distracting Traditional Human-object Interaction Pei enhancement should consider the object's traditional function and interaction method, and avoid conflict between the digital enhancement and the traditional use. Keywords: smart object, smart living object

Ouhyoung, Ming

398

THE TRADITION OF ALL THE DEAD GENERATIONS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The notion of tradition is a somewhat troublesome one, capable of both positive and negative interpretation: on the one hand, tradition can be understood optimistically, as historical inspiration, a celebration of lineage and continuity. On the other hand, tradition can connote prescriptive inertia, the axiomatic dogma of former eras. In this paper, I explore the impact that narrowly prescriptive interpretations

Alan Stanbridge

2007-01-01

399

Chemistry: Traditional Track BS Degree Completion Checklist  

E-print Network

Chemistry: Traditional Track BS Degree Completion Checklist Last Name____________________ First ____ CHEM 3211 ____ CHEM 3380 ____ CHEM 3411 ____ CHEM 3412 ____ CHEM 3481 ____ Traditional Track Courses: 6 of your degree petition. Traditional Options- AND CHEM 3511 OR 4511 OR 4512-3 hours (CHEM 3511 not allowed

Sherrill, David

400

INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION Traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) of  

E-print Network

INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION Traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) of Indigenous peoples has'azt'en Nation and UNBC are partnering on this research, which focuses on Tl'azt'en traditional territory traditional food/medicine plant gathering sites may fall out of use; To assess the impact of current land

Northern British Columbia, University of

401

50 CFR 253.26 - Traditional loans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Traditional loans. 253.26 Section 253.26...Fisheries Finance Program § 253.26 Traditional loans. (a) Eligible projects...period. (g) Credit standards. Traditional loans are subject to all Program...

2012-10-01

402

50 CFR 253.26 - Traditional loans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Traditional loans. 253.26 Section 253.26...Fisheries Finance Program § 253.26 Traditional loans. (a) Eligible projects...period. (g) Credit standards. Traditional loans are subject to all Program...

2013-10-01

403

Mechanizing the Traditional Approach to Partial Functions ?  

E-print Network

Mechanizing the Traditional Approach to Partial Functions ? William M. Farmer The MITRE Corporation, 202 Burlington Road, Bedford, MA 01730-1420, USA Abstract. In traditional mathematics it is legitimate the presence of nondenoting terms. This paper shows how this traditional approach to partial func- tions can

Farmer, William M.

404

COORDINATING TRADITIONAL AND INTERNET SUPPLY CHAINS  

E-print Network

1 Chapter 21 COORDINATING TRADITIONAL AND INTERNET SUPPLY CHAINS Kyle D. Cattani, Wendell G traditional channels can now sell their products to additional customers at negligible marginal cost. Firms in both a traditional channel and an internet channel. We focus on coordination issues in the areas

Swaminathan, Jayashankar M.

405

The Traditional Central California Setnet Fishery Introduction  

E-print Network

The Traditional Central California Setnet Fishery Introduction Setnets, curtainlike fishing gear de the number of active setnet fishermen and ABSTRACf-In 1984, the central Califor nia traditional (non, Ophiodon elongatus; and sablefish, Anoplo poma fimbria. The estimated capital value ofthe traditional

406

Traditional Scottish Recipes Made Healthier Garry Duthie  

E-print Network

Stovies Reloaded: Traditional Scottish Recipes Made Healthier Garry Duthie #12;Introduction's Centenary celebrations, this recipe book attempts to revive interest in traditional Scottish foods. The Rowett Institute was founded by John Boyd Orr in 1913 #12;Stovies Reloaded: Traditional Scottish Recipes

Levi, Ran

407

50 CFR 253.26 - Traditional loans.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Traditional loans. 253.26 Section 253.26...Fisheries Finance Program § 253.26 Traditional loans. (a) Eligible projects...period. (g) Credit standards. Traditional loans are subject to all Program...

2011-10-01

408

World wide traditional cheeses: Banned for business?  

E-print Network

Viewpoint World wide traditional cheeses: Banned for business? Giuseppe LICITRA 1,2* 1 Co ­ Revised 20 December 2009 ­ Accepted 7 January 2010 Published online 7 April 2010 Abstract ­ Traditional and the culture of the community that produces them. Every traditional cheese originates from a complex system

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

409

Very Large Spectroscopic Surveys with the VLT  

E-print Network

Recently, it has been recognised that very large spectroscopic surveys (several million spectra) are required to advance our understanding of Dark Energy (via baryonic wiggles) and the detailed history of our Local Group of galaxies (via Galactic Archeology or near-field cosmology). In this paper I make a preliminary exploration of how this might be done by putting a wide field, optical, prime-focus fibre-fed spectroscopic facility on one of the VLT's UTs.

Ian R. Parry

2008-03-26

410

Raman spectroscopy compared against traditional predictors of shear force in lamb m. longissimus lumborum.  

PubMed

A Raman spectroscopic hand held device was used to predict shear force (SF) of 80 fresh lamb m. longissimus lumborum (LL) at 1 and 5days post mortem (PM). Traditional predictors of SF including sarcomere length (SL), particle size (PS), cooking loss (CL), percentage myofibrillar breaks and pH were also measured. SF values were regressed against Raman spectra using partial least squares regression and against the traditional predictors using linear regression. The best prediction of shear force values used spectra at 1day PM to predict shear force at 1day which gave a root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of 13.6 (Null=14.0) and the R(2) between observed and cross validated predicted values was 0.06 (R(2)cv). Overall, for fresh LL, the predictability SF, by either the Raman hand held probe or traditional predictors was low. PMID:25089790

Fowler, Stephanie M; Schmidt, Heinar; van de Ven, Remy; Wynn, Peter; Hopkins, David L

2014-12-01

411

Childbirth customs in Vietnamese traditions.  

PubMed Central

OBJECTIVE: To examine and understand how differences in the cultural backgrounds of Canadian physicians and their Vietnamese patients can affect the quality and efficacy of prenatal and postnatal treatment. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE: The information in this paper is based on a review of the literature, supplemented by interviews with members of the Vietnamese community in Edmonton, Alta. The literature was searched with MEDLINE (1966 to present), HEALTHSTAR (1975 to present), EMBASE (1988 to present), and Social Sciences Abstracts (1984 to present). Emphasis was placed on articles and other texts that dealt with Vietnamese customs surrounding childbirth, but information on health and health care customs was also considered. Interviews focused on the accuracy of information obtained from the research and the correlation of those data with personal experiences of Vietnamese community members. MAIN MESSAGE: Information in the texts used to research this paper suggests that traditional Vietnamese beliefs and practices surrounding birth are very different from the biomedical view of the Canadian medical system. The experiences and beliefs of the members of the Vietnamese community support this finding. Such cultural differences could contribute to misunderstandings between physicians and patients and could affect the quality and efficacy of health care provided. CONCLUSIONS: A sensitive and open approach to the patient's belief system and open and frank communication are necessary to ensure effective prenatal and postnatal treatment for recent Vietnamese immigrants and refugees. Education and awareness of cultural differences are necessary for physicians to provide the best and most effective health care possible. Images p692-a PMID:10099808

Bodo, K.; Gibson, N.

1999-01-01

412

Mayo Clinic: Tradition and Heritage  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Heeding the words of their father, one Dr. W.W. Mayo, âÂÂNo one is big enough to be independent of othersâÂÂ, Dr. William J. Mayo and Dr. Charles H. Mayo helped create one of the worldâÂÂs first private integrated group practices of medicine. Now known as the Mayo Clinic, the story of their work is closely intertwined with the story of American medical history. As an attempt to bring this story to the web-browsing public, staff members at the Clinic recently created this historical timeline that offers some perspective on their institutional history. With their mouse in hand, visitors can move across the interactive timeline, which deploys high-quality photographs and short descriptions in its quest to document the ClinicâÂÂs various achievements, such as the creation of the first heart bypass machine in 1955. Finally, online visitors can get up close and personal to some of the artifacts that are close to the Mayo Clinic traditions, including a 1904 photograph of some of the medical staff at the Clinic.

2006-01-01

413

Raman spectroscopic studies on p-terphenyl under high pressure  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-pressure Raman scattering studies are performed on p-terphenyl up to 5 GPa. The Raman activities of different symmetric molecules were analyzed by means of group theory methods. A phase transition was detected at 1.3 GPa from changes in the slope on plots of frequency versus pressure. The diminishing of internal modes indicated that the molecule symmetry transformed from C2 to D2h. This is an effective method for detecting planar molecular structure of p-terphenyl by ring-ring stretching vibration mode, which can provide a new spectroscopic evidence of planar conjugated polyphenyl molecular conformation.

Liu, Tianyuan; Xu, Shengnan; Sun, Chenglin; Zhou, Mi

2014-11-01

414

Photoacoustic spectroscopic studies of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Because of their involvement in environmental pollutants, in carcinogenic activity, plastics, pharmaceuticals, synthesis of some laser dyes and presence in interstellar space etc., Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are important. As their structure and properties can be varied systematically, they form a beautiful class of molecules for experimental and quantum chemical investigations. These molecules are being studied for last several years by using conventional spectroscopy. In recent years, Photoacoustic (PA) spectroscopy has emerged as a new non-destructive technique with unique capability and sensitivity. The PA effect is the process of generation of acoustic waves in a sample resulting from the absorption of photons. This technique not only reveals non- radiative transitions but also provides information about forbidden singlet-triplet transitions which are not observed normally by the conventional spectroscopy. The present paper deals with the spectroscopic studies of some PAH molecules by PA spectroscopy in the region 250 - 400 nm. The CNDO/S-CI method is used to calculate the electronic transitions with the optimized geometries. A good agreement is found between the experimental and calculated results.

Zaidi, Zahid H.; Kumar, Pardeep; Garg, R. K.

1999-02-01

415

Spectroscopic Needs for Calibration of LSST Photometric Redshifts  

E-print Network

This white paper summarizes the conclusions of the Snowmass White Paper "Spectroscopic Needs for Imaging Dark Energy Experiments" (arXiv:1309.5384) which are relevant to the calibration of LSST photometric redshifts; i.e., the accurate characterization of biases and uncertainties in photo-z's. Any significant miscalibration will lead to systematic errors in photo-z's, impacting nearly all extragalactic science with LSST. As existing deep redshift samples have failed to yield highly-secure redshifts for a systematic 20%-60% of their targets, it is a strong possibility that future deep spectroscopic samples will not solve the calibration problem on their own. The best options in this scenario are provided by cross-correlation methods that utilize clustering with objects from spectroscopic surveys (which need not be fully representative) to trace the redshift distribution of the full sample. For spectroscopy, the eBOSS survey would enable a basic calibration of LSST photometric redshifts, while the expected LSST...

Schmidt, Samuel J; Abate, Alexandra

2014-01-01

416

Spectroscopic charge pumping investigation of the amphoteric nature of Si/SiO2 interface states  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The amphoteric nature of Si/SiO2 interface states in submicron sized metal-oxide-silicon-field-effect-transistors is observed using an enhanced spectroscopic charge pumping method. The method's simplicity and high sensitivity makes it a powerful tool for interrogating the true nature of electrically measured interface states in samples which exhibit extremely low defect densities. The spectroscopic results obtained clearly illustrate a signature "double peak" density of states consistent with amphoteric Pb center data obtained from electron spin resonance measurements. Since the method is a hybrid of the commonly used charge pumping methodology, it should find widespread use in electronic device characterization.

Ryan, J. T.; Yu, L. C.; Han, J. H.; Kopanski, J. J.; Cheung, K. P.; Zhang, F.; Wang, C.; Campbell, J. P.; Suehle, J. S.

2011-06-01

417

On determining dose rate constants spectroscopically  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To investigate several aspects of the Chen and Nath spectroscopic method of determining the dose rate constants of {sup 125}I and {sup 103}Pd seeds [Z. Chen and R. Nath, Phys. Med. Biol. 55, 6089-6104 (2010)] including the accuracy of using a line or dual-point source approximation as done in their method, and the accuracy of ignoring the effects of the scattered photons in the spectra. Additionally, the authors investigate the accuracy of the literature's many different spectra for bare, i.e., unencapsulated {sup 125}I and {sup 103}Pd sources. Methods: Spectra generated by 14 {sup 125}I and 6 {sup 103}Pd seeds were calculated in vacuo at 10 cm from the source in a 2.7 Multiplication-Sign 2.7 Multiplication-Sign 0.05 cm{sup 3} voxel using the EGSnrc BrachyDose Monte Carlo code. Calculated spectra used the initial photon spectra recommended by AAPM's TG-43U1 and NCRP (National Council of Radiation Protection and Measurements) Report 58 for the {sup 125}I seeds, or TG-43U1 and NNDC(2000) (National Nuclear Data Center, 2000) for {sup 103}Pd seeds. The emitted spectra were treated as coming from a line or dual-point source in a Monte Carlo simulation to calculate the dose rate constant. The TG-43U1 definition of the dose rate constant was used. These calculations were performed using the full spectrum including scattered photons or using only the main peaks in the spectrum as done experimentally. Statistical uncertainties on the air kerma/history and the dose rate/history were Less-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To 0.2%. The dose rate constants were also calculated using Monte Carlo simulations of the full seed model. Results: The ratio of the intensity of the 31 keV line relative to that of the main peak in {sup 125}I spectra is, on average, 6.8% higher when calculated with the NCRP Report 58 initial spectrum vs that calculated with TG-43U1 initial spectrum. The {sup 103}Pd spectra exhibit an average 6.2% decrease in the 22.9 keV line relative to the main peak when calculated with the TG-43U1 rather than the NNDC(2000) initial spectrum. The measured values from three different investigations are in much better agreement with the calculations using the NCRP Report 58 and NNDC(2000) initial spectra with average discrepancies of 0.9% and 1.7% for the {sup 125}I and {sup 103}Pd seeds, respectively. However, there are no differences in the calculated TG-43U1 brachytherapy parameters using either initial spectrum in both cases. Similarly, there were no differences outside the statistical uncertainties of 0.1% or 0.2%, in the average energy, air kerma/history, dose rate/history, and dose rate constant when calculated using either the full photon spectrum or the main-peaks-only spectrum. Conclusions: Our calculated dose rate constants based on using the calculated on-axis spectrum and a line or dual-point source model are in excellent agreement (0.5% on average) with the values of Chen and Nath, verifying the accuracy of their more approximate method of going from the spectrum to the dose rate constant. However, the dose rate constants based on full seed models differ by between +4.6% and -1.5% from those based on the line or dual-point source approximations. These results suggest that the main value of spectroscopic measurements is to verify full Monte Carlo models of the seeds by comparison to the calculated spectra.

Rodriguez, M.; Rogers, D. W. O. [Carleton Laboratory for Radiotherapy Physics, Carleton University, Ottawa K1S 5B6 (Canada)

2013-01-15

418

Traditionality of children's interests as related to their parents' gender stereotypes and traditionality of occupations  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study tested the common hypothesis that parents' gender stereotypes, maternal employment status, and the traditionality of parents' occupations, are associated with the traditionality of children's vocational interests. The traditionality of preschool children's (n=113) interests was examined by an instrument developed for the current study. Parents were administered the Attitudes toward Women Scale, and traditionality of their occupations was assessed.

Azy Barak; Shoshana Feldman; Ayelet Noy

1991-01-01

419

Optimum spectroscopic performance from CZT ?- and X-ray detectors with pad and strip segmentation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe a method for obtaining optimum spectroscopic performance from CZT ?- and X-ray detectors with segmented readout. This method allows to circumvent the effects of incomplete charge collection and to obtain energy resolution approaching the limitation due to detector and electronic noise. It is insensitive to hole trapping over most of the detector volume, while a modest amount of

A. Shor; Y. Eisen; I. Mardor

1999-01-01

420

Line identification studies using traditional techniques and wavelength coincidence statistics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Traditional line identification techniques result in the assignment of individual lines to an atomic or ionic species. These methods may be supplemented by wavelength coincidence statistics (WCS). The strength and weakness of these methods are discussed using spectra of a number of normal and peculiar B and A stars that have been studied independently by both methods. The present results support the overall findings of some earlier studies. WCS would be most useful in a first survey, before traditional methods have been applied. WCS can quickly make a global search for all species and in this way may enable identifications of an unexpected spectrum that could easily be omitted entirely from a traditional study. This is illustrated by O I. WCS is a subject to well known weakness of any statistical technique, for example, a predictable number of spurious results are to be expected. The danger of small number statistics are illustrated. WCS is at its best relative to traditional methods in finding a line-rich atomic species that is only weakly present in a complicated stellar spectrum.

Cowley, Charles R.; Adelman, Saul J.

1990-01-01