Sample records for transformer admittance characterization

  1. Electrical admittance of piezoelectric parallelepipeds: application to tensorial characterization of piezoceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Diallo, O.; Bavencoffe, M.; Feuillard, G. [Laboratoire GREMAN UMR CNRS 7347. École Nationale d’Ingénieurs du Val de Loire Université François Rabelais de Tours 3 Rue de la Chocolaterie BP 3410 41034 BLOIS CEDEX France (France)] [Laboratoire GREMAN UMR CNRS 7347. École Nationale d’Ingénieurs du Val de Loire Université François Rabelais de Tours 3 Rue de la Chocolaterie BP 3410 41034 BLOIS CEDEX France (France); Clezio, E. Le; Delaunay, T. [Institut d’Electronique du Sud UMR CNRS 5214 IES - MIRA case 082Université Montpellier 2 Place Eugène Bataillon 34095 MONTPELLIER CEDEX 5 France (France)] [Institut d’Electronique du Sud UMR CNRS 5214 IES - MIRA case 082Université Montpellier 2 Place Eugène Bataillon 34095 MONTPELLIER CEDEX 5 France (France)

    2014-01-15

    This work deals with the characterization of functional properties, including determination of mechanical and electrical losses, of piezoelectric materials using only one sample and one measurement. First, the natural resonant frequencies of a piezoelectric parallelepiped are calculated and the electrical admittance is determined from calculations of the charge quantity on both electrodes of the parallelepiped. A first validation of the model is performed using a comparison with Mason's model. Results are reported for a PMN-34.5PT ceramic cube and a good agreement is found between experimental admittance measurements and their modeling. The functional properties of the PMN-34.5PT are then extracted.

  2. Feasibility of anomaly detection and characterization using trans-admittance mammography with 60 × 60 electrode array.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Mingkang; Wi, Hun; Lee, Eun Jung; Woo, Eung Je; Oh, Tong In

    2014-10-01

    Electrical impedance imaging has the potential to detect an early stage of breast cancer due to higher admittivity values compared with those of normal breast tissues. The tumor size and extent of axillary lymph node involvement are important parameters to evaluate the breast cancer survival rate. Additionally, the anomaly characterization is required to distinguish a malignant tumor from a benign tumor. In order to overcome the limitation of breast cancer detection using impedance measurement probes, we developed the high density trans-admittance mammography (TAM) system with 60 × 60 electrode array and produced trans-admittance maps obtained at several frequency pairs. We applied the anomaly detection algorithm to the high density TAM system for estimating the volume and position of breast tumor. We tested four different sizes of anomaly with three different conductivity contrasts at four different depths. From multifrequency trans-admittance maps, we can readily observe the transversal position and estimate its volume and depth. Specially, the depth estimated values were obtained accurately, which were independent to the size and conductivity contrast when applying the new formula using Laplacian of trans-admittance map. The volume estimation was dependent on the conductivity contrast between anomaly and background in the breast phantom. We characterized two testing anomalies using frequency difference trans-admittance data to eliminate the dependency of anomaly position and size. We confirmed the anomaly detection and characterization algorithm with the high density TAM system on bovine breast tissue. Both results showed the feasibility of detecting the size and position of anomaly and tissue characterization for screening the breast cancer. PMID:25207623

  3. Defect characterization by admittance spectroscopy techniques based on temperature-rate duality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jian V. Li; Yanfa Yan; Aaron J. Ptak; Ingrid L. Repins; Dean H. Levi

    2010-01-01

    The behavior of charge trapping and detrapping by deep levels depends on both temperature and the rate at which the measurement (e.g., admittance spectroscopy) is conducted. We report recent advances in admittance spectroscopy based on the temperature-rate duality: the temperature derivative technique, and the 2D Arrhenius plot method. The first technique-temperature derivative admittance spectroscopy-can be used to directly determine the

  4. A Hybrid Measurement Approach for Wideband Characterization and Modeling of Power Transformers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bjørn Gustavsen

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a hybrid procedure for wideband characterization and modeling of power transformer behavior from frequency sweep measurements. The approach is based on measuring corresponding sets of voltage and current vectors that are associated with short circuit and open circuit conditions. These vectors are stacked side-by-side in two matrices which are used for computing the short circuit admittance matrix.

  5. Pulse transformer characterization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. H. P. Mosterdijk

    1992-01-01

    The pulse transformer at TNO PML-Pulse Physics, Delft, is characterized. It constitutes the final step of an energy compression system (Kapitza facility) which can amplify the current up to 24 times, and consists of a primary single layer winding of 24 turns enclosed in a secondary winding. There is a sine wave current source with adjustable frequencies for the characterization.

  6. A new estimate of the effective elastic thickness of the Canadian shield from admittance analyses using the wavelet transform, and models of flexure and mantle convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirby, J. F.; Swain, C. J.

    2013-12-01

    The flexural rigidity of the Earth's cratonic regions is a topic of much controversy. While many studies have suggested that cratons possess high elastic strength, others maintain that the continental lithosphere is everywhere weak. In this study we focus on the Canadian shield, and show that perceived evidence for weak cratonic lithosphere is compromised by shortcomings of the spectral analysis technique. Here we compare estimates of the admittance between free-air gravity and topography in the spectral domain from wavelet and multitaper methods. We apply particular attention to their long wavelength values, since it is here that the signals from mantle convection, glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) and flexure are often present together. Our results show that, when used with certain parameter values, the multitaper method has a comparatively poor resolution at long wavelengths, and hence is not always able to distinguish between the harmonics due to convection and flexural processes. This renders it unreliable for estimating the flexural rigidity. We then show that the wavelet method does have the requisite properties to make this distinction, since it is able to correctly resolve a low-admittance dip at long wavelengths in both synthetic and real data. When the observed wavelet admittance of the Canadian shield is inverted against the predictions of a combined flexural, convection and GIA model, we find that the shield possesses a core of high effective elastic thickness (Te), greater than 118 km to 95% confidence, located to the immediate south-west of Hudson Bay.

  7. Building Admittance Authorization Form Instructions For Use

    E-print Network

    Gering, Jon C.

    Admittance Authorization Form Instructions For Use · This form must be completed in ink. No corrections is for admittance for the person named below and valid one time only. · Authorization for groups must be obtained

  8. ac hopping admittance in spinel manganate negative temperature coefficient thermistor electroceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Rainer; Brinkman, Andrew W.

    2008-06-01

    In this work, the ac admittance of a thick film nickel manganate spinel negative temperature coefficient thermistor ceramic system containing a glass phase is investigated. The dominating relaxation process is a grain boundary (GB) effect and has been investigated comprehensively. We present double-logarithmic plots of the specific admittance ?' vs ? and (?'/?dc) vs ?, and specific impedance z' vs -z?/? and [(?dc/z')-1] vs ?, in order to characterize GB charge transport. Using the complex admittance notation (??), an unusually low Jonscher exponent of frequency ˜0.007 was obtained and the GB relaxation displayed close to ideal behavior.

  9. Applications of Admittance Spectroscopy in Photovoltaic Devices Beyond Majority Carrier Trapping Defects: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Li, J. V.; Crandall, R. S.; Repins, I. L.; Nardes, A. M.; Levi, D. H.; Sulima, O.

    2011-07-01

    Admittance spectroscopy is commonly used to characterize majority-carrier trapping defects. In today's practical photovoltaic devices, however, a number of other physical mechanisms may contribute to the admittance measurement and interfere with the data interpretation. Such challenges arise due to the violation of basic assumptions of conventional admittance spectroscopy such as single-junction, ohmic contact, highly conductive absorbers, and measurement in reverse bias. We exploit such violations to devise admittance spectroscopy-based methods for studying the respective origins of 'interference': majority-carrier mobility, non-ohmic contact potential barrier, minority-carrier inversion at hetero-interface, and minority-carrier lifetime in a device environment. These methods are applied to a variety of photovoltaic technologies: CdTe, Cu(In,Ga)Se2, Si HIT cells, and organic photovoltaic materials.

  10. Lithologic characterization of a reservoir using continuous-wavelet transforms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giselle Álvarez; Bruno Sansó; Reinaldo J. Michelena; Juan Ramón Jiménez

    2003-01-01

    We consider the problem of characterizing the lithology of a reservoir using gamma ray logs as well as seismic traces around the well. We first calculate the continuous-wavelet transform of the the data and then use the fact that the energy of such transformation is proportional to a power of its scale. The technique consists in estimating the power transformation

  11. CHARACTERIZATION AND ANALYSIS OF EDGES USING THE CONTINUOUS SHEARLET TRANSFORM

    E-print Network

    Labate, Demetrio

    use the continuous wavelet transform and their generalizations to resolve the singularities of functions and distributions. It is well-known that the continuous wavelet transform, which maps a function fCHARACTERIZATION AND ANALYSIS OF EDGES USING THE CONTINUOUS SHEARLET TRANSFORM KANGHUI GUO

  12. 48 CFR 3022.101-70 - Admittance of union representatives to DHS installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 2012-10-01 false Admittance of union representatives to DHS installations...Policies 3022.101-70 Admittance of union representatives to DHS installations. (a) Admittance of union representatives to...

  13. 48 CFR 3022.101-70 - Admittance of union representatives to DHS installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 2014-10-01 false Admittance of union representatives to DHS installations...Policies 3022.101-70 Admittance of union representatives to DHS installations. (a) Admittance of union representatives to...

  14. 48 CFR 3022.101-70 - Admittance of union representatives to DHS installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 2011-10-01 false Admittance of union representatives to DHS installations...Policies 3022.101-70 Admittance of union representatives to DHS installations. (a) Admittance of union representatives to...

  15. 48 CFR 3022.101-70 - Admittance of union representatives to DHS installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 2012-10-01 true Admittance of union representatives to DHS installations...Policies 3022.101-70 Admittance of union representatives to DHS installations. (a) Admittance of union representatives to...

  16. 48 CFR 3022.101-70 - Admittance of union representatives to DHS installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 2010-10-01 false Admittance of union representatives to DHS installations...Policies 3022.101-70 Admittance of union representatives to DHS installations. (a) Admittance of union representatives to...

  17. Characterization of static electrification in power transformers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. A. Metwally

    1996-01-01

    Static electrification due to oil now causes many field failures of large forced-oil cooled power transformers. Also, in practice under normal operating conditions, the oil volume in these power transformers is reduced due to the internal heat generated (from the energized windings) which accelerates the chemical processes occurring inside. To complete filling of the oil tanks of such transformers, either

  18. Schottky contact barrier height extraction by admittance measurement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu-Long Jiang; Jia Luo; Ye Yao; Fang Lu; Guo-Ping Ru; Xin-Ping Qu; Bing-Zong Li

    2007-01-01

    Different from the conventional current-voltage and capacitance-voltage methods, Schottky contact barrier height extraction by admittance measurement is proposed and discussed in this paper. In this method, the barrier height can be simply extracted from the difference between the measured admittance at zero bias and a reasonably high forward bias. Both simulation results and experimental data demonstrate that the proposed method

  19. Aerodynamic Admittance Function of Tall Buildings Ahsan Kareemb

    E-print Network

    Kareem, Ahsan

    are generally employed in formulating analysis of wind effects in the along-wind direction following the "gust;Gust spectrum Aerodynamic admittance Generalized force spectrum Displacement transfer function Log )( fH )( fSM Gust spectrum MGLFMGLFMGLFMGLF (b) (a) Figure 1. Aerodynamic admittance functions in gust

  20. Multidimensional Walsh Transform and a Characterization of Bent Functions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kaisa Nyberg; Miia Hermelin

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, a multidimensional Walsh transform is used to obtain a characterization of vector-valued bent function in terms of the value distributions of the translates of the function by linear functions.

  1. Multidimensional Walsh Transform and a Characterization of Bent Functions

    E-print Network

    Multidimensional Walsh Transform and a Characterization of Bent Functions Kaisa Nyberg Helsinki to obtain a characterization of vector-valued bent function in terms of the value distributions is called bent if all its components (non-zero linear combinations of its coordinate functions) are bent

  2. 9 CFR 117.3 - Admittance of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Admittance of animals. 117.3 Section 117.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  3. Admittance of multiterminal quantum Hall conductors at kilohertz frequencies

    SciTech Connect

    Hernández, C. [Departamento de Física, Universidad Militar Nueva Granada, Carrera 11 101-80 Bogotá D.C. (Colombia); Consejo, C.; Chaubet, C., E-mail: christophe.chaubet@univ-montp2.fr [Université Montpellier 2, Laboratoire Charles Coulomb UMR5221, F-34095 Montpellier, France and CNRS, Laboratoire Charles Coulomb UMR5221, F-34095 Montpellier (France); Degiovanni, P. [Université de Lyon, Fédération de Physique Andrée Marie Ampère, CNRS, Laboratoire de Physique de l'Ecole Normale Supérieure de Lyon, 46 allée d'Italie, 69364 Lyon Cedex 07 (France)

    2014-03-28

    We present an experimental study of the low frequency admittance of quantum Hall conductors in the [100?Hz, 1?MHz] frequency range. We show that the frequency dependence of the admittance of the sample strongly depends on the topology of the contacts connections. Our experimental results are well explained within the Christen and Büttiker approach for finite frequency transport in quantum Hall edge channels taking into account the influence of the coaxial cables capacitance. In the Hall bar geometry, we demonstrate that there exists a configuration in which the cable capacitance does not influence the admittance measurement of the sample. In this case, we measure the electrochemical capacitance of the sample and observe its dependence on the filling factor.

  4. 48 CFR 1222.101-70 - Admittance of union representatives to DOT installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 2014-10-01 false Admittance of union representatives to DOT installations...Policies 1222.101-70 Admittance of union representatives to DOT installations. (a) It is DOT policy to admit labor union representatives of contractor...

  5. 48 CFR 1222.101-70 - Admittance of union representatives to DOT installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 2012-10-01 false Admittance of union representatives to DOT installations...Policies 1222.101-70 Admittance of union representatives to DOT installations. (a) It is DOT policy to admit labor union representatives of contractor...

  6. 48 CFR 1222.101-70 - Admittance of union representatives to DOT installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 2011-10-01 false Admittance of union representatives to DOT installations...Policies 1222.101-70 Admittance of union representatives to DOT installations. (a) It is DOT policy to admit labor union representatives of contractor...

  7. 48 CFR 1222.101-70 - Admittance of union representatives to DOT installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 2013-10-01 false Admittance of union representatives to DOT installations...Policies 1222.101-70 Admittance of union representatives to DOT installations. (a) It is DOT policy to admit labor union representatives of contractor...

  8. 48 CFR 1222.101-70 - Admittance of union representatives to DOT installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 2010-10-01 false Admittance of union representatives to DOT installations...Policies 1222.101-70 Admittance of union representatives to DOT installations. (a) It is DOT policy to admit labor union representatives of contractor...

  9. Many tasks in software engineering can be characterized as source to source transformations. Design recovery, software

    E-print Network

    Cordy, James R.

    transformations. Design recovery, software restructuring, forward engineering, language translation, platform designed to support rule- based source to source transformation. Originally conceived as a tool transformation. 1. Background Many tasks in software engineering and maintenance can be characterized as source

  10. Characterization of transformation related genes in oral cancer cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David D Chang; No-Hee Park; Christopher T Denny; Stanley F Nelson; Mark Pe

    1998-01-01

    A cDNA representational difference analysis (cDNA-RDA) and an arrayed filter technique were used to characterize transformation-related genes in oral cancer. From an initial comparison of normal oral epithelial cells and a human papilloma virus (HPV)-immortalized oral epithelial cell line, we obtained 384 differentially expressed gene fragments and arrayed them on a filter. Two hundred and twelve redundant clones were identified

  11. Adaptive Admittance-based Conductor Meshing for Interconnect Analysis

    E-print Network

    Balakrishnan, Venkataramanan "Ragu"

    Adaptive Admittance-based Conductor Meshing for Interconnect Analysis Abstract-- We present a new in an adaptive scheme so as to systematically trade off computation against model accuracy. We apply the proposed is the uniform meshing (UM) scheme, where a conductor is discretized so that the filaments are all of the same

  12. Admittance Diagrams of Accidental and Premeditated Optical Inhomogeneities in Coatings

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Daniel Poitras

    2002-01-01

    Intuitive interpretation of the effect of inhomogeneous layers in optical coatings is often difficult. I use admittance diagrams to interpret some properties of accidental and premeditated optical inhomogeneities. The effect of accidental homogeneous and inhomogeneous transition layers on the spectral properties of a single film is presented. I show that such layers affect the envelope of the reflectance spectra of

  13. The long-wavelength admittance and effective elastic thickness of the Canadian Shield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirby, J. F.; Swain, C. J.

    2014-06-01

    The strength of the cratonic lithosphere has been controversial. On the one hand, many estimates of effective elastic thickness (Te) greatly exceed the crustal thickness, but on the other the great majority of cratonic earthquakes occur in the upper crust. This implies that the seismogenic thickness of cratons is much smaller than Te, whereas in the ocean basins they are approximately the same, leading to suspicions about the large Te estimates. One region where such estimates have been questioned is the Canadian Shield, where glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) and mantle convection are thought to contribute to the long-wavelength undulations of the topography and gravity. To date these have not been included in models used to estimate Te from topography and gravity which conventionally are based only on loading and flexure. Here we devise a theoretical expression for the free-air (gravity/topography) admittance that includes the effects of GIA and convection as well as flexure and use it to estimate Te over the Canadian Shield. We use wavelet transforms for estimating the observed admittances, after showing that multitaper estimates, which have hitherto been popular for Te studies, have poor resolution at the long wavelengths where GIA and convection predominate, compared to wavelets. Our results suggest that Te over most of the shield exceeds 80 km, with a higher-Te core near the southwest shore of Hudson Bay. This means that the lack of mantle earthquakes in this craton is simply due to its high strength compared to the applied stresses.

  14. Analytical modeling of transfer admittance in small MOSFETs and application to interface state characterisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haddara, Hisham; Ghibaudo, Gérard

    1988-06-01

    A simple analytical model for the transfer admittance (dynamic transconductance) of MOS transistors is presented. This model establishes, for the first time, a direct correlation between the transfer admittance and the interface state admittance in an explicit analytical form. Experimental measurements have been performed and the obtained results are in good agreement with our theory. Subsequently, we present a new method for characterising interface states in MOS transistors of channel lengths less than 10 ?m from the measurement of the imaginary part of the inverse of the transfer admittance.

  15. Admittance of T-stub graphene nanoribbon structure.

    PubMed

    Lan, Jin; Ye, En-jia; Sui, Wen-quan; Zhao, Xuean

    2013-01-14

    In this work, we studied ac responses of T-stub structures that are composed of armchair and zigzag graphene ribbons. Compared with uniform graphene ribbons, the T-stub structures show extraordinary properties. The ac responses of armchair and zigzag T-stub structures show different behaviors for different edge configurations. The imaginary part of admittance can be capacitive or inductive depending on the Fermi energy and structural parameters. These properties provide deeper understanding of dynamic processes of electrons in graphene-based nanodevices. PMID:23187783

  16. Design and characterization of a signal insulation coreless transformer integrated in a CMOS gate driver chip

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Design and characterization of a signal insulation coreless transformer integrated in a CMOS gate transformer integrated in a CMOS silicon die together with the gate driver and other required functions frequency through the coreless transformer. The chosen design methodology will be explained and experimental

  17. PID Admittance Control for an Upper Limb Exoskeleton Wen Yu, Jacob Rosen, Xiaoou Li

    E-print Network

    Rosen, Jacob

    PID Admittance Control for an Upper Limb Exoskeleton Wen Yu, Jacob Rosen, Xiaoou Li Abstract-- The unique exoskeleton system (EXO-UL7) in UCSC is controlled in two levels. The lower-level uses standard a model-based impedance/admittance control when the model of the exoskeleton is unavailable. In this paper

  18. Application of admittance optimization to the design of a low-height tramway noise barrier

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Application of admittance optimization to the design of a low-height tramway noise barrier-height barrier meant to attenuate tramway noise emission for nearby walking pedestrians or cyclists is studied to optimize the admittance distribution on the barrier in order to enhance the broadband insertion loss

  19. Computations of the aperture admittance of an axial slot on a dielectric coated cylinder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Croswell; G. Westrick; C. Knop

    1972-01-01

    An extensive set of curves for the aperture admittance of a waveguide-fed axial slot on a coated metal cylinder is presented for both an underdense plasma and a Teflon coating. Examination of these curves shows that a slot on a cylinder with aKaof 2 to 3 has about the same aperture admittance as the identical slot opening onto a flat

  20. Characterization of a transformed rat retinal ganglion cell line

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. R. Krishnamoorthy; P. Agarwal; G. Prasanna; K. Vopat; W. Lambert; H. J. Sheedlo; I.-H. Pang; D. Shade; R. J. Wordinger; T. Yorio; A. F Clark; N. Agarwal

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to establish a rat retinal ganglion cell line by transformation of rat retinal cells. For this investigation, retinal cells were isolated from postnatal day 1 (PN1) rats and transformed with the ?2 E1A virus. In order to isolate retinal ganglion cells (RGC), single cell clones were chosen at random from the transformed cells.

  1. Characterizing the Hilbert Transform by the Bedrosian Theorem

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Haizhang

    considerable attention to the Bedrosian identity from both engineering and mathematics, [1, 2, 3, 9, 11, 12, 13 transforms and the identity operator. This observation justifies a definition of multidimensional analytic: The Hilbert transform, the Bedrosian identity, partial Hilbert transforms. 2000 Mathematical Subject

  2. Admittance Functions for Axisymmetric Loading of a Viscous Layered Lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Houseman, G. A.; Hoogenboom, T.

    2004-05-01

    Direct detection of small-scale convection beneath the continental lithosphere is difficult because the amplitude of measurable anomalies produced by the convection is likely to be small relative to those caused by internal lithospheric structure. Even for a simple lithospheric structure, the convection signature is filtered and possibly attenuated by the overlying lithosphere. The response of an elastic lithosphere to external loading is relatively simple, and is well understood in principle. The layered lithosphere can deform only by flexure, and the resulting surface elevation and gravity anomalies are simply expressed in terms of horizontal wavenumber. The amplitude of deflection in the wavenumber domain may be expressed either as the convolution of the impulse response and the load function, or as a filter that acts on the load function in the wavenumber domain. For an elastic layer the important parameter is the flexural rigidity, proportional to elastic modulus and to layer thickness to the third power. In some circumstances, however, the lithosphere demonstrates a viscous response as well as an elastic response. Vertical loading then produces a response that drives the relaxation of internal density interfaces such as the Moho and the upper surface. For each interface the relaxation may be described as exponential decay for a pure harmonic initial deflection, assuming that the stratification is stable and viscosity is Newtonian. Typically, the deflection function includes a broad harmonic content, and the responses from multiple internal interfaces interfere, so that surface response and gravity signal may show complex time dependence. Using a 2D finite element method, numerical solutions can be obtained for the response of a viscous layered medium to axisymmetric loading. Admittance functions (ratio of gravity to topography in the wavenumber domain) are widely used to infer elastic properties of the lithosphere, but may also be defined for a viscous lithosphere. In this paper we examine the variation of viscous admittance functions for the case of axisymmetric loading by normal stress at the base of a viscous lithosphere, and contrast these with the widely used admittance functions for top and bottom loading of an elastic lithosphere.

  3. Automatically calibrating admittances in KATE's autonomous launch operations model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, Steve

    1992-01-01

    This report documents a 1000-line Symbolics LISP program that automatically calibrates all 15 fluid admittances in KATE's Autonomous Launch Operations (ALO) model. (KATE is Kennedy Space Center's Knowledge-based Autonomous Test Engineer, a diagnosis and repair expert system created for use on the Space Shuttle's various fluid flow systems.) As a new KATE application, the calibrator described here breaks new ground for KSC's Artificial Intelligence Lab by allowing KATE to both control and measure the hardware she supervises. By automating a formerly manual process, the calibrator: (1) saves the ALO model builder untold amounts of labor; (2) enables quick repairs after workmen accidently adjust ALO's hand valves; and (3) frees the modeler to pursue new KATE applications that previously were too complicated. Also reported are suggestions for enhancing the program: (1) to calibrate ALO's TV cameras, pumps, and sensor tolerances; and (2) to calibrate devices in other KATE models, such as the shuttle's LOX and Environment Control System (ECS).

  4. Quality control of dairy products using single frequency admittance measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mabrook, M. F.; Darbyshire, A. M.; Petty, M. C.

    2006-02-01

    A reusable device for the detection of adulteration in dairy products such as milk and cream has been developed. The ac electrical admittance spectra of different samples have been studied using both uncoated and alkyl mercaptan-coated gold electrodes. Uncoated gold electrodes exhibited a polarization at around 250 Hz for full fat milk, while mercaptan-coated gold electrodes showed a similar effect at around 2 kHz. The characteristics at 100 kHz and 8 °C for all skimmed milk samples revealed a linear decrease in conductance with increasing water content over the entire range of water concentration. In contrast, the conductance of full fat milk, single and double cream, showed a linear decrease only at added water concentration higher than 6%. At lower concentrations, these dairy products exhibited anomalous conductivity maxima.

  5. Automatically calibrating admittances in KATE's autonomous launch operations model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, Steve

    1992-09-01

    This report documents a 1000-line Symbolics LISP program that automatically calibrates all 15 fluid admittances in KATE's Autonomous Launch Operations (ALO) model. (KATE is Kennedy Space Center's Knowledge-based Autonomous Test Engineer, a diagnosis and repair expert system created for use on the Space Shuttle's various fluid flow systems.) As a new KATE application, the calibrator described here breaks new ground for KSC's Artificial Intelligence Lab by allowing KATE to both control and measure the hardware she supervises. By automating a formerly manual process, the calibrator: (1) saves the ALO model builder untold amounts of labor; (2) enables quick repairs after workmen accidently adjust ALO's hand valves; and (3) frees the modeler to pursue new KATE applications that previously were too complicated. Also reported are suggestions for enhancing the program: (1) to calibrate ALO's TV cameras, pumps, and sensor tolerances; and (2) to calibrate devices in other KATE models, such as the shuttle's LOX and Environment Control System (ECS).

  6. Microfluidic flow transducer based on the measurement of electrical admittance.

    PubMed

    Collins, John; Lee, Abraham P

    2004-02-01

    A new flow transducer for measuring the flow rate of a conducting fluid in a microchannel is reported. In this paper, the measure of flow of such fluid under laminar flow conditions based on the change of electrical admittance is established with the aid of a pair of electrodes parallel to the line of flow in a glass-PDMS microfluidic device. This flow sensor is simple in design and can be integrated to most of the microfluidic platforms. The effect of flow rate of the electrolyte, the frequency of the applied ac voltage, the voltage applied across the detector electrodes, and the conductivity of the electrolyte are varied to optimize for high sensitivity. The optimized values are then used to demonstrate the measurements of very low flow rates (<1 nL s(-1)). This flow sensor can be extended towards the measurement of chemical and biochemical buffers and reagents. PMID:15007432

  7. Use of paravascular admittance waveforms to monitor relative change in arterial blood pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zielinski, Todd M.; Hettrick, Doug; Cho, Yong

    2010-04-01

    Non-invasive methods to monitor ambulatory blood pressure often have limitations that can affect measurement accuracy and patient adherence [1]. Minimally invasive measurement of a relative blood pressure surrogate with an implantable device may provide a useful chronic diagnostic and monitoring tool. We assessed a technique that uses electrocardiogram and paravascular admittance waveform morphology analysis to one, measure a time duration (vascular tone index, VTI in milliseconds) change from the electrocardiogram R-wave to admittance waveform peak and two, measure the admittance waveform minimum, maximum and magnitude as indicators of change in arterial compliance/distensibility or pulse pressure secondary to change in afterload. Methods: Five anesthetized domestic pigs (32 ± 4.2 kg) were used to study the effects of phenylephrine (1-5 ug/kg/min) on femoral artery pressure and admittance waveform morphology measured with a quadrapolar electrode array catheter placed next to the femoral artery to assess the relative change in arterial compliance due to change in peripheral vascular tone. Results: Statistical difference was observed (p < 0.05) comparing baseline VTI to phenylephrine VTI (246 ± .05 ms to 320 ± .07 ms) and baseline admittance waveform maximum to phenylephrine admittance waveform maximum (0.0148 ± .002 siemens to 0.0151 ± .002 siemens). Conclusion: Chronic minimally invasive admittance measurement techniques that monitor relative change in blood pressure may be suitable for implantable devices to detect progression of cardiovascular disease such as hypertension.

  8. CHARACTERIZING MODERN AND FOSSIL GYMNOSPERM EXUDATES USING MICRO-FOURIER TRANSFORM INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY

    E-print Network

    Wolfe, Alexander P.

    CHARACTERIZING MODERN AND FOSSIL GYMNOSPERM EXUDATES USING MICRO-FOURIER TRANSFORM INFRARED spectroscopy have direct implications for the assessment of the fossil potential and the chemotaxonomic interpretation of modern and fossil gymnosperm exudates. Keywords: chemotaxonomy, plant resin, gum, conifers

  9. Computations of the aperture admittance of an axial slot on a dielectric coated cylinder.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Croswell, W. F.; Westrick, G. C.; Knop, C. M.

    1972-01-01

    An extensive set of curves for the aperture admittance of a waveguide-fed axial slot on a coated metal cylinder is presented for both an underdense plasma and a Teflon coating. Examination of these curves shows that a slot on a cylinder with a Ka of 2 to 3 has about the same aperture admittance as the identical slot opening onto a flat ground plane.

  10. In-situ characterization of transformation plasticity during an isothermal austenite-to-bainite phase transformation

    SciTech Connect

    Holzweissig, M.J., E-mail: martinh@mail.upb.de [University of Paderborn, Lehrstuhl fuer Werkstoffkunde (Materials Science), 33095 Paderborn (Germany); Canadinc, D., E-mail: dcanadinc@ku.edu.tr [Koc University, Advanced Materials Group, Department of Mechanical Engineering, 34450 Istanbul (Turkey); Maier, H.J., E-mail: hmaier@mail.upb.de [University of Paderborn, Lehrstuhl fuer Werkstoffkunde (Materials Science), 33095 Paderborn (Germany)

    2012-03-15

    This paper elucidates the stress-induced variant selection process during the isothermal austenite-to-bainite phase transformation in a tool steel. Specifically, a thorough set of experiments combining electron backscatter diffraction and in-situ digital image correlation (DIC) was carried out to establish the role of superimposed stress level on the evolution of transformation plasticity (TP) strains. The important finding is that TP increases concomitant with the superimposed stress level, and strain localization accompanies phase transformation at all stress levels considered. Furthermore, TP strain distribution within the whole material becomes more homogeneous with increasing stress, such that fewer bainitic variants are selected to grow under higher stresses, yielding a more homogeneous strain distribution. In particular, the bainitic variants oriented along [101] and [201] directions are favored to grow parallel to the loading axis and are associated with large TP strains. Overall, this very first in-situ DIC investigation of the austenite-to-bainite phase transformation in steels evidences the clear relationship between the superimposed stress level, variant selection, and evolution of TP strains. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Local variations of strain were observed by DIC throughout the phase transformation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The study clearly established the role of the stress-induced variant selection. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Variant selection is a key parameter that governs distortion.

  11. Tissue characterization using the continuous wavelet transform. I. Decomposition method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Georgia Georgiou; Fernand S. Cohen

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, a novel decomposition of the RF ultrasound signal into its coherent and diffused components is proposed. This decomposition is based on thresholding the energy of the continuous wavelet transform of the RF signal using appropriate wavelets. The two components are modeled separately, and the model parameters are estimated. Previous work (Cohen et al. 1997) required assumptions about

  12. Assessing the practicality of ATRAssessing the practicality of ATR--FTIR spectroscopy in characterizingFTIR spectroscopy in characterizing multimulti--step transformations of polypropylene surfaces and substep transformations of polypropylene surfaces and

    E-print Network

    Taralp, Alpay

    in characterizingFTIR spectroscopy in characterizing multimulti--step transformations of polypropylene surfaces and substep transformations of polypropylene surfaces and sub--surfaces:surfaces: Utility and time savings Istanbul, Turkey SUMMARSUMMARYY In transforming the physico-chemical surface properties of a polypropylene

  13. Global Admittance Estimates of Elastic and Crustal Thickness of Venus: Results from Top, Hot Spot, and Bottom Loading Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smrekar, S. E.; Anderson, F. S.

    2005-01-01

    We have calculated admittance spectra using the spatio-spectral method [14] for Venus by moving the central location of the spectrum over a 1 grid, create 360x180 admittance spectra. We invert the observed admittance using top-loading (TL), hot spot (HS), and bottom loading (BL) models, resulting in elastic, crustal, and lithospheric thickness estimates (Te, Zc, and Zl) [0]. The result is a global map for interpreting subsurface structure. Estimated values of Te and Zc concur with previous TL local admittance results, but BL estimates indicate larger values than previously suspected.

  14. Admittance detector for high impedance systems: design and applications.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Min; Stamos, Brian N; Dasgupta, Purnendu K

    2014-12-01

    We describe an admittance detector for high impedance systems (small capillary bore and/or low solution specific conductance). Operation in the low frequency range (?1 kHz, much lower than most relevant publications) provides optimum response to conductance changes in capillaries ?20 ?m in bore. The detector design was based on studies described in a preceding companion paper ( Zhang, M.; Stamos, B. N.; Amornthammarong, N.; Dasgupta, P. K. Anal. Chem. 2014, 8 , DOI 10.1021/ac503245a.). The highest S/N for detecting 100 ?M KCl (5.5 ?M peak concentration, ?0.8 ?S/cm) injected into water flowing through a capillary of 7.5 ?m inner radius (r) was observed at 500-750 Hz. A low bias current operational amplifier in the transimpedance configuration permitted high gain (1 V/nA) to measure pA-nA level currents in the detection cell. Aside from an oscillator, an offset-capable RMS-DC converter formed the complete detection circuitry. Limits of detection (LODs) of KCl scaled inversely with the capillary cross section and were 2.1 and 0.32 ?M injected KCl for r = 1 and 2.5 ?m capillaries, respectively. When used as a detector on an r = 8 ?m bore poly(methyl methacrylate) capillary in a split effluent stream from a suppressed ion chromatograph, the LOD was 27 nM bromide (Vex 22 V p-p), compared to 14 nM observed with a commercial bipolar pulse macroscale conductivity detector with an actively thermostated cell. We also show applications of the detector in electrophoresis in capillaries with r = 1 and 2.5 ?m. Efficient heat dissipation permits high concentrations of the background electrolyte and sensitive detection because of efficient electrostacking. PMID:25354912

  15. Structural Characterization of Carbohydrates by Fourier Transform Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Wen; Håkansson, Kristina

    2012-01-01

    Fourier transform tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) provides high mass accuracy, high sensitivity, and analytical versatility and has therefore emerged as an indispensable tool for structural elucidation of biomolecules. Glycosylation is one of the most common posttranslational modifications, occurring in ~50% of proteins. However, due to the structural diversity of carbohydrates, arising from non-template driven biosynthesis, achievement of detailed structural insight is highly challenging. This review briefly discusses carbohydrate sample preparation and ionization methods, and highlights recent developments in alternative high-resolution MS/MS strategies, including infrared multiphoton dissociation (IRMPD), electron capture dissociation (ECD), and electron detachment dissociation (EDD), for carbohydrates with a focus on glycans and proteoglycans from mammalian glycoproteins. PMID:22389641

  16. Synthesis and characterization of JBW structure and its thermal transformation

    SciTech Connect

    Hegazy, Eman Z., E-mail: ehegazy77@yahoo.com [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, King Abdul Aziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); National research Centre, Cairo (Egypt); Kosa, Samia A., E-mail: skousah@kau.edu.sa [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, King Abdul Aziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Abd El Maksod, Islam Hamdy, E-mail: islam_9000@yahoo.com [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, King Abdul Aziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); National research Centre, Cairo (Egypt)

    2012-12-15

    In this paper, JBW zeolite prepared from Egyptian kaolin was investigated by means of XRD, IR, SEM, EDX and ion exchange of some heavy metals. Adsorption isotherms were used to investigate the structure and properties of the prepared zeolite. XRD analysis showed that the JBW was a pure crystalline phase with orthorhombic crystal symmetry. Thermal treatment showed that the JBW transformed into the It-Carn phase at 1000 Degree-Sign C through an intermediate crystalline alumino silicate phase. SEM images showed that the JBW crystallised in a cylindrical shape. However, spherical agglomerates were observed at lower magnifications. The ion exchange isotherms with Cu{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+} and Co{sup 2+} were found to follow a Freundlich isotherm. In addition, it shows higher affinity towards Cu{sup 2+} than other ions. - Graphical abstract: JBW zeolite structure was prepared from Egyptian kaolin and characterised. XRD analysis showed that the JBW was a pure crystalline phase with orthorhombic crystal symmetry. Thermal treatment showed that the JBW transformed into the It-Carn phase at 1000 Degree-Sign C through an intermediate crystalline alumino silicate phase. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Egyptian kaolin was successfully used to prepare pure phase of JBW Structure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer JBW is stable till <300 Degree-Sign C. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer JBW phase crystallizes as cylindrical shape but agglomerates in a Nano spherical shape. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The ion exchange isotherms of Cu{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+}, and Co{sup 2+} followed up Freundlich isotherm. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Selectivity towards Cu{sup 2+} is much higher than Co{sup 2+} or Ni{sup 2+}.

  17. Gravity/topography admittance inversion on Venus using niching genetic algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, Kristin P.; Phillips, Roger J.

    2003-10-01

    We used niching genetic algorithms (NGAs) to invert localized Venus gravity/topography admittance over lowland regions Atalanta and Lavinia Planitiae, as well as volcanic rise Atla Regio for comparison. Assuming both top (topography) and bottom (mantle density anomalies) loads, we calculated theoretical admittance using thin elastic shell models. We inverted admittance for crustal thickness, elastic lithosphere thickness, mantle density anomaly thickness, and ratio (pz) of mantle density anomaly to topographic load. NGA inversion provides an efficient means of finding globally optimal and sub-optimal solutions. Error analyses of all three regions show that pz is a robust estimate; there is significant trade-off between elastic lithosphere and mantle anomaly thicknesses, while crustal thickness is ill-constrained. Optimal models suggest that mantle density anomalies are ~+1 to 2% underlying lowland regions and ~-3 to -4% underlying Atla Regio.

  18. Effect of nonzero surface admittance on receptivity and stability of compressible boundary layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choudhari, Meelan

    1994-01-01

    The effect of small-amplitude short-scale variations in surface admittance on the acoustic receptivity and stability of two-dimensional compressible boundary layers is examined. In the linearized limit, the two problems are shown to be related both physically and mathematically. This connection between the two problems is used, in conjunction with some previously reported receptivity results, to infer the modification of stability properties due to surface permeability. Numerical calculations are carried out for a self-similar flat-plate boundary layer at subsonic and low supersonic speeds. Variations in mean suction velocity at the perforated admittance surface can also induce receptivity to an acoustic wave. For a subsonic boundary layer, the dependence of admittance-induced receptivity on the acoustic-wave orientation is significantly different from that of the receptivity produced via mean suction variation. The admittance-induced receptivity is generally independent of the angle of acoustic incidence, except in a relatively narrow range of upstream-traveling waves for which the receptivity becomes weaker. However, this range of angles is precisely that for which the suction-induced receptivity tends to be large. At supersonic Mach numbers, the admittance-induced receptivity to slow acoustic models is relatively weaker than that in the case of the fast acoustic modes. We also find that purely real values for the surface admittance tend to have a destabilizing effect on the evolution of an instability wave over a slightly permeable surface. The limits on the validity of the linearized approximation are also assessed in one specific case.

  19. Characterization of rare transforming KRAS mutations in sporadic colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Joanna HM; Lung, Raymond WM; Sin, Frankie MC; Law, Peggy PY; Kang, Wei; Chan, Anthony WH; Ma, Brigette BY; Mak, Tony WC; Ng, Simon SM; To, Ka Fai

    2014-01-01

    KRAS mutational status has been shown to be a predictive biomarker of resistance to anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapy in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. We report the spectrum of KRAS mutation in 1506 patients with colorectal cancer and the identification and characterization of rare insertion mutations within the functional domain of KRAS. KRAS mutations are found in 44.5% (670/1506) of the patients. Two cases are found to harbor double mutations involving both codons 12 and 13. The frequencies of KRAS mutations at its codons 12, 13, 61, and 146 are 75.1%, 19.3%, 2.5%, and 2.7%, respectively. The most abundant mutation of codon 12 is G12D, followed by G12V and G12C while G13D is the predominant mutation in codon 13. Mutations in other codons are rare. The KRAS mutation rate is significantly higher in women (48%, 296/617) than in men (42.1%, 374/889, P = 0.023). Tumors on the right colon have a higher frequency of KRAS mutations than those on the left (57.3% vs. 40.4%, P < 0.0001). Two in-frame insertion mutations affect the phosphate-binding loop (codon 10–16) of KRAS are identified. One of them has never been reported before. Compared with wild-type protein, the insertion variants enhance the cellular accumulation of active RAS (RAS-GTP) and constitutively activate the downstream signaling pathway. NIH3T3 cells transfected with the insertion variants show enhanced anchorage-independent growth and in vivo tumorigenicity. Potentially these mutations contribute to primary resistance to anti-EGFR mAb therapy but the clinical implication requires further validation. PMID:24642870

  20. Characterization of amorphous iron distribution transformer core for use in high-power medium-frequency applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert U. Lenke; Sebastian Rohde; Florian Mura; Rik W. De Doncker

    2009-01-01

    Large strip-wound amorphous iron cores for 60 Hz distribution transformers have been commercially manufactured for almost two decades. For megawatt-scale power electronics applications with transformer operating frequencies in the low kilohertz range, these cores offer interesting characteristics. This paper presents the results of a characterization of a distribution transformer core specimen at kilohertz frequencies under rectangular voltage excitation. Measurements are

  1. Localization and Characterization of the Carbon Tetrachloride Transformation Activity of Pseudomonas sp. Strain KC

    PubMed Central

    Dybas, M. J.; Tatara, G. M.; Criddle, C. S.

    1995-01-01

    Previous research has established that Pseudomonas sp. strain KC rapidly transforms carbon tetrachloride (CT) to carbon dioxide (45 to 55%), a nonvolatile fraction (45 to 55%), and a cell-associated fraction ((equiv)5%) under denitrifying, iron-limited conditions. The present study provides additional characterization of the nonvolatile fraction, demonstrates that electron transfer plays a role in the transformation, and establishes the importance of both extracellular and intracellular factors. Experiments with (sup14)C-labeled CT indicate that more than one nonvolatile product is produced during CT transformation by strain KC. One of these products, accounting for about 20% of the [(sup14)C]CT transformed, was identified as formate on the basis of its elution time from an ion-exchange column, its boiling point, and its conversion to (sup14)CO(inf2) when incubated with formate dehydrogenase. Production of formate requires transfer of two electrons to the CT molecule. The role of electron transfer was also supported by experiments demonstrating that stationary-phase cells that do not transform CT can be stimulated to transform CT when supplemented with acetate (electron donor), nitrate (electron acceptor), or a protonophore (carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone). The location of transformation activity was also evaluated. By themselves, washed cells did not transform CT to a significant degree. Occasionally, CT transformation was observed by cell-free culture supernatant, but this activity was not reliable. Rapid and reliable CT transformation was only obtained when washed whole cells were reconstituted with culture supernatant, indicating that both extracellular and intracellular factors are normally required for CT transformation. Fractionation of culture supernatant by ultrafiltration established that the extracellular factor or factors are small, with an apparent molecular mass of less than 500 Da. The extracellular factor or factors were stable after lyophilization to powder and were extractable with acetone. Addition of micromolar levels of iron inhibited CT transformation in whole cultures, but the level of iron needed to inhibit CT transformation was over 100-fold higher for washed cells reconstituted with a 10,000-Da supernatant filtrate. Thus, the inhibitory effects of iron are exacerbated by a supernatant factor or factors with a molecular mass greater than 10,000 Da. PMID:16534941

  2. Admittance Control of an Upper Limb Exoskeleton Reduction of Energy Exchange

    E-print Network

    Rosen, Jacob

    Admittance Control of an Upper Limb Exoskeleton ­ Reduction of Energy Exchange Hyunchul Kim, Levi robot systems (e.g. exoskeletons) is enabled by a control algorithm that maximizes the transparency at the interface between the human arm and the exoskeleton system. The system performance was evaluated by five

  3. Effects of Series Resistance and Inductance on Solar Cell Admittance Measurements(a)

    E-print Network

    Scofield, John H.

    cells. The model circuit consists of a capacitance C in parallel with a resistance r circuit consisting of a capacitance (C) in parallel with a shunt resistance (r), with these in series admittance of a four-element circuit is calculated and compared with measurements on two typical CIGS solar

  4. Adaptive admittance control of a robot manipulator under task space constraint

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Keng Peng Tee; Rui Yan; Haizhou Li

    2010-01-01

    We present adaptive admittance control of a robotic manipulator, with uncertain dynamic parameters, operating in a constrained task space. To provide compliance to external forces, we generate a differentiable reference trajectory that remains in the constrained task space. Then, adaptive backstepping control, based on a time-varying asymmetric Barrier Lyapunov Function (BLF), is designed to achieve tracking of the reference trajectory

  5. Admittance change of squid axon during action potentials. Change in capacitive component due to sodium currents.

    PubMed Central

    Takashima, S

    1979-01-01

    Since the discovery of Cole and Curtis (1938. Nature (Lond.). 142:209 and 1939. J. Gen. Physiol. 22:649) that the imaginary components, i.e., capacitive and inductive components, of the admittance of squid axon membrane remained unchanged during the action potential, there have been numerous studies on impedance and admittance characteristics of nerves. First of all, it is now known that the dielectric capacitance of the membrane is frequency dependent. Second, the recent observation of gating currents indicates that dipolar molecules may be involved in the onset of ionic currents. Under these circumstances, the author felt it necessary to reinvestigate the membrane admittance characteristics of nerve axons. The measurements by Cole and Curtis were performed mainly at 20 kHz, indicating that their observation was limited only to the passive membrane capacitance. To detect the change in the capacitive component during the action potential, we performed transient admittance measurements at lower frequencies. However, the frequency range of the measurements was restricted because of the short duration of the normal action potential. In addition, a change in the inductive component obscured the low frequency behavior of the capacitance. To use wider frequency range and simplify the system by eliminating the inductive component, the potassium current was blocked by tetraethyl ammonium, and the increase in the capacitive component was reinvestigated during the long action potential. The admittance change under this condition was found to be mostly capacitive, and conductance change was very small. The increase in the capacitive component was from 1.0 to 1.23 muF/cm2. Images FIGURE 2 PMID:262409

  6. Transformers

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Kuphaldt, Tony R.

    All About Circuits is a website that â??provides a series of online textbooks covering electricity and electronics.â? Written by Tony R. Kuphaldt, the textbooks available here are wonderful resources for students, teachers, and anyone who is interested in learning more about electronics. This specific section, Transformers, is the ninth chapter in Volume II â??Alternating Current (AC). A few of the topics covered in this chapter include: Mutual inductance and basic operation; Step-up and Step-down transformers; Electrical isolation; Phasing; Winding configurations; Voltage Regulation; and finally, Special transformers and applications.. Diagrams and detailed descriptions of concepts are included throughout the chapter to provide users with a comprehensive lesson. Visitors to the site are also encouraged to discuss concepts and topics using the All About Circuits discussion forums (registration with the site is required to post materials).

  7. Voice source characterization using pitch synchronous discrete cosine transform for speaker identification.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishnan, A G; Abhiram, B; Mahadeva Prasanna, S R

    2015-06-01

    A characterization of the voice source (VS) signal by the pitch synchronous (PS) discrete cosine transform (DCT) is proposed. With the integrated linear prediction residual (ILPR) as the VS estimate, the PS DCT of the ILPR is evaluated as a feature vector for speaker identification (SID). On TIMIT and YOHO databases, using a Gaussian mixture model (GMM)-based classifier, it performs on par with existing VS-based features. On the NIST 2003 database, fusion with a GMM-based classifier using MFCC features improves the identification accuracy by 12% in absolute terms, proving that the proposed characterization has good promise as a feature for SID studies. PMID:26093457

  8. Characterization of iron in Fe-VPI-5 and its thermally transformed product, FAPO-8

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Prasad

    1997-01-01

    Iron incorporation in VPI-5 occurs within a narrow range of gel composition and hydrothermal treatment conditions. Physico-chemical characterization was carried out by X-ray diffraction, SEM, thermogravimetry and solidstate NMR. The ESR studies showed that Fe3+ incorporation occurs into lattice sites only; no occluded Fe species are observed. A significant amount of framework iron was removed during the thermal transformation of

  9. Molecular characterization of grapevine plants transformed with GFLV resistance genes: II

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fatemeh Maghuly; Stephan Leopold; Artur da Câmara Machado; Eduviges Borroto Fernandez; Mahmood Ali Khan; Giorgio Gambino; Ivana Gribaudo; Angelika Schartl; Margit Laimer

    2006-01-01

    A collection of 127 putatively transgenic individuals of Vitis vinifera cv. Russalka was characterized by PCR and Southern hybridization. Six different constructs containing the neomycin phosphotransferase (nptII) marker gene and sequences of the Grapevine Fanleaf Virus Coat Protein (GFLV CP) gene including non-translatable and truncated forms were transferred via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Detection of transgenic sequences by PCR was positive in

  10. Characterization of micro-lenses based on single interferogram analysis using Hilbert transformation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    U. Paul Kumar; N. Krishna Mohan; M. P. Kothiyal

    2011-01-01

    Measurement of the shape, surface quality, and optical performance of micro-lenses, as well as, the uniformity of the parameters across the wafer is an important issue. In this paper we describe a reflection\\/transmission microscopic interferometer for characterization of micro-lens array. A Hilbert transform (HT) based method is applied to enhance the fringe contrast and to recover the phase from a

  11. Characterization of geological boundaries using 1-D wavelet transform on gravity data; theory and application to the Himalayas

    E-print Network

    Sailhac, Pascal

    Characterization of geological boundaries using 1-D wavelet transform on gravity data; theory January 15, 2001 ABSTRACT We investigate the use of continuous wavelet transform for gravity inversion order. In the gravity case, we rst demonstrate how to localize causative sources using simple

  12. Transformation and characterization of bovine endothelial cells after in vitro treatment with benzo(a)pyrene

    SciTech Connect

    Grinspan, J.B.

    1984-01-01

    A cloned strain of bovine vascular endothelial cells with a finite in vitro lifespan was treated with the chemical carcinogen benzo(a)pyrene. Untreated cultures of this cell line senesced upon serial subcultivation and contained large non-dividing cells. In four out of eight trials, repeated subcultivation in the presence of benzo(a)pyrene produced transformed lines which appeared in cultures concomitant with the senescence of the parent cells. These lines exhibited an indefinite lifespan and a variety of altered phenotypic characteristics. Four characterized cell lines fit into two general categories. Two lines acquired an indefinite lifespan but otherwise exhibited characteristics of normal endothelial cells: contact inhibition of growth, anchorage dependence, serum requirement for growth of at least 5% fetal bovine serum, and inability to produce tumors in syngeneic hosts. In the other category, two lines acquired those characteristics normally associated with transformation: lack of contact inhibition of growth, anchorage independence, and ability to form tumors (hemangiosarcomas) in syngeneic hosts. Transformed lines lost some specialized characteristics retained by normal endothelial cells in vitro, although the ability to form hemangiosarcomas was retained by the tumorigenic cells. Finally, the two tumorigenic transformed lines have been found to contain non-random chromosomal changes: translocations of chromosome 15 and 21 and trisomy of chromosome 15. Preliminary studies have related these changes to the tumorigenicity of the cells because a non-tumorigenic line does not contain them and these alterations have also been demonstrated in the tumors caused by the injection of the tumorigenic cells.

  13. Performance of admittance loci based design of plasmonic sensor at infrared wavelength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brahmachari, Kaushik; Ray, Mina

    2013-08-01

    A Kretschmann-Raether prism-based three-layer structure consisting of a prism, gold (Au) metal film, and dielectric sample has been investigated with the use of admittance loci method in attenuated total internal reflection mode. High index prism materials like silicon, chalcogenide (2S2G), and SF14 have been used to study their effect on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensing (at 1200-nm wavelength) in infrared region by corresponding admittance loci plots and also by SPR sensing curves. The performance of the sensor based on the choice of the prism material has been discussed with the help of sensitivity plots giving due importance to the dynamic range of the designed sensor.

  14. Effects of series resistance and inductance on solar cell admittance measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John H. Scofield

    1995-01-01

    Admittance measurements have been performed on a variety of 0.43 cm2 area, copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS) polycrystalline thin film solar cells for frequencies (f) ranging from 1 kHz to 1 MHz and bias voltages (V) ranging from ?2.0 to 0.2 V. The bulk of these measurements are not presented here. To extend the usefulness of these measurements, and in

  15. DLTS and admittance measurements on CdS\\/CdTe solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Versluys; P. Clauws; P. Nollet; S. Degrave; M. Burgelman

    2003-01-01

    Deep level states can affect the characteristics of thin film solar cells both by their charge and by their recombination. Hence, full solar cell characterisation should include deep states. Deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) and admittance spectroscopy (AS) measurements (Y(f, T)) have been made on a series of CdTe\\/CdS thin film solar cells. Majority and minority trap DLTS was performed

  16. Vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers: Tailoring of optical admittances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knopp, Kevin J.

    This dissertation focuses on tailoring the thin-film optical properties of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) through the study and refinement of their optical admittance structure in the longitudinal and transverse dimensions. This tailoring allows control of laser radiation incident-on and emitted-from VCSELs. I use admittance optimization in the longitudinal direction to fabricate VCSELs with wideband windows of constant reflectance amongst the typical interference fringe spectrum. These optimized devices offer improved stability in the coupling to a cw optical pump source and have significantly reduced the group velocity dispersion experienced by an incident ultrashort (sub-100 fs) optical pump pulse. Additionally, I analyze the competition of transverse modes through an experimental study of their dynamics and spatio-spectral distributions using nearfield scanning optical microscopy (NSOM). I show through experiment that spatially separated modes coexist by sharing the available gain, while spatially overlapping modes compete for the gain. The time-resolved data illustrates two dramatically different risetimes for orthogonal polarizations as the transverse mode families compete. To control the observed distributions, I propose a novel method of tailoring the transverse admittance profile through the use of an out-of-phase reflection from a metal layer atop the semiconductor distributed Bragg reflector (DBR). I show through simulations that higher- order modes can be suppressed to a current of several times threshold in a 30 ?m diameter device using this method. Further, I investigate the use of native-oxides layers and apertures in vertical-cavity devices. I present the optical dispersion and material properties of these oxide films. I apply conventional admittance matching techniques to create high-quality (<0.5% reflectance), broad-bandwidth (<1% over 250 mn) native-oxide antireflection (AR) coatings for integration on vertical- cavity devices. Lastly, I explore the operation of oxide apertures as intracavity lenses through derivation of their transverse phase profile and simulation of their diffraction loss.

  17. Impedance and admittance characteristics of Bi2S3 nanowire arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katkevics, J.; Kunakova, G.; Viksna, A.; Holmes, J. D.; Erts, D.

    2013-12-01

    Current studies of the electrical impedance and admittance characteristics of the anodised aluminum oxide (AAO) nanoporous arrays and bismuth sulphide (Bi2S3) nanowire within AAO membranes are presented. The influence of potential and frequency scan rate effect produced on the real, imaginary and complex electrochemical impedance and double layer capacitance of the AAO nanopore and the Bi2S3 nanowire arrays were studied.

  18. Effect of nonzero surface admittance on receptivity and stability of compressible boundary layer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Meelan Choudhari

    1994-01-01

    The effect of small-amplitude short-scale variations in surface admittance on the acoustic receptivity and stability of two-dimensional compressible boundary layers is examined. In the linearized limit, the two problems are shown to be related both physically and mathematically. This connection between the two problems is used, in conjunction with some previously reported receptivity results, to infer the modification of stability

  19. Active and Passive Direct-Reading Ratio Sets for the Comparison of Audio-Frequency Admittances

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert D. Cutkosky

    1964-01-01

    Design considerations and constructional details for two audio-frequency direct-reading ratio sets are presented. These devices allow the comparison of admittances with accuracies up to one part in 109. The first direct-reading ratio set (DRRS) is based upon operational amplifier circuitry, and utilizes a two-stage amplifier system. With this technique, only a moderate voltage amplification per stage is required, and the

  20. Characterization of near-millimeter wave materials by means of non-dispersive Fourier transform spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonis, G. J.; Sattler, J. P.; Worchesky, T. L.; Leavitt, R. P.

    1984-01-01

    Nondispersive Fourier-transform-spectroscopic techniques are used to measure the complex indices of refraction of materials between frequencies of 120 and 550 GHz. Results are presented for crystal quartz, cross-linked polystyrene (Rexolite 1422), glass-loaded polytetrafluoroethylene (Duroid 5880) and a nickel ferrite (Trans-Tech 2-111). These results are compared with other data on these materials in this frequency range. The accuracy of these measurements yields a considerable improvement in the near-millimeter-wave characterization of several of these materials. For materials other than crystal quartz, the results are the first measurements of their properties over the entire frequency range studied.

  1. Mutational analysis of the DEAD-box RNA helicase eIF4AII characterizes its interaction with transformation

    E-print Network

    Mutational analysis of the DEAD-box RNA helicase eIF4AII characterizes its interaction with transformation suppressor Pdcd4 and eIF4GI HALINA ZAKOWICZ,1,2 HSIN-SHENG YANG,2 CRISTI STARK,2,4 ALEXANDER initiation. Programmed cell death 4 (Pdcd4) is a novel transformation suppressor and eIF4A-binding partner

  2. Measuring the complex admittance of a nearly isolated graphene quantum dot

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Miao-Lei; Wei, Da; Deng, Guang-Wei; Li, Shu-Xiao; Li, Hai-Ou; Cao, Gang; Tu, Tao; Xiao, Ming; Guo, Guang-Can; Guo, Guo-Ping, E-mail: gpguo@ustc.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Quantum Information, Synergetic Innovation Center of Quantum Information and Quantum Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230026 (China); Jiang, Hong-Wen [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)

    2014-08-18

    We measured the radio-frequency reflection spectrum of an on-chip reflection line resonator coupled to a graphene double quantum dot (DQD), which was etched almost isolated from the reservoir and reached the low tunnel rate region. The charge stability diagram of DQD was investigated via dispersive phase and magnitude shift of the resonator with a high quality factor. Its complex admittance and low tunnel rate to the reservoir was also determined from the reflected signal of the on-chip resonator. Our method may provide a non-invasive and sensitive way of charge state readout in isolated quantum dots.

  3. Measuring the complex admittance of a nearly isolated graphene quantum dot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Miao-Lei; Wei, Da; Deng, Guang-Wei; Li, Shu-Xiao; Li, Hai-Ou; Cao, Gang; Tu, Tao; Xiao, Ming; Guo, Guang-Can; Jiang, Hong-Wen; Guo, Guo-Ping

    2014-08-01

    We measured the radio-frequency reflection spectrum of an on-chip reflection line resonator coupled to a graphene double quantum dot (DQD), which was etched almost isolated from the reservoir and reached the low tunnel rate region. The charge stability diagram of DQD was investigated via dispersive phase and magnitude shift of the resonator with a high quality factor. Its complex admittance and low tunnel rate to the reservoir was also determined from the reflected signal of the on-chip resonator. Our method may provide a non-invasive and sensitive way of charge state readout in isolated quantum dots.

  4. Admittance measurements on Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} polycrystalline thin-film solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Scofield, J.H. [Oberlin Coll., OH (United States). Physics Dept.; Contreras, M.; Gabor, A.M.; Noufi, R. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Sites, J.R. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States). Physics Dept.

    1994-12-31

    The authors have measured the complex admittance for approximately 30 CIS and CIGS polycrystalline thin film solar cells having efficiencies of 12% or better. Measurements were performed for frequencies ranging from 1 to 1,000 kHz and bias voltages from {minus}2.0 to 0.4 V and were usually at room temperature. Capacitance versus voltage data were used to extract effective charge densities. Frequency-dependent capacitance and conductance data revealed information about trapping. While results vary from cell to cell, several common features emerge from the data. These results are described in this paper.

  5. Admittance Test and Conceptual Study of a CW Positron Source for CEBAF

    SciTech Connect

    Golge, Serkan [Department of Physics, Old Dominion University, Norfolk VA 23529 (United States); Hyde, Charles E. [Department of Physics, Old Dominion University, Norfolk VA 23529 (United States); Universite Blaise Pascal, Clermont-Ferrand (France); Freyberger, Arne [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility, Newport News, VA 23606 (United States)

    2009-09-02

    A conceptual study of a Continuous Wave (CW) positron production is presented in this paper. The Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) at Jefferson Lab (JLAB) operates with a CW electron beam with a well-defined emittance, time structure and energy spread. Positrons created via bremsstrahlung photons in a high-Z target emerge with a large emittance compared to incoming electron beam. An admittance study has been performed at CEBAF to estimate the maximum beam phase space area that can be transported in the LINAC and in the Arcs. A positron source is described utilizing the CEBAF injector electron beam, and directly injecting the positrons into the CEBAF LINAC.

  6. Dynamic virtual fixture on the Euclidean group for admittance-type manipulator in deforming environments

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In a deforming anatomic environment, the motion of an instrument suffers from complex geometrical and dynamic constraints, robot assisted minimally invasive surgery therefore requires more sophisticated skills for surgeons. This paper proposes a novel dynamic virtual fixture (DVF) to enhance the surgical operation accuracy of admittance-type medical robotics in the deforming environment. Methods A framework for DVF on the Euclidean Group SE(3) is presented, which unites rotation and translation in a compact form. First, we constructed the holonomic/non-holonomic constraints, and then searched for the corresponded reference to make a distinction between preferred and non-preferred directions. Second, different control strategies are employed to deal with the tasks along the distinguished directions. The desired spatial compliance matrix is synthesized from an allowable motion screw set to filter out the task unrelated components from manual input, the operator has complete control over the preferred directions; while the relative motion between the surgical instrument and the anatomy structures is actively tracked and cancelled, the deviation relative to the reference is compensated jointly by the operator and DVF controllers. The operator, haptic device, admittance-type proxy and virtual deforming environment are involved in a hardware-in-the-loop experiment, human-robot cooperation with the assistance of DVF controller is carried out on a deforming sphere to simulate beating heart surgery, performance of the proposed DVF on admittance-type proxy is evaluated, and both human factors and control parameters are analyzed. Results The DVF can improve the dynamic properties of human-robot cooperation in a low-frequency (0?~?40 rad/sec) deforming environment, and maintain synergy of orientation and translation during the operation. Statistical analysis reveals that the operator has intuitive control over the preferred directions, human and the DVF controller jointly control the motion along the non-preferred directions, the target deformation is tracked actively. Conclusions The proposed DVF for an admittance-type manipulator is capable of assisting the operator to deal with skilled operations in a deforming environment. PMID:24767578

  7. Many tasks in software engineering can be characterized as source to source transformations. Design recovery, software

    E-print Network

    Dean, Thomas R.

    transformations. Design recovery, software restructuring, forward engineering, language translation, platform, the Tree Transformation Language, is a programming language specifically designed to support rule dialects, TXL has evolved into a general purpose software transformation system that has proven well suited

  8. Multiscale characterization method for line edge roughness based on redundant second generation wavelet transform

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Fei; Zhao Xuezeng [School of Mechanical and Electronic Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Li Ning [Shanghai Second Polytechnic University, Shanghai 201209 (China)

    2010-10-15

    We introduce a multiscale characterization method for line edge roughness (LER) based on redundant second generation wavelet transform. This method involves decomposing LER characteristics into independent bands with different spatial frequency components at different scales, and analyzing the reconstructed signals to work out the roughness exponent, the spatial frequency distribution characteristics, as well as the rms value. The effect of noise can be predicted using detailed signals in the minimum space of scale. This method was applied to numerical profiles for validation. Results show that according to the line edge profiles with similar amplitudes, the roughness exponent R can effectively reflect the degree of irregularity of LER and intuitively provide information on LER spatial frequency distribution.

  9. Experimental characterization of shear transformation zones for plastic flow of bulk metallic glasses

    PubMed Central

    Pan, D.; Inoue, A.; Sakurai, T.; Chen, M. W.

    2008-01-01

    We report experimental characterization of shear transformation zones (STZs) for plastic flow of bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) based on a newly developed cooperative shearing model [Johnson WL, Samwer K (2005) A universal criterion for plastic yielding of metallic glasses with a (T/Tg)2/3 temperature dependence. Phys Rev Lett 95: 195501]. The good agreement between experimental measurements and theoretical predictions in the STZ volumes provides compelling evidence that the plastic flow of metallic glasses occurs through cooperative shearing of unstable STZs activated by shear stresses. Moreover, the ductility of BMGs was found to intrinsically correlate with their STZ volumes. The experiments presented herein pave a way to gain a quantitative insight into the atomic-scale mechanisms of BMG mechanical behavior. PMID:18815377

  10. Molecular characterization of grapevine plants transformed with GFLV resistance genes: II.

    PubMed

    Maghuly, Fatemeh; Leopold, Stephan; da Câmara Machado, Artur; Borroto Fernandez, Eduviges; Ali Khan, Mahmood; Gambino, Giorgio; Gribaudo, Ivana; Schartl, Angelika; Laimer, Margit

    2006-06-01

    A collection of 127 putatively transgenic individuals of Vitis vinifera cv. Russalka was characterized by PCR and Southern hybridization. Six different constructs containing the neomycin phosphotransferase (nptII) marker gene and sequences of the Grapevine Fanleaf Virus Coat Protein (GFLV CP) gene including non-translatable and truncated forms were transferred via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Detection of transgenic sequences by PCR was positive in all lines. Southern blot analysis revealed that the number of inserted T-DNA copies ranged from 1 to 6. More than 46% of the tested transgenic lines contain one copy of the inserted T-DNA, qualifying them as interesting candidates for further breeding programs. Southern data of one line indicate the presence of an incomplete copy of the T-DNA, thus confirming previous PCR results. Since many putative transgenic lines shared identical hybridization patterns, they were clustered into 39 lines and considered as having originated from independent transformation events. The detection of the tetracycline (TET) resistance genes in 15% of the lines shows that an integration of plasmid backbone sequences beyond the T-DNA borders occurred. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) performed on leaf tissue did not show any accumulation of the GFLV CP in the 39 transgenic lines analyzed. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Northern blot were carried out; RT-PCR analyses showed that the GFLV CP mRNA was expressed at variable levels. PMID:16408176

  11. Admittance of an infinitely long monopole antenna immersed in a dissipative medium and driven by an airfilled coaxial line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, M. E.

    1980-05-01

    The effect of the dielectric interface between the medium being probed and the end of the coaxial line used to drive the antenna on admittance is discussed. The infinite monopole antenna driven with a coaxial line is used as a model to determine this effect. The integral equation appropriate to this geometry is numerically solved for a wide range of parameters and it is determined that the interface affects the admittance only slightly compared to the more significant effect of changing the drive geometry. The capacitive admittance correction due to the dielectric interface can be ignored for most experimental purposes for antennas immersed in nondissipative media. In dissipative media the situation is more complex.

  12. Numerical analysis of eigenproblem for cavities by a particular integral method with a low frequency approximation of surface admittance.

    PubMed

    Leblanc, Alexandre; Lavie, Antoine

    2012-05-01

    In this paper, a three-dimensional boundary element method for the eigenanalysis of complex-shaped cavity is presented. A particular integral method is proposed with general absorbing boundary conditions, well suited for determination of the lower modes. In this approach, a polynomial approximation of surface admittance is used with a recent class of compactly supported radial basis function. Two common absorbent models are employed in order to demonstrate the relevance of high-order approximation of the admittance. Resulting eigenproblems of several orders (linear to cubic) are thus performed on basic geometries and a car interior. Results show significant improvements for the computed damped eigenfrequencies and the associated modal reverberation time while using an approximation polynomial matching the surface admittance variation order. PMID:22559363

  13. Transformation twinning of Ni-Mn-Ga characterized with temperature-controlled atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Reinhold, Matthew; Watson, Chad; Knowlton, William B; Müllner, Peter

    2010-06-01

    The magnetomechanical properties of ferromagnetic shape memory alloy Ni-Mn-Ga single crystals depend strongly on the twin microstructure, which can be modified through thermomagnetomechanical training. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and magnetic force microscopy (MFM) were used to characterize the evolution of twin microstructures during thermomechanical training of a Ni-Mn-Ga single crystal. Experiments were performed in the martensite phase at 25 degrees C and in the austenite phase at 55 degrees C. Two distinct twinning surface reliefs were observed at room temperature. At elevated temperature (55 degrees C), the surface relief of one twinning mode disappeared while the other relief remained unchanged. When cooled back to 25 degrees C, the twin surface relief recovered. The relief persisting at elevated temperature specifies the positions of twin boundaries that were present when the sample was polished prior to surface characterization. AFM and MFM following thermomechanical treatment provide a nondestructive method to identify the crystallographic orientation of each twin and of each twin boundary plane. Temperature dependent AFM and MFM experiments reveal the twinning history thereby establishing the technique as a unique predictive tool for revealing the path of the martensitic and reverse transformations of magnetic shape memory alloys. PMID:20589105

  14. Transformation twinning of Ni–Mn–Ga characterized with temperature-controlled atomic force microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Reinhold, Matthew; Watson, Chad; Knowlton, William B.; Müllner, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The magnetomechanical properties of ferromagnetic shape memory alloy Ni–Mn–Ga single crystals depend strongly on the twin microstructure, which can be modified through thermomagnetomechanical training. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and magnetic force microscopy (MFM) were used to characterize the evolution of twin microstructures during thermomechanical training of a Ni–Mn–Ga single crystal. Experiments were performed in the martensite phase at 25 °C and in the austenite phase at 55 °C. Two distinct twinning surface reliefs were observed at room temperature. At elevated temperature (55 °C), the surface relief of one twinning mode disappeared while the other relief remained unchanged. When cooled back to 25 °C, the twin surface relief recovered. The relief persisting at elevated temperature specifies the positions of twin boundaries that were present when the sample was polished prior to surface characterization. AFM and MFM following thermomechanical treatment provide a nondestructive method to identify the crystallographic orientation of each twin and of each twin boundary plane. Temperature dependent AFM and MFM experiments reveal the twinning history thereby establishing the technique as a unique predictive tool for revealing the path of the martensitic and reverse transformations of magnetic shape memory alloys. PMID:20589105

  15. Transformation twinning of Ni-Mn-Ga characterized with temperature-controlled atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinhold, Matthew; Watson, Chad; Knowlton, William B.; Müllner, Peter

    2010-06-01

    The magnetomechanical properties of ferromagnetic shape memory alloy Ni-Mn-Ga single crystals depend strongly on the twin microstructure, which can be modified through thermomagnetomechanical training. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and magnetic force microscopy (MFM) were used to characterize the evolution of twin microstructures during thermomechanical training of a Ni-Mn-Ga single crystal. Experiments were performed in the martensite phase at 25 °C and in the austenite phase at 55 °C. Two distinct twinning surface reliefs were observed at room temperature. At elevated temperature (55 °C), the surface relief of one twinning mode disappeared while the other relief remained unchanged. When cooled back to 25 °C, the twin surface relief recovered. The relief persisting at elevated temperature specifies the positions of twin boundaries that were present when the sample was polished prior to surface characterization. AFM and MFM following thermomechanical treatment provide a nondestructive method to identify the crystallographic orientation of each twin and of each twin boundary plane. Temperature dependent AFM and MFM experiments reveal the twinning history thereby establishing the technique as a unique predictive tool for revealing the path of the martensitic and reverse transformations of magnetic shape memory alloys.

  16. Characterization and transformation of dissolved organic matter in a full-scale wastewater treatment plant in Harbin, China

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liangliang Wei; Kun Wang; Qingliang Zhao; Chunmei Xie

    2012-01-01

    The removal and transformation of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in different units of a full-scale A\\/O wastewater treatment plant (Harbin, China) were investigated both in summer and winter. DOM in the raw wastewater (RW) and the effluents of the grit chamber, primary sedimentation tank, anaerobic tank, oxidation tank (OT), and secondary sedimentation tank (SST) were fractionated and characterized. Hydrophilic fraction

  17. Detailed characterization of polar compounds of residual oil in contaminated soil revealed by Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jian Wang; Xu Zhang; Guanghe Li

    2011-01-01

    Effects of remediation technologies on polar compounds of crude oil in contaminated soils have not been well understood when compared to hydrocarbons. In this study, ultrahigh resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) was used to characterize the changes in NSO polar compounds of crude oil and residual oil after long-term natural attenuation, biostimulation and subsequent ozonation

  18. Characterization and Modeling of Transformation Induced Fatigue of Shape Memory Alloy Actuators 

    E-print Network

    Bertacchini, Olivier Walter

    2011-02-22

    The main focus of this research is the transformation induced fatigue behavior of shape memory alloy (SMA) actuators undergoing thermally induced martensitic phase transformation. The recent development of aerospace ...

  19. Sixteen-Year Change in Acoustic-Admittance Measures among Older Adults: Data from a Population-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nondahl, David M.; Cruickshanks, Karen J.; Wiley, Terry L.; Tweed, Ted S.; Dalton, Dayna S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The primary purpose of this study was to measure the 16-year change in peak compensated static acoustic admittance (Peak Y[subscript tm]) in a population-based cohort of older adults, and to determine whether age was associated with any observed change in Peak Y[subscript tm]. Other tympanometric measures also were taken and analyzed.…

  20. Admission Guidelines -M.S. in Environmental Engineering The general requirements for admittance into the master's degree program in

    E-print Network

    Dyer, Bill

    Admission Guidelines - M.S. in Environmental Engineering The general requirements for admittance into the master's degree program in environmental engineering are: a) a completed bachelor's degree in environmental engineering b) a cumulative bachelor's degree GPA of 3.00 or higher on a 4.00 scale c) three

  1. Characterization of primary human keratinocytes transformed by human papillomavirus type 18

    SciTech Connect

    Kaur, P.; McDougall, J.K. (Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA (USA))

    1988-06-01

    Primary human epithelial cells were cotransfected with pHPV-18 and pSV2neo, and cell strains were generated by selecting in G418. Southern blot analysis revealed the presence of at least one intact, integrated viral genome in these cells. FE-A cells showed altered growth properties, characterized by a change in morphology, and clonal density. Differentiation markers analyzed by Western blotting (immunoblotting), such as cytokeratins and involucrin, indicated that the cells resembled a partially differentiated epithelial population. Increased expression of the 40-kilodalton cytokeratin was observed in FE-A cells, similar to that observed in simian virus 40-immortalized human keratinocytes. Calcium and 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate treatment induced normal epithelial cells to differentiate, whereas the human papillomavirus 18 (HPV-18)-containing keratinocytes were resistant to these signals, indicating their partially transformed nature. These cells were not able to induce tumors in nude mice over a period of up to 8 months. A second cell strain, FE-H18L, also generated by transfecting HPV-18, also exhibited an extended life span and similar alterations in morphology. Viral RNA transcribed from the early region of HPV-18 was detected in both cell strains by Northern (RNA) blot analysis. These cell strains should provide a useful model for determining the role of HPV in carcinogenesis.

  2. Chemical characterization of lased root surfaces using Fourier transform infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Spencer, P; Trylovich, D J; Cobb, C M

    1992-07-01

    Recently lasers have been recommended as an alternative or adjunctive therapy in the control and treatment of periodontally diseased root surfaces. The purpose of this in vitro investigation was to characterize the chemical structure of lased root surfaces using Fourier transform infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy (FTIR/PAS). Cementum samples, 6 mm x 2 mm, were cut from the root surface of extracted non-carious, unerupted human molars. The experimental samples were lased with a Nd:YAG laser at an average energy of 80 mJ at 10 pulses per second. Total lasing time ranged from 1 minute 45 seconds to 4 minutes. A non-lased cementum sample served as the control. All spectra were recorded from 4000 to 400 cm-1 using the photoacoustic cell attachment on an Analect RFX-65 FTIR Spectrometer. Photoacoustic FTIR spectra of lased cementum samples showed a decrease in the protein/mineral ratio in comparison to the control. Breakdown of protein at the root surface potentially contributed to an ammonium band at 2010 cm-1. The decreased protein/mineral ratio and the potential surface contamination with protein by-products, may ultimately affect cell reattachment at the cementum surface. PMID:1507041

  3. Application of the A.C. Admittance technique to double layer studies on polycrystalline gold electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fawcett, W. R.; Kovacova, Zuzana; Motheo, Arthur J.; Foss, Colby A., Jr.

    1992-02-01

    A detailed examination of the dependence of the a.c. admittance of a cell containing a polycrystalline gold electrode has been made in the double layer region as a function of d.c. potential, a.c. frequency, and electrode history. It is shown that the interfacial impedance of a gold electrode with a carefully prepared surface can be treated under these circumstances as a constant phase element when it is in contact with an aqueous solution containing 0.05 M KClO4. Analysis of the frequency dependence of the cell impedance gives the surface inhomogeneity parameter n which turns out to be very close to unity. Although the electrode surface is only slightly inhomogeneous on a microscopic scale, a very large frequency dispersion of the impedance is observed experimentally. A method of estimating the true specific capacity of the electrode is presented, and conditions for carrying out the experiments in a reproducible manner are discussed.

  4. Temperature dependence of current density and admittance in metal-insulator-semiconductor junctions with molecular insulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadjie-Djomkam, A. B.; Ababou-Girard, S.; Hiremath, R.; Herrier, C.; Fabre, B.; Solal, F.; Godet, C.

    2011-10-01

    Electrical transport in ultrathin Metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) tunnel junctions is analyzed using the temperature dependence of current density and admittance characteristics, as illustrated by Hg//C12H25 - n Si junctions incorporating n-alkyl molecular layers (1.45 nm thick) covalently bonded to Si(111). The voltage partition is obtained from J(V, T) characteristics, over eight decades in current. In the low forward bias regime (0.2-0.4 V) governed by thermionic emission, the observed linear T-dependence of the effective barrier height, q?EFF(T)=q?B+(kT)?0dT, provides the tunnel barrier attenuation, exp(-?0dT), with ?0= 0.93 Å-1 and the thermionic emission barrier height, ?B=0.53 eV. In the high-forward-bias regime (0.5-2.0 V), the bias dependence of the tunnel barrier transparency, approximated by a modified Simmons model for a rectangular tunnel barrier, provides the tunnel barrier height, ?T=0.5 eV; the fitted prefactor value, G0 = 10-10 ?-1, is four decades smaller than the theoretical Simmons prefactor for MIM structures. The density distribution of defects localized at the C12H25 - n Si interface is deduced from admittance data (low-high frequency method) and from a simulation of the response time ?R(V) using Gomila's model for a non equilibrium tunnel junction. The low density of electrically active defects near mid-gap (DS < 2 × 1011 eV-1.cm-2) indicates a good passivation of dangling bonds at the dodecyl - n Si (111) interface.

  5. In-building wireless radio channel characterization based on energy measurements and the Hilbert transform

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brian P. Donaldson; Michel Fattouche; Robert W. Donaldson

    1995-01-01

    A simple, cost-effective means is developed to estimate the impulse response h(t) for wireless radio channels using only the magnitude of the channel transfer function, H(j?). The Hilbert transform is used to calculate the phase of H(j?) from its magnitude. Inverse discrete Fourier transformation (IDFT) of H(j?) yields h(t). The Hilbert transform relation is applicable provided H(j?) is a minimum

  6. Development and characterization of fiber optic hydrophone coils for the detection of ultrasonic signals within power transformers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macià-Sanahuja, Carlos; Lamela, Horacio

    2006-04-01

    In this work we present the development and characterization of highly-sensitive fibre optic coils hydrophone for the detection of ultrasonic signals. In particular, fibre coils are a good improvement, in front of electronic sensors, for the application proposed in this work, the detection of ultrasonic signals within power transformers. Several fibre optic coils are tested in a laboratory controlled environment within a suitable ultrasonic frequency range, typically associated to ultrasonic emission in power transformers. We develop and characterize several fibre optic hydrophone coils using a Mach-Zehnder interferometer. A detailed study is carried out on the ideal shape of the hydrophone fibre probe, for parameters such as sensitivity and frequency range. Also, a comparative analysis has been carried out on the sensitivity of commercial PZT to the sensitivity of the fibre optic system under the same test conditions.

  7. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy applied to ink characterization of one-penny postage stamps printed 1841–1880

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Núria Ferrer; Anna Vila

    2006-01-01

    Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was applied to the characterization of red inks used to print one-penny stamps in Britain during the period 1841–1880.Micro- and macro-accessories were compared in both transmission and reflection mode. The best spectra were obtained using a microscope with a diamond cell coupled to an infrared spectrometer. In this case, the extraction of a single paper

  8. Stable and efficient reduction of large, multiport RC networks by pole analysis via congruence transformations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin J. Kerns; Andrew T. Yang

    1996-01-01

    A novel technique is presented which employs Pole Analysis via Congruence Transformations (PACT) to reduce RC networks in a well-conditioned manner. Pole analysis is shown to be more efficient than Padé approximations when the number of network ports is large, and congruence transforma- tions preserve the passivity (and thus absolute stability) of the networks. Networks are represented by admittance matrices

  9. Morpho-anatomical characterization of mature embryo-derived callus of rice (Oryza sativa L.) suitable for transformation.

    PubMed

    Bevitori, R; Popielarska-Konieczna, M; dos Santos, E M; Grossi-de-Sá, M F; Petrofeza, S

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study was to morpho-anatomically characterize embryogenic rice calli during early induction of somatic embryogenesis of three Brazilian rice cultivars. Herein, we explored embryogenic units (EUs) from 2-week-old cut proliferated calli to verify whether they were suitable for Agrobacterium tumefasciens-mediated transformation. Histological analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to analyze these types of calli during early rice callogenesis in the cultivars BRS Primavera, BRS Bonança, and BRS Caiapó. The characteristics of the embryogenic cells were preserved in the EUs, which showed a globular, compact structure that contained tightly packed cells and thus rendered the cells suitable for transformation. The EUs of BRS Caiapó also maintained the characteristics of the non-embryogenic callus, such as an elongated morphology and a lack of cellular organization. In general, the observations of the histological sections corresponded with those of the SEM images. The histological analysis suggested that all cultivars used in these experiments have morphogenic potential. The EUs from proliferated 2-week-old cut calli maintained their embryogenic features. The EUs were subjected to Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, which exhibited a regeneration frequency of 58 % for transformed hygromycin-resistant cell lines. These results show that EUs from proliferated 2-week-old cut calli are suitable for plant transformation. PMID:24085343

  10. Transformation from layered to tunnel structures: Synthesis, characterization, and applications of manganese oxide octahedral molecular sieves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Guan-Guang

    Manganese oxide based octahedral molecular sieves (OMS) have been found to have a wide variety of applications as catalysts, absorbents, and battery materials due to their unique structures and physical and chemical properties. OMS materials are made up of manganese oxide octahedral building blocks sharing comers and edges to form tunnel structures. Manganese species in the framework of OMS materials are mixed valent with various ion-exchangeable cations residing in the tunnels playing important roles in charge balancing and special chemical activities. With different synthetic parameters such as the template used, temperature, pressure, and the pH of the synthetic media, layered birnessite materials were hydrothermally transformed into distinct tunnel structures with different tunnel sizes, including Mg-3x3 (OMS-1), NH4-2x2 (NH4-OMS-2), Na-2x4 (OMS-5), and other manganese oxides. Characterization of the OMS materials with a wide variety of instruments has revealed that most of them are nano-fibrous hollow crystals ith large surface areas, high ion-exchange capabilities, and relatively high thermal stabilities. The Na-2x4 tunnel structure sodium MnOx has been synthesized for the first time and studied in detail, including synthetic strategies, structural analyses, and other physical and chemical property analyses. As catalysts, the synthetic OMS materials show high catalytic activities and shape-selective properties. For example, the results of the competitive oxidation of cycloalkanes with tertiary butyl hydrogen peroxide (TBHP) over different tunnel sized ONIS materials have proven that the OMS materials with larger tunnels are more favorable for the oxidation of the biggest molecule, cyclooctane, than the smallest one, cyclohexane. Besides the tunnel size effects, tunnel cations in the OMS materials also have influences on their catalytic activities. The study of carbon monoxide cleanup for fuel cell applications demonstrates that Ag-OMS-2 (a hollandite structured OMS catalyst with Ag cations residing in the tunnels) is the best oxidative catalyst among many other catalysts. The amount of Ag loading and the average oxidation state of Mn in a Ag-OMS-2 catalyst are the major influences on their catalytic performance. A suitable working temperature range for complete removal of CO from hydrogen-rich reformates using a Ag-OMS-2 catalyst may be adjusted by changing the Ag loading.

  11. Characterization and Modeling of Transformation Induced Fatigue of Shape Memory Alloy Actuators

    E-print Network

    Bertacchini, Olivier Walter

    2011-02-22

    level, the amount of actuation, and the corrosive nature of the environment. Experimental results show that SMAs undergoing transformation induced fatigue exhibit a low-cycle fatigue behavior and the measurement of the accumulated plastic strain...

  12. Production and characterization of thermostable cellulases from Streptomyces transformant T3-1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hung-Der Jang; Kuo-Shu Chen

    2003-01-01

    A total of 26 thermophilic isolates, selected from a compost of agricultural waste, which was mostly composed of vegetable, corncob and rice straw, were cultivated at 50 °C for further studies of thermostable cellulase production. The thermostable cellulase gene from the chromosomal DNA of actinomycetes isolate no. 10 was shotgun-cloned and transformed into Streptomyces sp. IAF 10-164. A transformant, T3-1,

  13. Transformation and Characterization of Transgenic Plants of Solanum dulcamara L.—Incidence of Transgene Silencing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. S. Curtis; J. B. Power; P. Hedden; A. Phillips; K. C. Lowe; D. A. Ward; M. R. Davey

    2000-01-01

    A transformation system is described for Solanum dulcamara using the supervirulentAgrobacterium tumefaciens strain 1065, carrying both the ?-glucuronidase (gus) and neomycin phosphotransferase II (npt II) genes adjacent to the right and left T-DNA borders, respectively. Leaf explants were more efficient for the production of transformed plants compared to stem explants on medium containing 50mgl?1of kanamycin sulphate. A 1:10 (v:v) dilution

  14. Inconsistent Definitions of the Pressure-Coupled Response and the Admittance of Solid Propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cardiff, Eric H.

    2003-01-01

    When an acoustic wave is present in a solid propellant combustion environment, the mass flux from the combustion zone oscillates at the same frequency as the acoustics. The acoustic wave is either amplified or attenuated by the response of the combustion to the acoustic disturbance. When the acoustic wave is amplified, this process is called combustion instability. The amplification is quantitatively measured by a response function. The ability to predict combustion stability for a solid propellant formulation is essential to the formulator to prevent or minimize the effects of instabilities, such as an oscillatory thrust. Unfortunately, the prediction of response values for a particular propellant remains a technical challenge. Most predictions of the response of propellants are based on test data, but there are a number of questions about the reliability of the standard test method, the T-burner. Alternate methods have been developed to measure the response of a propellant, including the ultrasound burner, the magnetic flowmeter and the rotating valve burner, but there are still inconsistencies between the results obtained by these different methods. Aside from the experimental differences, the values of the pressure-coupled responses obtained by different researchers are often compared erroneously, for the simple reason that inconsistencies in the definitions of the responses and admittances are not considered. The use of different definitions has led to substantial confusion since the first theoretical treatments of the problem by Hart and McClure in 1959. The definitions and relations derived here seek to alleviate this problem.

  15. Admittance spectroscopy of interface traps in MoS2 nanosheet capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molle, Alessandro; Rotta, Davide; Paleari, Stefano; Cinquanta, Eugenio; Fanciulli, Marco

    2015-03-01

    Two dimensional MoS2 nanosheets are complementary to graphene as post-silicon material for low power electronic, optoelectronic, and photovoltaic applications. However, when integrated as active channels in a transistor, the transport properties of a MoS2 nanosheet can be dramatically influenced by the intrinsic interface traps which may degrade the carrier mobility or interfere with the radiative recombination. Electrically active interface traps are here quantified in different configurations incorporating MoS2 nanosheet capacitors by means of temperature resolved admittance spectroscopy. The density of states of the interface traps is probed from midgap to the majority carrier band-edge therein making evidence of localized midgap traps and conduction band tail states. The resulting scenario is corroborated by the inspection of the local electronic properties explored by scanning tunneling spectroscopy. The former traps are related to native defects such S vacancy whereas the latter feature is discussed in terms of intrinsic disorder which is responsible for the previously reported metal-insulator transition in MoS2 flakes.

  16. A Complex Permittivity Based Sensor for the Electrical Characterization of High-Voltage Transformer Oils

    PubMed Central

    Dervos, Constantine T.; Paraskevas, Christos D.; Skafidas, Panayotis D.; Vassiliou, Panayota

    2005-01-01

    This work investigates the use of a specially designed cylindrical metal cell, in order to obtain complex permittivity and tan? data of highly insulating High Voltage (HV) transformer oil samples. The data are obtained at a wide range of frequencies and operation temperatures to demonstrate the polarization phenomena and the thermally stimulated effects. Such complex permittivity measurements may be utilized as a criterion for the service life prediction of oil field electrical equipment (OFEE). Therefore, by one set of measurements on a small oil volume, data may be provided on the impending termination, or continuation of the transformer oil service life. The oil incorporating cell, attached to the appropriate measuring units, could be described as a complex permittivity sensor. In this work, the acquired dielectric data from a great number of operating distribution network power transformers were correlated to corresponding physicochemical ones to demonstrate the future potential employment of the proposed measuring technique.

  17. Design and characterization of a signal insulation coreless transformer integrated in a CMOS gate driver chip

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Simonot Timothe; Rouger Nicolas; Crebier Jean-Christophe; Arnould Jean-Daniel

    2011-01-01

    With the development of multi-level, multiphase or network converters requiring the implementation of numerous distinct power transistor gate drivers, the control signal insulation is becoming more and more important in power converters. This paper presents an isolation technique based on a coreless transformer integrated in a CMOS silicon die together with the gate driver and other required functions. The associated

  18. Characterization of grapefruit plants ( Citrus paradisi Macf.) transformed with citrus tristeza closterovirus genes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. J. Febres; C. L. Niblett; R. F. Lee; G. A. Moore

    2003-01-01

    Grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf. cv Duncan) plants were transformed with several sequences from citrus tristeza closterovirus (CTV) that varied in terms of position in the CTV genome and virus strain origin in an attempt to obtain resistant plants. The sequences included the capsid protein gene from three different strains, a nontranslatable version of the capsid protein gene, the replicase (RdRp),

  19. Characterization of Antisense Transformed Plants Deficient in the Tobacco Anionic Peroxidase.

    PubMed Central

    Lagrimini, L. M.; Gingas, V.; Finger, F.; Rothstein, S.; Liu, TTY.

    1997-01-01

    On the basis of the biological compounds that they metabolize, plant peroxidases have long been implicated in plant growth, cell wall biogenesis, lignification, and host defenses. Transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) plants that underexpress anionic peroxidase were generated using antisense RNA. The antisense RNA was found to be specific for the anionic isoenzyme and highly effective, reducing endogenous transcript levels and total peroxidase activity by as much as 1600-fold. Antisense-transformed plants appeared normal at initial observation; however, growth studies showed that plants with reduced peroxidase activity grow taller and flower sooner than control plants. In contrast, previously transformed plants overproducing anionic peroxidase were shorter and flowered later than controls. Axillary buds were more developed in antisense-transformed plants and less developed in plants overproducing this enzyme. It was found that the lignin content in leaf, stem, and root was unchanged in antisense-transformed plants, which does not support a role for anionic peroxidase in the lignification of secondary xylem vessels. However, studies of wounded tissue show some reduction in wound-induced deposition of lignin-like polymers. The data support a possible role for tobacco anionic peroxidase in host defenses but not without a reduction in growth potential. PMID:12223765

  20. Characterization of multipotent adult stem cells from the skin: transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) facilitates cell growth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yoko Kawase; Yasuo Yanagi; Tsuyoshi Takato; Manabu Fujimoto; Hitoshi Okochi

    2004-01-01

    Recently, adult stem cells have been isolated from the skin and designated as skin-derived precursors (SKPs). These SKPs, cultured in vitro, can give rise to neurons, glia, smooth muscle cells, and adipocytes. In the current study, we confirmed the clonal expansion of SKPs using a sphere-forming culture system in a medium containing methylcellulose. Among the growth factors, only transforming growth

  1. Characterizing high-frequency effects in transformer windings-a guide to several significant articles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. M. Urling; V. A. Niemela; G. R. Skutt; T. G. Wilson

    1989-01-01

    Several papers pertaining to the design and modeling of high-frequency transformer windings are reviewed. Each paper is summarized, stressing its significant contributions and its relationship to the others. The emphases and relative merits of each are discussed, and the understandability and applicability are evaluated

  2. Characterization of biomass burning: Fourier transform infrared analysis of wood and vegetation combustion products

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Diomaris Padilla

    2008-01-01

    The Fourier transform infrared examination of the combustion products of a selection of forest materials has been undertaken in order to guide future detection of biomass burning using satellite remote sensing. Combustion of conifer Pinus strobus (white pine) and deciduous Prunus serotina (cherry), Acer rubrum (red maple), Friglans nigra (walnut), Fraxinus americana (ash), Betula papyrifera (birch), Querus alba (white oak)

  3. Characterization of Herpesvirus saimiri-transformed T lymphocytes from common variable immunodeficiency patients

    PubMed Central

    CABANILLAS, J A; CAMBRONERO, R; PACHECO-CASTRO, A; GARCÍA-RODRÍGUEZ, M C; MARTÍN-FERNÁNDEZ, J M; FONTÁN, G; REGUEIRO, J R

    2002-01-01

    Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is a very frequent but heterogeneous syndrome of antibody formation. The primary defect remains unknown, but many reports describe peripheral blood T lymphocyte dysfunctions in a substantial proportion of CVID patients, which may impair T–B cell collaboration. In order to investigate whether such putative defects were intrinsic to T cells or, rather, secondary to quantitative differences in T cell subset distribution, or to other described disorders, we have used Herpesvirus saimiri (HVS) for the targeted transformation of CVID CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and subsequent functional evaluation by flow cytometry of their capacity to generate cell surface (CD154, CD69) or soluble (IL-2, TNF-?, IFN-?) help after CD3 engagement. Unexpectedly, the results showed that 40 different CVID blood samples exposed to HVS gave rise with a significantly increased frequency to transformed CD4+ T cell lines, compared to 40 age-matched controls (27% versus 3%, P ? 0·00002) suggesting the existence of a CVID-specific signalling difference which affects CD4+ cell transformation efficiency. The functional analysis of 10 CD4+ and 15 CD8+ pure transformed T cell lines from CVID patients did not reveal any statistically significant difference as compared to controls. However, half of the CD4+ transformed cell lines showed CD154 (but not CD69) induction (mean value of 46·8%) under the lower limit of the normal controls (mean value of 82·4%, P ? 0·0001). Exactly the same five cell lines showed, in addition, a significantly low induction of IL-2 (P ? 0·04), but not of TNF-? or IFN-?. None of these differences were observed in the remaining CD4+ cell lines or in any of the transformed CD8+ cell lines. We conclude that certain CVID patients show selective and intrinsic impairments for the generation of cell surface and soluble help by CD4+ T cells, which may be relevant for B lymphocyte function. The transformed T cell lines will be useful to establish the biochemical mechanisms responsible for the described impairments. PMID:11876763

  4. Fourier Transform Rheology as an innovative morphological characterization technique for the emulsion volume average radius and its distribution.

    PubMed

    Reinheimer, K; Grosso, M; Hetzel, F; Kübel, J; Wilhelm, M

    2012-08-15

    This article extends previous works on emulsion characterization via Fourier Transform Rheology. The interest here is on the effects of (i) polydispersity and (ii) high volume fraction (often associated with commercial samples) on the nonlinear rheological behavior. To analyze the effects of polydispersity on the LAOS measurements, the investigated samples were characterized with respect to their volume average radius, [R](43), and the polydispersity index of the distribution. As the nonlinear mechanical emulsion value E(0) introduced in the literature is a function of both nonlinear rheological parameters, such as I(5/3), as well as emulsion properties including the volume average radius, interfacial tension and viscosities of the matrix and dispersed phase, it is, therefore, a useful tool for emulsion characterization. In addition, the analysis of the higher harmonic ratios, I(7/5), has been demonstrated to provide information about the width of the distribution. With respect to the characterization of the high volume fraction samples, these first experiments on commercial w/o-emulsions were shown to relate nonlinear rheological properties to the droplet size and droplet size distribution of highly filled systems, demonstrating that LAOS experiments can give useful insights on the average droplet size and its distribution. PMID:22633109

  5. Application of the 2-D Continuous Wavelet Transforms for Characterization of Geological and Geophysical Data 

    E-print Network

    Vuong, Au K

    2014-05-05

    be explained as a result of the generation of significant volumes of magma in the mantle (Coffin and Eldholm, 1994). Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain the origin of this volcanism, including leaking transform faults (Thomas et al., 1976..., the mantle plume head hypothesis (Richards et al., 1989; Mahoney and Spencer, 1991; Coffin and Eldholm, 1994) can explain many features of oceanic plateau, although; there are still some observations that do not fit this hypothesis and may require...

  6. Establishment and characterization of a SV40T-transformed human bronchial epithelial cell line

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yong-Jie Lu; Shu-Ping Guo; Tong Tong; Li-Hua Xu; Xiang-Yang Dong; Nai-Jun Hana; Shu-Jun Cheng

    1998-01-01

    The majority of human lung cancers originate from the carcinogenesis of bronchial epithelial cells. To study the malignant progression of human bronchial epithelial cells, we established a SV40T-transformed human bronchial epithelial cell line, and observed some biological and genetic changes of the cell line at different passages. In a 2-year culture, this cell line was approaching malignancy without obvious senescence.

  7. Short-time fourier transform based analysis to characterization of series arc fault

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cheng Hong; Chen Xiaojuan; Xiao Wei; Wang Cong

    2009-01-01

    Considering the non-periodic and non-stationary signatures of series arc fault current signals, a time-frequency analyzing method for series arc faults detection is presented based on short-time Fourier transform. The algorithm of STFT using the Hanning window function is described in detail, in which the length of the window function and the sliding step parameters are discussed to obtain 20 ms

  8. Lime kiln source characterization: Lime manufacturing industry Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Toney, M.L.

    1999-07-01

    The purpose of this testing program is to obtain uncontrolled and controlled hydrogen chloride (HCl) and speciated hydrocarbon Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs) emissions data from lime production plants to support a national emission standard for hazardous air pollutants (NESHAP). This report presents data from the Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) measurements. FTIR source testing was conducted for the following purposes: Quantify HCl emission levels; and Gather screening (i.e., qualitative) data on other HAP emissions.

  9. Horticultural characterization of Angelonia salicariifolia plants transformed with wild-type strains of Agrobacterium rhizogenes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y. Koike; Y. Hoshino; M. Mii; M. Nakano

    2003-01-01

    Genetic transformation was carried out with wild-type strains of Agrobacterium rhizogenes for introducing a dwarf trait into the Scrophulariaceous ornamental plant, angelonia ( Angelonia salicariifolia). Leaf segments of two angelonia genotypes (Ang.1 and Ang.2) were co-cultivated with mikimopine-type strains of A. rhizogenes. Adventitious roots that showed vigorous growth and increased lateral branching when cultured on half-strength Murashige and Skoog's (MS)

  10. Isolation and characterization of a competence operon associated with transformation and adhesion in Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tzu-Lung; Shun, Chia-Tun; Chang, Kai-Chih; Wang, Jin-Town

    2006-10-01

    To identify adhesion-associated loci, we screened 1500 mutant strains of a Helicobacter pylori mutant library. A mutant that showed decreased adhesion to two gastric epithelial cell lines was identified. Inverse polymerase chain reaction (PCR) revealed that the interrupted locus of this mutant was an hp0015 homolog of H. pylori strain 26695. DNA sequencing and reverse-transcription PCR revealed that hp0015 and two downstream genes (hp0016 and hp0017) were a transcriptional unit. Deletion and complementation constructs revealed that hp0016 and hp0017 were involved in natural transformation, but not in adhesion. Hp0015 was associated with both adhesion and natural transformation. The reduction of adhesion to human gastric tissues in the hp0015 mutant was similar to that of the babA2 knockout mutants and greater than that of the sabA knockout mutants. Co-culture of a wild-type strain with AGS cells revealed that 19 genes in AGS cells were upregulated; however, five of the 19 genes were not induced by co-culture with hp0015 mutants. These results indicate that hp0015 is associated with adhesion, and hp0015, hp0016, and hp0017 are associated with natural transformation. Hp0017 has been named as virB4/comB4. Therefore, hp0015 and hp0016 are named as comB2 and comB3, respectively. PMID:17045509

  11. Isolation and characterization of four adenovirus type 12-transformed human embryo kidney cell lines.

    PubMed Central

    Whittaker, J L; Byrd, P J; Grand, R J; Gallimore, P H

    1984-01-01

    Four transformed cell lines were established from cultures of human embryo kidney (HEK) cells microinjected or transfected with cloned adenovirus 12 (Ad12) EcoRI-C DNA (0 through 16.5 map units of the left-hand end of the viral genome). Each cell line showed a different growth pattern. Southern blotting demonstrated that all of the cell lines contained Ad12-specific DNA sequences, but in the microinjected isolates these were at a much lower copy number than in the transfected isolate. Two cell lines (Ad12 HEK 1 and 3) appeared to contain tandemly repeated Ad12 EcoRI-C DNA fragments. Immunoprecipitation and Western blotting confirmed that Ad12 early region 1 (E1) proteins were being expressed by all four of the transformed cell lines, but indicated that E1A polypeptide expression was considerably less than E1B polypeptide expression. All of the Ad12-transformed HEK cell lines were tumorigenic when inoculated intracranially into athymic nude mice. Images PMID:6700581

  12. Characterization of polymorph transformations that decrease the stability of tablets containing the WHO essential drug mebendazole.

    PubMed

    Brits, Marius; Liebenberg, Wilna; de Villiers, Melgardt M

    2010-03-01

    This study investigated the influence of moisture and heat on the stability of mebendazole polymorph C in tablets. The polymorphic forms of mebendazole display significant differences in solubility and therapeutic efficacy and form C is preferred clinically due to its optimal bioavailability and reduced toxicity. An accelerated stability study of the polymorphs revealed that the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Erofeyev-Kolmogorov (JMAEK) model best described the kinetics of the solid-state transformation of form C to A. Rate constants obtained using this model was used to calculated half-lives and shelf lives of products stored under ICH conditions of 30 degrees C + 65% RH and 40 degrees C + 75% RH. Results showed that form C was converted to the thermodynamic stable, least soluble form A with increased temperatures and moisture, and at constant temperature and relative humidity this transformation was significantly increased when trace amounts of form A was present in the tablets. Four out of the seven products tested contained trace amounts of form A. In some tablets, the transformation to form A was so quick that it reduced the shelf life to less than 1 month. The tablet dissolution of these products was reduced to such an extent that it did not comply with USP and FDA specifications. PMID:19691117

  13. Phospholipase C ?2 Expression Characterizes the Neoplastic Transformation of the Human Gastric Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Marchisio, Marco; Di Baldassarre, Angela; Angelucci, Domenico; Caramelli, Elisabetta; Cataldi, Amelia; Castorina, Sergio; Antonucci, Adriano; Di Giovannantonio, Luigina; Schiavone, Cosima; Di Biagio, Rosa; Falconi, Mirella; Zauli, Giorgio; Miscia, Sebastiano

    2001-01-01

    The expression, cellular distribution, and activity of PIP2-specific phospholipase C (PLC) in healthy human gastric-mucosa cells have been recently studied in our laboratories and a direct evidence for an almost exclusive expression of PLC ? isoforms, with the exception of PLC ?4, has been provided. These results addressed our attention to possible modification of PLC expression and activity during neoplastic transformation of the human gastric mucosa. In the present article we present results indicating that PLC ?2 is markedly expressed in type II intestinal metaplasia and in the adenocarcinoma whereas traces of other PLC isoforms were sometime detected. Interestingly, we found that type I intestinal metaplasia was in the majority of the cases PLC ?2-negative, but when expressed, this type of metaplasia generally considered as benignant, always evolved toward neoplastic transformation. These results therefore readdress the question of surveillance of the patients with type I intestinal metaplasia and suggest that PLC ?2 expression might be a possible marker of gastric malignant transformation. PMID:11549571

  14. Molecular characterization of grapevine plants transformed with GFLV resistance genes: I

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Giorgio Gambino; Ivana Gribaudo; Stephan Leopold; Angelica Schartl; Margit Laimer

    2005-01-01

    The Grapevine FanLeaf Virus-Coat Protein (GFLV CP) gene was inserted through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation in Vitis vinifera ‘Nebbiolo’, ‘Lumassina’ and ‘Blaufränkisch’. Two plasmids were used: pGA-CP+ (full-length GFLV CP gene with an introduced\\u000a start codon) and pGA-AS (same gene in antisense orientation). Forty-three transgenic lines were regenerated. As several lines\\u000a in Southern blots share same hybridization patterns, eight independent line groups

  15. Characterization of grapefruit plants (Citrus paradisi Macf.) transformed with citrus tristeza closterovirus genes.

    PubMed

    Febres, V J; Niblett, C L; Lee, R F; Moore, G A

    2003-01-01

    Grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf. cv Duncan) plants were transformed with several sequences from citrus tristeza closterovirus (CTV) that varied in terms of position in the CTV genome and virus strain origin in an attempt to obtain resistant plants. The sequences included the capsid protein gene from three different strains, a nontranslatable version of the capsid protein gene, the replicase (RdRp), the minor capsid protein (p27), a highly transcribed gene of unknown function (p20) and the more conserved 3' end of the genomic RNA. Transgenic plants were generated from all of the constructs, except from the p20 and p27 genes. Southern and Western blot analyses demonstrated that stably transformed grapefruit plants were obtained and that at least some transgenes were expressed. In a first effort at virus challenge, 25 transgenic lines were graft inoculated with a severe strain of CTV. Although some transgenic plants averaged lower titers of virus than controls, there was great variability in titer in both controls and transgenic plants, and all were apparently susceptible to the virus. PMID:12789444

  16. Computational characterization of ketone-ketal transformations at the active site of matrix metalloproteinases.

    PubMed

    Khrenova, Maria G; Nemukhin, Alexander V; Savitsky, Alexander P

    2014-04-24

    We modeled the first steps of hydrolysis reactions of a natural oligopeptide substrate of matrix metalloproteinase MMP-2 as well as of a substrate analogue. In the latter, the scissile amide group is substituted by a ketomethylene group which can be transformed to the ketal group upon binding of this compound to the enzyme active site. According to our quantum mechanical-molecular mechanical (QM/MM) calculations, the reaction of the ketone-ketal transformation proceeds with a low energy barrier (3.4 kcal/mol) and a high equilibrium constant (10(4)). The reaction product with the ketal group formed directly at the active site of the enzyme works as an inhibitor that chelates the zinc ion. On the other hand, the oligopeptide mimetic retains molecular groups responsible for binding of this compound to the enzyme active site. This example illustrates a strategy to design MMP inhibitors in situ by using data on binding specificity of substrates to a particular type of MMP and details of the reaction mechanism. PMID:24684684

  17. Processing and characterization of transformation-toughened ceramics with strength retention to elevated temperatures. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Cutler, R.A.; Brinkpeter, C.B. [Ceramatec, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Vircar, A.V.; Shetty, D.K. [Univ. of Utah (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Monolithic and three-layered Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} -- 15 vol % ZrO{sub 2} composites were fabricated by slip casting aqueous slurries. The outer and inner layers of three-layer composites contained unstabilized and partially stabilized ZrO{sub 2}, respectively. Transformation of part of the unstabilized ZrO{sub 2} led to surface compressive stresses in the outer layers. Strain gage, x-ray, indentation crack length, and strength measurements were used to determine the magnitude of residual stresses in the composites. The strength of the three-layer composites ({approx}1200 MPa) was 500--700 MPa higher than that of the monolithic outer layer composites at room temperature and 350 MPa higher at 750{degree}C. The strength differential decreased rapidly above the m {yields} t transformation temperature. Three-layered composites showed excellent damage resistance and improved reliability. Cam follower rollers were fabricated to demonstrate the applicability of this technique for making automotive components.

  18. Functional Characterization of the Plasmodium falciparum Chloroquine-Resistance Transporter (PfCRT) in Transformed Dictyostelium discoideum Vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Papakrivos, Janni; Sá, Juliana M.; Wellems, Thomas E.

    2012-01-01

    Background Chloroquine (CQ)-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria has been a global health catastrophe, yet much about the CQ resistance (CQR) mechanism remains unclear. Hallmarks of the CQR phenotype include reduced accumulation of protonated CQ as a weak base in the digestive vacuole of the erythrocyte-stage parasite, and chemosensitization of CQ-resistant (but not CQ-sensitive) P. falciparum by agents such as verapamil. Mutations in the P. falciparum CQR transporter (PfCRT) confer CQR; particularly important among these mutations is the charge-loss substitution K?T at position 76. Dictyostelium discoideum transformed with mutant PfCRT expresses key features of CQR including reduced drug accumulation and verapamil chemosensitization. Methodology and Findings We describe the isolation and characterization of PfCRT-transformed, hematin-free vesicles from D. discoideum cells. These vesicles permit assessments of drug accumulation, pH, and membrane potential that are difficult or impossible with hematin-containing digestive vacuoles from P. falciparum-infected erythrocytes. Mutant PfCRT-transformed D. discoideum vesicles show features of the CQR phenotype, and manipulations of vesicle membrane potential by agents including ionophores produce large changes of CQ accumulation that are dissociated from vesicular pH. PfCRT in its native or mutant form blunts the ability of valinomycin to reduce CQ accumulation in transformed vesicles and decreases the ability of K+ to reverse membrane potential hyperpolarization caused by valinomycin treatment. Conclusion Isolated vesicles from mutant-PfCRT-transformed D. discoideum exhibit features of the CQR phenotype, consistent with evidence that the drug resistance mechanism operates at the P. falciparum digestive vacuole membrane in malaria. Membrane potential apart from pH has a major effect on the PfCRT-mediated CQR phenotype of D. discoideum vesicles. These results support a model of PfCRT as an electrochemical potential-driven transporter in the drug/metabolite superfamily that (appropriately mutated) acts as a saturable simple carrier for the facilitated diffusion of protonated CQ. PMID:22724026

  19. Admittance of an infinitely long monopole antenna immersed in a dissipative medium and driven by a coaxial line with a nondissipative dielectric bead in the end

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, M. E.

    1980-05-01

    The effect of an electrically thin nondissipative dielectric bead on the admittance of the monopole antenna is quantified by numerically solving the coupled pair of singular integral equations that result from formulating the corresponding infinite antenna problem as a rigorous boundary value problem. The findings based on the calculations are: (1) even very thin beads can affect measurement of admittances significantly in experimentally realizable situations; (2) the correction to the admittances is capactive (imaginary and proportional to frequency) for thin beads; (3) the capacitive correction term is proportional to the thickness of the bead if the outer diameter of the bed is the same diameter as the air-filled coaxial line; and (4) matching the characteristic impedance of the air-filled portion of the coaxial line to that of the dielectric bead portion of the line is not particularly helpful in the interpretation of experimental data.

  20. Molecular characterization of grapevine plants transformed with GFLV resistance genes: I.

    PubMed

    Gambino, Giorgio; Gribaudo, Ivana; Leopold, Stephan; Schartl, Angelica; Laimer, Margit

    2005-12-01

    The Grapevine FanLeaf Virus-Coat Protein (GFLV CP) gene was inserted through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation in Vitis vinifera "Nebbiolo", "Lumassina" and "Blaufränkisch". Two plasmids were used: pGA-CP+ (full-length GFLV CP gene with an introduced start codon) and pGA-AS (same gene in antisense orientation). Forty-three transgenic lines were regenerated. As several lines in Southern blots share same hybridization patterns, eight independent line groups resulted for "Nebbiolo", one for "Lumassina", and two for "Blaufränkisch". Inserted T-DNA copies ranged from one to three; one line probably contains an incomplete copy of T-DNA. Except for one "Nebbiolo" line, no evidence for methylation of the transgene at cytosine residues was found by Southern analyses. Specific mRNA was present at variable expression levels; some lines accumulated the coat protein while in others the protein was not detectable by ELISA. PMID:16240119

  1. Identification, purification and characterization of furfural transforming enzymes from Clostridium beijerinckii NCIMB 8052.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Ujor, Victor; Wick, Macdonald; Ezeji, Thaddeus Chukwuemeka

    2015-06-01

    Generation of microbial inhibitory compounds such as furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) is a formidable roadblock to fermentation of lignocellulose-derived sugars to butanol. Bioabatement offers a cost effective strategy to circumvent this challenge. Although Clostridium beijerinckii NCIMB 8052 can transform 2-3 g/L of furfural and HMF to their less toxic alcohols, higher concentrations present in biomass hydrolysates are intractable to microbial transformation. To delineate the mechanism by which C. beijerinckii detoxifies furfural and HMF, an aldo/keto reductase (AKR) and a short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (SDR) found to be over-expressed in furfural-challenged cultures of C. beijerinckii were cloned and over-expressed in Escherichia coli Rosetta-gami™ B(DE3)pLysS, and purified by histidine tag-assisted immobilized metal affinity chromatography. Protein gel analysis showed that the molecular weights of purified AKR and SDR are close to the predicted values of 37 kDa and 27 kDa, respectively. While AKR has apparent Km and Vmax values of 32.4 mM and 254.2 mM s(-1) respectively, using furfural as substrate, SDR showed lower Km (26.4 mM) and Vmax (22.6 mM s(-1)) values on the same substrate. However, AKR showed 7.1-fold higher specific activity on furfural than SDR. Further, both AKR and SDR were found to be active on HMF, benzaldehyde, and butyraldehyde. Both enzymes require NADPH as a cofactor for aldehydes reduction. Based on these results, it is proposed that AKR and SDR are involved in the biotransformation of furfural and HMF by C. beijerinckii. PMID:25796546

  2. Native fluorescence spectroscopic characterization of DMBA induced carcinogenesis in mice skin for the early detection of tissue transformation.

    PubMed

    Ebenezar, Jeyasingh; Aruna, Prakasa Rao; Ganesan, Singaravelu

    2015-06-21

    The objective of the study is to characterize the endogenous porphyrin fluorescence in a dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) induced mouse skin tumor model using native fluorescence emission and excitation spectroscopy. Two intensity ratio parameters I580/I635 and I420/I515 were selected to represent the key fluorophore of endogenous porphyrins from emission and excitation spectra recorded in vivo from 31 DMBA treated animals and 5 control animals. In the emission spectrum, the endogenous porphyrin was elevated at 635 nm in different transformation lesions such as hyperplasia, papilloma, dysplasia, ESCC and WDSCC. This is corroborated by the endogenous porphyrin elevation at 420, 515, 550 and 588 nm in the WDSCC lesions from the excitation spectra. The elevation of endogenous porphyrin, probably protoporphyrin IX (PpIX), is due to biochemical and metabolic alterations in epithelial cells during tissue transformation. The loss of ferrochelatase activity might be responsible for enhanced PpIX in the transformed tissues. The sensitivity and specificity were determined for different lesion pairs from the scatter plot based on the discrimination value by validation with histopathological results. The emission intensity ratio I580/I635 at 405 nm excitation was selected to discriminate normal from hyperplasia, hyperplasia from papilloma, papilloma from dysplasia, dysplasia from early squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC), and ESCC from well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma (WDSCC) with specificities of 100%, 88%, 100%, 86%, and 100% and sensitivities of 100%, 80%, 100%, 100% and 100% respectively. Similarly, the excitation intensity ratio I420/I515 for 635 nm emission used to discriminate between WDSCC lesions and normal tissue gives 100% specificity and 100% sensitivity. PMID:25909647

  3. Functional and Topological Characterization of Novel Components of the comB DNA Transformation Competence System in Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Karnholz, Arno; Hoefler, Claudia; Odenbreit, Stefan; Fischer, Wolfgang; Hofreuter, Dirk; Haas, Rainer

    2006-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is one of the most diverse bacterial species known. A rational basis for this genetic variation may be provided by its natural competence for genetic transformation and high-frequency recombination. Many bacterial competence systems have homology with proteins that are involved in the assembly of type IV pili and type II secretion systems. In H. pylori, DNA uptake relies on a transport system related to type IV secretion systems (T4SS) designated the comB system. The prototype of a T4SS in Agrobacterium tumefaciens consists of 11 VirB proteins and VirD4, which form the core unit necessary for the delivery of single proteins or large nucleoprotein complexes into target cells. In the past we identified proteins ComB4 and ComB7 through ComB10 as being involved in the process of DNA uptake in H. pylori. In this study we identified and functionally characterized further (T4SS-homologous) components of the comB transformation competence system. By combining computer prediction modeling, experimental topology determination, generation of knockout strains, and genetic complementation studies we identified ComB2, ComB3, and ComB6 as essential components of the transformation apparatus, structurally and functionally homologous to VirB2, VirB3, and VirB6, respectively. comB2, comB3, and comB4 are organized as a separate operon. Thus, for the H. pylori comB system, all T4SS core components have been identified except for homologues to VirB1, VirD4, VirB5, and VirB11. PMID:16428391

  4. Characterization of RNA from Noninfectious Virions Produced by Sarcoma Positive-Leukemia Negative Transformed 3T3 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Phillips, Leo A.; Hollis, Vincent W.; Bassin, Robert H.; Fischinger, Peter J.

    1973-01-01

    RNA from noninfectious virions produced by two established clonal lines of sarcoma positive-leukemia negative (S+L-)-transformed 3T3 cells has been characterized. RNA from virions or nucleoids of S+L--(C243) cells consisted of three to four sizes: ±44 S (6%), 28 S (17%), 18 S (38%), and <18 S (39%). 28S virion RNA contained some virus-specific information demonstrable by RNA·DNA hybridization with a DNA probe derived from the RNA-directed DNA polymerase product of murine sarcoma-leukemia virus, while parallel studies indicated that 28S ribosomal RNA from ribosomal subunits of transformed and nontransformed 3T3 cells did not contain virus-specific information. In contrast to the S+L-(C243) virions, RNA from virions or nucleoids of S+L-(D56) cells consisted of five sizes: 80 S (6%), 68 S (8%), 56 S (5%), 28 S (28%), and <28 S (53%). Thermal dissociation studies suggested that this S+L- genome is comprised of 28S RNA subunits. From these studies we postulate that the 28S viral RNA is most probably the monomeric genome of S+L- virions. PMID:4355380

  5. Force Control and Nonlinear Master-Slave Force Profile to Manage an Admittance Type Multi-Fingered Haptic User Interface

    SciTech Connect

    Anthony L. Crawford

    2012-08-01

    Natural movements and force feedback are important elements in using teleoperated equipment if complex and speedy manipulation tasks are to be accomplished in remote and/or hazardous environments, such as hot cells, glove boxes, decommissioning, explosives disarmament, and space to name a few. In order to achieve this end the research presented in this paper has developed an admittance type exoskeleton like multi-fingered haptic hand user interface that secures the user’s palm and provides 3-dimensional force feedback to the user’s fingertips. Atypical to conventional haptic hand user interfaces that limit themselves to integrating the human hand’s characteristics just into the system’s mechanical design this system also perpetuates that inspiration into the designed user interface’s controller. This is achieved by manifesting the property differences of manipulation and grasping activities as they pertain to the human hand into a nonlinear master-slave force relationship. The results presented in this paper show that the admittance-type system has sufficient bandwidth that it appears nearly transparent to the user when the user is in free motion and when the system is subjected to a manipulation task, increased performance is achieved using the nonlinear force relationship compared to the traditional linear scaling techniques implemented in the vast majority of systems.

  6. Long-term batch study of sorption, transformation and extractability to characterize the fate of the veterinary antibiotic sulfadiazine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sittig, Stephan; Kasteel, Roy; Groeneweg, Joost; Vereecken, Harry

    2010-05-01

    The occurrence of veterinary antibiotic substances in various environmental compartments is of growing concern. Once released into the environment (e.g. via manure), these organic substances can cause changes in the composition of microbial populations, provoke the development and spreading of resistance genes and finally reach the food chain. The substance under study is the veterinary antibiotic sulfadiazine (SDZ), which belongs to the chemical group of the sulfonamides. These compounds are widely applied in animal husbandry. There are hardly any studies on the macroscopic sorption and desorption behaviour in combination with transformation processes, particularly investigating the sorbed fraction. We are conducting long-term batch sorption experiments to characterize the partitioning between the liquid and the solid phases as well as formation of transformation products. A sequential extraction procedure enables us to analyse the composition of the various sorbed fractions. We applied 14C-labelled SDZ in aqueous solution to fresh soil, originating from an agricultural field (silty loam). Adsorption and desorption studies are conducted for the duration of 60 d and 80 d, respectively. Unique setups for single time-steps allow us to trace the development of the partition process between the liquid and the solid phase and also partitioning within the solid phase. The composition of these liquid phases concerning the parent substance and the transformation products is analyzed. Using Radio-HPLC we find at least five transformation products: 4-hydroxy-sulfadiazine (4-OH-SDZ), 4-(2-iminopyrimidin-1(2H)-yl)-aniline (An-SDZ) and additionally three yet unknown products. By means of a sequential extraction, differently strong bound fractions of the compound can be distinguished. Extractions consist of a mild method (0.01 M CaCl2-solution; 24 h) followed by a methanol extraction (4 h). Finally, a residual fraction is gained by microwave extraction at an elevated temperature (150°C) and pressure (mixture of water and acetonitril, 4:1). Bound residues are determined by combustion. The course of the kinetic adsorption/desorption processes as well as the partitioning of the compound over the various solid phase fractions is observed. Sorption is time-dependent and strongly non-linear. The topsoil shows a significantly higher sorption affinity than the subsoil. While the amount of radioactivity sorbed to the soil matrix increases with time, the extractability decreases significantly, i. e. at the end of the experimental time there is no yield with mild extraction methods. On the contrary, after 60 d, there is still a considerably mass gained with the microwave extraction. Desorption is very slow due to hysteresis. In the topsoil transformation occurs with higher rates, leading to more detectable transformation products as in the subsoil. With our experimental setup it will be possible to set up a kinetic modell for the partitioning of the solute between the liquid and the solid phase. This description will also include an estimation of the transformation parameters.

  7. Transformed dissipation in superconducting quantum circuits Matthew Neeley, M. Ansmann, Radoslaw C. Bialczak, M. Hofheinz, N. Katz, Erik Lucero, A. O'Connell, H. Wang,

    E-print Network

    Martinis, John M.

    this into an effective admittance Y2 seen by the qubit. From the fluctuation-dissipation theorem, dissipa- tion completely determines the dissipation seen by the qubit through the coupler. When fluctuations in I1 produceTransformed dissipation in superconducting quantum circuits Matthew Neeley, M. Ansmann, Radoslaw C

  8. Characterization of naphthenic acids by gas chromatography-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Xavier; Jobst, Karl J; Reiner, Eric J; Backus, Sean M; Peru, Kerry M; McMartin, Dena W; O'Sullivan, Gwen; Taguchi, Vince Y; Headley, John V

    2014-08-01

    During the bitumen extraction from the oil sands of Alberta, large volumes of process water containing naphthenic acids are stored in tailing ponds. The naphthenic acids along with other components in the processed waters are known to be toxic in aquatic environments. In view of the complex matrix and the toxicity of the processed waters, there is a need for complementary analytical techniques for comprehensive characterization of the naphthenic acid mixtures. This study reports the online gas chromatographic separation of naphthenic acid mixtures prior to ultrahigh resolution mass spectrometry detection, using electron and chemical ionization. Two oil sands processed water samples and two groundwater samples were characterized to evaluate the performance of the instrumental technique. The high mass resolution of the system enabled visualization of the data using Kendrick mass defect plots. The addition of gas chromatographic separations enabled visualization of the data as unique compound class elution fingerprints. The technique is demonstrated to be a valuable tool for chemical fingerprinting of naphthenic acids. PMID:25001115

  9. Parametric study and characterization of the isobaric thermomechanical transformation fatigue of nickel-rich NiTi SMA actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertacchini, Olivier W.; Schick, Justin; Lagoudas, Dimitris C.

    2009-03-01

    The recent development of various aerospace applications utilizing Ni-rich NiTi Shape memory Alloys (SMAs) as actuators motivated the need to characterize the cyclic response and the transformation fatigue behavior of such alloys. The fatigue life validation and certification of new designs is required in order to be implemented and used in future applications. For that purpose, a custom built fatigue test frame was designed to perform isobaric thermally induced transformation cycles on small dogbones SMA actuators (test gauge cross-section up to: 1.270 x 0.508 mm2). A parametric study on the cyclic response and transformation fatigue behavior of Ni-rich NiTi SMAs led to the optimization of several material/process and test parameters, namely: the applied stress range, the heat treatment, the heat treatment environment and the specimen thickness. However, fatigue testing was performed in a chilled waterless glycol environment maintained at a temperature of 5°C that showed evidence of corrosion-assisted transformation fatigue failure. Therefore, it was necessary to build a fatigue test frame that would employ a dry and inert cooling methodology to get away from any detrimental interactions between the specimens and the cooling medium (corrosion). The selected cooling method was gaseous nitrogen, sprayed into a thermally insulated chamber, maintaining a temperature of -20°C. The design of the gaseous nitrogen cooling was done in such a way that the actuation frequency is similar to the one obtained using the original design (~ 0.1 Hz). For both cooling methods, Joule resistive heating was used to heat the specimens. In addition and motivated by the difference in surface quality resulting from different material processing such as EDM wire cutting and heat treatments, EDM recast layer and oxide layer were removed. The removal was followed by an ultra-fine polish (0.05 ?m) that was performed on a subset of the fatigue specimens. Experimental results are presented for full actuation of the SMA actuators and are given in terms of applied stress, accumulated plastic strain and number of cycles to failure. In addition, the assessment of the influence of the surface quality is supported by fatigue tests results and post-failure microstructure analysis.

  10. Isolation and characterization of mink lung epithelial cell mutants resistant to transforming growth factor. beta

    SciTech Connect

    Chinkers, M.

    1987-01-01

    Mink lung epithelial cells resistant to growth inhibition by transforming growth factor ..beta.. (TGF-..beta..) have been isolated by chemical mutagenesis and growth in the presence of platelet extracts enriched in TGF-..beta... Several resistant clones were isolated, at least one of which stably retained its resistance to TGF-..beta.. when grown in the absence of the factor. The cells of this clone were similar to the parent cells in morphology and growth properties. However, unlike the parent cells, the resistant cells did not show any of the following responses to /sup 125/I TGF-..beta..: (1) inhibition of DNA synthesis and proliferation; (2) morphological changes involving increased cell spreading; or (3) stimulation of synthesis of a 48-kilodalton secreted /sup 35/S-protein. The resistant cells do, however, retain a functional TGF-..beta.. receptor. The TGF-..beta.. resistant cell lines may be useful in genetic studies designed to identify the biochemical events required for inhibition of epithelial cell growth by this factor.

  11. [Characterizing composition and transformation of dissolved organic matter in subsurface wastewater infiltration system].

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Jun; Liu, Yu-Zhong; Zhang, Lie-Yu; Xi, Bei-Dou; Xia, Xun-Feng; Liu, Ya-Ru

    2013-08-01

    In the present study, the soil column with radius of 30 cm and height of 200 cm was used to simulate a subsurface wastewater infiltration system. Under the hydraulic loading of 4 cm x d(-1), composition and transformation of dissolved organic matter (DOM) from different depths were analyzed in a subsurface wastewater infiltration system for treatment of septic tank effluent using three-dimensional excitation emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy (3D-EEM) with regional integration analysis (FRI). The results indicate that: (1) from different depth, the composition of DOM was also different; influent with the depth of 0.5 m was mainly composed of protein-like substances, and that at other depths was mainly composed of humic- and fulvic-like substances. (2) DOM stability gradually increased and part of the nonbiodegradable organic matter can be removed during organic pollutants degradation process. (3) Not only the organic pollutants concentration was reduced effectively, but also the stability of the DOM improved in subsurface wastewater infiltration system. PMID:24159860

  12. Development of imaging Fourier-transform spectroscopy for the characterization of turbulent jet flames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harley, Jacob L.

    Recent advances in computational models to simulate turbulent, reactive flow fields have outpaced the ability to collect highly constraining data---throughout the entire flow field---for validating and improving such models. In particular, the ability to quantify in three dimensions both the mean scalar fields (i.e. temperature & species concentrations) and their respective fluctuation statistics via hyperspectral imaging would be a game-changing advancement in combustion diagnostics, with high impact in both validation and improvement efforts for computational combustion models. This research effort establishes imaging Fourier- transform spectrometry (IFTS) as a valuable tool (which complements laser diagnostics) for the study of turbulent combustion. Specifically, this effort (1) demonstrates that IFTS can be used to quantitatively measure spatially resolved spectra from a canonical turbulent flame; (2) establishes the utility of quantile spectra in first-ever quantitative comparisons between measured and modeled turbulent radiation interaction (TRI); (3) develops a simple onion-peeling-like spectral inversion methodology suitable for estimating radial scalar distributions in axisymmetric, optically-thick flames; (4) builds understanding of quantile spectra and demonstrates proof of concept for their use in estimating scalar fluctuation statistics.

  13. Fourier transform infrared absorption spectroscopy characterization of gaseous atmospheric pressure plasmas with 2 mm spatial resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laroche, G.; Vallade, J.; Bazinette, R.; van Nijnatten, P.; Hernandez, E.; Hernandez, G.; Massines, F.

    2012-10-01

    This paper describes an optical setup built to record Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) absorption spectra in an atmospheric pressure plasma with a spatial resolution of 2 mm. The overall system consisted of three basic parts: (1) optical components located within the FTIR sample compartment, making it possible to define the size of the infrared beam (2 mm × 2 mm over a path length of 50 mm) imaged at the site of the plasma by (2) an optical interface positioned between the spectrometer and the plasma reactor. Once through the plasma region, (3) a retro-reflector module, located behind the plasma reactor, redirected the infrared beam coincident to the incident path up to a 45° beamsplitter to reflect the beam toward a narrow-band mercury-cadmium-telluride detector. The antireflective plasma-coating experiments performed with ammonia and silane demonstrated that it was possible to quantify 42 and 2 ppm of these species in argon, respectively. In the case of ammonia, this was approximately three times less than this gas concentration typically used in plasma coating experiments while the silane limit of quantification was 35 times lower. Moreover, 70% of the incoming infrared radiation was focused within a 2 mm width at the site of the plasma, in reasonable agreement with the expected spatial resolution. The possibility of reaching this spatial resolution thus enabled us to measure the gaseous precursor consumption as a function of their residence time in the plasma.

  14. Characterization of casein kinase II from a virally transformed macrophage-like cell line, RAW264.

    PubMed

    Tipnis, U R; Haddox, M K

    1989-01-01

    Casein kinase II from a virally-transformed macrophage cell line (RAW264) was purified by a sequential DEAE, Procion Red, phosvitin-Sepharose and heparin-Sepharose chromatography. With [tau-32P]GTP as a phosphate donor and casein as a substrate, the kinase was stimulated by polyamines and inhibited by heparin. The purified kinase had a specific activity of 1137 nmol/min/mg protein and exhibited three major protein bands of 40 K, 35 K, and 25 K. Under non-denaturing conditions in 50 mM Tris-50 mM NaCl the enzyme was eluted as a single peak with molecular weight of 110 K. Incubation of kinase in the presence of [tau-32P]GTP and Mg2+ resulted in phosphorylation of the 25 K protein band of the enzyme. In the presence of [tau-32P]GTP and Mg2+ the kinase was able to phosphorylate 55 K protein band in purified ornithine decarboxylase preparation from RAW264 cells and the rat-type II regulatory subunit of the cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase. PMID:2627701

  15. Fourier transform infrared absorption spectroscopy characterization of gaseous atmospheric pressure plasmas with 2 mm spatial resolution.

    PubMed

    Laroche, G; Vallade, J; Bazinette, R; van Nijnatten, P; Hernandez, E; Hernandez, G; Massines, F

    2012-10-01

    This paper describes an optical setup built to record Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) absorption spectra in an atmospheric pressure plasma with a spatial resolution of 2 mm. The overall system consisted of three basic parts: (1) optical components located within the FTIR sample compartment, making it possible to define the size of the infrared beam (2 mm × 2 mm over a path length of 50 mm) imaged at the site of the plasma by (2) an optical interface positioned between the spectrometer and the plasma reactor. Once through the plasma region, (3) a retro-reflector module, located behind the plasma reactor, redirected the infrared beam coincident to the incident path up to a 45° beamsplitter to reflect the beam toward a narrow-band mercury-cadmium-telluride detector. The antireflective plasma-coating experiments performed with ammonia and silane demonstrated that it was possible to quantify 42 and 2 ppm of these species in argon, respectively. In the case of ammonia, this was approximately three times less than this gas concentration typically used in plasma coating experiments while the silane limit of quantification was 35 times lower. Moreover, 70% of the incoming infrared radiation was focused within a 2 mm width at the site of the plasma, in reasonable agreement with the expected spatial resolution. The possibility of reaching this spatial resolution thus enabled us to measure the gaseous precursor consumption as a function of their residence time in the plasma. PMID:23126767

  16. Ultrasonic characterization of soft tissue vibrations based on the two-dimensional Fourier transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sikdar, Siddhartha; Kim, Yongmin; Beach, Kirk W.

    2005-09-01

    It has recently been demonstrated that soft tissue vibrations in the body, traditionally associated with vascular bruits and cardiac murmurs, can potentially be used for the ultrasonic diagnosis of coronary artery disease and vascular trauma. In this paper, the ultrasonic spectrum of soft tissue vibrations is formulated using the two-dimensional Fourier transform, making full use of the information present in the backscattered ultrasound echoes from vibrating tissue. Parametric simulation studies show that vibrations with amplitude 1 ?m may be detected even with tissue velocity of 20 cm/s and acceleration of 5 m/s2, e.g., during peak cardiac motion. Vibrations with amplitude as low as 0.1 ?m may be detected when the tissue acceleration is negligible, e.g., during mid-diastole. Also, it was found that tissue vibrations in a direction transverse to the ultrasound beam can be detected. In vivo examples of cardiac wall vibrations in patients with coronary artery disease are presented. Tissue vibrations can provide improved sensitivity over conventional duplex ultrasound since the scattering strength from tissue is significantly higher than that from blood. In addition, detection of tissue vibrations has reduced angle dependency and does not require visualization of the vessel lumen, making the exam less dependent on operator skill.

  17. Characterizing the transformation and transfer of nitrogen during the aerobic treatment of organic wastes and digestates

    SciTech Connect

    Zeng Yang, E-mail: yang.zeng@irstea.fr [Irstea, UR GERE, 17 avenue de Cucille, CS 64427, F-35044 Rennes Cedex (France); Universite Europeenne de Bretagne, F-35000 Rennes (France); Guardia, Amaury de; Daumoin, Mylene; Benoist, Jean-Claude [Irstea, UR GERE, 17 avenue de Cucille, CS 64427, F-35044 Rennes Cedex (France)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ammonia emissions varied depending on the nature of wastes and the treatment conditions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nitrogen losses resulted from ammonia emissions and nitrification-denitrification. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ammonification can be estimated from biodegradable carbon and carbon/nitrogen ratio. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ammonification was the main process contributing to N losses. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nitrification rate was negatively correlated to stripping rate of ammonia nitrogen. - Abstract: The transformation and transfer of nitrogen during the aerobic treatment of seven wastes were studied in ventilated air-tight 10-L reactors at 35 Degree-Sign C. Studied wastes included distinct types of organic wastes and their digestates. Ammonia emissions varied depending on the kind of waste and treatment conditions. These emissions accounted for 2-43% of the initial nitrogen. Total nitrogen losses, which resulted mainly from ammonia emissions and nitrification-denitrification, accounted for 1-76% of the initial nitrogen. Ammonification was the main process responsible for nitrogen losses. An equation which allows estimating the ammonification flow of each type of waste according to its biodegradable carbon and carbon/nitrogen ratio was proposed. As a consequence of the lower contribution of storage and leachate rates, stripping and nitrification rates of ammonia nitrogen were negatively correlated. This observation suggests the possibility of promotingnitrification in order to reduce ammonia emissions.

  18. New way to characterize the percolation threshold of polyethylene and carbon nanotube polymer composites using Fourier transform (FT) rheology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahirwal, Deepak; Palza, Humberto; Schlatter, Guy; Wilhelm, Manfred

    2014-08-01

    In this article, a new way to characterize the percolation threshold of polymer nanocomposites made of polyethylene (PE) with single and multi walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs and MWCNTs) is presented. Small and large oscillatory shear (SAOS and LAOS) experiments were performed to characterize the degree of dispersion and percolation threshold. The analysis of the stress response in the LAOS regime as a function of the applied deformation amplitude and frequency was performed using Fourier Transform (FT)-Rheology. The zero strain intrinsic nonlinear parameter, Q0(?), was calculated by extrapolation of I3/1(?0, ?) and was, used to quantify the nonlinearity measured by FT-Rheology. Interestingly, a drop in Q0 as a function of the CNT weight fraction at a fixed frequency was found that was below the percolation threshold. This was followed by, a steep rise in Q0 above the percolation threshold. Therefore, the new method based on this observation that is proposed and described with this article has the potential to lead to a better understanding of structure-property relationships in polymer nanocomposites.

  19. Characterization of full-scale carbon contactors for siloxane removal from biogas using online Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Hepburn, C A; Martin, B D; Simms, N; McAdam, E J

    2015-01-01

    In this study, online Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy has been used to generate the first comprehensive characterization of full-scale carbon contactors for siloxane removal from biogas. Using FTIR, two clear operational regions within the exhaustion cycle were evidenced: an initial period of pseudo-steady state where the outlet siloxane concentration was consistently below the proposed siloxane limits; and a second period characterized by a progressive rise in outlet siloxane concentration during and after breakthrough. Due to the sharp breakthrough front identified, existing detection methods (which comprise field sampling coupled with laboratory-based chromatographic determination) are insufficiently responsive to define breakthrough, thus carbon contactors currently remain in service while providing limited protection to the combined heat and power engine. Integration of the exhaustion cycle to breakthrough identified average specific media capacities of 8.5-21.5 gsiloxane [Formula: see text], which are lower than that has been reported for vapour phase granular activated carbon (GAC). Further speciation of the biogas phase identified co-separation of organic compounds (alkanes and aromatics), which will inevitably reduce siloxane capacity. However, comparison of the five full-scale contactors identified that greater media capacity was accessible through operating contactors at velocities sufficient to diminish axial dispersion effects. In addition to enabling significant insight into gas phase GAC contactors, the use of FTIR for online control of GAC for siloxane removal is also presented. PMID:25413112

  20. Lipid characterization of mouse and human fibroblasts and their SV 40-transformed analogues: effects of supplementation with 20alpha hydrocholesterol, linoleic acid, and Sterculia foetida seed oil 

    E-print Network

    Pierce-Ruhland, Richard Arthur

    1981-01-01

    -RUHLAND Submitted to the Graduate Co11ege of Texas ARM University i n parti a1 fuifi 1 lment of the requirement for the deoree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December 198', Major Subject: Biochemistry LIPID CHARACTERIZATION OF MOUSE AND HUMAN FIBROBLASTS AND THEIR SV40... of Department) I December 1981 ABSTRACT Lipid Characterization of Mouse and Human Fibroblasts and Their SV40-Transformed Analogues: Effects of Supplementation with 20m Hydroxycholesterol, Linoleic Acid, and Sterculia foetida Seed Oil. (December 1981...

  1. Characterization of Phase Transformations and Stresses During the Welding of a Ferritic Mild Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dye, D.; Stone, H. J.; Watson, M.; Rogge, R. B.

    2014-04-01

    The transient stresses and phase evolution have been characterized in the quasi-steady state produced around a gas tungsten arc welding torch in a plain carbon (ASTM 1018) steel using in situ neutron diffraction. A novel method has been developed to isolate the deviatoric or plane stress state in the presence of isotropic contributions to the lattice parameter, such as thermal expansion and solute content. The stress state was found to evolve in the anticipated manner, with compressive stresses ahead of the weld and tensile stresses behind the weld, in the weld and heat-affected zone, and compression in the far field behind the weld. In particular, the region of compression in the heat-affected zone adjacent to and just behind the welding torch expected from weld models was observed. The evolution of phase fraction around the weld was also determined using the technique and the stresses obtained from the ferrite phase.

  2. Spectral Characterizations of the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Thermistor Bolometers using Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornhill, K. Lee; Bitting, Herbert; Lee, Robert B., III; Paden, Jack; Pandey, Dhirendra K.; Priestley, Kory J.; Thomas, Susan; Wilson, Robert S.

    1998-01-01

    Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) techniques are being used to characterize the relative spectral response, or sensitivity, of scanning thermistor bolometers in the infrared (IR) region (2 - >= 100-micrometers). The bolometers are being used in the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) program. The CERES measurements are designed to provide precise, long term monitoring of the Earth's atmospheric radiation energy budget. The CERES instrument houses three bolometric radiometers, a total wavelength (0.3- >= 150-micrometers) sensor, a shortwave (0.3-5-micrometers) sensor, and an atmospheric window (8-12-micrometers) sensor. Accurate spectral characterization is necessary for determining filtered radiances for longwave radiometric calibrations. The CERES bolometers spectral response's are measured in the TRW FTS Vacuum Chamber Facility (FTS - VCF), which uses a FTS as the source and a cavity pyroelectric trap detector as the reference. The CERES bolometers and the cavity detector are contained in a vacuum chamber, while the FTS source is housed in a GN2 purged chamber. Due to the thermal time constant of the CERES bolometers, the FTS must be operated in a step mode. Data are acquired in 6 IR spectral bands covering the entire longwave IR region. In this paper, the TRW spectral calibration facility design and data measurement techniques are described. Two approaches are presented which convert the total channel FTS data into the final CERES spectral characterizations, producing the same calibration coefficients (within 0.1 percent). The resulting spectral response curves are shown, along with error sources in the two procedures. Finally, the impact of each spectral response curve on CERES data validation will be examined through analysis of filtered radiance values from various typical scene types.

  3. Characterization of biomass burning: Fourier transform infrared analysis of wood and vegetation combustion products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padilla, Diomaris

    The Fourier transform infrared examination of the combustion products of a selection of forest materials has been undertaken in order to guide future detection of biomass burning using satellite remote sensing. Combustion of conifer Pinus strobus (white pine) and deciduous Prunus serotina (cherry), Acer rubrum (red maple), Friglans nigra (walnut), Fraxinus americana (ash), Betula papyrifera (birch), Querus alba (white oak) and Querus rubra (red oak) lumber, in a Meeker burner flame at temperatures of 400 to 900 degrees Fahrenheit produces a broad and relatively flat signal with a few distinct peaks throughout the wavelength spectra (400 to 4000 cm-1). The distinct bands located near wavelengths of 400-700, 1500-1700, 2200-2400 and 3300-3600 cm-1 vary in intensity with an average difference between the highest and lowest absorbing species of 47 percent. Spectral band differences of 10 percent are within the range of modern satellite spectrometers, and support the argument that band differences can be used to discriminate between various types of vegetation. A similar examination of soot and smoke derived from the leaves and branches of the conifer Pinus strobus and deciduous Querus alba (white oak), Querus rubra (red oak), Liquidambar styraciflua (sweetgum), Acer rubrum (maple) and Tilea americana (American basswood) at combustion temperatures of 400 to 900 degrees Fahrenheit produce a similar broad spectrum with a shift in peak location occurring in peaks below the 1700 cm-1 wavelength. The new peaks occur near wavelengths of 1438-1444, 875 and 713 cm-1. This noted shift in wavelength location may be indicative of a fingerprint region for green woods distinguishable from lumber through characteristic biomass suites. Temperature variations during burning show that the spectra of low temperature smoldered aerosols, occurring near 400 to 450 degrees Fahrenheit, may be distinguished from higher temperature soot aerosols that occur above 600 degrees Fahrenheit. A heightened peak intensity of 50 percent is observed throughout the spectra of the lower temperature generated soot and smoke, with respect to the higher temperature generated soot and smoke. These observations suggest the possibility of establishing biomass reduction markers using a ratio method.

  4. Physical Characterization of human centromeric regions using transformation-associated recombination cloning technology

    SciTech Connect

    Vladimir Larionov, Ph D

    2007-06-05

    A special interest in the organization of human centromeric DNA was stimulated a few years ago when two independent groups succeeded in reconstituting a functional human centromere, using constructs carrying centromere-specific alphoid DNA arrays. This work demonstrated the importance of DNA components in mammalian centromeres and opened a way for studying the structural requirements for de novo kinetochore formation and for construction of human artificial chromosomes (HACs) with therapeutic potential. To elucidate the structural requirements for formation of HACs with a functional kinetochore, we developed a new method for cloning of large DNA fragments for human centromeric regions that can be used as a substrate for HAC formation. This method exploits in vivo recombination in yeast (TAR cloning). In addition, a new strategy for the construction of alphoid DNA arrays was developed in our lab. The strategy involves the construction of uniform or hybrid synthetic alphoid DNA arrays by the RCA-TAR technique. This technique comprises two steps: rolling circle amplification of an alphoid DNA dimer and subsequent assembling of the amplified fragments by in vivo homologous recombination in yeast (Figure 1). Using this system, we constructed a set of different synthetic alphoid DNA arrays with a predetermined sequence varying in size from 30 to 140 kb and demonstrated that some of the arrays are competent in HAC formation. Because any nucleotide can be changed in a dimer before its amplification, this new technique is optimal for identifying the structural requirements for de novo kinetochore formation in HACs. Moreover, the technique makes possible to introduce into alphoid DNA arrays recognition sites for DNA-binding proteins. We have made the following progress on the studying of human centromeric regions using transformation-associated recombination cloning technology: i) minimal size of alphoid DNA array required for de novo kinetochore formation was estimated; ii) critical role of CENP-B binding site in do novo kinetochore formation was demonstrated; iii) role of gamma-satellite DNA in functional centromere was elucidated; iv) new generation of HAC with a conditional centromere was constructed for the study of epigenetic control of kinetochore function and for gene expression studies. These studies de novo kinetochore formation may thus provide both a fundamental knowledge and new points of intervention for therapy.

  5. Chemical and photochemical degradation of chlorantraniliprole and characterization of its transformation products.

    PubMed

    Lavtižar, Vesna; van Gestel, Cornelis A M; Dolenc, Darko; Trebše, Polonca

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed at assessing the photodegradation of the insecticide chlorantraniliprole (CAP) in deionized water and in tap water amended with humic acids and nitrate. Photolysis was carried out under simulated solar or UV-A light. CAP (39 ?M) photodegradation was slightly faster in tap water than in deionized water with half lives of 4.1 and 5.1 days, respectively. Photodegradation rate of CAP was hardly affected by humic acids (up to 100 mg L(-1)) and nitrate. Photodegradation pattern was different in slightly acidic (pH=6.1) deionized water compared to basic (pH=8.0) tap water. Four main degradation products have been isolated and characterized spectroscopically, and crystal structure was recorded for the first two photodegradation products. CAP also degraded in the dark controls, but only at basic pH (23% loss at pH 8.0 in tap water after 6 days), resulting in the formation of one single degradation product. Our study shows that the degradation of chlorantraniliprole in water is a combination of chemical and photochemical reactions, which are highly dependent on the pH of the solution. PMID:24125717

  6. Bio-telemetric device for measurement of left ventricular pressure-volume loops using the admittance technique in conscious, ambulatory rats

    PubMed Central

    Raghavan, Karthik; Feldman, Marc D; Porterfield, John E; Larson, Erik R; Jenkins, J Travis; Escobedo, Daniel; Pearce, John A

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the design, construction and testing of a device to measure pressure volume loops in the left ventricle of conscious, ambulatory rats. Pressure is measured with a standard sensor, but volume is derived from data collected from a tetrapolar electrode catheter using a novel admittance technique. There are two main advantages of the admittance technique to measure volume. First, the contribution from the adjacent muscle can be instantaneously removed. Second, the admittance technique incorporates the nonlinear relationship between the electric field generated by the catheter and the blood volume. A low power instrument weighing 27 g was designed, which takes pressure-volume loops every 2 minutes and runs for 24 hours. Pressure-volume data are transmitted wirelessly to a base station. The device was first validated in thirteen rats with an acute preparation with 2-D echocardiography used to measure true volume. From an accuracy standpoint, the admittance technique is superior to both the conductance technique calibrated with hypertonic saline injections, and calibrated with cuvettes. The device was then tested in six rats with a 24-hour chronic preparation. Stability of the animal preparation and careful calibration are important factors affecting the success of the device. PMID:21606560

  7. Physicochemical characterization of the thermal aging of insulating paper in power transformers

    SciTech Connect

    Lessard, M.C.; Van Nifterik, L.; Masse, M. [Inst. de Recherche d`Hydro-Quebec, Varennes, Quebec (Canada); Penneau, J.F. [Electricite de France, Moret sur Loing (France). Direction des Etudes et Recherches; Grob, R. [Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie de Toulouse (France). Inst. National Polytechnique

    1996-12-31

    Paper is a low-cost base material with outstanding mechanical and electrical properties, which is why it is still a key element in the insulation of electrical apparatus. Under the effect of a variety of factors including temperature, paper can substantially lose its properties, thus jeopardizing the service life of costly equipment. To remedy this situation, new so-called thermally upgraded papers are being made by certain manufacturers. A study carried out jointly by Hydro-Quebec, Electricite de France and the Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie de Toulouse has allowed researchers to qualify the thermal resistance of three different types of thermostable paper. These papers have been selected as being representative of what is available on the market today. The paper samples were subjected to a thermal aging test in the presence of mineral oil to represent normal conditions of operation (150 C). The thermal degradation of the paper insulation is characterized by various physicochemical methods including measurement of the degree of polymerization, determination of 2-furfural in mineral oil by HPLC as well as determination of various sugars (monosaccharides, polysaccharides and anhydrosugars) in the paper using ion chromatography. This last method allows the authors to verify the formation of cellobiose, which is the real repeat unit of cellulose, as well as that of levoglucosan, which is an anhydrosugar and a precursor of 2-furfural. The evolution of all of these parameters, measured as a function of time, has allowed them to compare the thermal resistance of various insulating papers. The results of this study seem to show that, compared to traditional kraft paper, certain paper types are more susceptible to being thermally upgraded than others. This study also allowed the authors to demonstrate that the use of an inhibitor in mineral oil (DBPC) does not seem to influence the thermal degradation of these papers.

  8. Air pollutant concentrations near three Texas roadways, part II: Chemical characterization and transformation of pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clements, Andrea L.; Jia, Yuling; Denbleyker, Allison; McDonald-Buller, Elena; Fraser, Matthew P.; Allen, David T.; Collins, Donald R.; Michel, Edward; Pudota, Jayanth; Sullivan, David; Zhu, Yifang

    Spatial gradients of vehicular emitted air pollutants were measured in the vicinity of three roadways in the Austin, Texas area: (1) State Highway 71 (SH-71), a heavily traveled arterial highway dominated by passenger vehicles; (2) Interstate 35 (I-35), a limited access highway north of Austin in Georgetown; and (3) Farm to Market Road 973 (FM-973), a heavily traveled surface roadway with significant truck traffic. A mobile monitoring platform was used to characterize the gradients of CO and NO x concentrations with increased distance from each roadway, while concentrations of carbonyls in the gas-phase and fine particulate matter mass and composition were measured at stationary sites upwind and at one (I-35 and FM-973) or two (SH-71) downwind sites. Regardless of roadway type or wind direction, concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO), nitric oxide (NO), and oxides of nitrogen (NO x) returned to background levels within a few hundred meters of the roadway. Under perpendicular wind conditions, CO, NO and NO x concentrations decreased exponentially with increasing distance perpendicular to the roadways. The decay rate for NO was more than a factor of two greater than for CO, and it comprised a larger fraction of NO x closer to the roadways than further downwind suggesting the potential significance of near roadway chemical processing as well as atmospheric dilution. Concentrations of most carbonyl species decreased with distance downwind of SH-71. However, concentrations of acetaldehyde and acrolein increased farther downwind of SH-71, suggesting chemical generation from the oxidation of primary vehicular emissions. The behavior of particle-bound organic species was complex and further investigation of the size-segregated chemical composition of particulate matter (PM) at increasing downwind distances from roadways is warranted. Fine particulate matter (PM 2.5) mass concentrations, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), hopanes, and elemental carbon (EC) concentrations generally exhibited concentrations that decreased with distance downwind of SH-71. Concentrations of organic carbon (OC) increased from upwind concentrations immediately downwind of SH-71 and continued to increase further downwind from the roadway. This behavior may have primarily resulted from condensation of semi-volatile organic species emitted from vehicle sources with transport downwind of the roadway.

  9. Bottom-up low molecular weight heparin analysis using liquid chromatography-Fourier transform mass spectrometry for extensive characterization.

    PubMed

    Li, Guoyun; Steppich, Julia; Wang, Zhenyu; Sun, Yi; Xue, Changhu; Linhardt, Robert J; Li, Lingyun

    2014-07-01

    Low molecular weight heparins (LMWHs) are heterogeneous, polydisperse, and highly negatively charged mixtures of glycosaminoglycan chains prescribed as anticoagulants. The detailed characterization of LMWH is important for the drug quality assurance and for new drug research and development. In this study, online hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) Fourier transform mass spectrometry (FTMS) was applied to analyze the oligosaccharide fragments of LMWHs generated by heparin lyase II digestion. More than 40 oligosaccharide fragments of LMWH were quantified and used to compare LMWHs prepared by three different manufacturers. The quantified fragment structures included unsaturated disaccharides/oligosaccharides arising from the prominent repeating units of these LMWHs, 3-O-sulfo containing tetrasaccharides arising from their antithrombin III binding sites, 1,6-anhydro ring-containing oligosaccharides formed during their manufacture, saturated uronic acid oligosaccharides coming from some chain nonreducing ends, and oxidized linkage region oligosaccharides coming from some chain reducing ends. This bottom-up approach provides rich detailed structural analysis and quantitative information with high accuracy and reproducibility. When combined with the top-down approach, HILIC LC-FTMS based analysis should be suitable for the advanced quality control and quality assurance in LMWH production. PMID:24905078

  10. Characterization of near-terahertz complementary metal-oxide semiconductor circuits using a Fourier-transform interferometer

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Arenas, D. J.; Shim, Dongha; Koukis, D. I.; Seok, Eunyoung; Tanner, D. B.; O, Kenneth K.

    2011-01-01

    Optical methods for measuring of the emission spectra of oscillator circuits operating in the 400-600 GHz range are described. The emitted power from patch antennas included in the circuits is measured by placing the circuit in the source chamber of a Fourier-transform interferometric spectrometer. The results show that this optical technique is useful for measuring circuits pushing the frontier in operating frequency. The technique also allows the characterization of the circuit by measuring the power radiated in the fundamental and in the harmonics. This capability is useful for oscillator architectures designed to cancel the fundamental and use higher harmonics. Themore »radiated power was measured using two techniques: direct measurement of the power by placing the device in front of a bolometer of known responsivity, and by comparison to the estimated power from blackbody sources. The latter technique showed that these circuits have higher emission than blackbody sources at the operating frequencies, and, therefore, offer potential spectroscopy applications.« less

  11. Characterization of the basidiomycetes Thelephora ganbajun Zang and Termitomyces albuminosus (Berk.) Heim by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Gang; Song, Dingshan; Liu, Jian-hong; Zhao, Dezhang; Zhou, Yilan; Ou, Jiaming; Sun, Shizhong

    2006-09-01

    The basidiomycetes Thelephora ganbajun Zang and Termitomyces albuminosus (Berk.) Heim are two of the most favorite edible mushrooms in Yunnan Province, Southwest of China. In this paper, Fourier transform infrared speciroseopy (FTIR) was used to characterize the fruiting bodies of the two wild growing edible mushrooms. The results show that each mushroom has its characteristic infrared spectrum, in which the major peaks are attributed to proteins and polysaccharides. The spectra indicate that the poiysaccharides of the two mushrooms contain, both. ?- and ?-glycosidic linkage. A characteristic band of Thelephora ganbajun is an obvious band at about 1763 cm -1, which indicates that the mushroom contain oil. Differences are observed in the spectra of different parts of the fruiting body of Termitomyces albuminosus. According to the differences of the characteristic spectra peaks and absorbance ratios, the different parts of mushroom can be discriminated. The results suggest that the different species of mushrooms might be identified by the vibrational spectral features of the different parts of the fruiting bodies of mushrooms.

  12. Transformer winding defects identification based on a high frequency method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florkowski, Marek; Furga?, Jakub

    2007-09-01

    The transformer diagnostic methods are systematically being improved and extended due to growing requirements for reliability of power systems in terms of uninterrupted power supply and avoidance of blackouts. Those methods are also driven by longer lifetime of transformers and demand for reduction of transmission and distribution costs. Hence, the detection of winding faults in transformers, both in exploitation or during transportation is an important aspect of power transformer failure prevention. The frequency response analysis method (FRA), more and more frequently used in electric power engineering, has been applied for investigations and signature analysis based on the admittance and transfer function. The paper presents a novel approach to the identification of typical transformer winding problems such as axial or radial movements or turn-to-turn faults. The proposed transfer function discrimination (TFD) criteria are based on the derived transfer function ratios, manifesting higher sensitivity.

  13. A Paraneoplastic Syndrome Characterized by Extremity Swelling with Associated Inflammatory Infiltrate Heralds Aggressive Transformation of Myelodysplastic Syndromes/Myeloproliferative Neoplasms to Acute Myeloid Leukemia: A Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Mangan, James K.; Luger, Selina M.

    2012-01-01

    There has been a long history of reports describing a variety of paraneoplastic phenomena associated with myelodysplastic syndromes, particularly those with autoimmune manifestations. We report here a series of patients with an antecedent myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) or myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) that underwent aggressive transformation to acute myeloid leukemia (AML). In each case, the transformation to AML was preceded by an inflammatory syndrome characterized by unilateral extremity swelling and an associated inflammatory skin infiltrate, as well as other signs of inflammation, including profound hyperferritinemia without evidence of a hemophagocytic syndrome. We suggest that such an inflammatory syndrome may herald aggressive transformation of MDS/MPN to AML. Patients with known MDS/MPN who present with these features may benefit from early bone marrow examination to assess disease status. Early intervention with corticosteroids in select patients may result in improvement or resolution of the symptoms and permit intensive therapy for AML to be delivered. PMID:22928125

  14. Cloning and characterization of a novel member of the transforming growth factor-beta/bone morphogenetic protein family.

    PubMed

    Paralkar, V M; Vail, A L; Grasser, W A; Brown, T A; Xu, H; Vukicevic, S; Ke, H Z; Qi, H; Owen, T A; Thompson, D D

    1998-05-29

    Members of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) superfamily of growth and differentiation factors have been identified in a wide variety of organisms, ranging from invertebrates to mammals. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) constitute a subgroup of proteins belonging to the TGF-beta superfamily. BMPs were initially identified by their ability to induce endochondral bone formation at ectopic sites, suggesting a critical role for this family in development and regeneration of the skeleton. They are also expressed at a variety of nonskeletal sites during development, suggesting possible extraskeletal roles for these proteins. We cloned a novel member of the BMP family that is expressed at high levels in the placenta and the prostate and that we have designated as prostate-derived factor (PDF). Based on cDNA sequence analysis, the predicted PDF protein contains two cysteines in addition to the seven conserved cysteines that are the hallmark of the members of the TGF-beta superfamily. In addition, Northern blot hybridization to poly(A)+ RNA showed low levels of expression in the kidney and pancreas. We further characterized the expression of this member of the BMP family by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. These results show high expression in the terminal villae of the placenta. The expression of the protein as visualized by immunohistochemistry shows an expression pattern identical to that of the message in the terminal villae of the placenta. In day 18 rat embryos, protein expression was also seen in the skin and in the cartilaginous tissue of developing skeleton. Orchidectomy and dihydrotestosterone treatment of rats revealed that PDF expression is regulated by androgens in the prostate. In addition, subcutaneous implantation of recombinant PDF induced cartilage formation and the early stages of endochondral bone formation. These data indicate that PDF has a functional relationship to the BMPs. PMID:9593718

  15. Satellite Characterization of Biomass Burning: Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Scanning Electron Microscope Study of Combustion Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padilla, D.; Steiner, J. C.

    2005-12-01

    Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) examination of the combustion products of selected forest materials using a meeker burner flame at temperatures up to 500 degrees Celsius produces a cluster of broad distinct peaks throughout the 400 to 4000 cm-1 wavenumber interval. Distinct bands bracketed by wavenumbers 400-700, 1500-1700, 2200-2400 and 3300-3600 cm-1 show variable intensity with an average difference between the least absorbing and most strongly absorbing species of approximately fifty percent. Given that spectral band differences of ten percent are within the range of modern satellite spectrometers, these band differences are of potential value for discriminating between fires that are impacting a range of vegetation types. Corresponding scanning electron microscope and energy dispersive micro-chemical (SEM/ED) analysis establishes that the evolved soot particles exhibit a characteristic rounded morphology, are carbon rich and host a wide range of adsorbed elements, including calcium, aluminum, potassium, silicon, sulfur and trace nitrogen. Combustion experiments involving leaves and branches as a subset of the biomass experiments at 200-500 degrees Celsius yield a similar broad background, but with peak shifts for maxima residing at less than 1700 cm-1. Additional peaks appear in the ranges 1438-1444, 875 and 713 cm-1. These peak are of potential use for discriminating between hot and smoldering fires, and between soot and smoke yields from green woods and whole-wood or lumber. The spectral shifts noted for low temperature smoldering conditions are in the vicinity of those cited for green vegetation and may not be resolved by present satellite platforms. Nevertheless, the experimental peak data set is of potential use for discriminating between a conflagration or accentuated fire and one characterized by smoldering at low temperature. SEM/ED analysis of the combusted leaf, branch, bark and various crown assemblages yields comparable morphological and geochemical signatures although potassium and light elements are slightly concentrated in effluent from the leafy matrix.

  16. Characterization and modeling of IMPATT oscillators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. B. Kramer

    1968-01-01

    A method has been found for large-signal characterization of IMPATT diodes. Waveguides of different heights are used so that the effect on efficiency of load impedance at a fixed oscillation frequency can be observed. Experimental large-signal admittance plane plots for two p-n diodes operating in Ku-band are presented. A nonlinear phenomenological model of an IMPATT oscillator is developed which correctly

  17. Identification and characterization of salmonella serotypes using DNA spectral characteristics by fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Analysis of DNA samples of Salmonella serotypes (Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Infantis, Salmonella Heidelberg and Salmonella Kentucky) were performed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) spectrometer by placing directly in contact with a diamond attenua...

  18. Application of the transfer function to recognition of resonance overvoltages in transformer windings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florkowski, Marek; Furga?, Jakub

    2010-12-01

    Power transformer insulation systems are subjected to many stresses during normal operation due to lightning and switching. If the spectrum of incoming surge voltage matches the winding one, a corresponding resonance will be excited. Therefore external transients occurring in power systems might trigger internal overvoltages of a large maximum value in transformer windings. Overvoltages having such a character have been the main cause of many power transformer failures. This paper presents a novel approach to the identification of sensitive zones in the transformer windings based on measurements of overvoltages inside the windings and the frequency dependences of admittance of the power transformer. The frequency characteristics of the transformer winding may determine those regions in the frequency spectrum. The presented methodology might be used both for design optimization and diagnostics of power transformers.

  19. Molecular characterization of a stably transformed Bombyx mori cell line: identification of alternative transcriptional initiation sites of the A3 cytoplasmic actin gene.

    PubMed

    Fatyol, K; Illes, K; Praznovszky, T; Langridge, W H; Hadlaczky, G; Szalay, A A

    1998-10-01

    We have isolated a stably transformed Bormbyx mori cell line containing a novel selectable marker gene, puromycin N-acetyl transferase, under control of transcriptional regulatory signals from the A3 cytoplasmic actin gene. By using this cell line we have identified alternative transcriptional initiation sites for the A3 actin gene. One of these start sites is located approximately 35 bp upstream from the previously determined transcription initiation site. The two mRNA start sites are utilized with a similar efficiencies in the BmN cell line. In addition, we detected transcripts that initiated in the first intron of the A3 actin gene. These transcripts may be synthesised under control of an alternative promoter. The stably transformed B. mori cell line used in this study was also extensively characterized. Integration of the plasmid molecules into the host genome was demonstrated by Southern and in situ hybridization analyses. Establishment and characterization of stably transformed insect cell lines, like the one described here, represents an important step in the development of nonlytic insect expression systems. PMID:9829822

  20. Synthesis and characterization of ?-MnO 2 nanowires: Self-assembly and phase transformation to ?-MnO 2 microcrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiong; Yang, Wensheng; Yang, Junjiao; Evans, David G.

    2008-02-01

    Single-crystalline ?-MnO 2 nanowires and ?-MnO 2 microcrystals have been synthesized by a hydrothermal method. The products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and simultaneous thermogravimetry-mass spectrometry (TG-MS). The effects of varying the hydrothermal reaction times and the initial reactant concentrations on the morphology and crystalline structures of the final products have been investigated. It was found that at high reactant concentrations, the ?-MnO 2 nanowires formed initially became self-assembled into bundles and subsequently underwent a phase transformation to ?-MnO 2 microcrystals on prolonging the hydrothermal treatment. At low reactant concentrations, however, ?-MnO 2 microcrystals were formed even after short hydrothermal reaction times. A possible mechanism for the oriented attachment of the ?-MnO 2 nanowires and subsequent phase transformation to ?-MnO 2 microcrystals has been suggested.

  1. A systems level characterization and tradespace evaluation of a simulated airborne Fourier transform infrared spectrometer for gas detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiner, Aaron

    The remote sensing gas detection problem is one with no straightforward solution. While success has been achieved in detecting and identifying gases released from industrial stacks and other large plumes, the fugitive gas detection problem is far more complex. Fugitive gas represents a far smaller target and may be generated by leaking pipes, vents, or small scale chemical production. The nature of fugitive gas emission is such that one has no foreknowledge of the location, quantity, or transient rate of the targeted effluent which requires one to cover a broad area with high sensitivity. In such a scenario, a mobile airborne platform would be a likely candidate. Further, the spectrometer used for gas detection should be capable of rapid scan rates to prevent spatial and spectral smearing, while maintaining high resolution to aid in species identification. Often, insufficient signal to noise (SNR) prevents spectrometers from delivering useful results under such conditions. While common dispersive element spectrometers (DES) suffer from decreasing SNR with increasing spectral dispersion, Fourier Transform Spectrometers (FTS) generally do not and would seemingly be an ideal choice for such an application. FTS are ubiquitous in chemical laboratories and in use as ground based spectrometers, but have not become as pervasive in mobile applications. While FTS spectrometers would otherwise be ideal for high resolution rapid scanning in search of gaseous effluents, when conducted via a mobile platform the process of optical interferogram formation to form spectra is corrupted when the input signal is temporally unstable. This work seeks to explore the tradespace of an airborne Michelson based FTS in terms of modeling and characterizing the performance degradation over a variety of environmental and optical parameters. The major variables modeled and examined include: maximum optical path distance (resolution), scan rate, platform velocity, altitude, atmospheric and background emissivity variability, gas target parameters such as temperature, concentration-pathlength, confuser gas presence, and optical effects including apodization effects, single and double-sided interferograms, internal mirror positional accuracy errors, and primary mirror jitter effects. It is through an understanding of how each of the aforementioned variables impacts the gas detection performance that one can constrain design parameters in developing and engineering an FTS suitable to the airborne environment. The instrument model was compared to output from ground-based FTS instruments as well as airborne data taken from the Airborne Hyperspectral Imager (AHI) and found to be in good agreement. Monte Carlo studies were used to map the impact of the performance variables and unique detection algorithms, based on common detection scores, were used to quantify performance degradation. Scene-based scenarios were employed to evaluate performance of a scanning FTS under variable and complex conditions. It was found that despite critical sampling errors and rapidly varying radiance signals, while losing the ability to reproduce a radiometrically accurate spectrum, an FTS offered the unique ability to reproduce spectral evidence of a gas in scenarios where a dispersive element spectrometer (DES) might not.

  2. Morphometric and biochemical characterization of red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) hairy roots obtained after single and double transformations.

    PubMed

    Thimmaraju, R; Venkatachalam, L; Bhagyalakshmi, N

    2008-06-01

    It is known that T-DNA of Agrobacterium rhizogenes affects processes of plant development and activates the synthesis of secondary metabolites in transformed plant cells. In the present investigation, we provide evidence that different strains of A. rhizogenes significantly affect morphometric, morphological and functional characteristics of hairy roots of red beet (Beta vulgaris L.). Infection with four strains of A. rhizogenes (A4, A 2/83, A 20/83 and LMG-150) resulted in ten clones of hairy roots, which were named accordingly as A4(1), A4(2), A4(3), A 2/83(1), A 2/83(2), A 2/83(3), A 20/83(1), A 20/83(2), A 20/83(3) and LMG-150. Their growth characteristics, pigment content, levels of endogenous auxin and T-DNA copy number showed significant differences probably due to the physiological status of the host cell rather than the T-DNA copy number. Although A 2/83 showed highest hairy root induction capacity, the best hairy root clone was obtained with strain LMG-150 that produced highest biomass and pigments. In this root clone, the enzyme peroxidase was found involved in altering the endogenous auxin pool. When root clone LMG-150 was re-transformed to insert additional individual rol genes, two double transformed clones were obtained, one for rolABC and the other for rolC gene where the former produced higher biomass and betalaine than the latter. Despite the established fact that rol genes of T-DNA influence endogenous phytohormones, no direct correlation among the single transformants and the double transformants was found. This is the first report, in our knowledge, where a hairy root clone has been used to obtain double transformants. PMID:18327591

  3. Autofluorescence characterization of DMBA-TPA-induced two-stage carcinogenesis in mouse skin for the early detection of tissue transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diagaradjane, Parmeswaran; Yaseen, Mohammed A.; Yu, Jie; Wong, Michael S.; Anvari, Bahman

    2005-04-01

    The use of autofluorescence technique in the characterization of the sequential tissue transformation process in 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (DMBA & TPA) induced two-stage mouse skin carcinogenesis model in conjunction with a suitable statistical method is being explored. The fluorescence excitation emission matrix (EEM) from experimental group (n=40; DMBA/TPA application), control group (n=6; acetone application) and the blank group (n=6; no application of DMBA/TPA or acetone) were measured every week using Fluoromax3 spectrofluorometer coupled with a waveguide fiber optic bundle (JY Horiba, NJ). The EEM was recorded for 19 excitation wavelengths from 280 to 460 nm at 10 nm intervals and the fluorescence emission was scanned from 300 to 750 nm. During the tissue transformation the epithelial tissues underwent biochemical and structural changes that are manifested in the tissue fluorescence. To correlate the tissue morphology with the observed fluorescence differences in the fluorescence emission, animals were sacrificed and the tissue biopsies were subjected to histopathological evaluation. The fluorescence emission corresponding to different fluorophores was extracted from the EEM, and the spectral data were used in multivariate statistical algorithm for the earliest diagnosis of the onset of tissue transformation. The intrinsic fluorescence from tryptophan, NADH and prophyrins showed distinct differences in the spectral signature during the tissue transformation, due to the altered metabolic activities of the cells. The statistical analysis of the spectral data corresponding to each excitation wavelength showed better classification accuracy at 280, 320, 350 and 405 nm excitations, corresponding to tryptophan, collagen, NADH and porphyrins with the classification accuracy of 74.3, 68.1, 64.6 and 74.7 % respectively. The variations in the spectral signature and the results of the statistical analysis suggest that porphyrins, tryptophan and NADH can be targeted as potential tumor markers in the early detection of the tissue transformation process.

  4. Synthesis, characterization and effect of calcination temperature on phase transformation and photocatalytic activity of Cu,S-codoped TiO 2 nanoparticles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Hamadanian; A. Reisi-Vanani; A. Majedi

    2010-01-01

    A novel copper and sulfur codoped TiO2 photocatalyst was synthesized by modified sol–gel method using titanium(IV) isopropoxide, CuCl2·2H2O and thiourea as precursors. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive X-ray micro-analysis (SEM-EDX), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) analysis. The XRD results showed undoped and

  5. Numerical calculations for effects of structure of skeletal muscle on frequency-dependence of its electrical admittance and impedance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekine, Katsuhisa; Yamada, Ayumi; Kageyama, Hitomi; Igarashi, Takahiro; Yamamoto, Nana; Asami, Koji

    2015-06-01

    Numerical calculations were carried out by the finite difference method using three-dimensional models to examine effects of the structure of skeletal muscle on the frequency-dependence of its electrical admittance Y and impedance Z in transversal and longitudinal directions. In the models, the muscle cell was represented by a rectangular solid surrounded by a smooth surface membrane, and the cells were assumed to be distributed periodically. The width of the cross section of the cell, thickness of the intercellular medium, and the relative permittivities and the conductivities of the cell interior, the intercellular medium and the surface membrane were changed. Based on the results of the calculations, reported changes in Y and Z of the muscles from 1?kHz to 1?MHz were analyzed. The analyses revealed that a decreased cell radius was reasonable to explain the Y and Z of the muscles of immature rats, rats subjected to sciatic nerve crush at chronic stage and the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) mice. Changes in Y and Z due to the sciatic nerve crush at acute stage were attributable to the decreased cell radius, the increased space between the cells, the increased permittivity of the surface membrane and the increased conductivity of the cell interior. The changes in Z due to contraction were explained by the changes in the cell radius, and the conductivities of the cell interior and the intercellular medium. The changes in Z of meat due to aging were compared with the effects of the increase in the conductivity of the surface membrane.

  6. Selection and characterization of a new switchgrass ( Panicum virgatum L.) line with high somatic embryogenic capacity for genetic transformation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bin Xu; Linkai Huang; Zhengxing Shen; Gregory E. Welbaum; Xunzhong Zhang; Bingyu Zhao

    2011-01-01

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is used horticulturally as an ornamental and agronomically as an animal feedstock and a putative bio-energy crop. Genetic transformation, using somatic embryogenic (SE) callus derived from mature seeds, is one strategy for improving switchgrass traits. A superior switchgrass line, HR8, was developed in this study using recurrent tissue culture selection from cv. Alamo. Eighty two percent

  7. Characterization of a novel transcriptionally active domain in the transforming growth factor b-regulated Smad3 protein

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vassiliki Prokova; Sofia Mavridou; Paraskevi Papakosta; Dimitris Kardassis

    Transforming growth factor b (TGFb) regulates tran- scriptional responses via activation of cytoplasmic effector proteins termed Smads. Following their phos- phorylation by the type I TGFb receptor, Smads form oligomers and translocate to the nucleus where they activate the transcription of TGFb target genes in cooperation with nuclear cofactors and coactivators. In the present study, we have undertaken a deletion

  8. Characterization and localization of the Campylobacter jejuni transformation system proteins CtsE, CtsP, and CtsX.

    PubMed

    Beauchamp, Jessica M; Erfurt, Rebecca S; DiRita, Victor J

    2015-02-01

    The human pathogen Campylobacter jejuni is naturally competent for transformation with its own DNA. Genes required for efficient transformation in C. jejuni include those similar to components of type II secretion systems found in many Gram-negative bacteria (R. S. Wiesner, D. R. Hendrixson, and V. J. DiRita, J Bacteriol 185:5408-5418, 2003, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JB.185.18.5408-5418.2003). Two of these, ctsE and ctsP, encode proteins annotated as putative nucleotide binding nucleoside triphosphatases (NTPases) or nucleoside triphosphate (NTP) binding proteins. Here we demonstrate that the nucleotide binding motifs of both proteins are essential for their function in transformation of C. jejuni. Localization experiments demonstrated that CtsE is a soluble protein while CtsP is membrane associated in C. jejuni. A bacterial two-hybrid screen identified an interaction between CtsP and CtsX, an integral membrane protein also required for transformation. Topological analysis of CtsX by the use of LacZ and PhoA fusions demonstrated it to be a bitopic, integral membrane protein with a cytoplasmic amino terminus and a periplasmic carboxyl terminus. Notwithstanding its interaction with membrane-localized CtsX, CtsP inherently associates with the membrane, requiring neither CtsX nor several other Cts proteins for this association. PMID:25448813

  9. Characterizing a large shear-zone with seismic and magnetotelluric methods: The case of the Dead Sea Transform

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Maercklin; P. A. Bedrosian; C. Haberland; O. Ritter; T. Ryberg; M. Weber; U. Weckmann

    2005-01-01

    Seismic tomography, imaging of seismic scatterers, and magnetotelluric soundings reveal a sharp lithologic contrast along a ?10 km long segment of the Arava Fault (AF), a prominent fault of the southern Dead Sea Transform (DST) in the Middle East. Low seismic velocities and resistivities occur on its western side and higher values east of it, and the boundary between the

  10. Characterizing a large shear-zone with seismic and magnetotelluric methods: The case of the Dead Sea Transform

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Maercklin; P. A. Bedrosian; C. Haberland; O. Ritter; T. Ryberg; M. Weber; U. Weckmann

    2005-01-01

    Seismic tomography, imaging of seismic scatterers, and magnetotelluric soundings reveal a sharp lithologic contrast along a ~10 km long segment of the Arava Fault (AF), a prominent fault of the southern Dead Sea Transform (DST) in the Middle East. Low seismic velocities and resistivities occur on its western side and higher values east of it, and the boundary between the

  11. Diffuse-reflectance fourier-transform mid-infrared spectroscopy as a method of characterizing changes in soil organic matter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diffuse-Reflectance Fourier-Transform Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy (MidIR) can identify the presence of important organic functional groups in soil organic matter (SOM). Soils contain myriad organic and inorganic components that absorb in the MidIR so spectral interpretation needs to be validated in or...

  12. CHARACTERIZATION OF AMBIENT PM2.5 AEROSOL AT A SOUTHEASTERN US SITE: FOURIER TRANSFORM INFRARED ANALYSIS OR PARTICLE PHASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    During a field study in the summer of 2000 in the Research Triangle Park (RTP), aerosol samples were collected using a five stage cascade impactor and subsequently analyzed using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). The impaction surfaces were stainless steel disks....

  13. Characterization of separability and entanglement in (2xD)- and (3xD)-dimensional systems by single-qubit and single-qutrit unitary transformations

    SciTech Connect

    Giampaolo, Salvatore M. [Dipartimento di Matematica e Informatica, Universita degli Studi di Salerno, Via Ponte don Melillo, I-84084 Fisciano (Italy); CNR-INFM Coherentia, Naples (Italy); CNISM Unita di Salerno and INFN Sezione di Napoli, Gruppo collegato di Salerno, Baronissi (Italy); Illuminati, Fabrizio [Dipartimento di Matematica e Informatica, Universita degli Studi di Salerno, Via Ponte don Melillo, I-84084 Fisciano (Italy) and CNR-INFM Coherentia, Naples (Italy); CNISM Unita di Salerno and INFN Sezione di Napoli, Gruppo collegato di Salerno, Baronissi (Italy); ISI Foundation for Scientific Interchange, Villa Gualino, Viale Settimio Severo 65, I-10133 Turin (Italy)

    2007-10-15

    We investigate the geometric characterization of pure state bipartite entanglement of (2xD)- and (3xD)-dimensional composite quantum systems. To this aim, we analyze the relationship between states and their images under the action of particular classes of local unitary operations. We find that invariance of states under the action of single-qubit and single-qutrit transformations is a necessary and sufficient condition for separability. We demonstrate that in the (2xD)-dimensional case the von Neumann entropy of entanglement is a monotonic function of the minimum squared Euclidean distance between states and their images over the set of single qubit unitary transformations. Moreover, both in the (2xD)- and in the (3xD)-dimensional cases the minimum squared Euclidean distance exactly coincides with the linear entropy [and thus as well with the tangle measure of entanglement in the (2xD)-dimensional case]. These results provide a geometric characterization of entanglement measures originally established in informational frameworks. Consequences and applications of the formalism to quantum critical phenomena in spin systems are discussed.

  14. Feasibility of breast cancer lesion detection using a multi-frequency trans-admittance scanner (TAS) with 10 Hz to 500 kHz bandwidth.

    PubMed

    Oh, Tong In; Lee, Jeehyun; Seo, Jin Keun; Kim, Sung Wan; Woo, Eung Je

    2007-07-01

    We describe a new multi-frequency technique for breast cancer detection. Applying a constant voltage with multiple sinusoidal frequencies between a reference electrode on a distal part of a patient and a scan probe placed on the breast, we measure exit currents from an array of electrodes inside the probe that are kept at the ground potential. The distribution of measured exit currents is called the trans-admittance map and the instrument is called the trans-admittance scanner (TAS). We assume a three-dimensional homogeneous domain including an internal lesion with a complex conductivity different from that of the background. Mathematically analyzing the multi-frequency trans-admittance map obtained on the surface of the domain, we found that both conductivity and permittivity ratios between the background and the lesion are crucial in extracting any useful information about the lesion from the map. Choosing two frequencies in the range of 10 Hz to 500 kHz with one significantly lower than the other and assuming that conductivity values of the background and the lesion do not change much from the low to high frequency, the lesion underneath the probe can be detected only when the conductivity ratio between the background and the lesion is different from the permittivity ratio between the background and the lesion at the chosen high frequency. Results of numerical simulations and saline phantom experiments using a developed TAS system are well matched with the mathematical analysis. The biggest advantage of this multi-frequency technique is that we do not need separately measured reference data in the absence of any lesion. We suggest future studies of a more sophisticated lesion detection algorithm based on the analysis and findings described in this paper. PMID:17664649

  15. Identification and Characterization of Plant Genes Involved in Agrobacterium -Mediated Plant Transformation by Virus-Induced Gene Silencing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ajith Anand; Zarir Vaghchhipawala; Choong-Min Ryu; Li Kang; Keri Wang; Olga del-Pozo; Gregory B. Martin; Kirankumar S. Mysore

    2007-01-01

    Genetic transformation of plant cells by Agrobacterium tu- mefaciens represents a unique case of trans-kingdom sex re- quiring the involvement of both bacterial virulence proteins and plant-encoded proteins. We have developed in planta and leaf-disk assays in Nicotiana benthamiana for identifying plant genes involved in Agrobacterium-mediated plant trans- formation using virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) as a genomics tool. VIGS was

  16. Morphometric and biochemical characterization of red beet ( Beta vulgaris L.) hairy roots obtained after single and double transformations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Thimmaraju; L. Venkatachalam; N. Bhagyalakshmi

    2008-01-01

    It is known that T-DNA of Agrobacterium rhizogenes affects processes of plant development and activates the synthesis of secondary metabolites in transformed plant cells. In\\u000a the present investigation, we provide evidence that different strains of A. rhizogenes significantly affect morphometric, morphological and functional characteristics of hairy roots of red beet (Beta vulgaris L.). Infection with four strains of A. rhizogenes

  17. Enhanced Tumor Formation in Cyclin D1 Transforming Growth Factor 1 Double Transgenic Mice with Characterization by Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Natasha G. Deane; Haakil Lee; Jalal Hamaamen; Anna Ruley; M. Kay Washington; Bonnie LaFleur; Snorri S. Thorgeirsson; Ronald Price; R. Daniel Beauchamp

    2004-01-01

    Transgenic mice that overexpress cyclin D1 protein in the liver develop liver carcinomas with high penetrance. Transforming growth factor (TGF-) serves as either an epithelial cell growth inhibitor or a tumor promoter, depending on the cellular context. We interbred LFABP-cyclin D1 and Alb-TGF-1 transgenic mice to produce cyclin D1\\/TGF-1 double transgenic mice and followed the development of liver tumors over

  18. Characterization of the purified molybdate-stabilized glucocorticoid receptor from rat liver. An in vitro transformable complex.

    PubMed

    Idziorek, T; Formstecher, P; Danze, P M; Sablonniere, B; Lustenberger, P; Richard, C; Dumur, V; Dautrevaux, M

    1985-11-15

    Rat liver glucocorticoid receptor was purified in the presence of molybdate by a three-step procedure comprising protamine sulfate precipitation, affinity chromatography on a dexamethasone matrix and high-performance size-exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) on a TSK G 3000 SW column. The [3H]triamcinolone-acetonide-receptor complex was obtained in 20% yield with an overall 11 800-fold purification. The dissociation rate constant of this complex was 1.6 X 10(-4) min-1. The purified receptor sedimented at 8.3 S in high-salt and 9.4 S in low-salt sucrose gradients containing molybdate. A 7.0-nm Stokes radius was determined by HPSEC on a TSK G 4000 column in high-salt buffer. The calculated Mr was 278000. Dodecyl sulfate/polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed an almost homogeneous 90 000-Mr band. Three minor bands with Mr of 78 000, 72 000 and 48 000 were also inconstantly seen. An apparent pI = 5.1 was observed for the [3H]steroid complex by isoelectric focusing in agarose gel. Furthermore high-performance ion-exchange chromatography of the purified complex on a DEAE 545 LKB column (DEAE HPLC) yielded a sharp peak eluted at a 315 mM potassium ion concentration. This peak was shown to contain almost all the 90 000-Mr protein. Moreover the purified receptor complex appeared to be transformable to a DNA-binding state after molybdate removal followed by warming 30 min at 25 degrees C in presence of 0.2% bovine serum albumin: 50-78% transformation yield could be demonstrated by DNA-cellulose chromatography. Partial transformation could also be obtained at 0 degrees C in the absence of any added protein and was followed by DEAE HPLC. The transformed complex was eluted by 180 mM potassium. PMID:4065150

  19. Fourier transform infrared and Raman spectroscopic characterization of homogeneous solution concentration gradients near a container wall at different temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loo, B. H.; Burns, D. H.; Lee, Y. G. L.; Emerson, M. T.

    1991-01-01

    Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopic techniques were used to study the solution concentration gradient in succino nitrile-rich and water-rich homogeneous solutions. The spectroscopic data shows significant concentration dependency. Although FTIR-attenuated total reflectance could not yield surface spectra since the evanescent infrared wave penetrated deep into the bulk solution, it showed that water-rich clusters were decreased at higher temperatures. This result is consistent with the calorimetric results reported earlier.

  20. Advanced elemental characterization during Pt-In catalyst formation by wavelet transformed X-ray absorption spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Filez, Matthias; Redekop, Evgeniy A; Poelman, Hilde; Galvita, Vladimir V; Marin, Guy B

    2015-03-17

    Complementary to conventional X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and Fourier transformed (FT) extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) analysis, the systematic application of wavelet transformed (WT) XAS is shown to disclose the physicochemical mechanisms governing Pt-In catalyst formation. The simultaneous k- and R-space resolution of the WT XAS signal allows for the efficient allocation of the elemental nature to each R-space peak. Because of its elemental discrimination capacity, the technique delivers structural models which can subsequently serve as an input for quantitative FT EXAFS modeling. The advantages and limitations of applying WT XAS are demonstrated (1) before and (2) after calcination to 650 °C of a Pt(acac)2 impregnated Mg(In)(Al)Ox support and (3) after subsequent H2 reduction to 650 °C. Combined XANES, FT, and WT XAS analysis shows that the acac ligands of the Pt precursor decompose during calcination, leading to atomically dispersed Pt(4+) cations on the Mg(In)(Al)Ox support. H2 reduction treatment eventually results in the formation of 1.5 nm Pt-In alloyed nanoparticles. Widespread use and systematic application of wavelet-based XAS can potentially reveal in greater detail the intricate mechanisms involved in catalysis, chemistry, and related fields. PMID:25704379

  1. Admittance spectroscopy on buried GaSb junctions due to defect distribution in GaAs/GaSb metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldini, M.; Gombia, E.; Parisini, A.; Ghezzi, C.; Gorni, M.

    2013-10-01

    Admittance spectroscopy was employed to investigate the electrical properties of buried GaSb homojunctions. A strong p-type surface layer was obtained in n-type GaSb bulk crystals through diffusion of Zn atoms. The acceptor impurities were introduced into Te-doped substrates by epitaxially growing a heavily p(Zn)-doped GaAs layer. Current-voltage investigation, after the removal of the GaAs cap layer, demonstrated the formation of the GaSb p-n homojunction. However, the p-n interface of the junctions resulted to be not due to the presence of Zn. In fact, secondary ion mass spectrometry pointed out only a small penetration depth of Zn atoms in the GaSb substrate (˜100 nm), whereas electron beam induced current investigation demonstrated that the p-n junction interface was located more deeply into the substrate (˜1 ?m). Admittance spectroscopy and capacitance-voltage investigations led to attribute the change of conduction type from n to p of GaSb beyond the Zn penetration depth to the formation of lattice acceptor defects, influenced by the thermal annealing processes during and after the GaAs growth. An attempt to explain the formation of the buried junction in terms of atomic inter-diffusion is provided, in order to justify, from a microscopic point of view, the low diffusivity of Zn in GaSb, and the depth of the p-n junction interface in the substrate.

  2. On the Laplace transform for distributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, D. B.

    1975-01-01

    A new characterization of the Laplace transform for Schwartz distributions is developed, using sequences of linear transformations on the space of distributions. The standard theorems on analyticity, uniqueness and invertibility of the transform are proved, using the new characterization as the definition of the Laplace transform. It is shown that this sequential definition is equivalent to Schwartz's extension of the ordinary Laplace transform to distributions which he obtained from the Fourier transform.

  3. EBSD characterization of high-temperature phase transformations in an Al-Si coating on Cr-Mo steel

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Wei-Jen, E-mail: d9603505@mail.ntust.edu.tw; Wang, Chaur-Jeng

    2012-02-15

    5Cr-0.5Mo steel was coated by hot-dipping in a molten bath containing Al-10 wt.% Si. The phase transformation in the aluminide layer during diffusion at 750 Degree-Sign C in static air was analyzed by electron backscatter diffraction. The results show the aluminide layer of the as-coated specimen consisted of an outer Al-Si topcoat, a middle layer formed of scattered {tau}{sub 5(C)}-Al{sub 7}(Fe,Cr){sub 2}Si particles and minor plate-shaped {tau}{sub 4}-Al{sub 4}FeSi{sub 2} and {tau}{sub 6}-Al{sub 4}FeSi phases in the Al-Si matrix and an inner continuous {tau}{sub 5(H)}-Al{sub 7}Fe{sub 2}Si layer, respectively from the coating surface to the steel substrate. The formation of FeAl{sub 3} and Fe{sub 2}Al{sub 5} with {tau}{sub 1}-(Al,Si){sub 5}Fe{sub 3} precipitates can be observed with increasing exposure time at 750 Degree-Sign C. After 5 h of exposure, the Al-Si topcoat has been consumed, and the aluminide layer consisted of Fe{sub 2}Al{sub 5} and a few {tau}{sub 1}-(Al,Si){sub 5}Fe{sub 3} precipitates. The FeAl phase not only formed at the interface between Fe{sub 2}Al{sub 5} and the steel substrate, but also transformed from {tau}{sub 1}-(Al,Si){sub 5}Fe{sub 3} after diffusion for 10 h. With prolonged exposure, the aluminide layer comprised only FeAl{sub 2} and FeAl. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EBSD can differentiate phases in aluminide layer with similar chemical compositions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mapping and EBSPs functions in EBSD provide a reliable phase identification. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A phase transformation in the aluminide layer has been described in detail. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 5 Fe-Al-Si and 4 Fe-Al intermetallic phases are performed during the diffusion. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cubic {tau}{sub 5(C)}-Al{sub 7} (Fe,Cr){sub 2}Si and hexagonal {tau}{sub 5(H)}-Al{sub 7}(Fe,Cr){sub 2}Si are identified.

  4. Incomplete nuclear transformation of human spermatozoa in oligo-astheno-teratospermia: characterization by indirect immunofluorescence of chromatin and thiol status

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. Ramos; G. W. van der Heijden; A. Derijck; J. H. M. Berden; J. A. M. Kremer; J. van der Vlag; P. de Boer

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND Sperm heterogeneity in the human, as observed in oligo-astheno-teratozoospermia (OAT), is associated with hypospermatogenesis. METHODS The chromatin of sperm from OAT and normospermic males was characterized with antibodies specific for nucleosomes, the histone H3.1\\/H3.2 isoform, histone TH2B, apoptosis-associated H4 acetylation (KM-2) and protamines. Subsequently, sperm samples were stained with the thiol-specific fluorochrome monobromobimane (mBBr) before and after reduction with

  5. Establishment and characterization of an immortalized but non-transformed human prostate epithelial cell line: BPH1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. W. Hayward; R. Dahiya; G. R. Cunha; J. Bartek; N. Deshpande; P. Narayan

    1995-01-01

    Summary  This report describes the development and characterization of an epithelial cell line (BPH-1) from human prostate tissue obtained\\u000a by transurethral resection. Primary epithelial cell cultures were immortalized with SV40 large T antigen. One of the isolated\\u000a clones was designated BPH-1. These cells have a cobblestone appearance in monolayer culture and are non-tumorigenic in nude\\u000a mice following subcutaneous injection or subrenal

  6. Characterization of plasmonic hole arrays as transparent electrical contacts for organic photovoltaics using high-brightness Fourier transform methods

    PubMed Central

    Camino, Fernando E.; Nam, Chang-Yong; Pang, Yutong T.; Hoy, Jessica; Eisaman, Matthew D.; Black, Charles T.; Sfeir, Matthew Y.

    2014-01-01

    We present a methodology for probing light-matter interactions in prototype photovoltaic devices consisting of an organic semiconductor active layer with a semitransparent metal electrical contact exhibiting surface plasmon-based enhanced optical transmission. We achieve high-spectral irradiance in a spot size of less than 100??m using a high-brightness laser-driven light source and appropriate coupling optics. Spatially resolved Fourier transform photocurrent spectroscopy in the visible and near-infrared spectral regions allows us to measure external quantum efficiency with high sensitivity in small-area devices (<1?mm2). This allows for rapid fabrication of variable-pitch sub-wavelength hole arrays in metal films for use as transparent electrical contacts, and evaluation of the evanescent and propagating mode coupling to resonances in the active layer. PMID:25705085

  7. Structural characterization of phospholipids by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Marto, J A; White, F M; Seldomridge, S; Marshall, A G

    1995-11-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry provides for structural analysis of the principal biological phospholipids: glycerophosphatidylcholine, -ethanolamine, -serine, and -inositol. Both positive and negative molecular or quasimolecular ions are generated in high abundance. Isolated molecular ions may be collisionally activated in the source side of a dual trap mass analyzer, yielding fragments serving to identify the polar head group (positive ion mode) and fatty acid side chains (negative ion mode). Azimuthal quadrupolar excitation following collisionally activated dissociation refocuses productions close to the solenoid axis; subsequent transfer of product ions to the analyzer ion trap allows for high-resolution mass analysis. Cyro-cooling of the sample probe with liquid nitrogen greatly reduces matrix adduction encountered in the negative ion mode. PMID:8633761

  8. Characterization of hyaluronate binding proteins isolated from 3T3 and murine sarcoma virus transformed 3T3 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Turley, E.A.; Moore, D.; Hayden, L.J.

    1987-06-02

    A hyaluronic acid binding fraction was purified from the supernatant media of both 3T3 and murine sarcoma virus (MSV) transformed 3T3 cultures by hyaluronate and immunoaffinity chromatography. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis resolved the hyaluronate affinity-purified fraction into three major protein bands of estimated molecular weight (M/sub r,e/) 70K, 66K, and 56K which contained hyaluronate binding activity and which were termed hyaluronate binding proteins (HABP). Hyaluronate affinity chromatography combined with immunoaffinity chromatography, using antibody directed against the larger HABP, allowed a 20-fold purification of HABP. Fractions isolated from 3T3 supernatant medium also contained additional binding molecules in the molecular weight range of 20K. This material was present in vanishingly small amounts and was not detected with a silver stain or with (/sup 35/S)methionine label. The three protein species isolated by hyaluronate affinity chromatography (M/sub r,e/ 70K, 66K, and 56K) were related to one another since they shared antigenic determinants and exhibited similar pI values. In isocratic conditions, HABP occurred as aggregates of up to 580 kilodaltons. Their glycoprotein nature was indicated by their incorporation of /sup 3/H-sugars. Enzyme-linked immunoadsorbent assay showed they were antigenically distinct from other hyaluronate binding proteins such as fibronectin, cartilage link protein, and the hyaluronate binding region of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan. The results are discussed with regard both to the functional significance of hyaluronate-cell surface interactions in transformed as well as normal cells and to the relationship of HABP to other reported hyaluronate binding proteins.

  9. In-vivo characterization of endogenous porphyrin fluorescence from DMBA-treated Swiss Albino mice skin carcinogenesis for measuring tissue transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganesan, Singaravelu; Ebenezar, Jeyasingh; Hemamalini, Srinivasan; Aruna, Prakasa R.

    2002-05-01

    Steady state fluorescence spectroscopic characterization of endogenous porphyrin emission from DMBA treated skin carcinogenesis in Swiss albino mice was carried out. The emission of endogenous porphyrin from normal and abnormal skin tissues was studied both in the presence and absence of exogenous ALA to compare the resultant porphyrin emission characterictics. The mice skin is excited at 405nm and emission spectra are scanned from 430 to 700nm. The average fluorescence emission spectra of mice skin at normal and various tissues transformation conditions were found to be different. Two peaks around 460nm and 636nm were observed and they may be attributed to NADH, Elastin and collagen combination and endogenous porphyrin emission. The intensity at 636nm increases as the stage of the cancer increases. Although exogenous ALA enhances the PPIX level in tumor, the synthesis of PPIX was also found in normal surrounding skin, in fact, with higher concentration than that of tumor tissues.

  10. Fourier transform rheology as a universal non-linear mechanical characterization of droplet size and interfacial tension of dilute monodisperse emulsions.

    PubMed

    Reinheimer, Kathrin; Grosso, Massimiliano; Wilhelm, Manfred

    2011-08-15

    A new protocol to gain interfacial tension and droplet size of dilute monodisperse emulsions from Fourier Transform Rheology (FTR), is proposed. Specifically, a universal dimensionless quantity E was found at small strain amplitudes to correlate with the droplet size of the emulsion where E is inversely related to the square of the capillary number Ca and directly proportional to the relative intensities of the fifth and third harmonics, I(5)/I(3). The limiting value E(0) at small strain deformations can be used as a universal parameter to calculate different emulsion properties. Different morphological constitutive models for emulsions were used to establish the universality of the parameter E(0). Preliminary analysis on experimental data confirms the validity of this approach for the characterization of emulsion properties, including the estimation of interfacial tension and droplet radius. PMID:21621218

  11. Characterization of the surfaces of platinum/tin oxide based catalysts by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keiser, Joseph T.; Upchurch, Billy T.

    1990-01-01

    A Pt/SnO2 catalyst has been developed at NASA Langley that is effective for the oxidation of CO at room temperature (1). A mechanism has been proposed to explain the effectiveness of this catalyst (2), but most of the species involved in this mechanism have not been observed under actual catalytic conditions. A number of these species are potentially detectable by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), e.g., HOSnO sub x, HO sub y PtO sub z, Pt-CO, and SnHCO3. Therefore a preliminary investigation was conducted to determine what might be learned about this particular catalyst by transmission FTIR. The main advantage of FTIR for this work is that the catalyst can be examined under conditions similar to the actual catalytic conditions. This can be of critical importance since some surface species may exist only when the reaction gases are present. Another advantage of the infrared approach is that since vibrations are probed, subtle chemical details may be obtained. The main disadvantage of this approach is that FTIR is not nearly as sensitive as the Ultra High Vacuum (UHV) surface analytical techniques such as Auger, Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis (ESCA), Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy (EELS), etc. Another problem is that the assignment of the observed infrared bands may be difficult.

  12. Characterization of a new melanocyte-specific gene (QNR-71) expressed in v-myc-transformed quail neuroretina.

    PubMed Central

    Turque, N; Denhez, F; Martin, P; Planque, N; Bailly, M; Bègue, A; Stéhelin, D; Saule, S

    1996-01-01

    Quail neuroretina cells (QNR) infected with the v-myc-expressing retrovirus MC29 become pigmented after several passages in vitro. After differential screening of a cDNA library constructed from these cells, we have isolated a cDNA clone (QNR-71) which identifies an RNA expressed only in the pigmented layer of the retina and in the epidermis. This gene can also be induced in other cell types transformed by MC29, suggesting that QNR-71 may be regulated by the v-myc protein. Sequence analysis showed that the QNR-71 cDNA exhibits stretches of homologies with melanosomal proteins encoding genes. From bacterially expressed QNR-71 peptides we obtained rabbit antisera able to specifically recognize two proteins of 95 and 100 kDa in pigmented retinal cells, but not in the neuroretina. To study the regulation of QNR-71, we used promoter fragments linked to the CAT reporter gene, in transient co-expression assay. We observed an increase in CAT expression with a c-MYC and microphtalmia (mi) expression vectors. Both MYC and mi activate the QNR-71 promoter through direct binding to a CATGTG site present in the promoter fragment. Images PMID:8670835

  13. Characterization of copper surfaces used in electronic circuit boards by reflectance FT-IR[Fouier Transform - Infrared

    SciTech Connect

    Sloan, J.M.; Pergantis, C.G.

    2000-07-01

    Organic and organo-metallic coatings are presently being applied over bare copper as an approach to improve the co-planarity of circuit boards. Conformal organic solderability preservative coatings (OSP) are environmentally and economically advantageous over the more commonly used lead based coatings. Problems arise in assessing the solderability of the bare copper and the integrity of the organic coating. Specular reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) was utilized to monitor and evaluate the formation of Cu oxides occurring on copper substrates used in the manufacturing of electronic circuit boards. Previous studies reported the utility of this technique. By measuring the oxide and protective coating characteristics of these surfaces, their solderability performance can rapidly be evaluated in a manufacturing environment. OSP coated test specimens were subjected to hot-dry and hot-wet environmental conditions using MIL-STD-202F and MIL-STD-883E as guides. The resultant FT-IR spectra provided clear evidence for the formation of various Cu oxides at the Cu/OSP interface over exposure time, for the samples subjected to the hot-dry environment. IR spectral bands consistent with O-Cu-O and Cu{sub 2}O{sub 2} formation appear, while very minimal deterioration to the OSP coating was observed. The appearance of the Cu oxide layers grew steadily with increased environmental exposure. Specimens subjected to the hot-wet conditions showed no significant signs of deterioration. The IR data can be directly correlated to solderability performance as evaluated by wet balance testing.

  14. Effects of geomagnetically induced currents on the magnetic performance of transformer cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulasalihovi?, E.; Pfützner, H.; Traxler, S.; Yamaguchi, H.

    Geo-magnetically induced DC currents (GICs) due to solar activities may yield strong DC magnetization of transformer cores, as a source of over-heating and even of destruction. The paper shows that distinct planar eddy currents (PECs) are generated by stray flux, mainly due to strong increases of excitation currents. The amount of effects rises with increasing the DC back-flux admittance. The latter proves to be a minimum for three-phase operation without tank, and a maximum for one-phase operation. Local PEC losses can be determined in a direct way through the detection of eddy current field components by means of thinnest gold films.

  15. Chloroplast transformation.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xiao-Mei; Yin, Wei-Bo; Hu, Zan-Min

    2006-01-01

    In this chapter we briefly review the developmental history and current research status of chloroplast transformation and introduce the merits of chloroplast transformation as compared with the nuclear genome transformation. Furthermore, according to the chloroplast transformation achieved in oilseed rape (Brassica napus), we introduce the preparation of explants, transformation methods, system selection, identification methods of the transplastomic plants, and experimental results. The technical points, the bottleneck, and the further research directions of the chloroplast transformation are discussed in the notes. PMID:16673924

  16. Characterization and petrophysical properties of hydrothemally altered lacustrine volcanistic rock in Geyser Valley (Kamchatka) and its transformation by weathering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gvozdeva, Irina; Zerkal, Oleg; Samarin, Evgeny

    2013-04-01

    Work is devoted to the study of volcano sedimentary hydrothermally altered rocks in Geyser Valley (Kamchatka peninsula, Russia). The Geyser Valley is one of the most unique nature objects in Russia. There are quite large geyser fields. The valley of the river is part of the Uson-Geysernaya depression, where hydrothermal activity is very high. Besides geysers here are hot springs, mud pots and fumarols. In the late Pleistocene (about 45-35 thousand years ago) the lake was located in the site of the modern valley of the Geysernaya river, where sediments accumulated intensively. Sedimentary material came from several sources in the form of pyroclastic flows, ash falls, was supplied by permanent and temporary water streams. The total deposit thickness reached several hundred meters. In the late Pleistocene there was breakthrough of reservoir and further conditions for the lacustrine deposits formation did not arose. Later the rocks were intensively processed by thermal water. In 2007 large landslide was formed in lower part of the Geysernaya River on their left slope. Deposits of Geysernaya (Q34grn) series and Pemsovaya (Q34pmz) series were involved in landslide displacement. The headscarp was formed up to 100 m and a length of 800 m, exposing the volcano-sedimentary section of hydrothermally altered rocks - a unique opportunity for sampling and subsequent laboratory study. Thickness of lake sediments is interbedding of coarse-grain, medium-grain, fine-grain tuffites predominantly acidic composition. The study of thin sections revealed that all samples are lithoclastic and vitroclastic hydrothermally altered tuffits. Currently, the primary minerals and volcanic glass is largely replaced by clay minerals of the smectite group. Pores and cracks are made zeolites (heulandite and clinoptilolite). All this points to the low-temperature (<200 ° C) hydrothermal conditions with a pH near neutral. Tyere are acid plagioclase and quartz in most samples The high content of smectite causes high hygroscopy of deposits. Rocks are highly porous - of 37-65%, primarily low density - 0,9-1,65 g/cm3 wave velocities - from 0.74 km/s for porous to 3.42 km/sec for dense varieties. All samples are characterized by low strength characteristics: uniaxial compressive strength - 1.2 - 21.7 MPa, uniaxial tension - 0,6-4,7 MPa. By water saturation strength decreases rapidly. Soft coefficient ranges from 0.22 to 0.57. Proving to be on the land surface as a result of slope deformation, volcanic-sedimentary hydrothermally altered rocks are destroyed quickly by precipitation and temperature fluctuations Rock turned to sand, silt and clay depending on the original composition. It was found that often weathered to clayey state tuffites inherit structural and textural features of the primary species. The composition also varies: increased content of clay minerals (to 90%), decreasing the content of zeolites (not to exceed 10%). Quartz and plagioclase form sans fraction. Physical and mechanical properties vary widely: the density of the soil increases slightly up to 1,57-1,59 g/cm3 for sands, 1,2-1,79 g/cm3 for clays, porosity of 51-52% and 49-78% respectively, moisture 22-23% and 43-98/ Clays are in a state of semi-solid to fluid. The high content of smectite determines high plastic properties. Plasticity Index varies widely from 11 to 57. Cohesion and the internal friction angle obtained from shear tests also change widely. For clayey sand grip reaches 137 kPa, internal friction angle - 17 degrees. In clay grip ranges from 13 kPa to 120 kPa, and the internal friction angle - from 11 degrees to 31 degrees. Large variation of properties of the investigated soils is explained by the inhomogeneity of volcano-sedimentary formations both vertically and laterally, varying degrees of hydrothermal alteration and of weathering, fracturing and cracks filling The obtained datas can adequately characterize the volcanic-lacustrine sediments in the valley of the Geysernaya river and use them in calculations of slope stability and for and geological mapping.

  17. Fourier-transformed infrared absorption spectroscopy: a tool to characterize the chemical composition of Ar-NH3-SiH4 dielectric barrier discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallade, Julien; Massines, Françoise

    2013-11-01

    This study brings initial insight into the characterization of the gas chemical composition in a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) by Fourier-transformed infrared absorption spectroscopy. Capitalizing on a double path of the IR beam, measurements were performed in 5 cm long, 2 mm gap plasma. As the IR beam cross-section in the plasma was 2 × 2 mm2, a translation system was used to scan the plasma along the direction of the gas flow with a 2 mm spatial resolution. In the case of Ar-SiH4(67 ppm)-NH3(133 ppm) glow-mode DBD, all IR spectra peaks from 6000 to 800 cm-1 are related to vibrations of Si-H from SiH4 and N-H from NH3. Here, the N-H vibration is observable but non-quantifiable. At 50 kHz excitation, the absolute concentration of SiH4 was measured at different positions and different power values in continuous and modulated modes. In the absence of powder formation in the plasma and for an initial density of 1.6 × 1015 cm-3, all the measurements are fitted by the same exponential decay leading to an energy of 38 eV per dissociated molecule of SiH4. The presence of powders in the plasma reduces SiH4 dissociation rate by a factor larger than 4.

  18. Characterization of nuclear localization signals (NLSs) and function of NLSs and phosphorylation of serine residues in subcellular and subnuclear localization of transformer-2? (Tra2?).

    PubMed

    Li, Shu-Jing; Qi, Yao; Zhao, Jing-Jing; Li, Ya; Liu, Xiao-Yan; Chen, Xian-Hua; Xu, Ping

    2013-03-29

    The serine/arginine-rich (SR) proteins are one type of major actors in regulation of pre-mRNA splicing. Their functions are closely related to the intracellular spatial organization. The RS domain and phosphorylation status of SR proteins are two critical factors in determining the subcellular distribution. Mammalian Transformer-2? (Tra2?) protein, a member of SR proteins, is known to play multiple important roles in development and diseases. In the present study, we characterized the subcellular and subnuclear localization of Tra2? protein and its related mechanisms. The results demonstrated that in the brain the nuclear and cytoplasmic localization of Tra2? were correlated with its phosphorylation status. Using deletional mutation analysis, we showed that the nuclear localization of Tra2? was determined by multiple nuclear localization signals (NLSs) in the RS domains. The point-mutation analysis disclosed that phosphorylation of serine residues in the NLSs inhibited the function of NLS in directing Tra2? to the nucleus. In addition, we identified at least two nuclear speckle localization signals within the RS1 domain, but not in the RS2 domain. The nuclear speckle localization signals determined the localization of RS1 domain-contained proteins to the nuclear speckle. The function of the signals did not depend on the presence of serine residues. The results provide new insight into the mechanisms by which the subcellular and subnuclear localization of Tra2? proteins are regulated. PMID:23396973

  19. Structural characterization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon dihydrodiol epoxide DNA adducts using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization Fourier transform mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Stemmler, E.A. (Bowdoin College, Brunswick, ME (United States)); Buchanan, M.V.; Hurst, G.B.; Hettich, R.L. (Oak Ridge National Lab, TN (United States))

    1994-04-15

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTMS) has been applied for the structural characterization of four polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon dihydrodiol epoxide (PAH-DE) adducts, including the 5,6-dimethylchrysene DE adduct of 2[prime]-deoxyadenosine, the 5-methyl- and 5,6-dimethylchrysene DE adducts of 2[prime]-deoxyguanosine, and the benzo[a]pyrene-DE adduct of 2[prime]-deoxyguanosyl 3[prime]-phosphate. Measurement of positive and negative ion mass spectra, accurate mass determinations, and CID experiments were carried out using 10-40 ng (20-70 pmol) of sample. An evaluation of five MALDI matrices showed that matrix selection can be used to control the degree of analyte fragmentation. Three MALDI matrices commonly used for the analysis of proteins (sinapinic acid, ferulic acid, 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid) gave positive ion adduct mass spectra showing protonated or sodiated molecular ions accompanied by abundant, structurally informative fragment ions. Fragmentation was significantly reduced when working with two matrices used for oligonucleotide analysis (an anthranilic-nicotinic acid mixture and 3-hydroxypicolinic acid). Using the CID capabilities of FTMS, isolation and activation of the MALDI-produced ions was used to provide additional structural information. 68 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Reservoir characterization using wavelet transforms 

    E-print Network

    Rivera Vega, Nestor

    2004-09-30

    ...............................................................52 5.3.4 Dimensionality reduction .........................................................54 5.3.5 Depth selection.........................................................................61 5.3.5.1 Single-well training set...

  1. Synthesis, characterization and effect of calcination temperature on phase transformation and photocatalytic activity of Cu,S-codoped TiO 2 nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamadanian, M.; Reisi-Vanani, A.; Majedi, A.

    2010-01-01

    A novel copper and sulfur codoped TiO 2 photocatalyst was synthesized by modified sol-gel method using titanium(IV) isopropoxide, CuCl 2·2H 2O and thiourea as precursors. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive X-ray micro-analysis (SEM-EDX), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) analysis. The XRD results showed undoped and Cu,S-codoped TiO 2 nanoparticles only include anatase phase. Effect of calcination temperature showed rutile phase appears in 650 and 700 °C for undoped and 0.1% Cu,S-codoped TiO 2, respectively. The SEM analysis revealed the doping of Cu and S does not leave any change in morphology of the catalyst surface. The increase of copper doping enhanced "red-shift" in the UV-vis absorption spectra. The TEM images confirmed the dopants suppressed the growth of TiO 2 grains. The photocatalytic activity of samples was tested for degradation of methyl orange (MO) solutions. The results showed photocatalytic activity of the catalysts with 0.05% Cu,0.05% S and 0.1% Cu,0.05% S were higher than that of other catalysts under ultraviolet (UV) and visible irradiation, respectively. Because of synergetic effect of S and Cu, the Cu,S-codoped TiO 2 catalyst has higher activity than undoped and Cu or S doped TiO 2 catalysts.

  2. Optical characterization of free electron concentration in heteroepitaxial InN layers using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and a 2 Multiplication-Sign 2 transfer-matrix algebra

    SciTech Connect

    Katsidis, C. C. [Department of Materials Science and Technology, University of Crete, P.O. Box 2208, 71003 Heraklion-Crete (Greece); Ajagunna, A. O.; Georgakilas, A. [Microelectronics Research Group, IESL, FORTH, P.O. Box 1385, 71110 Heraklion-Crete (Greece); Physics Department, University of Crete, P.O. Box 2208, 71003 Heraklion-Crete (Greece)

    2013-02-21

    Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) reflectance spectroscopy has been implemented as a non-destructive, non-invasive, tool for the optical characterization of a set of c-plane InN single heteroepitaxial layers spanning a wide range of thicknesses (30-2000 nm). The c-plane (0001) InN epilayers were grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PAMBE) on GaN(0001) buffer layers which had been grown on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}(0001) substrates. It is shown that for arbitrary multilayers with homogeneous anisotropic layers having their principal axes coincident with the laboratory coordinates, a 2 Multiplication-Sign 2 matrix algebra based on a general transfer-matrix method (GTMM) is adequate to interpret their optical response. Analysis of optical reflectance in the far and mid infrared spectral range has been found capable to discriminate between the bulk, the surface and interface contributions of free carriers in the InN epilayers revealing the existence of electron accumulation layers with carrier concentrations in mid 10{sup 19} cm{sup -3} at both the InN surface and the InN/GaN interface. The spectra could be fitted with a three-layer model, determining the different electron concentration and mobility values of the bulk and of the surface and the interface electron accumulation layers in the InN films. The variation of these values with increasing InN thickness could be also sensitively detected by the optical measurements. The comparison between the optically determined drift mobility and the Hall mobility of the thickest sample reveals a value of r{sub H} = 1.49 for the Hall factor of InN at a carrier concentration of 1.11 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 19} cm{sup -3} at 300 Degree-Sign {Kappa}.

  3. Molecular cloning and characterization of two tropinone reductases in Anisodus acutangulus and enhancement of tropane alkaloid production in AaTRI-transformed hairy roots.

    PubMed

    Kai, Guoyin; Li, Li; Jiang, Yuxin; Yan, Xiangming; Zhang, Yan; Lu, Xuan; Liao, Pan; Chen, Jianbo

    2009-11-01

    Tropane alkaloids are used medicinally as anticholinergic agents with increasing market demand, so the improvement and production of active components from medicinal plants using molecular biotechnology show great potential for applications that should benefit human healthcare. Two tropinone reductases constitute a branching point in the biosynthesis of tropane alkaloids. In the present paper, we report for the first time the cloning and characterization of two fulllength cDNAs encoding TRI (tropinone reductase I) (GenBank accession number EU424321) and TRII (tropinone reductase II) (GenBank(R) accession number EU424322) from the solanaceous plant Anisodus acutangulus by rapid amplification of cDNA ends. Sequence comparison indicated that AaTRI (A. acutangulus TRI) and AaTRII (A. acutangulus TRII) had high homology with other tropinone reductases from Hyoscyamus niger, Datura stramonium etc., but AaTRI and AaTRII showed identity of only 60.8%. Phylogenetic-tree analysis showed that AaTRI and AaTRII belong to different clusters and have the closest relationship with H. niger TRI and TRII respectively. Expression-pattern analysis showed that AaTRI and AaTRII were expressed in all tissues tested, including root, stem and leaf, but the transcript level of AaTRI was much lower than AaTRII. Expression of AaTRI and AaTRII could be enhanced by methyl jasmonate, with a weak effect for AaTRI and a strong effect for AaTRII. AaTRI-transformed hairy-root lines were accompanied by a mean 1.87-fold higher level of hyoscyamine and a mean 8-fold higher level of scopolamine compared with control roots, indicating that AaTRI is a promising target for genetic engineering to increase tropane alkaloid in A. acutangulus. PMID:19751215

  4. Characterization of mutant xylanases using fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry: stabilizing contributions of disulfide bridges and N-terminal extensions.

    PubMed

    Jänis, Janne; Turunen, Ossi; Leisola, Matti; Derrick, Peter J; Rouvinen, Juha; Vainiotalo, Pirjo

    2004-07-27

    Structural properties and thermal stability of Trichoderma reesei endo-1,4-beta-xylanase II (TRX II) and its three recombinant mutants were characterized using electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (ESI FT-ICR) mass spectrometry and hydrogen/deuterium (H/D) exchange reactions. TRX II has been previously stabilized by a disulfide bridge C110-C154 and other site-directed mutations (TRX II mutants DS2 and DS5). Very recently, a highly thermostable mutant was introduced by combining mutations of DS5 with an N-terminal disulfide bridge C2-C28 (mutant DB1). Accurate mass measurements of TRX II, DS2, DS5, and DB1 verified the expected DNA-encoded protein sequences (average mass error 1.3 ppm) and allowed unequivocal assignment of the disulfides without chemical reduction and subsequent alkylation of the expected cross-links. Moreover, H/D exchange reactions provided means for the detection of a major heat-induced conformational change comprising two interconverting conformers of very different H/D exchange rates as well as allowed the apparent melting temperatures (T(m)) to be determined (62.6, 65.1, 68.0, and 82.2 degrees C for TRX II, DS2, DS5, and DB1, respectively). Residual activity measurements verified that the enzymes inactivated at significantly lower temperatures than expected on the basis of the apparent T(m) values, strongly suggesting that the inactivation takes place through minor conformational change other than observed by H/D exchange. ESI FT-ICR analyses also revealed molecular heterogeneity in DS5 and DB1 due to the propeptide incorporation. Resulting unintentional N-terminal extensions were observed to further improve the stability of the DB1 mutant. The extension of six amino acid residues upstream from the protein N-terminus increased stability by approximately 5 degrees C. PMID:15260499

  5. transformations: representations

    E-print Network

    Nguyen, Dat H.

    Overview 1. Number transformations: from one base to another 2. Integer representations 3. Real rate, caches... #12; ECS 50, Discussion on 4/25 2 Integer Transformation: From Decimal to Binary Let, Discussion on 4/25 3 Integer Transformation: From Binary to Decimal Compute the weight of each digit position

  6. Transformation Composition

    E-print Network

    Drewes, Frank

    Proc. AGTIVE'99, to appear in LNCS Graph Transformation Modules and their Composition ? Frank,knirsch,kreo,kuskeg@informatik.uni-bremen.de Abstract. In this paper, we investigate the notion of transformation modules as a structuring principle. Based on the notion of transformation units, a concept that allows to specify binary relations on graphs

  7. Admittance of metal-insulator-semiconductor structures based on graded-gap HgCdTe grown by molecular-beam epitaxy on GaAs substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voitsekhovskii, A. V.; Nesmelov, S. N.; Dzyadukh, S. M.; Vasil'ev, V. V.; Varavin, V. S.; Dvoretsky, S. A.; Mikhailov, N. N.; Yakushev, M. V.

    2015-07-01

    Metal-insulator-semiconductor structures based on n-Hg1-xCdxTe (x = 0.19-0.25) were grown by molecular-beam epitaxy on the GaAs (0 1 3) substrates. Near-surface graded-gap layers with high CdTe content were formed on both sides of the epitaxial HgCdTe. Admittance of these structures was studied experimentally in a wide temperature range (8-150) K. It is shown that an increase in the composition of the working layer and a decrease in temperature lead to a decrease in the frequency of transition to high-frequency behavior of the capacitance-voltage characteristics. The differential resistance of space charge region in the strong inversion increases with the composition of the working layer and for x = 0.22 and 0.25, the differential resistance is limited by the Shockley-Read generation. The values of the differential resistance of space charge region at different frequencies and temperatures were found.

  8. Isolation and characterization of three new classes of transformation-deficient mutants of Streptococcus pneumoniae that are defective in DNA transport and genetic recombination.

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, D A; Lacks, S A; Guild, W R; Hageman, J M

    1983-01-01

    Transformation-deficient mutants of Streptococcus pneumoniae were isolated after nitrosoguanidine mutagenesis. Seventeen mutants developed normal peaks of competence, as tested by their ability to degrade one strand of donor DNA, but they yielded transformants for chromosomal point markers at efficiencies from less than 0.001 to 0.04 that of the wild type. Some of the mutants were defective in DNA uptake and are described as entry defective (Ent-). Others took up DNA in normal quantities, but they failed to give stable transformants and are described as recombination defective (Rec-). In two of the Rec- mutants, normal levels of transformation by plasmid DNA occurred; in the others, it was reduced as much as chromosomal transformation. Conjugative transfers of a chromosomal omega (cat tet) element and of the plasmid pIP501 occurred at normal levels both to and from Rec- mutants. Transfer of chloramphenicol resistance by transformation with omega (cat tet) donor DNA, however, was blocked in Rec- mutants to about the same extent as was transformation for point markers. PMID:6619096

  9. Fluorescence excitation-emission matrix combined with regional integration analysis to characterize the composition and transformation of humic and fulvic acids from landfill at different stabilization stages.

    PubMed

    Xiaoli, Chai; Guixiang, Liu; Xin, Zhao; Yongxia, Hao; Youcai, Zhao

    2012-03-01

    Fluorescence excitation-emission matrix spectroscopy (EEMs) combined with fluorescence regional integration (FRI) analysis was used to investigate the composition and transformation of humic acid (HA) and fulvic acid (FA) from landfill. The EEMs of HAs at different landfill ages were characterized by two typical fluorescence chromophores with Ex/Em pairs at Ex=420-470 nm/Em=490-530 nm and Ex=345-375 nm/Em=450-465 nm. EEMs of FA were featured by other two distinctly different fluorophores with Ex/Em pairs at Ex=315-335 nm/Em=420-440 nm and Ex=255-275 nm/Em=425-455 nm. The results show that HA extracted from the refuse disposed in the year of 1989 was formed by connecting small-condensed aromatic structures with protein-like chains. Compared with HA extracted from the refuse disposed in the year of 1992, HA extracted from the refuse of 1996 had a higher fluorescence intensity and lower r(()(B)(,)(A)()) (the ratio of the fluorescence intensities of peak B and peak A) value. It contained low molar mass components, low aromatic condensation degree, and more easily oxidized substituents. This indicates that the landfill time strongly affects the EEMs characteristics of HA, and that the humification degree of HA increases with the landfill time. A red shift to a longer wavelength region and an increase of fluorescence intensity were observed when the concentration of HA was increased, suggesting that concentration had a great influence on the fluorescence characteristics of HAs. pH (2-12) also had significant effects on the fluorescence intensity, although it exerted no effect on the peak position of fluorescence of HA and FA. The results of FRI show that increasing concentration lead to more interactions among various structure components and that small molecular weight units tend to aggregate or be masked into more complicated and larger structures. The pH influence on the fluorescence intensity of HA seems mainly through molecular configuration, while the fluorescence intensity change with pH may be due to various substituents of FA. PMID:22104617

  10. Generation and characterization of the selenocysteinyl radical: direct evidence from time-resolved UV/Vis, electron paramagnetic resonance, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Kolano, Christoph; Bucher, Götz; Schade, Olaf; Grote, Dirk; Sander, Wolfram

    2005-08-19

    The selenocysteinyl radical 1 has been generated for the first time by laser flash photolysis (lambda(exc) = 266 nm) of dimethyl bis(N-tert-butoxycarbonyl)-l-selenocystine 2 and of [(9-fluorenylideneamino)oxycarbonyl]methyl(N-tert-butoxycarbonyl)-l-selenocysteine 3 in acetonitrile and characterized by time-resolved (TR) UV/Vis, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and electron paramagnetic spectroscopy in combination with theoretical methods. A detailed product study was conducted using gas chromatography and one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy. In the case of [(9-fluorenylideneamino)oxycarbonyl]methyl(N-tert-butoxycarbonyl)-l-selenocysteine 3, the (9-fluorenylideneamino)oxycarbonyl moiety serves as a photolabile protection group providing a "caged selenocysteinyl radical" suitable for biophysical applications. Cleavage of the diselenide bridge or the selenium-carbonyl bond by irradiation is possible in high quantum yields. Because of the lack of a good IR chromophore in the mid-IR region, the selenocysteinyl radical 1 cannot be monitored directly by TR FTIR spectroscopy. TR UV/Vis spectroscopy revealed the formation of the selenocysteinyl radical 1 from both precursors. The selenocysteinyl radical 1 has a lifetime tau approximately 63 mus and exhibits a strong band located at lambda(max) = 335 nm. Calculated UV absorptions of the selenocysteinyl radical (UB3LYP/6-311G(d,p)) are in good agreement with the experimental results. The use of TR UV/Vis spectroscopy permitted the determination of the decay rates of the selenocysteinyl radical in the presence of two quenchers. The product studies demonstrated the reversible photoreaction of dimethyl bis(N-tert-butoxycarbonyl)-l-selenocystine 2. Products of the photolysis of the "caged selenocysteinyl radical" precursor 3 are dimethyl bis(N-tert-butoxycarbonyl)-l-selenocystine 2, carbon dioxide, and some further smaller fragments. In addition, the photodecomposition of the (9-fluorenylideneamino)oxycarbonyl moiety produced 9-fluorenone-oxime 4, 9-fluoren-imine 5, and 6 and 7 as products of the dimerization of two 9-fluorenoneiminoxy radicals 8. PMID:16095277

  11. Characterization of CdS\\/CdTe thin-film solar cells by admittance spectroscopy and deep-level transient spectroscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. C. Isett

    1984-01-01

    Mitchell (1982) and Tyan (1980) have described several thin-film CdTe solar-cell configurations. Power conversion efficiencies greater than 8 percent were demonstrated. It is pointed out that for a clearer understanding of the solar cell, a determination of the electronic character of semiconductor imperfection states is required in addition to measurement of solar-cell parameters (efficiency, short-circuit current, open-circuit voltage). The present

  12. FT-IR and XRD characterization of phase transformation of heat-treated synthetic natisite (Na 2TiOSiO 4) powder

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gow-Weng Peng; Hok-Shing Liu

    1995-01-01

    A sodium titanium silicate polycrystalline powder, natisite (Na2TiOSiO4), has been prepared by a hydrothermal process and heat-treated between 800 and 1500 °C. The phase transformation of natisite has been evaluated by using absorption infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), differential thermal analysis (DTA) and scanning electron microscopy\\/energy-dispersive spectrometry (SEM\\/ EDS) techniques. The sequence of phase transformation may be divided

  13. Animating Transformations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Roberts, Lila F.

    2003-01-24

    In most introductory linear algebra courses, prominent applications of transformations or mappings are moving (rotating, reflecting, translating), resizing (contracting, expanding), changing the shape (shearing, projecting) objects in the plane. A typical problem in such courses is to write the matrix of a transformation that changes points in such prescribed ways. The goal of this demo is to help students more easily visualize such transformations on a wide class of plane objects.

  14. Admittance?based pressure–volume loops versus gold standard cardiac magnetic resonance imaging in a porcine model of myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    van Hout, Gerardus P. J.; Jansen, Sanne J.; Gho, Johannes M. I. H.; Doevendans, Pieter A.; van Solinge, Wouter W.; Pasterkamp, Gerard; Chamuleau, Steven A. J.; Hoefer, Imo E.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A novel admittance?based pressure–volume system (AS) has recently been developed and introduced. Thus far, the new technique has been validated predominantly in small animals. In large animals it has only been compared to three?dimensional echocardiography (3DE) where the AS showed to overestimate left ventricular (LV) volumes. To fully determine the accuracy of this device, we compared the AS with gold standard cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMRI) in a porcine model of chronic myocardial infarction (MI). Fourteen pigs were subjected to 90 min closed chest balloon occlusion of the left anterior descending artery. After 8 weeks of follow up, pigs were consecutively subjected to LV volume measurements by the AS, CMRI, and 3DE under general anesthesia. The AS overestimated end diastolic volume (EDV; +20.9 ± 30.6 mL, P = 0.024) and end systolic volume (ESV; +17.7 ± 29.4 mL, P = 0.042) but not ejection fraction (EF; +2.46 ± 6.16%, P = NS) compared to CMRI. Good correlations of EDV (R = 0.626, P = 0.017) and EF (R = 0.704, P = 0.005) between the AS and CMRI were observed. EF measured by the AS and 3DE also correlated significantly (R = 0.624, P = 0.030). After subjection of pigs to MI, the AS very moderately overestimates LV volumes and shows accurate measurements for EF compared to CMRI. This makes the AS a useful tool to determine cardiac function and dynamic changes in large animal models of cardiac disease. PMID:24771693

  15. Interpolating Wavelet Transforms David L. Donoho

    E-print Network

    Donoho, David

    Interpolating Wavelet Transforms David L. Donoho Department of Statistics Stanford University October, 1992 Abstract We describe several \\wavelet transforms" which characterize smoothness spaces-interpret the empirical wavelet transform, i.e. the common practice of applying pyramid #12;lters to samples of a function

  16. [Transformation toughening

    SciTech Connect

    Rafa, M.J.

    1993-04-19

    In NiAl, we have succeeded in determining the complete Ginzburg-Landau strain free energy function necessary to model the cubic to tetragonal martensite transformation in a sample of any size. We believe that this is the first time that the parameters of a Ginzburg-Landau functional and the complete strain spinodal for any three-dimensional displacive transformation were used in simulating the transformation near a crack tip under Mode I loading; the transformation pattern and toughening are different from standard transformation toughening theories. Furthermore, the strain spinodal has an approximately conical shape which can be specified by two material dependent experimentally accessible parameters, rather than the ellipsoidal shape in standard theories. Stress induced martensitic transformation in a polycrystalline sample of NiAl was simulated. In the ZrO[sub 2] system, first principles calculations to determine the semi-empirical potentials for simulating the cubic-tetragonal and tetragonal-monoclinic transformations have been started by doing a more elaborate total energy calculation.In the Al[sub 2]0[sub 3] system, we have discovered that the first principles calculations and semi-empirical potentials have just been completed byanother group in England which we will use instead to base our molecular dynamics simulations on.

  17. Lightweight transformer

    SciTech Connect

    Swallom, D.W.; Enos, G.

    1990-05-01

    The technical effort described in this report relates to the program that was performed to design, fabricate, and test a lightweight transformer for Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) mission requirements. The objectives of this program were two-fold: (1) design and fabricate a lightweight transformer using liquid hydrogen as the coolant; and (2) test the completed transformer assembly with a low voltage, dc power source. Although the full power testing with liquid helium was not completed, the program demonstrated the viability of the design approach. The lightweight transformer was designed and fabricated, and low and moderate power testing was completed. The transformer is a liquid hydrogen cooled air core transformer that uses thin copper for its primary and secondary windings. The winding mass was approximately 12 kg, or 0.03 kg/kW. Further refinements of the design to a partial air core transformer could potentially reduce the winding mass to as low as 4 or 5 kg, or 0.0125 kg/kW. No attempt was made on this program to reduce the mass of the related structural components or cryogenic container. 8 refs., 39 figs., 2 tabs.

  18. FOURIER TRANSFORM INFRARED PHOTOACOUSTIC SPECTROSCOPY CHARACTERIZATION OF SULFUR-OXYGEN SPECIES RESULTING FROM THE REACTION OF SO2 WITH CAO AND CACO3

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fourier transform infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy (FTIR-PAS) has been used to investigate the reaction of SO2 in He with CaO and CaCO3 particles at temperatures between 25 and 900 C. SO2 reacts with CaC at 25 C, while the reaction of Ca-CO3 with SO2 is first evident at 550 C ...

  19. Identification and Characterization of ComE and ComF, Two Novel Pilin-Like Competence Factors Involved in Natural Transformation of Acinetobacter sp. Strain BD413

    PubMed Central

    Busch, Silke; Rosenplänter, Christine; Averhoff, Beate

    1999-01-01

    Although the high level of competence for natural transformation of Acinetobacter sp. strain BD413 has been the subject of numerous studies, only two competence genes, comC and comP, have been identified to date. By chromosomal walking analysis we found two overlapping open reading frames, designated comE and comF, starting 61 bp downstream of comC. comE and comF are expressed as stable proteins in Escherichia coli, thus proving that they are indeed coding regions, but expression was successful only with 5?-deleted genes. ComE and ComF are similar to pilins and pilin-like components. Both genes were mutated, and the phenotypes of the mutants were analyzed. Natural transformation in comF mutants is 1,000-fold reduced, whereas comE mutants exhibit 10-fold-reduced transformation frequencies. This is clear evidence that comE and comF are involved in natural transformation. However, ComE and ComF are specific for DNA translocation, since comE and comF defects affected neither piliation nor lipase secretion. These results suggest that the type IV pili, the general protein secretion pathway, and the DNA translocation machinery in Acinetobacter sp. strain BD413 are evolutionary related but functionally distinct systems. PMID:10508090

  20. Fluorescence excitation–emission matrix spectroscopy with regional integration analysis for characterizing composition and transformation of dissolved organic matter in landfill leachates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xiao-Song He; Bei-Dou Xi; Zi-Min Wei; Yong-Hai Jiang; Yu Yang; Da An; Jin-Ling Cao; Hong-Liang Liu

    2011-01-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) obtained from landfill leachates was separated into hydrophobic base, hydrophilic matter (HIM), hydrophobic acid (HOA), and hydrophobic neutral fractions. The composition and transformation of the DOM and its fractions were investigated. The results show that the DOM isolated from young, intermediate, and old landfill leachates were mainly composed of tyrosine-, tryptophan-, and humic- and fulvic-like substances,

  1. Characterization of the phase transformation in a nanostructured surface layer of 304 stainless steel induced by high-energy shot peening

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhichun Ni; Xiaowei Wang; Jingyang Wang; Erdong Wu

    2003-01-01

    Conversion electron Mössbauer spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis have been used to investigate the relationship between character of phase transformation and treatment time in surface nanocrystallized 304 stainless steel (SS) induced by high-energy shot peening (HESP). The results demonstrate that the amount of martensite phase increases remarkably with increasing HESP treatment time, till a maximum value (91%) is reached for

  2. Transforming California

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Thomas McGuire

    2001-01-01

    Transforming California is a PowerPoint presentation of digital images (60.7 Mb) exploring the landforms found along the San Andreas Fault. Designed for classroom use, this slideshow provides a complementing narrative for each slide.

  3. Transformative copy

    E-print Network

    Offenhuber, Dietmar

    2008-01-01

    The ability to create an unlimited number of identical copies is a privilege of digital documents. What if that would not be the case, if each copy of a digital file would go along with some sort of transformation? This ...

  4. Formation and transformation of hierarchical structure of ?-nucleated polypropylene characterized by X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry and scanning electron microscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jaroslav Š?udla; Miroslav Raab; Klaus-Jochen Eichhorn; Adam Strachota

    2003-01-01

    Commercial grade isotactic polypropylene has been modified with a specific ?-nucleant (N,N?-dicyclohexylnaphthalene-2,6-dicarboxamide) in two concentrations (0.03 and 0.10wt%). Specimens for structural characterization have been prepared by injection moulding, subsequent melting and re-crystallization or solid-state drawing at 100 °C. Individual levels of hierarchical structure, including molecular orientation, have been characterized by a combination of wide angle X-ray scattering (WAXS), differential scanning

  5. Characterization of near-infrared nonmetal atomic emission from an atmospheric helium microwave-induced plasma using a Fourier transform spectrophotometer

    SciTech Connect

    Hubert, J.; Van Tra, H.; Chi Tran, K.; Baudais, F.L.

    1986-08-01

    A new approach for using Fourier transform spectroscopy (FTS) for the detection of atomic emission from an atmospheric helium plasma has been developed and the results obtained are described. Among the different types of plasma source available, the atmospheric pressure microwave helium plasma appears to be an efficient excitation source for the determination of nonmetal species. The more complete microwave plasma emission spectra of Cl, Br, I, S, O, P, C, N, and He in the near-infrared region were obtained and their corrected relative emission intensities are reported. This makes qualitative identification simple, and aids in the quantitative analysis of atomic species. The accuracy of the emission wavelengths obtained with the Fourier transform spectrophotometer was excellent and the resolution provided by the FTS allowed certain adjacent emission lines to be adequate for analytical applications.

  6. Establishment and characterization of equine fibroblast cell lines transformed in vivo and in vitro by BPV-1: Model systems for equine sarcoids

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, Z.Q.; Gault, E.A.; Gobeil, P.; Nixon, C.; Campo, M.S. [Institute of Comparative Medicine, University of Glasgow Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Bearsden Road, Glasgow G61 1QH (United Kingdom); Nasir, L. [Institute of Comparative Medicine, University of Glasgow Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Bearsden Road, Glasgow G61 1QH (United Kingdom)], E-mail: l.nasir@vet.gla.ac.uk

    2008-04-10

    It is now widely recognized that BPV-1 and less commonly BPV-2 are the causative agents of equine sarcoids. Here we present the generation of equine cell lines harboring BPV-1 genomes and expressing viral genes. These lines have been either explanted from sarcoid biopsies or generated in vitro by transfection of primary fibroblasts with BPV-1 DNA. Previously detected BPV-1 genome variations in equine sarcoids are also found in sarcoid cell lines, and only variant BPV-1 genomes can transform equine cells. These equine cell lines are morphologically transformed, proliferate faster than parental cells, have an extended life span and can grow independently of substrate. These characteristics are more marked the higher the level of viral E5, E6 and E7 gene expression. These findings confirm that the virus has an active role in the induction of sarcoids and the lines will be invaluable for further studies on the role of BPV-1 in sarcoid pathology.

  7. The development of modulated, quasi-isothermal and ultraslow thermal methods as a means of characterizing the ? to ? indomethacin polymorphic transformation.

    PubMed

    Qi, Sheng; Craig, Duncan Q M

    2012-05-01

    While polymorphism remains a key issue within the pharmaceutical and related industries, the understanding of the transformation process itself remains relatively poorly understood. In this study we use a combination of conventional and modulated temperature differential scanning calorimetry (MTDSC), quasi-isothermal MTDSC (Qi-MTDSC) and ultraslow heating rate MTDSC as a novel means of investigating the temperature-induced ? to ? transformation in indomethacin, using hot stage microscopy and variable temperature attenuated total reflectance FTIR spectroscopy as supportive techniques. In particular, we utilize the ability of MTDSC to measure subtle heat capacity changes through the transformation, we examine the use of Lissajous analysis of the modulated heating signal itself (both scanning and quasi-isothermal) and finally we investigate the use of ultraslow heating rates (down to 0.04 °C/min) so as to facilitate examination of the melt-crystallization process at a scanning rate whereby kinetic hindrance becomes negligible. Indomethacin was prepared in the metastable ? and stable ? forms using standard approaches. Samples were studied using conventional DSC, Qi-MTDSC (involving holding and modulating the sample at a series of incremental temperature steps) and ultraslow MTDSC. All studies were conducted using a Q-1000 MTDSC using crimped pans, following standard calibration procedures. Conventional DSC at 10 °C/min showed the expected single melting responses for the ? and ? forms, while MTDSC at slower rates indicated the presence of a melt-crystallization process. Quasi-isothermal studies allowed the heat capacity to be estimated as a function of time, while the associated Lissajous analysis demonstrated distortion of the elliptical response as a result of the kinetic events involved. Ultraslow heating resulted in superimposition of the melting and crystallization processes, resulting in a discrete thermal event that was enthalpically equivalent to the difference between the two processes. It is suggested that these combined thermal methods allow the conversion to be profiled in a manner which facilitates both kinetic and thermodynamic analysis of the transformation. PMID:22449179

  8. Rapid characterization and identification of fatty acids in margarines using horizontal attenuate total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (HATR-FTIR)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maylet Hernández-Martínez; Tzayhri Gallardo-Velázquez; Guillermo Osorio-Revilla

    2010-01-01

    Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) with horizontal attenuated total reflectance (HATR) coupled to multivariate\\u000a analysis was used to predict chemical composition, fatty acid profile, nutritional relationships between fatty acids, and\\u000a to identify trans fatty acids (TFA) of margarines. For model building and validation, a set of 42 margarines samples were\\u000a analyzed in terms of fatty acid profile, total fat, moisture,

  9. In vitro characterization of membrane associated phospholipase C from normal and Kirsten sarcoma virus-transformed NIH 3T3 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Talwar, H.S.; Thomas, T.P.; Bassin, R.; Anderson, W.B.

    1986-05-01

    Transformation of NIH 3T3 cells with Kirsten sarcoma virus (Ki-SV) increased phosphatidylinositol (PI) metabolism. This suggests possible alterations in the phospholipase C (PLC) and PIP/sub 2/-phosphodiesterase (PIP/sub 2/-PDE) activities responsible for hydrolysis of PI and PIP/sub 2/ with Ki-SV transformation. An in vitro assay is employed to study the hydrolysis of exogenously added (/sup 3/H)PI and (/sup 3/H)PIP/sub 2/ with membranes prepared from normal and Ki-SV transformed cells. Association of these activities with membranes appears to be differentially mediated by metals (Ca/sup 2 +/) since chelator treatment dissociates PLC from the particulate fraction. Hydrolysis of PIP/sub 2/ is markedly enhanced (10 fold) by introducing (/sup 3/H)PIP/sub 2/ to membrane preparations in vesicles prepared with excess phosphatidylethanolamine. These activities are dependent on Ca/sup 2 +/ and exhibit a progressive increase in activity between 10/sup -7/M and 10/sup -3/M Ca/sup 2 +/. The optimal pH for PIP/sub 2/-PDE is 7.0, whereas PI specific PLC exhibits optimal activity at pH 5.5. With this in vitro assay system it is possible to demonstrate that GTP-..gamma..-S addition to isolated membranes stimulates PIP/sub 2/-PDE to hydrolyze exogenously added (/sup 3/H)PIP/sub 2/. This should allow direct studies to determine possible differences in GTP-dependent regulation of PI and PIP/sub 2/ hydrolysis with membranes prepared from normal and transformed cells.

  10. Construction and characterization of a plant transformation-competent BIBAC library of the black Sigatoka-resistant banana Musa acuminata cv. Tuu Gia (AA)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Ortiz-Vázquez; D. Kaemmer; H. B. Zhang; J. Muth; M. Rodríguez-Mendiola; C. Arias-Castro; Andrew James

    2005-01-01

    A plant transformation-competent binary bacterial artificial chromosome (BIBAC) library was constructed from Musa acuminata cv. Tuu Gia (AA), a black Sigatoka-resistant diploid banana. After digestion of high-molecular-weight banana DNA by HindIII, several methods of DNA size selection were tested, followed by ligation, using a vector\\/insert molar ratio of 4:1. The library consists of 30,700 clones stored in 80 384-well microtiter

  11. Subsurface characterization of an oxidation-induced phase transformation and twinning in nickel-based superalloy exposed to oxy-combustion environments

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Jingxi; Holcomb, Gordon R.; Jablonski, Paul D.; Wise, Adam; Li, Jia; Laughlin, David E.; Sridhar, Seetharaman

    2012-07-30

    In the integration of oxy-fuel combustion to turbine power generation system, turbine alloys are exposed to high temperature and an atmosphere comprised of steam, CO{sub 2} and O{sub 2}. While surface and internal oxidation of the alloy takes place, the microstructure in the subsurface region also changes due to oxidation. In this study, bare metal coupons of Ni-base superalloys were exposed in oxy-fuel combustion environment for up to 1000 h and the oxidation-related microstructures were examined. Phase transformation occurred in the subsurface region in Ni-based superalloy and led to twinning. The transformation product phases were analyzed through thermodynamic equilibrium calculations and various electron microscopy techniques, including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), orientation imaging microscopy (OIM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The mechanism by which the phase transformation and the formation of the microstructure occurred was also discussed. The possible effects of the product phases on the performance of the alloy in service were discussed.

  12. Transforming America's Energy Economy Transforming America's

    E-print Network

    #12;Transforming America's Energy Economy Transforming America's Energy Economy This document #12;Transforming America's Energy Economy A. Introduction: A Call for Action B. Envisioning the Future.5 Energy Efficiency C. Charting the Path Forward 1 #12;Transforming America's Energy Economy

  13. SPATIAL TRANSFORMATIONS 1 Running head: Spatial transformations

    E-print Network

    Zacks, Jeffrey M.

    SPATIAL TRANSFORMATIONS 1 Running head: Spatial transformations Multiple Systems for Spatial Imagery: Transformations of Objects and Bodies Jeffrey M. Zacks* and Barbara Tversky * Washington COGNITION & COMPUTATION #12;SPATIAL TRANSFORMATIONS 2 Abstract Problem-solving often requires imagining

  14. The Laplace Transform 1 Laplace transform and inverse transform

    E-print Network

    Yengulalp, Lynne

    The Laplace Transform Name: 1 Laplace transform and inverse transform Definition. Let f(t) be a function defined for t 0. Then the integral L {f(t)} = 0 e-st f(t)dt is said to be the Laplace transform of f provided the integral converges. Fill in the following Laplace transforms. L {tn } = L {eat } = L

  15. Transforming Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cookson, Peter W., Jr., Ed.; Schneider, Barbara, Ed.

    The authors in this book address the issues that relate to the crisis in American education and review some of the proposed solutions. To transform education, schools must be examined as social systems that are interrelated with families, communities, and the world of work. Following the introduction, section 1, "Conditions for Educational…

  16. Transformation Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, John N., III

    2007-01-01

    The program for the march by librarians on America's capital for the American Library Association (ALA) conference is predictably loaded with lobbying, legislation, and DC tours. It also abounds with professional opportunity and reflects the impact of Leslie Burger, one of the most activist ALA presidents in recent history. Her "Transformation

  17. Transformation & Metamorphosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lott, Debra

    2009-01-01

    The sculptures of Canadian artist Brian Jungen are a great inspiration for a lesson on creating new forms. Jungen transforms found objects into unique creations without fully concealing their original form or purpose. Frank Stella's sculpture series, including "K.132,2007" made of stainless steel and spray paint, is another great example of…

  18. Isolation and characterization of novel ginsenoside-hydrolyzing glycosidase from Microbacterium esteraromaticum that transforms ginsenoside Rb2 to rare ginsenoside 20(S)-Rg3.

    PubMed

    Quan, Lin-Hu; Wang, Chao; Jin, Yan; Wang, Ting-Rui; Kim, Yeon-Ju; Yang, Deok Chun

    2013-07-01

    Ginsenoside Rb2 was transformed by recombinant glycosidase (Bgp2) into ginsenosides Rd and 20(S)-Rg3. The bgp2 gene consists of 2,430 bp that encode 809 amino acids, and this gene has homology to the glycosyl hydrolase family 2 protein domain. SDS-PAGE was used to determine that the molecular mass of purified Bgp2 was 87 kDa. Using 0.1 mg ml(-1) of enzyme in 20 mM sodium phosphate buffer at 40 °C and pH 7.0, 1.0 mg ml(-1) ginsenoside Rb2 was transformed into 0.47 mg ml(-1) ginsenoside 20(S)-Rg3 within 120 min, with a corresponding molar conversion yield of 65 %. Bgp2 hydrolyzed the ginsenoside Rb2 along the following pathway: Rb2 ? Rd ? 20(S)-Rg3. This is the first report of the biotransformation of ginsenoside Rb2 to ginsenoside 20(S)-Rg3 using the recombinant glycosidase. PMID:23670791

  19. Synthesis, characterizations, and thermal induced structural transformation of silver-fullerene C60 nanocomposite thin films for applications in optical devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singhal, R.; Agarwal, D. C.; Mishra, Y. K.; Kabiraj, D.; Mattei, G.; Pivin, J. C.; Chandra, R.; Avasthi, D. K.

    2010-05-01

    Nanocomposite thin films of fullerene C60 containing Ag nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized by thermal codeposition. The surface plasmon resonance (SPR) band of the nanocomposite film was observed in the region 450-550 nm, showing a large redshift with increasing metal concentration. This is explained by the Maxwell-Garnett effective medium theory considering the absorbing nature of fullerene C60. The C60-Ag nanocomposite thin film with lowest Ag concentration was annealed at increasing temperatures in neutral atmosphere. The SPR band showed first a small redshift after annealing at small temperature then progressive blueshift at higher temperature. This behavior of SPR is explained by the increased particle-particle interaction due to the compaction of the fullerene C60 film upon annealing at low temperature and the transformation of fullerene C60 matrix into amorphous carbon at higher temperature. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and transmission electron microscopy were used to quantify Ag metal content and the microstructural evolution of Ag NPs in the nanocomposite films, respectively. Thermal induced structural transformations of fullerene C60 molecules of host matrix were investigated by Raman spectroscopy.

  20. Characterization of Japanese color sticks by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manso, M.; Valadas, S.; Pessanha, S.; Guilherme, A.; Queralt, I.; Candeias, A. E.; Carvalho, M. L.

    2010-04-01

    This work comprises the use of energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) techniques for the study of the composition of twentieth century traditional Japanese color sticks. By using the combination of analytical techniques it was possible to obtain information on inorganic and organic pigments, binders and fillers present in the sticks. The colorant materials identified in the sticks were zinc and titanium white, chrome yellow, yellow and red ochre, vermillion, alizarin, indigo, Prussian and synthetic ultramarine blue. The results also showed that calcite and barite were used as inorganic mineral fillers while Arabic gum was the medium used. EDXRF offered great potential for such investigations since it allowed the identification of the elements present in the sample preserving its integrity. However, this information alone was not enough to clearly identify some of the materials in study and therefore it was necessary to use XRD and FTIR techniques.

  1. Characterization of protein alterations in damaged axons in the brainstem following traumatic brain injury using fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ji; Niu, Fei; Dong, Hongmei; Liu, Liang; Li, Jie; Li, Shangxun

    2015-05-01

    Axonal injury contributes greatly to neurological dysfunction following traumatic brain injury (TBI), but current histological diagnostic methods are limited in identifying the pathological profiles of injured axons and unable to provide an objective and accurate quantification. Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (FTIRM) has the ability to offer macromolecular bioinformatics of the tissues including biochemical composition and structure by calculating band absorption intensity. In this study, axonal injury in the brainstem of rats with traumatic brain injury at 72 h post-trauma, which was confirmed with beta-amyloid precursor protein (?-APP) immunostaining, was detected with FTIRM technique. The lower intensity of infrared absorbance under the amide I band corresponds strongly to the area of axonal injury, and further analysis of amide I band shows significant differences in protein conformation between injured and normal axons. The findings indicate that using FTIRM technique, the amide I band has potentials to be a infrared spectral marker of axonal injury. PMID:25773901

  2. Genesis of a Cerium Oxide-Supported Gold Catalyst for CO Oxidation: Transformation of Mononuclear Gold Complexes into Clusters as Characterized by X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Aguilar-Guerrero, V.; Lobo-Lapidus, R; Gates, B

    2009-01-01

    CeO{sub 2}-supported mononuclear gold species synthesized from Au(CH{sub 3}){sub 2}(acac) catalyzed CO oxidation at 353 K, with a turnover frequency of 6.5 x 10{sup -3} molecules of CO (Au atom s){sup -1} at CO and O{sub 2} partial pressures of 1.0 and 0.5 kPa, respectively. As the catalyst functioned in a flow reactor, the activity increased markedly so that within about 10 h the conversion of CO had increased from about 1% to almost 100%. Activated catalyst samples were characterized by X-ray absorption spectroscopy and found to incorporate clusters of gold, which increased in size, undergoing reduction, with increasing time of operation. The X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectrum of the catalyst used for the longest period was indistinguishable from that characterizing gold foil. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure data characterizing the catalyst after the longest period of operation indicated the presence of clusters of approximately 30 Au atoms each, on average. The evidence that the catalytic activity increased as the clusters grew is contrasted with earlier reports pointing to increasing activity of supported gold clusters as they were made smallerin a cluster size range largely exceeding ours.

  3. Use of wavelet-packet transforms to develop an engineering model for multifractal characterization of mutation dynamics in pathological and nonpathological gene sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, David Lee

    1999-12-01

    This study uses dynamical analysis to examine in a quantitative fashion the information coding mechanism in DNA sequences. This exceeds the simple dichotomy of either modeling the mechanism by comparing DNA sequence walks as Fractal Brownian Motion (fbm) processes. The 2-D mappings of the DNA sequences for this research are from Iterated Function System (IFS) (Also known as the ``Chaos Game Representation'' (CGR)) mappings of the DNA sequences. This technique converts a 1-D sequence into a 2-D representation that preserves subsequence structure and provides a visual representation. The second step of this analysis involves the application of Wavelet Packet Transforms, a recently developed technique from the field of signal processing. A multi-fractal model is built by using wavelet transforms to estimate the Hurst exponent, H. The Hurst exponent is a non-parametric measurement of the dynamism of a system. This procedure is used to evaluate gene- coding events in the DNA sequence of cystic fibrosis mutations. The H exponent is calculated for various mutation sites in this gene. The results of this study indicate the presence of anti-persistent, random walks and persistent ``sub-periods'' in the sequence. This indicates the hypothesis of a multi-fractal model of DNA information encoding warrants further consideration. This work examines the model's behavior in both pathological (mutations) and non-pathological (healthy) base pair sequences of the cystic fibrosis gene. These mutations both natural and synthetic were introduced by computer manipulation of the original base pair text files. The results show that disease severity and system ``information dynamics'' correlate. These results have implications for genetic engineering as well as in mathematical biology. They suggest that there is scope for more multi-fractal models to be developed.

  4. Transformations Journal

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Different forms of communication have always had a tendency to transform interactions and everyday life in ways that have surprised people from many different backgrounds. Academics have long been interested in such dynamic transformations, and this electronic journal represents one of the responses to such processes. As their site notes, this journal is "dedicated to the exploration of ideas, issues and debates emerging out of contemporary global culture." Visitors to the site can read the complete version of every issue on the site, and they will be pleased to find such intriguing titles as "Rethinking Regionality", "Accidental Environments", and "Fleeing the City". Interested parties can also consult the site to learn about the journal's editorial board, their calls for papers, submission guidelines, and related links.

  5. Transformers Transformer device used to raise (for

    E-print Network

    Bertulani, Carlos A. - Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A&M University

    Transformers Transformer ­ device used to raise (for transmission) and lower (for use) the ac with different #s of turns #12;Transformers Alternating primary current induces alternating magnetic flux in iron dt d NV B PP -= dt d NV B SS -= S S P P N V N V = #12;Transformers Transformation of voltage

  6. Characterization of photo-transformation products of the antibiotic drug Ciprofloxacin with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in combination with accurate mass determination using an LTQ-Orbitrap.

    PubMed

    Haddad, Tarek; Kümmerer, Klaus

    2014-11-01

    The presence of pharmaceuticals, especially antibiotics, in the aquatic environment is of growing concern. Several studies have been carried out on the occurrence and environmental risk of these compounds. Ciprofloxacin (CIP), a broad-spectrum anti-microbial second-generation fluoroquinolone, is widely used in human and veterinary medicine. In this work, photo-degradation of CIP in aqueous solution using UV and xenon lamps was studied. The transformation products (TPs), created from CIP, were initially analyzed by an ion trap in the MS, MS/MS and MS(3) modes. These data were used to clarify the structures of the degradation products. Furthermore, the proposed products were confirmed by accurate mass measurement and empirical formula calculation for the molecular ions of TPs using LTQ-Orbitrap XL mass spectrometer. The degree of mineralization, the abundance of detected TPs and degradation pathways were determined. Eleven TPs were detected in the present study. TP1, which was never detected before, was structurally characterized in this work. All TPs still retained the core quinolone structure, which is responsible for the biological activity. As mineralization of CIP and its transformation products did not happen, the formation of stable TPs can be expected in waste water treatment and in surface water with further follow-up problems. PMID:24630245

  7. Pulse transformers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Lord

    1971-01-01

    Pulse transformers capable of transmitting substantially rectangular voltage pulses, with durations of less than one microsecond, were developed for radar applications during World War II. Their primary functions were to match the impedances of high-power microwave radio-frequency electron-tube generators to electronic pulse generators and coaxial transmission cables, and to provide polarity reversal and impedance matching functions within pulse generator circuitry.

  8. Transformative learning.

    PubMed

    Nemec, Patricia B

    2012-12-01

    The whole point of teaching and training is to have the learners leave in some way different from how they came in-more skilled, more knowledgeable, more self-aware. Transformative learning refers to dramatic change, where the learner achieves a shift in perspective. This shift results from a critical examination of one's own assumptions, values, and beliefs, and of the foundations and expectations of the system in which one operates. Educators are in the change business, and educators focused on implementing psychiatric rehabilitation, recovery-oriented services, and person-centered planning are in the transformative learning business. The shift from a traditional medical model to a recovery perspective, the shift from "illness" to "disability" to "wellness," and the shift from risk prevention to promoting opportunities for growth all require "standing outside ourselves" and looking at a "stark and highlighted picture" of the all-too-common status quo of mental health services today. With the right approach, learners can be developed, encouraged, disrupted, and transformed. PMID:23276245

  9. The identification and characterization of defect states in hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite photovoltaics.

    PubMed

    Duan, Hsin-Sheng; Zhou, Huanping; Chen, Qi; Sun, Pengyu; Luo, Song; Song, Tze-Bin; Bob, Brion; Yang, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Thin film photovoltaic cells based on hybrid halide perovskite absorbers have emerged as promising candidates for next generation photovoltaics. Here, we have characterized and identified the defect energy distribution in the CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite using admittance spectroscopy, which reveals a deep defect state ?0.16 eV above the valence band. According to theoretical calculations, the defect state is possibly attributed to iodine interstitials (Ii), which can become the non-radiative recombination centers in the absorber. PMID:25354141

  10. Identification and Characterization of a Ginsenoside-Transforming ?-Glucosidase from Pseudonocardia sp. Gsoil 1536 and Its Application for Enhanced Production of Minor Ginsenoside Rg2(S)

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sung Chul; Kim, Jin-Kwang; Yu, Hong-Shan; Jin, Feng-Xie; Sun, Changkai; Kim, Sun-Chang; Im, Wan-Taek

    2014-01-01

    The ginsenoside Rg2(S), which is one of the pharmaceutical components of ginseng, is known to have neuroprotective, anti-inflammation, and anti-diabetic effects. However, the usage of ginsenoside Rg2(S) is restricted owing to the small amounts found in white and red ginseng. To enhance the production of ginsenoside Rg2(S) as a 100 gram unit with high specificity, yield, and purity, an enzymatic bioconversion method was developed to adopt the recombinant glycoside hydrolase (BglPC28), which is a ginsenoside-transforming recombinant ?-glucosidase from Pseudonocardia sp. strain Gsoil 1536. The gene, termed bglPC28, encoding ?-glucosidase (BglPC28) belonging to the glycoside hydrolase family 3 was cloned. bglPC28 consists of 2,232 bp (743 amino acid residues) with a predicted molecular mass of 78,975 Da. This enzyme was overexpressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) using a GST-fused pGEX 4T-1 vector system. The optimum conditions of the recombinant BglPC28 were pH 7.0 and 37°C. BglPC28 can effectively transform the ginsenoside Re to Rg2(S); the Km values of PNPG and Re were 6.36±1.10 and 1.42±0.13 mM, respectively, and the Vmax values were 40.0±2.55 and 5.62±0.21 µmol min?1 mg?1 of protein, respectively. A scaled-up biotransformation reaction was performed in a 10 L jar fermenter at pH 7.0 and 30°C for 12 hours with a concentration of 20 mg/ml of ginsenoside Re from American ginseng roots. Finally, 113 g of Rg2(S) was produced from 150 g of Re with 84.0±1.1% chromatographic purity. These results suggest that this enzymatic method could be usefully exploited in the preparation of ginsenoside Rg2(S) in the cosmetics, functional food, and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:24911166

  11. Fluorescence excitation-emission matrix spectroscopy with regional integration analysis for characterizing composition and transformation of dissolved organic matter in landfill leachates.

    PubMed

    He, Xiao-Song; Xi, Bei-Dou; Wei, Zi-Min; Jiang, Yong-Hai; Yang, Yu; An, Da; Cao, Jin-Ling; Liu, Hong-Liang

    2011-06-15

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) obtained from landfill leachates was separated into hydrophobic base, hydrophilic matter (HIM), hydrophobic acid (HOA), and hydrophobic neutral fractions. The composition and transformation of the DOM and its fractions were investigated. The results show that the DOM isolated from young, intermediate, and old landfill leachates were mainly composed of tyrosine-, tryptophan-, and humic- and fulvic-like substances, respectively. The primary fractions of the DOM in leachates were HOA and HIM. The HOA and HIM fractions from young leachates predominantly contained tryptophan- and tyrosine-like materials, respectively. The HOA fractions in intermediate and old leachates were mainly composed of humic- and fulvic-like materials, whereas the HIM fractions were dominated by tryptophan-like materials and humic- and fulvic-like substances. The hydrophobic organic fractions and humic- and fulvic-like substances increased with time, whereas the HIM and the tyrosine-like materials decreased during the landfill process, rendering biological processing of leachates ineffective. PMID:21470772

  12. ATMOSPHERIC TRANSFORMATION OF DIESEL EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The investigators anticipate successfully conducting a complex study to characterize the atmospheric transformations of DE under the influence of sunlight, O3, radicals, and organic compounds. It is hope that this study will present novel results on the atmospheric aging of...

  13. Transformations - Dilation

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2003-01-01

    In this interactive simulation, students are able to visualize and manipulate objects to understand dilation transformations. Students are able to adjust the center of dilation, rotate and move figures, change the scale factor to see what effect it has on the figures, add their own figures, and more. Across the top of the page, visitors will find links to activities to guide students as they explore the site, and more advanced activities involving computation are available in the Parent/Teacher section. The Instructions sections has detailed information for students and teachers alike on how to use the manipulative.

  14. Special Features of Admittance in Mis Structures Based on Graded-Gap MBE n-Hg1- x Cd x Te ( x = 0.31-0.32) in a Temperature Range OF 8-300 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voitsekhovskii, A. V.; Nesmelov, S. N.; Dzyadukh, S. M.; Vasil'ev, V. V.; Varavin, V. S.; Dvoretskii, S. A.; Mikhailov, N. N.; Kuz'min, V. D.; Remesnik, V. G.

    2014-09-01

    Admittance of MIS structures based on graded-gap n-Hg1- ? Cd ? Te ( x = 0.31-0.32) grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) is investigated in a wide temperature range (8-300 K). It is shown that the temperature and frequency dependences of the differential resistance of space charge region for structures with a graded-gap layer are qualitatively similar to those for structures without a graded-gap layer. It is found that for MIS structures based on MBE n-Hg1- ? Cd ? Te ( x = 0.31-0.32), regardless of the presence of a graded-gap layer, the differential resistance of space charge region is limited by the processes of Shockley-Read generation in the temperature range of 25-100 K.

  15. Evaluate and characterize mechanisms controlling transport, fate, and effects of army smokes in the aerosol wind tunnel: Transport, transformations, fate, and terrestrial ecological effects of hexachloroethane obscurant smokes

    SciTech Connect

    Cataldo, D.A.; Ligotke, M.W.; Bolton, H. Jr.; Fellows, R.J.; Van Voris, P.; McVeety, B.D.; Li, Shu-mei W.; McFadden, K.M.

    1989-09-01

    The terrestrial transport, chemical fate, and ecological effects of hexachloroethane (HC) smoke were evaluated under controlled wind tunnel conditions. The primary objectives of this research program are to characterize and assess the impacts of smoke and obscurants on: (1) natural vegetation characteristic of US Army training sites in the United States; (2) physical and chemical properties of soils representative of these training sites; and (3) soil microbiological and invertebrate communities. Impacts and dose/responses were evaluated based on exposure scenarios, including exposure duration, exposure rate, and sequential cumulative dosing. Key to understanding the environmental impacts of HC smoke/obscurants is establishing the importance of environmental parameters such as relative humidity and wind speed on airborne aerosol characteristics and deposition to receptor surfaces. Direct and indirect biotic effects were evaluated using five plant species and two soil types. HC aerosols were generated in a controlled atmosphere wind tunnel by combustion of hexachloroethane mixtures prepared to simulate normal pot burn rates and conditions. The aerosol was characterized and used to expose plant, soil, and other test systems. Particle sizes of airborne HC ranged from 1.3 to 2.1 {mu}m mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD), and particle size was affected by relative humidity over a range of 20% to 85%. Air concentrations employed ranged from 130 to 680 mg/m{sup 3}, depending on exposure scenario. Chlorocarbon concentrations within smokes, deposition rates for plant and soil surfaces, and persistence were determined. The fate of principal inorganic species (Zn, Al, and Cl) in a range of soils was assessed.

  16. Enterprise transformation :lessons learned, pathways to success.

    SciTech Connect

    Slavin, Adam M.; Woodard, Joan Brune

    2006-05-01

    In this report, we characterize the key themes of transformation and tie them together in a ''how to'' guide. The perspectives were synthesized from strategic management literature, case studies, and from interviews with key management personnel from private industry on their transformation experiences.

  17. Biocompatible, pH-sensitive AB2 Miktoarm Polymer-Based Polymersomes: Preparation, Characterization, and Acidic pH-Activated Nanostructural Transformation

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Haiqing; Kang, Han Chang; Huh, Kang Moo; Bae, You Han

    2012-01-01

    Motivated by the limitations of liposomal drug delivery systems, we designed a novel histidine-based AB2-miktoarm polymer (mPEG-b-(polyHis)2) equipped with a phospholipid-mimic structure, low cytotoxicity, and pH-sensitivity. Using “core-first” click chemistry and ring-opening polymerization, mPEG2kDa-b-(polyHis29kDa)2 was successfully synthesized with a narrow molecular weight distribution (1.14). In borate buffer (pH 9), the miktoarm polymer self-assembled to form a nano-sized polymersome with a hydrodynamic radius of 70.2 nm and a very narrow size polydispersity (0.05). At 4.2 µmol/mg polymer, mPEG2kDa-b-(polyHis29kDa)2 strongly buffered against acidification in the endolysosomal pH range and exhibited low cytotoxicity on a 5 d exposure. Below pH 7.4 the polymersome transitioned to cylindrical micelles, spherical micelles, and finally unimers as the pH was decreased. The pH-induced structural transition of mPEG2kDa-b-(polyHis29kDa)2 nanostructures may be caused by the increasing hydrophilic weight fraction of mPEG2kDa-b-(polyHis29kDa)2 and can help to disrupt the endosomal membrane through proton buffering and membrane fusion of mPEG2kDa-b-(polyHis29kDa)2. In addition, a hydrophilic model dye, 5(6)-carboxyfluorescein encapsulated into the aqueous lumen of the polymersome showed a slow, sustained release at pH 7.4 but greatly accelerated release below pH 6.8, indicating a desirable pH sensitivity of the system in the range of endosomal pH. Therefore, this polymersome that is based on a biocompatible histidine-based miktoarm polymer and undergoes acid-induced transformations could serve as a drug delivery vehicle for chemical and biological drugs. PMID:23002330

  18. Biocompatible, pH-sensitive AB(2) Miktoarm Polymer-Based Polymersomes: Preparation, Characterization, and Acidic pH-Activated Nanostructural Transformation.

    PubMed

    Yin, Haiqing; Kang, Han Chang; Huh, Kang Moo; Bae, You Han

    2012-09-28

    Motivated by the limitations of liposomal drug delivery systems, we designed a novel histidine-based AB(2)-miktoarm polymer (mPEG-b-(polyHis)(2)) equipped with a phospholipid-mimic structure, low cytotoxicity, and pH-sensitivity. Using "core-first" click chemistry and ring-opening polymerization, mPEG(2kDa)-b-(polyHis(29kDa))(2) was successfully synthesized with a narrow molecular weight distribution (1.14). In borate buffer (pH 9), the miktoarm polymer self-assembled to form a nano-sized polymersome with a hydrodynamic radius of 70.2 nm and a very narrow size polydispersity (0.05). At 4.2 µmol/mg polymer, mPEG(2kDa)-b-(polyHis(29kDa))(2) strongly buffered against acidification in the endolysosomal pH range and exhibited low cytotoxicity on a 5 d exposure. Below pH 7.4 the polymersome transitioned to cylindrical micelles, spherical micelles, and finally unimers as the pH was decreased. The pH-induced structural transition of mPEG(2kDa)-b-(polyHis(29kDa))(2) nanostructures may be caused by the increasing hydrophilic weight fraction of mPEG(2kDa)-b-(polyHis(29kDa))(2) and can help to disrupt the endosomal membrane through proton buffering and membrane fusion of mPEG(2kDa)-b-(polyHis(29kDa))(2). In addition, a hydrophilic model dye, 5(6)-carboxyfluorescein encapsulated into the aqueous lumen of the polymersome showed a slow, sustained release at pH 7.4 but greatly accelerated release below pH 6.8, indicating a desirable pH sensitivity of the system in the range of endosomal pH. Therefore, this polymersome that is based on a biocompatible histidine-based miktoarm polymer and undergoes acid-induced transformations could serve as a drug delivery vehicle for chemical and biological drugs. PMID:23002330

  19. Hough Transform from the Radon Transform

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stanley R. Deans

    1981-01-01

    An appropriate special case of a transform developed by J. Radon in 1917 is shown to have the major properties of the Hough transform which is useful for finding line segments in digital pictures. Such an observation may be useful in further efforts to generalize the Hough transform. Techniques for applying the Radon transform to lines and pixels are developed

  20. Testability Transformation: Program Transformation to Improve Testability

    E-print Network

    Singer, Jeremy

    Testability Transformation: Program Transformation to Improve Testability An Overview of Recent Author. Abstract. Testability transformation is a new form of program transfor- mation in which the goal to some chosen test adequacy criterion. The goal is to improve the testing process by transforming

  1. Testability Transformation --Program Transformation to Improve Testability

    E-print Network

    Binkley, David W.

    Testability Transformation -- Program Transformation to Improve Testability Mark Harman1 , Andr, 26 Richmond Street, Glasgow G1 1XH, UK. Corresponding Author. Abstract. Testability transformation. The goal is to improve the testing process by transforming a program to one that is more amenable

  2. Characterization of the binding of transforming growth factor-beta 1, -beta 2, and -beta 3 to recombinant beta 1-latency-associated peptide.

    PubMed

    Miller, D M; Ogawa, Y; Iwata, K K; ten Dijke, P; Purchio, A F; Soloff, M S; Gentry, L E

    1992-05-01

    Preprotransforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF beta 1) is a 390-amino acid precursor polypeptide that undergoes a number of processing steps to yield mature TGF beta 1 (amino acid residues 279-390) and a pro portion (residues 30-278) termed beta 1-latency-associated peptide (beta 1LAP). The dimeric form of beta 1LAP has been shown to associate noncovalently with the mature growth factor, resulting in inactivation of biological activity. To further characterize this interaction, the mature TGF beta 1 was radioiodinated and used to determine dissociation constants. A cross-linking method using the bifunctional covalent cross-linker bis-(sulfosuccinimidyl)suberate was found to be the best approach for measuring the amount of bound growth factor. The efficiency of cross-linking was constant within each experiment and varied between 45-55%. Saturation plots and their associated Scatchard analyses indicate apparent Kd values between 1.1-1.8 nM. Competition of TGF beta 1 binding to beta 1LAP by TGF beta 2 and TGF beta 3 (two closely related growth factors) revealed that the latter also bind beta 1LAP tightly, with apparent Kd values of 1.9 and 0.4 nM, respectively. PMID:1603080

  3. Canonoid and Poissonoid Transformations, Symmetries and BiHamiltonian Structures

    E-print Network

    Giovanni Rastelli; Manuele Santoprete

    2015-02-25

    We give a characterization of linear canonoid transformations on symplectic manifolds and we use it to generate biHamiltonian structures for some mechanical systems. Utilizing this characterization we also study the behavior of the harmonic oscillator under canonoid transformations. We present a description of canonoid transformations due to E.T. Whittaker, and we show that it leads, in a natural way, to the modern, coordinate-independent definition of canonoid transformations. We also generalize canonoid transformations to Poisson manifolds by introducing Poissonoid transformations. We give examples of such transformations for Euler's equations of the rigid body (on $\\mathcal{so}^\\ast (3) $ and $ so^\\ast (4)$) and for an integrable case of Kirchhoff's equations for the motion of a rigid body immersed in an ideal fluid. We study the relationship between biHamiltonian structures and Poissonoid transformations for these examples. We analyze the link between Poissonoid transformations, constants of motion, and symmetries.

  4. Pulse transformer design study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Aslin

    1977-01-01

    This final report describes the design, development of fabrication techniques, fabrication, and testing of two uniform field, air core pulse transformers. The described transformer design minimizes the volume of dielectric material, which provides turn-to-turn insulation, reduces stray series inductance, and thus improves the transformer high frequency response in comparison to conventional pulse transformers. The described pulse transformers are intended for

  5. Applications of wavelet transforms in earthquake, wind and ocean engineering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kurtis Gurley; Ahsan Kareem

    1999-01-01

    The analysis, identification, characterization and simulation of random processes utilizing both the continuous and discrete wavelet transform is addressed. The wavelet transform is used to decompose random processes into localized orthogonal basis functions, providing a convenient format for the modeling, analysis, and simulation of non-stationary processes. The time and frequency analysis made possible by the wavelet transform provides insight into

  6. BESOV NORMS IN TERMS OF THE CONTINUOUS WAVELET TRANSFORM.

    E-print Network

    Guerrini, Carla

    BESOV NORMS IN TERMS OF THE CONTINUOUS WAVELET TRANSFORM. APPLICATION TO STRUCTURE FUNCTIONS VAL Paris cedex 05 FRANCE perrier@math.univ­paris13.fr The continuous wavelet transform is extended to L p in Meyer's book 14 . The characterization of Besov spaces by the mean of the continuous wavelet transform

  7. A fast approximation to the continuous wavelet transform with applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kathrin Berkner; Raymond O. Wells

    1997-01-01

    We propose an approximation of a continuous wavelet transform (CWT) which is based on a hierarchical scheme, similar to the fast discrete wavelet transform. This approximation keeps redundancies in time and scale. Furthermore, it preserves properties of the CWT regarding the characterization of singularities and leads to efficient applications in detection and characterization of singularities

  8. Phase Transformations in Confined Nanosystems

    SciTech Connect

    Shield, Jeffrey E. [Department of Mechanical & Materials Engineering] [Department of Mechanical & Materials Engineering; Belashchenko, Kirill [Department of Physics & Astronomy] [Department of Physics & Astronomy

    2014-04-29

    This project discovered that non-equilibrium structures, including chemically ordered structures not observed in bulk systems, form in isolated nanoscale systems. Further, a generalized model was developed that effectively explained the suppression of equilibrium phase transformations. This thermodynamic model considered the free energy decrease associated with the phase transformation was less than the increase in energy associated with the formation of an interphase interface, therefore inhibiting the phase transformation. A critical diameter exists where the system transitions to bulk behavior, and a generalized equation was formulated that successfully predicted this transition in the Fe-Au system. This provided and explains a new route to novel structures not possible in bulk systems. The structural characterization was accomplished using transmission electron microscopy in collaboration with Matthew Kramer of Ames Laboratory. The PI and graduate student visited Ames Laboratory several times a year to conduct the experiments.

  9. GIS TRANSFORMATIONS Conference Presentation

    E-print Network

    Tobler, Waldo

    GIS TRANSFORMATIONS Conference Presentation Waldo Tobler Geography Department University, line, area, or field phenomena, then the sixteen common classes of transformation are: point -> point (scalar, vector, tensor) data, to obtain eighty distinct possible classes of transformation. The common

  10. Evaluating Transformer Losses

    E-print Network

    Grun, R. L. Jr.

    and replacing them with low loss units. Today few industrials evaluate losses on either power or distribution transformers. TRANSFORMER LOSSES Transformer losses are divided 'nto load losses and no-load losses. Load losses are due to the winding resista... therefore are a function of the load squared. No-load losses occur from energizing the transformer steel and fore are continuous regardless of the transformer load. TRANSFORMER DESIGN Both types of losses are a fun ce here ion of design. If losses...

  11. Characterization of large-scale fluctuations and short-term variability of Seine river daily streamflow (France) over the period 1950-2008 by empirical mode decomposition and the Hilbert-Huang transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massei, N.; Fournier, M.

    2010-12-01

    Daily Seine river flow from 1950 to 2008 was analyzed using Hilbert-Huang Tranform (HHT). For the last ten years, this method which combines the so-called Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) multiresolution analysis and the Hilbert transform has proven its efficiency for the analysis of transient oscillatory signals, although the mathematical definition of the EMD is not totally established yet. HHT also provides an interesting alternative to other time-frequency or time-scale analysis of non-stationary signals, the most famous of which being wavelet-based approaches. In this application of HHT to the analysis of the hydrological variability of the Seine river, we seek to characterize the interannual patterns of daily flow, differenciate them from the short-term dynamics and eventually interpret them in the context of regional climate regime fluctuations. In this aim, HHT is also applied to the North-Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) through the annual winter-months NAO index time series. For both hydrological and climatic signals, dominant variability scales are extracted and their temporal variations analyzed by determination of the intantaneous frequency of each component. When compared to previous ones obtained from continuous wavelet transform (CWT) on the same data, HHT results highlighted the same scales and somewhat the same internal components for each signal. However, HHT allowed the identification and extraction of much more similar features during the 1950-2008 period (e.g., around 7-yr, between NAO and Seine flow than what was obtained from CWT, which comes to say that variability scales in flow likely to originate from climatic regime fluctuations were much properly identified in river flow. In addition, a more accurate determination of singularities in the natural processes analyzed were authorized by HHT compared to CWT, in which case the time-frequency resolution partly depends on the basic properties of the filter (i.e., the reference wavelet chosen initially). Compared to CWT or even to discrete wavelet multiresolution analysis, HHT is auto-adaptive, non-parametric, allows an orthogonal decomposition of the signal analyzed and provides a more accurate estimation of changing variability scales across time for highly transient signals.

  12. A general spectral target signature transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayer, Rulon R.; Bucholtz, Frank; Scribner, Dean A.; Kruer, Melvin R.

    2004-08-01

    This report examines a series of multispectral or hyperspectral image data cubes collected of a given scene at different times. The diagonal, whitening/dewhitening, and target CV (Covariance) transformations use collected image data of spatially overlapping regions from data sets collected at different times to evolve target spectral signatures. The previously studied registration-free transformations are described using a single general equation and form a subset of a larger family of accurate transforms. The diagonal, whitening/dewhitening, and target CV transformations are characterized by a parameter n having n=0,1, 2 respectively. The transformed target signatures, used in matched filter searches, are tested on images taken from two data collects that use different sensors, targets, and backgrounds. Transforms with n between 0 and 2 yield the largest Target to Clutter Ratio (TCR) and remain relatively constant for 0transformation are target dependent for both data sets. This study finds only a small reduction in target detection results from using non-overlapping but similar regions to transform target signatures in matched filter searches. For a given target and scene, the TCR computed for this family of transforms is found to be temporally stable for multiple sequences of data collects and suggests a specific, optimal transform (or n) can be ascertained by conducting preliminary scans of a given target and scene.

  13. Arsenic(V) Reduction in Relation to Iron(III) Transformation and Molecular Characterization of the Structural and Functional Microbial Community in Sediments of a Basin-Fill Aquifer in Northern Utah

    PubMed Central

    Mirza, Babur S.; Muruganandam, Subathra; Meng, Xianyu; Sorensen, Darwin L.; Dupont, R. Ryan

    2014-01-01

    Basin-fill aquifers of the Southwestern United States are associated with elevated concentrations of arsenic (As) in groundwater. Many private domestic wells in the Cache Valley Basin, UT, have As concentrations in excess of the U.S. EPA drinking water limit. Thirteen sediment cores were collected from the center of the valley at the depth of the shallow groundwater and were sectioned into layers based on redoxmorphic features. Three of the layers, two from redox transition zones and one from a depletion zone, were used to establish microcosms. Microcosms were treated with groundwater (GW) or groundwater plus glucose (GW+G) to investigate the extent of As reduction in relation to iron (Fe) transformation and characterize the microbial community structure and function by sequencing 16S rRNA and arsenate dissimilatory reductase (arrA) genes. Under the carbon-limited conditions of the GW treatment, As reduction was independent of Fe reduction, despite the abundance of sequences related to Geobacter and Shewanella, genera that include a variety of dissimilatory iron-reducing bacteria. The addition of glucose, an electron donor and carbon source, caused substantial shifts toward domination of the bacterial community by Clostridium-related organisms, and As reduction was correlated with Fe reduction for the sediments from the redox transition zone. The arrA gene sequencing from microcosms at day 54 of incubation showed the presence of 14 unique phylotypes, none of which were related to any previously described arrA gene sequence, suggesting a unique community of dissimilatory arsenate-respiring bacteria in the Cache Valley Basin. PMID:24632255

  14. Integer lapped biorthogonal transform

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zhong Guangjun; Cheng Lizhi; Chen Huowang

    2001-01-01

    A type of lapped biorthogonal transform that can map integers to integers is considered. Based on the computational structure of the proposed lapped transform, an efficient multiplierless algorithm for the lapped biorthogonal transform (LBT), called integer lapped biorthogonal transform (IntLBT), is proposed. The proposed IntLBT is implemented by a series of dyadic lifting steps, and provides fast, efficient computation of

  15. transformation languages Introduction

    E-print Network

    Nierstrasz, Oscar

    transformation languages Introduction Transformation languages are widely used for to process can I change / transform the design of a certain task without changing it's logic The common/and hierarchical or/and abstract set of information. It can even be a stream of data. · The transformation engine

  16. Power quality assessment via wavelet transform analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Santoso, S.; Powers, E.J.; Grady, W.M. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering] [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Hofmann, P. [Consolidated Edison Co., New York, NY (United States)] [Consolidated Edison Co., New York, NY (United States)

    1996-04-01

    In this paper the authors present a new approach to detect, localize, and investigate the feasibility of classifying various types of power quality disturbances. The approach is based on wavelet transform analysis, particularly the dyadic-orthonormal wavelet transform. The key idea underlying the approach is to decompose a given disturbance signal into other signals which represent a smoothed version and a detailed version of the original signal. The decomposition is performed using multiresolution signal decomposition techniques. They demonstrate and test the proposed technique to detect and localize disturbances with actual power line disturbances. In order to enhance the detection outcomes, the authors utilize the squared wavelet transform coefficients of the analyzed power line signal. Based on the results of the detection and localization, they carry out an initial investigation of the ability to uniquely characterize various types of power quality disturbances. This investigation is based on characterizing the uniqueness of the squared wavelet transform coefficients for each power quality disturbance.

  17. Performance Measures for Transform Data Coding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Pearl; H. Andrews; W. Pratt

    1972-01-01

    This paper develops performance criteria for evaluating transform data coding schemes under computational constraints. Computational constraints that conform with the proposed basis-restricted model give rise to suboptimal coding efficiency characterized by a rate-distortion relationR(D)similar in form to the theoretical rate-distortion function. Numerical examples of this performance measure are presented for Fourier, Walsh, Haar, and Karhunen-Loève transforms.

  18. Perfect NOT transformation and conjugate transformation

    E-print Network

    Fengli Yan; Ting Gao; Zhichao Yan

    2012-03-15

    The perfect NOT transformation, probabilistic perfect NOT transformation and conjugate transformation are studied. Perfect NOT transformation criteria on a quantum state set $S$ of a qubit are obtained. Two necessary and sufficient conditions for realizing a perfect NOT transformation on $S$ are derived. When these conditions are not satisfied we discuss a probabilistic perfect NOT transformation (gate). We construct a probabilistic perfect NOT machine (gate) by a general unitary-reduction operation. With a postselection of the measurement outcomes, the probabilistic NOT gate yields perfectly complements of the input states. We prove that one can realize probabilistically the NOT gate of the input states secretly chosen from a certain set $S=\\{|\\Psi_1>, |\\Psi_2>,..., |\\Psi_n>\\}$ if and only if $|\\Psi_1>, |\\Psi_2>,...,$ and $|\\Psi_n>$ are linearly independent. We also generalize the probabilistic NOT transformation to the conjugate transformation in the multi-level quantum system. The lower bound of the best possible efficiencies attained by a probabilistic perfect conjugate transformation are obtained.

  19. Transformation of the diamond /110/ surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pepper, S. V.

    1982-01-01

    The diamond surface undergoes a transformation in its electronic structure by a vacuum anneal at approximately 900 C. This transformation is characterized by the appearance of a feature in the band gap region of the energy loss spectrum. The kinetics of the transformation on the (110) surface is studied by observing the growth of this feature with time and temperature. The transformation is found to be consistent with first-order kinetics with an activation energy of 4.8 eV. It is also found that the band gap feature could be removed by exposure of the transformed surface to excited hydrogen. The results are consistent with the polished diamond (110) surface being covered with hydrogen which removes the band gap states and can be thermally desorbed at approximately 900 C.

  20. Transformations of $W$-Type Entangled States

    E-print Network

    S. K?nta?; S. Turgut

    2010-03-10

    The transformations of $W$-type entangled states by using local operations assisted with classical communication are investigated. For this purpose, a parametrization of the $W$-type states which remains invariant under local unitary transformations is proposed and a complete characterization of the local operations carried out by a single party is given. These are used for deriving the necessary and sufficient conditions for deterministic transformations. A convenient upper bound for the maximum probability of distillation of arbitrary target states is also found.

  1. Face Recognition using Curvelet Transform

    E-print Network

    Cohen, Rami

    2011-01-01

    Face recognition has been studied extensively for more than 20 years now. Since the beginning of 90s the subject has became a major issue. This technology is used in many important real-world applications, such as video surveillance, smart cards, database security, internet and intranet access. This report reviews recent two algorithms for face recognition which take advantage of a relatively new multiscale geometric analysis tool - Curvelet transform, for facial processing and feature extraction. This transform proves to be efficient especially due to its good ability to detect curves and lines, which characterize the human's face. An algorithm which is based on the two algorithms mentioned above is proposed, and its performance is evaluated on three data bases of faces: AT&T (ORL), Essex Grimace and Georgia-Tech. k-nearest neighbour (k-NN) and Support vector machine (SVM) classifiers are used, along with Principal Component Analysis (PCA) for dimensionality reduction. This algorithm shows good results, ...

  2. On Poisson Nonlinear Transformations

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    We construct the family of Poisson nonlinear transformations defined on the countable sample space of nonnegative integers and investigate their trajectory behavior. We have proved that these nonlinear transformations are regular. PMID:25136692

  3. The Patch Transform

    E-print Network

    Avidan, Shai

    The patch transform represents an image as a bag of overlapping patches sampled on a regular grid. This representation allows users to manipulate images in the patch domain, which then seeds the inverse patch transform to ...

  4. Metrics for enterprise transformation

    E-print Network

    Blackburn, Craig D. (Craig David), S. M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this thesis is to depict the role of metrics in the evolving journey of enterprise transformation. To this end, three propositions are explored: (i) metrics and measurement systems drive transformation, ...

  5. Applying Improved Efficiency Transformers 

    E-print Network

    Haggerty, N. K.; Malone, T. P.

    1998-01-01

    that manufacturers utilize to reduce transformer losses are presented. Investment guidelines are provided for performing an economic evaluation and determining if an improved efficiency transformer can be justified. The decision to spend additional capital dollars...

  6. Influence of composition of the near-surface graded-gap layer on the admittance of metal-insulator-semiconductor structures based on graded-gap MBE n-Hg1-xCdxTe in wide temperature range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voitsekhovskii, A. V.; Nesmelov, S. N.; Dzyadukh, S. M.

    2014-12-01

    Influence of the CdTe content in a near-surface graded-gap layer on the admittance of MIS-structures fabricated on the basis of heteroepitaxial Hg1-xCdxTe (x = 0.22-0.23 and 0.31-0.32) films grown by molecular beam epitaxy was investigated in a wide temperature range. It is shown that a temperature drop from 77 K to 8 K results in a decrease of hysteresis of the capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics and a decrease of frequencies which corresponds to a high-frequency behaviour of C-V characteristics of MIS-structures based on n-HgCdTe (x = 0.22-0.23) with and without graded-gap layersand also for MIS-structures based on n-HgCdTe (x = 0.31-0.32). Temperature dependences of the resistance of the epitaxial film bulk and differential resistance of the space-charge region (SCR) in strong inversion mode were studied. The experimental results can be explained by the fact that for MIS-structures based on n-HgCdTe (x = 0.22-0.23) with the graded-gap layers and for MIS-structures based on n-HgCdTe (x = 0.31-0.32), the differential resistance of SCR is limited by Shockley-Read generation at 25-77 K. Differential resistance of SCR for MIS-structures based on n-HgCdTe (x = 0.22-0.23) without the graded-gap layers is limited by tunnelling through deep levels at 8-77 K.

  7. Influence of composition of the near-surface graded-gap layer on the admittance of metal-insulator-semiconductor structures based on graded-gap MBE n-Hg1-xCdxTe in wide temperature range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voitsekhovskii, A. V.; Nesmelov, S. N.; Dzyadukh, S. M.

    2014-09-01

    Influence of the CdTe content in a near-surface graded-gap layer on the admittance of MIS-structures fabricated on the basis of heteroepitaxial Hg1-xCdxTe (x = 0.22-0.23 and 0.31-0.32) films grown by molecular beam epitaxy was investigated in a wide temperature range. It is shown that a temperature drop from 77 K to 8 K results in a decrease of hysteresis of the capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics and a decrease of frequencies which corresponds to a high-frequency behaviour of C-V characteristics of MIS-structures based on n-HgCdTe (x = 0.22-0.23) with and without graded-gap layersand also for MIS-structures based on n-HgCdTe (x = 0.31-0.32). Temperature dependences of the resistance of the epitaxial film bulk and differential resistance of the space-charge region (SCR) in strong inversion mode were studied. The experimental results can be explained by the fact that for MIS-structures based on n-HgCdTe (x = 0.22-0.23) with the graded-gap layers and for MIS-structures based on n-HgCdTe (x = 0.31-0.32), the differential resistance of SCR is limited by Shockley-Read generation at 25-77 K. Differential resistance of SCR for MIS-structures based on n-HgCdTe (x = 0.22-0.23) without the graded-gap layers is limited by tunnelling through deep levels at 8-77 K.

  8. Discrete radon transform

    Microsoft Academic Search

    GREGORY BEYLKIN

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes the discrete Radon transform (DRT) and the exact inversion algorithm for it. Similar to the discrete Fourier transform (DFT), the DRT is defined for periodic vector-sequences and studied as a transform in its own right. Casting the forward transform as a matrix-vector multiplication, the key observation is that the matrix-although very large-has a block-circulant structure. This observation

  9. The pulse sorting transform

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. C. Overman; D. F. Mix; J. A. Lookadoo

    1990-01-01

    A modification of conventional Fourier transforms is presented. This modification is called the pulse sorting transform (PST) and is useful in extracting information from signals comprised of interleaved pulse trains. A brief derivation of the PST from the conventional transform is presented, followed by theorems that describe the PST's properties. Several examples of how the PST can be an effective

  10. Achieving Perspective Transformation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nowak, Jens

    Perspective transformation is a consciously achieved state in which the individual's perspective on life is transformed. The new perspective serves as a vantage point for life's actions and interactions, affecting the way life is lived. Three conditions are basic to achieving perspective transformation: (1) "feeling" experience, i.e., getting in…

  11. The Transformation of Suffering

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Liza J. Rankow

    2006-01-01

    This article offers reflections on The Passion of the Lord, edited by James A. Noel and Matthew V. Johnson. The title “The Transformation of Suffering” refers not only to the transformations emerging from the epic suffering endured by Jesus and by peoples of the African diaspora, but to the ways each of us may be spiritually transformed by the crucible

  12. LAPPED TRANSFORMS COMPRESSION

    E-print Network

    de Queiroz, Ricardo L.

    Chapter 6 LAPPED TRANSFORMS FOR IMAGE COMPRESSION Ricardo L. de Queiroz Digital Imaging Technology aspects of lapped transforms and their applications to image compression. It is a subject that has been extensively studied mainly because lapped transforms are closely related to filter banks, wavelets, and time

  13. Transformations - Composition (NLVM)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2011-01-01

    This Java applet enables learners to explore compositions of two transformations (among sliding, flipping and turning) both informally and within a coordinate system. Students select and compose shapes and manipulate the transformations to see the effect on a transformed image. Links to instructions, activities and teacher/parent information are included.

  14. Invertible Darboux Transformations

    E-print Network

    Ekaterina Shemyakova

    2013-01-04

    For operators of many different kinds it has been proved that (generalized) Darboux transformations can be built using so called Wronskian formulae. Such Darboux transformations are not invertible in the sense that the corresponding mappings of the operator kernels are not invertible. The only known invertible ones were Laplace transformations (and their compositions), which are special cases of Darboux transformations for hyperbolic bivariate operators of order 2. In the present paper we find a criteria for a bivariate linear partial differential operator of an arbitrary order d to have an invertible Darboux transformation. We show that Wronkian formulae may fail in some cases, and find sufficient conditions for such formulae to work.

  15. An extension of the Laplace transform to Schwartz distributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, D. R.

    1974-01-01

    A characterization of the Laplace transform is developed which extends the transform to the Schwartz distributions. The class of distributions includes the impulse functions and other singular functions which occur as solutions to ordinary and partial differential equations. The standard theorems on analyticity, uniqueness, and invertibility of the transform are proved by using the characterization as the definition of the Laplace transform. The definition uses sequences of linear transformations on the space of distributions which extends the Laplace transform to another class of generalized functions, the Mikusinski operators. It is shown that the sequential definition of the transform is equivalent to Schwartz' extension of the ordinary Laplace transform to distributions but, in contrast to Schwartz' definition, does not use the distributional Fourier transform. Several theorems concerning the particular linear transformations used to define the Laplace transforms are proved. All the results proved in one dimension are extended to the n-dimensional case, but proofs are presented only for those situations that require methods different from their one-dimensional analogs.

  16. Imaging Fourier transform spectrometry of chemical plumes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kenneth C. Bradley; Kevin C. Gross; Glen P. Perram

    2009-01-01

    A midwave infrared (MWIR) imaging Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS), the Telops FIRST-MWE (Field-portable Imaging Radiometric Spectrometer Technology - Midwave Extended) has been utilized for the standoff detection and characterization of chemical plumes. Successful collection and analysis of MWIR hyperspectral imagery of jet engine exhaust has allowed us to produce spatial profiles of both temperature and chemical constituent concentrations of exhaust

  17. WAVELET TRANSFORMS FOR NONLINEAR SIGNAL PROCESSING Robert Nowak

    E-print Network

    WAVELET TRANSFORMS FOR NONLINEAR SIGNAL PROCESSING Robert Nowak Michigan State University East describe two new structures for nonlinear signal processing. The new structures simplify the analy- sis cients. While most existing approaches to nonlinear signal processing characterize the nonlinearity

  18. Transformation optics scheme for two-dimensional materials

    E-print Network

    Kumar, Anshuman

    Two-dimensional optical materials, such as graphene, can be characterized by surface conductivity. So far, the transformation optics schemes have focused on three-dimensional properties such as permittivity ? and permeability ...

  19. PALEYWIENER AND BOAS THEOREMS FOR SINGULAR STURMLIOUVILLE INTEGRAL TRANSFORMS

    E-print Network

    Zeilberger, Doron

    PALEY­WIENER AND BOAS THEOREMS FOR SINGULAR STURM­LIOUVILLE INTEGRAL TRANSFORMS VU KIM TUAN that vanishes on some interval (Boas prob­ lem) under this class of transforms. The characterizations­Wiener Theorem, Boas Theorem, Singular Sturm­Liouville Problems, Eigenfunction Expansions, Finite Integral

  20. Electrical characterization of a GaAs quantum well confined by GaAlAs layers or by two superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ababou, S.; Guillot, G.; Regreny, A.

    1992-11-01

    Capacitance-voltage, deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS), and admittance spectroscopy measurements have been performed to characterize a GaAs quantum well confined either by Ga0.57Al0.43As layers or by two GaAs-Ga0.54Al0.46As superlattices. Due to a large capacitance decrease at low temperature, the well response cannot be obtained from DLTS measurements. This capacitance step is related to the thermionic emission from the well to the barrier regions. For the case of the enlarged well in the superlattice, the electron emission takes place towards the conduction miniband. In order to deduce the conduction-band discontinuity, admittance spectroscopy measurements have been applied. The bottom of the superlattice miniband is at 107±10 meV from the GaAs conduction-band minimum. The corresponding band offset deduced from a theoretical calculation is ?Ec=410±10 meV=(0.65±0.02) ?Eg. For the GaAs quantum well in GaAlAs, we measure a conduction-band discontinuity of 0.35 eV between GaAs and GaAlAs that has its minimum at the X point. At the ? point, the band offset ratio ?Ec/?Eg is once more confirmed.

  1. Transformations between symmetric sets of quantum states

    E-print Network

    Vedran Dunjko; Erika Andersson

    2012-06-22

    We investigate probabilistic transformations of quantum states from a `source' set to a `target' set of states. Such transforms have many applications. They can be used for tasks which include state-dependent cloning or quantum state discrimination, and as interfaces between systems whose information encodings are not related by a unitary transform, such as continuous-variable systems and finite-dimensional systems. In a probabilistic transform, information may be lost or leaked, and we explain the concepts of leak and redundancy. Following this, we show how the analysis of probabilistic transforms significantly simplifies for symmetric source and target sets of states. In particular, we give a simple linear program which solves the task of finding optimal transforms, and a method of characterizing the introduced leak and redundancy in information-theoretic terms. Using the developed techniques, we analyse a class of transforms which convert coherent states with information encoded in their relative phase to symmetric qubit states. Each of these sets of states on their own appears in many well studied quantum information protocols. Finally, we suggest an asymptotic realization based on quantum scissors.

  2. Characterization of the putative transposase mRNA of Tag1, which is ubiquitously expressed in Arabidopsis and can be induced by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation with dTag1 DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Liu, D; Crawford, N M

    1998-01-01

    Tag1 is an autonomous transposable element of Arabidopsis thaliana. Tag1 expression was examined in two ecotypes of Arabidopsis (Columbia and No-0) that were transformed with CaMV 35S-Tag1-GUS DNA. These ecotypes contain no endogenous Tag1 elements. A major 2.3-kb and several minor transcripts were detected in all major organs of the plants. The major transcript encoded a putative transposase of 84.2 kD with two nuclear localization signal sequences and a region conserved among transposases of the Ac or hAT family of elements. The abundance of Tag1 transcripts varied among transgenic lines and did not correlate with somatic excision frequency or germinal reversion rates, suggesting that factors other than transcript levels control Tag1 excision activity. In untransformed plants of the Landsberg ecotype, which contain two endogenous Tag1 elements, no Tag1 transcripts were detected. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of these Landsberg plants with a defective 1.4-kb Tag1 element resulted in the appearance of full-length Tag1 transcripts from the endogenous elements. Transformation with control DNA containing no Tag1 sequences did not activate endogenous Tag1 expression. These results indicate that Agrobacterium-mediated transformation with dTag1 can activate the expression of Tag1. PMID:9611184

  3. The role of nitrate reduction in the anoxic metabolism of roots I. Characterization of root morphology and normoxic metabolism of wild type tobacco and a transformant lacking root nitrate reductase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Stoimenova; R. Hänsch; R. Mendel; H. Gimmler; W. M. Kaiser

    2003-01-01

    Two tobacco lines with (Nicotiana tabacum cv. Gatersleben, WT) or without (transformant LNR-H) nitrate reductase in roots were chosen as model systems to re-evaluate the role of root nitrate reduction for survival of anoxia. In this first paper, the two hydroponically grown lines were compared with respect to their root morphology, root respiration and the root content of inorganic cations,

  4. Nanosecond Pulse Transformers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Norman Winningstad

    1959-01-01

    The transmission-line approach to the design of transformers yields a unit with no first-order rise-time limit since this approach uses distributed rather than lumped constants. The total time delay through the transmission-line-type transformer may exceed the rise time by a large factor, unlike conventional transformers. The extra winding length can be employed to improve the low-frequency response of the unit.

  5. Evaluating Transformer Losses 

    E-print Network

    Grun, R. L. Jr.

    1989-01-01

    and replacing them with low loss units. Today few industrials evaluate losses on either power or distribution transformers. TRANSFORMER LOSSES Transformer losses are divided 'nto load losses and no-load losses. Load losses are due to the winding resista... of the transformer. It will vary between the limits of the load factor and the square of the load factor, depending upon the shape of the load curve. For a load factor of .80, the loss factor will be between .64 and .80. The yearly no-load loss value...

  6. Transform coding of images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, R. J.

    The theoretical and practical aspects of transform coding systems for processing still or moving images are discussed. Among the specific topics considered are: the statistical properties of images; orthogonal transforms for image coding; and transform coefficient quantization and bit allocation. Some practical methods of image coding are described, including: interframe coding; intraframe coding; and transform coding of color data. The application of human visual models to the assessment of image quality is also discussed. Techniques for measuring rms error in coded images are given in an appendix.

  7. Spherical Harmonic Transform Algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    Drake, John B [ORNL; Worley, Patrick H [ORNL; D'Azevedo, Eduardo [ORNL

    2008-01-01

    A collection of MATLAB classes for computing spherical harmonic transforms are presented and used to solve simple partial differential equations on the sphere. The spectral synthesis and analysis using fast Fourier transforms and Legendre transforms with the associated Legendre functions are presented in depth. A set of methods associated with a spectral\\_field class provides spectral approximation to the $\\DIV$, $\\CURL$, $\\GRAD$, and $\\LAPL$ in spherical geometr y. Laplace inversion and Helmholtz equation solvers are also methods for this clas s. Investigation of algorithms and analysis for spherical harmonic transform optio ns for parallel high performance computers are discussed in the context of global climate and weather models.

  8. The Discrete Pulse Transform

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. H. Rohwer; D. P. Laurie

    2006-01-01

    We investigate a recent algorithm, here called a discrete pulse transform (DPT), for the multiresolution analysis of a sequence. A DPT represents a sequence as a sum of pulses, where a pulse is a sequence which is zero everywhere except for a certain number of consecutive elements which have a constant nonzero value. Unlike the discrete Fourier and wavelet transforms,

  9. Direct current transformer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khanna, S. M.; Urban, E. W. (inventors)

    1979-01-01

    A direct current transformer in which the primary consists of an elongated strip of superconductive material, across the ends of which is direct current potential is described. Parallel and closely spaced to the primary is positioned a transformer secondary consisting of a thin strip of magnetoresistive material.

  10. Lapped Tight Frame Transforms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amina Chebira; J. Kovacevic

    2007-01-01

    We propose a new class of equal-norm tight frames termed lapped tight frame transforms (LTFTs). These can be seen as a redundant counterpart to bases known as lapped orthogonal transforms (LOTs) introduced by Malvar and Cassereau, as well as an infinite-dimensional counterpart to harmonic tight frames (HTFs). To construct LTFTs, we seed them from LOTs and show that, in a

  11. Biochemical transformation of coals

    DOEpatents

    Lin, M.S.; Premuzic, E.T.

    1999-03-23

    A method of biochemically transforming macromolecular compounds found in solid carbonaceous materials, such as coal is provided. The preparation of new microorganisms, metabolically weaned through challenge growth processes to biochemically transform solid carbonaceous materials at extreme temperatures, pressures, pH, salt and toxic metal concentrations is also disclosed. 7 figs.

  12. Two Different Squeeze Transformations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, D. (Editor); Kim, Y. S.

    1996-01-01

    Lorentz boosts are squeeze transformations. While these transformations are similar to those in squeezed states of light, they are fundamentally different from both physical and mathematical points of view. The difference is illustrated in terms of two coupled harmonic oscillators, and in terms of the covariant harmonic oscillator formalism.

  13. Biochemical transformation of coals

    DOEpatents

    Lin, Mow S. (Rocky Point, NY); Premuzic, Eugene T. (East Moriches, NY)

    1999-03-23

    A method of biochemically transforming macromolecular compounds found in solid carbonaceous materials, such as coal is provided. The preparation of new microorganisms, metabolically weaned through challenge growth processes to biochemically transform solid carbonaceous materials at extreme temperatures, pressures, pH, salt and toxic metal concentrations is also disclosed.

  14. The generalized Gabor transform.

    PubMed

    Yao, J; Krolak, P; Steele, C

    1995-01-01

    The generalized Gabor transform (for image representation) is discussed. For a given function f(t), tinR, the generalized Gabor transform finds a set of coefficients a(mr) such that f(t)=Sigma(m=-infinity)(infinity)Sigma (r=-infinity)(infinity)alpha(mr )g(t-mT)exp(i2pirt/T'). The original Gabor transform proposed by D. Gabor (1946) is the special case of T=T'. The computation of the generalized Gabor transform with biorthogonal functions is discussed. The optimal biorthogonal functions are discussed. A relation between a window function and its optimal biorthogonal function is presented based on the Zak (1967) transform when T/T' is rational. The finite discrete generalized Gabor transform is also derived. Methods of computation for the biorthogonal function are discussed. The relation between a window function and its optimal biorthogonal function derived for the continuous variable generalized Gabor transform can be extended to the finite discrete case. Efficient algorithms for the optimal biorthogonal function and generalized Gabor transform for the finite discrete case are proposed. PMID:18290047

  15. Light Controlled Piezoelectric Transformer

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lucjan Kozielski

    2011-01-01

    The author designed ``smart material'' device allow to control an output voltage level by change of incident light intensity. New functions of piezoelectric transformer (PT) was realized by superimposing piezoelectricity with photostriction. The effect of a light influence on the PT voltage gain was proved experimentally, consequently these ``smart'' transformers with its new functionality can be utilized as a promising

  16. Exploring Functional Mellin Transforms

    E-print Network

    J. LaChapelle

    2015-01-08

    We define functional Mellin transforms within a scheme for functional integration proposed in [1]. Functional Mellin transforms can be used to define functional traces, logarithms, and determinants. The associated functional integrals are useful tools for probing function spaces in general and $C^\\ast$-algebras in particular. Several interesting aspects are explored.

  17. Power transformer testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zagrobelna, Magdalena; Wasilewski, Andrzej

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents the method of oil-filled transformer monitoring by means of a fiber optic sensor. Our method can be extremely useful in case of prevent overheating and the winding failure. A special semiconductor technology plays an important role in such measurement. The tests were carried out by means of the developed test stand imitating a real power transformer.

  18. Transform picture coding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. A. Wintz

    1972-01-01

    Picture coding by first dividing the picture into sub-pictures and then performing a linear transformation on each sub-picture cud quantizing and coding the resulting coefficients is introduced from a heuristic point of view. Various transformation, quantization, and coding strategies are discussed. A survey of all known applications of these techniques to monochromatic image coding is presented along with a summary

  19. Thermal evaporation and characterization of superstrate CdS/Sb2Se3 solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Miao; Leng, Meiying; Liu, Xinsheng; Chen, Jie; Chen, Chao; Qin, Sikai; Tang, Jiang

    2014-04-01

    Sb2Se3 is a very promising absorber material for thin film photovoltaics because of its ideal band gap, strong optical absorption, and non-toxic and earth-abundant constituents. However, only until this year Sb2Se3 solar cell was reported. Here, we present the fabrication and characterization of thermally evaporated superstrate CdS/Sb2Se3 solar cell. Our device achieved a power conversion efficiency of 1.9% (Voc = 300 mV, Jsc = 13.2 mA/cm2, and FF = 48%) and showed good stability. Moreover, using current-voltage measurement, admittance spectroscopy, capacitance-voltage profiling, and drive level capacitance profiling, device characteristics and performance limiting factors are revealed and discussed.

  20. Program Transformation Mechanics A Classification of Mechanisms for Program Transformation

    E-print Network

    Utrecht, Universiteit

    Program Transformation Mechanics A Classification of Mechanisms for Program Transformation with a Survey of Existing Transformation Systems Jonne van Wijngaarden Eelco Visser UU-CS-2003-048 Institute Transformation Mechanics A Classification of Mechanisms for Program Transformation with a Survey of Existing

  1. Logarithmic transformation of response Logarithmic transformation of response

    E-print Network

    Komarek, Arnost

    Logarithmic transformation of response Logarithmic transformation of response Often, support S of Y is S = (0, ). Logarithm is then one of transformations to consider when trying to obtain a correct (wrong. Model Building 1. Transformation of response #12;Logarithmic transformation of response When does

  2. Admittance Services through Mobile Phone Short Messages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Josef Noll; Juan Carlos Lopez Calvet; Kjell Myksvoll

    2006-01-01

    A critical issue in the acceptance of wireless services is the authentication to these services. Wireless networks are available, including the home\\/office network, public hot-spots and the mobile networks. They will extend, including new access technologies such as 4G, and WiMax. Service take-up in these networks will be limited, unless seamless service access is guaranteed. The success of GSM, and

  3. Genetic Transformation in Citrus

    PubMed Central

    Donmez, Dicle; Simsek, Ozhan; Izgu, Tolga; Aka Kacar, Yildiz; Yalcin Mendi, Yesim

    2013-01-01

    Citrus is one of the world's important fruit crops. Recently, citrus molecular genetics and biotechnology work have been accelerated in the world. Genetic transformation, a biotechnological tool, allows the release of improved cultivars with desirable characteristics in a shorter period of time and therefore may be useful in citrus breeding programs. Citrus transformation has now been achieved in a number of laboratories by various methods. Agrobacterium tumefaciens is used mainly in citrus transformation studies. Particle bombardment, electroporation, A. rhizogenes, and a new method called RNA interference are used in citrus transformation studies in addition to A. tumefaciens. In this review, we illustrate how different gene transformation methods can be employed in different citrus species. PMID:23983635

  4. Recombinant human adenoviruses containing hybrid adenovirus type 5 (Ad5)/Ad12 E1A genes: characterization of hybrid E1A proteins and analysis of transforming activity and host range.

    PubMed Central

    Jelinek, T; Graham, F L

    1992-01-01

    Hybrid adenovirus type 12 (Ad12)/Ad5 E1A genes were constructed by homologous recombination in Escherichia coli, a technique which offers several advantages over conventional mutagenesis for genetic analysis of proteins. In particular, functional differences between the proteins can be mapped by correlating the replacement of specific sequences with the acquisition of new properties, and there is no requirement for common unique restriction sites or polymerase chain reaction strategies to construct the hybrids. Recombinant adenoviruses expressing these hybrid E1A proteins were capable of replicating efficiently in HeLa cells, with the exception of one construct which contained a hybrid transactivation domain. The transforming activity of the hybrid E1A constructs was assayed by DNA transfection of primary baby rat kidney cells. Plasmids containing Ad12 E1 were approximately 20-fold less efficient at transformation than those with E1 of Ad5, and it was found that two regions in exon 1 of E1A mediate this difference. No differences were found in the abilities of any hybrid E1A proteins to bind to cellular proteins previously determined to be important for transformation by E1A. Images PMID:1534849

  5. Relational mentoring in clinical supervision: the transformational supervisor.

    PubMed

    Johnson, W Brad; Skinner, Cessily J; Kaslow, Nadine J

    2014-11-01

    Effective clinical supervision naturally incorporates many elements of mentoring. In this article, we us the Mentoring Relationship Continuum (MRC) model to frame a discussion of transformational supervision. We define transformational supervision as a rich developmental relationship characterized by increasing relational reciprocity, a greater range of career and psychosocial mentoring functions, and a strong sense of collegiality. As a strong supervisory relationship approaches the transformational end of the MRC, the supervisor offers increasing levels of support, empowerment, authenticity, and reciprocity; over time, the relationship has a more interdependent, egalitarian, and communitarian character. We employ a case example to illustrate excellent transformational supervision. PMID:25220809

  6. Characterization methodology for PMR-15

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, A. B.

    1985-01-01

    Characterization of model compounds, monomers, resin solutions and cure cycles of PMR-15 polyimide are performed. Successful separation of various reaction products is also accomplished by liquid chromatography. The PMR-15 cure analysis is performed by fourier transform spectroscopy and gas chromatograph - mass spectrometry. Characterization receiving inspection tests for Quality Control are recommended.

  7. Brain shape characterization from deformation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lawrence H. Staib; Marcel Jackowski; Xenophon Papademetris

    2006-01-01

    The characterization of shape in the brain is of great importance for understanding differences in structure and the relationship to function. Structural differences have been associated with, for example, age, sex, handedness, cognitive abilities and many neurologic and psychiatric conditions. Nonrigid registration methods enable the characterization of shape differences between images based on the transformation that relates them. Unlike methods

  8. Characteristics of human EEG sleep spindles assessed by Gabor transform

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Suzana V. Schönwald; Günther J. L. Gerhardt; Emerson L. de Santa-Helena; Márcia L. F. Chaves

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study is to show an application of the Gabor transform on the detection and characterization of human sleep EEG spindles in a sample of 10 healthy young adults, trying to identify the most useful parameters that can be used for the automatic detection and characterization of such events.

  9. Characteristics of human EEG sleep spindles assessed by Gabor transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schönwald, Suzana V.; Gerhardt, Günther J. L.; de Santa-Helena, Emerson L.; Chaves, Márcia L. F.

    2003-09-01

    The aim of this study is to show an application of the Gabor transform on the detection and characterization of human sleep EEG spindles in a sample of 10 healthy young adults, trying to identify the most useful parameters that can be used for the automatic detection and characterization of such events.

  10. Motion estimation using lapped transforms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert W. Young; Nick G. Kingsbury

    1992-01-01

    A frequency-domain algorithm for motion estimation based on overlapped transforms of the image data is developed. The transform used is referred to as the complex lapped transform (CLT) and is formed by extending the lapped orthogonal transform to have complex basis functions. It may also be viewed as a modified short time Fourier transform. A method for estimating cross-correlation functions

  11. A compact high-voltage pulse generator based on pulse transformer with closed magnetic core

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu Zhang; Jinliang Liu; Xinbing Cheng; Guoqiang Bai; Hongbo Zhang; Jiahuai Feng; Bo Liang

    2010-01-01

    A compact high-voltage nanosecond pulse generator, based on a pulse transformer with a closed magnetic core, is presented in this paper. The pulse generator consists of a miniaturized pulse transformer, a curled parallel strip pulse forming line (PFL), a spark gap, and a matched load. The innovative design is characterized by the compact structure of the transformer and the curled

  12. How Political Science Became Modern: Racial Thought and the Transformation of the Discipline, 1880-1930

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blatt, Jessica

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation argues that changing ideas about race and engagement with race science were at the heart of a major transformation of political science in the 1920s, a transformation that I characterize as "becoming modern." This transformation was at once conceptual--visible in the basic categories and theoretical apparatus of the…

  13. Lapped transforms for efficient transform\\/subband coding

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. S. Malvar

    1990-01-01

    Two lapped transforms for subband\\/transform coding of signals are introduced: a version of the lapped orthogonal transform (LOT), which can be efficiently computed for any transform length; and the modulated lapped transform (MLT), which is based on a modulated quadrature mirror (QMF) bank. The MLT can also be efficiently computed by means of a type-IV discrete sine transform (DST-IV). The

  14. Lapped directional transform: a new transform for spectral image analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dietmar Kunz; Til Aach

    1999-01-01

    We propose a new real-valued lapped transform for 2D-signal and image processing. Lapped transforms are particularly useful in block-based processing, since their intrinsically overlapping basis functions reduce or prevent block artifacts. Our transform is derived from the modulated lapped transform (MLT), which, as a real-valued and separable transform like the discrete cosine transform, does not allow to unambiguously identify oriented

  15. Lorentz transformation by mimicking the Lorentz transformation

    E-print Network

    Bernhard Rothenstein; Stefan Popescu

    2007-09-24

    We show that starting with the fact that special relativity theory is concerned with a distortion of the observed length of a moving rod, without mentioning if it is a "contraction" or "dilation", we can derive the Lorentz transformations for the spacetime coordinates of the same event. This derivation is based on expressing the length of the moving rod as a sum of components with all the lengths involved in this summation being measured by the observers of the same inertial reference frame.

  16. Transformer design tradeoffs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclyman, W. T.

    1976-01-01

    Material was presented to assist transformer designers in the transition from long-used English units to the less familiar metric equivalents. A coordination between the area product numbers ap (product of window and core cross-section areas) and current density J was developed for a given regulation and temperature rise. Straight-line relationships for Ap and Volume, Ap and surface area At and, Ap and weight were developed. These relationships can now be used as new tools to simplify and standardize the process of transformer design. They also made it possible to design transformers of small bulk and volume or to optimize efficiency.

  17. Biolistics Transformation of Wheat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparks, Caroline A.; Jones, Huw D.

    We present a complete, step-by-step guide to the production of transformed wheat plants using a particle bombardment device to deliver plasmid DNA into immature embryos and the regeneration of transgenic plants via somatic embryogenesis. Currently, this is the most commonly used method for transforming wheat and it offers some advantages. However, it will be interesting to see whether this position is challenged as facile methods are developed for delivering DNA by Agrobacterium tumefaciens or by the production of transformants via a germ-line process (see other chapters in this book).

  18. Some Distributional Properties of the Continuous Wavelet Transform of Random Processes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roland Averkamp; Christian Houdré

    1998-01-01

    Without finite moment conditions, some properties of random processes, such as stationarity and self-similarity, are characterized via corresponding properties of their wavelet transform. Anyone of these distributional properties of the wavelet transform characterizes the corresponding property of the increments of the random process, of order equal to the order of regularity of the analyzing wavelet. Extensions of these results to

  19. On the continuous wavelet transform of second-order random processes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stamatis Cambanis; Christian Houdré

    1995-01-01

    Some second-order properties of random processes such as periodic correlation, stationarity, harmonizability, self-similarity, are characterized via corresponding properties of their wavelet transform: any one of these properties of the wavelet transform characterizes the corresponding property of the increments of the random process, of order equal to the order of regularity of the analyzing wavelet. These results are then specialized to

  20. Criteria for accuracy of rotary transformers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogdanov, V. I.; Tazov, G. V.; Khrushchev, V. V.

    1984-05-01

    The performance of rotary transformers for electronic data processing is analyzed from the standpoint of accuracy. Systematic error include the relative amplitude error caused by step-curve approximation of a sine wave, errors caused by asymmetry of the null points and by residual emfs at the null points, quadrature error, and error caused by a difference between the transformation ratios. Random errors in reproducing four functional relations characterizing the outputs of two secondary windings as functions of the rotor angle, with the two orthogonal primary windings excited alternately, are analyzed statistically with asymmetry of the magnetic circuit and of the electric circuits treated as a probabilistic quantity. The system of random functions is an at least four-dimensional one and treated here as such, in orthogonalization by the Gran-Schmidt method. As the accuracy criterion is selected the resultant vector, the sum of two vectors, characterizing the fluctuation of flux-linkages affecting all coupled coils.

  1. Facilities: NHMFL 9.4 Tesla Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometer Citation: Characterization of Pine Pellet and Peanut Hull Pyrolysis of Bio-Oils by Negative-Ion Electrospray Ionization Fourier

    E-print Network

    Weston, Ken

    : Characterization of Pine Pellet and Peanut Hull Pyrolysis of Bio-Oils by Negative-Ion Electrospray Ionization pine pellets and peanut hulls, generates a hydrocarbon-rich liquid product (bio-oil) consisting of oily for thousands of compounds. Pine pellet bio-oils are dominated by species containing multiple oxygen atoms

  2. Transformer design tradeoffs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclyman, W. T.

    1977-01-01

    In space, power system transformer components are frequently the heaviest and bulkiest items in the power conversion circuit. They also have a significant effect upon the overall performance and efficiency of the system. Accordingly, the design of such transformers has an important effect on overall system weight, power-inversion efficiency, and cost. Relationships were between the parameters used by transformer designers that can be used as new tools to standardize and simplify transformer design. They can be used to optimize the design either for small size and weight or efficiency. The metric system of units, rather than the familiar English units, is used; however, material is presented to assist the reader in the transition from one system to the other.

  3. Proof in Transformation Geometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, A. W.

    1971-01-01

    The first of three articles showing how inductively-obtained results in transformation geometry may be organized into a deductive system. This article discusses two approaches to enlargement (dilatation), one using coordinates and the other using synthetic methods. (MM)

  4. The Quantum Mellin transform

    E-print Network

    J. Twamley; G. J. Milburn

    2007-02-12

    We uncover a new type of unitary operation for quantum mechanics on the half-line which yields a transformation to ``Hyperbolic phase space''. We show that this new unitary change of basis from the position x on the half line to the Hyperbolic momentum $p_\\eta$, transforms the wavefunction via a Mellin transform on to the critial line $s=1/2-ip_\\eta$. We utilise this new transform to find quantum wavefunctions whose Hyperbolic momentum representation approximate a class of higher transcendental functions, and in particular, approximate the Riemann Zeta function. We finally give possible physical realisations to perform an indirect measurement of the Hyperbolic momentum of a quantum system on the half-line.

  5. A Classical Science Transformed.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovalevsky, Jean

    1979-01-01

    Describes how satellites and other tools of space technology have transformed classical geodesy into the science of space geodynamics. The establishment and the activities of the French Center for Geodynamic and Astronomical Research Studies (CERGA) are also included. (HM)

  6. Fourier transform mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Scigelova, Michaela; Hornshaw, Martin; Giannakopulos, Anastassios; Makarov, Alexander

    2011-07-01

    This article provides an introduction to Fourier transform-based mass spectrometry. The key performance characteristics of Fourier transform-based mass spectrometry, mass accuracy and resolution, are presented in the view of how they impact the interpretation of measurements in proteomic applications. The theory and principles of operation of two types of mass analyzer, Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance and Orbitrap, are described. Major benefits as well as limitations of Fourier transform-based mass spectrometry technology are discussed in the context of practical sample analysis, and illustrated with examples included as figures in this text and in the accompanying slide set. Comparisons highlighting the performance differences between the two mass analyzers are made where deemed useful in assisting the user with choosing the most appropriate technology for an application. Recent developments of these high-performing mass spectrometers are mentioned to provide a future outlook. PMID:21742802

  7. Cell transformation by viruses

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joseph L. Melnick; Janet S. Butel; Satvir S. Tevethia; Nilambar Biswal; Matilda Benyesh-Melnick

    1971-01-01

    Summary  This paper describes some current work pertaining to transformation of cells by oncogenic viruses.\\u000a \\u000a Part I includes: (1) the effect of a deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) tumor virus (SV40) on the antigenic characteristics of transformed\\u000a cells; (2) in vitro and in vivo methods of detecting virus-specific surface antigens; (3) the role that the host cell may\\u000a play in the expression of

  8. Series Transmission Line Transformer

    DOEpatents

    Buckles, Robert A. (Livermore, CA); Booth, Rex (Livermore, CA); Yen, Boris T. (El Cerrito, CA)

    2004-06-29

    A series transmission line transformer is set forth which includes two or more of impedance matched sets of at least two transmissions lines such as shielded cables, connected in parallel at one end ans series at the other in a cascading fashion. The cables are wound about a magnetic core. The series transmission line transformer (STLT) which can provide for higher impedance ratios and bandwidths, which is scalable, and which is of simpler design and construction.

  9. Selection of Transformed Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Huw D.; Sparks, Caroline A.

    The low frequency and randomness of transgene integration into host cells, combined with the significant challenges of recovering whole plants from those rare events, makes the use of selectable marker genes routine in plant transformation experiments. For research applications that are unlikely to be grown in the field, strong herbicide- or antibiotic resistance is commonly used. Here we use genes conferring resistance to glufosinate herbicides as an example of a selectable marker in wheat transformation by either Agrobacterium or biolistics.

  10. Spherical Wavelet Transform

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Milton Ferreira

    2008-01-01

    .  In this article we present a group-theoretical approach for the continuous wavelet transform (CWT) on the unit sphere S\\u000a \\u000a n-1 based on its conformal group, the Lorentz group Spin(1, n), which is a double covering of the SO(1, n) group. We introduce transformations on the unit sphere from the decomposition of the conformal group into the maximal compact\\u000a subgroup of

  11. Transformation of Yeast

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Albert Hinnen; James B. Hicks; Gerald R. Fink

    1978-01-01

    A stable leu2- yeast strain has been transformed to LEU2+ by using a chimeric ColE1 plasmid carrying the yeast leu2 gene. We have used recently developed hybridization and restriction endonuclease mapping techniques to demonstrate directly the presence of the transforming DNA in the yeast genome and also to determine the arrangement of the sequences that were introduced. These studies show

  12. Functional Mellin Transforms

    E-print Network

    J. LaChapelle

    2015-01-07

    Functional integrals are defined in terms of locally compact topological groups and their associated Banach-valued Haar integrals. This approach generalizes the functional integral scheme of Cartier and DeWitt-Morette. The definition allows a construction of functional Mellin transforms. In turn, the functional Mellin transforms can be used to define functional traces, logarithms, and determinants. The associated functional integrals are useful tools for probing function spaces in general and $C^\\ast$-algebras in particular. Several interesting aspects are explored.

  13. Microbial Transformation of TRU and Mixed Wastes: Actinide Speciation and Waste Volume Reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Halada, Gary P.

    2004-12-01

    I. To characterize the biodegradation of cellulosic materials using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy. II. To develop an electrochemical/spectroscopic methodology to characterize TRU waste microbial transformation III. To develop molecular models of TRU complexes in order to understand microbial transformation In all cases, objectives are designed to compliment the efforts from other team members, and will be periodically coordinated through the lead P.I. at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), A.J. Francis.

  14. Chemical Transformations of Phyllocladane ( 13-Kaurane) Diterpenoids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gui Liu; Ralph Mller; Peter Redi

    Earlier phytochemical work on Plectranthus ambiguus (Lamiaceae) afforded a series of tetracyclic phyllocladane-type ( 13-kaurane) diterpenoids (see 1a ± f). In the course of investigations concerning the reaction behavior of this rare natural-products, a new constituent of P. ambiguus was isolated, (2S,3R,16R)- phyllocladane-2,3,16,17-tetrol 2,3-diacetate (1g), and another eighteen new phyllocladanes were prepared by chemical transformations and characterized. The main constituent

  15. Cancer cells. 3: Growth factors and transformation

    SciTech Connect

    Feramisco, J.; Ozanne, B.; Stiles, C.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains over 50 papers. Some of the titles are: Structure of Human Epidermal Growth Factor and Expression of Normal and Variant mRNAs in Epdermoid Carcinoma Cells; Tyrosine Kinase Activity Associated with the v-erb-B Gene Product; Cloning and Characterization of Human Epidermal Growth Factor-Receptor Gene Sequences in A431 Carcinoma Cells; Anti-oncogenes and the Suppression of Tumor Formation; and Normal Human sis/PDGF-2 Gene Expression Induces Cellular Transformation.

  16. Inversion of k-Plane Transforms via Continuous Wavelet Transforms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B Rubin

    1998-01-01

    The inversion formulae fork-plane transforms of functionsf?Lp(Rn) are obtained in terms of continuous wavelet transforms generated by a wavelet measure. The admissibility conditions for a wavelet measure ? are formulated in terms of the Fourier transform of ? and without using the Fourier transform. The investigation is based on the wavelet type representations of Riesz fractional derivatives.

  17. APPENDIX F. TRANSFORMS, COMPLEX ANALYSIS 1 Transforms, Complex

    E-print Network

    Callen, James D.

    APPENDIX F. TRANSFORMS, COMPLEX ANALYSIS 1 Appendix F Transforms, Complex Analysis This appendix discusses Fourier and Laplace transforms as they are used in plasma physics and this book. Also, key properties of complex variable theory that are needed for understanding and inverting these transforms

  18. Optical transformation from chirplet to fractional Fourier transformation kernel

    E-print Network

    Hong-yi Fan; Li-yun Hu

    2009-02-11

    We find a new integration transformation which can convert a chirplet function to fractional Fourier transformation kernel, this new transformation is invertible and obeys Parseval theorem. Under this transformation a new relationship between a phase space function and its Weyl-Wigner quantum correspondence operator is revealed.

  19. From transformation traces to transformation rules: Assisting Model Driven Engineering

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    From transformation traces to transformation rules: Assisting Model Driven Engineering approach. In this paper we are interested in semi-automatically gen- erating labelled graph (model) transformations conform to a particu- lar syntax (meta-model). Those transformations are basic operations in model driven

  20. Laplace Transforms An integral transform is an operator

    E-print Network

    Ikenaga, Bruce

    9­28­1998 Laplace Transforms An integral transform is an operator F (s) = Z b a K(s; t)f(t) dt: The input to the transform is the function f(t); the output is the function F (s). (By convention, small letters denote the inputs to a transform, and the corresponding capital letters denote the corresponding

  1. Multilayer modal actuator-based piezoelectric transformers.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yao-Tien; Wu, Wen-Jong; Wang, Yen-Chieh; Lee, Chih-Kung

    2007-02-01

    An innovative, multilayer piezoelectric transformer equipped with a full modal filtering input electrode is reported herein. This modal-shaped electrode, based on the orthogonal property of structural vibration modes, is characterized by full modal filtering to ensure that only the desired vibration mode is excited during operation. The newly developed piezoelectric transformer is comprised of three layers: a multilayered input layer, an insulation layer, and a single output layer. The electrode shape of the input layer is derived from its structural vibration modal shape, which takes advantage of the orthogonal property of the vibration modes to achieve a full modal filtering effect. The insulation layer possesses two functions: first, to couple the mechanical vibration energy between the input and output, and second, to provide electrical insulation between the two layers. To meet the two functions, a low temperature, co-fired ceramic (LTCC) was used to provide the high mechanical rigidity and high electrical insulation. It can be shown that this newly developed piezoelectric transformer has the advantage of possessing a more efficient energy transfer and a wider optimal working frequency range when compared to traditional piezoelectric transformers. A multilayer piezoelectric, transformer-based inverter applicable for use in LCD monitors or portable displays is presented as well. PMID:17328332

  2. Image Denoising Using Hybrid Transforms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Walid Amin Mahmoud; Raghad Aladdin Jassim

    2007-01-01

    In this paper a new family of transformatio n for image denoising is presented, Multiridgelet and Walidlet transforms, which have been proposed as alternatives to Discrete Wavelet and Multiwavelet transforms. Walidlet transform is an intelligent tool for solving image processing problems such as image denoising with straight edges, the general algorithm of image denoising using discrete multiwavelet transform is introduced,

  3. Model transformation in the large

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Felix Klar; Alexander Königs; Andy Schürr

    2007-01-01

    Current rule-based model transformation approaches as the Query \\/ View \\/ Transformation (QVT) standard or Triple Graph Grammars (TGGs) disregard means for structuring model transformation specifications. As a result large scale model transformation specifications are hard to understand and to maintain. Furthermore, these specifications cannot utilize reusing mechanisms which would reduce the size of the specifications and improve their readability.

  4. Building an evolution transformation library

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Lewis Johnson; Martin S. Feather

    1990-01-01

    We have been developing knowledge-based tools to support the evolutionary development of specifications. Evolution is accomplished by means of evolution transformations, which are meaning-changing transformations applied to formal specifications. A sizable library of evolution transformations has been developed for our specification language, Gist. This paper assesses the results of our previous work on evolution transformations. It then describes our current

  5. The insulin receptor glycosidic moiety : its characterization and role

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    The insulin receptor glycosidic moiety : its characterization and role Martine CARON, Gisèle exoglycosidases and/or lectins as specific glycosidic probes, we characterized the insulin receptor carbohydrate components in normal or transformed cells and investigated their importance in the insulin

  6. Plastid transformation in tomato.

    PubMed

    Ruf, Stephanie; Bock, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is one of the most important vegetable crops and has long been an important model species in plant biology. Plastid biology in tomato is especially interesting due to the chloroplast-to-chromoplast conversion occurring during fruit ripening. Moreover, as tomato represents a major food crop with an edible fruit that can be eaten raw, the development of a plastid transformation protocol for tomato was of particular interest to plant biotechnology. Recent methodological improvements have made tomato plastid transformation more efficient and facilitated applications in metabolic engineering and molecular farming. This article describes the basic methods involved in the generation and analysis of tomato plants with transgenic chloroplast genomes and summarizes current applications of tomato plastid transformation. PMID:24599859

  7. Invariants of polarization transformations.

    PubMed

    Sadjadi, Firooz A

    2007-05-20

    The use of polarization-sensitive sensors is being explored in a variety of applications. Polarization diversity has been shown to improve the performance of the automatic target detection and recognition in a significant way. However, it also brings out the problems associated with processing and storing more data and the problem of polarization distortion during transmission. We present a technique for extracting attributes that are invariant under polarization transformations. The polarimetric signatures are represented in terms of the components of the Stokes vectors. Invariant algebra is then used to extract a set of signature-related attributes that are invariant under linear transformation of the Stokes vectors. Experimental results using polarimetric infrared signatures of a number of manmade and natural objects undergoing systematic linear transformations support the invariancy of these attributes. PMID:17514238

  8. Optical coordinate transformations.

    PubMed

    Davidson, N; Friesem, A A; Hasman, E

    1992-03-10

    A novel technique for designing holographic optical elements that can perform general types of coordinate transformation is presented. The design is based on analytic ray-tracing techniques for finding the grating vector of the element, from which the holographic grating function is obtained as a solution of a Poissonlike equation. The grating function can be formed either as a computer-generated or as a computer-originated hologram. The design and realization procedure are illustrated for a specific holographic element that performs a logarithmic coordinate transformation on two-dimensional patterns. PMID:20720723

  9. Genetic Transformation of Switchgrass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xi, Yajun; Ge, Yaxin; Wang, Zeng-Yu

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a highly productive warm-season C4 species that is being developed into a dedicated biofuel crop. This chapter describes a protocol that allows the generation of transgenic switchgrass plants by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Embryogenic calluses induced from caryopses or inflorescences were used as explants for inoculation with A. tumefaciens strain EHA105. Hygromycin phosphotransferase gene (hph) was used as the selectable marker and hygromycin was used as the selection agent. Calluses resistant to hygromycin were obtained after 5-6 weeks of selection. Soil-grown switchgrass plants were regenerated about 6 months after callus induction and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation.

  10. Toothpicks and Transformations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2012-10-01

    In this math lesson, learners explore transformations and quadratic functions through toothpick patterns. Learners examine the mathematical pattern that emerges as they build a geometric design with toothpicks. The pattern is quadratic, and the learners determine the mathematical model in several different forms. Learners investigate the recursive nature of the relationship. An explicit model for the relation is developed, and a third model is developed by examining the scatterplot and determining the equation from the transformations. Finally, the group uses graphing calculators to develop another model and to verify that all of the models--factored form, vertex form, and general form--are equivalent.

  11. Imagined transformations of bodies: an fMRI investigation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeff Zacks; Bart Rypma; J. D. E. Gabrieli; Barbara Tversky; Gary H. Glover

    1999-01-01

    A number of spatial reasoning problems can be solved by performing an imagined transformation of one’s egocentric perspective. A series of experiments were carried out to characterize this process behaviorally and in terms of its brain basis, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). In a task contrast designed to isolate egocentric perspective transformations, participants were slower to make left-right judgments

  12. Textural transformations in lyotropic chromonic liquid crystals under confinement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shams, Alireza; Yao, Xuxia; Rey, Alejandro D.; Park, Jung Ok; Srinivasarao, Mohan

    2012-02-01

    Lyotropic chromonic liquid crystals under capillary confinement display textural transformations between planar radial and planar polar modes, in which a +1 disclination branches into two +1/2 lines. The texture transformation is characterized by the nature and kinematics of the branch point, the aperture angle, and the shape of the lines. This work presents and validates a model of these four phenomena, which yield the viscoelastic moduli of these novel mesophases.

  13. Circulation and transformation of deep water in the North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhein, Monika; Kieke, Dagmar; Steinfeldt, Reiner; Mertens, Christian

    2015-04-01

    The subpolar North Atlantic is characterized by an inflow of the deep reaching warm and saline North Atlantic Current (NAC), its transformation in colder and denser water, and a southward export of deep water. Thus it is a key area for the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation, We study circulation and water mass transformation with shipboard and moored measurements (hydrography, tracer, velocity), Argo profiles and satellite data. Recent results about the circulation and transports of deep-water masses will be presented.

  14. Comparison of the short-time Fourier transform and wavelet transform for analysis of transient signal events 

    E-print Network

    Pilgrim, Richard Allen

    1994-01-01

    ), such as ventricular tachycardia (fast heartbeat) and ventricular fibrillation (fluttering heart). VLPs are characterized by certain post-QRS wavefoims (the QRS is a spike between I and 2 mV, with duration on the order of 10 ms, that is caused by the contraction... not be true in general. D. Transient Detection with the Wavelet Transform An interesting application of the wavelet transform was described by Tuteur in [18]. Ventricular late potentials (VLP) are abnormalities of the clinical electrocardiogram (ECG...

  15. Characterizations of severely deformed and annealed copper 

    E-print Network

    Haouaoui, Mohammed

    2001-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to characterize severely plastically deformed and recrystallized oxygen free high conductivity copper, to determine texture transformation potential of Equal Channel Angular Extrusion (ECAE) and to investigate...

  16. Characterizations of severely deformed and annealed copper

    E-print Network

    Haouaoui, Mohammed

    2001-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to characterize severely plastically deformed and recrystallized oxygen free high conductivity copper, to determine texture transformation potential of Equal Channel Angular Extrusion (ECAE) and to investigate...

  17. Probabilistically Accurate Program Transformations

    E-print Network

    Rinard, Martin

    of loop perforation (which transforms loops to execute fewer iterations) to a set of computational the probabilistic guarantees for those bounds. 1.1 Loop Perforation In this paper, we focus on loop perforation demonstrate the util- ity and effectiveness of loop perforation in reducing the amount of time (and/or other

  18. Transforming Young Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Discussions of transformational change pervade the field of business but are rare in work with young people at risk--those most in need of deep change. Instead, the nation seems preoccupied with punishing or medicating problem behavior. Some propose the alternative of "rehabilitation," but that term means "to restore to former…

  19. Case Study: Ecosystem Transformations

    E-print Network

    Nippert, Jesse

    142 Chapter 15 Case Study: Ecosystem Transformations Along The Colorado Front Range: Prairie Dog-tailed prairie dog. Directional changes in climate and atmospheric chemistry are altering the environment foothills and mixed-grass to short-grass prairie. Among these direc- tional changes are elevated average

  20. Fourier transform digital holography

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Dan Apostol; Adrian Sima; Petre C. Logofatu; Florin Garoi; Victor Damian; Victor Nascov; Iuliana Iordache

    2007-01-01

    In this paper a Fourier transform digital holography experimental arrangement is presented. It is actually a hybrid arrangement, half digital half analog. The Fourier hologram was constructed using the analogous means of the so called lensless configuration. The hologram was recorded digitally by a camera with a large CCD array in stead of the recording medium. The recording of the

  1. Migration by Fourier transform

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. H. Stolt

    1978-01-01

    Wave equation migration is known to be simpler in principle when the horizontal coordinate or coordinates are replaced by their Fourier conjugates. Two practical migration schemes utilizing this concept are developed. One scheme extends the Claerbout finite difference method, greatly reducing dispersion problems usually associated with this method at higher dips and frequencies. The second scheme effects a Fourier transform

  2. Reciprocating Transformational Leadership

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark L. McCaslin

    1996-01-01

    Reciprocating transformational leadership has its roots in the human concept of community. Leaders, leadership, relationships, and citizenship represent observable activities within the community. They manifest themselves in the form of product, process, possibilities, and participation. Each alone can lead to a form of community improvement, however if they can be unified through a commonality of purpose extraordinary events emerge. Reciprocating

  3. Transformations: Translation (NLVM)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2011-01-01

    This Java applet enables learners to explore the translation transformation (sliding) both informally and within a coordinate system. Students select and compose shapes and manipulate the ends of a translation vector to see the effect on a translated image. Links to instructions, activities and teacher/parent information are included.

  4. Transformations: Rotation (NLVM)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2011-01-01

    This Java applet enables learners to explore the rotation transformation both informally and within a coordinate system. Students select and compose shapes and manipulate the center and angle of rotation to see the effect on a rotated image. Links to instructions, activities and teacher/parent information are included.

  5. Transformations: Reflection (NLVM)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2011-01-01

    This Java applet enables learners to explore the reflection transformation both informally and within a coordinate system. Students select and compose shapes and manipulate the axis of symmetry (the mirror) to see the effect on a reflected image. Links to instructions, activities and teacher/parent information are included.

  6. Transformer Impedance Reflection Demonstration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Layton, William

    2014-01-01

    Questions often arise as to how a device attached to a transformer can draw power from the electrical power grid since it seems that the primary and secondary are not connected to one another. However, a closer look at how the primary and secondary are linked together magnetically and a consideration of the role of Lenz's law in this linkage…

  7. Transformation kinetics of homoepitaxial islands on GaAs(001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoh, M.; Bell, G. R.; Joyce, B. A.; Vvedensky, D. D.

    2000-10-01

    Kinetic Monte Carlo simulations, in situ scanning tunneling microscopy, and mean-field rate equations are used to characterize the atomistic nucleation, growth, and structural transformation kinetics of homoepitaxial islands on GaAs(001)-(2×4). After an induction period, islands are formed that do not adopt the reconstruction of the substrate, but transform into ?2(2×4) structures as they grow. Comparison of measured and simulated island statistics at several coverages reveals that the unreconstructed islands initially grow slowly in size and rapidly in number, whereas the transformed islands have an appreciably higher growth rate but appear much more gradually.

  8. Mineralogical transformations controlling acid mine drainage chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Peretyazhko, Tetyana; Zachara, John M.; Boily, Jean F.; Xia, Yuanxian; Gassman, Paul L.; Arey, Bruce W.; Burgos, William D.

    2009-05-30

    The role of Fe(III) minerals in controlling acid mine drainage (AMD) chemistry was studied using samples from two AMD sites [Gum Boot (GB) and Fridays-2 (FR)] located in northern Pennsylvania. Chemical extractions, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to identify and characterize Fe(III) phases. The mineralogical analysis revealed that schwertmannite and goethite were the principal Fe(III) phases in the sediments. Schwertmannite transformation occurred at the GB site where poorly-crystallized goethite rich in surface-bound sulfate was initially formed. In contrast, no schwertmannite transformation occurred at the FR site. The goethite in GB sediments had spherical morphology due to preservation of schwertmannite structure by adsorbed sulfate. Results of chemical extractions showed that poorly-crystallized goethite was subject to further crystallization accompanied by sulfate desorption. Changes in sulfate speciation preceded its desorption, with a conversion of bidentate- to monodentate-bound sulfate surface complexes. Laboratory sediment incubation experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of mineral transformation on water chemistry. Incubation experiments were carried out with schwertmannite-containing sediments and AMD waters with different pH and chemical composition. The pH decreased to 1.9-2.2 in all suspensions and the concentrations of dissolved Fe and S increased significantly. Regardless of differences in the initial water composition, pH, Fe and S were similar in suspensions of the same sediment. XRD measurements revealed that schwertmannite transformed into goethite in GB and FR sediments during laboratory incubation. The incubation experiment demonstrated that schwertmannite transformation controlled AMD water chemistry during “closed system” laboratory contact.

  9. Evaluate and characterize mechanisms controlling transport, fate and effects of army smokes in an aerosol wind tunnel: Transport, transformations, fate and terrestrial ecological effects of fog oil obscurant smokes: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Cataldo, D.A.; Van Voris, P.; Ligotke, M.W.; Fellows, R.J.; McVeety, B.D.; Li, Shu-mei W.; Bolton, H. Jr.; Fredrickson, J.K.

    1989-01-01

    The terrestrial transport, chemical fate, and ecological effects of fog oil (FO) smoke obscurants were evaluated under controlled wind tunnel conditions. The primary objectives of this research program are to characterize and assess the impacts of smoke and obscurants on: (1) natural vegetation characteristic of US Army training sites in the United States; (2) physical and chemical properties of soils representative of these training sites; and (3) soil microbiological and invertebrate communities. Impacts and dose/responses were evaluated based on an exposure scenario, including exposure duration, exposure rate, and sequential cumulative dosing. Key to understanding the environmental impacts of fog oil smoke/obscurants is establishing the importance of environmental parameters, such as relative humidity and wind speed on airborne aerosol characteristics and deposition to receptor surfaces. Direct and indirect biotic effects were evaluated using five plant species and three soil types. 29 refs., 35 figs., 32 tabs.

  10. Rainbow Fourier transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandrov, Mikhail D.; Cairns, Brian; Mishchenko, Michael I.

    2012-12-01

    We present a novel technique for remote sensing of cloud droplet size distributions. Polarized reflectances in the scattering angle range between 135° and 165° exhibit a sharply defined rainbow structure, the shape of which is determined mostly by single scattering properties of cloud particles, and therefore, can be modeled using the Mie theory. Fitting the observed rainbow with such a model (computed for a parameterized family of particle size distributions) has been used for cloud droplet size retrievals. We discovered that the relationship between the rainbow structures and the corresponding particle size distributions is deeper than it had been commonly understood. In fact, the Mie theory-derived polarized reflectance as a function of reduced scattering angle (in the rainbow angular range) and the (monodisperse) particle radius appears to be a proxy to a kernel of an integral transform (similar to the sine Fourier transform on the positive semi-axis). This approach, called the rainbow Fourier transform (RFT), allows us to accurately retrieve the shape of the droplet size distribution by the application of the corresponding inverse transform to the observed polarized rainbow. While the basis functions of the proxy-transform are not exactly orthogonal in the finite angular range, this procedure needs to be complemented by a simple regression technique, which removes the retrieval artifacts. This non-parametric approach does not require any a priori knowledge of the droplet size distribution functional shape and is computationally fast (no look-up tables, no fitting, computations are the same as for the forward modeling).

  11. Rainbow Fourier Transform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexandrov, Mikhail D.; Cairns, Brian; Mishchenko, Michael I.

    2012-01-01

    We present a novel technique for remote sensing of cloud droplet size distributions. Polarized reflectances in the scattering angle range between 135deg and 165deg exhibit a sharply defined rainbow structure, the shape of which is determined mostly by single scattering properties of cloud particles, and therefore, can be modeled using the Mie theory. Fitting the observed rainbow with such a model (computed for a parameterized family of particle size distributions) has been used for cloud droplet size retrievals. We discovered that the relationship between the rainbow structures and the corresponding particle size distributions is deeper than it had been commonly understood. In fact, the Mie theory-derived polarized reflectance as a function of reduced scattering angle (in the rainbow angular range) and the (monodisperse) particle radius appears to be a proxy to a kernel of an integral transform (similar to the sine Fourier transform on the positive semi-axis). This approach, called the rainbow Fourier transform (RFT), allows us to accurately retrieve the shape of the droplet size distribution by the application of the corresponding inverse transform to the observed polarized rainbow. While the basis functions of the proxy-transform are not exactly orthogonal in the finite angular range, this procedure needs to be complemented by a simple regression technique, which removes the retrieval artifacts. This non-parametric approach does not require any a priori knowledge of the droplet size distribution functional shape and is computationally fast (no look-up tables, no fitting, computations are the same as for the forward modeling).

  12. Development of optical instrument transformer

    SciTech Connect

    Sawa, T.; Kurosawa, K. (Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc. (Japan)); Kaminishi, T.; Yokota, T. (Toshiba Corp., Tokyo (JP))

    1990-04-01

    The optical instrument transformer is a current and voltage measuring system based on Faraday and Pockels effects,whose principles differ from those of conventional industrial transformers. In principle, this transformer is excellent in such aspects as control of electromagnetic induction noise, rationalization of electric insulation, and extension of dynamic ranges and frequency bands. By making use of such excellent properties, it is possible to achieve higher performance, higher compactness, and higher reliability of instrument transformers. This paper deals with the designing, assembling, and testing results of a prototype of an optical current transformer (CT) and that of a voltage dividing-type voltage transformer (PD).

  13. Riesz transform and Riesz potentials for Dunkl transform

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sundaram Thangavelu; Yuan Xu

    2007-01-01

    Analogues of Riesz potentials and Riesz transforms are defined and studied for the Dunkl transform associated with a family of weight functions that are invariant under a reflection group. The Lp boundedness of these operators is established in certain cases.

  14. Plasmid mediated transformation tropism of chlamydial biovars

    PubMed Central

    Song, Lihua; Carlson, John H.; Zhou, Bing; Virtaneva, Kimmo; Whitmire, William M.; Sturdevant, Gail L.; Porcella, Stephen F.; McClarty, Grant; Caldwell, Harlan D.

    2013-01-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis and C. muridarum are human and mouse pathogens respectively, which show high conservation of gene order and content. Both species contain a common 7.5 kb plasmid that is an important virulence factor. Recently described transformation systems have been used to characterize C. trachomatis L2 plasmid gene functions; however, similar studies have not been reported for C. trachomatis ocular tropic serovar A or the mouse strain, C. muridarum. Here, we have conducted genetic experiments with C. trachomatis serovar A and C. muridarum and report the following; (i) successful transformation of C. muridarum and C. trachomatis serovar A is restricted to a shuttle vector with a C. muridarum, or C. trachomatis serovar A plasmid backbone, respectively, ii) transformation of plasmid-deficient C. muridarum with the C. muridarum based shuttle vector complemented glycogen accumulation and inclusion morphology, and (iii) C. muridarum plasmid encoded Pgp4 is a regulator of chromosomal (glgA) and plasmid (pgp3) virulence genes. In summary, our findings show a previously unrecognized and unexpected role for the chlamydial plasmid in its transformation tropism and confirm the plasmids regulatory role of virulence genes in C. muridarum. PMID:24214488

  15. Detection of inrush current in distribution transformer using wavelet transform

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A.-R. Sedighi; M.-R. Haghifam

    2005-01-01

    Inrush currents in transformers are non-sinusoidal, high magnitude currents generated due to flux saturation in the core during energization. For protection purpose, in this paper an efficient method for detection of inrush current in distribution transformer based on wavelet transform is presented. Using this method inrush current can be discriminated from the other switching transients such as: load switching, capacitor

  16. Transforming the optical landscape.

    PubMed

    Pendry, J B; Luo, Yu; Zhao, Rongkuo

    2015-05-01

    Electromagnetism provides us with some of the most powerful tools in science, encompassing lasers, optical microscopes, magnetic resonance imaging scanners, radar, and a host of other techniques. To understand and develop the technology requires more than a set of formal equations. Scientists and engineers have to form a vivid picture that fires their imaginations and enables intuition to play a full role in the process of invention. It is to this end that transformation optics has been developed, exploiting Faraday's picture of electric and magnetic fields as lines of force, which can be manipulated by the electrical permittivity and magnetic permeability of surrounding materials. Transformation optics says what has to be done to place the lines of force where we want them to be. PMID:25931549

  17. Mechanism of the ? -? phase transformation in iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dewaele, A.; Denoual, C.; Anzellini, S.; Occelli, F.; Mezouar, M.; Cordier, P.; Merkel, S.; Véron, M.; Rausch, E.

    2015-05-01

    The ? -Fe?? -Fe pressure-induced transformation under pure hydrostatic static compression has been characterized with in situ x-ray diffraction using ? -Fe single crystals as starting samples. The forward transition starts at 14.9 GPa, and the reverse at 12 GPa, with a width of ? -? coexistence domain of the order of 2 GPa. The elastic stress in the sample increases in this domain, and partially relaxes after completion of the transformation. Orientation relations between parent ? -Fe and child ? -Fe have been determined, which definitely validates the Burgers path for the direct transition. On the reverse transition, an unexpected variant selection is observed. X-ray diffraction data, complemented with ex situ microstructural observations, suggest that this selection is caused by defects and stresses accumulated during the direct transition.

  18. Variation in structure and plant regeneration of Agrobacterium rhizogenes transformed and control roots of the potato cv. Bintje

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. P. Ottaviani; J. H. N. Schel; Ch. H. Hänisch ten Cate

    1990-01-01

    Agrobacterium rhizogenes transformed and control roots of the tetraploid potato cv. Bintje were compared. Transformed roots were obtained after infection by A. rhizogenes 15834 or 1855. Both in leaf and stem segments, more roots were formed at the basal side of the segments, indicative for a polarity in root formation. As compared to control roots the transformed roots are characterized

  19. Transformations of Designs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Loe M. G. Feijs

    1989-01-01

    In this paper we present a theory of correctness-preserving transformations of designs. The paper gives an informal introduction to both the structuring concept of a design and to certain dynamic aspects of the software development process. There is a focus on combining designs, strategies for growing designs and re-adapting them to external-context modifications. Although the notion of a design is

  20. Magnetically Insulated Pulse Transformers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Istenic; B. M. Novac; J. Luo; R. Kumar; I. R. Smith

    2007-01-01

    Summary form only given. This paper records the most recent developments in the research programme on the magnetic insulation of pulsed transformers that began at Loughborough University (LU) some six years ago, with the successful proof-of-concept demonstration of a small 100 kV prototype. Most recently, LU has designed and constructed two much larger-scale units for the study of alternative approaches

  1. Multimodal transformed social interaction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Matthew Turk; Jeremy N. Bailenson; Andrew C. Beall; Jim Blascovich; Rosanna E. Guadagno

    2004-01-01

    Understanding human-human interaction is fundamental to the long-term pursuit of powerful and natural multimodal interfaces. Nonverbal communication, including body posture, gesture, facial expression, and eye gaze, is an important aspect of human-human interaction. We introduce a paradigm for studying multimodal and nonverbal communication in collaborative virtual environments (CVEs) called Transformed Social Interaction (TSI), in which a user's visual representation is

  2. Laminated piezoelectric transformer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vazquez Carazo, Alfredo (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A laminated piezoelectric transformer is provided using the longitudinal vibration modes for step-up voltage conversion applications. The input portions are polarized to deform in a longitudinal plane and are bonded to an output portion. The deformation of the input portions is mechanically coupled to the output portion, which deforms in the same longitudinal direction relative to the input portion. The output portion is polarized in the thickness direction relative its electrodes, and piezoelectrically generates a stepped-up output voltage.

  3. Compact gas insulated transformer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1984-01-01

    The development of design and manufacturing technologies is described. A transformer which is more efficient, more compact, lower in weight and audible sound, nonflammable, which does not rely upon mineral oil insulation, and which is compatible with the gas insulated electrical system of the future is designed. Design prototypes in the 50 MVA-345 kV range are to be tested. The program provides for economic, environmental, and systems application assessments of the emergent technologies.

  4. Tests for Hazard Transformation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Weang Kee Ho; Robin Henderson; Peter M. Philipson

    2010-01-01

    The semiparametric Cox proportional hazards model is routinely adopted to model time-to-event data. Proportionality is a strong\\u000a assumption, especially when follow-up time, or study duration, is long. Zeng and Lin (J. R. Stat. Soc., Ser. B, 69:1–30, 2007) proposed a useful generalisation through a family of transformation models which allow hazard ratios to vary over time.\\u000a In this paper we

  5. Scale invariant feature transform

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Lindeberg

    2012-01-01

    Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) is an image descriptor for image-based matching developed by David Lowe (1999, 2004). This descriptor as well as related image descriptors are used for a large number of purposes in computer vision related to point matching between different views of a 3-D scene and view-based object recognition. The SIFT descriptor is invariant to translations, rotations

  6. Transformations and Frieze Patterns

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2010-12-29

    This geometry unit from Illuminations will help students learning about symmetry and rotation in figures and patterns. Using decorative figures and patterns, students will learn to recognize and classify symmetry. Students should have some basic knowledge of the fundamental transformations (translation, rotation and reflection- horizontal and vertical). The unit includes two lessons, each of which should require 1 class period to complete. The material is intended for grades 9-12.

  7. Genetic transformation of eucalyptus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Girijashankar

    2011-01-01

    Eucalyptus is the second most widely planted multipurpose woody tree species in the world. It is a commercially important\\u000a hardwood tree for paper and wood industries. In the past two decades, various research groups reported different genetic transformation\\u000a protocols and attempts towards development of transgenic eucalyptus. Much of the work related to its genetic improvement through\\u000a transgenic technology has been

  8. RECENT ADVANCES IN BARLEY TRANSFORMATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Barley, an important member of the cereals, has been successfully transformed through various methods such as particle bombardment, Agrobacterium-tumefaciens, DNA uptake, and electroporation. Initially, the transformation in barley concentrated on developing protocols using marker genes such as gus,...

  9. Transformation by the oncogene v-fms: The effects of castanospermine on transformation-related parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, E.J.; Manger, R.; Hakomori, Senitiroh; Rohrschneider, L.R. (Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA (United States))

    1987-12-01

    The effects of castanospermine on various parameters associated with transformation were examined in cells expressing the viral oncogene v-fms. Fischer rat embryo (FRE) cells transformed by the oncogene v-fms and grown in the presence of castanospermine reverted to a more normal cell morphology and accumulated fms protein within the endoplasmic reticulum. Treated cells attained contact inhibition of cell growth at a much lower cell density compared to the untreated controls. No effect of castanospermine on cell growth was observed for FRE cells transformed by a different oncogene v-fgr. Castanospermine-treated SM-FRE (v-fms transformed) cells reexpressed extracellular matrix fibronectin and exhibited an extensive actin-containing cytoskeleton similar to that of normal nontransformed FRE cells. Castanospermine treatment of SM-FRE cells resulted in a sixfold decrease in ({sup 3}H)deoxyglucose uptake compared to that of the nonreverted SM-FRE cells. Again, no effect was observed in FRE cells transformed by the oncogene v-fgr (GR-FRE). These results further characterize the reversion caused by castanospermine and indicate that cell surface expression coordinately controls anchorage independent growth, cell morphology, contact inhibition of growth, and hexose uptake.

  10. Spectrum transformation for divergent iterations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, Murli M.

    1991-01-01

    Certain spectrum transformation techniques are described that can be used to transform a diverging iteration into a converging one. Two techniques are considered called spectrum scaling and spectrum enveloping and how to obtain the optimum values of the transformation parameters is discussed. Numerical examples are given to show how this technique can be used to transform diverging iterations into converging ones; this technique can also be used to accelerate the convergence of otherwise convergent iterations.

  11. Regeneration and transformation of cassava

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. J. J. M. Raemakers; E. Sofiari; E. Jacobsen; R. G. F. Visser

    1997-01-01

    A prerequisite for the development of a successful transformation system is the availability of efficient regeneration systems.\\u000a Up to 1995 the only available regeneration system in cassava was an organized type of somatic embryogenesis. Transformation\\u000a of these organized somatic embryogenic cultures with particle bombardment or Agrobacterium tumefaciens resulted in chimeric\\u000a transformed embryos. However, the transformed sector was lost after repeated

  12. Thermal-Mechanical Noise Based CMUT Characterization and Sensing

    PubMed Central

    Gurun, Gokce; Hochman, Michael; Hasler, Paul; Degertekin, F. Levent

    2012-01-01

    When capacitive micromachined ultrasonic transducers (CMUTs) are monolithically integrated with custom-designed low-noise electronics, the output noise of the system can be dominated by the CMUT thermal-mechanical noise both in air and in immersion even for devices with low capacitance. Since the thermal-mechanical noise can be related to the electrical admittance of the CMUTs, this provides an effective means of device characterization. This approach yields a novel method to test the functionality and uniformity of CMUT arrays and the integrated electronics where a direct connection to CMUT array element terminals is not available. These measurements can be performed in air at the wafer level, suitable for batch manufacturing and testing. We demonstrate this method on the elements of an 800-?m diameter CMUT-on-CMOS array designed for intravascular imaging in the 10-20 MHz range. Noise measurements in air show the expected resonance behavior and spring softening effects. Noise measurements in immersion for the same array provide useful information on both the acoustic cross talk and radiation properties of the CMUT array elements. The good agreement between a CMUT model based on finite difference and boundary element method and the noise measurements validates the model and indicates that the output noise is indeed dominated by thermal-mechanical noise. The measurement method can be exploited to implement CMUT based passive sensors to measure immersion medium properties, or other parameters affecting the electro-mechanics of the CMUT structure. PMID:22718877

  13. Structural characterization of the pressure-denatured state and unfolding/refolding kinetics of staphylococcal nuclease by synchrotron small-angle X-ray scattering and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Panick, G; Malessa, R; Winter, R; Rapp, G; Frye, K J; Royer, C A

    1998-01-16

    The pressure-induced unfolding of wild-type staphylococcal nuclease (Snase WT) was studied using synchrotron X-ray small-angle scattering (SAXS) and Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, which monitor changes in the tertiary and secondary structural properties of the protein upon pressurization. The experimental results reveal that application of high-pressure up to 3 kbar leads to an approximate twofold increase of the radius of gyration Rg of the native protein (Rg approximately 17 A) and a large broadening of the pair-distance-distribution function, indicating a transition from a globular to an ellipsoidal or extended chain structure. Analysis of the FT-IR amide I' spectral components reveals that the pressure-induced denaturation process sets in at 1.5 kbar at 25 degrees C and is accompanied by an increase in disordered and turn structures while the content of beta-sheets and alpha-helices drastically decreases. The pressure-induced denatured state above 3 kbar retains nonetheless some degree of beta-like secondary structure and the molecule cannot be described as a fully extended random coil. Temperature-induced denaturation involves a further unfolding of the protein molecule which is indicated by a larger Rg value and significantly lower fractional intensities of IR-bands associated with secondary-structure elements. In addition, we have carried out pressure-jump kinetics studies of the secondary-structural evolution and the degree of compactness in the folding/unfolding reactions of Snase. The effect of pressure on the kinetics arises from a larger positive activation volume for folding than for unfolding, and leads to a significant slowing down of the folding rate with increasing pressure. Moreover, the system becomes two-state under pressure. These properties make it ideal for probing multiple order parameters in order to compare the kinetics of changes in secondary structure by pressure-jump FT-IR and chain collapse by pressure-jump SAXS. After a pressure jump from 1 bar to 2.4 kbar at 20 degrees C, the radius of gyration increases in a first-order manner from 17 A to 22.4 A over a timescale of approximately 30 minutes. The increase in Rg value is caused by the formation of an extended (ellipsoidal) structure as indicated by the corresponding pair-distance-distribution function. Pressure-jump FT-IR studies reveal that the reversible first order changes in beta-sheet, alpha-helical and random structure occur on the same slow timescale as that observed for the scattering curves and for fluorescence. These studies indicate that the changes in secondary structure and chain compactness in the folding/unfolding reactions of Snase are probably dependent upon the same rate-limiting step as changes in tertiary structure. PMID:9466917

  14. The transformation of disabilities organizations.

    PubMed

    Schalock, Robert L; Verdugo, Miguel-Angel

    2013-08-01

    This article summarizes the five major characteristics of the transformation era and describes how intellectual and closely related developmental disabilities organizations can apply specific transformation strategies associated with each characteristic. Collectively, the characteristics and strategies provide a framework for transformation thinking, learning, and acting. Specific application examples are given. PMID:23909588

  15. Generalized Transforms and Special Functions

    E-print Network

    G. Dattoli; E. Sabia

    2010-10-08

    We study the properties of different type of transforms by means of operational methods and discuss the relevant interplay with many families of special functions. We consider in particular the binomial transform and its generalizations. A general method, based on the use of the Fourier transform technique, is proposed for the study of the properties of functions of operators.

  16. Teacher Transformation: Transcending Hegemonic Roots

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Gregory

    2012-01-01

    In this dissertation study, I build from the research on transformative teaching (transformative for students), liberating theories (Liberating, Liberation and Liberating Theories) as well as literature about transformation, reflection and discourse to make the case that our historic and continuously inequitable results for students based on…

  17. Lightning Protection for Distribution Transformers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. M. Opsahl; A. S. Brookes; R. N. Southgate

    1932-01-01

    Usual methods of connecting arresters for the protection of distribution transformers are often inadequate. In service some transformers still flash over although the arrester, in itself, is capable of protecting the transformer with a large margin of safety. Surge current flowing to ground through the ground lead of the arrester gives rise to inductive drop and resistance drop voltages. These

  18. VLA Antenna Pad Transformer Breaker

    E-print Network

    Groppi, Christopher

    NRAO VLA Antenna Pad Transformer Breaker Survey D-Array, October 2011, Bob Broilo #12;D-Array Antenna Pad Transformer Survey October 2011, Bob Broilo 2 Inspected by: Bob Broilo Inspection Date: 10-hand) feeds DE2. #12;D-Array Antenna Pad Transformer Survey October 2011, Bob Broilo 3 Inspected by: Bob

  19. VLA Antenna Pad Transformer Breaker

    E-print Network

    Groppi, Christopher

    NRAO VLA Antenna Pad Transformer Breaker Survey B-Array, November 22nd , 2013 Summary: None the breakers. #12;VLA Antenna Pad Transformer Breaker Survey B-Array, November 2013, Bob Broilo 2 Inspected by Visible Light Image Notes: #12;VLA Antenna Pad Transformer Breaker Survey B-Array, November 2013, Bob

  20. VLA Antenna Pad Transformer Breaker

    E-print Network

    Groppi, Christopher

    NRAO VLA Antenna Pad Transformer Breaker Survey D-Array, April 5th 2013 #12;VLA Antenna Pad2 Visible Light Image Notes: #12;VLA Antenna Pad Transformer Breaker Survey D-Array, April 2013, Bob Priority: N/A E06_IR000205_DE6.IS2 Visible Light Image Notes: #12;VLA Antenna Pad Transformer Breaker

  1. Canonical Transformations of Kepler Trajectories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mostowski, Jan

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, canonical transformations generated by constants of motion in the case of the Kepler problem are discussed. It is shown that canonical transformations generated by angular momentum are rotations of the trajectory. Particular attention is paid to canonical transformations generated by the Runge-Lenz vector. It is shown that these…

  2. Agrobacterial Transformation of Uninjured Plants

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. I. Chumakov; I. V. Kurbanova; G. K. Solovova

    2002-01-01

    The capacity for agrobacterial transformation (using Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain GV3101 with the activated vir genes) was investigated in uninjured seedlings of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.), rice (Oryza sativa L.), and wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) along with the effect of various factors on the frequency of tobacco seedling transformation. Transformed cells were found at the base of the rice leaf sheath

  3. Fourier transform zero field NMR and NQR

    SciTech Connect

    Zax, D.B.

    1984-09-01

    The characterization of the structural and chemical properties of matter, particularly in disordered condensed phases, is a difficult process. Few analytical methods work effectively on polycrystalline or amorphous solids. In many systems the chemical shifts measured by traditional high resolution solid state NMR methods are insufficiently sensitive or the information contained in the dipole-dipole couplings is more important. In these cases Fourier transform zero field magnetic resonance may make an important contribution. Zero field NMR and NQR is the subjecti of this thesis.

  4. Characterizations of the Kerr metric

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Walter Simon

    1984-01-01

    For stationary, asymptotically flat solutions of Einstein's equations, covariant functionals of the metric variables are defined which characterize the Kerr metric uniquely. For instance, we obtain a generalization of the “Bach tensor” to stationary metrics, which vanishes if and only if the solution is Kerr. We also give a new interpretation of the “Schwarzschild-to-Kerr-transformation.” Our results might be applicable to

  5. Computer simulation of martensitic transformations

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Ping

    1993-11-01

    The characteristics of martensitic transformations in solids are largely determined by the elastic strain that develops as martensite particles grow and interact. To study the development of microstructure, a finite-element computer simulation model was constructed to mimic the transformation process. The transformation is athermal and simulated at each incremental step by transforming the cell which maximizes the decrease in the free energy. To determine the free energy change, the elastic energy developed during martensite growth is calculated from the theory of linear elasticity for elastically homogeneous media, and updated as the transformation proceeds.

  6. MULTIVARIATE STATISTICAL MODELING FOR TEXTURE ANALYSIS USING WAVELET TRANSFORMS

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    MULTIVARIATE STATISTICAL MODELING FOR TEXTURE ANALYSIS USING WAVELET TRANSFORMS Nour-Eddine LASMAR-based analysis, this paper deals with texture modeling for classification or retrieval systems using non (SIRVs) joint density function with Weibull assumption to characterize the dependences between wavelet

  7. Southern African continental margin: Dynamic processes of a transform margin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Parsiegla; J. Stankiewicz; K. Gohl; T. Ryberg; G. Uenzelmann-Neben

    2009-01-01

    Dynamic processes at sheared margins associated with the formation of sedimentary basins and marginal ridges are poorly understood. The southern African margin provides an excellent opportunity to investigate the deep crustal structure of a transform margin and to characterize processes acting at these margins by studying the Agulhas-Falkland Fracture Zone, the Outeniqua Basin, and the Diaz Marginal Ridge. To do

  8. Affine transformations capture beak shape variation in Darwin's Finches

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Brenner; Otger Campas; Riccardo Mallarino; Arhat Abzhanov

    2009-01-01

    Evolution by natural selection has resulted in extraordinary morphological complexity of living organisms, whose description has thus far defied any precise mathematical characterization linked to the underlying developmental genetics. Here we demonstrate that the morphological diversity of the beaks of Darwin's finches, the classical example of adaptive morphological radiation, is quantitatively accounted for through the mathematical group of affine transformations.

  9. Mediating the Conflict between Transformative Pedagogy and Bureaucratic Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inderbitzin, Michelle; Storrs, Debbie A.

    2008-01-01

    This article reflects on the authors' experiences during a pilot year of an innovative core curriculum at a state research university and their attempts to create a "collaborative community" characterized by transformative pedagogy. It discusses their students' and colleagues' resistance to their inventive, albeit time-consuming and sometimes…

  10. Dimensionalized wavelet transform with application to radar imaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Bertrand; P. Bertrand; J. P. Ovarlez

    1991-01-01

    Wavelet analysis is characterized by the constructive intervention of dilations, and dilations in physics are associated with changes of measurement units. This double observation is at the basis of the introduction of the dimensionalized wavelet transform as a technique that allows the adaptation of the representation of dilations to the physical dimension of the field under study. An imaging process

  11. Rainbow Fourier transform Mikhail D. Alexandrov a,b,n

    E-print Network

    Rainbow Fourier transform Mikhail D. Alexandrov a,b,n , Brian Cairns b , Michael I. Mishchenko b Rainbow Optical particle characterization Remote sensing a b s t r a c t We present a novel technique between 1351 and 1651 exhibit a sharply defined rainbow structure, the shape of which is determined mostly

  12. MULTIRESOLUTION MRFBASED TEXTURE SEGMENTATION USING THE WREATH PRODUCT TRANSFORM PHASE

    E-print Network

    Mirchandani, Gagan

    MULTIRESOLUTION MRF­BASED TEXTURE SEGMENTATION USING THE WREATH PRODUCT TRANSFORM PHASE Gagan and multiresolution analysis to the texture segmentation problem. A Markov random field characterization is still that obtained through conven­ tional multiresolution algorithms based on lowpass data. 1. INTRODUCTION The idea

  13. Focal glial differentiation and oncocytic transformation in choroid plexus papilloma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Bonnin; L. E. Colon; R. B. Morawetz

    1987-01-01

    The histiopathological features of a choroid plexus papilloma in a 27-year-old male are described. The tumor displayed marked oncocytic transformation and glial differentiation of the epithelium in areas in which there was also marked sclerosis of the fibrovascular cores. Non-membrane-bound bodies of intermediate filaments characterized ultrastructurally the cells with glial differentiation.

  14. Banded transformer cores

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclyman, C. W. T. (inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A banded transformer core formed by positioning a pair of mated, similar core halves on a supporting pedestal. The core halves are encircled with a strap, selectively applying tension whereby a compressive force is applied to the core edge for reducing the innate air gap. A dc magnetic field is employed in supporting the core halves during initial phases of the banding operation, while an ac magnetic field subsequently is employed for detecting dimension changes occurring in the air gaps as tension is applied to the strap.

  15. Wavelet transform: capabilities expanded

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pokorski, Krzysztof; Patorski, Krzysztof

    2014-07-01

    A review of our recently developed fringe pattern processing techniques utilizing two dimensional continuous wavelet transform is presented. Their development significantly broadens the range of 2D CWT capabilities. Namely they enable analysis of images containing multiple fringe sets and the carrier fringe contrast reversal. The methods are fully automatic and require no user interference. Their validity and robustness are confirmed using simulations. Furthermore, a novel Talbot interferometer setup utilizing binary amplitude checker gratings with its output fringe patterns successfully analyzed utilizing 2D CWT technique is presented.

  16. Industrial Transformation Science Plan

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    From the International Human Dimensions Programme on Global Environmental Change, this "Industrial Transformation Science Plan" incorporates a multidisciplinary research effort which is "based on the assumption that important changes in production and consumption systems will be required in order to meet the needs and aspirations of a growing world population while using environmental resources in a sustainable manner." The plan has combined the input of experts in a wide range of social science disciplines with that of experts from both life and physical sciences.

  17. Bacterial Transformation Lab

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This PDF, part of the classroom activities site by Biotechnology Education and Training Sequence Investment (BETSI), introduces the concept of recombinant DNA and a process called transformation. Here, instructors will find detailed lab instructions/diagrams that trace out the introduction of a recombinant plasmid into a foreign bacteria resulting in the "change of the bacteria's genetic make-up and traits." With the end result of the lab being a product that "glow[s] bright green," this will be a fun lab for any chemistry or biochemistry classroom. The site even playfully boasts, "[that] you will all be genetics engineers" by the end of this experiment!

  18. Transforming cultural chaos.

    PubMed

    Schloeder, D

    1999-03-01

    Kotter believes that generating short-term wins is a critical component of the change and transformation process. Our short-term win-wins have allowed us to further collaborate, which consequently has given us more wins. These wins have been communicated. The communication has conveyed a sense of optimism and hope, and has empowered people to view change as a positive challenge. The challenge has become one in which all want to participate. Finally, we are at a point where the end of one way of life is truly the beginning of a new and better way of life. T.S. Eliot was right! PMID:10373978

  19. Rice transformation: bombardment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Paul Christou

    1997-01-01

    Bombardment-based methodology is responsible for the effective genetic manipulation of major cereals including rice. Many groups reported significant advances on various aspects of rice molecular biology and genetic engineering using procedures based on bombardment technology. Molecular and genetic characterization of large numbers of these plants (more than 500 independent transgenic plants) provided information on structure, expression and stability of integrated

  20. Transformational silicon electronics.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Jhonathan Prieto; Torres Sevilla, Galo Andres; Ghoneim, Mohamed Tarek; Inayat, Salman Bin; Ahmed, Sally M; Hussain, Aftab Mustansir; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2014-02-25

    In today's traditional electronics such as in computers or in mobile phones, billions of high-performance, ultra-low-power devices are neatly integrated in extremely compact areas on rigid and brittle but low-cost bulk monocrystalline silicon (100) wafers. Ninety percent of global electronics are made up of silicon. Therefore, we have developed a generic low-cost regenerative batch fabrication process to transform such wafers full of devices into thin (5 ?m), mechanically flexible, optically semitransparent silicon fabric with devices, then recycling the remaining wafer to generate multiple silicon fabric with chips and devices, ensuring low-cost and optimal utilization of the whole substrate. We show monocrystalline, amorphous, and polycrystalline silicon and silicon dioxide fabric, all from low-cost bulk silicon (100) wafers with the semiconductor industry's most advanced high-?/metal gate stack based high-performance, ultra-low-power capacitors, field effect transistors, energy harvesters, and storage to emphasize the effectiveness and versatility of this process to transform traditional electronics into flexible and semitransparent ones for multipurpose applications. PMID:24476361

  1. Energy: Energy Transformations

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

    2006-11-01

    This Science Object is the second of four Science Objects in the Energy SciPack. It provides a conceptual and real-world understanding of how energy is transferred, from object to object and from one form of energy to another. Although the various forms of energy appear different, each can be measured in a closed system. This makes it possible to keep track of how much of one form of energy is converted into another form. Most of what goes on in the universe--from exploding stars and biological growth to the operation of machines and the motion of people--involves some form of energy being transformed into another form. The law of conservation of energy states that whenever the amount of energy in one place (or form) decreases, the amount of energy in other places (or forms) increases by the same amount. Learning Outcomes:? Recognize that there are ways to measure the amount of different kinds of energy that allow us to track how much of one form is changed into another.? Recognize that energy is conserved, meaning it is not "used up" and does not appear out of nowhere.? Give examples of transformation of energy, including recognizing the forms of energy involved.? Construct an argument against an example that claims to be a perpetual motion machine.

  2. Transformations of emotional experience.

    PubMed

    de Cortiñas, Lia Pistiner

    2013-06-01

    In this paper the author approaches mental pain and the problems in a psychoanalytic treatment of patients with difficulties in the psychic transformation of their emotional experiences. The author is interested in the symbolic failure related to the obstruction of development of phantasies, dreams, dream-thoughts, etc. She differentiates symbolization disturbances related to hypertrophic projective identification from a detention of these primitive communications and emotional isolation. She puts forward the conjecture that one factor in the arrest of this development is the detention of projective identifications and that, when this primitive means of communication is re-established in a container-contained relationship of mutual benefit, this initiates the development of a symbolization process that can replace the pathological 'protection'. Another hypothesis she develops is that of inaccessible caesuras that, associated with the detention of projective identification, obstruct any integrative or interactive movement. This caesura and the detention of projective identifications affect mental functions needed for dealing with mental pain. The personality is left with precarious mental equipment for transforming emotional experiences. How can a psychoanalytical process stimulate the development of creative symbolization, transforming the emotional experiences and leading towards mental growth? The author approaches the clinical problem with the metaphor of the psychic birth of emotional experience. The modulation of mental pain in a container-contained relationship is a central problem for the development of the human mind. For discovering and giving a meaning to emotional experience, the infant depends on reverie, a function necessary in order to develop an evolved consciousness capable of being aware, which is different from the rudimentary consciousness that perceives but does not understand. The development of mature mental equipment is associated with the personality's attitude towards mental pain. The differentiation between psychotic, neurotic or autistic functioning depends on what defences are erected to avoid mental pain. The primary link between infant and mother is where the building of mental equipment takes place, through communicational forms that, to begin with, are not verbal. The author suggests the need for the development of an ideo-grammar (in gestures, paralinguistic forms, etc.) in primary relations, as the precursor forms that will become the matrix for the mental tools for dealing with emotional experiences in a mature way. The paper stresses the significance of the parental containing function for the development of symbolization of prenatal emotional experiences. This containment develops ideograms, transformations of sense impressions into proto-symbols, instruments that attenuate the traumatic experiences of helplessness. The author takes Bion's ideas about extending the notion of dream-work to an alpha function that goes on continually, day and night, transforming raw emotional experiences in a 'dream'. In order to acquire a meaning, facts need to be 'dreamed' in this extended sense. Meaning and truth are the nurture of the mind. Mental growth, the development of adequate tools--including reverie--for dealing with mental pain, seen from a psychoanalytic perspective including reverie, implies that the object becomes a provider of meanings. Analysis begins to aim primarily at the generation or expansion of the mental container, instead of predominantly working on unconscious contents as such. PMID:23781834

  3. Alteration of SMRT Tumor Suppressor Function in Transformed Non-Hodgkin Lymphomas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lynda Song; Andrei Zlobin; Pushpankur Ghoshal; Qing Zhang; Christiane Houde; Qun Jiang; Elizabeth Nacheva; Danny Yagan; Eric Davis; Sylvie Galiegue-Zouitina; Daniel Catovsky; Thomas Grogan; Richard I. Fisher; Lucio Miele; Lionel J. Coignet

    Indolent non-Hodgkin lymphomas are characterized by a prolonged phase that is typically followed by a clinical progression associated with an accelerated clinical course and short survival time. Previous studies have not identified a consistent cytogenetic or molecular abnormality associated with transformation. The development of a transformed phenotype, evolving from the original low-grade component, most likely depends on multiple genetic events,

  4. Four-dimensional transform fault processes: progressive evolution of step-overs and bends

    E-print Network

    Wang, Zhi "Luke"

    Four-dimensional transform fault processes: progressive evolution of step-overs and bends John characterize the evolution of other regions in the world, including the Dead Sea pull-apart, the Gulf of Paria B.V. All rights reserved. Keywords: Strike­slip faults; Transform faults; Transpression

  5. Nanocrystalline Material in Toroidal Cores for Current Transformer: Analytical Study and Computational Simulations

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Benedito Antonio Luciano; Walman Benício de Castro; Conrado Ramos; Moreira Afonso

    Based on electrical and magnetic properties, such as saturation magnetization, initial permeability, and coercivity, in this work are presented some considerations about the possibilities of applications of nanocrystalline alloys in toroidal cores for current transformers. It is discussed how the magnetic characteristics of the core material affect the performance of the current transformer. From the magnetic characterization and the computational

  6. Discrete wavelet transform: data dependence analysis and synthesis of distributed memory and control array architectures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Fridman; E. S. Manolakos

    1997-01-01

    We perform a thorough data dependence and localization analysis for the discrete wavelet transform algorithm and then use it to synthesize distributed memory and control architectures for its parallel computation. The discrete wavelet transform (DWT) is characterized by a nonuniform data dependence structure owing to the decimation operation it is neither a uniform recurrence equation (URE) nor an affine recurrence

  7. A new hierarchical scheme for approximating the continuous wavelet transform with applications to edge detection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kathrin Berkner

    1999-01-01

    We propose an approximation of a continuous wavelet transform (CWT) that is based on a hierarchical scheme, similar to the fast discrete wavelet transform. This approximation keeps redundancies in time and scale. Furthermore, it preserves properties of the CWT regarding the characterization of singularities and leads to efficient applications in multiscale edge detection

  8. High-Frequency Transformation of Yeast: Autonomous Replication of Hybrid DNA Molecules

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin Struhl; Dan T. Stinchcomb; Stewart Scherer; Ronald W. Davis

    1979-01-01

    A set of vector DNAs (Y vectors) useful for the cloning of DNA fragments in Saccharomyces cerevisiae (yeast) and in Escherichia coli are characterized. With these vectors, three modes of yeast transformation are defined. (i) Vectors containing yeast chromosomal DNA sequences (YIp1, YIp5) transform yeast cells at low frequency (1-10 colonies per mu g) and integrate into the genome by

  9. Model transformations for state-space self-tuning control of multivariable stochastic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shieh, Leang S.; Bao, Yuan L.; Coleman, Norman P.

    1988-01-01

    The design of self-tuning controllers for multivariable stochastic systems is considered analytically. A long-division technique for finding the similarity transformation matrix and transforming the estimated left MFD to the right MFD is developed; the derivation is given in detail, and the procedures involved are briefly characterized.

  10. Joint Application Of Continuous And Discrete Wavelet Transform To Potential Field Data

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Fedi; R. Primiceri; T. Quarta; A. Villani

    2002-01-01

    Discrete and continuous wavelet techniques have been recently used for filtering and analysis of potential field data. The discrete wavelet transform (dwt), using the good property of localisation of wavelet bases, is a powerful tool either in filtering or de- noising problems. The continuous wavelet transform (cwt), thanks to the properties of the upward continued derivative field, allows characterization and

  11. Foreshock sequences and short-term earthquake predictability on East Pacific Rise transform faults

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Margaret S. Boettcher; Thomas H. Jordan; Jeffrey J. McGuire

    2005-01-01

    East Pacific Rise transform faults are characterized by high slip rates (more than ten centimetres a year), predominately aseismic slip and maximum earthquake magnitudes of about 6.5. Using recordings from a hydroacoustic array deployed by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, we show here that East Pacific Rise transform faults also have a low number of aftershocks and high foreshock

  12. //Create Transform & TransformGroup for object/room Transform3D room1T3D = new Transform3D();

    E-print Network

    Hill, Gary

    //Create Transform & TransformGroup for object/room Transform3D room1T3D = new Transform3D(); roomT3D.set(new Vector3f(fX, fY, fZ)); TransformGroup room1TG = new TransformGroup(room1T3D); //AddGroup ceilingTG //Create wall shape first ­ Box etc. //Create TransformGroup for object/wall Transform3D wallT3

  13. LU transformation invariant operators and LU transformation invariant

    E-print Network

    Xin-wei Zha; Chun-min Zhang

    2007-02-06

    We proposed a concept of LU transformation invariant operators. By using this operator, arbitrary multi-qubit states LU transformation invariant and SLOCC invariant could be easily obtained. And we find that presences two kinds of invariant operators and corresponding invariants. One kind of operators yields LU invariants and the other operators results in SLOCC invariants. For three-qubit states, all independence LU transformation invariant are obtained. Furthermore, by this system method, arbitrary multi-qubit states invariants can be given.

  14. Acceleration of the initial phase transformation of mineralization by phosvitin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaowei; Geng, Fang; Huang, Xi; Ma, Meihu

    2015-01-01

    Phosvitin has a similar structure and similar properties to the phosphorylated proteins that play an important role in biomineralization, suggesting that phosvitin may have similar regulation properties. This study investigated the effect of phosvitin on regulating the phase transformation of the mineral calcium phosphate in a biomimetic mineralization solution; the characterization techniques used were Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy. The results clearly demonstrated that phosvitin significantly promotes the initiation of phase transformation, accelerated the transformation process and shortened the transformation time from 6 to 0.5 h. Phosvitin was involved in the phase transformation and incorporated into or strongly absorbed on the mineral, as evidenced by the protein peaks observed in the FTIR spectra and XRD patterns. The effects of the substrate-addition sequence on the phase transformation demonstrated that the phosvitin-Ca2+ interaction played a key role in the regulation of mineralization. Compared with those for BSA, the results revealed that the role of phosvitin in mineralization is closely associated with its high level of phosphorylation. This study provides useful information about using phosvitin as a potential candidate for biomaterials.

  15. Mitochondrial DNA Heteroplasmy in Candida glabrata after Mitochondrial Transformation ? †

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jingwen; Liu, Liming; Chen, Jian

    2010-01-01

    Genetic manipulation of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is the most direct method for investigating mtDNA, but until now, this has been achieved only in the diploid yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this study, the ATP6 gene on mtDNA of the haploid yeast Candida glabrata (Torulopsis glabrata) was deleted by biolistic transformation of DNA fragments with a recoded ARG8m mitochondrial genetic marker, flanked by homologous arms to the ATP6 gene. Transformants were identified by arginine prototrophy. However, in the transformants, the original mtDNA was not lost spontaneously, even under arginine selective pressure. Moreover, the mtDNA transformants selectively lost the transformed mtDNA under aerobic conditions. The mtDNA heteroplasmy in the transformants was characterized by PCR, quantitative PCR, and Southern blotting, showing that the heteroplasmy was relatively stable in the absence of arginine. Aerobic conditions facilitated the loss of the original mtDNA, and anaerobic conditions favored loss of the transformed mtDNA. Moreover, detailed investigations showed that increases in reactive oxygen species in mitochondria lacking ATP6, along with their equal cell division, played important roles in determining the dynamics of heteroplasmy. Based on our analysis of mtDNA heteroplasmy in C. glabrata, we were able to generate homoplasmic ?atp6 mtDNA strains. PMID:20207853

  16. The transforming growth factor-?\\/SMAD signaling pathway is present and functional in human mesangial cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anne-Christine Poncelet; Mark P. De Caestecker; H. William Schnaper

    1999-01-01

    The transforming growth factor-?\\/SMAD signaling pathway is present and functional in human mesangial cells.BackgroundTransforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) signals through a unique set of intracellular proteins, called SMADs, that have been characterized mainly in transient overexpression systems. Because several models of glomerulosclerosis suggest a role for TGF-? in the extracellular matrix accumulation, we sought to characterize the role of SMAD proteins

  17. Genetic transformation of Ascochyta rabiei using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation.

    PubMed

    White, David; Chen, Weidong

    2006-04-01

    In order to study pathogenic mechanisms of the plant pathogen Ascochyta rabiei, conditions for efficient transformation using Agrobacterium-mediated transformation were investigated. Hygromycin B resistance (hph) was superior to geneticin resistance (nptII) for selecting transformants, and the hph gene was more efficiently expressed by the Aspergillus nidulans trpC promoter than by the Cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter CaMV35S. Co-cultivation on solid media for 72 h was optimal for generating transformants, but increasing the ratio of bacterial cells to conidia did not affect transformation efficiency. All hygromycin B-resistant transformants carried transfer-DNA (T-DNA) as determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and the T-DNA integrations appeared to be random and in single copy as detected by Southern hybridization. Transformants remained resistant to hygromycin B in the absence of selection. Variations in colony morphology were observed in the presence of hygromycin B under different culture conditions, and a variety of altered phenotypes including reduced virulence were observed among 550 transformants. Inverse PCR was more efficient than TAIL-PCR in identifying flanking genomic sequences from T-DNA borders, and the possible causes are discussed. This transformation technique and recovery of flanking DNA using inverse PCR will provide a useful tool for genetic studies of A. rabiei. PMID:16369840

  18. Phase transformations in xerogels of mullite composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyatt, Mark J.; Bansal, Narottam P.

    1988-01-01

    Monophasic and diphasic xerogels have been prepared as precursors for mullite (3Al2O3-2SiO2). Monophasic xerogel was synthesized from tetraethyl orthosilicate and aluminum nitrate nanohydrate and the diphasic xerogel from colloidal suspension of silica and boehmite. The chemical and structural evolutions, as a function of thermal treatment, in these two types of sol-gel derived mullite precursor powders have been characterized by DTA, TGA, X-ray diffraction, SEM and infrared spectroscopy. Monophasic xerogel transforms to an Al-Si spinel from an amorphous structure at approximately 980 C. The spinel then changes into mullite on further heating. Diphasic xerogel forms mullite at approximately 1360 C. The components of the diphasic powder react independently up to the point of mullite formation. The transformation in the monophasic powder occurs rapidly and yields strongly crystalline mullite with no other phases present. The diphasic powder, however, transforms rather slowly and contains remnants of the starting materials (alpha-Al2O3, cristobalite) even after heating at high temperatures for long times (1600 C, 6 hr). The diphasic powder could be sintered to high density but not the monophasic powder in spite of its molecular level homogeneity.

  19. Phase transformations in xerogels of mullite composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyatt, Mark J.; Bansal, Narottam P.

    1990-01-01

    Monophasic and diphasic xerogels have been prepared as precursors for mullite (3Al203-2Si02). Monophasic xerogel was synthesized from tetraethyl orthosilicate and aluminum nitrate nanohydrate and the diphasic xerogel from colloidal suspension of silica and boehmite. The chemical and structural evolutions, as a function of thermal treatment, in these two types of sol-gel derived mullite precursor powders have been characterized by DTA, TGA, X-ray diffraction, SEM and infrared spectroscopy. Monophasic xerogel transforms to an Al-Si spinel from an amorphous structure at approximately 980 C. The spinel then changes into mullite on further heating. Diphasic xerogel forms mullite at approximately 1360 C. The components of the diphasic powder react independently up to the point of mullite formation. The transformation in the monophasic powder occurs rapidly and yields strongly crystalline mullite with no other phases present. The diphasic powder, however, transforms rather slowly and contains remnants of the starting materials (alpha-Al203, cristobalite) even after heating at high temperatures for long times (1600 C, 6 hr). The diphasic powder could be sintered to high density but not the monophasic powder in spite of its molecular level homogeneity.

  20. z Transform Chapter Intended Learning Outcomes

    E-print Network

    So, Hing-Cheung

    z Transform Chapter Intended Learning Outcomes: (i) Understanding the relationship between transform and the Fourier transform for discrete-time signals (ii) Understanding the characteristics and properties of transform (iii) Ability to compute transform and inverse transform (iv) Ability to apply

  1. Transformation plasticity in ductile solids

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, G.B.

    1993-02-01

    Research has addressed the role of martensitic transformation plasticity in the enhancement of toughness in high-strength austenitic steels, and the enhancement of formability in multiphase low-alloy sheet steels. In the austenitic steels, optimal processing conditions have been established to achieve a significant increase in strength level, in order to investigate the interaction of strain-induced transformation with the microvoid nucleation and shear localization mechanisms operating at ultrahigh strength levels. The stress-state dependence of transformation and fracture mechanisms has been investigated in model alloys, comparing behavior in uniaxial tension and blunt-notch tension specimens. A numerical constitutive model for transformation plasticity has been reformulated to allow a more thorough analysis of transformation/fracture interactions. Processing of a new low alloy steel composition has been optimized to stabilize retained austenite by isothermal bainitic transformation after intercritical annealing. Preliminary results show a good correlation of uniform ductility with the austenite amount and stability.

  2. Hadamard transform imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, M.D.

    1992-01-01

    We have constructed a Hadamard transform Raman microscopic imaging system, and have developed it to a high definition (64K pixel) technique. We have demonstrated multispectral Raman imaging and developed the first three-dimensional (digital confocal) Raman imaging. We have explored the systematic errors in Hadamard multiplexing techniques and developed corrections. We have used our Raman microscope techniques to explore defect distributions on graphite electrodes and damage effects on SERS-activated silver electrodes. We have used the microprobe capabilities of our instrument to investigate the kinetics of polyacrylamide formation in electrolysis capabilities. We have worked closely with a manufacture of holographic displays to develop and incorporate holographic filters and holographic beam splitters into Raman spectrographs and microscopes. Finally, we have developed Hadamard multiplexing techniques for densitometric measurements of protein or nucleic acid blots.

  3. Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, C.L.; Carter, M.R.; Fields, D.J.; Hernandez, J.

    1993-04-14

    The operating principles of an Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (IFTS) are discussed. The advantages and disadvantages of such instruments with respect to alternative imaging spectrometers are discussed. The primary advantages of the IFTS are the capacity to acquire more than an order of magnitude more spectral channels than alternative systems with more than an order of magnitude greater etendue than for alternative systems. The primary disadvantage of IFTS, or FTS in general, is the sensitivity to temporal fluctuations, either random or periodic. Data from the IRIFTS (ir IFTS) prototype instrument, sensitive in the infrared, are presented having a spectral sensitivity of 0.01 absorbance units, a spectral resolution of 6 cm{sup {minus}1} over the range 0 to 7899 cm{sup {minus}1}, and a spatial resolution of 2.5 mr.

  4. Discrete Pulse Transform of Images

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roumen Anguelov; Inger Fabris-rotelli

    2008-01-01

    \\u000a The Discrete Pulse Transform (DPT) of images is defined by using a new class of LULU operators on multidimensional arrays.\\u000a This transform generalizes the DPT of sequences and replicates its essential properties, e.g. total variation preservation.\\u000a Furthermore, the discrete pulses in the transform capture the contrast in the original image on the boundary of their supports.\\u000a Since images are perceived

  5. Pulse transformer for electron gun

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. S. Antsupov; I. M. Matora; V. A. Shvets

    1976-01-01

    A pulse transformer with an output voltage 720 kV and a current of 170 A with a pulse duration 1.4 ..mu..sec is described along with an autotransformer designed for a voltage of 640 kV. The high output voltage is attained by connecting several transformers in series and applying the voltage to the primary winding of each series transformer through a

  6. Cereal transformation through particle bombardment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casas, A. M.; Kononowicz, A. K.; Bressan, R. A.; Hasegawa, P. M.; Mitchell, C. A. (Principal Investigator)

    1995-01-01

    The review focuses on experiments that lead to stable transformation in cereals using microprojectile bombardment. The discussion of biological factors that affect transformation examines target tissues and vector systems for gene transfer. The vector systems include reporter genes, selectable markers, genes of agronomic interest, and vector constructions. Other topics include physical parameters that affect DNA delivery, selection of stably transformed cells and plant regeneration, and analysis of gene expression and transmission to the progeny.

  7. Phase transformations in high polymers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. D. Keith

    1973-01-01

    Phase transformations in high polymers are reviewed broadly and with the purpose of high-lighting the similarities and dissimilarities\\u000a between behavior in high polymers and in metals. Emphasis is placed upon the kinetic restraints that make phase transformations\\u000a in high polymers sluggish for the most part, and upon the molecular factors that underlie them. The review deals specifically\\u000a with transformations of

  8. Transformation: emergence of the self

    E-print Network

    Stein, Murray

    1998-01-01

    CHAPTER 2 The Transformative Image 39 CHAPTER 3 Transformative Relationships 69 CHAPTER 4 Three Portraits of Transformation: Rembrandt, Picasso, Jung 106 Epilogue 143 Notes 149 Bibliography 161 Index 165 ILLUSTRATIONS The Mithraic god Aion page... 47 The Rosarium Series beginning page 87 Rembrandt, Self-Portrait, 1658 page 113 Rembrandt, Self-Portrait, c. 1661-62 115 Rembrandt, Self-Portrait, Laughing 117 Rembrandt, Self-Portrait as the Apostle Paul 119 Picasso, Self-Portrait with Palette...

  9. Lifetime management of power transformers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Sumereder; M. Muhr; B. Körbler

    2003-01-01

    Power transformers belong to the most important and most cost-intensive equipment of electrical power transmission and distribution.\\u000a If an error in a transformer occurs, this causes not only an interruption of the electrical power supply of far areas but\\u000a also large economic losses beyond that. Thus, the operation of transformers must guarantee a continuous and error free power\\u000a supply over

  10. Optical transforms in digital holography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaroslavsky, L.

    2006-05-01

    Digital holography is a symbiosis of physical optics and digital computers. In numerical reconstruction of optical holograms, optical wavefront is sampled, and obtained numerical data are transformed in computers for evaluating physical properties of objects that produced that wave front. In fabricating computer-generated holograms, numerical data produced by a computer are converted into a physical hologram or an optical element intended for forming real optical beams. Therefore mutual correspondence between optical transformations and their computer representations is of fundamental importance for digital holography. In the paper, this problem is addressed and different computer representations of basic optical transforms such as convolution, Fourier and Fresnel integral transforms are briefly reviewed.

  11. Algorithm For Integer Cosine Transforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollara, Fabrizio; Cheung, Kar-Ming; Shahshahani, Mehrdad

    1994-01-01

    Algorithm computes coefficients of integer cosine transforms, containing only integer coefficients approximately proportional to floating-point coefficients of discrete cosine transforms. Used in compression of image data in blocks of N x N pixels, discrete cosine transforms involve large amounts of computation, typically amounting to 80 percent of computational load in data-compression scheme. In constructing integer approximations, competing requirements are to obtain data-compression and data-decompression performances comparable to those of corresponding descrete cosine transforms while taking advantage of simplicity afforded by integer arithmetic to reduce complexity and amount of computation.

  12. Medical data transformation using rewriting

    PubMed Central

    Ashish, Naveen; Toga, Arthur W.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a system for declaratively transforming medical subjects' data into a common data model representation. Our work is part of the “GAAIN” project on Alzheimer's disease data federation across multiple data providers. We present a general purpose data transformation system that we have developed by leveraging the existing state-of-the-art in data integration and query rewriting. In this work we have further extended the current technology with new formalisms that facilitate expressing a broader range of data transformation tasks, plus new execution methodologies to ensure efficient data transformation for disease datasets. PMID:25750622

  13. Logarithmic Transformations in Regression: Do You Transform Back Correctly?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dambolena, Ismael G.; Eriksen, Steven E.; Kopcso, David P.

    2009-01-01

    The logarithmic transformation is often used in regression analysis for a variety of purposes such as the linearization of a nonlinear relationship between two or more variables. We have noticed that when this transformation is applied to the response variable, the computation of the point estimate of the conditional mean of the original response…

  14. Color image encryption based on gyrator transform and Arnold transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sui, Liansheng; Gao, Bo

    2013-06-01

    A color image encryption scheme using gyrator transform and Arnold transform is proposed, which has two security levels. In the first level, the color image is separated into three components: red, green and blue, which are normalized and scrambled using the Arnold transform. The green component is combined with the first random phase mask and transformed to an interim using the gyrator transform. The first random phase mask is generated with the sum of the blue component and a logistic map. Similarly, the red component is combined with the second random phase mask and transformed to three-channel-related data. The second random phase mask is generated with the sum of the phase of the interim and an asymmetrical tent map. In the second level, the three-channel-related data are scrambled again and combined with the third random phase mask generated with the sum of the previous chaotic maps, and then encrypted into a gray scale ciphertext. The encryption result has stationary white noise distribution and camouflage property to some extent. In the process of encryption and decryption, the rotation angle of gyrator transform, the iterative numbers of Arnold transform, the parameters of the chaotic map and generated accompanied phase function serve as encryption keys, and hence enhance the security of the system. Simulation results and security analysis are presented to confirm the security, validity and feasibility of the proposed scheme.

  15. Comparing transformation languages for the implementation of certified model transformations

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    from low-level models. On the other hand, modeling languages have often (but not always) clearly and implementation flaws. Most com- monly the final implementation is verified against the low level requirements viaComparing transformation languages for the implementation of certified model transformations Arnaud

  16. Transformation Nets -A Runtime Model for Transformation Languages

    E-print Network

    Hochreiter, Sepp

    of Software Technology and Interactive Systems Vienna University of Technology Favoritenstraße 9 as first-class arti- facts throughout the software lifecycle requiring the availability of proper)--called Transformation Nets--for the development, execution and debugging of model transformations on a high level

  17. Curvelets for surface characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Jianwei

    2007-01-01

    Surface metrology is the science of measuring small-scale features on surfaces, which is important to many disciplines including tribology, fluid mechanics, optics, and manufacturing. Applications of wavelets on functional surfaces have become an increasing interest. Unfortunately, the traditional wavelets have good performance only at representing point singularities because they ignore the geometric properties of surfaces with scratches and do not exploit the regularity of curves. In this letter, a second-generation curvelet transform combined with total variation minimization is proposed to characterize surfaces with general scratches along C2 singularities. The ability of the developed geometric multiscale method is demonstrated on bioengineering surfaces.

  18. CHARACTERIZATION OF CHLORINATION TRANSFORMATION PRODUCTS OF SELECTED PESTICIDES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chlorination is a commonly-used disinfectant step in drinking water treatment. Should free chlorine be added to water used as a drinking water source, it is widely understood that many biological species in the water along with dissolved organic and inorganic chemicals will react...

  19. Characterization of insoluble fractions of TNT transformed by composting

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. E. Caton; R. T. Williams; W. H. Griest

    1994-01-01

    Soil contaminated with explosives was supplemented with carbon?14 labelled 2,4,6?trinitrotoluene (C?TNT) and was composted in a field static pile composting experiment. After 90 d of composting, the distribution of carbon?14 (C) activity in fractions from acetonitrile extraction (\\

  20. Transformational Design of Digital Circuits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. F. A. Middelhoek

    1993-01-01

    A new design method for synchronous digital VLSI circuits based on the ideas of transformational design is developed. The central idea is to derive an implementation from a behavioral specification by means of behavior-preserving transformations. An essential part of such a methodology is a design representation language which can be used during the complete synthesis trajectory. For this purpose a