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1

Combined method to extract spectroscopic information  

E-print Network

Spectroscopic factors (SF) play an important role in nuclear physics and astrophysics. The traditional method of extracting SF from direct transfer reactions suffers from serious ambiguities. We discuss a modified method which is based on including the asymptotic normalization coefficient (ANC) of the overlap functions into the transfer analysis. In the modified method the contribution of the external part of the reaction amplitude, typically dominant, is fixed and the SF is determined from fitting the internal part. We illustrate the modified method with $(d,p)$ reactions on ${}^{208}{\\rm Pb}, {}^{12}{\\rm C}$, and ${}^{84}{\\rm Se}$ targets at different energies. The modified method allows one to extract the SF, which do not depend on the shape of the single-particle nucleon-target interaction, and has the potential of improving the reliability and accuracy of the structure information. This is specially important for nuclei on dripline, where not much is known.

A. M. Mukhamedzhanov; F. M. Nunes

2005-05-16

2

APPLICATION OF SPECTROSCOPIC METHODS FOR THE AUTOMATION OF OIL PALM CULTURE APPLICATION OF SPECTROSCOPIC METHODS  

E-print Network

APPLICATION OF SPECTROSCOPIC METHODS FOR THE AUTOMATION OF OIL PALM CULTURE 1 APPLICATION OF SPECTROSCOPIC METHODS FOR THE AUTOMATION OF OIL PALM CULTURE LAURA B WILLIS*; GUSTAVO A GIL**; HARRY L T LEE: Raman, UV fluorescence, spectroscopy, cytometry, glucose. Date received: 31 July 2007; Sent for revision

Sinskey, Anthony J.

3

Mass spectroscopic apparatus and method  

DOEpatents

The disclosure is directed to a method and apparatus for ionization modulated mass spectrometric analysis. Analog or digital data acquisition and processing can be used. Ions from a time variant source are detected and quantified. The quantified ion output is analyzed using a computer to provide a two-dimensional representation of at least one component present within an analyte.

Bomse, David S. (Santa Fe, NM); Silver, Joel A. (Santa Fe, NM); Stanton, Alan C. (Santa Fe, NM)

1991-01-01

4

Spectroscopic chemical analysis methods and apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spectroscopic chemical analysis methods and apparatus are disclosed which employ deep ultraviolet (e.g. in the 200 nm to 300 nm spectral range) electron beam pumped wide bandgap semiconductor lasers, incoherent wide bandgap semiconductor light emitting devices, and hollow cathode metal ion lasers to perform non-contact, non-invasive detection of unknown chemical analytes. These deep ultraviolet sources enable dramatic size, weight and power consumption reductions of chemical analysis instruments. Chemical analysis instruments employed in some embodiments include capillary and gel plane electrophoresis, capillary electrochromatography, high performance liquid chromatography, flow cytometry, flow cells for liquids and aerosols, and surface detection instruments. In some embodiments, Raman spectroscopic detection methods and apparatus use ultra-narrow-band angle tuning filters, acousto-optic tuning filters, and temperature tuned filters to enable ultra-miniature analyzers for chemical identification. In some embodiments Raman analysis is conducted along with photoluminescence spectroscopy (i.e. fluorescence and/or phosphorescence spectroscopy) to provide high levels of sensitivity and specificity in the same instrument.

Hug, William F. (Inventor); Reid, Ray D. (Inventor); Bhartia, Rohit (Inventor)

2013-01-01

5

Spectroscopic Chemical Analysis Methods and Apparatus  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This invention relates to non-contact spectroscopic methods and apparatus for performing chemical analysis and the ideal wavelengths and sources needed for this analysis. It employs deep ultraviolet (200- to 300-nm spectral range) electron-beam-pumped wide bandgap semiconductor lasers, incoherent wide bandgap semiconductor lightemitting devices, and hollow cathode metal ion lasers. Three achieved goals for this innovation are to reduce the size (under 20 L), reduce the weight [under 100 lb (.45 kg)], and reduce the power consumption (under 100 W). This method can be used in microscope or macroscope to provide measurement of Raman and/or native fluorescence emission spectra either by point-by-point measurement, or by global imaging of emissions within specific ultraviolet spectral bands. In other embodiments, the method can be used in analytical instruments such as capillary electrophoresis, capillary electro-chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography, flow cytometry, and related instruments for detection and identification of unknown analytes using a combination of native fluorescence and/or Raman spectroscopic methods. This design provides an electron-beampumped semiconductor radiation-producing method, or source, that can emit at a wavelength (or wavelengths) below 300 nm, e.g. in the deep ultraviolet between about 200 and 300 nm, and more preferably less than 260 nm. In some variations, the method is to produce incoherent radiation, while in other implementations it produces laser radiation. In some variations, this object is achieved by using an AlGaN emission medium, while in other implementations a diamond emission medium may be used. This instrument irradiates a sample with deep UV radiation, and then uses an improved filter for separating wavelengths to be detected. This provides a multi-stage analysis of the sample. To avoid the difficulties related to producing deep UV semiconductor sources, a pumping approach has been developed that uses ballistic electron beam injection directly into the active region of a wide bandgap semiconductor material.

Hug, William F.; Reid, Ray D.

2012-01-01

6

Reapplication of Traditional Hydrological Forecasting Methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

At the end of the last Century Jozsef Pech, who was the head of the Hydrological Fore- casting Department in Hungary, developed graphical methods for hydrological fore- casting. These methods made possible to solve non- linear forecasting problems. To involve non-linearity into the models handmade drawings were applied. Basic ideas of these methods are still useful nowadays. Computers make easier the enormous graph- ical work that had to be carried out a century ago. In our investigation all the graphs, nomograms and equations of Pech were put into a computer, after adjusting them to the present hydrological boundary conditions. Routing of floods in time and space are shown on 3D maps. Connected water-level data from upstream and downstream gauges along with the propagation times are also displayed as surfaces. These graphs help to analyse flood events. Based on these analyses, computerised forecasting tools were made for the practical use of the models. The so-updated model has been tested on the Tisza, a river having countless of tributaries. In the last two years three extreme flood events have been experienced along this river, which have turned the attention towards the application of accurate flood forecasting methods. As Pech developed his model exactly for the Tisza its reapplication is very actual issue. As 1D hydraulic models are also being developed for this river (that also enable flood forecasting) it will be possible to compare the accuracy of the different methods. It may happen that methods developed by our forefathers will prove to be applicable in our times too.

Kontur, I.; Keve, G.

7

Electronic Voting Machines versus Traditional Methods: Improved Preference, Similar Performance  

E-print Network

In the 2006 U.S. election, it was estimated that over 66 million people would be voting on direct recording, but they are not required to vote in every race if they do not choose to do so. The ballots and voting methods can take manyElectronic Voting Machines versus Traditional Methods: Improved Preference, Similar Performance

Byrne, Mike

8

Computational methods for Traditional Chinese Medicine: A survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) has been actively researched through various approaches, including computational techniques. A review on basic elements of TCM is provided to illuminate various challenges and progresses in its study using computational methods. Information on various TCM formulations, in particular resources on databases of TCM formulations and their integration to Western medicine, are analyzed in several facets, such

Suryani Lukman; Yulan He; Siu-Cheung Hui

2007-01-01

9

Traditions and alcohol use: a mixed-methods analysis.  

PubMed

An integrative mixed-methods analysis examined traditional beliefs as associated with beliefs about self-care during pregnancy and with alcohol abstinence among young adult women from two rural U.S.-Mexico border communities. Quantitative (measured scale) variables and qualitative thematic variables generated from open-ended responses served as within-time predictors of these health-related outcomes. A weaker belief that life is better in big cities was associated with stronger self-care beliefs during pregnancy. Also, a weaker belief that small towns offer tranquil environments was associated with total abstinence from alcohol. Regarding the Hispanic Paradox, these results suggest that a critical appreciation of cultural traditions can be protective, as this avoids stereotypical or idyllic views of urban or rural lifeways, and promotes self-protective beliefs and behaviors. PMID:17967095

Castro, Felipe González; Coe, Kathryn

2007-10-01

10

Spectroscopic studies of protein folding: Linear and nonlinear methods  

PubMed Central

Although protein folding is a simple outcome of the underlying thermodynamics, arriving at a quantitative and predictive understanding of how proteins fold nevertheless poses huge challenges. Therefore, both advanced experimental and computational methods are continuously being developed and refined to probe and reveal the atomistic details of protein folding dynamics and mechanisms. Herein, we provide a concise review of recent developments in spectroscopic studies of protein folding, with a focus on new triggering and probing methods. In particular, we describe several laser-based techniques for triggering protein folding/unfolding on the picosecond and/or nanosecond timescales and various linear and nonlinear spectroscopic techniques for interrogating protein conformations, conformational transitions, and dynamics. PMID:22109973

Serrano, Arnaldo L; Waegele, Matthias M; Gai, Feng

2012-01-01

11

Unconventional dentistry in India - an insight into the traditional methods.  

PubMed

Unconventional medicine (UM) has been known and practised since the recorded history of civilization. Some unconventional practices may be viewed as "the continuity of traditions, religious beliefs, and even quackery that non-specialists practice." These practices have been associated with religious beliefs and the spiritual domain as well as with the physical domain. In ancient Old World civilizations, UM was performed by skilled experts or wise men; in today's Western civilization, practitioners may or may not be licensed, and some are charlatans. Dentistry, like medicine, is a traditional, science-based, highly regulated healthcare profession that serves increasingly sophisticated and demanding clients. Today, traditional dental practice is dealing with an array of challenges to the established professional system; these challenges are generally termed "alternative" (or complementary, unconventional, or integrative). Genuine alternatives are comparable methods of equal value that have met scientific and regulatory criteria for safety and effectiveness. Because "alternative care" has become politicized and is often a misnomer - referring to practices that are not alternative to, complementary to, or integrating with conventional health care - the more accurate term "unconventional" is used. PMID:25161919

Boloor, Vinita Ashutosh; Hosadurga, Rajesh; Rao, Anupama; Jenifer, Haziel; Pratap, Sruthy

2014-07-01

12

Unconventional Dentistry in India – An Insight into the Traditional Methods  

PubMed Central

Unconventional medicine (UM) has been known and practised since the recorded history of civilization. Some unconventional practices may be viewed as “the continuity of traditions, religious beliefs, and even quackery that non-specialists practice.” These practices have been associated with religious beliefs and the spiritual domain as well as with the physical domain. In ancient Old World civilizations, UM was performed by skilled experts or wise men; in today's Western civilization, practitioners may or may not be licensed, and some are charlatans. Dentistry, like medicine, is a traditional, science-based, highly regulated healthcare profession that serves increasingly sophisticated and demanding clients. Today, traditional dental practice is dealing with an array of challenges to the established professional system; these challenges are generally termed “alternative” (or complementary, unconventional, or integrative). Genuine alternatives are comparable methods of equal value that have met scientific and regulatory criteria for safety and effectiveness. Because “alternative care” has become politicized and is often a misnomer – referring to practices that are not alternative to, complementary to, or integrating with conventional health care – the more accurate term “unconventional” is used. PMID:25161919

Boloor, Vinita Ashutosh; Hosadurga, Rajesh; Rao, Anupama; Jenifer, Haziel; Pratap, Sruthy

2014-01-01

13

Handbook of charcoal making: the traditional and industrial methods  

SciTech Connect

The reviewer credits this handbook with expanding knowledge about the economic value of charcoal, particularly in the European area. The 10 chapters are: (1) history and fundamentals of the charcoal process, (2) traditional methods of the smallholder producer, (3) concepts and technology for the industrial producer, (4) recovering commercial products from pyrolysis oil, (5) raw materials supply, (6) end-use markets for by-products, (7) planning a charcoal venture, (8) charcoal briquettes and activated charcoal, (9) safety precautions and environmental considerations, and (10) charcoal laboratory work. Each chapter lists references. There are four appendices.

Emrich, W.

1985-01-01

14

SPECTROSCOPIC METHODS FOR THE DETERMINATION OF SOIL CARBON  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Traditional methods for the determination of soil C content include chromate oxidation and combustion. Chromate oxidation generates hazardous waste and does not accurately determine all the organic soil C. Combustion methods while generating little in the way of wastes require two determinations t...

15

Scanning Tunneling Microscopy methods for spectroscopic imaging of subsurface interfaces  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new method for spatially-resolved, spectroscopic investigation of subsurface interface structure has been developed. The method, Ballistic Electron Emission Microscopy (BEEM), is based on Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) techniques. BEEM combines STM vacuum tunneling with unique ballistic electron spectroscopy capabilities. BEEM enables, for the first time, direct imaging of subsurface interface electronic properties with nanometer spatial resolution. STM topographic images of surface structure and BEEM images of subsurface properties are obtained simultaneously. BEEM capabilities are demonstrated by investigation of important metal-semiconductor interfaces.

Bell, L. D.; Kaiser, W. J.

1988-01-01

16

Improving traditional balancing methods for high-speed rotors  

SciTech Connect

This paper introduces frequency response functions, analyzes the relationships between the frequency response functions and influence coefficients theoretically, and derives corresponding mathematical equations for high-speed rotor balancing. The relationships between the imbalance masses on the rotor and frequency response functions are also analyzed based upon the modal balancing method, and the equations related to the static and dynamic imbalance masses and the frequency response function are obtained. Experiments on a high-speed rotor balancing rig were performed to verify the theory, and the experimental data agree satisfactorily with the analytical solutions. The improvement on the traditional balancing method proposed in this paper will substantially reduce the number of rotor startups required during the balancing process of rotating machinery.

Ling, J.; Cao, Y. [Florida International Univ., Miami, FL (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

1996-01-01

17

Do new wipe materials outperform traditional lead dust cleaning methods?  

PubMed

Government guidelines have traditionally recommended the use of wet mopping, sponging, or vacuuming for removal of lead-contaminated dust from hard surfaces in homes. The emergence of new technologies, such as the electrostatic dry cloth and wet disposable clothes used on mopheads, for removal of dust provides an opportunity to evaluate their ability to remove lead compared with more established methods. The purpose of this study was to determine if relative differences exist between two new and two older methods for removal of lead-contaminated dust (LCD) from three wood surfaces that were characterized by different roughness or texture. Standard leaded dust, <75 ?m, was deposited by gravity onto the wood specimens. Specimens were cleaned using an automated device. Electrostatic dry cloths (dry Swiffer), wet Swiffer cloths, paper shop towels with non-ionic detergent, and vacuuming were used for cleaning LCD from the specimens. Lead analysis was by anodic stripping voltammetry. After the cleaning study was conducted, a study of the coefficient of friction was performed for each wipe material. Analysis of variance was used to evaluate the surface and cleaning methods. There were significant interactions between cleaning method and surface types, p = 0.007. Cleaning method was found be a significant factor in removal of lead, p <0.001, indicating that effectiveness of each cleaning methods is different. However, cleaning was not affected by types of surfaces. The coefficient of friction, significantly different among the three wipes, is likely to influence the cleaning action. Cleaning method appears to be more important than texture in LCD removal from hard surfaces. There are some small but important factors in cleaning LCD from hard surfaces, including the limits of a Swiffer mop to conform to curved surfaces and the efficiency of the wetted shop towel and vacuuming for cleaning all surface textures. The mean percentage reduction in lead dust achieved by the traditional methods (vacuuming and wet wiping) was greater and more consistent compared to the new methods (electrostatic dry cloth and wet Swiffer mop). Vacuuming and wet wiping achieved lead reductions of 92% ± 4% and 91%, ± 4%, respectively, while the electrostatic dry cloth and wet Swiffer mops achieved lead reductions of only 89 ± 8% and  81 ± 17%, respectively. PMID:22746281

Lewis, Roger D; Ong, Kee Hean; Emo, Brett; Kennedy, Jason; Brown, Christopher A; Condoor, Sridhar; Thummalakunta, Laxmi

2012-01-01

18

Spectroscopic Methods of Remote Sensing for Vegetation Characterization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Imaging spectroscopy (IS), often referred to as hyperspectral remote sensing, is one of the latest innovations in a very long history of spectroscopy. Spectroscopic methods have been used for understanding the composition of the world around us, as well as, the solar system and distant parts of the universe. Continuous sampling of the electromagnetic spectrum in narrow bands is what separates IS from previous forms of remote sensing. Terrestrial imaging spectrometers often have hundreds of channels that cover the wavelength range of reflected solar radiation, including the visible, near-infrared (NIR), and shortwave infrared (SWIR) regions. In part due to the large number of channels, a wide variety of methods have been applied to extract information from IS data sets. These can be grouped into several broad classes, including: multi-channel indices, statistical procedures, full spectrum mixing models, and spectroscopic methods. Spectroscopic methods carry on the more than 150 year history of laboratory-based spectroscopy applied to material identification and characterization. Spectroscopic methods of IS relate the positions and shapes of spectral features resolved by airborne and spaceborne sensors to the biochemical and physical composition of vegetation in a pixel. The chlorophyll 680nm, water 980nm, water 1200nm, SWIR 1700nm, SWIR 2100nm, and SWIR 2300nm features have been the subject of study. Spectral feature analysis (SFA) involves isolating such an absorption feature using continuum removal (CR) and calculating descriptors of the feature, such as center position, depth, width, area, and asymmetry. SFA has been applied to quantify pigment and non-pigment biochemical concentrations in leaves, plants, and canopies. Spectral feature comparison (SFC) utilizes CR of features in each pixel's spectrum and linear regression with continuum-removed features in reference spectra in a library of known vegetation types to map vegetation species and communities. SFC has been applied to map the distributions of minerals in soils and rocks; however, its application to characterize vegetation cover has been less widespread than SFA. Using IS data and the USGS Processing Routines in IDL for Spectroscopic Measurements (PRISM; http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2011/1155/), this talk will examine requirements for and limitations in applying SFA and SFC to characterize vegetation. A time series of Airborne Visible/InfraRed Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data collected in the marshes of Louisiana following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill will be used to examine the impact of varying leaf water content on the shapes of the SWIR 1700, 2100, and 2300 nm features and the implications of these changes on vegetation identification and biochemical estimation. The USGS collection of HyMap data over Afghanistan, the largest terrestrial coverage of IS data to date, will be used to demonstrate the characterization of vegetation in arid and semi-arid regions, in which chlorophyll absorption is often weak and soil and rock mineral absorption features overlap vegetation features. Hyperion data, overlapping the HyMap data, will be presented to illustrate the complications that arise when signal-to-noise is low. The benefits of and challenges to applying a spectroscopic remote sensing approach to imaging spectrometer data will be discussed.

Kokaly, R. F.

2013-12-01

19

Can the electronegativity equalization method predict spectroscopic properties?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electronegativity equalization method is classically used as a method allowing the fast generation of atomic charges using a set of calibrated parameters and provided knowledge of the molecular structure. Recently, it has started being used for the calculation of other reactivity descriptors and for the development of polarizable and reactive force fields. For such applications, it is of interest to know whether the method, through the inclusion of the molecular geometry in the Taylor expansion of the energy, would also allow sufficiently accurate predictions of spectroscopic data. In this work, relevant quantities for IR spectroscopy are considered, namely the dipole derivatives and the Cartesian Hessian. Despite careful calibration of parameters for this specific task, it is shown that the current models yield insufficiently accurate results.

Verstraelen, T.; Bultinck, P.

2015-02-01

20

Advances in spectroscopic methods for quantifying soil carbon  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The current gold standard for soil carbon (C) determination is elemental C analysis using dry combustion. However, this method requires expensive consumables, is limited by the number of samples that can be processed (~100/d), and is restricted to the determination of total carbon. With increased interest in soil C sequestration, faster methods of analysis are needed, and there is growing interest in methods based on diffuse reflectance spectroscopy in the visible, near-infrared or mid-infrared spectral ranges. These spectral methods can decrease analytical requirements and speed sample processing, be applied to large landscape areas using remote sensing imagery, and be used to predict multiple analytes simultaneously. However, the methods require localized calibrations to establish the relationship between spectral data and reference analytical data, and also have additional, specific problems. For example, remote sensing is capable of scanning entire watersheds for soil carbon content but is limited to the surface layer of tilled soils and may require difficult and extensive field sampling to obtain proper localized calibration reference values. The objective of this chapter is to discuss the present state of spectroscopic methods for determination of soil carbon.

Reeves, James B., III; McCarty, Gregory W.; Calderon, Francisco; Hively, W. Dean

2012-01-01

21

Feminist Policy Analysis: Expanding Traditional Social Work Methods  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In an effort to move the methodology of policy analysis beyond the traditional and artificial position of being objective and value-free, this article is a call to those working and teaching in social work to consider a feminist policy analysis lens. A review of standard policy analysis models is presented alongside feminist models. Such a…

Kanenberg, Heather

2013-01-01

22

Non-Deterministic, Non-Traditional Methods (NDNTM)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The review effort identified research opportunities related to the use of nondeterministic, nontraditional methods to support aerospace design. The scope of the study was restricted to structural design rather than other areas such as control system design. Thus, the observations and conclusions are limited by that scope. The review identified a number of key results. The results include the potential for NASA/AF collaboration in the area of a design environment for advanced space access vehicles. The following key points set the context and delineate the key results. The Principal Investigator's (PI's) context for this study derived from participation as a Panel Member in the Air Force Scientific Advisory Board (AF/SAB) Summer Study Panel on 'Whither Hypersonics?' A key message from the Summer Study effort was a perceived need for a national program for a space access vehicle whose operating characteristics of cost, availability, deployability, and reliability most closely match the NASA 3rd Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV). The Panel urged the AF to make a significant joint commitment to such a program just as soon as the AF defined specific requirements for space access consistent with the AF Aerospace Vision 2020. The review brought home a concurrent need for a national vehicle design environment. Engineering design system technology is at a time point from which a revolution as significant as that brought about by the finite element method is possible, this one focusing on information integration on a scale that far surpasses current design environments. The study therefore fully supported the concept, if not some of the details of the Intelligent Synthesis Environment (ISE). It became abundantly clear during this study that the government (AF, NASA) and industry are not moving in the same direction in this regard, in fact each is moving in its own direction. NASA/ISE is not yet in an effective leadership position in this regard. However, NASA does have complementary software interoperability efforts that should be a part of any major ISE program. Software standards that assure interoperability of data systems and modeling representations are enabling for the proposed research advocated herein and should be a major element in the ISE initiative. The international standard for data interchange is known by the acronym 'STEP.' The NASA participation and lead for that effort is at the Goddard Space Flight Center. NASA/GRC is leading an effort to define CAD geometry standards through the Object Management Group (OMG). To enable the design environment so necessary to the above national vision for a unique space vehicle will require an integrating software environment with interoperability standards that allow the development and widespread deployment of tools and toolsets, rather than traditional "shrink-wrapped" software used by engineers today.

Cruse, Thomas A.; Chamis, Christos C. (Technical Monitor)

2001-01-01

23

Molecular Methods for Identification of Microorganisms in Traditional Meat Products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Traditional fermentations are those that have been used for centuries and even pre-date written historical records. Fermentation processes have been developed to upgrade plant and animal materials, to yield a more acceptable food, to add flavor, to prevent the growth of pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms, and to preserve food without refrigeration (Hesseltine & Wang, 1980). Among fermented foods, sausages are the meat products with a longer history and tradition. It is often assumed that sausages were invented by the Sumerians, in what is Iraq today, around 3000 BC. Chinese sausage làcháng, which consisted of goat and lamb meat, was first mentioned in 589 BC. Homer, the poet of The Ancient Greece, mentioned a kind of blood sausage in the Odyssey (book 20, verse 25), and Epicharmus (ca. 550 BC-ca. 460 BC) wrote a comedy entitled “The Sausage”.

Cocolin, Luca; Dolci, Paola; Rantsiou, Kalliopi

24

Traditional methods in management of diarrhoeal diseases in Uganda.  

PubMed Central

A total of 292 traditional healers were interviewed in five districts of Uganda to discover how diarrhoeal diseases were treated by them. At least two healers were present in every village visited, and over 42% of their case-load was concerned with diarrhoeal treatment. The investigation showed that a great variety of herbs/plants are used by traditional healers in the treatment of diarrhoeal diseases. All those interviewed used water as the main vehicle for their herbal preparations, the amount prescribed daily ranging from 20 ml to over 100 ml for children (in the case of 54.5% of healers) and 100 ml to over 500 ml for adults (56.6%); 26.4% of healers considered fluid supplements as mandatory and 70.5% advised patients to take as much fluid as possible. Only 3.1% of healers either limited or did not advise fluid intake. These findings indicate that traditional healers could play an important role in interventions to control diarrhoeal diseases using modern oral rehydration therapy if they are assisted to improve their techniques. PMID:2393983

Anokbonggo, W. W.; Odoi-Adome, R.; Oluju, P. M.

1990-01-01

25

Improvement in the traditional processing method and nutritional quality of traditional extruded cassava-based snack (modified Ajogun)  

PubMed Central

This study was carried out to investigate and improve the traditional processing method and nutritional quality of the traditional cassava snack (Ajogun). Cassava root (Manihot esculenta Crantz L.) of TME 419 variety was processed into mash (40% moisture content). The cassava mash was mixed into different blends to produce fried traditional “Ajogun”, fried and baked extrudates (modified Ajogun) as snacks. These products were analyzed to determine the proximate composition including carbohydrate, fat, protein, fiber, ash, and moisture contents and functional properties such as bulk density. The results obtained for the moisture, fat, protein, and ash contents showed significant difference (P < 0.05) between the control sample and the extrudates. However, there was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in the carbohydrate and fiber contents between the three samples. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in the bulk density of the snacks. Also, sensory evaluation was carried out on the cassava-based snacks using the 9-point hedonic scale to determine the degree of acceptability. Results obtained showed significant difference (P < 0.05) between the extrudates and control sample in terms of appearance, taste, flavor, color, aroma, texture, and overall acceptability. The highest acceptability level of the product was at 8.04 for the control sample (traditional Ajogun). This study has shown that “Ajogun”, which is a lesser known cassava product, is rich in protein and fat. PMID:24804039

Obadina, Adewale O; Oyewole, Olusola B; Williams, Oluwasolabomi E

2013-01-01

26

Improvement in the traditional processing method and nutritional quality of traditional extruded cassava-based snack (modified Ajogun).  

PubMed

This study was carried out to investigate and improve the traditional processing method and nutritional quality of the traditional cassava snack (Ajogun). Cassava root (Manihot esculenta Crantz L.) of TME 419 variety was processed into mash (40% moisture content). The cassava mash was mixed into different blends to produce fried traditional "Ajogun", fried and baked extrudates (modified Ajogun) as snacks. These products were analyzed to determine the proximate composition including carbohydrate, fat, protein, fiber, ash, and moisture contents and functional properties such as bulk density. The results obtained for the moisture, fat, protein, and ash contents showed significant difference (P < 0.05) between the control sample and the extrudates. However, there was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in the carbohydrate and fiber contents between the three samples. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in the bulk density of the snacks. Also, sensory evaluation was carried out on the cassava-based snacks using the 9-point hedonic scale to determine the degree of acceptability. Results obtained showed significant difference (P < 0.05) between the extrudates and control sample in terms of appearance, taste, flavor, color, aroma, texture, and overall acceptability. The highest acceptability level of the product was at 8.04 for the control sample (traditional Ajogun). This study has shown that "Ajogun", which is a lesser known cassava product, is rich in protein and fat. PMID:24804039

Obadina, Adewale O; Oyewole, Olusola B; Williams, Oluwasolabomi E

2013-07-01

27

Extending traditional planning methods to evaluate the potential for cascading failures in electric power grids  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method of extending traditional planning methods and tools to evaluate the potential for cascading failures in electric power grids will be presented. By expanding on traditional transmission planning and reliability analysis methods, a study technique that produces reasonable and verifiable assessments of electric grid vulnerability to widespread blackout is possible. The methodology also provides an objective measure of the

S. S. Miller

2008-01-01

28

Improving traditional balancing methods for high-speed rotors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces frequency response functions, analyzes the relationships between the frequency response functions and influence coefficients theoretically, and derives corresponding mathematical equations for high-speed rotor balancing. The relationships between the imbalance masses on the rotor and frequency response functions are also analyzed based upon the modal balancing method, and the equations related to the static and dynamic imbalance masses

J. Ling; Y. Cao

1996-01-01

29

Internal evaluation: a synthesis of traditional methods and industrial engineering  

Microsoft Academic Search

In evaluation as it has been practiced, requirements for specialized training have caused a trade-off between rigor of method and the extent of program staff’s involvement in the evaluation process. There is a way to remove the trade-off between “rigor” and “use,” by applying industrial engineering (IE) tools that, though sophisticated and powerful, are packaged to facilitate use by people

JONATHAN A. MORELL

2000-01-01

30

An empirical evaluation of three vibrational spectroscopic methods for detection of aflatoxins in maize.  

PubMed

Three commercially available vibrational spectroscopic techniques, including Raman, Fourier transform near infrared reflectance (FT-NIR), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) were evaluated to help users determine the spectroscopic method best suitable for aflatoxin analysis in maize (Zea mays L.) grain based on their relative efficiency and predictive ability. Spectral differences of Raman and FTIR spectra were more marked and pronounced among aflatoxin contamination groups than those of FT-NIR spectra. From the observations and findings in our current and previous studies, Raman and FTIR spectroscopic methods are superior to FT-NIR method in terms of predictive power and model performance for aflatoxin analysis and they are equally effective and accurate in predicting aflatoxin concentration in maize. The present study is considered as the first attempt to assess how spectroscopic techniques with different physical processes can influence and improve accuracy and reliability for rapid screening of aflatoxin contaminated maize samples. PMID:25466069

Lee, Kyung-Min; Davis, Jessica; Herrman, Timothy J; Murray, Seth C; Deng, Youjun

2015-04-15

31

Computation of spectroscopic factors with the coupled-cluster method  

E-print Network

We present a calculation of spectroscopic factors within coupled-cluster theory. Our derivation of algebraic equations for the one-body overlap functions are based on coupled-cluster equation-of-motion solutions for the ground and excited states of the doubly magic nucleus with mass number $A$ and the odd-mass neighbor with mass $A-1$. As a proof-of-principle calculation, we consider $^{16}$O and the odd neighbors $^{15}$O and $^{15}$N, and compute the spectroscopic factor for nucleon removal from $^{16}$O. We employ a renormalized low-momentum interaction of the $V_{\\mathrm{low-}k}$ type derived from a chiral interaction at next-to-next-to-next-to-leading order. We study the sensitivity of our results by variation of the momentum cutoff, and then discuss the treatment of the center of mass.

Ø. Jensen; G. Hagen; T. Papenbrock; D. J. Dean; J. S. Vaagen

2010-04-15

32

Traditional methods used for controlling animal diseases in Iran.  

PubMed

In ancient times in Iran, infectious diseases of animals and human beings were referred to as choleraic diseases. Rhazes (9th century), followed by Avicenna (10th century), Jorjani (11th century) and others, had specific opinions on the cause and effect relationship in these diseases, which recall the fermentation theory of Louis Pasteur. In ancient Iran, the methods adopted for veterinary procedures were those of general theoretical and practical medicine, including the humoral theory, accurate diagnosis, signs and symptoms, and the prescription of herbal and mineral medicines or substances of animal origin. If herbal treatment failed, cauterisation and surgery were used. When refractory and contagious infectious diseases occurred, animals were evacuated from the infected region, in order to preserve their health, with resort to the mercy of Allah (God) as a final remedy. Iranian scientists of ancient times had interesting views on rabies. A kind of serotherapy was used for treating persons bitten by rabid dogs. Vaccination was performed many centuries ago by using dried smallpox lesions. In Baluchistan (Iran), infants were encouraged to play with and touch the teats of cows affected with cowpox, in order to immunise the children against smallpox, and this was centuries before the discovery of smallpox vaccine by Edward Jenner. Camelpox was also used for human immunisation. In the case of caprine pleuropneumonia, an extract or juice was obtained from the lungs of affected animals and was inactivated by treatment with certain herbal medicines which had a disinfectant effect. A thread coated with this extract was passed through the ear of healthy goats to render them immune. The author lists various diseases and their treatment. This work forms part of detailed research by the author with reference to some 2,200 books and many ancient manuscripts on the history of veterinary science in Iran. PMID:8038455

Tadjbakhsh, H

1994-06-01

33

Preservice Teachers' Perceptions of Learning Science Methods through Hybridizing Asynchronous and Traditional Experiences  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study addresses preservice teachers' perceptions toward online experiences, specifically, their perceptions about utilizing an online science methods curriculum versus a traditional methods curriculum. Thirty-eight senior level preservice teachers at a midwestern U.S. university completed surveys about their experiences during their methods

Thomas, Jeff

2011-01-01

34

Traditional versus Contemporary Goals and Methods in Accounting Education: Bridging the Gap with Cooperative Learning  

Microsoft Academic Search

Passive accounting education (e.g., lecture, problem-solving) and traditional goals (professional certification examinations) are challenged by contemporary educators. Active approaches (e.g., team-building and learning-to-learn techniques) are professed to develop more skilled and adaptable accountants. Contemporary goals do not focus on professional exams. This article contends, however, that the goals of traditional and contemporary methods need not be mutually exclusive. In this

Tim M. Lindquist

1995-01-01

35

Comparison of Traditional Design Nonlinear Programming Optimization and Stochastic Methods for Structural Design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Structural design generated by traditional method, optimization method and the stochastic design concept are compared. In the traditional method, the constraints are manipulated to obtain the design and weight is back calculated. In design optimization, the weight of a structure becomes the merit function with constraints imposed on failure modes and an optimization algorithm is used to generate the solution. Stochastic design concept accounts for uncertainties in loads, material properties, and other parameters and solution is obtained by solving a design optimization problem for a specified reliability. Acceptable solutions were produced by all the three methods. The variation in the weight calculated by the methods was modest. Some variation was noticed in designs calculated by the methods. The variation may be attributed to structural indeterminacy. It is prudent to develop design by all three methods prior to its fabrication. The traditional design method can be improved when the simplified sensitivities of the behavior constraint is used. Such sensitivity can reduce design calculations and may have a potential to unify the traditional and optimization methods. Weight versus reliabilitytraced out an inverted-S-shaped graph. The center of the graph corresponded to mean valued design. A heavy design with weight approaching infinity could be produced for a near-zero rate of failure. Weight can be reduced to a small value for a most failure-prone design. Probabilistic modeling of load and material properties remained a challenge.

Patnaik, Surya N.; Pai, Shantaram S.; Coroneos, Rula M.

2010-01-01

36

Comparison of DFT with Traditional Methods for the Calculation of Vibrational Frequencies and Bond Energies  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The vibrational frequencies of MO2 are computed at many levels of theory, including HF, B3LYP, BP86, CASSCF, MP2, and CCSD(T). The computed results are compared with the available experimental results. Most of the methods fail for at least one state of the systems considered. The accuracy of the results and the origin of the observed failures are discussed. The B3LYP bond energies are compared with traditional methods for a variety of systems, ranging from FeCOn+ to SiCln and its positive ions. The cases where B3LYP differs from the traditional methods are discussed.

Bauschlicher, Charles W.; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

1997-01-01

37

Comparison of Students Attitude on Performance Based and Traditional Teaching Methods.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of two different teaching methods on the attitudes of Texas A&M University students participating in required physical education. Thirteen classes were taught using performance-based instruction, while 15 classes were taught using a traditional method. A two-group posttest design was used with…

Johnson, Dewayne J.; Leider, Fred E.

38

A comparative clinical study on standardization of Vamana Vidhi by classical and traditional methods  

PubMed Central

Vamana Karma (process of emesis) is considered as Pradhana Karma (prime procedure) meant for inducing therapeutic vomiting, indicated for the purification of Urdhwa Bhaga (upper part) of the body. It is the process by which contents of stomach, including Kapha and Pitta are expelled out of the body through oral route. Acharya Charak and Sushruta have advocated various procedures for Vamana Karma known as classical methods, whereas some traditional methods are also being followed. As very little works has been carried out in the direction of Vamana Karma and as not a single work has been carried out on standardization of Vamana Vidhi comparing to both classical and traditional methods, the present study had been selected. The clinical trial was conducted in a randomized sample of 50 individuals (Both patients and volunteers) resolved into two sub-groups, viz. individuals in Group A was performed Vamana with classical methods and Group B with traditional methods. From the observations and results obtained in the present clinical study, it can be concluded that the method mentioned in classics is very much beneficial from every point of view in comparison to the traditional method. It is very easy, safest, less time-consuming and clinically as well as statistically most effective method without producing any type of complications. PMID:23723669

Dass, Ranjip Kumar; Bhatt, Nilesh N.; Thakar, Anup B.; Shukla, Vagish Dutt

2012-01-01

39

Spectroscopically Enhanced Method and System for Multi-Factor Biometric Authentication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper proposes a spectroscopic method and system for preventing spoofing of biometric authentication. One of its focus is to enhance biometrics authentication with a spectroscopic method in a multifactor manner such that a person's unique ‘spectral signatures’ or ‘spectral factors’ are recorded and compared in addition to a non-spectroscopic biometric signature to reduce the likelihood of imposter getting authenticated. By using the ‘spectral factors’ extracted from reflectance spectra of real fingers and employing cluster analysis, it shows how the authentic fingerprint image presented by a real finger can be distinguished from an authentic fingerprint image embossed on an artificial finger, or molded on a fingertip cover worn by an imposter. This paper also shows how to augment two widely used biometrics systems (fingerprint and iris recognition devices) with spectral biometrics capabilities in a practical manner and without creating much overhead or inconveniencing their users.

Pishva, Davar

40

Family planning in rural Uganda: knowledge and use of modern and traditional methods in Ankole.  

PubMed

Ankole has recorded the highest fertility in Uganda over the past several decades. One of the main proximate determinants of fertility in the area is the low level of contraception. A study of knowledge and use of modern and traditional contraceptive methods is reported in this paper. It is shown that higher proportions of women known and practice traditional methods compared with modern ones. Several factors contributing to past low use of modern contraceptives in the area are examined and current contraceptive use is also examined. PMID:1858104

Ntozi, J P; Kabera, J B

1991-01-01

41

Differences of Phosphorus in Mehlich 3 Extracts Determined by Colorimetric and Spectroscopic Methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mehlich 3 (M3) is a widely used extractant for evaluating plant available phosphorus (P) in soils and may be quantified using colorimetric or inductively coupled plasma (ICP) spectroscopic methods. Analysis by ICP has recently become increasingly popular in soil?testing labs primarily due to its ability to simultaneously measure multiple elements. Despite the versatility and efficiency of ICP, some laboratories hesitate

J. J. Pittman; H. Zhang; J. L. Schroder; M. E. Payton

2005-01-01

42

Study of the interaction between esculetin and human serum albumin by multi-spectroscopic method and molecular modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Esculetin derived from Cortex fraxin plays an important role as a traditional Chinese medicine because of its unique pharmacological properties. The interactions between esculetin and HSA were studied by fluorescence spectroscopic techniques under similar to human physiologic conditions. The binding parameters have been evaluated by fluorescence quenching methods. The results proved the mechanism of fluorescence quenching of HSA while interacting with esculetin is due to the formation of esculetin-HSA complex formation. The thermodynamic parameters like ? H0 and ? S0 were calculated to be -14.62 kJ/mol and 38.93 J/mol/K, respectively, which proves main interaction between esculetin and HSA is hydrophobic contact, but the electrostatic interaction cannot be excluded, which in agreement with the result of molecular docking study. The distance r between donor (HSA) and acceptor (esculetin) was obtained according to the Förster's theory of non-radiative energy transfer and found to be 2.89 nm. From the high value of fluorescence anisotropy ( r = 0.07) it was argued that the probe molecular was located in motionally restricted environment of the protein. The alterations of protein secondary structure in the presence of esculetin were confirmed by the evidences from UV, FT-IR and CD spectroscopes. In addition, the effects of common ions and amino acids on the constants of esculetin-HSA complex were also discussed.

Yue, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Yaheng; Qin, Jin; Chen, Xingguo

2008-10-01

43

A COMPARISON OF AUTOMATED AND TRADITIONAL METHODS FOR THE EXTRACTION OF ARSENICALS FROM FISH  

EPA Science Inventory

An automated extractor employing accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) has been compared with a traditional sonication method of extraction for the extraction of arsenicals from fish tissue. Four different species of fish and a standard reference material, DORM-2, were subjected t...

44

DETERMINING WATERSHED BOUNDARIES AND AREA USING GPS, DEMS, AND TRADITIONAL METHODS: A COMPARISON  

E-print Network

DETERMINING WATERSHED BOUNDARIES AND AREA USING GPS, DEMS, AND TRADITIONAL METHODS: A COMPARISON Boris Poff Duncan Leao,Aregai Teele,and Daniel G.Neary Defining a watershed's boundary is critical for understanding the movement of water across the landscape. In the past, hydrolo- gists defined watersheds using

45

An Aural Learning Project: Assimilating Jazz Education Methods for Traditional Applied Pedagogy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The Aural Learning Project (ALP) was developed to incorporate jazz method components into the author's classical practice and her applied woodwind lesson curriculum. The primary objective was to place a more focused pedagogical emphasis on listening and hearing than is traditionally used in the classical applied curriculum. The components of the…

Gamso, Nancy M.

2011-01-01

46

A Comparison of Traditional Worksheet and Linear Programming Methods for Teaching Manure Application Planning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compares traditional manure application planning techniques calculated to meet agronomic nutrient needs on a field-by-field basis with plans developed using computer-assisted linear programming optimization methods. Linear programming provided the most economical and environmentally sound manure application strategy. (Contains 15 references.) (MDH)

Schmitt, M. A.; And Others

1994-01-01

47

Spatial Visualization Learning in Engineering: Traditional Methods vs. a Web-Based Tool  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compares an interactive learning manager for graphic engineering to develop spatial vision (ILMAGE_SV) to traditional methods. ILMAGE_SV is an asynchronous web-based learning tool that allows the manipulation of objects with a 3D viewer, self-evaluation, and continuous assessment. In addition, student learning may be monitored, which…

Pedrosa, Carlos Melgosa; Barbero, Basilio Ramos; Miguel, Arturo Román

2014-01-01

48

A Comparison of Online and Traditional Instructional Delivery Methods on Learning in College Macroeconomics Courses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This exploratory study centered its investigation in the participants' responses provided in 2 different instructional teaching delivery methods (traditional and online) that utilized active-like teaching learning techniques (case studies, group projects, threaded discussions, class discussions, office hours, lectures, computerized assignments,…

Rivas, Rodolfo R.

2009-01-01

49

A Quantitative Diagnostic Method Based on Bayesian Networks in Traditional Chinese Medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) is one of the most important complementary and alternative medicines. Due to the subjectivity\\u000a and fuzziness of diagnosis in TCM, quantitative model or methods are needed to facilitate the popularization of TCM. In this\\u000a article, a novel quantitative method for syndrome differentiation based on BNs is proposed. First the symptoms are selected\\u000a by a novel mutual

Huiyan Wang; Jie Wang

2006-01-01

50

Spectroscopic and thermal investigations on the charge transfer interaction between risperidone as a schizophrenia drug with some traditional ?-acceptors: Part 2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The focus of present investigation was to assess the utility of non-expensive techniques in the evaluation of risperidone (Ris) in solid and solution states with different traditional ?-acceptors and subsequent incorporation of the analytical determination into pharmaceutical formulation for a faster release of risperidone. Charge-transfer complexes (CTC) of risperidone with picric acid (PA), 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-p-benzoquinon (DDQ), tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ), tetracyano ethylene (TCNE), tetrabromo-p-quinon (BL) and tetrachloro-p-quinon (CL) have been studied spectrophotometrically in absolute methanol at room temperature. The stoichiometries of the complexes were found to be 1:1 ratio by the photometric molar ratio between risperidone and the ?-acceptors. The equilibrium constants, molar extinction coefficient (?CT) and spectroscopic-physical parameters (standard free energy (?Go), oscillator strength (f), transition dipole moment (?), resonance energy (RN) and ionization potential (ID)) of the complexes were determined upon the modified Benesi-Hildebrand equation. Risperidone in pure form was applied in this study. The results indicate that the formation constants for the complexes depend on the nature of electron acceptors and donor, and also the spectral studies of the complexes were determined by (infrared, Raman, and 1H NMR) spectra and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). The most stable mono-protonated form of Ris is characterized by the formation of +Nsbnd H (pyrimidine ring) intramolecular hydrogen bonded. In the high-wavenumber spectral region ˜3400 cm-1, the bands of the +Nsbnd H stretching vibrations and of the pyrimidine nitrogen atom could be potentially useful to discriminate the investigated forms of Ris. The infrared spectra of both Ris complexes are confirming the participation of +Nsbnd H pyrimidine ring in the donor-acceptor interaction.

El-Habeeb, Abeer A.; Al-Saif, Foziah A.; Refat, Moamen S.

2013-03-01

51

Performance of Traditional and Molecular Methods for Detecting Biological Agents in Drinking Water  

USGS Publications Warehouse

To reduce the impact from a possible bioterrorist attack on drinking-water supplies, analytical methods are needed to rapidly detect the presence of biological agents in water. To this end, 13 drinking-water samples were collected at 9 water-treatment plants in Ohio to assess the performance of a molecular method in comparison to traditional analytical methods that take longer to perform. Two 100-liter samples were collected at each site during each sampling event; one was seeded in the laboratory with six biological agents - Bacillus anthracis (B. anthracis), Burkholderia cepacia (as a surrogate for Bu. pseudomallei), Francisella tularensis (F. tularensis), Salmonella Typhi (S. Typhi), Vibrio cholerae (V. cholerae), and Cryptospordium parvum (C. parvum). The seeded and unseeded samples were processed by ultrafiltration and analyzed by use of quantiative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), a molecular method, and culture methods for bacterial agents or the immunomagnetic separation/fluorescent antibody (IMS/FA) method for C. parvum as traditional methods. Six replicate seeded samples were also processed and analyzed. For traditional methods, recoveries were highly variable between samples and even between some replicate samples, ranging from below detection to greater than 100 percent. Recoveries were significantly related to water pH, specific conductance, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) for all bacteria combined by culture methods, but none of the water-quality characteristics tested were related to recoveries of C. parvum by IMS/FA. Recoveries were not determined by qPCR because of problems in quantifying organisms by qPCR in the composite seed. Instead, qPCR results were reported as detected, not detected (no qPCR signal), or +/- detected (Cycle Threshold or 'Ct' values were greater than 40). Several sample results by qPCR were omitted from the dataset because of possible problems with qPCR reagents, primers, and probes. For the remaining 14 qPCR results (including some replicate samples), F. tularensis and V. cholerae were detected in all samples after ultrafiltration, B. anthracis was detected in 13 and +/- detected in 1 sample, and C. parvum was detected in 9 and +/- detected in 4 samples. Bu. cepacia was detected in nine samples, +/- detected in two samples, and not detected in three samples (for two out of three samples not detected, a different strain was used). The qPCR assay for V. cholerae provided two false positive - but late - signals in one unseeded sample. Numbers found by qPCR after ultrafiltration were significantly or nearly significantly related to those found by traditional methods for B. anthracis, F. tularensis, and V. cholerae but not for Bu. cepacia and C. parvum. A qPCR assay for S. Typhi was not available. The qPCR method can be used to rapidly detect B. anthracis, F. tularensis, and V. cholerae with some certainty in drinking-water samples, but additional work would be needed to optimize and test qPCR for Bu. cepacia and C. parvum and establish relations to traditional methods. The specificity for the V. cholerae assay needs to be further investigated. Evidence is provided that ultrafiltration and qPCR are promising methods to rapidly detect biological agents in the Nation's drinking-water supplies and thus reduce the impact and consequences from intentional bioterrorist events. To our knowledge, this is the first study to compare the use of traditional and qPCR methods to detect biological agents in large-volume drinking-water samples.

Francy, Donna S.; Bushon, Rebecca N.; Brady, Amie M.G.; Bertke, Erin E.; Kephart, Christopher M.; Likirdopulos, Christina A.; Mailot, Brian E.; Schaefer, Frank W., III; Lindquist, H.D. Alan

2009-01-01

52

Minerals and antinutrients profile of rabadi after different traditional preparation methods.  

PubMed

Rabadi is a cereal and buttermilk based traditional fermented recipe of western region of India. There are many traditional preparation methods, which may alter biochemical composition of rabadi, therefore, in the present study, role of traditional processings (cooking, fermentation, dehulling, utensil, preparation methods and cereals) on minerals and antinutrients of pearl millet, wheat flour and refined wheat flour rabadi was investigated on fresh weight basis. Results showed that the process of cooking and fermentation enhanced minerals (Ca, Fe and P) in all types of rabadi samples at different levels of significance, while antinutrients (phytic acid, total phenols and oxalates) reflected a declining trend. Intercomparison of different types of rabadies exhibited that fermented- cooked -fermented samples were better than cooked -fermented rabadies. Dehulling caused a loss of minerals, but antinutrients were also degraded after dehulling; therefore dehulled sample showed very good nutritional profile after fermentation. Earthen pot rabadi samples presented better biochemical composition than rabadies prepared in steel pot. Intercomparison of different cereals based rabadies reflected superior position of fermented -cooked- fermented pearl millet flour rabadi than cooked- fermented pearl millet flour rabadi, wheat and refined wheat flour rabadi samples. PMID:25114357

Gupta, Vineeta; Nagar, Ranjana

2014-08-01

53

Methods for the study of endophytic microorganisms from traditional Chinese medicine plants.  

PubMed

Plant endophytes are very numerous and widely distributed in nature, their relationships being described as a balanced symbiotic continuum ranging from mutualism through commensalism to parasitism during a long period of coevolution. Traditional Chinese medicines have played a very important role in disease treatment in China and other Asian countries. Investigations show that these medicinal plants harbor endophytes with different kinds of ecological functions, and some of them have potential to produce bioactive small-molecule compounds. This chapter will focus on the selective isolation methods, the diversity of some endophytes (actinobacteria and fungi) isolated from Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) plants, and the bioactive compounds from selected endophytic actinobacteria reported in the past 3 years. PMID:23084931

Zhao, Li-Xing; Xu, Li-Hua; Jiang, Cheng-Lin

2012-01-01

54

Structures and Encapsulation Motifs of Functional Molecules Probed by Laser Spectroscopic and Theoretical Methods  

PubMed Central

We report laser spectroscopic and computational studies of host/guest hydration interactions between functional molecules (hosts) and water (guest) in supersonic jets. The examined hosts include dibenzo-18-crown-6-ether (DB18C6), benzo-18-crown-6-ether (B18C6) and calix[4]arene (C4A). The gaseous complexes between the functional molecular hosts and water are generated under jet-cooled conditions. Various laser spectroscopic methods are applied for these species: the electronic spectra are observed by laser-induced fluorescence (LIF), mass-selected resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) and ultraviolet-ultraviolet hole-burning (UV-UV HB) spectroscopy, whereas the vibrational spectra for each individual species are observed by infrared-ultraviolet double resonance (IR-UV DR) spectroscopy. The obained results are analyzed by first principles electronic structure calculations. We discuss the conformations of the host molecules, the structures of the complexes, and key interactions forming the specific complexes. PMID:22319310

Kusaka, Ryoji; Inokuchi, Yoshiya; Xantheas, Sotiris S.; Ebata, Takayuki

2010-01-01

55

Application of Spectroscopic Methods for Structural Analysis of Chitin and Chitosan  

PubMed Central

Chitin, the second most important natural polymer in the world, and its N-deacetylated derivative chitosan, have been identified as versatile biopolymers for a broad range of applications in medicine, agriculture and the food industry. Two of the main reasons for this are firstly the unique chemical, physicochemical and biological properties of chitin and chitosan, and secondly the unlimited supply of raw materials for their production. These polymers exhibit widely differing physicochemical properties depending on the chitin source and the conditions of chitosan production. The presence of reactive functional groups as well as the polysaccharide nature of these biopolymers enables them to undergo diverse chemical modifications. A complete chemical and physicochemical characterization of chitin, chitosan and their derivatives is not possible without using spectroscopic techniques. This review focuses on the application of spectroscopic methods for the structural analysis of these compounds. PMID:20559489

Kumirska, Jolanta; Czerwicka, Ma?gorzata; Kaczy?ski, Zbigniew; Bychowska, Anna; Brzozowski, Krzysztof; Thöming, Jorg; Stepnowski, Piotr

2010-01-01

56

Investigation on the interaction of pyrene with bovine serum albumin using spectroscopic methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper was designed to investigate the interaction of pyrene with bovine serum albumin (BSA) under physiological condition by spectroscopic methods. Spectroscopic analysis of the emission quenching revealed that the quenching mechanism of BSA by pyrene was static. The binding sites and constants of pyrene-BSA complex were observed to be 1.20 and 2.63 × 106 L mol-1 at 298 K, respectively. The enthalpy change (?H) and entropy change (?S) revealed that van der Waals forces and hydrogen bonds stabilized the pyrene-BSA complex. Energy transfer from tryptophan to pyrene occurred by a FRET (fluorescence resonance energy transfer) mechanism, and the distance (r = 2.72 nm) had been determined. The results of synchronous, three-dimensional fluorescence, and circular dichroism spectra showed that the pyrene induced conformational changes of BSA.

Xu, Chengbin; Gu, Jiali; Ma, Xiping; Dong, Tian; Meng, Xuelian

57

Analytical brightness compensation algorithm for traditional polygon-based method in computer-generated holography.  

PubMed

In three-dimensional (3D) holographic display, current brightness compensation algorithm of the traditional polygon-based method experimentally obtains the compensation factor, which depends on the fabrication process. In this paper, we proposed an analytical brightness compensation method discarding the influence of the fabrication. The surface property function with the flat power spectral density and the compensation factor obtained from the simplified relationship between the original and the rotated frequencies are used to analytically compensate the radiant energy of the tilted polygon. The optical reconstruction results show the proposed method could effectively compensate the brightness and ensure the further shading process. The proposed method separates the brightness compensation from the fabrication process, which is important for deepening the investigation of the hologram fabrication and achieving realistic 3D reconstruction. PMID:23842184

Pan, Yijie; Wang, Yongtian; Liu, Juan; Li, Xin; Jia, Jia; Zhang, Zhao

2013-06-20

58

Comparative Estimation of Genetic Diversity in Population Studies using Molecular Sampling and Traditional Sampling Methods  

PubMed Central

Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) are efficient biological pest control agents. Population genetics studies on EPN are seldom known. Therefore, it is of interest to evaluate the significance of molecular sampling method (MSM) for accuracy, time needed, and cost effectiveness over traditional sampling method (TSM). The study was conducted at the Mohican Hills golf course at the state of Ohio where the EPN H. bacteriophora has been monitored for 18 years. The nematode population occupies an area of approximately 3700 m2 with density range from 0.25-2 per gram soil. Genetic diversity of EPN was studied by molecular sampling method (MSM) and traditional sampling method (TSM) using the mitochondrial gene pcox1. The MSM picked 88% in compared to TSM with only 30% of sequenced cox 1 gene. All studied genetic polymorphism measures (sequence and haplotype) showed high levels of genetic diversity of MSM over TSM. MSM minimizes the chance of mitochondrial genes amplification from non target organisms (insect or other contaminating microorganisms). Moreover, it allows the sampling of more individuals with a reliable and credible representative sample size. Thus, we show that MSM supersedes TSM in labour intensity, time consumption and requirement of no special experience and efficiency. PMID:25097377

Saeb, Amr TM; David, Satish Kumar

2014-01-01

59

A new criterion of photostimulated luminescence (PSL) method to detect irradiated traditional Chinese medicinal herbs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work used a new criterion to analyze 162 varieties (222 batches) of traditional Chinese medicinal herbs based on the European Standard EN 13751 (2009. Foodstuffs—Detection of Irradiated Food Using Photostimulated Luminescence. European Committee for Standardization, Brussels, Belgium). The characteristics of PSL signals are described, and a new criterion is established. Compared to EN 13751, the new criterion uses clearer definition to evaluate instead of the ambiguous descriptions in EN Standard, such as "much greater than" and "within the same order of magnitude". Moreover, the accuracy of the new criterion is as good as or better than EN Standard in regard to classifying irradiated and non-irradiated traditional Chinese medicinal herbs. It can help to avoid false positive result when a non-irradiated herb got a screening PSL measurement above 5000 counts/60 s. This new criterion of photostimulated luminescence method can be applied to identify the irradiation status of traditional Chinese medicinal herbs, even if the medicinal herbs were irradiated at a low dose (0.3 kGy) or stored in the dark at room temperature for 24 months after the irradiation treatment.

Zhang, Liwen; Lin, Tong; Jiang, Yingqiao; Bi, Fujun

2013-11-01

60

Soft-tissues Image Processing: Comparison of Traditional Segmentation Methods with 2D active Contour Methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper deals with modern methods of image processing, especially image segmentation, classification and evaluation of parameters. It focuses primarily on processing medical images of soft tissues obtained by magnetic resonance tomography (MR). It is easy to describe edges of the sought objects using segmented images. The edges found can be useful for further processing of monitored object such as calculating the perimeter, surface and volume evaluation or even three-dimensional shape reconstruction. The proposed solutions can be used for the classification of healthy/unhealthy tissues in MR or other imaging. Application examples of the proposed segmentation methods are shown. Research in the area of image segmentation focuses on methods based on solving partial differential equations. This is a modern method for image processing, often called the active contour method. It is of great advantage in the segmentation of real images degraded by noise with fuzzy edges and transitions between objects. In the paper, results of the segmentation of medical images by the active contour method are compared with results of the segmentation by other existing methods. Experimental applications which demonstrate the very good properties of the active contour method are given.

Mikulka, J.; Gescheidtova, E.; Bartusek, K.

2012-01-01

61

Assessment of gingival thickness using an ultrasonic dental system prototype: A comparison to traditional methods.  

PubMed

Knowledge of periodontal anatomy is essential when performing surgical and non-surgical procedures in the field of oral healthcare. Gingival thickness (GT) is often assessed for this purpose. A dental system prototype was recently developed for quantitative, non-invasive GT assessment by high-frequency (HF) ultrasound. Laboratory trials were conducted to validate system performance against a traditional method of assessment. A system with a 50MHz broadband, spherically-focused transducer was used. The transducer was housed in a small, hand-held probe equipped with a continuous water supply. A-scans were obtained and thickness at each location was determined. For comparison, the traditional method of transgingival probing through tissue with an endodontic k-file needle was also implemented. Preliminary experiments were performed on phantoms simulating the anatomical and acoustic properties of human periodontal tissues. A porcine cadaver was obtained for further laboratory trials. The speed of sound through porcine gingiva was determined to be 1564±21m/s. Finally, a multiple-point experiment involved GT assessment in an array of locations on the buccal gingival surface in the fourth quadrant. Ultrasonic measurements were found to yield similar GT values to those obtained from invasive methods. Results obtained in this experiment validate the applicability of ultrasound as a diagnostic tool for assessing periodontal anatomy. PMID:24718296

Slak, Bartosz; Daabous, Andrew; Bednarz, Wojciech; Strumban, Emil; Maev, Roman Gr

2014-03-25

62

Comparing student achievement in the problem-based learning classroom and traditional teaching methods classroom  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Significant numbers of students fail high school chemistry, preventing them from graduating. Starting in the 2013-2014 school year, 100% of the students must pass a science assessment for schools to meet Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) in accordance to No Child Left Behind (NCLB). Failure to meet AYP results in sanctions, such as state management or closure of a school or replacing a school staff. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the teaching strategy, Problem Based Learning (PBL), will improve student achievement in high school chemistry to a greater degree than traditional teaching methods. PBL is a student-centered, inquiry-based teaching method based on the constructivist learning theory. The research question looked at whether there was a difference in student achievement between students a high school chemistry classroom using PBL and students in a classroom using traditional teaching methods as measured by scores on a 20-question quiz. The research study used a quasi-experimental pretest/posttest control group design. An independent samples t-test compared gains scores between the pretest and posttest. Analysis of quiz scores indicated that there was not a significant difference (t(171) = 1.001, p = .318) in student achievement between the teaching methods. Because there was not a significant difference, each teacher can decide which teaching method best suites the subject matter and the learning styles of the students. This study adds research based data to help teachers and schools choose one teaching method over another so that students may gain knowledge, develop problem-solving skills, and life-long learning skills that will bring about social change in the form of a higher quality of life for the students and community as a whole.

Dobbs, Vicki

63

Experiences with Non-traditional Bioassay Methods in a Plutonium Processing Line  

SciTech Connect

An incident in an Savannah River Site (SRS) plutonium processing line (FB-Line) in 1999 highlighted the fact insoluble forms of plutonium exist at SRS that may not be readily monitored with the routine bioassay programs traditionally used at this site. To address this issue, a study was conducted in FB-Line with 21 participants for a year ending in July 2002. The purpose of the study was to examine the use of three non-traditional monitoring methods and, based on this experience, recommend a routine bioassay program that is capable of monitoring workers potentially exposed to insoluble plutonium. These non-traditional monitoring methods are personal air sampling (PAS), thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) of urine samples, and routine fecal bioassay. The main conclusions and recommendations of the study are: (1) A routine TIMS urine bioassay program, which is called the enhanced bioassay program (EBP), is recommended for workers in SRS facilities that have a reasonable potential for exposure to insoluble forms of plutonium. (2) Under certain conditions the EBP could result in onerous work restrictions. A contingency plan involving the use of PAS is recommended in this case. PAS is also recommended for workers who have had historic intakes of plutonium that interfere with the detection and interpretation of future intakes of insoluble plutonium. (3) For the EBP to be successful it must be used only for those workers who have a reasonable potential for exposure to insoluble plutonium, and these workers must take all necessary precautions to avoid cross-contamination of the urine (and follow-up fecal) samples. (4) Fecal bioassay is an important tool for follow-up to abnormal events, but routine fecal bioassay is not recommended. (5) The PAS data clearly shows that workers are exposed to low levels of airborne plutonium, but the participants appear to be unlikely to exceed a committed effective dose equivalent of 100 mrem from these exposures.

La Bone, T.R.

2003-10-17

64

Interaction of methotrexate with trypsin analyzed by spectroscopic and molecular modeling methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Trypsin is one of important digestive enzymes that have intimate correlation with human health and illness. In this work, the interaction of trypsin with methotrexate was investigated by spectroscopic and molecular modeling methods. The results revealed that methotrexate could interact with trypsin with about one binding site. Methotrexate molecule could enter into the primary substrate-binding pocket, resulting in inhibition of trypsin activity. Furthermore, the thermodynamic analysis implied that electrostatic force, hydrogen bonding, van der Waals and hydrophobic interactions were the main interactions for stabilizing the trypsin-methotrexate system, which agreed well with the results from the molecular modeling study.

Wang, Yanqing; Zhang, Hongmei; Cao, Jian; Zhou, Qiuhua

2013-11-01

65

Reliability studies of diagnostic methods in Indian traditional Ayurveda medicine: An overview  

PubMed Central

Recently, a need to develop supportive new scientific evidence for contemporary Ayurveda has emerged. One of the research objectives is an assessment of the reliability of diagnoses and treatment. Reliability is a quantitative measure of consistency. It is a crucial issue in classification (such as prakriti classification), method development (pulse diagnosis), quality assurance for diagnosis and treatment and in the conduct of clinical studies. Several reliability studies are conducted in western medicine. The investigation of the reliability of traditional Chinese, Japanese and Sasang medicine diagnoses is in the formative stage. However, reliability studies in Ayurveda are in the preliminary stage. In this paper, examples are provided to illustrate relevant concepts of reliability studies of diagnostic methods and their implication in practice, education, and training. An introduction to reliability estimates and different study designs and statistical analysis is given for future studies in Ayurveda. PMID:23930037

Kurande, Vrinda Hitendra; Waagepetersen, Rasmus; Toft, Egon; Prasad, Ramjee

2013-01-01

66

Huygens Titan Probe Trajectory Reconstruction Using Traditional Methods and the Program to Optimize Simulated Trajectories II  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On January 14, 2005, ESA's Huygens probe separated from NASA's Cassini spacecraft, entered the Titan atmosphere and landed on its surface. As part of NASA Engineering Safety Center Independent Technical Assessment of the Huygens entry, descent, and landing, and an agreement with ESA, NASA provided results of all EDL analyses and associated findings to the Huygens project team prior to probe entry. In return, NASA was provided the flight data from the probe so that trajectory reconstruction could be done and simulation models assessed. Trajectory reconstruction of the Huygens entry probe at Titan was accomplished using two independent approaches: a traditional method and a POST2-based method. Results from both approaches are discussed in this paper.

Striepe, Scott A.; Blanchard, Robert C.; Kirsch, Michael F.; Fowler, Wallace T.

2007-01-01

67

Modified method for preparation of Halubai-an Indian traditional sweet.  

PubMed

Halubai, a traditional Indian sweet is conventionally prepared by soaking and grinding whole cereals/millets to a fine paste, straining it through a cloth and cooking the resultant dispersion until it starts gelatinizing. Cooking is continued further with the addition of jaggery water, stirring constantly with intermittent addition of ghee. This process involves many unit operations, which are energy and time consuming. Hence a modified method was developed which is energy efficient and time saving without compromising the quality of the product. One fine fraction (200 mesh, BS) of cereal/millet flours were used in modified method instead of whole cereals. Sensory and instrumental analysis of the samples showed that quality of Halubai prepared using modified method was comparable to that of samples from conventional method. Correlation studies on sensory data of Halubai showed positive relation for the set (r?=?0.94) and smoothness (r?=?0.84); and negative relation for stickiness (r?=?-0.94) with the overall quality. Modified method of Halubai preparation which was simple and energy efficient, resulted in products with good sensory quality. PMID:24741169

Asha, M R; Ravi, Ramasamy; Srinivasan, Bharath Kumar; Rao Patil, Swapna Babu; Prakash, Maya

2014-04-01

68

Dental students' opinions of preparation assessment with E4D compare software versus traditional methods.  

PubMed

The aim of this study was to evaluate dental students' opinions regarding the utilization of a new grading software program for student self-assessment and a faculty-grading tool in a preclinical course. Using surface mapping technology, this program, called E4D Compare, yields a digital model of a student's preparation that is color-coded to show deficient areas. The program has now been used for two years at the James B. Edwards College of Dental Medicine at the Medical University of South Carolina, and the students previously assessed with E4D Compare have now entered into the dental clinics. For this study, students were asked to complete an anonymous survey for the investigators to evaluate students' attitudes and opinions on the effectiveness of this software in their preclinical courses to determine if this type of feedback helped them develop clinical skills. The survey also sought to collect students' opinions on the traditional objective criteria-based grading system. The survey was distributed to all members of the Classes of 2014 and 2015; it yielded a 59 percent response rate for the two classes, with a total of eighty-one students responding. Overall, the majority of students preferred the E4D Compare grading system over traditional hand-grading methods. The grading system provided instant, objective, and visual feedback that allowed students to easily see where their deficiencies were and encouraged them to work towards an ideal final product. PMID:25281676

Hamil, Lindsey M; Mennito, Anthony S; Renné, Walter G; Vuthiganon, Jompobe

2014-10-01

69

Spectroscopic characterization and quantitative determination of atorvastatin calcium impurities by novel HPLC method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Seven process related impurities were identified by LC-MS in the atorvastatin calcium drug substance. These impurities were identified by LC-MS. The structure of impurities was confirmed by modern spectroscopic techniques like 1H NMR and IR and physicochemical studies conducted by using synthesized authentic reference compounds. The synthesized reference samples of the impurity compounds were used for the quantitative HPLC determination. These impurities were detected by newly developed gradient, reverse phase high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method. The system suitability of HPLC analysis established the validity of the separation. The analytical method was validated according to International Conference of Harmonization (ICH) with respect to specificity, precision, accuracy, linearity, robustness and stability of analytical solutions to demonstrate the power of newly developed HPLC method.

Gupta, Lokesh Kumar

2012-11-01

70

Detailed spectroscopic analysis of SN 1987A: The distance to the LMC using the SEAM method  

SciTech Connect

Supernova 1987A remains the most well-studied supernova to date. Observations produced excellent broad-band photometric and spectroscopic coverage over a wide wavelength range at all epochs. We model the observed spectra from Day 1 to Day 81 using a hydrodynamical model. We show that good agreement can be obtained at times up to about 60 days, if we allow for extended nickel mixing. Later than about 60 days the observed Balmer lines become stronger than our models can reproduce. We show that this is likely due to a more complicated distribution of gamma-rays than we allow for in our spherically symmetric calculations. We present synthetic light curves in UBVRIJHK and a synthetic bolometric light curve. Using this broad baseline of detailed spectroscopic models we find a distance modulus mu = 18.5 +/- 0.2 using the SEAM method of determining distances to supernovae. We find that the explosion time agrees with that of the neutrino burst and is constrained at 68 percent confidence to within +/- 0.9 days. We argue that the weak Balmer lines of our detailed model calculations casts doubt on the accuracy of the purely photometric EPM method. We also suggest that Type IIP supernovae will be most useful as distance indicators at early times due to a variety of effects.

Mitchell, Robert C.; Baron, E.; Branch, David; Hauschildt, Peter H.; Nugent, Peter E.; Lundqvist, Peter; Blinnikov, Sergei; Pun, Chun S.J.

2002-05-21

71

Novel spectroscopic methods for determination of Cromolyn sodium and Oxymetazoline hydrochloride in binary mixture  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

New accurate, sensitive and selective spectrophotometric and spectrofluorimetric methods were developed and subsequently validated for determination of Cromolyn sodium (CS) and Oxymetazoline HCl (OXY) in binary mixture. These methods include ‘H-point standard addition method (HPSAM) and area under the curve (AUC)' spectrophotometric method and first derivative synchronous fluorescence spectroscopic (FDSFS) method. For spectrophotometric methods, absorbances were recorded at 241.5 nm and 274.9 nm for HPSAM and the wavelength was selected in ranges 232.0-254.0 nm and 216.0-229.0 nm for AUC method, where the concentration was obtained by applying Cramer's rule. For FDSFS method, the first-derivative synchronous fluorescence signal was measured at 290.0 nm, using ?? = 145.0 nm. The suggested methods were validated according to International Conference of Harmonization (ICH) guidelines and the results revealed that they were precise and reproducible. All the obtained results were statistically compared with those of the reported method and there was no significant difference.

Abdel-Aziz, Omar; El-Kosasy, A. M.; Magdy, N.; El Zahar, N. M.

2014-10-01

72

Novel spectroscopic methods for determination of Cromolyn sodium and Oxymetazoline hydrochloride in binary mixture.  

PubMed

New accurate, sensitive and selective spectrophotometric and spectrofluorimetric methods were developed and subsequently validated for determination of Cromolyn sodium (CS) and Oxymetazoline HCl (OXY) in binary mixture. These methods include 'H-point standard addition method (HPSAM) and area under the curve (AUC)' spectrophotometric method and first derivative synchronous fluorescence spectroscopic (FDSFS) method. For spectrophotometric methods, absorbances were recorded at 241.5nm and 274.9nm for HPSAM and the wavelength was selected in ranges 232.0-254.0nm and 216.0-229.0nm for AUC method, where the concentration was obtained by applying Cramer's rule. For FDSFS method, the first-derivative synchronous fluorescence signal was measured at 290.0nm, using ??=145.0nm. The suggested methods were validated according to International Conference of Harmonization (ICH) guidelines and the results revealed that they were precise and reproducible. All the obtained results were statistically compared with those of the reported method and there was no significant difference. PMID:24820323

Abdel-Aziz, Omar; El-Kosasy, A M; Magdy, N; El Zahar, N M

2014-10-15

73

A Comparison of Case Study and Traditional Teaching Methods for Improvement of Oral Communication and Critical-Thinking Skills  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This study compares a traditional paper presentation approach and a case study method for the development and improvement of oral communication skills and critical-thinking skills in a class of junior forensic science majors. A rubric for rating performan

Vance, Diane E.; Noblitt, Lynnette; Smith, Michelle L.

2010-05-01

74

[Optimization method of MOS sensor array for identification of traditional Chinese medicine based on electronic nose].  

PubMed

Optimization of sensor array is a significant topic in the application of electronic nose (EN). Stepwise discriminant analysis and cluster analysis combining with screening of typical index were employed to optimize the original array in the classification of 100 samples from 10 kinds of traditional Chinese medicine based on alpha-FOX3000 EN. And the identification ability was evaluated by three algorithm including principle component analysis, Fisher discriminant analysis and random forest. The results showed that the identification ability of EN was improved since not only the effective information was maintained but also the redundant one was eliminated by the optimized array. The optimized method was eventually established, it was accurate and efficient. And the optimized array was built up, that is, S1, S2, S5, S6, S8, S12. PMID:23672034

Zou, Hui-Qin; Liu, Yong; Tao, Ou; Lin, Hui; Su, Yu-Zhen; Lin, Xiang-Long; Yan, Yong-Hong

2013-01-01

75

Laser apparatus and method for microscopic and spectroscopic analysis and processing of biological cells  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method are disclosed for microscopic and spectroscopic analysis and processing of biological cells. The apparatus comprises a laser having an analysis region within the laser cavity for containing one or more biological cells to be analyzed. The presence of a cell within the analysis region in superposition with an activated portion of a gain medium of the laser acts to encode information about the cell upon the laser beam, the cell information being recoverable by an analysis means that preferably includes an array photodetector such as a CCD camera and a spectrometer. The apparatus and method may be used to analyze biomedical cells including blood cells and the like, and may include processing means for manipulating, sorting, or eradicating cells after analysis. 20 figs.

Gourley, P.L.; Gourley, M.F.

1997-03-04

76

Laser apparatus and method for microscopic and spectroscopic analysis and processing of biological cells  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method for microscopic and spectroscopic analysis and processing of biological cells. The apparatus comprises a laser having an analysis region within the laser cavity for containing one or more biological cells to be analyzed. The presence of a cell within the analysis region in superposition with an activated portion of a gain medium of the laser acts to encode information about the cell upon the laser beam, the cell information being recoverable by an analysis means that preferably includes an array photodetector such as a CCD camera and a spectrometer. The apparatus and method may be used to analyze biomedical cells including blood cells and the like, and may include processing means for manipulating, sorting, or eradicating cells after analysis thereof.

Gourley, Paul L. (12508 Loyola, NE., Albuquerque, NM 87112); Gourley, Mark F. (7509 Spring Lake Dr., Apt. B1, Bethesda, MD 20817)

1997-01-01

77

Spectroscopic and molecular structure investigations of 9-vinylcarbazole by DFT and ab initio method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and FT-Raman spectra have been recorded and widespread spectroscopic investigations have been carried out on 9-vinylcarbazole (9VC). The optimized geometries, vibrational wavenumbers, intensity of vibrational bands and various atomic charges of 9VC have been investigated using Hartree-Fock (HF) and density functional theory (DFT-B3LYP) method using 6-31G(d,p) as basis set. Experimental fundamental vibrational modes are scrutinized and compared with the calculated results. 13C and 1H NMR spectra were recorded and the chemical shifts of the molecule have been computed using GIAO method. The nonlinear property of the title compound was confirmed by hyperpolarizability. Molecular stability and bond strength was analyzed by Natural Bond Orbital analysis. Electronic structure properties such as UV and frontier molecular orbital examination have been reported.

Jone Pradeepa, S.; Sundaraganesan, N.

2015-02-01

78

Spectroscopic and molecular structure investigations of 9-vinylcarbazole by DFT and ab initio method.  

PubMed

Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and FT-Raman spectra have been recorded and widespread spectroscopic investigations have been carried out on 9-vinylcarbazole (9VC). The optimized geometries, vibrational wavenumbers, intensity of vibrational bands and various atomic charges of 9VC have been investigated using Hartree-Fock (HF) and density functional theory (DFT-B3LYP) method using 6-31G(d,p) as basis set. Experimental fundamental vibrational modes are scrutinized and compared with the calculated results. (13)C and (1)H NMR spectra were recorded and the chemical shifts of the molecule have been computed using GIAO method. The nonlinear property of the title compound was confirmed by hyperpolarizability. Molecular stability and bond strength was analyzed by Natural Bond Orbital analysis. Electronic structure properties such as UV and frontier molecular orbital examination have been reported. PMID:25448968

Jone Pradeepa, S; Sundaraganesan, N

2015-02-01

79

Data processing method applying principal component analysis and spectral angle mapper for imaging spectroscopic sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A data processing method for hyperspectral images is presented. Each image contains the whole diffuse reflectance spectra of the analyzed material for all the spatial positions along a specific line of vision. This data processing method is composed of two blocks: data compression and classification unit. Data compression is performed by means of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and the spectral interpretation algorithm for classification is the Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM). This strategy of classification applying PCA and SAM has been successfully tested on the raw material on-line characterization in the tobacco industry. In this application case the desired raw material (tobacco leaves) should be discriminated from other unwanted spurious materials, such as plastic, cardboard, leather, candy paper, etc. Hyperspectral images are recorded by a spectroscopic sensor consisting of a monochromatic camera and a passive Prism- Grating-Prism device. Performance results are compared with a spectral interpretation algorithm based on Artificial Neural Networks (ANN).

García-Allende, P. B.; Conde, O. M.; Mirapeix, J.; Cubillas, A. M.; López-Higuera, J. M.

2007-07-01

80

Structures and Encapsulation Motifs of Functional Molecules probed by Laser Spectroscopic and Theoretical methods  

SciTech Connect

We report laser spectroscopic studies of host/guest hydration interactions between functional molecules (hosts) and water (guest) in supersonic jets. The examined hosts include dibenzo-18-crown-6-ether (DB18C6), benzo-18-crown-6-ether (B18C6) and calix[4]arene (C4A). The gaseous complexes between the functional molecular hosts and water are generated under jet-cooled conditions. Various laser spectroscopic methods are applied for these species: the electronic spectra are observed by laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) , massselected resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) and ultraviolet-ultraviolet holeburning (UV-UV HB) spectroscopy, whereas the vibrational spectra for each individual species are observed by infrared-ultraviolet double resonance (IR-UV DR) spectroscopy. The obained results are analyzed by first principles electronic structure calculations. We discuss the conformations of the host molecules, the various structures of the complexes and the key interactions that result in the complexation as well as the effect of the host conformation in the resulting complexation mechanism.

Kusaka, Ryoji; Inokuchi, Yoshiya; Xantheas, Sotiris S.; Ebata, Takayuki

2010-04-01

81

Models of near-field spectroscopic studies: comparison between Finite-Element and Finite-Difference methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

We compare the numerical results obtained by the Finite Element Method (FEM) and the Finite Difference Time Domain Method (FDTD) for near-field spectroscopic studies and intensity map computations. We evaluate their respective efficiencies and we show that an accurate description of the dispersion and of the geometry of the material must be included for a realistic modeling. In particular for

Thomas Grosges; Alexandre Vial; Dominique Barchiesi

2005-01-01

82

Comparison of hydraulic tomography with traditional methods at a highly heterogeneous site.  

PubMed

Over the past several decades, different groundwater modeling approaches of various complexities and data use have been developed. A recently developed approach for mapping hydraulic conductivity (K) and specific storage (Ss ) heterogeneity is hydraulic tomography, the performance of which has not been compared to other more "traditional" methods that have been utilized over the past several decades. In this study, we compare seven methods of modeling heterogeneity which are (1) kriging, (2) effective parameter models, (3) transition probability/Markov Chain geostatistics models, (4) geological models, (5) stochastic inverse models conditioned to local K data, (6) hydraulic tomography, and (7) hydraulic tomography conditioned to local K data using data collected in five boreholes at a field site on the University of Waterloo (UW) campus, in Waterloo, Ontario, Canada. The performance of each heterogeneity model is first assessed during model calibration. In particular, the correspondence between simulated and observed drawdowns is assessed using the mean absolute error norm, (L1 ), mean square error norm (L2 ), and correlation coefficient (R) as well as through scatterplots. We also assess the various models on their ability to predict drawdown data not used in the calibration effort from nine pumping tests. Results reveal that hydraulic tomography is best able to reproduce these tests in terms of the smallest discrepancy and highest correlation between simulated and observed drawdowns. However, conditioning of hydraulic tomography results with permeameter K data caused a slight deterioration in accuracy of drawdown predictions which suggests that data integration may need to be conducted carefully. PMID:24428358

Berg, Steven J; Illman, Walter A

2015-01-01

83

dTGS: Method for Effective Components Identification from Traditional Chinese Medicine Formula and Mechanism Analysis  

PubMed Central

Because of the complexity of the components in Traditional Chinese Medicine formula (TCM formula), it is still a challenge to identify its effective components, to elucidate the mechanism of the components, and to discover the relationship between components and therapy objectives. In this paper, a method called directed TCM grammar systems (dTGS) for effective component identification was proposed using entity grammar systems (EGS) as the theoretical framework. The component-disease relationship of a TCM formula (i.e., Bai-Hu decoction plus Wasting-Thirsting formula, BHDWT) and one disease (i.e., type 2 diabetes mellitus) treated with it was studied, and the effective component groups (ECGs) were identified. 19 compounds were found acting on 20 proteins in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) disease network, and 15 compounds were determined as the candidate effective components. Results indicated that this method can be used to identify the effective components and provide an innovative way to elucidate the molecular mechanism of TCM formulas. PMID:24454516

Luo, Ji; Ren, Yinglong; Gu, Hao; Wang, Yun

2013-01-01

84

Mapping stream habitats with a global positioning system: Accuracy, precision, and comparison with traditional methods  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We tested the precision and accuracy of the Trimble GeoXT??? global positioning system (GPS) handheld receiver on point and area features and compared estimates of stream habitat dimensions (e.g., lengths and areas of riffles and pools) that were made in three different Oklahoma streams using the GPS receiver and a tape measure. The precision of differentially corrected GPS (DGPS) points was not affected by the number of GPS position fixes (i.e., geographic location estimates) averaged per DGPS point. Horizontal error of points ranged from 0.03 to 2.77 m and did not differ with the number of position fixes per point. The error of area measurements ranged from 0.1% to 110.1% but decreased as the area increased. Again, error was independent of the number of position fixes averaged per polygon corner. The estimates of habitat lengths, widths, and areas did not differ when measured using two methods of data collection (GPS and a tape measure), nor did the differences among methods change at three stream sites with contrasting morphologies. Measuring features with a GPS receiver was up to 3.3 times faster on average than using a tape measure, although signal interference from high streambanks or overhanging vegetation occasionally limited satellite signal availability and prolonged measurements with a GPS receiver. There were also no differences in precision of habitat dimensions when mapped using a continuous versus a position fix average GPS data collection method. Despite there being some disadvantages to using the GPS in stream habitat studies, measuring stream habitats with a GPS resulted in spatially referenced data that allowed the assessment of relative habitat position and changes in habitats over time, and was often faster than using a tape measure. For most spatial scales of interest, the precision and accuracy of DGPS data are adequate and have logistical advantages when compared to traditional methods of measurement. ?? 2006 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.

Dauwalter, D.C.; Fisher, W.L.; Belt, K.C.

2006-01-01

85

Apparatus for and method of performing spectroscopic analysis on an article  

DOEpatents

An apparatus and method are disclosed for analyzing an article having an entrance and an exit in communication with the entrance. The apparatus comprises: a spectrometer having an emission source with a focal point; a plurality of mirrors; and a detector connected to the spectroscope. The emission source is positioned so that its focal point is substantially coextensive with the entrance of the article. The mirrors comprise: a first mirror positionable adjacent the exit of the article and a second mirror positioned relative to the other of said plurality of mirrors. The first mirror receives scattered emissions exiting the article and substantially collimates the scattered emissions. The second mirror substantially focuses the collimated emissions into a focused emission. The detector receives the focused emission from the mirrors. 6 figs.

Powell, G.L.; Hallman, R.L. Jr.

1999-04-20

86

Apparatus for and method of performing spectroscopic analysis on an article  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for and method of analyzing an article having an entrance and an exit in communication with the entrance. The apparatus comprises: a spectrometer having an emission source with a focal point; a plurality of mirrors; and a detector connected to the spectroscope. The emission source is positioned so that its focal point is substantially coextensive with the entrance of the article. The mirrors comprise: a first mirror positionable adjacent the exit of the article and a second mirror positioned relative to the other of said plurality of mirrors. The first mirror receives scattered emissions exiting the article and substantially collimates the scattered emissions. The second mirror substantially focuses the collimated emissions into a focused emission. The detector receives the focused emission from the mirrors.

Powell, George Louis (Oak Ridge, TN); Hallman, Jr., Russell Louis (Knoxville, TN)

1999-01-01

87

Field camp: Using traditional methods to train the next generation of petroleum geologists  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The summer field camp experience provides many students with their best opportunity to learn the scientific process by making observations and collecting, recording, evaluating, and interpreting geologic data. Field school projects enhance student professional development by requiring cooperation and interpersonal interaction, report writing to communicate interpretations, and the development of project management skills to achieve a common goal. The field school setting provides students with the opportunity to observe geologic features and their spatial distribution, size, and shape that will impact the student's future careers as geoscientists. The Les Huston Geology Field Camp (a.k.a. Oklahoma Geology Camp) near Ca??on City, Colorado, focuses on time-tested traditional methods of geological mapping and fieldwork to accomplish these goals. The curriculum consists of an introduction to field techniques (pacing, orienteering, measuring strike and dip, and using a Jacob's staff), sketching outcrops, section measuring (one illustrating facies changes), three mapping exercises (of increasing complexity), and a field geophysics project. Accurate rock and contact descriptions are emphasized, and attitudes and contacts are mapped in the field. Mapping is done on topographic maps at 1:12,000 and 1:6000 scales; air photos are provided. Global positioning system (GPS)-assisted mapping is allowed, but we insist that locations be recorded in the field and confirmed using visual observations. The course includes field trips to the Cripple Creek and Leadville mining districts, Floris-sant/Guffey volcano area, Pikes Peak batholith, and the Denver Basin. Each field trip is designed to emphasize aspects of geology that are not stressed in the field exercises. Students are strongly encouraged to accurately describe geologic features and gather evidence to support their interpretations of the geologic history. Concise reports are a part of each major exercise. Students are grouped into teams to (1) introduce the team concept and develop interpersonal skills that are fundamental components of many professions, (2) ensure safety, and (3) mix students with varying academic backgrounds and physical strengths. This approach has advantages and disadvantages. Students with academic strengths in specific areas assist those with less experience, thereby becoming engaged in the teaching process. However, some students contribute less to fi nal map projects than others, and assigning grades to individual team members can be diffi cult. The greatest challenges we face involve group dynamics and student personalities. We continue to believe that traditional fi eld methods, aided by (but not relying upon) new technologies, are the key to constructing and/or interpreting geologic maps. The requirement that students document fi eld evidence using careful observations teaches skills that will be benefi cial throughout their professional careers. ??2009 The Geological Society of America. All rights reserved.

Puckette, J.O.; Suneson, N.H.

2009-01-01

88

Comparison of traditional and molecular analytical methods for detecting biological agents in raw and drinking water following ultrafiltration  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Aims: To compare the performance of traditional methods to quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) for detecting five biological agents in large-volume drinking-water samples concentrated by ultrafiltration (UF). Methods and Results: Drinking-water samples (100 l) were seeded with Bacillus anthracis, Cryptospordium parvum, Francisella tularensis, Salmonella Typhi, and Vibrio cholerae and concentrated by UF. Recoveries by traditional methods were variable between samples and between some replicates; recoveries were not determined by qPCR. Francisella tularensis and V. cholerae were detected in all 14 samples after UF, B. anthracis was detected in 13, and C. parvum was detected in 9 out of 14 samples. Numbers found by qPCR after UF were significantly or nearly related to those found by traditional methods for all organisms except for C. parvum. A qPCR assay for S. Typhi was not available. Conclusions: qPCR can be used to rapidly detect biological agents after UF as well as traditional methods, but additional work is needed to improve qPCR assays for several biological agents, determine recoveries by qPCR, and expand the study to other areas. Significance and Impact of the Study: To our knowledge, this is the first study to compare the use of traditional and qPCR methods to detect biological agents in large-volume drinking-water samples. ?? 2009 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

Francy, D.S.; Bushon, R.N.; Brady, A.M.G.; Bertke, E.E.; Kephart, C.M.; Likirdopulos, C.A.; Mailot, B.E.; Schaefer, F. W., III; Lindquist, H.D. Alan

2009-01-01

89

Indigenous yeast population from Georgian aged wines produced by traditional "Kakhetian" method.  

PubMed

The yeast microbiota present in wines produced by the ancient "Kakhetian" method in Georgia (EU) was studied. This technique involves the use of terracotta vessels (amphoras), during spontaneous fermentation, maceration phase and wine ageing. The analysed yeasts were collected from wines after maturation for one year in ten amphoras from a Georgian winery. The 260 isolates were all identified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and the majority were classified as flor yeasts by restriction analysis of ITS region. A first technological and molecular screening was used to select 70 strains for further characterization. Both genetic and metabolic characterization discriminated flor from non-flor strains. The combined results obtained by analysis of interdelta region and mtDNA-RFLP yielded 23 different biotypes; no biotype was common to flor and non-flor strains. The wines produced by flor yeasts showed a high content in acetaldehyde, acetic acid, acetoin, whereas the level of other compounds was similar to wines obtained by non-flor strains. This study represents the first report on the composition of yeast microbiota involved in the maturation of this traditional wine. These flor strains represent an interesting yeast population, in possession of peculiar characteristics allowing them to survive during wine ageing, becoming the dominant flora in the final wine. PMID:24010628

Capece, Angela; Siesto, Gabriella; Poeta, Cinzia; Pietrafesa, Rocchina; Romano, Patrizia

2013-12-01

90

Interobserver Reliability of Four Diagnostic Methods Using Traditional Korean Medicine for Stroke Patients  

PubMed Central

Objective. The aim of this study is to evaluate the consistency of pattern identification (PI), a set of diagnostic indicators used by traditional Korean medicine (TKM) clinicians. Methods. A total of 168 stroke patients who were admitted into oriental medical university hospitals from June 2012 through January 2013 were included in the study. Using the PI indicators, each patient was independently diagnosed by two experts from the same department. Interobserver consistency was assessed by simple percentage agreement as well as by kappa and AC1 statistics. Results. Interobserver agreement on the PI indicators (for all patients) was generally high: pulse diagnosis signs (AC1 = 0.66–0.89); inspection signs (AC1 = 0.66–0.95); listening/smelling signs (AC1 = 0.67–0.88); and inquiry signs (AC1 = 0.62–0.94). Conclusion. In four examinations, there was moderate agreement between the clinicians on the PI indicators. To improve clinician consistency (e.g., in the diagnostic criteria used), it is necessary to analyze the reasons for inconsistency and to improve clinician training. PMID:25574181

Lee, Ju Ah; Kang, Byoung-Kab; Alraek, Terje

2014-01-01

91

An Interactive Dynamic Model for Integrating Knowledge Management Methods and Knowledge Sharing Technology in a Traditional Classroom  

E-print Network

An Interactive Dynamic Model for Integrating Knowledge Management Methods and Knowledge Sharing Technology in a Traditional Classroom Vir V. Phoha Computer Science Louisiana Tech University Ruston, LA Management methods and Knowledge Sharing technology to integrate the acquisition of skills and relevant

Phoha, Vir V.

92

Removal of iron from groundwater by ash: a systematic study of a traditional method.  

PubMed

A traditional method for removal of iron from ground water by using ash has been systematically investigated. Ashes from five different sources, viz., banana rind, banana pseudostem, banana leaf, rice husk and bamboo has been studied. The principle applied is enhanced precipitation of iron at high pH caused by ash. The study included laboratory analysis of some relevant chemical parameters of the ashes and the efficiency of the ashes in removing iron from prefabricated water with respect to quantity of ash and corresponding increase in pH of water. The ash of banana pseudostem has been found to be most suitable for removal of iron. A low-cost and easily made iron removal system for household use has been designed and tested in the laboratory. The ash of banana pseudostem has been found to remove iron to below 0.3ppm without increasing the pH above the acceptable limit. The optimum values of the different parameters for removal of iron are 200-300mgl(-1) ash, 1.0lh(-1) flow rate and 1h of contact time with ash for groundwater having [Fe] of about 2.20ppm. The amount of ash can be increased for groundwater having higher [Fe] and can be decreased gradually during continuous use of the system. Acceptability of the method has been examined based on chemical analysis of the treated water. Increase in the essential minerals such as Ca, K has been observed in the water after treatment. The designed iron removing system is expected to be suitable for household use. PMID:16956716

Das, B; Hazarika, P; Saikia, G; Kalita, H; Goswami, D C; Das, H B; Dube, S N; Dutta, R K

2007-03-22

93

Automatic diagnosis of melanoma using machine learning methods on a spectroscopic system  

PubMed Central

Background Early and accurate diagnosis of melanoma, the deadliest type of skin cancer, has the potential to reduce morbidity and mortality rate. However, early diagnosis of melanoma is not trivial even for experienced dermatologists, as it needs sampling and laboratory tests which can be extremely complex and subjective. The accuracy of clinical diagnosis of melanoma is also an issue especially in distinguishing between melanoma and mole. To solve these problems, this paper presents an approach that makes non-subjective judgements based on quantitative measures for automatic diagnosis of melanoma. Methods Our approach involves image acquisition, image processing, feature extraction, and classification. 187 images (19 malignant melanoma and 168 benign lesions) were collected in a clinic by a spectroscopic device that combines single-scattered, polarized light spectroscopy with multiple-scattered, un-polarized light spectroscopy. After noise reduction and image normalization, features were extracted based on statistical measurements (i.e. mean, standard deviation, mean absolute deviation, L 1 norm, and L 2 norm) of image pixel intensities to characterize the pattern of melanoma. Finally, these features were fed into certain classifiers to train learning models for classification. Results We adopted three classifiers – artificial neural network, naïve bayes, and k-nearest neighbour to evaluate our approach separately. The naive bayes classifier achieved the best performance - 89% accuracy, 89% sensitivity and 89% specificity, which was integrated with our approach in a desktop application running on the spectroscopic system for diagnosis of melanoma. Conclusions Our work has two strengths. (1) We have used single scattered polarized light spectroscopy and multiple scattered unpolarized light spectroscopy to decipher the multilayered characteristics of human skin. (2) Our approach does not need image segmentation, as we directly probe tiny spots in the lesion skin and the image scans do not involve background skin. The desktop application for automatic diagnosis of melanoma can help dermatologists get a non-subjective second opinion for their diagnosis decision. PMID:25311811

2014-01-01

94

GROUND WATER MONITORING AND SAMPLING: MULTI-LEVEL VERSUS TRADITIONAL METHODS ? WHAT?S WHAT?  

EPA Science Inventory

Recent studies have been conducted to evaluate different sampling techniques for determining VOC concentrations in groundwater. Samples were obtained using multi-level and traditional sampling techniques in three monitoring wells at the Raymark Superfund site in Stratford, CT. Ve...

95

Near-infrared spectroscopic method for real-time monitoring of pharmaceutical powders during voiding.  

PubMed

A near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopic method has been developed to monitor flowing pharmaceutical powders during their voiding and detect post-blending segregation. The method is capable of providing both chemical and physical information (particle size differences) on the flowing pharmaceutical powders. Particle size differences are widely recognized as the predominant driver for segregation. Pharmaceutical powders may segregate following blending as they are voided down pipes to compressing machines, increasing the variability of the drug content and dissolution of the final product tablets because of segregation. NIR diffuse reflectance spectra of pharmaceutical powders were obtained following voiding through a six-foot pipe. Spectral subtraction was used to eliminate baseline differences but maintain particle size differences. The NIR spectra indicated differences in the particle size of the flowing powder. Particle size differences were also tracked throughout the voiding of pharmaceutical powders by plotting the absorbance at 1536 nm. The method was also applied to the voiding of two layers of lactose particles with different particle sizes. The system described in this report provides an approach to study post-blending segregation in pharmaceutical powders and other relevant materials. PMID:17555618

Barajas, Martha J; Cassiani, Alex Rodriguez; Vargas, Wandylis; Conde, Carlos; Ropero, Jorge; Figueroa, Jorge; Romañach, Rodolfo J

2007-05-01

96

Synthesis of (K,Na)NbO 3 particles by traditional hydrothermal method and high-temperature mixing method under hydrothermal–solvothermal conditions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pure (K,Na)NbO3 (KNN) powders have been successfully prepared by using traditional hydrothermal method and high-temperature mixing method\\u000a (HTMM) under solvothermal and hydrothermal conditions. The products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning\\u000a electron microscopy (SEM) to show the change of phase, morphology, and size of the as-prepared particles with the alkalinity\\u000a of the starting solution. Compared with the traditional

Lin Bai; Kongjun Zhu; Jinhao Qiu; Renqiang Zhu; Honghui Gu; Hongli Ji

2011-01-01

97

Exploring the ligand-protein networks in traditional chinese medicine: current databases, methods and applications.  

PubMed

While the concept of "single component-single target" in drug discovery seems to have come to an end, "Multi-component-multi-target" is considered to be another promising way out in this field. The Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), which has thousands of years' clinical application among China and other Asian countries, is the pioneer of the "Multi-component-multi-target" and network pharmacology. Hundreds of different components in a TCM prescription can cure the diseases or relieve the patients by modulating the network of potential therapeutic targets. Although there is no doubt of the efficacy, it is difficult to elucidate convincing underlying mechanism of TCM due to its complex composition and unclear pharmacology. Without thorough investigation of its potential targets and side effects, TCM is not able to generate large-scale medicinal benefits, especially in the days when scientific reductionism and quantification are dominant. The use of ligand-protein networks has been gaining significant value in the history of drug discovery while its application in TCM is still in its early stage. This article firstly surveys TCM databases for virtual screening that have been greatly expanded in size and data diversity in recent years. On that basis, different screening methods and strategies for identifying active ingredients and targets of TCM are outlined based on the amount of network information available, both on sides of ligand bioactivity and the protein structures. Furthermore, applications of successful in silico target identification attempts are discussed in details along with experiments in exploring the ligand-protein networks of TCM. Finally, it will be concluded that the prospective application of ligand-protein networks can be used not only to predict protein targets of a small molecule, but also to explore the mode of action of TCM. PMID:25387968

Zhao, Mingzhu; Wei, Dongqing

2015-01-01

98

Determination of Cephalexin Monohydrate in Pharmaceutical Dosage Form by Stability-Indicating RP-UFLC and UV Spectroscopic Methods  

PubMed Central

An ultra-fast liquid chromatographic method and two UV spectroscopic methods were developed for the determination of cephalexin monohydrate in pharmaceutical dosage forms. Isocratic separation was performed on an Enable C18G column (250 mm × 4.6 mm i.d., 5 ?m) using methanol:0.01 M TBAHS (50:50, v/v) as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 ml/min. The PDA detection wavelength was set at 254 nm. The UV spectroscopic method was performed at 261 nm and at 256–266 nm for the AUC method using a phosphate buffer (pH=5.5). The linearity was observed over a concentration range of 1.0–120 ?g/ml for UFLC and both of the UV spectroscopic methods (correlation coefficient=0.999). The developed methods were validated according to ICH guidelines. The relative standard deviation values for the intraday and interday precision studies were < 2%, and the accuracy was > 99% for all of the three methods. The developed methods were used successfully for the determination of cephalexin in dry syrup formulation. PMID:24482771

Panda, Sagar Suman; Ravi Kumar, Bera V. V.; Dash, Rabisankar; Mohanta, Ganeswar

2013-01-01

99

Comparability of a Three-Dimensional Structure in Biopharmaceuticals Using Spectroscopic Methods  

PubMed Central

Protein structure depends on weak interactions and covalent bonds, like disulfide bridges, established according to the environmental conditions. Here, we present the validation of two spectroscopic methodologies for the measurement of free and unoxidized thiols, as an attribute of structural integrity, using 5,5?-dithionitrobenzoic acid (DTNB) and DyLight Maleimide (DLM) as derivatizing agents. These methods were used to compare Rituximab and Etanercept products from different manufacturers. Physicochemical comparability was demonstrated for Rituximab products as DTNB showed no statistical differences under native, denaturing, and denaturing-reducing conditions, with Student's t-test P values of 0.6233, 0.4022, and 0.1475, respectively. While for Etanercept products no statistical differences were observed under native (P = 0.0758) and denaturing conditions (P = 0.2450), denaturing-reducing conditions revealed cysteine contents of 98% and 101%, towards the theoretical value of 58, for the evaluated products from different Etanercept manufacturers. DLM supported equality between Rituximab products under native (P = 0.7499) and denaturing conditions (P = 0.8027), but showed statistical differences among Etanercept products under native conditions (P < 0.001). DLM suggested that Infinitam has fewer exposed thiols than Enbrel, although DTNB method, circular dichroism (CD), fluorescence (TCSPC), and activity (TNF? neutralization) showed no differences. Overall, this data revealed the capabilities and drawbacks of each thiol quantification technique and their correlation with protein structure. PMID:24963443

Abad-Javier, Mario E.; Romero-Díaz, Alexis J.; Villaseñor-Ortega, Francisco; Pérez, Néstor O.; Flores-Ortiz, Luis F.

2014-01-01

100

Comment on “Quantitative comparison of analysis methods for spectroscopic optical coherence tomography”  

PubMed Central

In a recent paper by Bosschaart et al. [Biomed. Opt. Express 4, 2570 (2013)] various algorithms of time-frequency signal analysis have been tested for their performance in blood analysis with spectroscopic optical coherence tomography (sOCT). The measurement of hemoglobin concentration and oxygen saturation based on blood absorption spectra have been considered. Short time Fourier transform (STFT) was found as the best method for the measurement of blood absorption spectra. STFT was superior to other methods, such as dual window Fourier transform. However, the algorithm proposed by Bosschaart et al. significantly underestimates values of blood oxygen saturation. In this comment we show that this problem can be solved by thorough design of STFT algorithm. It requires the usage of a non-gaussian shape of STFT window that may lead to an excellent reconstruction of blood absorption spectra from OCT interferograms. Our study shows that sOCT can be potentially used for estimating oxygen saturation of blood with the accuracy below 1% and the spatial resolution of OCT image better than 20 ?m. PMID:25401015

Kraszewski, Maciej; Trojanowski, Micha?; Str?kowski, Marcin R.

2014-01-01

101

Implications of cloning for breed improvement strategies: are traditional methods of animal improvement obsolete?  

PubMed

Can the optimum animal be defined? Will that definition change over time, by location, by market demand? First, assume what may be impossible, that the perfect animal can be defined or that only a limited number of definitions of "perfect" are needed. Then, can the "perfect" animal to match a definition be found? Suppose such an animal is found. Then the question to be answered before trying to clone as a method of genetic improvement becomes "Is the animal perfect because of phenotype or genotype?" In other words, the P = G + E problem exists, which requires traditional methods of genetic evaluation and testing to determine whether genotype (G) or random environmental (E) effects or a combination leads to the apparent perfection in the phenotype (P). For most traits, additive genetic variance accounts for 10 to 50% of total variance, a fraction denoted as heritability. With a simple model, the best prediction of genotypic value is to reduce the apparent phenotypic superiority by multiplying by heritability. Cloning the "perfect" animal also could capture optimum dominance and epistatic genetic effects that are otherwise difficult to select for. For some traits, maternal effects are important. In that case, clones as breeding animals must be "perfect" for both direct and maternal genotypes, or alternatively terminal and maternal clone lines would need to be developed. The use of clones to increase uniformity can be only partially successful. If heritability is 25%, then the standard deviation among clones would be 87% of that of uncloned animals. Only if heritability is 100% will clone mates have complete uniformity. Fixing the genotype could increase susceptibility to failure if environment changes or if the cloned genotype is susceptible to a new disease or if economic conditions change. Cloning, at best, is another tool for animal improvement that joins the list of previous biotechnological inventions, some of which have become cost-effective, such as artificial insemination, sexing of semen, multiple ovulation and embryo transfer, embryo sexing, and in vitro fertilization. Cloning has a place in that inventory but, in the long-term, the use of cloning will need to be managed to be cost effective for the improvement of quantitative characters. PMID:15526786

van Vleck, L D

1999-01-01

102

Fluorescent-spectroscopic and imaging methods of investigations for diagnostics of head and neck tumors and control of PDT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Methodics of PDT control and fluorescent-spectroscopic diagnostic of head and neck tumors and mammary gland cancer (nodular) with the use of Kr, He-Ne and semiconductor lasers and photosensitizer (PS) -- Al phtalocyanin (Photosense) are discussed. The results show that applied diagnostic methods permit us not only to identify the topology and malignancy of a tumor but also to correct PDT process directly during irradiation.

Edinak, N. E.; Chental, Victor V.; Komov, D.; Vaculovskaya, E.; Tabolinovskaya, T. D.; Abdullin, N. A.; Pustynsky, I.; Chatikhin, V.; Loschenov, Victor B.; Meerovich, Gennady A.; Stratonnikov, A. A.; Linkov, Kirill G.; Agafonov, Vladimir I.; Zuravleva, V.; Lukjanets, E.

1996-01-01

103

A Comparison of Case Study and Traditional Teaching Methods for Improvement of Oral Communication and Critical-Thinking Skills  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study compares a traditional paper presentation approach and a case study method for the development and improvement of oral communication skills and critical-thinking skills in a class of junior forensic science majors. A rubric for rating performance in these skills was designed on the basis of the oral communication competencies developed…

Noblitt, Lynnette; Vance, Diane E.; Smith, Michelle L. DePoy

2010-01-01

104

Using attributional style to predict academic performance: how does it compare to traditional methods?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Research investigating the relationship between attributional style and performance has documented the effects of a negative explanatory style in a variety of settings. However, the literature on the nature of a negative explanatory style and academic performance has not shown such a consistent pattern. The present study was designed to compare the predictive value of attributional style to more traditional

K. Robert Bridges

2001-01-01

105

Comparison of Traditional Methods with 3D Computer Models in the Instruction of Hepatobiliary Anatomy  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was designed to determine whether an interactive three-dimensional presentation depicting liver and biliary anatomy is more effective for teaching medical students than a traditional textbook format presentation of the same material. Forty-six medical students volunteered for participation in this study. Baseline demographic…

Keedy, Alexander W.; Durack, Jeremy C.; Sandhu, Parmbir; Chen, Eric M.; O'Sullivan, Patricia S.; Breiman, Richard S.

2011-01-01

106

Dissection of the binding of hydrogen peroxide to trypsin using spectroscopic methods and molecular modeling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Studies on the effects of environmental pollutants to protein in vitro has become a global attention. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is used as an effective food preservative and bleacher in industrial production. The toxicity of H2O2 to trypsin was investigated by multiple spectroscopic techniques and the molecular docking method at the molecular level. The intrinsic fluorescence of trypsin was proved to be quenched in a static process based on the results of fluorescence lifetime experiment. Hydrogen bonds interaction and van der Waals forces were the main force to generate the trypsin-H2O2 complex on account of the negative ?H0 and ?S0. The binding of H2O2 changed the conformational structures and internal microenvironment of trypsin illustrated by UV-vis absorption, fluorescence, synchronous fluorescence, three-dimensional (3D) fluorescence and circular dichroism (CD) results. However, the binding site was far away from the active site of trypsin and the trypsin activity was only slightly affected by H2O2, which was further explained by molecular docking investigations.

Song, Wei; Yu, Zehua; Hu, Xinxin; Liu, Rutao

2015-02-01

107

Probing HSA-ionic liquid interactions by spectroscopic and molecular docking methods.  

PubMed

Herein, we report the interaction of synthesized pyrrolidinium based ionic liquid, N-butyl-N-methyl-2-oxopyrrolidinium bromide (BMOP) with human serum albumin (HSA). The BMOP was characterized by using (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and FT-IR techniques. The critical micelle concentration (cmc) of BMOP was confirmed by surface tension, conductivity and contact angle measurements. The interactions between HSA and BMOP were studied by steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence, UV-visible, FT-IR spectroscopic and molecular docking methods. The steady-state fluorescence spectra showed that BMOP quenched the fluorescence of HSA through combined quenching mechanism. Corresponding thermodynamic parameters viz. Gibbs free energy change (?G), entropy change (?S) and enthalpy change (?H) illustrated that the binding process was spontaneous and entropy driven. It is also suggested that hydrophobic forces play a key role in the binding of BMOP to HSA. In addition, the pyrene probe analysis again suggests the involvement of hydrophobic interaction in HSA-BMOP complex formation. Surface tension profile showed that the cmc value of BMOP in the presence of HSA is higher than the cmc value of pure BMOP. The FT-IR results show a conformational change in the secondary structure of HSA upon the addition of BMOP. The molecular docking result indicated that BMOP binds with HSA at hydrophobic pocket domain IIA with hydrophobic and hydrogen bond interactions in which hydrophobic interactions are dominating. PMID:24911269

Kumari, Meena; Maurya, Jitendra Kumar; Tasleem, Munazzah; Singh, Prashant; Patel, Rajan

2014-09-01

108

Analysis of interaction between tamoxifen and ctDNA in vitro by multi-spectroscopic methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multi-spectroscopic methods including resonance light scattering (RLS), ultraviolet spectra (UV), fluorescence spectra, 1H NMR spectroscopy, coupled with thermo-denaturation experiments were firstly used to study the interaction of antitumor drug tamoxifen (TMX) with calf thymus (ctDNA) in acetate buffer solutions (pH 4.55). The interaction of TMX with ctDNA could cause a significant enhancement of RLS intensity, the hyperchromic effect, red shift of absorption spectra and the fluorescence quenching of TMX, indicating that there is an inserting interaction between TMX and ctDNA. This inference was confirmed by 1H NMR spectroscopy. The chemical shift of the benzene proton changes significantly which indicates that TMX could insert into the base pairs of ctDNA. These studies are valuable for a better understanding the mode of TMX-ctDNA interaction further, which are important and useful for designing of new ctDNA targeted drug. And the antitumor drug TMX inserted directly into ctDNA in vitro, which can provide a lot of useful information to explore the development of new and highly effective anti-cancer drugs.

Cai, Changqun; Chen, Xiaoming; Ge, Fei

2010-07-01

109

The interaction of plant-growth regulators with serum albumin: molecular modeling and spectroscopic methods.  

PubMed

The affinity between two plant-growth regulators (PGRs) and human serum albumin (HSA) was investigated by molecular modeling techniques and spectroscopic methods. The results of molecular modeling simulations revealed that paclobutrazol (PAC) could bind on both site I and site II in HSA where the interaction was easier, while uniconazole (UNI) could not bind with HSA. Furthermore, the results of fluorescence spectroscopy, three-dimensional (3D) fluorescence spectroscopy and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy suggested that PAC had a strong ability to quench the intrinsic fluorescence of HSA. The binding affinity (Kb) and the amounts of binding sites (n) between PAC and HSA at 291 K were estimated as 2.37×10(5) mol L(-1) and 1, respectively, which confirm that PAC mainly binds on site II of HSA. An apparent distance between the Trp214 and PAC was 4.41 nm. Additionally, the binding of PAC induced the conformational changes of disulfide bridges of HSA with the decrease of ?-helix content. These studies provide more information on the potential toxicological effects and environmental risk assessment of PGRs. PMID:24569069

Dong, Sheying; Li, Zhiqin; Shi, Ling; Huang, Guiqi; Chen, Shuangli; Huang, Tinglin

2014-05-01

110

Dissection of the binding of hydrogen peroxide to trypsin using spectroscopic methods and molecular modeling.  

PubMed

Studies on the effects of environmental pollutants to protein in vitro has become a global attention. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is used as an effective food preservative and bleacher in industrial production. The toxicity of H2O2 to trypsin was investigated by multiple spectroscopic techniques and the molecular docking method at the molecular level. The intrinsic fluorescence of trypsin was proved to be quenched in a static process based on the results of fluorescence lifetime experiment. Hydrogen bonds interaction and van der Waals forces were the main force to generate the trypsin-H2O2 complex on account of the negative ?H(0) and ?S(0). The binding of H2O2 changed the conformational structures and internal microenvironment of trypsin illustrated by UV-vis absorption, fluorescence, synchronous fluorescence, three-dimensional (3D) fluorescence and circular dichroism (CD) results. However, the binding site was far away from the active site of trypsin and the trypsin activity was only slightly affected by H2O2, which was further explained by molecular docking investigations. PMID:25228036

Song, Wei; Yu, Zehua; Hu, Xinxin; Liu, Rutao

2015-02-25

111

Review of UV spectroscopic, chromatographic, and electrophoretic methods for the cholinesterase reactivating antidote pralidoxime (2-PAM).  

PubMed

Pralidoxime (2-PAM) belongs to the class of monopyridinium oximes with reactivating potency on cholinesterases inhibited by phosphylating organophosphorus compounds (OPC), for example, pesticides and nerve agents. 2-PAM represents an established antidote for the therapy of anticholinesterase poisoning since the late 1950s. Quite high therapeutic concentrations in human plasma (about 13?µg/ml) lead to concentrations in urine being about 100 times higher allowing the use of less sensitive analytical techniques that were used especially in the early years after 2-PAM was introduced. In this time (mid-1950s until the end of the 1970s) 2-PAM was most often analyzed by either paper chromatography or simple UV spectroscopic techniques omitting any sample separation step. These methods were displaced completely after the establishment of column liquid chromatography in the early 1980s. Since then, diverse techniques including cation exchange, size-exclusion, reversed-phase, and ligand-exchange chromatography have been introduced. Today, the most popular method for 2-PAM quantification is ion pair chromatography often combined with UV detection representing more than 50% of all column chromatographic procedures published. Furthermore, electrophoretic approaches by paper and capillary zone electrophoresis have been successfully used but are seldom applied. This review provides a commentary and exhaustive summary of analytical techniques applied to detect 2-PAM in pharmaceutical formulations and biological samples to characterize stability and pharmacokinetics as well as decomposition and biotransformation products. Separation techniques as well as diverse detectors are discussed in appropriate detail allowing comparison of individual preferences and limitations. In addition, novel data on mass spectrometric fragmentation of 2-PAM are provided. PMID:21953823

John, Harald; Blum, Marc-Michael

2012-01-01

112

Characterization of Mannitol Polymorphic Forms in Lyophilized Protein Formulations Using a Multivariate Curve Resolution (MCR)Based Raman Spectroscopic Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose  To develop a novel multivariate curve resolution (MCR)-based Raman spectroscopic method to characterize and quantify five\\u000a known mannitol solid-state forms in lyophilized protein formulations.\\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a Materials and Methods  The multivariate quantitation method was developed based on second derivative Raman spectra of three anhydrous crystalline\\u000a forms (?-, ?-, and ?-mannitol), a hemihydrate and an amorphous mannitol form. The method showed a 5% quantitation

Yong Xie; Wenjin Cao; Sampathkumar Krishnan; Hong Lin; Nina Cauchon

2008-01-01

113

Infrared study of aging of edible oils by oxidative spectroscopic index and MCR-ALS chemometric method.  

PubMed

One of the most suitable analytical techniques used for edible oil quality control is Fourier transform mid infrared spectroscopy (FT-MIR). FT-MIR spectroscopy was used to continuously characterize the aging of various edible oils thanks to a specific aging cell. There were differences in the spectra of fresh and aged oils from different vegetable sources, which provide the basis of a method to classify them according to the oxidative spectroscopic index value. The use of chemometric treatment such as multivariate curve resolution-alternative least square (MCR-ALS) made it possible to extract the spectra of main formed and degraded species. The concentration profiles gave interesting information about the ability of the various oils to support the oxidative treatment and showed that all oils present the same aging process. Both methods led to concordant results in terms of induction times determined by the oxidative spectroscopic index and the appearance of oxidation products revealed by MCR-ALS. PMID:19159793

Le Dréau, Y; Dupuy, N; Artaud, J; Ollivier, D; Kister, J

2009-03-15

114

Cellulose crystallinity and ordering of hemicelluloses in pine and birch pulps as revealed by solid-state NMR spectroscopic methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solid-state 13C NMR spectroscopy was used to determine the degree of cellulose crystallinity (CrI) in kraft, flow-through kraft and polysulphide–anthraquinone (PS–AQ) pulps of pine and birch containing various amounts of hemicelluloses. The applicability of acid hydrolysis and the purely spectroscopic proton spin-relaxation based spectral edition (PSRE) method to remove the interfering hemicellulose signals prior to the determination of CrI were

Tiina Liitiä; Sirkka Liisa Maunu; Bo Hortling; Tarja Tamminen; Osmo Pekkala; Antero Varhimo

2003-01-01

115

Non-linear eigensolver-based alternative to traditional SCF methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The self-consistent iterative procedure in Density Functional Theory calculations is revisited using a new, highly efficient and robust algorithm for solving the non-linear eigenvector problem (i.e. H(X)X = EX;) of the Kohn-Sham equations. This new scheme is derived from a generalization of the FEAST eigenvalue algorithm, and provides a fundamental and practical numerical solution for addressing the non-linearity of the Hamiltonian with the occupied eigenvectors. In contrast to SCF techniques, the traditional outer iterations are replaced by subspace iterations that are intrinsic to the FEAST algorithm, while the non-linearity is handled at the level of a projected reduced system which is orders of magnitude smaller than the original one. Using a series of numerical examples, it will be shown that our approach can outperform the traditional SCF mixing techniques such as Pulay-DIIS by providing a high converge rate and by converging to the correct solution regardless of the choice of the initial guess. We also discuss a practical implementation of the technique that can be achieved effectively using the FEAST solver package.

Gavin, Brendan; Polizzi, Eric

2013-03-01

116

Molecular structures of gas-phase polyatomic molecules determined by spectroscopic methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spectroscopic data related to the structures of polyatomic molecules in the gas phase have been reviewed, critically evaluated, and compiled. All reported bond distances and angles have been classified as equilibrium (re), average (rz), substitution (rs), or effective (ro) parameters, and have been given a quality rating which is a measure of the parameter uncertainty. The surveyed literature includes work

Marlin D. Harmony; Victor W. Laurie; Robert L. Kuczkowski; R. H. Schwendeman; D. A. Ramsay; Frank J. Lovas; Walter J. Lafferty; Arthur G. Maki

1979-01-01

117

Non-linear eigensolver-based alternative to traditional SCF methods.  

PubMed

The self-consistent procedure in electronic structure calculations is revisited using a highly efficient and robust algorithm for solving the non-linear eigenvector problem, i.e., H({?})? = E?. This new scheme is derived from a generalization of the FEAST eigenvalue algorithm to account for the non-linearity of the Hamiltonian with the occupied eigenvectors. Using a series of numerical examples and the density functional theory-Kohn/Sham model, it will be shown that our approach can outperform the traditional SCF mixing-scheme techniques by providing a higher converge rate, convergence to the correct solution regardless of the choice of the initial guess, and a significant reduction of the eigenvalue solve time in simulations. PMID:23697403

Gavin, B; Polizzi, E

2013-05-21

118

Non-linear eigensolver-based alternative to traditional SCF methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The self-consistent procedure in electronic structure calculations is revisited using a highly efficient and robust algorithm for solving the non-linear eigenvector problem, i.e., H({?})? = E?. This new scheme is derived from a generalization of the FEAST eigenvalue algorithm to account for the non-linearity of the Hamiltonian with the occupied eigenvectors. Using a series of numerical examples and the density functional theory-Kohn/Sham model, it will be shown that our approach can outperform the traditional SCF mixing-scheme techniques by providing a higher converge rate, convergence to the correct solution regardless of the choice of the initial guess, and a significant reduction of the eigenvalue solve time in simulations.

Gavin, B.; Polizzi, E.

2013-05-01

119

Participatory methods of incorporating scientific with traditional knowledge for volcanic hazard management on Ambae Island, Vanuatu  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ambae Island is the largest of Vanuatu’s active volcanoes. It is also one of the nation’s potentially most dangerous, with 60 million m3 of lake-water perched at over 1340 m in the summit caldera and over the active vent. In 1995, small phreatic explosions, earthquake swarms and heightened gas release led to calls for evacuation preparation and community volcanic hazard awareness programs for the ~9500 inhabitants. Differences in perspective or world-view between the island dwellers adhering to traditional beliefs (Kastom) and external scientists and emergency managers led to a climate of distrust following this crisis. In an attempt to address these issues, rebuild dialogue and respect between communities, outside scientists and administrators, and move forward in volcanic hazard education and planning for Ambae, we adapted and applied Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) approaches. Initial gender-segregated PRA exercises from two representative communities provided a mechanism for cataloguing local traditional viewpoints and hazard perceptions. Ultimately, by combining elements of these viewpoints and perceptions with science-based management structures, we derived volcanic hazard management guidelines, supported by an alert system and map that were more readily accepted by the test communities than the earlier “top-down” plans imposed by outside governmental and scientific agencies. The strength of PRA approaches is that they permit scientists to understand important local perspective issues, including visualisations of volcanic hazards, weaknesses in internal and external communication systems, and gender and hierarchy conflicts, all of which can hinder community emergency management. The approach we describe has much to offer both developing and industrialised communities that wish to improve their awareness programs and mitigative planning. This approach should also enhance communication and understanding between volcanologists and the communities they serve.

Cronin, Shane J.; Gaylord, David R.; Charley, Douglas; Alloway, Brent V.; Wallez, Sandrine; Esau, Job W.

2004-10-01

120

Remote determination of exposure degree and iron concentration of lunar soils using VIS-NIR spectroscopic methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

On the Moon, space weathering processes such as micrometeorite bombardment alter the optical properties of lunar soils. As a consequence, lunar soil optical properties are a function not only of composition, but of degree of exposure on the lunar surface as well. In order to accurately assess the compositional properties of the lunar surface using remotely acquired visible and near-infrared spectroscopic data, it is thus necessary either (1) to compare optical properties only of soils characterized by similar degrees of exposure or (2) to otherwise normalize or remove the optical effects due to exposure. Laboratory spectroscopic data for lunar soils are used to develop and test remote spectrocopic methods for determining degree of exposure and for distinguishing between the optical effects due to exposure and those due to composition. A method employing a ratio between reflectances within and outside of the 1 micrometer Fe(2+) crystal field absorption band was developed for remotely identifying highland soils that have reached a steady-state maturity. The relative optical properties of these soils are a function solely of composition and as such can be directly compared. Spectroscopic techniques for accurate quantitative determination of iron content for lunar highland soils are investigated as well. It is shown that approximations of the 1 micrometer Fe(2+) absorption band depth using few to several channel multispectral data or spectroscopic data of inadequate spectral range cannot be used with confidence for compositional analysis. However, band depth measurements derived from continuum-removed high spectral resolution data can be used to calculate the weight percent FeO and relative proportion of iron-bearing silicates in mature lunar highland and mare/highland mixture soils. A preliminary effort to calibrate telescopic band depth to laboratory soil measurements is described.

Fischer, Erich M.; Pieters, Carle M.

1994-01-01

121

Assessment of standing balance deficits in people who have undergone anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using traditional and modern analysis methods.  

PubMed

Modern methods of assessing standing balance such as wavelet and entropy analysis could provide insight into postural control mechanisms in clinical populations. The aim of this study was to examine what effect anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) has on traditional and modern measures of balance. Ninety subjects, 45 who had undergone ACLR and 45 matched controls, performed single leg static standing balance tests on their surgical or matched limb on a Nintendo Wii Balance Board. Data were analysed in the anterior-posterior axis of movement, which is known to be affected by ACLR. The traditional measures of path velocity, amplitude and standard deviation were calculated in this plane. Additionally, sample entropy and discrete wavelet transform derived assessment of path velocity in four distinct frequency bands related to (1) spinal reflexive loops and muscle activity, (2) cerebellar, (3) vestibular, and (4) visual mechanisms of postural control were derived. The ACLR group had significantly increased values in all traditional measures and all four frequency bands. No significant difference was observed for sample entropy. This indicated that whilst postural sway was amplified in the ACLR group, the overall mechanism used by the patient group to maintain balance was similar to that of the control group. In conclusion, modern methods of signal analysis may provide additional insight into standing balance mechanisms in clinical populations. Future research is required to determine if these results provide important and unique information which is of benefit to clinicians. PMID:24433669

Clark, Ross A; Howells, Brooke; Pua, Yong-Hao; Feller, Julian; Whitehead, Tim; Webster, Kate E

2014-03-21

122

Development and validation of RP-HPLC method to determine anti-allergic compound in Thai traditional remedy called Benjalokawichien.  

PubMed

Benjalokawichien (BLW) or Ya-Ha-Rak (HR) is a traditional remedy in the Nationaldrug list of herbal medicinal products AD 2012 of Thailand. For traditional use, BLW is used as antipyretic agent. It also has anti-allergic effect, particularly treating allergic rash. The ethanolic extract of BLW exhibited anti-allergic activity via inhibitory effect against a release ofbeta-hexosaminidase in RBL-2H3 cell line. Pectolinarigenin has been identified as the active compound ofBLW extract. In this study, a reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method was developed in order to control quality ofpreparation in three aspects such as chemical fingerprint, quantification and stability of the ethanolic extract. The RP-HPLC was performed with a gradient mobile phase composed of 0.1% ortho phosphoric acid and acetronitrile, and peaks were detected at 331 nm. Based on validation results, this analytical method is precise, accurate and stable for quantitative determination ofpectolinarigenin. The amount ofpectolinarigenin in Benjalokawichien extract determined by this method was 18.50 mg/g ofextract. Therefore, this method could be consideredfor quality control ofBLWextract. PMID:25518297

Sakpakdeejaroen, Intouch; Juckmeta, Thana; Itharat, Arunporn

2014-08-01

123

Molecular identification of coliform bacteria isolated from drinking water reservoirs with traditional methods and the Colilert-18 system.  

PubMed

The accuracy of a traditional method (lactose utilization with acid and gas production) for the detection of coliform bacteria and E. coli was tested in comparison with method ISO 9308-1 (based on acid formation from lactose) and the Colilert-18 system (detection of beta-galactosidase). A total of 345 isolates were identified after isolation from water samples using API 20E strips. The Colilert-18 led to the highest number of positive findings (95% of the isolates were assigned to coliforms), whereas the ISO-9308-1 method resulted only in 29% coliform findings. With the traditional method only 15% were rated positive. Most of the isolates were identified by the API 20E system as Enterobacter spp. (species of the Enterobacter cloacae complex), Serratia spp., Citrobacter spp.and Klebsiella spp.; but species identification remained vague in several cases. A more detailed identification of 126 pure cultures by using 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and analysis of the hsp60 gene resulted in the identification of Enterobacter nimipressuralis, E. amnigenus, E. asburiae, E. hormaechei, and Serratia fonticola as predominat coliforms. These species are beta-galactosidase positive, but show acid formation from lactose often after a prolonged incubation time. They are often not of fecal origin and may interfere with the ability to accurately detect coliforms of fecal origin. PMID:17870668

Kämpfer, Peter; Nienhüser, Anita; Packroff, Gabriele; Wernicke, Frank; Mehling, Arnd; Nixdorf, Katja; Fiedler, Stefanie; Kolauch, Claudia; Esser, Michael

2008-07-01

124

Prognostic Ability of Practitioners of Traditional Arabic Medicine: Comparison with Western Methods Through a Relative Patient Progress Scale  

PubMed Central

The ancient Greek medical theory based on balance or imbalance of humors disappeared in the western world, but does survive elsewhere. Is this survival related to a certain degree of health care efficiency? We explored this hypothesis through a study of classical Greco-Arab medicine in Mauritania. Modern general practitioners evaluated the safety and effectiveness of classical Arabic medicine in a Mauritanian traditional clinic, with a prognosis/follow-up method allowing the following comparisons: (i) actual patient progress (clinical outcome) compared with what the traditional ‘tabib’ had anticipated (= prognostic ability) and (ii) patient progress compared with what could be hoped for if the patient were treated by a modern physician in the same neighborhood. The practice appeared fairly safe and, on average, clinical outcome was similar to what could be expected with modern medicine. In some cases, patient progress was better than expected. The ability to correctly predict an individual's clinical outcome did not seem to be better along modern or Greco-Arab theories. Weekly joint meetings (modern and traditional practitioners) were spontaneously organized with a modern health centre in the neighborhood. Practitioners of a different medical system can predict patient progress. For the patient, avoiding false expectations with health care and ensuring appropriate referral may be the most important. Prognosis and outcome studies such as the one presented here may help to develop institutions where patients find support in making their choices, not only among several treatment options, but also among several medical systems. PMID:18955326

2010-01-01

125

GROUND WATER MONITORING AND SAMPLING: MULTI-LEVEL VERSUS TRADITIONAL METHODS WHATS WHAT?  

EPA Science Inventory

After years of research and many publications, the question still remains: What is the best method to collect representative ground water samples from monitoring wells? Numerous systems and devices are currently available for obtaining both multi-level samples as well as traditi...

126

Mathematics Achievement: Traditional Instruction and Technology-Assisted Course Delivery Methods  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to analyze technology-assisted course delivery methods to determine their overall effectiveness as it pertains to mathematics courses. This study analyzed both current and historical data in the areas of achievement, retention, and grade distribution for mathematics classes. The study included 14,562 students enrolled…

Vilardi, Robert; Rice, Margaret L.

2014-01-01

127

Performance of Traditional and Molecular Methods for Detecting Biological Agents in Drinking Water  

EPA Science Inventory

USGS Report - To reduce the impact from a possible bioterrorist attack on drinking-water supplies, analytical methods are needed to rapidly detect the presence of biological agents in water. To this end, 13 drinking-water samples were collected at 9 water-treatment plants in Ohio...

128

Applying a Traditional Individual Psychotherapy Model to Equine-facilitated Psychotherapy (EFP): Theory and Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes a unique, innovative, and effective method of psychotherapy using horses to aid in the therapeutic process (Equine-facilitated Psychotherapy or EFP). The remarkable elements of the horse - power, grace, vulnerability, and a willingness to bear another - combine to form a fertile stage for psychotherapeutic exploration. Therapeutic programs using horses to work with various psychiatric presentations in

Jane Karol

2007-01-01

129

The effect of brain hemisphere dominance on learning by computer assisted instruction and the traditional lecture method.  

PubMed

Brain hemisphere dominance is reported to effect learning style in that people who are classified as left brain-dominant are believed to be primarily auditory learners and those classified as right brain-dominant are believed to be primarily visual learners. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of brain hemisphere dominance on learning by computer assisted instruction (CAI) and the traditional lecture method. The Wagner Preference Inventory was used to determine brain hemisphere dominance. Content related to the use of Roman numerals was presented using both CAI and the lecture method. A two-way analysis of variance demonstrated an interaction effect between brain hemisphere dominance and teaching method. Subjects classified as right hemisphere-dominant scored higher on the posttest in the CAI group, and left hemisphere-dominant subjects scored higher in the lecture group. PMID:2665908

Benedict, S C; Coffield, K

1989-01-01

130

Can pore-scale methods overcome limitations of traditional hydraulic property measurement techniques?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conventional methods of determining transport properties on core samples using information from hydraulic conductivity, water retention curves, electrical properties, or formation factor have substantial shortcomings: (1) they represent quasi-1D flow; (2) possess no a priori information on sample's representativity in terms of its internal heterogeneity; (3) measurements may seriously alter sample properties, e.g. sample saturation and through-flow can mobilize fine material potentially causing pore blockage; also, saturation in the laboratory may cause swelling or mineral dissolution of some materials hence affecting the measured hydraulic properties, while full saturation may never occur under field conditions; (4) they require standard shape and size for coring material, thus representing serious limitations for fragile, consolidated, or cemented samples; (5) often represent quasi-static processes, while flow under field conditions is highly dynamic; (6) some fitting parameters are invoked to represent pore-connectivity or "tortuosity" and used in cross-property relationships without real physical meaning (e.g., linkage between water retention curve and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity. Based on experimental data from a broad range of porous materials we show how these shortcomings can be overcame via pore-scale modeling using structural and surface property information. In particular we use following datasets: 1) deep vadose zones for arid environment (central Australia), 2) shallow-to-deep aquifers (Central Russian Upland), 3) agricultural soils known for their preferential flow (Central Russian Upland), and 4) extremely stony forest soils (Russian Far East). Several approaches exist for acquisition of structural information, with the most information-rich being X-ray microtomography. Alternatively, 2D thin-sections may be used with higher spatial resolution but with limited information on connectivity; reconstruction methods (sequential and stochastic) can help resolve the latter limitation. Finally, we illustrate how our pore-scale methods fit in a broader upscaling approach and improve large-scale modeling; current limitations and future challenges are also discussed.

Gerke, Kirill; Vasilyev, Roman; Korost, Dmitry; Karsanina, Marina; Mallants, Dirk; Gorbunova, Ella; Shein, Evgeny; Gartsman, Boris; Bedrikovetsky, Pavel; Tairova, Aliya; Skvortsova, Elena

2013-04-01

131

Using Neural Networks for 13C NMR Chemical Shift Prediction-Comparison with Traditional Methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Interpretation of 13C chemical shifts is essential for structure elucidation of organic molecules by NMR. In this article, we present an improved neural network approach and compare its performance to that of commonly used approaches. Specifically, our recently proposed neural network ( J. Chem. Inf. Comput. Sci. 2000, 40, 1169-1176) is improved by introducing an extended hybrid numerical description of the carbon atom environment, resulting in a standard deviation (std. dev.) of 2.4 ppm for an independent test data set of ˜42,500 carbons. Thus, this neural network allows fast and accurate 13C NMR chemical shift prediction without the necessity of access to molecule or fragment databases. For an unbiased test dataset containing 100 organic structures the accuracy of the improved neural network was compared to that of a prediction method based on the HOSE code ( hierarchically ordered spherical description of environment) using S PECI NFO. The results show the neural network predictions to be of quality (std. dev.=2.7 ppm) comparable to that of the HOSE code prediction (std. dev.=2.6 ppm). Further we compare the neural network predictions to those of a wide variety of other 13C chemical shift prediction tools including incremental methods (C HEMD RAW, S PECT OOL), quantum chemical calculation (G AUSSIAN, C OSMOS), and HOSE code fragment-based prediction (S PECI NFO, ACD/CNMR, P REDICTI T NMR) for the 47 13C-NMR shifts of Taxol, a natural product including many structural features of organic substances. The smallest standard deviations were achieved here with the neural network (1.3 ppm) and S PECI NFO (1.0 ppm).

Meiler, Jens; Maier, Walter; Will, Martin; Meusinger, Reinhard

2002-08-01

132

The spectroscopic and electronic properties of dimethylpyrazole and its derivatives using the experimental and computational methods.  

PubMed

In this paper the spectroscopic and the geometric properties of four ligands with pyrazole unit are studied at both experimental and computational levels. The computational results are perfectly in good agreement with the experimental results especially in terms of the IR, H-NMR and 13C-NMR shifts. The spectroscopic features as well as the computed properties help to establish the successful synthesis of ligands bdmpzm and bdmpza. The theoretical and the experimental IR and Raman significantly help in distinguishing the four ligands. The results show that the Raman spectral is better applicable in characterising the CH3 deformation, the C-H, CNN and CCNNout of the ligands but vibrations like N-H in dmpz and O-H, C=O in bdmpza are observed to be Raman inactive. A significant variations are observed among the two available * N atoms characterising the bidentate features of bdmpzm, bdmpza and bdcpzm which indicates a possible different affinities for metal coordination: Also the result suggest that bdmpza will be the best starting material for NLO application than other while bdcpzm is predicted to have potential of been a poor coordinating ligand. The computed variations in the properties of * N atoms that are the characteristic features of their power of coordination can be of immense help since these type of ligands have a wide application in transition metal coordination. PMID:25532317

Adeniyi, Adebayo A; Ajibade, Peter A

2014-09-01

133

Comparison of diffusive gradients in thin film technique with traditional methods for evaluation of zinc bioavailability in soils.  

PubMed

The technique of diffusive gradients in thin film (DGT) has been shown to be a promising tool to assess zinc (Zn) bioavailability in soils, but there exists considerable debate on its suitability. In this study, Zn bioavailability was systematically investigated in wheat- and maize-grown soils using this technique and seven traditional methods, including soil solution concentration and six widely used single-step extraction methods (HAc, EDTA, NaAc, NH4Ac, CaCl?, and MgCl?). The concentrations of Zn in the shoots and roots of these two plant species increased continuously with increasing additions of Zn to the soils, accompanied by significant decreases in shoot biomass and root biomass at Zn concentrations greater than 400 mg kg(-1) for maize and 800 mg kg(-1) for wheat. Zinc uptake and accumulation was higher in maize roots than in wheat roots. Both the concentrations of bioavailable Zn measured by DGT (CDGT) and soil solutions (Csol) increased linearly with increasing additions of Zn to the soils, while no strong linear relationships were observed for the extraction methods. Higher concentrations of extractable Zn, lower values of Csol, and larger values of R (i.e., the ratio of CDGT to Csol) were observed in maize-grown soils compared with those of wheat-grown soils, while the values of C DGT between the two plants were similar. These findings demonstrate that there likely exists a stronger resupply of Zn from the soil solid phases in maize-grown soils to satisfy a higher Zn uptake and accumulation in this plant. Linear correlation analyses showed that CDGT had the highest correlation coefficients with plant Zn concentrations compared with other traditional methods, implying that the DGT technique is more sensitive and robust in reflecting Zn bioavailability in soils to plants. PMID:24942518

Sun, Qin; Chen, Jing; Ding, Shiming; Yao, Yu; Chen, Yifei

2014-10-01

134

Structural, Spectroscopic, and Magnetic Properties of Eu(3+)-Doped GdVO4 Nanocrystals Synthesized by a Hydrothermal Method.  

PubMed

New interesting aspects of the spectroscopic properties, magnetism, and method of synthesis of gadolinium orthovanadates doped with Eu(3+) ions are discussed. Gd1-xEuxVO4 (x = 0, 0.05, 0.2) bifunctional luminescent materials with complex magnetic properties were synthesized by a microwave-assisted hydrothermal method. Products were formed in situ without previous precipitation. The crystal structures and morphologies of the obtained nanomaterials were analyzed by X-ray diffraction and transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Crystallographic data were analyzed using Rietveld refinement. The products obtained were nanocrystalline with average grain sizes of 70-80 nm. The qualitative and quantitative elemental composition as well as mapping of the nanocrystals was proved using energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The spectroscopic properties of red-emitting nanophosphors were characterized by their excitation and emission spectra and luminescence decays. Magnetic measurements were performed by means of vibrating sample magnetometry. GdVO4 and Gd0.8Eu0.2VO4 exhibited paramagnetic behavior with a weak influence of antiferromagnetic couplings between rare-earth ions. In the substituted sample, an additional magnetic contribution connected with the population of low-lying excited states of europium was observed. PMID:25383487

Szczeszak, Agata; Grzyb, Tomasz; Sniadecki, Zbigniew; Andrzejewska, Nina; Lis, Stefan; Matczak, Micha?; Nowaczyk, Grzegorz; Jurga, Stefan; Idzikowski, Bogdan

2014-12-01

135

The CREATE Method Does Not Result in Greater Gains in Critical Thinking than a More Traditional Method of Analyzing the Primary Literature †  

PubMed Central

Analysis of the primary literature in the undergraduate curriculum is associated with gains in student learning. In particular, the CREATE (Consider, Read, Elucidate hypotheses, Analyze and interpret the data, and Think of the next Experiment) method is associated with an increase in student critical thinking skills. We adapted the CREATE method within a required cell biology class and compared the learning gains of students using CREATE to those of students involved in less structured literature discussions. We found that while both sets of students had gains in critical thinking, students who used the CREATE method did not show significant improvement over students engaged in a more traditional method for dissecting the literature. Students also reported similar learning gains for both literature discussion methods. Our study suggests that, at least in our educational context, the CREATE method does not lead to higher learning gains than a less structured way of reading primary literature. PMID:24358379

Segura-Totten, Miriam; Dalman, Nancy E.

2013-01-01

136

Comparison of traditional and molecular methods of typing isolates of Staphylococcus aureus.  

PubMed Central

Fifty-nine Staphylococcus aureus isolates and 1 isolate of Staphylococcus intermedius were typed by investigators at eight institutions by using either antibiograms, bacteriophage typing, biotyping, immunoblotting, insertion sequence typing with IS257/431, multilocus enzyme electrophoresis, restriction analysis of plasmid DNA, pulsed-field or field inversion gel electrophoresis, restriction analysis of PCR-amplified coagulase gene sequences, restriction fragment length polymorphism typing by using four staphylococcal genes as probes, or ribotyping. Isolates from four well-characterized outbreaks (n = 29) and a collection of organisms from two nursing homes were mixed with epidemiologically unrelated stock strains from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Several isolates were included multiple times either within or between the sets of isolates to analyze the reproducibilities of the typing systems. Overall, the DNA-based techniques and immunoblotting were most effective in grouping outbreak-related strains, recognizing 27 to 29 of the 29 outbreak-related strains; however, they also tended to include 3 to 8 epidemiologically unrelated isolates in the same strain type. Restriction fragment length polymorphism methods with mec gene-associated loci were less useful than other techniques for typing oxacillin-susceptible isolates. Phage typing, plasmid DNA restriction analysis, and antibiogram analysis, the techniques most readily available to clinical laboratories, identified 23 to 26 of 29 outbreak-related isolates and assigned 0 to 6 unrelated isolates to outbreak strain types. No single technique was clearly superior to the others; however, biotyping, because it produced so many subtypes, did not effectively group outbreak-related strains of S. aureus. PMID:7908673

Tenover, F C; Arbeit, R; Archer, G; Biddle, J; Byrne, S; Goering, R; Hancock, G; Hébert, G A; Hill, B; Hollis, R

1994-01-01

137

The comparison of composite aircraft field repair method (cafrm) with traditional aircraft repair technologies  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sulfur biogeochemical cycle includes biotic and abiotic processes important to global climate, atmospheric chemistry, food security, and the study of related cycles. The largest flux of sulfur on Earth is weathering from the continents into the sulfate-rich oceans; one way in which sulfur can be returned to land is through transport of reduced sulfur gases via the atmosphere. Here I developed a method for quantifying low-level environmental fluxes of several sulfur-containing gases, H2S, COS, CH3SCH 3 (DMS), and HSCH3, between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere. COS is the most prevalent reduced sulfur gas in the atmosphere, considered to be inert in the troposphere except for its uptake in plant leaves and to a smaller extent aerobic soils. This dissertation reports two surprising cases that go against conventional thinking about the sulfur cycle. We found that the common salt marsh plant Batis maritima can mediate net COS production to the atmosphere. We also found that an aerobic wheat field soil produces COS abiotically when incubated in the dark at > 25 °C and at lower temperatures under light conditions. We then sought to separately quantify plant and soil sulfur gas fluxes by undertaking a year-long field campaign in a grassland with a Mediterranean climate, where green plants were present only half of the year. We measured in situ soil fluxes of COS and DMS during the non- growing dry season, using water additions to simulate soil fluxes of the growing, wet season. COS and CO2 are consumed in a predictable ratio by enzymes involved in photosynthetic pathways; however, while CO2 is released by back diffusion and autorespiration, COS is usually not generated by plants. Using measurements during the growing season, we were then able to calculate gross primary production by using the special relationship between CO2 and COS. This dissertation has developed a greater understanding of the vagaries of the atmospheric-terrestrial sulfur cycle and explored using that cycle as a tool for studying the carbon cycle.

Whelan, Mary Elizabeth

138

Comparison of immunomagnetic separation/adenosine triphosphate rapid method to traditional culture-based method for E. coli and enterococci enumeration in wastewater  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Untreated wastewater samples from California, North Carolina, and Ohio were analyzed by the immunomagnetic separation/adenosine triphosphate (IMS/ATP) method and the traditional culture-based method for E. coli and enterococci concentrations. The IMS/ATP method concentrates target bacteria by immunomagnetic separation and then quantifies captured bacteria by measuring bioluminescence induced by release of ATP from the bacterial cells. Results from this method are available within 1 h from the start of sample processing. Significant linear correlations were found between the IMS/ATP results and results from traditional culture-based methods for E. coli and enterococci enumeration for one location in California, two locations in North Carolina, and one location in Ohio (r??values ranged from 0.87 to 0.97). No significant linear relation was found for a second location in California that treats a complex mixture of residential and industrial wastewater. With the exception of one location, IMS/ATP showed promise as a rapid method for the quantification of faecal-indicator organisms in wastewater.

Bushon, R.N.; Likirdopulos, C.A.; Brady, A.M.G.

2009-01-01

139

Simultaneous Quantification of Ten Active Components in Traditional Chinese Formula Sijunzi Decoction Using a UPLC-PDA Method  

PubMed Central

Sijunzi decoction (SJZT), a traditional Chinese formula (TCMF) consisting of four herbs, has been widely used for the treatment of various gastrointestinal symptoms. However, its modernization process is hindered by the lack of a powerful quality control method that covers the major active components in the formula. The aim of this study was to establish a UPLC method for the quantitative determination of ten active components in Sijunzi decoction including ginsenoside Rg1, Re, Rb1, liquiritin, liquiritigenin, glycyrrhizic acid, atractylenolide I, atractylenolide II, atractylenolide III, and pachymic acid. Separation was achieved using an ACQUITY UPLC BEHC18 column (2.1?mm × 100?mm, 1.7??m) with a gradient elution program consisting of acetonitrile and 0.1% phosphoric acid solution. The detection wavelengths were set at 203, 254, 222, and 267?nm. The method was validated for linearity, accuracy, precision, limit of detection, and limit of quantification. The validated method was successfully applied to the simultaneous quantification of ten active compounds from several finished batches of SJZT. This validated that UPLC method is expected to provide a new basis for the quality control of SJZT. PMID:24963442

An, Kang; Jin-rui, Guo; Zhen, Zhang; Xiao-long, Wang

2014-01-01

140

Simultaneous Quantification of Ten Active Components in Traditional Chinese Formula Sijunzi Decoction Using a UPLC-PDA Method.  

PubMed

Sijunzi decoction (SJZT), a traditional Chinese formula (TCMF) consisting of four herbs, has been widely used for the treatment of various gastrointestinal symptoms. However, its modernization process is hindered by the lack of a powerful quality control method that covers the major active components in the formula. The aim of this study was to establish a UPLC method for the quantitative determination of ten active components in Sijunzi decoction including ginsenoside Rg1, Re, Rb1, liquiritin, liquiritigenin, glycyrrhizic acid, atractylenolide I, atractylenolide II, atractylenolide III, and pachymic acid. Separation was achieved using an ACQUITY UPLC BEHC18 column (2.1?mm × 100?mm, 1.7? ? m) with a gradient elution program consisting of acetonitrile and 0.1% phosphoric acid solution. The detection wavelengths were set at 203, 254, 222, and 267?nm. The method was validated for linearity, accuracy, precision, limit of detection, and limit of quantification. The validated method was successfully applied to the simultaneous quantification of ten active compounds from several finished batches of SJZT. This validated that UPLC method is expected to provide a new basis for the quality control of SJZT. PMID:24963442

An, Kang; Jin-Rui, Guo; Zhen, Zhang; Xiao-Long, Wang

2014-01-01

141

Raman Spectroscopic Methods for Classification of Normal and Malignant Hypopharyngeal Tissues: An Exploratory Study  

PubMed Central

Laryngeal cancer is more common in males. The present study is aimed at exploration of potential of conventional Raman spectroscopy in classifying normal from a malignant laryngopharyngeal tissue. We have recorded Raman spectra of twenty tissues (aryepiglottic fold) using an in-house built Raman setup. The spectral features of mean malignant spectrum suggests abundance proteins whereas spectral features of mean normal spectrum indicate redundancy of lipids. PCA was employed as discriminating algorithm. Both, unsupervised and supervised modes of analysis as well as match/mismatch “limit test” methodology yielded clear classification among tissue types. The findings of this study demonstrate the efficacy of conventional Raman spectroscopy in classification of normal and malignant laryngopharyngeal tissues. A rigorous evaluation of the models with development of suitable fibreoptic probe may enable real-time Raman spectroscopic diagnosis of laryngopharyngeal cancers in future. PMID:21804932

Pujary, Parul; Maheedhar, K.; Krishna, C. Murali; Pujary, Kailesh

2011-01-01

142

Determining uranium speciation in Fernald soils by molecular spectroscopic methods. FY 1993 progress report  

SciTech Connect

This progress report describes new experimental results and interpretations for data collected from October 1, 1992, through September 30, 1993, as part of the Characterization Task of the Uranium in Soils Integrated Demonstration of the Office of Technology Development, Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management of the US Department of Energy. X-ray absorption, optical luminescence, and Raman vibrational spectroscopies were used to determine uranium speciation in contaminated soils from the US DOE`s former uranium production facility at Fernald, Ohio. These analyses were carried out both before and after application of one of the various decontamination technologies being developed within the Integrated Demonstration. This year the program focused on characterization of the uranium speciation remaining in the soils after decontamination treatment. X-ray absorption and optical luminescence spectroscopic data were collected for approximately 40 Fernald soil samples, which were treated by one or more of the decontamination technologies.

Allen, P.G.; Berg, J.M.; Crisholm-Brause, C.J.; Conradson, S.D.; Donohoe, R.J.; Morris, D.E.; Musgrave, J.A.; Tait, C.D.

1994-07-01

143

Paradata for 'Effects of traditional cooking methods on some antinutrients and in vitro protein digestibility of dry bean varieties (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) grown in Turkey'  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This record contains paradata for the resource 'Effects of traditional cooking methods on some antinutrients and in vitro protein digestibility of dry bean varieties (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) grown in Turkey'

144

Vibrational spectroscopic methods to characterize the bionanoparticles originating from newly developed self-forming synthetic PEGylated lipids (QuSomes)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Vibrational spectroscopy has been used to elucidate the temperature dependence of structural and conformational changes in lipids and liposomes. In this work, the thermal properties of lipid-based nanovesicles originating from a newly developed self-forming synthetic PEGylated lipids has been investigated by variable-temperature Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) absorption and Raman spectroscopic methods. Thermally-induced changes in infrared and Raman spectra of these artificial lipid based nanovesicles composed of 1,2-dimyristoyl-rac-glycerol-3-dodecaethylene glycol (GDM-12) and 1,2-distearoyl-rac-glycerol-3-triicosaethylene glycol (GDS-23) were acquired by using a thin layered FTIR spectrometer in conjunction with a unique custom built temperature-controlled demountable liquid cell and variable-temperature controlled Raman microscope, respectively. The lipids under consideration have long hydrophobic acyl chains and contain various units of hydrophilic polyethylene glycol headgroups. In contrast to conventional phospholipids, this new kind of lipid is forming liposomes or nanovesicles spontaneously upon hydration, without supplying external activation energy. We have found that the thermal stability of such PEGylated lipids and nanovesicles differs greatly depending upon the acyl chain-lengths as well as associated head group units. However, the thermal behavior observed from both spectroscopic vibrational techniques are in good agreement.

Bista, Rajan K.; Bruch, Reinhard F.; Covington, Aaron M.

2011-03-01

145

Specific binding and inhibition of 6-benzylaminopurine to catalase: multiple spectroscopic methods combined with molecular docking study.  

PubMed

6-Benzylaminopurine (6-BA) is a kind of cytokinin which could regulate the activities of the antioxidant defense system of plants. In this work, its interaction with and inhibition of beef liver catalase have been systematically investigated using spectroscopic, isothermal titration calorimetric and molecular docking methods under physiological conditions. The fluorescence quenching of beef liver catalase (BLC) by 6-BA is due to the formation of 6-BA-BLC complex. Hydrogen bonds and van der Waals interactions play major roles in stabilizing the complex. The Stern-Volmer quenching constant, binding constant, the corresponding thermodynamic parameters and binding numbers were measured. The results of UV-vis absorption, three-dimensional fluorescence, synchronous fluorescence and circular dichroism spectroscopic results demonstrate that the binding of 6-BA results in the micro-environment change around tyrosine (Tyr) and tryptophan (Trp) residues of BLC. The BLC-mediated conversion of H2O2 to H2O and O2, in the presence and absence of 6-BA, was also studied. Lineweaver-Burk plot indicates a noncompetitive type of inhibition. Molecular docking study was used to find the binding sites. PMID:24412785

Xu, Qin; Lu, Yanni; Jing, Longyun; Cai, Lijuan; Zhu, Xinfeng; Xie, Ju; Hu, Xiaoya

2014-04-01

146

Suitability of the traditional microbial indicators and their enumerating methods in the assessment of fecal pollution of subtropical freshwater environments.  

PubMed

Twenty-four freshwater sampling sites (11 river water, 6 spring water, and 7 groundwater) were selected from 4 sampling areas located in the northern and central parts of Taiwan. A total of 125 water samples were collected during a 5-month sampling period, and the numbers of total heterotrophic bacteria, total coliforms, fecal coliforms, enterococci, Aeromonas hydrophila, and Salmonella spp. were enumerated. Besides the traditional membrane filtration method, total coliforms and Escherichia coli were also simultaneously enumerated using the Colilert (Quanti-Tray/2000) method. On average, 94% and 80% of the water samples assessed with the Colilert method had equal or higher total coliform and E. coli counts, respectively, as compared with the membrane filtration method. Furthermore, when m-FC agar was used to enumerate fecal coliforms, 18% of the samples failed to yield the typical bluish colonies, while E. coli were counted in the same samples using the Colilert method. The data indicate that the m-FC agar culture method is inadequate for the enumeration of fecal coliforms in subtropical water samples. Significant correlations were observed between the total number of bacteria and various indicator bacteria in river water samples, but no such correlations were found for groundwater and spring water. This finding suggested that the river water was polluted by anthropogenic sources. The counts of total coliforms, E. coli, and other indicator bacteria were significantly correlated in all river water samples, while in groundwater and spring water, significant (p<0.01) correlation was only observed with enterococcal counts. The presence of total coliforms/E. coli generally implies the presence of fecal pollution possibly including pathogenic enteric bacteria. However, no Salmonella spp. were detected in any of the 107 water samples analyzed. The results of this study suggest that the use of these commonly employed microbial indicators for assessing subtropical water quality, especially in a pristine body of water (ie, mountain spring and groundwater), is highly questionable. PMID:14723262

Chao, Kuo-Kuang; Chao, Chen-Ching; Chao, Wei-Liang

2003-12-01

147

Study on the digitized and quantified evaluating method for the super information cluster of traditional Chinese medicine ultraviolet spectral fingerprints  

PubMed Central

The theories of ultraviolet spectral fingerprint (UVFP) index, information index, fluctuation index, information fluctuation index combined with the quantified UV fingerprint method (QUFM) had been established and put into practice in the Ginkgo Tablets (GT) quality evaluation. The flowing injection analysis (FIA) coupled with a diode array detector was applied as a novel method to obtain the UVFP in the region of 190-400 nm at which the absorption can reflect all the information of the chemical constituents contained ???*, n??* and n??* transition. The result showed that all batches were qualified (Grade ?3) except S8 for its too high contents. It was proved that this method made the expression of superposed information in UVFP of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) digitized and simple. What’s more, an approach which can test the total chemical content with the chromophoric characteristics in the complex system of TCM rapidly, simply and accurately was achieved by the application of QUFM. In one word, it made the exploration of the general characteristic information of the molecular absorption complex TCM in the ultraviolet regions feasible and possible. PMID:25332974

Li, Lifeng; Liu, Zhongbo; Li, Yanfei

2013-01-01

148

Interaction of tetramethylpyrazine with two serum albumins by a hybrid spectroscopic method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interactions of tetramethylpyrazine (TMPZ) with bovine serum albumin (BSA) and human serum albumin (HSA) have been investigated by various spectroscopic techniques. Fluorescence tests showed that TMPZ could bind to BSA/HSA to form complexes. The binding constants of TMPZ-BSA and TMPZ-HSA complexes were observed to be 1.442 × 104 and 3.302 × 104 M-1 at 298 K, respectively. The thermodynamic parameters (?G, ?H and ?S) calculated on the basis of different temperatures revealed that the binding of TMPZ-HSA was mainly depended on hydrophobic interaction, and yet the binding of TMPZ-BSA might involve hydrophobic interaction strongly and electrostatic interaction. The results of synchronous fluorescence, three-dimensional fluorescence, UV-vis absorption, FT-IR and CD spectra showed that the conformations of both BSA and HSA altered with the addition of TMPZ. The binding average distance between TMPZ and BSA/HSA was evaluated according to Föster non-radioactive energy transfer theory. In addition, with the aid of site markers (such as, phenylbutazone, ibuprofen and digitoxin), TMPZ primarily bound to tryptophan residues of BSA/HSA within site I (sub-domain II A).

Cheng, Zhengjun

149

Studies on the interaction of apigenin with calf thymus DNA by spectroscopic methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interaction between apigenin and calf thymus deoxyribonucleic acid (ctDNA) in a pH 7.4 Tris-HCl buffer solution was investigated by UV-Vis spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, DNA melting techniques, and viscosity measurements. It was found that apigenin molecules could intercalate into the base pairs of DNA, forming a apigenin-DNA complex with a binding constant of K310K = 6.4 × 104 L mol-1. The thermodynamic parameters enthalpy change (?H), entropy change (?S) and Gibbs free energy (?G) were calculated to be 7.36 × 104 J mol-1, 329 J K-1 mol-1 and -2.84 × 104 J mol-1 at 310 K, respectively. Hydrophobic interaction was the predominant intermolecular force in stabilizing the apigenin-DNA complex. Thermal denaturation study suggested that the stabilization of the ctDNA helix was increased when the apigenin binding to ctDNA as indicated by the increase in thermal denaturation temperature of ctDNA at around 5.0 °C in the presence of apigenin. Spectroscopic techniques together with melting techniques and viscosity determination provided evidences of intercalation mode of binding for the interaction between apigenin and ctDNA.

Zhang, Shufang; Sun, Xuejun; Kong, Rongmei; Xu, Mingming

2015-02-01

150

Interaction of Bioactive Coomassie Brilliant Blue G with Protein: Insights from Spectroscopic Methods  

PubMed Central

The binding of coomassie brilliant blue G (CBB) to bovine serum albumin (BSA) was investigated under simulative physiological conditions employing different optical spectroscopic techniques viz., fluorescence emission, UV–visible absorption and FTIR. Fluorescence quenching data obtained at different temperatures suggested the presence of dynamic type of quenching mechanism. The binding constant of CBB-BSA and the number of binding sites (n) for CBB in BSA were calculated and found to be 4.20 × 104 M?1 and 0.96 respectively, at 302 K. The value of n close to unity indicated that the protein has a single class of binding sites for CBB. The thermodynamic parameters revealed that the hydrophobic forces played a major role in the interaction of CBB to BSA. The distance between the CBB and protein was calculated using the theory of Föster’s Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET). The conformational change in the secondary structure of BSA upon interaction with dye was investigated by synchronous fluorescence and FTIR techniques. Competitive binding studies were also carried out to know the location of binding of CBB on BSA. PMID:21179322

Katrahalli, Umesha; Kalanur, Shankara Sharanappa; Seetharamappa, Jaladappagari

2010-01-01

151

The spectroscopic and the QTAIM properties of pyridine and phenanthroline derivatives using experimental and computational methods.  

PubMed

The experimental and theoretical properties of ligands consisting of pyridine and phenanthroline derivatives have been studied. The results show a very high correlation between the experimental and theoretical spectroscopic properties of the ligands such as the IR, NMR chemical shift and UV. The carboxylic units in the ligands lead to increase in the dipole and anisotropic properties of the molecules while the methyl group lead to increase in the isotropic shielding tensor of the molecules. Most of the observed UV ?max in the ligands are predominantly excitation of electrons from the HOMO-2 or HOMO-1 or HOMO to the LUMO of the ligands. The ligand 2,2-dicarboxylphenanthroline (dcphn) is predicted to be the best starting material for non-linear optical (NLO) application due to its far higher first static hyperpolarizability tensor compare to other ligands and its lowest band gap. The same ligand can also be best for DNA binding because it has the lowest value of LUMO. The atomic charge of the nitrogen is found to be highly correlated with molecular HOMO, LUMO and non-Lewis orbital. The (15)N NMR chemical shift is found to be highly correlated atomic anisotropy, energy and intra-atomic isotropic shielding tensor. PMID:24691368

Adeniyi, Adebayo A; Ajibade, Peter A

2014-07-15

152

Interaction of erucic acid with bovine serum albumin using a multi-spectroscopic method and molecular docking technique.  

PubMed

Overconsumption of erucic acid has been shown to cause heart damage in animals. The aim of this study is to evaluate the binding behaviour between erucic acid and bovine serum albumin using multi-spectroscopic methods and a molecular docking technique under physiological conditions. We find that erucic acid can quench the intrinsic fluorescence of BSA by dynamic quenching and there is a single class of binding site on BSA. In addition, the thermodynamic functions ?H and ?S are 119.14kJmol(-1) and 488.89Jmol(-1)K(-1), indicating that the hydrophobic force is a main acting force. Furthermore, the protein secondary structure changes with an increase in the content of ?-helix, measured using synchronous fluorescence, circular dichroism and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopies. The molecular docking results illustrate that erucic acid can bind with the subdomain IIA of the BSA, and hydrogen bonding is also an acting force. PMID:25465991

Shu, Yang; Xue, Weiwei; Xu, Xiaoying; Jia, Zhimin; Yao, Xiaojun; Liu, Shuwen; Liu, Lihong

2015-04-15

153

Synthesis of Black and Red Mercury Sulfide Nano-Powder by Traditional Indian Method for Biomedical Application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The use of metals and minerals in the traditional Indian system of medicine known as aired is very common and is practiced since seventh century B.C. Metals were reduced to calcined powder form for medicinal purpose. For detoxification, a further step of purification of the metals and minerals with different vegetable extracts was practiced. The people of East India were using mercury and its sulfide as medicine. Gradually this secret was leaked to Arabic physicians who used mercury in skin ointment. Subsequently Italian Physicians adopted Arabic prescriptions of mercurial ointments for skin diseases. In the olden days, metals and minerals were impregnated with decoction and juice of vegetables and animal products like milk and fat for purification. These were then reduced to fine particles by milling with a pestle and mortar. It was known by then that the fineness of the powder had a significant influence on the color, texture, and medicinal properties as is cited by Charak. Nagarjun studied in detail the processing of metals and minerals, particularly mercury and the influence of the processing parameters on the medicinal values. Mercury is unique in many aspects. Indian alchemy developed a wide variety a chemical processes for the ostensible transmutation of metals and preparation of elixir of life, in which mercury occupied a prime position .The present investigation attempts to use the traditional methods as prescribed in the ancient texts to prepare mercury sulfide in both red and black form for medicinal use. XRD, SEM and HRTEM investigations of the sulfides obtained shows that the ancient Indians were able to produce nano-sized powders. Possibly this may be taken as the earliest application of the production and use of nano powder. The study proves that even in ancient time the knowledge of nano particle synthesis was prevalent and used to enhance effectiveness of medicines. Further mercury in the free form is not acceptable in medicines. The ancient physicians could get rid of free mercury by milling and proper choice of the ratio of ingredients as is shown in the investigation by X-ray diffraction studies. In the traditional method for synthesis of mercury sulfide, mercury and pure sulfur were taken and milled in a mortar and pastel. During milling process, the white mercury and yellow sulfur yielded to a gray black colored sulfide. Synthesis of red sulfide of mercury required additional steps of heating and subsequent milling. For therapeutically application, the sulfide thus obtained needed detoxification, which was done using organic extracts. In the present investigation, the same method was followed to synthesize the sapphires and the product was characterized using modern methods like XRD, SEM and HRTEM. With increase in milling time the fineness of the powder increases, which increases the efficacy of the medicine, and free mercury, which is not desirable for medicinal application is found to decrease. The powder obtained at the end of 48 hours of milling is found to be of a size finer than l0nm.

Padhi, Payodhar; Sahoo, G.; Das, K.; Ghosh, Sudipto; Panigrahi, S. C.

2008-10-01

154

Synthesis of Black and Red Mercury Sulfide Nano-Powder by Traditional Indian Method for Biomedical Application  

SciTech Connect

The use of metals and minerals in the traditional Indian system of medicine known as aired is very common and is practiced since seventh century B.C. Metals were reduced to calcined powder form for medicinal purpose. For detoxification, a further step of purification of the metals and minerals with different vegetable extracts was practiced. The people of East India were using mercury and its sulfide as medicine. Gradually this secret was leaked to Arabic physicians who used mercury in skin ointment. Subsequently Italian Physicians adopted Arabic prescriptions of mercurial ointments for skin diseases. In the olden days, metals and minerals were impregnated with decoction and juice of vegetables and animal products like milk and fat for purification. These were then reduced to fine particles by milling with a pestle and mortar. It was known by then that the fineness of the powder had a significant influence on the color, texture, and medicinal properties as is cited by Charak. Nagarjun studied in detail the processing of metals and minerals, particularly mercury and the influence of the processing parameters on the medicinal values. Mercury is unique in many aspects. Indian alchemy developed a wide variety a chemical processes for the ostensible transmutation of metals and preparation of elixir of life, in which mercury occupied a prime position .The present investigation attempts to use the traditional methods as prescribed in the ancient texts to prepare mercury sulfide in both red and black form for medicinal use. XRD, SEM and HRTEM investigations of the sulfides obtained shows that the ancient Indians were able to produce nano-sized powders. Possibly this may be taken as the earliest application of the production and use of nano powder. The study proves that even in ancient time the knowledge of nano particle synthesis was prevalent and used to enhance effectiveness of medicines. Further mercury in the free form is not acceptable in medicines. The ancient physicians could get rid of free mercury by milling and proper choice of the ratio of ingredients as is shown in the investigation by X-ray diffraction studies. In the traditional method for synthesis of mercury sulfide, mercury and pure sulfur were taken and milled in a mortar and pastel. During milling process, the white mercury and yellow sulfur yielded to a gray black colored sulfide. Synthesis of red sulfide of mercury required additional steps of heating and subsequent milling. For therapeutically application, the sulfide thus obtained needed detoxification, which was done using organic extracts. In the present investigation, the same method was followed to synthesize the sapphires and the product was characterized using modern methods like XRD, SEM and HRTEM. With increase in milling time the fineness of the powder increases, which increases the efficacy of the medicine, and free mercury, which is not desirable for medicinal application is found to decrease. The powder obtained at the end of 48 hours of milling is found to be of a size finer than l0nm.

Padhi, Payodhar [Orissa Engineering College, Bhubaneswar (India); Sahoo, G. [Tapaswini Ayurvedic clinic and Research center, Balasore (India); Das, K. [Gopobandhu Ayurvedic Medical College, Puri (India); Ghosh, Sudipto; Panigrahi, S. C. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, IIT, Kharagpur (India)

2008-10-23

155

Application of a New Non-Linear Least Squares Velocity Curve Analysis Technique for Spectroscopic Binary Stars  

E-print Network

Using measured radial velocity data of nine double lined spectroscopic binary systems NSV 223, AB And, V2082 Cyg, HS Her, V918 Her, BV Dra, BW Dra, V2357 Oph, and YZ Cas, we find corresponding orbital and spectroscopic elements via the method introduced by Karami & Mohebi (2007a) and Karami & Teimoorinia (2007). Our numerical results are in good agreement with those obtained by others using more traditional methods.

K. Karami; R. Mohebi; M. M. Soltanzadeh

2008-09-06

156

Spectroscopic methods of process monitoring for safeguards of used nuclear fuel separations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To support the demonstration of a more proliferation-resistant nuclear fuel processing plant, techniques and instrumentation to allow the real-time, online determination of special nuclear material concentrations in-process must be developed. An ideal materials accountability technique for proliferation resistance should provide nondestructive, realtime, on-line information of metal and ligand concentrations in separations streams without perturbing the process. UV-Visible spectroscopy can be adapted for this precise purpose in solvent extraction-based separations. The primary goal of this project is to understand fundamental URanium EXtraction (UREX) and Plutonium-URanium EXtraction (PUREX) reprocessing chemistry and corresponding UV-Visible spectroscopy for application in process monitoring for safeguards. By evaluating the impact of process conditions, such as acid concentration, metal concentration and flow rate, on the sensitivity of the UV-Visible detection system, the process-monitoring concept is developed from an advanced application of fundamental spectroscopy. Systematic benchtop-scale studies investigated the system relevant to UREX or PUREX type reprocessing systems, encompassing 0.01-1.26 M U and 0.01-8 M HNO3. A laboratory-scale TRansUranic Extraction (TRUEX) demonstration was performed and used both to analyze for potential online monitoring opportunities in the TRUEX process, and to provide the foundation for building and demonstrating a laboratory-scale UREX demonstration. The secondary goal of the project is to simulate a diversion scenario in UREX and successfully detect changes in metal concentration and solution chemistry in a counter current contactor system with a UV-Visible spectroscopic process monitor. UREX uses the same basic solvent extraction flowsheet as PUREX, but has a lower acid concentration throughout and adds acetohydroxamic acid (AHA) as a complexant/reductant to the feed solution to prevent the extraction of Pu. By examining UV-Visible spectra gathered in real time, the objective is to detect the conversion from the UREX process, which does not separate Pu, to the PUREX process, which yields a purified Pu product. The change in process chemistry can be detected in the feed solution, aqueous product or in the raffinate stream by identifying the acid concentration, metal distribution and the presence or absence of AHA. A fiber optic dip probe for UV-Visible spectroscopy was integrated into a bank of three counter-current centrifugal contactors to demonstrate the online process monitoring concept. Nd, Fe and Zr were added to the uranyl nitrate system to explore spectroscopic interferences and identify additional species as candidates for online monitoring. This milestone is a demonstration of the potential of this technique, which lies in the ability to simultaneously and directly monitor the chemical process conditions in a reprocessing plant, providing inspectors with another tool to detect nuclear material diversion attempts. Lastly, dry processing of used nuclear fuel is often used as a head-end step before solvent extraction-based separations such as UREX or TRUEX. A non-aqueous process, used fuel treatment by dry processing generally includes chopping of used fuel rods followed by repeated oxidation-reduction cycles and physical separation of the used fuel from the cladding. Thus, dry processing techniques are investigated and opportunities for online monitoring are proposed for continuation of this work in future studies.

Warburton, Jamie Lee

157

Supervised methods for symptom name recognition in free-text clinical records of traditional Chinese medicine: an empirical study.  

PubMed

Clinical records of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) are documented by TCM doctors during their routine diagnostic work. These records contain abundant knowledge and reflect the clinical experience of TCM doctors. In recent years, with the modernization of TCM clinical practice, these clinical records have begun to be digitized. Data mining (DM) and machine learning (ML) methods provide an opportunity for researchers to discover TCM regularities buried in the large volume of clinical records. There has been some work on this problem. Existing methods have been validated on a limited amount of manually well-structured data. However, the contents of most fields in the clinical records are unstructured. As a result, the previous methods verified on the well-structured data will not work effectively on the free-text clinical records (FCRs), and the FCRs are, consequently, required to be structured in advance. Manually structuring the large volume of TCM FCRs is time-consuming and labor-intensive, but the development of automatic methods for the structuring task is at an early stage. Therefore, in this paper, symptom name recognition (SNR) in the chief complaints, which is one of the important tasks to structure the FCRs of TCM, is carefully studied. The SNR task is reasonably treated as a sequence labeling problem, and several fundamental and practical problems in the SNR task are studied, such as how to adapt a general sequence labeling strategy for the SNR task according to the domain-specific characteristics of the chief complaints and which sequence classifier is more appropriate to solve the SNR task. To answer these questions, a series of elaborate experiments were performed, and the results are explained in detail. PMID:24070769

Wang, Yaqiang; Yu, Zhonghua; Chen, Li; Chen, Yunhui; Liu, Yiguang; Hu, Xiaoguang; Jiang, Yongguang

2014-02-01

158

DIAGNOSTIC CARDIAC CATHETERIZATION USING THE MEDRAD AVANTA FLUID MANAGEMENT SYSTEM AS COMPARED TO THE TRADITIONAL MANUAL INJECTION METHOD  

SciTech Connect

Nearly 4 million patient procedures performed annually in US cardiac catheterization laboratories utilize contrast media to achieve vessel opacification. The amount of contrast media used is variable and depends on the complexity of the procedure, the method of contrast delivery as well as the skill-level of the operator. Since the total amount of contrast used for each procedure can have both patient safety and economic implications, it is essential for cardiologists to have the ability to control contrast delivery such that optimal angiographic image quality is achieved using the least amount of contrast. Although the complication rate associated with cardiac catheterization remains low, the most common serious complication, contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN), is associated with poor prognosis and a high mortality rate. Numerous interventional strategies for preventing and reducing the severity of CIN have demonstrated varying degrees of clinical benefit, but none has been shown to reliably prevent this serious complication. To date, the most effective approach for reducing the risk of CIN is to properly hydrate the patient and to minimize the amount of contrast media administered. Automated injection systems are intended for use in virtually all cardiac catheterization procedures and have numerous features which can provide potential advantages over traditional methods. With automated injection technology the operator is able to control and precisely monitor contrast delivery. Additionally, the MEDRAD Avanta Fluid Management Injection System utilizes a sterile contrast reservoir which eliminates the need to discard unused contrast in individual opened containers following each procedure. Considering that an average of 50% of opened contrast media is wasted using manual injection methods, this savings can provide a substantial economic benefit. Automated systems also facilitate the use of smaller (5 French) catheter sizes. Precise flow control and the use of smaller diameter catheters have both been shown to reduce the volume of contrast administered. The use of smaller size catheters also permits more rapid hemostasis, thus allowing shorter ambulation time without the need for costly wound closure devices. These factors can result in enhanced patient satisfaction as well as more efficient management of post-procedure rooms. The intent of this study was to demonstrate that using the MEDRAD Avanta Fluid Management Injection System (MEDRAD, INC., Pittsburgh, PA) for coronary diagnostic procedures can produce a reduction in the volume of contrast administered without loss of operational quality or efficiency. In addition, this study will explore procedure time and efficiency in an effort to minimize the amount of ionizing radiation delivered to the patient as well as the diagnostic team members. Study Design This is a post-market study designed to collect data during diagnostic cardiac catheterization when utilizing 5FR or 6FR catheters in conjunction with the Avanta Fluid Management System or a manual manifold injection method control group. A minimum of 420 patients scheduled for diagnostic cardiac catheterization will be enrolled in the study cohort. Patients will be assigned into the following two groups. Group 1: Catheterization with 5FR or 6FR catheters, using the traditional manual manifold injection method for contrast media delivery which is defined as manual hand injection of contrast media through a 3 or 4 port manifold and left ventriculography performed via standard fixed rate power injection. Group 2: Catheterization with 5FR or 6FR catheters, using the MEDRAD Avanta system for contrast media delivery. Study endpoints include volume of contrast media administered during diagnostic cardiac catheterization, volume of contrast media wasted post-procedure, procedure time (defined as the time from first catheter insertion to last diagnostic catheter removal), fluoroscopy time and angiographic image quality. The study demonstrated that use of the Advanta system reduced overall contrast utilization by decreasing th

Winniford, Michael D

2013-02-08

159

¹?C(n,?) ¹?C as a Test Case in the Evaluation of a New Method to Determine Spectroscopic Factors Using Asymptotic Normalization Coefficients  

E-print Network

spectroscopic factors (SFs) using the asymptotic normalization coefficient (ANC) to fix the external contribution of a nonperipheral reaction, reducing the uncertainty in the SF. The ¹?C[left right arrow]¹?C+n system was chosen as a test case for this new method...

McCleskey, Matthew Edgar

2012-02-14

160

Electron-spectroscopic imaging--a method for analysing the distribution of light elements in mammalian cells and tissues.  

PubMed

Electron-spectroscopic imaging (ESI) represents a method which is based on electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) and renders possible to image the spatial distribution of light and medium-weight elements, i.e. especially of biologically relevant elements. In the present study, the validity of the method for biological problems was investigated by analysing the time-dependent, subcellular distribution of titanium following treatment with the cytostatically active compound titanocene dichloride in the liver, which is known to be the organ where titanium mainly accumulates following therapy with titanocene dichloride, and in 3 xenografted human tumours which are known to be sensitive to the antitumour action of titanocene dichloride. In all cases, it was shown that titanium primarily accumulates in the nuclei of hepatocytes and tumour cells and that it is thereafter incorporated into cytoplasmic lysosomes. Interestingly, phosphorus is always enriched together with titanium. These results give remarkable hints to the cellular mode of action of titanocene dichloride and, moreover, qualify the ESI technique to be a valuable method for investigating the subcellular distribution of endogenously present or exogenously light and medium-weight element. PMID:1801512

Köpf-Maier, P

1991-01-01

161

A spectroscopic method for determining lignin content of softwood and hardwood kraft pulps  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rapid method for determining the kappa number of unbleached and oxygen-delignified kraft pulps in the range 3–35 is presented. This novel method was based on the multivariate analysis of VIS spectral data on pulp samples. The calculated models and the test results indicated that partial least squares (PLS) and principal component regression (PCR) models yielded similar results, PLS being

Petteri Malkavaara; Raimo Alén

1998-01-01

162

A Comparative Study of an Audio-Tutorial and a Traditional Method of Teaching Intermediate College Algebra to the Community College Students.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study tested and compared the effects of an audio-tutorial method and a traditional lecture method of instruction for an Intermediate College Algebra course and investigated how improvements should be made for the commercially-prepared and teacher-made audio-tutorial materials. A sample of 186 students was randomly selected from the…

Chinn, James Albert

163

Development of ultraviolet spectroscopic method for the estimation of metronidazole benzoate from pharmaceutical formulation  

PubMed Central

Background: The present study was undertaken with an objective to develop a simple, accurate, cost-effective and reproducible ultraviolet spectrophotometric method for the estimation of metronidazole benzoate (MB) from pharmaceutical formulations. Materials and Methods: The analysis was performed on ?max 268 nm by using 0.1 NHCl as diluents. The proposed method was validated on International Conference Harmonization guideline including the parameters viz., accuracy, linearity, precision, specificity and reproducibility. The proposed method was also used to access the content of MB in two commercial brands of Indian market. Results: Beer's law was obeyed in the concentration range of 1-10 ?g/ml having regression equation y = 0.078 x-0.012. The accuracy value for 4 ?g/ml and 5 ?g/ml concentration of MB was found to be 99.37% and 98.9% respectively. The relative standard deviation of interday and intraday was lesser than 1%. The developed method was applied on two different marketed brands and contents of MB were found to be 98.62% and 98.59% incompliance with labeled claim. The results were under the limit of acceptance statistically. Conclusion: It was concluded that the proposed method can be used for routine analysis of MB in bulk and commercial formulations. PMID:25097394

Mishra, Arun K.; Kumar, Arvind; Mishra, Amrita; Mishra, Hari V.

2014-01-01

164

A noncalibration spectroscopic method to estimate ether extract and fatty acid digestibility of feed and its validation with flaxseed and field pea in pigs.  

PubMed

Digestibility of ether extract (EE) or fatty acids (FA) is traditionally measured by chemical analyses for EE or GLC methods for FA combined with marker concentration in diet and digesta or feces. Digestibility of EE or FA may be predicted by marker concentrations and spectral analyses of diet and digesta or feces. On the basis of Beer's law, a noncalibration spectroscopic method, which used functional group digestibility (FGD) determined with marker concentration and peak intensity of spectra of diets and undigested residues (digesta or feces), was developed to predict the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of total FA and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of EE. To validate, 4 diets containing 30% flaxseed and field pea coextruded with 4 extruder treatments and a wheat and soybean basal diet with predetermined AID of total FA and ATTD of EE were used. Samples of ingredients, diets, and freeze-dried digesta and feces were scanned on a Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) instrument with a single-reflection attenuated total reflection (ATR) accessory. The intensity of either the methylene (CH2) antisymmetric stretching peak at 2,923 cm(-1) (R(2) = 0.90, P < 0.01) or the symmetric stretching peak at 2,852 cm(-1) (R(2) = 0.86, P < 0.01) of ingredients, diet, and digesta spectra was related strongly to the concentration of total FA. The AID of total FA of diets measured using GLC was predicted by the spectroscopic method using FGD at 2,923 and 2,852 cm(-1) (R(2) = 0.75, P < 0.01) with a bias of 0.54 (SD = 3.78%) and -1.35 (SD = 3.74%), respectively. The accumulated peak intensity in the region between 1,766 and 1,695 cm(-1) of spectra was related to EE concentration in ingredients and diets (R(2) = 0.61, P = 0.01) and feces (R(2) = 0.88, P < 0.01). The relation was improved by using second-derivative spectra of the sum of peak intensities at 1,743 and 1,710 cm(-1) for ingredients and diets (R(2) = 0.90, P = 0.01) and at 1,735 and 1,710 cm(-1) for feces (R(2) = 0.92, P < 0.01). The ATTD of EE of test diets determined with proximate analysis was estimated by the FGD of nonderivative spectra with or without baseline (R(2) = 0.90, P < 0.01) with a bias of 3.15 (SD = 3.14%) and 3.50 (SD = 3.24%), respectively. In conclusion, instead of using GLC methods or predictions based on calibrations, the AID of total FA and ATTD of EE can also be estimated directly from ATR FT-IR spectra, provided the ratio of marker in the diet and undigested residue is known. PMID:25186953

Wang, L F; Swift, M L; Zijlstra, R T

2014-10-01

165

Pharmacokinetic study on the mechanism of interaction of sulfacetamide sodium with bovine serum albumin: a spectroscopic method.  

PubMed

The binding of sulfacetamide sodium (SAS) to bovine serum albumin (BSA) was investigated by spectroscopic methods, namely fluorescence, FT-IR and UV-vis absorption spectral studies. The binding parameters were evaluated by a fluorescence quenching method. The thermodynamic parameters, DeltaH(0), DeltaS(0)and DeltaG(0) were observed to be -49.03 k J mol(-1), -99.9 J K(-1) mol(-1) and -18.96 k J mol(-1), respectively. These indicated that the hydrogen bonding and weak van der Waals forces played major roles in the interaction. Based on Förster's theory of non-radiation energy transfer, the binding average distance, r, between the donor (BSA) and acceptor (SAS) was evaluated and found to be 3.72 nm. The spectral results showed that binding of SAS to BSA induced conformational changes in BSA. The effect of common ions and some of the polymers used in drug delivery for controlled release were also tested on the binding of SAS to BSA. PMID:20073032

Naik, Praveen N; Chimatadar, Shivamurti A; Nandibewoor, Sharanappa T

2010-03-01

166

Luminescent materials: probing the excited state of emission centers by spectroscopic methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We review recent methods employed to study the excited state of rare-earth centers in various luminescent and scintillating materials. The focus is on processes that help determine localization of the excited state within the material band gap, namely photoionization and thermally stimulated ionization. Then the tunneling process between the luminescence center and the trapping state is addressed. We describe the experimental implementation of methods recently developed to study these processes. We report theoretical models helping the data interpretation. We also present application to currently investigated materials.

Mihóková, E.; Nikl, M.

2015-01-01

167

Interactions between CdSe\\/CdS quantum dots and DNA through spectroscopic and electrochemical methods  

Microsoft Academic Search

The interaction of CdSe\\/CdS quantum dots (QDs) with Herring sperm-DNA (hs-DNA) has been studied by UV–vis spectroscopy and electrochemical method. Cu(phen)22+\\/1+ (phen=1, 10-phenanthroline) was used as an indicator for electroactive dsDNA or ssDNA. The apparent association constant has been deduced (4.94×103M?1 and 2.39×102M?1) from the absorption spectral changes of the dsDNA–QDs and ssDNA–QDs. The results of dissociation method suggest that

Qisui Wang; Lu Yang; Tingting Fang; Shuang Wu; Peng Liu; Xinmin Min; Xi Li

2011-01-01

168

Identification of pyrazosulfuron-ethyl binding affinity and binding site subdomain IIA in human serum albumin by spectroscopic methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Pyrazosulfuron-ethyl (PY) is a sulfonylurea herbicide developed by DuPont which has been widely used for weed control in cereals. The determination of PY binding affinity and binding site in human serum albumin (HSA) by spectroscopic methods is the subject of this work. From the fluorescence emission, circular dichroism and three-dimensional fluorescence results, the interaction of PY with HSA caused secondary structure changes in the protein. Fluorescence data demonstrated that the quenching of HSA fluorescence by PY was the result of the formation of HSA-PY complex at 1:1 molar ratio, a static mechanism was confirmed to lead to the fluorescence quenching. Hydrophobic probe 8-anilino-1-naphthalenesulfonic acid (ANS) displacement results show that hydrophobic patches are the major sites for PY binding on HSA. The thermodynamic parameters ? H° and ? S° were calculated to be -36.32 kJ mol -1 and -35.91 J mol -1 K -1, which illustrated van der Waals forces and hydrogen bonds interactions were the dominant intermolecular force in stabilizing the complex. Also, site marker competitive experiments showed that the binding of PY to HSA took place primarily in subdomain IIA (Sudlow's site I). What presented in this paper binding research enriches our knowledge of the interaction between sulfonylurea herbicides and the physiologically important protein HSA.

Ding, Fei; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Xi; Wu, Li-Jun; Zhang, Li; Sun, Ying

2010-03-01

169

A mixed methods inquiry into the determinants of traditional food consumption among three Cree communities of Eeyou Istchee from an ecological perspective  

PubMed Central

Background The Aboriginal nations of Canada have higher incidences of chronic diseases, coinciding with profound changes in their environment, lifestyle and diet. Traditional foods can protect against the risks of chronic disease. However, their consumption is in decline, and little is known about the complex mechanisms underlying this trend. Objective To identify the factors involved in traditional food consumption by Cree Aboriginal people living in 3 communities in northern Quebec, Canada. Design A mixed methods explanatory design, including focus group interviews to interpret the results of logistic regression. Methods This study includes a secondary data analysis of a cross-sectional survey of 3 Cree communities (n=374) and 4 focus group interviews (n=23). In the first, quantitative phase of the study, data were collected using a food-frequency questionnaire along with a structured questionnaire. Subsequently, the focus group interviews helped explain and build on the results of logistic regressions. Results People who consume traditional food 3 days or more weekly were more likely to be 40 years old and over, to walk 30 minutes or more per day, not to have completed their schooling, to live in Mistissini and to be a hunter (p<0.05 for all comparisons). The focus group participants provided explanations for the quantitative analysis results or completed them. For example, although no statistical association was found, focus group participants believed that employment acts as both a facilitator and a barrier to traditional food consumption, rendering the effect undetectable. In addition, focus group participants suggested that traditional food consumption is the result of multiple interconnected influences, including individual, family, community and environmental influences, rather than a single factor. Conclusion This study sheds light on a number of factors that are unique to traditional foods, factors that have been understudied to date. Efforts to promote and maintain traditional food consumption could improve the overall health and wellbeing of Cree communities. PMID:25466760

Gaudin, Véronique Laberge; Receveur, Olivier; Walz, Leah; Girard, Félix; Potvin, Louise

2014-01-01

170

Interaction between deferiprone and human serum albumin: multi-spectroscopic, electrochemical and molecular docking methods.  

PubMed

The interactions between deferiprone (DEP) and human serum albumin (HSA) have been investigated systematically by fluorescence, Circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy, UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, electrochemistry and molecular modeling methods. The fluorescence quenching observed is attributed to the formation of a complex between HSA and DEP, and the reverse temperature effect of the fluorescence quenching has been found and discussed. The thermodynamic parameters, enthalpy changes (?H) and entropy change (?S) were calculated, according to the Van't Hoff equation. These data suggested that hydrophobic interaction was the predominant intermolecular forces stabilizing the complex, which was in good agreement with the results of molecular modeling study. The primary binding pattern is determined by hydrophobic interaction occurring in Sudlow's site I of HSA. DEP could slightly change the secondary structure and induce unfolding of the polypeptides of protein. An average binding distance of ?2.88 nm has been determined on the basis of the Förster's resonance energy theory (FRET). PMID:25159837

Seyed Dorraji, M S; Panahi Azar, V; Rasoulifard, M H

2014-11-20

171

Characterization of organic and inorganic optoelectronic semiconductor devices using advanced spectroscopic methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this thesis, advanced spectroscopy methods are discussed and applied to gain understanding of the physical properties of organic conjugated molecules, II-VI thin film semiconductors, and vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSEL). Experiments include single photon and two-photon excitation with lasers, with subsequent measurements of the absorption and photoluminescence, as well as photocurrent measurements using tungsten and xenon lamps, measuring the direct current and the alternating current of the devices. The materials are investigated in dissolved form (conjugated polymers), thin films (polymers, II-VI semiconductors), and complex layer structures (hybrid device, VCSEL). The experiments are analyzed and interpreted by newly developed or applied theories for two-photon saturation processes in semiconductors, bandgap shrinkage due to optically induced electron hole pairs, and the principle of detailed balance to describe the photoluminescence in thin film cadmium sulfide.

Schroeder, Raoul

172

Characterization of the Interaction between Eupatorin and Bovine Serum Albumin by Spectroscopic and Molecular Modeling Methods  

PubMed Central

This study investigated the interaction between eupatorin and bovine serum albumin (BSA) using ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) absorption, fluorescence, synchronous fluorescence, circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopies, and molecular modeling at pH 7.4. Results of UV-vis and fluorescence spectroscopies illustrated that BSA fluorescence was quenched by eupatorin via a static quenching mechanism. Thermodynamic parameters revealed that hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions played major roles in the interaction. Moreover, the efficiency of energy transfer, and the distance between BSA and acceptor eupatorin, were calculated. The effects of eupatorin on the BSA conformation were analyzed using UV-vis, CD, and synchronous fluorescence. Finally, the binding of eupatorin to BSA was modeled using the molecular docking method. PMID:23839090

Xu, Hongliang; Yao, Nannan; Xu, Haoran; Wang, Tianshi; Li, Guiying; Li, Zhengqiang

2013-01-01

173

Characterization of the Interaction between Eupatorin and Bovine Serum Albumin by Spectroscopic and Molecular Modeling Methods.  

PubMed

This study investigated the interaction between eupatorin and bovine serum albumin (BSA) using ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) absorption, fluorescence, synchronous fluorescence, circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopies, and molecular modeling at pH 7.4. Results of UV-vis and fluorescence spectroscopies illustrated that BSA fluorescence was quenched by eupatorin via a static quenching mechanism. Thermodynamic parameters revealed that hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions played major roles in the interaction. Moreover, the efficiency of energy transfer, and the distance between BSA and acceptor eupatorin, were calculated. The effects of eupatorin on the BSA conformation were analyzed using UV-vis, CD, and synchronous fluorescence. Finally, the binding of eupatorin to BSA was modeled using the molecular docking method. PMID:23839090

Xu, Hongliang; Yao, Nannan; Xu, Haoran; Wang, Tianshi; Li, Guiying; Li, Zhengqiang

2013-01-01

174

Standard test method for nondestructive assay of special nuclear material holdup using Gamma-Ray spectroscopic methods  

E-print Network

1.1 This test method describes gamma-ray methods used to nondestructively measure the quantity of 235U, or 239Pu remaining as holdup in nuclear facilities. Holdup occurs in all facilities where nuclear material is processed, in process equipment, in exhaust ventilation systems and in building walls and floors. 1.2 This test method includes information useful for management, planning, selection of equipment, consideration of interferences, measurement program definition, and the utilization of resources (1, 2, 3, 4). 1.3 The measurement of nuclear material hold up in process equipment requires a scientific knowledge of radiation sources and detectors, transmission of radiation, calibration, facility operations and error analysis. It is subject to the constraints of the facility, management, budget, and schedule; plus health and safety requirements; as well as the laws of physics. The measurement process includes defining measurement uncertainties and is sensitive to the form and distribution of the material...

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

2007-01-01

175

A Focus on Problems of National Interest in the College General Chemistry Laboratory: The Effects of the Problem-Oriented Method Compared with Those of the Traditional Approach.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study was designed to assess the effects of the problem-oriented method compared to those of the traditional approach in general chemistry at the college level. The problem-oriented course included topics such as air and water pollution, drug addiction and analysis, tetraethyl-lead additives, insecticides in the environment, and recycling of…

Neman, Robert Lynn

176

Comparison of the Effects of Cooperative Learning and Traditional Learning Methods on the Improvement of Drug-Dose Calculation Skills of Nursing Students Undergoing Internships  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of cooperative learning and traditional learning methods on the development of drug-calculation skills. Design: Final-year nursing students ("n" = 85) undergoing internships during the 2010-2011 academic year at a nursing school constituted the study group of this…

Basak, Tulay; Yildiz, Dilek

2014-01-01

177

Insights into in vitro binding of parecoxib to human serum albumin by spectroscopic methods.  

PubMed

Herein, we report the effect of parecoxib on the structure and function of human serum albumin (HSA) by using fluorescence, circular dichroism (CD), Fourier transforms infrared (FTIR), three-dimensional (3D) fluorescence spectroscopy, and molecular docking techniques. The Stern-Volmer quenching constants K(SV) and the corresponding thermodynamic parameters ?H, ?G, and ?S have been estimated by the fluorescence quenching method. The results indicated that parecoxib binds spontaneously with HSA through van der Waals forces and hydrogen bonds with binding constant of 3.45 × 10(4) M(-1) at 298 K. It can be seen from far-UV CD spectra that the ?-helical network of HSA is disrupted and its content decreases from 60.5% to 49.6% at drug:protein = 10:1. Protein tertiary structural alterations induced by parecoxib were also confirmed by FTIR and 3D fluorescence spectroscopy. The molecular docking study indicated that parecoxib is embedded into the hydrophobic pocket of HSA. PMID:24939449

Shang, Shujun; Liu, Qingling; Gao, Jiandong; Zhu, Yulin; Liu, Jingying; Wang, Kaiyan; Shao, Wei; Zhang, Shudong

2014-10-01

178

Chemometric optimization of the robustness of the near infrared spectroscopic method in wheat quality control.  

PubMed

A chemometric approach was applied for the optimization of the robustness of the NIRS method for wheat quality control. Due to the high number of experimental (n=6) and response variables to be studied (n=7) the optimization experiment was divided into two stages: screening stage in order to evaluate which of the considered variables were significant, and optimization stage to optimize the identified factors in the previously selected experimental domain. The significant variables were identified by using fractional factorial experimental design, whilst Box-Wilson rotatable central composite design (CCRD) was run to obtain the optimal values for the significant variables. The measured responses included: moisture, protein and wet gluten content, Zeleny sedimentation value and deformation energy. In order to achieve the minimal variation in responses, the optimal factor settings were found by minimizing the propagation of error (POE). The simultaneous optimization of factors was conducted by desirability function. The highest desirability of 87.63% was accomplished by setting up experimental conditions as follows: 19.9°C for sample temperature, 19.3°C for ambient temperature and 240V for instrument voltage. PMID:25281098

Poji?, Milica; Raki?, Dušan; Lazi?, Zivorad

2015-01-01

179

Vibrational spectroscopic study and NBO analysis on tranexamic acid using DFT method.  

PubMed

In this work, we reported the vibrational spectra of tranexamic acid (TA) by experimental and quantum chemical calculation. The solid phase FT-Raman and FT-IR spectra of the title compound were recorded in the region 4000 cm(-1) to 100 cm(-1) and 4000 cm(-1) to 400 cm(-1) respectively. The molecular geometry, harmonic vibrational frequencies and bonding features of TA in the ground state have been calculated by using density functional theory (DFT) B3LYP method with standard 6-31G(d,p) basis set. The scaled theoretical wavenumber showed very good agreement with the experimental values. The vibrational assignments were performed on the basis of the potential energy distribution (PED) of the vibrational modes. Stability of the molecule, arising from hyperconjugative interactions and charge delocalization, has been analyzed using Natural Bond Orbital (NBO) analysis. The results show that ED in the ?(*) and ?(*) antibonding orbitals and second order delocalization energies E(2) confirm the occurrence of intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) within the molecule. The electrostatic potential mapped onto an isodensity surface has been obtained. The calculated HOMO and LUMO energies show that charge transfer occurs within the molecule. The thermodynamic properties (heat capacity, entropy, and enthalpy) of the title compound at different temperatures were calculated in gas phase. PMID:24747330

Muthu, S; Prabhakaran, A

2014-08-14

180

Vibrational spectroscopic study and NBO analysis on tranexamic acid using DFT method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, we reported the vibrational spectra of tranexamic acid (TA) by experimental and quantum chemical calculation. The solid phase FT-Raman and FT-IR spectra of the title compound were recorded in the region 4000 cm-1 to 100 cm-1 and 4000 cm-1 to 400 cm-1 respectively. The molecular geometry, harmonic vibrational frequencies and bonding features of TA in the ground state have been calculated by using density functional theory (DFT) B3LYP method with standard 6-31G(d,p) basis set. The scaled theoretical wavenumber showed very good agreement with the experimental values. The vibrational assignments were performed on the basis of the potential energy distribution (PED) of the vibrational modes. Stability of the molecule, arising from hyperconjugative interactions and charge delocalization, has been analyzed using Natural Bond Orbital (NBO) analysis. The results show that ED in the ?* and ?* antibonding orbitals and second order delocalization energies E(2) confirm the occurrence of intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) within the molecule. The electrostatic potential mapped onto an isodensity surface has been obtained. The calculated HOMO and LUMO energies show that charge transfer occurs within the molecule. The thermodynamic properties (heat capacity, entropy, and enthalpy) of the title compound at different temperatures were calculated in gas phase.

Muthu, S.; Prabhakaran, A.

2014-08-01

181

Interaction of one anthraquinone derivative with ctDNA analyzed by spectroscopic and modeling methods.  

PubMed

The interaction of one anthraquinone derivative (AOMan) with calf thymus deoxyribonucleic acid (ctDNA) was systematically investigated at physiological pH 7.4 by fluorescence spectroscopy and molecular modeling. Binding constants of ctDNA with AOMan were calculated at different temperatures. Thermodynamic parameters, enthalpy and entropy changes were calculated according to Van't Hoff equation, which indicated that the reaction was spontaneous and predominantly enthalpically driven. The increasing viscosity of ctDNA indicated that AOMan could intercalate into the base pairs of ctDNA. This conclusion was also demonstrated by the results obtained from KI quenching, denatured DNA studies and fluorescence polarization experiment. Furthermore, the molecular modeling results showed that anthraquinone ring tended to slide into the G-C rich region of ctDNA through the hydrogen bond, which are consistent with the results from experimental methods. Studying the binding interaction of target anthraquinones with DNA is one of the key steps in their DNA-changing action and the design of new drugs. PMID:24957254

Cui, Yanrui; Fu, Zheng; Geng, Shaoguang; Zhang, Guisheng; Cui, Fengling

2014-09-01

182

Investigation on interaction between Ligupurpuroside A and pepsin by spectroscopic and docking methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ligupurpuroside A is one of the major glycoside in Ku-Din-Cha, a type of Chinese functional tea. In order to better understand its digestion and metabolism in humans, the interaction between Ligupurpuroside A and pepsin has been investigated by fluorescence spectra, UV-vis absorption spectra and synchronous fluorescence spectra along with molecular docking method. The fluorescence experiments indicate that Ligupurpuroside A can effectively quench the intrinsic fluorescence of pepsin through a combined quenching way at the low concentration of Ligupurpuroside A, and a static quenching procedure at the high concentration. The binding constant, binding sites of Ligupurpuroside A with pepsin have been calculated. The thermodynamic analysis suggests that non-covalent reactions, including electrostatic force, hydrophobic interaction and hydrogen bond are the main forces stabilizing the complex. According to the Förster's non-radiation energy transfer theory, the binding distance between pepsin and Ligupurpuroside A was calculated to be 3.15 nm, which implies that energy transfer occurs between pepsin and Ligupurpuroside A. Conformation change of pepsin was observed from UV-vis absorption spectra and synchronous fluorescence spectra under experimental conditions. In addition, all these experimental results have been validated by the protein-ligand docking studies which show that Ligupurpuroside A is located in the cleft between the domains of pepsin.

Shen, Liangliang; Xu, Hong; Huang, Fengwen; Li, Yi; Xiao, Huafeng; Yang, Zhen; Hu, Zhangli; He, Zhendan; Zeng, Zheling; Li, Yinong

2015-01-01

183

Intermolecular interaction of prednisolone with bovine serum albumin: spectroscopic and molecular docking methods.  

PubMed

The intermolecular interaction of prednisolone with bovine serum albumin (BSA) was studied using fluorescence, circular dichroism (CD) and molecular docking methods. The experimental results showed that the fluorescence quenching of the BSA at 338 nm by prednisolone resulted from the formation of prednisolone-BSA complex. The number of binding sites (n) for prednisolone binding on BSA was approximately equal to 1. Base on the sign and magnitude of the enthalpy and entropy changes (?H(0)=-149.6 kJ mol(-1) and ?S(0)=-370.7 J mol(-1)K(-1)) and the results of molecular docking, it could be suggested that the interaction forces were mainly Van der Waals and hydrogen bonding interactions. Moreover, in the binding process of BSA with prednisolone, prednisolone molecule can be inserted into the hydrophobic cavity of subdomain IIIA (site II) of BSA. The distance between prednisolone and Trp residue of BSA was calculated as 2.264 nm according to Forster's non-radiative energy transfer theory. PMID:23261625

Shi, Jie-hua; Zhu, Ying-Yao; Wang, Jing; Chen, Jun; Shen, Ya-Jing

2013-02-15

184

Investigation on interaction between Ligupurpuroside A and pepsin by spectroscopic and docking methods.  

PubMed

Ligupurpuroside A is one of the major glycoside in Ku-Din-Cha, a type of Chinese functional tea. In order to better understand its digestion and metabolism in humans, the interaction between Ligupurpuroside A and pepsin has been investigated by fluorescence spectra, UV-vis absorption spectra and synchronous fluorescence spectra along with molecular docking method. The fluorescence experiments indicate that Ligupurpuroside A can effectively quench the intrinsic fluorescence of pepsin through a combined quenching way at the low concentration of Ligupurpuroside A, and a static quenching procedure at the high concentration. The binding constant, binding sites of Ligupurpuroside A with pepsin have been calculated. The thermodynamic analysis suggests that non-covalent reactions, including electrostatic force, hydrophobic interaction and hydrogen bond are the main forces stabilizing the complex. According to the Förster's non-radiation energy transfer theory, the binding distance between pepsin and Ligupurpuroside A was calculated to be 3.15 nm, which implies that energy transfer occurs between pepsin and Ligupurpuroside A. Conformation change of pepsin was observed from UV-vis absorption spectra and synchronous fluorescence spectra under experimental conditions. In addition, all these experimental results have been validated by the protein-ligand docking studies which show that Ligupurpuroside A is located in the cleft between the domains of pepsin. PMID:25078459

Shen, Liangliang; Xu, Hong; Huang, Fengwen; Li, Yi; Xiao, Huafeng; Yang, Zhen; Hu, Zhangli; He, Zhendan; Zeng, Zheling; Li, Yinong

2015-01-25

185

The Behavioral Objectives Delivery System: Development and Evaluation Comparison to the Traditional Lecture Method in Child Psychology.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A study was conducted to ascertain whether the use of behavioral objectives in the conduct of a child psychology course would be more effective as an instructional delivery system than the traditional lecture-centered, note-taking approach. An experimental group received instruction in child psychology by means of the behavioral objectives…

Ostrowski, Michael V.

186

Abstract--Hand impairment is common following stroke and is often resistant to traditional therapy methods. Successful  

E-print Network

to sixty-six percent of all individuals who have had a stroke have arm impairments six months post-strokeAbstract--Hand impairment is common following stroke and is often resistant to traditional therapy for training movement in conjunction with the device. Seven stroke suvrvivors with chronic hand impairment

Kenyon, Robert V.

187

IR spectroscopic methods for the investigation of the CO release from CORMs.  

PubMed

Carbon monoxide (CO) is a toxic gas for mammals, and despite this fact, it is naturally produced in these organisms and has been proven to be beneficial in medical treatments, too. Therefore, CO-releasing molecules (CORMs) are intensively developed to administer and dose CO for physiological applications. Nearly all of these compounds are metal carbonyl complexes, which have been synthesized and investigated. However, for most of these CORMs, the exact reaction mechanisms of CO release is not completely elucidated, although it is of utmost importance. The widely used myoglobin assay for testing the CO release has several disadvantages, and therefore, different methods have to be applied to characterize CORMs. In this work, different setups of IR absorption spectroscopy are used to analyze and quantify the CO release during the decay of various CORMs: IR spectroscopy of the gas phase is applied to follow the CO liberation, and attenuated total reflection (ATR) IR spectroscopy is used to record the decay of the metal carbonyl. IR spectroscopy supported by DFT calculations yields valuable insights in the CO release reaction mechanism. The focus is set on two different CORMs: CORM-2 (Ru2(CO)(6)Cl(4)) and on the photoactive CORM-S1 (photoCORM [Fe(CO)2(SCH2CH2NH2)2]). Our results indicate that the CO liberation from CORM-2 strongly depends on sodium dithionite, which is required for the commonly applied myoglobin assay and that CORM-S1 loses all its bound CO molecules upon irradiation with blue light. PMID:24978105

Klein, Moritz; Neugebauer, Ute; Gheisari, Ali; Malassa, Astrid; Jazzazi, Taghreed M A; Froehlich, Frank; Westerhausen, Matthias; Schmitt, Michael; Popp, Jürgen

2014-07-24

188

Development of a Tunable Laser Spectroscopic Method for Determining Multiple Sulfur Isotope Composition of Nanomoles of SO2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multiple sulfur isotope (32S, 33S, 34S, 36S) analyses of geological material provide important constraints on the sulfur cycles on Earth [1] and other planetary bodies, e.g., Mars [2]. However, most current multiple sulfur isotope measurements are performed on magnetic sector isotope ratio mass spectrometers (IRMS) and thus require relatively large sample size (usually about several micromoles of sulfur, except the MC-ICPMS and SIMS methods) and time-consuming sample preparation procedures. More importantly, these IRMS methods demand relatively sophisticated instrumentation, and are not ideal for field measurements or flight missions. In contrast, laser spectroscopic methods provide opportunities for significantly reducing the sample size requirement and enabling real-time monitoring in the field, and have been proven to be of great importance in the isotopic measurements of many molecules in nature, e.g. CO2, H2O, N2O, CH4. Based on a prototype built for measuring ?34S of SO2 [3], we're developing a new tunable laser spectrometer (TLS) for simultaneously determining the ?34S and ?33S of nanomoles of pure SO2. We have identified a new spectral window (<1 cm-1 wide) suitable for measuring 32SO2, 33SO2, 34SO2 simultaneously. Ongoing work focuses on increasing the optical path length of the analysis cell and determining the optimal analytical conditions, with the goal of achieving ?0.5‰ precision in both ?34S and ?33S over 30 seconds of analysis duration of ~20 nmol of pure SO2. Progress of these developments and comparison with conventional IRMS methods will be presented at the meeting. As a case study, we will also present preliminary TLS results from laboratory low pressure SO2 UV photolysis experiments where ?34S and ?33S of the residual SO2 are expected to decrease as the photolysis proceeds [4]. Future developments of this method will involve the coupling of a sample introduction system to enable multiple sulfur isotope analysis of samples other than pure SO2 [3]. [1] Johnston (2011) Earth Sci. Rev. 106, 161-183; [2] Farquhar et al. (2000) Nature. 404, 50-52; [3] Christensen et al. (2007) Anal. Chem. 79, 9261-9268; [4] Guo et al. (2010) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta. 74, A366.

Guo, W.; Christensen, L. E.

2013-12-01

189

Determination of the structure of the oxidative cyclization products of 4-methoxy-N, N'-dithioaroyl- m-phenylendiamines by spectroscopic methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

4-Methoxy-N, N'-dithiobenzoyl- m-phenylendiamine (dithioamide) has been subjected to oxidation with potassium ferricyanide. By using the equimolar amounts of dithioamide and ferricyanide only a partially cylized compounds has been obtained, whereas when the great amount of ferricyanide is used the cyclization is completed. The structures of the oxidative products as well as of the parent compounds are studied by spectroscopic methods.

Petrova, D.; Kostov, V.; Petrov, I.

1986-03-01

190

Characterization of novel lithium battery cathode materials by spectroscopic methods: the Li5+xFeO? system.  

PubMed

The novel, lithium-rich oxide-phase Li?FeO? (LFO) could, in theory, deliver a specific capacity >900 mAh/g when deployed as a cathode or cathode precursor in a battery with a lithium-based anode. However, research results to date on LFO indicate that less than one of the five Li? cations can be reversibly de-intercalated/re-intercalated during repetitive charging and discharging cycles. In the present research, the system Li5+xFeO? with x values in the range of 0.0-2.0 was investigated by a combination of Raman and X-ray absorption spectroscopic methods supported by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis in order to determine if the Li?FeO? lattice would accommodate additional Li? ions, with concomitant lowering of the valence on the FeIII cations. Both the Raman phonon spectra and the XRD patterns were invariant for all values of x, strongly indicating that additional Li? did not enter the Li?FeO? lattice. Also, Raman spectral results and high-resolution synchrotron XRD data revealed the presence of second-phase Li?O in all samples with x greater than 0.0. Synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopy at the Fe k? edge performed on the sample with a Li-Fe ratio of 7.0 (i.e., x = 2.0) showed no evidence for the presence of FeII. This resistance to accepting more lithium into the Li?FeO? structure is attributed to the exceedingly stable nature of high-spin FeIII in tetrahedral "FeIIIO?" structural units of Li?FeO?. Partial substitution of the FeIII with other cations could provide a path toward increasing the reversible Li? content of Li5xFeO?-type phases. PMID:23876729

Maroni, Victor A; Johnson, Christopher S; Rood, Shawn C M; Kropf, A Jeremy; Bass, Dean A

2013-08-01

191

Study on the interaction of Co (III) DiAmsar with serum albumins: Spectroscopic and molecular docking methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study was designed to examine the interaction of cobalt-3,6,10,13,16,19-hexaazabicyclo[6.6.6]eicosane-1,8-diamine (Co(III) DiAmsar) as a hexadentate ligand with human serum albumin (HSA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) under physiological conditions in Tris-HCl buffer solution at pH 7.4. To this aim, at first, Co (III) DiAmsar was synthesized and characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and mass spectroscopy and then its interaction with HSA and BSA was investigated by means of various spectroscopic methods (Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), UV-visible (UV-vis), fluorescence, and cyclic voltammetry (CV)) and molecular docking technique. The results of fluorescence titration revealed that the Co (III) DiAmsar strongly quench the intrinsic fluorescence of HSA and BSA through a static quenching procedure. Binding constants (Ka) and the number of binding sites (n ? 1) were calculated using Stern-Volmer equations. The ?G parameters at different temperatures were calculated. Subsequently, the values of ?H and ?S were also calculated, which revealed that the van der Waals and hydrogen bonding interaction splay a major role in Co (III) DiAmsar-HSA and Co (III) DiAmsar-BSA associations. The distance r between donor (HSA and BSA) and acceptor (Co (III) DiAmsar) was obtained according to fluorescence resonance energy transfer. The data obtained by the molecular modeling study revealed the surrounding residues of HSA and BSA around Co (III) DiAmsar.

Farahani, Bahman Vasheghani; Bardajee, Ghasem Rezanejade; Rajabi, Farzaneh Hosseinpour; Hooshyar, Zari

2015-01-01

192

Studies of the interaction between demeclocycline and human serum albumin by multi-spectroscopic and molecular docking methods.  

PubMed

This study was designed to examine the interaction of demeclocycline (DMCTC) with human serum albumin (HSA) by multi-spectroscopic and molecular docking methods. The inner filter effect was corrected before we calculated the binding parameters. Fluorescence and UV-vis spectroscopy revealed that DMCTC induced the fluorescence quenching of HSA though a static quenching procedure. Thermodynamic analysis by Van Hoff equation found enthalpy change (?H) and entropy change (?S) were -53.01 kJ mol(-1) and -65.13 J mol(-1)K(-1), respectively, which indicated hydrogen bond and van der Waals force were the predominant force in the binding process. According to fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), the specific binding distances between Trp-214 (donor) and DMCTC (acceptor) were 3.18 nm. Through site marker competitive experiments, subdomain IIA of HSA has been assigned to possess the high-affinity binding site of DMCTC. The three dimensional fluorescence showed that the conformation of HSA was changed after its complexation with DMCTC, and the alternations of protein secondary structure were quantitatively calculated from FT-IR with reduction of ?-helices content about 4.8%, ?-sheet from 30.3% to 21.6% and with increases of ?-turn from 15.6% to 22.2%. Furthermore, the binding details between DMCTC and HSA were further confirmed by molecular docking studies, which revealed that DMCTC was bound at subdomain IIA through multiple interactions, such as hydrophobic effect, polar forces and ?-? interactions. Moreover, the coexist metal ions such as Al(3+), Fe(3+), Cu(2+), Cr(3+) and Cd(2+) can decrease the binding constants of DMCTC-HSA. PMID:23261611

Dong, Chengyu; Ma, Shuying; Liu, Ying

2013-02-15

193

Study on the interaction of Co (III) DiAmsar with serum albumins: spectroscopic and molecular docking methods.  

PubMed

This study was designed to examine the interaction of cobalt-3,6,10,13,16,19-hexaazabicyclo[6.6.6]eicosane-1,8-diamine (Co(III) DiAmsar) as a hexadentate ligand with human serum albumin (HSA) and bovine serum albumin (BSA) under physiological conditions in Tris-HCl buffer solution at pH 7.4. To this aim, at first, Co (III) DiAmsar was synthesized and characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and mass spectroscopy and then its interaction with HSA and BSA was investigated by means of various spectroscopic methods (Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), UV-visible (UV-vis), fluorescence, and cyclic voltammetry (CV)) and molecular docking technique. The results of fluorescence titration revealed that the Co (III) DiAmsar strongly quench the intrinsic fluorescence of HSA and BSA through a static quenching procedure. Binding constants (Ka) and the number of binding sites (n?1) were calculated using Stern-Volmer equations. The ?G parameters at different temperatures were calculated. Subsequently, the values of ?H and ?S were also calculated, which revealed that the van der Waals and hydrogen bonding interaction splay a major role in Co (III) DiAmsar-HSA and Co (III) DiAmsar-BSA associations. The distance r between donor (HSA and BSA) and acceptor (Co (III) DiAmsar) was obtained according to fluorescence resonance energy transfer. The data obtained by the molecular modeling study revealed the surrounding residues of HSA and BSA around Co (III) DiAmsar. PMID:25105263

Farahani, Bahman Vasheghani; Bardajee, Ghasem Rezanejade; Rajabi, Farzaneh Hosseinpour; Hooshyar, Zari

2015-01-25

194

Near-infrared diode laser based spectroscopic detection of ammonia: a comparative study of photoacoustic and direct optical absorption methods  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A photoacoustic spectroscopic (PAS) and a direct optical absorption spectroscopic (OAS) gas sensor, both using continuous-wave room-temperature diode lasers operating at 1531.8 nm, were compared on the basis of ammonia detection. Excellent linear correlation between the detector signals of the two systems was found. Although the physical properties and the mode of operation of both sensors were significantly different, their performances were found to be remarkably similar, with a sub-ppm level minimum detectable concentration of ammonia and a fast response time in the range of a few minutes.

Bozoki, Zoltan; Mohacsi, Arpad; Szabo, Gabor; Bor, Zsolt; Erdelyi, Miklos; Chen, Weidong; Tittel, Frank K.

2002-01-01

195

Spectroscopic networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Approaches related to graph theory are given which allow a better understanding of and yield routes for systematic enlargement and improvement of experimental spectroscopic line lists of molecules. The protocols are based on the fact that the information in line lists can be related to large-scale, weighted, undirected graphs, whereby the vertices are discrete energy levels, the edges are transitions, and the weights are transition intensities. The resulting graph is what one may call a spectroscopic network (SN). It is shown on the example of the HD16O isotopologue of the water molecule that both its measured and first-principles one-photon absorption SNs have a scale-free behavior with all of the usual consequences, including appearance of hubs, robustness, error tolerance, and the "small-world" property. The graph-theoretical view of molecular spectra offers several new ideas for improving the accuracy and robustness of the information systems containing high-resolution spectroscopic data.

Csaszar, A. G.; Furtenbacher, T.

2011-05-01

196

Simultaneous quantification of six major phenolic acids in the roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza and four related traditional Chinese medicinal preparations by HPLC–DAD method  

Microsoft Academic Search

A high-performance liquid chromatographic method was applied to the determination of danshensu, protocatechuic aldehyde, rosmarinic acid, lithospermic acid, salvianolic acid B and salvianolic acid A in the roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza and four related traditional Chinese medicinal preparations. The six phenolic acids were simultaneously analyzed with a Zorbax Extend C18 column by gradient elution using 0.026% (v\\/v) phosphoric acid and

Ai-Hua Liu; Lie Li; Man Xu; Yan-Hua Lin; Hong-Zhu Guo; De-An Guo

2006-01-01

197

A combined HPLC-PDA and HPLC-MS method for quantitative and qualitative analysis of 10 major constituents in the traditional Chinese medicine Zuo Gui Wan  

Microsoft Academic Search

A method using a high-performance liquid chromatograph coupled with a photodiode array UV detector (HPLC-DAD) and an electrospray ionization mass spectrometer (HPLC-ESI\\/MS) was developed for the quality assessment (fingerprinting and simultaneous quantification of 10 major constituents) of Zuo Gui Wan (ZGW), a Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). The compounds were identified on the basis of comparison of their mass spectra with

Xu Liang; Xi Zhang; Weixing Dai; Yonghai Lv; Shikai Yan; Weidong Zhang

2009-01-01

198

Is DNA Barcoding Actually Cheaper and Faster than Traditional Morphological Methods: Results from a Survey of Freshwater Bioassessment Efforts in the United States?  

PubMed Central

Taxonomic identification accounts for a substantial portion of cost associated with bioassessment programs across the United States. New analytical approaches, such as DNA barcoding have been promoted as a way to reduce monitoring costs and improve efficiency, yet this assumption has not been thoroughly evaluated. We address this question by comparing costs for traditional morphology-based bioassessment, the standard Sanger sequencing-based DNA barcoding approach, and emerging next-generation (NGS) molecular methods. Market demand for molecular approaches is also assessed through a survey of the level of freshwater bioassessment effort in the United States across multiple habitat types (lakes, streams, wetlands) and indicators (benthic invertebrates, fish, algae). All state and regional level programs administered by public agencies and reported via agency web sites were included in the survey. Costs were based on surveys of labs and programs willing to provide such information. More than 19,500 sites are sampled annually across the United States, with the majority of effort occurring in streams. Benthic invertebrates are the most commonly used indicator, but algae and fish comprise between 35% and 21% of total sampling effort, respectively. We estimate that between $104 and $193 million is spent annually on routine freshwater bioassessment in the United States. Approximately 30% of the bioassessment costs are comprised of the cost to conduct traditional morphology-based taxonomy. Current barcoding costs using Sanger sequencing are between 1.7 and 3.4 times as expensive as traditional taxonomic approaches, excluding the cost of field sampling (which is common to both approaches). However, the cost of NGS methods are comparable (or slightly less expensive) than traditional methods depending on the indicator. The promise of barcoding as a cheaper alternative to current practices is not yet realized, although molecular methods may provide other benefits, such as a faster sample processing and increased taxonomic resolution. PMID:24755838

Stein, Eric D.; Martinez, Maria C.; Stiles, Sara; Miller, Peter E.; Zakharov, Evgeny V.

2014-01-01

199

CD Spectroscope  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, learners use an old CD to construct a spectroscope, a device that separates light into its component colors. Learners will hold it up to various light sources to examine how different light has different color strengths. Use this activity to introduce learners to the color spectrum and the tools scientists use to study it.

University, Colorado S.

2009-01-01

200

Spectroscopic networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Approaches related to graph theory are investigated which allow a better understanding and yield routes for systematic enlargement and improvement of experimental spectroscopic line lists of molecules. The proposed protocols are based on the fact that quantum mechanics builds, in a simple and natural way, large-scale, weighted, undirected graphs, whereby the vertices are discrete energy levels, the edges are transitions, and the weights are transition intensities. A small part of molecular quantum mechanical graphs can be probed experimentally via high-resolution spectroscopic techniques, while the complete graph encompassing the full line list information for a given molecule can be obtained through sophisticated variational nuclear motion computations. Both approaches yield what one may call spectroscopic networks (SNs). It is shown on the example of the HD 16O isotopologue of the water molecule that both the measured and the computed one-photon absorption SNs have a scale-free behavior with all of the usual consequences, including appearance of hubs, robustness, error tolerance, and the "small-world" property. For the complete computed "deterministic" network the scale-free property holds if a realistic intensity cut-off is employed during its build-up, thus introducing "stochasticity". The graph-theoretical view of molecular spectra offers several new ideas for improving the accuracy and robustness of the information systems containing high-resolution spectroscopic data.

Császár, Attila G.; Furtenbacher, Tibor

2011-04-01

201

Spectroscopic Diagnostics for AGNs  

E-print Network

A review of the spectroscopic tools needed to characterize AGNs is presented. This review focusses on ultraviolet, optical and infrared emission-line diagnostics specifically designed to help differentiate AGNs from starburst-dominated galaxies. The strengths and weaknesses of these methods are discussed in the context of on-going and future AGN surveys.

Sylvain Veilleux

2002-01-08

202

Evaluating the performance and acceptance of teleconference instruction versus traditional teaching methods for undergraduate and graduate students.  

PubMed

Institutions are currently seeking alternative ways to deliver a full-line of course materials without acquiring additional staffing. Hence, faculty is charged with creating alternative ways to deliver or offer course content to students. The purpose of this study was to evaluate undergraduate and graduate performance and perception of teleconferencing versus traditional blackboard lectures. In the undergraduate course, we discovered that students performed equally as well on exams and provided favorable reviews of the course; however, the acceptance of this new format is lacking given the enrollment and number of students dropping, e.g., 30 to 40% reduction in the course before semester's end. On the other hand, students taking the graduate course appear to accept the technology well with consistent enrollments and achievement in course content. In summary, using teleconferencing as a way to teach students may be better suited for graduate students when compared to undergraduates. PMID:12580242

Latour, M A; Collodi, P

2003-01-01

203

A comparative study on the traditional Indian Shodhana and Chinese processing methods for aconite roots by characterization and determination of the major components  

PubMed Central

Background Aconitum is an indispensable entity of the traditional medicine therapy in Ayurveda and Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), in spite of its known fatal toxicity characteristics. The prolonged use of this drug, irrespective of its known lethal effects, is governed by the practice of effective detoxification processes that have been used for decades. However, the processing methods of Ayurveda and TCM are different, and no comparative study has been carried out to evaluate their differences. The objective of the present study was to carry out comparative chemical profiling of the roots of Aconitum heterophyllum Wall, A. carmichaelii Debx., and A. kusnezoffii Reichb. after application of two detoxification methods used in Ayurveda and one method used in TCM . Results Analysis of the processed samples was carried out by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography combined with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-QTOF/MS). The results obtained in the study demonstrate that all three processing methods used in Ayurveda and TCM effectively extract the diester diterpenoid alkaloids and led to their conversion into monoester diterpenoid alkaloids. The efficiency of the processes in reduction of toxic alkaloid contents can be stated as: Processing with water?>?Shodhana with cow milk?>?Shodhana with cow urine. The analysis method was validated as per ICH-Q2R1 guidelines and all the parameters were found to comply with the recommendations stated in the guidelines. Conclusions There have been no reports till date, to compare the processing methods used in Ayurveda with the methods used in TCM for detoxification of aconite roots. Our study demonstrates that, these methods used in both the traditional systems of medicine, efficiently detoxify the aconite roots. Amongst the three selected procedures, the TCM method of decoction with water is the most efficient. Through experimental evidences, we prove the conversion of toxic diester diterpenoid alkaloids to relatively safer monoester diterpenoid alkaloids. Thus, this study demonstrates that comparative study on the traditional experiences accumulated in different medical systems is useful for expanding their respective applications. PMID:24156713

2013-01-01

204

Comparing two methods of education (virtual versus traditional) on learning of Iranian dental students: a post-test only design study  

PubMed Central

Background The importance of using technologies such as e-learning in different disciplines is discussed in the literature. Researchers have measured the effectiveness of e-learning in a number of fields. Considering the lack of research on the effectiveness of online learning in dental education particularly in Iran, the advantages of these learning methods and the positive university atmosphere regarding the use of online learning. This study, therefore, aims to compare the effects of two methods of teaching (virtual versus traditional) on student learning. Methods This post-test only design study approached 40, fifth year dental students of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences. From this group, 35 students agreed to participate. These students were randomly allocated into two groups, experimental (virtual learning) and comparison (traditional learning). To ensure similarity between groups, we compared GPAs of all participants by the Mann–Whitney U test (P?>?0.05). The experimental group received a virtual learning environment courseware package specifically designed for this study, whereas the control group received the same module structured in a traditional lecture form. The virtual learning environment consisted of online and offline materials. Two identical valid, reliable post-tests that consisted of 40 multiple choice questions (MCQs) and 4 essay questions were administered immediately (15 min) after the last session and two months later to assess for knowledge retention. Data were analyzed by SPSS version 20. Results A comparison of the mean knowledge score of both groups showed that virtual learning was more effective than traditional learning (effect size?=?0.69). Conclusion The newly designed virtual learning package is feasible and will result in more effective learning in comparison with lecture-based training. However further studies are needed to generalize the findings of this study. PMID:24597923

2014-01-01

205

Laboratory spectroscopic diagnostics of TLE-like air plasmas: methods to derive the rotational (gas) temperature in TLEs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Laboratory low pressure (0.1 mbar < p < 2 mbar) glow air discharges have been studies by optical emission spectroscopy to illustrate several spectroscopic techniques that, depending on the available spectral resolution, could be implemented by different field spectrographs to experimentally quantify the gas temperature associated with Transient Luminous Events (TLEs) occurring at different altitudes including blue jets, giant blue jets and sprites. The laboratory air plasmas investigated have been analysed from the near UV (300 nm) to the near IR (1060 nm) with high (up to 0.01 nm) and low (2 nm) spectral resolution commercial grating spectrographs and by an in-house developed intensified CCD grating spectrograph that we have recently developed in our group at IAA - CSIC for TLE spectral diagnostic surveys with 0.45 nm spectral resolution. We discuss the results of laboratory tests and comment on the convenience of using one or another technique for rotational (gas) temperature determination during TLE spectroscopic campaigns. Finally, we will also show a comparison of the vibrational distribution function (VDF) of N2(B) obtained from (a) experiments in low pressure laboratory air plasmas produced in conditions similar to TLEs, (b) spectroscopic emissions from real TLE air plasmas and (c) compute from kinetic modeling.

Gordillo-Vazquez, F.; Parra-Rojas, F.; Passas, M.; Carrasco, E.; Luque, A.; Tanarro, I.; Simek, M.

2013-12-01

206

Tradition in Science  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the influence of tradition in science on selection of scientific problems and methods and on the use of concepts as tools for research work. Indicates that future research studies will be directed toward the change of fundamental concepts in such fields as astrophysics, molecular biology, and environmental science. (CC)

Heisenberg, Werner

1973-01-01

207

Virtual Reality Anatomy: Is It Comparable with Traditional Methods in the Teaching of Human Forearm Musculoskeletal Anatomy?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The use of cadavers to teach anatomy is well established, but limitations with this approach have led to the introduction of alternative teaching methods. One such method is the use of three-dimensional virtual reality computer models. An interactive, three-dimensional computer model of human forearm anterior compartment musculoskeletal anatomy…

Codd, Anthony M.; Choudhury, Bipasha

2011-01-01

208

Spectroscopic database  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several aspects of quantitative atmospheric spectroscopy are considered, using a classification of the molecules according to the gas amounts in the stratosphere and upper troposphere, and reviews of quantitative atmospheric high-resolution spectroscopic measurements and field measurements systems are given. Laboratory spectroscopy and spectral analysis and prediction are presented with a summary of current laboratory spectroscopy capabilities. Spectroscopic data requirements for accurate derivation of atmospheric composition are discussed, where examples are given for space-based remote sensing experiments of the atmosphere: the ATMOS (Atmospheric Trace Molecule) and UARS (Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite) experiment. A review of the basic parameters involved in the data compilations; a summary of information on line parameter compilations already in existence; and a summary of current laboratory spectroscopy studies are used to assess the data base.

Husson, N.; Barbe, A.; Brown, L. R.; Carli, B.; Goldman, A.; Pickett, H. M.; Roche, A. E.; Rothman, L. S.; Smith, M. A. H.

1985-01-01

209

Astrometric Spectroscopic  

E-print Network

The Astrometric and Spectroscopic Parallaxes of Three Dwarf Novae (SS Aur, U Gem, and SS Cyg) ­­­T, covering the region 2.18 to 2.30 µm, for U Gem and SS Aur, and lower resolution (15�/pix) for all three DN vs. M V for the three DN. The moderate resolution spectra of SS Aur, U Gem, and the late­type dwarf

Harrison, Thomas

210

Relevance of V?k??yurveda and other traditional methods for organic production of nursery seedlings of useful plants  

PubMed Central

Plant propagation is critical to augment the resource and has been the main concern for farmers and planters through history. India has evolved the science of V?k??yurveda to address the above issue. An effort is made here to review V?k??yurveda literature related to nursery techniques. Different libraries were visited and relevant review material obtained by hand search and from databases. Interaction with Sanskrit scholars and eminent scientists working in the field of V?k??yurveda, as well as the efforts of the authors of this paper, helped in the selection of pertinent literature. In the absence of original texts, authentic translations of the publications were referred. A conscious decision was made to limit the search to the fields of seed storage, pretreatment and nutrition of seedlings. To have a comparative account recent trends and literature on nursery technology were also examined. This was supplemented by interviews with traditional organic farmers. Our survey revealed that the time period of the literature pertaining to V?k??yurveda ranges from BCE 1200 to the present times. The subject has evolved from morphological descriptions and uses of plants, in texts such as ?gveda and Atharvaveda, to treatises dedicated solely to the art of growing plants like K??i-Par??ara and V?k??yurveda. It is also evident that there were important periods when more works appeared across subjects such as water divining, soil types, seed collection and storage, propagation, germination and sprouting, watering regimen, pest, and disease control. The review revealed that valuable information pertaining to nursery techniques is available in V?k??yurveda, which can be used in the development of nursery protocol. This will not only help in effective organic nursery management, but also ensure the health and livelihood security of the communities involved and effective waste management. PMID:25161333

Suresh, Geetha; Haridasan, K.; Krishnamurthy, Kulithala Viswanathan

2013-01-01

211

Digital assist: A comparison of two note-taking methods (traditional vs. digital pen) for students with emotional behavioral disorders  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High school biology classes traditionally follow a lecture format to disseminate content and new terminology. With the inclusive practices of No Child Left Behind, the Common Core State Standards, and end-of-course exam requirement for high school diplomas, classes include a large range of achievement levels and abilities. Teachers assume, often incorrectly, that students come to class prepared to listen and take notes. In a standard diploma, high school biology class in a separate school for students with emotional and behavioral disorders, five students participated in a single-subject, alternating treatment design study that compared the use of regular pens and digital pens to take notes during 21 lecture sessions. Behavior measures were threefold between the two interventions: (a) quantity of notes taken per minute during lectures, (b) quantity of notes or notations taken during review pauses, and (c) percent of correct responses on the daily comprehension quizzes. The study's data indicated that two students were inclined to take more lecture notes when using the digital pen. Two students took more notes with the regular pen. One student demonstrated no difference in her performance with either pen type. Both female students took more notes per minute, on average, than the three males regardless of pen type. During the review pause, three of the five students only added notes or notations to their notes when using the regular pen. The remaining two students did not add to their notes. Quiz scores differed in favor of the regular pen. All five participants earned higher scores on quizzes given during regular pen sessions. However, the differences were minor, and recommendations are made for specific training in note-taking, the pause strategy, and digital pen fluency which may produce different results for both note-taking and quiz scores.

Rody, Carlotta A.

212

Velocity Curve Analysis of the Spectroscopic Binary Stars NSV 223, AB And, V2082 Cyg, HS Her, V918 Her, BV Dra, BW Dra, V2357 Oph, and YZ Cas by the Non-linear Least Squares  

E-print Network

Using measured radial velocity data of nine double lined spectroscopic binary systems NSV 223, AB And, V2082 Cyg, HS Her, V918 Her, BV Dra, BW Dra, V2357 Oph, and YZ Cas, we find corresponding orbital and spectroscopic elements via the method introduced by Karami & Mohebi (2007a) and Karami & Teimoorinia (2007). Our numerical results are in good agreement with those obtained by others using more traditional methods.

K. Karami; R. Mohebi; M. M. Soltanzadeh

2008-08-13

213

Organic matter characterization by infrared spectroscopic methods in lake sediment records from boreal and subarctic Sweden: Implications for long-term carbon cycling  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Freshwater systems play an important role in the global carbon cycle. In this dynamic system, inorganic and organic carbon can be incorporated into biota, effluxed to the atmosphere or accumulated in sediments. The amount and composition of the carbon, derived from both aquatic and terrestrial sources, accumulated in sediments depend on the climatic and environmental conditions present in the lake and its catchment, and are thus sensitive to changes in, e.g., temperature, precipitation, vegetation and hydrological flow patterns. In this study, we show the application of infrared spectroscopic methods to qualitatively and quantitatively characterize organic matter stored in lake sediments with a focus on changes in the source of terrestrial-derived organic matter. Infrared spectroscopic methods facilitate a fast, cost-efficient and non-destructive analysis of minerogenic as well as organic sediment components. We applied three different infrared spectroscopic analyses - visible-near infrared spectroscopy (VNIRS; 25000-4000 cm-1), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy in the mid-IR region (FTIR; 3750-400 cm-1) and a combined Fourier-transformed infrared - thermal programmed desorption technique (FTIR-TPD; 3750-400 cm-1) - to Holocene sediment records from two Swedish lakes, Lång-Älgsjön and Lake Koukkel, to reconstruct past changes in the organic matter composition. The infrared spectral information of these records indicate sections of different organic matter composition reflecting varying stages of the lake and landscape development. An early-Holocene mire development around the boreal lake Lång-Älgsjön led to an increased input of organic matter from the catchment into the lake initiating an early natural lake acidification, whereas the subarctic Lake Koukkel has been affected by mire and potentially late-Holocene permafrost dynamics, which caused an increased and less variable input of allochthonous organic matter. Overall, variations in organic matter composition seem mainly driven by changes in the landscape rather than any direct effects of successive climate changes. Our findings emphasize that infrared spectroscopic methods are a promising tool for the fast and cost-effective characterization of organic matter in sediment samples, particularly with regard to the detection of qualitative differences between samples. An improved understanding of past variations in the organic matter composition and the related processes driving these changes is essential to further understand the interactions in the carbon cycle between the terrestrial and aquatic systems.

Meyer-Jacob, Carsten; Rosén, Peter; Bindler, Richard

2013-04-01

214

[Functional evaluation of an experimental model of cutaneous microcirculation and pO2 after surgical excision: traditional method vs laser CO2].  

PubMed

Within an experimental study project about the interaction between Laser and biological tissues, the authors utilized a Laser Doppler Flowmeter device and a Polarographic method to study the cutaneous microcirculation and the tissue pO2. Under standardized conditions, the experimental model considered the microcirculation measurement and the ptiO2 before and after the exsection of a cutaneous lozenge on the animals back realized with traditional surgical methods (scalpel and electrotome) or with a last generation CO2 Laser in continuous and in pulsed mode. The Laser Doppler Flowmeter showed that the largest perturbation of the microcirculatory flux occurred after the exsection realized with the scalpel and the electrotome. The CO2 Laser utilized in continuous mode showed an influence slightly lower on the microcirculation while in pulsed mode the perturbation was absent. The ptiO2 measurement showed similar results emphasizing that the CO2 surgical Laser technique is less invasive than the traditional. To sum up, these functional methods allowed a careful microcirculation an ptiO2 evaluation and provided useful information about vasal and metabolic alterations, showing that the CO2 surgical Laser utilized in pulsed mode appears to be the less harmful surgical technique for the tissues surrounding the exsection site. PMID:8712609

Morrone, G; Orienti, L; Giavaresi, G; Capelli, S; Fini, M; Rocca, M; Martini, L; Giardino, R

1995-01-01

215

Performance of flax mat to replace E-glass in panels produced using traditional thermoset resin infusion methods.  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

The purpose of the project was to assess the capability of non-optimized, commercially producible flax fiber to be fabricated into composites using a polyester thermoset resin and manufacturing methods common to industry. Flax composite panels were manufactured using a disposable bag resin infusion...

216

Grafting computer projected simulations and interactive engagement methods within a traditional classroom setting: The influence on secondary level students' understanding of Newtonian mechanics and on attitudes towards physics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This research explored the effects of a constructivist approach using computer projected simulations (CPS) and interactive engagement (IE) methods on 12th grade school students. The treatment lasted 18 weeks during the 1999-2000 fall semester and seeked to evaluate three variations in students': (1)conceptual understanding of Newtonian mechanics as measured by the Force Concept Inventory (FCI), (2)modification of their views about science as measured by the Views About Science Survey (VASS), and (3)achievement on traditional examinations, as measured by their end of semester grades. Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) was applied to determine the differences between the mean scores of the experimental group students, and students of the control group, who were exposed to traditional teaching methods only. The FCI data analysis showed that, after 18 weeks, conceptual understanding of Newtonian mechanics had markedly improved only in the experimental group (F(1,99) = 44.739, p < .001). By contrast, there was no statistically significant difference in students' performance on the VASS instrument for both groups (F(1,99) = .033, p = .856), confirming previous and comparable findings for studies of short implementation period. The lack of statistically significant difference between the control and experimental groups in graded achievement, while controlling for students' previous achievement, was unexpected (F(1,99) = 1.178, p = .280). It is suggested that in this particular setting, the influence of a technical factor may have been overlooked: the monitored and systematic drill exercises using elaborate math formulae to prepare students for traditional math-loaded exams. Still, despite being intentionally deprived of such preparation throughout the study, students of the experimental group did not achieve less than their counterpart, and in addition, they had gained a satisfactory understanding of Newtonian mechanics. This result points unmistakably at a plausible positive correlation between a better grasp of basic concepts in physics in a challenging and active engagement environment, and unproblematic achievement in traditional exams. Despite the modest sample size of the studied groups, students here, as elsewhere in the world, show a manifest readiness and capacity to master proper understanding of Newtonian mechanics when induced by the IE methods in a constructivist, semi-Socratic, environment.

Zoubeir, Wassim Fouad

217

Spectroscopic detection  

DOEpatents

In embodiments, spectroscopic monitor monitors modulated light signals to detect low levels of contaminants and other compounds in the presence of background interference. The monitor uses a spectrometer that includes a transmissive modulator capable of causing different frequency ranges to move onto and off of the detector. The different ranges can include those with the desired signal and those selected to subtract background contributions from those with the desired signal. Embodiments of the system are particularly useful for monitoring metal concentrations in combustion effluent.

Woskov, Paul P. (Bedford, MA); Hadidi, Kamal (Cambridge, MA)

2003-01-01

218

Structural, Spectroscopic, and Theoretical Comparison of Traditional vs Recently Discovered Ln(2+) Ions in the [K(2.2.2-cryptand)][(C5H4SiMe3)3Ln] Complexes: The Variable Nature of Dy(2+) and Nd(2+).  

PubMed

The Ln(3+) and Ln(2+) complexes, Cp'3Ln, 1, (Cp' = C5H4SiMe3) and [K(2.2.2-cryptand)][Cp'3Ln], 2, respectively, have been synthesized for the six lanthanides traditionally known in +2 oxidation states, i.e., Ln = Eu, Yb, Sm, Tm, Dy, and Nd, to allow direct structural and spectroscopic comparison with the recently discovered Ln(2+) ions of Ln = Pr, Gd, Tb, Ho, Y, Er, and Lu in 2. 2-La and 2-Ce were also prepared to allow the first comparison of all the lanthanides in the same coordination environment in both +2 and +3 oxidation states. 2-La and 2-Ce show the same unusual structural feature of the recently discovered +2 complexes, that the Ln-(Cp' ring centroid) distances are only about 0.03 Å longer than in the +3 analogs, 1. The Eu, Yb, Sm, Tm, Dy, and Nd complexes were expected to show much larger differences, but this was observed for only four of these traditional six lanthanides. 2-Dy and 2-Nd are like the new nine ions in this tris(cyclopentadienyl) coordination geometry. A DFT-based model explains the results and shows that a 4f?(n)5d(1) electron configuration is appropriate not only for the nine recently discovered Ln(2+) ions in 2 but also for Dy(2+) and Nd(2+), which traditionally have 4f?(n+1) electron configurations like Eu(2+), Yb(2+), Sm(2+), and Tm(2+). These results indicate that the ground state of a lanthanide ion in a molecule can be changed by the ligand set, a previously unknown option with these metals due to the limited radial extension of the 4f orbitals. PMID:25541886

Fieser, Megan E; MacDonald, Matthew R; Krull, Brandon T; Bates, Jefferson E; Ziller, Joseph W; Furche, Filipp; Evans, William J

2015-01-14

219

Total phosphorus reference condition for subalpine lakes: a comparison among traditional methods and a new process-based watershed approach.  

PubMed

Different methods for estimating the total phosphorus (TP) reference conditions of lakes have rarely been compared. This work tests the uncertainty and accuracy of the most frequently used approaches (Morpho-edaphic index -MEI-, export coefficient, diatoms and pigment-inferred TP models) for 35 subalpine lakes. Furthermore, we propose a new process-based watershed approach that was tested on a subalpine environment and consists of combining a space for time substitution with a space for space substitution. The possible presence of uncontaminated or less contaminated environments inside or next to the watershed can be exploited by training a hydrological transport watershed model according to the uncontaminated conditions and then applying the calibration to the entire watershed, which reconstructs a natural or semi-natural TP load scenario. We found that the root mean square error (RMSE) for the MEI is 4 ?g L(-1). However, its application is limited for lakes that present with an alkalinity ?1 meq L(-1). For lakes with a higher alkalinity, we observed a loss of predictive capability that results from the lower solubility of phosphorus under conditions of high calcium content. The export coefficient model was applied with a mean export coefficient and presents similar prediction capabilities as the MEI. The chlorophyll-inferred TP model shows a higher uncertainty (RMSE = 8 ?g L(-1)); however, it produced fewer underestimations and overestimations. With regards to the diatom-inferred TP model, we are only able to evaluate an uncertainty of 5 ?g L(-1) at the European level. Finally, the proposed process-based watershed approach adequately predicted the reference condition of the selected lake and had an uncertainty lower than the other methods (2 ?g L(-1)). We conclude by revealing the potential and limitations of this approach in the field of ecological lake modelling more and more attracted by TP pristine load inputs in studies on the effects of climate change and eutrophication of lakes. PMID:25014886

Salerno, Franco; Viviano, Gaetano; Carraro, Elisa; Manfredi, Emanuela Chiara; Lami, Andrea; Musazzi, Simona; Marchetto, Aldo; Guyennon, Nicolas; Tartari, Gianni; Copetti, Diego

2014-12-01

220

Influence of the yeast strain on the changes of the amino acids, peptides and proteins during sparkling wine production by the traditional method.  

PubMed

The influence of five yeast strains on the nitrogen fractions, amino acids, peptides and proteins, during 12 months of aging of sparkling wines produced by the traditional or Champenoise method, was studied. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) techniques were used for analysis of the amino acid and peptide fractions. Proteins plus polypeptides were determined by the colorimetric Bradford method. Four main stages were detected in the aging of wines with yeast. In the first stage, a second fermentation took place; amino acids and proteins plus polypeptides diminished, and peptides were liberated. In the second stage, there was a release of amino acids and proteins, and peptides were degraded. In the third stage, the release of proteins and peptides predominated. In the fourth stage, the amino acid concentration diminished. The yeast strain used influenced the content of free amino acids and peptides and the aging time in all the nitrogen fractions. PMID:12483471

Martínez-Rodríguez, A J; Carrascosa, A V; Martín-Alvarez, P J; Moreno-Arribas, V; Polo, M C

2002-12-01

221

Spectroscopic Infrared Ellipsometry  

E-print Network

Spectroscopic Infrared Ellipsometry: Components, Calibration, and Application #12;CIP-DATA KONINKLIJKE BIBLIOTHEEK, DEN HAAG Boer, Johannes Henricus Wilhelmus Gerardus den Spectroscopic Infrared in Dutch. ISBN 90 386 0017 8 Subject headings: spectroscopy ellipsometry infrared. #12;Spectroscopic

Eindhoven, Technische Universiteit

222

Application of spectroscopic and computational methods in the study of the electronic excitations of partially silylated hydroxyquinones  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The silylation of hydroxynaphthoquinones and hydroxyanthraquinones with N-methyl- N-( tert-butyldimethylsilyl)-2,2,2-trifluoroacetamide, in one step reaction, under mild conditions, has led, in nearly quantitative yields, to the isolation of hydrolytically stable partially silylated products (only of the hydroxyl groups), which differ dramatically in color from the starting materials. The spectroscopic investigation of the silylated products in solution as well as the correlation of the observed data with computationally derived results have been carried out within a study aiming at the understanding of the visible maxima shift to either the ultraviolet or near-infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum, which would imply availability of the silylated products in a variety of related applications.

Bakola-Christianopoulou, M. N.; Apazidou, K. K.; Stoyanov, S.; Akrivos, P. D.

2003-03-01

223

Pyrosequencing for assessing diversity of eukaryotic microbes: analysis of data on marine planktonic ciliates and comparison with traditional methods.  

PubMed

Assessing microbial diversity requires analysis of all three domains of life, including eukaryotic microbes. We examined the diversity of two ecologically important clades of microbial eukaryotes, ciliates in the subclasses Oligotrichia and Choreotrichia (class Spirotrichea), by comparing pyrosequencing to Sanger-sequenced clone libraries and microscopy. Using samples from a large temperate estuary (Long Island Sound, USA), we gained three major insights. First, richness estimates varied by up to one order of magnitude either using different criteria for pyrosequence processing or among pyrosequencing, cloning and microscopy, while taxon identification was almost always coherent. Error-correcting algorithms for pyrosequences ('denoising') reduced discrepancies in richness but also removed known morphospecies from the data. Second, although most of the pyrosequenced operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were distributed within known orders and families, we found evidence of a previously uncharacterized or unknown clade even in these ciliate lineages that have a rich history of morphological description. Third, pyrosequencing allowed the detection of OTUs that were either dominant or extremely rare in different samples. Our findings confirm the potential of pyrosequencing for quantifying microbial diversity, but also highlight the importance of careful evaluation of pyrosequence processing for using this method to address ecological questions. PMID:24444191

Santoferrara, Luciana F; Grattepanche, Jean-David; Katz, Laura A; McManus, George B

2014-09-01

224

Elemental analysis of herbal preparations for traditional medicines by neutron activation analysis with the k0 standardization method.  

PubMed

Medicinal herb preparations prescribed for specific treatment purposes were purchased from markets and were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis with k0 standardization. Then, 500-700 mg of each sample was pelletized under a pressure of six tones and irradiated together with monitors for alpha and neutron flux ratio determinations for about 6 h in a thermal flux of 2.29 x 10(12) n/cm2/s. The accuracy of the method was established by analyzing standard reference materials. Twenty-nine elements, Ag, As, Au, Ba, Br, Ca, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Mn, Mo, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Sr, Th, U, Yb, and Zn, were measured in all the samples, and Hg was detected in some samples, with good accuracy and reproducibility. The concentration of elements determined was found to vary depending on the composition of the herbs used. Although the trend linking the element of the medicinal plants to its curative abilities could not be clearly determined, this study showed that the toxic elements found in the samples were below the levels prescribed by health regulations. Nevertheless, such data are important to understand the pharmacological action and the exact mechanisms of action and formation of active constituents for each medicinal plant and to decide the dosage of the herbs used in the final formulation. PMID:10676512

Sarmani, S B; Abugassa, I; Hamzah, A; Yahya, M D

1999-01-01

225

Measurements of internal distance changes of the 30S ribosome using FRET with multiple donor-acceptor pairs: quantitative spectroscopic methods.  

PubMed

We present analytical and experimental procedures for determining distance changes within the 30 S subunit of the Escherichia coli ribosome using Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET). We discuss ways to contend with complexities when using FRET to measure distance changes within large multi-subunit macromolecular complexes, such as the ribosome. Complications can arise due to non-stoichiometric labeling of donor and acceptor probes, as well as environmental effects that are specific to each conjugation site. We show how to account for changes in extinction coefficients, quenching, labeling stoichiometry and other variations in the spectroscopic properties of the dye to enable more accurate calculation of distances from FRET data. We also discuss approximations that concern the orientation of the transition moments of the two dye molecules, as well as the impact of other errors in the measurement of absolute distances. Thirteen dye-pair locations with different distances using 18 independent FRET pairs conjugated to specific 30 S protein residues have been used to determine distance changes within the 30 S subunit upon association with the 50 S subunit, forming the 70 S ribosome. Here, we explain the spectroscopic methods we have used, which should be of general interest in studies that aim at obtaining quantitative distance information from FRET. PMID:16055154

Majumdar, Zigurts K; Hickerson, Robyn; Noller, Harry F; Clegg, Robert M

2005-09-01

226

Studies on the interactions of SAP-1 (an N-terminal truncated form of cystatin S) with its binding partners by CD-spectroscopic and molecular docking methods.  

PubMed

SAP-1 is a 113 amino acid long single-chain protein which belongs to the type 2 cystatin gene family. In our previous study, we have purified SAP-1 from human seminal plasma and observed its cross-class inhibitory property. At this time, we report the interaction of SAP-1 with diverse proteases and its binding partners by CD-spectroscopic and molecular docking methods. The circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopic studies demonstrate that the conformation of SAP-1 is changed after its complexation with proteases, and the alterations in protein secondary structure are quantitatively calculated with increase of ?-helices and reduction of ?-strand content. To get insight into the interactions between SAP-1 and proteases, we make an effort to model the three-dimensional structure of SAP-1 by molecular modeling and verify its stability and viability through molecular dynamics simulations and finally complexed with different proteases using ClusPro 2.0 Server. A high degree of shape complementarity is examined within the complexes, stabilized by a number of hydrogen bonds (HBs) and hydrophobic interactions. Using HB analyses in different protein complexes, we have identified a series of key residues that may be involved in the interactions between SAP-1 and proteases. These findings will assist to understand the mechanism of inhibition of SAP-1 for different proteases and provide intimation for further research. PMID:24261636

Yadav, Vikash Kumar; Mandal, Rahul Shubhra; Puniya, Bhanwar Lal; Singh, Sarman; Yadav, Savita

2015-01-01

227

Spectroscopic and dynamical studies of highly energized small polyatomic molecules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stimulated emission pumping (SEP) spectroscopy was used on acetylene and on formyl radical. An attempt was made for pattern recognition based on statistics; a method was invented that combined CNPI (complete nuclear permutation-inversion) group theory and SCC (spectral cross-correlation). But the direction away from statistical pattern recognition back to traditional spectroscopic pattern recognition was taken. Vibrational states and quantum numbers are discussed. For the formyl radical, the fluorescence excitation spectrum was recorded and a rotational analysis of the 0(sup 0)(sub 0) band performed.

228

Exploring potential chemical markers by metabolomics method for studying the processing mechanism of traditional Chinese medicine using RPLC-Q-TOF/MS: a case study of Radix Aconiti  

PubMed Central

Background Pao zhi is a common traditional approach that usually occurs before most herbs are prescribed whereby during processing, secondary plant metabolites are transformed, thus helping to increase potency, reduce toxicity and altering their effects. Using Radix Aconiti (Chuan Wu, CW) as a model herb, suitable chemical markers are crucial for studying the processing mechanisms of these herbs. Results In this study, the comprehensive metabolomic characters of CW and Prepared CW (ZCW) by RPLC-Q-TOF/MS were investigated to guarantee clinical safety. Multivariate analyses successfully identified specific metabolite changes between CW and ZCW. In addition, 22 key biomarkers responsible for the detoxifying actions of pao zhi were discovered. The processing mechanism of CW were discussed according to the identified metabolites. This method is efficient, providing more accurate characterisations of traditional pao zhi detoxification. Conclusions The proposed strategy proves that RPLC-Q-TOF/MS-based metabolomic analysis does not only explore chemical markers but can also provide a comprehensive understanding of the transformation mechanisms underlying pao zhi. PMID:23432780

2013-01-01

229

Are traditional methods of determining nest predators and nest fates reliable? An experiment with Wood Thrushes (Hylocichla mustelina) using miniature video cameras  

USGS Publications Warehouse

We used miniature infrared video cameras to monitor Wood Thrush (Hylocichla mustelina) nests during 1998-2000. We documented nest predators and examined whether evidence at nests can be used to predict predator identities and nest fates. Fifty-six nests were monitored; 26 failed, with 3 abandoned and 23 depredated. We predicted predator class (avian, mammalian, snake) prior to review of video footage and were incorrect 57% of the time. Birds and mammals were underrepresented whereas snakes were over-represented in our predictions. We documented ???9 nest-predator species, with the southern flying squirrel (Glaucomys volans) taking the most nests (n = 8). During 2000, we predicted fate (fledge or fail) of 27 nests; 23 were classified correctly. Traditional methods of monitoring nests appear to be effective for classifying success or failure of nests, but ineffective at classifying nest predators.

Williams, G.E.; Wood, P.B.

2002-01-01

230

Insight into the roles of earthworm in vermicomposting of sewage sludge by determining the water-extracts through chemical and spectroscopic methods.  

PubMed

This work illustrated the effects of earthworm in vermicomposting (Eisenia fetida) by determining the water-extracts through chemical and spectroscopic methods. A field experiment with sludge as the only feed was subjected to vermicomposting and the control (without worms) for three weeks. Compared to the control, vermicomposting resulted in lower pH and water-extractable organic carbon (WEOC) along with higher electrical conductivity (EC). Moreover, vermicomposting caused nearly two times higher content of water-extractable nitrate (WEN-NO3(-)) than the control. Furthermore, fourier transform infrared spectra (FT-IR) revealed that vermicomposting promoted the hydrolysis/transformation of macromolecular organic matters and accelerated the degradation of polysaccharide-like and protein-like materials. Fluorescence spectroscopy also reflected vermicomposting led to higher humification degree than the control. In all, this study supplies a new view to assess the roles of earthworm in vermicomposting of sewage sludge by evaluating the water extracts. PMID:24384315

Yang, Jian; Lv, Baoyi; Zhang, Jie; Xing, Meiyan

2014-02-01

231

Land use/cover classification of small areas by conventional digital camcorder imagery: A comparative performance of traditional and advanced methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study aims to investigate the performance of digital camcorder datasets for land cover classification. The chosen study area was the Universiti Sains Malaysia campus in Penang, Peninsular Malaysia. We encountered difficulties in obtaining cloud-free scenes because Malaysia is an equatorial region. This problem can be overcome by using airborne images. Digital images were taken from a low-altitude light aircraft (Cessna 172Q) at an average altitude of 2.44 km above sea level. The color image was separated into three bands (i.e., red, green, and blue) for multispectral analysis. We compared the performance of traditional methods (i.e., minimum distance and maximum likelihood) and advanced methods (i.e., frequency-based contextual and neural network (NN) techniques). The classified land cover map was geometrically corrected to provide a geocode map. This study presents preliminary findings vis-à-vis the potential application of an ordinary digital camcorder in local urban studies. The NN classifier produced the best result among the tested methods. A high degree of accuracy was achieved by the NN technique.

Sim, C. K.; Lim, H. S.; Mat Jafri, M. Z.; Abdullah, K.

2013-05-01

232

Selection method of quasi-continuous wavelength combination with applications to the near-infrared spectroscopic analysis of soil organic matter.  

PubMed

Equidistant combination multiple linear regression (EC-MLR) for the quasi-continuous wavelength selection of spectroscopic analysis was proposed and successfully applied to the reagent-free determination of soil organic matter with near-infrared spectroscopy. For comparison, the continuous-mode moving window partial least squares (MWPLS) and the discrete-mode successive projections algorithm (SPA) were improved by considering the stability and applied to the same analysis object as well. All methods exhibited good effect, but the modeling accuracy, stability, and validation effect of EC-MLR were better than that of the other two methods. Compared with MWPLS, the optimal EC-MLR model contained only 16 wavelengths, and method complexity was substantially reduced. Compared with SPA-MLR, the optimal EC-MLR model could easily undergo spectral preprocessing to improve predictive capability. Moreover, appropriate equidistant discrete wavelength combination with EC-MLR corresponded to the spectral absorption band with proper resolution and can effectively overcome co-linearity interruption for the MLR model. Thus, the EC-MLR method has great potential in practical application and instrument design. PMID:24666942

Pan, Tao; Li, Minmiao; Chen, Jiemei

2014-01-01

233

Polyphasic Study of the Spatial Distribution of Microorganisms in Mexican Pozol, a Fermented Maize Dough, Demonstrates the Need for Cultivation-Independent Methods To Investigate Traditional Fermentations  

PubMed Central

The distribution of microorganisms in pozol balls, a fermented maize dough, was investigated by a polyphasic approach in which we used both culture-dependent and culture-independent methods, including microbial enumeration, fermentation product analysis, quantification of microbial taxa with 16S rRNA-targeted oligonucleotide probes, determination of microbial fingerprints by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), and 16S ribosomal DNA gene sequencing. Our results demonstrate that DGGE fingerprinting and rRNA quantification should allow workers to precisely and rapidly characterize the microbial assemblage in a spontaneous lactic acid fermented food. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) accounted for 90 to 97% of the total active microflora; no streptococci were isolated, although members of the genus Streptococcus accounted for 25 to 50% of the microflora. Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus fermentum, together with members of the genera Leuconostoc and Weissella, were the other dominant organisms. The overall activity was more important at the periphery of a ball, where eucaryotes, enterobacteria, and bacterial exopolysacharide producers developed. Our results also showed that the metabolism of heterofermentative LAB was influenced in situ by the distribution of the LAB in the pozol ball, whereas homolactic fermentation was controlled primarily by sugar limitation. We propose that starch is first degraded by amylases from LAB and that the resulting sugars, together with the lactate produced, allow a secondary flora to develop in the presence of oxygen. Our results strongly suggest that cultivation-independent methods should be used to study traditional fermented foods. PMID:10584005

Ampe, Frédéric; ben Omar, Nabil; Moizan, Claire; Wacher, Carmen; Guyot, Jean-Pierre

1999-01-01

234

NMR, FT-IR, FT-Raman, UV spectroscopic, HOMO-LUMO and NBO analysis of cumene by quantum computational methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work presents the investigation of cumene using the FT-IR, FT-Raman, NMR and UV spectra obtained through various spectroscopic techniques. The theoretical vibrational frequencies and optimized geometric parameters have been calculated by using HF and density functional theory with the hybrid methods B3LYP, B3PW91 and 6-311+G(d,p)/6-311++G(d,p) basis sets. The theoretical vibrational frequencies have been scaled and compared with the corresponding experimental data. 1H and 13C NMR spectra were recorded and chemical shifts of the molecule were compared to TMS by using the Gauge-Independent Atomic Orbital (GIAO) method. A study on the electronic and optical properties, absorption wavelengths, excitation energy, dipole moment and frontier molecular orbital energies, and potential energy surface (PES) is performed using HF and DFT methods. The thermodynamic properties (heat capacity, entropy and enthalpy) at different temperatures are also calculated. NBO analysis is carried out to picture the charge transfer between the localized bonds and lone pairs. NLO properties related to polarizability and hyperpolarizability are also discussed.

Sivaranjani, T.; Xavier, S.; Periandy, S.

2015-03-01

235

A high-resolution phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic method for the non-phosphorus markers of chemical warfare agents.  

PubMed

A high-resolution phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic method has been developed for detection, identification and quantification of non-phosphorus markers of toxic nerve agents (soman and V-class), vesicants (HD, HN-2, HN-3), and incapacitating agent (Bz). These analytes were converted to phosphorus-containing derivatives via phosphitylation reaction of their hydroxyl and sulfhydryl functions (using 2-chloro-4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-1,3,2-dioxaphospholane). This was followed by (31)P{(1)H} and (31)P NMR analysis of these derivatives. The chemical shifts (?) and coupling constants ((3)J(P-H)) of derivatives were used for their specific detection and identification. The method allowed clear distinction between the alcohols and thiols. The lower limits of detection of these analytes were found to be between 12 and 28 ?g obtained from 128 transients of (31)P{(1)H} quantitative NMR experiments. Utility of the method was ensured by the detection and identification of triethanolamine present (at an original concentration of 5 ?g/mL) in an aqueous sample from 28th OPCW Official Proficiency Tests. PMID:22160203

Mazumder, Avik; Kumar, Ajeet; Purohit, Ajay K; Dubey, Devendra K

2012-02-01

236

Developing a library of authenticated Traditional Chinese Medicinal (TCM) plants for systematic biological evaluation — Rationale, methods and preliminary results from a Sino-American collaboration?  

PubMed Central

While the popularity of and expenditures for herbal therapies (aka “ethnomedicines”) have increased globally in recent years, their efficacy, safety, mechanisms of action, potential as novel therapeutic agents, cost-effectiveness, or lack thereof, remain poorly defined and controversial. Moreover, published clinical trials evaluating the efficacy of herbal therapies have rightfully been criticized, post hoc, for their lack of quality assurance and reproducibility of study materials, as well as a lack of demonstration of plausible mechanisms and dosing effects. In short, clinical botanical investigations have suffered from the lack of a cohesive research strategy which draws on the expertise of all relevant specialties. With this as background, US and Chinese co-investigators with expertise in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM), botany, chemistry and drug discovery, have jointly established a prototype library consisting of 202 authenticated medicinal plant and fungal species that collectively represent the therapeutic content of the majority of all commonly prescribed TCM herbal prescriptions. Currently housed at Harvard University, the library consists of duplicate or triplicate kilogram quantities of each authenticated and processed species, as well as “detanninized” extracts and sub-fractions of each mother extract. Each species has been collected at 2–3 sites, each separated geographically by hundreds of miles, with precise GPS documentation, and authenticated visually and chemically prior to testing for heavy metals and/or pesticides contamination. An explicit decision process has been developed whereby samples with the least contamination were selected to undergo ethanol extraction and HPLC sub-fractionation in preparation for high throughput screening across a broad array of biological targets including cancer biology targets. As envisioned, the subfractions in this artisan collection of authenticated medicinal plants will be tested for biological activity individually and in combinations (i.e., “complex mixtures”) consistent with traditional ethnomedical practice. This manuscript summarizes the rationale, methods and preliminary “proof of principle” for the establishment of this prototype, authenticated medicinal plant library. It is hoped that these methods will foster scientific discoveries with therapeutic potential and enhance efforts to systematically evaluate commonly used herbal therapies worldwide. PMID:21108995

Eisenberg, David M.; Harris, Eric S.J.; Littlefield, Bruce A.; Cao, Shugeng; Craycroft, Jane A.; Scholten, Robert; Bayliss, Peter; Fu, Yanling; Wang, Wenquan; Qiao, Yanjiang; Zhao, Zhongzhen; Chen, Hubiao; Liu, Yong; Kaptchuk, Ted; Hahn, William C.; Wang, Xiaoxing; Roberts, Thomas; Shamu, Caroline E.; Clardy, Jon

2011-01-01

237

Spectroscopic diffraction phase microscopy.  

PubMed

We present spectroscopic diffraction phase microscopy (sDPM) as a method capable of measuring quantitative phase images at multiple wavelengths. sDPM uses a spatial light modulator at the Fourier plane of a lens to select desired wavelengths from the white light illumination of a grating. The quantitative phase information at different wavelengths allows us to decouple the refractive index and the thickness from the phase shift induced by biological cells. We demonstrate the capability of the setup by dispersion measurements of microsphere beads and RBCs. PMID:23381283

Pham, Hoa; Bhaduri, Basanta; Ding, Huafeng; Popescu, Gabriel

2012-08-15

238

Switching spectroscopic measurement of surface potentials on ferroelectric surfaces via an open-loop Kelvin probe force microscopy method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report a method for switching spectroscopy Kelvin probe force microscopy (SS-KPFM). The method is established as a counterpart to switching spectroscopy piezoresponse force microscopy (SS-PFM) in Kelvin probe force microscopy. SS-KPFM yields quantitative information about the surface charge state during a local bias-induced polarization switching process, complementary to the electromechanical coupling properties probed via SS-PFM. Typical ferroelectric samples of a Pb-based relaxor single crystal and a BiFeO3 thin film were investigated using both methods. We briefly discuss the observed surface charging phenomena and their influence on the associated piezoresponse hysteresis loops.

Li, Qian; Liu, Yun; Wang, Danyang; Withers, Ray L.; Li, Zhenrong; Luo, Haosu; Xu, Zhuo

2012-12-01

239

Study of XAFS spectroscopic methods of speciation using mixtures of Cu(I) and Cu(II) chlorides  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Speciation concerns determination of the chemical forms along with the relative quantities of the different species in a given sample. The aim of the present work is to make a comparative study of the different methods of speciation using X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy. For this purpose, mixtures have been prepared by mixing CuCl2 and CuCl in different proportions. The X-ray absorption spectra have been recorded at the copper K-edge in the mixtures and the two chlorides separately. The different characteristic features of the XANES spectra of the two chlorides, useful for speciation, have been identified. Firstly, Principal component analysis (PCA) and target transformation (TT) methods have been used to check the number and identity of components in the mixtures. After the identification of the components, the percentages of the species in the mixtures have been quantitatively determined by linear combination fitting (LCF) of XANES, derivative XANES, and EXAFS (k3chi and k2chi) spectra. The other methods of speciation which have been employed are normalized difference absorption edge spectra analysis (NDAES), methods based on derivative XANES spectra of species and the method based on the relative position of the absorption edge. Results obtained from these methods have been compared and their relative merits discussed. It is probably for the first time that such a study has been done. The first section in your paper

Gaur, A.; Shrivastava, B. D.; Khalid, S.

2013-04-01

240

Application of molecular genetics method for differentiating Martes zibellina L. heart from its adulterants in traditional Chinese medicine based on mitochondrial cytochrome b gene.  

PubMed

The use of Martes zibellina L. heart as a famous kind of traditional Chinese medicine has been documented for many years in China. Identification of its authenticity as raw materials became a key in controlling of herbal preparations. In this study, the characteristics of mitochondrial cytochrome b (Cyt b) gene from four species of Martes were explored, and a specific molecular genetics technique for identifying the heart of M. zibellina L. in addition to some close relatives from their counterfeits was established. The bioinformatics was carried out to design the primers for the Cyt b gene based on the different species of Martes. PCR and sequencing technology were performed. The mt DNA was extracted from all of fresh M. zibellina L., Martes melampus. Martes flavigula. Martes martes heart samples and dry M. zibellina L. heart powder through the modified alkaline extracting method in addition to its counterfeits including the chicken heart, duck heart, goose heart, rabbit heart and Mustela vison. The complete mt DNA was separated from all samples used in the study, and the Cyt b gene with 310 bp segments was amplified only from M. zibellina L. heart as DNA template by the PCR technique. The sequencing indicated that the segment amplified by the PCR was homologous with the species of M. zibellina in GenBank. The data revealed that the primers and selected segment could be used as the genetic markers to identify M. zibellina L. heart from its counterfeits among different animal species. PMID:23919324

Li, Mingcheng; Xia, Wei; Wang, Miao; Yang, Mingyan; Zhang, Lihua; Guo, Jie

2014-02-01

241

Chemical and Physical Methods to Analyze a Multicomponent Traditional Chinese Herbal Prescription Using LC-MS/MS, Electron Microscope, and Congo Red Staining  

PubMed Central

This study develops several chemical and physical methods to evaluate the quality of a traditional Chinese formulation, Jia-Wei-Xiao-Yao-San. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) coupled with electrospray ionization was used to measure the herbal biomarkers of saikosaponin A, saikosaponin D, ferulic acid, and paeoniflorin from this herbal formula. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) and light microscopy photographs with Congo red staining were used to identify the cellulose fibers if raw herbal powder had been added to the herbal pharmaceutical product. Moreover, water solubility and crude fiber content examination were used to inspect for potential herbal additives to the herbal pharmaceutical products. The results demonstrate that the contents of the herbal ingredients of saikosaponin A, saikosaponin D, ferulic acid, and paeoniflorin were around 0.351?±?0.017, 0.136?±?0.010, 0.140?±?0.005, and 2.281?±?0.406?mg/g, respectively, for this herbal pharmaceutical product. The physical examination data demonstrate that the raw herbal powder had rough, irregular, lumpy, filamentous, and elongated shapes, as well as strong Congo red staining. In addition, water solubility and crude fiber content were not consistent in the herbal pharmaceutical products. PMID:23997802

Lu, Chia-Ming; Lin, Lie-Chwen; Tsai, Tung-Hu

2013-01-01

242

How effective are traditional methods of compositional analysis in providing an accurate material balance for a range of softwood derived residues?  

PubMed Central

Background Forest residues represent an abundant and sustainable source of biomass which could be used as a biorefinery feedstock. Due to the heterogeneity of forest residues, such as hog fuel and bark, one of the expected challenges is to obtain an accurate material balance of these feedstocks. Current compositional analytical methods have been standardised for more homogenous feedstocks such as white wood and agricultural residues. The described work assessed the accuracy of existing and modified methods on a variety of forest residues both before and after a typical pretreatment process. Results When “traditional” pulp and paper methods were used, the total amount of material that could be quantified in each of the six softwood-derived residues ranged from 88% to 96%. It was apparent that the extractives present in the substrate were most influential in limiting the accuracy of a more representative material balance. This was particularly evident when trying to determine the lignin content, due to the incomplete removal of the extractives, even after a two stage water-ethanol extraction. Residual extractives likely precipitated with the acid insoluble lignin during analysis, contributing to an overestimation of the lignin content. Despite the minor dissolution of hemicellulosic sugars, extraction with mild alkali removed most of the extractives from the bark and improved the raw material mass closure to 95% in comparison to the 88% value obtained after water-ethanol extraction. After pretreatment, the extent of extractive removal and their reaction/precipitation with lignin was heavily dependent on the pretreatment conditions used. The selective removal of extractives and their quantification after a pretreatment proved to be even more challenging. Regardless of the amount of extractives that were originally present, the analytical methods could be refined to provide reproducible quantification of the carbohydrates present in both the starting material and after pretreatment. Conclusion Despite the challenges resulting from the heterogeneity of the initial biomass substrates a reasonable summative mass closure could be obtained before and after steam pretreatment. However, method revision and optimisation was required, particularly the effective removal of extractives, to ensure that representative and reproducible values for the major lignin and carbohydrate components. PMID:23800175

2013-01-01

243

Traditional Agriculture and Permaculture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses benefits of combining traditional agricultural techniques with the concepts of "permaculture," a framework for revitalizing traditions, culture, and spirituality. Describes school, college, and community projects that have assisted American Indian communities in revitalizing sustainable agricultural practices that incorporate cultural…

Pierce, Dick

1997-01-01

244

Nuclear magnetic resonance, vibrational spectroscopic studies, physico-chemical properties and computational calculations on (nitrophenyl) octahydroquinolindiones by DFT method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present study, 2?-nitrophenyloctahydroquinolinedione and its 3?-nitrophenyl isomer were synthesized and characterized by FT-IR, FT-Raman, 1H NMR and 13C NMR spectroscopy. The molecular geometry, vibrational frequencies, 1H and 13C NMR chemical shift values of the synthesized compounds in the ground state have been calculated by using the density functional theory (DFT) method with the 6-311++G (d,p) basis set and compared with the experimental data. The complete vibrational assignments of wave numbers were made on the basis of potential energy distribution using GAR2PED programme. Isotropic chemical shifts for 1H and 13C NMR were calculated using gauge-invariant atomic orbital (GIAO) method. The experimental vibrational frequencies, 1H and 13C NMR chemical shift values were found to be in good agreement with the theoretical values. On the basis of vibrational analysis, molecular electrostatic potential and the standard thermodynamic functions have been investigated.

Pasha, M. A.; Siddekha, Aisha; Mishra, Soni; Azzam, Sadeq Hamood Saleh; Umapathy, S.

2015-02-01

245

Mass Spectroscopic Fingerprinting Method for Differentiation Between Scutellaria lateriflora and the Germander (Teucrium canadense and T. chamaedrys) Species  

PubMed Central

Scutellaria lateriflora, commonly known as skullcap, is used as an ingredient in numerous herbal products. However, it has been occasionally adulterated/contaminated with Teucrium canadense and T. chamaedrys, commonly known as germander, which contain hepatotoxic diterpenes. Due to the morphological similarities between the two genera, analytical methodologies to distinguish authentic S. lateriflora from the Teucrium species are needed to ensure public safety. In this study, a direct-injection electrospray ionization/MS method was used to generate spectral fingerprints of extracts from 21 skullcap and germander samples at a rate of 90 s/sample. MS fingerprints were analyzed by principal component analysis. The newly developed method offers a rapid and easy way to differentiate between skullcap and germander samples. PMID:20922946

Chen, Pei; Lin, Long-Ze; Harnly, James M.

2013-01-01

246

A method for the separation of beryllium from spectral interfering elements in inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopic analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A quick, simple and effective chromatographic method for the separation of beryllium from a wide range of elements is described. The elements selected comprise elements which can interfere with the determination of beryllium by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) and elements which commonly occur in environmental and industrial sample matrices. Beryllium is separated from all possible ICP-AES spectral interfering

Daniel R. McAlister; E. Philip Horwitz

2005-01-01

247

Study on photophysical and aggregation induced emission recognition of 1,8-naphthalimide probe for casein by spectroscopic method.  

PubMed

A novel water-soluble 1,8-naphthalimide derivative 1, bearing two acetic carboxylic groups, exhibited fluorescent turn-on recognition for casein based on the aggregation induced emission (AIE) character. The photophysical properties of 1 consisting of donor and acceptor units were investigated in different solutions. The fluorescence intensity decreased through taking advantage of twisted intramolecular charge transfer (TICT) and self-association emission with increasing solvent polarity. Moreover, the spectral red-shift and intensity quench in protic solvents were caused by the excited-state hydrogen bond strengthening effect. Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations revealed that 1 exhibited a strong TICT character. The AIE mechanism of 1 with casein was due to 1 docked in the hydrophobic cavity between sub-micelles and bound with Tyr and Trp residues, resulting in the aggregation of 1 on the casein surface and emission enhancement. Based on this, a novel casein assay method was developed. The proposed exhibited a good linear range from 0.1 to 22 ?g mL(-1), with the detection limit of 2.8 ng mL(-1). Satisfactory reproducibility, reversibility and a short response time were realized. This method was applied to the determination of casein in milk powder samples and the results were in good agreement with the result of Biuret method. PMID:23454708

Sun, Yang; Liu, Zhen; Liang, Xuhua; Fan, Jun; Han, Quan

2013-05-01

248

Study on photophysical and aggregation induced emission recognition of 1,8-naphthalimide probe for casein by spectroscopic method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel water-soluble 1,8-naphthalimide derivative 1, bearing two acetic carboxylic groups, exhibited fluorescent turn-on recognition for casein based on the aggregation induced emission (AIE) character. The photophysical properties of 1 consisting of donor and acceptor units were investigated in different solutions. The fluorescence intensity decreased through taking advantage of twisted intramolecular charge transfer (TICT) and self-association emission with increasing solvent polarity. Moreover, the spectral red-shift and intensity quench in protic solvents were caused by the excited-state hydrogen bond strengthening effect. Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations revealed that 1 exhibited a strong TICT character. The AIE mechanism of 1 with casein was due to 1 docked in the hydrophobic cavity between sub-micelles and bound with Tyr and Trp residues, resulting in the aggregation of 1 on the casein surface and emission enhancement. Based on this, a novel casein assay method was developed. The proposed exhibited a good linear range from 0.1 to 22 ?g mL-1, with the detection limit of 2.8 ng mL-1. Satisfactory reproducibility, reversibility and a short response time were realized. This method was applied to the determination of casein in milk powder samples and the results were in good agreement with the result of Biuret method.

Sun, Yang; Liu, Zhen; Liang, Xuhua; Fan, Jun; Han, Quan

2013-05-01

249

Atomic absorption spectroscopic, conductometric and colorimetric methods for determination of fluoroquinolone antibiotics using ammonium reineckate ion-pair complex formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three accurate, rapid and simple atomic absorption spectrometric, conductometric and colorimetric methods were developed for the determination of norfloxacin (NRF), ciprofloxacin (CIP), ofloxacin (OFL) and enrofloxacin (ENF). The proposed methods depend upon the reaction of ammonium reineckate with the studied drugs to form stable precipitate of ion-pair complexes, which was dissolved in acetone. The pink coloured complexes were determined either by AAS or colorimetrically at ?max 525 nm directly using the dissolved complex. Using conductometric titration, the studied drugs could be evaluated in 50% (v/v) acetone in the range 5.0-65, 4.0-48, 5.0-56 and 6.0-72 ?g ml -1 of NRF, CPF, OFL and ENF, respectively. The optimizations of various experimental conditions were described. The results obtained showed good recoveries of 99.15±1.15, 99.30±1.40, 99.60±1.50, and 99.00±1.25% with relative standard deviations of 0.81, 1.06, 0.97, and 0.69% for NRF, CPF, OFL, and ENF, respectively. Applications of the proposed methods to representative pharmaceutical formulations are successfully presented.

Ragab, Gamal H.; Amin, Alaa S.

2004-03-01

250

Structural and spectroscopic properties of LaOF:Eu3+ nanocrystals prepared by the sol-gel Pechini method.  

PubMed

A new method was used to obtain Eu(3+)-doped LaOF nanocrystals. The obtained nanocrystals were synthesized for the first time using a modified Pechini sol-gel method. The products were analyzed by X-ray powder diffraction and the Rietveld method. Optimal conditions for the synthesis were found. Luminescent properties of the tetragonal and rhombohedral LaOF:Eu(3+) nanocrystals were investigated by collecting excitation and luminescence spectra. The most effective dopant concentrations in both hosts were found. Luminescent lifetimes were also measured. The time-resolved luminescent traces showed both a growth and a decay, which pointed to energy transfer processes between Eu(3+) ions in the LaOF host. In order to explain these phenomena, an adequate mechanism has been proposed. Intensity parameters ?(2), ?(4) and quantum efficiencies were calculated using the Judd-Ofelt theory, allowing for an extensive study of the luminescent properties of Eu(3+) ion in the LaOF matrix. PMID:21805994

Grzyb, Tomasz; Lis, Stefan

2011-09-01

251

Neutron Spectroscopic Factors from Transfer Reactions  

E-print Network

The present paper examines past measurements of the angular distributions for (d,p) and (p,d) reactions on targets with Z=3-24 leading to the ground states. The procedure is prescribed for extracting a conventional set of spectroscopic factors. Most of these spectroscopic factors agree well with large-basis shell model predictions. In all, the ground state neutron spectroscopic factors for 80 nuclei have been obtained. The consistency of the method is evaluated by comparing spectroscopic factors obtained separately in (p,d) and (d,p) reactions. The values correlate with Endt's compilation when available, but the current method is more general and the spectroscopic factor values obtained are more consistent with each other.

Jenny Lee; M. B. Tsang; W. G. Lynch

2006-02-19

252

EMERGING INFRARED LASER ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPIC  

E-print Network

. Internal and external cavity-enhanced spectroscopies are two methods to increase the magnitude-reflector), such as light detection and ranging (LIDAR), differential optical ab- sorption spectroscopy (DOAS), laser ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPIC TECHNIQUES FOR GAS ANALYSIS spectroscopy (LIBS), and fiber optic or waveguide

253

Retrieval of frequency spectrum from time-resolved spectroscopic data: comparison of Fourier transform and linear prediction methods.  

PubMed

Femtosecond time-resolved signals often display oscillations arising from the nuclear and electronic wave packet motions. Fourier power spectrum is generally used to retrieve the frequency spectrum. We have shown by numerical simulations and coherent phonon spectrum of single walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) that the Fourier power spectrum may not be appropriate to obtain the spectrum, when the peaks overlap with varying phases. Linear prediction singular value decomposition (LPSVD) can be a good alternative for this case. We present a robust way to perform LPSVD analysis and demonstrate the method for the chirality assignment of SWCNT through the time-domain coherent phonon spectroscopy. PMID:25606997

Eom, Intae; Yoon, Eunjin; Baik, Sung-Hoon; Lim, Yong-Sik; Joo, Taiha

2014-12-15

254

Nitranilic acid hexahydrate, a novel benchmark system of the Zundel cation in an intrinsically asymmetric environment: spectroscopic features and hydrogen bond dynamics characterised by experimental and theoretical methods.  

PubMed

Nitranilic acid (2,5-dihydroxy-3,6-dinitro-2,5-cyclohexadiene-1,4-dione) as a strong dibasic acid in acidic aqueous media creates the Zundel cation, H5O2(+). The structural unit in a crystal comprises (H5O2)2(+) (2,5-dihydroxy-3,6-dinitro-1,4-benzoquinonate)(2-) dihydrate where the Zundel cation reveals no symmetry, being an ideal case for studying proton dynamics and its stability. The Zundel cation and proton transfer dynamics are studied by variable-temperature X-ray diffraction, IR and solid-state NMR spectroscopy, and various quantum chemical methods, including periodic DFT calculations, ab initio molecular dynamics simulation, and quantization of nuclear motion along three fully coupled internal coordinates. The Zundel cation features a short H-bond with the O···O distance of 2.433(2) Å with an asymmetric placement of hydrogen. The proton potential is of a single well type and, due to the non-symmetric surroundings, of asymmetric shape. The formation of the Zundel cation is facilitated by the electronegative NO2 groups. The employed spectroscopic techniques supported by calculations confirm the presence of a short H-bond with a complex proton dynamics. PMID:24281720

Mol?anov, Krešimir; Stare, Jernej; Vener, Mikhail V; Koji?-Prodi?, Biserka; Mali, Gregor; Grdadolnik, Jože; Moha?ek-Grošev, Vlasta

2014-01-21

255

A new method of observing weak extended x-ray sources with the Reuven Ramaty High-Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager  

SciTech Connect

We present a new method, fan-beam modulation, for observing weak extended x-ray sources with the Reuven Ramaty High-Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI). This space-based solar x-ray and {gamma}-ray telescope has much greater sensitivity than previous experiments in the 3-25 keV range, but is normally not well suited to detecting extended sources since their signal is not modulated by RHESSI's rotating grids. When the spacecraft is offpointed from the target source, however, the fan-beam modulation time-modulates the transmission by shadowing resulting from exploiting the finite thickness of the grids. In this article we detail how the technique is implemented and verify its consistency with sources with clear known signals that have occurred during RHESSI offpointing: microflares and the Crab Nebula. In both cases the results are consistent with previous and complementary measurements. Preliminary work indicates that this new technique allows RHESSI to observe the integrated hard x-ray spectrum of weak extended sources on the quiet Sun.

Hannah, Iain G.; Hurford, Gordon J.; Hudson, Hugh S.; Lin, Robert P. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720-7450 (United States)

2007-02-15

256

Insights into accelerated liposomal release of topotecan in plasma monitored by a non-invasive fluorescence spectroscopic method.  

PubMed

A non-invasive fluorescence method was developed to monitor liposomal release kinetics of the anticancer agent topotecan (TPT) in physiological fluids and subsequently used to explore the cause of accelerated release in plasma. Analyses of fluorescence excitation spectra confirmed that unencapsulated TPT exhibits a red shift in its spectrum as pH is increased. This property was used to monitor TPT release from actively loaded liposomal formulations having a low intravesicular pH. Mathematical release models were developed to extract reliable rate constants for TPT release in aqueous solutions monitored by fluorescence and release kinetics obtained by HPLC. Using the fluorescence method, accelerated TPT release was observed in plasma as previously reported in the literature. Simulations to estimate the intravesicular pH were conducted to demonstrate that accelerated release correlated with alterations in the low intravesicular pH. This was attributed to the presence of ammonia in plasma samples rather than proteins and other plasma components generally believed to alter release kinetics in physiological samples. These findings shed light on the critical role that ammonia may play in contributing to the preclinical/clinical variability and performance seen with actively-loaded liposomal formulations of TPT and other weakly-basic anticancer agents. PMID:25456833

Fugit, Kyle D; Jyoti, Amar; Upreti, Meenakshi; Anderson, Bradley D

2015-01-10

257

Nuclear magnetic resonance, vibrational spectroscopic studies, physico-chemical properties and computational calculations on (nitrophenyl) octahydroquinolindiones by DFT method.  

PubMed

In the present study, 2'-nitrophenyloctahydroquinolinedione and its 3'-nitrophenyl isomer were synthesized and characterized by FT-IR, FT-Raman, (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR spectroscopy. The molecular geometry, vibrational frequencies, (1)H and (13)C NMR chemical shift values of the synthesized compounds in the ground state have been calculated by using the density functional theory (DFT) method with the 6-311++G (d,p) basis set and compared with the experimental data. The complete vibrational assignments of wave numbers were made on the basis of potential energy distribution using GAR2PED programme. Isotropic chemical shifts for (1)H and (13)C NMR were calculated using gauge-invariant atomic orbital (GIAO) method. The experimental vibrational frequencies, (1)H and (13)C NMR chemical shift values were found to be in good agreement with the theoretical values. On the basis of vibrational analysis, molecular electrostatic potential and the standard thermodynamic functions have been investigated. PMID:25440584

Pasha, M A; Siddekha, Aisha; Mishra, Soni; Azzam, Sadeq Hamood Saleh; Umapathy, S

2015-02-01

258

A mass spectroscopic method for analysis of AHH-inducing and other polychlorinated biphenyl congeners and selected pesticides in fish  

USGS Publications Warehouse

The 209 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners exhibit a wide range in toxicity to fish, birds, and mammals. This paper discusses the use of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry negative chemical ionization (GC/MS-NCI) to quantify congeners of highly suspected toxicity such as IUPAC #77 (3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl) and #126 (3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl). GC/MS analysis time needed to produce the necessary resolution was reduced to 1 h per sample or standard, allowing an autosampler to inject 12 samples in 24 hours, plus 12 standards/QC samples. Identification and quantification of some 60+ congeners and several selected pesticides and estimation of total PCBs are also possible within the 1 h analysis. For congeners of high chlorination (penta through octa), the method exhibited excellent sensitivity, such that we could not locate a fish which exhibited PCB levels below our calibrated quantitation range. NCI was not as sensitive for mono through tri and for some tetrachlorinated PCB congeners, an exception being PCB #77, for which sensitivity was of the same order as for the more highly chlorinated biphenyls. Long term stability was excellent. Over a 6-mo period, results of replicate analyses for PCB congeners and pesticides in a composited sample of lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from Lake Michigan had a relative standard deviation of 12% of the mean. Over the same time period, mean recoveries for samples spiked at concentrations similar to those in Lake Michigan lake trout were 90-102%. Response was linear over a wide range of concentrations for each of the analyzed compounds. This method is now being used for routine analysis of PCB congeners and selected pesticides in our laboratory.

Schmidt, Larry J.; Hesselberg, Robert J.

1992-01-01

259

Spectroscopic analysis of phase constitution of high quality VO2 thin film prepared by facile sol-gel method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

VO2 thin films with large-area were prepared on Al2O3 substrates by a simple sol-gel method. After an annealing treatment under low vacuum condition, all the VO2 films showed a preferred growth direction and exhibited excellent semiconductor-metal transition (SMT) characteristics. The structure and electrical properties of the obtained VO2 films were investigated systematically. Raman spectra, X-ray diffraction and X-ray absorption spectra measurements pointed out that the VO2 film on Al_2 O_3 ( {10overline 1 0}) substrate showed a M1 phase instead of M2 phase as reported in previous studies. Based on the experiment results, it was suggested that the strained structure of oriented VO2 films could be a mechanism for the formation of the intermediate M2 phase, whereas it is difficult to access the pure M2 phase of undoped VO2 films. VO2 film on Al_2 O_3 ( {10overline 1 0} ) substrate showed a lower SMT temperature compared to VO2 film on Al2O3 (0001), which can be mostly attributed to the differences of both lattice mismatch and thermal stress. The present results confirm and make clear the relevance of the substrate orientation in the growth of VO2 film and their different contributions to the SMT characteristics in vanadate systems.

Wu, Y. F.; Fan, L. L.; Chen, S. M.; Chen, S.; Zou, C. W.; Wu, Z. Y.

2013-04-01

260

Spectroscopic investigations on the synthesis of nano-hydroxyapatite from calcined eggshell by hydrothermal method using cationic surfactant as template.  

PubMed

The present work reports the successful synthesis of nano-hydroxyapatite, Ca(10)(PO(4))(6)(OH)(2) (denoted HAP) from calcined eggshell by hydrothermal method using cationic surfactant (CTAB) as regulator of nucleation and crystal growth. The reaction involved in the synthesis was studied elaborately. The influence of reaction temperature, ageing time and CTAB concentration on the synthesis of nano-HAP are also studied in addition to the effect of sintering temperature on the crystal growth. Spectral characterization involving Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques were performed for functional group analysis and phase identification of the materials, respectively. Thermal stability of nano-HAP was investigated by thermal analysis (TG/DTA). The physical characteristics, such as morphology and particle size of the synthesized nano-HAP were assessed thoroughly by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques. The results have revealed that well-crystallized nano-HAP was synthesized by hydrothermal treatment at 160 degrees C for 10 h with the addition of CTAB at critical micelle concentration (CMC). It was also found that the synthesized nano-HAP was thermally stable up to 1100 degrees C. PMID:19836296

Prabakaran, K; Rajeswari, S

2009-12-01

261

Correlation mapping: rapid method for identification of histological features and pathological classification in mid infrared spectroscopic images of lymph nodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, a novel technique for rapid image analysis of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) data obtained from human lymph nodes is explored. It uses the mathematical principle of orthogonality as a method to quickly and efficiently obtain tissue and pathology information from a spectral image cube. It requires less computational power and time compared to most forms of cluster analysis. The values obtained from different tissue and pathology types allows for discrimination of noncancerous from cancerous lymph nodes. It involves the calculation of the dot product between reference spectra and individual spectra from across the tissue image. These provide a measure of the correlation between individual spectra and the reference spectra, and each spectrum or pixel in the image is given a color representing the reference most closely correlating with it. The correlation maps are validated with the tissue and pathology features identified by an expert pathologist from corresponding hematoxylin and eosin stained tissue sections. Although this novel technique requires further study to properly test and validate this tool, with inclusion of more lymph node hyperspectral datasets (containing a greater variety of tissue states), it demonstrates significant clinical potential for pathology diagnosis.

Isabelle, Martin; Rogers, Keith; Stone, Nicholas

2010-03-01

262

Investigation of trypsin-CdSe quantum dot interactions via spectroscopic methods and effects on enzymatic activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presents the interactions between trypsin and water soluble cadmium selenide (CdSe) quantum dots investigated by spectrophotometric methods. CdSe quantum dots have strong ability to quench the intrinsic fluorescence of trypsin by a static quenching mechanism. The quenching has been studied at three different temperatures where the results revealed that electrostatic interactions exist between CdSe quantum dots and trypsin and are responsible to stabilize the complex. The Scatchard plot from quenching revealed 1 binding site for quantum dots by trypsin, the same has been confirmed by making isothermal titrations of quantum dots against trypsin. The distance between donor and acceptor for trypsin-CdSe quantum dot complexes is calculated to be 2.8 nm by energy transfer mechanisms. The intrinsic fluorescence of CdSe quantum dots has also been enhanced by the trypsin, and is linear for concentration of trypsin ranging 1-80 ?l. All the observations evidence the formation of trypsin-CdSe quantum dot conjugates, where trypsin retains the enzymatic activity which in turn is temperature and pH dependent.

Kaur, Gurvir; Tripathi, S. K.

2015-01-01

263

Adsorption and conformation of serum albumin protein on gold nanoparticles investigated using dimensional measurements and in situ spectroscopic methods.  

PubMed

The adsorption and conformation of bovine serum albumin (BSA) on gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were interrogated both qualitatively and quantitatively via complementary physicochemical characterization methods. Dynamic light scattering (DLS), asymmetric-flow field flow fractionation (AFFF), fluorescence spectrometry, and attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy were combined to characterize BSA-AuNP conjugates under fluid conditions, while conjugates in the aerosol state were characterized by electrospray-differential mobility analysis (ES-DMA). The presence of unbound BSA molecules interferes with DLS analysis of the conjugates, particularly as the AuNP size decreases (i.e., below 30 nm in diameter). Under conditions where the ? value is high, where ? is defined as the ratio of scattering intensity by AuNPs to the scattering intensity by unbound BSA, DLS size results are consistent with results obtained after fractionation by AFFF. Additionally, the AuNP hydrodynamic size exhibits a greater proportional increase due to BSA conjugation at pH values below 2.5 compared with less acidic pH values (3.4-7.3), corresponding with the reversibly denatured (E or F form) conformation of BSA below pH 2.5. Over the pH range from 3.4 to 7.3, the hydrodynamic size of the conjugate is nearly constant, suggesting conformational stability over this range. Because of the difference in the measurement environment, a larger increase of AuNP size is observed following BSA conjugation when measured in the wet state (i.e., by DLS and AFFF) compared to the dry state (by ES-DMA). Molecular surface density for BSA is estimated based on ES-DMA and fluorescence measurements. Results from the two techniques are consistent and similar, but slightly higher for ES-DMA, with an average adsorbate density of 0.015 nm(-2). Moreover, from the change of particle size, we determine the extent of adsorption for BSA on AuNPs using DLS and ES-DMA at 21 °C, which show that increasing the concentration of BSA increases the measured change in AuNP size. Using ES-DMA, we observe that the BSA surface density reaches 90% of saturation at a solution phase concentration between 10 and 30 ?mol/L, which is roughly consistent with fluorescence and ATR-FTIR results. The equilibrium binding constant for BSA on AuNPs is calculated by applying the Langmuir equation, with resulting values ranging from 0.51 × 10(6) to 1.65 × 10(6) L/mol, suggesting a strong affinity due to bonding between the single free exterior thiol on N-form BSA (associated with a cysteine residue) and the AuNP surface. Moreover, the adsorption interaction induces a conformational change in BSA secondary structure, resulting in less ?-helix content and more open structures (?-sheet, random, or expanded). PMID:21341776

Tsai, De-Hao; DelRio, Frank W; Keene, Athena M; Tyner, Katherine M; MacCuspie, Robert I; Cho, Tae Joon; Zachariah, Michael R; Hackley, Vincent A

2011-03-15

264

How the Internet Is Changing the Implementation of Traditional Research Methods, People's Daily Lives, and the Way in Which Developmental Scientists Conduct Research  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Recent years have seen an impressive increase in web-based research, of which we review and discuss two main types. First, researchers can create online versions of traditional questionnaires. Using the internet in this way usually does not compromise the psychometric properties of such measures, and participants are typically not less…

Denissen, Jaap J. A.; Neumann, Linus; van Zalk, Maarten

2010-01-01

265

College Student Competency and Attitudes in Algebra Classes: A Comparison of Traditional and Online Delivery Methods in Exponents and Polynomials Concepts  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this study was to measure the difference in achievement between those students enrolled in a beginning-level, university Algebra course in southeastern Idaho university the spring semester of 2012 who received an Algebra Exponents and Polynomials instructional unit in a traditional face-to-face setting and those students who…

Huang, Kai-Yi Clark

2012-01-01

266

Traditional Construction in Burma  

USGS Multimedia Gallery

Traditional construction throughout Burma utilizes bamboo and other lightweight building materials, resulting in structures that are not generally durable but are quite earthquake-safe.  As traditional structures such as this house give way to more modern masonry buildings, seismic risk will in...

267

Traditional medicine and genomics  

PubMed Central

‘Omics’ developments in the form of genomics, proteomics and metabolomics have increased the impetus of traditional medicine research. Studies exploring the genomic, proteomic and metabolomic basis of human constitutional types based on Ayurveda and other systems of oriental medicine are becoming popular. Such studies remain important to developing better understanding of human variations and individual differences. Countries like India, Korea, China and Japan are investing in research on evidence-based traditional medicines and scientific validation of fundamental principles. This review provides an account of studies addressing relationships between traditional medicine and genomics. PMID:21829298

Joshi, Kalpana; Ghodke, Yogita; Shintre, Pooja

2010-01-01

268

A generalized series approach to MR spectroscopic imaging  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of precise spatial localization of spectral information in magnetic resonance (MR) spectroscopic imaging is addressed. A novel method, called GSLIM (generalized spectral location by imaging), is proposed to make possible the marriage of high-resolution proton imaging with spectroscopic imaging and localization. This method improves on the conventional Fourier series inversion method used in chemical shift imaging (CSI) and

Zhi-Pei Liang; Paul C. Lauterbur

1991-01-01

269

The "Natural Law Tradition."  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A discussion of natural law outlines some of the theory and tradition surrounding it and examines its relationship to the social science and legal curriculum and to the teaching of jurisprudence. (MSE)

Finnis, John

1986-01-01

270

Oral Tradition Journal  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Stretching back thousands of years, the oral traditions that have enriched and documented human existence remain a subject of much fascination. The Oral Tradition Journal was founded in 1986 in order to "serve as an international and interdisciplinary forum for discussion of worldwide oral traditions and related forms." The journal is based at the University of Missouri, and visitors to the site can search the entire run of the journal on this site by keyword or author. Clicking over to the "Browse the Journal" area, visitors can look over back issues that include special issues on the Serbo-Croatian oral tradition, performance literature, and the performance artistry of Bob Dylan. The site is a real treat for anyone interested in the subject, and visitors can also learn how to submit their own work for possible inclusion in a forthcoming volume.

2008-01-01

271

Improved Spectroscopic Parameters for Transiting Planet Hosts  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report homogeneous spectroscopic determinations of the effective temperature, metallicity, and projected rotational velocity for the host stars of 56 transiting planets. Our analysis is based primarily on the stellar parameter classification (SPC) technique. We investigate systematic errors by examining subsets of the data with two other methods that have often been used in previous studies (Spectroscopy Made Easy (SME) and MOOG). The SPC and SME results, both based on comparisons between synthetic spectra and actual spectra, show strong correlations between T eff, [Fe/H], and log g when solving for all three quantities simultaneously. In contrast the MOOG results, based on a more traditional curve-of-growth approach, show no such correlations. To combat the correlations and improve the accuracy of the temperatures and metallicities, we repeat the SPC analysis with a constraint on log g based on the mean stellar density that can be derived from the analysis of the transit light curves. Previous studies that have not taken advantage of this constraint have been subject to systematic errors in the stellar masses and radii of up to 20% and 10%, respectively, which can be larger than other observational uncertainties, and which also cause systematic errors in the planetary mass and radius.

Torres, Guillermo; Fischer, Debra A.; Sozzetti, Alessandro; Buchhave, Lars A.; Winn, Joshua N.; Holman, Matthew J.; Carter, Joshua A.

2012-10-01

272

Spectroscopic Detection of Pathogens  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this LDRD Research project was to provide a preliminary examination of the use of infrared spectroscopy as a tool to detect the changes in cell cultures upon activation by an infectious agent. Due to a late arrival of funding, only 5 months were available to transfer and setup equipment at UTTM,develop cell culture lines, test methods of in-situ activation and collect kinetic data from activated cells. Using attenuated total reflectance (ATR) as a sampling method, live cell cultures were examined prior to and after activation. Spectroscopic data were collected from cells immediately after activation in situ and, in many cases for five successive hours. Additional data were collected from cells activated within a test tube (pre-activated), in both transmission mode as well as in ATR mode. Changes in the infrared data were apparent in the transmission data collected from the pre-activated cells as well in some of the pre-activated ATR data. Changes in the in-situ activated spectral data were only occasionally present due to (1) the limited time cells were studied and (2) incomplete activation. Comparison of preliminary data to infrared bands reported in the literature suggests the primary changes seen are due an increase in ribonucleic acid (RNA) production. This work will be continued as part of a 3 year DARPA grant.

ALAM,M. KATHLEEN; TIMLIN,JERILYN A.; MARTIN,LAURA E.; HJELLE,DRIAN; LYONS,RICK; GARRISON,KRISTIN

2000-11-01

273

Spectroscopic full polarimeters using spatial carriers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several implementations of spectroscopic polarimeters using spatial carriers are presented. The first implementation incorporates two Savart plates and a spectrometer including a two-dimensional CCD to generate a spectrum with spatial carriers. The frequency filtering along the spatial coordinate at each wavelength allows us to conduct the snapshot measurement of the wavelength-resolved Stokes parameters. The spectral resolution of the SOP measurement can be enhanced up to that of the spectrometer. In the second implementation, two achromatic birefringent prism pairs are used to decrease the limitation in the design of the spectroscopic polarimeter. Finally, the present method is combined with a channeled spectroscopic polarization state generator so that the spectroscopic Mueller matrix of a sample can be determined by the snapshot measurement of the two-dimensional spectrum.

Oka, Kazuhiko; Haga, Yujin; Komaki, Yoshihiko

2013-09-01

274

Spectroscopic signatures of isomnerization  

E-print Network

This thesis explores spectroscopic signatures of isomerization, especially new patterns that emerge and report on chemically relevant portions of the potential energy surface, such as the transition state. The most important ...

Baraban, Joshua Herschel Goldblum

2013-01-01

275

Non-Traditional Wraps  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article presents a recipe for non-traditional wraps. In this article, the author describes how adults and children can help with the recipe and the skills involved with this recipe. The bigger role that children can play in the making of the item the more they are apt to try new things and appreciate the texture and taste.

Owens, Buffy

2009-01-01

276

Traditional Cherokee Food.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A collection for children and teachers of traditional Cherokee recipes emphasizes the art, rather than the science, of cooking. The hand-printed, illustrated format is designed to communicate the feeling of Cherokee history and culture and to encourage readers to collect and add family recipes. The cookbook could be used as a starting point for…

Hendrix, Janey B.

277

Reinventing the Rhetorical Tradition.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The 19 conference papers in this collection deal with the relationship of various rhetorical theories and their practical applications to the rhetorical traditions that they are superseding. The papers deal with many topics, including the following: (1) a multidisciplinary approach to writing instruction; (2) the importance of writing as a human…

Freedman, Aviva, Ed.; Pringle, Ian, Ed.

278

Traditional healers formalised?  

PubMed

Traditional healers are the first to be called for help when illness strikes the majority of South Africans. Their communities have faith in their ability to cure or alleviate conditions managed by doctors, and much more. A visit to such practitioners' websites (they are up with the latest advertising technology!) shows that they promise help with providing more power, love, security or money, protection from evil people and spirits, enhancing one's sex life with penis enlargement and vagina tightening spells, etc. Contemplating such claims, it is easy to be dismissive of traditional healers. But in this issue of the SAMJ Nompumelelo Mbatha and colleagues1 argue that the traditional healers' regulatory council, promised by an Act of Parliament, should be established, followed by (or preferably preceded by) formal recognition by employers of sick certificates issued by traditional healers. Can matters be so simply resolved? What does this mean for doctors and other formally recognised healthcare professionals, and how to respond to such claims and social pressures? PMID:22380886

Van Niekerk, Jp

2012-03-01

279

Traditional Islamic Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An historical and descriptive account of the Islamic school system is presented. Traditional Islamic schools began with the founding of Islam in the seventh century A.D.; the madrasas or Islamic universities were considered to be among the world's finest higher education institutes. Although Islamic scholarship began to wane in the 14th century,…

Pollak, Susan

280

Unbinding traditions: rhetoric, hermeneutics, and the Akedah  

E-print Network

, one could easily replace the terms with hermeneutics and rhetoric, respectively. Contrasted with phenomenological hermeneutics is Hirsch?s scientific method, which recalls the classical traditions of theological exegesis and forensic rhetoric...

Butcher, Joshua Thomas

2009-05-15

281

Traditional Information Technology Planning in Larger  

E-print Network

Development Life Cycle (SDLC) Often called "The Waterfall Method" (This material adapted from Hoffer, George Life Cycle (SDLC) IT Project Identification & Selection The Traditional Systems Development Life Cycle Development Life Cycle (SDLC) IT Project Identification & Selection Requirements Analysis Logical Design

Schweik, Charles M.

282

The WFI Halpha spectroscopic survey  

E-print Network

This document presents the results from our spectroscopic survey of Halpha emitters in galactic and SMC open clusters with the ESO Wide Field Imager in its slitless spectroscopic mode. First of all, for the galactic open cluster NGC6611, in which, the number and the nature of emission line stars is still the object of debates, we show that the number of true circumstellar emission line stars is small. Second, at low metallicity, typically in the Small Magellanic Cloud, B-type stars rotate faster than in the Milky Way and thus it is expected a larger number of Be stars. However, till now, search for Be stars was only performed in a very small number of open clusters in the Magellanic Clouds. Using the ESO/WFI in its slitless spectroscopic mode, we performed a Halpha survey of the Small Magellanic Cloud. 3 million low-resolution spectra centered on Halpha were obtained in the whole SMC. Here, we present the method to exploit the data and first results for 84 open clusters in the SMC about the ratios of Be stars to B stars.

Christophe Martayan; Dietrich Baade; Juan Fabregat

2008-09-25

283

REVIEW OF SCIENTIFIC INSTRUMENTS 84, 023507 (2013) Development of a polarization resolved spectroscopic diagnostic for  

E-print Network

spectroscopic diagnostic for measurements of the vector magnetic field in the Caltech coaxial magnetized plasma-perturbing visible emission spectroscopic method is implemented to observe the Zeeman splitting in emission spectra strength in the ex- periment, a non-perturbing spectroscopic method was imple- mented to observe the Zeeman

Bellan, Paul M.

284

The tyranny of tradition.  

PubMed

This paper narrates the cruelty enforced by tradition on the lives of women in India. It begins with the life of the author's great-grandmother Ponnamma wherein the family was rigidly patriarchal, and Brahmin values were applied. Here, women had very little say in the decisions men made, were forced in an arranged marriage before puberty, were not sent to school, and were considered unimportant. This tradition lived on in the author's grandmother Seetha and in the life of her mother Saras. However, in the story of Saras, following the death of her husband, they departed from rigid Brahmin tradition and orthodoxy. Her mother, unperturbed by the challenges she faced, consistently devised ways to cope and succeeded in changing environment. Meaningless Brahmatic rituals and prayers found no place in her life, which she approached with a cosmopolitan and humanitarian outlook. In essence, she shaped the lives of three daughters and a son, and all her grandchildren, making a success of not only her own but of all whose lives she touched. PMID:12322347

Gulati, L

1999-01-01

285

Grafting computer projected simulations and interactive engagement methods within a traditional classroom setting: The influence on secondary level students' understanding of Newtonian mechanics and on attitudes towards physics  

Microsoft Academic Search

This research explored the effects of a constructivist approach using computer projected simulations (CPS) and interactive engagement (IE) methods on 12th grade school students. The treatment lasted 18 weeks during the 1999-2000 fall semester and seeked to evaluate three variations in students': (1)conceptual understanding of Newtonian mechanics as measured by the Force Concept Inventory (FCI), (2)modification of their views about

Wassim Fouad Zoubeir

2000-01-01

286

Polyphasic Study of the Spatial Distribution of Microorganisms in Mexican Pozol, a Fermented Maize Dough, Demonstrates the Need for Cultivation-Independent Methods To Investigate Traditional Fermentations  

Microsoft Academic Search

The distribution of microorganisms in pozol balls, a fermented maize dough, was investigated by a polypha- sic approach in which we used both culture-dependent and culture-independent methods, including microbial enumeration, fermentation product analysis, quantification of microbial taxa with 16S rRNA-targeted oligo- nucleotide probes, determination of microbial fingerprints by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), and 16S ribosomal DNA gene sequencing. Our

FREDERIC AMPE; NABIL BEN OMAR; CLAIRE MOIZAN; CARMEN WACHER

1999-01-01

287

Effect of variety and processing method on functional properties of traditional sweet potato flour (“elubo”) and sensory acceptability of cooked paste (“amala”)  

PubMed Central

“Amala” is a generic term in Nigeria, used to describe a thick paste prepared by stirring flour (“elubo”) from yam, cassava or unripe plantain, in hot water, to form a smooth consistency. In order to overcome its high perishability and increase the utilization of sweet potato roots, three varieties of sweet potato roots were processed into flour using two methods. The interactive effect of variety and the processing method had a significant effect (P < 0.05) on all the functional properties of the flour except yellowness, setback viscosity, and peak time. Acceptable sweet potato “amala” with average sensory acceptability score of 7.5 were obtained from yellow-fleshed varieties irrespective of the processing method. Flour that produced acceptable “amala” were characterized by lower values of protein (2.20–3.94%), fiber (1.30–1.65%), total sugar (12.41–38.83 ?g/mg), water absorption capacity (168–215 g/100 g), water solubility (8.29–14.65%), swelling power (0.52–0.82 g/g), and higher peak time (6.9–8.7 min). PMID:25493186

Fetuga, Ganiyat; Tomlins, Keith; Henshaw, Folake; Idowu, Michael

2014-01-01

288

Effect of variety and processing method on functional properties of traditional sweet potato flour ("elubo") and sensory acceptability of cooked paste ("amala").  

PubMed

"Amala" is a generic term in Nigeria, used to describe a thick paste prepared by stirring flour ("elubo") from yam, cassava or unripe plantain, in hot water, to form a smooth consistency. In order to overcome its high perishability and increase the utilization of sweet potato roots, three varieties of sweet potato roots were processed into flour using two methods. The interactive effect of variety and the processing method had a significant effect (P < 0.05) on all the functional properties of the flour except yellowness, setback viscosity, and peak time. Acceptable sweet potato "amala" with average sensory acceptability score of 7.5 were obtained from yellow-fleshed varieties irrespective of the processing method. Flour that produced acceptable "amala" were characterized by lower values of protein (2.20-3.94%), fiber (1.30-1.65%), total sugar (12.41-38.83 ?g/mg), water absorption capacity (168-215 g/100 g), water solubility (8.29-14.65%), swelling power (0.52-0.82 g/g), and higher peak time (6.9-8.7 min). PMID:25493186

Fetuga, Ganiyat; Tomlins, Keith; Henshaw, Folake; Idowu, Michael

2014-11-01

289

A Spectroscopic-Based Laboratory Experiment for Protein Conformational Studies  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a practical experiment for teaching basic spectroscopic techniques to introduce the topic of protein conformational change to students in the field of molecular biology, biochemistry, or structural biology. The spectroscopic methods employed in the experiment are absorbance, for protein concentration measurements, and…

Ramos, Carlos Henrique I.

2004-01-01

290

Reengineering: breaking tradition.  

PubMed

The increased use of technology and standards of care have turned the PACU into a high-technology, costly environment that is intensive care-like in character. The use of new-generation anesthetics and reversal and pain control agents has added significantly to the escalation of actual costs while decreasing length of stay. PACU managers are being called on to justify this high-dollar real estate with diminishing productivity statistics. The concept of reengineering is applied to these challenges as a management tool to break traditions to respond to the changing environment. PMID:8064633

Geuder, D

1994-08-01

291

Supporting traditional instructional methods with a constructivist approach to learning: Promoting conceputal change and understanding of stoichiometry using e-learning tools  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Stoichiometry is a fundamental topic in chemistry that measures a quantifiable relationship between atoms, molecules, etc. Stoichiometry is usually taught using expository teaching methods. Students are passively given information, in the hopes they will retain the transmission of information to be able to solve stoichiometry problems masterfully. Cognitive science research has shown that this kind of instructional teaching method is not very effecting in meaningful learning practice. Instead, students must take ownership of their learning. The students need to actively construct their own knowledge by receiving, interpreting, integrating and reorganizing that information into their own mental schemas. In the absence of active learning practices, tools must be created in such a way to be able to scaffold difficult problems by encoding opportunities necessary to make the construction of knowledge memorable, thereby creating a usable knowledge base. Using an online e-learning tool and its potential to create a dynamic and interactive learning environment may facilitate the learning of stoichiometry. The study entailed requests from volunteer students, IRB consent form, a baseline questionnaire, random assignment of treatment, pre- and post-test assessment, and post assessment survey. These activities were given online. A stoichiometry-based assessment was given in a proctored examination at the University of Texas at Arlington (UTA) campus. The volunteer students who took part in these studies were at least 18 of age and were enrolled in General Chemistry 1441, at the University of Texas at Arlington. Each participant gave their informed consent to use their data in the following study. Students were randomly assigned to one of 4 treatments groups based on teaching methodology, (Dimensional Analysis, Operational Method, Ratios and Proportions) and a control group who just received instruction through lecture only. In this study, an e-learning tool was created to demonstrate several methodologies, on how to solve stoichiometry, which are all supported by chemical education research. Comparisons of student performance based on pre- and post-test assessment, and a stoichiometry-based examination was done to determine if the information provided within the e-learning tool yielded greater learning outcomes compared to the students in the absence of scaffold learning material. The e-learning tool was created to help scaffold the problem solving process necessary to help students (N=394) solve stoichiometry problems. Therein the study investigated possible predictors for success on a stoichiometry based examination, students' conceptual understanding of solving stoichiometry problems, and their explanation of reasoning. It was found that the way the student answered a given stoichiometry question (i.e. whether the student used dimensional analysis, operational method or any other process) was not statistically relevant (p=0.05). More importantly, if the students were able to describe their thought process clearly, these students scored significantly higher on stoichiometry test (mean 84, p<0.05). This finding has major implications in teaching the topic, as lecturers tend to stress and focus on the method rather than the process on how to solve stoichiometry problems.

Abayan, Kenneth Munoz

292

Comparison of some dispersion-corrected and traditional functionals with CCSD(T) and MP2 ab initio methods: dispersion, induction, and basis set superposition error.  

PubMed

We compare dispersion and induction interactions for noble gas dimers and for Ne, methane, and 2-butyne with HF and LiF using a variety of functionals (including some specifically parameterized to evaluate dispersion interactions) with ab initio methods including CCSD(T) and MP2. We see that inductive interactions tend to enhance dispersion and may be accompanied by charge-transfer. We show that the functionals do not generally follow the expected trends in interaction energies, basis set superposition errors (BSSE), and interaction distances as a function of basis set size. The functionals parameterized to treat dispersion interactions often overestimate these interactions, sometimes by quite a lot, when compared to higher level calculations. Which functionals work best depends upon the examples chosen. The B3LYP and X3LYP functionals, which do not describe pure dispersion interactions, appear to describe dispersion mixed with induction about as accurately as those parametrized to treat dispersion. We observed significant differences in high-level wavefunction calculations in a basis set larger than those used to generate the structures in many of the databases. We discuss the implications for highly parameterized functionals based on these databases, as well as the use of simple potential energy for fitting the parameters rather than experimentally determinable thermodynamic state functions that involve consideration of vibrational states. PMID:23039587

Roy, Dipankar; Marianski, Mateusz; Maitra, Neepa T; Dannenberg, J J

2012-10-01

293

Application of correlation constrained multivariate curve resolution alternating least-squares methods for determination of compounds of interest in biodiesel blends using NIR and UV-visible spectroscopic data.  

PubMed

This study describes two applications of a variant of the multivariate curve resolution alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) method with a correlation constraint. The first application describes the use of MCR-ALS for the determination of biodiesel concentrations in biodiesel blends using near infrared (NIR) spectroscopic data. In the second application, the proposed method allowed the determination of the synthetic antioxidant N,N'-Di-sec-butyl-p-phenylenediamine (PDA) present in biodiesel mixtures from different vegetable sources using UV-visible spectroscopy. Well established multivariate regression algorithm, partial least squares (PLS), were calculated for comparison of the quantification performance in the models developed in both applications. The correlation constraint has been adapted to handle the presence of batch-to-batch matrix effects due to ageing effects, which might occur when different groups of samples were used to build a calibration model in the first application. Different data set configurations and diverse modes of application of the correlation constraint are explored and guidelines are given to cope with different type of analytical problems, such as the correction of matrix effects among biodiesel samples, where MCR-ALS outperformed PLS reducing the relative error of prediction RE (%) from 9.82% to 4.85% in the first application, or the determination of minor compound with overlapped weak spectroscopic signals, where MCR-ALS gave higher (RE (%)=3.16%) for prediction of PDA compared to PLS (RE (%)=1.99%), but with the advantage of recovering the related pure spectral profile of analytes and interferences. The obtained results show the potential of the MCR-ALS method with correlation constraint to be adapted to diverse data set configurations and analytical problems related to the determination of biodiesel mixtures and added compounds therein. PMID:24840439

de Oliveira, Rodrigo Rocha; de Lima, Kássio Michell Gomes; Tauler, Romà; de Juan, Anna

2014-07-01

294

Control of lightness and firmness of cold and reheated frankfurter-type sausages using different spectroscopic methods applied to raw batter.  

PubMed

Muscle types and collagen, fat, and muscle protein minus collagen were varied in cooked frankfurter-type sausages made from beef and pork meat as well as pork backfat. The content of collagen was fixed at preset levels with pork rind. The amount of total muscle protein in the sausages varied between 5.9% and 11.9% and the fat between 16.1% and 22.1%. The collagen content varied between 1.3% and 4%. Spectroscopic measurements (near-infrared reflectance spectra 1100 to 2500 nm; front-face autofluorescence emission spectra 360 to 640 nm) on raw batters were used to predict the amounts of total muscle protein minus collagen, collagen, myoglobin, and fat (biochemical components), L* values from a Minolta chromameter, and firmness of cold (22 degrees C) and reheated sausages (60 degrees C). Lightness of sausages was most accurately determined from the batter data with a Minolta chromameter or the autofluorescence measurement system. Firmness of cold sausages could be described by the amounts of biochemical components plus the type of muscle used in the sausage. The 2nd-best approach was to use the shape of the near-infrared spectra to determine firmness. This was possible as the shape of near-infrared spectra depended on total protein content, and total protein content largely determined the firmness of cold sausages. If the sausages were reheated to 60 degrees C, near-infrared spectroscopy alone determined firmness of the sausages with a lower accuracy than a combined solution of fluorescence and near-infrared spectroscopy. The 2 spectroscopic techniques could thus be used to estimate the amount of biochemical components in sausages. Once these components were known, firmness could be calculated from a model between the amounts of biochemical components and firmness. For reheated sausages, as opposed to cold ones, there was a need to differentiate between collagen and the other muscle proteins in order to determine firmness. This was optimally achieved by using both autofluorescence and near-infrared spectroscopy. PMID:17995835

Egelandsdal, B; Dingstad, G I; Tøgersen, G; Hildrum, K I

2007-03-01

295

Spectroscopic Surveys: Present  

E-print Network

I summarize the current spectroscopic sky surveys and some of the scientific results, emphasizing the largest sky survey to-date, the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). Techniques used commonly in spectral analyses are discussed, followed by the present needs and challenges for solving some of the unknown problems. I discuss how the Virtual Observatory (VO) can help astronomers in carrying out related research.

Ching-Wa Yip

2007-06-29

296

Laser/Spectroscopic Determination Of Mass Flows  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mass flow rates of air and other gases computed from absorption-spectroscopic measurements of light generated by tunable diode lasers. Rates of flow measured nonintrusively. Method implemented with rugged, compact, economical lasers and optical fibers to guide laser light to and from measurement locations.

Hanson, R. K.

1994-01-01

297

Comparing the Novel Method of Assessing PrEP Adherence/Exposure Using Hair Samples to Other Pharmacologic and Traditional Measures  

PubMed Central

Objective: The efficacy of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) in HIV will diminish with poor adherence; pharmacologic measures of drug exposure have proven critical to PrEP trial interpretation. We assessed drug exposure in hair against other pharmacologic and more routinely used measures to assess pill-taking. Design: Participants were randomized to placebo, daily PrEP, or intermittent PrEP to evaluate safety and tolerability of daily versus intermittent tenofovir/emtricitabine (TFV/FTC) in 2 phase II PrEP clinical trials conducted in Africa. Different measures of drug exposure, including self-report, medication event monitoring system (MEMS)-caps openings, and TFV/FTC levels in hair and other biomatrices were compared. Methods: At weeks 8 and 16, self-reported pill-taking, MEMS-caps openings, and TFV/FTC levels in hair, plasma, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were measured. Regression models evaluated predictors of TFV/FTC concentrations in the 3 biomatrices; correlation coefficients between pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic measures were calculated. Both trials were registered on ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00931346/NCT00971230). Results: Hair collection was highly feasible and acceptable (100% in week 8; 96% in week 16). In multivariate analysis, strong associations were seen between pharmacologic measures and MEMS-caps openings (all P < 0.001); self-report was only weakly associated with pharmacologic measures. TFV/FTC hair concentrations were significantly correlated with levels in plasma and PBMCs (correlation coefficients, 0.41–0.86, all P < 0.001). Conclusions: Measuring TFV/FTC exposure in small hair samples in African PrEP trials was feasible and acceptable. Hair levels correlated strongly with PBMC, plasma concentrations, and MEMS-caps openings. As in other PrEP trials, self-report was the weakest measure of exposure. Further study of hair TFV/FTC levels in PrEP trials and demonstration projects to assess adherence/exposure is warranted. PMID:25296098

Baxi, Sanjiv M.; Liu, Albert; Bacchetti, Peter; Mutua, Gaudensia; Sanders, Eduard J.; Kibengo, Freddie M.; Haberer, Jessica E.; Rooney, James; Hendrix, Craig W.; Anderson, Peter L.; Huang, Yong; Priddy, Frances

2015-01-01

298

A comparative study of caffeine and theophylline binding to Mg(II) and Ca(II) ions: studied by FTIR and UV spectroscopic methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The interactions of calcium and magnesium ions with caffeine and theophylline have been investigated in aqueous solution at physiological pH. Fourier Transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and absorption spectra were used to determine the cation binding mode and the association constants. Our spectroscopic results showed that calcium and magnesium ions do not complex with caffeine strongly and the weak interactions between caffeine and Mg 2+ and Ca 2+ might be via O6 atom. In Ca 2+-theophylline complex, binding between Ca 2+ with C?O and N7 is observed, however in Mg 2+-theophylline complex, binding between Mg 2+ and N7 is more likely. The k values of these complexes are as follows: k(caffeine-Ca)=29.8 M -1, k(caffeine-Mg)=22.4 M -1, k(theophylline-Ca)=59.8 M -1 and k(theophylline-Mg)=33.8 M -1. These values are evidence for a weak cation interaction in these metal complexes.

Nafisi, Shohreh; Shamloo, Delaram Sadraii; Mohajerani, Nasser; Omidi, Akram

2002-08-01

299

FT-IR, FT-Raman, dispersive Raman, NMR spectroscopic studies and NBO analysis of 2-Bromo-1H-Benzimidazol by density functional method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, geometrical optimization, FT-IR (4000-400 cm-1), FT-Raman (4000-40 cm-1), dispersive Raman (4000-40 cm-1) spectroscopic analysis, electronic structure and 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies of 2-Bromo-1H-Benzimidazol (abbreviated as 2Br1HB) were undertaken by utilizing DFT/B3LYP with 6-311+G(d,p) basis set. The results of the calculations were applied to simulate spectra of the title compound, which show good agreement with observed spectra. Complete vibrational assignments, analysis and correlations of the fundamental modes for 2Br1HB compound were carried out. Stability of the molecule arising from hyperconjugative interactions, charge delocalization was analyzed using natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis. The molecule orbital contributions were studied by using the total density of states (TDOS), partial density of states (PDOS), and overlap population density of states (OPDOS). The electronic properties like HOMO-LUMO energies and molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) analysis were reported. The calculated HOMO and LUMO energies shows that charge transfer interactions take place within the molecule. Mulliken population analysis on atomic charges was also calculated. Good correlation between the experimental 1H and 13C NMR chemical shifts in DMSO solution and calculated gauge-including atomic orbital (GIAO) shielding tensors were found.

Sas, E. B.; Kurt, M.; Karabacak, M.; Poiyamozhi, A.; Sundaraganesan, N.

2015-02-01

300

Study on the interaction between methyl jasmonate and the coiled-coil domain of rice blast resistance protein Pi36 by spectroscopic methods.  

PubMed

Interaction between the coiled-coil domain of rice blast resistance protein Pi36 and methyl-jasmonate (MeJA) was studied by fluorescence and UV-vis spectroscopic techniques. The quenching mechanism of fluorescence of MeJA by this domain was discussed to be a static quenching procedure. Fluorescence quenching was explored to measure the number of binding sites n and apparent binding constants K. The thermodynamics parameters ?H, ?G, ?S were also calculated. The results indicate the binding reaction was not entropy-driven but enthalpy-driven, and hydrophobic binding played major role in the interaction. The binding sites of MeJA with the coiled-coil structural domain of rice blast resistance protein Pi36 were found to approach the microenvironment of both Tyr and Trp by the synchronous fluorescence spectrometry. The distance r between donor (the coiled-coil domain of rice blast resistance protein Pi36) and acceptor (MeJA) was obtained according to Förster theory of non-radioactive energy transfer. PMID:22196797

Liu, Xin Q; Zhang, Dan; Zhang, Xiang M; Wang, Chun T; Liu, Xue Q; Tan, Yan P; Wu, Yun H

2012-03-01

301

The HITRAN2012 molecular spectroscopic database  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper describes the status of the 2012 edition of the HITRAN molecular spectroscopic compilation. The new edition replaces the previous HITRAN edition of 2008 and its updates during the intervening years. The HITRAN molecular absorption compilation is comprised of six major components structured into folders that are freely accessible on the internet. These folders consist of the traditional line-by-line spectroscopic parameters required for high-resolution radiative-transfer codes, infrared absorption cross-sections for molecules not yet amenable to representation in a line-by-line form, ultraviolet spectroscopic parameters, aerosol indices of refraction, collision-induced absorption data, and general tables such as partition sums that apply globally to the data. The new HITRAN is greatly extended in terms of accuracy, spectral coverage, additional absorption phenomena, and validity. Molecules and isotopologues have been added that address the issues of atmospheres beyond the Earth. Also discussed is a new initiative that casts HITRAN into a relational database format that offers many advantages over the long-standing sequential text-based structure that has existed since the initial release of HITRAN in the early 1970s.

Rothman, L. S.; Gordon, I. E.; Babikov, Y.; Barbe, A.; Chris Benner, D.; Bernath, P. F.; Birk, M.; Bizzocchi, L.; Boudon, V.; Brown, L. R.; Campargue, A.; Chance, K.; Cohen, E. A.; Coudert, L. H.; Devi, V. M.; Drouin, B. J.; Fayt, A.; Flaud, J.-M.; Gamache, R. R.; Harrison, J. J.; Hartmann, J.-M.; Hill, C.; Hodges, J. T.; Jacquemart, D.; Jolly, A.; Lamouroux, J.; Le Roy, R. J.; Li, G.; Long, D. A.; Lyulin, O. M.; Mackie, C. J.; Massie, S. T.; Mikhailenko, S.; Müller, H. S. P.; Naumenko, O. V.; Nikitin, A. V.; Orphal, J.; Perevalov, V.; Perrin, A.; Polovtseva, E. R.; Richard, C.; Smith, M. A. H.; Starikova, E.; Sung, K.; Tashkun, S.; Tennyson, J.; Toon, G. C.; Tyuterev, Vl. G.; Wagner, G.

2013-11-01

302

Spectroscopic study of solar twins and analogues  

E-print Network

Context. Many large stellar surveys have been and are still being carried out, providing huge amounts of data, for which stellar physical parameters will be derived. Solar twins and analogues provide a means to test the calibration of these stellar catalogues because the Sun is the best-studied star and provides precise fundamental parameters. Solar twins should be centred on the solar values. Aims. This spectroscopic study of solar analogues selected from the Geneva-Copenhagen Survey (GCS) at a resolution of 48,000 provides effective temperatures and metallicities for these stars. We test whether our spectroscopic parameters, as well as the previous photometric calibrations, are properly centred on the Sun. In addition, we search for more solar twins in our sample. Methods. The methods used in this work are based on literature methods for solar twin searches and on methods we developed in previous work to distinguish the metallicity-temperature degeneracies in the differential comparison of spectra of solar ...

Datson, Juliet; Portinari, Laura

2014-01-01

303

Quality assessment of internet pharmaceutical products using traditional and non-traditional analytical techniques.  

PubMed

This work investigated the use of non-traditional analytical methods to evaluate the quality of a variety of pharmaceutical products purchased via internet sites from foreign sources and compared the results with those obtained from conventional quality assurance methods. Traditional analytical techniques employing HPLC for potency, content uniformity, chromatographic purity and drug release profiles were used to evaluate the quality of five selected drug products (fluoxetine hydrochloride, levothyroxine sodium, metformin hydrochloride, phenytoin sodium, and warfarin sodium). Non-traditional techniques, such as near infrared spectroscopy (NIR), NIR imaging and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), were employed to verify the results and investigate their potential as alternative testing methods. Two of 20 samples failed USP monographs for quality attributes. The additional analytical methods found 11 of 20 samples had different formulations when compared to the U.S. product. Seven of the 20 samples arrived in questionable containers, and 19 of 20 had incomplete labeling. Only 1 of the 20 samples had final packaging similar to the U.S. products. The non-traditional techniques complemented the traditional techniques used and highlighted additional quality issues for the products tested. For example, these methods detected suspect manufacturing issues (such as blending), which were not evident from traditional testing alone. PMID:16266793

Westenberger, Benjamin J; Ellison, Christopher D; Fussner, Andrew S; Jenney, Susan; Kolinski, Richard E; Lipe, Terra G; Lyon, Robbe C; Moore, Terry W; Revelle, Larry K; Smith, Anjanette P; Spencer, John A; Story, Kimberly D; Toler, Duckhee Y; Wokovich, Anna M; Buhse, Lucinda F

2005-12-01

304

Spectroscopic analysis technique for arc-welding process control  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The spectroscopic analysis of the light emitted by thermal plasmas has found many applications, from chemical analysis to monitoring and control of industrial processes. Particularly, it has been demonstrated that the analysis of the thermal plasma generated during arc or laser welding can supply information about the process and, thus, about the quality of the weld. In some critical applications (e.g. the aerospace sector), an early, real-time detection of defects in the weld seam (oxidation, porosity, lack of penetration, ...) is highly desirable as it can reduce expensive non-destructive testing (NDT). Among others techniques, full spectroscopic analysis of the plasma emission is known to offer rich information about the process itself, but it is also very demanding in terms of real-time implementations. In this paper, we proposed a technique for the analysis of the plasma emission spectrum that is able to detect, in real-time, changes in the process parameters that could lead to the formation of defects in the weld seam. It is based on the estimation of the electronic temperature of the plasma through the analysis of the emission peaks from multiple atomic species. Unlike traditional techniques, which usually involve peak fitting to Voigt functions using the Levenberg-Marquardt recursive method, we employ the LPO (Linear Phase Operator) sub-pixel algorithm to accurately estimate the central wavelength of the peaks (allowing an automatic identification of each atomic species) and cubic-spline interpolation of the noisy data to obtain the intensity and width of the peaks. Experimental tests on TIG-welding using fiber-optic capture of light and a low-cost CCD-based spectrometer, show that some typical defects can be easily detected and identified with this technique, whose typical processing time for multiple peak analysis is less than 20msec. running in a conventional PC.

Mirapeix, Jesús; Cobo, Adolfo; Conde, Olga; Quintela, María Ángeles; López-Higuera, José-Miguel

2005-09-01

305

Spectroscopic Mode Identification in Slowly Pulsating Subdwarf-B Stars  

E-print Network

Mode identification is crucial for an asteroseismological study of any significance. Contrarily to spectroscopic techniques, methods such as period-fitting and multi-colour photometry do not provide a full reconstruction of non-radial pulsations. We present a new method of spectroscopic mode identification and test it on time-series of synthetic spectra appropriate for pulsating subdwarf-B stars. We then apply it to the newly discovered slowly pulsating subdwarf-B star HD 4539.

C. Schoenaers; A. E. Lynas-Gray

2008-04-28

306

Spectroscopic Properties and Potential Energy Curves of SnF +  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spectroscopic properties and potential energy curves of several electronic states of SnF + are computed using the complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) followed by first- and second-order configuration interaction (FOCI, SOCI) methods that include up to 1.6 million configurations. Spin-orbit effects were incorporated using the relativistic configuration interaction (RCI) method. Spectroscopic properties of several excited electronic states of SnF + are reported, none of which is observed at present.

Balasubramanian, K.; Xu, H.

1995-06-01

307

Singlet and Triplet Excited States of Emissive, Conjugated Bis(porphyrin) Compounds Probed by Optical and EPR Spectroscopic  

E-print Network

by Optical and EPR Spectroscopic Methods Rene´e Shediac, Mike H. B. Gray, H. Tetsuo Uyeda, Robert C. Johnson), electroabsorption (Stark), and transient triplet-triplet absorption spectroscopic methods. Pump-probe fluorescence emitting states polarized exclusively along the axis defined by the ethyne moiety. Stark spectroscopic

308

Validated spectrophotometric method for the determination, spectroscopic characterization and thermal structural analysis of duloxetine with 1,2-naphthoquinone-4-sulphonate  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel, selective, sensitive and simple spectrophotometric method was developed and validated for the determination of the antidepressant duloxetine hydrochloride in pharmaceutical preparation. The method was based on the reaction of duloxetine hydrochloride with 1,2-naphthoquinone-4-sulphonate (NQS) in alkaline media to yield orange colored product. The formation of this complex was also confirmed by UV-visible, FTIR, 1H NMR, Mass spectra techniques and thermal analysis. This method was validated for various parameters according to ICH guidelines. Beer's law is obeyed in a range of 5.0-60 ?g/mL at the maximum absorption wavelength of 480 nm. The detection limit is 0.99 ?g/mL and the recovery rate is in a range of 98.10-99.57%. The proposed methods was validated and applied to the determination of duloxetine hydrochloride in pharmaceutical preparation. The results were statistically analyzed and compared to those of a reference UV spectrophotometric method.

Ulu, Sevgi Tatar; Elmali, Fikriye Tuncel

2012-03-01

309

A comparison of the ability of Bellucia dichotoma Cogn. (Melastomataceae) extract to inhibit the local effects of Bothrops atrox venom when pre-incubated and when used according to traditional methods.  

PubMed

Bellucia dichotoma Cogn. (Melastomataceae) is one of various plant species used in folk medicine in the west of the state of Pará, Brazil, to treat snake bites. Many studies have been carried out to evaluate the effectiveness of anti-snake bite plants, but few of these use the same preparation methods and doses as those traditionally used by the local populations. This study therefore compared inhibition of the main local effects of B. atrox venom (BaV) by aqueous extract of B. dichotoma (AEBd) administered according to traditional methods and pre-incubated with BaV). The concentrations of phenolic compounds (tannins and flavonoids) in AEBd were determined by colorimetric assays. The effectiveness of AEBd in inhibiting the hemorrhagic and edematogenic activities of BaV was evaluated in mice in four different experimental in vivo protocols: (1) pre-incubation (venom:extract, w/w); (2) pre-treatment (p.o.); (3) post-treatment (p.o.); and (4) AEBd (p.o.) in combination with Bothrops antivenom (BA) (i.v.). To assess in vitro inhibition of BaV phospholipase A2 activity, the pre-incubation method or incorporation of AEBd or BA in agarose gels were used. The effect of AEBd on BaV was determined by SDS-PAGE, zymography and Western blot. Colorimetric assays revealed higher concentrations of (condensed and hydrolyzable) tannins than flavonoids in AEBd. Hemorrhagic activity was completely inhibited using the pre-incubation protocol. However, with pre-treatment there was no significant inhibition for the concentrations tested, and with the post-treatment only the 725 mg/kg dose of AEBd was able to inhibit 40.5% (p = 0.001) of the hemorrhagic activity of BaV. Phospholipase A2 activity was only inhibited when AEBd was pre-incubated with BaV. BaV-induced edema was completely inhibited with pre-incubation (p < 0.05) and significantly reduced (p < 0.05) with pre- and post-treatment (p.o.) for the concentrations tested. The reduction in local edema was even greater when AEBd was administered in combination with BA. The SDS-PAGE profiles showed that several of the BaV protein (SDS-PAGE) and enzyme (zymography) bands were not detected when the venom was pre-incubated, and Western blot revealed that this was not caused by the AEBd enzymes observed in the zymogram. The "pseudo inhibition" observed after pre-incubation in this study may be due to the presence of tannins in the extract, which could act as chelating agents, removing metalloproteins and Ca(2+) ions and thus inhibiting hemorrhagin and PLA2 activity. However, when administered according to traditional methods, B. dichotoma extract was effective in blocking BaV-induced edematogenic activity and had an additional effect on inhibition of this activity by BA. PMID:24814014

Mourão de Moura, Valéria; Serra Bezerra, Adrielle N; Veras Mourão, Rosa Helena; Varjão Lameiras, Juliana L; Almeida Raposo, Juliana D; Luckwu de Sousa, Rafael; Boechat, Antônio Luiz; Bezerra de Oliveira, Ricardo; de Menezes Chalkidis, Hipocrátes; Dos-Santos, Maria Cristina

2014-07-01

310

Godel and the metamathematical tradition Jeremy Avigad  

E-print Network

asked to deliver a lecture in honor of the Kurt G¨odel centennial, I agreed to do so with someG¨odel and the metamathematical tradition Jeremy Avigad July 25, 2007 Abstract The metamathematical and the use of explicit, finitary methods in the metatheory. Although G¨odel's work in logic fits squarely

Avigad, Jeremy

311

Alternative Approaches to Traditional Topics in Algebra  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Students who otherwise seem unreachable through traditional approaches to algebra require some alternative teaching methods. So do teachers who seek to add elements of freshness and innovation to their classrooms or who simply appreciate variety. This article offers some unconventional techniques for teaching a few conventional algebra topics.…

Coburn, John W.

2010-01-01

312

Statistical Validation of Traditional Chinese Medicine Theories  

Microsoft Academic Search

The theories of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) originated from experiences doctors had with patients in ancient times. We ask the question whether aspects of TCM theories can be reconstructed through data analy- sis. To answer the question, we have developed a data analysis method called latent tree models and have used it to analyze several TCM data sets. This paper

Nevin L. Zhang; Shihong Yuan; Tao Chen; Yi Wang

2008-01-01

313

Traditional Chinese Medicines as Immunosuppressive Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduction: Traditional Chinese Medicines (TCM) have been used for centuries in China to treat various immune-mediated disord ers. Methods: This review focuses on the clinical and experimental studies that have been performed with TCM as immunosuppressive ag ents for the treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), atopic eczema and solid organ transplantati on. Results: The \\

V Ramgolam; S G Ang; Y H Lai; C S Loh; H K Yap

314

Growth of Sr6Rh5O15 single crystals from high-temperature solutions: structure determination using the traditional 3-D and the 4-D superspace group methods and magnetic measurements on oriented single crystals.  

PubMed

Single crystals of Sr6Rh5O15 were grown from a molten potassium carbonate flux. The structure was solved by both the traditional 3-D crystallographic approach and the 4-D superspace group approach using JANA2000. Both methods produced an equivalent structure determination, thereby confirming the 4-D superspace group approach as an effective structure solution method for 3-D commensurate composite structures. Sr6Rh5O15 corresponds to the n = 1, m = 1 member of the A3n+3mA'nB3m+nO9m+6n family of 2H hexagonal perovskite-related oxides. This compound is characterized by pseudo-one-dimensional polyhedral chains of four face-sharing RhO6 octahedra followed by one RhO6 trigonal prism. These chains in turn are separated by [Sr](infinity) chains. Magnetic measurements were carried out on oriented single crystals, and a very large magnetic anisotropy in the magnetic susceptibility was observed. PMID:11535085

Stitzer, K E; El Abed, A; Darriet, J; zur Loye, H C

2001-09-12

315

Traditional West Coast Native Medicine  

PubMed Central

An important part of the complex culture of the Native people of Canada's Pacific coast is the traditional system of medicine each culture has developed. Population loss from epidemics and the influence of dominant European cultures has resulted in loss of many aspects of traditional medicine. Although some Native practices are potentially hazardous, continuation of traditional approaches to illness remains an important part of health care for many Native people. The use of “devil's club” plant by the Haida people illustrates that Native medicine has both spiritual and physical properties. Modern family practice shares many important foundations with traditional healing systems. PMID:21253031

Deagle, George

1988-01-01

316

EDITORIAL: Spectroscopic diagnostics of magnetic fusion plasmas Spectroscopic diagnostics of magnetic fusion plasmas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spectroscopy has always been an integral part of the diagnostic systems of super-hot fusion plasmas. The numerous results derived from studies of the emitted spectra have been highly important for elucidating key physical properties of fusion plasmas; moreover, plasma spectroscopy has provided crucial input for development of new tokamaks, stellarators and other advanced devices. Many concepts of spectroscopic diagnostics in magnetic confinement fusion (MCF) are well established and have been thoroughly tested over decades. However the recent advances on the existing machines (e.g. JET, ASDEX Upgrade and LHD), linked to the accelerating development of the international ITER project, call for new and improved spectroscopic methods. These are required to determine the key plasma parameters in all regions of the plasma volume while coping with complex materials, new advanced operating scenarios and a hostile radiation environment. It is such advanced methods and techniques that are the focus of this special issue. The papers collected here provide an extensive representation of the state of the art in spectroscopic diagnostics of MCF plasmas. On the experimental side, several contributions from the existing tokamaks and stellarators demonstrate how sophisticated spectroscopic methods are used to derive information on temporal evolution of electron temperature and density, particle velocity in peripheral plasmas, edge ion temperature, and many other quantities of interest. A group of papers addresses development of new experimental techniques for future measurements, including specific spectroscopic tools for ITER diagnostics. As accurate atomic data are at the cornerstone of reliable diagnostics, several papers describe newly calculated spectroscopic and collisional data for species and processes of highest importance in fusion devices, such as, for example, charge exchange for neutral beam injection diagnostics. Finally, a group of contributions address various issues related to theoretical modelling of plasma emission spectra including collisional-radiative simulations and line profile modelling. We hope that the papers contributed to this special issue will serve as a valuable resource for the MCF community.

Neu, Rudolf; Summers, Hugh P.; Ralchenko, Yuri

2010-07-01

317

Automated spectroscopic abundances of A and F-type stars using echelle spectrographs I. Reduction of ELODIE spectra and method of abundance determination  

E-print Network

This paper presents an automated method to determine detailed abundances for A and F-type stars. This method is applied on spectra taken with the ELODIE spectrograph. Since the standard reduction procedure of ELODIE is optimized to obtain accurate radial velocities but not abundances, we present a more appropriate reduction procedure based on IRAF. We describe an improvement of the method of Hill & Landstreet (1993) for obtaining Vsini, microturbulence and abundances by fitting a synthetic spectrum to the observed one. In particular, the method of minimization is presented and tested with Vega and the Sun. We show that it is possible, in the case of the Sun, to recover the abundances of 27 elements well within 0.1 dex of the commonly accepted values.

D. Erspamer; P. North

2001-12-14

318

Spectroscopic survey of LAMOST  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

LAMOST is a special reflecting Schmidt telescope. LAMOST breaks through the bottleneck of the large scale spectroscopic survey observation with both large aperture (effective aperture of 3.6 - 4.9m) and wide field of view (5 degrees). It is an innovative active reflecting Schmidt configuration achieved by changing mirror surface continuously to achieve a series different reflecting Schmidt system in different moments. By using the parallel controllable fiber positioning technique, the focal surface of 1.75 meters in diameter accommodates 4000 optical fibers. Also, LAMOST has 16 spectrographs with 32 CCD cameras. LAMOST is the telescope of the highest spectrum acquiring rate. As a national large scientific project, LAMOST project was proposed formally in 1996. The construction was started in 2001 and completed in 2008. After commission period, LAMOST pilot survey was started in October 2011 and spectroscopic survey began in September 2012. From October 2011 to June 2013, LAMOST has obtained more than 2 million spectra of celestial objects. There are 1.7 million spectra of stars, in which the stellar parameters (effective temperature, surface gravity, metalicitiy and radial velocity) of more than 1 million stars was obtained. In the first period of spectroscopic survey of LAMOST, 5 million of stellar spectra will be obtained and will make substantial contribution to the study of the stellar astrophysics and the structure of the Galaxy, such as the spheroid substructure of the Galaxy, the galactic gravitational potential and the distribution of the dark matter in the Galaxy, the extremely metal poor stars and hypervelocity stars, the 3D extinction in the Galaxy, the structure of thin and thick disks of the Galaxy, and so on.

Zhao, Yongheng

2014-07-01

319

Determination of the asymptotic normalization coefficients for C14 + n ?C15, the C14(n,?)C15 reaction rate, and evaluation of a new method to determine spectroscopic factors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The C14 + n ?C15 system has been used as a test case in the evaluation of a new method to determine spectroscopic factors that uses the asymptotic normalization coefficient (ANC). The method proved to be unsuccessful for this case. As part of this experimental program, the ANCs for the 15C ground state and first excited state were determined using a heavy-ion neutron transfer reaction as well as the inverse kinematics (d,p) reaction, measured at the Texas A&M Cyclotron Institute. The values C2s1/22=1.88±0.18 fm-1 for the ground state and C1d5/22=4.25±0.38×10-3 fm-1 for the first excited state (Eexc=740 keV) were obtained. The ANCs were used to evaluate the astrophysical direct neutron capture rate on C14, which was then compared with the most recent direct measurement and found to be in good agreement. A study of the C15 SF via its mirror nucleus F15 and a new insight into deuteron stripping theory are also presented.

McCleskey, M.; Mukhamedzhanov, A. M.; Trache, L.; Tribble, R. E.; Banu, A.; Eremenko, V.; Goldberg, V. Z.; Lui, Y.-W.; McCleskey, E.; Roeder, B. T.; Spiridon, A.; Carstoiu, F.; Burjan, V.; Hons, Z.; Thompson, I. J.

2014-04-01

320

Reflectance near-infrared spectroscopic method with a chemometric technique using partial least squares multivariate calibration for simultaneous determination of chondroitin, glucosamine, and ascorbic acid.  

PubMed

A reflectance near-infrared (RNIR) spectroscopy method was developed for simultaneous determination of chondroitin (CH), glucosamine (GO), and ascorbic acid (AS) in capsule powder. A simple preparation of the sample was done by grinding, sieving, and compression of the powder sample for improving RNIR spectra. Partial least squares (PLS-1 and PLS-2) was successfully applied to quantify the three components in the studied mixture using information included in RNIR spectra in the 4240-9780 cm(-1) range. The calibration model was developed with the three drug concentrations ranging from 50 to 150% of the labeled amount. The calibration models using pure standards were evaluated by internal validation, cross-validation, and external validation using synthetic and pharmaceutical preparations. The proposed method was applied for analysis of two pharmaceutical products. Both pharmaceutical products had the same active principle and similar excipients, but with different nominal concentration values. The results of the proposed method were compared with the results of a pharmacopoeial method for the same pharmaceutical products. No significant differences between the results were found. The standard error of prediction was 0.004 for CH, 0.003 for GO, and 0.005 for AS. The correlation coefficient was 0.9998 for CH, 0.9999 for GO, and 0.9997 for AS. The highly accurate and precise RNIR method can be used for QC of pharmaceutical products. PMID:22816263

El-Gindy, Alaa; Attia, Khalid Abdel-Salam; Nassar, Mohammad Wafaa; El-Abasawy, Nasr M A; Shoeib, Maisra Al-shabrawi

2012-01-01

321

Bringing Traditional Teachings to Leadership  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The purpose of this article is to examine how our Kootegan Yix Meh Towlth (traditional governance) might contribute to the development and implementation of a culturally relevant Sliammon governance model. Our Uk woom he heow (ancestors) lived their everyday lives guided by a complex system of practices and beliefs based on our Ta-ow (traditional

Washington, Siemthlut Michelle

2005-01-01

322

Traditional Korean Child Rearing Practices.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study describes traditional Korean child rearing and its relation to personality, social development, and their implications for education. Topics addressed include the family structure, traditional value orientation, the prenatal period, patterns of interaction in infancy, the baby as a vulnerable being, the baby as a spiritual being, the…

Han, Myunghee; Washington, Ernest D.

323

A Novel Spectroscopic Ellipsometer in the Infrared  

E-print Network

A Novel Spectroscopic Ellipsometer in the Infrared Proefschrift ter verkrijging van de graad van-Charles A novel spectroscopic ellipsometer in the infrared / by Jean-Charles Cigal. ­ Eindhoven : Technische . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 1.2 Spectroscopic ellipsometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 1

Eindhoven, Technische Universiteit

324

Comparison of the traditional three-tube most probable number method with the Petrifilm, SimPlate, BioSys optical, and Bactometer conductance methods for enumerating Escherichia coli from chicken carcasses and ground beef.  

PubMed

A study was conducted to compare commonly used methods, such as Petrifilm and SimPlate, and the rapid microbiological methods BioSys optical and Bactometer conductance to the standard most probable number (MPN) procedure for enumerating Escherichia coli from poultry carcasses and ground beef. Broiler carcasses and ground beef were evaluated in each of three replicate trials. Five groups of carcasses or ground beef were sampled and analyzed using Petrifilm, SimPlate, BioSys optical, and Bactometer conductance measurements after temperature abuse at 37 degrees C for 0 (Petrifilm and SimPlate only), 2, 4, 6, or 8 h. The correlation coefficients for the regression lines comparing the standard E. coli MPN procedure to Petrifilm and SimPlate for chicken and ground beef, respectively, were as follows: 0.95, 0.94, 0.93, and 0.91. The correlation coefficients for the regression lines comparing the standard E. coli MPN procedure to BioSys optical and Bactometer conductance measurements for chicken and ground beef, respectively, were -0.91, -0.90, -0.93, and -0.96. Although Petrifilm and SimPlate performed well, E. coli could not be enumerated from 16.7 and 10% of samples, respectively, using these methods. The BioSys optical and Bactometer conductance methods performed very well when compared with Petrifilm and SimPlate. Using rapid methods (BioSys optical and Bactometer conductance), results were obtained in 1 to 11 h rather than the 48 h required to conduct Petrifilm or SimPlate or the 5 days required to conduct the MPN procedure. These methods may allow processors to test products and obtain results before shipping, avoiding the cost and loss of reputation associated with a recall or foodborne illness outbreak. PMID:10983789

Russell, S M

2000-09-01

325

High-Resolution Infrared-Vacuum Ultraviolet Photoion and Pulsed Field Ionization-Photoelectron Methods for Spectroscopic Studies of Neutrals and Cations  

Microsoft Academic Search

We show that by scanning the frequency of a single mode infrared (IR) optical parametric oscillator (IR-OPO) laser to excite the molecular species of interest and fixing the frequency of a vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) laser to photoionize the IR excited species, high-resolution IR spectra of polyatomic neutrals can be obtained with high sensitivity. The fact that this IR-VUV-photoion (IR-VUV-PI) method

Xi Xing; Beth Reed; Mi Kyung Bahng; Peng Wang; Hin Koo Woo; Sun Jong Baek; Chee Shing Lam; Cheuk Yiu Ng

2008-01-01

326

New validated liquid chromatographic and chemometrics-assisted UV spectroscopic methods for the determination of two multicomponent cough mixtures in syrup.  

PubMed

Multivariate spectrophotometric calibration and liquid chromatographic (LC) methods were applied to the determination of 2 multicomponent mixtures containing diprophylline, guaiphenesin, methylparaben, and propylparaben (Mixture 1), or clobutinol, orciprenaline, saccharin sodium, and sodium benzoate (Mixture 2). For the multivariate spectrophotometric calibration methods, principal component regression (PCR) and partial least-squares regression (PLS-1), a calibration set of the mixtures consisting of the components of each mixture was prepared in 0.1 M HCl. Analytical figures of merit such as sensitivity, selectivity, limit of quantitation, and limit of detection were determined for both PLS-1 and PCR. The LC separation was achieved on a reversed-phase C18 analytical column by using isocratic elution with 20 mM potassium dihydrogen phosphate, pH 3.3-acetonitrile (55 + 45, v/v) as the mobile phase and UV detection at 260 and 220 nm for Mixture 1 and Mixture 2, respectively. The proposed methods were validated and successfully applied to the analysis of pharmaceutical formulations and laboratory-prepared mixtures containing the 2 multicomponent combinations. PMID:18376584

Hadad, Ghada M; El-Gindy, Alaa; Mahmoud, Waleed M M

2008-01-01

327

Kazakh Traditional Dance Gesture Recognition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Full body gesture recognition is an important and interdisciplinary research field which is widely used in many application spheres including dance gesture recognition. The rapid growth of technology in recent years brought a lot of contribution in this domain. However it is still challenging task. In this paper we implement Kazakh traditional dance gesture recognition. We use Microsoft Kinect camera to obtain human skeleton and depth information. Then we apply tree-structured Bayesian network and Expectation Maximization algorithm with K-means clustering to calculate conditional linear Gaussians for classifying poses. And finally we use Hidden Markov Model to detect dance gestures. Our main contribution is that we extend Kinect skeleton by adding headwear as a new skeleton joint which is calculated from depth image. This novelty allows us to significantly improve the accuracy of head gesture recognition of a dancer which in turn plays considerable role in whole body gesture recognition. Experimental results show the efficiency of the proposed method and that its performance is comparable to the state-of-the-art system performances.

Nussipbekov, A. K.; Amirgaliyev, E. N.; Hahn, Minsoo

2014-04-01

328

What's So Non-Traditional About Non-Traditional Students?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The characteristics and expectations of non-traditional community college students are examined. It is emphasized that changes in bottom-line services and programs will need to be made in order to accomodate this large group. (LH)

Waterhouse, Pearl G.

1978-01-01

329

Spectroscopic and Photophysical Properties of the Trioxatriangulenium  

E-print Network

1 Spectroscopic and Photophysical Properties of the Trioxatriangulenium Carbocation and its and absorption spectroscopic techniques. A significant difference is observed of the photophysical parameters

330

Aurorae in Australian Aboriginal Traditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transient celestial phenomena feature prominently in the astronomical knowledge and traditions of Aboriginal Australians. In this paper, I collect accounts of the Aurora Australis from the literature regarding Aboriginal culture. Using previous studies of meteors, eclipses, and comets in Aboriginal traditions, I anticipate that the physical properties of aurora, such as their generally red colour as seen from southern Australia, will be associated with fire, death, blood, and evil spirits. The survey reveals this to be the case and also explores historical auroral events in Aboriginal cultures, aurorae in rock art, and briefly compares Aboriginal auroral traditions with other global indigenous groups, including the Maori of New Zealand.

Hamacher, Duane W.

2013-07-01

331

Determination of structural and vibrational spectroscopic features of neutral and anion forms of dinicotinic acid by using NMR, infrared and Raman experimental methods combined with DFT and HF.  

PubMed

In this study; the experimental (NMR, infrared and Raman) and theoretical (HF and DFT) analysis of dinicotinic acid were presented. (1)H and (13)C NMR spectra were recorded in DMSO solution and chemical shifts were calculated by using the gauge-invariant atomic orbital (GIAO) method. The vibrational spectra of dinicotinic acid were recorded by FT-Raman and FT-IR spectra in the range of 4000-10 cm(-1) and 4000-400 cm(-1), respectively. To determine the most stable neutral conformer of molecule, the selected torsion angle was changed every 10° and molecular energy profile was calculated from 0° to 360°. The geometrical parameters and energies were obtained for all conformers form from density functional theory (DFT/B3LYP) and HF with 6-311++G(d,p) basis set calculations. However, the results of the most stable neutral and two anion forms (anion(-1) and anion(-2) forms) of dinicotinic acid are reported here. The complete assignments were performed on the basis of the total energy distribution (TED) of the vibrational wavenumbers, calculated with scaled quantum mechanics (SQM) method and PQS program. PMID:23747433

Kose, E; Bardak, F; Atac, A; Karabacak, M; Cipiloglu, M A

2013-10-01

332

Vibrational spectroscopic studies, normal co-ordinate analysis, first order hyperpolarizability, HOMO-LUMO of midodrine by using density functional methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The FTIR (4000-400 cm-1), FT-Raman (4000-100 cm-1) and UV-Visible (400-200 nm) spectra of midodrine were recorded in the condensed state. The complete vibrational frequencies, optimized geometry, intensity of vibrational bands and atomic charges were obtained by using Density Functional Theory (DFT) with the help of 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. The first order hyperpolarizability (?) and related properties (?, ? and ??) of this molecular system were calculated by using DFT/6-311++G(d,p) method based on the finite-field approach. The assignments of the vibrational spectra have been carried out with the help of Normal Co-ordinate Analysis (NCA) following the scaled quantum mechanical force methodology. Stability of the molecule arising from hyper conjugative interactions, charge delocalization has been analyzed using NBO analysis. From the recorded UV-Visible spectrum, the electronic properties such as excitation energies, oscillator strength and wavelength are calculated by DFT in water and gas methods using 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. The calculated HOMO and LUMO energies confirm that charge transfer occurs within the molecule. Besides MEP, NLO and thermodynamic properties were also calculated and interpreted. The electron density-based local reactivity descriptor such as Fukui functions was calculated to explain the chemical selectivity or reactivity site in midodrine.

Shahidha, R.; Al-Saadi, Abdulaziz A.; Muthu, S.

2015-01-01

333

Vibrational spectroscopic studies, normal co-ordinate analysis, first order hyperpolarizability, HOMO-LUMO of midodrine by using density functional methods.  

PubMed

The FTIR (4000-400 cm(-1)), FT-Raman (4000-100 cm(-1)) and UV-Visible (400-200 nm) spectra of midodrine were recorded in the condensed state. The complete vibrational frequencies, optimized geometry, intensity of vibrational bands and atomic charges were obtained by using Density Functional Theory (DFT) with the help of 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. The first order hyperpolarizability (?) and related properties (?, ? and ??) of this molecular system were calculated by using DFT/6-311++G(d,p) method based on the finite-field approach. The assignments of the vibrational spectra have been carried out with the help of Normal Co-ordinate Analysis (NCA) following the scaled quantum mechanical force methodology. Stability of the molecule arising from hyper conjugative interactions, charge delocalization has been analyzed using NBO analysis. From the recorded UV-Visible spectrum, the electronic properties such as excitation energies, oscillator strength and wavelength are calculated by DFT in water and gas methods using 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. The calculated HOMO and LUMO energies confirm that charge transfer occurs within the molecule. Besides MEP, NLO and thermodynamic properties were also calculated and interpreted. The electron density-based local reactivity descriptor such as Fukui functions was calculated to explain the chemical selectivity or reactivity site in midodrine. PMID:25011041

Shahidha, R; Al-Saadi, Abdulaziz A; Muthu, S

2015-01-01

334

Standard test method for determination of impurities in plutonium: acid dissolution, ion exchange matrix separation, and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopic (ICP/AES) analysis  

E-print Network

1.1 This specification covers blended uranium trioxide (UO3), U3O8, or mixtures of the two, powders that are intended for conversion into a sinterable uranium dioxide (UO2) powder by means of a direct reduction process. The UO2 powder product of the reduction process must meet the requirements of Specification C 753 and be suitable for subsequent UO2 pellet fabrication by pressing and sintering methods. This specification applies to uranium oxides with a 235U enrichment less than 5 %. 1.2 This specification includes chemical, physical, and test method requirements for uranium oxide powders as they relate to the suitability of the powder for storage, transportation, and direct reduction to UO2 powder. This specification is applicable to uranium oxide powders for such use from any source. 1.3 The scope of this specification does not comprehensively cover all provisions for preventing criticality accidents, for health and safety, or for shipping. Observance of this specification does not relieve the user of th...

American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

2003-01-01

335

High-Definition Infrared Spectroscopic Imaging  

PubMed Central

The quality of images from an infrared (IR) microscope has traditionally been limited by considerations of throughput and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). An understanding of the achievable quality as a function of instrument parameters, from first principals is needed for improved instrument design. Here, we first present a model for light propagation through an IR spectroscopic imaging system based on scalar wave theory. The model analytically describes the propagation of light along the entire beam path from the source to the detector. The effect of various optical elements and the sample in the microscope is understood in terms of the accessible spatial frequencies by using a Fourier optics approach and simulations are conducted to gain insights into spectroscopic image formation. The optimal pixel size at the sample plane is calculated and shown much smaller than that in current mid-IR microscopy systems. A commercial imaging system is modified, and experimental data are presented to demonstrate the validity of the developed model. Building on this validated theoretical foundation, an optimal sampling configuration is set up. Acquired data were of high spatial quality but, as expected, of poorer SNR. Signal processing approaches were implemented to improve the spectral SNR. The resulting data demonstrated the ability to perform high-definition IR imaging in the laboratory by using minimally-modified commercial instruments. PMID:23317676

Reddy, Rohith K.; Walsh, Michael J.; Schulmerich, Matthew V.; Carney, P. Scott; Bhargava, Rohit

2013-01-01

336

Spatially resolved energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopic method for in-situ evaluation of mechanical properties during the growth of a C - Pt composite nanowire  

SciTech Connect

A core-shell type C-Pt composite nanowire is fabricated using focused ion and electron beam induced chemical vapor deposition techniques. Using information from spatially resolved energy dispersive x-ray spectra, we detect the resonance vibration in the C-Pt composite nanowire. We use this method to measure the Young's moduli of the constituents (C, Pt) of the composite nanowire and also estimate the density of the FEB CVD grown Pt shell surrounding the C core. By measuring the resonance characteristics of the composite nanowire we estimate a Pt shell growth rate of ?0.9 nms{sup ?1}. The study is analyzed to suggest that the Pt shell growth mechanism is primarily governed by the sticking coefficient of the organometallic vapor on the C nanowire core.

Banerjee, Amit; Banerjee, S. S., E-mail: satyajit@iitk.ac.in [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur, Kanpur, 208016 (India)

2014-05-15

337

Improvement of near infrared spectroscopic (NIRS) analysis of caffeine in roasted Arabica coffee by variable selection method of stability competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (SCARS)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Coffee is the most heavily consumed beverage in the world after water, for which quality is a key consideration in commercial trade. Therefore, caffeine content which has a significant effect on the final quality of the coffee products requires to be determined fast and reliably by new analytical techniques. The main purpose of this work was to establish a powerful and practical analytical method based on near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and chemometrics for quantitative determination of caffeine content in roasted Arabica coffees. Ground coffee samples within a wide range of roasted levels were analyzed by NIR, meanwhile, in which the caffeine contents were quantitative determined by the most commonly used HPLC-UV method as the reference values. Then calibration models based on chemometric analyses of the NIR spectral data and reference concentrations of coffee samples were developed. Partial least squares (PLS) regression was used to construct the models. Furthermore, diverse spectra pretreatment and variable selection techniques were applied in order to obtain robust and reliable reduced-spectrum regression models. Comparing the respective quality of the different models constructed, the application of second derivative pretreatment and stability competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (SCARS) variable selection provided a notably improved regression model, with root mean square error of cross validation (RMSECV) of 0.375 mg/g and correlation coefficient (R) of 0.918 at PLS factor of 7. An independent test set was used to assess the model, with the root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of 0.378 mg/g, mean relative error of 1.976% and mean relative standard deviation (RSD) of 1.707%. Thus, the results provided by the high-quality calibration model revealed the feasibility of NIR spectroscopy for at-line application to predict the caffeine content of unknown roasted coffee samples, thanks to the short analysis time of a few seconds and non-destructive advantages of NIRS.

Zhang, Xuan; Li, Wei; Yin, Bin; Chen, Weizhong; Kelly, Declan P.; Wang, Xiaoxin; Zheng, Kaiyi; Du, Yiping

2013-10-01

338

The Critical Tradition in Bulgaria  

Microsoft Academic Search

The critical tradition in Bulgaria includes all philosophical studies concerned directly or indirectly with Kant’s philosophy. In this sense, it can be called the Kantian trend in the Bulgarian philosophical tradition. Compared with other philosophical schools, such as Rehmke’s philosophy, dialectical materialism, etc., Kantianism develops relatively steadily, neither achieving lasting pre-eminence over other trends nor losing ground altogether. In the

Dimitar Tsatsov

2001-01-01

339

Spectroscopic and electrical studies on Nd(3+), Zr(4+) ions doped nano-sized BaTiO3 ferroelectrics prepared by sol-gel method.  

PubMed

Lead free ferroelectric ceramics in the form of Ba(1-3x)Nd(2x)Ti(1-y)ZryO3 ((where x=0.025, y=0 (BT1), 0.025 (BT2), 0.05 (BT3)) were prepared using sol-gel method. The surface morphology and the orientation of grains of the present ceramics were examined using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM) images. The effect of Nd(3+), Zr(4+) ions content on the BaTiO3 was studied using Raman and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopies. From the Raman analysis the band observed at ?838cm(-1) was attributed due to the presence of Nd(3+)-barium vacancy pairs. The FTIR studies suggested that the addition of Nd(3+) ions in A-site of BaTiO3 (ABO3) perovskite create lattice distortion by forming A-site vacancies and Zr(4+) ions in B-site of BaTiO3 induce the lattice distortion by forming ZrO6 octahedra in the place of TiO6 octahedra. Dielectric measurements of the samples were done at different frequencies from RT-150°C. Charge transportation phenomenon is explained using DC conductivity, which is found to increase with temperature. PMID:25448941

Sameera Devi, Ch; Kumar, G S; Prasad, G

2015-02-01

340

Combination of chiroptical, absorption and fluorescence spectroscopic methods reveals multiple, hydrophobicity-driven human serum albumin binding of the antimalarial atovaquone and related hydroxynaphthoquinone compounds.  

PubMed

High-affinity human serum albumin (HSA) binding of the C3-substituted antimalarial 2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone derivative atovaquone (ATQ) has been demonstrated and studied by circular dichroism (CD), UV/VIS absorption, fluorescence spectroscopy and affinity chromatography methods. The analysis of induced CD data generated upon HSA binding of ATQ revealed two high-affinity binding sites (K(a) ? 2 × 10(6) M(-1)). CD interaction studies and displacement of specific fluorescent and radioactive marker ligands indicated the contribution of both principal drug binding sites of HSA to complexation of ATQ, and also suggested the possibility of simultaneous binding of ATQ and some other drugs (e.g. warfarin, phenylbutazone, diazepam). Comparison of UV/VIS spectra of ATQ measured in aqueous solutions indicated the prevalence of the anionic species formed by dissociation of the 2-hydroxyl group. HSA binding of related natural hydroxynaphthoquinones, lapachol and lawsone also induces similar CD spectra. The much weaker binding affinity of lawsone (K(a) ? 10(4) M(-1)) bearing no C3 substituent highlights the importance of hydrophobic interactions in the strong HSA binding of ATQ and lapachol. Since neither drug exhibited significant binding to serum ?(1)-acid glycoprotein, HSA must be the principal plasma protein for the binding and transportation of 2-hydroxy-1,4-naphthoquinone-type compounds which are ionized at physiological pH values. PMID:20737064

Zsila, Ferenc; Fitos, Ilona

2010-11-01

341

Spectroscopic and electrical studies on Nd3+, Zr4+ ions doped nano-sized BaTiO3 ferroelectrics prepared by sol-gel method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lead free ferroelectric ceramics in the form of Ba(1-3x)Nd(2x)Ti(1-y)ZryO3 ((where x = 0.025, y = 0 (BT1), 0.025 (BT2), 0.05 (BT3)) were prepared using sol-gel method. The surface morphology and the orientation of grains of the present ceramics were examined using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM) images. The effect of Nd3+, Zr4+ ions content on the BaTiO3 was studied using Raman and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopies. From the Raman analysis the band observed at ?838 cm-1 was attributed due to the presence of Nd3+-barium vacancy pairs. The FTIR studies suggested that the addition of Nd3+ ions in A-site of BaTiO3 (ABO3) perovskite create lattice distortion by forming A-site vacancies and Zr4+ ions in B-site of BaTiO3 induce the lattice distortion by forming ZrO6 octahedra in the place of TiO6 octahedra. Dielectric measurements of the samples were done at different frequencies from RT-150 °C. Charge transportation phenomenon is explained using DC conductivity, which is found to increase with temperature.

Sameera Devi, Ch.; Kumar, G. S.; Prasad, G.

2015-02-01

342

Vibrational spectroscopic (FTIR and FT Raman) studies, first order hyperpolarizabilities and HOMO, LUMO analysis of p-toluenesulfonyl isocyanate using ab initio HF and DFT methods.  

PubMed

The Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and FT Raman spectra of p-toluenesulfonyl isocyanate (p-tosyl isocyanate) have been measured. The molecular geometry, vibrational frequencies, infrared intensities, Raman activities and atomic charges have been calculated by using ab initio HF and density functional theory calculation (B3LYP) with 6-311+G(d,p) basis set. Complete vibrational assignment and analysis of the fundamental modes of the compound were carried out using the observed FTIR and FT Raman data. The thermodynamic functions of the title compound were also performed with the aid of HF/6-311+G(d,p) and B3LYP/6-311+G(d,p) levels of theory. Simulated FTIR and FT Raman spectra for p-tosyl isocyanate showed good agreement with the observed spectra. The calculated HOMO and LUMO energies show that charge transfer occurs within the molecule. The dipole moment (?), polarizability (?) and the hyperpolarizability (?) values of the investigated molecule have been computed using HF and B3LYP methods. PMID:21795105

Parimala, K; Balachandran, V

2011-10-15

343

Elemental and structural analysis of silicon forms in herbal drugs using silicon-29 MAS NMR and WD-XRF spectroscopic methods.  

PubMed

The objective of this work was to study concentration of silicon and its structural forms present in herbal drugs. Equisetum arvense and Urtica dioica L. from teapot bags, dietary supplements (tablets and capsules) containing those herbs, dry extract obtained from a teapot bag of E. arvense, and samples of the latter herb harvested in wild habitat over four months were studied using wavelength dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (WD-XRF) and high-resolution solid-state (29)Si NMR. The highest concentration of Si, ca. 27mg/g, was found in the herbal material from the teapot bags containing E. arvense. The Si content in natural E. arvense (whole plants) increased from May to August by ca. 7mg/g, reaching value 26mg/g. Three different silicon forms were detected in the studied herbal samples: Si(OSi)4 (Q(4)), Si(OH)(OSi)3 (Q(3)) and Si(OH)2(OSi)2 (Q(2)). Those sites were populated in E. arvense in the following order: Q(4)?Q(3)>Q(2). A dramatic, ca. 50-fold decrease of the Si concentration during the infusion process was observed. The infusion process and the subsequent drying procedure augmented population of the Q(4) sites at the cost of the Q(2) sites. The WD-XRF and (29)Si NMR methods occurred useful and complementary in the study of herbal materials. PMID:21813258

Pajchel, L; Nykiel, P; Kolodziejski, W

2011-12-01

344

Infrared spectroscopic imaging of kidney tumor tissue  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Infrared spectroscopic imaging of cancerous kidney tissue was performed by means of FTIR microscopy. The spectra of thin tissue cryosections were collected with 64x64 MCT FPA detector and imaging area was increased up to 5.4×5.4 mm by mapping by means of PC controlled x,y stage. Chemical images of the samples were constructed using statistical treatment of the raw spectra. Several unsupervised and supervised statistical methods were used. The imaging results are compared with results of the standard histopathological analysis. It was concluded that application of method of cluster analysis ensures the best contrast of the images. It was found that border between cancerous and normal tissues visible in the infrared spectroscopic image corresponds with the border visible in histopathological image. Closer examination of the infrared spectroscopic image reveals that small domains of cancerous cells are found beyond the border in areas distant from the border up to 3 mm. Such domains are not visible in the histopathological images. The smallest domains found in the infrared images are approx. 60 ?m.

Sablinskas, V.; Steiner, G.; Koch, E.; Ceponkus, J.; Pucetaite, M.; Strazdaite, S.; Urboniene, V.; Jankevicius, F.

2011-02-01

345

Data Acquisition System for Instructional Spectroscopes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article aims to present the software for data acquisition developed in scientific initiation program - IC, for use in the design of a spectrometer built by students. The program was built in C++, a language in wide use today. The origin of spectra used is a simplified model of rustic spectroscope. This equipment basically consists of a box that does not allow light to enter, except through a slit made in the side of it, a diffraction media and a camera for data acquisition. After the image acquisition, one executes the data processing, followed by the usual steps of reduction and analysis of this type of tool. We have implemented a method for calibrating the spectroscope, through which one can compare the incidence of the photons with characteristic of each monochromatic wave. The final result is a one-dimensional spectrum that can be subsequently analyzed.

Almeida, C. B. S. B.; Hetem, A.

2014-10-01

346

Spectroscopic investigation of highly transient pinch plasmas  

SciTech Connect

The temporal evolution of neon pinch plasmas, generated in a 2 kJ plasma focus device, has been investigated by x-ray spectroscopic methods for two sets of device parameters. These two sets lead to characteristic differences of the K-shell emission. Stationary models are shown to fail to explain the experimental observations even qualitatively. Transient spectra analysis shows that the characteristic differences observed can be referred to different transient modes of plasma dynamics. The spectra analysis includes beside resonance lines also dielectronic satellites and recombination continua. The results concerning the development of the plasma parameters achieved by the spectra modeling are supported by independent measurements of the time resolved K-shell emission and by optical streak images of the pinch plasma dynamics, which confirms the reliability of the transient spectroscopic analysis presented. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

Bergmann, K.; Engel, A.; Lebert, R. [Lehrstuhl fuer Lasertechnik, Steinbachstrasse 15, D-52074 Aachen (Germany)] [Lehrstuhl fuer Lasertechnik, Steinbachstrasse 15, D-52074 Aachen (Germany); Rosmej, O.N. [MISDC VIIFTRI, 141570 Mendeleevo, Moscow (Russia)] [MISDC VIIFTRI, 141570 Mendeleevo, Moscow (Russia); Rosmej, F.B. [Institut fuer Experimentalphysik V, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum,Universitaetsstrasse 150, D-44780 Bochum (Germany)] [Institut fuer Experimentalphysik V, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum,Universitaetsstrasse 150, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); Gavrilescu, C. [University of Iasi, Copou 11, 6600-Iasi (Romania)] [University of Iasi, Copou 11, 6600-Iasi (Romania); Neff, W. [Fraunhofer Institut fuer Lasertechnik, Steinbachstrasse 15, D-52074 Aachen (Germany)] [Fraunhofer Institut fuer Lasertechnik, Steinbachstrasse 15, D-52074 Aachen (Germany)

1997-11-01

347

Multi-steps infrared spectroscopic characterization of the effect of flowering on medicinal value of Cistanche tubulosa  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multi-steps infrared spectroscopic methods, including conventional Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), second derivative spectroscopy and two-dimensional infrared (2D-IR) correlation spectroscopy, have been proved to be effective methods to examine complicated mixture system such as Chinese herbal medicine. The focus of this paper is the investigation on the effect of flowering on the pharmaceutical components of Cistanche tubulosa by using the Multi-steps infrared spectroscopic method. Power-spectrum analysis is applied to improve the resolution of 2D-IR contour maps and much more details of overlapped peaks are detected. According to the results of FT-IR and second derivative spectra, the peak at 1732 cm -1 assigned to C dbnd O is stronger before flowering than that after flowering in the stem, while more C dbnd O groups are found in the top after flowering. The spectra of root change a lot in the process of flowering for the reason that many peaks shift and disappear after flowering. Seven peaks in the spectra of stem, which are assigned to different kinds of glycoside components, are distinguished by Power-spectra in the range of 900-1200 cm -1. The results provide a scientific explanation to the traditional experience that flowering consumes the pharmaceutical components in stem and the seeds absorb some nutrients of stem after flowering. In conclusion, the Multi-steps infrared spectroscopic method combined with Power-spectra is a promising method to investigate the flowering process of C. tubulosa and discriminate various parts of the herbal medicine.

Lai, Zuliang; Xu, Peng; Wu, Peiyi

2009-01-01

348

A Comparison of Collaborative and Traditional Instruction in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Although collaborative instructional techniques have become popular in college courses, it is unclear whether collaborative techniques can replace more traditional instructional methods. We examined the efficacy of collaborative courses (in-class, collaborative activities with no lectures) compared to traditional lecture courses (in-class,…

Gubera, Chip; Aruguete, Mara S.

2013-01-01

349

Instructional Television versus Traditional Teaching of an Introductory Psychology Course.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Compares the effectiveness of teaching an introductory psychology course delivered through instructional television (ITV) versus the traditional method. Students were taught in one of three ways: (1) traditional classroom instruction, (2) instruction in an ITV studio with a teacher, or (3) instruction in a remote ITV studio. Finds similar…

Bacon, Steven F.; Jakovich, Julie A.

2001-01-01

350

Enhancing forensic science with spectroscopic imaging  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This presentation outlines the research we are developing in the area of Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic imaging with the focus on materials of forensic interest. FTIR spectroscopic imaging has recently emerged as a powerful tool for characterisation of heterogeneous materials. FTIR imaging relies on the ability of the military-developed infrared array detector to simultaneously measure spectra from thousands of different locations in a sample. Recently developed application of FTIR imaging using an ATR (Attenuated Total Reflection) mode has demonstrated the ability of this method to achieve spatial resolution beyond the diffraction limit of infrared light in air. Chemical visualisation with enhanced spatial resolution in micro-ATR mode broadens the range of materials studied with FTIR imaging with applications to pharmaceutical formulations or biological samples. Macro-ATR imaging has also been developed for chemical imaging analysis of large surface area samples and was applied to analyse the surface of human skin (e.g. finger), counterfeit tablets, textile materials (clothing), etc. This approach demonstrated the ability of this imaging method to detect trace materials attached to the surface of the skin. This may also prove as a valuable tool in detection of traces of explosives left or trapped on the surfaces of different materials. This FTIR imaging method is substantially superior to many of the other imaging methods due to inherent chemical specificity of infrared spectroscopy and fast acquisition times of this technique. Our preliminary data demonstrated that this methodology will provide the means to non-destructive detection method that could relate evidence to its source. This will be important in a wider crime prevention programme. In summary, intrinsic chemical specificity and enhanced visualising capability of FTIR spectroscopic imaging open a window of opportunities for counter-terrorism and crime-fighting, with applications ranging from analysis of trace evidence (e.g. in soil), tablets, drugs, fibres, tape explosives, biological samples to detection of gunshot residues and imaging of fingerprints.

Ricci, Camilla; Kazarian, Sergei G.

2006-09-01

351

The 1997 spectroscopic GEISA databank  

Microsoft Academic Search

The current version GEISA-97 of the computer-accessible database system GEISA (Gestion et Etude des Informations Spectroscopiques Atmosphériques: Management and Study of Atmospheric Spectroscopic Information) is described. This catalogue contains 1,346,266 entries. These are spectroscopic parameters required to describe adequately the individual spectral lines belonging to 42 molecules (96 isotopic species) and located between 0 and 22,656cm-1. The featured molecules are

N. Jacquinet-Husson; E. Arie; J. Ballard; A. Barbe; G. Bjoraker; B. Bonnet; L. R. Brown; C. Camy-Peyret; J. P. Champion; A. Chedin; A. Chursin; C. Clerbaux; G. Duxbury; J.-M. Flaud; N. Fourrie; A. Fayt; G. Graner; R. Gamache; A. Goldman; Vl. Golovko; G. Guelachvili; J. M. Hartmann; J. C. Hilico; J. Hillman; G. Lefevre; E. Lellouch; O. V. Naumenko; V. Nemtchinov; D. A. Newnham; A. Nikitin; J. Orphal; A. Perrin; D. C. Reuter; C. P. Rinsland; L. Rosenmann; L. S. Rothman; N. A. Scott; J. Selby; L. N. Sinitsa; J. M. Sirota; A. M. Smith; K. M. Smith; Vl. G. Tyuterev; R. H. Tipping; S. Urban; P. Varanasi; M. Weber

1999-01-01

352

SDSS spectroscopic survey of stars  

SciTech Connect

In addition to optical photometry of unprecedented quality, the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) is also producing a massive spectroscopic database. They discuss determination of stellar parameters, such as effective temperature, gravity and metallicity from SDSS spectra, describe correlations between kinematics and metallicity, and study their variation as a function of the position in the Galaxy. They show that stellar parameter estimates by Beers et al. show a good correlation with the position of a star in the g-r vs. u-g color-color diagram, thereby demonstrating their robustness as well as a potential for photometric parameter estimation methods. Using Beers et al. parameters, they find that the metallicity distribution of the Milky Way stars at a few kpc from the galactic plane is bimodal with a local minimum at [Z/Z{sub {circle_dot}}] {approx} -1.3. The median metallicity for the low-metallicity [Z/Z{sub {circle_dot}}] < =1.3 subsample is nearly independent of Galactic cylindrical coordinates R and z, while it decreases with z for the high-metallicity [Z/Z{sub {circle_dot}}] > -1.3 sample. they also find that the low-metallicity sample has {approx} 2.5 times larger velocity dispersion and that it does not rotate (at the {approx} 10 km/s level), while the rotational velocity of the high-metallicity sample decreases smoothly with the height above the galactic plane.

Ivezic, Zeljko; Schlegel, D.; Uomoto, A.; Bond, N.; Beers, T.; Allende Prieto, C.; Wilhelm, R.; Lee, Y.Sun; Sivarani, T.; Juric, M.; Lupton, R.; /Washington U., Seattle,

2007-01-01

353

Wound care with traditional, complementary and alternative medicine  

PubMed Central

Wound care is constantly evolving with the advances in medicine. Search for the ideal dressing material still continues as wound care professionals are faced with several challenges. Due to the emergence of multi-resistant organisms and a decrease in newer antibiotics, wound care professionals have revisited the ancient healing methods by using traditional and alternative medicine in wound management. People's perception towards traditional medicine has also changed and is very encouraging. The concept of moist wound healing has been well accepted and traditional medicine has also incorporated this method to fasten the healing process. Several studies using herbal and traditional medicine from different continents have been documented in wound care management. Honey has been used extensively in wound care practice with excellent results. Recent scientific evidences and clinical trials conducted using traditional and alternative medicine in wound therapy holds good promise in the future. PMID:23162243

Dorai, Ananda A.

2012-01-01

354

Is Traditional Educational Media Dead?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the influence of films on the author and concludes that traditional media has not died out, but rather has changed due to technology. Films are now watched on television as well as at a cinema; radio is more pervasive; and newspapers are still valued. (LRW)

Ljubic, Milan

2000-01-01

355

Restored Behavior and Oral Traditions.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Interest in oral traditions has benefitted the field of interpretation in two ways: a new emphasis on the social and cultural contexts of performance, and an expanded perspective on performance manifestations. In Richard Schechner's concept of "restored behavior," the interpreter engages in a reconstruction of living behavior independent of its…

Miranda, Kathleen Bindert

356

Tenure: Traditions, Policies, and Practices.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Two recent books, "The Case for Tenure" (Matthew W. Finkin, ed.) and "Promotion and Tenure" (William G. Tierney, Estela Mara Bensimon) are important contributions to the dialog about college faculty tenure. Each contributes to but does not fill the professoriate's need for a defense of tenure that incorporates the tradition of principled support…

Hutcheson, Philo

1998-01-01

357

Traditional midwifery: a case study.  

PubMed

To improve utilization of available maternity care resources in Botswana, a qualitative investigation of traditional midwives was conducted. Ethnographic interviews and videotaped naturalistic observations were utilized to develop a profile of one such midwife. The themes of communication, information sharing, and cooperation with the modern sector were of particular concern. The profile that emerged showed a woman who is socially and culturally integrated into the local community, represents a highly valuable source of information on cultural conceptions of crucial importance to childbearing Botswana women, demonstrates the value of a close personal relationship and communication with the delivering woman, realizes the limitations of her own capacity in birthing situations, and maintains close links with and makes referrals to the local hospital where indicated. The prototypical traditional midwife who was the focus of this study was a 48-year-old Botswana woman who had attended over 350 births since 1971. Among her roles were pregnancy diagnosis, assessment of nutritional intake, counseling regarding the side effects of pregnancy massage of the abdomen, delivery, assessment of the newborn, cord care, and cultural rituals. After delivery, the traditional midwife makes home visits to follow up on vulnerable populations and encourage use of family planning to space births. Personalized teaching and collaboration with the modern sector are also used by the traditional midwife to address the needs of infertile couples. PMID:12282434

Anderson, S

1985-01-01

358

Individualizing in Traditional Classroom Settings.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Effective individualized instruction depends primarily on the teacher possessing the skills to implement it. Individualization is therefore quite compatible with the traditional self-contained elementary classroom model, but not with its alternative, departmentalization, which allows teachers neither the time flexibility nor the familiarity with…

Thornell, John G.

1980-01-01

359

Traditional Teacher Education Still Matters  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Fresh from teaching his first full school year the author reflects on his traditional teacher preparation path into the classroom and finds he was instilled with a common sense of ethics, compassion, a demand for reflective practice, and a robust guiding philosophy. As a college student, he learned theory and was able to augment that with…

Jacobs, Nick

2013-01-01

360

Progress in traditional Chinese medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recently, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) natural products have been used to produce impressive responses in atopic eczema and related dermatological disorders that have proved resistant to orthodox treatments. The increasing popularity of TCM natural products has also produced fear about their toxicity and uncertainty about their ingredients. In the western world, very little is known of the efficacy and safety

K. Chan

1995-01-01

361

Superoxide and traditional Chinese medicines  

Microsoft Academic Search

In traditional Chinese medicinal practices, herbs are classified as ‘cold’, ‘neutral’, or ‘hot’. Fluorometric analysis of herbs with ‘cold’ properties revealed that these herbs produce large amounts of superoxide. In contrast, herbs with ‘hot’ properties have scavenging activities. We believe that this electron transfer to form superoxide and the scavenging of superoxide may elucidate the phenomena of the ‘yin’ (represented

W. S. Lin; W. C. L. Chan; C. S. Hew

1995-01-01

362

Open Universities: A British Tradition?  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This book challenges the notion that the open university is a recent invention and argues that in Britain there is a long and varied tradition of similar developments, and that there has been a significant 20th century reduction in the openness of universities, particularly in the period from the 1950s to the 1970s. Selected examples of open…

Bell, Robert; Tight, Malcolm

363

Traditional Navajo Maps and Wayfinding  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An example of the way finding process when using verbal and other traditional maps among the Navajo Indians of the southwestern United States is presented. The scholarly literature on the Southwest offers examples of verbal maps that construct both linear space, such as trails, and broad geographical space, including hunting territories and large…

Francis, Harris; Kelley, Klara

2005-01-01

364

Documenting Dene Traditional Environmental Knowledge.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In a participatory action research project, local Dene and non-Native researchers in Fort Good Hope and Colville Lake, Northwest Territories (Canada), are documenting Dene traditional environmental knowledge and resource management systems. Problems in integrating Dene knowledge and Western science stem from incompatible world views. (SV)

Johnson, Martha

1992-01-01

365

[Chemical pattern recognition of traditional Chinese medicine kudingcha (I)].  

PubMed

In this paper, the non-linear mapping method of pattern recognition was adopted to classify 78 samples of traditional Chinese medicine Kudingcha, with macro and trace elements as classified characteristic features. Ilex cornuta Lindl., Ilex latifolia Thunb. and Ligustrum lucidum Ait. were identified accurately. The results agree with those from pharmacognosy. This paper provides a new method for identification of traditional Chinese medicine. PMID:12567936

Su, W; Wu, Z; Chen, J; He, X; Li, J

1998-03-01

366

2-Chloroethylisocyanate. Thermal decomposition and spectroscopic properties.  

PubMed

2-Chloroethylisocyanate has been studied in a thorough way. NMR, Raman, FTIR, and Ar-matrix vibrational spectra of the molecule are presented and discussed with the complement of ab initio and DFT methods. The spectroscopic results reveal the existence of anti and gauche conformers that are equally populated in the gas phase. Thermal decomposition between 393 and 648 K shows two different pathways depending on the temperature, which can be interpreted in terms of simple second- and first-order mechanisms, respectively. Quantum mechanical calculations reproduce the experimental results. PMID:21718037

Martínez Córdoba, Gustavo A; Ramos, Luis A; Ulic, Sonia E; Jios, Jorge L; DellaVédova, Carlos O; Pepino, Julieta; Burgos Paci, Maxi A; Argüello, Gustavo A; Ge, Maofa; Beckers, Helmut; Willner, Helge

2011-08-11

367

Ginseng in Traditional Herbal Prescriptions  

PubMed Central

Panax ginseng Meyer has been widely used as a tonic in traditional Korean, Chinese, and Japanese herbal medicines and in Western herbal preparations for thousands of years. In the past, ginseng was very rare and was considered to have mysterious powers. Today, the efficacy of drugs must be tested through well-designed clinical trials or meta-analyses, and ginseng is no exception. In the present review, we discuss the functions of ginseng described in historical documents and describe how these functions are taken into account in herbal prescriptions. We also discuss the findings of experimental pharmacological research on the functions of ginseng in ginseng-containing prescriptions and how these prescriptions have been applied in modern therapeutic interventions. The present review on the functions of ginseng in traditional prescriptions helps to demystify ginseng and, as a result, may contribute to expanding the use of ginseng or ginseng-containing prescriptions. PMID:23717123

Park, Ho Jae; Kim, Dong Hyun; Park, Se Jin; Kim, Jong Min; Ryu, Jong Hoon

2012-01-01

368

Spectroscopic Studies of Colloidal Solutions of Nanocrystalline Ru(bpy)3 2+-Zeolite Y  

E-print Network

Spectroscopic Studies of Colloidal Solutions of Nanocrystalline Ru(bpy)3 2+-Zeolite Y Norma B of Ru(bpy)3 2+-zeolite Y has made it possible to use conventional optical transmission spectroscopic methods to examine the entrapped Ru(bpy)3 2+ species within the zeolite. To prepare the suspensions

Dutta, Prabir K.

369

Spectroscopic investigation of protein corona  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Nanotechnology has revolutionalized the landscape of modern science and technology, including materials, electronics, therapeutics, bioimaging, sensing, and the environment. Research in the past decade has examined the fate of nanomaterials in vitro and in vivo, as well as the interactions between nanoparticles and biological and ecosystems using primarily toxicological and ecotoxicological approaches. However, due to the versatility in the physical and physicochemical properties of nanoparticles, and due to the vast complexity of their hosting systems, the solubility, transformation, and biocompatibility of nanomaterials are still poorly understood. Nanotechnology has been undergoing tremendous development in recent decades, driven by realized perceived applications of nanomaterials in electronics, therapeutics, imaging, sensing, environmental remediation, and consumer products. Nanoparticles on entering the blood stream undergo an identity change, they become coated with proteins. There are different kind of proteins present in blood. Proteins compete for getting coated over the surface of nanoparticle and this whole entity of proteins coated over nanoparticle surface is called Protein Corona. Proteins tightly bound to the surface of nanoparticle form hard corona and the ones loosely bound on the outer surface form soft corona. This dissertation is aimed at spectroscopic investigation of Protein Corona. Chapter I of this dissertation offers a comprehensive review of the literature based on nanomaterials with the focus on carbon based nanomaterilas and introduction to Protein Corona. Chapter II is based different methods used for Graphene Synthesis,different types of defects and doping. In Chapter III influence of defects on Graphene Protein Corona was investigated. Chapter IV is based on the study of Apoptosis induced cell death by Gold and silver nanoparticles. In vitro study of effect of Protein Corona on toxicity of cells was done.

Choudhary, Poonam

370

Spectroscopic investigation of the mechanism of photocatalysis.  

PubMed

Reaction mechanisms of various kinds of photocatalysts have been reviewed based on the recent reports, in which various spectroscopic techniques including luminol chemiluminescence photometry, fluorescence probe method, electron spin resonance (ESR), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy were applied. The reaction mechanisms elucidated for bare and modified TiO2 were described individually. The modified visible light responsive TiO2 photocatalysts, i.e., Fe(III)-deposited metal-doped TiO2 and platinum complex-deposited TiO2, were studied by detecting paramagnetic species with ESR, •O2- (or H2O2) with chemiluminescence photometry, and OH radicals with a fluorescence probe method. For bare TiO2, the difference in the oxidation mechanism for the different crystalline form was investigated by the fluorescence probe method, while the adsorption and decomposition behaviors of several amino acids and peptides were investigated by 1H-NMR spectroscopy. PMID:25387352

Nosaka, Yoshio; Nishikawa, Masami; Nosaka, Atsuko Y

2014-01-01

371

Information visualization: Beyond traditional engineering  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This presentation addresses a different aspect of the human-computer interface; specifically the human-information interface. This interface will be dominated by an emerging technology called Information Visualization (IV). IV goes beyond the traditional views of computer graphics, CADS, and enables new approaches for engineering. IV specifically must visualize text, documents, sound, images, and video in such a way that the human can rapidly interact with and understand the content structure of information entities. IV is the interactive visual interface between humans and their information resources.

Thomas, James J.

1995-01-01

372

Grey Wolf in Tibetan Tradition  

E-print Network

GREY WOLF IN TIBETAN TRADITION -MYNAK R. TULKU \\ "Holding the banner of wolf symbolises holding by force, that is, conquest". (1) It is true that the expression "grey woJf" is used much later than "wolf", though ordinarily the colour... of the wolf is grey in Tibet as in other parts of the world too (2). The first instances-in the works on Mahakala (mgon-po ~ifjili·ij') and KiIa (phur-pa ~~·t:r) in Kanjur (bka' - 'gyur I:\\"l""«;~') and Tenjur (bstan-'gyur I:\\~~''''~'''') (3)-did not use...

Tulku, Mynak R.

1967-07-11

373

Infrared spectroscopic imaging for noninvasive detection of latent fingerprints.  

PubMed

The capability of Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic imaging to provide detailed images of unprocessed latent fingerprints while also preserving important trace evidence is demonstrated. Unprocessed fingerprints were developed on various porous and nonporous substrates. Data-processing methods used to extract the latent fingerprint ridge pattern from the background material included basic infrared spectroscopic band intensities, addition and subtraction of band intensity measurements, principal components analysis (PCA) and calculation of second derivative band intensities, as well as combinations of these various techniques. Additionally, trace evidence within the fingerprints was recovered and identified. PMID:17209909

Crane, Nicole J; Bartick, Edward G; Perlman, Rebecca Schwartz; Huffman, Scott

2007-01-01

374

Spectroscopic Factors in 16O and Nucleon Asymmetry  

E-print Network

The self-consistent Green's functions method is employed to study the spectroscopic factors of quasiparticle states around 16O, 28O, 40Ca and 60Ca. The Faddeev random phase approximation (FRPA) is used to account for the coupling of particles with collective excitation modes. Results for 16O are reviewed first. The same approach is applied to isotopes with large proton-neutron asymmetry to estimate its effect on spectroscopic factors. The results, based on the chiral N3LO force, exhibit an asymmetry dependence similar to that observed in heavy-ion knockout experiments but weaker in magnitude.

C. Barbieri; W. H. Dickhoff

2009-01-14

375

Build an Overhead Projector Spectroscope  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This activity guide includes instructions for building a spectroscope using a standard classroom overhead projector. Learners can participate in the construction of the device or simply use it to explore light and the color spectrum. Learners can experiment with colored acetate film filters and bottles of colored solutions to see how they absorb and transmit light.

Katz, David A.

2002-01-01

376

NOUVEAU SPECTROSCOPE; PAR M. THOLLON.  

E-print Network

I4I NOUVEAU SPECTROSCOPE; PAR M. THOLLON. J'ai eu l'honneur de présenter récemment à l'Académie et qu'on fasse varier la position du couple sur le trajet d'un rayon d'une certaine réfrangibilité, il y

Boyer, Edmond

377

Continuous spectroscopic analysis of vanadous and vanadic ions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Spectroscopic methods were investigated for the determination of vanadium ions in aqueous solutions arising in the production of vanadium (11) formate and its use in the LOMI (Low Oxidation-state Metal Ion) process for the chemical decontamination of systems in nuclear power plants. In the LOMI process, a dilute solution of vanadous formate and picolinic acid is used. The vanadous formate

J. V. Bishop; R. A. Dutcher; M. S. Fisher; S. Kottle; R. A. Stowe

1993-01-01

378

Review of Spectroscopic Data for Measurements of Stratospheric Species  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Results and recommendations from a two day workshop are discussed. A review of the current status of experimental and theoretical spectroscopic data on molecules of stratospheric interest is given along with recommendations for additional research. Methods for disseminating new and existing data are also discussed.

Goldman, A. (editor); Hoell, J. M., Jr. (editor)

1980-01-01

379

Arsenate Adsorption On Ruthenium Oxides: A Spectroscopic And Kinetic Investigation  

EPA Science Inventory

Arsenate adsorption on amorphous (RuO2?1.1H2O) and crystalline (RuO2) ruthenium oxides was evaluated using spectroscopic and kinetic methods to elucidate the adsorption mechanism. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS) was ...

380

Spectroscopic study of solar twins and analogues  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Context. Many large stellar surveys have been and are still being carried out, providing huge amounts of data, for which stellar physical parameters will be derived. Solar twins and analogues provide a means to test the calibration of these stellar catalogues because the Sun is the best-studied star and provides precise fundamental parameters. Solar twins should be centred on the solar values. Aims: This spectroscopic study of solar analogues selected from the Geneva-Copenhagen Survey (GCS) at a resolution of 48 000 provides effective temperatures and metallicities for these stars. We test whether our spectroscopic parameters, as well as the previous photometric calibrations, are properly centred on the Sun. In addition, we search for more solar twins in our sample. Methods: The methods used in this work are based on literature methods for solar twin searches and on methods we developed in previous work to distinguish the metallicity-temperature degeneracies in the differential comparison of spectra of solar analogues versus a reference solar reflection spectrum. Results: We derive spectroscopic parameters for 148 solar analogues (about 70 are new entries to the literature) and verify with a-posteriori differential tests that our values are well-centred on the solar values. We use our dataset to assess the two alternative calibrations of the GCS parameters; our methods favour the latest revision. We show that the choice of spectral line list or the choice of asteroid or time of observation does not affect the results. We also identify seven solar twins in our sample, three of which are published here for the first time. Conclusions: Our methods provide an independent means to differentially test the calibration of stellar catalogues around the values of a well-known benchmark star, which makes our work interesting for calibration tests of upcoming Galactic surveys. Based on observations made with ESO Telescopes at the La Silla Observatory under programme ID 077.D-0525 and 090.D-0133.Table 1 is also available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/574/A124Full Table 5 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/574/A124

Datson, Juliet; Flynn, Chris; Portinari, Laura

2015-02-01

381

Cerro Armazones spectroscopic survey of F dwarfs  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a spectroscopic survey of a sample of F stars that have not yet been searched for planets. The observations of 187 stars obtained with the Bochum Echelle Spectrographic Observer of the Cerro Armazones Observatory were aimed at nearby (closer than 70 pc) main-sequence stars without sufficient archive ([fiber-fed extended range optical spectrograph (FEROS)/high accuracy radial velocity planet search (HARPS)]) spectroscopy. The primary goal of the survey was to select the best candidates for radial-velocity searches of extrasolar planets. The spectra were analysed using the broadening-function technique, the method of choice for rapid rotators later than about A5. The analysis was focused not only at the determination of projected rotational velocity (defining precision of radial-velocity determination), but also at the detection of previously unknown spectroscopic binaries/multiples or stars showing strong line asymmetries. 12 previously unknown spectroscopic binaries/triples were detected. For all observed targets the spectral type was determined. About 140 stars are rotating faster than the resolution limit of 10 km s-1 sampling the onset of convection and slow rotation at mid-F spectral types in great detail. Radial-velocity precision of the data (about 100 m s-1) is insufficient to detect planets but could indicate most SB1 systems with stellar companions. As there are already 2-3 observations per object for these newly detected binary stars, only a few additional follow-up observations will be needed to obtain constraints on orbital parameters. We identified a sample of 68 bright F-type dwarf stars which are perfect targets for future planet searches. They rotate moderately or slowly and do not show any sign of binarity, pulsations, or surface activity.

Pribulla, Theodor; Sebastian, Daniel; Ammler-von Eiff, Matthias; Stahl, Otmar; Berndt, Alexandra; Chini, Rolf; Hoffmeister, Vera; Mugrauer, Markus; Neuhäuser, Ralph; Va?ko, Martin

2014-09-01

382

Diet traditions in wild orangutans.  

PubMed

This study explores diet differences between two populations of wild Bornean orangutans (Pongo pygmaeus wurmbii) to assess whether a signal of social learning can be detected in the observed patterns. The populations live in close proximity and in similar habitats but are separated by a river barrier that is impassable to orangutans in the study region. We found a 60% between-site difference in diet at the level of plant food items (plant species-organ combinations). We also found that individuals at the same site were more likely to eat the same food items than expected by chance. These results suggest the presence of diet (food selection) traditions. Detailed tests of three predictions of three models of diet acquisition allowed us to reject a model based on exclusive social learning but could not clearly distinguish between the remaining two models: one positing individual exploration and learning of food item selection and the other one positing preferential social learning followed by individual fine tuning. We know that maturing orangutans acquire their initial diet through social learning and then supplement it by years of low-level, individual sampling. We, therefore, conclude that the preferential social learning model produces the best fit to the geographic patterns observed in this study. However, the very same taxa that socially acquire their diets as infants and show evidence for innovation-based traditions in the wild paradoxically may have diets that are not easily distinguished from those acquired exclusively through individual learning. PMID:20853473

Bastian, Meredith L; Zweifel, Nicole; Vogel, Erin R; Wich, Serge A; van Schaik, Carel P

2010-10-01

383

Calibrating Redshift Distributions Beyond Spectroscopic Limits with Cross-Correlations  

E-print Network

We describe a new method for measuring the true redshift distribution of any set of objects studied only photometrically. The angular cross-correlation between objects in a photometric sample with objects in some spectroscopic sample as a function of the spectroscopic z, in combination with standard correlation measurements, provides sufficient information to reconstruct the true redshift distribution of the photometric sample. This technique enables the robust calibration of photometric redshifts even beyond spectroscopic limits. The spectroscopic sample need not resemble the photometric one in galaxy properties, but must overlap in sky coverage and redshift range. We test this new technique with Monte Carlo simulations using realistic error estimates. RMS errors in recovering both the mean and sigma of the true, Gaussian redshift distribution of a single photometric redshift bin are 1.4x10^(-3) (sigma_z/0.1) (Sigma_p/10)^(-0.3) (dN_s/dz / 25,000)^(-0.5), where sigma_z is the true sigma of the redshift distribution, Sigma_p is the surface density of the photometric sample in galaxies/arcmin^2, and dN_s/dz is the number of galaxies with a spectroscopic redshift per unit z. We test the impact of redshift outliers and of a variety of sources of systematic error; none dominate measurement uncertainties in reasonable scenarios. With this method, the true redshift distributions of even arbitrarily faint photometric redshift samples may be determined to the precision required by proposed dark energy experiments (errors in mean and sigma below 3x10^(-3) at z~1) using expected extensions of current spectroscopic samples.

Jeffrey A. Newman

2008-05-12

384

Nasal Drug Delivery in Traditional Persian Medicine  

PubMed Central

Background Over one hundred different pharmaceutical dosage forms have been recorded in literatures of Traditional Persian Medicine among which nasal forms are considerable. Objectives This study designed to derive the most often applied nasal dosage forms together with those brief clinical administrations. Materials and Methods In the current study remaining pharmaceutical manuscripts of Persia during 9th to 18th century AD have been studied and different dosage forms related to nasal application of herbal medicines and their therapeutic effects were derived. Results By searching through pharmaceutical manuscripts of medieval Persia, different nasal dosage forms involving eleven types related to three main groups are found. These types could be derived from powder, solution or liquid and gaseous forms. Gaseous form were classified into fumigation (Bakhoor), vapor bath (Enkebab), inhalation (Lakhlakheh), aroma agents (Ghalieh) and olfaction or smell (Shomoom). Nasal solutions were as drops (Ghatoor), nasal snuffing drops (Saoot) and liquid snuff formulations (Noshoogh). Powders were as nasal insufflation or snorting agents (Nofookh) and errhine or sternutator medicine (Otoos). Nasal forms were not applied only for local purposes. Rather systemic disorders and specially CNS complications were said to be a target for these dosage forms. Discussion While this novel type of drug delivery is known as a suitable substitute for oral and parenteral administration, it was well accepted and extensively mentioned in Persian medical and pharmaceutical manuscripts and other traditional systems of medicine as well. Accordingly, medieval pharmaceutical standpoints on nasal dosage forms could still be an interesting subject of study. Therefore, the current work can briefly show the pharmaceutical knowledge on nasal formulations in medieval Persia and clarify a part of history of traditional Persian pharmacy. PMID:24624204

Zarshenas, Mohammad Mehdi; Zargaran, Arman; Müller, Johannes; Mohagheghzadeh, Abdolali

2013-01-01

385

Wheat-based traditional flat breads of India.  

PubMed

Wheat forms the basic ingredient for various bakery and traditional products. Wheat-based flat breads are one of the traditional products prepared in different parts of the world. Different regions of the world have inherited different preparation methods since time immemorial, which has led to the existence of traditional flat breads'. Being traditional, only a few have been extensively studied scientifically. India, being the second largest producer of wheat, has a great saga of traditional flat breads with different tastes and texture. This review is a compiled information related to the research studies carried out on some of the wheat-based traditional flat breads of India namely chapati, puri, tandoori roti, parantha (whole-wheat flour based) and parotta, naan, bhatura, kulcha (refined wheat flour based) which indicates the magnitude of attention they have drawn among the food scientists. The review delves upon the developments and improvements brought about in the storage stability and realization of large-scale production of few of these flat breads which has helped considerably to cater to the growing demand in the domestic as well as international markets. The review also indicates the possibility and the tremendous scope available for technological developments for traditional flat breads. PMID:24915406

Parimala, K R; Sudha, M L

2015-01-01

386

Tongue Area Extraction in Tongue Diagnosis of Traditional Chinese Medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The extraction of tongue area from digital photos is essential to an automatic tongue diagnostic system in traditional Chinese medicine. Simple segmentation methods couldn't be effective due to the weak edge of tongue and the details on the tongue's surface. In this paper, we propose a unique segmentation method based on the combination of the watershed transform and active contour

Jia Wu; Yonghong Zhang; Jing Bai

2005-01-01

387

Spectroscopic Techniques in the Chemistry Laboratory: A Science Enrichment Course for High School Teachers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes a National Science Foundation sponsored enrichment program training high school teachers in modern innovative ideas. Specifically, the course described here was developed to present the uses and applications of spectroscopic methods. (CS)

Emert, Jack; Zeldin, Martel

1980-01-01

388

Spectroscopic phase microscopy for quantifying hemoglobin concentrations in intact red blood cells  

E-print Network

We report a practical method for label-free quantification of specific molecules using spectroscopic imaging of sample-induced phase shifts. Diffraction phase microscopy equipped with various wavelengths of light source ...

Park, YongKeun

389

Spectroscopic binaries with elliptical orbits  

E-print Network

The radial velocity curves of many spectroscopic binaries (SBs) are perturbed by gas streams or proximity effects. For SBs with circular orbits, these perturbations can give rise to spurious orbital eccentricities of high statistical significance. But tests to identify such anomalous orbits can be constructed since perturbed velocity curves are in general no longer Keplerian. The derived tests are applied both to synthetic and to observed velocity curves.

L. B. Lucy

2005-05-11

390

Infusing Qualitative Traditions in Counseling Research Designs  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research traditions serve as a blueprint or guide for a variety of design decisions throughout qualitative inquiry. This article presents 6 qualitative research traditions: grounded theory, phenomenology, consensual qualitative research, ethnography, narratology, and participatory action research. For each tradition, the authors describe its…

Hays, Danica G.; Wood, Chris

2011-01-01

391

Linking the near-surface camera-based phenological metrics with leaf chemical and spectroscopic properties  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Plant phenology is an important indicator of climate change. Near-surface cameras provide a way to continuously monitor plant canopy development at the scale of several hundred meters, which is rarely feasible by either traditional phenological monitoring methods or remote sensing. Thus, digital cameras are being deployed in national networks such as the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) and PhenoCam. However, it is unclear how the camera-based phenological metrics are linked with plant physiology as measured from leaf chemical and spectroscopic properties throughout the growing season. We used the temporal trajectories of leaf chemical properties (chlorophyll a and b, carotenoids, leaf water content, leaf carbon/nitrogen content) and leaf reflectance/transmittance (300 to 2500 nm) to understand the temporal changes of camera-based phenological metrics (e.g., relative greenness), which was acquired from our Standalone Phenological Observation System installed on a tower on the island of Martha's Vineyard, MA (dominant species: Quercus alba). Leaf chemical and spectroscopic properties of three oak trees near the tower were measured weekly from June to November, 2011. We found that the chlorophyll concentration showed similar temporal trajectories to the relative greenness. However, the change of chlorophyll concentration lagged behind the change of relative greenness for about 20 days both in the spring and the fall. The relative redness is a better indicator of leaf senescence in the fall than the relative greenness. We derived relative greenness from leaf spectroscopy and found that the relative greenness from camera matched well with that from the spectroscopy in the mid-summer, but this relationship faded as leaves start to fall, exposing the branches and soil background. This work suggests that we should be cautious to interpret camera-based phenological metrics, and the relative redness could potentially be a useful indicator of fall senescence.

Yang, X.; Tang, J.; Mustard, J. F.; Schmitt, J.

2012-12-01

392

History confirms the traditional meaning  

SciTech Connect

This article complements the Rhinelander and Rubin article (this issue) and provides an account of US and USSR practice subsequent to the ABM Treaty. The Soviet subsequent practice from 1972 to date, like that of the US from 1972 until 1985, has fully supported the validity of the traditional interpretation, and explicitly rejected the reinterpretation, both before and after the reinterpretation was announced. The record is unambiguous. The Reagan administration's continued support of its radical reinterpretation of the ABM Treaty cannot be justified. In seeking to place the matter in perspective, one could do worse than apply the golden rule: what would the US have thought if after many years the USSR had suddenly, unilaterally, reinterpreted the ABM Treaty (or any other) to suit a policy purpose of its own, contrary to US policy and to the original clear understanding of both parties. What would the US have thought if the Soviets had then publicly acknowledged that they had done so without examining either their own ratification record of the record of the subsequent practice of the parties, without consulting any but one of their own negotiators, and before compiling much of their own relevant negotiating records.

Garthoff, R.L.

1987-09-01

393

Mayo Clinic: Tradition and Heritage  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Heeding the words of their father, one Dr. W.W. Mayo, âÂÂNo one is big enough to be independent of othersâÂÂ, Dr. William J. Mayo and Dr. Charles H. Mayo helped create one of the worldâÂÂs first private integrated group practices of medicine. Now known as the Mayo Clinic, the story of their work is closely intertwined with the story of American medical history. As an attempt to bring this story to the web-browsing public, staff members at the Clinic recently created this historical timeline that offers some perspective on their institutional history. With their mouse in hand, visitors can move across the interactive timeline, which deploys high-quality photographs and short descriptions in its quest to document the ClinicâÂÂs various achievements, such as the creation of the first heart bypass machine in 1955. Finally, online visitors can get up close and personal to some of the artifacts that are close to the Mayo Clinic traditions, including a 1904 photograph of some of the medical staff at the Clinic.

2006-01-01

394

A New Wavelength Calibration Method for LAMOST Based on Piecewise Fitting  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The traditional methods of wavelength calibration for the LAM-OST (Large Area Multi-Object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope) usually use a fifth-order polynomial to perform fitting and calibration in a broad wavelength range. Obviously, it is unable to reflect very well the local dispersion relations by using only one polynomial to fit the whole waveband. In order to reflect accurately the dispersion characteristics of local wavebands, a new wavelength calibration method based on piecewise fitting is proposed. In this method, the entire wavelength range is divided into several sub-bands according to certain principles, and a proper polynomial is used to perform fitting and calibration for each sub-band separately. Compared with the traditional methods of wave-length calibration, the experimental results show that this new method can get a more precise description of the dispersion characteristics of local wavebands. Therefore, the accuracy of wavelength calibration in the whole waveband will be further improved.

Ye, Gen-hong; Ye, Zhong-fu; Zhu, Jia

2014-04-01

395

Spectroscopic analysis of eclipsing SB2 stars: a case study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The investigation of eclipsing spectroscopic binaries provides basic parameters of stars in a direct way. Whereas the measurable absolute masses can be used to calibrate stellar evolutionary scenarios, the effective temperatures derived from spectroscopic analysis are an important input to light curve and asteroseismic modelling. We compare different methods for investigating eclipsing SB2 stars focusing on radial velocity determination and spectrum decomposition and analysis. Used methods are the two-dimensional cross-correlation technique todcor, spectral disentangling with the Fourier transform-based korel program, and a grid search-based method of spectrum analysis using spectrum synthesis. The study is based on the investigation of two eclipsing SB2 stars observed by the Kepler satellite mission.

Lehmann, H.; Southworth, J.; Tkachenko, A.; Pavlovski, K.; Maceroni, C.; Ak, H.

2013-02-01

396

Raman spectroscopy compared against traditional predictors of shear force in lamb m. longissimus lumborum.  

PubMed

A Raman spectroscopic hand held device was used to predict shear force (SF) of 80 fresh lamb m. longissimus lumborum (LL) at 1 and 5days post mortem (PM). Traditional predictors of SF including sarcomere length (SL), particle size (PS), cooking loss (CL), percentage myofibrillar breaks and pH were also measured. SF values were regressed against Raman spectra using partial least squares regression and against the traditional predictors using linear regression. The best prediction of shear force values used spectra at 1day PM to predict shear force at 1day which gave a root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) of 13.6 (Null=14.0) and the R(2) between observed and cross validated predicted values was 0.06 (R(2)cv). Overall, for fresh LL, the predictability SF, by either the Raman hand held probe or traditional predictors was low. PMID:25089790

Fowler, Stephanie M; Schmidt, Heinar; van de Ven, Remy; Wynn, Peter; Hopkins, David L

2014-12-01

397

Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with photo-diode array and quadrupole/time-of-flight mass spectrometry based chemical profiling approach to evaluate the influence of preparation methods on the holistic quality of Qiong-Yu-Gao, a traditional complex herbal medicine.  

PubMed

Qiong-Yu-Gao (QYG), consisting of Rehmanniae Radix (RR), Poriae (PO) and Ginseng Radix (GR), is a commonly used tonic traditional complex herbal medicine (CHM). So far, three different methods have been documented for preparation of QYG, i.e. method 1 (M1): mixing powders of GR and PO with decoction of RR; method 2 (M2): combining the decoction of RR and PO with the decoction of GR; method 3 (M3): decocting the mixture of RR, GR and PO. In present study, an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with photo-diode array and quadrupole/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC-PDA-QTOF-MS/MS) based chemical profiling approach was developed to investigate the influence of the three preparation methods on the holistic quality of QYG. All detected peaks were unambiguously identified by comparing UV spectra, accurate mass data/characteristic mass fragments and retention times with those of reference compounds, and/or tentatively assigned by matching empirical molecular formula with that of known compounds, and/or elucidating quasi-molecular ions and fragment ions referring to information available in literature. A total of 103 components, mainly belonging to ginsenosides, phenethylalcohol glycosides, iridoid glycosides and triterpenoid acids, were identified, of which 5 degraded ginsenosides were putatively determined to be newly generated during preparation procedures of QYG samples. Triterpenoid acids and malonyl-ginsenosides were detected only in M1 samples, while degraded ginsenosides were merely detectable in M2/M3 samples. The possible reasons for the difference among chemical profiles of QYG samples prepared with three methods were also discussed. It could be concluded that preparation method do significantly affect the holistic quality of QYG. The influence of the altered chemical profiles on the bioactivity of QYG needs further investigation. The present study demonstrated that UHPLC-PDA-QTOF-MS/MS based chemical profiling approach is efficient and reliable for evaluating the holistic quality of traditional CHM. PMID:23880467

Xu, Jin-Di; Mao, Qian; Shen, Hong; Zhu, Ling-Ying; Li, Song-Lin; Yan, Ru

2013-08-23

398

Determination of the asymptotic normalization coefficients for 14C + n <--> 15C, the 14C(n, gamma)15C reaction rate, and evaluation of a new method to determine spectroscopic factors  

SciTech Connect

The 14C + n <--> 15C system has been used as a test case in the evaluation of a new method to determine spectroscopic factors that uses the asymptotic normalization coefficient (ANC). The method proved to be unsuccessful for this case. As part of this experimental program, the ANCs for the 15C ground state and first excited state were determined using a heavy-ion neutron transfer reaction as well as the inverse kinematics (d,p) reaction, measured at the Texas A&M Cyclotron Institute. The ANCs were used to evaluate the astrophysical direct neutron capture rate on 14C, which was then compared with the most recent direct measurement and found to be in good agreement. A study of the 15C SF via its mirror nucleus 15F and a new insight into deuteron stripping theory are also presented.

McCleskey, M. [Texas A and M Univ., Cyclotron Inst., TX (United States); Mukhamedzhanov, A. M. [Texas A and M Univ., Cyclotron Inst., TX (United States); Trache, L. [Texas A and M Univ., Cyclotron Inst., TX (United States); Tribble, R. E. [Texas A and M Univ., Cyclotron Inst., TX (United States); Banu, A. [Texas A and M Univ., Cyclotron Inst., TX (United States); Eremenko, V. [Texas A and M Univ., Cyclotron Inst., TX (United States); Goldberg, V. Z. [Texas A and M Univ., Cyclotron Inst., TX (United States); Lui, Y. W. [Texas A and M Univ., Cyclotron Inst., TX (United States); McCleskey, E. [Texas A and M Univ., Cyclotron Inst., TX (United States); Roeder, B. T. [Texas A and M Univ., Cyclotron Inst., TX (United States); Spiridon, A. [Texas A and M Univ., Cyclotron Inst., TX (United States); Carstoiu, F. [National Inst. for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Burjan, V. [Nuclear Physics Inst., Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague (Czech Republic); Hons, Z. [Nuclear Physics Inst., Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague (Czech Republic); Thompson, I. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

2014-04-17

399

Spectroscopic characterizations of organic/inorganic nanocomposites  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present study, pure and 0.3 wt%, 0.4 wt%, as well as 0.5 wt% L-arginine doped potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) crystals were grown using solution growth techniques and further subjected to infrared (IR) absorption and Raman studies for confirmation of chemical group functionalization for investigating the incorporation mechanism of the L-arginine organic material into the KDP crystal structure. Infrared spectroscopic analysis suggests that structural changes are occurring for the L-arginine molecule as a result of its interaction with the KPD crystal. Infrared spectroscopic technique confirms the disturbance of the N-H, C-H and C-N bonds of the amino acid, suggesting successful incorporation of L-arginine into the KDP crystals. Raman analysis also reveals modification of the N-H, C-H and C-N bonds of the amino acid, implying successful inclusion of L-arginine into the KDP crystals. With the help of Gaussian software, a prediction of possible incorporation mechanisms of the organic material was obtained from comparison of the simulated infrared and Raman vibrational spectra with the experimental results. Furthermore, we also studied the effect of L-arginine doping on the thermal stability of the grown KDP crystal by employing Thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA). TGA suggests that increasing the level of L-arginine doping speeds the decomposition process and it weakens the KDP crystal, which indicates successful doping of the KDP crystals with L-arginine amino acid. Urinary stones are one of the oldest and most widely spread diseases in humans, animals and birds. Many remedies have been employed through the ages for the treatment of urinary stones. Recent medicinal measures reflect the modern advances, which are based on surgical removal, percutaneous techniques and extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL). Although these procedures are valuable, they are quite expensive for most people. Furthermore, recurrence of these diseases is awfully frequent with these procedures and the patients have to be subjected to careful follow up for several years. In contrast, in traditional therapeutic systems, most of the remedies were taken from plants and they proved to be helpful. However, the rationale behind their use is not thoroughly established through systematic pharmacological and clinical studies. In this regard, in the present investigation, with a view towards acquiring more insights, we have performed a detailed study of kidney stone formation and growth inhibition based on a traditional medicine approach with herbal extracts. The intricacy of calculi formation (i.e. nucleation, transformation, and aggregation) in a natural system such as urine is replicated to a certain extent in the present study by using a simplified single diffusion gel growth technique. Crystals were synthesized in a static gel environment without and with the presence of 1% and 2% concentration of Rotula Aquatica Lour (RAL) herbal extracts and further subjected to Raman, infrared absorption, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and photoluminescence to analyze the effects of RAL on the growth of manganese-based calculi. Raman spectroscopy clearly provided an indication of the newberyite type of crystal as well as information on the chemical interaction between crystal and inhibitor. It also indicates the presence of organic components due to the RAL plant material. Infrared absorption spectroscopy indicates the presence of a strong reflecting component in the inhibitor as well as the newberyite type of crystal. XPS results indicated the presence of metallic zinc in the crystal with inhibitor. Furthermore, a considerable increase in the intensity of the magnesium and oxygen lines are noticed with the addition of the herbal extract, which suggest that the inhibitor chemical composition includes a substantial quantity of Mg and O. XPS analysis also demonstrates the presence of modified phosphorus oxidation states and suggest that they might make a contribution, too. The photoluminescence spectra of the crystal with inhibitor indicate the p

Govani, Jayesh R.

2009-12-01

400

The far ultraviolet spectroscopic explorer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The scientific objectives and performance characteristics of a new astronomy mission referred to as the far ultraviolet spectroscopic explorer, or FUSE are being defined by a team involving people experienced instrumental requirements that best meet the scientific needs. The team is intended to have a lifetime of about one year, ending with the submission of a report to NASA which could be used as the basis for an engineering design study. The principal objective of FUSE is to obtain astronomical spectra at wavelengths shorter than is possible with the Space Telescope.

Boggess, A.

1982-01-01

401

Spectroscopic classification of LSQ transients  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the optical spectroscopic classification of four supernovae candidates. The targets were supplied by the La Silla-Quest survey (see Hadjiyska et al., ATel #3812). All observations were performed on 25th Aug 2013 with the 4.2m William Herschel Telescope using ISIS, with R300B (3300 - 6000A, 3.4A resolution), R158R (5250 - 9746A, 7.2A resolution) and a dichroic at 5300A. Classifications were done with SNID (Blondin & Tonry, 2007, ApJ, 666, 1024) and GELATO (Harutyunyan et al., 2008, A&A, 488, 383).

Wright, D.; Polshaw, J.; Fraser, M.; Smartt, S. J.; Kotak, R.; Smith, K.; Young, D.; Inserra, C.; Nicholl, M.; Baltay, C.; Ellman, N.; Hadjiyska, E.; McKinnon, R.; Rabinowitz, D.; Walker, E. S.; Feindt, U.; Kowalski, M.; Nugent, P.

2013-08-01

402

Traditional cheeses: rich and diverse microbiota with associated benefits.  

PubMed

The risks and benefits of traditional cheeses, mainly raw milk cheeses, are rarely set out objectively, whence the recurrent confused debate over their pros and cons. This review starts by emphasizing the particularities of the microbiota in traditional cheeses. It then describes the sensory, hygiene, and possible health benefits associated with traditional cheeses. The microbial diversity underlying the benefits of raw milk cheese depends on both the milk microbiota and on traditional practices, including inoculation practices. Traditional know-how from farming to cheese processing helps to maintain both the richness of the microbiota in individual cheeses and the diversity between cheeses throughout processing. All in all more than 400 species of lactic acid bacteria, Gram and catalase-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria, yeasts and moulds have been detected in raw milk. This biodiversity decreases in cheese cores, where a small number of lactic acid bacteria species are numerically dominant, but persists on the cheese surfaces, which harbour numerous species of bacteria, yeasts and moulds. Diversity between cheeses is due particularly to wide variations in the dynamics of the same species in different cheeses. Flavour is more intense and rich in raw milk cheeses than in processed ones. This is mainly because an abundant native microbiota can express in raw milk cheeses, which is not the case in cheeses made from pasteurized or microfiltered milk. Compared to commercial strains, indigenous lactic acid bacteria isolated from milk/cheese, and surface bacteria and yeasts isolated from traditional brines, were associated with more complex volatile profiles and higher scores for some sensorial attributes. The ability of traditional cheeses to combat pathogens is related more to native antipathogenic strains or microbial consortia than to natural non-microbial inhibitor(s) from milk. Quite different native microbiota can protect against Listeria monocytogenes in cheeses (in both core and surface) and on the wooden surfaces of traditional equipment. The inhibition seems to be associated with their qualitative and quantitative composition rather than with their degree of diversity. The inhibitory mechanisms are not well elucidated. Both cross-sectional and cohort studies have evidenced a strong association of raw-milk consumption with protection against allergic/atopic diseases; further studies are needed to determine whether such association extends to traditional raw-milk cheese consumption. In the future, the use of meta-omics methods should help to decipher how traditional cheese ecosystems form and function, opening the way to new methods of risk-benefit management from farm to ripened cheese. PMID:24642348

Montel, Marie-Christine; Buchin, Solange; Mallet, Adrien; Delbes-Paus, Céline; Vuitton, Dominique A; Desmasures, Nathalie; Berthier, Françoise

2014-05-01

403

Phylogenies reveal predictive power of traditional medicine in bioprospecting  

PubMed Central

There is controversy about whether traditional medicine can guide drug discovery, and investment in bioprospecting informed by ethnobotanical data has fluctuated. One view is that traditionally used medicinal plants are not necessarily efficacious and there are no robust methods for distinguishing those which are most likely to be bioactive when selecting species for further testing. Here, we reconstruct a genus-level molecular phylogenetic tree representing the 20,000 species found in the floras of three disparate biodiversity hotspots: Nepal, New Zealand, and the Cape of South Africa. Borrowing phylogenetic methods from community ecology, we reveal significant clustering of the 1,500 traditionally used species, and provide a direct measure of the relatedness of the three medicinal floras. We demonstrate shared phylogenetic patterns across the floras: related plants from these regions are used to treat medical conditions in the same therapeutic areas. This finding strongly indicates independent discovery of plant efficacy, an interpretation corroborated by the presence of a significantly greater proportion of known bioactive species in these plant groups than in random samples. We conclude that phylogenetic cross-cultural comparisons can focus screening efforts on a subset of traditionally used plants that are richer in bioactive compounds, and could revitalize the use of traditional knowledge in bioprospecting. PMID:22984175

Saslis-Lagoudakis, C. Haris; Savolainen, Vincent; Williamson, Elizabeth M.; Forest, Félix; Wagstaff, Steven J.; Baral, Sushim R.; Watson, Mark F.; Pendry, Colin A.; Hawkins, Julie A.

2012-01-01

404

Universal behaviors as candidate traditions in wild spider monkeys.  

PubMed

Candidate traditions were documented across three communities of wild spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) using an a priori approach to identify behavioral variants and a statistical approach to examine differences in their proportional use. This methodology differs from previous studies of animal traditions, which used retrospective data and relied on the 'exclusion method' to identify candidate traditions. Our a priori approach increased the likelihood that behavior variants with equivalent functions were considered and our statistical approach enabled the proportional use of 'universal' behaviors, i.e., used across all communities, to be examined for the first time in any animal species as candidate traditions. Among universal behaviors we found 14 'community preferred' variants. After considering the extent to which community preferred variants were due to ecological and, to a lesser degree, genetic differences, we concluded that at least six were likely maintained through social learning. Our findings have two main implications: (i) tradition repertoires could be larger than assumed from previous studies using the exclusion method; (ii) the relative use of universal behavior variants can reinforce community membership. PMID:21949715

Santorelli, Claire J; Schaffner, Colleen M; Aureli, Filippo

2011-01-01

405

Universal Behaviors as Candidate Traditions in Wild Spider Monkeys  

PubMed Central

Candidate traditions were documented across three communities of wild spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) using an a priori approach to identify behavioral variants and a statistical approach to examine differences in their proportional use. This methodology differs from previous studies of animal traditions, which used retrospective data and relied on the ‘exclusion method’ to identify candidate traditions. Our a priori approach increased the likelihood that behavior variants with equivalent functions were considered and our statistical approach enabled the proportional use of ‘universal’ behaviors, i.e., used across all communities, to be examined for the first time in any animal species as candidate traditions. Among universal behaviors we found 14 ‘community preferred’ variants. After considering the extent to which community preferred variants were due to ecological and, to a lesser degree, genetic differences, we concluded that at least six were likely maintained through social learning. Our findings have two main implications: (i) tradition repertoires could be larger than assumed from previous studies using the exclusion method; (ii) the relative use of universal behavior variants can reinforce community membership. PMID:21949715

Santorelli, Claire J.; Schaffner, Colleen M.; Aureli, Filippo

2011-01-01

406

Traditional Knowledge Strengthens NOAA's Environmental Education  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Environmental education efforts are increasingly recognizing the value of traditional knowledge, or indigenous science, as a basis to teach the importance of stewardship. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Pacific Services Center incorporates Polynesian indigenous science into formal and informal education components of its environmental literacy program. By presenting indigenous science side by side with NOAA science, it becomes clear that the scientific results are the same, although the methods may differ. The platforms for these tools span a vast spectrum, utilizing media from 3-D visualizations to storytelling and lecture. Navigating the Pacific Islands is a Second Life project in which users navigate a virtual Polynesian voyaging canoe between two islands, one featuring native Hawaiian practices and the other where users learn about NOAA research and ships. In partnership with the University of Hawai‘i Waikiki Aquarium, the Nana I Ke Kai (Look to the Sea) series focuses on connecting culture and science during cross-discipline, publicly held discussions between cultural practitioners and research scientists. The Indigenous Science Video Series is a multi-use, animated collection of short films that showcase the efforts of NOAA fisheries management and ship navigation in combination with the accompanying Polynesian perspectives. Formal education resources and lesson plans for grades 3-5 focusing on marine science have also been developed and incorporate indigenous science practices as examples of conservation success. By merging traditional knowledge and stewardship practices with NOAA science in educational tools and resources, NOAA's Pacific Services Center is helping to build and increase environmental literacy through the development of educational tools and resources that are applicable to place-based understanding and approaches.

Stovall, W. K.; McBride, M. A.; Lewinski, S.; Bennett, S.

2010-12-01

407

LaserSPECks: : laser SPECtroscopic trace-gas sensor networks - sensor integration and applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

We introduce a novel laser spectroscopic trace-gas sensor platform, LaserSPECks that integrates recently developed miniature quartz-enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy (QE- PAS) gas sensing technology. This universal platform uses infrared laser spectroscopy detect and quantify numerous gas species at part-per-million to part-per-billion (ppm-ppb) concentrations (2). Traditional gas sensing devices capable of the same sensitivity and specificity are several orders of mag- nitude

Stephen So; Farinaz Koushanfar; Anatoliy Kosterev; Frank Tittel

2007-01-01

408

Cyber High School Students' Transition to a Traditional University  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This mixed-method study identifies cyber high school graduates' perceptions of the effect of a cyber high school education on successful transition to a traditional university. The study examined students' perceptions of the advantages and disadvantages their cyber education experience contributed to their academic and social transition to…

Gracey, Dorothy M.

2010-01-01

409

Including Non-Traditional Instrumentation in Undergraduate Environmental Chemistry Courses  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Non-traditional instrumentation was obtained for Georgia Southern undergraduates to attain fundamental environmental education through unique laboratory experiences. In this context, the method for including a direct mercury analyzer into both major and non-major environmental laboratories is reported.

Jenkins, J. David; Orvis, Jessica N.; Smith, C. Jimmy; Manley, Citabria; Rice, Jeanette K. 2

2004-01-01

410

In vitro response of Blastocystis hominis against traditional Chinese medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

This is the first in vitro study on the activity of 20 kinds of crude extracts of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) on the intestinal parasite, Blastocystis hominis using the criteria of living cell count (LCC) and living cell rate (LCR). LCC and LCR were applied as observation indicators, the former as a fixed-quantity and the latter as a fixed-quality method.

L. Q. Yang; Mulkit Singh; E. H. Yap; G. C. Ng; H. X. Xu; K. Y. Sim

1996-01-01

411

Statistical Quality Control Process for Traditional Chinese Medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The statistical quality control process on raw materials and\\/or the final product of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is examined. We develop a statistical quality control (QC) method to assess a proposed consistency index of raw materials from different sources and\\/or final products manufactured at different sites. The idea is to construct a 95% confidence interval for a proposed consistency index

Siu-Keung Tse; Jang-yang Chang; Wei-Lun Su; Shein-Chung Chow; Chao Hsiung; Qingshu Lu

2006-01-01

412

A quantitative system for pulse diagnosis in Traditional Chinese Medicine  

Microsoft Academic Search

The pulse diagnosis is one of the most important examinations in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Due to the subjectivity and fuzziness of pulse diagnosis in TCM, quantitative systems or methods are needed to modernize pulse diagnosis. But up to now, the effective models that can classify pulse types according to pulse waves automatically have not been reported, which undoubtedly limits

Huiyan Wang; Yiyu Cheng

2005-01-01

413

The microbiota of Lafun, an African traditional cassava food product  

Microsoft Academic Search

Lafun is a fermented cassava food product consumed in parts of West Africa. In the present work the microorganisms (aerobic bacteria (AB), lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeasts) associated with the fermentation of Lafun under traditional conditions have for the first time been studied using a combination of pheno- and genotypic methods. During Lafun fermentation the AB count ranged from

Sègla Wilfrid Padonou; Dennis S. Nielsen; Joseph D. Hounhouigan; Line Thorsen; Mathurin C. Nago; Mogens Jakobsen

2009-01-01

414

[Chemical pattern recognition of traditional Chinese medicine kudingcha (II)].  

PubMed

In this paper, the HPLC data from 78 samples of Kudingcha were treated with back propagation algorithm of artifical neural network pattern recognition, and the computer-aided classification of Ilex cornuta Lindl., Ilex latifolia Thunb. and Ligustrum lucidum Ait. was accomplished. This paper provides a scientific, advanced and feasible method for identification of traditional Chinese medicine. PMID:12567945

Su, W; Wu, Z; He, X; Chen, J

1998-04-01

415

Student Performance: Assessment Centers versus Traditional Classroom Evaluation Techniques.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Participation of 347 business students was videotaped during an assessment center session involving in-basket exercises, group discussions, and a speech. Rater scores on behavioral checklists correlated modestly with traditional evaluation methods. Assessment centers provided higher-level assessment of skill acquisition. (SK)

Bartels, Lynn K.; Bommer, William H.; Rubin, Robert S.

2000-01-01

416

Planning the Integration of Nontraditional and Traditional Postsecondary Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In light of declining enrollments, planning for the increased emphasis on nontraditional education is discussed. The planning process used by Indiana University is presented as a model. Costs, institutional adjustments, and various methods of integrating nontraditional programs into traditional university systems are described. (BH)

Munger, Paul David; Priest, Douglas M.

1979-01-01

417

Aboriginal oral traditions of Australian impact craters  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we explore Aboriginal oral traditions that relate to Australian meteorite craters. Using the literature, first-hand ethnographic records and field trip data, we identify oral traditions and artworks associated with four impact sites: Gosses Bluff, Henbury, Liverpool and Wolfe Creek. Oral traditions describe impact origins for Gosses Bluff, Henbury and Wolfe Creek Craters, and non-impact origins for Liverpool Crater, with Henbury and Wolfe Creek stories having both impact and non-impact origins. Three impact sites that are believed to have been formed during human habitation of Australia -- Dalgaranga, Veevers, and Boxhole -- do not have associated oral traditions that are reported in the literature.

Hamacher, Duane W.; Goldsmith, John

2013-11-01

418

Aboriginal Oral Traditions of Australian Impact Craters  

E-print Network

We explore Aboriginal oral traditions that relate to Australian meteorite craters. Using the literature, first-hand ethnographic records, and fieldtrip data, we identify oral traditions and artworks associated with four impact sites: Gosses Bluff, Henbury, Liverpool, and Wolfe Creek. Oral traditions describe impact origins for Gosses Bluff and Wolfe Creek craters and non-impact origins of Liverpool and Henbury craters, with Wolfe Creek stories having both impact and non-impact origins. Three impact sites that are believed to have formed during human habitation of Australia - Dalgaranga, Veevers, and Boxhole - do not have associated oral traditions that are reported in the literature.

Hamacher, Duane W

2013-01-01

419

Simultaneous determination of berberine and palmatine in rat plasma by HPLC–ESI-MS after oral administration of traditional Chinese medicinal preparation Huang-Lian-Jie-Du decoction and the pharmacokinetic application of the method  

Microsoft Academic Search

A sensitive and specific liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LC–ESI-MS) method has been developed and validated for the identification and quantification of berberine and palmatine in rat plasma. After the addition of the internal standard (IS) and alkalization with 0.5M sodium hydroxide solution, plasma samples were extracted by ethyl ether and separated by HPLC on a Shim-pack ODS (4.6?m, 150mm×2.0mm i.d.)

Tong Lu; Yan Liang; Jue Song; Lin Xie; Guang Ji Wang; Xiao Dong Liu

2006-01-01

420

Traditional and non-traditional treatments for autism spectrum disorder with seizures: an on-line survey  

PubMed Central

Background Despite the high prevalence of seizure, epilepsy and abnormal electroencephalograms in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), there is little information regarding the relative effectiveness of treatments for seizures in the ASD population. In order to determine the effectiveness of traditional and non-traditional treatments for improving seizures and influencing other clinical factor relevant to ASD, we developed a comprehensive on-line seizure survey. Methods Announcements (by email and websites) by ASD support groups asked parents of children with ASD to complete the on-line surveys. Survey responders choose one of two surveys to complete: a survey about treatments for individuals with ASD and clinical or subclinical seizures or abnormal electroencephalograms, or a control survey for individuals with ASD without clinical or subclinical seizures or abnormal electroencephalograms. Survey responders rated the perceived effect of traditional antiepileptic drug (AED), non-AED seizure treatments and non-traditional ASD treatments on seizures and other clinical factors (sleep, communication, behavior, attention and mood), and listed up to three treatment side effects. Results Responses were obtained concerning 733 children with seizures and 290 controls. In general, AEDs were perceived to improve seizures but worsened other clinical factors for children with clinical seizure. Valproic acid, lamotrigine, levetiracetam and ethosuximide were perceived to improve seizures the most and worsen other clinical factors the least out of all AEDs in children with clinical seizures. Traditional non-AED seizure and non-traditional treatments, as a group, were perceived to improve other clinical factors and seizures but the perceived improvement in seizures was significantly less than that reported for AEDs. Certain traditional non-AED treatments, particularly the ketogenic diet, were perceived to improve both seizures and other clinical factors. For ASD individuals with reported subclinical seizures, other clinical factors were reported to be worsened by AEDs and improved by non-AED traditional seizure and non-traditional treatments. The rate of side effects was reportedly higher for AEDs compared to traditional non-AED treatments. Conclusion Although this survey-based method only provides information regarding parental perceptions of effectiveness, this information may be helpful for selecting seizure treatments in individuals with ASD. PMID:21592359

2011-01-01

421

Bapedi traditional healers in the Limpopo Province, South Africa: Their socio-cultural profile and traditional healing practice  

PubMed Central

Background Bapedi traditional healers play a vital role in the primary health care of rural inhabitants in the Limpopo Province, South Afric