Sample records for traditional spectroscopic methods

  1. Job Search Methods: Internet versus Traditional.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhn, Peter; Skuterud, Mikal

    2000-01-01

    In 1998, 15 percent of unemployed job seekers used the Internet to seek jobs, as did half of all job seekers with online access from home. Internet search rates exceeded those of traditional methods, but Internet job seekers were more likely to use traditional methods as well. Unemployed blacks and Hispanics used the Internet least in job…

  2. Spectroscopic methods in gas hydrate research.

    PubMed

    Rauh, Florian; Mizaikoff, Boris

    2012-01-01

    Gas hydrates are crystalline structures comprising a guest molecule surrounded by a water cage, and are particularly relevant due to their natural occurrence in the deep sea and in permafrost areas. Low molecular weight molecules such as methane and carbon dioxide can be sequestered into that cage at suitable temperatures and pressures, facilitating the transition to the solid phase. While the composition and structure of gas hydrates appear to be well understood, their formation and dissociation mechanisms, along with the dynamics and kinetics associated with those processes, remain ambiguous. In order to take advantage of gas hydrates as an energy resource (e.g., methane hydrate), as a sequestration matrix in (for example) CO(2) storage, or for chemical energy conservation/storage, a more detailed molecular level understanding of their formation and dissociation processes, as well as the chemical, physical, and biological parameters that affect these processes, is required. Spectroscopic techniques appear to be most suitable for analyzing the structures of gas hydrates (sometimes in situ), thus providing access to such information across the electromagnetic spectrum. A variety of spectroscopic methods are currently used in gas hydrate research to determine the composition, structure, cage occupancy, guest molecule position, and binding/formation/dissociation mechanisms of the hydrate. To date, the most commonly applied techniques are Raman spectroscopy and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Diffraction methods such as neutron and X-ray diffraction are used to determine gas hydrate structures, and to study lattice expansions. Furthermore, UV-vis spectroscopic techniques and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) have assisted in structural studies of gas hydrates. Most recently, waveguide-coupled mid-infrared spectroscopy in the 3-20 ?m spectral range has demonstrated its value for in situ studies on the formation and dissociation of gas hydrates. This comprehensive review summarizes the importance of spectroscopic analytical techniques to our understanding of the structure and dynamics of gas hydrate systems, and highlights selected examples that illustrate the utility of these individual methods. PMID:22094590

  3. Spectroscopic Chemical Analysis Methods and Apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hug, William F.; Reid, Ray D.

    2012-01-01

    This invention relates to non-contact spectroscopic methods and apparatus for performing chemical analysis and the ideal wavelengths and sources needed for this analysis. It employs deep ultraviolet (200- to 300-nm spectral range) electron-beam-pumped wide bandgap semiconductor lasers, incoherent wide bandgap semiconductor lightemitting devices, and hollow cathode metal ion lasers. Three achieved goals for this innovation are to reduce the size (under 20 L), reduce the weight [under 100 lb (.45 kg)], and reduce the power consumption (under 100 W). This method can be used in microscope or macroscope to provide measurement of Raman and/or native fluorescence emission spectra either by point-by-point measurement, or by global imaging of emissions within specific ultraviolet spectral bands. In other embodiments, the method can be used in analytical instruments such as capillary electrophoresis, capillary electro-chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography, flow cytometry, and related instruments for detection and identification of unknown analytes using a combination of native fluorescence and/or Raman spectroscopic methods. This design provides an electron-beampumped semiconductor radiation-producing method, or source, that can emit at a wavelength (or wavelengths) below 300 nm, e.g. in the deep ultraviolet between about 200 and 300 nm, and more preferably less than 260 nm. In some variations, the method is to produce incoherent radiation, while in other implementations it produces laser radiation. In some variations, this object is achieved by using an AlGaN emission medium, while in other implementations a diamond emission medium may be used. This instrument irradiates a sample with deep UV radiation, and then uses an improved filter for separating wavelengths to be detected. This provides a multi-stage analysis of the sample. To avoid the difficulties related to producing deep UV semiconductor sources, a pumping approach has been developed that uses ballistic electron beam injection directly into the active region of a wide bandgap semiconductor material.

  4. Multivariate analysis methods for spectroscopic blood analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, Michael F. G.; Rohani, Arash; Ghazalah, Rashid; Vitkin, I. Alex; Pawluczyk, Romuald

    2012-01-01

    Blood tests are an essential tool in clinical medicine with the ability diagnosis or monitor various diseases and conditions; however, the complexities of these measurements currently restrict them to a laboratory setting. P&P Optica has developed and currently produces patented high performance spectrometers and is developing a spectrometer-based system for rapid reagent-free blood analysis. An important aspect of this analysis is the need to extract the analyte specific information from the measured signal such that the analyte concentrations can be determined. To this end, advanced chemometric methods are currently being investigated and have been tested using simulated spectra. A blood plasma model was used to generate Raman, near infrared, and optical rotatory dispersion spectra with glucose as the target analyte. The potential of combined chemometric techniques, where multiple spectroscopy modalities are used in a single regression model to improve the prediction ability was investigated using unfold partial least squares and multiblock partial least squares. Results show improvement in the predictions of glucose levels using the combined methods and demonstrate potential for multiblock chemometrics in spectroscopic blood analysis.

  5. Spectroscope

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    McDonald Observatory

    2008-01-01

    In this activity, learners construct their own spectroscope as they explore and observe spectra from familiar light sources. Learners can be challenged to make technological improvements to their spectroscopes and/or participate in extension activities that expand their understanding of different kinds of spectra and sharpen their observing skills.

  6. Spectroscopic methods for detection of impurities in water

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Natalia V. Strashnikova; Nona Papiashvili; Rivka Cohen-Luria; Shlomo Mark; Guy Shilon; Daniel Khankin; Yehoshua Kalisky; Ofra Kalisky; Abraham H. Parola

    2011-01-01

    Optical photoluminescence spectroscopic method for detection of impurities, hazardous materials, pesticides, and pollutants in water resources, both qualitatively and quantitatively, is presented. The method is based on synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy (SFS) of organic aromatic compounds, or poly-aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and is carried out by following simultaneously their excitation and emission spectra. The full excitation emission matrix (EEM) generated in this

  7. Spectroscope

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Oakland Discovery Center

    2011-01-01

    In this activity (posted on March 12, 2011), learners follow the steps to construct a spectroscope, a tool used to analyze light and color. First, learners use relatively simple materials to construct the device. Then, learners look through their spectroscopes at a variety of different light sources including incandescents, LEDs, compact fluorescents, sun light, etc. and compare what they observe. This resource includes a few examples of how certain chemicals form different colors of light.

  8. Role of optical spectroscopic methods in neuro-oncological sciences.

    PubMed

    Bahreini, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    In the surgical treatment of malignant tumors, it is crucial to characterize the tumor as precisely as possible. The determination of the exact tumor location as well as the analysis of its properties is very important in order to obtain an accurate diagnosis as early as possible. In neurosurgical applications, the optical, non-invasive and in situ techniques allow for the label-free analysis of tissue, which is helpful in neuropathology. In the past decades, optical spectroscopic methods have been investigated drastically in the management of cancer. In the optical spectroscopic techniques, tissue interrogate with sources of light which are ranged from the ultraviolet to the infrared wavelength in the spectrum. The information accumulation of light can be in a reflection which is named reflectance spectroscopy; or interactions with tissue at different wavelengths which are called fluorescence and Raman spectroscopy. This review paper introduces the optical spectroscopic methods which are used to characterize brain tumors (neuro-oncology). Based on biochemical information obtained from these spectroscopic methods, it is possible to identify tumor from normal brain tissues, to indicate tumor margins, the borders towards normal brain tissue and infiltrating gliomas, to distinguish radiation damage of tissues, to detect particular central nervous system (CNS) structures to identify cell types using particular neurotransmitters, to detect cells or drugs which are optically labeled within therapeutic intermediations and to estimate the viability of tissue and the prediction of apoptosis beginning in vitro and in vivo. The label-free, optical biochemical spectroscopic methods can provide clinically relevant information and need to be further exploited to develop a safe and easy-to-use technology for in situ diagnosis of malignant tumors. PMID:25987969

  9. College Students' Perceptions of the Traditional Lecture Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Covill, Amy E.

    2011-01-01

    Fifty-one college students responded to survey questions regarding their perceptions of the traditional lecture method of instruction that they received in a 200-level psychology course. At a time when many professors are being encouraged to use active learning methods instead of lectures, it is important to consider the students' perspective. Do…

  10. Spectroscopic studies of protein folding: Linear and nonlinear methods

    PubMed Central

    Serrano, Arnaldo L; Waegele, Matthias M; Gai, Feng

    2012-01-01

    Although protein folding is a simple outcome of the underlying thermodynamics, arriving at a quantitative and predictive understanding of how proteins fold nevertheless poses huge challenges. Therefore, both advanced experimental and computational methods are continuously being developed and refined to probe and reveal the atomistic details of protein folding dynamics and mechanisms. Herein, we provide a concise review of recent developments in spectroscopic studies of protein folding, with a focus on new triggering and probing methods. In particular, we describe several laser-based techniques for triggering protein folding/unfolding on the picosecond and/or nanosecond timescales and various linear and nonlinear spectroscopic techniques for interrogating protein conformations, conformational transitions, and dynamics. PMID:22109973

  11. Spectroscopic methods for detection of impurities in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strashnikova, Natalia V.; Papiashvili, Nona; Cohen-Luria, Rivka; Mark, Shlomo; Shilon, Guy; Khankin, Daniel; Kalisky, Yehoshua; Kalisky, Ofra; Parola, Abraham H.

    2011-11-01

    Optical photoluminescence spectroscopic method for detection of impurities, hazardous materials, pesticides, and pollutants in water resources, both qualitatively and quantitatively, is presented. The method is based on synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy (SFS) of organic aromatic compounds, or poly-aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and is carried out by following simultaneously their excitation and emission spectra. The full excitation emission matrix (EEM) generated in this way provides a 2-D and 3-D fluorescence map of the tested sample and the diagonals through the axes origin provide the synchronous fluorescence spectra at a constant wavelengths differences between the emission and excitation wavelengths, thus enabling multitude components identification. This map contains all the relevant spectroscopic information of the tested sample, and serves as a unique "fingerprint" with a very specific and accurate identification. When compared with pre-determined spectra and calibration curves from a "databank", there is a one-toone correspondence between the image and the specific compound, and it can be identified accurately both qualitatively and quantitatively. This method offers several significant advantages, and it provides a sensitive (ppm detection level), accurate and simple spectroscopic tool to monitor impurities and pollutants in water. The design and performance of the spectrofluorimeter prototype, as well as the software development and analysis of chemical organic compounds and mixtures in water will be discussed in this paper.

  12. Scanning Tunneling Microscopy methods for spectroscopic imaging of subsurface interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, L. D.; Kaiser, W. J.

    1988-01-01

    A new method for spatially-resolved, spectroscopic investigation of subsurface interface structure has been developed. The method, Ballistic Electron Emission Microscopy (BEEM), is based on Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) techniques. BEEM combines STM vacuum tunneling with unique ballistic electron spectroscopy capabilities. BEEM enables, for the first time, direct imaging of subsurface interface electronic properties with nanometer spatial resolution. STM topographic images of surface structure and BEEM images of subsurface properties are obtained simultaneously. BEEM capabilities are demonstrated by investigation of important metal-semiconductor interfaces.

  13. SPECTROSCOPIC METHODS FOR THE DETERMINATION OF SOIL CARBON

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Traditional methods for the determination of soil C content include chromate oxidation and combustion. Chromate oxidation generates hazardous waste and does not accurately determine all the organic soil C. Combustion methods while generating little in the way of wastes require two determinations t...

  14. Spectroscopic Methods of Remote Sensing for Vegetation Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokaly, R. F.

    2013-12-01

    Imaging spectroscopy (IS), often referred to as hyperspectral remote sensing, is one of the latest innovations in a very long history of spectroscopy. Spectroscopic methods have been used for understanding the composition of the world around us, as well as, the solar system and distant parts of the universe. Continuous sampling of the electromagnetic spectrum in narrow bands is what separates IS from previous forms of remote sensing. Terrestrial imaging spectrometers often have hundreds of channels that cover the wavelength range of reflected solar radiation, including the visible, near-infrared (NIR), and shortwave infrared (SWIR) regions. In part due to the large number of channels, a wide variety of methods have been applied to extract information from IS data sets. These can be grouped into several broad classes, including: multi-channel indices, statistical procedures, full spectrum mixing models, and spectroscopic methods. Spectroscopic methods carry on the more than 150 year history of laboratory-based spectroscopy applied to material identification and characterization. Spectroscopic methods of IS relate the positions and shapes of spectral features resolved by airborne and spaceborne sensors to the biochemical and physical composition of vegetation in a pixel. The chlorophyll 680nm, water 980nm, water 1200nm, SWIR 1700nm, SWIR 2100nm, and SWIR 2300nm features have been the subject of study. Spectral feature analysis (SFA) involves isolating such an absorption feature using continuum removal (CR) and calculating descriptors of the feature, such as center position, depth, width, area, and asymmetry. SFA has been applied to quantify pigment and non-pigment biochemical concentrations in leaves, plants, and canopies. Spectral feature comparison (SFC) utilizes CR of features in each pixel's spectrum and linear regression with continuum-removed features in reference spectra in a library of known vegetation types to map vegetation species and communities. SFC has been applied to map the distributions of minerals in soils and rocks; however, its application to characterize vegetation cover has been less widespread than SFA. Using IS data and the USGS Processing Routines in IDL for Spectroscopic Measurements (PRISM; http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2011/1155/), this talk will examine requirements for and limitations in applying SFA and SFC to characterize vegetation. A time series of Airborne Visible/InfraRed Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data collected in the marshes of Louisiana following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill will be used to examine the impact of varying leaf water content on the shapes of the SWIR 1700, 2100, and 2300 nm features and the implications of these changes on vegetation identification and biochemical estimation. The USGS collection of HyMap data over Afghanistan, the largest terrestrial coverage of IS data to date, will be used to demonstrate the characterization of vegetation in arid and semi-arid regions, in which chlorophyll absorption is often weak and soil and rock mineral absorption features overlap vegetation features. Hyperion data, overlapping the HyMap data, will be presented to illustrate the complications that arise when signal-to-noise is low. The benefits of and challenges to applying a spectroscopic remote sensing approach to imaging spectrometer data will be discussed.

  15. Can the electronegativity equalization method predict spectroscopic properties?

    PubMed

    Verstraelen, T; Bultinck, P

    2015-02-01

    The electronegativity equalization method is classically used as a method allowing the fast generation of atomic charges using a set of calibrated parameters and provided knowledge of the molecular structure. Recently, it has started being used for the calculation of other reactivity descriptors and for the development of polarizable and reactive force fields. For such applications, it is of interest to know whether the method, through the inclusion of the molecular geometry in the Taylor expansion of the energy, would also allow sufficiently accurate predictions of spectroscopic data. In this work, relevant quantities for IR spectroscopy are considered, namely the dipole derivatives and the Cartesian Hessian. Despite careful calibration of parameters for this specific task, it is shown that the current models yield insufficiently accurate results. PMID:24290357

  16. Traditions and Alcohol Use: A Mixed-Methods Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Felipe González; Coe, Kathryn

    2011-01-01

    An integrative mixed-methods analysis examined traditional beliefs as associated with beliefs about self-care during pregnancy and with alcohol abstinence among young adult women from two rural U.S.–Mexico border communities. Quantitative (measured scale) variables and qualitative thematic variables generated from open-ended responses served as within-time predictors of these health-related outcomes. A weaker belief that life is better in big cities was associated with stronger self-care beliefs during pregnancy. Also, a weaker belief that small towns offer tranquil environments was associated with total abstinence from alcohol. Regarding the Hispanic Paradox, these results suggest that a critical appreciation of cultural traditions can be protective, as this avoids stereotypical or idyllic views of urban or rural lifeways, and promotes self-protective beliefs and behaviors. PMID:17967095

  17. Unconventional dentistry in India - an insight into the traditional methods.

    PubMed

    Boloor, Vinita Ashutosh; Hosadurga, Rajesh; Rao, Anupama; Jenifer, Haziel; Pratap, Sruthy

    2014-07-01

    Unconventional medicine (UM) has been known and practised since the recorded history of civilization. Some unconventional practices may be viewed as "the continuity of traditions, religious beliefs, and even quackery that non-specialists practice." These practices have been associated with religious beliefs and the spiritual domain as well as with the physical domain. In ancient Old World civilizations, UM was performed by skilled experts or wise men; in today's Western civilization, practitioners may or may not be licensed, and some are charlatans. Dentistry, like medicine, is a traditional, science-based, highly regulated healthcare profession that serves increasingly sophisticated and demanding clients. Today, traditional dental practice is dealing with an array of challenges to the established professional system; these challenges are generally termed "alternative" (or complementary, unconventional, or integrative). Genuine alternatives are comparable methods of equal value that have met scientific and regulatory criteria for safety and effectiveness. Because "alternative care" has become politicized and is often a misnomer - referring to practices that are not alternative to, complementary to, or integrating with conventional health care - the more accurate term "unconventional" is used. PMID:25161919

  18. Handbook of charcoal making: the traditional and industrial methods

    SciTech Connect

    Emrich, W.

    1985-01-01

    The reviewer credits this handbook with expanding knowledge about the economic value of charcoal, particularly in the European area. The 10 chapters are: (1) history and fundamentals of the charcoal process, (2) traditional methods of the smallholder producer, (3) concepts and technology for the industrial producer, (4) recovering commercial products from pyrolysis oil, (5) raw materials supply, (6) end-use markets for by-products, (7) planning a charcoal venture, (8) charcoal briquettes and activated charcoal, (9) safety precautions and environmental considerations, and (10) charcoal laboratory work. Each chapter lists references. There are four appendices.

  19. Teaching Traditional and Non-Traditional Age Individuals: How Should Methods, Expectations, and Standards Differ?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sagaria, Sabato D.

    A study examined achievement and attitudes of traditional and nontraditional age students enrolled in an undergraduate behavioral sciences statistics course. Performance and attitude data were collected from a class of 25 traditional students (average age 22) and from a class of 15 nontraditional students (average age 35). The two groups were…

  20. Advances in spectroscopic methods for quantifying soil carbon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reeves, James B., III; McCarty, Gregory W.; Calderon, Francisco; Hively, W. Dean

    2012-01-01

    The current gold standard for soil carbon (C) determination is elemental C analysis using dry combustion. However, this method requires expensive consumables, is limited by the number of samples that can be processed (~100/d), and is restricted to the determination of total carbon. With increased interest in soil C sequestration, faster methods of analysis are needed, and there is growing interest in methods based on diffuse reflectance spectroscopy in the visible, near-infrared or mid-infrared spectral ranges. These spectral methods can decrease analytical requirements and speed sample processing, be applied to large landscape areas using remote sensing imagery, and be used to predict multiple analytes simultaneously. However, the methods require localized calibrations to establish the relationship between spectral data and reference analytical data, and also have additional, specific problems. For example, remote sensing is capable of scanning entire watersheds for soil carbon content but is limited to the surface layer of tilled soils and may require difficult and extensive field sampling to obtain proper localized calibration reference values. The objective of this chapter is to discuss the present state of spectroscopic methods for determination of soil carbon.

  1. Traditional Maori food preparation methods and food safety.

    PubMed

    Whyte, R; Hudson, J A; Hasell, S; Gray, M; O'Reilly, R

    2001-09-28

    Descriptions were obtained from Maori elders knowledgeable in traditional methods for the processing of Tiroi (mussels and Puha), Kina (sea urchins), Kanga Kopiro (fermented maize) and Titi (muttonbird). Information for a number of variations of each method was transformed into process flow charts, and these charts were analysed using a HACCP-based approach. Two of the processes (Kanga Kopiro and Titi) were found to be likely to produce safe foods as Kanga Kopiro undergoes an acid fermentation and Titi preparation involves significant cooking steps. However, the information regarding Tiroi and Kina processing did not supply the necessary data to identify definitely whether fermentations were involved, and if they were, what kind they may be. New Zealand has only experienced one outbreak of botulism, and this was associated with the consumption of Tiroi. It is, therefore, desirable to identify the processes occurring in these foods where the nature of these processes is not understood in order to facilitate their safe future production. PMID:11603855

  2. Some Considerations in Combining Traditional and Non-Traditional Methods of Instruction in a Mathematics Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gormley, Tyrone D.

    Based on the assumption that each student learns in a unique way, this paper outlines the factors to be considered before selecting the methods of instruction for particular mathematics courses and their students. The advantages and disadvantages of the lecture/textbook and question/answer method, individualized instruction, self-pacing,…

  3. Feminist Policy Analysis: Expanding Traditional Social Work Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanenberg, Heather

    2013-01-01

    In an effort to move the methodology of policy analysis beyond the traditional and artificial position of being objective and value-free, this article is a call to those working and teaching in social work to consider a feminist policy analysis lens. A review of standard policy analysis models is presented alongside feminist models. Such a…

  4. USING TRADITIONAL ECOLOGICAL KNOWLEDGE IN SCIENCE: METHODS AND APPLICATIONS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    HENRY P. H UNTINGTON

    2000-01-01

    Advocates of Traditional Ecological Knowledge (TEK) have promoted its use in scientific research, impact assessment, and ecological understanding. While several examples illustrate the utility of applying TEK in these contexts, wider application of TEK- derived information remains elusive. In part, this is due to continued inertia in favor of established scientific practices and the need to describe TEK in Western

  5. Do New Wipe Materials Outperform Traditional Lead Dust Cleaning Methods?

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roger D. Lewis; Kee Hean Ong; Brett Emo; Jason Kennedy; Christopher A. Brown; Sridhar Condoor; Laxmi Thummalakunta

    2012-01-01

    Government guidelines have traditionally recommended the use of wet mopping, sponging, or vacuuming for removal of lead contaminated dust from hard surfaces in homes. The emergence of new technologies, such as the electrostatic dry cloth and wet disposable clothes used on mopheads, for removal of dust provides an opportunity to evaluate their ability to remove lead compared with more established

  6. Traditional Healing Methods with First Nations Women in Group Counselling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heilbron, Carrie L.; Guttman, Mary Alice Julius

    2000-01-01

    Utilizes a traditional aboriginal healing ceremony, called the healing circle, in a counseling group comprised of First Nations and non-aboriginal women survivors of child sexual abuse. Examines ceremony and aboriginal beliefs for their impact on the counseling process. Results indicate that the ceremony and beliefs established a spiritual…

  7. Computation of Spectroscopic Factors with the Coupled-Cluster Method

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, O. [University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway; Hagen, Gaute [ORNL; Papenbrock, T. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK) & Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Dean, David Jarvis [ORNL; Vaagen, J. S. [University of Bergen, Bergen, Norway

    2010-01-01

    We present a calculation of spectroscopic factors within coupled-cluster theory. Our derivation of algebraic equations for the one-body overlap functions are based on coupled-cluster equation-of-motion solutions for the ground and excited states of the doubly magic nucleus with mass number A and the odd-mass neighbor with mass A-1. As a proof-of-principle calculation, we consider ^{16}O and the odd neighbors ^{15}O and ^{15}N, and compute the spectroscopic factor for nucleon removal from ^{16}O. We employ a renormalized low-momentum interaction of the V_{low-k} type derived from a chiral interaction at next-to-next-to-next-to-leading order. We study the sensitivity of our results by variation of the momentum cutoff, and then discuss the treatment of the center of mass.

  8. Spectroscopic methods for the photodiagnosis of nonmelanoma skin cancer.

    PubMed

    Drakaki, Eleni; Vergou, Theognosia; Dessinioti, Clio; Stratigos, Alexander J; Salavastru, Carmen; Antoniou, Christina

    2013-06-01

    The importance of dermatological noninvasive imaging techniques has increased over the last decades, aiming at diagnosing nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC). Technological progress has led to the development of various analytical tools, enabling the in vivo/in vitro examination of lesional human skin with the aim to increase diagnostic accuracy and decrease morbidity and mortality. The structure of the skin layers, their chemical composition, and the distribution of their compounds permits the noninvasive photodiagnosis of skin diseases, such as skin cancers, especially for early stages of malignant tumors. An important role in the dermatological diagnosis and disease monitoring has been shown for promising spectroscopic and imaging techniques, such as fluorescence, diffuse reflectance, Raman and near-infrared spectroscopy, optical coherence tomography, and confocal laser-scanning microscopy. We review the use of these spectroscopic techniques as noninvasive tools for the photodiagnosis of NMSC. PMID:23748702

  9. Spectroscopic methods for the photodiagnosis of nonmelanoma skin cancer.

    PubMed

    Drakaki, Eleni; Vergou, Theognosia; Dessinioti, Clio; Stratigos, Alexander J; Salavastru, Carmen; Antoniou, Christina

    2013-06-01

    The importance of dermatological noninvasive imaging techniques has increased over the last decades, aiming at diagnosing nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC). Technological progress has led to the development of various analytical tools, enabling the in vivo/in vitro examination of lesional human skin with the aim to increase diagnostic accuracy and decrease morbidity and mortality. The structure of the skin layers, their chemical composition, and the distribution of their compounds permits the noninvasive photodiagnosis of skin diseases, such as skin cancers, especially for early stages of malignant tumors. An important role in the dermatological diagnosis and disease monitoring has been shown for promising spectroscopic and imaging techniques, such as fluorescence, diffuse reflectance, Raman and near-infrared spectroscopy, optical coherence tomography, and confocal laser-scanning microscopy. We review the use of these spectroscopic techniques as noninvasive tools for the photodiagnosis of NMSC. PMID:23264965

  10. Molecular Methods for Identification of Microorganisms in Traditional Meat Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cocolin, Luca; Dolci, Paola; Rantsiou, Kalliopi

    Traditional fermentations are those that have been used for centuries and even pre-date written historical records. Fermentation processes have been developed to upgrade plant and animal materials, to yield a more acceptable food, to add flavor, to prevent the growth of pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms, and to preserve food without refrigeration (Hesseltine & Wang, 1980). Among fermented foods, sausages are the meat products with a longer history and tradition. It is often assumed that sausages were invented by the Sumerians, in what is Iraq today, around 3000 BC. Chinese sausage làcháng, which consisted of goat and lamb meat, was first mentioned in 589 BC. Homer, the poet of The Ancient Greece, mentioned a kind of blood sausage in the Odyssey (book 20, verse 25), and Epicharmus (ca. 550 BC-ca. 460 BC) wrote a comedy entitled “The Sausage”.

  11. Improvement in the traditional processing method and nutritional quality of traditional extruded cassava-based snack (modified Ajogun).

    PubMed

    Obadina, Adewale O; Oyewole, Olusola B; Williams, Oluwasolabomi E

    2013-07-01

    This study was carried out to investigate and improve the traditional processing method and nutritional quality of the traditional cassava snack (Ajogun). Cassava root (Manihot esculenta Crantz L.) of TME 419 variety was processed into mash (40% moisture content). The cassava mash was mixed into different blends to produce fried traditional "Ajogun", fried and baked extrudates (modified Ajogun) as snacks. These products were analyzed to determine the proximate composition including carbohydrate, fat, protein, fiber, ash, and moisture contents and functional properties such as bulk density. The results obtained for the moisture, fat, protein, and ash contents showed significant difference (P < 0.05) between the control sample and the extrudates. However, there was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in the carbohydrate and fiber contents between the three samples. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in the bulk density of the snacks. Also, sensory evaluation was carried out on the cassava-based snacks using the 9-point hedonic scale to determine the degree of acceptability. Results obtained showed significant difference (P < 0.05) between the extrudates and control sample in terms of appearance, taste, flavor, color, aroma, texture, and overall acceptability. The highest acceptability level of the product was at 8.04 for the control sample (traditional Ajogun). This study has shown that "Ajogun", which is a lesser known cassava product, is rich in protein and fat. PMID:24804039

  12. Improvement in the traditional processing method and nutritional quality of traditional extruded cassava-based snack (modified Ajogun)

    PubMed Central

    Obadina, Adewale O; Oyewole, Olusola B; Williams, Oluwasolabomi E

    2013-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate and improve the traditional processing method and nutritional quality of the traditional cassava snack (Ajogun). Cassava root (Manihot esculenta Crantz L.) of TME 419 variety was processed into mash (40% moisture content). The cassava mash was mixed into different blends to produce fried traditional “Ajogun”, fried and baked extrudates (modified Ajogun) as snacks. These products were analyzed to determine the proximate composition including carbohydrate, fat, protein, fiber, ash, and moisture contents and functional properties such as bulk density. The results obtained for the moisture, fat, protein, and ash contents showed significant difference (P < 0.05) between the control sample and the extrudates. However, there was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in the carbohydrate and fiber contents between the three samples. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in the bulk density of the snacks. Also, sensory evaluation was carried out on the cassava-based snacks using the 9-point hedonic scale to determine the degree of acceptability. Results obtained showed significant difference (P < 0.05) between the extrudates and control sample in terms of appearance, taste, flavor, color, aroma, texture, and overall acceptability. The highest acceptability level of the product was at 8.04 for the control sample (traditional Ajogun). This study has shown that “Ajogun”, which is a lesser known cassava product, is rich in protein and fat. PMID:24804039

  13. [Essential procedure and key methods for survey of traditional knowledge related to Chinese materia medica resources].

    PubMed

    Cheng, Gong; Huang, Lu-qi; Xue, Da-yuan; Zhang, Xiao-bo

    2014-12-01

    The survey of traditional knowledge related to Chinese materia medica resources is the important component and one of the innovative aspects of the fourth national survey of the Chinese materia medica resources. China has rich traditional knowledge of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and the comprehensive investigation of TCM traditional knowledge aims to promote conservation and sustainable use of Chinese materia medica resources. Building upon the field work of pilot investigations, this paper introduces the essential procedures and key methods for conducting the survey of traditional knowledge related to Chinese materia medica resources. The essential procedures are as follows. First is the preparation phrase. It is important to review all relevant literature and provide training to the survey teams so that they have clear understanding of the concept of traditional knowledge and master key survey methods. Second is the field investigation phrase. When conducting field investigations, survey teams should identify the traditional knowledge holders by using the 'snowball method', record the traditional knowledge after obtaining prior informed concerned from the traditional knowledge holders. Researchers should fill out the survey forms provided by the Technical Specification of the Fourth National Survey of Chinese Materia Medica Resources. Researchers should pay particular attention to the scope of traditional knowledge and the method of inheriting the knowledge, which are the key information for traditional knowledge holders and potential users to reach mutual agreed terms to achieve benefit sharing. Third is the data compilation and analysis phrase. Researchers should try to compile and edit the TCM traditional knowledge in accordance with intellectual property rights requirements so that the information collected through the national survey can serve as the basic data for the TCM traditional knowledge database. The key methods of the survey include regional division of Chinese materia medica resources, interview of key information holders and standardization of information.' In particular, using "snowball method" can effectively identify traditional knowledge holder in the targeted regions and ensuring traditional knowledge holders receiving prior informed concerned before sharing the information with researcher to make sure the rights of traditional knowledge holders are protected. Employing right survey methods is not only the key to obtain traditional knowledge related to Chinese materia medica resources, but also the pathway to fulfill the objectives of access and benefit sharing stipulated in Convention on Biological Resources. It will promote the legal protection of TCM traditional knowledge and conservation of TCM intangible, cultural heritage. PMID:25898568

  14. Comparison of Retention Rates Using Traditional, Drill Sandwich, and Incremental Rehearsal Flash Card Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacQuarrie, Lara L.; Tucker, James A.; Burns, Matthew K.; Hartman, Brian

    2002-01-01

    Research has demonstrated increased retention from drill, but the data regarding drill format are inconsistent. Two commonly used models, Drill Sandwich (DS) and Incremental Rehearsal (IR), were compared to each other and to a traditional flashcard method. The IR model consistently led to significantly more words retained than the traditional or…

  15. Differences of Phosphorus in Mehlich 3 Extracts Determined by Colorimetric and Spectroscopic Methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. J. Pittman; H. Zhang; J. L. Schroder; M. E. Payton

    2005-01-01

    Mehlich 3 (M3) is a widely used extractant for evaluating plant available phosphorus (P) in soils and may be quantified using colorimetric or inductively coupled plasma (ICP) spectroscopic methods. Analysis by ICP has recently become increasingly popular in soil?testing labs primarily due to its ability to simultaneously measure multiple elements. Despite the versatility and efficiency of ICP, some laboratories hesitate

  16. In vivo Evaluation of the Penetration of Topically Applied Drugs into Human Skin by Spectroscopic Methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bernd Sennhenn; Karl Giese; Karsten Plamann; Norbert Harendt; Klaus Kölmel

    1993-01-01

    Spectroscopic techniques are reported on which allow to study in vivo the penetration behaviour of topically applied light-absorbing drugs into human skin. Remittance specroscopy, a purely optical method, provides a good tool in both, skin adaptation by use of a remote viewing head coupled to the spectrometer via optical fibres, and adequate sensitivity for the detection of small amounts of

  17. Advances of vibrational spectroscopic methods in phytomics and bioanalysis.

    PubMed

    Huck, Christian W

    2014-01-01

    During the last couple of years great advances in vibrational spectroscopy including near-infrared (NIR), mid-infrared (MIR), attenuated total reflection (ATR) and imaging and also mapping techniques could be achieved. On the other hand spectral treatment features have improved dramatically allowing filtering out relevant information from spectral data much more efficiently and providing new insights into the biochemical composition. These advances offer new possible quality control strategies in phytomics and enable to get deeper insights into biochemical background in terms of medicinal relevant questions. It is the aim of the present article pointing out the technical and methodological advancements in the NIR and MIR field and to demonstrate the individual methods efficiency by discussing distinct selected applications. PMID:23787354

  18. Comparison of DFT with Traditional Methods for the Calculation of Vibrational Frequencies and Bond Energies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W.; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    The vibrational frequencies of MO2 are computed at many levels of theory, including HF, B3LYP, BP86, CASSCF, MP2, and CCSD(T). The computed results are compared with the available experimental results. Most of the methods fail for at least one state of the systems considered. The accuracy of the results and the origin of the observed failures are discussed. The B3LYP bond energies are compared with traditional methods for a variety of systems, ranging from FeCOn+ to SiCln and its positive ions. The cases where B3LYP differs from the traditional methods are discussed.

  19. Monitoring, Controlling and Safeguarding Radiochemical Streams at Spent Fuel Reprocessing Facilities with Optical and Gamma-Ray Spectroscopic Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Schwantes, Jon M.; Bryan, Samuel A.; Orton, Christopher R.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.; Fraga, Carlos G.

    2012-11-06

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has established international safeguards standards for fissionable material at spent fuel reprocessing plants to ensure that significant quantities of weapons-useable nuclear material are not diverted from these facilities. For large throughput nuclear facilities, it is difficult to satisfy the IAEA safeguards accountancy goal for detection of abrupt diversion. Currently, methods to verify material control and accountancy (MC&A) at these facilities require time-consuming and resourceintensive destructive assay (DA). Leveraging new on-line non-destructive assay (NDA) process monitoring techniques in conjunction with the traditional and highly precise DA methods may provide an additional measure to nuclear material accountancy which would potentially result in a more timely, cost-effective and resource efficient means for safeguards verification at such facilities. By monitoring process control measurements (e.g. flowrates, temperatures, or concentrations of reagents, products or wastes), abnormal plant operations can be detected. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is developing on-line NDA process monitoring technologies based upon gamma-ray and optical spectroscopic measurements to potentially reduce the time and resource burden associated with current techniques. The Multi-Isotope Process (MIP) Monitor uses gamma spectroscopy and multivariate analysis to identify offnormal conditions in process streams. The spectroscopic monitor continuously measures chemical compositions of the process streams including actinide metal ions (U, Pu, Np), selected fission products, and major stable flowsheet reagents using UV-Vis, Near IR and Raman spectroscopy. Multi-variate analysis is also applied to the optical measurements in order to quantify concentrations of analytes of interest within a complex array of radiochemical streams. This paper will provide an overview of these methods and reports on-going efforts to develop and demonstrate the technologies.

  20. Comparing Traditional and Technological Methods for Studying English as a Second Language (ESL)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manko, Barbara Ann

    2010-01-01

    While there are many options available for studying English as a second language (ESL), students and instructors may not be aware of which learning strategy would be most effective. To help them make informed choices about their education, this study compared traditional classroom methods with online technological methods for studying ESL at…

  1. Learning About Violence Against Women in Research Methods: A Comparison to Traditional Pedagogy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne P. DePrince; Sarah J. Priebe; A. Taylor Newton

    2011-01-01

    The current study examined whether a community-engaged class in undergraduate psychology research methods was able to educate students about violence against women without sacrificing acquisition of research methods knowledge. We compared student outcomes in a traditional research methods course to those in a community-engaged research methods course. Students in the community-engaged course completed a research project on violence against women

  2. Docosahexaenoic acid content is significantly higher in ghrita prepared by traditional Ayurvedic method

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Kalpana S.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Ghee (clarified butter) also known as ghrita, has been utilized for thousands of years in Ayurveda. Ghee is mostly prepared by traditional method in Indian households or by direct cream method at industry level. Ayurvedic classics mention that ghrita made from cow milk is superior. However, there is no scientific comparison available on preparation methods and essential fatty acids content of ghrita. Objective: To investigate fatty acid composition of ghrita prepared by traditional/Ayurvedic method and commercial method (direct cream method). Materials and Methods: Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAME) extracted from ghrita samples were analysed on Gas Chromatography (GC) Shimadzu B using capillary column BPX70 (0.32 mm*60 m, ID of 0.25 mm). The fatty acids in the samples were identified by comparing peaks with the external standard 68A (Nu-Chek-Prep, Inc.USA). Significant differences between the experimental groups were assessed by analysis of variance. Results: Distribution of fatty acids was compared in ghrita samples prepared by traditional method and direct cream method which is commercially used. Saturated fatty acids were predominant in both the groups. Mono unsaturated fatty acids and poly unsaturated fatty acids were in the range of 17-18% and 3-6% respectively. DHA content was significantly higher in ghee prepared by traditional method using curd starter fermentation. Conclusion: The findings suggested that ghrita prepared by traditional ayurvedic methods contains higher amount of DHA; Omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids, which is a major component of retinal and brain tissues and remains important in prevention of various diseases. PMID:24948858

  3. Quantitative comparison of analysis methods for spectroscopic optical coherence tomography: reply to comment

    PubMed Central

    Bosschaart, Nienke; van Leeuwen, Ton G.; Aalders, Maurice C.G.; Faber, Dirk J.

    2014-01-01

    We reply to the comment by Kraszewski et al on “Quantitative comparison of analysis methods for spectroscopic optical coherence tomography.” We present additional simulations evaluating the proposed window function. We conclude that our simulations show good qualitative agreement with the results of Kraszewski, in support of their conclusion that SOCT optimization should include window shape, next to choice of window size and analysis algorithm. PMID:25401016

  4. Application of Spectroscopic Methods for Structural Analysis of Chitin and Chitosan

    PubMed Central

    Kumirska, Jolanta; Czerwicka, Ma?gorzata; Kaczy?ski, Zbigniew; Bychowska, Anna; Brzozowski, Krzysztof; Thöming, Jorg; Stepnowski, Piotr

    2010-01-01

    Chitin, the second most important natural polymer in the world, and its N-deacetylated derivative chitosan, have been identified as versatile biopolymers for a broad range of applications in medicine, agriculture and the food industry. Two of the main reasons for this are firstly the unique chemical, physicochemical and biological properties of chitin and chitosan, and secondly the unlimited supply of raw materials for their production. These polymers exhibit widely differing physicochemical properties depending on the chitin source and the conditions of chitosan production. The presence of reactive functional groups as well as the polysaccharide nature of these biopolymers enables them to undergo diverse chemical modifications. A complete chemical and physicochemical characterization of chitin, chitosan and their derivatives is not possible without using spectroscopic techniques. This review focuses on the application of spectroscopic methods for the structural analysis of these compounds. PMID:20559489

  5. Application of spectroscopic methods for structural analysis of chitin and chitosan.

    PubMed

    Kumirska, Jolanta; Czerwicka, Ma?gorzata; Kaczy?ski, Zbigniew; Bychowska, Anna; Brzozowski, Krzysztof; Thöming, Jorg; Stepnowski, Piotr

    2010-01-01

    Chitin, the second most important natural polymer in the world, and its N-deacetylated derivative chitosan, have been identified as versatile biopolymers for a broad range of applications in medicine, agriculture and the food industry. Two of the main reasons for this are firstly the unique chemical, physicochemical and biological properties of chitin and chitosan, and secondly the unlimited supply of raw materials for their production. These polymers exhibit widely differing physicochemical properties depending on the chitin source and the conditions of chitosan production. The presence of reactive functional groups as well as the polysaccharide nature of these biopolymers enables them to undergo diverse chemical modifications. A complete chemical and physicochemical characterization of chitin, chitosan and their derivatives is not possible without using spectroscopic techniques. This review focuses on the application of spectroscopic methods for the structural analysis of these compounds. PMID:20559489

  6. Structures and Encapsulation Motifs of Functional Molecules Probed by Laser Spectroscopic and Theoretical Methods

    PubMed Central

    Kusaka, Ryoji; Inokuchi, Yoshiya; Xantheas, Sotiris S.; Ebata, Takayuki

    2010-01-01

    We report laser spectroscopic and computational studies of host/guest hydration interactions between functional molecules (hosts) and water (guest) in supersonic jets. The examined hosts include dibenzo-18-crown-6-ether (DB18C6), benzo-18-crown-6-ether (B18C6) and calix[4]arene (C4A). The gaseous complexes between the functional molecular hosts and water are generated under jet-cooled conditions. Various laser spectroscopic methods are applied for these species: the electronic spectra are observed by laser-induced fluorescence (LIF), mass-selected resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) and ultraviolet-ultraviolet hole-burning (UV-UV HB) spectroscopy, whereas the vibrational spectra for each individual species are observed by infrared-ultraviolet double resonance (IR-UV DR) spectroscopy. The obained results are analyzed by first principles electronic structure calculations. We discuss the conformations of the host molecules, the structures of the complexes, and key interactions forming the specific complexes. PMID:22319310

  7. Spectroscopic and thermal investigations on the charge transfer interaction between risperidone as a schizophrenia drug with some traditional ?-acceptors: Part 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Habeeb, Abeer A.; Al-Saif, Foziah A.; Refat, Moamen S.

    2013-03-01

    The focus of present investigation was to assess the utility of non-expensive techniques in the evaluation of risperidone (Ris) in solid and solution states with different traditional ?-acceptors and subsequent incorporation of the analytical determination into pharmaceutical formulation for a faster release of risperidone. Charge-transfer complexes (CTC) of risperidone with picric acid (PA), 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-p-benzoquinon (DDQ), tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ), tetracyano ethylene (TCNE), tetrabromo-p-quinon (BL) and tetrachloro-p-quinon (CL) have been studied spectrophotometrically in absolute methanol at room temperature. The stoichiometries of the complexes were found to be 1:1 ratio by the photometric molar ratio between risperidone and the ?-acceptors. The equilibrium constants, molar extinction coefficient (?CT) and spectroscopic-physical parameters (standard free energy (?Go), oscillator strength (f), transition dipole moment (?), resonance energy (RN) and ionization potential (ID)) of the complexes were determined upon the modified Benesi-Hildebrand equation. Risperidone in pure form was applied in this study. The results indicate that the formation constants for the complexes depend on the nature of electron acceptors and donor, and also the spectral studies of the complexes were determined by (infrared, Raman, and 1H NMR) spectra and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). The most stable mono-protonated form of Ris is characterized by the formation of +Nsbnd H (pyrimidine ring) intramolecular hydrogen bonded. In the high-wavenumber spectral region ˜3400 cm-1, the bands of the +Nsbnd H stretching vibrations and of the pyrimidine nitrogen atom could be potentially useful to discriminate the investigated forms of Ris. The infrared spectra of both Ris complexes are confirming the participation of +Nsbnd H pyrimidine ring in the donor-acceptor interaction.

  8. Bias in diet determination: incorporating traditional methods in Bayesian mixing models.

    PubMed

    Franco-Trecu, Valentina; Drago, Massimiliano; Riet-Sapriza, Federico G; Parnell, Andrew; Frau, Rosina; Inchausti, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    There are not "universal methods" to determine diet composition of predators. Most traditional methods are biased because of their reliance on differential digestibility and the recovery of hard items. By relying on assimilated food, stable isotope and Bayesian mixing models (SIMMs) resolve many biases of traditional methods. SIMMs can incorporate prior information (i.e. proportional diet composition) that may improve the precision in the estimated dietary composition. However few studies have assessed the performance of traditional methods and SIMMs with and without informative priors to study the predators' diets. Here we compare the diet compositions of the South American fur seal and sea lions obtained by scats analysis and by SIMMs-UP (uninformative priors) and assess whether informative priors (SIMMs-IP) from the scat analysis improved the estimated diet composition compared to SIMMs-UP. According to the SIMM-UP, while pelagic species dominated the fur seal's diet the sea lion's did not have a clear dominance of any prey. In contrast, SIMM-IP's diets compositions were dominated by the same preys as in scat analyses. When prior information influenced SIMMs' estimates, incorporating informative priors improved the precision in the estimated diet composition at the risk of inducing biases in the estimates. If preys isotopic data allow discriminating preys' contributions to diets, informative priors should lead to more precise but unbiased estimated diet composition. Just as estimates of diet composition obtained from traditional methods are critically interpreted because of their biases, care must be exercised when interpreting diet composition obtained by SIMMs-IP. The best approach to obtain a near-complete view of predators' diet composition should involve the simultaneous consideration of different sources of partial evidence (traditional methods, SIMM-UP and SIMM-IP) in the light of natural history of the predator species so as to reliably ascertain and weight the information yielded by each method. PMID:24224031

  9. Enhancing Learning Using 3D Printing: An Alternative to Traditional Student Project Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGahern, Patricia; Bosch, Frances; Poli, DorothyBelle

    2015-01-01

    Student engagement during the development of a three-dimensional visual aid or teaching model can vary for a number of reasons. Some students report that they are not "creative" or "good at art," often as an excuse to justify less professional outcomes. Student engagement can be low when using traditional methods to produce a…

  10. Spatial Visualization Learning in Engineering: Traditional Methods vs. a Web-Based Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedrosa, Carlos Melgosa; Barbero, Basilio Ramos; Miguel, Arturo Román

    2014-01-01

    This study compares an interactive learning manager for graphic engineering to develop spatial vision (ILMAGE_SV) to traditional methods. ILMAGE_SV is an asynchronous web-based learning tool that allows the manipulation of objects with a 3D viewer, self-evaluation, and continuous assessment. In addition, student learning may be monitored, which…

  11. Weighted partial least squares method to improve calibration precision for spectroscopic noise-limited data

    SciTech Connect

    Haaland, D.M.; Jones, H.D.T.

    1997-09-01

    Multivariate calibration methods have been applied extensively to the quantitative analysis of Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectral data. Partial least squares (PLS) methods have become the most widely used multivariate method for quantitative spectroscopic analyses. Most often these methods are limited by model error or the accuracy or precision of the reference methods. However, in some cases, the precision of the quantitative analysis is limited by the noise in the spectroscopic signal. In these situations, the precision of the PLS calibrations and predictions can be improved by the incorporation of weighting in the PLS algorithm. If the spectral noise of the system is known (e.g., in the case of detector-noise-limited cases), then appropriate weighting can be incorporated into the multivariate spectral calibrations and predictions. A weighted PLS (WPLS) algorithm was developed to improve the precision of the analysis in the case of spectral-noise-limited data. This new PLS algorithm was then tested with real and simulated data, and the results compared with the unweighted PLS algorithm. Using near-infrared (NIR) calibration precision when the WPLS algorithm was applied. The best WPLS method improved prediction precision for the analysis of one of the minor components by a factor of nearly 9 relative to the unweighted PLS algorithm.

  12. Denoising spectroscopic data by means of the improved Least-Squares Deconvolution method

    E-print Network

    Tkachenko, A; Tsymbal, V; Aerts, C; Kochukhov, O; Debosscher, J

    2013-01-01

    The MOST, CoRoT, and Kepler space missions led to the discovery of a large number of intriguing, and in some cases unique, objects among which are pulsating stars, stars hosting exoplanets, binaries, etc. Although the space missions deliver photometric data of unprecedented quality, these data are lacking any spectral information and we are still in need of ground-based spectroscopic and/or multicolour photometric follow-up observations for a solid interpretation. Both faintness of most of the observed stars and the required high S/N of spectroscopic data imply the need of using large telescopes, access to which is limited. In this paper, we look for an alternative, and aim for the development of a technique allowing to denoise the originally low S/N spectroscopic data, making observations of faint targets with small telescopes possible and effective. We present a generalization of the original Least-Squares Deconvolution (LSD) method by implementing a multicomponent average profile and a line strengths corre...

  13. Identification of Pseudomonas viridiflava on tomato by traditional methods and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yesim Aysan; Nilufer Yildiz; Fatima Yucel

    2004-01-01

    Pseudomonas viridiflava is one of the causal agents of tomato stem necrosis in the eastern Mediterranean region of Turkey. The bacterium causes general\\u000a wilting, yellowing of tomato plants, dark blotches on the pruning sites of the stem, browning, and hollowing of the pith.P. viridiflava strains, isolated from Antakya and Mersin, were identified by traditional methods and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent\\u000a assay

  14. A method for comparing traditional and component-based models in information systems re-engineering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Raul Valverde; Mark Toleman; Aileen Cater-Steel

    2011-01-01

    Many organisations have become aware of the limitations of their legacy systems to adapt to new technical requirements. Trends\\u000a towards e-commerce applications, platform independence, reusability of pre-built components, capacity for reconfiguration\\u000a and higher reliability have contributed to the need to update current systems. Consequently, legacy systems, typically designed\\u000a and developed using traditional methods, need to be re-engineered into new component-based

  15. Spectroscopic characterization and quantitative determination of atorvastatin calcium impurities by novel HPLC method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Lokesh Kumar

    2012-11-01

    Seven process related impurities were identified by LC-MS in the atorvastatin calcium drug substance. These impurities were identified by LC-MS. The structure of impurities was confirmed by modern spectroscopic techniques like 1H NMR and IR and physicochemical studies conducted by using synthesized authentic reference compounds. The synthesized reference samples of the impurity compounds were used for the quantitative HPLC determination. These impurities were detected by newly developed gradient, reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method. The system suitability of HPLC analysis established the validity of the separation. The analytical method was validated according to International Conference of Harmonization (ICH) with respect to specificity, precision, accuracy, linearity, robustness and stability of analytical solutions to demonstrate the power of newly developed HPLC method.

  16. A comparison of microscopic and spectroscopic identification methods for analysis of microplastics in environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Song, Young Kyoung; Hong, Sang Hee; Jang, Mi; Han, Gi Myung; Rani, Manviri; Lee, Jongmyoung; Shim, Won Joon

    2015-04-15

    The analysis of microplastics in various environmental samples requires the identification of microplastics from natural materials. The identification technique lacks a standardized protocol. Herein, stereomicroscope and Fourier transform infrared spectroscope (FT-IR) identification methods for microplastics (<1mm) were compared using the same samples from the sea surface microlayer (SML) and beach sand. Fragmented microplastics were significantly (p<0.05) underestimated and fiber was significantly overestimated using the stereomicroscope both in the SML and beach samples. The total abundance by FT-IR was higher than by microscope both in the SML and beach samples, but they were not significantly (p>0.05) different. Depending on the number of samples and the microplastic size range of interest, the appropriate identification method should be determined; selecting a suitable identification method for microplastics is crucial for evaluating microplastic pollution. PMID:25682567

  17. Detailed spectroscopic analysis of SN 1987A: The distance to the LMC using the SEAM method

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, Robert C.; Baron, E.; Branch, David; Hauschildt, Peter H.; Nugent, Peter E.; Lundqvist, Peter; Blinnikov, Sergei; Pun, Chun S.J.

    2002-05-21

    Supernova 1987A remains the most well-studied supernova to date. Observations produced excellent broad-band photometric and spectroscopic coverage over a wide wavelength range at all epochs. We model the observed spectra from Day 1 to Day 81 using a hydrodynamical model. We show that good agreement can be obtained at times up to about 60 days, if we allow for extended nickel mixing. Later than about 60 days the observed Balmer lines become stronger than our models can reproduce. We show that this is likely due to a more complicated distribution of gamma-rays than we allow for in our spherically symmetric calculations. We present synthetic light curves in UBVRIJHK and a synthetic bolometric light curve. Using this broad baseline of detailed spectroscopic models we find a distance modulus mu = 18.5 +/- 0.2 using the SEAM method of determining distances to supernovae. We find that the explosion time agrees with that of the neutrino burst and is constrained at 68 percent confidence to within +/- 0.9 days. We argue that the weak Balmer lines of our detailed model calculations casts doubt on the accuracy of the purely photometric EPM method. We also suggest that Type IIP supernovae will be most useful as distance indicators at early times due to a variety of effects.

  18. Novel spectroscopic methods for determination of Cromolyn sodium and Oxymetazoline hydrochloride in binary mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdel-Aziz, Omar; El-Kosasy, A. M.; Magdy, N.; El Zahar, N. M.

    2014-10-01

    New accurate, sensitive and selective spectrophotometric and spectrofluorimetric methods were developed and subsequently validated for determination of Cromolyn sodium (CS) and Oxymetazoline HCl (OXY) in binary mixture. These methods include ‘H-point standard addition method (HPSAM) and area under the curve (AUC)' spectrophotometric method and first derivative synchronous fluorescence spectroscopic (FDSFS) method. For spectrophotometric methods, absorbances were recorded at 241.5 nm and 274.9 nm for HPSAM and the wavelength was selected in ranges 232.0-254.0 nm and 216.0-229.0 nm for AUC method, where the concentration was obtained by applying Cramer's rule. For FDSFS method, the first-derivative synchronous fluorescence signal was measured at 290.0 nm, using ?? = 145.0 nm. The suggested methods were validated according to International Conference of Harmonization (ICH) guidelines and the results revealed that they were precise and reproducible. All the obtained results were statistically compared with those of the reported method and there was no significant difference.

  19. Investigations on the effect of traditional food processing, preservation and storage methods on vegetable nutrients: A case study in Tanzania

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. H. Lyimo; S. Nyagwegwe; A. P. Mnkeni

    1991-01-01

    The effect of traditional food proceesing, preservation and storage methods on vegetable nutrients was studied using cassava, pumpkin and mwage leaves. Traditional cooking method for 90 min for cassava, 50 min for pumpkin and mwage leaves resulted in significant losses in protein, fats and vitamins. Sundrying using traditional mats caused losses of vitamin A of 36.3%, 38.0% and 50.3% for

  20. [Efficient method for analyzing absorbed ingredients of traditional Chinese medicine genitana macrophyllae radix].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jin-Wu; Song, Bei; Qu, Wen-Sheng; Dong, Yan-Sheng; Yu, Meng-Sun; Zhu, Jing-Jing

    2013-11-01

    In present study, a method for analyzing the absorbed ingredients of traditional Chinese medicine QinJiao has been developed. A rat everted gut sac (EGS) model has been established, and the transporting capacity of gut sacs was identified by histological examinations. The ingredients including loganic acid, sweroside, gentiopicroside, and swertiamarian in serosal solution absorbed by active transport of rat everted ileum and jejunum from Qinjiao extraction were determined using an HPLC method. Histological integrality of the gut sacs remains perfect and the active transport activity of them is normal within 45 min of the experiment. The HPLC method employed in this study presents high specificity and good correlation. The relative standard deviation of precision of this method is less than 5.5%. Extraction recovery of samples is more than 90%. And stability of the samples in room temperature is perfect. Eight ingredients of Qinjiao absorbed in serosal solution are identified. Furthermore, concentration of Qinjiao extraction significantly affects accumulated absorption and absorption coefficient of the ingredients. However, there is no significant impact on the accumulated absorption and absorption coefficient by diverse of everted gut sections. From above, the EGS techniques might be an efficient method, which can be employed for investigation of absorbed ingredients of Traditional Chinese Medicines. PMID:24558887

  1. Laser apparatus and method for microscopic and spectroscopic analysis and processing of biological cells

    DOEpatents

    Gourley, Paul L. (12508 Loyola, NE., Albuquerque, NM 87112); Gourley, Mark F. (7509 Spring Lake Dr., Apt. B1, Bethesda, MD 20817)

    1997-01-01

    An apparatus and method for microscopic and spectroscopic analysis and processing of biological cells. The apparatus comprises a laser having an analysis region within the laser cavity for containing one or more biological cells to be analyzed. The presence of a cell within the analysis region in superposition with an activated portion of a gain medium of the laser acts to encode information about the cell upon the laser beam, the cell information being recoverable by an analysis means that preferably includes an array photodetector such as a CCD camera and a spectrometer. The apparatus and method may be used to analyze biomedical cells including blood cells and the like, and may include processing means for manipulating, sorting, or eradicating cells after analysis thereof.

  2. Laser apparatus and method for microscopic and spectroscopic analysis and processing of biological cells

    DOEpatents

    Gourley, P.L.; Gourley, M.F.

    1997-03-04

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for microscopic and spectroscopic analysis and processing of biological cells. The apparatus comprises a laser having an analysis region within the laser cavity for containing one or more biological cells to be analyzed. The presence of a cell within the analysis region in superposition with an activated portion of a gain medium of the laser acts to encode information about the cell upon the laser beam, the cell information being recoverable by an analysis means that preferably includes an array photodetector such as a CCD camera and a spectrometer. The apparatus and method may be used to analyze biomedical cells including blood cells and the like, and may include processing means for manipulating, sorting, or eradicating cells after analysis. 20 figs.

  3. Spectroscopic and molecular structure investigations of 9-vinylcarbazole by DFT and ab initio method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jone Pradeepa, S.; Sundaraganesan, N.

    2015-02-01

    Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and FT-Raman spectra have been recorded and widespread spectroscopic investigations have been carried out on 9-vinylcarbazole (9VC). The optimized geometries, vibrational wavenumbers, intensity of vibrational bands and various atomic charges of 9VC have been investigated using Hartree-Fock (HF) and density functional theory (DFT-B3LYP) method using 6-31G(d,p) as basis set. Experimental fundamental vibrational modes are scrutinized and compared with the calculated results. 13C and 1H NMR spectra were recorded and the chemical shifts of the molecule have been computed using GIAO method. The nonlinear property of the title compound was confirmed by hyperpolarizability. Molecular stability and bond strength was analyzed by Natural Bond Orbital analysis. Electronic structure properties such as UV and frontier molecular orbital examination have been reported.

  4. [Comparison of sustainable development status in Heilongjiang Province based on traditional ecological footprint method and emergy ecological footprint method].

    PubMed

    Chen, Chun-feng; Wang, Hong-yan; Xiao, Du-ning; Wang, Da-qing

    2008-11-01

    By using traditional ecological footprint method and its modification, emergy ecological footprint method, the sustainable development status of Heilongjiang Province in 2005 was analyzed. The results showed that the ecological deficits of Heilongjiang Province in 2005 based on emergy and conventional ecological footprint methods were 1.919 and 0.6256 hm2 x cap(-1), respectively. The ecological footprint value based on the two methods both exceeded its carrying capacity, which indicated that the social and economic development of the study area was not sustainable. Emergy ecological footprint method was used to discuss the relationships between human's material demand and ecosystem resources supply, and more stable parameters such as emergy transformity and emergy density were introduced into emergy ecological footprint method, which overcame some of the shortcomings of conventional ecological method. PMID:19238861

  5. Methods for Sight Word Recognition in Kindergarten: Traditional Flashcard Method vs. Multisensory Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, William E.; Feng, Jay

    2012-01-01

    A quasi-experimental action research with a pretest-posttest same subject design was implemented to determine if there is a different effect of the flash card method and the multisensory approach on kindergarteners' achievement in sight word recognition, and which method is more effective if there is any difference. Instrumentation for pretest and…

  6. A new criterion of photostimulated luminescence (PSL) method to detect irradiated traditional Chinese medicinal herbs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Liwen; Lin, Tong; Jiang, Yingqiao; Bi, Fujun

    2013-11-01

    This work used a new criterion to analyze 162 varieties (222 batches) of traditional Chinese medicinal herbs based on the European Standard EN 13751 (2009. Foodstuffs—Detection of Irradiated Food Using Photostimulated Luminescence. European Committee for Standardization, Brussels, Belgium). The characteristics of PSL signals are described, and a new criterion is established. Compared to EN 13751, the new criterion uses clearer definition to evaluate instead of the ambiguous descriptions in EN Standard, such as "much greater than" and "within the same order of magnitude". Moreover, the accuracy of the new criterion is as good as or better than EN Standard in regard to classifying irradiated and non-irradiated traditional Chinese medicinal herbs. It can help to avoid false positive result when a non-irradiated herb got a screening PSL measurement above 5000 counts/60 s. This new criterion of photostimulated luminescence method can be applied to identify the irradiation status of traditional Chinese medicinal herbs, even if the medicinal herbs were irradiated at a low dose (0.3 kGy) or stored in the dark at room temperature for 24 months after the irradiation treatment.

  7. Denoising spectroscopic data by means of the improved least-squares deconvolution method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tkachenko, A.; Van Reeth, T.; Tsymbal, V.; Aerts, C.; Kochukhov, O.; Debosscher, J.

    2013-12-01

    Context. The MOST, CoRoT, and Kepler space missions have led to the discovery of a large number of intriguing, and in some cases unique, objects among which are pulsating stars, stars hosting exoplanets, binaries, etc. Although the space missions have delivered photometric data of unprecedented quality, these data are lacking any spectral information and we are still in need of ground-based spectroscopic and/or multicolour photometric follow-up observations for a solid interpretation. Aims: The faintness of most of the observed stars and the required high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of spectroscopic data both imply the need to use large telescopes, access to which is limited. In this paper, we look for an alternative, and aim for the development of a technique that allows the denoising of the originally low S/N (typically, below 80) spectroscopic data, making observations of faint targets with small telescopes possible and effective. Methods: We present a generalization of the original least-squares deconvolution (LSD) method by implementing a multicomponent average profile and a line strengths correction algorithm. We tested the method on simulated and real spectra of single and binary stars, among which are two intrinsically variable objects. Results: The method was successfully tested on the high-resolution spectra of Vega and a Kepler star, KIC 04749989. Application to the two pulsating stars, 20 Cvn and HD 189631, showed that the technique is also applicable to intrinsically variable stars: the results of frequency analysis and mode identification from the LSD model spectra for both objects are in good agreement with the findings from literature. Depending on the S/N of the original data and spectral characteristics of a star, the gain in S/N in the LSD model spectrum typically ranges from 5 to 15 times. Conclusions: The technique introduced in this paper allows an effective denoising of the originally low S/N spectroscopic data. The high S/N spectra obtained this way can be used to determine fundamental parameters and chemical composition of the stars. The restored LSD model spectra contain all the information on line profile variations present in the original spectra of pulsating stars, for example. The method is applicable to both high- (>30 000) and low- (<30 000) resolution spectra, although the information that can be extracted from the latter is limited by the resolving power itself. Based on the data gathered with the hermes spectrograph, installed at the Mercator Telescope, operated on the island of La Palma by the Flemish Community, at the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias and supported by the Fund for Scientific Research of Flanders (FWO), Belgium, the Research Council of K.U. Leuven, Belgium, the Fonds National de la Recherche Scientifique (F.R.S.-FNRS), Belgium, the Royal Observatory of Belgium, the Observatoire de Genève, Switzerland, and the Thüringer Landessternwarte Tautenburg, Germany.Based on the data extracted from the ELODIE archive and the ESO Science Archive Facility under request number TVanReeth63233.The software presented in this work is available upon request from: Andrew.Tkachenko@ster.kuleuven.be

  8. Dual window method for processing spectroscopic optical coherence tomography signals with high spectral and spatial resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robles, Francisco E.; Graf, Robert N.; Wax, Adam

    2009-02-01

    The generation of spectroscopic optical coherence tomography (SOCT) signals suffers from an inherent trade off between spatial and spectral resolution. Here, we present a dual window (DW) method that uses two Gaussian windows to simultaneously obtain high spectral and spatial resolution. We show that the DW method probes the Winger time-frequency distribution (TFD) with two orthogonal windows set by the standard deviation of the Gaussian windows used for processing. We also show that in the limit of an infinitesimally narrow window, combined with a large window, this method is equivalent to the Kirkwood & Richaczek TFD and, if the real part is taken, it is equivalent to the Margenau & Hill (MH) TFD. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the method by simulating a signal with four components separated in depth or center frequency. Six TFD are compared: the ideal, the Wigner, the MH, narrow window short time Fourier transform (STFT), wide window STFT, and the DW. The results show that the DW method contains features of the Wigner TFD, and that it contains the highest spatial and spectral resolution that is free of artifacts. This method can enable powerful applications, including accurate acquisition of the spectral information for cancer diagnosis.

  9. Developments in the method of finite spheres : efficiency and coupling to the traditional finite element method

    E-print Network

    Hong, Jung-Wuk, 1970-

    2004-01-01

    In this thesis we develop some advances in the method of finite spheres which is a truly meshless numerical technique for the solution of boundary value problems on geometrically complex domains. We present the development ...

  10. Seventy-meter antenna performance predictions: GTD analysis compared with traditional ray-tracing methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schredder, J. M.

    1988-01-01

    A comparative analysis was performed, using both the Geometrical Theory of Diffraction (GTD) and traditional pathlength error analysis techniques, for predicting RF antenna gain performance and pointing corrections. The NASA/JPL 70 meter antenna with its shaped surface was analyzed for gravity loading over the range of elevation angles. Also analyzed were the effects of lateral and axial displacements of the subreflector. Significant differences were noted between the predictions of the two methods, in the effect of subreflector displacements, and in the optimal subreflector positions to focus a gravity-deformed main reflector. The results are of relevance to future design procedure.

  11. Traditional and modern plant breeding methods with examples in rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Breseghello, Flavio; Coelho, Alexandre Siqueira Guedes

    2013-09-01

    Plant breeding can be broadly defined as alterations caused in plants as a result of their use by humans, ranging from unintentional changes resulting from the advent of agriculture to the application of molecular tools for precision breeding. The vast diversity of breeding methods can be simplified into three categories: (i) plant breeding based on observed variation by selection of plants based on natural variants appearing in nature or within traditional varieties; (ii) plant breeding based on controlled mating by selection of plants presenting recombination of desirable genes from different parents; and (iii) plant breeding based on monitored recombination by selection of specific genes or marker profiles, using molecular tools for tracking within-genome variation. The continuous application of traditional breeding methods in a given species could lead to the narrowing of the gene pool from which cultivars are drawn, rendering crops vulnerable to biotic and abiotic stresses and hampering future progress. Several methods have been devised for introducing exotic variation into elite germplasm without undesirable effects. Cases in rice are given to illustrate the potential and limitations of different breeding approaches. PMID:23551250

  12. Apparatus for and method of performing spectroscopic analysis on an article

    DOEpatents

    Powell, George Louis (Oak Ridge, TN); Hallman, Jr., Russell Louis (Knoxville, TN)

    1999-01-01

    An apparatus for and method of analyzing an article having an entrance and an exit in communication with the entrance. The apparatus comprises: a spectrometer having an emission source with a focal point; a plurality of mirrors; and a detector connected to the spectroscope. The emission source is positioned so that its focal point is substantially coextensive with the entrance of the article. The mirrors comprise: a first mirror positionable adjacent the exit of the article and a second mirror positioned relative to the other of said plurality of mirrors. The first mirror receives scattered emissions exiting the article and substantially collimates the scattered emissions. The second mirror substantially focuses the collimated emissions into a focused emission. The detector receives the focused emission from the mirrors.

  13. Apparatus for and method of performing spectroscopic analysis on an article

    DOEpatents

    Powell, G.L.; Hallman, R.L. Jr.

    1999-04-20

    An apparatus and method are disclosed for analyzing an article having an entrance and an exit in communication with the entrance. The apparatus comprises: a spectrometer having an emission source with a focal point; a plurality of mirrors; and a detector connected to the spectroscope. The emission source is positioned so that its focal point is substantially coextensive with the entrance of the article. The mirrors comprise: a first mirror positionable adjacent the exit of the article and a second mirror positioned relative to the other of said plurality of mirrors. The first mirror receives scattered emissions exiting the article and substantially collimates the scattered emissions. The second mirror substantially focuses the collimated emissions into a focused emission. The detector receives the focused emission from the mirrors. 6 figs.

  14. Comparing student achievement in the problem-based learning classroom and traditional teaching methods classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobbs, Vicki

    Significant numbers of students fail high school chemistry, preventing them from graduating. Starting in the 2013-2014 school year, 100% of the students must pass a science assessment for schools to meet Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) in accordance to No Child Left Behind (NCLB). Failure to meet AYP results in sanctions, such as state management or closure of a school or replacing a school staff. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the teaching strategy, Problem Based Learning (PBL), will improve student achievement in high school chemistry to a greater degree than traditional teaching methods. PBL is a student-centered, inquiry-based teaching method based on the constructivist learning theory. The research question looked at whether there was a difference in student achievement between students a high school chemistry classroom using PBL and students in a classroom using traditional teaching methods as measured by scores on a 20-question quiz. The research study used a quasi-experimental pretest/posttest control group design. An independent samples t-test compared gains scores between the pretest and posttest. Analysis of quiz scores indicated that there was not a significant difference (t(171) = 1.001, p = .318) in student achievement between the teaching methods. Because there was not a significant difference, each teacher can decide which teaching method best suites the subject matter and the learning styles of the students. This study adds research based data to help teachers and schools choose one teaching method over another so that students may gain knowledge, develop problem-solving skills, and life-long learning skills that will bring about social change in the form of a higher quality of life for the students and community as a whole.

  15. Alcohol or traditional methods versus natural drying for newborn's cord care.

    PubMed

    Shoaeib, Fatma Mohamed Nasr El-din; All, Sohair Abu El-Fadle Abdel; El-Barrawy, Mohamed Abbas

    2005-01-01

    This is a quasi-experimental study that aimed to compare the use of alcohol and traditional methods for newborn's cord care with a no-treatment approach, natural drying. The study also aimed to identify the factors associated with the occurrence of cord infection and time of cord separation. A convenient sample of 70 women with vaginal delivery, full-term and healthy babies was selected from postpartum departments of two university hospitals in Alexandria and Minia. A specially designed interview schedule was developed and utilized to collect data. Swabs were taken from the newborns' umbilical stumps on zero and 3rd day of birth to detect bacterial colonization. Follow-up was carried-out at home to assess methods used for cord care, babies' hygiene, cord infection and time of cord separation. The study revealed that traditional methods of cord care were used by women with higher mean age (30.8 +/- 7.8 years), from Minia (100%) or rural areas (71.4%), while alcohol and natural drying were used by women with lower mean age (27.7 +/- 4.8 and 24.8 +/- 6.5 years) respectively, from Alexandria (76% and 100%) respectively or urban areas (56% and 64.7%) respectively. Alcohol was used for male babies (76%), while traditional methods and natural drying were used for female babies (71.4% & 64.7%) respectively. Incidence of cord infection was significantly lower among natural drying group (35.3%), and no signs of systemic infection were observed among them. Rate of increase of bacterial colonization (from 0-3rd day of birth) was significantly higher in alcohol group (44%). It was relatively similar with presence or absence of cord infection (33.3 & 32.1) respectively. Mean time of cord separation was longer among alcohol group (6.4 +/- 2.4 days), as compared with natural drying group (4.7 +/- 1.9 days) and traditional methods group (3.4 +/- 0.7 days). Bathing baby while cord was attached was carried-out by all women of alcohol and natural drying groups, compared to only 28.6% of traditional methods group. Breast-feeding was significantly related to less incidence of cord infection (P= 0.008) and shorter time of cord separation (P= 0.002). Incidence of cord infection was significantly related to using cloth diaper (P= 0.015), using dry method for skin care (X(2) 2= 7.2917), giving tub bath (X(1)2 = 4.1788) and delaying the bath to the 7th day of birth (P= 0.050). Time of cord separation was significantly shorter with closed cord dressing (X(2)2= 20.4028), in Minia, during spring, among male babies (X(2)2= 15.0352), and in rural areas (X(2)2 = 9.7608). It was significantly longer with bathing the baby while cord was attached (X(2)2 = 27.9354), giving 2-3 baths/week or delaying the bath to the 7th day of birth (P= 0.049) and with using cloth diaper (P= 0.0467). So, moving from an intervention to a non- intervention, particularly in a healthy population should be applied to the healthy naturalistic approach to care advocated in nursing. Also, only through continuing efforts done to examine our assumptions about historic health care routines, will we be able to demonstrate evidence-based practice and to advance nursing care. PMID:16922152

  16. Huygens Titan Probe Trajectory Reconstruction Using Traditional Methods and the Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Striepe, Scott A.; Blanchard, Robert C.; Kirsch, Michael F.; Fowler, Wallace T.

    2007-01-01

    On January 14, 2005, ESA's Huygens probe separated from NASA's Cassini spacecraft, entered the Titan atmosphere and landed on its surface. As part of NASA Engineering Safety Center Independent Technical Assessment of the Huygens entry, descent, and landing, and an agreement with ESA, NASA provided results of all EDL analyses and associated findings to the Huygens project team prior to probe entry. In return, NASA was provided the flight data from the probe so that trajectory reconstruction could be done and simulation models assessed. Trajectory reconstruction of the Huygens entry probe at Titan was accomplished using two independent approaches: a traditional method and a POST2-based method. Results from both approaches are discussed in this paper.

  17. Automatic diagnosis of melanoma using machine learning methods on a spectroscopic system

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Early and accurate diagnosis of melanoma, the deadliest type of skin cancer, has the potential to reduce morbidity and mortality rate. However, early diagnosis of melanoma is not trivial even for experienced dermatologists, as it needs sampling and laboratory tests which can be extremely complex and subjective. The accuracy of clinical diagnosis of melanoma is also an issue especially in distinguishing between melanoma and mole. To solve these problems, this paper presents an approach that makes non-subjective judgements based on quantitative measures for automatic diagnosis of melanoma. Methods Our approach involves image acquisition, image processing, feature extraction, and classification. 187 images (19 malignant melanoma and 168 benign lesions) were collected in a clinic by a spectroscopic device that combines single-scattered, polarized light spectroscopy with multiple-scattered, un-polarized light spectroscopy. After noise reduction and image normalization, features were extracted based on statistical measurements (i.e. mean, standard deviation, mean absolute deviation, L 1 norm, and L 2 norm) of image pixel intensities to characterize the pattern of melanoma. Finally, these features were fed into certain classifiers to train learning models for classification. Results We adopted three classifiers – artificial neural network, naïve bayes, and k-nearest neighbour to evaluate our approach separately. The naive bayes classifier achieved the best performance - 89% accuracy, 89% sensitivity and 89% specificity, which was integrated with our approach in a desktop application running on the spectroscopic system for diagnosis of melanoma. Conclusions Our work has two strengths. (1) We have used single scattered polarized light spectroscopy and multiple scattered unpolarized light spectroscopy to decipher the multilayered characteristics of human skin. (2) Our approach does not need image segmentation, as we directly probe tiny spots in the lesion skin and the image scans do not involve background skin. The desktop application for automatic diagnosis of melanoma can help dermatologists get a non-subjective second opinion for their diagnosis decision. PMID:25311811

  18. Development of vibrational spectroscopic methods to rapidly and non-destructively assess quality of chicken breast meat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Development of Vibrational Spectroscopic Methods to Rapidly and Non-Destructively Assess Quality of Chicken Breast Meat H. Zhuang1, M. Sohn2, S. Trabelsi1 and K. Lawrence1 1Quality and Safety Assessment Research Unit, ARS-USDA, 950 College Station Road, Athens, GA 30605 2University of Georgia, De...

  19. THE JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL PHYSICS 140, 144702 (2014) Theory of third-order spectroscopic methods to extract detailed molecular

    E-print Network

    Fayer, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    THE JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL PHYSICS 140, 144702 (2014) Theory of third-order spectroscopic methods to extract detailed molecular orientational dynamics for planar surfaces and other uniaxial systems Jun and aligned planar bilayers. The theory is valid regardless of the nature of the actual molecular motions

  20. Silica gel modified with lumogallion for aluminum determination by spectroscopic methods.

    PubMed

    Nadzhafova, Oksana Yu; Zaporozhets, Olga A; Rachinska, Irina V; Fedorenko, Leonid L; Yusupov, Nikolai

    2005-10-15

    Simple, easy to use and selective method of Al(III) sorption-spectroscopic (SS) determination was proposed. For this purpose, silica modified with tridecyloctadecylammonium chloride(SGII) using adsorption technique and glass slide modified with thin silica-poly(dimethyldiallyl-ammonium chloride) (SGI) composite film obtained by sol-gel technique were worked out. It was shown that lumogallion (LG) easily absorbs on SGI and SGII. Obtained sorbents SGIII and SGIV, respectively, were used for aluminum(III) determination by diffuse reflectance and spectrophotometric methods. The ranges of determination were (mg L(-1)): (0.08-0.54), s(r)< or =0.13, n=4 for SGIII and (0.05-2.0), s(r)< or =0.11, n=4 for SGIV. The detection limits (blank+3sigma) for aluminum were 70 and 30 microg L(-1) using SGIII and SGIV, respectively, where sigma is the standard deviation of blank estimation. The accuracy of the developed spectrophotometric method was examined by the determination of standard addition of aluminum in alcohol-free beverages. The relative error did not exceed 9%. SGIII can be regenerated by 0.05M EDTANa(2)H(2) solution and reused. SGIV was shown to be perspective for determination of aluminum in solution in the range of 0.01-0.13 mg L(-1) by solid phase luminescent technique. PMID:18970238

  1. Modified method for preparation of Halubai-an Indian traditional sweet.

    PubMed

    Asha, M R; Ravi, Ramasamy; Srinivasan, Bharath Kumar; Rao Patil, Swapna Babu; Prakash, Maya

    2014-04-01

    Halubai, a traditional Indian sweet is conventionally prepared by soaking and grinding whole cereals/millets to a fine paste, straining it through a cloth and cooking the resultant dispersion until it starts gelatinizing. Cooking is continued further with the addition of jaggery water, stirring constantly with intermittent addition of ghee. This process involves many unit operations, which are energy and time consuming. Hence a modified method was developed which is energy efficient and time saving without compromising the quality of the product. One fine fraction (200 mesh, BS) of cereal/millet flours were used in modified method instead of whole cereals. Sensory and instrumental analysis of the samples showed that quality of Halubai prepared using modified method was comparable to that of samples from conventional method. Correlation studies on sensory data of Halubai showed positive relation for the set (r?=?0.94) and smoothness (r?=?0.84); and negative relation for stickiness (r?=?-0.94) with the overall quality. Modified method of Halubai preparation which was simple and energy efficient, resulted in products with good sensory quality. PMID:24741169

  2. Dental students' opinions of preparation assessment with E4D compare software versus traditional methods.

    PubMed

    Hamil, Lindsey M; Mennito, Anthony S; Renné, Walter G; Vuthiganon, Jompobe

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate dental students' opinions regarding the utilization of a new grading software program for student self-assessment and a faculty-grading tool in a preclinical course. Using surface mapping technology, this program, called E4D Compare, yields a digital model of a student's preparation that is color-coded to show deficient areas. The program has now been used for two years at the James B. Edwards College of Dental Medicine at the Medical University of South Carolina, and the students previously assessed with E4D Compare have now entered into the dental clinics. For this study, students were asked to complete an anonymous survey for the investigators to evaluate students' attitudes and opinions on the effectiveness of this software in their preclinical courses to determine if this type of feedback helped them develop clinical skills. The survey also sought to collect students' opinions on the traditional objective criteria-based grading system. The survey was distributed to all members of the Classes of 2014 and 2015; it yielded a 59 percent response rate for the two classes, with a total of eighty-one students responding. Overall, the majority of students preferred the E4D Compare grading system over traditional hand-grading methods. The grading system provided instant, objective, and visual feedback that allowed students to easily see where their deficiencies were and encouraged them to work towards an ideal final product. PMID:25281676

  3. Determination of Cephalexin Monohydrate in Pharmaceutical Dosage Form by Stability-Indicating RP-UFLC and UV Spectroscopic Methods

    PubMed Central

    Panda, Sagar Suman; Ravi Kumar, Bera V. V.; Dash, Rabisankar; Mohanta, Ganeswar

    2013-01-01

    An ultra-fast liquid chromatographic method and two UV spectroscopic methods were developed for the determination of cephalexin monohydrate in pharmaceutical dosage forms. Isocratic separation was performed on an Enable C18G column (250 mm × 4.6 mm i.d., 5 ?m) using methanol:0.01 M TBAHS (50:50, v/v) as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min. The PDA detection wavelength was set at 254 nm. The UV spectroscopic method was performed at 261 nm and at 256–266 nm for the AUC method using a phosphate buffer (pH=5.5). The linearity was observed over a concentration range of 1.0–120 ?g/ml for UFLC and both of the UV spectroscopic methods (correlation coefficient=0.999). The developed methods were validated according to ICH guidelines. The relative standard deviation values for the intraday and interday precision studies were < 2%, and the accuracy was > 99% for all of the three methods. The developed methods were used successfully for the determination of cephalexin in dry syrup formulation. PMID:24482771

  4. Comment on “Quantitative comparison of analysis methods for spectroscopic optical coherence tomography”

    PubMed Central

    Kraszewski, Maciej; Trojanowski, Micha?; Str?kowski, Marcin R.

    2014-01-01

    In a recent paper by Bosschaart et al. [Biomed. Opt. Express 4, 2570 (2013)] various algorithms of time-frequency signal analysis have been tested for their performance in blood analysis with spectroscopic optical coherence tomography (sOCT). The measurement of hemoglobin concentration and oxygen saturation based on blood absorption spectra have been considered. Short time Fourier transform (STFT) was found as the best method for the measurement of blood absorption spectra. STFT was superior to other methods, such as dual window Fourier transform. However, the algorithm proposed by Bosschaart et al. significantly underestimates values of blood oxygen saturation. In this comment we show that this problem can be solved by thorough design of STFT algorithm. It requires the usage of a non-gaussian shape of STFT window that may lead to an excellent reconstruction of blood absorption spectra from OCT interferograms. Our study shows that sOCT can be potentially used for estimating oxygen saturation of blood with the accuracy below 1% and the spatial resolution of OCT image better than 20 ?m. PMID:25401015

  5. Spectroscopic studies on the interaction between tetrandrine and two serum albumins by chemometrics methods.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Zhengjun; Liu, Rong; Jiang, Xiaohui

    2013-11-01

    The binding interactions of tetrandrine (TETD) with bovine serum albumin (BSA) and human serum albumin (HSA) have been investigated by spectroscopic methods. These experimental data were further analyzed using multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) method, and the concentration profiles and pure spectra for three species (BSA/HSA, TETD and TETD-BSA/HSA) existed in the interaction procedure, as well as, the apparent equilibrium constants Kapp were evaluated. The binding sites number n and the binding constants K were obtained at various temperatures. The binding distance between TETD and BSA/HSA was 1.455/1.451nm. The site markers competitive experiments indicated that TETD primarily bound to the tryptophan residue of BSA/HSA within site I. The thermodynamic parameters (?G, ?H and ?S) calculated on the basis of different temperatures revealed that the binding of TETD-BSA was mainly depended on the hydrophobic interaction strongly and electrostatic interaction, and yet the binding of TETD-HSA was strongly relied on the hydrophobic interaction. The results of synchronous fluorescence, 3D fluorescence and FT-IR spectra show that the conformation of proteins has altered in the presence of TETD. In addition, the effect of some common ions on the binding constants between TETD and proteins were also discussed. PMID:23831983

  6. Spectroscopic studies on the interaction between tetrandrine and two serum albumins by chemometrics methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Zhengjun; Liu, Rong; jiang, Xiaohui

    2013-11-01

    The binding interactions of tetrandrine (TETD) with bovine serum albumin (BSA) and human serum albumin (HSA) have been investigated by spectroscopic methods. These experimental data were further analyzed using multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) method, and the concentration profiles and pure spectra for three species (BSA/HSA, TETD and TETD-BSA/HSA) existed in the interaction procedure, as well as, the apparent equilibrium constants Kapp were evaluated. The binding sites number n and the binding constants K were obtained at various temperatures. The binding distance between TETD and BSA/HSA was 1.455/1.451 nm. The site markers competitive experiments indicated that TETD primarily bound to the tryptophan residue of BSA/HSA within site I. The thermodynamic parameters (?G, ?H and ?S) calculated on the basis of different temperatures revealed that the binding of TETD-BSA was mainly depended on the hydrophobic interaction strongly and electrostatic interaction, and yet the binding of TETD-HSA was strongly relied on the hydrophobic interaction. The results of synchronous fluorescence, 3D fluorescence and FT-IR spectra show that the conformation of proteins has altered in the presence of TETD. In addition, the effect of some common ions on the binding constants between TETD and proteins were also discussed.

  7. The interaction of plant-growth regulators with serum albumin: molecular modeling and spectroscopic methods.

    PubMed

    Dong, Sheying; Li, Zhiqin; Shi, Ling; Huang, Guiqi; Chen, Shuangli; Huang, Tinglin

    2014-05-01

    The affinity between two plant-growth regulators (PGRs) and human serum albumin (HSA) was investigated by molecular modeling techniques and spectroscopic methods. The results of molecular modeling simulations revealed that paclobutrazol (PAC) could bind on both site I and site II in HSA where the interaction was easier, while uniconazole (UNI) could not bind with HSA. Furthermore, the results of fluorescence spectroscopy, three-dimensional (3D) fluorescence spectroscopy and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy suggested that PAC had a strong ability to quench the intrinsic fluorescence of HSA. The binding affinity (Kb) and the amounts of binding sites (n) between PAC and HSA at 291 K were estimated as 2.37×10(5) mol L(-1) and 1, respectively, which confirm that PAC mainly binds on site II of HSA. An apparent distance between the Trp214 and PAC was 4.41 nm. Additionally, the binding of PAC induced the conformational changes of disulfide bridges of HSA with the decrease of ?-helix content. These studies provide more information on the potential toxicological effects and environmental risk assessment of PGRs. PMID:24569069

  8. Dissection of the binding of hydrogen peroxide to trypsin using spectroscopic methods and molecular modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Wei; Yu, Zehua; Hu, Xinxin; Liu, Rutao

    2015-02-01

    Studies on the effects of environmental pollutants to protein in vitro has become a global attention. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is used as an effective food preservative and bleacher in industrial production. The toxicity of H2O2 to trypsin was investigated by multiple spectroscopic techniques and the molecular docking method at the molecular level. The intrinsic fluorescence of trypsin was proved to be quenched in a static process based on the results of fluorescence lifetime experiment. Hydrogen bonds interaction and van der Waals forces were the main force to generate the trypsin-H2O2 complex on account of the negative ?H0 and ?S0. The binding of H2O2 changed the conformational structures and internal microenvironment of trypsin illustrated by UV-vis absorption, fluorescence, synchronous fluorescence, three-dimensional (3D) fluorescence and circular dichroism (CD) results. However, the binding site was far away from the active site of trypsin and the trypsin activity was only slightly affected by H2O2, which was further explained by molecular docking investigations.

  9. Dissection of the binding of hydrogen peroxide to trypsin using spectroscopic methods and molecular modeling.

    PubMed

    Song, Wei; Yu, Zehua; Hu, Xinxin; Liu, Rutao

    2015-02-25

    Studies on the effects of environmental pollutants to protein in vitro has become a global attention. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is used as an effective food preservative and bleacher in industrial production. The toxicity of H2O2 to trypsin was investigated by multiple spectroscopic techniques and the molecular docking method at the molecular level. The intrinsic fluorescence of trypsin was proved to be quenched in a static process based on the results of fluorescence lifetime experiment. Hydrogen bonds interaction and van der Waals forces were the main force to generate the trypsin-H2O2 complex on account of the negative ?H(0) and ?S(0). The binding of H2O2 changed the conformational structures and internal microenvironment of trypsin illustrated by UV-vis absorption, fluorescence, synchronous fluorescence, three-dimensional (3D) fluorescence and circular dichroism (CD) results. However, the binding site was far away from the active site of trypsin and the trypsin activity was only slightly affected by H2O2, which was further explained by molecular docking investigations. PMID:25228036

  10. Fully automated shim mapping method for spectroscopic imaging of the mouse brain at 9.4 T.

    PubMed

    Miyasaka, Naoyuki; Takahashi, Kan; Hetherington, Hoby P

    2006-01-01

    For spectroscopic imaging studies of the mouse brain, it is critical to obtain optimal B(0) homogeneity over a large region of interest (ROI). In this paper, a fully automated shimming method for mouse brain at 9.4 T, based on B(0) mapping, is described. B(0) maps were obtained using a multislice gradient echo sequence with multiple phase evolution time delays with a novel unwrapping scheme. The unwrapping method allows phase maps with large bandwidths (+/-1 kHz) but with high resolution (0.3 Hz/ degrees ) to be acquired in a single acquisition, thereby minimizing the number of iterations required. The SD of the B(0) over the ROI (8 x 5 x 1 mm) was less than 10 Hz after shimming. Application of this method to the in vivo mouse brain allowed reproducible, high-quality spectroscopic data to be collected with 1-microl voxels. PMID:16270332

  11. dTGS: Method for Effective Components Identification from Traditional Chinese Medicine Formula and Mechanism Analysis.

    PubMed

    Luo, Ji; Ren, Yinglong; Gu, Hao; Wu, Yi; Wang, Yun

    2013-01-01

    Because of the complexity of the components in Traditional Chinese Medicine formula (TCM formula), it is still a challenge to identify its effective components, to elucidate the mechanism of the components, and to discover the relationship between components and therapy objectives. In this paper, a method called directed TCM grammar systems (dTGS) for effective component identification was proposed using entity grammar systems (EGS) as the theoretical framework. The component-disease relationship of a TCM formula (i.e., Bai-Hu decoction plus Wasting-Thirsting formula, BHDWT) and one disease (i.e., type 2 diabetes mellitus) treated with it was studied, and the effective component groups (ECGs) were identified. 19 compounds were found acting on 20 proteins in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) disease network, and 15 compounds were determined as the candidate effective components. Results indicated that this method can be used to identify the effective components and provide an innovative way to elucidate the molecular mechanism of TCM formulas. PMID:24454516

  12. Mapping stream habitats with a global positioning system: Accuracy, precision, and comparison with traditional methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dauwalter, D.C.; Fisher, W.L.; Belt, K.C.

    2006-01-01

    We tested the precision and accuracy of the Trimble GeoXT??? global positioning system (GPS) handheld receiver on point and area features and compared estimates of stream habitat dimensions (e.g., lengths and areas of riffles and pools) that were made in three different Oklahoma streams using the GPS receiver and a tape measure. The precision of differentially corrected GPS (DGPS) points was not affected by the number of GPS position fixes (i.e., geographic location estimates) averaged per DGPS point. Horizontal error of points ranged from 0.03 to 2.77 m and did not differ with the number of position fixes per point. The error of area measurements ranged from 0.1% to 110.1% but decreased as the area increased. Again, error was independent of the number of position fixes averaged per polygon corner. The estimates of habitat lengths, widths, and areas did not differ when measured using two methods of data collection (GPS and a tape measure), nor did the differences among methods change at three stream sites with contrasting morphologies. Measuring features with a GPS receiver was up to 3.3 times faster on average than using a tape measure, although signal interference from high streambanks or overhanging vegetation occasionally limited satellite signal availability and prolonged measurements with a GPS receiver. There were also no differences in precision of habitat dimensions when mapped using a continuous versus a position fix average GPS data collection method. Despite there being some disadvantages to using the GPS in stream habitat studies, measuring stream habitats with a GPS resulted in spatially referenced data that allowed the assessment of relative habitat position and changes in habitats over time, and was often faster than using a tape measure. For most spatial scales of interest, the precision and accuracy of DGPS data are adequate and have logistical advantages when compared to traditional methods of measurement. ?? 2006 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.

  13. Comparison of traditional and molecular analytical methods for detecting biological agents in raw and drinking water following ultrafiltration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Francy, D.S.; Bushon, R.N.; Brady, A.M.G.; Bertke, E.E.; Kephart, C.M.; Likirdopulos, C.A.; Mailot, B.E.; Schaefer, F. W., III; Lindquist, H.D. Alan

    2009-01-01

    Aims: To compare the performance of traditional methods to quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) for detecting five biological agents in large-volume drinking-water samples concentrated by ultrafiltration (UF). Methods and Results: Drinking-water samples (100 l) were seeded with Bacillus anthracis, Cryptospordium parvum, Francisella tularensis, Salmonella Typhi, and Vibrio cholerae and concentrated by UF. Recoveries by traditional methods were variable between samples and between some replicates; recoveries were not determined by qPCR. Francisella tularensis and V. cholerae were detected in all 14 samples after UF, B. anthracis was detected in 13, and C. parvum was detected in 9 out of 14 samples. Numbers found by qPCR after UF were significantly or nearly related to those found by traditional methods for all organisms except for C. parvum. A qPCR assay for S. Typhi was not available. Conclusions: qPCR can be used to rapidly detect biological agents after UF as well as traditional methods, but additional work is needed to improve qPCR assays for several biological agents, determine recoveries by qPCR, and expand the study to other areas. Significance and Impact of the Study: To our knowledge, this is the first study to compare the use of traditional and qPCR methods to detect biological agents in large-volume drinking-water samples. ?? 2009 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  14. Testing strength and power in soccer players: the application of conventional and traditional methods of assessment.

    PubMed

    Paul, Darren J; Nassis, George P

    2015-06-01

    Paul, DJ and Nassis, GP. Testing strength and power in soccer players: The application of conventional and traditional methods of assessment. J Strength Cond Res 29(6): 1748-1758, 2015-Soccer is a highly complex sport influenced by many physical, psychological, tactical, and technical factors. In terms of basic physical components, strength and power are considered requisites for many important actions such as tackling, jumping, and shooting. Hence, assessment of strength and power is commonly performed within a soccer club's test battery. The objective is to use valid, reliable, and sensitive measures that allow for trustworthy analysis of the physical characteristics of players. Before any credence can be placed in test results, test's validity, reliability, and sensitivity needs to be established. This will allow practitioners to make informed decisions about test selection. This review examines the reliability, validity, and sensitivity of different strength and power assessments in soccer. The suitability of conventional and functional tests is detailed and the strengths and weaknesses of isokinetic dynamometry, hand-held dynamometry (HHD), repetition maximum, and power testing are also addressed. Generally, the tests considered in this review provide moderate to high reliability in soccer players of different training level. Similarly, the consensus demonstrates test methods to be sensitive to training interventions. In comparison, test validity seems less established. Isokinetic dynamometry has often been recognized as a gold standard measure of testing strength. Other methods of assessment are emerging as viable options (e.g., HHD), likely due to functionality and suitability of testing. Given the demands within a soccer club setting, practitioners should endeavor to use testing procedures that are informative yet not time consuming or labor intensive. By providing this, practitioners may have the option to perform more regular monitoring throughout the season rather than a limited number of specific time periods. PMID:25546446

  15. Chemical Characterization of Riverine Dissolved Organic Matter Using a Combination of Spectroscopic and Pyrolytic Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Templier, J.; Derenne, S.

    2006-12-01

    It is now well established that riverine dissolved organic matter (DOM) play a major role in environmental processes. However natural organic matter exhibit different properties depending on their sources and the fractions considered. As a result chemical characterization of DOM has appeared essential for a better understanding of their reactivity. The purpose of this work was to characterize all of the DOM at molecular level, including the non-hydrolysable fraction, which is a major part of this OM. To this aim a new analytical approach had to be considered. A combination of spectroscopic and pyrolytic methods has been applied to various fractions of DOM originating from different catchments (French and Amazonian rivers). The fractions were termed hydrophilic, transphilic and colloids according to the IHSS fractionation procedure, and account for at least 70% of the total dissolved organic carbon. Solid state 13C NMR and FTIR afford information on the nature and relative abundance of the chemical functions occurring in macromolecules. Differential thermogravimetric analysis allows to determine the thermal behaviour of the studied material and hence to optimize analytical pyrolysis conditions. Curie point pyrolysis combined to gas chromatography and mass spectrometry leads to identification of characteristic pyrolysis products, some of them being specific of a macromolecular source. Additional information can be provided by thermochemolysis with tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH). TMAH was shown to allow an increase in the efficiency of the cracking of macromolecular structures and an enhancement of the detection of the polar pyrolysis products especially due to methylation of the alcohol, phenol and acid groups. The results obtained have established the importance of terrestrial contribution to DOM. Hydrophobic fractions mainly originate from lignin-derived units, whereas transphilic fractions mostly contain cellulose units together with lignin derived ones and substantial amount of nitrogen-containing moieties. Characterization of colloidal fraction has indicated the presence of compounds from bacterial origin, especially specific nitrogen-containing molecules that are characteristic pyrolysis products of peptidoglycans, along with lignin-derived units. However pyrolysis has revealed significant differences in the detection of nitrogen-containing molecules, which do not parallel nitrogen content of the fractions. Moreover in hydrophobic and transphilic fractions the molecular structure of these compounds, which are mainly nitrogen- and oxygen- containing molecules, has not allowed to ascertain their origin. As the major biological sources of organic nitrogen (proteins, amino sugars, or tetrapyrrole pigments) involve differences in the main nitrogen functionality, two additional spectroscopic methods, namely X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and solid state 15N NMR, have been used to determine the nitrogen functional groups (amide, amine, and N-heterocycle) present in the different fractions of DOM. The combination of these two methods has revealed the occurrence of different functionality of nitrogen, with relative contributions depending on the considered fraction. It has also appeared that Curie point pyrolysis does not account for the presence of nitrogen in macromolecules with the same efficiency depending on the functional group involved. This study has highlighted the importance of combining different analytical approaches to obtain a whole insight into chemical structure of OM and avoid biased information.

  16. How to standardize the pulse-taking method of traditional Chinese medicine pulse diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Chung, Yu-Feng; Hu, Chung-Shing; Yeh, Cheng-Chang; Luo, Ching-Hsing

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this report is to propose standard pulse taking procedure of Traditional Chinese Medicine Pulse Diagnosis. In order to acquire full information from taking a wrist pulse, this proposal adopts a tactile sensor with 12 sensing points at one sensing position, such as Cun, Guan, or Chi. Simultaneously Palpation (SP) and Pressing with One Finger (PWOF) are adopted to explore their differences of the detected pulse signals. According to vertical dynamic characteristics, the results of a Pearson product moment reveal that the correlation coefficients of PWOF and SP are highly correlated from Fu to Chen. In addition, according to unique characteristics of body state, the results of a paired samples t test reveal that the SP and PWOF are indifferent at a specific pulse taking depth. Hence, if using the pulse-taking instrument with tactile sensors, it is concluded that pulse signals taken by familiar SP and PWOF methods are shown in statistical indifferences among seven parameters (Vppmean,Vppmax, HR, LENGTH, WIDTH, AS, and DS). PMID:23384544

  17. Exploring the Ligand-Protein Networks in Traditional Chinese Medicine: Current Databases, Methods, and Applications

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Mingzhu; Wei, Dong-Qing

    2013-01-01

    The traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), which has thousands of years of clinical application among China and other Asian countries, is the pioneer of the “multicomponent-multitarget” and network pharmacology. Although there is no doubt of the efficacy, it is difficult to elucidate convincing underlying mechanism of TCM due to its complex composition and unclear pharmacology. The use of ligand-protein networks has been gaining significant value in the history of drug discovery while its application in TCM is still in its early stage. This paper firstly surveys TCM databases for virtual screening that have been greatly expanded in size and data diversity in recent years. On that basis, different screening methods and strategies for identifying active ingredients and targets of TCM are outlined based on the amount of network information available, both on sides of ligand bioactivity and the protein structures. Furthermore, applications of successful in silico target identification attempts are discussed in detail along with experiments in exploring the ligand-protein networks of TCM. Finally, it will be concluded that the prospective application of ligand-protein networks can be used not only to predict protein targets of a small molecule, but also to explore the mode of action of TCM. PMID:23818932

  18. Video-based Learning Versus Traditional Method for Preclinical Course of Complete Denture Fabrication

    PubMed Central

    Fayaz, Amir; Mazahery, Azita; Hosseinzadeh, Mohammad; Yazdanpanah, Samane

    2015-01-01

    Statement of the Problem Advances in computer science and technology allow the instructors to use instructional multimedia programs to enhance the process of learning for dental students. Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a new educational modality by using videotapes on the performance of dental students in preclinical course of complete denture fabrication. Materials and Method This quasi-experimental study was performed on 54 junior dental students in Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences (SBMU). Twenty-five and 29 students were evaluated in two consecutive semesters as controls and cases, respectively for the same course. The two groups were matched in terms of "knowledge about complete denture fabrication" and "basic dental skills" using a written test and a practical exam, respectively. After the intervention, performance and clinical skills of students were assessed in 8 steps. Eventually, a post-test was carried out to find changes in knowledge and skills of students in this regard. Results In the two groups with the same baseline level of knowledge and skills, independent T-test showed that students in the test group had a significantly superior performance in primary impression taking (p= 0.001) and primary cast fabrication (p= 0.001). In terms of anterior teeth set up, students in the control group had a significantly better performance (p= 0.001).  Conclusion Instructional videotapes can aid in teaching fabrication of complete denture and are as effective as the traditional teaching system.

  19. Application methods of infrared thermal images in the health care field of traditional Chinese medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ziru; Zhang, Xusheng

    2008-12-01

    Infrared thermal imaging (ITI) is the potential imaging technique for the health care field of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Successful application demands obeying the characteristics and regularity of the ITI of human body and designing rigorous trials. First, the influence of time must be taken into account as the ITI of human body varies with time markedly. Second, relative magnitude is preferred to be the index of the image features. Third, scatter diagrams and the method of least square could present important information for evaluating the health care effect. A double-blind placebo-controlled randomized trial was undertaken to study the influences of Shengsheng capsule, one of the TCM health food with immunity adjustment function, on the ITI of human body. The results showed that the effect of Shengsheng capsule to people with weak constitution or in the period of being weak could be reflected objectively by ITI. The relative efficacy rate was 81.3% for the trial group and 30.0% for the control group, there was significant difference between the two groups (P=0.003). So the sensitivity and objectivity of ITI are of great importance to the health care field of TCM.

  20. Interobserver Reliability of Four Diagnostic Methods Using Traditional Korean Medicine for Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ju Ah; Kang, Byoung-Kab; Alraek, Terje

    2014-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study is to evaluate the consistency of pattern identification (PI), a set of diagnostic indicators used by traditional Korean medicine (TKM) clinicians. Methods. A total of 168 stroke patients who were admitted into oriental medical university hospitals from June 2012 through January 2013 were included in the study. Using the PI indicators, each patient was independently diagnosed by two experts from the same department. Interobserver consistency was assessed by simple percentage agreement as well as by kappa and AC1 statistics. Results. Interobserver agreement on the PI indicators (for all patients) was generally high: pulse diagnosis signs (AC1 = 0.66–0.89); inspection signs (AC1 = 0.66–0.95); listening/smelling signs (AC1 = 0.67–0.88); and inquiry signs (AC1 = 0.62–0.94). Conclusion. In four examinations, there was moderate agreement between the clinicians on the PI indicators. To improve clinician consistency (e.g., in the diagnostic criteria used), it is necessary to analyze the reasons for inconsistency and to improve clinician training. PMID:25574181

  1. Contemporary Chinese pulse diagnosis: a modern interpretation of an ancient and traditional method.

    PubMed

    Bilton, Karen; Hammer, Leon; Zaslawski, Chris

    2013-10-01

    Contemporary Chinese pulse diagnosis™ (CCPD) is a system of pulse diagnosis utilized by Dr. John He Feng Shen, OMD, and documented by Dr. Leon Hammer, MD, in the book Chinese Pulse Diagnosis, A Contemporary Approach. It is the traditional method of the Ding medical lineage from the Shanghai region and dates to the 15th century in Chinese language texts. The fundamentals of this system are, however, much older and can be directly traced to the Neijing Suwen. Having been passed from the last direct inheritor of Ding knowledge (Dr. Shen) to modern practitioners of Chinese medicine by way of Dr. Hammer and his students, it represents an important system of advanced diagnosis. Although modern diagnostic technology provides very sophisticated diagnoses, for these instruments to be effective, the disease process must already have a physical manifestation. CCPD, on the other hand, provides the earliest warnings of physiological processes, which if left unchecked may result in the subsequent appearance of a disease. This article describes the derivation and the principles of this system of pulse diagnosis and explores its successful integration into the modern practice of Chinese medicine. PMID:24139459

  2. An internet compendium of analytical methods and spectroscopic information for monomers and additives used in food packaging plastics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Gilbert; Catherine Simoneau; David Cote; Achim Boenke

    2000-01-01

    An internet website (http:\\/\\/cpf.jrc.it\\/smt\\/) has been produced as a means of dissemination of methods of analysis and supporting spectroscopic information on monomers and additives used for food contact materials (principally packaging). The site which is aimed primarily at assisting food control laboratories in the European Union contains analytical information on monomers, starting substances and additives used in the manufacture of

  3. Removal of iron from groundwater by ash: a systematic study of a traditional method.

    PubMed

    Das, B; Hazarika, P; Saikia, G; Kalita, H; Goswami, D C; Das, H B; Dube, S N; Dutta, R K

    2007-03-22

    A traditional method for removal of iron from ground water by using ash has been systematically investigated. Ashes from five different sources, viz., banana rind, banana pseudostem, banana leaf, rice husk and bamboo has been studied. The principle applied is enhanced precipitation of iron at high pH caused by ash. The study included laboratory analysis of some relevant chemical parameters of the ashes and the efficiency of the ashes in removing iron from prefabricated water with respect to quantity of ash and corresponding increase in pH of water. The ash of banana pseudostem has been found to be most suitable for removal of iron. A low-cost and easily made iron removal system for household use has been designed and tested in the laboratory. The ash of banana pseudostem has been found to remove iron to below 0.3ppm without increasing the pH above the acceptable limit. The optimum values of the different parameters for removal of iron are 200-300mgl(-1) ash, 1.0lh(-1) flow rate and 1h of contact time with ash for groundwater having [Fe] of about 2.20ppm. The amount of ash can be increased for groundwater having higher [Fe] and can be decreased gradually during continuous use of the system. Acceptability of the method has been examined based on chemical analysis of the treated water. Increase in the essential minerals such as Ca, K has been observed in the water after treatment. The designed iron removing system is expected to be suitable for household use. PMID:16956716

  4. Negotiating tradition

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Josephine Moreno; Mary Ann Littrell

    2001-01-01

    Retailers serve as intermediaries between artisans and tourist consumers in the marketing of textile and craft products. This study examines the role of intermediaries by exploring retailers' perceptions of tradition as they contemplate, blend, and juxtapose textile product features for a tourism market. Qualitative research methods were employed to collect data. A related group of product characteristics emerged as being

  5. A spectroscopic method for identifying terrestrial biocarbonates and application to Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco, A.; Orofino, V.; D'Elia, M.; Fonti, S.; Mastandrea, A.; Guido, A.; Russo, F.

    2011-06-01

    Searching for traces of extinct and/or extant life on Mars is one of the major objectives for remote-sensing and in situ exploration of the planet. In previous laboratory works we have investigated the infrared spectral modifications induced by thermal processing on different carbonate samples, in the form of fresh shells and fossils of different ages, whose biotic origin is easily recognizable. The goal was to discriminate them from their abiotic counterparts. In general, it is difficult to identify biotic signatures, especially when the organisms inducing the carbonate precipitation have low fossilization potential (i.e. microbes, bacteria, archaea). A wide variety of microorganisms are implicated in carbonate genesis, and their direct characterization is very difficult to evaluate by traditional methods, both in ancient sedimentary systems and even in recent environments. In the present work we apply our analysis to problematic carbonate samples, in which there is no clear evidence of controlled or induced biomineralization. This analysis indicates a very likely biotic origin of the aragonite samples under study, in agreement with the conclusion previously reported by Guido et al. (2007) who followed a completely different approach based on a complex set of sedimentary, petrographic, geochemical and biochemical analyses. We show that our method is reliable for discriminating between biotic and abiotic carbonates, and therefore it is a powerful tool in the search for life on Mars in the next generation of space missions to the planet.

  6. A Comparison of Kernel Equating and Traditional Equipercentile Equating Methods and the Parametric Bootstrap Methods for Estimating Standard Errors in Equipercentile Equating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Sae Il

    2009-01-01

    This study used simulation (a) to compare the kernel equating method to traditional equipercentile equating methods under the equivalent-groups (EG) design and the nonequivalent-groups with anchor test (NEAT) design and (b) to apply the parametric bootstrap method for estimating standard errors of equating. A two-parameter logistic item response…

  7. Traditional healers and the potential for collaboration with the national tuberculosis programme in Vanuatu: results from a mixed methods study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study was conducted in the Pacific island nation of Vanuatu. Our objective was to assess knowledge, attitudes and practice of traditional healers who treat lung diseases and tuberculosis (TB), including their willingness to collaborate with the national TB programme. Methods This was a descriptive study using both qualitative and quantitative methods. Quantitative analysis was based on the responses provided to closed-ended questions, and we used descriptive analysis (frequencies) to describe the knowledge, attitudes and practice of the traditional healers towards TB. Qualitative analysis was based on open-ended questions permitting fuller explanations. We used thematic analysis and developed a posteriori inductive categories to draw original and unbiased conclusions. Results Nineteen traditional healers were interviewed; 18 were male. Fifteen of the healers reported treating short wind (a local term to describe lung, chest or breathing illnesses) which they attributed to food, alcohol, smoking or pollution from contact with menstrual blood, and a range of other physical and spiritual causes. Ten said that they would treat TB with leaf medicine. Four traditional healers said that they would not treat TB. Twelve of the healers had referred someone to a hospital for a strong wet-cough and just over half of the healers (9) reported a previous collaboration with the Government health care system. Eighteen of the traditional healers would be willing to collaborate with the national TB programme, with or without compensation. Conclusions Traditional healers in Vanuatu treat lung diseases including TB. Many have previously collaborated with the Government funded health care system, and almost all of them indicated a willingness to collaborate with the national TB programme. The engagement of traditional healers in TB management should be considered, using an evidence based and culturally sensitive approach. PMID:24758174

  8. A Comparative Study on Power Point Presentation and Traditional Lecture Method in Material Understandability, Effectiveness and Attitude

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sewasew, Daniel; Mengestle, Missaye; Abate, Gebeyehu

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare PPT and traditional lecture method in material understandability, effectiveness and attitude among university students. Comparative descriptive survey research design was employed to answer the research questions raised. Four hundred and twenty nine participants were selected randomly using stratified sampling…

  9. Using Narrative as a Data Source and Analytic Method to Investigate Learning Outside of Traditional School Settings with Diverse Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martell, Sandra Toro; Antrop-Gonzalez, Rene

    2008-01-01

    Narrative is used to describe and understand how people construct meaning of their lives and experiences and how they think about their own and others' identities. We examined narrative as both data source and method of analysis for investigating learning in non-traditional school settings with students from diverse socio-economic status and…

  10. Perceptions of Teaching and Learning in an Intergenerational Classroom: A Mixed Methods Study of Traditional and Returning Adult Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robison, Macela

    2012-01-01

    Today's colleges and universities are inundated with both traditional students and returning adult students, including baby boomers and retirees (Hardin, 2008). This study utilized a mixed methods research methodology to explore and analyze the perceptions of faculty members and students regarding the learning characteristics and learning…

  11. An Experiment on Mathematics Pedagogy: Traditional Method versus Computer-Assisted Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Yixin

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) versus traditional lecture-type instruction on triangles. Two quasi experiments were conducted in six 6th grade classes with a total of 108 students respectively. The students in the control groups were taught the concepts of triangles in their…

  12. The Population Index Flood Method for Regional Frequency Analysis: Estimation of Variance of Quantile Estimators; and Comparison With the Traditional Index Flood Method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. G. Sveinsson; J. D. Salas; D. C. Boes

    2001-01-01

    The so-called population index flood (PIF) method has recently been suggested as an alternative to traditional index flood procedures for regional frequency analyses of extreme hydrologic events. In the PIF method the index flood (or the indexing function) at each site is taken to be a function of the unknown at-site population quantities and, as a result, the homogeneity of

  13. Socio-economic comparison between traditional and improved cultivation methods in agroforestry systems, East Usambara Mountains, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Reyes, Teija; Quiroz, Roberto; Msikula, Shija

    2005-11-01

    The East Usambara Mountains, recognized as one of the 25 most important biodiversity hot spots in the world, have a high degree of species diversity and endemism that is threatened by increasing human pressure on resources. Traditional slash and burn cultivation in the area is no longer sustainable. However, it is possible to maintain land productivity, decrease land degradation, and improve rural people's livelihood by ameliorating cultivation methods. Improved agroforestry seems to be a very convincing and suitable method for buffer zones of conservation areas. Farmers could receive a reasonable net income from their farm with little investment in terms of time, capital, and labor. By increasing the diversity and production of already existing cultivations, the pressure on natural forests can be diminished. The present study shows a significant gap between traditional cultivation methods and improved agroforestry systems in socio-economic terms. Improved agroforestry systems provide approximately double income per capita in comparison to traditional methods. More intensified cash crop cultivation in the highlands of the East Usambara also results in double income compared to that in the lowlands. However, people are sensitive to risks of changing farming practices. Encouraging farmers to apply better land management and practice sustainable cultivation of cash crops in combination with multipurpose trees would be relevant in improving their economic situation in the relatively short term. The markets of most cash crops are already available. Improved agroforestry methods could ameliorate the living conditions of the local population and protect the natural reserves from human disturbance. PMID:16261277

  14. Spectroscopic measurements of isotopic water composition using a new modulation cancellation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spagnolo, Vincenzo; Dong, Lei; Kosterev, Anatoliy A.; Tittel, Frank K.

    2012-01-01

    We report on the application of an innovative spectroscopic balancing technique to measure isotopologue abundance quantification. We employ quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy in a 2f wavelength modulation mode as an absorption sensing technique and water vapor as a test analyte. Isotope absorption lines with very close lower energy levels and with the same quantum numbers have been selected to limit the sensitivity to temperature variations and guarantee identical broadening relaxation properties. A detection sensitivity in measuring the deviation from a standard sample ?18O of 1.4%o, in 200 sec of integration time was achieved.

  15. Comparative survey of bacterial and archaeal communities in high arsenic shallow aquifers using 454 pyrosequencing and traditional methods.

    PubMed

    Li, Ping; Jiang, Dawei; Li, Bing; Dai, Xinyue; Wang, Yanhong; Jiang, Zhou; Wang, Yanxin

    2014-12-01

    A survey of bacterial and archaeal community structure was carried out in 10 shallow tube wells in a high arsenic groundwater system located in Hetao Basin, Inner Mongolia by 16S rRNA gene based two-step nested PCR-DGGE, clone libraries and 454 pyrosequencing. 12 bacterial and 18 archaeal DGGE bands and 26-136 species-level OTUs were detected for all the samples. 299 bacterial and 283 archaeal 16S rRNA gene clones for two typical samples were identified by phylogenetic analysis. Most of the results from these different methods were consistent with the dominant bacterial populations. But the proportions of the microbial populations were mostly different and the bacterial communities in most of these samples from pyrosequencing were both more abundant and more diverse than those from the traditional methods. Even after quality filtering, pyrosequencing revealed some populations including Alishewanella, Sulfuricurvum, Arthrobacter, Sporosarcina and Algoriphagus which were not detected with traditional techniques. The most dominant bacterial populations in these samples identified as some arsenic, iron, nitrogen and sulfur reducing and oxidizing related populations including Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, Flavobacterium, Brevundimonas, Massilia, Planococcus, and Aquabacterium and archaeal communities Nitrosophaera and Methanosaeta. Acinetobacter and Pseudomonas were distinctly abundant in most of these samples. Methanogens were found as the dominant archeal population with three methods. From the results of traditional methods, the dominant archaeal populations apparently changed from phylum Thaumarchaeota to Euryarchaeota with the arsenic concentrations increasing. But this structure dynamic change was not revealed with pyrosequencing. Our results imply that an integrated approach combining the traditional methods and next generation sequencing approaches to characterize the microbial communities in high arsenic groundwater is recommended. PMID:25142348

  16. Interactive-engagement vs traditional methods: A six-thousand-student survey of mechanics test data

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Hake, Richard R.

    The complete report from Richard Hake's long-term study of interactive engagement (IE) techniques and their effect on the understanding of physics by non-physics majors. The study analyzed diverse student populations in high schools, colleges, and universities and used pre- and post-instruction testing to determine the gains in each group. IE techniques were shown to improve student's understanding at a significantly higher rate than traditional instruction. Additionally, these IE techniques are applicable to teaching a wide range of topics.

  17. Evaluation of a method to determine the natural occurrence of aflatoxins in commercial traditional herbal medicines from Malaysia and Indonesia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Ali; N. H. Hashim; B. Saad; K. Safan; M. Nakajima; T. Yoshizawa

    2005-01-01

    Traditional herbal medicines, popularly known as ‘jamu’ and ‘makjun’ in Malaysia and Indonesia, are consumed regularly to promote health. In consideration of their frequent and prolonged consumption, the natural occurrence of aflatoxins (AF) in these products was determined using immunoaffinity column clean-up and high-performance liquid chromatography with pre-column derivatization. The evaluated method, which entails dilution of sample extracts with Tween

  18. A comparison of traditional and emerging ultrasonic methods for the nondestructive evaluation of polymer matrix composites subjected to impact damage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard E. Martin; Donald J. Roth; Charles G. Pergantis; Jaswinder S. Sandhu

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a comparison study of three ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods applied to polymer matrix composite (PMC) specimens subjected to impact damage. Samples mainly consisted of various thicknesses of graphite\\/epoxy coupon panels impacted with various energy levels. Traditional pulse-echo and through transmission ultrasonic c-scan techniques were applied to impacted samples and served as the basis

  19. Inclusion interaction of chloramphenicol and heptakis (2,6-di- O-methyl)-?-cyclodextrin: Phase solubility and spectroscopic methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Jie-Hua; Zhou, Ya-fang

    2011-12-01

    The inclusion interaction between chloramphenicol and heptakis (2,6-di- O-methyl)-?-cyclodextrin (DMBCD) had been investigated by phase solubility and spectroscopic methods such as UV-vis spectroscopy, circular dichroism, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy ( 1H NMR) as well as 2D-ROESY spectra. Phase solubility analysis showed A L-type diagram with DMBCD, which suggested the formation of 1:1 inclusion complex of DMBCD with chloramphenicol. The estimated stability constant ( Ks) of the inclusion complex of chloramphenicol with DMBCD is 493 M -1 at 293 K. The solubility enhancement of chloramphenicol in the presence of DMBCD is stronger than that in the presence of ?-CD, HP-?-CD and M-?-CD. The results obtained by spectroscopic methods showed that the nitrophenyl moiety of chloramphenicol is deeply inserted into inner cavity of DMBCD from the narrow rim of DMBCD, which the inclusion model of chloramphenicol with DMBCD differs from that with ?-CD.

  20. Macromolecular Competition Titration Method: Accessing Thermodynamics of the Unmodified Macromolecule–Ligand Interactions Through Spectroscopic Titrations of Fluorescent Analogs

    PubMed Central

    Bujalowski, Wlodzimierz; Jezewska, Maria J.

    2011-01-01

    Analysis of thermodynamically rigorous binding isotherms provides fundamental information about the energetics of the ligand–macromolecule interactions and often an invaluable insight about the structure of the formed complexes. The Macromolecular Competition Titration (MCT) method enables one to quantitatively obtain interaction parameters of protein–nucleic acid interactions, which may not be available by other methods, particularly for the unmodified long polymer lattices and specific nucleic acid substrates, if the binding is not accompanied by adequate spectroscopic signal changes. The method can be applied using different fluorescent nucleic acids or fluorophores, although the etheno-derivatives of nucleic acid are especially suitable as they are relatively easy to prepare, have significant blue fluorescence, their excitation band lies far from the protein absorption spectrum, and the modification eliminates the possibility of base pairing with other nucleic acids. The MCT method is not limited to the specific size of the reference nucleic acid. Particularly, a simple analysis of the competition titration experiments is described in which the fluorescent, short fragment of nucleic acid, spanning the exact site-size of the protein–nucleic acid complex, and binding with only a 1:1 stoichiometry to the protein, is used as a reference macromolecule. Although the MCT method is predominantly discussed as applied to studying protein–nucleic acid interactions, it can generally be applied to any ligand–macromolecule system by monitoring the association reaction using the spectroscopic signal originating from the reference macromolecule in the presence of the competing macromolecule, whose interaction parameters with the ligand are to be determined. PMID:21195223

  1. Raman spectroscopic methods for classification of normal and malignant hypopharyngeal tissues: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Pujary, Parul; Maheedhar, K; Krishna, C Murali; Pujary, Kailesh

    2011-01-01

    Laryngeal cancer is more common in males. The present study is aimed at exploration of potential of conventional Raman spectroscopy in classifying normal from a malignant laryngopharyngeal tissue. We have recorded Raman spectra of twenty tissues (aryepiglottic fold) using an in-house built Raman setup. The spectral features of mean malignant spectrum suggests abundance proteins whereas spectral features of mean normal spectrum indicate redundancy of lipids. PCA was employed as discriminating algorithm. Both, unsupervised and supervised modes of analysis as well as match/mismatch "limit test" methodology yielded clear classification among tissue types. The findings of this study demonstrate the efficacy of conventional Raman spectroscopy in classification of normal and malignant laryngopharyngeal tissues. A rigorous evaluation of the models with development of suitable fibreoptic probe may enable real-time Raman spectroscopic diagnosis of laryngopharyngeal cancers in future. PMID:21804932

  2. Preferences of a Traditional Extension Audience for Self-Directed Delivery Methods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldwell, Allen E.; Richardson, John G.

    1995-01-01

    North Carolina farmers growing barley (n=20) tested 3 self-directed information delivery methods: fact sheets, fact sheets plus audiocassettes, and an extension bulletin/pamphlet. The fact sheet/cassette was preferred by 17 of 20; they achieved significant knowledge gains with self-directed methods. The fact sheet/cassette was considered…

  3. Evaluation of two methods for monitoring surface cleanliness-ATP bioluminescence and traditional hygiene swabbing.

    PubMed

    Davidson, C A; Griffith, C J; Peters, A C; Fielding, L M

    1999-01-01

    The minimum bacterial detection limits and operator reproducibility of the Biotrace Clean-Tracetrade mark Rapid Cleanliness Test and traditional hygiene swabbing were determined. Areas (100 cm2) of food grade stainless steel were separately inoculated with known levels of Staphylococcus aureus (NCTC 6571) and Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922). Surfaces were sampled either immediately after inoculation while still wet, or after 60 min when completely dry. For both organisms the minimum detection limit of the ATP Clean-Tracetrade mark Rapid Cleanliness Test was 10(4) cfu/100 cm2 (p < 0.05) and was the same for wet and dry surfaces. Both organism type and surface status (i.e. wet or dry) influenced the minimum detection limits of hygiene swabbing, which ranged from 10(2) cfu/100 cm2 to >10(7) cfu/100 cm2. Hygiene swabbing percentage recovery rates for both organisms were less than 0.1% for dried surfaces but ranged from 0.33% to 8.8% for wet surfaces. When assessed by six technically qualified operators, the Biotrace Clean-Tracetrade mark Rapid Cleanliness Test gave superior reproducibility for both clean and inoculated surfaces, giving mean coefficients of variation of 24% and 32%, respectively. Hygiene swabbing of inoculated surfaces gave a mean CV of 130%. The results are discussed in the context of hygiene monitoring within the food industry. PMID:10398558

  4. Ethics, Collaboration, and Presentation Methods for Local and Traditional Knowledge for Understanding Arctic Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons, M. A.; Gearheard, S.; McNeave, C.

    2009-12-01

    Local and traditional knowledge (LTK) provides rich information about the Arctic environment at spatial and temporal scales that scientific knowledge often does not have access to (e.g. localized observations of fine-scale ecological change potentially from many different communities, or local sea ice and conditions prior to 1950s ice charts and 1970s satellite records). Community-based observations and monitoring are an opportunity for Arctic residents to provide ‘frontline’ observations and measurements that are an early warning system for Arctic change. The Exchange for Local Observations and Knowledge of the Arctic (ELOKA) was established in response to the growing number of community-based and community-oriented research and observation projects in the Arctic. ELOKA provides data management and user support to facilitate the collection, preservation, exchange, and use of local observations and knowledge. Managing these data presents unique ethical challenges in terms of appropriate use of rare human knowledge and ensuring that knowledge is not lost from the local communities and not exploited in ways antithetical to community culture and desires. Local Arctic residents must be engaged as true collaborative partners while respecting their perspectives, which may vary substantially from a western science perspective. At the same time, we seek to derive scientific meaning from the local knowledge that can be used in conjunction with quantitative science data. This creates new challenges in terms of data presentation, knowledge representations, and basic issues of metadata. This presentation reviews these challenges, some initial approaches to addressing them, and overall lessons learned and future directions.

  5. Cardiovascular control in women with fibromyalgia syndrome: do causal methods provide nonredundant information compared with more traditional approaches?

    PubMed

    Zamunér, Antonio Roberto; Porta, Alberto; Andrade, Carolina Pieroni; Marchi, Andrea; Forti, Meire; Furlan, Raffaello; Barbic, Franca; Catai, Aparecida Maria; Silva, Ester

    2015-07-01

    The cardiovascular autonomic control and the baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) have been widely studied in fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) patients through the computation of linear indices of spontaneous heart period (HP) and systolic arterial pressure (SAP) variabilities. However, there are many methodological difficulties regarding the quantification of BRS by the traditional indices especially in relation to the issue of causality. This difficulty has been directly tackled via a model-based approach describing the closed-loop HP-SAP interactions and the exogenous influences of respiration. Therefore, we aimed to assess whether the BRS assessed by the model-based causal closed-loop approach during supine and active standing in patients with FMS could provide complementary information to those obtained by traditional indices based on time and frequency domains. The findings of this study revealed that, at difference with the traditional methods to quantify BRS, the causality analysis applied to the HP, SAP, and respiratory series, through the model-based closed-loop approach, detected lower BRS in supine position, as well as a blunted response to the orthostatic stimulus in patients with FMS compared with healthy control subjects. Also, the strength of the causal relation from SAP to HP (i.e., along the cardiac baroreflex) increased during the active standing only in the control subjects. The model-based closed-loop approach proved to provide important complementary information about the cardiovascular autonomic control in patients with FMS. PMID:25904683

  6. Diagnosis of coccidioidomycosis by culture: safety considerations, traditional methods, and susceptibility testing.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Deanna A

    2007-09-01

    The recovery of Coccidioides spp. by culture and confirmation utilizing the AccuProbe nucleic acid hybridization method by GenProbe remain the definitive diagnostic method. Biosafety considerations from specimen collection through culture confirmation in the mycology laboratory are critical, as acquisition of coccidioidomycosis by laboratory workers is well documented. The designation of Coccidioides spp. as select agents of potential bioterrorism has mandated strict regulation of their transport and inventory. The genus appears generally susceptible, in vitro, although no defined breakpoints exist. Susceptibility testing may assist in documenting treatment failures. PMID:17363439

  7. The effect of brain hemisphere dominance on learning by computer assisted instruction and the traditional lecture method.

    PubMed

    Benedict, S C; Coffield, K

    1989-01-01

    Brain hemisphere dominance is reported to effect learning style in that people who are classified as left brain-dominant are believed to be primarily auditory learners and those classified as right brain-dominant are believed to be primarily visual learners. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of brain hemisphere dominance on learning by computer assisted instruction (CAI) and the traditional lecture method. The Wagner Preference Inventory was used to determine brain hemisphere dominance. Content related to the use of Roman numerals was presented using both CAI and the lecture method. A two-way analysis of variance demonstrated an interaction effect between brain hemisphere dominance and teaching method. Subjects classified as right hemisphere-dominant scored higher on the posttest in the CAI group, and left hemisphere-dominant subjects scored higher in the lecture group. PMID:2665908

  8. Mathematics Achievement: Traditional Instruction and Technology-Assisted Course Delivery Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vilardi, Robert; Rice, Margaret L.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze technology-assisted course delivery methods to determine their overall effectiveness as it pertains to mathematics courses. This study analyzed both current and historical data in the areas of achievement, retention, and grade distribution for mathematics classes. The study included 14,562 students enrolled…

  9. A comparison of fibre-optic distributed temperature sensing to traditional methods of evaluating groundwater inflow

    E-print Network

    Long, Bernard

    temperature sensing (DTS) using a fibre-optic cable installed along 900 m of Ninemile Creek in Syracuse, New gauging, all methods identified a focused, contaminated groundwater inflow and produced similar influenced by point source contamination (Kalbus et al., 2006). Many potential groundwater contaminants

  10. Performance of Traditional and Molecular Methods for Detecting Biological Agents in Drinking Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    USGS Report - To reduce the impact from a possible bioterrorist attack on drinking-water supplies, analytical methods are needed to rapidly detect the presence of biological agents in water. To this end, 13 drinking-water samples were collected at 9 water-treatment plants in Ohio...

  11. GROUND WATER MONITORING AND SAMPLING: MULTI-LEVEL VERSUS TRADITIONAL METHODS WHATS WHAT?

    EPA Science Inventory

    After years of research and many publications, the question still remains: What is the best method to collect representative ground water samples from monitoring wells? Numerous systems and devices are currently available for obtaining both multi-level samples as well as traditi...

  12. Can pore-scale methods overcome limitations of traditional hydraulic property measurement techniques?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerke, Kirill; Vasilyev, Roman; Korost, Dmitry; Karsanina, Marina; Mallants, Dirk; Gorbunova, Ella; Shein, Evgeny; Gartsman, Boris; Bedrikovetsky, Pavel; Tairova, Aliya; Skvortsova, Elena

    2013-04-01

    Conventional methods of determining transport properties on core samples using information from hydraulic conductivity, water retention curves, electrical properties, or formation factor have substantial shortcomings: (1) they represent quasi-1D flow; (2) possess no a priori information on sample's representativity in terms of its internal heterogeneity; (3) measurements may seriously alter sample properties, e.g. sample saturation and through-flow can mobilize fine material potentially causing pore blockage; also, saturation in the laboratory may cause swelling or mineral dissolution of some materials hence affecting the measured hydraulic properties, while full saturation may never occur under field conditions; (4) they require standard shape and size for coring material, thus representing serious limitations for fragile, consolidated, or cemented samples; (5) often represent quasi-static processes, while flow under field conditions is highly dynamic; (6) some fitting parameters are invoked to represent pore-connectivity or "tortuosity" and used in cross-property relationships without real physical meaning (e.g., linkage between water retention curve and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity. Based on experimental data from a broad range of porous materials we show how these shortcomings can be overcame via pore-scale modeling using structural and surface property information. In particular we use following datasets: 1) deep vadose zones for arid environment (central Australia), 2) shallow-to-deep aquifers (Central Russian Upland), 3) agricultural soils known for their preferential flow (Central Russian Upland), and 4) extremely stony forest soils (Russian Far East). Several approaches exist for acquisition of structural information, with the most information-rich being X-ray microtomography. Alternatively, 2D thin-sections may be used with higher spatial resolution but with limited information on connectivity; reconstruction methods (sequential and stochastic) can help resolve the latter limitation. Finally, we illustrate how our pore-scale methods fit in a broader upscaling approach and improve large-scale modeling; current limitations and future challenges are also discussed.

  13. An alternant method to the traditional NASA hindlimb unloading model in mice.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, J Andries; Crissey, Jacqueline M; Brown, Marybeth

    2011-01-01

    The Morey-Holton hindlimb unloading (HU) method is a widely accepted National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) ground-based model for studying disuse-atrophy in rodents. Our study evaluated an alternant method to the gold-standard Morey-Holton HU tail-traction technique in mice. Fifty-four female mice (4-8 mo.) were HU for 14 days (n=34) or 28 days (n=20). Recovery from HU was assessed after 3 days of normal cage ambulation following HU (n=22). Aged matched mice (n=76) served as weight-bearing controls. Prior to HU a tail ring was formed with a 2-0 sterile surgical steel wire that was passed through the 5(th), 6(th), or 7(th) inter-vertebral disc space and shaped into a ring from which the mice were suspended. Vertebral location for the tail-ring was selected to appropriately balance animal body weight without interfering with defecation. We determined the success of this novel HU technique by assessing body weight before and after HU, degree of soleus atrophy, and adrenal mass following HU. Body weight of the mice prior to HU (24.3 ± 2.9g) did not significantly decline immediately after 14d of HU (22.7 ± 1.9g), 28d of HU (21.3 + 2.1g) or after 3 days recovery (24.0 ± 1.8g). Soleus muscle mass significantly declined (-39.1%, and -46.6%) following HU for 14 days and 28 days respectively (p<0.001). Following 3 days of recovery soleus mass significantly increased to 74% of control values. Adrenal weights of HU mice were not different compared to control mice. The success of our novel HU method is evidenced by the maintenance of animal body weight, comparable adrenal gland weights, and soleus atrophy following HU, corresponding to expected literature values. The primary advantages of this HU method include: 1) ease of tail examination during suspension; 2) decreased likelihood of cyanotic, inflamed, and/or necrotic tails frequently observed with tail-taping and HU; 3) no possibility of mice chewing the traction tape and coming out of the suspension apparatus; and 4) rapid recovery and normal cage activity immediately after HU. PMID:21445032

  14. A comparison of traditional and recently developed methods for monitoring surface hygiene within the food industry: an industry trial.

    PubMed

    Moore, Ginny; Griffith, Chris

    2002-12-01

    A rapid, instrument-free, hygiene monitoring system, based on protein detection, was assessed as a means to evaluate the cleanliness of food contact surfaces within four different food processing environments. Its performance was compared to that of both ATP bioluminescence and a traditional agar-based microbiological method. Each surface was sampled using all three hygiene monitoring systems both before and after each of the production plants had carried out their normal cleaning procedures. In both cases, there was a significant difference (p < 0.05) between the number of surfaces that were passed or failed using each of the tests. In general the number of surfaces that were deemed acceptable for food production increased after cleaning but the level of agreement between test methods differed depending on the type of production facility sampled. Protein detection was most likely to fail surfaces within the baking facility, whereas ATP bioluminescence and traditional microbiology were most likely to fail surfaces within a frozen ready-meal and a cheese production unit respectively. The implications of these results are discussed in relation to plant trials of hygiene monitoring systems, the cleaning process itself, failures in disinfection, as well as the need for a combined methodological approach for monitoring cleanliness. PMID:12590780

  15. INFLUENCES OF MOTIVATION AND APTITUDE ON LEARNING ELEMENTARY ACCOUNTING IN A JUNIOR COLLEGE THROUGH INDIVIDUALIZED SELF?PACED AND TRADITIONAL INSTRUCTIONAL METHODS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Glenna D. Carr; Barbara S. Echord

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare two teaching methods in elementary accounting: an individualized self?paced method and a traditional method. One hundred students enrolled in an individualized self?paced elementary accounting class and 150 students enrolled in traditional elementary accounting classes were used in this study. The pre?experimental equivalence of age, sex, college grade point average, business courses previously

  16. The CREATE Method Does Not Result in Greater Gains in Critical Thinking than a More Traditional Method of Analyzing the Primary Literature.

    PubMed

    Segura-Totten, Miriam; Dalman, Nancy E

    2013-01-01

    Analysis of the primary literature in the undergraduate curriculum is associated with gains in student learning. In particular, the CREATE (Consider, Read, Elucidate hypotheses, Analyze and interpret the data, and Think of the next Experiment) method is associated with an increase in student critical thinking skills. We adapted the CREATE method within a required cell biology class and compared the learning gains of students using CREATE to those of students involved in less structured literature discussions. We found that while both sets of students had gains in critical thinking, students who used the CREATE method did not show significant improvement over students engaged in a more traditional method for dissecting the literature. Students also reported similar learning gains for both literature discussion methods. Our study suggests that, at least in our educational context, the CREATE method does not lead to higher learning gains than a less structured way of reading primary literature. PMID:24358379

  17. The CREATE Method Does Not Result in Greater Gains in Critical Thinking than a More Traditional Method of Analyzing the Primary Literature †

    PubMed Central

    Segura-Totten, Miriam; Dalman, Nancy E.

    2013-01-01

    Analysis of the primary literature in the undergraduate curriculum is associated with gains in student learning. In particular, the CREATE (Consider, Read, Elucidate hypotheses, Analyze and interpret the data, and Think of the next Experiment) method is associated with an increase in student critical thinking skills. We adapted the CREATE method within a required cell biology class and compared the learning gains of students using CREATE to those of students involved in less structured literature discussions. We found that while both sets of students had gains in critical thinking, students who used the CREATE method did not show significant improvement over students engaged in a more traditional method for dissecting the literature. Students also reported similar learning gains for both literature discussion methods. Our study suggests that, at least in our educational context, the CREATE method does not lead to higher learning gains than a less structured way of reading primary literature. PMID:24358379

  18. a Comparative Study of Laser Cleaning of Archaeological Inorganic Materials with Traditional Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imam, Hisham; Elsayed, Khaled; Madkour, Fatma

    2011-06-01

    Ancient artifacts excavated from archaeological site were covered with different soil contaminates and stains which changed their chemical composition and aesthetic appearance. Ancient inorganic materials such as bronze, glass and pottery covered with different contaminates such as corrosion products, soil deposits, organic stains and gray white encrustations. Lasers are currently being tested for a wide range of conservation applications. Since they are highly controllable and can be selectively applied, lasers can be used to achieve more effective and safer cleaning of archaeological artifacts and protect their surface details. In the present work we investigated in a general way the laser cleaning of bronze corrosion products, glass, and pottery by Q-switched Nd:YAG Lasers. The results were compared with conventional methods. The artifact samples were examined by Light Optical Microscope (LOM) and showed no noticeable damage.

  19. Traditional and novel methods for occlusal caries detection: performance on primary teeth.

    PubMed

    Souza, J F; Boldieri, T; Diniz, M B; Rodrigues, J A; Lussi, A; Cordeiro, R C L

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the performance of International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS), radiographic examination, and fluorescence-based methods for detecting occlusal caries in primary teeth. One occlusal site on each of 79 primary molars was assessed twice by two examiners using ICDAS, bitewing radiography (BW), DIAGNOdent 2095 (LF), DIAGNOdent 2190 (LFpen), and VistaProof fluorescence camera (FC). The teeth were histologically prepared and assessed for caries extent. Optimal cutoff limits were calculated for LF, LFpen, and FC. At the D (1) threshold (enamel and dentin lesions), ICDAS and FC presented higher sensitivity values (0.75 and 0.73, respectively), while BW showed higher specificity (1.00). At the D (2) threshold (inner enamel and dentin lesions), ICDAS presented higher sensitivity (0.83) and statistically significantly lower specificity (0.70). At the D(3) threshold (dentin lesions), LFpen and FC showed higher sensitivity (1.00 and 0.91, respectively), while higher specificity was presented by FC (0.95), ICDAS (0.94), BW (0.94), and LF (0.92). The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (Az) varied from 0.780 (BW) to 0.941 (LF). Spearman correlation coefficients with histology were 0.72 (ICDAS), 0.64 (BW), 0.71 (LF), 0.65 (LFpen), and 0.74 (FC). Inter- and intraexaminer intraclass correlation values varied from 0.772 to 0.963 and unweighted kappa values ranged from 0.462 to 0.750. In conclusion, ICDAS and FC exhibited better accuracy in detecting enamel and dentin caries lesions, whereas ICDAS, LF, LFpen, and FC were more appropriate for detecting dentin lesions on occlusal surfaces in primary teeth, with no statistically significant difference among them. All methods presented good to excellent reproducibility. PMID:22767324

  20. Comparison of diffusive gradients in thin film technique with traditional methods for evaluation of zinc bioavailability in soils.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qin; Chen, Jing; Ding, Shiming; Yao, Yu; Chen, Yifei

    2014-10-01

    The technique of diffusive gradients in thin film (DGT) has been shown to be a promising tool to assess zinc (Zn) bioavailability in soils, but there exists considerable debate on its suitability. In this study, Zn bioavailability was systematically investigated in wheat- and maize-grown soils using this technique and seven traditional methods, including soil solution concentration and six widely used single-step extraction methods (HAc, EDTA, NaAc, NH4Ac, CaCl?, and MgCl?). The concentrations of Zn in the shoots and roots of these two plant species increased continuously with increasing additions of Zn to the soils, accompanied by significant decreases in shoot biomass and root biomass at Zn concentrations greater than 400 mg kg(-1) for maize and 800 mg kg(-1) for wheat. Zinc uptake and accumulation was higher in maize roots than in wheat roots. Both the concentrations of bioavailable Zn measured by DGT (CDGT) and soil solutions (Csol) increased linearly with increasing additions of Zn to the soils, while no strong linear relationships were observed for the extraction methods. Higher concentrations of extractable Zn, lower values of Csol, and larger values of R (i.e., the ratio of CDGT to Csol) were observed in maize-grown soils compared with those of wheat-grown soils, while the values of C DGT between the two plants were similar. These findings demonstrate that there likely exists a stronger resupply of Zn from the soil solid phases in maize-grown soils to satisfy a higher Zn uptake and accumulation in this plant. Linear correlation analyses showed that CDGT had the highest correlation coefficients with plant Zn concentrations compared with other traditional methods, implying that the DGT technique is more sensitive and robust in reflecting Zn bioavailability in soils to plants. PMID:24942518

  1. Effects of combined traditional processing methods on the nutritional quality of beans

    PubMed Central

    Nakitto, Aisha M; Muyonga, John H; Nakimbugwe, Dorothy

    2015-01-01

    Consumption of dry beans is limited by long cooking times thus high fuel requirement. The bioavailability of nutrients in beans is also limited due to presence of antinutrients such as phytates and tannins. Little research has been done on combined processing methods for production of nutritious fast cooking bean flour and the effect of combined treatments on nutritional quality of beans has not previously determined. The aim of this study was to reduce cooking time and enhance the nutritional value of dry beans. Specifically to: develop protocols for production of fast cooking bean flours and assess the effect of processing on the nutritional characteristics of the flours. Dry beans (K131 variety) were soaked for 12 h; sprouted for 48 h; dehulled and steamed for 25 and 15 min for whole and dehulled beans respectively or roasted at 170°C for 45 and 15 min for whole and dehulled beans respectively. Dehulling eliminated phytates and tannins and increased protein digestibility. In vitro protein digestibility and mineral (iron and zinc) extractability were negatively correlated with tannin and phytate content. Total available carbohydrates were highest in moist heat-treated bean flours. Overall, combined processing of beans improved the nutritional quality of dry beans and the resulting precooked flours need less cooking time compared to whole dry beans. PMID:25987998

  2. Simultaneous Quantification of Ten Active Components in Traditional Chinese Formula Sijunzi Decoction Using a UPLC-PDA Method

    PubMed Central

    An, Kang; Jin-rui, Guo; Zhen, Zhang; Xiao-long, Wang

    2014-01-01

    Sijunzi decoction (SJZT), a traditional Chinese formula (TCMF) consisting of four herbs, has been widely used for the treatment of various gastrointestinal symptoms. However, its modernization process is hindered by the lack of a powerful quality control method that covers the major active components in the formula. The aim of this study was to establish a UPLC method for the quantitative determination of ten active components in Sijunzi decoction including ginsenoside Rg1, Re, Rb1, liquiritin, liquiritigenin, glycyrrhizic acid, atractylenolide I, atractylenolide II, atractylenolide III, and pachymic acid. Separation was achieved using an ACQUITY UPLC BEHC18 column (2.1?mm × 100?mm, 1.7??m) with a gradient elution program consisting of acetonitrile and 0.1% phosphoric acid solution. The detection wavelengths were set at 203, 254, 222, and 267?nm. The method was validated for linearity, accuracy, precision, limit of detection, and limit of quantification. The validated method was successfully applied to the simultaneous quantification of ten active compounds from several finished batches of SJZT. This validated that UPLC method is expected to provide a new basis for the quality control of SJZT. PMID:24963442

  3. The comparison of composite aircraft field repair method (cafrm) with traditional aircraft repair technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whelan, Mary Elizabeth

    The sulfur biogeochemical cycle includes biotic and abiotic processes important to global climate, atmospheric chemistry, food security, and the study of related cycles. The largest flux of sulfur on Earth is weathering from the continents into the sulfate-rich oceans; one way in which sulfur can be returned to land is through transport of reduced sulfur gases via the atmosphere. Here I developed a method for quantifying low-level environmental fluxes of several sulfur-containing gases, H2S, COS, CH3SCH 3 (DMS), and HSCH3, between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere. COS is the most prevalent reduced sulfur gas in the atmosphere, considered to be inert in the troposphere except for its uptake in plant leaves and to a smaller extent aerobic soils. This dissertation reports two surprising cases that go against conventional thinking about the sulfur cycle. We found that the common salt marsh plant Batis maritima can mediate net COS production to the atmosphere. We also found that an aerobic wheat field soil produces COS abiotically when incubated in the dark at > 25 °C and at lower temperatures under light conditions. We then sought to separately quantify plant and soil sulfur gas fluxes by undertaking a year-long field campaign in a grassland with a Mediterranean climate, where green plants were present only half of the year. We measured in situ soil fluxes of COS and DMS during the non- growing dry season, using water additions to simulate soil fluxes of the growing, wet season. COS and CO2 are consumed in a predictable ratio by enzymes involved in photosynthetic pathways; however, while CO2 is released by back diffusion and autorespiration, COS is usually not generated by plants. Using measurements during the growing season, we were then able to calculate gross primary production by using the special relationship between CO2 and COS. This dissertation has developed a greater understanding of the vagaries of the atmospheric-terrestrial sulfur cycle and explored using that cycle as a tool for studying the carbon cycle.

  4. Application of a Probabilistic Neural Network in Radial Velocity Curve Analysis of the Spectroscopic Binary Stars ROXR1 14, RX J1622.7-2325Nw, RR Lyn, 12 Boo and HR 6169

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghasemisalehabadi, Elahe

    Using measured radial velocity data of five double-lined spectroscopic binary systems ROXR1 14, RX J1622.7-2325Nw, RR Lyn, 12 Boo and HR 6169, we find corresponding orbital and spectroscopic elements via a Probabilistic Neural Network (PNN). Our numerical results are in good agreement with those obtained by others using more traditional methods.

  5. Comparison of a novel distillation method versus a traditional distillation method in a model gin system using liquid/liquid extraction.

    PubMed

    Greer, Derek; Pfahl, Les; Rieck, Jim; Daniels, Tim; Garza, Oscar

    2008-10-01

    This research studied a novel form of distillation (high vacuum distillation) as a method for preserving volatile aroma chemicals important to the organoleptic attributes of a four botanical model gin as well as the degradation products generated during the heating required in traditional methods of gin distillation. A 2 (5) factorial experiment was conducted in a partially confounded incomplete block design and analyzed using the PROC MIXED procedure from SAS. A model gin was made of dried juniper berries (Juniperus communis), coriander seed (Coriandrum sativum), angelica root (Angelica archangelica), and dry lemon peel (Citrus limonum). This was distilled on a traditional still utilizing atmospheric pressure and a heating mantel to initiate phase separation as well as a novel still (high vacuum) utilizing high vacuum pressures below 0.1 mmHg and temperatures below -15 degrees C to initiate phase separation. The degradation products (alpha-pinene, alpha-phellandrene, E-caryophyllene, and beta-myrcene) were present at greater levels (approximately 10 times) in the traditional still-made gin as compared to the novel gin. PMID:18771269

  6. Paradata for 'Effects of traditional cooking methods on some antinutrients and in vitro protein digestibility of dry bean varieties (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) grown in Turkey'

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This record contains paradata for the resource 'Effects of traditional cooking methods on some antinutrients and in vitro protein digestibility of dry bean varieties (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) grown in Turkey'

  7. EVALUATION OF EXTRACTION AND SPECTROSCOPIC METHODS FOR PB SPECIATION IN AN AMENDED SOIL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Immobilization of pyromorphite (Pbs(PO4hCI) via P amendments to Pb contaminated soils is proving to be a viable method of remediation. However, the issue of ascertaining the amount of soil Pb converted to pyromorphite is difficult in heterogeneous soil systems. Previous attempts ...

  8. Flow cytometry for intracellular SPION quantification: specificity and sensitivity in comparison with spectroscopic methods

    PubMed Central

    Friedrich, Ralf P; Janko, Christina; Poettler, Marina; Tripal, Philipp; Zaloga, Jan; Cicha, Iwona; Dürr, Stephan; Nowak, Johannes; Odenbach, Stefan; Slabu, Ioana; Liebl, Maik; Trahms, Lutz; Stapf, Marcus; Hilger, Ingrid; Lyer, Stefan; Alexiou, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Due to their special physicochemical properties, iron nanoparticles offer new promising possibilities for biomedical applications. For bench to bedside translation of super-paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs), safety issues have to be comprehensively clarified. To understand concentration-dependent nanoparticle-mediated toxicity, the exact quantification of intracellular SPIONs by reliable methods is of great importance. In the present study, we compared three different SPION quantification methods (ultraviolet spectrophotometry, magnetic particle spectroscopy, atomic adsorption spectroscopy) and discussed the shortcomings and advantages of each method. Moreover, we used those results to evaluate the possibility to use flow cytometric technique to determine the cellular SPION content. For this purpose, we correlated the side scatter data received from flow cytometry with the actual cellular SPION amount. We showed that flow cytometry provides a rapid and reliable method to assess the cellular SPION content. Our data also demonstrate that internalization of iron oxide nanoparticles in human umbilical vein endothelial cells is strongly dependent to the SPION type and results in a dose-dependent increase of toxicity. Thus, treatment with lauric acid-coated SPIONs (SEONLA) resulted in a significant increase in the intensity of side scatter and toxicity, whereas SEONLA with an additional protein corona formed by bovine serum albumin (SEONLA-BSA) and commercially available Rienso® particles showed only a minimal increase in both side scatter intensity and cellular toxicity. The increase in side scatter was in accordance with the measurements for SPION content by the atomic adsorption spectroscopy reference method. In summary, our data show that flow cytometry analysis can be used for estimation of uptake of SPIONs by mammalian cells and provides a fast tool for scientists to evaluate the safety of nanoparticle products.

  9. Aggregation numbers and microstructure characterization of self-assembled aggregates of poly(ethylene oxide) surfactants and related block-copolymers, studied by spectroscopic methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marilena Vasilescu; Agneta Caragheorgheopol; Horia Caldararu

    2001-01-01

    This review presents typical examples of micellar size measurements and structural characterization of self-assembled systems as determined with spectroscopic methods, selected from our representative results accumulated in recent years of systematic studies. The choice of examples has aimed at emphasizing the potentiality of the methods used in the study of poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) surfactants. By using the time-resolved fluorescence quenching

  10. Spectroscopic Observations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This is a series of three activities about light and spectra. First, learners will construct their own spectroscope, observe common light sources, record the observed spectra, and compare their findings. Next, learners will use their spectroscopes to observe the spectra from different gas tubes and compare each observed spectrum to known spectra. Finally, they will observe a solar spectrum created by a prism, view a solar spectrum on paper, and attempt to determine the elements present in the Sun. This activity requires spectroscope posters and gratings available from the Stanford Solar Center (http://solar-center.stanford.edu/posters/), fluorescent and incandescent light sources, and emission lamps and power sources. This activity is from the Stanford Solar Center's All About the Sun: Sun and Stars activity guide for Grades 5-8 and can also accompany the Stanford Solar Center's Build Your Own Spectroscope activity.

  11. Comparison of the interferon-gamma release assay with the traditional methods for detecting Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in children.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jianwei; Kong, Cui; Shi, Yanxi; Zhang, Zhaocai; Yuan, Zhaohong

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of the article is to compare the whole blood interferon-? release assay (IGRA) with the traditional methods for detecting Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) infection in children. Fifteen childhood patients with tuberculosis and 15 healthy children were recruited. Sputa samples and venous blood were collected, and according to different procedures, IGRA, sputum smear, colloidal gold assay (CGA), fluorescence quantitation polymerase chain reaction (FQ-PCR), and tuberculosis skin test (TST) were, respectively, performed. Thirty healthy children vaccinated with Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) were also recruited, and the comparative test was carried out between IGRA and TST. In all of 15 childhood patients with TB, the positive rates were 86.7%, 20.0%, 26.7%, 40%, and 66.7% in IGRA, sputum smear, CGA, FQ-PCR, and TST, respectively. In the children vaccinated with BCG, the positive rate of IGRA was significantly lower than that of TST (6.7% vs 76.7%). From high to low, the specificities of the five methods were sputum smear (100%), IGRA (86.7%), FQ-PCR (86.7%), TST (40%), and CGA (26.7%). Although the specificities of sputum smear and FQ-PCR were more than or equal to that of IGRA, the relative sensitivities limited their applications in populations of children. IGRA is a sensitive and specific method, and could be taken as a first choice for detecting MTB infection in populations of children. PMID:25275527

  12. Estimating Alcohol Content of Traditional Brew in Western Kenya Using Culturally Relevant Methods: The Case for Cost Over Volume

    PubMed Central

    Sidle, John E.; Wamalwa, Emmanuel S.; Okumu, Thomas O.; Bryant, Kendall L.; Goulet, Joseph L.; Maisto, Stephen A.; Braithwaite, R. Scott; Justice, Amy C.

    2010-01-01

    Traditional homemade brew is believed to represent the highest proportion of alcohol use in sub-Saharan Africa. In Eldoret, Kenya, two types of brew are common: chang’aa, spirits, and busaa, maize beer. Local residents refer to the amount of brew consumed by the amount of money spent, suggesting a culturally relevant estimation method. The purposes of this study were to analyze ethanol content of chang’aa and busaa; and to compare two methods of alcohol estimation: use by cost, and use by volume, the latter the current international standard. Laboratory results showed mean ethanol content was 34% (SD = 14%) for chang’aa and 4% (SD = 1%) for busaa. Standard drink unit equivalents for chang’aa and busaa, respectively, were 2 and 1.3 (US) and 3.5 and 2.3 (Great Britain). Using a computational approach, both methods demonstrated comparable results. We conclude that cost estimation of alcohol content is more culturally relevant and does not differ in accuracy from the international standard. PMID:19015972

  13. Estimating alcohol content of traditional brew in Western Kenya using culturally relevant methods: the case for cost over volume.

    PubMed

    Papas, Rebecca K; Sidle, John E; Wamalwa, Emmanuel S; Okumu, Thomas O; Bryant, Kendall L; Goulet, Joseph L; Maisto, Stephen A; Braithwaite, R Scott; Justice, Amy C

    2010-08-01

    Traditional homemade brew is believed to represent the highest proportion of alcohol use in sub-Saharan Africa. In Eldoret, Kenya, two types of brew are common: chang'aa, spirits, and busaa, maize beer. Local residents refer to the amount of brew consumed by the amount of money spent, suggesting a culturally relevant estimation method. The purposes of this study were to analyze ethanol content of chang'aa and busaa; and to compare two methods of alcohol estimation: use by cost, and use by volume, the latter the current international standard. Laboratory results showed mean ethanol content was 34% (SD = 14%) for chang'aa and 4% (SD = 1%) for busaa. Standard drink unit equivalents for chang'aa and busaa, respectively, were 2 and 1.3 (US) and 3.5 and 2.3 (Great Britain). Using a computational approach, both methods demonstrated comparable results. We conclude that cost estimation of alcohol content is more culturally relevant and does not differ in accuracy from the international standard. PMID:19015972

  14. Study on the digitized and quantified evaluating method for the super information cluster of traditional Chinese medicine ultraviolet spectral fingerprints

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lifeng; Liu, Zhongbo; Li, Yanfei

    2013-01-01

    The theories of ultraviolet spectral fingerprint (UVFP) index, information index, fluctuation index, information fluctuation index combined with the quantified UV fingerprint method (QUFM) had been established and put into practice in the Ginkgo Tablets (GT) quality evaluation. The flowing injection analysis (FIA) coupled with a diode array detector was applied as a novel method to obtain the UVFP in the region of 190-400 nm at which the absorption can reflect all the information of the chemical constituents contained ???*, n??* and n??* transition. The result showed that all batches were qualified (Grade ?3) except S8 for its too high contents. It was proved that this method made the expression of superposed information in UVFP of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) digitized and simple. What’s more, an approach which can test the total chemical content with the chromophoric characteristics in the complex system of TCM rapidly, simply and accurately was achieved by the application of QUFM. In one word, it made the exploration of the general characteristic information of the molecular absorption complex TCM in the ultraviolet regions feasible and possible. PMID:25332974

  15. Analysis of binding interaction between (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC) and ?-lactoglobulin by multi-spectroscopic method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xuli; Wu, Hui; Liu, Meixia; Liu, Zhigang; Xu, Hong; Lai, Furao

    2011-11-01

    The binding interaction between (-)-epigallocatechin (EGC) with bovine ?-lactoglobulin (?LG) was investigated by fluorescence, circular dichroism (CD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy methods. The binding parameters were determined by Stern-Volmer equation and the thermodynamic parameters were calculated according to the van't Hoff equation. The results suggested that ?LG was bound by EGC, which resulted in change of native conformation of ?LG. van der Waals interactions and hydrogen bonding probably played major roles in the binding process. Our study is helpful for further elucidation of binding interactions between catechins with milk proteins, which would contribute to the development of novel milk products.

  16. Characterization of U(VI)-phases in corroded cement products by micro(?)-spectroscopic methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothe, J.; Brendebach, B.; Bube, C.; Dardenne, K.; Denecke, M. A.; Kienzler, B.; Metz, V.; Prüßmann, T.; Rickers-Appel, K.; Schild, D.; Soballa, E.; Vitova, T.

    2013-04-01

    Cementation is an industrial scale conditioning method applied to fix and solidify liquid low and intermediate level radioactive wastes (LLW/ILW) prior to underground disposal in geological formations.To assist prognosis of the long-term safety of cemented waste, alteration of uranium doped cement productswas studied in chloride-rich solutions relevant for final LLW/ILW disposal in rock salt. After long-time exposure of the full-scale LLW/ILW simulates to concentrated NaCl and MgCl2 brines, solid samples were retrieved for chemical and mineralogical analysis with an emphasis on uranium speciation in the corroded cement matrix.Bulk and recent spatially resolved micro(?) U L3-XAFS measurements point to the occurrence of a diuranate type U(VI) phase forming throughout the corroded cement monoliths. U-enriched hot spots with dimensions up to several tens of ?m turn out to be generally X-ray amorphous.

  17. Determination of absolute configuration and conformation of a cyclic dipeptide by NMR and chiral spectroscopic methods.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaojun; Hopmann, Kathrin H; Hudecová, Jana; Isaksson, Johan; Novotná, Jana; Stensen, Wenche; Andrushchenko, Valery; Urbanová, Marie; Svendsen, John-Sigurd; Bou?, Petr; Ruud, Kenneth

    2013-02-28

    Increasing precision of contemporary computational methods makes spectroscopies such as vibrational (VCD) and electronic (ECD) circular dichroism attractive for determination of absolute configurations (AC) of organic compounds. This is, however, difficult for polar, flexible molecules with multiple chiral centers. Typically, a combination of several methods provides the best picture of molecular behavior. As a test case, all possible stereoisomers with known AC (RS, SR, SS, and RR) of the cyclic dipeptide cyclo(Arg-Trp) (CAT) were synthesized, and the performances of the ECD, infrared (IR), VCD, Raman, Raman optical activity (ROA), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques for AC determination were investigated. The spectra were interpreted with the aid of density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Folded geometries stabilized by van der Waals and electrostatic interactions between the diketopiperazine (DKP) ring and the indole group are predicted to be preferred for CAT, with more pronounced folding due to Arg-Trp stacking in the case of SS/RR-CAT. The RS/SR isomers prefer a twist-boat puckering of the DKP ring, which is relatively independent of the orientation of the side chains. Calculated conformer-averaged VCD and ECD spectra explain most of the experimentally observed bands and allow for AC determination of the tryptophan side-chain, whereas the stereochemical configuration of the arginine side-chain is visible only in VCD. NMR studies provide characteristic long-range (2)J(C,H) and (3)J(C,H) coupling constants, and nuclear Overhauser effect (NOE) correlations, which in combination with either ECD or VCD also allow for complete AC determination of CAT. PMID:23347158

  18. Novel infrared spectroscopic method for the determination of crystallinity of hydroxyapatite minerals.

    PubMed Central

    Pleshko, N; Boskey, A; Mendelsohn, R

    1991-01-01

    Biologically important apatite analogues have been examined by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), and a method developed to quantitatively assess their crystalinity. Changes in the phosphate v1 and v3 regions, 900-1,200 cm-1, for a series of synthetic (containing hydroxide, fluoride, or carbonate ion) and biological apatites with crystal sizes of 100-200 A were analyzed with curve-fitting and second derivative spectroscopy. The v1,v3 contour was composed of three main subbands. Correlations were noted between two spectral parameters and crystal size as determined by x-ray diffraction. The percentage area of a component near 1,060 cm-1 decreased as the length of the c-axis of the hydroxyapatite (HA) compounds increased, while the frequency of a band near 1,020 cm-1 increased with increasing length of the apatite c-axis. These parameters are thus proposed as indices of crystallinity for biological (poorly crystalline) HA. The FT-IR spectra of highly crystalline apatitic compounds were also analyzed. For crystal sizes of 200-450 A, the percentage area of the phosphate v1 band (near 960 cm-1) decreased with increasing HA crystal size. IR indices of crystallinity have thus been developed for both well crystallized and poorly crystallized HA derivatives. The molecular origins of the various contributions to the v1,v3 contour are discussed, and a preliminary application of the method to a microscopic biological sample (rat epiphyseal growth plate) is illustrated. PMID:1660314

  19. Evaluation of a method to determine the natural occurrence of aflatoxins in commercial traditional herbal medicines from Malaysia and Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Ali, N; Hashim, N H; Saad, B; Safan, K; Nakajima, M; Yoshizawa, T

    2005-12-01

    Traditional herbal medicines, popularly known as 'jamu' and 'makjun' in Malaysia and Indonesia, are consumed regularly to promote health. In consideration of their frequent and prolonged consumption, the natural occurrence of aflatoxins (AF) in these products was determined using immunoaffinity column clean-up and high-performance liquid chromatography with pre-column derivatization. The evaluated method, which entails dilution of sample extracts with Tween 20-phosphate buffered saline (1:9, v/v) and a chromatographic system using isocratic mobile phase composed of water-methanol-acetonitrile (70:20:10, v/v/v), was effective in separating AFB1, AFG1 and AFG2 from interference at their retention times. Results were confirmed using post-column derivatization with photochemical reactor. For 23 commercial samples analyzed, mean levels (incidence) of AFB(1), AFB(2) and AFG1 in positive samples were 0.26 (70%), 0.07 (61%) and 0.10 (30%) microg/kg, respectively; one sample was positive for AFG2 at a level of 0.03 (4%) microg/kg. In contrast to the high levels of AF in crude herbal drugs and medicinal plants reported previously by other researchers, the low contamination levels reported in this study may be attributed to the higher selectivity to AF of the method applied. Based on the AFB1 levels and the daily consumption of positive samples, a mean probable daily intake of 0.022 ng/kg body weight was calculated. PMID:16019122

  20. A comparison of traditional and emerging ultrasonic methods for the nondestructive evaluation of polymer matrix composites subjected to impact damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Richard E.; Roth, Donald J.; Pergantis, Charles G.; Sandhu, Jaswinder S.

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents the results of a comparison study of three ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation (NDE) methods applied to polymer matrix composite (PMC) specimens subjected to impact damage. Samples mainly consisted of various thicknesses of graphite/epoxy coupon panels impacted with various energy levels. Traditional pulse-echo and through transmission ultrasonic c-scan techniques were applied to impacted samples and served as the basis for comparison. Specimens were then inspected using acoustography, a large field ultrasonic inspection technique that is analogous to real-time X-ray imaging. Acoustography utilizes a unique, wide area two-dimensional (2-D) detector, called an acousto-optic (AO) sensor, to directly convert ultrasound into visual images; much like an image intensifier in real-time radiography. Finally, a newly developed guided wave scanning system was utilized to inspect the same set of samples. This system uses two transducers in a pitch catch configuration to examine the total (multi-mode) ultrasonic response in its inspection analysis. Several time- and frequency-domain parameters are calculated from the ultrasonic guided wave signal at each scan location to form images. Results are presented for all of the methods demonstrating each technique's detection capabilities and highlighting their advantages and disadvantages.

  1. Studies on the interactions of kaempferol to calcineurin by spectroscopic methods and docking.

    PubMed

    Lei, Hong; Qi, Yao; Jia, Zhi-Guang; Lin, Wei-Lin; Wei, Qun

    2009-08-01

    Kaempferol, in our previous study, was a new immunosuppressant on calcineurin (CN), the Ca(2+)/calmodulin (CaM)-dependent protein phosphatase. Here, we examined the interactions of kaempferol with CN by fluorescence spectroscopy (FS), circular dichroism spectroscopy (CD) and docking. Data of kaempferol with CN catalytic subunit (CN A) and its truncated mutant CNAa obtained by FS method showed that the binding stoichiometry of kaempferol/CN A was 1:1, catalytic domain of CN A was the concrete domain for kaempferol binding while other domains contributed a lot to this binding. Distances from kaempferol to each tryptophan (Trp) in CN A by energy transfer experiments and the subsequent docking study interestingly provided the same binding sites for kaempferol, which all located in the non-active site area of CN A catalytic domain, also consisted with our previous conclusion from CN activity assay. Furthermore, CD results showed a much tighter structure of CN A for the inhibitor binding; on the other hand, presence of Ca(2+) and Mn(2+) decreased kaempferol binding on CN A. PMID:19439201

  2. Investigation on interaction between Ligupurpuroside A and pepsin by spectroscopic and docking methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Liangliang; Xu, Hong; Huang, Fengwen; Li, Yi; Xiao, Huafeng; Yang, Zhen; Hu, Zhangli; He, Zhendan; Zeng, Zheling; Li, Yinong

    2015-01-01

    Ligupurpuroside A is one of the major glycoside in Ku-Din-Cha, a type of Chinese functional tea. In order to better understand its digestion and metabolism in humans, the interaction between Ligupurpuroside A and pepsin has been investigated by fluorescence spectra, UV-vis absorption spectra and synchronous fluorescence spectra along with molecular docking method. The fluorescence experiments indicate that Ligupurpuroside A can effectively quench the intrinsic fluorescence of pepsin through a combined quenching way at the low concentration of Ligupurpuroside A, and a static quenching procedure at the high concentration. The binding constant, binding sites of Ligupurpuroside A with pepsin have been calculated. The thermodynamic analysis suggests that non-covalent reactions, including electrostatic force, hydrophobic interaction and hydrogen bond are the main forces stabilizing the complex. According to the Förster's non-radiation energy transfer theory, the binding distance between pepsin and Ligupurpuroside A was calculated to be 3.15 nm, which implies that energy transfer occurs between pepsin and Ligupurpuroside A. Conformation change of pepsin was observed from UV-vis absorption spectra and synchronous fluorescence spectra under experimental conditions. In addition, all these experimental results have been validated by the protein-ligand docking studies which show that Ligupurpuroside A is located in the cleft between the domains of pepsin.

  3. Characterization of interaction of calf thymus DNA with gefitinib: Spectroscopic methods and molecular docking.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jie-Hua; Liu, Ting-Ting; Jiang, Min; Chen, Jun; Wang, Qi

    2015-06-01

    The binding interaction of gefitinib with calf thymus DNA (ct-DNA) under the simulated physiological pH condition was studied employing UV absorption, fluorescence, circular dichroism (CD), viscosity measurement and molecular docking methods. The experimental results revealed that gefitinib preferred to bind to the minor groove of ct-DNA with the binding constant (Kb) of 1.29×10(4)Lmol(-1) at 298K. Base on the signs and magnitudes of the enthalpy change (?H(0)=-60.4kJmol(-1)) and entropy change (?S(0)=-124.7Jmol(-1)K(-1)) in the binding process and the results of molecular docking, it can be concluded that the main interaction forces between gefitinib and ct-DNA in the binding process were van der Waals force and hydrogen bonding interaction. The results of CD experiments revealed that gefitinib did not disturb native B-conformation of ct-DNA. And, the significant change in the conformation of gefitinib in gefitinib-ct-DNA complex was observed from the molecular docking results and the change was close relation with the structure of B-DNA fragments, indicating that the flexibility of gefitinib molecule also plays an important role in the formation of the stable gefitinib-ct-DNA complex. PMID:25839749

  4. Investigation on interaction between Ligupurpuroside A and pepsin by spectroscopic and docking methods.

    PubMed

    Shen, Liangliang; Xu, Hong; Huang, Fengwen; Li, Yi; Xiao, Huafeng; Yang, Zhen; Hu, Zhangli; He, Zhendan; Zeng, Zheling; Li, Yinong

    2015-01-25

    Ligupurpuroside A is one of the major glycoside in Ku-Din-Cha, a type of Chinese functional tea. In order to better understand its digestion and metabolism in humans, the interaction between Ligupurpuroside A and pepsin has been investigated by fluorescence spectra, UV-vis absorption spectra and synchronous fluorescence spectra along with molecular docking method. The fluorescence experiments indicate that Ligupurpuroside A can effectively quench the intrinsic fluorescence of pepsin through a combined quenching way at the low concentration of Ligupurpuroside A, and a static quenching procedure at the high concentration. The binding constant, binding sites of Ligupurpuroside A with pepsin have been calculated. The thermodynamic analysis suggests that non-covalent reactions, including electrostatic force, hydrophobic interaction and hydrogen bond are the main forces stabilizing the complex. According to the Förster's non-radiation energy transfer theory, the binding distance between pepsin and Ligupurpuroside A was calculated to be 3.15 nm, which implies that energy transfer occurs between pepsin and Ligupurpuroside A. Conformation change of pepsin was observed from UV-vis absorption spectra and synchronous fluorescence spectra under experimental conditions. In addition, all these experimental results have been validated by the protein-ligand docking studies which show that Ligupurpuroside A is located in the cleft between the domains of pepsin. PMID:25078459

  5. Supervised methods for symptom name recognition in free-text clinical records of traditional Chinese medicine: an empirical study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yaqiang; Yu, Zhonghua; Chen, Li; Chen, Yunhui; Liu, Yiguang; Hu, Xiaoguang; Jiang, Yongguang

    2014-02-01

    Clinical records of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) are documented by TCM doctors during their routine diagnostic work. These records contain abundant knowledge and reflect the clinical experience of TCM doctors. In recent years, with the modernization of TCM clinical practice, these clinical records have begun to be digitized. Data mining (DM) and machine learning (ML) methods provide an opportunity for researchers to discover TCM regularities buried in the large volume of clinical records. There has been some work on this problem. Existing methods have been validated on a limited amount of manually well-structured data. However, the contents of most fields in the clinical records are unstructured. As a result, the previous methods verified on the well-structured data will not work effectively on the free-text clinical records (FCRs), and the FCRs are, consequently, required to be structured in advance. Manually structuring the large volume of TCM FCRs is time-consuming and labor-intensive, but the development of automatic methods for the structuring task is at an early stage. Therefore, in this paper, symptom name recognition (SNR) in the chief complaints, which is one of the important tasks to structure the FCRs of TCM, is carefully studied. The SNR task is reasonably treated as a sequence labeling problem, and several fundamental and practical problems in the SNR task are studied, such as how to adapt a general sequence labeling strategy for the SNR task according to the domain-specific characteristics of the chief complaints and which sequence classifier is more appropriate to solve the SNR task. To answer these questions, a series of elaborate experiments were performed, and the results are explained in detail. PMID:24070769

  6. IR spectroscopic methods for the investigation of the CO release from CORMs.

    PubMed

    Klein, Moritz; Neugebauer, Ute; Gheisari, Ali; Malassa, Astrid; Jazzazi, Taghreed M A; Froehlich, Frank; Westerhausen, Matthias; Schmitt, Michael; Popp, Jürgen

    2014-07-24

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is a toxic gas for mammals, and despite this fact, it is naturally produced in these organisms and has been proven to be beneficial in medical treatments, too. Therefore, CO-releasing molecules (CORMs) are intensively developed to administer and dose CO for physiological applications. Nearly all of these compounds are metal carbonyl complexes, which have been synthesized and investigated. However, for most of these CORMs, the exact reaction mechanisms of CO release is not completely elucidated, although it is of utmost importance. The widely used myoglobin assay for testing the CO release has several disadvantages, and therefore, different methods have to be applied to characterize CORMs. In this work, different setups of IR absorption spectroscopy are used to analyze and quantify the CO release during the decay of various CORMs: IR spectroscopy of the gas phase is applied to follow the CO liberation, and attenuated total reflection (ATR) IR spectroscopy is used to record the decay of the metal carbonyl. IR spectroscopy supported by DFT calculations yields valuable insights in the CO release reaction mechanism. The focus is set on two different CORMs: CORM-2 (Ru2(CO)(6)Cl(4)) and on the photoactive CORM-S1 (photoCORM [Fe(CO)2(SCH2CH2NH2)2]). Our results indicate that the CO liberation from CORM-2 strongly depends on sodium dithionite, which is required for the commonly applied myoglobin assay and that CORM-S1 loses all its bound CO molecules upon irradiation with blue light. PMID:24978105

  7. Rietveld refinement and spectroscopic studies of sodium lead fluoroapatite lacunaire synthesized by hydrothermal method

    SciTech Connect

    Toumi, M. [Laboratoire de L'Etat Solide (LES), Faculte des Sciences de Sfax, Route de Soukra Km 3.5, BP 802, 3018 Sfax (Tunisia)], E-mail: mohamed.toumi@fss.rnu.tn; Mhiri, T. [Laboratoire de L'Etat Solide (LES), Faculte des Sciences de Sfax, Route de Soukra Km 3.5, BP 802, 3018 Sfax (Tunisia)

    2008-06-03

    The structure of NaPb{sub 9}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}F(H{sub 2}O){sub 0.33}, isostructural with apatite, was determined by X-ray powder diffraction methods and the result of Rietveld refinement is P6{sub 3}/m, a = 9.76396(8) A and c = 7.27520(9) A. The final refinement led to R{sub F} = 5.4%, R{sub B} = 6.6%. In the tunnel, the water molecule (O{sub w}) and F{sup -} ions appear to be located in 2b and 4e sites, with occupancies of 0.028(6) and 0.075(8), respectively. In the M(1) and M(2) sites the occupancies of Pb and Na are 0.282(3)/0.051(3) and 0.467(5)/0.033(5), respectively. The formula assigned to the compound is [Pb{sub 3.38(4)}Na{sub 0.62(4)}](1)[Pb{sub 5.60(6)}Na{sub 0.40(6)}](2)(PO{sub =} 4){sub 6}F{sub 0.90(10)}(H{sub 2}O){sub 0.33(7)}{open_square}{sub 0.77(17)}, where {open_square} = vacancy. The assignment of the observed frequencies in the Raman and infrared spectra is discussed on the basis of a unit-cell group analysis and by comparison with fluor and chloroapatite analogs. The result of {sup 31}P and {sup 23}Na magic angle spinning-nuclear magnetic resonance (MAS-NMR) spectroscopies confirmed the structural results.

  8. Diffuse-Reflectance Mid-IR and NIR Spectroscopic Properties of Mycorrhizal and Non-mycorrhizal roots

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quantification of mycorrhizae by traditional methods is slow and prone to observer bias. A quick spectroscopic method would allow for the identification of mycorrhizal roots of large sample sets. In this experiment, we measured the diffuse-reflectance Fourier-Transformed Mid-IR and NIR spectral prop...

  9. Comparative study between original and traditional method in establishing a chronic sinus node damage model in rabbit.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ru-xiu; Wang, Yan-li; Li, Hui-bo; Wang, Ni-na; Bao, Mei-jing; Xu, Li-ya

    2012-12-01

    Sick Sinus Syndrome is a common and refractory arrhythmia, needing further study in which setting up a credible sinus node damage model is important. To explore the feasibility and superiority of an original formaldehyde pinpoint pressing permeation (FPPP) method for building a chronic sinus node damage (CSND) model, 5 rabbits were chosen from 35 as a sham-operation group, and the remaining were randomly divided into two groups: the formaldehyde wet compressing (FWC) group, in which models were established by applying a cotton bud dipped in 20% formaldehyde onto the sinus node (SN) area, and the FPPP group, in which models were established by injecting formaldehyde into the SN area through a self-made pinpointing and injecting electrode. We found that in both groups, the HR at 2 h, 24 h, 1 wk, and 2 wk after modeling decreased compared with premodeling; sinoatrial conduction time, sinus node recovery time, and corrected sinus node recovery time were prolonged compared with premodeling. The indexes mentioned shortened by 2 wk after modeling compared with 2 h in the FWC group, whereas they were stable after modeling in the FPPP group. The modeling achievement ratio in the FPPP group was higher and the death rate was lower. Under light microscope, paraffin sections of the SN tissue and cells showed severe injury in both groups. The results indicate that the CSND models in rabbits can be successfully established by the FPPP method, with higher achievement ratio, lower death rate, better stabilization effect, and less damaging comparing with the traditional method. PMID:22898552

  10. ¹?C(n,?) ¹?C as a Test Case in the Evaluation of a New Method to Determine Spectroscopic Factors Using Asymptotic Normalization Coefficients

    E-print Network

    McCleskey, Matthew Edgar

    2012-02-14

    Case in the Evaluation of a New Method to Determine Spectroscopic Factors Using Asymptotic Normalization Coefficients. (December 2011) Matthew Edgar McCleskey, B.S., Texas A&M University Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Robert E. Tribble With new... reactions, many measurements were made and many different models were proposed and developed to understand nuclei. Much was learned. However, the recent development of radioactive beam facilities around the world, capable of providing beams of nuclei far...

  11. Study on the interaction of Co (III) DiAmsar with serum albumins: Spectroscopic and molecular docking methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farahani, Bahman Vasheghani; Bardajee, Ghasem Rezanejade; Rajabi, Farzaneh Hosseinpour; Hooshyar, Zari

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the interaction of cobalt-3,6,10,13,16,19-hexaazabicyclo[6.6.6]eicosane-1,8-diamine (Co(III) DiAmsar) as a hexadentate ligand with human serum albumin (HSA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) under physiological conditions in Tris-HCl buffer solution at pH 7.4. To this aim, at first, Co (III) DiAmsar was synthesized and characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and mass spectroscopy and then its interaction with HSA and BSA was investigated by means of various spectroscopic methods (Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), UV-visible (UV-vis), fluorescence, and cyclic voltammetry (CV)) and molecular docking technique. The results of fluorescence titration revealed that the Co (III) DiAmsar strongly quench the intrinsic fluorescence of HSA and BSA through a static quenching procedure. Binding constants (Ka) and the number of binding sites (n ? 1) were calculated using Stern-Volmer equations. The ?G parameters at different temperatures were calculated. Subsequently, the values of ?H and ?S were also calculated, which revealed that the van der Waals and hydrogen bonding interaction splay a major role in Co (III) DiAmsar-HSA and Co (III) DiAmsar-BSA associations. The distance r between donor (HSA and BSA) and acceptor (Co (III) DiAmsar) was obtained according to fluorescence resonance energy transfer. The data obtained by the molecular modeling study revealed the surrounding residues of HSA and BSA around Co (III) DiAmsar.

  12. Determining Antioxidant Activities of Lactobacilli Cell-Free Supernatants by Cellular Antioxidant Assay: A Comparison with Traditional Methods

    PubMed Central

    Xing, Jiali; Wang, Gang; Zhang, Qiuxiang; Liu, Xiaoming; Gu, Zhennan; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Yong Q.; Chen, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Antioxidant activity of lactic acid bacteria is associated with multiple health-protective effects. Traditional indexes of chemical antioxidant activities poorly reflect the antioxidant effects of these bacteria in vivo. Cellular antioxidant activity (CAA) assay was used in this study to determine the antioxidant activity of cell-free supernatants (CFSs) of 10 Lactobacillus strains. The performance of the CAA assay was compared with that of four chemical antioxidant activity assays, namely, DPPH radical scavenging, hydroxyl radical scavenging (HRS), reducing power (RP), and inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation (ILAP). Results of the CAA assay were associated with those of DPPH and ILAP assays, but not with those of RP and HRS assays. The inter- and intra-specific antioxidant activities of CFS were characterized by chemical and CAA assays. L. rhamnosus CCFM 1107 displayed a high antioxidative effect similar to positive control L. rhamnosus GG ATCC 53103 in all of the assays. The CAA assay is a potential method for the detection of antioxidant activities of lactobacilli CFSs. PMID:25789875

  13. A Safety Program that Integrated Behavior-Based Safety and Traditional Safety Methods and Its Effects on Injury Rates of Manufacturing Workers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermann, Jaime A.; Ibarra, Guillermo V.; Hopkins, B. L.

    2010-01-01

    The present research examines the effects of a complex safety program that combined Behavior-Based Safety (BBS) and traditional safety methods. The study was conducted in an automobile parts plant in Mexico. Two sister plants served as comparison. Some of the components of the safety programs addressed behaviors of managers and included methods…

  14. Chemical differentiation of Da-Cheng-Qi-Tang, a Chinese medicine formula, prepared by traditional and modern decoction methods using UPLC/Q-TOFMS-based metabolomics approach.

    PubMed

    Wan, Jian-Bo; Bai, Xu; Cai, Xiu-Jiang; Rao, Yi; Wang, Yue-Sheng; Wang, Yi-Tao

    2013-09-01

    In order to evaluate chemical consistency between traditional and modern decoctions of Da-Cheng-Qi-Tang (DCQT), a classical Chinese medicine formula commonly used in the treatment of digestive diseases, an ultra performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-Q-TOFMS) combined with multivariate statistical analysis was established to globally characterize the chemical profile and discover differentiating chemical markers. Two kinds of decoctions, namely traditional decoction (multi-step decoction of constituent herbs), and modern decoction (one-step decoction of all herbs), were prepared and subjected to UPLC-MS analysis, the datasets of tR-m/z pairs, ion intensities and sample codes were processed with supervised orthogonal partial least squared discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) to comprehensively compare the chemical difference between these two kinds of decoction samples. The global chemical difference was found between traditional and modern decoctions, and rhein, sennoside A/B, diosmetin, magnoloside B and naringin were the components contributing most to these differences. Based on the fact that traditional decoction of DCQT presents the higher concentration of rhein and sennoside A/B, mainly contributed to laxative activity of DCQT, the purgative effect of traditional decoction might be more potent, compared with modern decoction. However, the comparative study on purgative effect of traditional and modern DCQT remains to be further investigated using pharmacological approaches. Our findings also provide the early scientific evidence of traditional decoction method of DCQT. PMID:23685412

  15. Near-infrared diode laser based spectroscopic detection of ammonia: a comparative study of photoacoustic and direct optical absorption methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozoki, Zoltan; Mohacsi, Arpad; Szabo, Gabor; Bor, Zsolt; Erdelyi, Miklos; Chen, Weidong; Tittel, Frank K.

    2002-01-01

    A photoacoustic spectroscopic (PAS) and a direct optical absorption spectroscopic (OAS) gas sensor, both using continuous-wave room-temperature diode lasers operating at 1531.8 nm, were compared on the basis of ammonia detection. Excellent linear correlation between the detector signals of the two systems was found. Although the physical properties and the mode of operation of both sensors were significantly different, their performances were found to be remarkably similar, with a sub-ppm level minimum detectable concentration of ammonia and a fast response time in the range of a few minutes.

  16. CD Spectroscope

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-06-26

    In this activity, learners use an old CD to construct a spectroscope, a device that separates light into its component colors. Learners will hold it up to various light sources to examine how different light has different color strengths. Use this activity to introduce learners to the color spectrum and the tools scientists use to study it.

  17. A Method for Assessing Institution-Wide Responsiveness to Adult Undergraduates in Traditional Colleges and Universities. ASHE 1988 Annual Meeting Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenland, Annette E.

    An effective method for assessing responsiveness to adult undergraduates in institutions serving primarily traditional-age students is described. Information from previous literature was applied to the University of Massachusetts at Amherst in order to gather quantitative data on usage of certain practices plus a sense of campus receptivity to,…

  18. Digital Assist: A Comparison of Two Note-Taking Methods (Traditional vs. Digital Pen) for Students with Emotional Behavioral Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rody, Carlotta A.

    2013-01-01

    High school biology classes traditionally follow a lecture format to disseminate content and new terminology. With the inclusive practices of No Child Left Behind, the Common Core State Standards, and end-of-course exam requirement for high school diplomas, classes include a large range of achievement levels and abilities. Teachers assume, often…

  19. Nd3+-doped Lu2O3 transparent sesquioxide ceramics elaborated by the Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) method. Part 1: Structural, thermal conductivity and spectroscopic characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alombert-Goget, G.; Guyot, Y.; Guzik, M.; Boulon, G.; Ito, A.; Goto, T.; Yoshikawa, A.; Kikuchi, M.

    2015-03-01

    We report the detailed analysis of both structural characterization by SEM, thermal conductivity of high value and high resolution spectroscopic properties of Nd3+-doped Lu2O3 transparent ceramics fabricated by the non-conventional SPS method. The emission spectra of the main C2 site shows two close 4F3/2 ? 4I11/2 laser lines at 1076.3 and 1080.5 nm, respectively. The optical properties of the two C2 and C3i sites and of C2-C3i and C2-C2 Nd3+ pairs have especially been analyzed.

  20. Spectroscopic detection

    DOEpatents

    Woskov, Paul P. (Bedford, MA); Hadidi, Kamal (Cambridge, MA)

    2003-01-01

    In embodiments, spectroscopic monitor monitors modulated light signals to detect low levels of contaminants and other compounds in the presence of background interference. The monitor uses a spectrometer that includes a transmissive modulator capable of causing different frequency ranges to move onto and off of the detector. The different ranges can include those with the desired signal and those selected to subtract background contributions from those with the desired signal. Embodiments of the system are particularly useful for monitoring metal concentrations in combustion effluent.

  1. Organic matter characterization by infrared spectroscopic methods in lake sediment records from boreal and subarctic Sweden: Implications for long-term carbon cycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer-Jacob, Carsten; Rosén, Peter; Bindler, Richard

    2013-04-01

    Freshwater systems play an important role in the global carbon cycle. In this dynamic system, inorganic and organic carbon can be incorporated into biota, effluxed to the atmosphere or accumulated in sediments. The amount and composition of the carbon, derived from both aquatic and terrestrial sources, accumulated in sediments depend on the climatic and environmental conditions present in the lake and its catchment, and are thus sensitive to changes in, e.g., temperature, precipitation, vegetation and hydrological flow patterns. In this study, we show the application of infrared spectroscopic methods to qualitatively and quantitatively characterize organic matter stored in lake sediments with a focus on changes in the source of terrestrial-derived organic matter. Infrared spectroscopic methods facilitate a fast, cost-efficient and non-destructive analysis of minerogenic as well as organic sediment components. We applied three different infrared spectroscopic analyses - visible-near infrared spectroscopy (VNIRS; 25000-4000 cm-1), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy in the mid-IR region (FTIR; 3750-400 cm-1) and a combined Fourier-transformed infrared - thermal programmed desorption technique (FTIR-TPD; 3750-400 cm-1) - to Holocene sediment records from two Swedish lakes, Lång-Älgsjön and Lake Koukkel, to reconstruct past changes in the organic matter composition. The infrared spectral information of these records indicate sections of different organic matter composition reflecting varying stages of the lake and landscape development. An early-Holocene mire development around the boreal lake Lång-Älgsjön led to an increased input of organic matter from the catchment into the lake initiating an early natural lake acidification, whereas the subarctic Lake Koukkel has been affected by mire and potentially late-Holocene permafrost dynamics, which caused an increased and less variable input of allochthonous organic matter. Overall, variations in organic matter composition seem mainly driven by changes in the landscape rather than any direct effects of successive climate changes. Our findings emphasize that infrared spectroscopic methods are a promising tool for the fast and cost-effective characterization of organic matter in sediment samples, particularly with regard to the detection of qualitative differences between samples. An improved understanding of past variations in the organic matter composition and the related processes driving these changes is essential to further understand the interactions in the carbon cycle between the terrestrial and aquatic systems.

  2. Spectroscopic Infrared Ellipsometry

    E-print Network

    Eindhoven, Technische Universiteit

    Spectroscopic Infrared Ellipsometry: Components, Calibration, and Application #12;CIP-DATA KONINKLIJKE BIBLIOTHEEK, DEN HAAG Boer, Johannes Henricus Wilhelmus Gerardus den Spectroscopic Infrared in Dutch. ISBN 90 386 0017 8 Subject headings: spectroscopy ellipsometry infrared. #12;Spectroscopic

  3. Is DNA Barcoding Actually Cheaper and Faster than Traditional Morphological Methods: Results from a Survey of Freshwater Bioassessment Efforts in the United States?

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Eric D.; Martinez, Maria C.; Stiles, Sara; Miller, Peter E.; Zakharov, Evgeny V.

    2014-01-01

    Taxonomic identification accounts for a substantial portion of cost associated with bioassessment programs across the United States. New analytical approaches, such as DNA barcoding have been promoted as a way to reduce monitoring costs and improve efficiency, yet this assumption has not been thoroughly evaluated. We address this question by comparing costs for traditional morphology-based bioassessment, the standard Sanger sequencing-based DNA barcoding approach, and emerging next-generation (NGS) molecular methods. Market demand for molecular approaches is also assessed through a survey of the level of freshwater bioassessment effort in the United States across multiple habitat types (lakes, streams, wetlands) and indicators (benthic invertebrates, fish, algae). All state and regional level programs administered by public agencies and reported via agency web sites were included in the survey. Costs were based on surveys of labs and programs willing to provide such information. More than 19,500 sites are sampled annually across the United States, with the majority of effort occurring in streams. Benthic invertebrates are the most commonly used indicator, but algae and fish comprise between 35% and 21% of total sampling effort, respectively. We estimate that between $104 and $193 million is spent annually on routine freshwater bioassessment in the United States. Approximately 30% of the bioassessment costs are comprised of the cost to conduct traditional morphology-based taxonomy. Current barcoding costs using Sanger sequencing are between 1.7 and 3.4 times as expensive as traditional taxonomic approaches, excluding the cost of field sampling (which is common to both approaches). However, the cost of NGS methods are comparable (or slightly less expensive) than traditional methods depending on the indicator. The promise of barcoding as a cheaper alternative to current practices is not yet realized, although molecular methods may provide other benefits, such as a faster sample processing and increased taxonomic resolution. PMID:24755838

  4. Science-Technology-Society literacy in college non-majors biology: Comparing problem\\/case studies based learning and traditional expository methods of instruction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John S. Peters

    2006-01-01

    This study used a multiple response model (MRM) on selected items from the Views on Science-Technology-Society (VOSTS) survey to examine science-technology-society (STS) literacy among college non-science majors' taught using Problem\\/Case Studies Based Learning (PBL\\/CSBL) and traditional expository methods of instruction. An initial pilot investigation of 15 VOSTS items produced a valid and reliable scoring model which can be used to

  5. Simultaneous quantification of six major phenolic acids in the roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza and four related traditional Chinese medicinal preparations by HPLC–DAD method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ai-Hua Liu; Lie Li; Man Xu; Yan-Hua Lin; Hong-Zhu Guo; De-An Guo

    2006-01-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatographic method was applied to the determination of danshensu, protocatechuic aldehyde, rosmarinic acid, lithospermic acid, salvianolic acid B and salvianolic acid A in the roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza and four related traditional Chinese medicinal preparations. The six phenolic acids were simultaneously analyzed with a Zorbax Extend C18 column by gradient elution using 0.026% (v\\/v) phosphoric acid and

  6. Comparison of Traditional Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS) Course Instruction Vs. a Scenario-Based, Performance Oriented Team Instruction (SPOTI) Method for Korean Paramedic Students

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christopher C. Lee; Mark Im; Tae Min Kim; Edward R. Stapleton; Kyuseok Kim; Gil Joon Suh; Adam J. Singer; Mark C. Henry

    2010-01-01

    Current Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS) course instruction involves a 2-day course with traditional lectures and limited team interaction. We wish to explore the advantages of a scenario-based performance-oriented team instruction (SPOTI) method to implement core ACLS skills for non-English-speaking international paramedic students. The objective of this study was to determine if scenario-based, performance-oriented team instruction (SPOTI) improves educational outcomes

  7. Technology-based vs. traditional instruction. A comparison of two methods for teaching the skill of performing a 12-lead ECG.

    PubMed

    Jeffries, Pamela R; Woolf, Shirley; Linde, Beverly

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of an interactive, multimedia CD-ROM with traditional methods of teaching the skill of performing a 12-lead ECG. A randomized pre/posttest experimental design was used. Seventy-seven baccalaureate nursing students in a required, senior-level critical-care course at a large midwestern university were recruited for the study. Two teaching methods were compared. The traditional method included a self-study module, a brief lecture and demonstration by an instructor, and hands-on experience using a plastic manikin and a real 12-lead ECG machine in the learning laboratory. The second method covered the same content using an interactive, multimedia CD-ROM embedded with virtual reality and supplemented with a self-study module. There were no significant (p < .05) baseline differences in pretest scores between the two groups and no significant differences by group in cognitive gains, student satisfaction with their learning method, or perception of self-efficacy in performing the skill. Overall results indicated that both groups were satisfied with their instructional method and were similar in their ability to demonstrate the skill correctly on a live, simulated patient. This evaluation study is a beginning step to assess new and potentially more cost-effective teaching methods and their effects on student learning outcomes and behaviors, including the transfer of skill acquisition via a computer simulation to a real patient. PMID:12743975

  8. Investigation of a half-wave method for birefringence or thickness measurements of a thick, semitransparent, uniaxial, anisotropic substrate by use of spectroscopic ellipsometry.

    PubMed

    Kildemo, M; Mooney, M; Sudre, C; Kelly, P V

    2000-09-01

    A half-wave method of measurement of wafer birefringence that is based on interference fringes recorded from a uniaxial wafer by use of a standard phase-modulated spectroscopic ellipsometer is investigated. The birefringence of uniaxial wafers is calculated from the extremal points in the recorded oscillating intensities. A formalism is developed to incorporate the change in birefringence with wavelength as a correction factor. The correction explains the overestimation of the birefringence from previous similar research on thick uniaxial sapphire substrates. The enhanced derivative of the birefringence that is due to polarization-dependent intraconduction band transitions is detected. Furthermore, for well-characterized wafers it is shown that this method can be used in wafer-thickness mapping of 4H-SiC and similar uniaxial high-bandgap semiconductors. PMID:18350056

  9. A Single Chiroptical Spectroscopic Method May Not Be Able To Establish the Absolute Configurations of Diastereomers: Dimethylesters of Hibiscus and Garcinia Acids

    PubMed Central

    Polavarapu, Prasad L.; Donahue, Emily A.; Shanmugam, Ganesh; Scalmani, Giovanni; Hawkins, Edward K.; Rizzo, Carmelo; Ibnusaud, Ibrahim; Thomas, Grace; Habel, Deenamma; Sebastian, Dellamol

    2013-01-01

    Electronic circular dichroism (ECD), optical rotatory dispersion (ORD), and vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) spectra of hibiscus acid dimethyl ester have been measured and analyzed in combination with quantum chemical calculations of corresponding spectra. These results, along with those reported previously for garcinia acid dimethyl ester, reveal that none of these three (ECD, ORD, or VCD) spectroscopic methods, in isolation, can unequivocally establish the absolute configurations of diastereomers. This deficiency is eliminated when a combined spectral analysis of either ECD and VCD or ORD and VCD methods is used. It is also found that the ambiguities in the assignment of absolute configurations of diastereomers may also be overcome when unpolarized vibrational absorption is included in the spectral analysis. PMID:21568330

  10. Comparison of results of ATP bioluminescence and traditional hygiene swabbing methods for the determination of surface cleanliness at a hospital kitchen.

    PubMed

    Aycicek, Hasan; Oguz, Utku; Karci, Koray

    2006-03-01

    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) bioluminescence and traditional microbiological swabbing culture methods were used for detection of surface hygiene on worktops, cutting boards and equipments at a hospital kitchen. A total of 280 surface samples were collected from the kitchen. The agreement between the two methods (coefficient of Kappa) was statistically significant (corrected chi(2)=30.886; kappa=0.249; p<0.001). Consequently, the ATP monitoring method provides results rapidly with improved benefits in the control of surface contamination and application of corrective action against poor hygiene. However, it is not a substitute for culturing methods, the combination of both methods was emphasized for surface hygiene monitoring. Besides, the results indicate that, for food safety and public health, the hygienic status of the surfaces in the kitchen should be improved and food handlers should be trained well on hygiene. PMID:16503304

  11. Spectroscopic and dynamical studies of highly energized small polyatomic molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stimulated emission pumping (SEP) spectroscopy was used on acetylene and on formyl radical. An attempt was made for pattern recognition based on statistics; a method was invented that combined CNPI (complete nuclear permutation-inversion) group theory and SCC (spectral cross-correlation). But the direction away from statistical pattern recognition back to traditional spectroscopic pattern recognition was taken. Vibrational states and quantum numbers are discussed. For the formyl radical, the fluorescence excitation spectrum was recorded and a rotational analysis of the 0(sup 0)(sub 0) band performed.

  12. What Role Do Traditional Beliefs Play in Treatment Seeking and Delay for Buruli Ulcer Disease?–Insights from a Mixed Methods Study in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Peeters Grietens, Koen; Toomer, Elizabeth; Um Boock, Alphonse; Hausmann-Muela, Susanna; Peeters, Hans; Kanobana, Kirezi; Gryseels, Charlotte; Ribera, Joan Muela

    2012-01-01

    Background Victims of Buruli ulcer disease (BUD) frequently report to specialized units at a late stage of the disease. This delay has been associated with local beliefs and a preference for traditional healing linked to a reportedly mystical origin of the disease. We assessed the role beliefs play in determining BUD sufferers’ choice between traditional and biomedical treatments. Methods Anthropological fieldwork was conducted in community and clinical settings in the region of Ayos and Akonolinga in Central Cameroon. The research design consisted of a mixed methods study, triangulating a qualitative strand based on ethnographic research and quantitative data obtained through a survey presented to all patients at the Ayos and Akonolinga hospitals (N?=?79) at the time of study and in four endemic communities (N?=?73) belonging to the hospitals’ catchment area. Results The analysis of BUD sufferers’ health-seeking behaviour showed extremely complex therapeutic itineraries, including various attempts and failures both in the biomedical and traditional fields. Contrary to expectations, nearly half of all hospital patients attributed their illness to mystical causes, while traditional healers admitted patients they perceived to be infected by natural causes. Moreover, both patients in hospitals and in communities often combined elements of both types of treatments. Ultimately, perceptions regarding the effectiveness of the treatment, the option for local treatment as a cost prevention strategy and the characteristics of the doctor-patient relationship were more determinant for treatment choice than beliefs. Discussion The ascription of delay and treatment choice to beliefs constitutes an over-simplification of BUD health-seeking behaviour and places the responsibility directly on the shoulders of BUD sufferers while potentially neglecting other structural elements. While more efficacious treatment in the biomedical sector is likely to reduce perceived mystical involvement in the disease, additional decentralization could constitute a key element to reduce delay and increase adherence to biomedical treatment. PMID:22623964

  13. Virtual Reality Anatomy: Is It Comparable with Traditional Methods in the Teaching of Human Forearm Musculoskeletal Anatomy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Codd, Anthony M.; Choudhury, Bipasha

    2011-01-01

    The use of cadavers to teach anatomy is well established, but limitations with this approach have led to the introduction of alternative teaching methods. One such method is the use of three-dimensional virtual reality computer models. An interactive, three-dimensional computer model of human forearm anterior compartment musculoskeletal anatomy…

  14. Quantification of Helicobacter pylori in gastric mucosa by real-time polymerase chain reaction: comparison with traditional diagnostic methods.

    PubMed

    Belda, Sofía; Saez, Jesús; Santibáñez, Miguel; Rodríguez, Juan Carlos; Galiana, Antonio; Sola-Vera, Javier; Ruiz-García, Montserrat; Brotons, Alicia; López-Girona, Elena; Girona, Eva; Sillero, Carlos; Royo, Gloria

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the main diagnostic validity parameters of a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) system for detecting Helicobacter pylori in gastric biopsies. Prospective study. The real-time PCR has an internal control for eliminating the false negatives. Our system has a good diagnostic capacity compared with the gold standard and was superior in antral mucosa: area under the curve was 0.91 for antrum (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.87 to 0.96) and 0.83 for corpus (95% CI 0.77 to 0.9). The optimum cut-off point was 3.56 microorganisms/cell for antrum (sensitivity 83.5% [95% CI 74.2 to 89.9]; specificity 91.3% [95% CI 82.3 to 96.0]; positive predictive value 92.2%; negative predictive value 81.8%). The positive likelihood ratios were 9.61 and 8.52 for antrum and corpus, respectively. With the cut-off point that maximises the Youden index, 8.7% false positives were obtained. Our methodology is useful for diagnosing infection due to H. pylori and the false positives detected probably correspond to patients who were actually infected but the infection was not detected by traditional techniques. The clinical importance of these cases should be studied in greater detail since they may involve colonisations unrelated to the patient's digestive pathology. PMID:22921814

  15. Novel detection method for chemiluminescence derived from the Kinase-Glo luminescent kinase assay platform: Advantages over traditional microplate luminometers

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Ryan A.V.; Storey, Kenneth B.

    2014-01-01

    The efficacy of cellular signal transduction is of paramount importance for the proper functioning of a cell and an organism as a whole. Protein kinases are responsible for much of this transmission and thus have been the focal point of extensive research. While there are numerous commercially available protein kinase assays, the Kinase-Glo luminescent kinase assay (Promega) provides an easy-to-use and high throughput platform for determining protein kinase activity. This assay is said to require the use of a microplate spectrophotometer capable of detecting a luminescent signal. This study shows that:•The ChemiGenius Bioimaging system (Syngene), typically used for visualizing chemiluminescence from Western blots, provides an alternative detection system for Kinase-Glo luminescence.•The novel detection system confers an advantage over traditional luminometers, in that it allows visualization of the luminescent wells, which allows for the real-time analysis and correction of experimental errors (i.e. bubble formation).•Determining kinase kinetics using this detection system produced comparable results to previous studies on the same enzyme (i.e. glycogen synthase kinase 3).

  16. An Improved MLVF Method and Its Comparison with Traditional MLVF, spa Typing, MLST/SCCmec and PFGE for the Typing of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Du, Xue-Fei; Xiao, Meng; Liang, Hong-Yan; Sun, Zhe; Jiang, Yue-Hong; Chen, Guo-Yu; Meng, Xiao-Yu; Zou, Gui-Ling; Zhang, Li; Liu, Ya-Li; Zhang, Hui; Sun, Hong-Li; Jiang, Xiao-Feng; Xu, Ying-Chun

    2014-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has become an important nosocomial pathogen, causing considerable morbidity and mortality. During the last 20 years, a variety of genotyping methods have been introduced for screening the prevalence of MRSA. In this study, we developed and evaluated an improved approach capillary gel electrophoresis based multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat fingerprinting (CGE/MLVF) for rapid MRSA typing. A total of 42 well-characterized strains and 116 non-repetitive clinical MRSA isolates collected from six hospitals in northeast China between 2009 and 2010 were tested. The results obtained by CGE/MLVF against clinical isolates were compared with traditional MLVF, spa typing, Multilocus sequence typing/staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (MLST/SCCmec) and pulse field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). The discriminatory power estimated by Simpson’s index of diversity was 0.855 (28 types), 0.855 (28 patterns), 0.623 (11 types), 0.517 (8 types) and 0.854 (28 patterns) for CGE/MLVF, traditional MLVF, spa typing, MLST/SCCmec and PFGE, respectively. All methods tested showed a satisfied concordance in clonal complex level calculated by adjusted Rand’s coefficient. CGE/MLVF showed better reproducibility and accuracy than traditional MLVF and PFGE methods. In addition, the CGE/MLVF has potential to produce portable results. In conclusion, CGE/MLVF is a rapid and easy to use MRSA typing method with lower cost, good reproducibility and high discriminatory power for monitoring the outbreak and clonal spread of MRSA isolates. PMID:24406728

  17. Optical Spectroscopic Diagnostics Of The Goals Sample.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rich, Jeffrey; Kewley, L.; Armus, L.; Evans, A.; Sanders, D.; Mazzarella, J.; GOALS Team

    2009-05-01

    The GOALS sample consists of the most IR luminous (LIR > 1011) nearby (z < 0.08) galaxies. The survey itself combines a complete Spitzer imaging and spectroscopic dataset with imaging data from Hubble, Chandra and GALEX for the more luminous portion of the sample. Study of these luminous and ultraluminous infrared galaxies (U/LIRGs) provides critical insight into highly dynamic, active systems. LIRGs are key laboratories for investigating galaxy evolution and account for the majority of the IR luminosity function out to z 1. In order to better understand these systems, it is crucial to investigate their power sources and environments at all possible wavelengths. Traditional optical emission line diagnostics provide a well-tested method for evaluating galactic environments. We present a systematic analysis of optical emission line diagnostics compiled from existing optical spectroscopy of the GOALS sample. The data consists of measurements from the literature, archived spectra and some new observations. We consistently apply the same criteria for diagnosing the galaxy type. We discuss how our results compare with other diagnostics of starburst, AGN and shocks and how LIRGs compare to other samples. We also present plans for future optical spectroscopic observations of the complete sample, including observations with the new WiFeS integral field unit.

  18. Exploration of binding of bisphenol A and its analogues with calf thymus DNA by optical spectroscopic and molecular docking methods.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan-Qing; Zhang, Hong-Mei

    2015-08-01

    Bisphenol A and its analogues have carcinogenic potentials and toxicities. However, there are lacks of studies elucidating gene toxic interactions of bisphenols with DNA. In this work, the binding modes of five bisphenol compounds with calf thymus DNA were characterized. The multi-spectroscopic experimental results indicated that the fluorescence quenching of bisphenols by calf thymus DNA point to groove binding. The ultraviolet visible and circular dichroism spectral data displayed that bisphenols partly induced conformational changes of calf thymus DNA. In addition, the binding constants of bisphenol A, diphenolic acid, bisphenol AF, bisphenol AP, bisphenol fluorine with calf thymus DNA obtained from fluorescence emission spectra were 1.09×10(4), 3.65×10(4), 4.46×10(4), 1.69×10(4), 4.49×10(4)Lmol(-1) at 298.15K, which indicated that the multi-noncovalent binding forces were involved in the binding processes. In silico investigations indicated that DNA has the preferable binding sites binding with bisphenols by minor groove binding and electrons transfer from DNA bases to bisphenols occurred. In addition, the structural differences of these five bisphenols partly affected the binding ability of them with DNA. PMID:26026682

  19. Relevance of V?k??yurveda and other traditional methods for organic production of nursery seedlings of useful plants.

    PubMed

    Suresh, Geetha; Haridasan, K; Krishnamurthy, Kulithala Viswanathan

    2013-07-01

    Plant propagation is critical to augment the resource and has been the main concern for farmers and planters through history. India has evolved the science of V?k??yurveda to address the above issue. An effort is made here to review V?k??yurveda literature related to nursery techniques. Different libraries were visited and relevant review material obtained by hand search and from databases. Interaction with Sanskrit scholars and eminent scientists working in the field of V?k??yurveda, as well as the efforts of the authors of this paper, helped in the selection of pertinent literature. In the absence of original texts, authentic translations of the publications were referred. A conscious decision was made to limit the search to the fields of seed storage, pretreatment and nutrition of seedlings. To have a comparative account recent trends and literature on nursery technology were also examined. This was supplemented by interviews with traditional organic farmers. Our survey revealed that the time period of the literature pertaining to V?k??yurveda ranges from BCE 1200 to the present times. The subject has evolved from morphological descriptions and uses of plants, in texts such as ?gveda and Atharvaveda, to treatises dedicated solely to the art of growing plants like K??i-Par??ara and V?k??yurveda. It is also evident that there were important periods when more works appeared across subjects such as water divining, soil types, seed collection and storage, propagation, germination and sprouting, watering regimen, pest, and disease control. The review revealed that valuable information pertaining to nursery techniques is available in V?k??yurveda, which can be used in the development of nursery protocol. This will not only help in effective organic nursery management, but also ensure the health and livelihood security of the communities involved and effective waste management. PMID:25161333

  20. Determination of uncertainty in parameters extracted from single spectroscopic measurements

    E-print Network

    Bechtel, Kate L.

    The ability to quantify uncertainty in information extracted from spectroscopic measurements is important in numerous fields. The traditional approach of repetitive measurements may be impractical or impossible in some ...

  1. Performance of flax mat to replace E-glass in panels produced using traditional thermoset resin infusion methods.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of the project was to assess the capability of non-optimized, commercially producible flax fiber to be fabricated into composites using a polyester thermoset resin and manufacturing methods common to industry. Flax composite panels were manufactured using a disposable bag resin infusion...

  2. Analyses of bacterial communities in meju, a Korean traditional fermented soybean bricks, by cultivation-based and pyrosequencing methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yi-Seul Kim; Min-Cheol Kim; Soon-Wo Kwon; Soo-Jin Kim; In-Cheol Park; Jong-Ok Ka; Hang-Yeon Weon

    2011-01-01

    Despite the importance of meju as a raw material used to make Korean soy sauce (ganjang) and soybean paste (doenjang), little\\u000a is known about the bacterial diversity of Korean meju. In this study, the bacterial communities in meju were examined using\\u000a both culture-dependent and independent methods in order to evaluate the diversity of the bacterial population. Analyses of\\u000a the 16S

  3. The culture of traditional preservice elementary science methods students compared to the culture of science: A dilemma for teacher educators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara S. Spector; Paschal N. Strong

    2001-01-01

    An emergent design qualitative study generated grounded theory explaining what happened when a professor taught five preservice\\u000a elementary science methods classes modeling inquiry. Data sources included classroom observations, interviews, students’ reflective\\u000a journals, and artifacts from other student assignments. Member checking was done with individuals and groups during each course\\u000a and in exit interviews Findings suggested students’ expectations for learning and

  4. Exploration of Porphyrin-based Semiconductors for Negative Charge Transport Applications Using Synthetic, Spectroscopic, Potentiometric, Magnetic Resonance, and Computational Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rawson, Jeffrey Scott

    Organic pi-conjugated materials are emerging as commercially relevant components in electronic applications that include transistors, light-emitting diodes, and solar cells. One requirement common to all of these functions is an aptitude for accepting and transmitting charges. It is generally agreed that the development of organic semiconductors that favor electrons as the majority carriers (n-type) lags behind the advances in hole transporting (p-type) materials. This shortcoming suggests that the design space for n-type materials is not yet well explored, presenting researchers with the opportunity to develop unconventional architectures. In this regard, it is worth noting that discrete molecular materials are demonstrating the potential to usurp the preeminent positions that pi-conjugated polymers have held in these areas of organic electronics research. This dissertation describes how an extraordinary class of molecules, meso-to-meso ethyne-bridged porphyrin arrays, has been bent to these new uses. Chapter one describes vis-NIR spectroscopic and magnetic resonance measurements revealing that these porphyrin arrays possess a remarkable aptitude for the delocalization of negative charge. In fact, the miniscule electron-lattice interactions exhibited in these rigid molecules allow them to host the most vast electron-polarons ever observed in a pi-conjugated material. Chapter two describes the development of an ethyne-bridged porphyrin-isoindigo hybrid chromophore that can take the place of fullerene derivatives in the conventional thin film solar cell architecture. Particularly noteworthy is the key role played by the 5,15-bis(heptafluoropropyl)porphyrin building block in the engineering of a chromophore that, gram for gram, is twice as absorptive as poly(3-hexyl)thiophene, exhibits a lower energy absorption onset than this polymer, and yet possesses a photoexcited singlet state sufficiently energetic to transfer a hole to this polymer. Chapter three describes synthetic efforts that expand the repertoire of readily available meso-heptafluoropropyl porphyrin building blocks. The findings suggest that the remaining challenges to the exploitation of these pigments will be overcome by a sufficiently firm grasp of their subtle electronic structures, and a willingness to eschew the customary strategies of chromophore assembly.

  5. Total phosphorus reference condition for subalpine lakes: a comparison among traditional methods and a new process-based watershed approach.

    PubMed

    Salerno, Franco; Viviano, Gaetano; Carraro, Elisa; Manfredi, Emanuela Chiara; Lami, Andrea; Musazzi, Simona; Marchetto, Aldo; Guyennon, Nicolas; Tartari, Gianni; Copetti, Diego

    2014-12-01

    Different methods for estimating the total phosphorus (TP) reference conditions of lakes have rarely been compared. This work tests the uncertainty and accuracy of the most frequently used approaches (Morpho-edaphic index -MEI-, export coefficient, diatoms and pigment-inferred TP models) for 35 subalpine lakes. Furthermore, we propose a new process-based watershed approach that was tested on a subalpine environment and consists of combining a space for time substitution with a space for space substitution. The possible presence of uncontaminated or less contaminated environments inside or next to the watershed can be exploited by training a hydrological transport watershed model according to the uncontaminated conditions and then applying the calibration to the entire watershed, which reconstructs a natural or semi-natural TP load scenario. We found that the root mean square error (RMSE) for the MEI is 4 ?g L(-1). However, its application is limited for lakes that present with an alkalinity ?1 meq L(-1). For lakes with a higher alkalinity, we observed a loss of predictive capability that results from the lower solubility of phosphorus under conditions of high calcium content. The export coefficient model was applied with a mean export coefficient and presents similar prediction capabilities as the MEI. The chlorophyll-inferred TP model shows a higher uncertainty (RMSE = 8 ?g L(-1)); however, it produced fewer underestimations and overestimations. With regards to the diatom-inferred TP model, we are only able to evaluate an uncertainty of 5 ?g L(-1) at the European level. Finally, the proposed process-based watershed approach adequately predicted the reference condition of the selected lake and had an uncertainty lower than the other methods (2 ?g L(-1)). We conclude by revealing the potential and limitations of this approach in the field of ecological lake modelling more and more attracted by TP pristine load inputs in studies on the effects of climate change and eutrophication of lakes. PMID:25014886

  6. Fungal endophytes in potato roots studied by traditional isolation and cultivation-independent DNA-based methods.

    PubMed

    Götz, Monika; Nirenberg, Helgard; Krause, Sibylle; Wolters, Heike; Draeger, Siegfried; Buchner, Arno; Lottmann, Jana; Berg, Gabriele; Smalla, Kornelia

    2006-12-01

    The composition and relative abundance of endophytic fungi in roots of field-grown transgenic T4-lysozyme producing potatoes and the parental line were assessed by classical isolation from root segments and cultivation-independent techniques to test the hypothesis that endophytic fungi are affected by T4-lysozyme. Fungi were isolated from the majority of root segments of both lines and at least 63 morphological groups were obtained with Verticillium dahliae, Cylindrocarpon destructans, Colletotrichum coccodes and Plectosporium tabacinum as the most frequently isolated species. Dominant bands in the fungal fingerprints obtained by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analysis of 18S rRNA gene fragments amplified from total community DNA corresponded to the electrophoretic mobility of the 18S rRNA gene fragments of the three most abundant fungal isolates, V. dahliae, C. destructans and Col. coccodes, but not to P. tabacinum. The assignment of the bands to these isolates was confirmed for V. dahliae and Col. coccodes by sequencing of clones. Verticillium dahliae was the most abundant endophytic fungus in the roots of healthy potato plants. Differences in the relative abundance of endophytic fungi colonizing the roots of T4-lysozyme producing potatoes and the parental line could be detected by both methods. PMID:17117985

  7. Traditional Irrigated Agriculture in Oman

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ahmed Salim Al-Marshudi

    2001-01-01

    Traditional methods were developed to allow farmers to live in harmony with a harsh environment. The farming techniques employed required only limited inputs of capital and caused minimal disturbance to the environment. The patterns of production were truly sustainable and skills were passed from generation to generation. Traditional surface irrigation systems of aflaj provide more than 60 percent of the

  8. The Nishino Breathing Method and Ki-energy (Life-energy): A Challenge to Traditional Scientific Thinking

    PubMed Central

    Ohnishi, S. Tsuyoshi; Ohnishi, Tomoko

    2006-01-01

    The breathing method, which was developed and is being taught by Kozo Nishino, a Japanese Ki-expert, is for raising the levels of Ki-energy (life-energy or the vitality) of an individual. It is neither a therapy nor a healing technique. However, many of his students have experienced an improvement in their health, and in some cases, they were able to overcome health problems by themselves. Since this is an interesting subject from the standpoint of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), we have been collaborating with Nishino to conduct a scientific investigation of his Ki-energy. We found that Nishino's Ki-energy can inhibit cell division of cancer cells, protect isolated mitochondria from heat deterioration and reduce lipid peroxidation in heat-treated mitochondria. Although Ki-energy may consist of several different energy forms, we found that at least one of them is near-infrared radiation between the wavelength range of 0.8 and 2.7 µm. Another interesting observation at his school is the Taiki-practice (paired Ki-practice). During this practice, Nishino can ‘move’ his students without any physical contact. Many of them run, jump or roll on the floor when they receive his Ki-energy. We studied this and propose that ‘information’ is conveyed through the air between two individuals by Ki-energy. This may be called a five sense-independent, life-to-life communication by Ki. All of our results suggest that we should re-evaluate the Cartesian dualism (separation of mind and body) which has been a fundamental principle of modern science for the past three centuries. PMID:16786048

  9. A rapid method with ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for simultaneous determination of five type B trichothecenes in traditional Chinese medicines.

    PubMed

    Han, Zheng; Liu, Xuesong; Ren, Yiping; Luan, Lianjun; Wu, Yongjiang

    2010-07-01

    A speedy and selective ultra-HPLC-MS/MS method for simultaneous determination of deoxynivalenol (DON), 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-ADON), 15-ADON, nivalenol and fusarenon X in traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs) was developed. The method was based on one-step sample cleanup using reliable homemade cleanup cartridges. A linear gradient mobile-phase system, consisting of water containing 0.2% aqueous ammonia and acetonitrile/methanol (90:10, v/v) at a flow rate of 0.4 mL/min, and an Acquity UPLC HSS T3 column (100 mm x 2.1 mm, 1.8 microm) were employed to obtain the best resolution of the target analytes. [(13)C(15)]-DON was used as the internal standard to accomplish as accurate as possible quantitation. The established method was further validated by determining the linearity (R(2) > or = 0.9990), sensitivity (LOQ, 0.29-0.99 microg/kg), recovery (88.5-119.5%) and precision (RSD < or = 15.8%). It was shown to be a suitable method for simultaneous determination of DON, 3-ADON, 15-ADON, nivalenol and fusarenon X in various TCM matrices. The utility and practical impact of the method was demonstrated using different TCM samples. PMID:20533344

  10. Multi-spectroscopic method study the interaction of anti-inflammatory drug ketoprofen and calf thymus DNA and its analytical application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Hongqin; Cai, Changqun; Gong, Hang; Chen, Xiaoming

    2011-06-01

    Interactions of the anti-inflammatory drug ketoprofen with calf thymus DNA (ctDNA) in aqueous solution have been studied by multi-spectroscopic method including resonance light scattering (RLS) technique, ultraviolet spectra (UV), 1H NMR, etc. The characteristics of RLS spectra, the effective factors and optimum conditions of the reaction have been unequivocally investigated. Mechanism investigations have shown that ketoprofen can bind to ctDNA by groove binding and form large particles, which resulted in the enhancement of RLS intensity. In Critic acid-Na 2HPO 4 buffer (pH = 6.5), ketoprofen has a maximum peak 451.5 nm and the RLS intensity is remarkably enhanced by trace amount of ctDNA due to the interaction between ketoprofen and ctDNA. The enhancement of RLS signal is directly proportional to the concentration of ctDNA in the range of 1.20 × 10 -6-1.0 × 10 -5 mol/L, and its detection limit (3 ?) is 1.33 × 10 -9 mol/L. The method is simple, rapid, practical and relatively free from interference generated by coexisting substance, and was applied to the determination of trace amounts of nucleic acid in synthetic samples with satisfactory results.

  11. Improved method to visualize lipid distribution within arterial vessel walls by 1.7 ?m spectroscopic spectral-domain optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirano, Mitsuharu; Tonosaki, Shozo; Ueno, Takahiro; Tanaka, Masato; Hasegawa, Takemi

    2014-02-01

    We report an improved method to visualize lipid distribution in axial and lateral direction within arterial vessel walls by spectroscopic spectral-domain Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) at 1.7?m wavelength for identification of lipidrich plaque that is suspected to cause coronary events. In our previous method, an extended InGaAs-based line camera detects an OCT interferometric spectrum from 1607 to 1766 nm, which is then divided into twenty subbands, and A-scan OCT profile is calculated for each subband, resulting in a tomographic spectrum. This tomographic spectrum is decomposed into lipid spectrum having an attenuation peak at 1730 nm and non-lipid spectrum independent of wavelength, and the weight of each spectrum, that is, lipid and non-lipid score is calculated. In this paper, we present an improved algorithm, in which we have combined the lipid score and the non-lipid score to derive a corrected lipid score. We have found that the corrected lipid score is better than the raw lipid score in that the former is more robust against false positive occurring due to abrupt change in reflectivity at vessel surface. In addition, we have optimized spatial smoothing filter and reduced false positive and false negative due to detection noise and speckle. We have verified this improved algorithm by the use of measuring data of normal porcine coronary artery and lard as a model of lipid-rich plaque and confirmed that both the sensitivity and the specificity of lard are 92%.

  12. Exploring potential chemical markers by metabolomics method for studying the processing mechanism of traditional Chinese medicine using RPLC-Q-TOF/MS: a case study of Radix Aconiti

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Pao zhi is a common traditional approach that usually occurs before most herbs are prescribed whereby during processing, secondary plant metabolites are transformed, thus helping to increase potency, reduce toxicity and altering their effects. Using Radix Aconiti (Chuan Wu, CW) as a model herb, suitable chemical markers are crucial for studying the processing mechanisms of these herbs. Results In this study, the comprehensive metabolomic characters of CW and Prepared CW (ZCW) by RPLC-Q-TOF/MS were investigated to guarantee clinical safety. Multivariate analyses successfully identified specific metabolite changes between CW and ZCW. In addition, 22 key biomarkers responsible for the detoxifying actions of pao zhi were discovered. The processing mechanism of CW were discussed according to the identified metabolites. This method is efficient, providing more accurate characterisations of traditional pao zhi detoxification. Conclusions The proposed strategy proves that RPLC-Q-TOF/MS-based metabolomic analysis does not only explore chemical markers but can also provide a comprehensive understanding of the transformation mechanisms underlying pao zhi. PMID:23432780

  13. Reflectance near-infrared spectroscopic method with Chemometric techniques for simultaneous determination of Chondroitin, glucosamine, and methyl sulfonyl methane.

    PubMed

    El-Gindy, Alaa; Attia, Khalid Abdel-Salam; Nassar, Mohammad Wafaa; Seda, Hamed Hamed Abu; Shoeib, Maisra Al-Shabrawi

    2012-01-01

    Reflectance near-IR (RNIR) spectroscopy was used for the simultaneous determination of chondroitin (CH), glucosamine (GO), and methyl sulfonyl methane (MSM) in tablets. Simple sample preparation was done by grinding, sieving, and compression of the tablets for improving RNIR spectra. Principal component regression and partial least squares (PLS-1 and PLS-2) were successfully applied to quantify the three components in the studied mixture using information included in RNIR spectra in the range of 4350-9100 cm(-1). The calibration model was developed with drug concentration ranges of 14.5-44.2% (w/w) for CH, 18.4-55.3% (w/w) for GO, and 6-18.6% (w/w) for MSM with addition of tablet excipients to the calibration set in the same ratio as in the tested tablets. The calibration models were evaluated by internal validation, cross-validation, and external validation using synthetic and pharmaceutical preparations. The proposed method was applied for analysis of six batches of the pharmaceutical product. The results of the proposed method were compared with the results of the pharmacopoeial method for the same batch of the pharmaceutical product. No significant differences between the results were found. The RNIR method is accurate and precise, and can be used for QC of pharmaceutical products. PMID:22970568

  14. The Effectiveness of School-Type Classes Compared to the Traditional Lecture/Tutorial Method for Teaching Quantitative Methods to Business Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldfinch, Judy

    1996-01-01

    A study compared the effectiveness of two methods (medium-size class instruction and large lectures with tutorial sessions) for teaching mathematics and statistics to first-year business students. Students and teachers overwhelmingly preferred the medium-size class method, which produced higher exam scores but had no significant effect on…

  15. Are traditional methods of determining nest predators and nest fates reliable? An experiment with Wood Thrushes (Hylocichla mustelina) using miniature video cameras

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, G.E.; Wood, P.B.

    2002-01-01

    We used miniature infrared video cameras to monitor Wood Thrush (Hylocichla mustelina) nests during 1998-2000. We documented nest predators and examined whether evidence at nests can be used to predict predator identities and nest fates. Fifty-six nests were monitored; 26 failed, with 3 abandoned and 23 depredated. We predicted predator class (avian, mammalian, snake) prior to review of video footage and were incorrect 57% of the time. Birds and mammals were underrepresented whereas snakes were over-represented in our predictions. We documented ???9 nest-predator species, with the southern flying squirrel (Glaucomys volans) taking the most nests (n = 8). During 2000, we predicted fate (fledge or fail) of 27 nests; 23 were classified correctly. Traditional methods of monitoring nests appear to be effective for classifying success or failure of nests, but ineffective at classifying nest predators.

  16. Mass Spectroscopic Fingerprinting Method for Differentiation Between Scutellaria lateriflora and the Germander (Teucrium canadense and T. chamaedrys) Species

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Pei; Lin, Long-Ze; Harnly, James M.

    2013-01-01

    Scutellaria lateriflora, commonly known as skullcap, is used as an ingredient in numerous herbal products. However, it has been occasionally adulterated/contaminated with Teucrium canadense and T. chamaedrys, commonly known as germander, which contain hepatotoxic diterpenes. Due to the morphological similarities between the two genera, analytical methodologies to distinguish authentic S. lateriflora from the Teucrium species are needed to ensure public safety. In this study, a direct-injection electrospray ionization/MS method was used to generate spectral fingerprints of extracts from 21 skullcap and germander samples at a rate of 90 s/sample. MS fingerprints were analyzed by principal component analysis. The newly developed method offers a rapid and easy way to differentiate between skullcap and germander samples. PMID:20922946

  17. Mass spectroscopic fingerprinting method for differentiation between Scutellaria lateriflora and the germander (Teucrium canadense and T. chamaedrys) species.

    PubMed

    Chen, Pei; Lin, Long-Ze; Harnly, James M

    2010-01-01

    Scutellaria lateriflora, commonly known as skullcap, is used as an ingredient in numerous herbal products. However, it has been occasionally adulterated/contaminated with Teucrium canadense and T. chamaedrys, commonly known as germander, which contain hepatotoxic diterpenes. Due to the morphological similarities between the two genera, analytical methodologies to distinguish authentic S. lateriflora from the Teucrium species are needed to ensure public safety. In this study, a direct-injection electrospray ionization/MS method was used to generate spectral fingerprints of extracts from 21 skullcap and germander samples at a rate of 90 s/sample. MS fingerprints were analyzed by principal component analysis. The newly developed method offers a rapid and easy way to differentiate between skullcap and germander samples. PMID:20922946

  18. Electronic structure and molecular spectroscopic constants of ScN and ScP investigated by several quantum chemistry methods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Abdelali Daoudi; Mohamed Filali Baba; Souad Elkhattabi; François Rogemond; Henry Chermette

    2003-01-01

    The electronic structure of the ScN and ScP molecules is a subject of controversy and turns out to be a challenging problem in quantum chemistry. We show that the ground-state electronic structure for both molecules depends critically on the choice of methods used which incorporate different ways of accounting for electron correlation. A parallel ab initio, DFT and TD-DFT study

  19. Atomic absorption spectroscopic, conductometric and colorimetric methods for determination of fluoroquinolone antibiotics using ammonium reineckate ion-pair complex formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ragab, Gamal H.; Amin, Alaa S.

    2004-03-01

    Three accurate, rapid and simple atomic absorption spectrometric, conductometric and colorimetric methods were developed for the determination of norfloxacin (NRF), ciprofloxacin (CIP), ofloxacin (OFL) and enrofloxacin (ENF). The proposed methods depend upon the reaction of ammonium reineckate with the studied drugs to form stable precipitate of ion-pair complexes, which was dissolved in acetone. The pink coloured complexes were determined either by AAS or colorimetrically at ?max 525 nm directly using the dissolved complex. Using conductometric titration, the studied drugs could be evaluated in 50% (v/v) acetone in the range 5.0-65, 4.0-48, 5.0-56 and 6.0-72 ?g ml -1 of NRF, CPF, OFL and ENF, respectively. The optimizations of various experimental conditions were described. The results obtained showed good recoveries of 99.15±1.15, 99.30±1.40, 99.60±1.50, and 99.00±1.25% with relative standard deviations of 0.81, 1.06, 0.97, and 0.69% for NRF, CPF, OFL, and ENF, respectively. Applications of the proposed methods to representative pharmaceutical formulations are successfully presented.

  20. Study on photophysical and aggregation induced emission recognition of 1,8-naphthalimide probe for casein by spectroscopic method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yang; Liu, Zhen; Liang, Xuhua; Fan, Jun; Han, Quan

    2013-05-01

    A novel water-soluble 1,8-naphthalimide derivative 1, bearing two acetic carboxylic groups, exhibited fluorescent turn-on recognition for casein based on the aggregation induced emission (AIE) character. The photophysical properties of 1 consisting of donor and acceptor units were investigated in different solutions. The fluorescence intensity decreased through taking advantage of twisted intramolecular charge transfer (TICT) and self-association emission with increasing solvent polarity. Moreover, the spectral red-shift and intensity quench in protic solvents were caused by the excited-state hydrogen bond strengthening effect. Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations revealed that 1 exhibited a strong TICT character. The AIE mechanism of 1 with casein was due to 1 docked in the hydrophobic cavity between sub-micelles and bound with Tyr and Trp residues, resulting in the aggregation of 1 on the casein surface and emission enhancement. Based on this, a novel casein assay method was developed. The proposed exhibited a good linear range from 0.1 to 22 ?g mL-1, with the detection limit of 2.8 ng mL-1. Satisfactory reproducibility, reversibility and a short response time were realized. This method was applied to the determination of casein in milk powder samples and the results were in good agreement with the result of Biuret method.

  1. Spectroscopic planetary detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deming, Drake

    1991-01-01

    One of the most promising methods for the detection of extra-solar planets is the spectroscopic method, where a small Doppler shift (approx. 10 meter/sec) in the spectrum of the parent star reveals the presence of planetary companions. However, solar type stars may show spurious Doppler shifts due to surface activity. If these effects are periodic, as is the solar activity cycle, then they may masquerade as planetary companions. The goal of this study was to determine whether the solar cycle affects the Doppler stability of integrated sunlight. Observations of integrated sunlight were made in the near infrared (approx. 2 micron), using the Kitt Peak McMath Fourier transform spectrometer, with a N2O gas absorption cell for calibration. An accuracy of approx. 5 meter/sec was achieved.

  2. Retrieval of frequency spectrum from time-resolved spectroscopic data: comparison of Fourier transform and linear prediction methods.

    PubMed

    Eom, Intae; Yoon, Eunjin; Baik, Sung-Hoon; Lim, Yong-Sik; Joo, Taiha

    2014-12-15

    Femtosecond time-resolved signals often display oscillations arising from the nuclear and electronic wave packet motions. Fourier power spectrum is generally used to retrieve the frequency spectrum. We have shown by numerical simulations and coherent phonon spectrum of single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) that the Fourier power spectrum may not be appropriate to obtain the spectrum, when the peaks overlap with varying phases. Linear prediction singular value decomposition (LPSVD) can be a good alternative for this case. We present a robust way to perform LPSVD analysis and demonstrate the method for the chirality assignment of SWCNT through the time-domain coherent phonon spectroscopy. PMID:25606997

  3. Enantioselective HPLC combined with spectroscopic methods: a valid strategy to determine the absolute configuration of potential beta-secretase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Cirilli, Roberto; Ferretti, Rosella; La Regina, Giuseppe; Morelli, Gianluigi; Pierini, Marco; Piscitelli, Francesco; Silvestri, Romano

    2010-09-15

    A direct HPLC enantioseparation of three representative compounds of a new family of potential non-peptide beta-secretase inhibitors was performed on the immobilized Chiralpak IA chiral stationary phase. Semipreparative amounts of enantiopure forms were collected and submitted to stereochemical characterization. The absolute configuration was assigned by a multi-step methodology based on the combination of Mosher's method with circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. The results from the NMR/CD study fully correlated the configurational assignment obtained by a second approach involving single crystal X-ray diffraction. PMID:20801333

  4. Traditional Animation Keyframe Animation

    E-print Network

    Treuille, Adrien

    #12;Traditional Animation: The Process · Story board ­ Sequence of drawings with descriptions ­ Story board ­ Animatic ­ Final Animation #12;Traditional Animation: The Process · Key Frames ­ Draw a fewAnimation Traditional Animation Keyframe Animation Interpolating Rotation Forward

  5. Culture-independent analysis of the microbial composition of the African traditional fermented foods poto poto and dégué by using three different DNA extraction methods.

    PubMed

    Abriouel, Hikmate; Ben Omar, Nabil; López, Rosario Lucas; Martínez-Cañamero, Madgalena; Keleke, Simon; Gálvez, Antonio

    2006-10-01

    The microbial composition of the traditional fermented foods poto poto (a maize dough from the Rep. of Congo) and dégué (a millet dough from Burkina Faso) was studied by a culture-independent approach using TTGE to separate the amplified target V3 region of the 16S rRNA gene from total microbial community, followed by DNA sequencing and homology search. Three different extraction methods were used. Guanidium thiocyanate-based DNA extraction provided better performance regarding purity and DNA yield, allowing the detection of a higher number of DNA bands by TTGE in poto poto. By contrast, all three methods yielded similar results for dégué samples, indicating that the performance of the DNA extraction method largely depends on the food composition. Sequencing of DNA bands from TTGE gels corresponding to poto poto samples revealed the presence of Lactobacillus gasseri, Enterococcus sp., Escherichia coli, Lactobacillus plantarum/paraplantarum, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii, Bacillus sp., Lactobacillus reuteri and Lactobacillus casei. The following bacteria were identified in dégué: L. gasseri, Enterococcus sp., E. coli, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus brevis, and L. casei. PMID:16842876

  6. Vibrational spectroscopic studies on 2?-3?-didehydro-2?-3?-dideoxythymidine using density functional theory method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramkumaar, G. R.; Srinivasan, S.; Bhoopathy, T. J.; Gunasekaran, S.; Prameena, B.

    2014-02-01

    FTIR and FT-Raman spectra of 2?-3?-didehydro-2?-3?-dideoxythymidine have been recorded and analyzed. The molecular geometry and vibrational frequencies and intensity of the vibrational bands are interpreted with the aid of structure optimization based on density functional theory (DFT) B3LYP method with 6-31G(d,p) and 6-31++G(d,p) basis sets. The results of the optimized molecular structure are presented and compared with the experimental X-ray diffraction data. The theoretical results show that the optimized geometry can well reproduce the crystal structure, and the calculated vibrational frequency values show good agreement with experimental values. A study of the electronic properties, such as HOMO and LUMO energies were performed. Mulliken charges and NBO charges of the title molecule were also calculated and interpreted. Thermogravimetric analysis has been done to study the thermal behavior of 2?-3?-didehydro-2?-3?-dideoxythymidine. The 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) chemical shift of the molecule are calculated by the gauge independent atomic orbital (GIAO) method and compared with experimental results.

  7. A mass spectroscopic method for analysis of AHH-inducing and other polychlorinated biphenyl congeners and selected pesticides in fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmidt, Larry J.; Hesselberg, Robert J.

    1992-01-01

    The 209 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners exhibit a wide range in toxicity to fish, birds, and mammals. This paper discusses the use of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry negative chemical ionization (GC/MS-NCI) to quantify congeners of highly suspected toxicity such as IUPAC #77 (3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl) and #126 (3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl). GC/MS analysis time needed to produce the necessary resolution was reduced to 1 h per sample or standard, allowing an autosampler to inject 12 samples in 24 hours, plus 12 standards/QC samples. Identification and quantification of some 60+ congeners and several selected pesticides and estimation of total PCBs are also possible within the 1 h analysis. For congeners of high chlorination (penta through octa), the method exhibited excellent sensitivity, such that we could not locate a fish which exhibited PCB levels below our calibrated quantitation range. NCI was not as sensitive for mono through tri and for some tetrachlorinated PCB congeners, an exception being PCB #77, for which sensitivity was of the same order as for the more highly chlorinated biphenyls. Long term stability was excellent. Over a 6-mo period, results of replicate analyses for PCB congeners and pesticides in a composited sample of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from Lake Michigan had a relative standard deviation of 12% of the mean. Over the same time period, mean recoveries for samples spiked at concentrations similar to those in Lake Michigan lake trout were 90-102%. Response was linear over a wide range of concentrations for each of the analyzed compounds. This method is now being used for routine analysis of PCB congeners and selected pesticides in our laboratory.

  8. Spectroscopic investigations on the photodegradation of toluidine blue dye using cadmium sulphide nanoparticles prepared by a novel method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neelakandeswari, N.; Sangami, G.; Dharmaraj, N.; Taek, Nam Ki; Kim, Hak Yong

    2011-05-01

    A novel method to prepare cadmium sulphide nanoparticles (CdS NPs) possessing nearly uniform size was adopted using eggshell membrane (ESM), under different pH conditions. Significant yield of CdS NPs with smallest possible size was obtained by increasing the pH of the reaction medium from acidic to alkaline. The above prepared CdS NPs have been characterized by UV-vis absorption as well as emission spectra, powder X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The efficiency of the above prepared CdS NPs as a catalyst for the photodegradation of toluidine blue (TB) dye, as a function of pH as well as the ratio between the catalyst and the substrate was studied after irradiation with UV light. The results showed that an efficient interaction took place between the catalyst and the substrate to cause degradation of the selected dye. A maximum degradation of toluidine blue dye (90%) was observed at pH 8 which is higher than that of the efficiencies at pH 4 and pH 6.

  9. Spectroscopic investigations on the synthesis of nano-hydroxyapatite from calcined eggshell by hydrothermal method using cationic surfactant as template

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prabakaran, K.; Rajeswari, S.

    2009-12-01

    The present work reports the successful synthesis of nano-hydroxyapatite, Ca 10(PO 4) 6(OH) 2 (denoted HAP) from calcined eggshell by hydrothermal method using cationic surfactant (CTAB) as regulator of nucleation and crystal growth. The reaction involved in the synthesis was studied elaborately. The influence of reaction temperature, ageing time and CTAB concentration on the synthesis of nano-HAP are also studied in addition to the effect of sintering temperature on the crystal growth. Spectral characterization involving Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques were performed for functional group analysis and phase identification of the materials, respectively. Thermal stability of nano-HAP was investigated by thermal analysis (TG/DTA). The physical characteristics, such as morphology and particle size of the synthesized nano-HAP were assessed thoroughly by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques. The results have revealed that well-crystallized nano-HAP was synthesized by hydrothermal treatment at 160 °C for 10 h with the addition of CTAB at critical micelle concentration (CMC). It was also found that the synthesized nano-HAP was thermally stable up to 1100 °C.

  10. Investigation of trypsin-CdSe quantum dot interactions via spectroscopic methods and effects on enzymatic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Gurvir; Tripathi, S. K.

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents the interactions between trypsin and water soluble cadmium selenide (CdSe) quantum dots investigated by spectrophotometric methods. CdSe quantum dots have strong ability to quench the intrinsic fluorescence of trypsin by a static quenching mechanism. The quenching has been studied at three different temperatures where the results revealed that electrostatic interactions exist between CdSe quantum dots and trypsin and are responsible to stabilize the complex. The Scatchard plot from quenching revealed 1 binding site for quantum dots by trypsin, the same has been confirmed by making isothermal titrations of quantum dots against trypsin. The distance between donor and acceptor for trypsin-CdSe quantum dot complexes is calculated to be 2.8 nm by energy transfer mechanisms. The intrinsic fluorescence of CdSe quantum dots has also been enhanced by the trypsin, and is linear for concentration of trypsin ranging 1-80 ?l. All the observations evidence the formation of trypsin-CdSe quantum dot conjugates, where trypsin retains the enzymatic activity which in turn is temperature and pH dependent.

  11. Correlation mapping: rapid method for identification of histological features and pathological classification in mid infrared spectroscopic images of lymph nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isabelle, Martin; Rogers, Keith; Stone, Nicholas

    2010-03-01

    In this work, a novel technique for rapid image analysis of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) data obtained from human lymph nodes is explored. It uses the mathematical principle of orthogonality as a method to quickly and efficiently obtain tissue and pathology information from a spectral image cube. It requires less computational power and time compared to most forms of cluster analysis. The values obtained from different tissue and pathology types allows for discrimination of noncancerous from cancerous lymph nodes. It involves the calculation of the dot product between reference spectra and individual spectra from across the tissue image. These provide a measure of the correlation between individual spectra and the reference spectra, and each spectrum or pixel in the image is given a color representing the reference most closely correlating with it. The correlation maps are validated with the tissue and pathology features identified by an expert pathologist from corresponding hematoxylin and eosin stained tissue sections. Although this novel technique requires further study to properly test and validate this tool, with inclusion of more lymph node hyperspectral datasets (containing a greater variety of tissue states), it demonstrates significant clinical potential for pathology diagnosis.

  12. Polyphasic Study of the Spatial Distribution of Microorganisms in Mexican Pozol, a Fermented Maize Dough, Demonstrates the Need for Cultivation-Independent Methods To Investigate Traditional Fermentations

    PubMed Central

    Ampe, Frédéric; ben Omar, Nabil; Moizan, Claire; Wacher, Carmen; Guyot, Jean-Pierre

    1999-01-01

    The distribution of microorganisms in pozol balls, a fermented maize dough, was investigated by a polyphasic approach in which we used both culture-dependent and culture-independent methods, including microbial enumeration, fermentation product analysis, quantification of microbial taxa with 16S rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes, determination of microbial fingerprints by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), and 16S ribosomal DNA gene sequencing. Our results demonstrate that DGGE fingerprinting and rRNA quantification should allow workers to precisely and rapidly characterize the microbial assemblage in a spontaneous lactic acid fermented food. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) accounted for 90 to 97% of the total active microflora; no streptococci were isolated, although members of the genus Streptococcus accounted for 25 to 50% of the microflora. Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum, together with members of the genera Leuconostoc and Weissella, were the other dominant organisms. The overall activity was more important at the periphery of a ball, where eucaryotes, enterobacteria, and bacterial exopolysacharide producers developed. Our results also showed that the metabolism of heterofermentative LAB was influenced in situ by the distribution of the LAB in the pozol ball, whereas homolactic fermentation was controlled primarily by sugar limitation. We propose that starch is first degraded by amylases from LAB and that the resulting sugars, together with the lactate produced, allow a secondary flora to develop in the presence of oxygen. Our results strongly suggest that cultivation-independent methods should be used to study traditional fermented foods. PMID:10584005

  13. The integrated analyses of digital field mapping techniques and traditional field methods: implications from the Burdur-Fethiye Shear Zone, SW Turkey as a case-study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elitez, ?rem; Yalt?rak, Cenk; Zabc?, Cengiz; ?ahin, Murat

    2015-04-01

    The precise geological mapping is one of the most important issues in geological studies. Documenting the spatial distribution of geological bodies and their contacts play a crucial role on interpreting the tectonic evolution of any region. Although the traditional field techniques are still accepted to be the most fundamental tools in construction of geological maps, we suggest that the integration of digital technologies to the classical methods significantly increases the resolution and the quality of such products. We simply follow the following steps in integration of the digital data with the traditional field observations. First, we create the digital elevation model (DEM) of the region of interest by interpolating the digital contours of 1:25000 scale topographic maps to 10 m of ground pixel resolution. The non-commercial Google Earth satellite imagery and geological maps of previous studies are draped over the interpolated DEMs in the second stage. The integration of all spatial data is done by using the market leading GIS software, ESRI ArcGIS. We make the preliminary interpretation of major structures as tectonic lineaments and stratigraphic contacts. These preliminary maps are controlled and precisely coordinated during the field studies by using mobile tablets and/or phablets with GPS receivers. The same devices are also used in measuring and recording the geologic structures of the study region. Finally, all digitally collected measurements and observations are added to the GIS database and we finalise our geological map with all available information. We applied this integrated method to map the Burdur-Fethiye Shear Zone (BFSZ) in the southwest Turkey. The BFSZ is an active sinistral 60-to-90 km-wide shear zone, which prolongs about 300 km-long between Suhut-Cay in the northeast and Köyce?iz Lake-Kalkan in the southwest on land. The numerous studies suggest contradictory models not only about the evolution but also about the fault geometry of this wide deformation zone. In our study, we have mapped this complicated region since 2008 by using the data and the steps, which are described briefly above. After our joint-analyses, we show that there is no continuous single and narrow fault, the Burdur-Fethiye Fault, as it was previously suggested by many researches. Instead, the whole region is deformed under the oblique-sinistral shearing with considerable amount of extension, which causes a counterclockwise rotation within the zone.

  14. Developing a library of authenticated Traditional Chinese Medicinal (TCM) plants for systematic biological evaluation — Rationale, methods and preliminary results from a Sino-American collaboration?

    PubMed Central

    Eisenberg, David M.; Harris, Eric S.J.; Littlefield, Bruce A.; Cao, Shugeng; Craycroft, Jane A.; Scholten, Robert; Bayliss, Peter; Fu, Yanling; Wang, Wenquan; Qiao, Yanjiang; Zhao, Zhongzhen; Chen, Hubiao; Liu, Yong; Kaptchuk, Ted; Hahn, William C.; Wang, Xiaoxing; Roberts, Thomas; Shamu, Caroline E.; Clardy, Jon

    2011-01-01

    While the popularity of and expenditures for herbal therapies (aka “ethnomedicines”) have increased globally in recent years, their efficacy, safety, mechanisms of action, potential as novel therapeutic agents, cost-effectiveness, or lack thereof, remain poorly defined and controversial. Moreover, published clinical trials evaluating the efficacy of herbal therapies have rightfully been criticized, post hoc, for their lack of quality assurance and reproducibility of study materials, as well as a lack of demonstration of plausible mechanisms and dosing effects. In short, clinical botanical investigations have suffered from the lack of a cohesive research strategy which draws on the expertise of all relevant specialties. With this as background, US and Chinese co-investigators with expertise in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), botany, chemistry and drug discovery, have jointly established a prototype library consisting of 202 authenticated medicinal plant and fungal species that collectively represent the therapeutic content of the majority of all commonly prescribed TCM herbal prescriptions. Currently housed at Harvard University, the library consists of duplicate or triplicate kilogram quantities of each authenticated and processed species, as well as “detanninized” extracts and sub-fractions of each mother extract. Each species has been collected at 2–3 sites, each separated geographically by hundreds of miles, with precise GPS documentation, and authenticated visually and chemically prior to testing for heavy metals and/or pesticides contamination. An explicit decision process has been developed whereby samples with the least contamination were selected to undergo ethanol extraction and HPLC sub-fractionation in preparation for high throughput screening across a broad array of biological targets including cancer biology targets. As envisioned, the subfractions in this artisan collection of authenticated medicinal plants will be tested for biological activity individually and in combinations (i.e., “complex mixtures”) consistent with traditional ethnomedical practice. This manuscript summarizes the rationale, methods and preliminary “proof of principle” for the establishment of this prototype, authenticated medicinal plant library. It is hoped that these methods will foster scientific discoveries with therapeutic potential and enhance efforts to systematically evaluate commonly used herbal therapies worldwide. PMID:21108995

  15. Chemical and Physical Methods to Analyze a Multicomponent Traditional Chinese Herbal Prescription Using LC-MS/MS, Electron Microscope, and Congo Red Staining

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Chia-Ming; Lin, Lie-Chwen; Tsai, Tung-Hu

    2013-01-01

    This study develops several chemical and physical methods to evaluate the quality of a traditional Chinese formulation, Jia-Wei-Xiao-Yao-San. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) coupled with electrospray ionization was used to measure the herbal biomarkers of saikosaponin A, saikosaponin D, ferulic acid, and paeoniflorin from this herbal formula. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) and light microscopy photographs with Congo red staining were used to identify the cellulose fibers if raw herbal powder had been added to the herbal pharmaceutical product. Moreover, water solubility and crude fiber content examination were used to inspect for potential herbal additives to the herbal pharmaceutical products. The results demonstrate that the contents of the herbal ingredients of saikosaponin A, saikosaponin D, ferulic acid, and paeoniflorin were around 0.351?±?0.017, 0.136?±?0.010, 0.140?±?0.005, and 2.281?±?0.406?mg/g, respectively, for this herbal pharmaceutical product. The physical examination data demonstrate that the raw herbal powder had rough, irregular, lumpy, filamentous, and elongated shapes, as well as strong Congo red staining. In addition, water solubility and crude fiber content were not consistent in the herbal pharmaceutical products. PMID:23997802

  16. Chemical and Physical Methods to Analyze a Multicomponent Traditional Chinese Herbal Prescription Using LC-MS/MS, Electron Microscope, and Congo Red Staining.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chia-Ming; Hou, Mei-Ling; Lin, Lie-Chwen; Tsai, Tung-Hu

    2013-01-01

    This study develops several chemical and physical methods to evaluate the quality of a traditional Chinese formulation, Jia-Wei-Xiao-Yao-San. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) coupled with electrospray ionization was used to measure the herbal biomarkers of saikosaponin A, saikosaponin D, ferulic acid, and paeoniflorin from this herbal formula. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) and light microscopy photographs with Congo red staining were used to identify the cellulose fibers if raw herbal powder had been added to the herbal pharmaceutical product. Moreover, water solubility and crude fiber content examination were used to inspect for potential herbal additives to the herbal pharmaceutical products. The results demonstrate that the contents of the herbal ingredients of saikosaponin A, saikosaponin D, ferulic acid, and paeoniflorin were around 0.351?±?0.017, 0.136?±?0.010, 0.140?±?0.005, and 2.281?±?0.406?mg/g, respectively, for this herbal pharmaceutical product. The physical examination data demonstrate that the raw herbal powder had rough, irregular, lumpy, filamentous, and elongated shapes, as well as strong Congo red staining. In addition, water solubility and crude fiber content were not consistent in the herbal pharmaceutical products. PMID:23997802

  17. Application of molecular genetics method for differentiating Martes zibellina L. heart from its adulterants in traditional Chinese medicine based on mitochondrial cytochrome b gene.

    PubMed

    Li, Mingcheng; Xia, Wei; Wang, Miao; Yang, Mingyan; Zhang, Lihua; Guo, Jie

    2014-02-01

    The use of Martes zibellina L. heart as a famous kind of traditional Chinese medicine has been documented for many years in China. Identification of its authenticity as raw materials became a key in controlling of herbal preparations. In this study, the characteristics of mitochondrial cytochrome b (Cyt b) gene from four species of Martes were explored, and a specific molecular genetics technique for identifying the heart of M. zibellina L. in addition to some close relatives from their counterfeits was established. The bioinformatics was carried out to design the primers for the Cyt b gene based on the different species of Martes. PCR and sequencing technology were performed. The mt DNA was extracted from all of fresh M. zibellina L., Martes melampus. Martes flavigula. Martes martes heart samples and dry M. zibellina L. heart powder through the modified alkaline extracting method in addition to its counterfeits including the chicken heart, duck heart, goose heart, rabbit heart and Mustela vison. The complete mt DNA was separated from all samples used in the study, and the Cyt b gene with 310 bp segments was amplified only from M. zibellina L. heart as DNA template by the PCR technique. The sequencing indicated that the segment amplified by the PCR was homologous with the species of M. zibellina in GenBank. The data revealed that the primers and selected segment could be used as the genetic markers to identify M. zibellina L. heart from its counterfeits among different animal species. PMID:23919324

  18. Traditional Agriculture and Permaculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pierce, Dick

    1997-01-01

    Discusses benefits of combining traditional agricultural techniques with the concepts of "permaculture," a framework for revitalizing traditions, culture, and spirituality. Describes school, college, and community projects that have assisted American Indian communities in revitalizing sustainable agricultural practices that incorporate cultural…

  19. [Rapid screening and quality evaluation for the harmful substance 5-hydroxymethyl furfural in commercially available traditional Chinese medicine injection using LC-MS/MS method].

    PubMed

    Zang, Qing-ce; He, Jing-jing; Bai, Jin-fa; Zheng, Ya-jie; Zhang, Rui-ping; Li, Tie-gang; Wang, Zhong-hua; He, Jiu-ming; Abliz, Zeper

    2013-11-01

    To screen the harmful substance 5-hydroxymethyl furfural content in commercially available traditional Chinese medicine injection which are commonly used, and to preliminarily evaluate the quality of these injections, 5-hydroxymethyl furfural was taken as an index. The contents of 5-hydroxymethyl furfural in 56 samples which consist of 23 kinds of traditional Chinese medicine injections and glucose injection were determined using LC-MS/MS, and 5-hydroxymethyl furfural was detected in 52 of these samples. The minimal content was 0.0038 microg x L(-1) and the maximum content was 1420 microg x mL(-1). The contents of 5-hydroxymethyl furfural were significantly different in traditional Chinese medicine injection which came from different kinds, manufacturers or batches. The results showed the quality difference of commercially available traditional Chinese medicine injection is significant taking 5-hydroxymethyl furfural content as assessment index. More attention should be paid to the safety of 5-hydroxymethyl furfural in traditional Chinese medicine injection, and unified limitation standard should be set to improve medication safety of traditional Chinese medicine injection. PMID:24475709

  20. IMPROVED SPECTROSCOPIC PARAMETERS FOR TRANSITING PLANET HOSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Torres, Guillermo; Holman, Matthew J.; Carter, Joshua A. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Fischer, Debra A. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Sozzetti, Alessandro [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Torino, I-10025 Pino Torinese (Italy); Buchhave, Lars A. [Niels Bohr Institute, Copenhagen University, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Winn, Joshua N., E-mail: gtorres@cfa.harvard.edu [Department of Physics, and Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2012-10-01

    We report homogeneous spectroscopic determinations of the effective temperature, metallicity, and projected rotational velocity for the host stars of 56 transiting planets. Our analysis is based primarily on the stellar parameter classification (SPC) technique. We investigate systematic errors by examining subsets of the data with two other methods that have often been used in previous studies (Spectroscopy Made Easy (SME) and MOOG). The SPC and SME results, both based on comparisons between synthetic spectra and actual spectra, show strong correlations between T{sub eff}, [Fe/H], and log g when solving for all three quantities simultaneously. In contrast the MOOG results, based on a more traditional curve-of-growth approach, show no such correlations. To combat the correlations and improve the accuracy of the temperatures and metallicities, we repeat the SPC analysis with a constraint on log g based on the mean stellar density that can be derived from the analysis of the transit light curves. Previous studies that have not taken advantage of this constraint have been subject to systematic errors in the stellar masses and radii of up to 20% and 10%, respectively, which can be larger than other observational uncertainties, and which also cause systematic errors in the planetary mass and radius.

  1. Spectroscopic Detection of Pathogens

    SciTech Connect

    ALAM,M. KATHLEEN; TIMLIN,JERILYN A.; MARTIN,LAURA E.; HJELLE,DRIAN; LYONS,RICK; GARRISON,KRISTIN

    2000-11-01

    The goal of this LDRD Research project was to provide a preliminary examination of the use of infrared spectroscopy as a tool to detect the changes in cell cultures upon activation by an infectious agent. Due to a late arrival of funding, only 5 months were available to transfer and setup equipment at UTTM,develop cell culture lines, test methods of in-situ activation and collect kinetic data from activated cells. Using attenuated total reflectance (ATR) as a sampling method, live cell cultures were examined prior to and after activation. Spectroscopic data were collected from cells immediately after activation in situ and, in many cases for five successive hours. Additional data were collected from cells activated within a test tube (pre-activated), in both transmission mode as well as in ATR mode. Changes in the infrared data were apparent in the transmission data collected from the pre-activated cells as well in some of the pre-activated ATR data. Changes in the in-situ activated spectral data were only occasionally present due to (1) the limited time cells were studied and (2) incomplete activation. Comparison of preliminary data to infrared bands reported in the literature suggests the primary changes seen are due an increase in ribonucleic acid (RNA) production. This work will be continued as part of a 3 year DARPA grant.

  2. Fused Traditional and Geometric Morphometrics Demonstrate Pinniped Whisker Diversity

    E-print Network

    Marshall, Christopher D.

    Fused Traditional and Geometric Morphometrics Demonstrate Pinniped Whisker Diversity Carly C profile using traditional and geometric morphometric methods. Traditional morphometric measurements (peak. Elliptic Fourier analysis (geometric morphometrics) was used to quantify the outlines of whole vibrissae

  3. Combined spectroscopic methods for electron-density diagnostics inside atmospheric-pressure glow discharge using He\\/N2 gas mixture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keiichiro Urabe; Osamu Sakai; Kunihide Tachibana

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the spatiotemporal structures of electron density inside an atmospheric-pressure glow discharge in a gaseous medium of He with small N2 impurity using a parallel-plate dielectric barrier discharge configuration. To reveal the spatial distributions of temporal-peak electron density, we combined the measurement results of two spectroscopic diagnostics applied to the same plasma source: CO2-laser heterodyne interferometry and millimetre-wave transmission

  4. [Spectroscopic and dynamical studies of highly energized small polyatomic molecules]. [Stimulated emission pumping

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    Stimulated emission pumping (SEP) spectroscopy was used on acetylene and on formyl radical. An attempt was made for pattern recognition based on statistics; a method was invented that combined CNPI (complete nuclear permutation-inversion) group theory and SCC (spectral cross-correlation). But the direction away from statistical pattern recognition back to traditional spectroscopic pattern recognition was taken. Vibrational states and quantum numbers are discussed. For the formyl radical, the fluorescence excitation spectrum was recorded and a rotational analysis of the 0[sup 0][sub 0] band performed.

  5. Comparison of an automated Most Probable Number (MPN) technique to traditional plating methods for estimating populations of total aerobes, coliforms and E. coli associated with freshly processed broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recently, an instrument (TEMPOTM) has been developed to automate the Most Probable Number (MPN) technique and reduce the effort required to estimate some bacterial populations. We compared the automated MPN technique to traditional microbiological plating methods or PetrifilmTM for estimating the t...

  6. Building a Spectroscope

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Students learn about the variations of white light in this Moveable Museum unit, in which they build a pocket-sized spectroscope from readily available materials and examine different light sources in school, at home, and around their town or city. The seven-page PDF guide includes suggested general background readings for educators, activity and safety notes, step-by-step directions, and a spectroscope template.

  7. Spectroscopic planetary detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deming, Drake

    1988-01-01

    One of the most promising methods for the detection of extra-solar planets is the spectroscopic method, where a small Doppler shift (approximately 10 meters/sec) in the spectrum of the parent star reveals the presence of planetary companions. However, solar-type stars may show spurious Doppler shifts due to surface activity. If these effects are periodic, as is the solar activity cycle, then they may masquerade as planetary companions. The goal of this investigation is to determine whether the solar cycle affects the Doppler stability of integrated sunlight. Observations of integrated sunlight are made in the near infrared (approximately 2 micrometer), using the Kitt Peak McMath Fourier transform spectrometer, with an N2O gas absorption cell for calibration. Researchers currently achieve an accuracy of approximately 5 meters/sec. Solar rotation velocities vary by plus or minus 2000 meters/sec across the solar disk, and imperfect optical integration of these velocities is the principal source of error. We have been monitoring the apparent velocity of integrated sunlight since 1983. They initially saw a decrease of approximately 30 meters/sec in the integrated light velocity from 1983 through 1985, but in 1987 to 1988 the integrated light velocity returned to its 1983 level. It is too early to say whether these changes are solar-cycle related. Although the FTS, unlike a slit spectrograph, has a large field of view, researchers are always looking for ways to improve the optical integration of the solar disk. They recently made an improvement in the method used to optically collimate the FTS, and this has reduced the error level, eliminating some systematic effects seen earlier.

  8. How the Internet Is Changing the Implementation of Traditional Research Methods, People's Daily Lives, and the Way in Which Developmental Scientists Conduct Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denissen, Jaap J. A.; Neumann, Linus; van Zalk, Maarten

    2010-01-01

    Recent years have seen an impressive increase in web-based research, of which we review and discuss two main types. First, researchers can create online versions of traditional questionnaires. Using the internet in this way usually does not compromise the psychometric properties of such measures, and participants are typically not less…

  9. College Student Competency and Attitudes in Algebra Classes: A Comparison of Traditional and Online Delivery Methods in Exponents and Polynomials Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Kai-Yi Clark

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the difference in achievement between those students enrolled in a beginning-level, university Algebra course in southeastern Idaho university the spring semester of 2012 who received an Algebra Exponents and Polynomials instructional unit in a traditional face-to-face setting and those students who…

  10. Traditional Construction in Burma

    USGS Multimedia Gallery

    Traditional construction throughout Burma utilizes bamboo and other lightweight building materials, resulting in structures that are not generally durable but are quite earthquake-safe.  As traditional structures such as this house give way to more modern masonry buildings, seismic risk will in...

  11. A Spectroscopic-Based Laboratory Experiment for Protein Conformational Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramos, Carlos Henrique I.

    2004-01-01

    This article describes a practical experiment for teaching basic spectroscopic techniques to introduce the topic of protein conformational change to students in the field of molecular biology, biochemistry, or structural biology. The spectroscopic methods employed in the experiment are absorbance, for protein concentration measurements, and…

  12. Antibacterial effects on dry-fast and traditional water-based surgical scrubbing methods: a two-time points experimental study.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shu-Hwa; Chou, Chuan-Yu; Huang, Jui-Chen; Tang, Ya-Fen; Kuo, Yur-Ren; Chien, Li-Yu

    2014-06-01

    This study determined the in-use effects of dry-fast and traditional hand-washing surgical scrubs among operating room staff members. This is a static group comparison study with purposive sampling. A total of 156 staff members were recruited in an operating room in a medical center located in southern Taiwan. The participants were divided into traditional and dry-fast hand-washing groups. Microbial counts were measured right after the two groups finished surgical scrubbing and at the completion of surgery. The results showed that the use of dry-fast antisepsis has a better persistent effect (P?=?0.001), more nurses chose dry-fast antisepsis than surgeons (P?=?0.012), and the post-operation number of colonies for nurses was significantly higher than that for surgeons (P?=?0.003). Operating room nurses are long-term and frequent users of antibacterial agents, and their requirement of skin protection is higher. The dry-fast technique has the advantage of being less irritating to the skin and less time consuming; therefore, brush-free and dry-fast antisepsis is recommended. PMID:23992610

  13. Build Your Own Spectroscope

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Students build a working spectroscope to study the nature of light. (Younger students use a prism to learn about the rainbow.) The curriculum includes study guides for various grade groups, PowerPoints to explain concepts, age-appropriate hands-on activities, and 3 videos.

  14. The traditional method of oral as-needed pain medication delivery compared to an oral patient-controlled analgesia device following total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Teresa L; Cata, Denise M

    2014-01-01

    As-needed (PRN) oral pain medication is an essential part of multimodal pain therapy. Medication delivery is often delayed because of multiple demands upon nursing time in a busy postoperative nursing unit. Postoperative pain control was compared using either the manual delivery of PRN oral pain medication or a bedside oral patient-controlled analgesia device. Thirty patients in each group completed a survey on the day of discharge, and additional data were collected by chart reviews. Device patients had significantly better pain scores than the usual care group on postoperative Day 2 and within the last 24 hours prior to discharge. The device group reported statistically less pain interference overall with general activity, mood, physical therapy, sleep, and appetite. Use of an oral patient-controlled analgesia device may improve pain management and patient function following total knee arthroplasty compared to the traditional delivery of oral PRN pain medication. PMID:25058727

  15. [Spectroscopic and dynamical studies of highly energized small polyatomic molecules]. Technical progress report, February 1, 1990--June 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    Stimulated emission pumping (SEP) spectroscopy was used on acetylene and on formyl radical. An attempt was made for pattern recognition based on statistics; a method was invented that combined CNPI (complete nuclear permutation-inversion) group theory and SCC (spectral cross-correlation). But the direction away from statistical pattern recognition back to traditional spectroscopic pattern recognition was taken. Vibrational states and quantum numbers are discussed. For the formyl radical, the fluorescence excitation spectrum was recorded and a rotational analysis of the 0{sup 0}{sub 0} band performed.

  16. FT-IR, FT-Raman, dispersive Raman, NMR spectroscopic studies and NBO analysis of 2-Bromo-1H-Benzimidazol by density functional method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sas, E. B.; Kurt, M.; Karabacak, M.; Poiyamozhi, A.; Sundaraganesan, N.

    2015-02-01

    In this study, geometrical optimization, FT-IR (4000-400 cm-1), FT-Raman (4000-40 cm-1), dispersive Raman (4000-40 cm-1) spectroscopic analysis, electronic structure and 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies of 2-Bromo-1H-Benzimidazol (abbreviated as 2Br1HB) were undertaken by utilizing DFT/B3LYP with 6-311+G(d,p) basis set. The results of the calculations were applied to simulate spectra of the title compound, which show good agreement with observed spectra. Complete vibrational assignments, analysis and correlations of the fundamental modes for 2Br1HB compound were carried out. Stability of the molecule arising from hyperconjugative interactions, charge delocalization was analyzed using natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis. The molecule orbital contributions were studied by using the total density of states (TDOS), partial density of states (PDOS), and overlap population density of states (OPDOS). The electronic properties like HOMO-LUMO energies and molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) analysis were reported. The calculated HOMO and LUMO energies shows that charge transfer interactions take place within the molecule. Mulliken population analysis on atomic charges was also calculated. Good correlation between the experimental 1H and 13C NMR chemical shifts in DMSO solution and calculated gauge-including atomic orbital (GIAO) shielding tensors were found.

  17. Traditional Cherokee Food.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrix, Janey B.

    A collection for children and teachers of traditional Cherokee recipes emphasizes the art, rather than the science, of cooking. The hand-printed, illustrated format is designed to communicate the feeling of Cherokee history and culture and to encourage readers to collect and add family recipes. The cookbook could be used as a starting point for…

  18. Child Psychotherapy: Converging Traditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altman, Neil

    2004-01-01

    In this paper I outline some of the ways in which I believe the psychoanalytic traditions in North America and in Great Britain are influencing each other. I identify points of convergence and divergence at this moment in the evolution of psychoanalytic theory and technique. I then point out some of the implications of relational perspectives in…

  19. Looking beyond Traditional Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harriman, Lynda; McKenna, Constance

    1978-01-01

    The article describes the evaluation of the home economics specialized adviser program in Illinois Extension regions, including specific recommendations for program revisions. The evaluation was based on the Provus Discrepancy Evaluation Model, which provides an alternative to traditional evaluation techniques by considering descriptions of…

  20. In Defense of Tradition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pekich, John

    A disturbing trend is developing in higher education which may jeopardize the quality and importance of the classical tradition in education. This trend is exemplified by demands that the liberal arts be made relevant and comprehensible to the student and that they be related in some way to the search for a good job. The great classical…

  1. Value of Traditions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewer, Marilynn B.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Presents pro and con comments with regards to 1975 APA presidential address under the heading of the value of traditions. Other comments are subsumed under the headings of biological versus social evolution, and the genetic basis of behavior especially of altruism. (Author/AM)

  2. The Traditional Rebel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemansky, Janet

    1993-01-01

    Outlines the Linden, New Jersey, schools' introduction and use of electronic musical technology and contemporary instruments in the orchestral music program, which has broadened the musical repertoire and the recruitment of talented students not schooled in the classical tradition. Four applications of technology for rehearsals and instrumental…

  3. Effect of a multimodal training program and traditional lecture method on nurses' hand hygiene knowledge, belief, and practice: A brief report.

    PubMed

    Najafi Ghezeljeh, Tahereh; Abbasnejad, Zahra; Rafii, Forough; Haghani, Hamid

    2015-07-01

    This study compared the effect of a multimodal training program and lecturing method on nurses' hand hygiene knowledge, belief, and practice. Two weeks and 3 months after the study, nurses' in both groups received significantly higher scores compared with the control group. Compared with the lecturing method, the multimodal training program is more effective in improving nurses' hand hygiene knowledge, belief, and practice 3 months after the study. PMID:25997879

  4. Constructive student feedback: Online vs. traditional course evaluations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Judy Donovan; Cynthia E. Mader; John Shinsky

    Substantial efforts have been made recently to compare the effectiveness of traditional course formats to alternative formats (most often, online delivery compared to traditional on-site delivery). This study examines, not the delivery format but rather the evaluation format. It compares traditional paper and pencil methods for course evaluation with electronic methods. Eleven instructors took part in the study. Each instructor

  5. A Comparison of Near- and Mid-Infrared Spectroscopic Methods for the Analysis of Several Nutritionally Important Chemical Substances in the Chinese Yam (Dioscorea opposita): Total Sugar, Polysaccharides, and Flavonoids.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Hua; Ni, Yongnian; Kokot, Serge

    2015-04-01

    The Chinese yam (Dioscorea opposita) is a basic food in Asia and especially China. Consequently, an uncomplicated, reliable method should be available for the analysis of the quality and origin of the yams. Thus, near-infrared (NIR) and mid-infrared (mid-IR) spectroscopic methods were developed to discriminate among Chinese yam samples collected from four geographical regions. The yam samples were analyzed also for total sugar, polysaccharides, and flavonoids. These three analytes were used to compare the performance of the analytical methods. Overlapping spectra were resolved using chemometrics methods. Such spectra were compared qualitatively using principal component analysis (PCA) and quantitatively using partial least squares (PLS) and least squares-support vector machine (LS-SVM) models. We discriminated among the four sets of yam data using PCA, and the NIR data performed somewhat better than the mid-IR data. We constructed the PLS and LS-SVM calibration models for the prediction of the three key variables, and the LS-SVM model produced better results. Also, the NIR prediction model produced better outcomes than the mid-IR prediction model. Thus, both infrared (IR) techniques performed well for the analysis of the three key analytes, and the samples were qualitatively discriminated according to their provinces of origin. Both techniques may be recommended for the analysis of Chinese yams, although the NIR technique would be preferred. PMID:25742643

  6. Methods for improving accuracy and extending results beyond periods covered by traditional ground-truth in remote sensing classification of a complex landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller-Warrant, George W.; Whittaker, Gerald W.; Banowetz, Gary M.; Griffith, Stephen M.; Barnhart, Bradley L.

    2015-06-01

    Successful development of approaches to quantify impacts of diverse landuse and associated agricultural management practices on ecosystem services is frequently limited by lack of historical and contemporary landuse data. We hypothesized that ground truth data from one year could be used to extrapolate previous or future landuse in a complex landscape where cropping systems do not generally change greatly from year to year because the majority of crops are established perennials or the same annual crops grown on the same fields over multiple years. Prior to testing this hypothesis, it was first necessary to classify 57 major landuses in the Willamette Valley of western Oregon from 2005 to 2011 using normal same year ground-truth, elaborating on previously published work and traditional sources such as Cropland Data Layers (CDL) to more fully include minor crops grown in the region. Available remote sensing data included Landsat, MODIS 16-day composites, and National Aerial Imagery Program (NAIP) imagery, all of which were resampled to a common 30 m resolution. The frequent presence of clouds and Landsat7 scan line gaps forced us to conduct of series of separate classifications in each year, which were then merged by choosing whichever classification used the highest number of cloud- and gap-free bands at any given pixel. Procedures adopted to improve accuracy beyond that achieved by maximum likelihood pixel classification included majority-rule reclassification of pixels within 91,442 Common Land Unit (CLU) polygons, smoothing and aggregation of areas outside the CLU polygons, and majority-rule reclassification over time of forest and urban development areas. Final classifications in all seven years separated annually disturbed agriculture, established perennial crops, forest, and urban development from each other at 90 to 95% overall 4-class validation accuracy. In the most successful use of subsequent year ground-truth data to classify prior year landuse, an overall 57-class accuracy of 75% was achieved despite the omission of 10 entire classes, most of which were annually disturbed or perennial crops grown on very few fields. Synthetic ground-truth data for the 2004 harvest year based on the most common landuse classes over the following 7 years classified 49 of 57 categories at an overall accuracy of 96% in a final version that included CLU polygon majority rule, default smoothing and aggregation, and forcing of urban development and forest from multi-year majority-rule.

  7. Co-Teaching: A Mixed Methods Study of the Effectiveness of a Secondary Co-Taught Classroom versus a Traditional Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chilcoat, Eric R.

    2011-01-01

    Due to numerous mandates in the educational field, it is imperative to schools that teachers incorporate effective instructional methods to reach the diverse student population within a classroom. One way some educators have chosen to meet these challenges is by using the co-teaching model. In this setting, two or more teachers work in a…

  8. In vitro activity of imazalil against Penicillium expansum: Comparison of the CLSI M38-A broth microdilution method with traditional techniques

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Cabañas; M. L. Abarca; M. R. Bragulat; F. J. Cabañes

    2009-01-01

    Penicillium expansum is one of the most important pathogens that cause blue mold in stored apples and is regarded as the major producer of the mycotoxin patulin. Imazalil is one of the fungicides used in Spain to control postharvest blue mold, but development of fungal resistance has been reported in P. digitatum and P. italicum. The most common used methods

  9. Spectroscopic analysis technique for arc-welding process control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirapeix, Jesús; Cobo, Adolfo; Conde, Olga; Quintela, María Ángeles; López-Higuera, José-Miguel

    2005-09-01

    The spectroscopic analysis of the light emitted by thermal plasmas has found many applications, from chemical analysis to monitoring and control of industrial processes. Particularly, it has been demonstrated that the analysis of the thermal plasma generated during arc or laser welding can supply information about the process and, thus, about the quality of the weld. In some critical applications (e.g. the aerospace sector), an early, real-time detection of defects in the weld seam (oxidation, porosity, lack of penetration, ...) is highly desirable as it can reduce expensive non-destructive testing (NDT). Among others techniques, full spectroscopic analysis of the plasma emission is known to offer rich information about the process itself, but it is also very demanding in terms of real-time implementations. In this paper, we proposed a technique for the analysis of the plasma emission spectrum that is able to detect, in real-time, changes in the process parameters that could lead to the formation of defects in the weld seam. It is based on the estimation of the electronic temperature of the plasma through the analysis of the emission peaks from multiple atomic species. Unlike traditional techniques, which usually involve peak fitting to Voigt functions using the Levenberg-Marquardt recursive method, we employ the LPO (Linear Phase Operator) sub-pixel algorithm to accurately estimate the central wavelength of the peaks (allowing an automatic identification of each atomic species) and cubic-spline interpolation of the noisy data to obtain the intensity and width of the peaks. Experimental tests on TIG-welding using fiber-optic capture of light and a low-cost CCD-based spectrometer, show that some typical defects can be easily detected and identified with this technique, whose typical processing time for multiple peak analysis is less than 20msec. running in a conventional PC.

  10. Quantitative thermodynamic analyses of spectroscopic titration curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bujalowski, Wlodzimierz; Jezewska, Maria J.

    2014-12-01

    Elucidation of ligand - macromolecule interactions requires detailed knowledge of energetics of the formed complexes. Spectroscopic methods are most commonly used in characterizing molecular interactions in solution. The methods do not require large quantities of material and most importantly, do not perturb the studied reactions. However, spectroscopic methods absolutely require the determination of the relationship between the observed signal and the degree of binding in order to obtain meaningful interaction parameters. In other words, the meaningful, thermodynamic interaction parameters can be only determined if the relationship between the observed signal and the degree of binding is determined and not assumed, based on an ad hoc model of the relationship. The approaches discussed here allow an experimenter to quantitatively determine the degree of binding and the free ligand concentration, i.e., they enable to construct thermodynamic binding isotherms in a model-independent fashion.

  11. Spectroscopic Studies of Abell Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Way, Michael Joseph

    The objectives of this work are to use spectroscopic techniques to accurately categorize galaxies as either HII region star forming galaxies or as Active Galactic Nuclei powered via a black hole, and to use radial velocities and projected positions of galaxies in clusters to obtain the total cluster mass and its distribution. The masses and distributions compare well to X-ray mass measurements. The commonly used Dressler, A., Thompson, I. & Shectman, S. 1985, ApJ, 288, 481 technique for discriminating between Active Galactic Nuclei and HII region galaxies uses the measurement of the equivalent width of the emission lines (OII) 3727 A, H/beta, and (OIII) 5007 A. High quality spectra from 42 galaxies were taken and it is shown that their method is not capable of distinguishing between Active Galactic Nuclei and HII region galaxies. The emission line flux from H/beta, (OIII) 5007 A, (OI) 6300 A, H?, (NII) 6583 A, and (SII) 6716+6731 A in combination with the method of Veilleux, S. & Osterbrock, D. E. 1987, ApJS, 63, 295 must be used to accurately distinguish between Active Galactic Nuclei and HII region galaxies. Galaxy radial velocities from spectroscopic data and their projected 2-D positions in clusters are used to obtain robust estimates of the total mass and mass distribution in two clusters. The total mass is calculated using the Virial theorem after removing substructure. The mass distribution is estimated via several robust statistical tests for 1-D, 2-D and 3-D structure. It is shown that the derived mass estimates agree well with those found independently from hot X-ray gas emission in clusters.

  12. Polyphasic Study of the Spatial Distribution of Microorganisms in Mexican Pozol, a Fermented Maize Dough, Demonstrates the Need for Cultivation-Independent Methods To Investigate Traditional Fermentations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    FREDERIC AMPE; NABIL BEN OMAR; CLAIRE MOIZAN; CARMEN WACHER

    1999-01-01

    The distribution of microorganisms in pozol balls, a fermented maize dough, was investigated by a polypha- sic approach in which we used both culture-dependent and culture-independent methods, including microbial enumeration, fermentation product analysis, quantification of microbial taxa with 16S rRNA-targeted oligo- nucleotide probes, determination of microbial fingerprints by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), and 16S ribosomal DNA gene sequencing. Our

  13. Effect of variety and processing method on functional properties of traditional sweet potato flour (“elubo”) and sensory acceptability of cooked paste (“amala”)

    PubMed Central

    Fetuga, Ganiyat; Tomlins, Keith; Henshaw, Folake; Idowu, Michael

    2014-01-01

    “Amala” is a generic term in Nigeria, used to describe a thick paste prepared by stirring flour (“elubo”) from yam, cassava or unripe plantain, in hot water, to form a smooth consistency. In order to overcome its high perishability and increase the utilization of sweet potato roots, three varieties of sweet potato roots were processed into flour using two methods. The interactive effect of variety and the processing method had a significant effect (P < 0.05) on all the functional properties of the flour except yellowness, setback viscosity, and peak time. Acceptable sweet potato “amala” with average sensory acceptability score of 7.5 were obtained from yellow-fleshed varieties irrespective of the processing method. Flour that produced acceptable “amala” were characterized by lower values of protein (2.20–3.94%), fiber (1.30–1.65%), total sugar (12.41–38.83 ?g/mg), water absorption capacity (168–215 g/100 g), water solubility (8.29–14.65%), swelling power (0.52–0.82 g/g), and higher peak time (6.9–8.7 min). PMID:25493186

  14. Simultaneous determination of methocarbamol and Ibuprofen by first derivative synchronous fluorescence spectroscopic method in their binary mixture and spiked human plasma.

    PubMed

    Abdelwahab, Nada S; Abdelrahman, Maha M

    2014-01-01

    Methocarbamol is formulated with Ibuprofen for treatment of alleviated pain associated with muscle spasm. This manuscript describes a sensitive and selective first derivative synchronous spectrofluorimetric method for simultaneous determination of both drugs. Factors affecting method selectivity were studied where best results were obtained upon using ? ? = 20 and water as a solvent. Methocartbamol was determined at 283 nm while Ibuprofen at 285.5 nm in the concentration ranges of 0.4-5 and 0.2-4.8 ?g/mL, respectively. The applicability of the proposed method was ascertained by application to different laboratory prepared mixtures and marketed formulation. The high sensitivity achieved by the proposed method permitted its application for determination of the drugs in human plasma spiked with pure drugs and their combined tablets. The proposed method showed no significant difference when compared with the reported HPLC method using student's t-test and F-ratio test. PMID:23912962

  15. The practice of traditional medicine in Africa.

    PubMed

    Tella, A

    1979-01-01

    Traditional medicine is a method of healing founded on its own concept of health and disease. Knowledge is passed on orally from father to son. Healing knowledge is jealously guarded in certain families. In Africa the popularity of traditional healers is attributed to the fact that they take full account of the socio-cultural background of the people. The components of traditional medicine include herbal medicine, therapeutic fasting and dieting, hydrotherapy, radiant healing therapy, venesection, surgery and bone-setting, spinal manipulation and massage, psychotherapy, therapeutic occultism, psychiatry and preventive medicine. In the African environment the therapeutic potential of traditional medicine is great and requires further indepth study to improve methods and training and to form a more effective organization within the ranks of traditional healers. In the physical medicine, vegetable, animal, and mineral substances may be used. In the metaphysical division of traditional medicine, prayers, invocations, or incantations are offered to some mysterious and powerful forces. The practioner usually excels in one or more practices to the exclusion of others. Herbal preparations should be studied with the idea of using them to replace more toxic, synthetic drugs. Some plants used by traditional healers are fennal, serpentine, cinchona, quinine, digitalis, and vinca rosea. PMID:525052

  16. Spectroscopic characterisation of SWNT polymer composites

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sinead Keogh

    2006-01-01

    In this study hybrid systems of the conjugated organic polymer poly(p-phenylene vinylene-co-2,5-dioctyloxy-m-phenylene vinylene) (PmPV) with single-walled carbon nanotubes synthesised by the Arc discharge method and by gas-phase catalytic decomposition of carbon monoxide at high pressure (HiPco process) are explored using a wide variety of spectroscopic, microscopic and thermal techniques. Diameter dependent solubilisation has been previously shown in solutions of such

  17. A Spectroscopic Database for MIPAS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J.-M. Flaud; C. Piccolo; B. Carli

    2003-01-01

    The analysis and interpretation of atmospheric limb spectra such as those recorded by MIPAS (Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding) require good knowledge of the molecular parameters of the atmospheric species. This is why a spectroscopic database dedicated to the MIPAS experiment has been generated. The new spectroscopic parameters were first validated through a comparison between atmospheric simulations and ATMOS

  18. Near-infrared spectroscopic method for the identification of Fusarium head blight damage and prediction of deoxynivalenol in single wheat kernels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fusarium Head Blight (FHB), or scab, can result in significant crop yield losses and contaminated grain in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Growing less susceptible varieties is one of the most effective methods for managing FHB and for reducing deoxynivalenol (DON) levels in grain, but breeding progra...

  19. Flux measurements using the BATSE spectroscopic detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcnamara, Bernard

    1993-01-01

    Among the Compton Gama-Ray Observatory instruments, the BATSE Spectroscopic Detectors (SD) have the distinction of being able to detect photons of energies less than about 20 keV. This is an interesting energy range for the examination of low mass X-ray binaries (LMXB's). In fact, Sco X-1, the prototype LMXB, is easily seen even in the raw BATSE spectroscopic data. The all-sky coverage afforded by these detectors offers a unique opportunity to monitor this source over time periods never before possible. The aim of this investigation was to test a number of ways in which both continous and discrete flux measurements can be obtained using the BATSE spectroscopic datasets. A instrumental description of a SD can be found in the Compton Workshop of Apr. 1989, this report will deal only with methods which can be used to analyze its datasets. Many of the items discussed below, particularly in regard to the earth occultation technique, have been developed, refined, and applied by the BATSE team to the reduction of BATSE LAD data. Code written as part of this project utilizes portions of that work. The following discussions will first address issues related to the reduction of SD datasets using the earth occultation technique. It will then discuss methods for the recovery of the flux history of strong sources while they are above the earth's limb. The report will conclude with recommended reduction procedures.

  20. Infrared spectroscopic imaging of kidney tumor tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sablinskas, V.; Steiner, G.; Koch, E.; Ceponkus, J.; Pucetaite, M.; Strazdaite, S.; Urboniene, V.; Jankevicius, F.

    2011-02-01

    Infrared spectroscopic imaging of cancerous kidney tissue was performed by means of FTIR microscopy. The spectra of thin tissue cryosections were collected with 64x64 MCT FPA detector and imaging area was increased up to 5.4×5.4 mm by mapping by means of PC controlled x,y stage. Chemical images of the samples were constructed using statistical treatment of the raw spectra. Several unsupervised and supervised statistical methods were used. The imaging results are compared with results of the standard histopathological analysis. It was concluded that application of method of cluster analysis ensures the best contrast of the images. It was found that border between cancerous and normal tissues visible in the infrared spectroscopic image corresponds with the border visible in histopathological image. Closer examination of the infrared spectroscopic image reveals that small domains of cancerous cells are found beyond the border in areas distant from the border up to 3 mm. Such domains are not visible in the histopathological images. The smallest domains found in the infrared images are approx. 60 ?m.

  1. Determination of structural and vibrational spectroscopic features of neutral and anion forms of dinicotinic acid by using NMR, infrared and Raman experimental methods combined with DFT and HF.

    PubMed

    Kose, E; Bardak, F; Atac, A; Karabacak, M; Cipiloglu, M A

    2013-10-01

    In this study; the experimental (NMR, infrared and Raman) and theoretical (HF and DFT) analysis of dinicotinic acid were presented. (1)H and (13)C NMR spectra were recorded in DMSO solution and chemical shifts were calculated by using the gauge-invariant atomic orbital (GIAO) method. The vibrational spectra of dinicotinic acid were recorded by FT-Raman and FT-IR spectra in the range of 4000-10 cm(-1) and 4000-400 cm(-1), respectively. To determine the most stable neutral conformer of molecule, the selected torsion angle was changed every 10° and molecular energy profile was calculated from 0° to 360°. The geometrical parameters and energies were obtained for all conformers form from density functional theory (DFT/B3LYP) and HF with 6-311++G(d,p) basis set calculations. However, the results of the most stable neutral and two anion forms (anion(-1) and anion(-2) forms) of dinicotinic acid are reported here. The complete assignments were performed on the basis of the total energy distribution (TED) of the vibrational wavenumbers, calculated with scaled quantum mechanics (SQM) method and PQS program. PMID:23747433

  2. Standard test method for determination of impurities in plutonium: acid dissolution, ion exchange matrix separation, and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopic (ICP/AES) analysis

    E-print Network

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2003-01-01

    1.1 This specification covers blended uranium trioxide (UO3), U3O8, or mixtures of the two, powders that are intended for conversion into a sinterable uranium dioxide (UO2) powder by means of a direct reduction process. The UO2 powder product of the reduction process must meet the requirements of Specification C 753 and be suitable for subsequent UO2 pellet fabrication by pressing and sintering methods. This specification applies to uranium oxides with a 235U enrichment less than 5 %. 1.2 This specification includes chemical, physical, and test method requirements for uranium oxide powders as they relate to the suitability of the powder for storage, transportation, and direct reduction to UO2 powder. This specification is applicable to uranium oxide powders for such use from any source. 1.3 The scope of this specification does not comprehensively cover all provisions for preventing criticality accidents, for health and safety, or for shipping. Observance of this specification does not relieve the user of th...

  3. A search for spectroscopic binaries among the runaway O type stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, R. C.

    1982-01-01

    Numerous radial velocity measurements of medium dispersion were made for the 10 brighter stars given in Stone's list of very probable O type runaways. All plates were measured with the KPNO PDS microdensitometer, and a new iterative reductional analysis was used to derive plate velocities, which are estimated to be 1.6 times more accurate internally than those found by using the traditional method. Of thse stars, psi Per, alpha Cam, HD 188209, and 26 Cep are identified as probable velocity variables, while 9 Sge, lambda Cep, and HD 218915 are classed as possible variables. If the source of this variability is Keplerian rather than atmospheric, which cannot be established unequivocally from the observations of this paper, psi Per could be a spectroscopic binary with a black hole companion, and at least 1.2 solar mass. The detection of runaway binary systems from radial velocity measurements is discussed.

  4. Spectroscopic characterization of zirconium(IV) and hafniumf(IV) gallate phthalocyanines in monolithic silica gels obtained by sol gel method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerasymchuk, Y. S.; Chernii, V. Ya.; Tomachynski, L. A.; Legendziewicz, J.; Radzki, St.

    2005-07-01

    The Zr(IV) and Hf(IV) phthalocyanines, with gallate as axial ligand coordinated to the central metal atom of phthalocyanine, were incorporated in silica gels during sol-gel process with using tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) as precursor. The obtained mixed inorganic-organic composites were transparent and homogeneous. The absorption and emission properties of these materials in comparison with the spectra of the Zr(IV) and Hf(IV) phthalocyanines in various solvents were investigated. The spectra were correlated with various stage of the sol-gel process. It was established that in the gels concurrence of the monomer and dimer form is different in sol, alco-, hydro- and xerogels. The intensive 700-725 nm fluorescence emission upon relatively long-wavelength excitation and unusually large (about 45 nm) Stokes shift in the Q region, suggest that Zr(IV) and Hf(IV) phthalocyanines could be considered as photosensitizers in the PDT method (photodynamic therapy).

  5. Spatially resolved energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopic method for in-situ evaluation of mechanical properties during the growth of a C - Pt composite nanowire

    SciTech Connect

    Banerjee, Amit; Banerjee, S. S., E-mail: satyajit@iitk.ac.in [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur, 208016 (India)

    2014-05-15

    A core-shell type C-Pt composite nanowire is fabricated using focused ion and electron beam induced chemical vapor deposition techniques. Using information from spatially resolved energy dispersive x-ray spectra, we detect the resonance vibration in the C-Pt composite nanowire. We use this method to measure the Young's moduli of the constituents (C, Pt) of the composite nanowire and also estimate the density of the FEB CVD grown Pt shell surrounding the C core. By measuring the resonance characteristics of the composite nanowire we estimate a Pt shell growth rate of ?0.9 nms{sup ?1}. The study is analyzed to suggest that the Pt shell growth mechanism is primarily governed by the sticking coefficient of the organometallic vapor on the C nanowire core.

  6. Infrared and Raman spectroscopic methods for characterization of Taxus baccata L. - Improved taxane isolation by accelerated quality control and process surveillance.

    PubMed

    Gudi, Gennadi; Krähmer, Andrea; Koudous, Iraj; Strube, Jochen; Schulz, Hartwig

    2015-10-01

    Different yew species contain poisonous taxane alkaloids which serve as resources for semi-synthesis of anticancer drugs. The highly variable amounts of taxanes demand new methods for fast characterization of the raw plant material and the isolation of the target structures during phyto extraction. For that purpose, applicability of different vibrational spectroscopy methods in goods receipt of raw plant material and in process control was investigated and demonstrated in online tracking isolation and purification of the target taxane 10-deacetylbaccatin III (10-DAB) during solvent extraction. Applying near (NIRS) and mid infrared spectroscopy (IRS) the amount of botanical impurities in mixed samples of two different yew species (R(2)=0.993), the leave-to-wood ratio for Taxus baccata material (R(2)=0.94) and moisture in dried yew needles (R(2)=0.997) can be quantified. By partial least square analysis (PCA) needles of different Coniferales species were successfully discriminated by Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (ATR-FT-IR). The analytical potential of ATR-FT-IR and Fourier Transform-Raman Spectroscopy (FT-RS) in process control of extraction and purification of taxanes is demonstrated for determination of the water content in methanolic yew extracts (R(2)=0.999) and for quantification of 10-DAB (R(2)=0.98) on a highly sophisticated level. The decrease of 10-DAB in the plant tissue during extraction was successfully visualized by FT-IR imaging of thin cross sections providing new perspectives for process control and design. PMID:26078126

  7. Application of spectroscopic methods for identification (FT-IR, Raman spectroscopy) and determination (UV, EPR) of quercetin-3-O-rutinoside. Experimental and DFT based approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paczkowska, Magdalena; Lewandowska, Kornelia; Bednarski, Waldemar; Mizera, Miko?aj; Podborska, Agnieszka; Krause, Anna; Cielecka-Piontek, Judyta

    2015-04-01

    Vibrational (FT-IR, Raman) and electronic (UV, EPR) spectral measurements were performed for an analysis of rutin (quercetin-3-O-rutinoside) obtained from Rutaofficinalis. The identification of rutin was done with the use of FT-IR and Raman spectra. Those experimental spectra were determined with the support of theoretical calculations based on a DFT method with the B3LYP hybrid functional and 6-31G(d,p) basis set. The application of UV and EPR spectra was found to be a suitable analytical approach to the evaluation of changes in rutin exposed to certain physicochemical factors. Differences in absorbance observed in direct UV spectra were used to monitor changes in the concentration of rutin in degraded samples. Spectra of electron paramagnetic resonance allowed studying the process of free-radical quenching in rutin following its exposure to light. The molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) and frontier molecular orbitals (LUMO-HOMO) were also determined in order to predict structural changes and reactive sites in rutin.

  8. Application of spectroscopic methods for identification (FT-IR, Raman spectroscopy) and determination (UV, EPR) of quercetin-3-O-rutinoside. Experimental and DFT based approach.

    PubMed

    Paczkowska, Magdalena; Lewandowska, Kornelia; Bednarski, Waldemar; Mizera, Miko?aj; Podborska, Agnieszka; Krause, Anna; Cielecka-Piontek, Judyta

    2015-04-01

    Vibrational (FT-IR, Raman) and electronic (UV, EPR) spectral measurements were performed for an analysis of rutin (quercetin-3-O-rutinoside) obtained from Rutaofficinalis. The identification of rutin was done with the use of FT-IR and Raman spectra. Those experimental spectra were determined with the support of theoretical calculations based on a DFT method with the B3LYP hybrid functional and 6-31G(d,p) basis set. The application of UV and EPR spectra was found to be a suitable analytical approach to the evaluation of changes in rutin exposed to certain physicochemical factors. Differences in absorbance observed in direct UV spectra were used to monitor changes in the concentration of rutin in degraded samples. Spectra of electron paramagnetic resonance allowed studying the process of free-radical quenching in rutin following its exposure to light. The molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) and frontier molecular orbitals (LUMO-HOMO) were also determined in order to predict structural changes and reactive sites in rutin. PMID:25589394

  9. Spectroscopic investigation (FTIR spectrum), NBO, HOMO-LUMO energies, NLO and thermodynamic properties of 8-Methyl-N-vanillyl-6-nonenamideby DFT methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherin Percy Prema Leela, J.; Hemamalini, R.; Muthu, S.; Al-Saadi, Abdulaziz A.

    2015-07-01

    Capsicum a hill grown vegetable is also known as red pepper or chili pepper. Capsaicin(8-Methyl-N-vanillyl-6-nonenamide) is the active component in chili peppers, which is currently used in the treatment of osteoarthritis, psoriasis and cancer. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrum of Capsaicin in the solid phase were recorded in the region 4000-400 cm-1 and analyzed. The vibrational frequencies of the title compound were obtained theoretically by DFT/B3LYP calculations employing the standard 6-311++G(d,p) basis set and were compared with Fourier transform infrared spectrum. Complete vibrational assignment analysis and correlation of the fundamental modes for the title compound were carried out. The vibrational harmonic frequencies were scaled using scale factor, yielding a good agreement between the experimentally recorded and the theoretically calculated values. Stability of the molecule arising from hyper conjugative interactions, charge delocalization and intra molecular hydrogen bond-like weak interaction has been analyzed using Natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis by using B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) method. The results show that electron density (ED) in the ?? and ?? antibonding orbitals and second-order delocalization energies E (2) confirm the occurrence of intra molecular charge transfer (ICT) within the molecule. The dipole moment (?), polarizability (?) and the hyperpolarizability (?) values of the molecule has been computed. Thermodynamic properties (heat capacity, entropy and enthalpy) of the title compound at different temperatures were calculated.

  10. Spectroscopic and electrical studies on Nd3+, Zr4+ ions doped nano-sized BaTiO3 ferroelectrics prepared by sol-gel method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sameera Devi, Ch.; Kumar, G. S.; Prasad, G.

    2015-02-01

    Lead free ferroelectric ceramics in the form of Ba(1-3x)Nd(2x)Ti(1-y)ZryO3 ((where x = 0.025, y = 0 (BT1), 0.025 (BT2), 0.05 (BT3)) were prepared using sol-gel method. The surface morphology and the orientation of grains of the present ceramics were examined using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM) images. The effect of Nd3+, Zr4+ ions content on the BaTiO3 was studied using Raman and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopies. From the Raman analysis the band observed at ?838 cm-1 was attributed due to the presence of Nd3+-barium vacancy pairs. The FTIR studies suggested that the addition of Nd3+ ions in A-site of BaTiO3 (ABO3) perovskite create lattice distortion by forming A-site vacancies and Zr4+ ions in B-site of BaTiO3 induce the lattice distortion by forming ZrO6 octahedra in the place of TiO6 octahedra. Dielectric measurements of the samples were done at different frequencies from RT-150 °C. Charge transportation phenomenon is explained using DC conductivity, which is found to increase with temperature.

  11. Spectroscopic and electrical studies on Nd(3+), Zr(4+) ions doped nano-sized BaTiO3 ferroelectrics prepared by sol-gel method.

    PubMed

    Sameera Devi, Ch; Kumar, G S; Prasad, G

    2015-02-01

    Lead free ferroelectric ceramics in the form of Ba(1-3x)Nd(2x)Ti(1-y)ZryO3 ((where x=0.025, y=0 (BT1), 0.025 (BT2), 0.05 (BT3)) were prepared using sol-gel method. The surface morphology and the orientation of grains of the present ceramics were examined using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM) images. The effect of Nd(3+), Zr(4+) ions content on the BaTiO3 was studied using Raman and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopies. From the Raman analysis the band observed at ?838 cm(-1) was attributed due to the presence of Nd(3+)-barium vacancy pairs. The FTIR studies suggested that the addition of Nd(3+) ions in A-site of BaTiO3 (ABO3) perovskite create lattice distortion by forming A-site vacancies and Zr(4+) ions in B-site of BaTiO3 induce the lattice distortion by forming ZrO6 octahedra in the place of TiO6 octahedra. Dielectric measurements of the samples were done at different frequencies from RT-150°C. Charge transportation phenomenon is explained using DC conductivity, which is found to increase with temperature. PMID:25448941

  12. Elemental and structural analysis of silicon forms in herbal drugs using silicon-29 MAS NMR and WD-XRF spectroscopic methods.

    PubMed

    Pajchel, L; Nykiel, P; Kolodziejski, W

    2011-12-01

    The objective of this work was to study concentration of silicon and its structural forms present in herbal drugs. Equisetum arvense and Urtica dioica L. from teapot bags, dietary supplements (tablets and capsules) containing those herbs, dry extract obtained from a teapot bag of E. arvense, and samples of the latter herb harvested in wild habitat over four months were studied using wavelength dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (WD-XRF) and high-resolution solid-state (29)Si NMR. The highest concentration of Si, ca. 27mg/g, was found in the herbal material from the teapot bags containing E. arvense. The Si content in natural E. arvense (whole plants) increased from May to August by ca. 7mg/g, reaching value 26mg/g. Three different silicon forms were detected in the studied herbal samples: Si(OSi)4 (Q(4)), Si(OH)(OSi)3 (Q(3)) and Si(OH)2(OSi)2 (Q(2)). Those sites were populated in E. arvense in the following order: Q(4)?Q(3)>Q(2). A dramatic, ca. 50-fold decrease of the Si concentration during the infusion process was observed. The infusion process and the subsequent drying procedure augmented population of the Q(4) sites at the cost of the Q(2) sites. The WD-XRF and (29)Si NMR methods occurred useful and complementary in the study of herbal materials. PMID:21813258

  13. Combination of chiroptical, absorption and fluorescence spectroscopic methods reveals multiple, hydrophobicity-driven human serum albumin binding of the antimalarial atovaquone and related hydroxynaphthoquinone compounds.

    PubMed

    Zsila, Ferenc; Fitos, Ilona

    2010-11-01

    High-affinity human serum albumin (HSA) binding of the C3-substituted antimalarial 2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone derivative atovaquone (ATQ) has been demonstrated and studied by circular dichroism (CD), UV/VIS absorption, fluorescence spectroscopy and affinity chromatography methods. The analysis of induced CD data generated upon HSA binding of ATQ revealed two high-affinity binding sites (K(a) ? 2 × 10(6) M(-1)). CD interaction studies and displacement of specific fluorescent and radioactive marker ligands indicated the contribution of both principal drug binding sites of HSA to complexation of ATQ, and also suggested the possibility of simultaneous binding of ATQ and some other drugs (e.g. warfarin, phenylbutazone, diazepam). Comparison of UV/VIS spectra of ATQ measured in aqueous solutions indicated the prevalence of the anionic species formed by dissociation of the 2-hydroxyl group. HSA binding of related natural hydroxynaphthoquinones, lapachol and lawsone also induces similar CD spectra. The much weaker binding affinity of lawsone (K(a) ? 10(4) M(-1)) bearing no C3 substituent highlights the importance of hydrophobic interactions in the strong HSA binding of ATQ and lapachol. Since neither drug exhibited significant binding to serum ?(1)-acid glycoprotein, HSA must be the principal plasma protein for the binding and transportation of 2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone-type compounds which are ionized at physiological pH values. PMID:20737064

  14. Spectroscopic and molecular structure (monomeric and dimeric structure) investigation of 2-[(2-hydroxyphenyl) carbonyloxy] benzoic acid by DFT method: A combined experimental and theoretical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muthu, S.; Isac Paulraj, E.

    2013-04-01

    The experimental and theoretical study on the structures and vibrations of 2-[(2-hydroxyphenyl) carbonyloxy] benzoic acid (abbreviated as HPCBA) are presented. The FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra of the title compound have been recorded in the region 4000-400 cm-1 and 4000-100 cm-1 respectively. The molecular structures, vibrational wavenumbers, infrared intensities, Raman activities were calculated using DFT (B3LYP) method with 6-31G(d,p) basis set. The most stable conformer of HPCBA is identified from the computational results. The assignments of the vibrational spectra have been carried out with the help of normal co-ordinate analysis (NCA) following the scaled quantum mechanical force field (SQMFF) methodology. Intermolecular hydrogen bonds are discussed in dimer structure of the molecule. The first order hyperpolarizability (?0) and related properties (?, ?0 and ??) of HPCBA are calculated. The stability and charge delocalization of the molecule was studied by natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis. The molecule orbital contributions are studied by density of energy states (DOSs). UV-Visible spectrum of the compound was recorded in the region 200-400 nm and the electronic properties such as HOMO and LUMO energies were determined by time-dependent TD-DFT approach. Fukui functions, local softness and electrophilicity indices for selected atomic sites of the title compound are determined. Mulliken population analysis on atomic charges is also calculated. Thermodynamic properties (heat capacity, entropy and enthalpy) of the title compound at different temperatures are calculated.

  15. Polymorphism of 2-nitroaniline studied by calorimetric (DSC), structural (X-ray diffraction) and spectroscopic (FT-IR, Raman, UV Vis) methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zych, Tomasz; Misiaszek, Tomasz; Szostak, M. Magdalena

    2007-11-01

    The separation and growth methods of three ortho-nitroaniline ( o-NA) polymorphs were found. The irreversible character of the ? ? ? and ? ? ? phase transitions was revealed by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) measurements and microscopic hot stage observations. The X-ray structure of the ?-form was determined and compared with the ? phase structure solved by Daneshwar et al. [N.N. Daneshwar et al. Acta Crystallogr., Sect. B 34 (1978) 2507]. Intramolecular hydrogen bonding (intra H-bond) interactions are dominant in both structures. The IR and Raman spectral features of the solutions and of three polycrystalline o-NA polymorphs are specific for intramolecular resonance assisted H-bonds (RAHB's). The DFT calculations facilitated the almost complete assignments of bands to normal vibrations and the analysis of the measured spectra. The manifestations of weak inter H-bonds in the ? and ? crystals and in the vibrational spectra of all polymorphs are observed as well; the strongest inter H-bonds occur in the ? polymorph. The differences in lowest electronic transition energies of three ?, ? and ? layers explain their different colours: the yellowish-green of the ? form and the orange ones of the ?- and ?- phases. The least stable ? form is probably an amorphous one with the weakest inter H-bonds. The differences in relative orientations of the -NH 2, -NO 2 groups and phenyl rings in the ?- and ?-phases indicate that the o-NA polymorphism has conformational character.

  16. Vibrational spectroscopic (FTIR and FT Raman) studies, first order hyperpolarizabilities and HOMO, LUMO analysis of p-toluenesulfonyl isocyanate using ab initio HF and DFT methods.

    PubMed

    Parimala, K; Balachandran, V

    2011-10-15

    The Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and FT Raman spectra of p-toluenesulfonyl isocyanate (p-tosyl isocyanate) have been measured. The molecular geometry, vibrational frequencies, infrared intensities, Raman activities and atomic charges have been calculated by using ab initio HF and density functional theory calculation (B3LYP) with 6-311+G(d,p) basis set. Complete vibrational assignment and analysis of the fundamental modes of the compound were carried out using the observed FTIR and FT Raman data. The thermodynamic functions of the title compound were also performed with the aid of HF/6-311+G(d,p) and B3LYP/6-311+G(d,p) levels of theory. Simulated FTIR and FT Raman spectra for p-tosyl isocyanate showed good agreement with the observed spectra. The calculated HOMO and LUMO energies show that charge transfer occurs within the molecule. The dipole moment (?), polarizability (?) and the hyperpolarizability (?) values of the investigated molecule have been computed using HF and B3LYP methods. PMID:21795105

  17. Spectroscopic planetary detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deming, D.; Espenak, F.; Hillman, J. J.; Kostiuk, T.; Mumma, M. J.; Jennings, D. E.

    1986-09-01

    The Sun-as-a-star was monitored using the McMath Fourier transform spectometer (FTS) on Kitt Peak in 1983. In 1985 the first measurement was made using the laser heterodyne technique. The FTS measurements now extend for three years, with errors of order 3 meters/sec at a given epoch. Over this 3 year period, a 33 meter/sec change was measured in the apparent velocity of integrated sunlight. The sense of the effect is that a greater blueshift is seen near solar minimum, which is consistent with expectations based on considering the changing morphology of solar granular convection. Presuming this effect is solar-cycle-related, it will mimic the Doppler reflex produced by a planetary companion of approximately two Jupiter masses, with an 11 year orbital period. Thus, Jupiter itself is below the threshold for detection by spectroscopic means, without an additional technique for discrimination. However, for planetary companions in shorter period orbits (P approx. 3 years) the threshold for unambiguous detection is well below one Jupiter mass.

  18. Spectroscopic planetary detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deming, D.; Espenak, F.; Hillman, J. J.; Kostiuk, T.; Mumma, M. J.; Jennings, D. E.

    1986-01-01

    The Sun-as-a-star was monitored using the McMath Fourier transform spectometer (FTS) on Kitt Peak in 1983. In 1985 the first measurement was made using the laser heterodyne technique. The FTS measurements now extend for three years, with errors of order 3 meters/sec at a given epoch. Over this 3 year period, a 33 meter/sec change was measured in the apparent velocity of integrated sunlight. The sense of the effect is that a greater blueshift is seen near solar minimum, which is consistent with expectations based on considering the changing morphology of solar granular convection. Presuming this effect is solar-cycle-related, it will mimic the Doppler reflex produced by a planetary companion of approximately two Jupiter masses, with an 11 year orbital period. Thus, Jupiter itself is below the threshold for detection by spectroscopic means, without an additional technique for discrimination. However, for planetary companions in shorter period orbits (P approx. 3 years) the threshold for unambiguous detection is well below one Jupiter mass.

  19. Spectroscopic studies of glass structure

    SciTech Connect

    Brow, R.K.

    1994-08-01

    Today`s understanding of the molecular-level structure of inorganic glasses has been transformed by the availability of a wide range of sensitive spectroscopic probes. Today we can relate glass composition to quantitative distributions of glass-forming cations and to changes in oxygen bonding and modifying cation geometries. Future spectroscopic studies will result in improved descriptions of anion and cation geometries and should provide glass scientists with the capability to optimize atomic arrangements for specific optical, electrical, and thermal properties.

  20. SDSS spectroscopic survey of stars

    SciTech Connect

    Ivezic, Zeljko; Schlegel, D.; Uomoto, A.; Bond, N.; Beers, T.; Allende Prieto, C.; Wilhelm, R.; Lee, Y.Sun; Sivarani, T.; Juric, M.; Lupton, R.; /Washington U., Seattle,

    2007-01-01

    In addition to optical photometry of unprecedented quality, the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) is also producing a massive spectroscopic database. They discuss determination of stellar parameters, such as effective temperature, gravity and metallicity from SDSS spectra, describe correlations between kinematics and metallicity, and study their variation as a function of the position in the Galaxy. They show that stellar parameter estimates by Beers et al. show a good correlation with the position of a star in the g-r vs. u-g color-color diagram, thereby demonstrating their robustness as well as a potential for photometric parameter estimation methods. Using Beers et al. parameters, they find that the metallicity distribution of the Milky Way stars at a few kpc from the galactic plane is bimodal with a local minimum at [Z/Z{sub {circle_dot}}] {approx} -1.3. The median metallicity for the low-metallicity [Z/Z{sub {circle_dot}}] < =1.3 subsample is nearly independent of Galactic cylindrical coordinates R and z, while it decreases with z for the high-metallicity [Z/Z{sub {circle_dot}}] > -1.3 sample. they also find that the low-metallicity sample has {approx} 2.5 times larger velocity dispersion and that it does not rotate (at the {approx} 10 km/s level), while the rotational velocity of the high-metallicity sample decreases smoothly with the height above the galactic plane.

  1. A comparison of the ability of Bellucia dichotoma Cogn. (Melastomataceae) extract to inhibit the local effects of Bothrops atrox venom when pre-incubated and when used according to traditional methods.

    PubMed

    Mourão de Moura, Valéria; Serra Bezerra, Adrielle N; Veras Mourão, Rosa Helena; Varjão Lameiras, Juliana L; Almeida Raposo, Juliana D; Luckwu de Sousa, Rafael; Boechat, Antônio Luiz; Bezerra de Oliveira, Ricardo; de Menezes Chalkidis, Hipocrátes; Dos-Santos, Maria Cristina

    2014-07-01

    Bellucia dichotoma Cogn. (Melastomataceae) is one of various plant species used in folk medicine in the west of the state of Pará, Brazil, to treat snake bites. Many studies have been carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of anti-snake bite plants, but few of these use the same preparation methods and doses as those traditionally used by the local populations. This study therefore compared inhibition of the main local effects of B. atrox venom (BaV) by aqueous extract of B. dichotoma (AEBd) administered according to traditional methods and pre-incubated with BaV). The concentrations of phenolic compounds (tannins and flavonoids) in AEBd were determined by colorimetric assays. The effectiveness of AEBd in inhibiting the hemorrhagic and edematogenic activities of BaV was evaluated in mice in four different experimental in vivo protocols: (1) pre-incubation (venom:extract, w/w); (2) pre-treatment (p.o.); (3) post-treatment (p.o.); and (4) AEBd (p.o.) in combination with Bothrops antivenom (BA) (i.v.). To assess in vitro inhibition of BaV phospholipase A? activity, the pre-incubation method or incorporation of AEBd or BA in agarose gels were used. The effect of AEBd on BaV was determined by SDS-PAGE, zymography and Western blot. Colorimetric assays revealed higher concentrations of (condensed and hydrolyzable) tannins than flavonoids in AEBd. Hemorrhagic activity was completely inhibited using the pre-incubation protocol. However, with pre-treatment there was no significant inhibition for the concentrations tested, and with the post-treatment only the 725 mg/kg dose of AEBd was able to inhibit 40.5% (p = 0.001) of the hemorrhagic activity of BaV. Phospholipase A? activity was only inhibited when AEBd was pre-incubated with BaV. BaV-induced edema was completely inhibited with pre-incubation (p < 0.05) and significantly reduced (p < 0.05) with pre- and post-treatment (p.o.) for the concentrations tested. The reduction in local edema was even greater when AEBd was administered in combination with BA. The SDS-PAGE profiles showed that several of the BaV protein (SDS-PAGE) and enzyme (zymography) bands were not detected when the venom was pre-incubated, and Western blot revealed that this was not caused by the AEBd enzymes observed in the zymogram. The "pseudo inhibition" observed after pre-incubation in this study may be due to the presence of tannins in the extract, which could act as chelating agents, removing metalloproteins and Ca²? ions and thus inhibiting hemorrhagin and PLA? activity. However, when administered according to traditional methods, B. dichotoma extract was effective in blocking BaV-induced edematogenic activity and had an additional effect on inhibition of this activity by BA. PMID:24814014

  2. Godel and the metamathematical tradition Jeremy Avigad

    E-print Network

    Avigad, Jeremy

    asked to deliver a lecture in honor of the Kurt G¨odel centennial, I agreed to do so with someG¨odel and the metamathematical tradition Jeremy Avigad July 25, 2007 Abstract The metamathematical and the use of explicit, finitary methods in the metatheory. Although G¨odel's work in logic fits squarely

  3. Bringing Traditional Teachings to Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington, Siemthlut Michelle

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine how our Kootegan Yix Meh Towlth (traditional governance) might contribute to the development and implementation of a culturally relevant Sliammon governance model. Our Uk woom he heow (ancestors) lived their everyday lives guided by a complex system of practices and beliefs based on our Ta-ow (traditional…

  4. Soft tissue imaging with photon counting spectroscopic CT.

    PubMed

    Shikhaliev, Polad M

    2015-03-21

    The purpose of this work was experimental investigation of photon counting spectroscopic CT (PCS-CT) imaging of anatomical soft tissue with clinically relevant size. The imaging experiments were performed using a spectroscopic CT system based on CdZnTe photon counting detector with two rows of pixels, 256 pixels in each row, 1? × ?1?mm(2)?pixel size, and 25.6?cm detector length. The detector could split the x-ray energy spectrum to 5 regions (energy bins), and acquire 5 multi-energy (spectroscopic) CT images in a single CT scan. A sample of round shaped anatomical soft tissue of 14?cm diameter including lean and fat was used for imaging. To avoid the negative effect of anatomical noise on quantitative analysis, a spectroscopic CT phantom with tissue equivalent solid materials was used. The images were acquired at 60, 90, and 120?kVp tube voltages, and spectroscopic image series were acquired with 3 and 5 energy bins. Spectroscopic CT numbers were introduced and used to evaluate an energy selective image series. The anatomical soft tissue with 14?cm diameter was visualized with good quality and without substantial artifacts by the photon counting spectroscopic CT system. The effects of the energy bin crosstalk on spectroscopic CT numbers were quantified and analyzed. The single and double slice PCS-CT images were acquired and compared. Several new findings were observed, including the effect of soft tissue non-uniformity on image artifacts, unique status of highest energy bin, and material dependent visualization in spectroscopic image series. Fat-lean decomposition was performed using dual energy subtraction and threshold segmentation methods, and compared. Using K-edge filtered x-rays improved fat-lean decomposition as compared to conventional x-rays. Several new and important aspects of the PCS-CT were investigated. These include imaging soft tissue with clinically relevant size, single- and double-slice PCS-CT imaging, using spectroscopic CT numbers to quantify multi-energy PCS-CT images, application of K-edge filtered x-rays for improved soft tissue decomposition, and several others. The study suggests that the presented PCS-CT technology meets the requirements of a particular clinical application, i.e. dedicated breast CT. PMID:25739788

  5. A DVD Spectroscope: A Simple, High-Resolution Classroom Spectroscope

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wakabayashi, Fumitaka; Hamada, Kiyohito

    2006-01-01

    Digital versatile disks (DVDs) have successfully made up an inexpensive but high-resolution spectroscope suitable for classroom experiments that can easily be made with common material and gives clear and fine spectra of various light sources and colored material. The observed spectra can be photographed with a digital camera, and such images can…

  6. Comparison of an automated Most Probable Number (MPN) technique to traditional plating methods for estimating populations of total aerobes, coliforms and E. coli associated with freshly processed broiler chickens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Traditional microbiological techniques for estimating populations of viable bacteria can be laborious and time consuming. The Most Probable Number (MPN) technique is especially tedious as multiple series of tubes must be inoculated at several different dilutions. Recently, an instrument (TEMPOTM) ...

  7. [Chemical studies on the analgesic indole alkaloids from the traditional medicine (Mitragyna speciosa) used for opium substitute].

    PubMed

    Takayama, H; Aimi, N; Sakai, S

    2000-10-01

    The leaves of a tropical plant, Mitragyna speciosa Korth. (Rubiaceae), have been traditionally used as a substitute for opium. By phytochemical studies on the constituents of the plant growing in Thailand as well as in Malaysia, several 9-methoxy-Corynanthe-type monoterpenoid indole alkaloids including new natural products were isolated. The structures of these new compounds were elucidated by the modern spectroscopic methods and/or chiral-total syntheses. The chiral total synthesis of (-)-mitragynine, a major component of this plant, was achieved. Potent opioid agonistic properties of mitragynine, which acts on mu- and delta-opioid subtype receptors, and of mitragynine pseudoindoxyl, whose analgesic activity is more potent than that of morphine, were clarified in in vitro experiments. The essential structural features in mitragynine for revealing the analgesic activity were elucidated by pharmacological evaluation of the natural and synthetic mitragynine derivatives. PMID:11082707

  8. The Critical Tradition in Bulgaria

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dimitar Tsatsov

    2001-01-01

    The critical tradition in Bulgaria includes all philosophical studies concerned directly or indirectly with Kant’s philosophy. In this sense, it can be called the Kantian trend in the Bulgarian philosophical tradition. Compared with other philosophical schools, such as Rehmke’s philosophy, dialectical materialism, etc., Kantianism develops relatively steadily, neither achieving lasting pre-eminence over other trends nor losing ground altogether. In the

  9. Build an Overhead Projector Spectroscope

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    David A. Katz

    2002-01-01

    This activity guide includes instructions for building a spectroscope using a standard classroom overhead projector. Learners can participate in the construction of the device or simply use it to explore light and the color spectrum. Learners can experiment with colored acetate film filters and bottles of colored solutions to see how they absorb and transmit light.

  10. Spectroscopic study of solar twins and analogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datson, Juliet; Flynn, Chris; Portinari, Laura

    2015-02-01

    Context. Many large stellar surveys have been and are still being carried out, providing huge amounts of data, for which stellar physical parameters will be derived. Solar twins and analogues provide a means to test the calibration of these stellar catalogues because the Sun is the best-studied star and provides precise fundamental parameters. Solar twins should be centred on the solar values. Aims: This spectroscopic study of solar analogues selected from the Geneva-Copenhagen Survey (GCS) at a resolution of 48 000 provides effective temperatures and metallicities for these stars. We test whether our spectroscopic parameters, as well as the previous photometric calibrations, are properly centred on the Sun. In addition, we search for more solar twins in our sample. Methods: The methods used in this work are based on literature methods for solar twin searches and on methods we developed in previous work to distinguish the metallicity-temperature degeneracies in the differential comparison of spectra of solar analogues versus a reference solar reflection spectrum. Results: We derive spectroscopic parameters for 148 solar analogues (about 70 are new entries to the literature) and verify with a-posteriori differential tests that our values are well-centred on the solar values. We use our dataset to assess the two alternative calibrations of the GCS parameters; our methods favour the latest revision. We show that the choice of spectral line list or the choice of asteroid or time of observation does not affect the results. We also identify seven solar twins in our sample, three of which are published here for the first time. Conclusions: Our methods provide an independent means to differentially test the calibration of stellar catalogues around the values of a well-known benchmark star, which makes our work interesting for calibration tests of upcoming Galactic surveys. Based on observations made with ESO Telescopes at the La Silla Observatory under programme ID 077.D-0525 and 090.D-0133.Table 1 is also available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/574/A124Full Table 5 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/574/A124

  11. Arsenate Adsorption On Ruthenium Oxides: A Spectroscopic And Kinetic Investigation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arsenate adsorption on amorphous (RuO2?1.1H2O) and crystalline (RuO2) ruthenium oxides was evaluated using spectroscopic and kinetic methods to elucidate the adsorption mechanism. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS) was ...

  12. Scaling and Normalization Effects in NMR Spectroscopic Metabonomic Data Sets

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew Craig; Olivier Cloarec; Elaine Holmes; Jeremy K. Nicholson; John C. Lindon

    2006-01-01

    Considerable confusion appears to exist in the metabo- nomics literature as to the real need for, and the role of, preprocessing the acquired spectroscopic data. A number of studies have presented various data manipulation approaches, some suggesting an optimum method. In metabonomics, data are usually presented as a table where each row relates to a given sample or analytical experiment

  13. Single Cell Detection Capability of an Optofluidic Spectroscopic Biosensor

    E-print Network

    Lear, Kevin L.

    Single Cell Detection Capability of an Optofluidic Spectroscopic Biosensor H. Shao, D. Kumar, and K and differentiate single cells. Transmission spectra of single biological cells including yeast cells and human. A method for spectral correlation is also presented to verify the preliminary results of the single cell

  14. Optical wavelength selection for improved spectroscopic photoacoustic imaging?

    PubMed Central

    Luke, Geoffrey P.; Nam, Seung Yun; Emelianov, Stanislav Y.

    2013-01-01

    Spectroscopic photoacoustic imaging has the potential to become a powerful tool that can estimate distributions of optically absorbing chromophores in the body. We have developed an algorithm to select imaging wavelengths for spectroscopic photoacoustics given the spectra of expected chromophores. The algorithm uses the smallest singular value of a matrix constructed from the absorption spectra as a criterion to remove extraneous wavelengths. The method performed significantly better than an approach where evenly spaced wavelengths were used in the presence of noise and wavelength-dependent attenuation of light in tissue. Finally, the algorithm was applied to photoacoustic imaging of a phantom containing indocyanine green dye and silica-coated gold nanorods, demonstrating significant improvements in the ability to estimate relative contrast agent concentrations compared to the case where evenly spaced wavelengths were chosen. In summary, our work provides a versatile framework to select optical wavelengths and evaluate sets of absorbers for spectroscopic photoacoustic imaging. PMID:25302148

  15. Instructional Television versus Traditional Teaching of an Introductory Psychology Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacon, Steven F.; Jakovich, Julie A.

    2001-01-01

    Compares the effectiveness of teaching an introductory psychology course delivered through instructional television (ITV) versus the traditional method. Students were taught in one of three ways: (1) traditional classroom instruction, (2) instruction in an ITV studio with a teacher, or (3) instruction in a remote ITV studio. Finds similar…

  16. Endoscopic versus traditional saphenous vein harvesting: a prospective, randomized trial

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keith B Allen; Gary L Griffith; David A Heimansohn; Robert J Robison; Robert G Matheny; John J Schier; Edward B Fitzgerald; Carl J Shaar

    1998-01-01

    Background. Saphenous vein harvested with a traditional longitudinal technique often results in leg wound complications. An alternative endoscopic harvest technique may decrease these complications.Methods. One hundred twelve patients scheduled for elective coronary artery bypass grafting were prospectively randomized to have vein harvested using either an endoscopic (group A, n = 54) or traditional technique (group B, n = 58). Groups

  17. A Comparison of Collaborative and Traditional Instruction in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gubera, Chip; Aruguete, Mara S.

    2013-01-01

    Although collaborative instructional techniques have become popular in college courses, it is unclear whether collaborative techniques can replace more traditional instructional methods. We examined the efficacy of collaborative courses (in-class, collaborative activities with no lectures) compared to traditional lecture courses (in-class,…

  18. Calibrating Redshift Distributions Beyond Spectroscopic Limits with Cross-Correlations

    E-print Network

    Jeffrey A. Newman

    2008-05-12

    We describe a new method for measuring the true redshift distribution of any set of objects studied only photometrically. The angular cross-correlation between objects in a photometric sample with objects in some spectroscopic sample as a function of the spectroscopic z, in combination with standard correlation measurements, provides sufficient information to reconstruct the true redshift distribution of the photometric sample. This technique enables the robust calibration of photometric redshifts even beyond spectroscopic limits. The spectroscopic sample need not resemble the photometric one in galaxy properties, but must overlap in sky coverage and redshift range. We test this new technique with Monte Carlo simulations using realistic error estimates. RMS errors in recovering both the mean and sigma of the true, Gaussian redshift distribution of a single photometric redshift bin are 1.4x10^(-3) (sigma_z/0.1) (Sigma_p/10)^(-0.3) (dN_s/dz / 25,000)^(-0.5), where sigma_z is the true sigma of the redshift distribution, Sigma_p is the surface density of the photometric sample in galaxies/arcmin^2, and dN_s/dz is the number of galaxies with a spectroscopic redshift per unit z. We test the impact of redshift outliers and of a variety of sources of systematic error; none dominate measurement uncertainties in reasonable scenarios. With this method, the true redshift distributions of even arbitrarily faint photometric redshift samples may be determined to the precision required by proposed dark energy experiments (errors in mean and sigma below 3x10^(-3) at z~1) using expected extensions of current spectroscopic samples.

  19. A Conceptual Basis for Non-Traditional Study and Alternatives in the Establishment of a Non-Traditional Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Young

    Traditional educational methods can no longer effectively meet the various needs and demands of the many diverse groups and individuals found in large metropolitan multicampus districts. Existing urban community colleges do not provide alternative services because they are limited in flexibility by state statutes and by the traditions of academia.…

  20. Spectroscopic metallicities of Vega-like stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saffe, C.; Gómez, M.; Pintado, O.; González, E.

    2008-10-01

    Aims: We aim to determine the metallicities of 113 Southern Hemisphere Vega-like candidate stars in relation to the giant exoplanet host group and field stars. Methods: We applied two spectroscopic methods of abundance determinations: equivalent width measurements together with the ATLAS9 model atmospheres and the WIDTH9 program, and a comparison of observed spectra with a grid of synthetic spectra. Results: For the Vega-like group, the metallicities are indistinguishable from those of field stars not known to be associated with planets or disks. This result is quite different from the metallicities of giant exoplanet host stars, which are metal-rich in comparison to field stars. Tables 1-4 are only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  1. Spectroscopic detection of nitrogen concentrations in sagebrush

    SciTech Connect

    J. J. MITCHELL; N. F. GLENN; T.T. SANKEY; D. R. DERRYBERRY; R. C. HRUSKA; M. O. Anderson

    2012-07-01

    The ability to estimate foliar nitrogen (N) in semi-arid landscapes can yield information on nutritional status and improve our limited understanding of controls on canopy photosynthesis. We examined two spectroscopic methods for estimating sagebrush dried leaf and live shrub N content: first derivative reflectance (FDR) and continuum removal. Both methods used partial least squares (PLS) regression to select wavebands most significantly correlated with N concentrations in the samples. Sagebrush dried leaf spectra produced PLS models (R2 = 0.76–0.86) that could predict N concentrations within the dataset more accurately than PLS models generated from live shrub spectra (R2 = 0.41–0.63). Inclusion of wavelengths associated with leaf water in the FDR transformations appeared to improve regression results. Findings are encouraging and warrant further exploration into sagebrush reflectance spectra to characterize N concentrations.

  2. Spectroscopic metallicities of Vega-like stars

    E-print Network

    C. Saffe; M. Gomez; O. Pintado; E. Gonzalez

    2008-05-26

    Aims: To determine the metallicities of 113 Southern Hemisphere Vega-like candidate stars in relation to the Exoplanet host group and field stars. Methods: We applied two spectroscopic methods of abundance determinations: equivalent width measurements together with the ATLAS9 (Kurucz 1993) model atmospheres and the WIDTH9 program, and a comparison of observed spectra with the grid of synthetic spectra of Munari et al. (2005). Results: For the Vega-like group, the metallicities are indistinguishable from those of field stars not known to be associated with planets or disks. This result is quite different from the metallicities of Exoplanet host stars which are metal-rich in comparison to field stars.

  3. Spectroscopic metallicities of Vega-like stars

    E-print Network

    Saffe, C; Pintado, O; González, E

    2008-01-01

    Aims: To determine the metallicities of 113 Southern Hemisphere Vega-like candidate stars in relation to the Exoplanet host group and field stars. Methods: We applied two spectroscopic methods of abundance determinations: equivalent width measurements together with the ATLAS9 (Kurucz 1993) model atmospheres and the WIDTH9 program, and a comparison of observed spectra with the grid of synthetic spectra of Munari et al. (2005). Results: For the Vega-like group, the metallicities are indistinguishable from those of field stars not known to be associated with planets or disks. This result is quite different from the metallicities of Exoplanet host stars which are metal-rich in comparison to field stars.

  4. Spectroscopic Binaries in Planetary Nebulae

    E-print Network

    Howard E. Bond

    2005-10-04

    It is already known that about 10% of central stars of PNe are very short-period binaries (hours to days), which are detected through photometric variations. These must have been formed through common-envelope interactions in initially wide binaries, accompanied by ejection of the envelope and its subsequent photoionization as a PN. Radial-velocity observations by ourselves and others are now suggesting that an even larger fraction of planetary nuclei may be spectroscopic binaries, making the total binary fraction very large. However, we have not as yet been able to rule out the possibility that the apparent velocity changes are actually due to stellar-wind variations. Pending follow-up spectroscopic observations with large telescopes, it presently appears plausible that binary-star ejection is the major formation channel for planetary nebulae.

  5. Spectroscopic characterization of polymers: report

    SciTech Connect

    Koenig, J.L.

    1987-10-01

    Polymer characterization has presented major difficulties to the analytical chemist, who has had to develop techniques to cope with the challenge. Even the elementary problem of measuring molecular weight is not easy. Yet such measurements are essential, because the physical, mechanical, and flow properties depend on the length of the polymer chain. Because of the limited solubility and high viscosity of polymers, many classical techniques have been of little use or have had to be extensively modified to measure the molecular weight of polymers. Size-exclusion chromatographic techniques such as gel permeation have been developed to measure these molecular weight distributions. Special chromatographic instruments with a range of spectroscopic detectors (including infrared and laser-light scattering) have emerged commercially to aid the analytical chemist in the fundamental endeavor to measure the length of the polymer chain and its distribution. The author describes the advantages and disadvantages and disadvantages of various spectroscopic techniques.

  6. Spectroscopic Analysis of H? Dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feddersen, Jesse; Salzer, J. J.; Gronwall, C.

    2013-06-01

    We present spectroscopic measurements of ~200 faint point sources of emission - called H? dots - found in narrow-band images taken for the ALFALFA H? project. Our image analysis catalogs emission-line sources that are not optically associated with the target ALFALFA galaxy. Analyzing spectra of these sources, we find isolated extragalactic HII regions, ultra-low luminosity dwarf galaxies, background (higher redshift) galaxies, and QSOs. We give a summary of the photometric and spectroscopic properties of the full sample of H? dots discovered to date. We also illustrate why these objects are of astrophysical interest. For example, using coarse oxygen abundance measurements of the low luminosity dwarf galaxies, we detect signs of a possible flattening in the local Luminosity-Metallicity relation. We also find luminous [O III]-detected star-forming galaxies at z ~ 0.32 with unusually low oxygen abundances.

  7. Type Ia Supernovae: Spectroscopic Surprises

    E-print Network

    David Branch

    2003-10-23

    Recent observations have extended the range of diversity among spectra of Type Ia supernovae. I briefly discuss SN Ia explosion models in the spectroscopic context, the observed diversity, and some recent results from direct analysis with the Synow code for one normal and two peculiar SNe Ia. Relating the observational manifestations of diversity to their physical causes is looking like an ever more challenging problem.

  8. Spectroscopic study of early-type multiple stellar systems. I. Orbits of spectroscopic binary subsystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veramendi, M. E.; González, J. F.

    2014-03-01

    Context. The present knowledge of stellar properties and dynamical structure of early-type multiple stellar systems is insufficient to offer useful statistical constraints for stellar formation models. Aims: To increase the amount of observational information about the characteristics of early-type multiples, we carried out a spectroscopic monitoring to search for new spectroscopic components and to determine their orbits. Methods: We observed 30 early-type multiple systems using the 2.15 m telescope and REOSC echelle spectrograph at the Complejo Astronómico El Leoncito (CASLEO) during 10 observing runs between 2008 and 2013. We measured radial velocities by cross-correlations and applied a spectral disentangling method to double-lined systems. We calculated orbital elements for the inner subsystem of each analysed multiple. Results: In this first paper we present calculated orbits for six previously catalogued subsystems. Three subsystems had no previously published parameters, while we obtained more accurate orbits for the other three. In one case we found absolute masses and radii for the components by using available photometric data. Conclusions: The long-term spectroscopic monitoring of multiple systems is a useful method of investigating the companions in intermediate hierarchical levels, particularly those that could affect the dynamical evolution of a close inner binary subsystem. Reduced spectra are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/563/A138 Warning, no authors found for 2014A&A...564A..12.

  9. SYNCHROTRON-BASED SPECTROSCOPIC TECHNIQUES: UOSSBAUER AND HIGH.RESOLUTION INELASTIC

    E-print Network

    Jackson, Jennifer M.

    -ray scattering, phonon density ofstates, sound velocities l. Synchrotron Miissbauer Spectroscopy (SMSSYNCHROTRON-BASED SPECTROSCOPIC TECHNIQUES: UOSSBAUER AND HIGH.RESOLUTION INELASTIC SCATTERING synchrotron-based spectroscopy methods like nuclear resonant forward scattering ("synchrotron Mcissbauer

  10. The new non-traditional student in nursing.

    PubMed

    Seidl, A H; Sauter, D

    1990-01-01

    Because different types of new, non-registered nurse students seek baccalaureate nursing education, this study was conducted comparing traditional undergraduate generic students with a group of non-traditional students to dispel myths and to develop policies and educational strategies. Traditional and non-traditional students were differentiated by age, sex, marital status, and experience in higher education. Traditional and non-traditional undergraduate students were compared on demographic variables, educational goals, sources of psychological and financial support, study habits, learning style, and clinical judgment skills. Non-traditional students were found to be an excellent risk for admission, having higher semester grade point averages and being more skilled in making professional judgments. Learning style differentiated traditional and non-traditional students, however, teaching methods were similar. Suggestions for educational planning and policies are made. Let the curriculum of the institution recognize that both educational content and process must be relevant to individual differences and that the curriculum is basically what different individuals do to learn what they need to learn, to fulfill the purposes that brought them to the college (Chickering, 1974). PMID:2153776

  11. Visualizing the zero order basis of the spectroscopic Hamiltonian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, George L.; Kellman, Michael E.

    2012-01-01

    Recent works have shown that a generalization of the spectroscopic effective Hamiltonian can describe spectra in surprising regions, such as isomerization barriers. In this work, we seek to explain why the effective Hamiltonian is successful where there was reason to doubt that it would work at all. All spectroscopic Hamiltonians have an underlying abstract zero-order basis (ZOB) which is the "ideal" basis for a given form and parameterization of the Hamiltonian. Without a physical model there is no way to transform this abstract basis into a coordinate representation. To this end, we present a method of obtaining the coordinate space representation of the abstract ZOB of a spectroscopic effective Hamiltonian. This method works equally well for generalized effective Hamiltonians that encompass above-barrier multiwell behavior, and standard effective Hamiltonians for the vicinity of a single potential minimum. Our approach relies on a set of converged eigenfunctions obtained from a variational calculation on a potential surface. By making a one-to-one correspondence between the energy eigenstates of the effective Hamiltonian and those of the coordinate space Hamiltonian, a physical representation of the abstract ZOB is calculated. We find that the ZOB basis naturally adjusts its complexity depending on the underlying nature of phase space, which allows spectroscopic Hamiltonians to succeed for systems sampling multiple stationary points.

  12. Spectroscopic investigation of old planetaries V. Distance scales

    E-print Network

    Ralf Napiwotzki

    2001-01-08

    We use the results of our recent NLTE model atmosphere analysis of central stars of old planetary nebulae (PN) to calculate distances. We perform a comparison with three other methods (trigonometric parallaxes, interstellar NaD lines, and Shklovsky distances) and discuss the problem of the PNe distance scale. The result of the comparison of our spectroscopic distances with the trigonometric distances is that the spectroscopic distances are 55% larger. Since using trigonometric parallaxes with large relative measurement errors can introduce systematic errors, we carried out a Monte Carlo simulation of the biases introduced by selection effects and measurement errors. It turns out that a difference between both distance scales of the observed size is expected for the present day data if the underlying distance scales are identical. Thus our finding is essentially a confirmation of the spectroscopic distance scale! Good agreement is found between the spectroscopic distances and distances derived from the interstellar NaD lines. All three independent methods of distance measurement indicate that the widely used "statistical" distance scales of the Shklovsky type are too short for old PNe. A correlation with nebular radii exists. The most likely explanation is an underestimate of the nebula masses for large PN. Implications for the nebula masses are discussed. Estimates of the PNe space density and birthrate, which are based on Shklovsky type distances, therefore give too large values.

  13. Is Traditional Educational Media Dead?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ljubic, Milan

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the influence of films on the author and concludes that traditional media has not died out, but rather has changed due to technology. Films are now watched on television as well as at a cinema; radio is more pervasive; and newspapers are still valued. (LRW)

  14. Does Scottish Education Need Traditions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paterson, Lindsay

    2009-01-01

    Scottish education was, until quite recently, the conscious product of liberal tradition, of the belief by influential elites that the nation's educational history was strong, coherent, and progressive, a source of economic flexibility, of modernising ideas, and of liberal opportunity. In recent decades, however, it has become fashionable to decry…

  15. "Friluftsliv": Traditional Norwegian Outdoor Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tellnes, Atle

    1992-01-01

    Nature and outdoor life are part of Norway's national identity, as exemplified by a long history of nature-inspired art and literature, the formation of outdoor organizations since the turn of the century, and the development of skiing. Norwegian traditional outdoor life is characterized as travelling with respectful use of nature, to achieve a…

  16. Traditional Navajo Maps and Wayfinding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Harris; Kelley, Klara

    2005-01-01

    An example of the way finding process when using verbal and other traditional maps among the Navajo Indians of the southwestern United States is presented. The scholarly literature on the Southwest offers examples of verbal maps that construct both linear space, such as trails, and broad geographical space, including hunting territories and large…

  17. From Traditional to Virtual Mentoring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirk, James J.; Olinger, Jennifer

    The tradition of a mentoring relationship is embedded in a personal/business relationship between a wise teacher and someone who needs to learn a trade. Learning sessions have occurred over the years in many types of settings, including one-on-one mentoring, conferences, meetings, telephone, and fax. As society looks to technology as a vital…

  18. Africanisms in Gullah Oral Tradition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holloway, Joseph E.

    1989-01-01

    The Sea Islands off the coast of South Carolina, Georgia, and Northern Florida retain almost every element of African culture, including language, oral tradition, folklore, and aesthetics. Examines the African influence in the lifestyle of the Gullah people of the Sea Islands, especially in terms of their concept of time. (AF)

  19. Education and the Aesopic Tradition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Provenzo, Eugene Francis, Jr.

    The purpose for this study, as set forth in chapter one, is to describe the history and use of Aesop's fables as part of the Western pedagogical tradition. A second intention is to demonstrate how the different uses of the fables by various cultures reflect specific social, political, and economic concerns of the societies from which they are…

  20. Absorption spectroscopic study of EDA complexes of.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, S; Nayak, S K; Chattopadhyay, S K; Banerjee, M; Mukherjee, A K

    2001-02-01

    [70]Fullerene has been shown to form 1:1 molecular complexes with toluene, p-xylene, m-xylene, 1,2,4,5-tetramethyl benzene (durene) and pentamethyl benzene (PMB) in CCl4 medium by absorption spectroscopic method. Isosbestic points have been detected in case of complexes with PMB and durene. Charge transfer absorption band could not be detected but the intensity of the broad absorption band of C70 in CCl4 decreases systematically with increase in the concentration of the added methylbenzenes. From this trend the formation constants (Kc) of the complexes have been determined at three different wavelengths. The constancy of Kc with respect to change in the wavelength of measurement supports the view that complex of a single stoichiometry (1:1) is formed in each case. PMID:11206565

  1. Esoteric healing traditions: a conceptual overview.

    PubMed

    Levin, Jeff

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents, for the first time, a comprehensive scholarly examination of the history and principles of major traditions of esoteric healing. After a brief conceptual overview of esoteric religion and healing, summaries are provided of eight major esoteric traditions, including descriptions of beliefs and practices related to health, healing, and medicine. These include what are termed the kabbalistic tradition, the mystery school tradition, the gnostic tradition, the brotherhoods tradition, the Eastern mystical tradition, the Western mystical tradition, the shamanic tradition, and the new age tradition. Next, commonalities across these traditions are summarized with respect to beliefs and practices related to anatomy and physiology; nosology and etiology; pathophysiology; and therapeutic modalities. Finally, the implications of this survey of esoteric healing are discussed for clinicians, biomedical researchers, and medical educators. PMID:18316053

  2. Ginseng in Traditional Herbal Prescriptions

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ho Jae; Kim, Dong Hyun; Park, Se Jin; Kim, Jong Min; Ryu, Jong Hoon

    2012-01-01

    Panax ginseng Meyer has been widely used as a tonic in traditional Korean, Chinese, and Japanese herbal medicines and in Western herbal preparations for thousands of years. In the past, ginseng was very rare and was considered to have mysterious powers. Today, the efficacy of drugs must be tested through well-designed clinical trials or meta-analyses, and ginseng is no exception. In the present review, we discuss the functions of ginseng described in historical documents and describe how these functions are taken into account in herbal prescriptions. We also discuss the findings of experimental pharmacological research on the functions of ginseng in ginseng-containing prescriptions and how these prescriptions have been applied in modern therapeutic interventions. The present review on the functions of ginseng in traditional prescriptions helps to demystify ginseng and, as a result, may contribute to expanding the use of ginseng or ginseng-containing prescriptions. PMID:23717123

  3. Spectroscopic signature for ferroelectric ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wójcik, Marek J.; G?ug, Maciej; Boczar, Marek; Boda, ?ukasz

    2014-09-01

    Various forms of ice exist within our galaxy. Particularly intriguing type of ice - ‘ferroelectric ice' was discovered experimentally and is stable in temperatures below 72 K. This form of ice can generate enormous electric fields and can play an important role in planetary formation. In this letter we present Car-Parrinello simulation of infrared spectra of ferroelectric ice and compare them with spectra of hexagonal ice. Librational region of the spectra can be treated as spectroscopic signature of ice XI and can be of help to identify ferroelectric ice in the Universe.

  4. The Spectroscopic Diversity of Type Ia Supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blondin, S.; Matheson, T.; Kirshner, R. P.; Mandel, K. S.; Berlind, P.; Calkins, M.; Challis, P.; Garnavich, P. M.; Jha, S. W.; Modjaz, M.; Riess, A. G.; Schmidt, B. P.

    2012-05-01

    We present 2603 spectra of 462 nearby Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia), including 2065 previously unpublished spectra, obtained during 1993-2008 through the Center for Astrophysics Supernova Program. There are on average eight spectra for each of the 313 SNe Ia with at least two spectra. Most of the spectra were obtained with the FAST spectrograph at the Fred Lawrence Whipple Observatory 1.5 m telescope and reduced in a consistent manner, making this data set well suited for studies of SN Ia spectroscopic diversity. Using additional data from the literature, we study the spectroscopic and photometric properties of SNe Ia as a function of spectroscopic class using the classification schemes of Branch et al. and Wang et al. The width-luminosity relation appears to be steeper for SNe Ia with broader lines, although the result is not statistically significant with the present sample. Based on the evolution of the characteristic Si II ?6355 line, we propose improved methods for measuring velocity gradients, revealing a larger range than previously suspected, from ~0 to ~400 km s-1 day-1 considering the instantaneous velocity decline rate at maximum light. We find a weaker and less significant correlation between Si II velocity and intrinsic B - V color at maximum light than reported by Foley et al., owing to a more comprehensive treatment of uncertainties and host galaxy dust. We study the extent of nuclear burning and the presence of unburnt carbon in the outermost layers of the ejecta and report new detections of C II ?6580 in 23 early-time SN Ia spectra. The frequency of C II detections is not higher in SNe Ia with bluer colors or narrower light curves, in conflict with the recent results of Thomas et al. Based on nebular spectra of 27 SNe Ia, we find no relation between the FWHM of the iron emission feature at ~4700 Å and ?m 15(B) after removing the two low-luminosity SN 1986G and SN 1991bg, suggesting that the peak luminosity is not strongly dependent on the kinetic energy of the explosion for most SNe Ia. Finally, we confirm the correlation of velocity shifts in some nebular lines with the intrinsic B - V color of SNe Ia at maximum light, although several outliers suggest a possible non-monotonic behavior for the largest blueshifts. Based in part on observations obtained at the F. L. Whipple Observatory, which is operated by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, the MMT Observatory, a joint facility of the Smithsonian Institution and the University of Arizona, and with the 6.5 m Magellan Telescopes located at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile.

  5. Change of Games' Traditions in Lithuania

    Microsoft Academic Search

    EUGENIJUS BAGDONAS; IRENA PATASIENE; VYTAUTAS SKVERNYS

    Every generation of population (cohort) has its own specific traditions of games. Changes in traditions are determined by cultural environment of a country, possibilities to be at leisure and to play one game or another. Objectives are to evaluate how much the game's traditions of separate cohorts changed, how game's supply influence game's usage traditions. The data was collected from

  6. Spectroscopic factors for bound s-wave states derived from neutron scattering lengths

    E-print Network

    P. Mohr; H. Herndl; H. Oberhummer

    1996-12-18

    A simple and model-independent method is described to derive neutron single-particle spectroscopic factors of bound s-wave states in $^{A+1}Z = ^{A}Z \\otimes n$ nuclei from neutron scattering lengths. Spectroscopic factors for the nuclei ^{13}C, ^{14}C, ^{16}N, ^{17}O, ^{19}O, ^{23}Ne, ^{37}Ar, and ^{41}Ar are compared to results derived from transfer experiments using the well-known DWBA analysis and to shell model calculations. The scattering length of ^{14}C is calculated from the ^{15}C_{g.s.} spectroscopic factor.

  7. Spectroscopic characterizations of organic/inorganic nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govani, Jayesh R.

    2009-12-01

    In the present study, pure and 0.3 wt%, 0.4 wt%, as well as 0.5 wt% L-arginine doped potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) crystals were grown using solution growth techniques and further subjected to infrared (IR) absorption and Raman studies for confirmation of chemical group functionalization for investigating the incorporation mechanism of the L-arginine organic material into the KDP crystal structure. Infrared spectroscopic analysis suggests that structural changes are occurring for the L-arginine molecule as a result of its interaction with the KPD crystal. Infrared spectroscopic technique confirms the disturbance of the N-H, C-H and C-N bonds of the amino acid, suggesting successful incorporation of L-arginine into the KDP crystals. Raman analysis also reveals modification of the N-H, C-H and C-N bonds of the amino acid, implying successful inclusion of L-arginine into the KDP crystals. With the help of Gaussian software, a prediction of possible incorporation mechanisms of the organic material was obtained from comparison of the simulated infrared and Raman vibrational spectra with the experimental results. Furthermore, we also studied the effect of L-arginine doping on the thermal stability of the grown KDP crystal by employing Thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA). TGA suggests that increasing the level of L-arginine doping speeds the decomposition process and it weakens the KDP crystal, which indicates successful doping of the KDP crystals with L-arginine amino acid. Urinary stones are one of the oldest and most widely spread diseases in humans, animals and birds. Many remedies have been employed through the ages for the treatment of urinary stones. Recent medicinal measures reflect the modern advances, which are based on surgical removal, percutaneous techniques and extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL). Although these procedures are valuable, they are quite expensive for most people. Furthermore, recurrence of these diseases is awfully frequent with these procedures and the patients have to be subjected to careful follow up for several years. In contrast, in traditional therapeutic systems, most of the remedies were taken from plants and they proved to be helpful. However, the rationale behind their use is not thoroughly established through systematic pharmacological and clinical studies. In this regard, in the present investigation, with a view towards acquiring more insights, we have performed a detailed study of kidney stone formation and growth inhibition based on a traditional medicine approach with herbal extracts. The intricacy of calculi formation (i.e. nucleation, transformation, and aggregation) in a natural system such as urine is replicated to a certain extent in the present study by using a simplified single diffusion gel growth technique. Crystals were synthesized in a static gel environment without and with the presence of 1% and 2% concentration of Rotula Aquatica Lour (RAL) herbal extracts and further subjected to Raman, infrared absorption, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and photoluminescence to analyze the effects of RAL on the growth of manganese-based calculi. Raman spectroscopy clearly provided an indication of the newberyite type of crystal as well as information on the chemical interaction between crystal and inhibitor. It also indicates the presence of organic components due to the RAL plant material. Infrared absorption spectroscopy indicates the presence of a strong reflecting component in the inhibitor as well as the newberyite type of crystal. XPS results indicated the presence of metallic zinc in the crystal with inhibitor. Furthermore, a considerable increase in the intensity of the magnesium and oxygen lines are noticed with the addition of the herbal extract, which suggest that the inhibitor chemical composition includes a substantial quantity of Mg and O. XPS analysis also demonstrates the presence of modified phosphorus oxidation states and suggest that they might make a contribution, too. The photoluminescence spectra of the crystal with inhibitor indicate the p

  8. Metaphysical and value underpinnings of traditional medicine in West Africa.

    PubMed

    Omonzejele, Peter F; Maduka, Chukwugozie

    2011-02-01

    This study investigated the extent to which recourse to traditional healers depended on biometric variables; ways of knowing in good time what ailments were more likely to be better handled by traditional healers; rationale behind traditional healing methodologies. On the whole, four research questions were engaged. The sample for the study included residents in urban (Benin City) and rural (Ehime Mbano) communities in Nigeria. The instruments comprised of two questionnaires. The traditional healers were also interviewed in addition. The findings of the research included the following: in both rural and urban areas, women and more elderly persons had more recourse than other groups to traditional medicine; Christians, less educated persons, self-employed persons and women affirmed most strongly to the efficacy of traditional medicine over Western medicine with respect to certain ailments; ways for averting spiritual illnesses included obeying instructions from ancestors and offering regular sacrifices to the gods; methods used by traditional healers to determine whether an ailment was "spiritual" or as a result of home problems included diagnosis linked to divination, interpretation of dreams particularly those involving visits by ancestors, interpretation of nightmares and omens such as the appearance of owls; methods for curing patients included use of herbs particularly those believed to have magical powers, offering of sacrifices, use of incantations and wearing of protective medicine. PMID:21390575

  9. Spectroscopic imaging in electron microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Pennycook, Stephen J [ORNL; Colliex, C. [Universite Paris Sud, Orsay, France

    2012-01-01

    In the scanning transmission electron microscope, multiple signals can be simultaneously collected, including the transmitted and scattered electron signals (bright field and annular dark field or Z-contrast images), along with spectroscopic signals such as inelastically scattered electrons and emitted photons. In the last few years, the successful development of aberration correctors for the electron microscope has transformed the field of electron microscopy, opening up new possibilities for correlating structure to functionality. Aberration correction not only allows for enhanced structural resolution with incident probes into the sub-angstrom range, but can also provide greater probe currents to facilitate mapping of intrinsically weak spectroscopic signals at the nanoscale or even the atomic level. In this issue of MRS Bulletin, we illustrate the power of the new generation of electron microscopes with a combination of imaging and spectroscopy. We show the mapping of elemental distributions at atomic resolution and also the mapping of electronic and optical properties at unprecedented spatial resolution, with applications ranging from graphene to plasmonic nanostructures, and oxide interfaces to biology.

  10. Determination of the asymptotic normalization coefficients for 14C + n <--> 15C, the 14C(n, gamma)15C reaction rate, and evaluation of a new method to determine spectroscopic factors

    SciTech Connect

    McCleskey, M. [Texas A and M Univ., Cyclotron Inst., TX (United States); Mukhamedzhanov, A. M. [Texas A and M Univ., Cyclotron Inst., TX (United States); Trache, L. [Texas A and M Univ., Cyclotron Inst., TX (United States); Tribble, R. E. [Texas A and M Univ., Cyclotron Inst., TX (United States); Banu, A. [Texas A and M Univ., Cyclotron Inst., TX (United States); Eremenko, V. [Texas A and M Univ., Cyclotron Inst., TX (United States); Goldberg, V. Z. [Texas A and M Univ., Cyclotron Inst., TX (United States); Lui, Y. W. [Texas A and M Univ., Cyclotron Inst., TX (United States); McCleskey, E. [Texas A and M Univ., Cyclotron Inst., TX (United States); Roeder, B. T. [Texas A and M Univ., Cyclotron Inst., TX (United States); Spiridon, A. [Texas A and M Univ., Cyclotron Inst., TX (United States); Carstoiu, F. [National Inst. for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Burjan, V. [Nuclear Physics Inst., Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague (Czech Republic); Hons, Z. [Nuclear Physics Inst., Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague (Czech Republic); Thompson, I. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-04-17

    The 14C + n <--> 15C system has been used as a test case in the evaluation of a new method to determine spectroscopic factors that uses the asymptotic normalization coefficient (ANC). The method proved to be unsuccessful for this case. As part of this experimental program, the ANCs for the 15C ground state and first excited state were determined using a heavy-ion neutron transfer reaction as well as the inverse kinematics (d,p) reaction, measured at the Texas A&M Cyclotron Institute. The ANCs were used to evaluate the astrophysical direct neutron capture rate on 14C, which was then compared with the most recent direct measurement and found to be in good agreement. A study of the 15C SF via its mirror nucleus 15F and a new insight into deuteron stripping theory are also presented.

  11. Mid-Infrared Spectroscopic Diagnostics of Galactic Nuclei

    E-print Network

    Vassilis Charmandaris; the Spitzer/IRS Instrument Team

    2006-07-13

    In this paper I summarize the science motivations, as well as a few mid-infrared spectroscopic methods used to identify the principal mechanisms of energy production in dust enshrouded galactic nuclei. The development of the various techniques is briefly discussed. Emphasis is given to the use of the data which are becoming available with the infrared spectrograph (IRS) on Spitzer, as well as the results which have been obtained by IRS over the past two years.

  12. Interactions of Isophorone Derivatives with DNA: Spectroscopic Studies

    PubMed Central

    Deiana, Marco; Matczyszyn, Katarzyna; Massin, Julien; Olesiak-Banska, Joanna; Andraud, Chantal; Samoc, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Interactions of three new isophorone derivatives, Isoa Isob and Isoc with salmon testes DNA have been investigated using UV-Vis, fluorescence and circular dichroism spectroscopic methods. All the studied compounds interact with DNA through intercalative binding mode. The stoichiometry of the isophorone/DNA adducts was found to be 1:1. The fluorescence quenching data revealed a binding interaction with the base pairs of DNA. The CD data indicate that all the investigated isophorones induce DNA modifications. PMID:26069963

  13. Transition moment directions and selected spectroscopic properties of Ivabradine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Synak, A.; Pikul, P.; Bojarski, P.; Nowakowska, J.; Wiczk, W.; ?ukaszewicz, A.; Kubicki, A. A.

    2013-01-01

    Based on the Kawski-Gryczynski method the value of angle ? = 38° between absorption and fluorescence transition moments of Ivabradine was determined. Such a high value of ? is responsible for low emission anisotropy of Ivabradine in a rigid polyvinyl alcohol matrix and in anhydrous glycerol despite the elongated shape of the fluorophore. Selected steady-state and time-resolved spectroscopic results support the analysis.

  14. Traditional and Cognitive Job Analyses as Tools for Understanding the Skills Gap.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanser, Lawrence M.

    Traditional methods of job and task analysis may be categorized as worker-oriented methods focusing on general human behaviors performed by workers in jobs or as job-oriented methods focusing on the technologies involved in jobs. The ability of both types of traditional methods to identify, understand, and communicate the skills needed in high…

  15. VIRUS-MEMBRANE INTERACTIONS spectroscopic studies

    E-print Network

    Hemminga, Marcus A.

    #12;#12;VIRUS-MEMBRANE INTERACTIONS spectroscopic studies #12;Promotor: dr. T.J. Schaafsma VIRUS-MEMB NE INTERACTIONS spectroscopic studies PROEFSCHRIFT ter verkrijging van de graad van doctor. Dr. T.J. Schaafsma was mijn promotor. Het onderzoek is uitgevoerd binnen de "virusgroep", waarvan

  16. Spectroscopic Optical Coherence Tomography and Microscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amy L. Oldenburg; Chenyang Xu; Stephen A. Boppart

    2007-01-01

    Imaging biological tissues using optical coherence tomography is enhanced with spectroscopic analysis, providing new metrics for functional imaging. Recent advances in spectroscopic optical coherence tomography (SOCT) include techniques for the discrimination of endogenous tissue types and for the detection of exogenous contrast agents. In this paper, we review these techniques and their associated signal processing algorithms, while highlighting their potential

  17. LaserSPECks: : laser SPECtroscopic trace-gas sensor networks - sensor integration and applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stephen So; Farinaz Koushanfar; Anatoliy Kosterev; Frank Tittel

    2007-01-01

    We introduce a novel laser spectroscopic trace-gas sensor platform, LaserSPECks that integrates recently developed miniature quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QE- PAS) gas sensing technology. This universal platform uses infrared laser spectroscopy detect and quantify numerous gas species at part-per-million to part-per-billion (ppm-ppb) concentrations (2). Traditional gas sensing devices capable of the same sensitivity and specificity are several orders of mag- nitude

  18. Use of Traditional Korean Medicine by Patients with Musculoskeletal Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bo-Ram; Choi, In Young; Kim, Kwang-Jum; Kwon, Young Dae

    2013-01-01

    Background South Korea has maintained a dual healthcare delivery system that incorporates both traditional Korean and Western medicine. In this research, we identified the determinants of the frequency of using traditional Korean medicine among musculoskeletal patients, who are known to be the most frequent users of complementary and alternative medicine. Methods In this research, we reviewed 2 consecutive years of nationally representative survey data from the 2008 and 2009 Korea Health Panel Survey. We analyzed the utilization of outpatient services by musculoskeletal patients within 12 months of the 2009 survey date. A two-part model was used because some patients did not use traditional Korean medicine and skewness was present in the data on traditional Korean medicine use. In the first part, logistic regression analysis was performed to investigate the use of traditional Korean medicine. In the second part, multiple regression analysis was performed to analyze the frequency of traditional Korean medicine usage among the subjects who visited traditional Korean medical institutions. Results The frequency of traditional Korean medicine usage was positively associated with ages of 40–49 years and over 60, restrictions on daily life, a greater number of chronic diseases, not being hospitalized, and more frequent visits (more than five times) to conventional hospitals or clinics for musculoskeletal disorders. Conclusions The important determinants of the frequency of traditional Korean medicine usage were age, activity restrictions, the number of chronic diseases, hospitalization history, and the number of visits to conventional hospitals for musculoskeletal disorders. The results contribute to our understanding of the characteristics of traditional Korean medicine users and may be used as a basic resource for related policymaking by government officials and medical professionals. PMID:23658811

  19. Gradient Moment Compensated Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopic Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dong-Hyun; Gu, Meng; Spielman, Daniel M.

    2010-01-01

    Spectroscopic imaging applications outside of the brain can suffer from artifacts due to inherent long scan times and susceptibility to motion. A fast spectroscopic imaging sequence has been devised with reduced sensitivity to motion. The sequence uses oscillating readout gradients and acquires k-space data in a spiral out–in fashion, which allows fast k-space coverage. We show that a spiral out–in readout acquisition is characterized by small gradient moments, reducing sensitivity to motion-induced artifacts. Data are acquired comparing the sequence to normal phase encoded spectroscopic imaging and conventional spiral spectroscopic imaging protocols. In addition, in vivo data are acquired from the liver, demonstrating potential usage as a multivoxel fat/water spectroscopic imaging tool. Results indicate that in the presence of motion, ghosting effects are reduced while metabolite signal increases of approximately 10% can be achieved. PMID:19161164

  20. Selected Attitudes Dealing with Individualized and Traditional Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leeking, Linda L.

    An investigation was done to ascertain the effectiveness of individualized instructional methods as compared with traditional instructional methods in vocational food service programs at the community college level. Subjects, forty-three hotel/motel restaurant management students, were divided into subgroups: students who transferred from another…

  1. Multifunction Imaging and Spectroscopic Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mouroulis, Pantazis

    2004-01-01

    A proposed optoelectronic instrument would perform several different spectroscopic and imaging functions that, heretofore, have been performed by separate instruments. The functions would be reflectance, fluorescence, and Raman spectroscopies; variable-color confocal imaging at two different resolutions; and wide-field color imaging. The instrument was conceived for use in examination of minerals on remote planets. It could also be used on Earth to characterize material specimens. The conceptual design of the instrument emphasizes compactness and economy, to be achieved largely through sharing of components among subsystems that perform different imaging and spectrometric functions. The input optics for the various functions would be mounted in a single optical head. With the exception of a targeting lens, the input optics would all be aimed at the same spot on a specimen, thereby both (1) eliminating the need to reposition the specimen to perform different imaging and/or spectroscopic observations and (2) ensuring that data from such observations can be correlated with respect to known positions on the specimen. The figure schematically depicts the principal components and subsystems of the instrument. The targeting lens would collect light into a multimode optical fiber, which would guide the light through a fiber-selection switch to a reflection/ fluorescence spectrometer. The switch would have four positions, enabling selection of spectrometer input from the targeting lens, from either of one or two multimode optical fibers coming from a reflectance/fluorescence- microspectrometer optical head, or from a dark calibration position (no fiber). The switch would be the only moving part within the instrument.

  2. Spectroscopic Applications in Gastrointestinal Endoscopy

    PubMed Central

    ROY, HEMANT K.; BACKMAN, VADIM

    2013-01-01

    One of the major frontiers in biomedical optics has been as an adjunct to gastrointestinal endoscopy. In particular, spectroscopy of elastic light scattering has the potential of addressing many of the vexing challenges confronting endoscopists. This review discusses the principles of spectroscopy and critically evaluates performance in clinically significant scenarios. One of the best established applications is optical biopsy (in situ histological determination), and a number of techniques such as elastic scattering spectroscopy have demonstrated the ability to discriminate between neoplastic and non-neoplastic polyps. For flat dysplasia detection in Barrett’s esophagus, some of the most promising spectroscopic technologies are angle-resolved low-coherence interferometry and endoscopic polarized scanning spectroscopy (the next generation light scattering spectroscopy). A new and exciting biological approach involves optical detection of field carcinogenesis. This can be exploited to reduce colonoscopic adenoma miss rate by assessing microcirculatory augmentation in the mucosa in the vicinity of the polyp using polarization-gatedspectroscopy. Furthermore, there are nano/micro-architectural correlates with diffuse field carcinogenesis throughout the colon. Indeed, technologies such as low coherence enhanced backscattering spectroscopy and partial wave spectroscopic microscopy have demonstrated that the detection of the nano-architectural alterations in the rectal mucosa can accurately sense advanced adenomas elsewhere in the colon. This may lend itself to a minimally intrusive risk stratification to identify patients who are most likely to harbor neoplasia and thus benefit from colonoscopy. Bridging these advances into the endoscopy suite requires pragmatic future development. Future studies need to focus on efficacy, cost, practicality (time required, etc), and particularly developing the paradigms that will impact upon clinical decision making. PMID:23059052

  3. Nasal Drug Delivery in Traditional Persian Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Zarshenas, Mohammad Mehdi; Zargaran, Arman; Müller, Johannes; Mohagheghzadeh, Abdolali

    2013-01-01

    Background Over one hundred different pharmaceutical dosage forms have been recorded in literatures of Traditional Persian Medicine among which nasal forms are considerable. Objectives This study designed to derive the most often applied nasal dosage forms together with those brief clinical administrations. Materials and Methods In the current study remaining pharmaceutical manuscripts of Persia during 9th to 18th century AD have been studied and different dosage forms related to nasal application of herbal medicines and their therapeutic effects were derived. Results By searching through pharmaceutical manuscripts of medieval Persia, different nasal dosage forms involving eleven types related to three main groups are found. These types could be derived from powder, solution or liquid and gaseous forms. Gaseous form were classified into fumigation (Bakhoor), vapor bath (Enkebab), inhalation (Lakhlakheh), aroma agents (Ghalieh) and olfaction or smell (Shomoom). Nasal solutions were as drops (Ghatoor), nasal snuffing drops (Saoot) and liquid snuff formulations (Noshoogh). Powders were as nasal insufflation or snorting agents (Nofookh) and errhine or sternutator medicine (Otoos). Nasal forms were not applied only for local purposes. Rather systemic disorders and specially CNS complications were said to be a target for these dosage forms. Discussion While this novel type of drug delivery is known as a suitable substitute for oral and parenteral administration, it was well accepted and extensively mentioned in Persian medical and pharmaceutical manuscripts and other traditional systems of medicine as well. Accordingly, medieval pharmaceutical standpoints on nasal dosage forms could still be an interesting subject of study. Therefore, the current work can briefly show the pharmaceutical knowledge on nasal formulations in medieval Persia and clarify a part of history of traditional Persian pharmacy. PMID:24624204

  4. Wheat-based traditional flat breads of India.

    PubMed

    Parimala, K R; Sudha, M L

    2015-01-01

    Wheat forms the basic ingredient for various bakery and traditional products. Wheat-based flat breads are one of the traditional products prepared in different parts of the world. Different regions of the world have inherited different preparation methods since time immemorial, which has led to the existence of traditional flat breads'. Being traditional, only a few have been extensively studied scientifically. India, being the second largest producer of wheat, has a great saga of traditional flat breads with different tastes and texture. This review is a compiled information related to the research studies carried out on some of the wheat-based traditional flat breads of India namely chapati, puri, tandoori roti, parantha (whole-wheat flour based) and parotta, naan, bhatura, kulcha (refined wheat flour based) which indicates the magnitude of attention they have drawn among the food scientists. The review delves upon the developments and improvements brought about in the storage stability and realization of large-scale production of few of these flat breads which has helped considerably to cater to the growing demand in the domestic as well as international markets. The review also indicates the possibility and the tremendous scope available for technological developments for traditional flat breads. PMID:24915406

  5. Traditional serrated adenoma: an update.

    PubMed

    Bettington, Mark L; Chetty, Runjan

    2015-07-01

    Although recognized 25 years ago, the traditional serrated adenoma (TSA) remains an ongoing source of diagnostic and biologic debate. Recent research has greatly improved our understanding of the morphological and molecular aspects of these polyps. In particular, the recognition of ectopic crypt foci (ECFs) in combination with typical cytology and slitlike serrations improves diagnostic reproducibility. Awareness that many TSAs, particularly BRAF-mutated TSAs, arise in precursor microvesicular hyperplastic polyps and sessile serrated adenomas can aid in making this diagnosis and should not be confused with a sessile serrated adenoma with dysplasia. At a molecular level, TSAs can be divided into 2 groups based on their BRAF or KRAS mutation status. The development of overt cytologic dysplasia is accompanied by TP53 mutation, Wnt pathway activation, and, in some cases, silencing of CDKN2A. Importantly, however, mismatch repair enzyme function is retained. Thus, the TSA is an important precursor of aggressive molecular subtypes of colorectal carcinoma. PMID:26001333

  6. MR spectroscopic imaging: principles and recent advances.

    PubMed

    Posse, Stefan; Otazo, Ricardo; Dager, Stephen R; Alger, Jeffry

    2013-06-01

    MR spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) has become a valuable tool for quantifying metabolic abnormalities in human brain, prostate, breast and other organs. It is used in routine clinical imaging, particularly for cancer assessment, and in clinical research applications. This article describes basic principles of commonly used MRSI data acquisition and analysis methods and their impact on clinical applications. It also highlights technical advances, such as parallel imaging and newer high-speed MRSI approaches that are becoming viable alternatives to conventional MRSI methods. Although the main focus is on (1) H-MRSI, the principles described are applicable to other MR-compatible nuclei. This review of the state-of-the-art in MRSI methodology provides a framework for critically assessing the clinical utility of MRSI and for defining future technical development that is expected to lead to increased clinical use of MRSI. Future technical development will likely focus on ultra-high field MRI scanners, novel hyperpolarized contrast agents using metabolically active compounds, and ultra-fast MRSI techniques because these technologies offer unprecedented sensitivity and specificity for probing tissue metabolic status and dynamics. PMID:23188775

  7. Determination of depleted uranium in environmental samples by gamma-spectroscopic techniques

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. J Karangelos; M. J Anagnostakis; E. P Hinis; S. E Simopoulos; Z. S Zunic

    2004-01-01

    The military use of depleted uranium initiated the need for an efficient and reliable method to detect and quantify DU contamination in environmental samples. This paper presents such a method, based on the gamma spectroscopic determination of 238U and 235U. The main advantage of this method is that it allows for a direct determination of the U isotope ratio, while

  8. Creational design for traditional culture vision

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Li Liang Jun; Huang Zhao Hui; Liu Quan Guo

    2006-01-01

    Chinese traditional culture with thousands of years of history, takes language, painting, music, character, architecture and so on as its external embodiments. Designing is also a kind of culture, while the unique Chinese calligraphy can represent our traditional culture more incisively and vividly. This paper takes Chinese calligraphy as the cut-in point, to discuss the usages of traditional recognizant-image in

  9. Infusing Qualitative Traditions in Counseling Research Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hays, Danica G.; Wood, Chris

    2011-01-01

    Research traditions serve as a blueprint or guide for a variety of design decisions throughout qualitative inquiry. This article presents 6 qualitative research traditions: grounded theory, phenomenology, consensual qualitative research, ethnography, narratology, and participatory action research. For each tradition, the authors describe its…

  10. Call for Nominations TRADITION OF EXCELLENCE

    E-print Network

    Call for Nominations TRADITION OF EXCELLENCE Staff Awards Do you know someone working, nominate him or her for the Academic Affairs Tradition of Excellence Staff Awards. Nomination forms-4016) or online at http://provost.tamu.edu/special-events/tradition-of-excellence-awards. Reward and Recognition

  11. The antioxidative activity of traditional Japanese herbs.

    PubMed

    Xiufen, Wang; Hiramatsu, Naoko; Matsubara, Mai

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this research was to examine the radical scavenging activity of traditional Japanese herbs. Samples used in the experiments were gennoshoko (Geranium nepalense var. thunbergii), yomogi (Artemisia vulgaris var.indica), senburi (Swertia japonica), iwa-tobacco (Conandron ramondioides), sarunokoshikake (Elfvingia applanata), kanzo (Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch) and matatabi (Actinidia polygama). The water-soluble components of the herbs were extracted in boiling water, and the volatile oil was extracted by a distillation apparatus or steeping in some organic solvents such as petroleum ether and ethyl ether. The radical scavenging activity was determined by the decrease of free radicals of DPPH detected by both colorimetric assay and HPLC method at 517 nm. The extracts of gennoshoko, yomogi and iwa-tobacco showed remarkable radical scavenging activity. The volatile oil of yomogi obtained by distillation or steeping in organic solvents had especially strong antioxidative activity. PMID:15630212

  12. Mayo Clinic: Tradition and Heritage

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2006-01-01

    Heeding the words of their father, one Dr. W.W. Mayo, â??No one is big enough to be independent of othersâ?, Dr. William J. Mayo and Dr. Charles H. Mayo helped create one of the worldâ??s first private integrated group practices of medicine. Now known as the Mayo Clinic, the story of their work is closely intertwined with the story of American medical history. As an attempt to bring this story to the web-browsing public, staff members at the Clinic recently created this historical timeline that offers some perspective on their institutional history. With their mouse in hand, visitors can move across the interactive timeline, which deploys high-quality photographs and short descriptions in its quest to document the Clinicâ??s various achievements, such as the creation of the first heart bypass machine in 1955. Finally, online visitors can get up close and personal to some of the artifacts that are close to the Mayo Clinic traditions, including a 1904 photograph of some of the medical staff at the Clinic.

  13. MR Spectroscopy and Spectroscopic Imaging of the Brain

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, He; Barker, Peter B.

    2012-01-01

    Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) and the related technique of magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) are widely used in both clinical and preclinical research for the non-invasive evaluation of brain metabolism. They are also used in medical practice, although their ultimate clinical value continues to be a source of discussion. This chapter reviews the general information content of brain spectra and commonly used protocols for both MRS and MRSI and also touches on data analysis methods and quantitation. The main focus is on proton MRS for application in humans, but many of the methods are also applicable to other nuclei and studies of animal models as well. PMID:21279603

  14. Spectroscopic investigation of metal-RNA interactions 

    E-print Network

    Vogt, Matthew John

    2005-02-17

    Metal-RNA interactions are important to neutralize the negative charge and aid in correctly folding the RNA. Spectroscopically active metal ions, especially Mn2+, have been used to probe the type of interaction the metal ...

  15. Interaction of salmon gonadotropin subunits : spectroscopic studies

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Interaction of salmon gonadotropin subunits : spectroscopic studies R. SALESSE, J. GARNIER, B en Josas, France Summary. Pituitary gonadotropins of female and male pacific salmon Oncorhynchus) and in salmon (Donaldson et al., 1972), although physicochemical, biological or immunological evidence for two

  16. Self-correction of proton spectroscopic images for gradient eddy current distortions and static field inhomogeneities.

    PubMed

    Johnson, G; Jung, K J; Wu, E X; Hilal, S K

    1993-08-01

    A postprocessing method of correcting for gradient eddy current distortions and inter-voxel static field inhomogeneity in spectroscopic imaging is presented. Data is acquired normally and all spatial processing is performed. The FID in each voxel is then digitally filtered to extract the signal from a single reference line. Phase multiplying the original FID by the phase of this reference signal corrects for gradient eddy currents and static field offsets. Computer simulations show that the method is robust with respect to noise, filter bandwidth and the presence of small lines close to the reference line. The method is demonstrated on proton spectroscopic images of phantoms. PMID:8366808

  17. Spectroscopic charge pumping investigation of the amphoteric nature of Si/SiO2 interface states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, J. T.; Yu, L. C.; Han, J. H.; Kopanski, J. J.; Cheung, K. P.; Zhang, F.; Wang, C.; Campbell, J. P.; Suehle, J. S.

    2011-06-01

    The amphoteric nature of Si/SiO2 interface states in submicron sized metal-oxide-silicon-field-effect-transistors is observed using an enhanced spectroscopic charge pumping method. The method's simplicity and high sensitivity makes it a powerful tool for interrogating the true nature of electrically measured interface states in samples which exhibit extremely low defect densities. The spectroscopic results obtained clearly illustrate a signature "double peak" density of states consistent with amphoteric Pb center data obtained from electron spin resonance measurements. Since the method is a hybrid of the commonly used charge pumping methodology, it should find widespread use in electronic device characterization.

  18. Vibrational spectroscopic characterization of fluoroquinolones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neugebauer, U.; Szeghalmi, A.; Schmitt, M.; Kiefer, W.; Popp, J.; Holzgrabe, U.

    2005-05-01

    Quinolones are important gyrase inhibitors. Even though they are used as active agents in many antibiotics, the detailed mechanism of action on a molecular level is so far not known. It is of greatest interest to shed light on this drug-target interaction to provide useful information in the fight against growing resistances and obtain new insights for the development of new powerful drugs. To reach this goal, on a first step it is essential to understand the structural characteristics of the drugs and the effects that are caused by the environment in detail. In this work we report on Raman spectroscopical investigations of a variety of gyrase inhibitors (nalidixic acid, oxolinic acid, cinoxacin, flumequine, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, lomefloxacin, ofloxacin, enoxacin, sarafloxacin and moxifloxacin) by means of micro-Raman spectroscopy excited with various excitation wavelengths, both in the off-resonance region (532, 633, 830 and 1064 nm) and in the resonance region (resonance Raman spectroscopy at 244, 257 and 275 nm). Furthermore DFT calculations were performed to assign the vibrational modes, as well as for an identification of intramolecular hydrogen bonding motifs. The effect of small changes in the drug environment was studied by adding successively small amounts of water until physiological low concentrations of the drugs in aqueous solution were obtained. At these low concentrations resonance Raman spectroscopy proved to be a useful and sensitive technique. Supplementary information was obtained from IR and UV/vis spectroscopy.

  19. Vibrational spectroscopic characterization of fluoroquinolones.

    PubMed

    Neugebauer, U; Szeghalmi, A; Schmitt, M; Kiefer, W; Popp, J; Holzgrabe, U

    2005-05-01

    Quinolones are important gyrase inhibitors. Even though they are used as active agents in many antibiotics, the detailed mechanism of action on a molecular level is so far not known. It is of greatest interest to shed light on this drug-target interaction to provide useful information in the fight against growing resistances and obtain new insights for the development of new powerful drugs. To reach this goal, on a first step it is essential to understand the structural characteristics of the drugs and the effects that are caused by the environment in detail. In this work we report on Raman spectroscopical investigations of a variety of gyrase inhibitors (nalidixic acid, oxolinic acid, cinoxacin, flumequine, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, lomefloxacin, ofloxacin, enoxacin, sarafloxacin and moxifloxacin) by means of micro-Raman spectroscopy excited with various excitation wavelengths, both in the off-resonance region (532, 633, 830 and 1064 nm) and in the resonance region (resonance Raman spectroscopy at 244, 257 and 275 nm). Furthermore DFT calculations were performed to assign the vibrational modes, as well as for an identification of intramolecular hydrogen bonding motifs. The effect of small changes in the drug environment was studied by adding successively small amounts of water until physiological low concentrations of the drugs in aqueous solution were obtained. At these low concentrations resonance Raman spectroscopy proved to be a useful and sensitive technique. Supplementary information was obtained from IR and UV/vis spectroscopy. PMID:15820884

  20. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with photo-diode array and quadrupole/time-of-flight mass spectrometry based chemical profiling approach to evaluate the influence of preparation methods on the holistic quality of Qiong-Yu-Gao, a traditional complex herbal medicine.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jin-Di; Mao, Qian; Shen, Hong; Zhu, Ling-Ying; Li, Song-Lin; Yan, Ru

    2013-08-23

    Qiong-Yu-Gao (QYG), consisting of Rehmanniae Radix (RR), Poriae (PO) and Ginseng Radix (GR), is a commonly used tonic traditional complex herbal medicine (CHM). So far, three different methods have been documented for preparation of QYG, i.e. method 1 (M1): mixing powders of GR and PO with decoction of RR; method 2 (M2): combining the decoction of RR and PO with the decoction of GR; method 3 (M3): decocting the mixture of RR, GR and PO. In present study, an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with photo-diode array and quadrupole/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-PDA-QTOF-MS/MS) based chemical profiling approach was developed to investigate the influence of the three preparation methods on the holistic quality of QYG. All detected peaks were unambiguously identified by comparing UV spectra, accurate mass data/characteristic mass fragments and retention times with those of reference compounds, and/or tentatively assigned by matching empirical molecular formula with that of known compounds, and/or elucidating quasi-molecular ions and fragment ions referring to information available in literature. A total of 103 components, mainly belonging to ginsenosides, phenethylalcohol glycosides, iridoid glycosides and triterpenoid acids, were identified, of which 5 degraded ginsenosides were putatively determined to be newly generated during preparation procedures of QYG samples. Triterpenoid acids and malonyl-ginsenosides were detected only in M1 samples, while degraded ginsenosides were merely detectable in M2/M3 samples. The possible reasons for the difference among chemical profiles of QYG samples prepared with three methods were also discussed. It could be concluded that preparation method do significantly affect the holistic quality of QYG. The influence of the altered chemical profiles on the bioactivity of QYG needs further investigation. The present study demonstrated that UHPLC-PDA-QTOF-MS/MS based chemical profiling approach is efficient and reliable for evaluating the holistic quality of traditional CHM. PMID:23880467

  1. Improved Reconstruction for MR Spectroscopic Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Maudsley, Andrew A.

    2009-01-01

    Sensitivity limitations of in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) require that the extent of spatial-frequency (k-space) sampling be limited, thereby reducing spatial resolution and increasing the effects of Gibbs ringing that is associated with the use of Fourier transform reconstruction. Additional problems occur in the spectral dimension, where quantitation of individual spectral components is made more difficult by the typically low signal-to-noise ratios, variable lineshapes, and baseline distortions, particularly in areas of significant magnetic field inhomogeneity. Given the potential of in vivo MRSI measurements for a number of clinical and biomedical research applications, there is considerable interest in improving the quality of the metabolite image reconstructions. In this report, a reconstruction method is described that makes use of parametric modeling and MRI-derived tissue distribution functions to enhance the MRSI spatial reconstruction. Additional preprocessing steps are also proposed to avoid difficulties associated with image regions containing spectra of inadequate quality, which are commonly present in the in vivo MRSI data. PMID:17518063

  2. Line identification studies using traditional techniques and wavelength coincidence statistics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cowley, Charles R.; Adelman, Saul J.

    1990-01-01

    Traditional line identification techniques result in the assignment of individual lines to an atomic or ionic species. These methods may be supplemented by wavelength coincidence statistics (WCS). The strength and weakness of these methods are discussed using spectra of a number of normal and peculiar B and A stars that have been studied independently by both methods. The present results support the overall findings of some earlier studies. WCS would be most useful in a first survey, before traditional methods have been applied. WCS can quickly make a global search for all species and in this way may enable identifications of an unexpected spectrum that could easily be omitted entirely from a traditional study. This is illustrated by O I. WCS is a subject to well known weakness of any statistical technique, for example, a predictable number of spurious results are to be expected. The danger of small number statistics are illustrated. WCS is at its best relative to traditional methods in finding a line-rich atomic species that is only weakly present in a complicated stellar spectrum.

  3. Spectroscopic Needs for Calibration of LSST Photometric Redshifts

    E-print Network

    Schmidt, Samuel J; Abate, Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    This white paper summarizes the conclusions of the Snowmass White Paper "Spectroscopic Needs for Imaging Dark Energy Experiments" (arXiv:1309.5384) which are relevant to the calibration of LSST photometric redshifts; i.e., the accurate characterization of biases and uncertainties in photo-z's. Any significant miscalibration will lead to systematic errors in photo-z's, impacting nearly all extragalactic science with LSST. As existing deep redshift samples have failed to yield highly-secure redshifts for a systematic 20%-60% of their targets, it is a strong possibility that future deep spectroscopic samples will not solve the calibration problem on their own. The best options in this scenario are provided by cross-correlation methods that utilize clustering with objects from spectroscopic surveys (which need not be fully representative) to trace the redshift distribution of the full sample. For spectroscopy, the eBOSS survey would enable a basic calibration of LSST photometric redshifts, while the expected LSST...

  4. Single-particle spectroscopic factors for spherical nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gnezdilov, N. V.; Saperstein, E. E.; Tolokonnikov, S. V.

    2015-01-01

    Within the self-consistent theory of finite Fermi systems, the total single-particle spectroscopic factors for seven doubly magic nuclei of 40Ca, 48Ca, 56Ni, 78Ni, 100Sn, 132Sn, and 208Pb and for the 188-212Pb chain of semimagic even lead isotopes are calculated by the energy-density-functional method implemented with a functional in the form proposed by Fayans and his coauthors. The spectroscopic factor is expressed in terms of the Z factor, which is the residue of the single-particle Green's function at the single-particle pole. The total Z factor calculated in the present study involves both effects of coupling to phonons and the volume Z factor, which is due to the fact that the mass operator features an energy dependence not associated with surface phonons. The volume Z factor is on the same order of magnitude as the phonon-coupling contribution. The volume effect depends only slightly on the nuclear species and on the single-particle state ?. On the contrary, the phonon contribution to the total spectroscopic factor changes upon going over from one state to another and from one nuclear species to another.

  5. Evaluation of Her2 status using photoacoustic spectroscopic CT techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaffer, Michael; Kruger, Robert; Reinecke, Daniel; Chin-Sinex, Helen; Mendonca, Marc; Stantz, Keith M.

    2010-02-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to determine the feasibility of using photacoustic CT spectroscopy(PCT-s) to track a near infrared dye conjugated with trastuzumab in vivo. Materials and Methods: An animal model was developed which contained both high and low Her2 expression tumor xenografts on the same mouse. The tumors were imaged at multiple wavelengths (680- 950nm) in the PCT scanner one day prior to injection of the near infrared conjugated probe. Baseline optical imaging data was acquired and the probe was then injected via the tail vein. Fluorescence data was acquired over the next week, PCT spectroscopic data was also acquired during this timeframe. The mice were sacrificed and tumors were extirpated and sent to pathology for IHC staining to verify Her2 expression levels. The optical fluorescence images were analyzed to determine probe uptake dynamics. Reconstructed PCT spectroscopic data was analyzed using IDL routines to deconvolve the probe signal from endogenous background signals, and to determine oxygen saturation. Results: The location of the NIR conjugate was able to be identified within the tumor utilizing IDL fitting routines, in addition oxygen saturation, and hemoglobin concentrations were discernible from the spectroscopic data. Conclusion: Photacoustic spectroscopy allows for the determination of in vivo tumor drug delivery at greater depths than can be determined from optical imaging techniques.

  6. Spectroscopic studies (FTIR, FT-Raman and UV), potential energy surface scan, normal coordinate analysis and NBO analysis of (2R,3R,4R,5S)-1-(2-hydroxyethyl)-2-(hydroxymethyl) piperidine-3,4,5-triol by DFT methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isac Paulraj, E.; Muthu, S.

    2013-05-01

    This work presents the characterization of (2R,3R,4R,5S)-1-(2-hydroxyethyl)-2-(hydroxymethyl)piperidine-3,4,5-triol (abbreviated as HEHMPT) by quantum chemical calculations and spectral techniques. The spectroscopic properties were investigated by FT-IR, FT-Raman and UV-Vis techniques. The FT-IR spectrum (4000-400 cm-1) and FT-Raman spectrum (4000-100 cm-1) in solid phase was recorded for HEHMPT. The UV-Vis absorption spectrum of the HEHMPT that dissolved in water was recorded in the range of 100-400 nm. The structural and spectroscopic data of the molecule were obtained from B3LYP and M06-2X with 6-31G(d,p) basis set calculations. The theoretical wavenumbers were scaled and compared with experimental FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra. The complete assignments were performed on the basis of the normal co-ordinate analysis (NCA), experimental results and potential energy distribution (PED) of the vibrational modes, calculated with scaled quantum mechanics (SQM) method, interpreted in terms of fundamental modes. The stable geometry of the compound has been determined from the potential energy surface scan. The stability of molecule has been analyzed by NBO analysis. The molecule orbital contributions were studied by using the total (TDOS), partial (PDOS), and overlap population (OPDOS) density of states. The electronic properties like UV spectral analysis and HOMO-LUMO energies were reported. The calculated HOMO and LUMO energies shows that charge transfer interactions taking place within the molecule. Mulliken population analysis on atomic charges is also calculated.

  7. Spectroscopic studies (FTIR, FT-Raman and UV), potential energy surface scan, normal coordinate analysis and NBO analysis of (2R,3R,4R,5S)-1-(2-hydroxyethyl)-2-(hydroxymethyl) piperidine-3,4,5-triol by DFT methods.

    PubMed

    Isac Paulraj, E; Muthu, S

    2013-05-01

    This work presents the characterization of (2R,3R,4R,5S)-1-(2-hydroxyethyl)-2-(hydroxymethyl)piperidine-3,4,5-triol (abbreviated as HEHMPT) by quantum chemical calculations and spectral techniques. The spectroscopic properties were investigated by FT-IR, FT-Raman and UV-Vis techniques. The FT-IR spectrum (4000-400 cm(-1)) and FT-Raman spectrum (4000-100 cm(-1)) in solid phase was recorded for HEHMPT. The UV-Vis absorption spectrum of the HEHMPT that dissolved in water was recorded in the range of 100-400 nm. The structural and spectroscopic data of the molecule were obtained from B3LYP and M06-2X with 6-31G(d,p) basis set calculations. The theoretical wavenumbers were scaled and compared with experimental FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra. The complete assignments were performed on the basis of the normal co-ordinate analysis (NCA), experimental results and potential energy distribution (PED) of the vibrational modes, calculated with scaled quantum mechanics (SQM) method, interpreted in terms of fundamental modes. The stable geometry of the compound has been determined from the potential energy surface scan. The stability of molecule has been analyzed by NBO analysis. The molecule orbital contributions were studied by using the total (TDOS), partial (PDOS), and overlap population (OPDOS) density of states. The electronic properties like UV spectral analysis and HOMO-LUMO energies were reported. The calculated HOMO and LUMO energies shows that charge transfer interactions taking place within the molecule. Mulliken population analysis on atomic charges is also calculated. PMID:23454843

  8. QUANTIFYING THE BIASES OF SPECTROSCOPICALLY SELECTED GRAVITATIONAL LENSES

    SciTech Connect

    Arneson, Ryan A.; Brownstein, Joel R.; Bolton, Adam S., E-mail: arnesonr@uci.edu, E-mail: joelbrownstein@astro.utah.edu, E-mail: bolton@astro.utah.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Spectroscopic selection has been the most productive technique for the selection of galaxy-scale strong gravitational lens systems with known redshifts. Statistically significant samples of strong lenses provide a powerful method for measuring the mass-density parameters of the lensing population, but results can only be generalized to the parent population if the lensing selection biases are sufficiently understood. We perform controlled Monte Carlo simulations of spectroscopic lens surveys in order to quantify the bias of lenses relative to parent galaxies in velocity dispersion, mass axis ratio, and mass-density profile. For parameters typical of the SLACS and BELLS surveys, we find (1) no significant mass axis ratio detection bias of lenses relative to parent galaxies; (2) a very small detection bias toward shallow mass-density profiles, which is likely negligible compared to other sources of uncertainty in this parameter; (3) a detection bias toward smaller Einstein radius for systems drawn from parent populations with group- and cluster-scale lensing masses; and (4) a lens-modeling bias toward larger velocity dispersions for systems drawn from parent samples with sub-arcsecond mean Einstein radii. This last finding indicates that the incorporation of velocity-dispersion upper limits of non-lenses is an important ingredient for unbiased analyses of spectroscopically selected lens samples. In general, we find that the completeness of spectroscopic lens surveys in the plane of Einstein radius and mass-density profile power-law index is quite uniform, up to a sharp drop in the region of large Einstein radius and steep mass-density profile, and hence that such surveys are ideally suited to the study of massive field galaxies.

  9. Communicating new ideas to traditional villagers (an Indonesian case).

    PubMed

    Muis, A

    1984-01-01

    Recent cases derived from a series of communication research projects conducted in remote villages on the island of Sulawesi, Indonesia, are presented. These cases, which indicate the tremendously complex problem of communicating new ideas to traditional villages, also reflect the equally complex problem of social marketing. Indonesian, villagers remain very traditional, but their communication environment has been undergoing marked changes over the past decade or so. Overwhelming media exposure has pushed these people towards a modern environment filled with new knowledge and experiences. In view of the importance of changing attitudes and behavior of traditional villagers -- to realize modernization for the rural society -- the government of Indonesia has been using a host of communication means and channels. These include all the viable traditional or indigenous communication systems, but mainly face-to-face communication. Traditional dances, story-telling, and music are no longer interesting to the rural people themselves, and, apparently, no real developmental message can be transmitted by traditional "mass media." Among the 50 respondents randomly selected from the isolated village of Gelang (Case I), only 17% claimed to have listened to news in addition to music and songs. 67% of the respondents explained that information carrying novel ideas or methods usually attract them, but they are always reluctant to accept the new ideas for real application. Case II is about the effect of movie exposure on traditional villagers. As many as 73% of 50 respondents explained that the knowledge of the peasant-fisherman has increased considerably with regard to the urban way of life, as a result of movie attendance. The informants indicated that many villagers were disgusted by feature films or theatrical ones and that 62% of the villagers had yet to go to a movie. Case III involved the communication of new methods of medication to rural societies, including traditional medicinemen and women. Villagers were taught to cure diarrhea with oral rehydration. The result is that diarrhea has not reached epidemic proportions in the province of South Sulawesi at any time during the past 3 years. In sum, communicating new values to traditional people is an arduous task. There are a number of related variables that often influence the process of communication of new ideas to traditional villagers. PMID:12314265

  10. Traditional cheeses: rich and diverse microbiota with associated benefits.

    PubMed

    Montel, Marie-Christine; Buchin, Solange; Mallet, Adrien; Delbes-Paus, Céline; Vuitton, Dominique A; Desmasures, Nathalie; Berthier, Françoise

    2014-05-01

    The risks and benefits of traditional cheeses, mainly raw milk cheeses, are rarely set out objectively, whence the recurrent confused debate over their pros and cons. This review starts by emphasizing the particularities of the microbiota in traditional cheeses. It then describes the sensory, hygiene, and possible health benefits associated with traditional cheeses. The microbial diversity underlying the benefits of raw milk cheese depends on both the milk microbiota and on traditional practices, including inoculation practices. Traditional know-how from farming to cheese processing helps to maintain both the richness of the microbiota in individual cheeses and the diversity between cheeses throughout processing. All in all more than 400 species of lactic acid bacteria, Gram and catalase-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria, yeasts and moulds have been detected in raw milk. This biodiversity decreases in cheese cores, where a small number of lactic acid bacteria species are numerically dominant, but persists on the cheese surfaces, which harbour numerous species of bacteria, yeasts and moulds. Diversity between cheeses is due particularly to wide variations in the dynamics of the same species in different cheeses. Flavour is more intense and rich in raw milk cheeses than in processed ones. This is mainly because an abundant native microbiota can express in raw milk cheeses, which is not the case in cheeses made from pasteurized or microfiltered milk. Compared to commercial strains, indigenous lactic acid bacteria isolated from milk/cheese, and surface bacteria and yeasts isolated from traditional brines, were associated with more complex volatile profiles and higher scores for some sensorial attributes. The ability of traditional cheeses to combat pathogens is related more to native antipathogenic strains or microbial consortia than to natural non-microbial inhibitor(s) from milk. Quite different native microbiota can protect against Listeria monocytogenes in cheeses (in both core and surface) and on the wooden surfaces of traditional equipment. The inhibition seems to be associated with their qualitative and quantitative composition rather than with their degree of diversity. The inhibitory mechanisms are not well elucidated. Both cross-sectional and cohort studies have evidenced a strong association of raw-milk consumption with protection against allergic/atopic diseases; further studies are needed to determine whether such association extends to traditional raw-milk cheese consumption. In the future, the use of meta-omics methods should help to decipher how traditional cheese ecosystems form and function, opening the way to new methods of risk-benefit management from farm to ripened cheese. PMID:24642348

  11. Phylogenies reveal predictive power of traditional medicine in bioprospecting.

    PubMed

    Saslis-Lagoudakis, C Haris; Savolainen, Vincent; Williamson, Elizabeth M; Forest, Félix; Wagstaff, Steven J; Baral, Sushim R; Watson, Mark F; Pendry, Colin A; Hawkins, Julie A

    2012-09-25

    There is controversy about whether traditional medicine can guide drug discovery, and investment in bioprospecting informed by ethnobotanical data has fluctuated. One view is that traditionally used medicinal plants are not necessarily efficacious and there are no robust methods for distinguishing those which are most likely to be bioactive when selecting species for further testing. Here, we reconstruct a genus-level molecular phylogenetic tree representing the 20,000 species found in the floras of three disparate biodiversity hotspots: Nepal, New Zealand, and the Cape of South Africa. Borrowing phylogenetic methods from community ecology, we reveal significant clustering of the 1,500 traditionally used species, and provide a direct measure of the relatedness of the three medicinal floras. We demonstrate shared phylogenetic patterns across the floras: related plants from these regions are used to treat medical conditions in the same therapeutic areas. This finding strongly indicates independent discovery of plant efficacy, an interpretation corroborated by the presence of a significantly greater proportion of known bioactive species in these plant groups than in random samples. We conclude that phylogenetic cross-cultural comparisons can focus screening efforts on a subset of traditionally used plants that are richer in bioactive compounds, and could revitalize the use of traditional knowledge in bioprospecting. PMID:22984175

  12. Phylogenies reveal predictive power of traditional medicine in bioprospecting

    PubMed Central

    Saslis-Lagoudakis, C. Haris; Savolainen, Vincent; Williamson, Elizabeth M.; Forest, Félix; Wagstaff, Steven J.; Baral, Sushim R.; Watson, Mark F.; Pendry, Colin A.; Hawkins, Julie A.

    2012-01-01

    There is controversy about whether traditional medicine can guide drug discovery, and investment in bioprospecting informed by ethnobotanical data has fluctuated. One view is that traditionally used medicinal plants are not necessarily efficacious and there are no robust methods for distinguishing those which are most likely to be bioactive when selecting species for further testing. Here, we reconstruct a genus-level molecular phylogenetic tree representing the 20,000 species found in the floras of three disparate biodiversity hotspots: Nepal, New Zealand, and the Cape of South Africa. Borrowing phylogenetic methods from community ecology, we reveal significant clustering of the 1,500 traditionally used species, and provide a direct measure of the relatedness of the three medicinal floras. We demonstrate shared phylogenetic patterns across the floras: related plants from these regions are used to treat medical conditions in the same therapeutic areas. This finding strongly indicates independent discovery of plant efficacy, an interpretation corroborated by the presence of a significantly greater proportion of known bioactive species in these plant groups than in random samples. We conclude that phylogenetic cross-cultural comparisons can focus screening efforts on a subset of traditionally used plants that are richer in bioactive compounds, and could revitalize the use of traditional knowledge in bioprospecting. PMID:22984175

  13. Applications of Linear Systems Theory to Spectroscopic Instrumentation and Multivariate Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chris L. Erickson

    1993-01-01

    This research employs linear systems theory to design novel spectroscopic instruments, explain their operation, and provide insight into methods of data analysis. The first study examines the relationship between digital filtering, a technique based on linear systems theory, and multivariate regression, a statistical method. The study focuses on quantitative property estimation for one -sided, repetitive, linear, shift-invariant systems, and compares

  14. Physical principles of polarization-spectroscopic measurement of electric and magnetic fields in ionized gases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. P. Gavrilenko

    1992-01-01

    Spectroscopic methods of measuring the parameters of a plasma play a key role in the problem of monitoring the physical processes occuring in a plasma medium. These methods are widely employed for plasma diagnostics in laboratory apparatus (used to solve problems in the area of controlled thermonuclear synthesis, plasma electronics, and plasma technology), and also to investigate plasma in astrophysical

  15. Technology Class Format versus Traditional Class Format in Undergraduate Algebra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nwabueze, Kenneth K.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of two teaching strategies, namely, technology-assisted and traditional methods of teaching in undergraduate algebra classes. Fifty-eight second-year mathematics education undergraduate students in an algebra class were randomly divided in equal numbers into two groups. One group was…

  16. Spam Detection on Twitter Using Traditional Classifiers Lehigh University

    E-print Network

    Chuah, Mooi-Choo "Mooi"

    Spam Detection on Twitter Using Traditional Classifiers M. McCord CSE Dept Lehigh University 19 with their latest thoughts and activities. Among these sites, Twitter is the fastest growing site. Its popularity methods provided by Twitter, we crawled active Twitter users, their followers/following information

  17. Mobile Learning vs. Traditional Classroom Lessons: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furió, D.; Juan, M.-C.; Seguí, I.; Vivó, R.

    2015-01-01

    Different methods can be used for learning, and they can be compared in several aspects, especially those related to learning outcomes. In this paper, we present a study in order to compare the learning effectiveness and satisfaction of children using an iPhone game for learning the water cycle vs. the traditional classroom lesson. The iPhone game…

  18. A Conflict of Cultures: Planning vs. Tradition in Public Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raber, Douglas

    1995-01-01

    Strategic planning for public libraries as advocated by the PLA (Public Library Association) in the Public Library Development Program is likely to be met with resistance due to changes it requires in traditional public library planning and services. Conflicts that may arise are discussed, as well as methods for preventing, minimizing, and…

  19. Cyber High School Students' Transition to a Traditional University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gracey, Dorothy M.

    2010-01-01

    This mixed-method study identifies cyber high school graduates' perceptions of the effect of a cyber high school education on successful transition to a traditional university. The study examined students' perceptions of the advantages and disadvantages their cyber education experience contributed to their academic and social transition to…

  20. Comparison of Standardized Test Scores from Traditional Classrooms and Those Using Problem-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Needham, Martha Elaine

    2010-01-01

    This research compares differences between standardized test scores in problem-based learning (PBL) classrooms and a traditional classroom for 6th grade students using a mixed-method, quasi-experimental and qualitative design. The research shows that problem-based learning is as effective as traditional teaching methods on standardized tests. The…

  1. Traditional Chinese medicine in the treatment of ADHD: a review.

    PubMed

    Ni, Xinqiang; Zhang-James, Yanli; Han, Xinmin; Lei, Shuang; Sun, Jichao; Zhou, Rongyi

    2014-10-01

    This review covers an introduction of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in treating attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), focusing on the traditional theoretic basis from the perspective of TCM regarding ADHD's cause, pathogenesis, methods of syndrome differentiation, and rationale for treatment. The authors present commonly accepted and successfully practiced clinical procedures used in China for diagnosis and treatment of ADHD by TCM clinicians along with the supportive clinical evidence. The authors hope to inspire more research to better understand the mechanisms underlying the therapies and to promote appropriate incorporation of TCM therapies with Western pharmacologic treatment to better help patients with ADHD. PMID:25220091

  2. The Effect of Innovative Finance Course Design on Learning and Attitude of Non-Traditional Students in the Non-Traditional MBA Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Timmons, Robert E.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines an innovative course pedagogy developed to increase learning of advanced financial concepts and positively affect attitudes of non-traditional graduate students toward the discipline of finance in a non-traditional Master of Business Administration program. The hypothesis tested is that use of innovative instructional methods

  3. Application of optical spectroscopic techniques for disease diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Anushree

    Optical spectroscopy, a truly non-invasive tool for remote diagnostics, is capable of providing valuable information on the structure and function of molecules. However, most spectroscopic techniques suffer from drawbacks, which limit their application. As a part of my dissertation work, I have developed theoretical and experimental methods to address the above mentioned issues. I have successfully applied these methods for monitoring the physical, chemical and biochemical parameters of biomolecules involved in some specific life threatening diseases like lead poisoning and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). I presented optical studies of melanosomes, which are one of the vital organelles in the human eye, also known to be responsible for a disease called age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a condition of advanced degeneration which causes progressive blindness. I used Raman spectroscopy, to first chemically identify the composition of melanosome, and then monitor the changes in its functional and chemical behavior due to long term exposure to visible light. The above study, apart from explaining the role of melanosomes in AMD, also sets the threshold power for lasers used in surgeries and other clinical applications. In the second part of my dissertation, a battery of spectroscopic techniques was successfully applied to explore the different binding sites of lead ions with the most abundant carrier protein molecule in our circulatory system, human serum albumin. I applied optical spectroscopic tools for ultrasensitive detection of heavy metal ions in solution which can also be used for lead detection at a very early stage of lead poisoning. Apart from this, I used Raman microspectroscopy to study the chemical alteration occurring inside a prostate cancer cell as a result of a treatment with a low concentrated aqueous extract of a prospective drug, Nerium Oleander. The experimental methods used in this study has tremendous potential for clinical application and will gain widespread acceptance within next few years from bench to bedside as an inexpensive and non-invasive tool compared to the other technologies.

  4. Lead Encephalopathy Due to Traditional Medicines

    PubMed Central

    Karri, Surya K.; Saper, Robert B.; Kales, Stefanos N.

    2008-01-01

    Traditional medicine use is common in developing countries and increasingly popular in the western world. Despite the popularity of traditional medicines, scientific research on safety and efficacy is limited. However documented fatalities and severe illness due to lead poisoning are increasingly recognized to be associated with traditional medicine use. As society becomes more globalized, it is imperative for pharmacists and health care providers to learn about the safety of traditional medical practices. The information presented educates and alerts pharmacists and health care providers about the potential of traditional medicines to cause lead encephalopathy. Case reports were located through systematic literature searches using MEDLINE, CINAHL, AMED, CISCOM, EMBASE and The Cochrane library from 1966 to the February 2007. Reference lists of identified articles and the authors' own files were also searched. Inclusion criteria were cases of human lead encephalopathy associated with traditional medical practices. There were no restrictions regarding the language of publication. Data were subsequently extracted and summarized in narrative and tabular form. We found 76 cases of lead encephalopathy potentially associated with traditional medicine. Ayurvedic medicines were associated with 5 cases (7%), Middle eastern traditional medicines with 66 cases (87%) and 5 cases (7%) with other traditional medicines. Of the 76 cases, 5% were in adults and 95% were in infants and young children. Of the 4 adult cases, at least one was left with residual neurological impairment. In infants and young children, among 72 cases 8 (11%) were fatal, and at least 15 (21%) had residual neurological deficits. Traditional medicine users should be screened for lead exposure and strongly encouraged to discontinue metal–containing remedies. Therefore, the United States Food and Drug Administration and corresponding agencies in other countries should require and enforce heavy metal testing for all imported traditional medicines and “dietary supplements”. PMID:18690981

  5. Spectroscopic Feedback for High Density Data Storage and Micromachining

    DOEpatents

    Carr, Christopher W. (Livermore, CA); Demos, Stavros (Livermore, CA); Feit, Michael D. (Livermore, CA); Rubenchik, Alexander M. (Livermore, CA)

    2008-09-16

    Optical breakdown by predetermined laser pulses in transparent dielectrics produces an ionized region of dense plasma confined within the bulk of the material. Such an ionized region is responsible for broadband radiation that accompanies a desired breakdown process. Spectroscopic monitoring of the accompanying light in real-time is utilized to ascertain the morphology of the radiated interaction volume. Such a method and apparatus as presented herein, provides commercial realization of rapid prototyping of optoelectronic devices, optical three-dimensional data storage devices, and waveguide writing.

  6. Spectroscopic characterization of femtosecond laser filament in argon gas

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, W.; Bernhardt, J.; Theberge, F.; Chin, S. L.; Chateauneuf, M.; Dubois, J. [Institute of Modern Optics, Nankai University, Key Laboratory of Opto-electronic Information Science and Technology, Education Ministry of China, Tianjin 300071 (China); Centre d'Optique, Photonique et Laser (COPL) and Departement de physique, de genie physique et d'optique, Universite Laval, Quebec, Quebec G1K 7P4 (Canada); Defence Research and Development Canada--Valcartier, 2459 Pie-XI Blvd. North, Quebec, Quebec, G3J 1X5 Canada (Canada)

    2007-08-01

    We report a spectroscopic approach to measure the plasma density and electron temperature inside a filament created by an intense femtosecond laser pulse in atmospheric pressure argon gas. The technique relies on the proportionality between the Stark broadened argon fluorescence line width due to electron impact and the plasma density, while the electron temperature is determined from the well known Boltzmann plot. The obtained maximum plasma density is about 5.5x10{sup 16} cm{sup -3}, and the electron temperature is about 5800 K. Our method provides a promising and convenient way to characterize the filament for further understanding the fundamental physics and potential applications of filamentation.

  7. Datalogy - The Copenhagen Tradition of Computer Science

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Edda Sveinsdottir; Erik Frøkjær

    1988-01-01

    Since the middle of the 1960s, computer science has been practised in Denmark under Peter Naur's term datalogy, the science of data and data processes. Starting at Regnecentralen and the University of Copenhagen, the Copenhagen Tradition of computer science has developed its own special characteristics by means of a close connection with applications and other fields of knowledge. The tradition

  8. On the Bearing of a Living Tradition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bass, Dorothy C.

    2003-01-01

    In his highly regarded book on moral philosophy, "After Virtue" (1984), Alasdair MacIntyre offered a concept of tradition that explained both the past's claim upon the present and the present's availability for change, though he had not yet recognized and developed the theological implications of his work. A living tradition, in his terms, is a…

  9. Traditional Teacher/New Wave Student.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norris, Dale

    What kind of meaningful learning goes on when an introverted and intuitive traditional professor imparts his knowledge to an extroverted student of the new wave generation? In a project exploring how teaching personalities influence student learning, a traditional professor of literature and a "new wave" (defined as characterized by improvisation…

  10. Sample Interview Questions Where Innovation Is Tradition

    E-print Network

    Sample Interview Questions Where Innovation Is Tradition Interview Questions are as easy as 1 it? Page 1 of 4 11/27/2012 #12;Sample Interview Questions Where Innovation Is Tradition Drive when you received too much direction. Page 2 of 4 11/27/2012 #12;Sample Interview Questions Where

  11. Vygotsky, Consciousness, and the German Psycholinguistic Tradition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leitch, David G.

    2011-01-01

    This article argues that Vygotsky's choice of word meaning as the basic unit of analysis for cultural psychology connects him to a German psycholinguistic tradition--exemplified in the work of G. W. F. Hegel and J. G. Herder--distinct from the Marxist tradition. While later commentators criticize Vygotsky's reliance on word meaning, arguing that…

  12. Year-Round versus Traditional Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyttle, LeighAnne

    2011-01-01

    This document serves as a literature review for the practicality and cost effectiveness of traditional versus year-round school systems. The differences in year-round and traditional schools are many, as the debate lingers on which type is best for students' learning. Generally conclusive, the literature indicates that year-round schools' benefits…

  13. Children's Sextyped Views of Traditional Occupational Roles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnhart, Ruth S.

    1983-01-01

    Examined children's views of traditional occupations in a study of 300 elementary school students who viewed photographs of 18 occupations. Results showed for most of the 18 occupational roles, students chose a traditional male or female role. The occupations of homemaker and firefighter received the most stereotyped scores. (JAC)

  14. Corporate Change and Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kuang-cheng Wang

    This paper attempts to examine the role of business functions in the corporate change in light of the traditional Chinese medicine and provide a unique view that the corporate change hinges on the timely termination of the old business model. The five elements theory has been successfully applied to the principles of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). If organizations are considered

  15. Oral Tradition of Italian-Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birnbaum, Lucia Chiavola

    The assimilation of Italians into American culture led to the loss of the Italian language, and an oral tradition of Italian peasants in which Italian feminist philosophy was grounded. The legends, parables, and proverbs told by these Italian women challenged the teachings of Catholicism, perpetuating an underground religious tradition which…

  16. Treatment of Alzheimer’s Disease in Iranian Traditional Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadian-Attari, Mohammad Mahdi; Ahmadiani, Abolhassan; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Dargahi, Leila; Shirzad, Meysam; Mosaddegh, Mahmoud

    2014-01-01

    Background: Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease with a high prevalence in recent years. Dramatic growth in AD prevalence has increased the importance of more researches on AD treatment. History has shown that traditional medicine can be a source of inspiration to find new therapies. Objectives: This study tried to codify the recommendations of Iranian traditional medicine (ITM) by studying the main medical manuscripts. The second purpose was to compare these findings with new medical information. Materials and Methods: Cardinal traditional medical and pharmacological texts from 10th to 18th century were searched for traditional terms of dementia (Nesyan, Fisad-uz-Zekr, Faramooshkari) focused on treatment methods. The findings were classified into three groups: lifestyle recommendations, dietary approaches, and drug therapies. These findings were compared with new medical findings. Results: ITM has dietary recommendations for dementia such as increasing consumption of nuts, poultry and eggs, milk, and grape products (like raisin and currant). These compounds are full of unsaturated fatty acids, cholesterol, and polyphenolic compounds. New findings suggest that these substances can help in prevention and treatment of AD. ITM has some lifestyle considerations like increasing physical and mental activities, listening to music, attending musical feasts, and smelling specific perfumes. New medical findings confirm nearly all of these recommendations. Along with the aforementioned items, treatment with natural medicines is in the first line of traditional treatment of dementia. New investigations show that many of these herbs have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory factors and acetylcholine esterase inhibitory effects. A few of them also have N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) blocking activity. When these herbs are put together in traditional formulations, they can comprehensively fight against the disease. Conclusions: More ethnopharmacological and ethnomedical studies on ITM antidementia therapy can be followed by fruitful results. PMID:25763264

  17. On the lambda Bootis spectroscopic binary hypothesis

    E-print Network

    Stuetz, C; Stuetz, Christian; Paunzen, Ernst

    2006-01-01

    It is still a matter of debate if the group of lambda Bootis stars is homogeneously defined. A widely discussed working hypothesis formulates that two apparent solar abundant stars of an undetected spectroscopic binary system mimic a single metal-weak spectrum preventing any reliable analysis of the group characteristics. Is the proposed spectroscopic binary model able to explain the observed abundance pattern and photometric metallicity indices for the group members? What is the percentage of undetected spectroscopic binary systems? We have used the newest available stellar atmospheres to synthesize 105 hypothetical binary systems in the relevant astrophysical parameter range. These models were used to derive photometric indices. As a test, values for single stellar atmospheres, Vega and two typical lambda Bootis stars, HD 107233 and HD 204041, were generated. The synthesized indices fit the standard lines and the observations of the three stars excellently. For about 90% of the group members, the spectrosco...

  18. Optical Spectroscopic Monitoring of Parachute Yarn Aging

    SciTech Connect

    Tallant, D.R.; Garcia, M.J.; Simpson, R.L.; Behr, V.L.; Whinery, L.D.; Peng, L.W.

    1999-04-01

    Optical spectroscopic techniques were evaluated as nondestructive monitors of the aging of parachutes in nuclear weapons. We analyzed thermally aged samples of nylon and Kevlar webbing by photoluminescence spectroscopy and reflection spectroscopy. Infrared analysis was also performed to help understand the degradation mechanisms of the polymer materials in the webbing. The photoluminescence and reflection spectra were analyzed by chemometric data treatment techniques to see if aged-induced changes in the spectra correlated to changes in measured tensile strength. A correlation was found between the shapes of the photoluminescent bands and the measured tensile strengths. Photoluminescent spectra can be used to predict the tensile strengths of nylon and Kevlar webbing with sufficient accuracy to categorize the webbing sample as above rated tensile strength, marginal or below rated tensile strength. The instrumentation required to perform the optical spectroscopic measurement can be made rugged, compact and portable. Thus, optical spectroscopic techniques offer a means for nondestructive field monitoring of parachutes in the enduring stockpile/

  19. Identifying seasonal stars in Kaurna astronomical traditions

    E-print Network

    Hamacher, Duane W

    2015-01-01

    Early ethnographers and missionaries recorded Aboriginal languages and oral traditions across Australia. Their general lack of astronomical training resulted in misidentifications, transcription errors, and omissions in these records. Additionally, many of these early records are fragmented. In western Victoria and southeast South Australia, many astronomical traditions were recorded, but curiously, some of the brightest stars in the sky were omitted. Scholars claimed these stars did not feature in Aboriginal traditions. This under-representation continues to be repeated in the literature, but current research shows that some of these stars may in fact feature in Aboriginal traditions and could be seasonal calendar markers. This paper uses established techniques in cultural astronomy to identify seasonal stars in the traditions of the Kaurna Aboriginal people of the Adelaide Plains, South Australia.

  20. Why Breast Cancer Patients Seek Traditional Healers

    PubMed Central

    Muhamad, Mazanah; Merriam, Sharan; Suhami, Norhasmilia

    2012-01-01

    Traditional healing is a common practice in low and middle income countries such as Malaysia. Eighty percent of Malaysians consult traditional healers or “bomoh” at some time in their life for health-related issues. The purpose of our study was to explore why breast cancer patients visit traditional healers. This is a qualitative study utilizing in-depth interviews with 11 cancer survivors who sought both traditional and Western medicine. The findings revealed the following reasons for which patients seek traditional healers: (1) recommendation from family and friends, (2) sanction from family, (3) perceived benefit and compatibility, (4) healer credibility, and (5) reservation with Western medicine and system delay. These factors work together and are strongly influenced by the Malaysian cultural context. The issue with the Western health system is common in a developing country with limited health facilities. PMID:22295249

  1. Identifying seasonal stars in Kaurna astronomical traditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamacher, Duane W.

    2015-03-01

    Early ethnographers and missionaries recorded Aboriginal languages and oral traditions across Australia. Their general lack of astronomical training resulted in misidentifications, transcription errors and omissions in these records. In western Victoria and southeast South Australia many astronomical traditions were recorded but, cur- iously, some of the brightest stars in the sky were omitted. Scholars claimed these stars did not feature in Aboriginal traditions. This continues to be repeated in the literature, but current research shows that these stars may in fact feature in Aboriginal traditions and could be seasonal calendar markers. This paper uses established techniques to identify seasonal stars in the traditions of the Kaurna Aboriginal people of the Adelaide Plains, South Australia.

  2. Analysis of Risk Factors for Acute Kidney Injury after Ascending Aortic Replacement Combined with Open Placement of Triple-Branched Stent Graft in Type A Aortic Dissection: A New Technique versus the Traditional Method in a Single Chinese Center

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Zhihuang; Chen, Liangwan; Cao, Hua; Zhang, Guican; Xu, Fan; Chen, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Background We aimed to analyze the risk factors and prognosis of acute kidney injury (AKI) after aortic arch repair in type A aortic dissection. Material/Methods We included 155 patients undergoing arch repair surgery for type A aortic dissection from January 2009 to January 2014 in our hospital. Ninety-three patients underwent ascending aortic replacement combined with open placement of triple-branched stent graft and 62 underwent arch replacement with 4-branched Dacron graft combined with stented elephant trunk implantation into the descending aorta. Univariate analysis and multiple logistic regression were performed to evaluate possible parameters associated with AKI according to the AKI Network (AKIN). Results Postoperative AKI occurred in 56 patients, with a morbidity of 36.13%. Advanced age (OR=2.32 per decade, 95% CI; range, 1.47–3.67); aortic arch replacement with 4-branched Dacron graft combined with stented elephant trunk implantation (OR=3.29, 95% CI; range, 1.12–9.67); cardiopulmonary bypass time >180 min (OR=3.91, 95% CI; range, 1.35–11.35) and packed red blood cells >10 U (OR=4.88, 95% CI; range, 2.03–11.76) were independent risk factors. Conclusions AKI is a complication after arch repair in type A aortic dissection. Advanced age; aortic arch replacement with 4-branched Dacron graft combined with stented elephant trunk implantation; cardiopulmonary bypass time >180 min; and packed red blood cells >10 U were independent risk factors for AKI. Ascending aortic replacement combined with open triple-branched stent graft placement could reduce the occurrence of AKI and protect renal function. PMID:25737240

  3. Plasma spectroscopic diagnostic tool using collisional-radiative models and its application to different plasma discharges for electron temperature and neutral density determination

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ella Marion Sciamma

    2007-01-01

    A spectroscopic diagnostic tool has been developed to determine the electron temperature and the neutral density in helium, hydrogen and argon plasmas from absolutely calibrated spectroscopic measurements. For each gas, a method of analysis which uses models specific to each species present in the plasma (neutral atom or singly ionized atom) has been defined. The experimental electron density is used

  4. Galaxy Luminosity Functions from Deep Spectroscopic Samples of Rich Clusters

    E-print Network

    Daniel Christlein; Ann Zabludoff

    2003-04-01

    Using a new spectroscopic sample and methods accounting for spectroscopic sampling fractions that vary in magnitude and surface brightness, we present R-band galaxy luminosity functions (GLFs) for six nearby galaxy clusters with redshifts 4000 < cz < 20000 km/s and velocity dispersions 700 < sigma < 1250 km/s. In the case of the nearest cluster, Abell 1060, our sample extends to M_R=-14 (7 magnitudes below M*), making this the deepest spectroscopic determination of the cluster GLF to date. Our methods also yield composite GLFs for cluster and field galaxies to M_R=-17 (M*+4), including the GLFs of subsamples of star forming and quiescent galaxies. The composite GLFs are consistent with Schechter functions (M*_R=-21.14^{+0.17}_{-0.17}, alpha=-1.21^{+0.08}_{-0.07} for the clusters, M*_R=-21.15^{+0.16}_{-0.16}, alpha=-1.28^{+0.12}_{-0.11} for the field). All six cluster samples are individually consistent with the composite GLF down to their respective absolute magnitude limits, but the GLF of the quiescent population in clusters is not universal. There are also significant variations in the GLF of quiescent galaxies between the field and clusters that can be described as a steepening of the faint end slope. The overall GLF in clusters is consistent with that of field galaxies, except for the most luminous tip, which is enhanced in clusters versus the field. The star formation properties of giant galaxies are more strongly correlated with the environment than those of fainter galaxies.

  5. Rural Indonesia women’s traditional beliefs about antenatal care

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The Indonesia Maternal Mortality Rate (MMR) of 420/100.00 live births remains among the highest in East Asia while coverage of births assisted by skilled providers is still low. Traditional beliefs have been a key factor associated with the choice between midwives or traditional birth attendants (TBA) and the low number of antenatal care visits in rural West Sumatra. Methods We conducted three focus groups with 16 women from rural West Java to describe their perception regarding issues related to traditional beliefs. Focus group discussions provided data for the content analysis. Results The majority of the 16 women interviewed was from Village Dago, West Java and had only an elementary school education. Their ages ranged from 19 to 40 years. Most were multiparous housewives with an income of IDR 918.750 per month, which was lower than the monthly income in West Java (IDR. 1.172.060). Emerging from the focus group discussion were four main themes regarding their pregnancy and traditional beliefs: 1) pregnancy was a normal cycle in women’s life (pregnancy is a natural phenomena, not a sickness; no recognition of danger signs during pregnancy and death of baby or mother during pregnancy was brought about by God’s will); 2) women followed the traditional beliefs (positive motivation to follow the traditional beliefs and fear of not following the traditional beliefs); 3) relying on TBA called paraji rather than midwife (parajis are kind, tolerant and patient and have more experience than midwives; more accessibility than midwives and encouragement of natural birth) and 4) midwives are more secure than paraji; (they use a medical standard of care). Conclusions Women’s beliefs grounded in religion and tradition permeated the village culture making it difficult to counter their long held health practices with practices based on recent advances in health care. Use of TBA in this village was still dominant and women believed that following traditional beliefs led to a healthy pregnancy therefore, they also followed all relatives’ suggestions. Understanding the complexities of local culture is the first step to improving women’s awareness of how to preserve their pregnancy and prevent complications. PMID:23106915

  6. Quantum mechanical study and spectroscopic (FT-IR, FT-Raman, (13)C, (1)H) study, first order hyperpolarizability, NBO analysis, HOMO and LUMO analysis of 2-acetoxybenzoic acid by density functional methods.

    PubMed

    Bhavani, K; Renuga, S; Muthu, S; Sankara Narayanan, K

    2014-10-15

    In this work, colorless crystals of 2-acetoxybenzoic acid were grown by slow evaporation method and the FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra of the sample were recorded in the region 4000-500cm(-1) and 4000-100cm(-1) respectively. Molecular structure is optimized with the help of density functional theory method (B3LYP) with 6-31+G(d,p), 6-311++G(d,p) basis sets. Stability of the molecule arising from hyperconjugation and charge delocalization is confirmed by the natural bond orbital analysis (NBO). The results show that electron density (ED) in the ?(?) antibonding orbitals and E(2) energies confirms the occurrence of intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) within the molecule. The assignments of the vibrational spectra have been carried out with the help of normal coordinate analysis following the scaled quantum mechanical force field (SQMFF) methodology. The results of the calculations were applied to simulated spectra of the title compound, which show excellent agreement with observed spectra. The (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) chemical shifts of the molecule were calculated by GIAO method. Mulliken population analysis on atomic charges is also calculated. The calculated HOMO and LUMO energy gap shows that charge transfer occurs within the molecule. PMID:25456668

  7. Quantum mechanical study and spectroscopic (FT-IR, FT-Raman, 13C, 1H) study, first order hyperpolarizability, NBO analysis, HOMO and LUMO analysis of 2-acetoxybenzoic acid by density functional methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhavani, K.; Renuga, S.; Muthu, S.; Sankara narayanan, K.

    2015-02-01

    In this work, colorless crystals of 2-acetoxybenzoic acid were grown by slow evaporation method and the FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra of the sample were recorded in the region 4000-500 cm-1 and 4000-100 cm-1 respectively. Molecular structure is optimized with the help of density functional theory method (B3LYP) with 6-31+G(d,p), 6-311++G(d,p) basis sets. Stability of the molecule arising from hyperconjugation and charge delocalization is confirmed by the natural bond orbital analysis (NBO). The results show that electron density (ED) in the ?? antibonding orbitals and E(2) energies confirms the occurrence of intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) within the molecule. The assignments of the vibrational spectra have been carried out with the help of normal coordinate analysis following the scaled quantum mechanical force field (SQMFF) methodology. The results of the calculations were applied to simulated spectra of the title compound, which show excellent agreement with observed spectra. The 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) chemical shifts of the molecule were calculated by GIAO method. Mulliken population analysis on atomic charges is also calculated. The calculated HOMO and LUMO energy gap shows that charge transfer occurs within the molecule.

  8. Spectroscopic Survey of ? SCT Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solano, E.; Pintado, O. I.

    1998-06-01

    The methods used to derive effective temperatures, projected rotational velocities and surface gravities of a sample of low and high-amplitude ? Sct stars are presented here. Effective temperatures were derived using H? and H? line profiles whereas rotational velocities were calculated following the method described in Solano & Fernley (1997). Surface gravities were obtained using Hipparcos parallaxes and evolutionary models (Claret 1995). The results of this analysis will be published in a subsequent paper (Solano & Pintado 1999).

  9. Spectroscopic sugar sensing by a stilbene derivative with push (Me 2N-)pull ((HO) 2B)-type substituents

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hideyuki Shinmori; Masayuki Takeuchi; Seiji Shinkai

    1995-01-01

    A stilbene derivative (2) with a push (Me2N-) and a pull ((HO)2B-) substituent at 4,4?-positions was synthesized. 2 aggregated in aqueous solution (water:DMSO = 30:1 v\\/v) but was dispersed nearly homogeneously in water:DMSO = 1:1 v\\/v. Spectroscopic studies established that 2 is useful to detect saccharides by both absorption and fluorescence spectroscopic methods. Particularly, in aqueous solution at pH 8.0

  10. Localized and Spectroscopic Orbitals: Squirrel Ears on Water.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, R. Bruce

    1988-01-01

    Reexamines the electronic structure of water considering divergent views. Discusses several aspects of molecular orbital theory using spectroscopic molecular orbitals and localized molecular orbitals. Gives examples for determining lowest energy spectroscopic orbitals. (ML)

  11. Characterization by spectroscopic Ellipsometry, the physical properties of silver nanoparticles.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coanga, Jean-Maurice

    2013-04-01

    Physicists are able to change their minds through their experiments. I think it is time to go kick the curse and go further in research if we want a human future. I work in the Nano-Optics and Plasmonics research. I defined with ellipsomètrie the structure of new type of Nano particles of silver. It's same be act quickly to replace the old dirty leaded electronic-connexion chip and by the other hand to find a new way for the heath care of cancer disease by nanoparticles the next killers of bad cells. Silver nanoparticle layers are obtained by Spark Plasma Sintering are investigated as an alternative to lead alloy based material for solder joint in power mechatronics modules. These layers are characterized by mean of conventional techniques that is the dilatometry technique, the resistivity measurement through the van der Pauw method, and the flash laser technique. Furthermore, the nanoparticles of silver layer are deeply studied by UV-Visible spectroscopic ellipsometry. Spectroscopic angles parameters are determined in function of temperature and dielectric constants are deduced and analyzed through an optical model which takes into account a Drude and a Lorentz component within the Bruggeman effective medium approximation (EMA). The relaxation times and the electrical conductivity are plot in function of temperature. The obtained electrical conductivity give significant result in good agreement to those reported by four points electrical measurement method.

  12. Heart Palpitation From Traditional and Modern Medicine Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Ershadifar, Tabassom; Minaiee, Bagher; Gharooni, Manouchehr; Isfahani, Mohammad Mahdi; Nikbakht Nasrabadi, Alireza; Nazem, Esmaiel; Gousheguir, Ashraf Aldin; Kazemi Saleh, Davod

    2014-01-01

    Background: Palpitation is a sign of a disease and is very common in general population. For this purpose we decided to explain it in this study. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to describe the palpitation in both modern and traditional medicine aspect. It may help us to diagnose and cure better because the traditional medicine view is holistic and different from modern medicine. Materials and Methods: We addressed some descriptions to the articles of traditional medicine subjects which have published recently. Palpitation in modern medicine was extracted from medical books such as Braunwald, Harrison and Guyton physiology and some related articles obtained from authentic journals in PubMed and Ovid and Google scholar between1990 to 2013. Results: According to modern medicine, there are many causes for palpitation and in some cases it is cured symptomatically. In traditional medicine view, palpitation has been explained completely and many causes have been described. Its aspect is holistic and it cures causatively. The traditional medicine scientists evaluated the body based on Humors and temperament. Temperament can be changed to dis-temperament in diseases. Humors are divided in 4 items: sanguine, humid or phlegm, melancholy and bile. Palpitation is a disease, it is heart vibration and is caused by an abnormal substance in the heart itself or its membrane or other adjacent organs that would result in the heart suffering. Conclusions: Our data of this article suggests that causes of palpitation in the aspect of traditional medicine are completely different from modern medicine. It can help us to approach and treat this symptom better and with lower side effects than chemical drugs. According to this article we are able to detect a new approach in palpitation. PMID:24719741

  13. The spectroscopic (FT-IR, FT-Raman), NCA, first order hyperpolarizability, NBO analysis, HOMO and LUMO analysis of L-cysteine by ab inito HF and density functional method.

    PubMed

    Chandra, S; Saleem, H; Sebastian, S; Sundaraganesan, N

    2011-05-01

    In this work, we report a combined experimental and theoretical study on molecular structure (monomer, dimer), vibrational spectra, and Natural Bond Orbital (NBO) analysis of non-ionized L-cysteine (LCY). The FT-IR solid phase (4000-400 cm(-1)) and FT-Raman spectra (3500-50 cm(-1)) of LCY was recorded at room temperature. The molecular geometry, harmonic and anharmonic vibrational frequencies and bonding features of LCY in the ground state have been calculated by using the density functional method (B3LYP) with 6-311G(d,p) as basis set. The assignments of the vibrational spectra have been carried out with the help of normal co-ordinate analysis (NCA) following the Scaled Quantum Mechanical Force Field (SQMFF) methodology. The first order hyperpolarizability (?(0)) of this novel molecular system and related properties (?, ?(0) and ??) of LCY are calculated using HF/6-311G(d,p) method on the finite-field approach. Stability of the molecule has been analyzed using NBO analysis. The calculated first hyperpolarizability shows that the molecule is an attractive molecule for future applications in non-linear optics. The calculated HOMO and LUMO energies show that charge transfer occurs within the molecule. Finally the calculations results were applied to stimulate infrared and Raman spectra of the title compound which show good agreement with observed spectra. PMID:21377921

  14. The spectroscopic (FT-IR, FT-Raman), NCA, first order hyperpolarizability, NBO analysis, HOMO and LUMO analysis of L-cysteine by ab inito HF and density functional method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, S.; Saleem, H.; Sebastian, S.; Sundaraganesan, N.

    2011-05-01

    In this work, we report a combined experimental and theoretical study on molecular structure (monomer, dimer), vibrational spectra, and Natural Bond Orbital (NBO) analysis of non-ionized L-cysteine (LCY). The FT-IR solid phase (4000-400 cm -1) and FT-Raman spectra (3500-50 cm -1) of LCY was recorded at room temperature. The molecular geometry, harmonic and anharmonic vibrational frequencies and bonding features of LCY in the ground state have been calculated by using the density functional method (B3LYP) with 6-311G(d,p) as basis set. The assignments of the vibrational spectra have been carried out with the help of normal co-ordinate analysis (NCA) following the Scaled Quantum Mechanical Force Field (SQMFF) methodology. The first order hyperpolarizability ( ?0) of this novel molecular system and related properties ( ?, ?0 and ? ?) of LCY are calculated using HF/6-311G(d,p) method on the finite-field approach. Stability of the molecule has been analyzed using NBO analysis. The calculated first hyperpolarizability shows that the molecule is an attractive molecule for future applications in non-linear optics. The calculated HOMO and LUMO energies show that charge transfer occurs within the molecule. Finally the calculations results were applied to stimulate infrared and Raman spectra of the title compound which show good agreement with observed spectra.

  15. On the lambda Bootis spectroscopic binary hypothesis

    E-print Network

    Christian Stuetz; Ernst Paunzen

    2006-09-05

    It is still a matter of debate if the group of lambda Bootis stars is homogeneously defined. A widely discussed working hypothesis formulates that two apparent solar abundant stars of an undetected spectroscopic binary system mimic a single metal-weak spectrum preventing any reliable analysis of the group characteristics. Is the proposed spectroscopic binary model able to explain the observed abundance pattern and photometric metallicity indices for the group members? What is the percentage of undetected spectroscopic binary systems? We have used the newest available stellar atmospheres to synthesize 105 hypothetical binary systems in the relevant astrophysical parameter range. These models were used to derive photometric indices. As a test, values for single stellar atmospheres, Vega and two typical lambda Bootis stars, HD 107233 and HD 204041, were generated. The synthesized indices fit the standard lines and the observations of the three stars excellently. For about 90% of the group members, the spectroscopic inary hypothesis can not explain the observations. A carefully preselection of lambda Bootis stars results in a homogeneous group of objects which can be used to investigate the group characteristics.

  16. The Electromagnetic Spectrum: Cereal Box Analytical Spectroscope

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this activity, students construct an analytical spectroscope and analyze the spectrum produced when various substances are heated or excited with electricity. This activity is part of Unit 2 in the Space Based Astronomy guide that contains background information, worksheets, assessments, extensions, and standards.

  17. New spectroscopic results in Kr VIII.

    PubMed

    Gallardo, M; Bredice, F; Raineri, M; Almandos, J R; Pettersson, S G; Trigueiros, A G

    1989-12-01

    New Kr VIII spectroscopic results between 280 and 2000 A using a theta-pinch and a discharge tube are presented, including one new energy level and two new classified lines. The previous analysis was also revised, and the uncertainty in the resulting level values is now <10 cm(-1). PMID:20556004

  18. Spectroscopic study in Z-pinch discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Garamoon, A.A.; Saudy, A.H.; Shark, W. [Al-Azhar Univ., Cairo (Egypt)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    The temporal variation of the emitted line intensity has been investigated, and thus an important information about the dynamic ionization stages in the Z-pinch discharge has been studied. Also the electron temperature Te, has been deduced by using a spectroscopic technique.

  19. Site-Directed Spectroscopic Probes of Actomyosin

    E-print Network

    Thomas, David D.

    Site-Directed Spectroscopic Probes of Actomyosin Structural Dynamics David D. Thomas, David Kast, and Vicci L. Korman Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology, and Biophysics, University of Minnesota.040405.102118 Copyright c 2009 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved 1936-122X/09/0609-0347$20.00 Key Words EPR, spin

  20. Vacuum arc anode plasma. I. Spectroscopic investigation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. M. Bacon

    1975-01-01

    A spectroscopic investigation was made of the anode plasma of a pulsed vacuum arc with an aluminum anode and a molybdenum cathode. The arc was triggered by a third trigger electrode and was driven by a 150-A 10-mus current pulse. The average current density at the anode was sufficiently high that anode spots were formed; these spots are believed to

  1. Spectroscopic carbon dioxide sensor for automotive applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Arndt; Maximilian Sauer

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we present the first spectroscopic carbon dioxide sensor designed for automotive applications. The sensor is based on the well known infrared measurement principle. It includes a new robust infrared gas-detector and a corresponding, newly developed, ASIC. First application studies show its suitability for automatic vehicle ventilation systems and for leak detection in R744 air conditioning systems.

  2. Planar chromatography coupled with spectroscopic techniques

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. W Somsen; W Morden; I. D Wilson

    1995-01-01

    Recent progress in the combination of planar, or thin-layer chromatography (TLC) with a variety of modern spectroscopic techniques is reviewed. The utility of TLC for separation followed by mass spectrometry, with a variety of ionisation techniques, is illustrated with reference to a wide range of compound types including drugs, natural products, industrial chemicals, pesticides and dyes. Applications of the use

  3. Spectroscopic analysis of the superluminous HD327083

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machado, M. A. D.; de Araujo, F. X.

    2003-08-01

    New optical high-resolution (R»50 000) spectra of the star HD 327083 are reported in this work. The Balmer and Fe ii lines show P Cygni profiles, while He i lines are all in pure absorption, ressembling the spectra of the Luminous Blue Variable HR Carinae. However, the blue absorption components of the Balmer lines are more pronounced in HD 327083 than in HR Carinae, indicating a more intense mass loss. We performed a spectroscopic analysis of the Balmer lines (Ha, Hb, Hg and Hd) with a non-LTE code to analyse extended atmospheres. The basic assumptions are: spherical symmetry, stationary and homogeneity. The density structure r(r) is related to the mass loss rate and the velocity field via the equation of continuity. The velocity field is pre-specified in an ad-hoc way as a b-type law. The statistical equilibrium equations are solved using the escape probability method for calculating the source function while the transfer equation is solved using the "SEI" - Sobolev Exact Integration - method. Due the large number of "free" parameters we constructed a primary grid of models (theoretical profiles) based on the results provided by theoretical evolutionary paths. In other words, the input parameters L«, T«, and AHe are those provided as output data of the evolutive models. We chose the tracks of the Geneve group since they are available in the WEB in the range of initial masses from Mi = 25 M¤ to 120 M¤. The derived stellar parameters for HD 327083 are: log(L«/L¤) = 6.0, T« = 11500 K, = 8.0´10-5 M¤/yr and He/H = 0.2 (by number). From these results and considering the similarity with HR Carinae we concluded that HD 327083 is a superluminous object in an evolved phase of an evolutive track of MZAMS~ 60 M¤. It might be a B[e] Supergiant but it is most likely to be about to enter in a typical LBV phase.

  4. MR spectroscopic evidence of brain injury in the non-diagnosed collision sport athlete.

    PubMed

    Poole, Victoria N; Abbas, Kausar; Shenk, Trey E; Breedlove, Evan L; Breedlove, Katherine M; Robinson, Meghan E; Leverenz, Larry J; Nauman, Eric A; Talavage, Thomas M; Dydak, Ulrike

    2014-01-01

    With growing evidence of long-term neurological damage in individuals enduring repetitive head trauma, it is critical to detect lower-level damage accumulation for the early diagnosis of injury in at-risk populations. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopic scans of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and primary motor cortex were collected from high school American (gridiron) football athletes, prior to and during their competition seasons. Although no concussions were diagnosed, significant metabolic deviations from baseline and non-collision sport controls were revealed. Overall the findings indicate underlying biochemical changes, consequential to repetitive hits, which have previously gone unnoticed due to a lack of traditional neurological symptoms. PMID:25144258

  5. 2D-1D Wavelet Reconstruction as a Tool for Source Finding in Spectroscopic Imaging Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flöer, L.; Winkel, B.

    2012-01-01

    Today, image denoising by thresholding of wavelet coefficients is a commonly used tool for 2D image enhancement. Since the data product of spectroscopic imaging surveys has two spatial dimensions and one spectral dimension, the techniques for denoising have to be adapted to this change in dimensionality. In this paper we will review the basic method of denoising data by thresholding wavelet coefficients and implement a 2D-1D wavelet decomposition to obtain an efficient way of denoising spectroscopic data cubes. We conduct different simulations to evaluate the usefulness of the algorithm as part of a source finding pipeline.

  6. 2D-1D Wavelet Reconstruction As A Tool For Source Finding In Spectroscopic Imaging Surveys

    E-print Network

    Flöer, Lars

    2011-01-01

    Today, image denoising by thresholding of wavelet coefficients is a commonly used tool for 2D image enhancement. Since the data product of spectroscopic imaging surveys has two spatial and one spectral dimension, the techniques for denoising have to be adapted to this change in dimensionality. In this paper we will review the basic method of denoising data by thresholding wavelet coefficients and implement a 2D-1D wavelet decomposition to obtain an efficient way of denoising spectroscopic data cubes. We conduct different simulations to evaluate the usefulness of the algorithm as part of a source finding pipeline.

  7. Local versus average structure around cations in minerals from spectroscopic and diffraction measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Galoisy

    1996-01-01

    The average structure determined from diffraction data often differs from the local information gained from spectroscopic methods. Three kinds of examples are illustrated in this paper. Binary solid solutions show that Vegard law is not observed at the atomic scale due to relaxation processes during atomic substitution. The non-random intracrystalline distribution of transition elements, which cannot be obtained from diffraction,

  8. Variability in the determination of total atmospheric ozone using remote sensing spectroscopic techniques

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. G. Sivjee; G. J. Romick; W. B. Murcray

    1978-01-01

    A spectroscopic method for optical remote sensing of total ozone (O3) is described. It involves detailed spectral matching of near ultraviolet solar observations with synthetic profiles containing various amounts of ozone absorption. Application of this technique is made to airborne solar measurements in the 3100 to 3600 Å wavelength region. In the 3100 to 3200 Å region, measurements made above

  9. Stability of UV exposed RR-P3BT films by spectroscopic ellipsometry

    SciTech Connect

    Diware, Mangesh S.; Byun, J. S.; Hwang, S. Y.; Kim, T. J.; Kim, Y. D. [Nano-Optical Property Laboratory and Department of Physics, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-02-05

    Stability of regioregular poly(3-butylthiophene) (RR-P3BT) films under irradiation of ultra-violet (UV) light has been studied by spectroscopic ellipsometry at room temperature. Consistent decrease in dielectric function with UV exposure time showed the degree of degradation of polymer. This work suggests that, protective methods are mandatory to use this kind of material in optical devices.

  10. Chemical and spectroscopic analysis of organic matter transformations during composting of pig manure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jenn-Hung Hsu; Shang-Lien Lo

    1999-01-01

    Composting of separated pig manure (SPM) was studied in an attempt to elaborate upon organic matter (OM) transformation during the process and define parameters for product maturity using both chemical and spectroscopical methods. Composting was performed in two piles and the following parameters were measured in 10 samples during 122 days of composting: temperature, ash content, C\\/N ratio, water-soluble organic

  11. Comprehensive processing, display and analysis for in vivo MR spectroscopic imaging

    E-print Network

    Hall, Lawrence O.

    Comprehensive processing, display and analysis for in vivo MR spectroscopic imaging A. A. Maudsley and spectral data processing methods and benefits from the use of several sources of prior information processing and analysis can involve multiple processing steps and several different data types. In this paper

  12. Spectroscopic studies of lanthanide (Ce, Eu) chlorides in ethane-1,2-diol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Barbara Keller; Janina Legendziewicz; Jan Przybylski; Ma?gorzata Guzik; Jacek Gli?ski

    2002-01-01

    This paper is a consequence of our earlier studies on the structure of solutions of anhydrous and hydrated lanthanide chlorides in different types of alcohols. Such investigations are important mainly in understanding the spectroscopic behavior of silica gels and glasses obtained by alcohol methods and codoped with Ce3+ and other lanthanide ions. Our work focuses on the spectroscopy of Ce(III)

  13. Determination of pore size distribution and surface area of thin porous silicon layers by spectroscopic ellipsometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Wongmanerod; S. Zangooie; H. Arwin

    2001-01-01

    A non-destructive method for investigation of pore size distribution and surface area of porous silicon is presented. Adsorption and desorption isotherms of water in thin films of porous silicon are analyzed using variable angle of incidence spectroscopic ellipsometry. The analysis is based on multilayer optical models and the Bruggeman effective medium approximation. Pore size distribution and surface area are extracted

  14. Determination of refractive index of printed and unprinted paper using spectroscopic ellipsometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. W. P. Bakker; G. Bryntse; H. Arwin

    2004-01-01

    An attempt is made to address the basic physical properties of printed and unprinted paper surfaces by using spectroscopic ellipsometry in the range 300–900 nm to determine the effective complex-valued refractive index ?N?. Some simulations to address the effect of structural properties have also been done and a qualitative comparison with some other methods, in particular Brewster angle measurements, has

  15. Dynamics of dielectric barrier discharge in non-uniform gas composition investigated by laser spectroscopic measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keiichiro Urabe; Yosuke Ito; Joon-Young Choi; Osamu Sakai; Kunihide Tachibana

    2009-01-01

    It is well known that stable and glow dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) at atmospheric pressure is observed using helium gas and AC high voltage of kHz-order frequency. We have investigated the discharge mechanisms of DBDs from a view point of the spatiotemporal distributions of excited species measured by laser spectroscopic methods. In this presentation, we will show convincing arguments about

  16. Automated gait generation based on traditional animation 

    E-print Network

    Lee, Sung Hwa

    2005-08-29

    This thesis describes the development of a tool to assist animators in doing walk cycles. In traditional animation, animators create expressive walk cycles with key poses. The process of generating walk cycles by hand is tedious and repetitive...

  17. The storytelling tradition and documentary moviemaking

    E-print Network

    Kostant, Steven

    1985-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with the relationship between the storytelling tradition and documentary moviemaking. This relationship is evaluated in three distinct points of departure. The evolution of the storytelling process ...

  18. Homogeneous spectroscopic parameters for bright planet host stars from the northern hemisphere

    E-print Network

    Sousa, S G; Mortier, A; Tsantaki, M; Adibekyan, V; Mena, E Delgado; Israelian, G; Rojas-Ayala, B; Neves, V

    2015-01-01

    Aims. In this work we derive new precise and homogeneous parameters for 37 stars with planets. For this purpose, we analyze high resolution spectra obtained by the NARVAL spectrograph for a sample composed of bright planet host stars in the northern hemisphere. The new parameters are included in the SWEET-Cat online catalogue. Methods. To ensure that the catalogue is homogeneous, we use our standard spectroscopic analysis procedure, ARES+MOOG, to derive effective temperatures, surface gravities, and metallicities. These spectroscopic stellar parameters are then used as input to compute the stellar mass and radius, which are fundamental for the derivation of the planetary mass and radius. Results. We show that the spectroscopic parameters, masses, and radii are generally in good agreement with the values available in online databases of exoplanets. There are some exceptions, especially for the evolved stars. These are analyzed in detail focusing on the effect of the stellar mass on the derived planetary mass. ...

  19. Non-traditional ion beam analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Doyle, B.L.; Knapp, J.A.; Banks, J.C.; Barbour, J.C.; Walsh, D.S.

    1993-02-01

    Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), elastic recoil detection (ERD), proton induced x-ray emission (PIXE) and nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) are among the most commonly used, or traditional, ion beam analysis (IBA) techniques. In this review, several adaptations of these IBA techniques are described where either the approach used in the analysis or the application area is clearly non-traditional or unusual. These analyses and/or applications are summarized in this paper.

  20. Non-traditional ion beam analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Doyle, B.L.; Knapp, J.A.; Banks, J.C.; Barbour, J.C.; Walsh, D.S.

    1993-01-01

    Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), elastic recoil detection (ERD), proton induced x-ray emission (PIXE) and nuclear reaction analysis (NRA) are among the most commonly used, or traditional, ion beam analysis (IBA) techniques. In this review, several adaptations of these IBA techniques are described where either the approach used in the analysis or the application area is clearly non-traditional or unusual. These analyses and/or applications are summarized in this paper.

  1. Mambila traditional religion : Sua in Somie

    E-print Network

    Zeitlyn, David

    1990-01-30

    rituals, but these focus on action. Questions concern the proper way to perform the rite, not why the rite takes place, far less its relationship to other rites. Of course such an attitude is typical of most peoples, including those of literate... . The implicit theory of memory, particularly, is shown to be psychologically naïve. I shall explain the use of “tradition” in this work, albeit at the risk of attracting criticism from either of the above stances. “Mambila Traditional Religion” labels those...

  2. Status of traditional food preservation methods for selected ghanaian foods

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. D. Pace; W. A. Plahar; J. Y. Lu

    1989-01-01

    The effect of processing on nutrient quality becomes paramount in countries as Ghana where nutrient deficiency diseases are prevalent. Several foods (herring, trigger, tilapia, and cassava) were assayed for several nutrients before and after.processing. In most instances proximate nutrients and some vitamins and minerals increased due to loss of moisture. Consumption of the dried product increases total nutrient intake for

  3. Methods of Risk Analysis: Traditional and Ecological Approaches

    E-print Network

    of pesticides on human health, and oil spills. In recent years, a branch of risk analysis has formed that deals Historically, the term risk assessment has been applied to the examination of potential risk to human health exposure as a result of an industrial accident, impact of hazardous material on human health, impact

  4. The adaptive control for a retrofit traditional milling machine

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, S.J.; Yan, M.T. [National Taiwan Inst. of Tech., Taipei (Taiwan, Province of China). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1996-07-01

    In this paper, the control plant is a traditional lead screw actuated milling machine table which has been retrofit with dc servo motor control. This old-fashioned machining table has nonlinear time-varying behaviors owing to the effects of irregular coulomb friction of the sliding surface and obvious backlash. The traditional digital controllers are difficult to implement in this plant. It also can not assure the stability problem of the closed loop system. Here a stably convergent one-step ahead adaptive control method is proposed for this machining table. The experimental results show that this control method has reasonable performance of stability, transient response, tracking accuracy and robustness under the influence of time delay of the simple motor driver and 1-mm backlash of each axis.

  5. Integrative vs. Traditional Learning from the Student Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Kadmon, Guni; Schmidt, Jan; De Cono, Nicola; Kadmon, Martina

    2011-01-01

    Background: The interdisciplinary surgery block of the reformed undergraduate curriculum HeiCuMed includes daily cycles of interactive case-based seminars, problem-based tutorials, case presentation by students, skills and communication training, and bedside teaching. The teaching doctors receive didactic training. In contrast, the previous traditional course was based on lectures with only two weekly hours of bedside teaching. Didactic training was not available. Objective: The present work aims at analysing the importance of active participation of students and the didactic components of the reformed and traditional curricula, which contribute to successful learning as evaluated by the students. Method: Differentiated student evaluations of the undergraduate surgical courses between 1999 and 2008 were examined by correlation and regression analyses. Results: The evaluation scores for organisation, dedication of the teaching staff, their ability to make lessons interesting and complex topics easily understandable, and the subjective gain of knowledge were significantly better in HeiCuMed than in the traditional curriculum. However, the dependence of knowledge gain on the didactic quality was the same in both curricula. The quality of discussions and the ability of the teaching doctors to promote active student participation were important to the subjective gain of knowledge in both seminars and practical courses of the reformed curriculum as well as for the overall evaluation of the practical courses but not the gain of knowledge in the traditional curriculum. Conclusion: The findings confirm psychological-educational perceptions, that competent implementation of integrative didactical methods is more important to successful teaching and the subjective gain of knowledge than knowledge transfer by traditional classroom teaching. PMID:21818238

  6. Spectroscopic (FT-IR, FT-Raman), first order hyperpolarizability, NBO analysis, HOMO and LUMO analysis of 2,4-bis(2-methoxyphenyl)-1-phenylanthracene-9,10-dione by ab initio HF and density functional methods.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Tomy; Varghese, Hema Tresa; Panicker, C Yohannan; Thiemann, Thies; Viswanathan, K; Van Alsenoy, Christian; Manojkumar, T K

    2014-01-01

    Anthraquinone derivatives are most important class of a system that absorb in the visible region. In this work, the vibrational spectral analysis was carried out using FT-IR and FT-Raman spectroscopy for 2,4-bis(2-methoxyphenyl)-1-phenylanthracene-9,10-dione. Theoretical calculations were performed by ab initio HF and DFT methods using 6-31G(*) basis set. The complete vibrational assignments of wavenumbers were made on the basis of potential energy distribution. The HOMO and LUMO analysis is used to determine the charge transfer within the molecule. The stability of the molecule arising from hyper-conjugative interaction and charge delocalization has been analyzed using NBO analysis. The calculated geometrical parameters (DFT) are in agreement with that of similar derivatives. The calculated first hyperpolarizability of the title compound is 4.69×10(-30) esu, which is 36.08 times that of urea and the title compound and the series of compounds it represents are attractive candidates for further studies in non linear optical applications. PMID:24012980

  7. Molecular structure, spectroscopic (FT-IR, FT-Raman, NMR, UV) studies and first-order molecular hyperpolarizabilities of 1,2-bis(3-methoxy-4-hydroxybenzylidene)hydrazine by density functional method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Subramanian, N.; Sundaraganesan, N.; Jayabharathi, J.

    2010-07-01

    Quantum chemical calculations of energies, geometrical structure and vibrational wavenumbers of 1,2-bis(3-methoxy-4-hydroxybenzylidene)hydrazine [vanillin azine (VA)] were carried out by using density functional (DFT/B3LYP) method with 6-31G(d) as basis set. The optimized geometrical parameters obtained by DFT calculations are in good agreement with single crystal XRD data. The vibrational spectral data obtained from solid phase FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra are assigned based on the results of the theoretical calculations. The observed spectra are found to be in good agreement with calculated values. The electric dipole moment ( ?) and the first hyperpolarizability ( ?) values of the investigated molecule have been computed using ab initio quantum mechanical calculations. The calculation results also show that the VA molecule might have microscopic nonlinear optical (NLO) behavior with non-zero values. A detailed interpretation of the infrared and Raman spectra of VA was also reported. The energy and oscillator strength calculated by time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) results complements with the experimental findings. The calculated HOMO and LUMO energies show that charge transfer occurs within the molecule. The theoretical NMR chemical shifts complement with experimentally measured ones.

  8. Molecular structure, vibrational spectroscopic (FT-IR, FT-Raman), UV-vis spectra, first order hyperpolarizability, NBO analysis, HOMO and LUMO analysis, thermodynamic properties of benzophenone 2,4-dicarboxylic acid by ab initio HF and density functional method.

    PubMed

    Chaitanya, K

    2012-02-01

    The FT-IR (4000-450 cm(-1)) and FT-Raman spectra (3500-100 cm(-1)) of benzophenone 2,4-dicarboxylic acid (2,4-BDA) have been recorded in the condensed state. Density functional theory calculation with B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) basis set have been used to determine ground state molecular geometries (bond lengths and bond angles), harmonic vibrational frequencies, infrared intensities, Raman activities and bonding features of the title compounds. The assignments of the vibrational spectra have been carried out with the help of normal co-ordinate analysis (NCA) following the scaled quantum mechanical force field (SQMFF) methodology. The first order hyperpolarizability (?0) and related properties (?, ?0 and ??) of 2,4-BDA is calculated using HF/6-31G(d,p) method on the finite-field approach. The stability of molecule has been analyzed by using NBO analysis. The calculated first hyperpolarizability shows that the molecule is an attractive molecule for future applications in non-linear optics. The calculated HOMO and LUMO energies show that charge transfer occurs within these molecules. Mulliken population analysis on atomic charges is also calculated. Because of vibrational analyses, the thermodynamic properties of the title compound at different temperatures have been calculated. Finally, the UV-vis spectra and electronic absorption properties were explained and illustrated from the frontier molecular orbitals. PMID:22137747

  9. Molecular structure, vibrational spectroscopic (FT-IR, FT-Raman), UV-vis spectra, first order hyperpolarizability, NBO analysis, HOMO and LUMO analysis, thermodynamic properties of benzophenone 2,4-dicarboxylic acid by ab initio HF and density functional method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaitanya, K.

    2012-02-01

    The FT-IR (4000-450 cm -1) and FT-Raman spectra (3500-100 cm -1) of benzophenone 2,4-dicarboxylic acid (2,4-BDA) have been recorded in the condensed state. Density functional theory calculation with B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) basis set have been used to determine ground state molecular geometries (bond lengths and bond angles), harmonic vibrational frequencies, infrared intensities, Raman activities and bonding features of the title compounds. The assignments of the vibrational spectra have been carried out with the help of normal co-ordinate analysis (NCA) following the scaled quantum mechanical force field (SQMFF) methodology. The first order hyperpolarizability ( ?0) and related properties ( ?, ?0 and ? ?) of 2,4-BDA is calculated using HF/6-31G(d,p) method on the finite-field approach. The stability of molecule has been analyzed by using NBO analysis. The calculated first hyperpolarizability shows that the molecule is an attractive molecule for future applications in non-linear optics. The calculated HOMO and LUMO energies show that charge transfer occurs within these molecules. Mulliken population analysis on atomic charges is also calculated. Because of vibrational analyses, the thermodynamic properties of the title compound at different temperatures have been calculated. Finally, the UV-vis spectra and electronic absorption properties were explained and illustrated from the frontier molecular orbitals.

  10. Traditional beliefs and practices in the postpartum period in Fujian Province, China: a qualitative study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joanna H Raven; Qiyan Chen; Rachel J Tolhurst; Paul Garner

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Zuo yuezi is the month postpartum in China associated with a variety of traditional beliefs and practices. We explored the current status of zuo yuezi from social, cultural and western medical perspectives. METHODS: We interviewed family members (36) and health workers (8) in Fujian Province, selecting one rural and one rapidly developing urban county. We asked about their traditional

  11. Antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds of 112 traditional Chinese medicinal plants associated with anticancer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yizhong Cai; Qiong Luo; Mei Sun; Harold Corke

    2004-01-01

    Cancer prevention and treatment using traditional Chinese medicines have attracted increasing interest. This study characterizes antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds of traditional Chinese medicinal plants associated with anticancer, comprising 112 species from 50 plant families. The improved ABTS•+ method was used to systematically assess the total antioxidant capacity (Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, TEAC) of the medicinal extracts. The TEAC values

  12. Analyzing the feasibility of using the management principles integrate the Chinese traditional Five-Elements Chromatology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuexi Zhou; Ximiao Zhang

    2010-01-01

    Through a long development history, the Chinese traditional Five-Elements Chromatology had been gradually formed. It is both equal to the Modern Chromatology, and also it is lacked the modern scientific methods to manage. Based on sustainable development concept, this paper not only analyzes the feasibility of introducing the Management principles to the Chinese traditional Five-Elements Chromatology, also elaborates to use

  13. Comparison of Taiwan Science Students' Outcomes With Inquiry-Group Versus Traditional Instruction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chun-Yen Chang; Song-Ling Mao

    1999-01-01

    The authors examined the comparative efficiency of inquiry-group instruction and traditional teaching methods on junior high school students' achievement and attitudes toward earth science in Taiwan. A nonequivalent control group quasi-experimental design involving 16 intact classes was used. Treatment group students (n = 319) received an inquiry-group instruction; control group students (n = 293) received a traditional approach. Data collection

  14. UNIFIED DEFINITION OF SAFETY FACTORS FOR TRADITIONAL RC MEMBERS AND MEMBERS INCORPORATING FRP

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lieping Ye; Peng Feng

    2007-01-01

    Due to the difference material mechanical properties of FRP with those of concrete and steel, the behaviours of members incorporated FRP are consequential different to the traditional RC members and steel members. The conventional safety theory and design method developed based on the behaviours of the traditional RC members and steel members are not suitable for the members incorporating FRP.

  15. Quantum mechanical study and spectroscopic (FT-IR, FT-Raman, UV-Visible) study, potential energy surface scan, Fukui function analysis and HOMO-LUMO analysis of 3-tert-butyl-4-methoxyphenol by DFT methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saravanan, S.; Balachandran, V.

    2014-09-01

    This study represents an integral approach towards understanding the electronic and structural aspects of 3-tert-butyl-4-methoxyphenol (TBMP). Fourier-transform Infrared (FT-IR) and Fourier-transform Raman (FT-Raman) spectra of TBMP was recorded in the region 4000-400 cm-1 and 3500-100 cm-1, respectively. The molecular structures, vibrational wavenumbers, infrared intensities and Raman activities were calculated using DFT (B3LYP and LSDA) methods using 6-311++G (d,p) basis set. The most stable conformer of TBMP was identified from the computational results. The assignments of vibrational spectra have been carried out with the help of normal co-ordinate analysis (NCA) following the scaled quantum mechanical force field (SQMFF) methodology. The first order hyperpolarizability (?0) and related properties (?, ?0 and ??) of TBMP have been discussed. The stability and charge delocalization of the molecule was studied by Natural Bond Orbital (NBO) analysis. UV-Visible spectrum and effects of solvents have been discussed and the electronic properties such as HOMO and LUMO energies were determined by time-dependent TD-DFT approach with B3LYP/6-311++G (d,p) level of theory. The molecule orbital contributions are studied by density of energy states (DOSs). The reactivity sites are identified by mapping the electron density into electrostatic potential surface (MEP). Mulliken analysis of atomic charges is also calculated. The thermodynamic properties at different temperatures were calculated, revealing the correlations between standard heat capacities, standard entropy and standard enthalpy changes with temperatures. Global hardness, global softness, global electrophilicity and ionization potential of the title compound are determined.

  16. Quantum mechanical study and spectroscopic (FT-IR, FT-Raman, UV-Visible) study, potential energy surface scan, Fukui function analysis and HOMO-LUMO analysis of 3-tert-butyl-4-methoxyphenol by DFT methods.

    PubMed

    Saravanan, S; Balachandran, V

    2014-09-15

    This study represents an integral approach towards understanding the electronic and structural aspects of 3-tert-butyl-4-methoxyphenol (TBMP). Fourier-transform Infrared (FT-IR) and Fourier-transform Raman (FT-Raman) spectra of TBMP was recorded in the region 4000-400 cm(-1) and 3500-100 cm(-1), respectively. The molecular structures, vibrational wavenumbers, infrared intensities and Raman activities were calculated using DFT (B3LYP and LSDA) methods using 6-311++G (d,p) basis set. The most stable conformer of TBMP was identified from the computational results. The assignments of vibrational spectra have been carried out with the help of normal co-ordinate analysis (NCA) following the scaled quantum mechanical force field (SQMFF) methodology. The first order hyperpolarizability (?0) and related properties (?, ?0 and ??) of TBMP have been discussed. The stability and charge delocalization of the molecule was studied by Natural Bond Orbital (NBO) analysis. UV-Visible spectrum and effects of solvents have been discussed and the electronic properties such as HOMO and LUMO energies were determined by time-dependent TD-DFT approach with B3LYP/6-311++G (d,p) level of theory. The molecule orbital contributions are studied by density of energy states (DOSs). The reactivity sites are identified by mapping the electron density into electrostatic potential surface (MEP). Mulliken analysis of atomic charges is also calculated. The thermodynamic properties at different temperatures were calculated, revealing the correlations between standard heat capacities, standard entropy and standard enthalpy changes with temperatures. Global hardness, global softness, global electrophilicity and ionization potential of the title compound are determined. PMID:24813291

  17. Investigation on interaction of prulifloxacin with pepsin: A spectroscopic analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yabei; Yan, Jie; Liu, Benzhi; Yu, Zhang; Gao, Xiaoyan; Tang, Yingcai; Zi, Yanqin

    2010-03-01

    The interaction between prulifloxacin, a kind of new oral taking antibiotic and pepsin, a kind of enzyme in the stomach has been investigated in vitro under a simulated physiological condition by different spectroscopic methods. The intrinsic fluorescence of pepsin was strongly quenched by prulifloxacin. This effect was rationalized in terms of a static quenching procedure. The binding parameters have been evaluated by fluorescence quenching methods. The negative value of ? G0 reveals that the binding process is a spontaneous process. The binding distance R between donor (pepsin) and acceptor (prulifloxacin) was obtained according to the Förster's resonance energy transfer theory and found to be 0.95 nm. The results obtained herein will be of biological significance in pharmacology and clinical medicine.

  18. Spectroscopic diagnostics of plasma during laser processing of aluminium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lober, R.; Mazumder, J.

    2007-10-01

    The role of the plasma in laser-metal interaction is of considerable interest due to its influence in the energy transfer mechanism in industrial laser materials processing. A 10 kW CO2 laser was used to study its interaction with aluminium under an argon environment. The objective was to determine the absorption and refraction of the laser beam through the plasma during the processing of aluminium. Laser processing of aluminium is becoming an important topic for many industries, including the automobile industry. The spectroscopic relative line to continuum method was used to determine the electron temperature distribution within the plasma by investigating the 4158 Å Ar I line emission and the continuum adjacent to it. The plasmas are induced in 1.0 atm pure Ar environment over a translating Al target, using f/7 and 10 kW CO2 laser. Spectroscopic data indicated that the plasma composition and behaviour were Ar-dominated. Experimental results indicated the plasma core temperature to be 14 000-15 300 K over the incident range of laser powers investigated from 5 to 7 kW. It was found that 7.5-29% of the incident laser power was absorbed by the plasma. Cross-section analysis of the melt pools from the Al samples revealed the absence of any key-hole formation and confirmed that the energy transfer mechanism in the targets was conduction dominated for the reported range of experimental data.

  19. Spectroscopic studies of interactions involving horseradish peroxidase and Tb3+.

    PubMed

    Guo, Shaofen; Zhou, Qing; Lu, Tianhong; Ding, Xiaolan; Huang, Xiaohua

    2008-09-01

    The spectroscopic properties of interactions involving horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and Tb3+ in the simulated physiological solution was investigated with some electrochemical and spectroscopic methods, such as cyclic voltammetry (CV), circular dichroism (CD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and synchronous fluorescence (SF). It was found that Tb3+ can coordinate with oxygen atoms in carbonyl groups in the peptide chain of HRP, form the complex of Tb3+ and HRP (Tb-HRP), and then lead to the conformation change of HRP. The increase in the random coil content of HRP can disturb the microstructure of the heme active center of HRP, in which the planarity of the porphyrin cycle in the heme group is increased and then the exposure extent of the electrochemical active center is decreased. Thus Tb3+ can inhibit the electrochemical reaction of HRP and its electrocatalytic activity for the reduction of H2O2 at the Au/Cys/GC electrode. The changes in the microstructure of HRP obstructed the electron transfer of Fe(III) in the porphyrin cycle of the heme group, thus HRP catalytic activity is inhibited. The inhibition effect of Tb3+ on HRP catalytic activity is increased with the increasing of Tb3+ concentration. This study would provide some references for better understanding the rare earth elements and heavy metals on peroxidase toxicity in living organisms. PMID:18024195

  20. DFT computations and spectroscopic analysis of p-bromoacetanilide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gnanasambandan, T.; Gunasekaran, S.; Seshadri, S.

    2014-03-01

    This work presents the characterization of p-bromoacetanilide (PBA) by quantum chemical calculations and spectral techniques. The spectroscopic properties were investigated by FT-IR, FT-Raman and UV-Vis techniques. The structural and spectroscopic data of the molecule were obtained from B3LYP/6-311++ G(d,p) and MPW1PW91/6-311++G(d,p) basis set calculations. The theoretical wavenumbers were scaled and compared with experimental FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra. The complete assignments were performed on the basis of the normal co-ordinate analysis (NCA), experimental results and potential energy distribution (PED) of the vibrational modes, calculated with scaled quantum mechanics (SQM) method, interpreted in terms of fundamental modes. The stability of molecule has been analyzed by NBO/NLMO analysis. The molecular orbital contributions were studied by using the density of states. The electronic properties like UV-Vis spectral analysis and HOMO-LUMO energies were reported. The calculated HOMO and LUMO energies shows that charge transfer interactions taking place within the molecule. Mulliken population analysis on atomic charges, Statistical thermodynamic properties at various temperatures of the PBA is also calculated.

  1. DFT computations and spectroscopic analysis of p-bromoacetanilide.

    PubMed

    Gnanasambandan, T; Gunasekaran, S; Seshadri, S

    2014-03-25

    This work presents the characterization of p-bromoacetanilide (PBA) by quantum chemical calculations and spectral techniques. The spectroscopic properties were investigated by FT-IR, FT-Raman and UV-Vis techniques. The structural and spectroscopic data of the molecule were obtained from B3LYP/6-311++ G(d,p) and MPW1PW91/6-311++G(d,p) basis set calculations. The theoretical wavenumbers were scaled and compared with experimental FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra. The complete assignments were performed on the basis of the normal co-ordinate analysis (NCA), experimental results and potential energy distribution (PED) of the vibrational modes, calculated with scaled quantum mechanics (SQM) method, interpreted in terms of fundamental modes. The stability of molecule has been analyzed by NBO/NLMO analysis. The molecular orbital contributions were studied by using the density of states. The electronic properties like UV-Vis spectral analysis and HOMO-LUMO energies were reported. The calculated HOMO and LUMO energies shows that charge transfer interactions taking place within the molecule. Mulliken population analysis on atomic charges, Statistical thermodynamic properties at various temperatures of the PBA is also calculated. PMID:24334018

  2. Structure, spectroscopic properties, and photochemistry of the hydroxymethoxy radical

    SciTech Connect

    Eisfeld, Wolfgang [Theoretische Chemie, Fakultaet fuer Chemie, Universitaet Bielefeld, Postfach 100131, D-33501 Bielefeld (Germany); Francisco, Joseph S. [Department of Chemistry and Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907-2084 (United States)

    2009-10-07

    The hydroxymethoxy (HMO) radical is proposed to be the primary product of photodissociation of the atmospherically important hydroxymethyl hydroperoxide (HMHP). This transient species is still unknown and the present study provides theoretical predictions of properties, spectroscopy, and photochemistry of this radical for the first time. Structures, harmonic frequencies, vertical and vibrationally resolved absorption spectra are computed for several electronic states, using state-of-the-art ab initio electronic structure methods. The lowest excited state, absorbing in the mid to near infrared, seems to be the most promising candidate for spectroscopic identification of HMO. The electron affinity of 2.232 eV and the characteristic photodetachment spectrum is also predicted to be suitable for experimental investigations. By contrast, the B-tilde state absorbing around 3.5 eV is proposed to undergo fast photodissociation, forming CH{sub 2}O and OH, and thus appears less useful for spectroscopic detection of HMO. However, the photodissociation may be important for the atmospheric chemistry of HMHP. Ionization of HMO will also lead to dissociation or rearrangement of the cation and will yield only unspecific spectra.

  3. Spectroscopic ellipsometry data analysis: Measured vs. calculated quantities

    SciTech Connect

    Jellison, G.E. Jr.

    1997-05-01

    Spectroscopic ellipsometry is a very powerful technique for optical characterization of thin-film and bulk materials, but the technique measures functions of complex reflection coefficients, which are usually not of interest per se. The interesting characteristics such as film thickness, surface roughness thickness, and optical functions can be determined only by modeling the near-surface region of the sample. However, the measured quantities are not equivalent to those determined from the modeling. Ellipsometry measurements determine elements of the sample Mueller matrix, but the usual result of modeling calculations are elements of the sample. Often this difference is academic, but if the sample depolarizes the light, it is not. Ellipsometry calculations also include methods for determining the optical functions of materials. Data for bulk materials are usually accurate for substrates, but are not appropriate for most thin films. Therefore, reasonable parameterizations are quite useful in performing spectroscopic ellipsometry data analysis. Recently, there has been an increased interest in anisotropic materials, both in thin-film and bulk form. A generalized procedure will be presented for calculating the elements of the Jones matrix for any number of layers, any one of which may or may not be uniaxial.

  4. Traditional Chinese food technology and cuisine.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian-rong; Hsieh, Yun-Hwa P

    2004-01-01

    From ancient wisdom to modern science and technology, Chinese cuisine has been established from a long history of the country and gained a global reputation of its sophistication. Traditional Chinese foods and cuisine that exhibit Chinese culture, art and reality play an essential role in Chinese people's everyday lives. Recently, traditional Chinese foods have drawn a great degree of attention from food scientists and technologists, the food industry, and health promotion institutions worldwide due to the extensive values they offer beyond being merely another ethnic food. These traditional foods comprise a wide variety of products, such as pickled vegetables, salted fish and jellyfish, tofu and tofu derived products, rice and rice snack foods, fermented sauces, fish balls and thousand-year-old eggs. An overview of selected popular traditional Chinese foods and their processing techniques are included in this paper. Further development of the traditional techniques for formulation and production of these foods is expected to produce economic, social and health benefits. PMID:15228981

  5. Is traditional contraceptive use in Moldova associated with poverty and isolation?

    PubMed

    Lyons-Amos, Mark J; Durrant, Gabriele B; Padmadas, Sabu S

    2011-05-01

    This study investigates the correlates of traditional contraceptive use in Moldova, a poor country in Europe with one of the highest proportions of traditional contraceptive method users. The high reliance on traditional methods, particularly in the context of sub-replacement level fertility rate, has not been systematically evaluated in demographic research. Using cross-sectional data on a sub-sample of 6039 sexually experienced women from the 2005 Moldovan Demographic and Health Survey, this study hypothesizes that (a) economic and spatial disadvantages increase the likelihood of traditional method use, and (b) high exposure to family planning/reproductive health (FP/RH) programmes increases the propensity to modern method use. Multilevel multinomial models are used to examine the correlates of traditional method use controlling for exposure to sexual activity, socioeconomic and demographic characteristics and data structure. The results show that economic disadvantage increases the probability of traditional method use, but the overall effect is small. Although higher family planning media exposure decreases the reliance on traditional methods among younger women, it has only a marginal effect in increasing modern method use among older women. Family planning programmes designed to encourage women to switch from traditional to modern methods have some success--although the effect is considerably reduced in regions outside of the capital Chisinau. The study concludes that FP/RH efforts directed towards the poorest may have limited impact, but interventions targeted at older women could reduce the burden of unwanted pregnancies and abortions. Addressing differentials in accessing modern methods could improve uptake in rural areas. PMID:21303582

  6. The HITRAN 2008 Molecular Spectroscopic Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rothman, Laurence S.; Gordon, Iouli E.; Barbe, Alain; Benner, D. Chris; Bernath, Peter F.; Birk, Manfred; Boudon, V.; Brown, Linda R.; Campargue, Alain; Champion, J.-P.; Chance, Kelly V.; Coudert, L. H.; Sung, K.; Toth, R. A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the status of the 2008 edition of the HITRAN molecular spectroscopic database. The new edition is the first official public release since the 2004 edition, although a number of crucial updates had been made available online since 2004. The HITRAN compilation consists of several components that serve as input for radiative-transfer calculation codes: individual line parameters for the microwave through visible spectra of molecules in the gas phase; absorption cross-sections for molecules having dense spectral features, i.e., spectra in which the individual lines are not resolved; individual line parameters and absorption cross sections for bands in the ultra-violet; refractive indices of aerosols, tables and files of general properties associated with the database; and database management software. The line-by-line portion of the database contains spectroscopic parameters for forty-two molecules including many of their isotopologues.

  7. The diode laser as a spectroscopic tool

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. W. FOX; C. S. WEIMER; L. HOLLBERG; G. C. TURK

    Abtmct-T'he properties of diode lasers that make them attractive as spectroscopic sourccs are hscussed, along with the use of extended cavities to enhance their tuning range and reduce their lhewidths. Semiconductors can now provide efficient, tunable, narrow linewidth laser light over much of the red and near4.r. region of the spectrum. The progress in using nonhnear optics to extend the

  8. PESSTO spectroscopic classification of optical transients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blagorodnova, N.; Campbell, H.; Fraser, M.; Walton, N.; Anderson, J.; Benetti, S.; Pastorello, A.; Inserra, C.; Smartt, S.; Smith, K.; Young, D.; Sullivan, M.; Taubenberger, S.; Valenti, S.; Yaron, O.; Gal-Yam, A.; Knapic, C.; Smareglia, R.; Molinaro, M.; Manulis, Ilan; Baltay, C.; Ellman, N.; Hadjiyska, E.; McKinnon, R.; Rabinowitz, D.; Walker, E. S.; Feindt, U.; Kowalski, M.; Nugent, P.; Wright, D.; Kotak, R.; Valenti, S.; Burgett, W.; Chambers, K.; Huber, M.; Kudritzki, R. P.; Magnier, E.; Morgan, J.; Stubbs, C.; Sweeney, W.; Tonry, J.; Waters, C.; Draper, P.; Metcalfe, N.; Rest, A.; Wyrzykowski, L.

    2014-02-01

    PESSTO, the Public ESO Spectroscopic Survey for Transient Objects (see Valenti et al., ATel #4037; http://www.pessto.org ), reports the following supernova classifications. Targets were supplied by the La Silla-Quest survey (see Hadjiyska et al., ATel #3812), the OGLE-IV Transient Search (ATel #4495; Wyrzykowski et al. 2012), Pan-STARRS (see Valenti et al., ATel #2668) and the Catalina Real-time Transient Survey (http://crts.caltech.edu/).

  9. PESSTO spectroscopic classification of optical transients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blagorodnova, N.; Walton, N.; Fraser, M.; Campbell, Heather; De Cia, A.; Elias-Rosa, Nancy; Manulis, Ilan; Benetti, S.; Pastorello, A.; Inserra, C.; Smartt, S.; Smith, K.; Young, D.; Sullivan, M.; Taubenberger, S.; Valenti, S.; Yaron, O.; Gal-Yam, A.; Knapic, C.; Smareglia, R.; Molinaro, M.; Wyrzykowski, L.; Baltay, C.; Ellman, N.; Hadjiyska, E.; McKinnon, R.; Rabinowitz, D.; Walker, E. S.; Feindt, U.; Kowalski, M.; Nugent, P.; Chronock, Ryan

    2014-02-01

    PESSTO, the Public ESO Spectroscopic Survey for Transient Objects (see Valenti et al., ATel #4037; http://www.pessto.org), reports the following supernova classifications. Targets were supplied by the Catalina Real-time Transient Survey (http://crts.caltech.edu/), the La Silla Quest Survey (see Hadjiyska et al., ATel #3812), and the OGLE-IV Transient Search (ATel #4495; Wyrzykowski et al. 2012).

  10. Spectroscopic Monitoring of Be type Stars

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Desnoux; C. Buil

    2005-01-01

    The study of Be stars is a perfect example of spectrography that amateurs can participate in. Several types of spectroscopes can be used depending of what physical parameters are monitored: classical surveys at low-resolution or high-resolution profile study of the H-alpha line are just two examples of what can be monitored. By grouping observations on long time scales, a database

  11. Soil Organic Phosphorus Speciation Using Spectroscopic Techniques

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ashlea L. Doolette; Ronald J. Smernik

    \\u000a The most commonly used differentiation of soil phosphorus (P) is between inorganic and organic forms, despite the fact that\\u000a this is only the beginning of soil P speciation. Forms of inorganic and organic soil P include a large range of specific P\\u000a compounds, and spectroscopic techniques can offer the best potential for determining the speciation of soil organic P. The

  12. Spectroscopic studies of the transplutonium elements

    SciTech Connect

    Carnall, W.T.; Conway, J.G.

    1983-01-01

    The challenging opportunity to develop insights into both atomic structure and the effects of bonding in compounds makes the study of actinide spectroscopy a particularly fruitful and exciting area of scientific endeavor. It is also the interpretation of f-element spectra that has stimulated the development of the most sophisticated theoretical modeling attempted for any elements in the periodic table. The unique nature of the spectra and the wealth of fine detail revealed make possible sensitive tests of both physical models and the results of Hartree-Fock type ab initio calculations. This paper focuses on the unique character of heavy actinide spectroscopy. It discusses how it differs from that of the lighter member of the series and what are the special properties that are manifested. Following the introduction, the paper covers the following: (1) the role of systematic studies and the relationships of heavy-actinide spectroscopy to ongoing spectroscopic investigations of the lighter members of the series; (2) atomic (free-ion) spectra which covers the present status of spectroscopic studies with transplutonium elements, and future needs and directions in atomic spectroscopy; (3) the spectra of actinide compounds which covers the present status and future directions of spectroscopic studies with compounds of the transplutonium elements; and other spectroscopies. 1 figure, 2 tables.

  13. Spectroscopically Accurate Line Lists for Application in Sulphur Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Underwood, D. S.; Azzam, A. A. A.; Yurchenko, S. N.; Tennyson, J.

    2013-09-01

    Monitoring sulphur chemistry is thought to be of great importance for exoplanets. Doing this requires detailed knowledge of the spectroscopic properties of sulphur containing molecules such as hydrogen sulphide (H2S) [1], sulphur dioxide (SO2), and sulphur trioxide (SO3). Each of these molecules can be found in terrestrial environments, produced in volcano emissions on Earth, and analysis of their spectroscopic data can prove useful to the characterisation of exoplanets, as well as the study of planets in our own solar system, with both having a possible presence on Venus. A complete, high temperature list of line positions and intensities for H32 2 S is presented. The DVR3D program suite is used to calculate the bound ro-vibration energy levels, wavefunctions, and dipole transition intensities using Radau coordinates. The calculations are based on a newly determined, spectroscopically refined potential energy surface (PES) and a new, high accuracy, ab initio dipole moment surface (DMS). Tests show that the PES enables us to calculate the line positions accurately and the DMS gives satisfactory results for line intensities. Comparisons with experiment as well as with previous theoretical spectra will be presented. The results of this study will form an important addition to the databases which are considered as sources of information for space applications; especially, in analysing the spectra of extrasolar planets, and remote sensing studies for Venus and Earth, as well as laboratory investigations and pollution studies. An ab initio line list for SO3 was previously computed using the variational nuclear motion program TROVE [2], and was suitable for modelling room temperature SO3 spectra. The calculations considered transitions in the region of 0-4000 cm-1 with rotational states up to J = 85, and includes 174,674,257 transitions. A list of 10,878 experimental transitions had relative intensities placed on an absolute scale, and were provided in a form suitable for inclusion in standard atmospheric and planetary spectroscopic databases. The methods involved in computing the ab initio potential energy and dipole moment surfaces involved minor corrections to the equilibrium S-O distance, which produced a good agreement with experimentally determined rotational energies. However the purely ab initio method was not been able to reproduce an equally spectroscopically accurate representation of vibrational motion. We therefore present an empirical refinement to this original, ab initio potential surface, based on the experimental data available. This will not only be used to reproduce the room-temperature spectrum to a greater degree of accuracy, but is essential in the production of a larger, accurate line list necessary for the simulation of higher temperature spectra: we aim for coverage suitable for T ? 800 K. Our preliminary studies on SO3 have also shown it to exhibit an interesting "forbidden" rotational spectrum and "clustering" of rotational states; to our knowledge this phenomenon has not been observed in other examples of trigonal planar molecules and is also an investigative avenue we wish to pursue. Finally, the IR absorption bands for SO2 and SO3 exhibit a strong overlap, and the inclusion of SO2 as a complement to our studies is something that we will be interested in doing in the near future.

  14. Spectroscopic characterization of the chiral structure of individual single-walled carbon nanotubes and the edge structure of isolated graphene nanoribbons.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Daqi; Yang, Juan; Li, Yan

    2013-04-22

    The chiral structure of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) and the edge structure of graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) play an important role in determining their electronic and phonon structures. Spectroscopic methods, which require simple sample preparation and cause minimal sample damage, are the most commonly utilized techniques for determining the structures of SWNTs and graphene. In this review the current status of various spectroscopic methods are presented in detail, including resonance Raman, photoluminescence (PL), and Rayleigh scattering spectroscopies, for determination of the chiral structure of individual SWNTs and the edge structure of isolated graphene, especially of graphene nanoribbons. The different photophysical processes involved in each spectroscopic method are reviewed to achieve a comprehensive understanding of the electronic and phonon properties of SWNTs and graphene. The advantages and limitations of each spectroscopic method as well as the challenges in this area are discussed. PMID:23529997

  15. Normal-incidence spectroscopic ellipsometry for critical dimension Hsu-Ting Huang, Wei Kong, and Fred Lewis Terry, Jr.a)

    E-print Network

    Terry, Fred L.

    Normal-incidence spectroscopic ellipsometry for critical dimension monitoring Hsu-Ting Huang, Wei method--rigorous couple wave analysis RCWA .13,14 Our theoretical and experimental data will be presented

  16. The problem of tradition in the work of Anthony Giddens

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Walliss

    2001-01-01

    This paper seeks to problematise the notion of ‘tradition’ presented in the recent sociology of Anthony Giddens on reflexivity and late modernity. Three broad areas of critique are highlighted and discussed: the view of tradition as simultaneously static and reflexive; the view that within the ‘post?traditional’ world tradition survives and flourishes; and the view that tradition and reflexivity are historically

  17. Pooling optimal combinations of energy thresholds in spectroscopic CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koenig, Thomas; Zuber, Marcus; Hamann, Elias; Runz, Armin; Fiederle, Michael; Baumbach, Tilo

    2014-03-01

    Photon counting detectors used in spectroscopic CT are often based on small pixels and therefore offer only limited space to include energy discriminators and their associated counters in each pixel cell. For this reason, it is important to make efficient use of the available energy discriminators in order to achieve an optimized material contrast at a radiation dose as low as possible. Unfortunately, the complexity of evaluating every possible combination of energy thresholds, given a fixed number of counters, rapidly increases with the resolution at which this search is performed, and makes brute-force approaches to this problem infeasible. In this work, we introduce methods from machine learning, in particular sparse regression, to perform a feature selection to determine optimal combinations of energy thresholds. We will demonstrate how methods enforcing row-sparsity on a linear regression's coefficient matrix can be applied to the multiple response problem in spectroscopic CT, i.e. the case in which a single set of energy thresholds is sought to simultaneously retrieve concentrations pertaining to a multitude of materials in an optimal way. These methods are applied to CT images experimentally obtained with a Medipix3RX detector operated in charge summing mode and with a CdTe sensor at a pixel pitch of 110?m. We show that the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (lasso), generalized to the multiple response case, chooses four out of 20 possible threshold positions that allow discriminating PMMA, iodine and gadolinium in a contrast agent phantom at a higher accuracy than with equally spaced thresholds. Finally, we illustrate why it might be unwise to use a higher number of energy thresholds than absolutely necessary.

  18. The properties of ammonium dinitramide (ADN): Part 1, basic properties and spectroscopic data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Östmark; U. Bemm; A. Langlet; R. Sandén; N. Wingborg

    2000-01-01

    Basic properties and spectroscopic data for the energetic oxidizer ADN (Ammonium dinitramide (NH4N(NO2)2)) are presented. The ADN used for this work was synthesized by a new efficient and environmentally friendly method. The method is based on a direct nitration of salts of sulfamic acid by ordinary mixed acid, followed by neutralization and separation of the ADN by the use of

  19. Impacts of traditional food consumption advisories: Compliance, changes in diet and loss of confidence in traditional foods

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Food consumption advisories are often posted when industrial activities are expected to affect the quality and availability of traditional foods used by First Nations. We were recently involved in a project and asked to summarize details regarding the impacts of traditional food consumption advisories with respect to compliance, broader changes in diet and loss of confidence in traditional foods by people. Methods Our review was not conducted as a formal systematic comprehensive review; rather, we focused on primary and grey literature presenting academic, health practitioner and First Nations viewpoints on the topic available from literature databases (i.e., PubMed, Web of KnowledgeSM) as well as the internet search engine Google. Some information came from personal communications. Results Our overview suggests that when communicated effectively and clearly, and when community members are involved in the process, consumption advisories can result in a decrease in contaminant load in people. On the other hand, consumption advisories can lead to cultural loss and have been linked to a certain amount of social, psychological, nutritional, economic and lifestyle disruption. In some cases, communities have decided to ignore consumption advisories opting to continue with traditional lifestyles believing that the benefits of doing so outweigh the risk of following advisories. Conclusions We identified that there are both positive and negative aspects to the issuance of traditional food consumption advisories. A number of variables need to be recognized during the development and implementation of advisories in order to ensure a balance between human health, maintenance of cultures and industrial activity. PMID:21651789

  20. A Spectroscopic Method to Measure Macho Proper Motions

    E-print Network

    Dan Maoz; Andrew Gould

    1994-01-12

    A Massive Compact Halo Object (Macho) that lenses a background star will magnify different parts of the rotating stellar disk by varying amounts. The differential magnification will cause a shift in the centroid of the star's spectral lines during the lensing event. The shift is proportional to the ratio of the stellar radius to the projected separation of the Macho from the star. It therefore provides a direct measure of the Einstein ring radius, and so also a measure of the Macho's proper motion (angular speed). This measurement can remove some of the degeneracy between mass, distance to the lens, and transverse velocity that exists in the interpretation of results from ongoing microlensing experiments, and is an independent test of the lensing nature of the event. We show that using the high precision attainable by stellar radial velocity measurements, it is possible to measure proper motions for $\\sim 10\\%$ of Machos that lens A-stars in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC), i.e.\\ $\\sim 7\\%$ of the type of relatively high-magnification events that have been reported to date. If this proper-motion measurement were combined with a parallax measurement of the ``reduced velocity'', then the Macho mass, distance, speed, and direction could each be separately determined. The shift can be measured for $\\sim 20\\%$ of the A-star events generated by Machos in the dark halo of the LMC. This in turn would provide a measurement of the fraction of LMC vs. Galactic Macho events.