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1

Feasibility of anomaly detection and characterization using trans-admittance mammography with 60 × 60 electrode array  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrical impedance imaging has the potential to detect an early stage of breast cancer due to higher admittivity values compared with those of normal breast tissues. The tumor size and extent of axillary lymph node involvement are important parameters to evaluate the breast cancer survival rate. Additionally, the anomaly characterization is required to distinguish a malignant tumor from a benign tumor. In order to overcome the limitation of breast cancer detection using impedance measurement probes, we developed the high density trans-admittance mammography (TAM) system with 60 × 60 electrode array and produced trans-admittance maps obtained at several frequency pairs. We applied the anomaly detection algorithm to the high density TAM system for estimating the volume and position of breast tumor. We tested four different sizes of anomaly with three different conductivity contrasts at four different depths. From multifrequency trans-admittance maps, we can readily observe the transversal position and estimate its volume and depth. Specially, the depth estimated values were obtained accurately, which were independent to the size and conductivity contrast when applying the new formula using Laplacian of trans-admittance map. The volume estimation was dependent on the conductivity contrast between anomaly and background in the breast phantom. We characterized two testing anomalies using frequency difference trans-admittance data to eliminate the dependency of anomaly position and size. We confirmed the anomaly detection and characterization algorithm with the high density TAM system on bovine breast tissue. Both results showed the feasibility of detecting the size and position of anomaly and tissue characterization for screening the breast cancer.

Zhao, Mingkang; Wi, Hun; Lee, Eun Jung; Woo, Eung Je; In Oh, Tong

2014-10-01

2

Electrical admittance of piezoelectric parallelepipeds: application to tensorial characterization of piezoceramics  

SciTech Connect

This work deals with the characterization of functional properties, including determination of mechanical and electrical losses, of piezoelectric materials using only one sample and one measurement. First, the natural resonant frequencies of a piezoelectric parallelepiped are calculated and the electrical admittance is determined from calculations of the charge quantity on both electrodes of the parallelepiped. A first validation of the model is performed using a comparison with Mason's model. Results are reported for a PMN-34.5PT ceramic cube and a good agreement is found between experimental admittance measurements and their modeling. The functional properties of the PMN-34.5PT are then extracted.

Diallo, O.; Bavencoffe, M.; Feuillard, G. [Laboratoire GREMAN UMR CNRS 7347. École Nationale d’Ingénieurs du Val de Loire Université François Rabelais de Tours 3 Rue de la Chocolaterie BP 3410 41034 BLOIS CEDEX France (France)] [Laboratoire GREMAN UMR CNRS 7347. École Nationale d’Ingénieurs du Val de Loire Université François Rabelais de Tours 3 Rue de la Chocolaterie BP 3410 41034 BLOIS CEDEX France (France); Clezio, E. Le; Delaunay, T. [Institut d’Electronique du Sud UMR CNRS 5214 IES - MIRA case 082Université Montpellier 2 Place Eugène Bataillon 34095 MONTPELLIER CEDEX 5 France (France)] [Institut d’Electronique du Sud UMR CNRS 5214 IES - MIRA case 082Université Montpellier 2 Place Eugène Bataillon 34095 MONTPELLIER CEDEX 5 France (France)

2014-01-15

3

Tevatron admittance measurement  

SciTech Connect

We measured the Tevatron beam admittance by the means of exciting the beam with noise and causing emittance growth. The noise power was about 3W with a bandwidth of 100Hz and centered either in the horizontal betatron frequency or vertical betatron frequency. We were able to controllably blow the beam emittance up quickly. From the point where the beam emittance stopped growing, we measured the beam acceptance of the Tevatron.

Zhang, X.L.; Shiltsev, V.; Tan, C.Y.; /Fermilab

2005-05-01

4

Characterization of the pulse transformer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This report treats characterization of the pulse transformer at TNO PML Pulse Physics, Delft. The pulse transformer constitutes the final step of an energy compression system, called the Kapitza facility, and is able to amplify the current up to 24 times. The pulse transformer consists of a primary single layer winding of 24 turns which is enclosed by an aluminium secondary winding, consisting of one inner- and one outer which are coupled in parallel. Characterization means: determination of the electrical quantities, such as the ohmic resistance and the inductance of the primary and secondary windings. A current source able to deliver single-wave currents with adjustable frequencies was used. From the measurement it appears that the main inductances decrease and the ohmic resistances increase with increasing frequency. This is caused by differential currents, skin and proximity effect, and parasitic induced currents in aluminum secondary winding.

Mosterdijk, W. H.

1992-12-01

5

The passivity of natural admittance control implementations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Natural Admittance Control (NAC) has been proposed as a means of implementing responsive force control that is both gentle and rapid while maintaining an end-effector admittance that is passive. Practical implementations, however, must deviate from the ideal NAC formulation, impacting the passivity of the manipulator. Issues arise particularly in the case where NAC is retrofitted to an existing industrial robot

Mark E. Dohring; Wyatt S. Newman

2003-01-01

6

Applications of Admittance Spectroscopy in Photovoltaic Devices Beyond Majority-Carrier Trapping Defects  

SciTech Connect

Admittance spectroscopy is commonly used to characterize majority-carrier trapping defects. In today's practical photovoltaic devices, however, a number of other physical mechanisms may contribute to the admittance measurement and interfere with the data interpretation. Such challenges arise due to the violation of basic assumptions of conventional admittance spectroscopy such as single-junction, ohmic contact, highly conductive absorbers, and measurement in reverse bias. We exploit such violations to devise admittance spectroscopy-based methods for studying the respective origins of 'interference': majority-carrier mobility, non-ohmic contact potential barrier, minority-carrier inversion at heterointerface, and minority-carrier lifetime in a device environment. These methods are applied to a variety of photovoltaic technologies: CdTe, Cu(In, Ga)Se{sub 2}, Si HIT cells, and organic photovoltaic materials.

Li, J. V.; Crandall, R. S.; Repins, I. L.; Nardes, A. M.; Levi, D. H.

2011-01-01

7

Applications of Admittance Spectroscopy in Photovoltaic Devices Beyond Majority Carrier Trapping Defects: Preprint  

SciTech Connect

Admittance spectroscopy is commonly used to characterize majority-carrier trapping defects. In today's practical photovoltaic devices, however, a number of other physical mechanisms may contribute to the admittance measurement and interfere with the data interpretation. Such challenges arise due to the violation of basic assumptions of conventional admittance spectroscopy such as single-junction, ohmic contact, highly conductive absorbers, and measurement in reverse bias. We exploit such violations to devise admittance spectroscopy-based methods for studying the respective origins of 'interference': majority-carrier mobility, non-ohmic contact potential barrier, minority-carrier inversion at hetero-interface, and minority-carrier lifetime in a device environment. These methods are applied to a variety of photovoltaic technologies: CdTe, Cu(In,Ga)Se2, Si HIT cells, and organic photovoltaic materials.

Li, J. V.; Crandall, R. S.; Repins, I. L.; Nardes, A. M.; Levi, D. H.; Sulima, O.

2011-07-01

8

Localized Gravity/Topography Admittances on Mars  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Admittances from Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) gravity and topography yield estimates of lithosphere thickness on Mars: central Tharsis > 100 km, Alba Patera = 50 km, southern highlands < 20 km (but south polar cap > 50 km). Alba Patera and Elysium Rise are similar structures.

McGovern, Patrick J.; Solomon, Sean C.; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Head, James W.

2000-01-01

9

Charge injecting layers for admittance spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Admittance spectroscopy is a simple yet powerful tool to determine the carrier mobility of organic compounds. One requirement is to have an Ohmic contact for charge injection. By employing a thin interfacial layer of tungsten oxide or molybdenum oxide we have found a possibility to efficiently inject holes into organic materials with a deep highest occupied molecular orbital level down to 6.3 eV. These results considerably enhance the application range of the admittance spectroscopy method. The measured mobility data are in excellent agreement with data obtained by the time-of-flight technique. To efficiently inject electrons into materials with an ionization potential of up to 2.7 eV we thermally evaporated an intermediate layer of cesium carbonate and discuss the extracted electron mobilities.

Hoping, M.; Schildknecht, C.; Gargouri, H.; Riedl, T.; Tilgner, M.; Johannes, H.-H.; Kowalsky, W.

2008-08-01

10

Probing liquid distribution in partially saturated porous materials with hydraulic admittance.  

PubMed

The distribution of two immiscible fluids in a complex porous material during displacement is often central to understanding its function. Characterization of this distribution is traditionally determined via optically transparent flow cells. However, for opaque or thin porous materials of the order of hundreds of microns, optical visualization proves to be difficult and requires sophisticated imaging techniques that are expensive and difficult to come by. We describe here a bench-top tool that dynamically probes the hydraulic pathways leading to each free-interface within a single capillary and a bundle of seven capillaries at various saturations (i.e., hydraulic path lengths). A small volumetric displacement was applied to each interface such that the interfaces remained pinned at the capillary walls and the resultant oscillatory pressure drop was measured to determine the hydraulic admittance at each applied oscillation frequency. When the magnitude of the hydraulic admittance was plotted vs. applied oscillation frequency, a resonance peak was found for each degenerately filled capillary. The corresponding peaks were represented by a half-loop (100% filled) and full loops (partially filled) in a Nyquist plot. We compared the theoretical and measured admittance curves and found good agreement for both capillary systems at high filled states. The theoretical predictions became worse when the hydraulic path length was comparable to the capillary radius. The analysis for the hydraulic admittance of a bundle of capillaries is developed here and experimentally validated for the first time. PMID:21974614

Cheung, P; Fairweather, J F; Schwartz, D T

2011-09-01

11

Mesoscopic admittance of a double quantum dot  

SciTech Connect

We calculate the mesoscopic admittance G({omega}) of a double quantum dot (DQD), which can be measured directly using microwave techniques. This quantity reveals spectroscopic information on the DQD and is also directly sensitive to a Pauli spin blockade effect. We then discuss the problem of a DQD coupled to a high quality photonic resonator. When the photon correlation functions can be developed along a random-phase-approximation-like scheme, the response of the resonator gives an access to G({omega}).

Cottet, Audrey; Mora, Christophe; Kontos, Takis [Laboratoire Pierre Aigrain, Ecole Normale Superieure, CNRS (UMR 8551), Universite P. et M. Curie, Universite D. Diderot, 24 rue Lhomond, F-75231 Paris Cedex 05 (France)

2011-03-15

12

Surface acoustic admittance and absorption of highly porous, layered, fibrous materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Some acoustic properties of Kevlar-29 - a fine fibered, layered material is investigated. Kevlar is characterized by very high strength, uniform filaments arranged in a parallel batt where most filaments are random in the x-y plane but ordered as planes in the z direction. For experimental purposes, volume porosity, static flow resistance and mean filament diameter are used to identify the material. To determine the acoustic surface admittance of Kevlar, batts of the material are cut into small pads and placed into a standing wave tube terminated by a rigid brass plug. The attenuation and relative phase shift are recorded at each frequency in the range of 50 to 6000 Hz. Normalized conductance and susceptance are combined to form the acoustic absorption coefficient. The data are compared with theory by plotting the normalized admittance and normal incident absorption coefficient versus cyclic frequency.

Tesar, J. S.; Lambert, R. F.

1984-01-01

13

Coulometric differential FFT admittance voltammetry determination of Amlodipine in pharmaceutical formulation by nano-composite electrode.  

PubMed

An electrochemical detection technique based on combination of was coulometric differential fast Fourier transformation admittance voltammetry (CDFFTAV) and nano-composite film modified glassy carbon electrode was successfully applied for sensitive determination of Amlodipine. The nano-composite film was made by a mixture of ionic liquid, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (EMIMBF4), multiwall carbon nanotube and Au nanoparticles as electrochemical mediators. Studies reveal that the irreversible oxidation of Amlodipine was highly facile on the electrode surface. The electrochemical response was established on calculation of the charge under the admittance peak, which was obtained by discrete integration of the admittance response in a selected potential range, obtained in a flow injection analysis. Once established the best operative optimum conditions, the resulting nano-composite film electrode showed a catalytic effect on the oxidation of the analyte. The response is linear in the Amlodipine concentration range of 1.0 × 10(-9) to 2.0 × 10(-7)M with a detection limit of 1.25 × 10(-10)M. Moreover, the proposed technique exhibited high sensitivity, fast response time (less than 6s) and long-term stability and reproducibility around 96%, and it was successfully used to the determination of Amlodipine content in the pharmaceutical formulation. PMID:25281143

Norouzi, Parviz; Gupta, Vinod Kumar; Larijani, Bagher; Rasoolipour, Solmaz; Faridbod, Farnoush; Ganjali, Mohammad R

2015-01-01

14

9 CFR 117.3 - Admittance of animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Admittance of animals. 117.3 Section 117.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

2014-01-01

15

9 CFR 117.3 - Admittance of animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Admittance of animals. 117.3 Section 117.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

2012-01-01

16

9 CFR 117.3 - Admittance of animals.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Admittance of animals. 117.3 Section 117.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

2013-01-01

17

Admittance spectroscopy of cadmium free CIGS solar cells heterointerfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cadmium free Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) solar cells, prepared with indium sulfide buffer layers In2S3 deposited by Atomic Layer Chemical Vapor Deposition, were investigated by admittance spectroscopy. The admittance spectroscopy performed on various solar cells with different deposition conditions of the In2S3 buffer layer reveals two types of defects: a shallow level N1 and a deeper one N2. The same situation is

Z. Djebbour; A. Darga; A. Migan Dubois; D. Mencaraglia; N. Naghavi; J.-F. Guillemoles; D. Lincot

2006-01-01

18

Wideband generalized admittance matrix representation for the analysis and design of waveguide filters with coaxial excitation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A very efficient technique for the full-wave analysis and design of complex passive waveguide filters, including rectangular cavities with metallic cylindrical posts and coaxial excitation, is presented. This novel technique provides the wideband generalized admittance matrix representation of the whole structure in the form of pole expansions, thus extracting the most expensive computations from the frequency loop. For this purpose, the structure is properly segmented into its key building blocks, all of them characterized in terms of wideband admittance matrices. Then, an efficient iterative algorithm for combining these matrices, and finally providing the wideband generalized admittance matrix of the complete structure, is followed. In order to validate the accuracy and efficiency of this full-wave modal technique, four different waveguide filters have been considered. In particular, the design of a compact four-pole in-line filter with tuning screws and of an evanescent-mode filter, both operating in the X-band and including a standard (vertical) coaxial excitation, are first presented. Finally, two C-band six-resonator comb-line filters, one of them with a cross-coupling configuration, and both excited with a collinear end-launcher transition based on a disc-ended coaxial, are also designed. Numerical data from a commercial software, as well as measurements of a manufactured prototype, are included for verification purposes.

Mira, FermíN.; San Blas, ÁNgel A.; Boria, Vicente E.; Roglá, Luis J.; Gimeno, Benito

2013-01-01

19

Anomaly depth detection in trans-admittance mammography: a formula independent of anomaly size or admittivity contrast  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Trans-admittance mammography (TAM) is a bioimpedance technique for breast cancer detection. It is based on the comparison of tissue conductivity: cancerous tissue is identified by its higher conductivity in comparison with the surrounding normal tissue. In TAM, the breast is compressed between two electrical plates (in a similar architecture to x-ray mammography). The bottom plate has many sensing point electrodes that provide two-dimensional images (trans-admittance maps) that are induced by voltage differences between the two plates. Multi-frequency admittance data (Neumann data) are measured over the range 50 Hz-500 kHz. TAM aims to determine the location and size of any anomaly from the multi-frequency admittance data. Various anomaly detection algorithms can be used to process TAM data to determine the transverse positions of anomalies. However, existing methods cannot reliably determine the depth or size of an anomaly. Breast cancer detection using TAM would be improved if the depth or size of an anomaly could also be estimated, properties that are independent of the admittivity contrast. A formula is proposed here that can estimate the depth of an anomaly independent of its size and the admittivity contrast. This depth estimation can also be used to derive an estimation of the size of the anomaly. The proposed estimations are verified rigorously under a simplified model. Numerical simulation shows that the proposed method also works well in general settings.

Zhang, Tingting; Lee, Eunjung; Seo, Jin Keun

2014-04-01

20

Acoustic transfer admittance of cylindrical cavities  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The reciprocity calibration method uses two microphones acoustically connected by a coupler, a cylindrical cavity closed at each end by the diaphragms of the transmitting and receiving microphones. The acoustic transfer admittance of the coupler, including the thermal conductivity effect of the fluid, must be modelled precisely to obtain the accurate sensitivity of the microphones from the electrical transfer impedance measurement. It appears that the analytical model quoted in the current standard [International Electrotechnical Commission IEC 61064-2, Measurement Microphones, Part 2: Primary Method for Pressure Calibration of Laboratory Standard Microphones by the Reciprocity Technique, 1992] is not the appropriate one and that it should be revised, as also suggested by a recent EUROMET project report [K. Rasmussen, Datafiles simulating a pressure reciprocity calibration of microphones, EUROMET Project 294 Report PL-13, 2001]. Thus, it is the aim of the paper to investigate analytically the acoustic field inside the coupler, revisiting the assumptions of the earlier work, leading to a coherent description and therefore providing clarity which should facilitate discussion of a possible revised standard.

Guianvarc'h, C.; Durocher, J.-N.; Bruneau, M.; Bruneau, A.-M.

2006-05-01

21

Frequency dependence of the admittance of a quantum point contact  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using a Boltzmann-like kinetic equation derived in the semiclassical approximation for the partial Wigner distribution function, we determine the ac admittance of a two-dimensional quantum point contact (QPC) for applied ac fields in the frequency range ?~0-50 GHz. We solve self-consistently an integral equation for the spatial distribution of the potential inside the QPC, taking into account the turning points of the semiclassical trajectories. The admittance of the QPC is a strong function of the gate voltage. This gate voltage can be used to ``tune'' the number of open channels (N) for electron transport. We show that, for most values of gate voltage, the imaginary part of the total admittance is positive for N>1, so that the QPC has an inductive character, because of the predominant role of the open channels. In contrast, for N=0 or 1, for most values of the gate voltage, the imaginary part of the admittance is negative, corresponding to capacitive behavior. For gate voltages near values at which channels open or close, very strong nonlinear effects arise, and the admittance oscillates rapidly (with its imaginary part sometimes changing sign) both as the function of gate voltage (at fixed frequency) and as a function of frequency (at fixed gate voltage). Experimental observation of these oscillations would provide an important test of our semiclassical approach to the ac response of a QPC. We explore the low-frequency regime and investigate the extent to which one can understand the admittance in terms of a static conductance and a ``quantum capacitance'' and a ``quantum inductance.'' We show that it is possible to choose the gate voltage so that there is a large, low-frequency regime in which the admittance is well approximated by a linear function of frequency. In this regime, the admittance can be treated by ``equivalent circuit'' concepts. We study how this approach breaks down at higher frequencies, where strongly nonlinear behavior of the admittance arises. We estimate the value of frequency, ?c, at which the crossover from the low-frequency linear regime to the high-frequency nonlinear behavior occurs. For chosen parameters of a QPC, ?c~10 GHz.

Aronov, I. E.; Beletskii, N. N.; Berman, G. P.; Campbell, D. K.; Doolen, G. D.; Dudiy, S. V.

1998-10-01

22

48 CFR 1222.101-70 - Admittance of union representatives to DOT installations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

... 2010-10-01 false Admittance of union representatives to DOT installations...Policies 1222.101-70 Admittance of union representatives to DOT installations. (a) It is DOT policy to admit labor union representatives of contractor...

2010-10-01

23

Transition metal oxides as charge injecting layer for admittance spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Admittance spectroscopy is a simple yet powerful tool to determine the carrier mobility of organic compounds. One requirement is to have an Ohmic contact for charge injection. By employing a thin interfacial layer of tungsten oxide, or molybdenum oxide we have found a possibility to efficiently inject holes into organic materials with a deep highest occupied molecular orbital level down to 6.3eV. These results considerably enhance the application range of the admittance spectroscopy method. The measured data are in excellent agreement with data obtained by the time-of-flight technique.

Hoping, M.; Schildknecht, C.; Gargouri, H.; Riedl, T.; Tilgner, M.; Johannes, H.-H.; Kowalsky, W.

2008-05-01

24

Admittance survey of type 1 coronae on Venus  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this study, we analyze Magellan gravity and topography data for Type 1 coronae on Venus to estimate crustal thickness (Zc), elastic thickness (Te), and apparent depth of compensation (ZL). We examine the free-air admittance for all 103 Type 1 coronae (defined as having greater than 50% complete fracture annuli) that are resolved in the gravity data. A spatio-spectral method

Trudi Hoogenboom; Suzanne E. Smrekar; F. Scott Anderson; Greg Houseman

2004-01-01

25

Infrastructure in the Electric Sense: Admittance Data from Shark Hydrogels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elasmobranchs (sharks, skates, and rays) possess an electrosensory system with an infrastructure of canals connecting the electrosensors to the environment. The electrosensors and canals are filled with a uniform hydrogel, but the gel's function has not yet been determined. We present electrical admittance spectra collected from the hydrogel from 0.05 Hz to 100 kHz, covering the effective range of the

BRANDON R. BROWN; MARY E. HUGHES; CLEMENTINA RUSSO

2004-01-01

26

Ultrasonic guided-waves characterization with warped frequency transforms.  

PubMed

Guided wave (GW) dispersion curves can be extracted from a time-transient measurement by means of timefrequency representations (TFRs). Unfortunately, any TFR is subject to the time-frequency uncertainty principle. This, in general, limits the capability of TFRs to characterize closely spaced guided modes over a wide frequency range. To overcome this limitation, we implemented a new warped frequency transform that presents enhanced mode extraction capabilities because of a more flexible tiling of the time-frequency domain. The tiling is designed to match the dispersive spectro-temporal structure of a GW by selecting an appropriate map of the time-frequency plane. The proposed transformation is fast, invertible, and covariant to group delay shifts. An application to Lamb waves propagating in an aluminum plate is presented. Time-transient GWs propagation events obtained both numerically and experimentally are considered. The results show that the proposed warped frequency transform limits the interference patterns which appear with other TFRs and produces a sparse representation of the Lamb wave pattern that can be suitable for identification and characterization purposes. PMID:19942510

De Marchi, Luca; Marzani, Alessandro; Caporale, Salvatore; Speciale, Nicolò

2009-10-01

27

Admittance measurements in the quantum Hall effect regime  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work we present an admittance study of a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in the quantum Hall effect (QHE) regime. We have studied several Hall bars in different contacts configurations in the frequency range 100 Hz-1 MHz. Our interpretation is based on the Landauer-Büttiker theory and takes into account both the capacitance and the topology of the coaxial cables which are connected to the sample holder. We show that we always observe losses through the capacitive impedance of the coaxial cables, except in the two contacts configuration in which the cable capacitance does not influence the admittance measurement of the sample. In this case, we measure the electrochemical capacitance of the 2DEG and show its dependence with the filling factor ?.

Hernández, C.; Consejo, C.; Chaubet, C.

2014-11-01

28

Multiparameter admittance spectroscopy for metal-oxide-semiconductor systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Admittance spectroscopy is extended for measuring capacitance and conductance on metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) structures as a function of gate voltage, frequency, and temperature. An automatic setup has been designed for collecting data along these dimensions in one measurement cycle. The theory for admittance spectroscopy has been developed by starting from basic charge carrier statistics. Using numerical integration of energy dependent parameters instead of the commonly used analytical solution, conductance dispersion curves are obtained which do not need to be adjusted by assuming lateral surface potential variations at the oxide-semiconductor interface. Also, we find that interface state densities extracted by using traditional methods are four times lower than those obtained by using our theory. Experimental data presented in three-dimensional plots are compared with theoretical calculations, revealing the possibilities and limitations of the conductance method.

Piscator, J.; Raeissi, B.; Engström, O.

2009-09-01

29

Infrastructure in the electric sense: admittance data from shark hydrogels  

Microsoft Academic Search

Elasmobranchs (sharks, skates, and rays) possess an electrosensory system with an infrastructure of canals connecting the electrosensors to the environment. The electrosensors and canals are filled with a uniform hydrogel, but the gel’s function has not yet been determined. We present electrical admittance spectra collected from the hydrogel from 0.05 to 100 kHz, covering the effective range of the electrosensors. We

Brandon R. Brown; Mary E. Hughes; Clementina Russo

2005-01-01

30

Automatically calibrating admittances in KATE's autonomous launch operations model  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This report documents a 1000-line Symbolics LISP program that automatically calibrates all 15 fluid admittances in KATE's Autonomous Launch Operations (ALO) model. (KATE is Kennedy Space Center's Knowledge-based Autonomous Test Engineer, a diagnosis and repair expert system created for use on the Space Shuttle's various fluid flow systems.) As a new KATE application, the calibrator described here breaks new ground for KSC's Artificial Intelligence Lab by allowing KATE to both control and measure the hardware she supervises. By automating a formerly manual process, the calibrator: (1) saves the ALO model builder untold amounts of labor; (2) enables quick repairs after workmen accidently adjust ALO's hand valves; and (3) frees the modeler to pursue new KATE applications that previously were too complicated. Also reported are suggestions for enhancing the program: (1) to calibrate ALO's TV cameras, pumps, and sensor tolerances; and (2) to calibrate devices in other KATE models, such as the shuttle's LOX and Environment Control System (ECS).

Morgan, Steve

1992-01-01

31

Admittance functions from Venus vertical gravity and modes of topographic support  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Two-dimensional Fourier admittance functions have been estimated for various regions of Venus, using as input the Pioneer Venus topography data and the Venus vertical gravity model of Sjogren. Model admittance functions are computed for various cases, such as lithospheric loading from above, and support from below, for comparison. These models are functions of depth of compensation, flexural rigidity, and crust and mantle densities. The long wavelength topography and gravity signals contain most of the spectral power in the Venus data, and the admittances at these wavelengths are compatible with deep compensation of surface topography.

Williams, D. R.; Kaula, W. M.

1985-01-01

32

CHARACTERIZING MODERN AND FOSSIL GYMNOSPERM EXUDATES USING MICRO-FOURIER TRANSFORM INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY  

E-print Network

CHARACTERIZING MODERN AND FOSSIL GYMNOSPERM EXUDATES USING MICRO-FOURIER TRANSFORM INFRARED spectroscopy have direct implications for the assessment of the fossil potential and the chemotaxonomic interpretation of modern and fossil gymnosperm exudates. Keywords: chemotaxonomy, plant resin, gum, conifers

Wolfe, Alexander P.

33

Bipolar carrier transport in a conjugated polymer by complex admittance spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report the bipolar transport properties of the LUMATION™ (Sumitomo Chemical) 1300 Series green-emitting polymer investigated by means of admittance spectroscopy. Analysis of the inductive response in single-carrier polymer diodes yields electron and hole mobilities which are in excellent agreement with the results of independent measurements. Admittance measurements in dual injection diodes, in combination with the analysis of current-voltage characteristics, provide evidence that the dual injection diodes operate in space-charge-limited regime, indicative of strong recombination within the material. Our results provide strong evidence that the space-charge-related admittance response of dual-carrier diodes is dominated by combined electron-hole response, which corresponds to the sum of electron and hole mobilities. This implies that electron and hole mobilities cannot be obtained separately from admittance measurements in space-charge-limited dual-carrier devices.

Poplavskyy, Dmitry; So, Franky

2006-02-01

34

48 CFR 3022.101-70 - Admittance of union representatives to DHS installations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

...DHS installations. (a) Admittance of union representatives to Transportation Security Administration or United States Secret Service installations and work sites is not governed by this rule, but by laws, rules, regulations,...

2014-10-01

35

48 CFR 3022.101-70 - Admittance of union representatives to DHS installations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...DHS installations. (a) Admittance of union representatives to Transportation Security Administration or United States Secret Service installations and work sites is not governed by this rule, but by laws, rules, regulations,...

2010-10-01

36

48 CFR 3022.101-70 - Admittance of union representatives to DHS installations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...DHS installations. (a) Admittance of union representatives to Transportation Security Administration or United States Secret Service installations and work sites is not governed by this rule, but by laws, rules, regulations,...

2011-10-01

37

48 CFR 3022.101-70 - Admittance of union representatives to DHS installations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

...DHS installations. (a) Admittance of union representatives to Transportation Security Administration or United States Secret Service installations and work sites is not governed by this rule, but by laws, rules, regulations,...

2013-10-01

38

48 CFR 3022.101-70 - Admittance of union representatives to DHS installations.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...DHS installations. (a) Admittance of union representatives to Transportation Security Administration or United States Secret Service installations and work sites is not governed by this rule, but by laws, rules, regulations,...

2012-10-01

39

Molecular characterization of bacteria isolated from waste electrical transformer oil  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electrical transformer oil (ETO) includes as dielectric fluids hazardous compounds such as PAHs and sometimes PCBs, which\\u000a are highly toxic and resistant to degradation. Three species of bacteria, belonging to Acinetobacter lwoffii, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, and Bacillus pumilus, were isolated from waste ETO. Phenotypic and molecular assays revealed a high potential of A. lwoffii for catabolism of phenanthrene and ETO as

A. de Sisto; E. Fusella; H. Urbina; V. Leyn; L. Naranjo

2008-01-01

40

Characterization of Microbial Communities Transforming and Removing Nitrogen in Wetlands  

Microsoft Academic Search

The community structure of bacteria responsible for transformation and removal of nitrogen species from farmyard runoff within\\u000a two different full-scale integrated constructed wetland (ICW) systems was studied. Microbial communities in litter and sediment\\u000a components were investigated using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and band sequencing of the 16S ribosomal\\u000a ribonucleic acid gene fragments of putative ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and the nitrite

Atif Mustafa; Miklas Scholz

2011-01-01

41

Structural Characterization of Carbohydrates by Fourier Transform Tandem Mass Spectrometry  

PubMed Central

Fourier transform tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) provides high mass accuracy, high sensitivity, and analytical versatility and has therefore emerged as an indispensable tool for structural elucidation of biomolecules. Glycosylation is one of the most common posttranslational modifications, occurring in ~50% of proteins. However, due to the structural diversity of carbohydrates, arising from non-template driven biosynthesis, achievement of detailed structural insight is highly challenging. This review briefly discusses carbohydrate sample preparation and ionization methods, and highlights recent developments in alternative high-resolution MS/MS strategies, including infrared multiphoton dissociation (IRMPD), electron capture dissociation (ECD), and electron detachment dissociation (EDD), for carbohydrates with a focus on glycans and proteoglycans from mammalian glycoproteins. PMID:22389641

Zhou, Wen; Håkansson, Kristina

2012-01-01

42

Global Admittance Estimates of Elastic and Crustal Thickness of Venus: Results from Top, Hot Spot, and Bottom Loading Models  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have calculated admittance spectra using the spatio-spectral method [14] for Venus by moving the central location of the spectrum over a 1 grid, create 360x180 admittance spectra. We invert the observed admittance using top-loading (TL), hot spot (HS), and bottom loading (BL) models, resulting in elastic, crustal, and lithospheric thickness estimates (Te, Zc, and Zl) [0]. The result is a global map for interpreting subsurface structure. Estimated values of Te and Zc concur with previous TL local admittance results, but BL estimates indicate larger values than previously suspected.

Smrekar, S. E.; Anderson, F. S.

2005-01-01

43

Synthesis and characterization of JBW structure and its thermal transformation  

SciTech Connect

In this paper, JBW zeolite prepared from Egyptian kaolin was investigated by means of XRD, IR, SEM, EDX and ion exchange of some heavy metals. Adsorption isotherms were used to investigate the structure and properties of the prepared zeolite. XRD analysis showed that the JBW was a pure crystalline phase with orthorhombic crystal symmetry. Thermal treatment showed that the JBW transformed into the It-Carn phase at 1000 Degree-Sign C through an intermediate crystalline alumino silicate phase. SEM images showed that the JBW crystallised in a cylindrical shape. However, spherical agglomerates were observed at lower magnifications. The ion exchange isotherms with Cu{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+} and Co{sup 2+} were found to follow a Freundlich isotherm. In addition, it shows higher affinity towards Cu{sup 2+} than other ions. - Graphical abstract: JBW zeolite structure was prepared from Egyptian kaolin and characterised. XRD analysis showed that the JBW was a pure crystalline phase with orthorhombic crystal symmetry. Thermal treatment showed that the JBW transformed into the It-Carn phase at 1000 Degree-Sign C through an intermediate crystalline alumino silicate phase. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Egyptian kaolin was successfully used to prepare pure phase of JBW Structure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer JBW is stable till <300 Degree-Sign C. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer JBW phase crystallizes as cylindrical shape but agglomerates in a Nano spherical shape. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The ion exchange isotherms of Cu{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+}, and Co{sup 2+} followed up Freundlich isotherm. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Selectivity towards Cu{sup 2+} is much higher than Co{sup 2+} or Ni{sup 2+}.

Hegazy, Eman Z., E-mail: ehegazy77@yahoo.com [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, King Abdul Aziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); National research Centre, Cairo (Egypt); Kosa, Samia A., E-mail: skousah@kau.edu.sa [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, King Abdul Aziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Abd El Maksod, Islam Hamdy, E-mail: islam_9000@yahoo.com [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, King Abdul Aziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); National research Centre, Cairo (Egypt)

2012-12-15

44

Transformer  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This applet is about transformers. The number of turns on the primary and secondary winding, load resistance, frequency and amplitude of the voltage can be set by the user. The voltage and current waveforms are shown. A detailed mathematical analysis along with snap shots of voltage and current waveforms of a real transformer is also provided. This simulation is part of a simulation library.

Ng, Chiu-King

2007-10-16

45

TRANSFORMATION  

SciTech Connect

Transformation, which alters the genetic makeup of an individual, is a concept that intrigues the human imagination. In Streptococcus pneumoniae such transformation was first demonstrated. Perhaps our fascination with genetics derived from our ancestors observing their own progeny, with its retention and assortment of parental traits, but such interest must have been accelerated after the dawn of agriculture. It was in pea plants that Gregor Mendel in the late 1800s examined inherited traits and found them to be determined by physical elements, or genes, passed from parents to progeny. In our day, the material basis of these genetic determinants was revealed to be DNA by the lowly bacteria, in particular, the pneumococcus. For this species, transformation by free DNA is a sexual process that enables cells to sport new combinations of genes and traits. Genetic transformation of the type found in S. pneumoniae occurs naturally in many species of bacteria (70), but, initially only a few other transformable species were found, namely, Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitides, Neisseria gonorrheae, and Bacillus subtilis (96). Natural transformation, which requires a set of genes evolved for the purpose, contrasts with artificial transformation, which is accomplished by shocking cells either electrically, as in electroporation, or by ionic and temperature shifts. Although such artificial treatments can introduce very small amounts of DNA into virtually any type of cell, the amounts introduced by natural transformation are a million-fold greater, and S. pneumoniae can take up as much as 10% of its cellular DNA content (40).

LACKS,S.A.

2003-10-09

46

Transformation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This video clip demonstrates the process of transformation. When a bacterial cell dies, the DNA in the cell breaks into fragments. This free DNA can be taken up by certain bacteria and integrated into their DNA.

American Society For Microbiology

2002-01-01

47

Design and characterization of a signal insulation coreless transformer integrated in a CMOS gate driver chip  

E-print Network

Design and characterization of a signal insulation coreless transformer integrated in a CMOS gate the implementation of numerous distinct power transistor gate drivers, the control signal insulation is becoming more results will be shown in order to validate the functionality. I. INTRODUCTION An insulation system

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

48

Towards Efficient Automated Characterization of Irregular Histology Images via Transformation to Frieze-Like Patterns  

E-print Network

Towards Efficient Automated Characterization of Irregular Histology Images via Transformation to Frieze-Like Patterns ABSTRACT Histology is used in both clinical and research contexts as a highly equipment has enabled high-throughput digitization of high-resolution histology slides, the manual scoring

49

$(p,q)-$deformed Fibonacci and Lucas polynomials: characterization and Fourier integral transforms  

E-print Network

A full characterization of $(p,q)$-deformed Fibonacci and Lucas polynomials is given. These polynomials obey non-conventional three-term recursion relations. Their generating functions and Fourier integral transforms are explicitly computed and discussed. Relevant results known in the literature are examined as particular cases.

Mahouton Norbert Hounkonnou; Sama Arjika

2013-07-09

50

Characterization of fluids involved in the Gneiss-Charnockite transformation in Southern Kerala (India)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The characterization of fluids involved in the gneiss-charnockite transformation in southern Kerala are discussed. Using a variety of techniques, including microthermometry, Raman laser probe analysis, and mass spectrometry, it was concluded that the CO2-rich, N2-bearing metamorphic fluids in these rocks were internally-derived rather than having been introduced by CO2-streaming.

Klatt, E.; Hoernes, S.; Raith, M.

1988-01-01

51

Fermi level pinning at GaN-interfaces: Correlation of electrical admittance and transient spectroscopy  

SciTech Connect

In GaN layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy as well as metal organic vapor phase epitaxy significant differences were found in the appearance of deep defects detected by thermal admittance spectroscopy as compared for deep level transient spectroscopy measurements. While, thermal admittance spectroscopy measurements which were made under zero bias conditions only show thermal emissions at activation energies between 130 and 170 meV, further deep levels existing in these GaN layers were evidenced by transient spectroscopy. This discrepancy is explained by a pinning effect of the Fermi level at the metal/GaN interface induced by high a concentration of the deep levels showing up in thermal admittance spectroscopy. The authors compare their results with a GaAs:Te Schottky-diode as a reference sample. Here, both spectroscopic methods give exactly the same deep level emissions.

Witte, H.; Krtschil, A.; Lisker, M.; Rudloff, D.; Christen, J.; Krost, A.; Stutzmann, M.; Scholz, F.

2000-07-01

52

Transmission level instrument transformers and transient event recorders characterization for harmonic measurements  

SciTech Connect

This paper presents a technique for laboratory characterization of instrument transformers designed for transmission level voltage and current measurements. The technique is also extended to Transient Event Recorders (TERs). The objective of the method is to determine the suitability of existing substation instrument transformers for harmonic measurements, particularly in the frequency range of 60 to 1500 Hz covering the first 25 harmonics. Specifically, the following characteristics are of interest in the frequency range of 60 to 1500 Hz: transfer function magnitude and phase, linearity, and sensitivity of the frequency response to burdens. The measurement technique is based on exciting the instrument transformer primary with an impulsive waveform. Both input and output waveforms are recorded using laboratory grade probes and digitizers. Subsequently, digital signal processing techniques are used to compute the instrument transformer frequency response. Several voltage transformers (both PTs and CCVTs) and current transformers in the 230kV-765kV voltage range were tested. The results of these tests are described in the paper. Conclusions are presented regarding the suitability of the instrument transformers and transient event recorders for harmonic measurement and the requirements for such a system. A quantitative analysis of the measurement accuracy and software based methods to enhance the measurement accuracy is also presented.

Meliopoulos, A.P.S.; Zhang, Fan (Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)); Cokkinides, G.J. (Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States)); Coffeen, L.; Burnett, R.; McBride, J. (Georgia Power Co., Atlanta, GA (United States)); Zelingher, S.; Stillman, G.

1993-07-01

53

Admittance model for the shuttle remote manipulator system in four configurations. M.S. Thesis  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A possible scenario for robot task performance in space is to mount two small, dexterous arms to the end of the Shuttle Remote Manipulator System (SRMS). As these small robots perform tasks, the flexibility of the SRMS may cause unsuccessful task executions. In order to simulate the dynamic coupling between the SRMS and the arms, admittance models of the SRMS in four brakes locked configurations were developed. The admittance model permits calculation of the SRMS end-effector response due to end-effector disturbing forces. The model will then be used in conjunction with a Stewart Platform, a vehicle emulation system. An application of the admittance model was shown by simulating the disturbing forces using two SRMS payloads, the Dextrous Orbital Servicing System (DOSS) manipulator and DOSS carrying a 1000 lb. cylinder. Mode by mode comparisons were conducted to determine the minimum number of modes required in the admittance model while retaining dynamic fidelity. It was determined that for all four SRMS configurations studied, between 4 and 6 modes of the SRMS structure (depending on the excitation loads) were sufficient to retain tolerance of 0.01 inches and 0.01 deg. These tolerances correspond to the DOSS manipulator carrying no object. When the DOSS carries the 1000 lb. cylinder, between 15 and 20 modes were sufficient, approximately three or four times as many modes as for the unloaded case.

Papadopoulos, Loukas; Tolson, Robert H.

1993-01-01

54

Experimental determination of the admittances of aluminized propellants by the impedance tube method  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The adaptation of the impedance tube concept for the determination of the pressure coupled admittances and response functions of burning solid propellants is discussed. The results obtained in experiments with UTP-3001 and UTP-19360 aluminized propellants are presented. It is shown that the admittance Y remains constant during the quasi-steady burn period of a test, indicating constant driving of the gas phase disturbance by the burning solid propellant. The measured real part of the admittance is positive, indicating that the burning aluminized propellant is driving the gas phase oscillations. In addition, the measured high gas phase damping, provided by the aluminum oxide particles in the gas phase, suggests that the latter can significantly increase the damping in unstable solid rockets over the investigated frequency range. Finally, it is shown that the wave structure obtained by numerically solving the impedance tube wave equations which utilize the determined propellant admittance as an initial condition and the determined value of G to describe the gas phase losses is in excellent agreement with the measured wave structure.

Baum, J. D.; Daniel, B. R.; Zinn, B. T.

1980-01-01

55

Optical monitoring and real time admittance loci calculation through polarization interferometer.  

PubMed

A simple, low coherence, vibration insensitive, polarization Fizeau interferometer is employed in this novel optical monitoring system proposed to extract the temporal phase change of the reflection coefficient of the growing film stacks. This system can directly detect fluctuating reflection coefficient and obtain the corresponding optical admittance of the growing film in real time. PMID:19551047

Lee, Cheng-Chung; Wu, Kai; Chen, Sheng-Hui; Ma, Sheng-Ju

2007-12-24

56

POLARIZATION TENSORS OF PLANAR DOMAINS AS FUNCTIONS OF THE ADMITTIVITY CONTRAST  

E-print Network

POLARIZATION TENSORS OF PLANAR DOMAINS AS FUNCTIONS OF THE ADMITTIVITY CONTRAST ROLAND GRIESMAIER AND MARTIN HANKE Abstract. (Electric) polarization tensors describe part of the leading order term the two-dimensional case only and provide an analytic representation of the polarization tensor in terms

Hanke-Bourgeois, Martin

57

PID Admittance Control for an Upper Limb Exoskeleton Wen Yu, Jacob Rosen, Xiaoou Li  

E-print Network

method of PID gains. I. INTRODUCTION Exoskeletons could be regarded as wearable robots, which are wornPID Admittance Control for an Upper Limb Exoskeleton Wen Yu, Jacob Rosen, Xiaoou Li Abstract PID control. Three force sensors in the upper-level send desired trajectories to the lower

Rosen, Jacob

58

Mutual admittance between circular waveguide-fed apertures for large spacing  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A closed-form asymptotic expression for the mutual admittance between two circular waveguide-fed apertures is developed for large element spacings. A comparison with calculations obtained by a numerical integration method indicated that the present analysis gives good results for spacings greater than two wavelengths.

Bailey, M. C.

1977-01-01

59

Effects of Series Resistance and Inductance on Solar Cell Admittance Measurements(a)  

E-print Network

cells. The model circuit consists of a capacitance C in parallel with a resistance r circuit consisting of a capacitance (C) in parallel with a shunt resistance (r), with these in series admittance of a four-element circuit is calculated and compared with measurements on two typical CIGS solar

Scofield, John H.

60

Solid-state characterization and transformation of various creatine phosphate sodium hydrates.  

PubMed

Creatine phosphate sodium (CPS) salt is a first-line cardiovascular drug for severe diastolic heart failure. The drug exists in different hydrate forms. The marketed drug form was determined as CPS·4.5H2 O (H1); however, the reference standard was supplied as CPS·6H2 O (H2). In this work, we present two newly identified hydrate forms: a thermodynamically stable low hydrate form, CPS·1.5H2 O (H3), and a pressure-sensitive transit form, CPS·7H2 O (H4). The hydrate forms were discovered through a comprehensive solid-state screening experiment and fully characterized using a range of analytical techniques including X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), FTIR, Raman spectroscopy, hot-stage microscopy (HSM), thermogravimetric analysis, and differential scanning calorimetry. Stability tests revealed that H3 was the most stable hydrate under thermal stimulation. H4 is a pressure-sensitive hydrate and easily transforms to H2 and then H1 upon grinding. The form transformation process was closely monitored using the HSM, variable-temperature XRPD (VT-XRPD), and VT-Raman spectroscopy techniques. Specifically, the transformation of H4 to H1 is characterized in a single-crystal-to-single-crystal transformation process. The newly discovered hydrate form H3 has superior physicochemical properties than the marketed forms and is worthy of further development. PMID:25223726

Xu, Yun; Jiang, Linglei; Huang, Ying; Wang, Jian-Rong; Mei, Xuefeng

2014-11-01

61

Characterization of the dispersion of chirped fiber Bragg grating through Fourier transform spectrometry method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Introduces a Fourier transform spectrometric method for the precise characterization of dispersion of chirped FBGs(fiber Bragg grating). The measurement system is a fiber Michelson interferometer composed of a broadband EDFA (Erium doped fiber amplifier) light source, a 3db 2×2 fiber coupler, a pair of polarization controllers, a optical attenuator, a fiber filter, an O\\/E converter, A\\/D converter, computer and a

Qingshan Chen; Naiguang Lu; Feng Jiang

2008-01-01

62

A Method to Measure the Relationship Between Biodynamic Feedthrough and Neuromuscular Admittance.  

PubMed

Biodynamic feedthrough (BDFT) refers to a phenomenon where accelerations cause involuntary limb motions, which can result in unintentional control inputs that can substantially degrade manual control. It is known that humans can adapt the dynamics of their limbs by adjusting their neuromuscular settings, and it is likely that these adaptations have a large influence on BDFT. The goal of this paper is to present a method that can provide evidence for this hypothesis. Limb dynamics can be described by admittance, which is the causal dynamic relation between a force input and a position output. This paper presents a method to simultaneously measure BDFT and admittance in a motion-based simulator. The method was validated in an experiment. Admittance was measured by applying a force disturbance signal to the control device; BDFT was measured by applying a motion disturbance signal to the motion simulator. To allow distinguishing between the operator's responses to each disturbance signal, the perturbation signals were separated in the frequency domain. To show the impact of neuromuscular adaptation, subjects were asked to perform three different control tasks, each requiring a different setting of the neuromuscular system (NMS). Results show a dependence of BDFT on neuromuscular admittance: A change in neuromuscular admittance results in a change in BDFT dynamics. This dependence is highly relevant when studying BDFT. The data obtained with the proposed measuring method provide insight in how exactly the settings of the NMS influence the level of BDFT. This information can be used to gain fundamental knowledge on BDFT and also, for example, in the development of a canceling controller. PMID:21349792

Venrooij, Joost; Abbink, David A; Mulder, Mark; van Paassen, Marinus M; Mulder, Max

2011-02-24

63

Characterization and application of fusidane antibiotic biosynethsis enzyme 3-ketosteroid-?1-dehydrogenase in steroid transformation.  

PubMed

Microbial ?(1)-dehydrogenation is one of the most important transformations in the synthesis of steroid hormones. In this study, a 3-ketosteroid-?(1)-dehydrogenase (kstD(F)) involved in fusidane antibiotic biosynthesis from Aspergillus fumigatus CICC 40167 was characterized for use in steroid transformation. KstD(F) encodes a polypeptide consisting of 637 amino acid residues. It shows 51% amino acid identity with a kstD from Thermomicrobium roseum DSM 5159. Expression of kstD(F) in Escherichia coli and Pichia pastoris showed that all kstD(F) activity is located in the cytoplasm. This indicates that it is a soluble intracytoplasmic enzyme, unlike most kstDs from bacteria, which are membrane-bound. The expression of kstD(F) was performed in P. pastoris, both intracellularly and extracelluarly. The intracellularly expressed protein displayed good activity in steroid transformation, while the extracellularly expressed protein showed nothing. Interestingly, the engineered P. pastoris KM71 (KM71(I)) and GS115 (GS115(I)) showed different transformation activities for 4-androstene-3,17-dione (AD) when kstD(F) was expressed intracellularly. Under the same conditions, KM71(I) was found capable of transforming 1.0 g/l AD to 1,4-androstadiene-3,17-dione (ADD), while GS115(I) could transform 1.5 g/l AD to both ADD and boldenone (BD). The production of BD is attributed to a 17?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase in P. pastoris GS115(I), which catalyzes the reversible reaction between C17-one and C17-alcohol of steroids. The conversion of AD by GS115(I) and KM71(I) may provide alternative means of preparing ADD or BD. In brief, we show here that kstD(F) is a promising enzyme in steroid ?(1)-dehydrogenation that is propitious to construct genetically engineered steroid-transforming recombinants by heterologous overexpression. PMID:22234537

Chen, Miao-Miao; Wang, Feng-Qing; Lin, Liang-Cai; Yao, Kang; Wei, Dong-Zhi

2012-10-01

64

Characterization and immunotherapeutic potential of a monoclonal antibody against a ras oncogene transformed cell line  

SciTech Connect

Transformed cells express cell surface antigens not present, or present in diminished amounts on normal cells. Monoclonal antibodies can be used to identify and biochemically characterize tumor-associated antigens. Monoclonal antibody (MoAb) 45-2D9 was produced by immunization of BALB/c mice with a transformed cell line (45-2D9) induced by transfection of NIH 3T3 cells with a c-H-ras oncogene in DNA isolated from a human lung carcinoma. By immunoperoxidase staining, this antibody binds to the 45-342 cells as well as to the ras transformed primary and 3 secondary transfectants, including the one used to induce 45-342, but not to other ras transformed cell lines. Murine tumors as well as human fetal and most normal adult tissues are not stained. This antibody does bind to a variety of human tumors, including lung adenocarcinomas, as well as breast, colon and esophageal carcinomas. The ability of MoAb 45-2D9 to target ricin toxin A chain (RTA) and radio-isotopes to gp74 expressing cells was investigated. An immunotoxin generated by conjugating RTA to MoAb 45-2D9 inhibits protein and DNA synthesis by the 45-342 cells. Radiolabeled antibody specifically localizes to and can be used to image subcutaneous and pulmonary gp74 expressing tumors in nu/nu mice. Monoclonal antibodies against oncogene transformed cell lines may be useful for the detection and characterization of tumor-associated antigens as well as for the development of new tumor therapeutic and diagnostic reagents.

Ames, R.S. Jr.

1986-01-01

65

Preliminary characterization of a transformed cell strain derived from human trabecular meshwork.  

PubMed

Cells isolated from the trabecular meshwork (TM) of a male glaucoma patient were transformed by transfection with an origin defective mutant of SV40 virus. Transformation dramatically increased the growth rate of these cells (designated HTM-3 cells), allowing biochemical and pharmacological characterization. The HTM-3 cells had cytoskeletal components that were reported to be present in TM tissue and non-transformed TM cells. Vimentin, tubulin and smooth muscle specific alpha-actin, but not desmin, were localized in these cells by immunocytochemistry. The extracellular matrix components collagen types I, III and IV, fibronectin and laminin were found in HTM-3 cells as well as their non-transformed parental cells. As predicted, the protein profile of the HTM-3 cells revealed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis was different from that of the non-transformed cells, probably due to the enhanced growth characteristics of these cells. Furthermore, HTM-3 cells had various intracellular second messenger systems that responded to pharmacological agents. Forskolin, prostaglandin E2, beta-adrenergic and adenosine A2 agonists stimulated the adenylyl cyclase in these cells, whereas muscarinic, serotonergic, dopaminergic and other agonists were ineffective. Sodium nitroprusside increased the intracellular concentration of cGMP, demonstrating the presence of a functional guanylyl cyclase. Phospholipase C activity in these cells was also detected. Muscarinic agonists, histamine and bradykinin, but not adrenergic, serotonergic agonists or prostaglandins, increased phosphoinositide turnover. These drug responses of HTM-3 cells agree with published data on primary TM cells and TM tissues, suggesting that the transformed cells may be a valid substitute for certain pharmacological studies of TM. PMID:8156826

Pang, I H; Shade, D L; Clark, A F; Steely, H T; DeSantis, L

1994-01-01

66

76 FR 31306 - Admittance to Practice and Roster of Registered Patent Attorneys and Agents Admitted to Practice...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

...DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Patent and Trademark Office Admittance to Practice and Roster of Registered Patent Attorneys and Agents Admitted to Practice Before the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) (Proposed...

2011-05-31

67

Microstructural characterization of transformable Fe-Mn alloys at different length scales  

SciTech Connect

The as-annealed and deformed Microstructure of transformable Fe-Mn alloys were, comprehensively, characterized over a wide range of length scales. Differential interference contrast optical metallography, combined with a tinting etching method, was employed to examine the grain morphology. A new specimen preparation method, involving electro-polishing and electro-etching, was developed for scanning electron microscopy and electron back-scattered diffraction analysis. This method leads to a very good imaging contrast and thus bridges the length scale gap between optical metallography and transmission electron microscopy. Moreover, it enables simultaneous scanning electron microscopy and electron backscatter diffraction analysis which allows correlations among morphology, crystal orientation and phase analysis in the length scale of microns. Transmission electron microscopy investigations were also made to evaluate the thermal and mechanical transformation products as well as defect structures.

Liang, X.; Wang, X. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, McMaster University, 1280 Main St. W., Hamilton, Ontario, L8S 4L7 (Canada); Zurob, H.S., E-mail: zurobh@mcmaster.ca [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, McMaster University, 1280 Main St. W., Hamilton, Ontario, L8S 4L7 (Canada)

2009-11-15

68

Characterization of a case of follicular lymphoma transformed into B-lymphoblastic leukemia  

PubMed Central

Follicular lymphoma (FL) is a common form of non-Hodgkin lymphoma with an ability to transform into a more aggressive disease, albeit infrequently to B-lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma. While t(14;18)(q32;q21) has been associated with approximately 90% cases of FL, that alteration alone is insufficient to cause FL and associated mutations are still being elucidated. The transformation of FL to B-lymphoblastic leukemia generally includes the dysregulation of MYC gene expression, typically through IGH rearrangement. Such cases of “double-hit” leukemia/lymphoma with both BCL2 and MYC translocations warrant further study as they are often not identified early, are associated with a poor prognosis, and are incompletely understood in molecular terms. Here we describe a patient with a diagnosis of FL that transformed to B-lymphoblastic leukemia. Detailed cytogenetic characterization of the transformed specimen using karyotype, fluorescence in situ hybridization, microarray and gene rearrangement analyses revealed a complex karyotype comprised principally of whole chromosome or whole arm copy number gains or losses. Smaller, single-gene copy number alterations identified by microarray were limited in number, but included amplification of a truncated EP300 gene and alterations in NEIL1 and GPHN. Analyses defined the presence of an IGH/BCL2 fusion due to a translocation as well as a MYC/IGH fusion due to an insertion, with both rearrangements involving the same IGH allele. The data illustrate the value in characterizing double-hit lymphoma cases with both traditional and novel technologies in the detailed cytogenetic workup. PMID:23985173

2013-01-01

69

Universal properties of two-port scattering, impedance, and admittance matrices of wave-chaotic systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Statistical fluctuations in the eigenvalues of the scattering, impedance, and admittance matrices of two-port wave-chaotic systems are studied experimentally using a chaotic microwave cavity. These fluctuations are universal in that their properties are dependent only upon the degree of loss in the cavity. We remove the direct processes introduced by the nonideally coupled driving ports through a matrix normalization process that involves the radiation-impedance matrix of the two driving ports. We find good agreement between the experimentally obtained marginal probability density functions (PDFs) of the eigenvalues of the normalized impedance, admittance, and scattering matrix and those from random matrix theory (RMT). We also experimentally study the evolution of the joint PDF of the eigenphases of the normalized scattering matrix as a function of loss. Experimental agreement with the theory by Brouwer and Beenakker for the joint PDF of the magnitude of the eigenvalues of the normalized scattering matrix is also shown.

Hemmady, Sameer; Zheng, Xing; Hart, James; Antonsen, Thomas M., Jr.; Ott, Edward; Anlage, Steven M.

2006-09-01

70

Effect of Different Plasmon Active Metals on Admittance Loci Based Design of a Plasmonic Sensor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Kretschmann type plasmonic structure consisting of a fused silica glass prism, plasmon active metal film and dielectric sample has been investigated with the use of admittance loci method in attenuated total internal reflection mode. Different plasmon active metals have been used to study their effect on surface plasmon resonance (SPR) sensing (at 633 nm wavelength of He-Ne light) by admittance loci plots and also by corresponding SPR sensing curves. The performance of the plasmonic structure based on the choice of plasmon active metal has been discussed with the help of sensitivity and figure of merit plots giving emphasis on the dynamic range of the designed plasmonic structure. Simulations have been carried out in MATLAB 7.1 environment.

Brahmachari, Kaushik; Ray, Mina

2014-11-01

71

Simultaneous reconstruction of outer boundary shape and admittivity distribution in electrical impedance tomography  

E-print Network

The aim of electrical impedance tomography is to reconstruct the admittivity distribution inside a physical body from boundary measurements of current and voltage. Due to the severe ill-posedness of the underlying inverse problem, the functionality of impedance tomography relies heavily on accurate modelling of the measurement geometry. In particular, almost all reconstruction algorithms require the precise shape of the imaged body as an input. In this work, the need for prior geometric information is relaxed by introducing a Newton-type output least squares algorithm that reconstructs the admittivity distribution and the object shape simultaneously. The method is built in the framework of the complete electrode model and it is based on the Fr\\'echet derivative of the corresponding current-to-voltage map with respect to the object boundary shape. The functionality of the technique is demonstrated via numerical experiments with simulated measurement data.

Dardé, Jérémi; Seppänen, Aku; Staboulis, Stratos

2012-01-01

72

Simultaneous recovery of admittivity and body shape in electrical impedance tomography: an experimental evaluation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, the simultaneous retrieval of the exterior boundary shape and the interior admittivity distribution of an examined body in electrical impedance tomography is considered. The reconstruction method is built for the complete electrode model and it is based on the Fréchet derivative of the corresponding current-to-voltage map with respect to the body shape. The reconstruction problem is cast into the Bayesian framework, and maximum a posteriori estimates for the admittivity and the boundary geometry are computed. The feasibility of the approach is evaluated by experimental data from water tank measurements. The results demonstrate that the proposed method has potential for handling an unknown body shape in a practical setting.

Dardé, Jérémi; Hyvönen, Nuutti; Seppänen, Aku; Staboulis, Stratos

2013-08-01

73

Characterization of chemically amplified resist for X-ray lithography by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

SU-8 resist was characterized for X-ray lithography from a plasma focus\\u000a source by studying its cross-linking process using Fourier transform\\u000a infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The cross-linking process of the resist\\u000a during post-exposure bake (PEB) was accurately monitored using the\\u000a infrared absorption peaks at 862, 914, and 1128 cm(-1). Results showed\\u000a that the cross-linking of SU-8 was effectively completed at the exposure

T. L. Tan; D. Wong; P Lee; R. S. Rawat; S. Springham; A. Patran

2006-01-01

74

Light field camera as a Fourier transform spectrometer sensor: instrument characterization and passive spectral ranging.  

PubMed

This paper presents a concept using field cameras in combination with Fourier transform spectrometers. The device can produce five-dimensional (position-angle-spectra) data cubes. This can lead to accurate measurements in both spectrum and distance and allows a thorough characterization of the interferometer, as well as adds passive ranging information to hyperspectral images. Shear and tilt fringes are simultaneously observed in a fixed optical path difference interferometer, and a passive spectral ranging demonstration is done in both absorption and emission for the 500-900 nm spectral bands. PMID:25089997

Côté, Alex; Levasseur, Simon; Boudreau, Sylvain; Genest, Jérôme

2014-07-01

75

Characterization of naturally-occurring and modified fullerenes by Fourier transform mass spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Fourier transform mass spectrometry (FTMS) employing both laser desorption/ionization and thermal desorption/electron ionization is useful for the detection and structural characterization of fullerenes and chemically-modified fullerenes. Examination of a carbon-rich shungite rock sample from Russia by transmission electron microscopy and FTMS provided evidence of naturally-occurring fullerenes. Ion-molecule reactions can be studied with FTMS to investigate the electron affinities of modified fullerenes. By monitoring charge exchange reactions, the electron affinities of C60Fx (x=44,46) and C70Fy (y=52,54) were found to be substantially higher than the values for the parent fullerenes.

Hettich, Robert L.; Jin, Changming; Compton, Robert N.; Buseck, Peter R.; Tsipursky, Semeon J.

1993-10-01

76

Admittance analysis in (PPE-PPV) polymer (AnE-PVstat) light emitting diodes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, admittance analysis of organic light emitting diode (OLED) (anode/active layer/cathode) was performed at room temperature within the frequency range of 1 kHz-1MHz to find out transport properties of both injected carriers from each side. Moreover, by proper chosen metals, electron or hole only OLED devices were prepared and the measurement was resumed to identify the governed transport path of injected carrier. Mobility of injected carriers followed the Poole-Frenkel type conduction mechanism and distinguished in the frequency range due to the difference of transit times in admittance measurement. Beginning of light output and onset of negative capacitance took place at the turn-on voltage (or flat band voltage), 1.8 V, which was the difference of energy band gap of polymer and two barrier offsets between metals and polymer. The proposed analytical model for admittance, derived for the frequency dependent space charge limited behavior leading negative capacitance issues, was applied on the measured data for the present OLED device.

Özdemir, Orhan; Mucur, Selin P.; Tekin, Emine; Boudiba, Sameh; Ulbricht, Christoph; Egbe, Daniel A. M.; Deneb Menda, U.; Kavak, Pelin Aydogan; Kutlu, Kubilay

2013-09-01

77

Characterization of Solid State Phase Transformation in Continuously Heated and Cooled Ferritic Weld Metal  

SciTech Connect

Arc welding processes involve cooling rates that vary over a wide range (1-100 K/s). The final microstructire is thus a product of the heating and cooling cycles experienced by the weld in addition to the weld composition. It has been shown that the first phase to form under weld cooling conditions may not be that predicted by equilibrium calculations. The partitioning of different interstitial/substitutional alloying elements at high temperatures can dramatically affect the subsequent phase transformations. In order to understand the effect of alloying on phase transformation temperatures and final microstructures time-resolved X-ray diffraction technique has been successfully used for characterization. The work by Jacot and Rappaz on pearlitic steels provided insight into austenitization of hypoeutectic steels using a finite volume model. However there is very little work done on the effect of heating and cooling rates on the phase transformation paths in bainitic/martensitic steels and weld metals. Previous work on a weld with higher aluminum content, deposited with a FCAW-S process indicated that even at aluminum levels where the primary phase to solidify from liquid should be delta ferrite, non-equilibrium austenite was observed. The presence of inhomogeneity in composition of the parent microstructure has been attributed to differences in transformation modes, temperatures and microstructures in dual-phase, TRIP steels and ferritic welds. The objectives of the work included the identification of the stability regions of different phases during heating and cooling, differences in the effect of weld heating and cooling rates on the phase transformation temperatures, and the variation in phase fractions of austenite and ferrite in the two phase regions as a function of temperature. The base composition used for the present work is a Fe-1%Al-2%Mn-1%Ni-0.04%C weld metal. A pseudo-binary phase diagram shows the expected solidification path under equilibrium conditions. However, the effect of heating and cooling rates on the phase transformation path due to non-equilibrium partitioning of alloying elements cannot be predicted by equilibrium phase diagrams. Also, it is unclear if there is retention of delta ferrite to room temperature due to compositional or thermal effects. This would dramatically affect the austenite to ferrite transformation due to carbon and nitrogen enrichment in the austenite.

Narayana, B [Ohio State University, The, Columbus; Mills, Michael J. [Ohio State University, The, Columbus; Specht, Eliot D [ORNL; Santella, Michael L [ORNL; Babu, Sudarsanam Suresh [Ohio State University, The, Columbus

2010-12-01

78

Admittance matrix of a trapezoidal piezoelectric heterogeneous bimorph.  

PubMed

Bimorph structures are a standard method for transforming the high force of piezoelectric materials into a large deflection. In micro electromechanical systems (MEMS) applications, it is preferable to use structures consisting of a passive substrate (usually silicon) and one or more piezoelectric layers on the top. Such structures are called heterogeneous bimorphs or enakemesomorphs. In some MEMS applications- for example, for use as acoustic transducers-it is desirable to arrange such heterogeneous bimorphs in a circular shape, which results in trapezoidal cantilever structures. In this paper, an analytic dynamic description of such actuators is obtained. The resulting model is proved to be compatible with existing models for heterogeneous bimorphs with constant width. A comparison to a finite element analysis model of an exemplary layout shows divergences wholly within the same range as found for published models for constant-width structures. PMID:23221226

Schachtele, Jonathan; Goll, Erich; Muralt, Paul; Kaltenbacher, Dominik

2012-12-01

79

Magnetic characterization of orthorhombic LiMnO2 and electrochemically transformed spinel LixMnO2 x , 1  

E-print Network

Magnetic characterization of orthorhombic LiMnO2 and electrochemically transformed spinel LixMnO2 lattice in LiMnO2 is destroyed as the cation sublattice begins to transform to a spinel. Spin-glass behavior is, however, observed in Li0.39MnO2 as well. Compared to conventionally prepared spinel LiMn2O4

Sadoway, Donald Robert

80

Characterization of the Pituitary Tumor Transforming Gene 1 Knockout Mouse Retina  

PubMed Central

Recent gene expression studies on mouse models for retinal degeneration identified deregulation of Pituitary tumor transforming gene 1 (Pttg1) as a potential susceptibility factor involved in photoreceptor cell death. Pttg1 is a transcription regulatory protein involved in sister chromatid segregation, and Pttg1?/? mice exhibit testicular and splenic hypoplasia, thymic hyperplasia, aberrant cell cycle progression, chromosome instability, and impaired glucose homeostasis leading to diabetes, particularly in older males. Due to Pttg1 deregulation in dystrophic retinas, we characterized Pttg1?/? retinas using Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) staining, immunohistochemistry (IHC), and electroretinography (ERG). Seven month old Pttg1?/? mice were also examined for a diabetic retinopathy phenotype using Fluorescein Angiography (FA) to test for neovascularization. Our data reveal that up to 9 months of age, Pttg1?/? retinas have a healthy morphology and normal photoreceptor function. This study lays the groundwork for further investigation into the relevance of Pttg1 in retinal dystrophy. PMID:21203837

Yetemian, Rosanne M.

2011-01-01

81

Experimental characterization of shear transformation zones for plastic flow of bulk metallic glasses  

PubMed Central

We report experimental characterization of shear transformation zones (STZs) for plastic flow of bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) based on a newly developed cooperative shearing model [Johnson WL, Samwer K (2005) A universal criterion for plastic yielding of metallic glasses with a (T/Tg)2/3 temperature dependence. Phys Rev Lett 95: 195501]. The good agreement between experimental measurements and theoretical predictions in the STZ volumes provides compelling evidence that the plastic flow of metallic glasses occurs through cooperative shearing of unstable STZs activated by shear stresses. Moreover, the ductility of BMGs was found to intrinsically correlate with their STZ volumes. The experiments presented herein pave a way to gain a quantitative insight into the atomic-scale mechanisms of BMG mechanical behavior. PMID:18815377

Pan, D.; Inoue, A.; Sakurai, T.; Chen, M. W.

2008-01-01

82

Fourier Transform Infrared and Raman Spectroscopy for Characterization of Listeria monocytogenes Strains  

PubMed Central

The purpose of this study was to characterize the variation in biochemical composition of 89 strains of Listeria monocytogenes with different susceptibilities towards sakacin P, using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The strains were also analyzed using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis. Based on their susceptibilities to sakacin P, the 89 strains have previously been divided into two groups. Using the FTIR spectra and AFLP data, the strains were basically differentiated into the same two groups. Analyses of the FTIR and Raman spectra revealed that the strains in the two groups contained differences in the compositions of carbohydrates and fatty acids. The relevance of the variation in the composition of carbohydrates with respect to the variation in the susceptibility towards sakacin P for the L. monocytogenes strains is discussed. PMID:16391047

Oust, Astrid; Møretrø, Trond; Naterstad, Kristine; Sockalingum, Ganesh D.; Adt, Isabelle; Manfait, Michel; Kohler, Achim

2006-01-01

83

Characterization of the dispersion of chirped fiber Bragg grating through Fourier transform spectrometry method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Introduces a Fourier transform spectrometric method for the precise characterization of dispersion of chirped FBGs(fiber Bragg grating). The measurement system is a fiber Michelson interferometer composed of a broadband EDFA (Erium doped fiber amplifier) light source, a 3db 2×2 fiber coupler, a pair of polarization controllers, a optical attenuator, a fiber filter, an O/E converter, A/D converter, computer and a optical path difference (OPD) scanning system. The digital interferogram of the system is acquired by recording the electric signal produced by the O/E converter through the A/D converter and by computer during the scanning of OPD. The recorded interferogram is then manipulated through a process involving low-pass filtering, fast Fourier transformation, phase unwrapping and computation of the numerical differentials of the unwrapped phase to the wavelength so as to obtain the relative group delay of the chirped FBG under test. It is proved by practical experiments that the repeatability of the system is up to Ps(picosecond) magnitude order.

Chen, Qingshan; Lu, Naiguang; Jiang, Feng

2008-03-01

84

Transforming growth factor-alpha: Characterization of the BamHl, Rsal, and Taql polymorphic regions  

SciTech Connect

The authors have characterized the nature of structural alleles of the transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF[alpha]) locus by restriction-enzyme digestion with BamHI, RsaI, and TaqI. The BamHl polymorphic site is located within exon Vi, which codes for the 3' untranslated region. The two BamHI alleles differ by a single point mutation at the restriction site. The RsaI and TaqI polymorphic sites are located within intron V. The two alleles differ at the restriction site, either by a point mutation (RsaI) or by a 4-bp deletion (TaqI). This analysis permits the authors to devise a PCR method coupled with restriction digestions to directly identify the TGF[alpha] polymorphisms. Analysis of 99 Caucasian controls has revealed a highly significant (P < .001) association between the RsaI and the BamHI genotype. The frequency of the rare BamHI allele was significantly higher (P < .001) in transformed cell lines (.30) than in controls (.076). 28 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

Qian, J.F.; May, E. (Institut de Recherches Scientifiques sur le Cancer, Villejuif (France)); Feingold, J. (INSERM Unite, Paris (France)); Stoll, C. (Institut de Puericulture, Strasbourg (France))

1993-07-01

85

Investigation of hole-mobility in a polyfluorene copolymer by admittance spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transport of holes in a low band gap polyfluorene, APFO-Green6, was investigated by means of admittance spectroscopy in the modulation frequency range 1-106 Hz. At room temperature, hole mobility of APFO-Green6 is dependent on the applied electric field, as commonly observed in disordered organic materials. The excess capacitance toward low frequencies provides evidence for charge relaxation in trap levels. A dispersion parameter of 0.4 was achieved from the trend of hole transit times with the electric field.

Debebe, Siraye E.; Mammo, Wendimagegn; Yohannes, Teketel; Tinti, Francesca; Zanelli, Alberto; Camaioni, Nadia

2010-02-01

86

Dynamic virtual fixture on the Euclidean group for admittance-type manipulator in deforming environments  

PubMed Central

Background In a deforming anatomic environment, the motion of an instrument suffers from complex geometrical and dynamic constraints, robot assisted minimally invasive surgery therefore requires more sophisticated skills for surgeons. This paper proposes a novel dynamic virtual fixture (DVF) to enhance the surgical operation accuracy of admittance-type medical robotics in the deforming environment. Methods A framework for DVF on the Euclidean Group SE(3) is presented, which unites rotation and translation in a compact form. First, we constructed the holonomic/non-holonomic constraints, and then searched for the corresponded reference to make a distinction between preferred and non-preferred directions. Second, different control strategies are employed to deal with the tasks along the distinguished directions. The desired spatial compliance matrix is synthesized from an allowable motion screw set to filter out the task unrelated components from manual input, the operator has complete control over the preferred directions; while the relative motion between the surgical instrument and the anatomy structures is actively tracked and cancelled, the deviation relative to the reference is compensated jointly by the operator and DVF controllers. The operator, haptic device, admittance-type proxy and virtual deforming environment are involved in a hardware-in-the-loop experiment, human-robot cooperation with the assistance of DVF controller is carried out on a deforming sphere to simulate beating heart surgery, performance of the proposed DVF on admittance-type proxy is evaluated, and both human factors and control parameters are analyzed. Results The DVF can improve the dynamic properties of human-robot cooperation in a low-frequency (0?~?40 rad/sec) deforming environment, and maintain synergy of orientation and translation during the operation. Statistical analysis reveals that the operator has intuitive control over the preferred directions, human and the DVF controller jointly control the motion along the non-preferred directions, the target deformation is tracked actively. Conclusions The proposed DVF for an admittance-type manipulator is capable of assisting the operator to deal with skilled operations in a deforming environment. PMID:24767578

2014-01-01

87

Transformation twinning of Ni-Mn-Ga characterized with temperature-controlled atomic force microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The magnetomechanical properties of ferromagnetic shape memory alloy Ni-Mn-Ga single crystals depend strongly on the twin microstructure, which can be modified through thermomagnetomechanical training. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and magnetic force microscopy (MFM) were used to characterize the evolution of twin microstructures during thermomechanical training of a Ni-Mn-Ga single crystal. Experiments were performed in the martensite phase at 25 °C and in the austenite phase at 55 °C. Two distinct twinning surface reliefs were observed at room temperature. At elevated temperature (55 °C), the surface relief of one twinning mode disappeared while the other relief remained unchanged. When cooled back to 25 °C, the twin surface relief recovered. The relief persisting at elevated temperature specifies the positions of twin boundaries that were present when the sample was polished prior to surface characterization. AFM and MFM following thermomechanical treatment provide a nondestructive method to identify the crystallographic orientation of each twin and of each twin boundary plane. Temperature dependent AFM and MFM experiments reveal the twinning history thereby establishing the technique as a unique predictive tool for revealing the path of the martensitic and reverse transformations of magnetic shape memory alloys.

Reinhold, Matthew; Watson, Chad; Knowlton, William B.; Müllner, Peter

2010-06-01

88

Transformation twinning of Ni–Mn–Ga characterized with temperature-controlled atomic force microscopy  

PubMed Central

The magnetomechanical properties of ferromagnetic shape memory alloy Ni–Mn–Ga single crystals depend strongly on the twin microstructure, which can be modified through thermomagnetomechanical training. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and magnetic force microscopy (MFM) were used to characterize the evolution of twin microstructures during thermomechanical training of a Ni–Mn–Ga single crystal. Experiments were performed in the martensite phase at 25 °C and in the austenite phase at 55 °C. Two distinct twinning surface reliefs were observed at room temperature. At elevated temperature (55 °C), the surface relief of one twinning mode disappeared while the other relief remained unchanged. When cooled back to 25 °C, the twin surface relief recovered. The relief persisting at elevated temperature specifies the positions of twin boundaries that were present when the sample was polished prior to surface characterization. AFM and MFM following thermomechanical treatment provide a nondestructive method to identify the crystallographic orientation of each twin and of each twin boundary plane. Temperature dependent AFM and MFM experiments reveal the twinning history thereby establishing the technique as a unique predictive tool for revealing the path of the martensitic and reverse transformations of magnetic shape memory alloys. PMID:20589105

Reinhold, Matthew; Watson, Chad; Knowlton, William B.; Müllner, Peter

2010-01-01

89

Characterizing and overcoming spectral artifacts in imaging Fourier-transform spectroscopy of turbulent exhaust plumes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The midwave and shortwave infrared regions of the electromagnetic spectrum contain rich information enabling the characterization of hot, rapid events such as explosions, engine plumes, flares and other combustion events. High-speed sensors are required to analyze the content of such rapidly evolving targets. Cameras with high frame rates and non-imaging spectrometers with high data rates are typically used; however the information from these two types of instruments must be later fused to enable characterization of the transient targets. Imaging spectrometers have recently become commercially available for general scientific use, thus enabling simultaneous capture of both spatial and spectral information without co-registration issues. However, their use against rapidly-varying sources has traditionally been considered problematic, for even at moderate spatial and spectral resolutions the time to acquire a single spectrum can be long compared to the timescales associated with combustion events. This paper demonstrates that imaging Fourier-transform spectroscopy (IFTS) can successfully characterize the turbulent combustion exhaust from a turbojet engine. A Telops Hyper-Cam IFTS collected hyperspectral video from a Turbine Technologies SR-30 turbojet engine with a spectral resolution of ?? = 1/cm-1 on a 200×64 pixel sub-window at a rate of 0.3 Hz. Scene-change artifacts (SCAs) are present in the spectra; however, the stochastic fluctuations in source intensity translate into high-frequency "noise." Temporal averaging affords a significant reduction of the noise associated with SCAs. Emission from CO and CO2 are clearly recognized in the averaged spectra, and information about their temperature and relative concentrations is evident.

Moore, Elizabeth A.; Gross, Kevin C.; Bowen, Spencer J.; Perram, Glen P.; Chamberland, Martin; Farley, Vincent; Gagnon, Jean-Philippe; Lagueux, Philippe; Villemaire, André

2009-05-01

90

Localized Gravity/Topography Admittance and Correlation Spectra on Mars: Implications for Regional and Global Evolution  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

[i] From gravity and topography data collected by the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft we calculate gravity/topography admittances and correlations in the spectral domain and compare them to those predicted from models of lithospheric flexure. On the basis of these comparisons we estimate the thickness of the Martian elastic lithosphere (T(sub e)) required to support the observed topographic load since the time of loading. We convert T(sub e) to estimates of heat flux and thermal gradient in the lithosphere through a consideration of the response of an elastic/plastic shell. In regions of high topography on Mars (e.g., the Tharsis rise and associated shield volcanoes), the mass-sheet (small-amplitude) approximation for the calculation of gravity from topography is inadequate. A correction that accounts for finite-amplitude topography tends to increase the amplitude of the predicted gravity signal at spacecraft altitudes. Proper implementation of this correction requires the use of radii from the center of mass (collectively known as the planetary shape ) in lieu of topography referenced to a gravitational equipotential. Anomalously dense surface layers or buried excess masses are not required to explain the observed admittances for the Tharsis Montes or Olympus Mons volcanoes when this correction is applied. Derived T, values generally decrease with increasing age of the lithospheric load, in a manner consistent with a rapid decline of mantle heat flux during the Noachian and more modest rates of decline during subsequent epochs.

McGovern, Patrick J.; Solomon, Sean C.; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.; Simons, Mark; Wieczorek, Mark A.; Phillips, Roger J.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Aharonson, Oded; Head, James W.

2002-01-01

91

A Multi-Function Force Sensing Instrument for Variable Admittance Robot Control in Retinal Microsurgery.  

PubMed

Robotic systems have the potential to assist vitreoretinal surgeons in extremely difficult surgical tasks inside the human eye. In addition to reducing hand tremor and improving tool positioning, a robotic assistant can provide assistive motion guidance using virtual fixtures, and incorporate real-time feedback from intraocular force sensing ophthalmic instruments to present tissue manipulation forces, that are otherwise physically imperceptible to the surgeon. This paper presents the design of an FBG-based, multi-function instrument that is capable of measuring mN-level forces at the instrument tip located inside the eye, and also the sclera contact location on the instrument shaft and the corresponding contact force. The given information is used to augment cooperatively controlled robot behavior with variable admittance control. This effectively creates an adaptive remote center-of-motion (RCM) constraint to minimize eye motion, but also allows the translation of the RCM location if the instrument is not near the retina. In addition, it provides force scaling for sclera force feedback. The calibration and validation of the multi-function force sensing instrument are presented, along with demonstration and performance assessment of the variable admittance robot control on an eye phantom. PMID:25383234

He, Xingchi; Balicki, Marcin; Gehlbach, Peter; Handa, James; Taylor, Russell; Iordachita, Iulian

2014-05-01

92

Alternating current admittance of DNTT-based metal-insulator-semiconductor capacitors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Frequency-dependent carrier dynamics in dinaphtho[2,3-b:2',3'-f]thieno[3,2-b]thiophene (DNTT)-based organic field-effect transistors and metal-insulator-semiconductor capacitors were studied by using admittance measurements. Both the real (conductance) and imaginary (capacitance) components of admittance, which have a mutually complementary relationship, were analyzed in the same way. On the basis of an experimental study of devices with different contact geometries, peaks observed in the conductance spectra corresponding to slopes in the capacitance spectra were classified into two groups. The high-frequency peak was attributed to the carrier injection from the top contact to the DNTT/insulator interface just underneath the contact while the low-frequency peaks were attributed to the drift current spreading all over the interface. The model calculation of carrier diffusion reproduces the low-frequency peaks very well. It is shown that the field-effect mobility from the accumulation region to the subthreshold region can be estimated by the fitting.

Hayashi, T.; Take, N.; Tamura, H.; Sekitani, T.; Someya, T.

2014-03-01

93

A Multi-Function Force Sensing Instrument for Variable Admittance Robot Control in Retinal Microsurgery*  

PubMed Central

Robotic systems have the potential to assist vitreoretinal surgeons in extremely difficult surgical tasks inside the human eye. In addition to reducing hand tremor and improving tool positioning, a robotic assistant can provide assistive motion guidance using virtual fixtures, and incorporate real-time feedback from intraocular force sensing ophthalmic instruments to present tissue manipulation forces, that are otherwise physically imperceptible to the surgeon. This paper presents the design of an FBG-based, multi-function instrument that is capable of measuring mN-level forces at the instrument tip located inside the eye, and also the sclera contact location on the instrument shaft and the corresponding contact force. The given information is used to augment cooperatively controlled robot behavior with variable admittance control. This effectively creates an adaptive remote center-of-motion (RCM) constraint to minimize eye motion, but also allows the translation of the RCM location if the instrument is not near the retina. In addition, it provides force scaling for sclera force feedback. The calibration and validation of the multi-function force sensing instrument are presented, along with demonstration and performance assessment of the variable admittance robot control on an eye phantom. PMID:25383234

He, Xingchi; Balicki, Marcin; Gehlbach, Peter; Handa, James; Taylor, Russell; Iordachita, Iulian

2014-01-01

94

Fast Quantum Efficiency Measurement and Characterization of Different Thin Film Solar Cells by Fourier Transform Photocurrent Spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fourier-transform Photocurrent Spectroscopy (FTPS) was introduced four years ago [1] as a method for fast and very sensitive evaluation of the spectral dependence of the optical absorption coefficient of photoconductive thin films and recently also for the quality assessment of thin film silicon solar cells [2]. In this contribution we refer about the FTPS characterization of different thin film solar

A. Poruba; L. Hodakova; A. Purkrt; J. Holovsky; M. Vanecek

2006-01-01

95

Parametric study and characterization of the isobaric thermomechanical transformation fatigue of nickel-rich NiTi SMA actuators  

Microsoft Academic Search

The recent development of various aerospace applications utilizing Ni-rich NiTi Shape memory Alloys (SMAs) as actuators motivated the need to characterize the cyclic response and the transformation fatigue behavior of such alloys. The fatigue life validation and certification of new designs is required in order to be implemented and used in future applications. For that purpose, a custom built fatigue

Olivier W. Bertacchini; Justin Schick; Dimitris C. Lagoudas

2009-01-01

96

Characterization of spectral regrowth in microwave amplifiers based on the nonlinear transformation of a complex Gaussian process  

Microsoft Academic Search

A statistical technique is presented for the characterization of spectral regrowth at the output of a nonlinear amplifier driven by a digitally modulated carrier in a digital radio system. The technique yields an analytical expression for the autocorrelation function of the output signal as a function of the statistics of the quadrature input signal transformed by a behavioral model of

Kevin G. Gard; Hector M. Gutierrez; Michael B. Steer

1999-01-01

97

Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic characterization of mineralizing type I collagen enzymatic trivalent cross-links.  

PubMed

The most abundant protein of bone's organic matrix is collagen. One of its most important properties is its cross-linking pattern, which is responsible for the fibrillar matrices' mechanical properties such as tensile strength and viscoelasticity. We have previously described a spectroscopic method based on the resolution of the Amide I and II Fourier transform Infrared (FTIR) bands to their underlying constituent peaks, which allows the determination of divalent and pyridinoline (PYD) collagen cross-links in mineralized thin bone tissue sections with a spatial resolution of ~6.3 ?m. In the present study, we used FTIR analysis of a series of biochemically characterized collagen peptides, as well as skin, dentin, and predentin, to examine the potential reasons underlying discrepancies between two different analytical methodologies specifically related to spectral processing. The results identified a novel distinct FTIR underlying peak at ~1,680 cm(-1), correlated with deoxypyridinoline (DPD) content. Furthermore, the two different methods of spectral resolution result in widely different results, while only the method employing well-established spectroscopic routines for spectral resolution provided biologically relevant results, confirming our earlier studies relating the area of the underlying 1,660 cm(-1) with PYD content. The results of the present study describe a new peak that may be used to determine DPD content, confirm our earlier report relating spectroscopic parameters to PYD content, and highlight the importance of the selected spectral resolution methodology. PMID:25424977

Paschalis, E P; Gamsjaeger, S; Tatakis, D N; Hassler, N; Robins, S P; Klaushofer, K

2015-01-01

98

Sixteen-Year Change in Acoustic-Admittance Measures among Older Adults: Data from a Population-Based Study  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Purpose: The primary purpose of this study was to measure the 16-year change in peak compensated static acoustic admittance (Peak Y[subscript tm]) in a population-based cohort of older adults, and to determine whether age was associated with any observed change in Peak Y[subscript tm]. Other tympanometric measures also were taken and analyzed.…

Nondahl, David M.; Cruickshanks, Karen J.; Wiley, Terry L.; Tweed, Ted S.; Dalton, Dayna S.

2013-01-01

99

Global Admittance Estimates of Elastic and Crustal Thickness of Venus: Preliminary Results from Top and Bottom Loading Models  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Initial elastic and crustal thickness estimates (Te and Zc) for a global set of local admittance inversions with a one degree spacing for Venus provide a global map for interpreting subsurface structure. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

Anderson, F. S.; Smrekar, S. E.

2001-01-01

100

Admittance and Impedance Spectroscopy on Cu(In,Ga)Se2 Solar Cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The present work reports some experimental results on the electrical properties of high efficiency ZnO/CdS/Cu(In,Ga)Se2 heterojunction solar cells. Admittance spectroscopy has been employed for characterisation of the bulk and interface levels in the absorber Cu(In,Ga)Se2 layer. The temperature dependent capacitance-frequency analysis indicated an emission from a shallow acceptor like defect level with an activation energy of about 75 meV. Information on the equivalent circuit model of the devices has been provided by the analysis of impedance measurements. The impedance data are presented in the Nyquist plot at several dc bias voltages at 300 K. The equivalent circuit model consisting of a parallel resistor and capacitor in series with a resistor is found to give a good fit to the experimental data.

Kavasoðlu, A. Sertap; Bayhan, Habýbe

2003-11-01

101

Determination of electron mobility in tris(8-hydroxy-quinolinato) aluminum by admittance spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The electron mobilities of tris(8-hydroxy-quinolinato) aluminum (Alq3) thin films at various thicknesses (70-280 nm) have been determined by using admittance spectroscopy measurements. Our results show that the electric field dependence of electron mobilities exhibits different behaviors at different thicknesses of Alq3 films. Clearly, when the thickness of Alq3 film is less than 150 nm, the electron mobilities slightly decrease with increasing the electric field. For the thickness of Alq3 film more than 150 nm, however, the mobilities increase as the electric field increases. The phenomena are well discussed by energetic disorder. Using temperature dependent I-V characteristics, we further calculated the density of traps.

Wang, Yanping; Chen, Jiangshan; Dong, Lisong; Ma, Dongge

2013-09-01

102

Admittance Survey of Type 1 Coronae on Venus: Implications for Elastic Thickness  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Coronae are volcano-tectonic features on Venus which range from 60km to 2600km and are defined by their nearly circular patterns of fractures. Type 1 (regular) coronae are classified as having >50% complete fracture annuli. Previous work has examined the factors controlling the morphology, size, and fracture pattern of coronae, using lithospheric properties, loading signature and geologic characteristics. However, these studies have been limited to Type 2 (topographic) coronae (e.g. coronaes with <50% fracture annuli), and the factors controlling the formation of Type 1 coronae remain poorly understood. In this study, we apply the methodology of to survey the admittance signature for Type 1 coronae to determine the controlling parameters which govern Type 1 coronae formation.

Hoogenboom, T.; Smrekar, S. E.; Anderson, F. S.; Houseman, G.

2003-01-01

103

Physicochemical Characterization of Passive Films and Corrosion Layers by Differential Admittance and Photocurrent Spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The stabilization of metallic surfaces against corrosion processes in natural and industrial environment rests on the onset\\u000a of passivity condition with a subsequent drastic reduction of the corrosion rate of the underlying metallic substrate. In spite of a longstanding\\u000a controversy it is now universally accepted that a passive metal is usually covered by a thin or thick external layer the

Francesco Di Quarto; Fabio La Mantia; Monica Santamaria

104

Characterization of Transformation Stasis in Low-Carbon Steels Microalloyed with B and Mo  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the present study, bainite transformation kinetics was examined in low C-Mn steels with the addition of small amounts of B and Mo. This addition delays the onset of the bainite transformation. Mo addition causes transformation stasis at temperatures between 873 K and 823 K (600 °C and 550 °C) just below the bainite-start (B s) temperature, resulting from an incomplete bainite transformation. Post-stasis transformation after a prolonged hold proceeds by the formation of ferrite with a low dislocation density, and in Mo-containing alloys, often the formation of carbides. The volume fraction at which the transformation stops is higher for lower carbon contents and lower transformation temperatures. By contrast, at 773 K (500 °C), the bainite transformation accompanying cementite precipitation occurs regardless of microalloying and is completed after shorter hold times. EDX measurement performed on the Mo-added 0.15 pct C alloy with aberration-corrected STEM revealed that segregation at the bainite/austenite interphase boundary is small for Mn and negligible for Mo in the early stages of stasis, which does not support the incomplete transformation mechanism based on the solute drag theory for the alloys used.

Furuhara, Tadashi; Tsuzumi, Kenji; Miyamoto, Goro; Amino, Takafumi; Shigesato, Genichi

2014-09-01

105

Stable and efficient reduction of large, multiport RC networks by pole analysis via congruence transformations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel technique is presented which employs Pole Analysis via Congruence Transformations (PACT) to reduce RC networks in a well-conditioned manner. Pole analysis is shown to be more efficient than Padé approximations when the number of network ports is large, and congruence transforma- tions preserve the passivity (and thus absolute stability) of the networks. Networks are represented by admittance matrices

Kevin J. Kerns; Andrew T. Yang

1996-01-01

106

Molecular approach to the chemical characterization of fish-exuded kairomone: a Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic study  

Microsoft Academic Search

Diel vertical migration (DVM) bioassay-guided Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy can be a prominent non-destructive and\\u000a innovative approach for ecological studies. During the characterization of the nature of the fish-exuded kairomone, the peak\\u000a area results from the spectroscopic analysis of the control, fish-conditioned (F) and temperature incubated fish-conditioned\\u000a (IF) treatments of the DVM bioassays demonstrated that there was a strong correlation

Sara B. Akkas; Ayse O. Kepenek; Meryem Beklioglu; Feride Severcan

2010-01-01

107

Commercial production of avidin from transgenic maize: characterization of transformant, production, processing, extraction and purification  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have produced in transgenic maize seed the glycoprotein, avidin, which is native to avian, reptilian, and amphibian egg white. A transformant showing high-level expression of avidin was selected. Southern blot data revealed that four copies of the gene are present in this transformant. The foreign protein represents >2% of aqueous soluble extracted protein from populations of dry seed, a

Elizabeth E. Hood; Derrick R. Witcher; Sheila Maddock; Terry Meyer; Chris Baszczynski; Michele Bailey; Pam Flynn; James Register; Lisa Marshall; Diane Bond; Ellen Kulisek; Ann Kusnadi; Roque Evangelista; Zivko Nikolov; Cynthia Wooge; Richard J. Mehigh; Ronald Hernan; William K. Kappel; David Ritland; Chun Ping Li; John A. Howard

1997-01-01

108

Characterization of fossil organic matter with Fourier-Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy: an attempt to record extraterrestrial life .  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The characterization of the insoluble macromolecular fraction of organic matter preserved in carbonate sediments allows the identification of fossil organisms otherwise not recognizable. This approach represents a new tool for the detection of extraterrestrial traces of life even in their primitive form, one of the primary goals of exobiological studies on Mars. Considering the deep connection between carbonate sediments and biological activities on Earth, we checked if it was possible to characterize the organic matter remains dispersed within these rocks, with Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The experiment was performed on ancient and well preserved carbonates, belonging to the Calcare di Base Formation outcropping in Northern Calabria (Rossano Basin). The origin of these Miocene deposits is problematic, due to the absence of skeletal fossils. The results demonstrate that FTIR is a reliable method for the characterization of the organic matter preserved in carbonates, and generally in all types of sedimentary rocks.

Guido, A.; Mastandrea, A.; Tosti, F.; Demasi, F.; Blanco, A.; D'Elia, M.; Orofino, V.; Fonti, S.; Russo, F.

109

Characterizing the microstructures of biological tissues using Mueller matrix and transformed polarization parameters  

PubMed Central

Mueller matrices can be used as a powerful tool to probe qualitatively the microstructures of biological tissues. Certain transformation processes can provide new sets of parameters which are functions of the Mueller matrix elements but represent more explicitly the characteristic features of the sample. In this paper, we take the backscattering Mueller matrices of a group of tissues with distinctive structural properties. Using both experiments and Monte Carlo simulations, we demonstrate qualitatively the characteristic features of Mueller matrices corresponding to different structural and optical properties. We also calculate two sets of transformed polarization parameters using the Mueller matrix transformation (MMT) and Mueller matrix polar decomposition (MMPD) techniques. We demonstrate that the new parameters can separate the effects due to sample orientation and present quantitatively certain characteristic features of these tissues. Finally, we apply the transformed polarization parameters to the unstained human cervix cancerous tissues. Preliminary results show that the transformed polarization parameters can provide characteristic information to distinguish the cancerous and healthy tissues. PMID:25574434

Sun, Minghao; He, Honghui; Zeng, Nan; Du, E; Guo, Yihong; Liu, Shaoxiong; Wu, Jian; He, Yonghong; Ma, Hui

2014-01-01

110

Characterizing the microstructures of biological tissues using Mueller matrix and transformed polarization parameters.  

PubMed

Mueller matrices can be used as a powerful tool to probe qualitatively the microstructures of biological tissues. Certain transformation processes can provide new sets of parameters which are functions of the Mueller matrix elements but represent more explicitly the characteristic features of the sample. In this paper, we take the backscattering Mueller matrices of a group of tissues with distinctive structural properties. Using both experiments and Monte Carlo simulations, we demonstrate qualitatively the characteristic features of Mueller matrices corresponding to different structural and optical properties. We also calculate two sets of transformed polarization parameters using the Mueller matrix transformation (MMT) and Mueller matrix polar decomposition (MMPD) techniques. We demonstrate that the new parameters can separate the effects due to sample orientation and present quantitatively certain characteristic features of these tissues. Finally, we apply the transformed polarization parameters to the unstained human cervix cancerous tissues. Preliminary results show that the transformed polarization parameters can provide characteristic information to distinguish the cancerous and healthy tissues. PMID:25574434

Sun, Minghao; He, Honghui; Zeng, Nan; Du, E; Guo, Yihong; Liu, Shaoxiong; Wu, Jian; He, Yonghong; Ma, Hui

2014-12-01

111

Characterization of corrugated waveguides by modal analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A general formulation for the characterization of corrugated waveguides is presented. The formulation is based on modal expansion in the different smooth-walled waveguides which constitute the corrugated structure and on the use of mode matching at discontinuities. The use of an admittance matrix formulation and a suitable root-finding algorithm leads to a rigorous and efficient technique. Dispersion curves are presented

Jaime Esteban; JesGs M. Rebollar

1991-01-01

112

Universal Impedance, Admittance and Scattering Fluctuations in Quantum-chaotic Systems.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We experimentally investigate fluctuations in the eigenvalues of the impedance, admittance and scattering matrices of wave chaotic systems using a microwave analog of a quantum chaotic infinite square well potential. We consider a 2-D, time-reversal symmetric chaotic microwave resonator driven by two non-ideally coupled ports. The system-specific coupling effects are removed using the measured radiation impedance matrix (3pt<->Z Rad) [1] of the two ports. A normalized impedance matrix (3pt<->z ) is thus obtained, and the Probability Density Function (PDF) of its eigenvalues is predicted to be universal depending only on the cavity loss. We observe remarkable agreement between the statistical properties of 3pt<->z and 3pt<->y =3pt<->z -1 for all degrees of loss, which is in accordance with [1, 2] and Random Matrix Theory (RMT). We compare the joint PDF of the eigenphases of the normalized scattering matrix (3pt<->s ) with that obtained from RMT for varying degrees of loss. We study the joint PDF of the eigenvalues of 3pt<->s 3pt<->s ^ and find good agreement with [3]. [1] X. Zheng, et al., -- Electromagnetics (in press); condmat/0408317; S. Hemmady, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 014102 (2005).[2] Y. V. Fyodorov, et al.,-- condmat/0507016.[3] P. W. Brouwer and C. W. J Beenakker -- PRB 55, 4695 (1997). Work supported by DOD MURI AFOSR Grant F496200110374, DURIP Grants FA95500410295 and FA95500510240.

Hemmady, Sameer; Zheng, Xing; Antonsen, Thomas; Ott, Edward; Anlage, Steven M.

2006-03-01

113

Universal Impedance, Admittance and Scattering Fluctuations in Quantum-chaotic Systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We experimentally investigate fluctuations in the eigenvalues of the impedance, admittance and scattering matrices of wave chaotic systems using a microwave analog of a quantum chaotic infinite square well potential. We consider a 2-D, time-reversal symmetric chaotic microwave resonator driven by two non-ideally coupled ports. The system-specific coupling effects are removed using the measured radiation impedance matrix (3pt<->Z Rad) [1] of the two ports. A normalized impedance matrix (3pt<->z ) is thus obtained, and the Probability Density Function (PDF) of its eigenvalues is predicted to be universal depending only on the cavity loss. We observe remarkable agreement between the statistical properties of 3pt<->z and 3pt<->y =3pt<->z -1 for all degrees of loss, which is in accordance with [1, 2] and Random Matrix Theory (RMT). We compare the joint PDF of the eigenphases of the normalized scattering matrix (3pt<->s ) with that obtained from RMT for varying degrees of loss. We study the joint PDF of the eigenvalues of 3pt<->s 3pt<->s ^ and find good agreement with [3]. [1] X. Zheng, et al., -- Electromagnetics (in press); condmat/0408317; S. Hemmady, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 014102 (2005).[2] Y. V. Fyodorov, et al.,-- condmat/0507016.[3] P. W. Brouwer and C. W. J Beenakker -- PRB 55, 4695 (1997). Work supported by DOD MURI AFOSR Grant F496200110374, DURIP Grants FA95500410295 and FA95500510240.

Hemmady, Sameer

2006-03-01

114

An Admittance Survey of Large Volcanoes on Venus: Implications for Volcano Growth  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Estimates of the thickness of the venusian crust and elastic lithosphere are important in determining the rheological and thermal properties of Venus. These estimates offer insights into what conditions are needed for certain features, such as large volcanoes and coronae, to form. Lithospheric properties for much of the large volcano population on Venus are not well known. Previous studies of elastic thickness (Te) have concentrated on individual or small groups of edifices, or have used volcano models and fixed values of Te to match with observations of volcano morphologies. In addition, previous studies use different methods to estimate lithospheric parameters meaning it is difficult to compare their results. Following recent global studies of the admittance signatures exhibited by the venusian corona population, we performed a similar survey into large volcanoes in an effort to determine the range of lithospheric parameters shown by these features. This survey of the entire large volcano population used the same method throughout so that all estimates could be directly compared. By analysing a large number of edifices and comparing our results to observations of their morphology and models of volcano formation, we can help determine the controlling parameters that govern volcano growth on Venus.

Brian, A. W.; Smrekar, S. E.; Stofan, E. R.

2004-01-01

115

Admittance spectroscopy and electrical properties of Co3O4-doped ZnO  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The varistor characteristics of 0.1-3.0 at. % Co-doped ZnO have been investigated. Three kinds of deep bulk trap levels of 0.16, 0.25, and ~0.31 eV were identified as donor levels by admittance spectroscopy. Oxygen vacancy ( V o ·) appeared preferentially in 0.5-3.0 at. % Co-doped ZnO. From J-E characteristics nonohmic behavior was seen in this binary system while the nonlinear coefficient ? changed between 3 and 35 depending on the composition. For 1.0 at. % Co-doped ZnO, two distinguishable activation energies of 0.65 eV and 1.04 eV related with grain boundary phenomena were confirmed above and below ~520 K by impedance and modulus spectroscopy. It is believed that the varistor behavior of Co-doped ZnO stems from the formation of double Schottky barrier by the valence change of Co ions in ZnO grains as well as oxygen chemisorption at the grain boundaries on heating and subsequent cooling.

Hong, Youn-Woo; Lee, Young-Jin; Kim, Sei-Ki; Paik, Jong-Hoo; Kim, Jin-Ho

2014-09-01

116

Characterizing high-frequency effects in transformer windings-a guide to several significant articles  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several papers pertaining to the design and modeling of high-frequency transformer windings are reviewed. Each paper is summarized, stressing its significant contributions and its relationship to the others. The emphases and relative merits of each are discussed, and the understandability and applicability are evaluated

A. M. Urling; V. A. Niemela; G. R. Skutt; T. G. Wilson

1989-01-01

117

Homologous transformation of the edible basidiomycete Agrocybe aegerita with the URA1 gene: characterization of integrative events and of rearranged free plasmids in transformants.  

PubMed

The URA1 gene, encoding dihydroorotate dehydrogenase of the pyrimidine pathway, cloned into pUC18 (pUra1-1) was used to develop an homologous transformation system for the cultivated mushroom Agrocybe aegerita. Protoplasts of a ura1 auxotrophic strain were transformed by electroporation with efficiencies ranging from 1 to 26 transformants per micrograms of DNA. The phenotype of the stable Ura+ transformants suggested a strong nuclear heterogeneity further confirmed by Southern-blot analysis. All transformants acquired extrachromosomal forms derived from pUra1-1. Integration of pUra1-1 into chromosomal DNA occurred for some transformants. Plasmids containing the integrant of pUC18 recombined to different parts of the URA1 gene were rescued from A. aegerita transformants through transformation of E. coli. Their molecular analysis indicated that they represent products of the continuous excision of primary-integrated vector sequences rather than ARS-dependent autoreplicative forms. PMID:8082189

Noël, T; Labarère, J

1994-05-01

118

`Video orbits': characterizing the coordinate transformation between two images using the projective group  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many applications in computer vision benefit from accurate,robust analysis of the coordinate transformationbetween two frames. Whether for image mosaicing,camera motion description, video stabilization,image enhancement, aligning digital photographs formodification (e.g. ad-insertment), or their comparisonduring retrieval, finding both an estimate of thecoordinate transformation between two images, andthe error in this estimate is important.Perhaps the most frequently used coordinate...

R. W. Picard; S. Mann

1995-01-01

119

Transformation of Chloroplast Ribosomal RNA Genes in Chlamydomonas: Molecular and Genetic Characterization of Integration Events  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transformation of chloroplast ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes in Chlamydomonas has been achieved by the biolistic process using cloned chloroplast DNA fragments carrying mutations that confer antibiotic resistance. The sites of exchange employed during the integration of the donor DNA into the recipient genome have been localized using a combination of antibiotic resistance mutations in the 16s and 23s rRNA genes

Scott M. Newman; John E. Boynton; Nicholas W. Gillham; Barbara L. Randolph-Anderson; Anita M. Johnson; Elizabeth H. Harris

120

Lime kiln source characterization: Lime manufacturing industry Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Final report  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this testing program is to obtain uncontrolled and controlled hydrogen chloride (HCl) and speciated hydrocarbon Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs) emissions data from lime production plants to support a national emission standard for hazardous air pollutants (NESHAP). This report presents data from the Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) measurements. FTIR source testing was conducted for the following purposes: Quantify HCl emission levels; and Gather screening (i.e., qualitative) data on other HAP emissions.

Toney, M.L.

1999-07-01

121

Characterizing the Moisture Content of Tea with Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy Using Wavelet Transform and Multivariate Analysis  

PubMed Central

Effects of the moisture content (MC) of tea on diffuse reflectance spectroscopy were investigated by integrated wavelet transform and multivariate analysis. A total of 738 representative samples, including fresh tea leaves, manufactured tea and partially processed tea were collected for spectral measurement in the 325–1,075 nm range with a field portable spectroradiometer. Then wavelet transform (WT) and multivariate analysis were adopted for quantitative determination of the relationship between MC and spectral data. Three feature extraction methods including WT, principal component analysis (PCA) and kernel principal component analysis (KPCA) were used to explore the internal structure of spectral data. Comparison of those three methods indicated that the variables generated by WT could efficiently discover structural information of spectral data. Calibration involving seeking the relationship between MC and spectral data was executed by using regression analysis, including partial least squares regression, multiple linear regression and least square support vector machine. Results showed that there was a significant correlation between MC and spectral data (r = 0.991, RMSEP = 0.034). Moreover, the effective wavelengths for MC measurement were detected at range of 888–1,007 nm by wavelet transform. The results indicated that the diffuse reflectance spectroscopy of tea is highly correlated with MC. PMID:23012574

Li, Xiaoli; Xie, Chuanqi; He, Yong; Qiu, Zhengjun; Zhang, Yanchao

2012-01-01

122

Biochemical and molecular characterization of Coriolopsis rigida laccases involved in transformation of the solid waste from olive oil production.  

PubMed

Two laccase isoenzymes were purified and characterized from the basidiomycete Coriolopsis rigida during transformation of the water-soluble fraction of "alpeorujo" (WSFA), a solid residue derived from the olive oil production containing high levels of toxic compounds. Zymogram assays of laccases secreted by the fungus growing on WSFA and WSFA supplemented with glucose showed two bands with isoelectric points of 3.3 and 3.4. The kinetic studies of the two purified isoenzymes showed similar affinity on 2,6-dimethoxyphenol and 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid), used as phenolic and non-phenolic model substrate, respectively. The molecular mass of both proteins was 66 kDa with 9% N-linked carbohydrate. Physico-chemical properties of the purified laccases from media containing WSFA were similar to those obtained from medium with glucose as the main carbon source. In-vitro studies performed with the purified laccases revealed a 42% phenol reduction of WSFA, as well as changes in the molecular mass distribution. These findings indicate that these laccases are involved in the process of transformation, via polymerization by the oxidation of phenolic compounds present in WSFA. A single laccase gene, containing an open reading frame of 1,488 bp, was obtained in PCR amplifications performed with cDNA extracted from mycelia grown on WSFA. The product of the gene shares 90% identity (95% similarity) with a laccase from Trametes trogii and 89% identity (95% similarity) with a laccase from Coriolopsis gallica. This is the first report on purification and molecular characterization of laccases directly involved in the transformation of olive oil residues. PMID:20607234

Díaz, Rosario; Saparrat, Mario C N; Jurado, Miguel; García-Romera, Inmaculada; Ocampo, Juan Antonio; Martínez, María Jesús

2010-09-01

123

An analysis of light-induced admittance changes in rod outer segments  

PubMed Central

1. Measurements were made of the time course and amplitude of the change in real part of admittance, ?G, of a suspension of frog rod outer segments, following a flash of light bleaching about 1% of the rhodopsin content of the rods. The measurements, based on the use of a specially designed marginal oscillator, covered the frequency range between 500 Hz and 17 MHz. 2. The components of response, previously described for rods prepared by a method involving exposure to strongly hypertonic sucrose solutions, are present in similar form when rods are isolated and maintained in isotonic solutions made up with equi-osmotic concentrations of NaCl and sucrose or with Na2SO4. 3. Component I, identified as a slowly developing positive ?G apparent at very low frequencies, is frequency-independent up to the characteristic frequency of admittance for the suspension, fY (about 2 MHz for rods suspended in a solution having the conductivity of Ringer solution), but decreases at still higher frequencies. 4. Component II, identified as a rapidly developing positive ?G which appears only above a critical frequency about 2·5 decades below fY, increases approximately logarithmically with frequency to reach a limiting amplitude in the region of fY. 5. The amplitude of component II, ?GII, measured in the region of fY, varies linearly with the conductivity of the suspending medium, Go, under conditions in which the conductivity of the rod interior is also a linear function of the external conductivity. The relation for a flash bleaching 1% of the rhodopsin content of the dark-adapted rod is [Formula: see text] 6. Measurements made on rods suspended in a low-conductivity solution, which has the effect of reducing the conductivity of the rod interior to about one ninth its value for rods suspended in Ringer solution, reveal a decline in component II for frequencies above 8 MHz. 7. To explain the frequency dependence of component II and its dependence on conductivity, it is proposed that component II arises from a light-induced increase in conductance of the disk membranes which obstruct the longitudinal flow of current through the rod interior except at very high frequencies. 8. The disk-membrane conductance increase for rods suspended in a solution having the conductivity of Ringer solution is calculated to be 4·3 × 10-11 mho/rhodpsin molecule bleached, a value which is similar to what has been found for ionic channels operated by membrane potential change in the nerve membrane and by synaptic transmitter in the postjunctional membrane. 9. No component of response has been observed which could be reliably attributed to a surface membrane conductance decrease of the type observed in receptor cells in the retina. PMID:4540195

Falk, G.; Fatt, P.

1973-01-01

124

Interpretation of admittance, capacitance-voltage, and current-voltage signatures in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 thin film solar cells  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A series of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) thin film solar cells with differently prepared heterojunctions has been investigated by admittance spectroscopy, capacitance-voltage (CV) profiling, and temperature dependent current-voltage (IVT) measurements. The devices with different CdS buffer layer thicknesses, with an In2S3 buffer or with a Schottky barrier junction, all show the characteristic admittance step at shallow energies between 40 and 160 meV, which has often been referred to as the N1 defect. No correlation between the buffer layer thickness and the capacitance step is found. IVT measurements show that the dielectric relaxation frequency of charge carriers in the CdS layers is smaller than the N1-resonance frequency at low temperatures where the N1 step in admittance is observed. These results strongly contradict the common assignment of the N1 response to a donor defect at or close to the heterointerface. In contrast, an explanation for the N1 response is proposed, which relates the admittance step to a non-Ohmic back-contact acting as a second junction in the device. The model, which is substantiated with numerical device simulations, allows a unified explanation of characteristic admittance, CV, and IVT features commonly observed in CIGS solar cells.

Eisenbarth, Tobias; Unold, Thomas; Caballero, Raquel; Kaufmann, Christian A.; Schock, Hans-Werner

2010-02-01

125

Processing and characterization of transformation-toughened ceramics with strength retention to elevated temperatures. Final report  

SciTech Connect

Monolithic and three-layered Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} -- 15 vol % ZrO{sub 2} composites were fabricated by slip casting aqueous slurries. The outer and inner layers of three-layer composites contained unstabilized and partially stabilized ZrO{sub 2}, respectively. Transformation of part of the unstabilized ZrO{sub 2} led to surface compressive stresses in the outer layers. Strain gage, x-ray, indentation crack length, and strength measurements were used to determine the magnitude of residual stresses in the composites. The strength of the three-layer composites ({approx}1200 MPa) was 500--700 MPa higher than that of the monolithic outer layer composites at room temperature and 350 MPa higher at 750{degree}C. The strength differential decreased rapidly above the m {yields} t transformation temperature. Three-layered composites showed excellent damage resistance and improved reliability. Cam follower rollers were fabricated to demonstrate the applicability of this technique for making automotive components.

Cutler, R.A.; Brinkpeter, C.B. [Ceramatec, Inc., Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Vircar, A.V.; Shetty, D.K. [Univ. of Utah (United States)

1994-09-01

126

Functional Characterization of the Plasmodium falciparum Chloroquine-Resistance Transporter (PfCRT) in Transformed Dictyostelium discoideum Vesicles  

PubMed Central

Background Chloroquine (CQ)-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria has been a global health catastrophe, yet much about the CQ resistance (CQR) mechanism remains unclear. Hallmarks of the CQR phenotype include reduced accumulation of protonated CQ as a weak base in the digestive vacuole of the erythrocyte-stage parasite, and chemosensitization of CQ-resistant (but not CQ-sensitive) P. falciparum by agents such as verapamil. Mutations in the P. falciparum CQR transporter (PfCRT) confer CQR; particularly important among these mutations is the charge-loss substitution K?T at position 76. Dictyostelium discoideum transformed with mutant PfCRT expresses key features of CQR including reduced drug accumulation and verapamil chemosensitization. Methodology and Findings We describe the isolation and characterization of PfCRT-transformed, hematin-free vesicles from D. discoideum cells. These vesicles permit assessments of drug accumulation, pH, and membrane potential that are difficult or impossible with hematin-containing digestive vacuoles from P. falciparum-infected erythrocytes. Mutant PfCRT-transformed D. discoideum vesicles show features of the CQR phenotype, and manipulations of vesicle membrane potential by agents including ionophores produce large changes of CQ accumulation that are dissociated from vesicular pH. PfCRT in its native or mutant form blunts the ability of valinomycin to reduce CQ accumulation in transformed vesicles and decreases the ability of K+ to reverse membrane potential hyperpolarization caused by valinomycin treatment. Conclusion Isolated vesicles from mutant-PfCRT-transformed D. discoideum exhibit features of the CQR phenotype, consistent with evidence that the drug resistance mechanism operates at the P. falciparum digestive vacuole membrane in malaria. Membrane potential apart from pH has a major effect on the PfCRT-mediated CQR phenotype of D. discoideum vesicles. These results support a model of PfCRT as an electrochemical potential-driven transporter in the drug/metabolite superfamily that (appropriately mutated) acts as a saturable simple carrier for the facilitated diffusion of protonated CQ. PMID:22724026

Papakrivos, Janni; Sá, Juliana M.; Wellems, Thomas E.

2012-01-01

127

Characterization of near-terahertz complementary metal-oxide semiconductor circuits using a Fourier-transform interferometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical methods for measuring of the emission spectra of oscillator circuits operating in the 400-600 GHz range are described. The emitted power from patch antennas included in the circuits is measured by placing the circuit in the source chamber of a Fourier-transform interferometric spectrometer. The results show that this optical technique is useful for measuring circuits pushing the frontier in operating frequency. The technique also allows the characterization of the circuit by measuring the power radiated in the fundamental and in the harmonics. This capability is useful for oscillator architectures designed to cancel the fundamental and use higher harmonics. The radiated power was measured using two techniques: direct measurement of the power by placing the device in front of a bolometer of known responsivity, and by comparison to the estimated power from blackbody sources. The latter technique showed that these circuits have higher emission than blackbody sources at the operating frequencies, and, therefore, offer potential spectroscopy applications.

Arenas, D. J.; Shim, Dongha; Koukis, D. I.; Seok, Eunyoung; Tanner, D. B.; O, Kenneth K.

2011-10-01

128

Long-term batch study of sorption, transformation and extractability to characterize the fate of the veterinary antibiotic sulfadiazine  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The occurrence of veterinary antibiotic substances in various environmental compartments is of growing concern. Once released into the environment (e.g. via manure), these organic substances can cause changes in the composition of microbial populations, provoke the development and spreading of resistance genes and finally reach the food chain. The substance under study is the veterinary antibiotic sulfadiazine (SDZ), which belongs to the chemical group of the sulfonamides. These compounds are widely applied in animal husbandry. There are hardly any studies on the macroscopic sorption and desorption behaviour in combination with transformation processes, particularly investigating the sorbed fraction. We are conducting long-term batch sorption experiments to characterize the partitioning between the liquid and the solid phases as well as formation of transformation products. A sequential extraction procedure enables us to analyse the composition of the various sorbed fractions. We applied 14C-labelled SDZ in aqueous solution to fresh soil, originating from an agricultural field (silty loam). Adsorption and desorption studies are conducted for the duration of 60 d and 80 d, respectively. Unique setups for single time-steps allow us to trace the development of the partition process between the liquid and the solid phase and also partitioning within the solid phase. The composition of these liquid phases concerning the parent substance and the transformation products is analyzed. Using Radio-HPLC we find at least five transformation products: 4-hydroxy-sulfadiazine (4-OH-SDZ), 4-(2-iminopyrimidin-1(2H)-yl)-aniline (An-SDZ) and additionally three yet unknown products. By means of a sequential extraction, differently strong bound fractions of the compound can be distinguished. Extractions consist of a mild method (0.01 M CaCl2-solution; 24 h) followed by a methanol extraction (4 h). Finally, a residual fraction is gained by microwave extraction at an elevated temperature (150°C) and pressure (mixture of water and acetonitril, 4:1). Bound residues are determined by combustion. The course of the kinetic adsorption/desorption processes as well as the partitioning of the compound over the various solid phase fractions is observed. Sorption is time-dependent and strongly non-linear. The topsoil shows a significantly higher sorption affinity than the subsoil. While the amount of radioactivity sorbed to the soil matrix increases with time, the extractability decreases significantly, i. e. at the end of the experimental time there is no yield with mild extraction methods. On the contrary, after 60 d, there is still a considerably mass gained with the microwave extraction. Desorption is very slow due to hysteresis. In the topsoil transformation occurs with higher rates, leading to more detectable transformation products as in the subsoil. With our experimental setup it will be possible to set up a kinetic modell for the partitioning of the solute between the liquid and the solid phase. This description will also include an estimation of the transformation parameters.

Sittig, Stephan; Kasteel, Roy; Groeneweg, Joost; Vereecken, Harry

2010-05-01

129

Characterizing the transformation and transfer of nitrogen during the aerobic treatment of organic wastes and digestates  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ammonia emissions varied depending on the nature of wastes and the treatment conditions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nitrogen losses resulted from ammonia emissions and nitrification-denitrification. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ammonification can be estimated from biodegradable carbon and carbon/nitrogen ratio. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ammonification was the main process contributing to N losses. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nitrification rate was negatively correlated to stripping rate of ammonia nitrogen. - Abstract: The transformation and transfer of nitrogen during the aerobic treatment of seven wastes were studied in ventilated air-tight 10-L reactors at 35 Degree-Sign C. Studied wastes included distinct types of organic wastes and their digestates. Ammonia emissions varied depending on the kind of waste and treatment conditions. These emissions accounted for 2-43% of the initial nitrogen. Total nitrogen losses, which resulted mainly from ammonia emissions and nitrification-denitrification, accounted for 1-76% of the initial nitrogen. Ammonification was the main process responsible for nitrogen losses. An equation which allows estimating the ammonification flow of each type of waste according to its biodegradable carbon and carbon/nitrogen ratio was proposed. As a consequence of the lower contribution of storage and leachate rates, stripping and nitrification rates of ammonia nitrogen were negatively correlated. This observation suggests the possibility of promotingnitrification in order to reduce ammonia emissions.

Zeng Yang, E-mail: yang.zeng@irstea.fr [Irstea, UR GERE, 17 avenue de Cucille, CS 64427, F-35044 Rennes Cedex (France); Universite Europeenne de Bretagne, F-35000 Rennes (France); Guardia, Amaury de; Daumoin, Mylene; Benoist, Jean-Claude [Irstea, UR GERE, 17 avenue de Cucille, CS 64427, F-35044 Rennes Cedex (France)

2012-12-15

130

Ultrasonic characterization of soft tissue vibrations based on the two-dimensional Fourier transform  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

It has recently been demonstrated that soft tissue vibrations in the body, traditionally associated with vascular bruits and cardiac murmurs, can potentially be used for the ultrasonic diagnosis of coronary artery disease and vascular trauma. In this paper, the ultrasonic spectrum of soft tissue vibrations is formulated using the two-dimensional Fourier transform, making full use of the information present in the backscattered ultrasound echoes from vibrating tissue. Parametric simulation studies show that vibrations with amplitude 1 ?m may be detected even with tissue velocity of 20 cm/s and acceleration of 5 m/s2, e.g., during peak cardiac motion. Vibrations with amplitude as low as 0.1 ?m may be detected when the tissue acceleration is negligible, e.g., during mid-diastole. Also, it was found that tissue vibrations in a direction transverse to the ultrasound beam can be detected. In vivo examples of cardiac wall vibrations in patients with coronary artery disease are presented. Tissue vibrations can provide improved sensitivity over conventional duplex ultrasound since the scattering strength from tissue is significantly higher than that from blood. In addition, detection of tissue vibrations has reduced angle dependency and does not require visualization of the vessel lumen, making the exam less dependent on operator skill.

Sikdar, Siddhartha; Kim, Yongmin; Beach, Kirk W.

2005-09-01

131

Development of imaging Fourier-transform spectroscopy for the characterization of turbulent jet flames  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent advances in computational models to simulate turbulent, reactive flow fields have outpaced the ability to collect highly constraining data---throughout the entire flow field---for validating and improving such models. In particular, the ability to quantify in three dimensions both the mean scalar fields (i.e. temperature & species concentrations) and their respective fluctuation statistics via hyperspectral imaging would be a game-changing advancement in combustion diagnostics, with high impact in both validation and improvement efforts for computational combustion models. This research effort establishes imaging Fourier- transform spectrometry (IFTS) as a valuable tool (which complements laser diagnostics) for the study of turbulent combustion. Specifically, this effort (1) demonstrates that IFTS can be used to quantitatively measure spatially resolved spectra from a canonical turbulent flame; (2) establishes the utility of quantile spectra in first-ever quantitative comparisons between measured and modeled turbulent radiation interaction (TRI); (3) develops a simple onion-peeling-like spectral inversion methodology suitable for estimating radial scalar distributions in axisymmetric, optically-thick flames; (4) builds understanding of quantile spectra and demonstrates proof of concept for their use in estimating scalar fluctuation statistics.

Harley, Jacob L.

132

[Characterizing composition and transformation of dissolved organic matter in subsurface wastewater infiltration system].  

PubMed

In the present study, the soil column with radius of 30 cm and height of 200 cm was used to simulate a subsurface wastewater infiltration system. Under the hydraulic loading of 4 cm x d(-1), composition and transformation of dissolved organic matter (DOM) from different depths were analyzed in a subsurface wastewater infiltration system for treatment of septic tank effluent using three-dimensional excitation emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy (3D-EEM) with regional integration analysis (FRI). The results indicate that: (1) from different depth, the composition of DOM was also different; influent with the depth of 0.5 m was mainly composed of protein-like substances, and that at other depths was mainly composed of humic- and fulvic-like substances. (2) DOM stability gradually increased and part of the nonbiodegradable organic matter can be removed during organic pollutants degradation process. (3) Not only the organic pollutants concentration was reduced effectively, but also the stability of the DOM improved in subsurface wastewater infiltration system. PMID:24159860

Wang, Li-Jun; Liu, Yu-Zhong; Zhang, Lie-Yu; Xi, Bei-Dou; Xia, Xun-Feng; Liu, Ya-Ru

2013-08-01

133

Isolation and characterization of efficient isoxaben-transforming Microbacterium sp strains from four European soils.  

PubMed

Nutrient-agar plates containing isoxaben (500 mg litre(-1)) were used to isolate isoxaben-metabolising bacteria from four European soils incubated with the herbicide under laboratory conditions. In flask experiments, inoculation of a basal salts medium containing nitrogen and [phenyl-U-14C]isoxaben with an isolate (B2b) resulted in 33% recovery of the initial radioactivity as [14C]carbon dioxide after 2 weeks. A major metabolite identified by GC-MS and NMR analysis as 3-(1-ethyl-1-methylpropyl)isoxazol-5-ylamine accumulated both in basal salts and nutrient broth media. 2,6-Dimethoxybenzoic acid, a suspected metabolite of isoxaben, was not detected in either liquid media. However, the capability of the B2b isolate to use 2,6-dimethoxybenzoic acid as a source of carbon was demonstrated. Soil inoculation with the B2b strain resulted in an increase in the recovery of [14C] carbon dioxide from both [phenyl-U-14C] and [isoxazole-5-14C]isoxaben. The metabolite identified as 3-(1-ethyl-1-methylpropyl)isoxazole-5-ylamine only accumulated if the soil was autoclaved before inoculation. This metabolite was rapidly mineralized by the microflora of a natural soil without history of isoxaben treatment. Homology patterns of sequenced 16S rDNA between isoxaben-transforming isolates and reference strains showed that the four isolates identified belonged to the genus Microbacterium. PMID:12476996

Arrault, Sandra; Desaint, Stephane; Catroux, Colette; Sémon, Etienne; Mougin, Christian; Fournier, Jean Claude

2002-12-01

134

CT angiography after 20 years: a transformation in cardiovascular disease characterization continues to advance.  

PubMed

Through a marriage of spiral computed tomography (CT) and graphical volumetric image processing, CT angiography was born 20 years ago. Fueled by a series of technical innovations in CT and image processing, over the next 5-15 years, CT angiography toppled conventional angiography, the undisputed diagnostic reference standard for vascular disease for the prior 70 years, as the preferred modality for the diagnosis and characterization of most cardiovascular abnormalities. This review recounts the evolution of CT angiography from its development and early challenges to a maturing modality that has provided unique insights into cardiovascular disease characterization and management. Selected clinical challenges, which include acute aortic syndromes, peripheral vascular disease, aortic stent-graft and transcatheter aortic valve assessment, and coronary artery disease, are presented as contrasting examples of how CT angiography is changing our approach to cardiovascular disease diagnosis and management. Finally, the recently introduced capabilities for multispectral imaging, tissue perfusion imaging, and radiation dose reduction through iterative reconstruction are explored with consideration toward the continued refinement and advancement of CT angiography. PMID:24848958

Rubin, Geoffrey D; Leipsic, Jonathon; Joseph Schoepf, U; Fleischmann, Dominik; Napel, Sandy

2014-06-01

135

Characterization of buried metal-molecule-metal junctions using Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have devised an infrared spectromicroscopy based experimental configuration to enable structural characterization of buried molecular junctions. Our design utilizes a small mercury drop at the focal point of an infrared microscope to act as a mirror in studying metal-molecule-metal (MmM) junctions. An organic molecular monolayer is formed either directly on the mercury drop or on a thin, infrared (IR) semi-transparent layer of Au deposited onto an IR transparent, undoped silicon substrate. Following the formation of the monolayer, films on either metal can be examined independently using specular reflection spectroscopy. Furthermore, by bringing together the two monolayers, a buried molecular bilayer within the MmM junction can be characterized. Independent examination of each half of the junction prior to junction formation also allows probing any structural and/or conformational changes that occur as a result of forming the bilayer. Because our approach allows assembling and disassembling microscopic junctions by forming and withdrawing Hg drops onto the monolayer covered metal, spatial mapping of junctions can be performed simply by translating the location of the derivatized silicon wafer. Finally, the applicability of this technique for the longer-term studies of changes in molecular structure in the presence of electrical bias is discussed.

Babayco, Christopher B.; Land, Donald P.; Parikh, Atul N.; Kiehl, Richard A.

2014-09-01

136

Parametric study and characterization of the isobaric thermomechanical transformation fatigue of nickel-rich NiTi SMA actuators  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The recent development of various aerospace applications utilizing Ni-rich NiTi Shape memory Alloys (SMAs) as actuators motivated the need to characterize the cyclic response and the transformation fatigue behavior of such alloys. The fatigue life validation and certification of new designs is required in order to be implemented and used in future applications. For that purpose, a custom built fatigue test frame was designed to perform isobaric thermally induced transformation cycles on small dogbones SMA actuators (test gauge cross-section up to: 1.270 x 0.508 mm2). A parametric study on the cyclic response and transformation fatigue behavior of Ni-rich NiTi SMAs led to the optimization of several material/process and test parameters, namely: the applied stress range, the heat treatment, the heat treatment environment and the specimen thickness. However, fatigue testing was performed in a chilled waterless glycol environment maintained at a temperature of 5°C that showed evidence of corrosion-assisted transformation fatigue failure. Therefore, it was necessary to build a fatigue test frame that would employ a dry and inert cooling methodology to get away from any detrimental interactions between the specimens and the cooling medium (corrosion). The selected cooling method was gaseous nitrogen, sprayed into a thermally insulated chamber, maintaining a temperature of -20°C. The design of the gaseous nitrogen cooling was done in such a way that the actuation frequency is similar to the one obtained using the original design (~ 0.1 Hz). For both cooling methods, Joule resistive heating was used to heat the specimens. In addition and motivated by the difference in surface quality resulting from different material processing such as EDM wire cutting and heat treatments, EDM recast layer and oxide layer were removed. The removal was followed by an ultra-fine polish (0.05 ?m) that was performed on a subset of the fatigue specimens. Experimental results are presented for full actuation of the SMA actuators and are given in terms of applied stress, accumulated plastic strain and number of cycles to failure. In addition, the assessment of the influence of the surface quality is supported by fatigue tests results and post-failure microstructure analysis.

Bertacchini, Olivier W.; Schick, Justin; Lagoudas, Dimitris C.

2009-03-01

137

New way to characterize the percolation threshold of polyethylene and carbon nanotube polymer composites using Fourier transform (FT) rheology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this article, a new way to characterize the percolation threshold of polymer nanocomposites made of polyethylene (PE) with single and multi walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs and MWCNTs) is presented. Small and large oscillatory shear (SAOS and LAOS) experiments were performed to characterize the degree of dispersion and percolation threshold. The analysis of the stress response in the LAOS regime as a function of the applied deformation amplitude and frequency was performed using Fourier Transform (FT)-Rheology. The zero strain intrinsic nonlinear parameter, Q0(?), was calculated by extrapolation of I3/1(?0, ?) and was, used to quantify the nonlinearity measured by FT-Rheology. Interestingly, a drop in Q0 as a function of the CNT weight fraction at a fixed frequency was found that was below the percolation threshold. This was followed by, a steep rise in Q0 above the percolation threshold. Therefore, the new method based on this observation that is proposed and described with this article has the potential to lead to a better understanding of structure-property relationships in polymer nanocomposites.

Ahirwal, Deepak; Palza, Humberto; Schlatter, Guy; Wilhelm, Manfred

2014-08-01

138

Force Control and Nonlinear Master-Slave Force Profile to Manage an Admittance Type Multi-Fingered Haptic User Interface  

SciTech Connect

Natural movements and force feedback are important elements in using teleoperated equipment if complex and speedy manipulation tasks are to be accomplished in remote and/or hazardous environments, such as hot cells, glove boxes, decommissioning, explosives disarmament, and space to name a few. In order to achieve this end the research presented in this paper has developed an admittance type exoskeleton like multi-fingered haptic hand user interface that secures the user’s palm and provides 3-dimensional force feedback to the user’s fingertips. Atypical to conventional haptic hand user interfaces that limit themselves to integrating the human hand’s characteristics just into the system’s mechanical design this system also perpetuates that inspiration into the designed user interface’s controller. This is achieved by manifesting the property differences of manipulation and grasping activities as they pertain to the human hand into a nonlinear master-slave force relationship. The results presented in this paper show that the admittance-type system has sufficient bandwidth that it appears nearly transparent to the user when the user is in free motion and when the system is subjected to a manipulation task, increased performance is achieved using the nonlinear force relationship compared to the traditional linear scaling techniques implemented in the vast majority of systems.

Anthony L. Crawford

2012-08-01

139

Characterization of Phase Transformations and Stresses During the Welding of a Ferritic Mild Steel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The transient stresses and phase evolution have been characterized in the quasi-steady state produced around a gas tungsten arc welding torch in a plain carbon (ASTM 1018) steel using in situ neutron diffraction. A novel method has been developed to isolate the deviatoric or plane stress state in the presence of isotropic contributions to the lattice parameter, such as thermal expansion and solute content. The stress state was found to evolve in the anticipated manner, with compressive stresses ahead of the weld and tensile stresses behind the weld, in the weld and heat-affected zone, and compression in the far field behind the weld. In particular, the region of compression in the heat-affected zone adjacent to and just behind the welding torch expected from weld models was observed. The evolution of phase fraction around the weld was also determined using the technique and the stresses obtained from the ferrite phase.

Dye, D.; Stone, H. J.; Watson, M.; Rogge, R. B.

2014-04-01

140

Steady-state kinetic characterization and crystallization of a polychlorinated biphenyl-transforming dioxygenase.  

PubMed

The oxygenase component of biphenyl dioxygenase (BPDO) from Comamonas testosteroni B-356 dihydroxylates biphenyl and some polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), thereby initiating their degradation. Overexpressed, anaerobically purified BPDO had a specific activity of 4.9 units/mg, and its oxygenase component appeared to contain a full complement of Fe(2)S(2) center and catalytic iron. Oxygenase crystals in space group R3 were obtained under anaerobic conditions using polyethylene glycol as the precipitant. X-ray diffraction was measured to 1.6 A. Steady-state kinetics assays demonstrated that BPDO had an apparent k(cat)/K(m) for biphenyl of (1.2 +/- 0.1) x 10(6) M(-1) s(-1) in air-saturated buffer. Moreover, BPDO transformed dichlorobiphenyls (diClBs) in the following order of apparent specificities: 3,3'- > 2,2'- > 4, 4'-diClB. Strikingly, the ability of BPDO to utilize O(2) depended strongly on the biphenyl substrate: k(cat)/K(m(O(2))) = (3.6 +/- 0. 3), (0.06 +/- 0.02), and (0.4 +/- 0.07) x 10(5) M(-1) s(-1) in the presence of biphenyl and 2,2'- and 3,3'-diClBs, respectively. Moreover, biphenyl/O(2) consumed was 0.97, 0.44, 0.63, and 0.48 in the presence of biphenyl and 2,2'-, 3,3'-, and 4,4'-diClBs, respectively. Within experimental error, the balance of consumed O(2) was detected as H(2)O(2). Thus, PCB congeners such as 2, 2'-diClB exact a high energetic cost, produce a cytotoxic compound (H(2)O(2)), and can inhibit degradation of other congeners. Each of these effects would be predicted to inhibit the aerobic microbial catabolism of PCBs. PMID:10777527

Imbeault, N Y; Powlowski, J B; Colbert, C L; Bolin, J T; Eltis, L D

2000-04-28

141

Spectral Characterizations of the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Thermistor Bolometers using Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) Techniques  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) techniques are being used to characterize the relative spectral response, or sensitivity, of scanning thermistor bolometers in the infrared (IR) region (2 - >= 100-micrometers). The bolometers are being used in the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) program. The CERES measurements are designed to provide precise, long term monitoring of the Earth's atmospheric radiation energy budget. The CERES instrument houses three bolometric radiometers, a total wavelength (0.3- >= 150-micrometers) sensor, a shortwave (0.3-5-micrometers) sensor, and an atmospheric window (8-12-micrometers) sensor. Accurate spectral characterization is necessary for determining filtered radiances for longwave radiometric calibrations. The CERES bolometers spectral response's are measured in the TRW FTS Vacuum Chamber Facility (FTS - VCF), which uses a FTS as the source and a cavity pyroelectric trap detector as the reference. The CERES bolometers and the cavity detector are contained in a vacuum chamber, while the FTS source is housed in a GN2 purged chamber. Due to the thermal time constant of the CERES bolometers, the FTS must be operated in a step mode. Data are acquired in 6 IR spectral bands covering the entire longwave IR region. In this paper, the TRW spectral calibration facility design and data measurement techniques are described. Two approaches are presented which convert the total channel FTS data into the final CERES spectral characterizations, producing the same calibration coefficients (within 0.1 percent). The resulting spectral response curves are shown, along with error sources in the two procedures. Finally, the impact of each spectral response curve on CERES data validation will be examined through analysis of filtered radiance values from various typical scene types.

Thornhill, K. Lee; Bitting, Herbert; Lee, Robert B., III; Paden, Jack; Pandey, Dhirendra K.; Priestley, Kory J.; Thomas, Susan; Wilson, Robert S.

1998-01-01

142

Characterization of biomass burning: Fourier transform infrared analysis of wood and vegetation combustion products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Fourier transform infrared examination of the combustion products of a selection of forest materials has been undertaken in order to guide future detection of biomass burning using satellite remote sensing. Combustion of conifer Pinus strobus (white pine) and deciduous Prunus serotina (cherry), Acer rubrum (red maple), Friglans nigra (walnut), Fraxinus americana (ash), Betula papyrifera (birch), Querus alba (white oak) and Querus rubra (red oak) lumber, in a Meeker burner flame at temperatures of 400 to 900 degrees Fahrenheit produces a broad and relatively flat signal with a few distinct peaks throughout the wavelength spectra (400 to 4000 cm-1). The distinct bands located near wavelengths of 400-700, 1500-1700, 2200-2400 and 3300-3600 cm-1 vary in intensity with an average difference between the highest and lowest absorbing species of 47 percent. Spectral band differences of 10 percent are within the range of modern satellite spectrometers, and support the argument that band differences can be used to discriminate between various types of vegetation. A similar examination of soot and smoke derived from the leaves and branches of the conifer Pinus strobus and deciduous Querus alba (white oak), Querus rubra (red oak), Liquidambar styraciflua (sweetgum), Acer rubrum (maple) and Tilea americana (American basswood) at combustion temperatures of 400 to 900 degrees Fahrenheit produce a similar broad spectrum with a shift in peak location occurring in peaks below the 1700 cm-1 wavelength. The new peaks occur near wavelengths of 1438-1444, 875 and 713 cm-1. This noted shift in wavelength location may be indicative of a fingerprint region for green woods distinguishable from lumber through characteristic biomass suites. Temperature variations during burning show that the spectra of low temperature smoldered aerosols, occurring near 400 to 450 degrees Fahrenheit, may be distinguished from higher temperature soot aerosols that occur above 600 degrees Fahrenheit. A heightened peak intensity of 50 percent is observed throughout the spectra of the lower temperature generated soot and smoke, with respect to the higher temperature generated soot and smoke. These observations suggest the possibility of establishing biomass reduction markers using a ratio method.

Padilla, Diomaris

143

Physical Characterization of human centromeric regions using transformation-associated recombination cloning technology  

SciTech Connect

A special interest in the organization of human centromeric DNA was stimulated a few years ago when two independent groups succeeded in reconstituting a functional human centromere, using constructs carrying centromere-specific alphoid DNA arrays. This work demonstrated the importance of DNA components in mammalian centromeres and opened a way for studying the structural requirements for de novo kinetochore formation and for construction of human artificial chromosomes (HACs) with therapeutic potential. To elucidate the structural requirements for formation of HACs with a functional kinetochore, we developed a new method for cloning of large DNA fragments for human centromeric regions that can be used as a substrate for HAC formation. This method exploits in vivo recombination in yeast (TAR cloning). In addition, a new strategy for the construction of alphoid DNA arrays was developed in our lab. The strategy involves the construction of uniform or hybrid synthetic alphoid DNA arrays by the RCA-TAR technique. This technique comprises two steps: rolling circle amplification of an alphoid DNA dimer and subsequent assembling of the amplified fragments by in vivo homologous recombination in yeast (Figure 1). Using this system, we constructed a set of different synthetic alphoid DNA arrays with a predetermined sequence varying in size from 30 to 140 kb and demonstrated that some of the arrays are competent in HAC formation. Because any nucleotide can be changed in a dimer before its amplification, this new technique is optimal for identifying the structural requirements for de novo kinetochore formation in HACs. Moreover, the technique makes possible to introduce into alphoid DNA arrays recognition sites for DNA-binding proteins. We have made the following progress on the studying of human centromeric regions using transformation-associated recombination cloning technology: i) minimal size of alphoid DNA array required for de novo kinetochore formation was estimated; ii) critical role of CENP-B binding site in do novo kinetochore formation was demonstrated; iii) role of gamma-satellite DNA in functional centromere was elucidated; iv) new generation of HAC with a conditional centromere was constructed for the study of epigenetic control of kinetochore function and for gene expression studies. These studies de novo kinetochore formation may thus provide both a fundamental knowledge and new points of intervention for therapy.

Vladimir Larionov, Ph D

2007-06-05

144

Characterization and optimization of electron detachment dissociation Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have demonstrated that electron detachment dissociation (EDD) can provide extensive oligonucleotide backbone fragmentation, complementary to that of other MS/MS techniques. In addition, we have shown that, for oligosaccharides, EDD provides additional cross-ring fragments compared to collision-activated dissociation and infrared multiphoton dissociation. In our EDD implementation, the potential difference between a hollow cathode electron source and an extraction lens located in between the cathode and the ion cyclotron resonance (ICR) cell was crucial for successful fragmentation with changes as small as 0.2 V drastically altering fragmentation efficiency, a behavior that was not fully understood. Here, we present a detailed characterization of the electron current passing through the ICR cell as a function of this potential difference, the cathode bias voltage, extraction lens voltage, and the cathode heating current under EDD conditions. Our results show that the extraction lens voltage serves to regulate the number of electrons passing through the ICR cell. Thus, similar electron numbers passing through the cell can be obtained at low (1.2 A) and high (1.8 A) heating current as well as at different cathode bias voltages by adjusting the extraction lens voltage. This characteristic allowed us to investigate the influence of electron energy at fixed electron number and we found that optimum EDD efficiency was obtained with 16-22 eV electrons. We also investigated the influence of charge state on oligonucleotide EDD efficiency and sequence coverage and found that higher charge states provided improved data for a DNA 10-mer, presumably due to a more extended gas-phase structure.

Yang, Jiong; Håkansson, Kristina

2008-10-01

145

Secondary organic aerosol (trans)formation through aqueous phase guaiacol photonitration: chemical characterization of the products  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

One of the largest primary sources of organic aerosol in the atmosphere is biomass burning (BB) (Laskin et al. 2009); in Europe its contribution to annual mean of PM10 is between 3 and 14 % (Maenhaut et al. 2012). During the process of wood burning many different products are formed via thermal degradation of wood lignin. Hardwood burning produces mainly syringol (2,6-dimetoxyphenol) derivatives, while softwood burning exclusively guaiacol (2-methoxyphenol) and its derivatives. Taking into account physical properties of methoxyphenols only, their concentrations in atmospheric waters might be underestimated. So, their aqueous phase reactions can be an additional source of SOA, especially in regions under significant influence of wood combustion. An important class of compounds formed during physical and chemical aging of the primary BBA in the atmosphere is nitrocatechols, known as strong absorbers of UV and Vis light (Claeys et al. 2012). Very recently, methyl-nitrocatechols were proposed as suitable markers for highly oxidized secondary BBA (Iinuma et al. 2010, Kitanovski et al. 2012). In the present work, the formation of SOA through aqueous phase photooxidation and nitration of guaiacol was examined. The key objective was to chemically characterize the main low-volatility products and further to check their possible presence in the urban atmospheric aerosols. The aqueous phase reactions were performed in a thermostated reactor under simulated sunlight in the presence of H2O2 and nitrite. Guaiacol reaction products were first concentrated by solid-phase extraction (SPE) and then subjected to semi-preparative liquid chromatography.The main product compounds were fractionated and isolated as pure solids and their structure was further elucidated by using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H, 13C and 2D NMR) and direct infusion negative ion electro-spray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (( )ESI-MS/MS). The main photonitration products of guaiacol (4-nitroguaiacol, 6-nitroguaiacol and 4,6-dinitroguaiacol) were examined for their presence in winter aerosol samples by using an optimized HPLC-(-)ESI-MS/MS. 4-nitroguaiacol and 4,6-dinitroguaiacol were unambiguously identified in winter PM10 from Ljubljana, Slovenia, whereas the absence of 6-nitroguaiacol was further explained with the help of long-term reaction monitoring. To our knowledge, our study represents the first report on the identification of 4,6-dinitroguaiacol in ambient aerosols. Laskin, A. et al. (2009) Environ. Sci. Technol. 43, 3764-3771. Maenhaut, W. et al. (2012) Sci. Tot. Environ. 437, 226-236. Claeys, M. et al. (2012) Environ. Chem. 9, 273-284. Iinuma, Y. et al. (2010) Environ. Sci. Technol. 44, 8453-8459. Kitanovski, Z. et al. (2012)J. Chromatogr. A 1268, 35-43.

Grgi?, Irena; Kitanovski, Zoran; Krofli?, Ana; ?usak, Alen

2014-05-01

146

Characterization of vegetable oils: detailed compositional fingerprints derived from electrospray ionization fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Adulteration of vegetable oil is of concern for both commercial and health reasons. Compositional based fingerprints can potentially reveal both the oil source and its possible adulteration. Here, electrospray ionization (ESI) Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) resolves and identifies literally thousands of distinct chemical components of commercial canola, olive, and soybean oils, without extraction or other wet chemical separation pretreatment. In negative-ion ESI FT-ICR MS, the acidic components of soybean oil are easily distinguished from those of canola and olive oil based on relative abundances of C(18) fatty acids, whereas olive oil differs from canola and soybean oil based on relative abundances of tocopherols. In positive-ion ESI FT-ICR MS, the three oils are readily distinguished according to the relative abundances of di- and triacylglycerols with various numbers of double bonds in the fatty acid chains. We demonstrate the detection of soybean oil as an adulterant of olive oil, based on relative abundances of members of each of several chemical families. We suggest that the detailed chemical compositions of vegetable oils can be used to characterize them and to detect and identify adulterants. PMID:15315364

Wu, Zhigang; Rodgers, Ryan P; Marshall, Alan G

2004-08-25

147

Athermal compensation of the stress-induced surface deflection of optical coatings using iso-admittance layers.  

PubMed

Mechanical stress in optical thin films can induce surface deflection of optical coatings. In the case of a substrate coated on both sides, a method is proposed which can provide perfect cancellation of this deflection, independently of the deposition process or any other external parameter, such as the temperature sensitivity of the mechanical stress. It is straightforward to implement this method, based on iso-admittance layers, since the thickness of such layers can be used to freely compensate for deflection effects only, without having any influence on the film's optical properties. This method is illustrated by two possible solutions for the design problem B from the Optical Interference Coatings (OIC) 2013 meeting. PMID:24514220

Lemarquis, Frédéric

2014-02-01

148

Novel MoO2/carbon hierarchical nano/microcomposites: synthesis, characterization, solid state transformations and thiophene HDS activity.  

PubMed

Novel MoO(2)/C nano/microcomposites were prepared via a bottom-up approach by hydrothermal carbonization of a solution of glucose as a carbon precursor in the presence of polyoxometalates (POMs: phosphomolybdic acid [H(3)PMo(12)O(40)] and ammonium heptamolybdate tetrahydrate [(NH(4))(6)Mo(7)O(24)]·4H(2)O). The structural characterization by FT-IR, XRPD, SEM and TEM analyses revealed the controlled formation of hierarchical MoO(2)/C composites with different morphologies: strawberry-like, based on carbon microspheres decorated with MoO(2) nanoparticles; MoO(2)/C core-shell composites; and irregular aggregates in combination with ring-like microstructures bearing amorphous Mo species. These composites can be fine-tuned by varying reaction time, glucose/POM ratio and type of POM precursor. Subsequent transformations in the solid state through calcinations of MoO(2)/C core-shell composites in air lead to hollow nanostructured molybdenum trioxide microspheres together with nanorods and plate microcrystals or cauliflower-like composites (MoO(2)/C). In addition, the MoO(2)/C composite undergoes a morphology evolution to urchin-like composites when it is calcined under nitrogen atmosphere (MoO(2)/C-N(2)). The MoO(2)/C strawberry-like and MoO(2)/C-N(2) composites were transformed into Mo carbide and nitride supported on carbon microspheres (Mo(2)C/C, MoN/C, and MoN/C-N(2)). These phases were tested as precursors in thiophene hydrodesulphurization (HDS) at 400 °C, observing the following trend in relation to the thiophene steady-state conversion: MoN/C-N(2) > MoN/C > Mo(2)C/C > MoO(2)/C-N(2) > MoO(2)/C. According to these conversion values, a direct correlation was observed between higher HDS activity and decreasing crystal size as estimated from the Scherrer equation. These results suggest that such composites represent interesting and promising precursors for HDS catalysts, where the activity and stability can be modified either by chemical or structural changes of the composites under different conditions. PMID:23243664

Avendaño, Carlos; Briceño, Alexander; Méndez, Franklin J; Brito, Joaquín L; González, Gema; Cañizales, Edgar; Atencio, Reinaldo; Dieudonné, Philippe

2013-02-28

149

A Paraneoplastic Syndrome Characterized by Extremity Swelling with Associated Inflammatory Infiltrate Heralds Aggressive Transformation of Myelodysplastic Syndromes/Myeloproliferative Neoplasms to Acute Myeloid Leukemia: A Case Series  

PubMed Central

There has been a long history of reports describing a variety of paraneoplastic phenomena associated with myelodysplastic syndromes, particularly those with autoimmune manifestations. We report here a series of patients with an antecedent myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) or myeloproliferative neoplasm (MPN) that underwent aggressive transformation to acute myeloid leukemia (AML). In each case, the transformation to AML was preceded by an inflammatory syndrome characterized by unilateral extremity swelling and an associated inflammatory skin infiltrate, as well as other signs of inflammation, including profound hyperferritinemia without evidence of a hemophagocytic syndrome. We suggest that such an inflammatory syndrome may herald aggressive transformation of MDS/MPN to AML. Patients with known MDS/MPN who present with these features may benefit from early bone marrow examination to assess disease status. Early intervention with corticosteroids in select patients may result in improvement or resolution of the symptoms and permit intensive therapy for AML to be delivered. PMID:22928125

Mangan, James K.; Luger, Selina M.

2012-01-01

150

IMAGINED TRANSFORMATIONS 1 Running head: IMAGINED TRANSFORMATION OF BODIES  

E-print Network

IMAGINED TRANSFORMATIONS 1 Running head: IMAGINED TRANSFORMATION OF BODIES Imagined Transformations TRANSFORMATIONS 2 Abstract A number of spatial reasoning problems can be solved by performing an imagined transformation of one's egocentric perspective. A series of experiments were carried out to characterize

Zacks, Jeffrey M.

151

Generalized indirect Fourier transformation as a valuable tool for the structural characterization of aqueous nanocrystalline cellulose suspensions by small angle X-ray scattering.  

PubMed

Small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) is employed to characterize the inner structure and shape of aqueous nanocrystalline cellulose suspensions using the generalized indirect Fourier transformation (GIFT). The use of the GIFT approach provides a single fitting procedure for the determination of intra- and interparticle interactions due to a simultaneous treatment of the form factor P(q) and the structure factor S(q). Moreover, GIFT allows for the determination of particle charges and polydispersity indices. As test material, aqueous nanocrystalline cellulose suspensions (aNCS) prepared by the H2SO4 route have been investigated and characterized (SAXS, dynamic light scattering, zeta potential). PMID:23428094

Ehmann, Heike M A; Spirk, Stefan; Doliška, Aleš; Mohan, Tamilselvan; Gössler, Walter; Ribitsch, Volker; Sfiligoj-Smole, Majda; Stana-Kleinschek, Karin

2013-03-19

152

Propagation and radiation of sound from flanged circular ducts with circumferentially varying wall admittances. I Semi-infinite ducts. II - Finite ducts with sources  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Sound propagation in infinite, semiinfinite, and finite circular ducts with circumferentially varying wall admittances is investigated analytically. The infinite case is considered, and an example demonstrates the effects of wall-admittance distribution on dispersion characteristics and mode shapes. An exact solution is obtained for the semiinfinite case, a circular duct with a flanged opening: sidelobe suppression and circumferential-mode energy scattering leading to radiated-field asymmetry are found. A finite duct system with specified hard-walled pressure sources is examined in detail, evaluating reflection coefficients, transmission losses, and radiated-field directivity. Graphs and diagrams are provided, and the implications of the results obtained for the design of aircraft-turbofan inlet liners are discussed.

Fuller, C. R.

1984-01-01

153

Identification and characterization of salmonella serotypes using DNA spectral characteristics by fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Analysis of DNA samples of Salmonella serotypes (Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Infantis, Salmonella Heidelberg and Salmonella Kentucky) were performed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) spectrometer by placing directly in contact with a diamond attenua...

154

Characterization of Atomic Structure, Relaxation and Phase Transformation Mechanisms in Bulk and Thin Film Amorphous Chalcogenides and Gallium Antimonide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This dissertation details the characterization of the atomic structure, relaxation processes and phase transformation mechanisms in a variety of chalcogenide (selenides and tellurides) and other non-oxide (Ga-Sb alloys) glasses which are highly relevant to optoelectronic and phase change memory applications. One of the principal goals of these studies is to develop a fundamental, atomistic understanding of the structure-property relationships in these materials. Variable temperature Raman spectroscopy is used to the study the structure and its temperature dependent relaxation in GexSe100-x glasses and supercooled liquids with x ? 33.33 %. It is shown that the compositional dependence of the relative fractions of the edge- and corner-shared GeSe4 tetrahedra is fully consistent with a structural model based on random connectivity between the tetrahedral and chain elements. Temperature-dependent structural changes involve a progressive conversion of edge-shared to corner shared GeSe4 tetrahedra with decreasing equilibration temperature. The time scale of this structural conversion agrees with both enthalpy and shear relaxation near the glass transition. The temperature dependent change in the edge- vs. corner- sharing tetrahedral speciation is shown to be related to the production of configurational entropy, indicating a connection between structural relaxation, configurational entropy, and viscous flow. A combination of Raman and 77Se nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is applied to study the structure of a series of Se-deficient GexSe100-x glasses, with 42 ? x ? 33.33. Considerable violation of chemical order in the nearest-neighbor coordination environments of the constituent atoms is observed in the stoichiometric GeSe2 glass. On the other hand, the presence of a random distribution of Ge-Ge bonds can be inferred in the Se-deficient glasses. Furthermore, the results of this study conclusively indicate that the structure of these glasses is intermediate between a randomly connected and a fully clustered network of GeSe4 tetrahedra and Se chains. Additionally, a new two-dimensional NMR spectroscopic technique is developed and applied to Ge-Se glasses that allowed the separation of isotropic and anisotropic chemical shifts. Through the analysis of the anisotropic sideband pattern in the second dimension it is possible to detect up to four distinct types of Se environments in the glass structure on the basis of their characteristic chemical shift anisotropies. 125Te NMR chemical shift systematics is established for coordination environments of Te atoms in a wide range of crystalline and glassy tellurides in the Ga-As-Sb-Te system. 125Te NMR spectroscopy is then used to investigate the short-range structure of amorphous and crystalline Ge1Sb2 Te4 and Ge2Sb2Te5 phase change alloys. Both alloys are found to consist of only heteropolar Ge/Sb-Te bonds in the amorphous and crystalline state and strong vacancy clustering in the nanocrystalline state that may facilitate a rapid displacive transformation between the amorphous and crystalline states without the need of significant atomic rearrangement or diffusion. Based on these 125Te NMR results a Te-centric model of the phase change mechanism in GST alloys is proposed. Structure and phase changes in amorphous Ga-Sb alloys are studied using synchrotron x-ray diffraction and 71Ga and 121Sb NMR spectroscopy. Pressure induced phase transformations in amorphous GaSb is shown to be consistent with the existence of an underlying polyamorphic phase transition between a low and a high-density amorphous phase. NMR results for amorphous Ga46Sb54 indicate that both Ga and Sb atoms are fourfold coordinated with 40% of these atoms participating in homopolar bonding in the as-deposited film. Subsequent crystallization into the zinc blend structure therefore requires extensive bond switching and elimination of homopolar bonds. For amorphous Ga14Sb86 both Ga and Sb atoms are found to be threefold coordinated allowing for a fast phase change kinetics although crystallization of thi

Edwards, Trenton Gerard

155

Transformational Learners: Transformational Teachers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Transformational learning, according to Mezirow (1981), involves transforming taken-for-granted frames of reference into more discriminating, flexible "habits of mind". In teacher education, transformative learning impacts on the development of students' action theories, self-efficacy and professional attributes. Although considered imperative to…

Jones, Marguerite

2009-01-01

156

The Transformations of Transformations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Harris's original idea of transformations has been changed several times in Chomsky's work. This article explicates these transformations, arguing that though their motivations are highly understandable, these transformations are not necessary for understanding the workings of natural languages. (Author/VWL)

Lin, Francis Y.

2000-01-01

157

Characterization of human vascular smooth muscle cells transformed by the early genetic region of SV40 virus.  

PubMed Central

Human arterial smooth muscle cells transfected with the plasmid pSV3-neo, which contains the SV40 virus early region and the neor gene, developed colonies of morphologically transformed cells. Five cell strains were initiated from these colonies and could be subcultivated for up to 9 months before entering a stage of crisis that ended their life span. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecules containing viral sequences were found free and integrated in the transformed cells. The intranuclear SV40 large T antigen and the p53 cellular protein were expressed in the transformed cells. Most of the transformed cells were spindle shaped but some were large and multinucleated. The modal chromosome numbers were in the triploid range, and aberrations, particularly dicentrics, were common. The transcripts for smooth muscle actins were significantly reduced and there were less alpha-actin filaments detected by immunofluorescence. Cytochemical staining disclosed a large accumulation of lipid droplets in the transformed cells incubated with rabbit hypercholesterolemic beta-very-low-density lipoprotein. Chemical analysis showed that cholesteryl esters were significantly elevated in these cells. Phenotypic changes induced in human vascular smooth muscle cells by SV40 early genes are similar to those found in smooth muscle cells from atherosclerotic lesions and may indicate common pathogenetic mechanisms. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:1653520

Legrand, A.; Greenspan, P.; Nagpal, M. L.; Nachtigal, S. A.; Nachtigal, M.

1991-01-01

158

Morphometric and biochemical characterization of red beet (Beta vulgaris L.) hairy roots obtained after single and double transformations.  

PubMed

It is known that T-DNA of Agrobacterium rhizogenes affects processes of plant development and activates the synthesis of secondary metabolites in transformed plant cells. In the present investigation, we provide evidence that different strains of A. rhizogenes significantly affect morphometric, morphological and functional characteristics of hairy roots of red beet (Beta vulgaris L.). Infection with four strains of A. rhizogenes (A4, A 2/83, A 20/83 and LMG-150) resulted in ten clones of hairy roots, which were named accordingly as A4(1), A4(2), A4(3), A 2/83(1), A 2/83(2), A 2/83(3), A 20/83(1), A 20/83(2), A 20/83(3) and LMG-150. Their growth characteristics, pigment content, levels of endogenous auxin and T-DNA copy number showed significant differences probably due to the physiological status of the host cell rather than the T-DNA copy number. Although A 2/83 showed highest hairy root induction capacity, the best hairy root clone was obtained with strain LMG-150 that produced highest biomass and pigments. In this root clone, the enzyme peroxidase was found involved in altering the endogenous auxin pool. When root clone LMG-150 was re-transformed to insert additional individual rol genes, two double transformed clones were obtained, one for rolABC and the other for rolC gene where the former produced higher biomass and betalaine than the latter. Despite the established fact that rol genes of T-DNA influence endogenous phytohormones, no direct correlation among the single transformants and the double transformants was found. This is the first report, in our knowledge, where a hairy root clone has been used to obtain double transformants. PMID:18327591

Thimmaraju, R; Venkatachalam, L; Bhagyalakshmi, N

2008-06-01

159

Characterization of nanoscale transformations in polyelectrolyte multilayers fabricated from plasmid DNA using laser scanning confocal microscopy in combination with atomic force microscopy.  

PubMed

Laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used to characterize changes in nanoscale structure that occur when ultrathin polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEMs) are incubated in aqueous media. The PEMs investigated here were fabricated by the deposition of alternating layers of plasmid DNA and a hydrolytically degradable polyamine onto a precursor film composed of alternating layers of linear poly(ethylene imine) (LPEI) and sodium poly(styrene sulfonate) (SPS). Past studies of these materials in the context of gene delivery revealed transformations from a morphology that is smooth and uniform to one characterized by the formation of nanometer-scale particulate structures. We demonstrate that in-plane registration of LSCM and AFM images acquired from the same locations of films fabricated using fluorescently labeled polyelectrolytes allows the spatial distribution of individual polyelectrolyte species to be determined relative to the locations of topographic features that form during this transformation. Our results suggest that this physical transformation leads to a morphology consisting of a relatively less disturbed portion of film composed of polyamine and DNA juxtaposed over an array of particulate structures composed predominantly of LPEI and SPS. Characterization by scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis provides additional support for this interpretation. The combination of these different microscopy techniques provides insight into the structures and dynamics of these multicomponent thin films that cannot be achieved using any one method alone, and could prove useful for the further development of these assemblies as platforms for the surface-mediated delivery of DNA. PMID:20155860

Fredin, Nathaniel J; Flessner, Ryan M; Jewell, Christopher M; Bechler, Shane L; Buck, Maren E; Lynn, David M

2010-09-01

160

Characterization of Nanoscale Transformations in Polyelectrolyte Multilayers Fabricated from Plasmid DNA Using Laser Scanning Confocal Microscopy in Combination with Atomic Force Microscopy  

PubMed Central

Laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were used to characterize changes in nanoscale structure that occur when ultrathin polyelectrolyte multilayers (PEMs) are incubated in aqueous media. The PEMs investigated here were fabricated by the deposition of alternating layers of plasmid DNA and a hydrolytically degradable polyamine onto a precursor film composed of alternating layers of linear poly(ethylene imine) (LPEI) and sodium poly(styrene sulfonate) (SPS). Past studies of these materials in the context of gene delivery revealed transformations from a morphology that is smooth and uniform to one characterized by the formation of nanometer-scale particulate structures. We demonstrate that in-plane registration of LSCM and AFM images acquired from the same locations of films fabricated using fluorescently labeled polyelectrolytes allows the spatial distribution of individual polyelectrolyte species to be determined relative to the locations of topographic features that form during this transformation. Our results suggest that this physical transformation leads to a morphology consisting of a relatively less disturbed portion of film composed of polyamine and DNA juxtaposed over an array of particulate structures composed predominantly of LPEI and SPS. Characterization by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) microanalysis provides additional support for this interpretation. The combination of these different microscopy techniques provides insight into the structures and dynamics of these multicomponent thin films that cannot be achieved using any one method alone, and that could prove useful for the further development of these assemblies as platforms for the surface-mediated delivery of DNA. PMID:20155860

Fredin, Nathaniel J.; Flessner, Ryan M.; Jewell, Christopher M.; Bechler, Shane L.; Buck, Maren E.; Lynn, David M.

2010-01-01

161

Selection and characterization of a new switchgrass ( Panicum virgatum L.) line with high somatic embryogenic capacity for genetic transformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is used horticulturally as an ornamental and agronomically as an animal feedstock and a putative bio-energy crop. Genetic transformation, using somatic embryogenic (SE) callus derived from mature seeds, is one strategy for improving switchgrass traits. A superior switchgrass line, HR8, was developed in this study using recurrent tissue culture selection from cv. Alamo. Eighty two percent

Bin Xu; Linkai Huang; Zhengxing Shen; Gregory E. Welbaum; Xunzhong Zhang; Bingyu Zhao

2011-01-01

162

Coaxial current transformer for test and characterization of high-power semiconductor devices under hard and soft switching  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of a coaxial current transformer (CCT) is an interesting choice for pulsed measurement of current through power devices during switching transients. The CCT is used to reflect current for convenient external measurement with minimal insertion impedance in the critical power circuit. This paper analyzes the characteristics of the CCT and explains how it can be integrated into test

Renato O. C. Lyra; Braz J. Cardoso Filho; Vinod John; Thomas A. Lipo

2000-01-01

163

Functional biocompatible magnetite-cellulose nanocomposite fibrous networks: Characterization by fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction and field emission scanning electron microscopy analysis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The preparation and characterization of functional biocompatible magnetite-cellulose nano-composite fibrous material is described. Magnetite-cellulose nano-composite was prepared by a combination of the solution-based formation of magnetic nano-particles and subsequent coating with amino celluloses. Characterization was accomplished using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) analysis. The peaks of Fe3O4 in the XRD pattern of nanocomposite confirm existence of the nanoparticles in the amino cellulose matrix. Magnetite-cellulose particles exhibit an average diameter of roughly 33 nm as demonstrated by field emission scanning electron microscopy. Magnetite nanoparticles were irregular spheres dispersed in the cellulose matrix. The vibration corresponding to the Nsbnd CH3 functional group about 2850 cm-1 is assigned in the FTIR spectra. Functionalized magnetite-cellulose nano-composite polymers have a potential range of application as targeted drug delivery system in biomedical field.

Habibi, Neda

2015-02-01

164

Functional biocompatible magnetite-cellulose nanocomposite fibrous networks: Characterization by fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction and field emission scanning electron microscopy analysis.  

PubMed

The preparation and characterization of functional biocompatible magnetite-cellulose nano-composite fibrous material is described. Magnetite-cellulose nano-composite was prepared by a combination of the solution-based formation of magnetic nano-particles and subsequent coating with amino celluloses. Characterization was accomplished using X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) analysis. The peaks of Fe3O4 in the XRD pattern of nanocomposite confirm existence of the nanoparticles in the amino cellulose matrix. Magnetite-cellulose particles exhibit an average diameter of roughly 33nm as demonstrated by field emission scanning electron microscopy. Magnetite nanoparticles were irregular spheres dispersed in the cellulose matrix. The vibration corresponding to the NCH3 functional group about 2850cm(-1) is assigned in the FTIR spectra. Functionalized magnetite-cellulose nano-composite polymers have a potential range of application as targeted drug delivery system in biomedical field. PMID:25459705

Habibi, Neda

2014-10-22

165

Characterization of solid phases and study of transformation kinetics in m-chlorofluorobenzene by 35Cl nuclear quadrupole resonance.  

PubMed

Polymorphism is of widespread occurrence in the world of molecular crystals. In this work we present experimental results showing the existence of four solid phases in m-chlorofluorobenzene. A glass structure is achieved by quenching the liquid phase at 77 K. This glassy state crystallizes in a disordered phase at T~143 K, which in turn transforms to the high-temperature stable phase (phase I) at T~153 K. Depending on the thermal history of the sample, a different ordered phase (phase III) can be obtained. The disorder is attributed to a molecular orientational disorder. There is no evidence of molecular reorientation in any phase. A study of the disorder-order phase transformation kinetics, using nuclear quadrupole resonance, is presented. The results are analyzed following Cahn's theory. Nucleation seems to take place at grain boundaries. Growth rates for different temperatures have been determined. PMID:22209621

Pérez, Silvina; Wolfenson, Alberto

2012-02-01

166

Genetic transformation, recovery, and characterization of fertile soybean transgenic for a synthetic Bacillus thuringiensis cryIAc gene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Somatic embryos of Jack, a Glycine max (1.) Merrill cultivar, were transformed using microprojectile bombardment with a syn- thetic Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal crystal protein gene (Bt crylAc) driven by the 35s promoter and linked to the HPH gene. Approximately 10 g of tissue was bombarded, and three transgenic lines were selected on hygromycin-containing media and converted into plants. The recovered

C. Neal Stewart; Michael J. Adang; H. Roger Boerma; Cuy Cardineau; Donna Tucker; Wayne A. Parrott

1996-01-01

167

Influence of triacylglycerol characterics on the determination of free fatty acids in vegetable oils by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

A rapid and direct Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic method using a 25-?m NaCl transmission cell was developed\\u000a for the determination of free fatty acids (FFA) in six important vegetable oils (corn, soybean, sunflower, palm, palm kernel,\\u000a and coconut oils) that differ in fatty acid profile. The calibrations were established by adding either standard FFA (oleic,\\u000a lauric acids) or a

T. Verleyen; R. Verhe; A. Cano; A. Huyghebaert; W. De Greyt

2001-01-01

168

Characterization of Delhi iron pillar rust by X-ray diÄraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Mossbauer spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Rust samples obtained from the region just below the decorative bell capital of the Delhi iron pillar (DIP) have been analyzed by X-ray diÄraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Mossbauer spectroscopy. The identification of iron hydrogen phosphate hydrate in the crystalline form by XRD was unambiguous. Very weak diÄraction from the oxyhydroxides\\/oxides of iron was observed indicating that

R. Balasubramaniam; A. V. Ramesh Kumar

169

Characterization of metoprolol biodegradation and its transformation products generated in activated sludge batch experiments and in full scale WWTPs.  

PubMed

Metoprolol (MTP) is a compound of concern, considered as an emerging contaminant due to its high consumption, pseudopersistence and potential ecotoxicity. Activated sludge batch experiments were performed to evaluate the biological transformation of MTP and the formation of transformation products under different treatment conditions. Total MTP removal was obtained in aerobic conditions, and the formation of MTP known metabolites (metoprolol acid (MTPA), ?-hydroxymetoprolol (?-HMTP) and O-desmethylmetoprolol (O-DMTP)) and unknown transformation products (TPs) was investigated. The three known metabolites and two new TPs generated along the experiments were identified by liquid chromatography coupled to high resolution mass spectrometry. For the two new TPs plausible structures were proposed based on the tentative identification. MTPA had the major ratio formation for the TPs identified along the experiments (up to 40% of initial MTP concentration after 96 h treatment) and its persistence through biological treatment was proven. Ecotoxicity studies using Vibrio fischeri bioluminescent bacteria in an acute toxicity test showed that MTP and its known TPs are not toxic with the exception of o-DMTP. Finally, MTP and its TPs were monitored in a full scale membrane bioreactor and in a full scale conventional urban wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and the results were compared with those obtained in batch experiments. ?-HMTP was detected for the first time in a WWTP influent whereas MTPA was detected in influent and effluent WWTP samples at much higher levels (up to 100 folds higher) than MTP itself remarking its high persistence. PMID:24973729

Rubirola, A; Llorca, M; Rodriguez-Mozaz, S; Casas, N; Rodriguez-Roda, I; Barceló, D; Buttiglieri, G

2014-10-15

170

Study of electric characteristics and diffusion effects of 2-methyl-9,10-di(2-naphthyl)anthracene doped with cesium fluoride by admittance spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, the admittance spectroscopy studies show that doping cesium fluoride (CsF) into 2-methyl-9,10-di(2-naphthyl)anthracene (MADN) can greatly decrease the resistance of MADN and raises the Fermi level from deep level to only 0.1 eV below the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital, resulting in enhancing the electron injection. In addition, the diffusion width of CsF from doped MADN layer into tris(8-quinolinolato)aluminium is clearly observed by capacitance-frequency measurement and is about 9.4 nm. Moreover, the diffusion width is significant to be affected by external thermal.

Hsieh, Ming-Ta; Ho, Meng-Huan; Lin, Kuan-Heng; Chen, Jenn-Fang; Chen, Teng-Ming; Chen, Chin H.

2010-03-01

171

Étude par spectroscopie d'admittance et MEB de la dégradation électrique des couches minces de CuAlS{2} non dopé déposées sous vide  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have accelerated the ageing of CuAlS2 by the application of a static electrical field for different degradation times. We have investigated the admittance spectroscopy and the scanning electron microscopy to follow and understand the (mass-charge) coupled transport processes produced in the volume and on the surface of these films. The electrical constraint induces, after an incubation phase, an activated decrease of the resistance, followed by a susbstantial increase correlated to the formation of an open circuit. This degradation occurs more rapidly for the films having initially a lower resistance, due to the thermal dissipation which increases considerably the temperature to about 140 °C. Admittance spectra reveal, at low frequencies, a capacitive loop related to the formation of a charge space induced by copper diffusion. Such migration develop induces the formation of copper arborescences, spreading from the cathode towards the anode. The effect of these structures on the properties of the degraded films is discussed in relation to electromigration and associated processes (whiskers, fracture, healing, bridge-building, ...). Also, we have noticed their similarity with fractal phenomena such as electrodeposition and dielectric breakdown. Nous avons accéléré le vieillissement des couches minces de CuAlS2 par l'application d'un champ électrique statique pendant des durées variables. Nous avons fait appel à la spectroscopie d'admittance et la microscopie électronique à balayage, pour suivre et comprendre les processus de transport couplé (masse- charge) qui se produisent en volume et en surface de ces couches. L'effet de la contrainte électrique s'est traduit, après une phase d'incubation, par une décroissance activée de la résistance, suivie d'une phase d'emballement reliée à la formation d'un circuit ouvert. Cette fracturation se manifeste plus rapidement pour les couches ayant initialement une faible résistance, suite à l'effet de la dissipation thermique qui peut augmenter notablement leur température (140 °C). Les spectres d'admittance révèlent, vers les basses fréquences, une boucle capacitive reliée à la formation d'une charge d'espace induite par la diffusion du cuivre. Une telle migration développe, sur la surface depuis la cathode, des arborescences de cuivre orientées vers l'anode. L'effet de ces structures sur les propriétés des couches dégradées a été discuté en mettant en cause le phénomène d'électromigration et ses mécanismes associés (whiskers, fracture, “healing", pontage, ...). De même, nous avons noté leur similarité avec des phénomènes fractals tels que l'électrodéposition ou le claquage diélectrique.

Helali, N.; Bouricha, B.; Rezig, B.

1998-07-01

172

Resin characterization in cured graphite fiber reinforced composites using diffuse reflectance-FTIR. [Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The feasibility of using diffuse reflectance in combination with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to obtain information on cured graphite fiber reinforced polymeric matrix resin composites was investigated. Several graphite/epoxy, polysulfone, and polyimide composites exposed to thermal or radiation environments were examined. An experimental polyimide-sulfone adhesive tape was also studied during processing. In each case, significant changes in resin molecular structure was observed due to environmental exposure. These changes in molecular structure were correlated with previously observed changes in material properties providing new insights into material behavior.

Young, P. R.; Stein, B. A.; Chang, A. C.

1983-01-01

173

Electrical characterization of blue AlGaN\\/InGaN\\/GaN LEDs  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report results of electrical characterization studies of Nichia NLPB500 blue LEDs. The devices incorporate an AlGaN:Mg\\/InGaN:Si:Zn\\/GaN:Si double heterostructure and were subject to high-current stress for short periods of time. The electrical characterization included IV, CV, DLTS and admittance spectroscopy. DC IV measurements showed large reverse leakage currents and diode ideality factors around n=5 at room temperature

L. Lee; M. Osinski; K. J. Malloy

1994-01-01

174

[The characterization by Fourier-transform infrared vibration spectroscopy of mineral-based biomaterials commonly used in dentistry. 4].  

PubMed

In this study the following biomaterials were analysed by means of Fourier transform infrared vibrational spectroscopy (FTIR); they are: reabsorbable Dac Blu, non reabsorbable Dac Blu, non reabsorbable atomized Dac Blu, non reabsorbable fine Dac Blu, reabsorbable Biocoral 450, Calcitite 2040-12, Orthogel, Apagen, BTF 65, Calcitite 4060-2 Osprogel, Bio-Oss, Biostite, Osprovit, Merck Hydroxyapatite. The analysis was performed with a Jasco 5300-FTIR. At 64 readings for spectrum with a 2 cm-1 resolution. By means of this method it has been possible to perform a structural study at a molecular level of the commercial products mentioned before. The analysis showed which of the samples examined had lost the apatite OH- group during production. It also allowed the identification of some of the hydroxyapatites examined as carbonate apatites. Finally, it allowed the identification and quantification of the organic substances in the examined products. PMID:7783710

Bottura, G; Mongiorgi, R; Valdrè, G; Prati, C; Corvo, G; Itro, A; Paroli, R

1995-01-01

175

Experimental geometry for simultaneous beam characterization and sample imaging allowing for pink beam Fourier transform holography or coherent diffractive imaging  

SciTech Connect

One consequence of the self-amplified stimulated emission process used to generate x rays in free electron lasers (FELs) is the intrinsic shot-to-shot variance in the wavelength and temporal coherence. In order to optimize the results from diffractive imaging experiments at FEL sources, it will be advantageous to acquire a means of collecting coherence and spectral information simultaneously with the diffraction pattern from the sample we wish to study. We present a holographic mask geometry, including a grating structure, which can be used to extract both temporal and spatial coherence information alongside the sample scatter from each individual FEL shot and also allows for the real space reconstruction of the sample using either Fourier transform holography or iterative phase retrieval.

Flewett, Samuel; Eisebitt, Stefan

2011-02-20

176

Characterizing a large shear-zone with seismic and magnetotelluric methods: The case of the Dead Sea Transform  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Seismic tomography, imaging of seismic scatterers, and magnetotelluric soundings reveal a sharp lithologic contrast along a ???10 km long segment of the Arava Fault (AF), a prominent fault of the southern Dead Sea Transform (DST) in the Middle East. Low seismic velocities and resistivities occur on its western side and higher values east of it, and the boundary between the two units coincides partly with a seismic scattering image. At 1-4 km depth the boundary is offset to the east of the AF surface trace, suggesting that at least two fault strands exist, and that slip occurred on multiple strands throughout the margin's history. A westward fault jump, possibly associated with straightening of a fault bend, explains both our observations and the narrow fault zone observed by others. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.

Maercklin, N.; Bedrosian, P.A.; Haberland, C.; Ritter, O.; Ryberg, T.; Weber, M.; Weckmann, U.

2005-01-01

177

Characterization of the surfaces of platinum/tin oxide based catalysts by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A Pt/SnO2 catalyst has been developed at NASA Langley that is effective for the oxidation of CO at room temperature (1). A mechanism has been proposed to explain the effectiveness of this catalyst (2), but most of the species involved in this mechanism have not been observed under actual catalytic conditions. A number of these species are potentially detectable by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), e.g., HOSnO sub x, HO sub y PtO sub z, Pt-CO, and SnHCO3. Therefore a preliminary investigation was conducted to determine what might be learned about this particular catalyst by transmission FTIR. The main advantage of FTIR for this work is that the catalyst can be examined under conditions similar to the actual catalytic conditions. This can be of critical importance since some surface species may exist only when the reaction gases are present. Another advantage of the infrared approach is that since vibrations are probed, subtle chemical details may be obtained. The main disadvantage of this approach is that FTIR is not nearly as sensitive as the Ultra High Vacuum (UHV) surface analytical techniques such as Auger, Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis (ESCA), Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy (EELS), etc. Another problem is that the assignment of the observed infrared bands may be difficult.

Keiser, Joseph T.; Upchurch, Billy T.

1990-01-01

178

Biochemical characterization of the Drosophila dpp protein, a member of the transforming growth factor beta family of growth factors.  

PubMed Central

The decapentaplegic (dpp) gene of Drosophila melanogaster is required for pattern formation in the embryo and for viability of the epithelial cells in the imaginal disks. The dpp protein product predicted from the DNA sequence is similar to members of a family of growth factors that includes transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta). We have produced polyclonal antibodies to a recombinant dpp protein made in bacteria and used a metallothionein promoter to express a dpp cDNA in Drosophila S2 cells. Similar to other proteins in the TGF-beta family, the dpp protein produced by the Drosophila cells was proteolytically cleaved, and both portions of the protein were secreted from the cells. The amino-terminal 47-kilodalton (kDa) peptide was found in the medium and in the proteins adhering to the plastic petri dish. The carboxy-terminal peptide, the region with sequence similarity to the active ligand portion of TGF-beta, was found extracellularly as a 30-kDa homodimer. Most of the 30-kDa homodimer was in the S2 cell protein adsorbed onto the surface of the plastic dish. The dpp protein could be released into solution by increased salt concentration and nonionic detergent. Under these conditions, the amino-terminal and carboxy-terminal portions of dpp were not associated in a stable complex. Images PMID:1692958

Panganiban, G E; Rashka, K E; Neitzel, M D; Hoffmann, F M

1990-01-01

179

Weathering trend characterization of medium-molecular weight polycyclic aromatic disulfur heterocycles by Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Different weathering factors act to change petroleum composition once it is spilled into the environment. n-Alkanes, biomarkers, low-molecular weight polyaromatic hydrocarbons and sulfur heterocycles compositional changing in the environment have been extensively studied by different researchers and many parameters have been used for oil source identification and monitoring of weathering and biological degradation processes. In this work, we studied the fate of medium-molecular weight polycyclic aromatic disulfur heterocycles (PAS2Hs), up to ca. 900Da, of artificially weathered Flotta North Sea crude oil by ultra high-resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. It was found that PAS2Hs in studied crude oil having double bond equivalents (DBE) from 5 to 8 with a mass range from ca 316 to 582Da were less influenced even after six months artificial weathering experiment. However, compounds having DBEs 12, 11 and 10 were depleted after two, four and six months weathering, respectively. In addition, DBE 9 series was more susceptible to weathering than those of DBE 7 and 8. PMID:24997927

Hegazi, Abdelrahman H; Fathalla, Eiman M; Andersson, Jan T

2014-09-01

180

Characterization of Growth-Differentiation Factor 15, a Transforming Growth Factor ? Superfamily Member Induced following Liver Injury  

PubMed Central

We have identified a new murine transforming growth factor ? superfamily member, growth-differentiation factor 15 (Gdf15), that is expressed at highest levels in adult liver. As determined by Northern analysis, the expression of Gdf15 in liver was rapidly and dramatically up-regulated following various surgical and chemical treatments that cause acute liver injury and regeneration. In situ hybridization analysis revealed distinct patterns of Gdf15 mRNA localization that appeared to reflect the known patterns of hepatocyte injury in each experimental treatment. In addition, treatment of two hepatocyte-like cell lines with either carbon tetrachloride or heat shock induced Gdf15 mRNA expression, indicating that direct cellular injury can induce Gdf15 expression in the absence of other cell types, such as inflammatory cells. In order to investigate the potential functions of Gdf15, we created Gdf15 null mice by gene targeting. Homozygous null mice were viable and fertile. Despite the dramatic regulation of Gdf15 expression observed in the partial-hepatectomy and carbon tetrachloride injury models, we found no differences in the injury responses between homozygous null mutants and wild-type mice. Our findings suggest either that Gdf15 does not have a regulatory role in liver injury and regeneration or that Gdf15 function within the liver is redundant with that of other signaling molecules. PMID:10779363

Hsiao, Edward C.; Koniaris, Leonidas G.; Zimmers-Koniaris, Teresa; Sebald, Suzanne M.; Huynh, Thanh V.; Lee, Se-Jin

2000-01-01

181

[Characterization of the difference between filtered back projection and ordered subsets expectation maximization in spect images using the Wavelet Transform].  

PubMed

Efficiency of reconstruction algorithms is important to guarantee quality of Nuclear Medicine tomographic images. The algorithms belong to one of two types: analytical or statistical. The Filtered Back Projection (BP) algorithm belongs to the first group and the Ordered Subsets Expectation Maximization (OSEM) algorithm belongs to the second group. The aim of the present paper was to compare both algorithms by means of the Wavelet Transform (WT). This tool was selected because of its capability to divide the image into different frequency levels without losing information about their spatial position. The WT was applied on the Haar basis without decimation in order to compare matrixes of the same size. Attention was drawn to the relative presence of three typical perturbations: Poisson noise, annular artifacts that express a deficient correction to the planar uniformity and attenuation phenomenon. With these purposes, we studied homologue transversal slices of images of homogeneous distribution of activity. The OSEM algorithm not only greatly improves the filtering of the Poisson noise, but also diminishes the annular artifacts, mainly at the image zone that coincides with the rotation center. The intensity of the attenuation phenomenon was the same with both algorithms, except in the peripheral zone where OSEM showed a slightly higher activity than BP. These observations encourage our interest to continue applying the WT not only to identify the artifacts, but also to try to decrease their deleterious influence on Nuclear Medicine images. PMID:14718146

Pérez, A; Piotrkowski, R; Galli, R; La Mura, G; Peña, F J

2004-01-01

182

Response of Pole-Mounted Distribution Transformer to Lightning Overvoltage Dependent on Rated Capacity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A pole-mounted transformer on a power distribution line is vulnerable to lightning overvoltages, and is one of the most frequently damaged instruments in Japan. Therefore, the response of transformers to the overvoltage draws great concern. By incorporating the modeling for the secondary windings proposed by Mr. Honda et al., the authors develop equivalent circuits of distribution transformers of 10kVA, 20kVA and 30kVA rated capacity based on modal analysis of measured admittance whereby one can evaluate its response to overvoltages on a low-voltage line as well as on a medium-voltage line. The validity of calculated results obtained by using the developed circuits is demonstrated by comparison with experimental results. The response of transformers made by the same manufacturer to the lightning impulse voltage waveforms is influenced by the rated capacity, and the phase and the degree of such influence is demonstrated.

Michishita, Koji; Hiraiwa, Hideo; Hongo, Yasuji

183

Molecular characterization of inhibiting biochar water-extractable substances using electrospray ionization fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry.  

PubMed

Biochar has gained significant interest worldwide for its potential use as both a carbon sequestration technique and soil amendment. Recently, research has shown that pinewood-derived biochar water extracts inhibited the growth of aquatic photosynthetic microorganisms, both prokaryotic and eukaryotic algae, while chicken litter- and peanut shell-derived biochar water extracts showed no growth inhibition. With the use of electrodialysis, the pinewood-derived biochar water extract is separated into 3 fractions (anode-isolated, center chamber retained, and cathode-isolated substances) all with varying toxic effects. Because of its ultrahigh resolution and mass precision, electrospray ionization (ESI) coupled to Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR-MS) is utilized in this study to analyze biochar water extracts at a molecular level to enhance our understanding of the toxic nature of pinewood-derived biochar water extracts as compared to benign peanut shell-derived biochar water extracts. The molecular composition of pinewood-derived biochar water extracts shows unique carbohydrate ligneous components and sulfur containing condensed ligneous components that are both absent from the peanut shell water extracts and more prevalent in the anode-isolated substances. Using Kendrick mass defect analysis, we also determine that the most likely inhibitor species contain carboxyl and hydroxyl homologous series, both of which are characteristic functional groups hypothesized in our previous research for the inhibitor species. We have suggested that inhibition of aquatic photosynthetic microorganism growth is most likely due to degraded lignin-like species rich in oxygen containing functionalities. From the study conducted here, we show the potential of ultrahigh resolution FTICR-MS as a valuable analytical technique for determining whether certain biochars are safe and benign for use as carbon sequestration and soil amendment. PMID:24180747

Smith, Cameron R; Sleighter, Rachel L; Hatcher, Patrick G; Lee, James W

2013-12-01

184

Chloroplast transformation.  

PubMed

In this chapter we briefly review the developmental history and current research status of chloroplast transformation and introduce the merits of chloroplast transformation as compared with the nuclear genome transformation. Furthermore, according to the chloroplast transformation achieved in oilseed rape (Brassica napus), we introduce the preparation of explants, transformation methods, system selection, identification methods of the transplastomic plants, and experimental results. The technical points, the bottleneck, and the further research directions of the chloroplast transformation are discussed in the notes. PMID:16673924

Lu, Xiao-Mei; Yin, Wei-Bo; Hu, Zan-Min

2006-01-01

185

Linear Transformations, Canonoid Transformations and BiHamiltonian Structures  

E-print Network

We give a characterization of linear canonoid transformations on symplectic manifolds and we use it to generate biHamiltonian structures for some mechanical systems. Utilizing this characterization we also study the behavior of quadratic superintegrable systems under canonoid transformations. We present a description of canonoid transformations due to E.T. Whittaker, and we show that it leads, in a natural way, to the modern, coordinate-independent definition of canonoid transformations. We also generalize canonoid transformations to Poisson manifolds by introducing Poissonoid transformations. We give examples of such transformations for Euler's equations of the rigid body (on $ \\mathfrak{ so}^\\ast (3) $ and $ \\mathfrak{ so}^\\ast (4)$) and for an integrable case of Kirchhoff's equations for the motion of a rigid body immersed in an ideal fluid. We study the relationship between biHamiltonian structures and Poissonoid transformations for these examples.

Giovanni Rastelli; Manuele Santoprete

2014-07-19

186

Identification and characterization of a Smad2 homologue from Schistosoma mansoni, a transforming growth factor-beta signal transducer.  

PubMed

Smad proteins are essential intracellular signal transducers of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) superfamily. The TGF-beta superfamily signals through phosphorylation and activation of R-Smad proteins, receptor-regulated Smads, by heteromeric complexes of ligand-specific type I and type II serine/threonine kinase receptors. R-Smads receive a signal from the activated receptor complex and transmit it to the nucleus. A cDNA was isolated that encodes a 649-amino acid protein found to be homologous to members of R-Smad subfamily with highest homology scored to clawed African frog and human Smad2. The Schistosoma mansoni homologue (SmSmad2) was overexpressed in bacteria as a Sj26-GST fusion protein and used to raise specific antibodies. The IgG fraction of the immunized rabbit serum identified 70- and 72-kDa protein bands in Western analysis of schistosome extracts. Treatment with alkaline phosphatase removed the 72-kDa band, which indicates that this band represents the phosphorylated form of schistosome Smad2. SmSmad2 was localized in the subtegument, parenchymal cells, and sex organs in both male and female worm cryosections. Similar results were also obtained from the analysis of the Smad2 mRNA distribution pattern revealed by in situ hybridization of adult worm pair paraffin sections. SmSmad2 mRNA levels were determined by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction in different mammalian host developmental stages and found to be constitutively expressed. SmSmad2 was also found to interact with a previously identified SmTbetaR-I, a serine/threonine type I kinase receptor. Furthermore, SmSmad2 was shown to undergo phosphorylation by constitutively active forms of SmTbetaR-I in vitro. In addition, SmSmad2 localized in the nuclei of mink lung epithelial cells upon treatment with TGF-beta(1). These data indicate that the SmSmad2 responds to the TGF-beta signals by interaction with receptor I, which phosphorylates it, whereupon it translocates into the nucleus presumably to regulate target gene transcription and consequently elicit a specific TGF-beta effect. PMID:11152451

Osman, A; Niles, E G; LoVerde, P T

2001-03-30

187

Transformations Preserving the Hankel Transform  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We classify all polynomial transformations of integer sequences which preserve the Hankel transform, thus generalizing examples due to Layman and Spivey & Steil. We also show that such transformations form a group under composition.

French, Christopher

2007-07-01

188

Characterization and petrophysical properties of hydrothemally altered lacustrine volcanistic rock in Geyser Valley (Kamchatka) and its transformation by weathering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Work is devoted to the study of volcano sedimentary hydrothermally altered rocks in Geyser Valley (Kamchatka peninsula, Russia). The Geyser Valley is one of the most unique nature objects in Russia. There are quite large geyser fields. The valley of the river is part of the Uson-Geysernaya depression, where hydrothermal activity is very high. Besides geysers here are hot springs, mud pots and fumarols. In the late Pleistocene (about 45-35 thousand years ago) the lake was located in the site of the modern valley of the Geysernaya river, where sediments accumulated intensively. Sedimentary material came from several sources in the form of pyroclastic flows, ash falls, was supplied by permanent and temporary water streams. The total deposit thickness reached several hundred meters. In the late Pleistocene there was breakthrough of reservoir and further conditions for the lacustrine deposits formation did not arose. Later the rocks were intensively processed by thermal water. In 2007 large landslide was formed in lower part of the Geysernaya River on their left slope. Deposits of Geysernaya (Q34grn) series and Pemsovaya (Q34pmz) series were involved in landslide displacement. The headscarp was formed up to 100 m and a length of 800 m, exposing the volcano-sedimentary section of hydrothermally altered rocks - a unique opportunity for sampling and subsequent laboratory study. Thickness of lake sediments is interbedding of coarse-grain, medium-grain, fine-grain tuffites predominantly acidic composition. The study of thin sections revealed that all samples are lithoclastic and vitroclastic hydrothermally altered tuffits. Currently, the primary minerals and volcanic glass is largely replaced by clay minerals of the smectite group. Pores and cracks are made zeolites (heulandite and clinoptilolite). All this points to the low-temperature (<200 ° C) hydrothermal conditions with a pH near neutral. Tyere are acid plagioclase and quartz in most samples The high content of smectite causes high hygroscopy of deposits. Rocks are highly porous - of 37-65%, primarily low density - 0,9-1,65 g/cm3 wave velocities - from 0.74 km/s for porous to 3.42 km/sec for dense varieties. All samples are characterized by low strength characteristics: uniaxial compressive strength - 1.2 - 21.7 MPa, uniaxial tension - 0,6-4,7 MPa. By water saturation strength decreases rapidly. Soft coefficient ranges from 0.22 to 0.57. Proving to be on the land surface as a result of slope deformation, volcanic-sedimentary hydrothermally altered rocks are destroyed quickly by precipitation and temperature fluctuations Rock turned to sand, silt and clay depending on the original composition. It was found that often weathered to clayey state tuffites inherit structural and textural features of the primary species. The composition also varies: increased content of clay minerals (to 90%), decreasing the content of zeolites (not to exceed 10%). Quartz and plagioclase form sans fraction. Physical and mechanical properties vary widely: the density of the soil increases slightly up to 1,57-1,59 g/cm3 for sands, 1,2-1,79 g/cm3 for clays, porosity of 51-52% and 49-78% respectively, moisture 22-23% and 43-98/ Clays are in a state of semi-solid to fluid. The high content of smectite determines high plastic properties. Plasticity Index varies widely from 11 to 57. Cohesion and the internal friction angle obtained from shear tests also change widely. For clayey sand grip reaches 137 kPa, internal friction angle - 17 degrees. In clay grip ranges from 13 kPa to 120 kPa, and the internal friction angle - from 11 degrees to 31 degrees. Large variation of properties of the investigated soils is explained by the inhomogeneity of volcano-sedimentary formations both vertically and laterally, varying degrees of hydrothermal alteration and of weathering, fracturing and cracks filling The obtained datas can adequately characterize the volcanic-lacustrine sediments in the valley of the Geysernaya river and use them in calculations of slope stability and for and geological mapping.

Gvozdeva, Irina; Zerkal, Oleg; Samarin, Evgeny

2013-04-01

189

Determination of Defect Distribution in a Ga-rich ZnO/CdS/Cu(In,Ga)Se2 Solar Cell by Admittance Spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article presents a study on the energy distribution of defects in efficient thin film ZnO/CdS/Cu(In,Ga)Se2 heterojunction solar cell by the use of admittance spectroscopy. The capacitance spectra of the device has been analyzed using a model based on the existence of a homogeneous distribution of bulk acceptors in the absorber Cu(In,Ga)Se2 layer. This model reveals an emission from a distribution of hole traps centered at an activation energy of about 300 meV with a defect density of 1.2 × 1017 eV-1 cm-3. The band gap of the absorber layer is estimated to be about 1.46 eV which corresponds to a Ga content of about x ? 0.7 with x the ratio Ga/(Ga+In).

Bayhan, Habibe

2005-01-01

190

Experimental verification of electron-hole recombination theory for Si-SiO2 interface traps with nonequilibrium, steady-state, admittance measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An analytical and experimental study of deep level Si-SiO2 interface traps is presented for small-signal, admittance measurements on a gated-diode structure. This technique eliminates the minority-carrier capture process and allows the competing emission process to dominate near the middle of the Si band gap. First-order rate kinetics has been employed to predict the behavior of the nonequilibrium, steady-state, occupancy function and ``trap conductance'' for states in the midgap region. Theory predicts and experimental measurements verify a sudden decrease or ``pinning'' of the trap conductance. The ratio of electron to hole capture cross sections, R=?n/?p, has a pronounced influence on the trap energy associated with the onset of ``pinning'', UTP= 1/2 ln(R).

Agarwal, A. K.; Rhodes, F. M.; White, M. H.

1983-09-01

191

Current density-voltage and admittance characteristics of hydrogenated nanocrystalline cubic SiC/crystalline Si heterojunction diodes prepared with varying H2 gas flow rates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

N-doped hydrogenated nanocrystalline cubic SiC (nc-3C-SiC:H) thin films were deposited on p-type crystalline Si (c-Si) substrates by hot-wire chemical vapor deposition from a SiH4/CH4/H2/N2 gas mixture. The current density-voltage and the admittance characteristics of the nc-3C-SiC:H/c-Si heterojunction diodes were investigated. As the H2 gas flow rate (F(H2)) increased from 25 to 100 sccm, the ideality factor and saturation current density deceased from 1.87 to 1.47 and 1.6 × 10-7 to 9.9 × 10-9 A/cm2, respectively. However, they increased to 1.82 and 3.0 × 10-7 A/cm2, respectively, when F(H2) was further increased to 1000 sccm. The relaxation time, evaluated from the admittance characteristics, decreased from 2.9 × 10-5 to 2.4 × 10-6 s with an increase in F(H2). The apparent built-in voltage, evaluated from the capacitance-voltage characteristics, decreased from 1.05 to 0.60 eV. These findings were mainly caused by interfacial defects, generated by a high density of H radicals during the nc-3C-SiC:H deposition process. The interfacial defect density increased with an increase in F(H2), resulting in deterioration of the diode characteristics.

Tabata, Akimori; Imori, Yoshikazu

2015-02-01

192

Determination of the valence band offset of MOVPE-grown In0.48Ga0.52P/GaAs multiple quantum wells by admittance spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The valence band discontinuity of the lattice matched In0.48Ga0.52P/GaAs heterostructure was determined through a careful analysis of the temperature and frequency dependence of the admittance of p+/MQW/n+ structures, formed by a nominally undoped InGaP/GaAs multiple quantum well region, interposed between p+ and n+ GaAs layers. The heterostructures were grown through metal organic vapor phase epitaxy by using tertiary butyl arsine and tertiary butyl phosphine as alternative precursors for the V-group elements. The growth conditions were optimized for obtaining sharp interfaces and negligible ordering effects in the cation sublattice. Accounting for the temperature dependence of the Fermi energy and the calculated confining energy (10meV) of the heavy holes in the wells, a valence band offset ?EV=(356±5)meV was derived from the temperature variation of the resonance frequency at which the isothermal conductance over frequency G(?)/? curves show a maximum. The experimental uncertainty of this result is significantly low if compared with the wide range (240-400meV) of the previously reported ?EV values. By considering the band gap difference between InGaP and GaAs, a conduction band offset ?EC=119meV was estimated. The accuracy of the experimental procedure and the reliability of the main assumptions of the admittance spectroscopy measurements were accurately checked. The obtained results were discussed in light of the large and growing amount of literature data by taking into account the influence of the growth conditions on the physical properties of the InGaP/GaAs quantum wells.

Ghezzi, Carlo; Magnanini, Renato; Parisini, Antonella; Tarricone, Luciano; Gombia, Enos; Longo, Massimo

2008-03-01

193

Characterization of phospholipid bilayer formation on a thin film of porous SiO2 by reflective interferometric Fourier transform spectroscopy (RIFTS).  

PubMed

Classical methods for characterizing supported artificial phospholipid bilayers include imaging techniques such as atomic force microscopy and fluorescence microscopy. The use in the past decade of surface-sensitive methods such as surface plasmon resonance and ellipsometry, and acoustic sensors such as the quartz crystal microbalance, coupled to the imaging methods, have expanded our understanding of the formation mechanisms of phospholipid bilayers. In the present work, reflective interferometric Fourier transform spectrocopy (RIFTS) is employed to monitor the formation of a planar phospholipid bilayer on an oxidized mesoporous Si (pSiO(2)) thin film. The pSiO(2) substrates are prepared as thin films (3 ?m thick) with pore dimensions of a few nanometers in diameter by the electrochemical etching of crystalline silicon, and they are passivated with a thin thermal oxide layer. A thin film of mica is used as a control. Interferometric optical measurements are used to quantify the behavior of the phospholipids at the internal (pores) and external surfaces of the substrates. The optical measurements indicate that vesicles initially adsorb to the pSiO(2) surface as a monolayer, followed by vesicle fusion and conversion to a surface-adsorbed lipid bilayer. The timescale of the process is consistent with prior measurements of vesicle fusion onto mica surfaces. Reflectance spectra calculated using a simple double-layer Fabry-Perot interference model verify the experimental results. The method provides a simple, real-time, nondestructive approach to characterizing the growth and evolution of lipid vesicle layers on the surface of an optical thin film. PMID:22486481

Pace, Stéphanie; Seantier, Bastien; Belamie, Emmanuel; Lautrédou, Nicole; Sailor, Michael J; Milhiet, Pierre-Emmanuel; Cunin, Frédérique

2012-05-01

194

Characterization of petroleum products by laser-induced acoustic desorption in a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many petroleum products, in particular large nonpolar saturated hydrocarbons, have proven difficult to analyze via mass spectrometry due to their low volatility, lack of basic or acidic groups needed for most ionization methods, and low activation energies for fragmentation after ionization. The above limitation has been addressed by using laser-induced acoustic desorption (LIAD) to evaporate nonvolatile and thermally labile petroleum components for analysis in a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometer. The gaseous neutral analytes were ionized by electron impact. Model compounds were studied first to test the viability of this method. After that, different types of asphaltenes were characterized successfully. For example, the molecular weight distribution of a North American asphaltene was determined. A comparison between asphaltene samples obtained from different geographical locations showed distinct molecular weight characteristics, possibly allowing for the determination of an unknown asphaltene sample's geographic origin. Asphaltenes were also characterized via electrospray ionization (ESI) in a linear quadrupole ion trap (LQIT). The observed molecular weight distribution had an extended tail past 2000 Da. Collision-activated dissociation (CAD) experiments on isolated ions revealed that water aggregation was present in this analysis. The observed molecular weight distribution of asphaltenes reduced dramatically when water was eliminated from the system. The usefulness of a new chemical ionization reagent, ClMn(H2O) +, is also discussed. This reagent has been shown to ionize hydrocarbons without fragmentation to yield [ClMnR]+, where R is the hydrocarbon, thus providing molecular weight information. CAD of the [ClMnR]+ ions is demonstrated to allow the differentiation of isomeric hydrocarbons. Finally, the LIAD/ClMn(H2O)+ mass spectrometric method was applied to the successful analysis of various petroleum fractions and asphaltene-like compounds.

Pinkston, David S.

195

Preparation of amorphous calcium-magnesium phosphates at pH 7 and characterization by x-ray absorption and fourier transform infrared spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Amorphous calcium-magnesium phosphates were prepared by precipitation from moderately supersaturated aqueous solutions at pH 7. Chemical analysis of the samples by ion chromatography showed that up to about 50% of the phosphate ions were protonated, the proportion increasing with the magnesium to calcium ion activity ratio in the solution. When left it contact with the supernatant, the amorphous precipitates matured to form the crystalline calcium phosphate brushite (CaHPO 4·2H 2O). The amorphous phases were characterized by X-ray absorption spectroscopy and by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and their properties compared with those of a basic amorphous tricalcium phosphate precipitated at pH 10. The X-ray absorption spectra near the K edge of calcium were very similar for all samples but there were differences in the infrared spectra between the basic and the more acidic salts. In the phosphate stretching region, the main band of the more acidic materials occured at higher wavenumber and was broader. Also there was a broad band of medium intensity at about 890 cm -1 whereas there was virtually no absorption band in this region in the spectrum of the amorphous tricalcium phosphate. The acidic amorphous calcium phosphates may be useful as model compounds in describing some complex biological calcium phosphates that form near neutral pH.

Holt, C.; van Kemenade, M. J. J. M.; Harries, J. E.; Nelson, L. S.; Bailey, R. T.; Hukins, D. W. L.; Hasnain, S. S.; De Bruyn, P. L.

1988-10-01

196

Comparing Laser Desorption Ionization and Atmospheric Pressure Photoionization Coupled to Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry To Characterize Shale Oils at the Molecular Level  

USGS Publications Warehouse

Laser desorption ionization (LDI) coupled to Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) was used to analyze shale oils. Previous work showed that LDI is a sensitive ionization technique for assessing aromatic nitrogen compounds, and oils generated from Green River Formation oil shales are well-documented as being rich in nitrogen. The data presented here demonstrate that LDI is effective in ionizing high-double-bond-equivalent (DBE) compounds and, therefore, is a suitable method for characterizing compounds with condensed structures. Additionally, LDI generates radical cations and protonated ions concurrently, the distribution of which depends upon the molecular structures and elemental compositions, and the basicity of compounds is closely related to the generation of protonated ions. This study demonstrates that LDI FT-ICR MS is an effective ionization technique for use in the study of shale oils at the molecular level. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that LDI FT-ICR MS has been applied to shale oils.

Cho, Yunjo; Jin, Jang Mi; Witt, Matthias; Birdwell, Justin E.; Na, Jeong-Geol; Roh, Nam-Sun; Kim, Sunghwan

2013-01-01

197

Characterization of organic material in ice core samples from North America, Greenland, and Antarctica using ultrahigh resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Historically, it has been an analytical challenge to detect and identify the organic components present in ice cores, due to the low abundance of organic carbon. In order to detect and characterize the small amounts of organic matter in ice cores, ultra high resolution instrumentation is required. Here we report the use of ultrahigh resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry, coupled with electrospray ionization, to identify the molecular formulas and compound classes of organic matter in both modern and ancient ice core and glacial samples from Wyoming, Greenland, and Antarctica. A suite of 21 samples were analyzed and thousands of distinct molecular species were identified in each sample, providing clues to the nature and sources of organic matter in these regions. Major biochemical classes of compounds were detected such as lignins, tannins, carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, unsaturated hydrocarbons, and condensed aromatic compounds. We will compare the nature of the organic matter present in the samples in order to determine the differences in dominant organic compound classes and in heteroatom (nitrogen and sulfur) abundance. By analyzing these differences, it is possible to investigate the historical patterns of organic matter deposition/source, and begin to investigate the influence of climate change, volcanism, and onset of the industrial revolution on the nature of organic matter preserved in ice cores.

Catanzano, V.; Grannas, A. M.; Sleighter, R. L.; Hatcher, P. G.

2013-12-01

198

Characterization of uranyl(VI) nitrate complexes in a room temperature ionic liquid using attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectrometry.  

PubMed

Room temperature ionic liquids form potentially important solvents in novel nuclear waste reprocessing methods, and the solvation, speciation, and complexation behaviors of actinides and lanthanides in room temperature ionic liquids is of current interest. In this study, the coordination environment of uranyl(VI) in solutions of the room temperature ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide containing either tetrabutylammonium nitrate or nitric acid was characterized using attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectrometry. Both UO(2)(NO(3))(2) and UO(2)(NO(3))(3)(-) species were detected in solutions containing tetrabutylammonium nitrate. ?(as)(UO(2)) for these two species were found to lie at 951 and 944 cm(-1), respectively, while ?(as)(UO(2)) arising from uranyl(VI) coordinated by bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide anions in 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide was found to lie at 968 cm(-1). In solutions containing nitric acid, only UO(2)(NO(3))(2) was detected, due to the high water content. The UO(2)(NO(3))(+) species was not detected under the conditions used in this study. From the results shown here, we conclude that infrared spectroscopy forms a valuable addition to the suite of tools currently used to study the chemical behavior of uranyl(VI) in room temperature ionic liquids. PMID:20722398

Quach, Donna L; Wai, Chien M; Pasilis, Sofie P

2010-09-20

199

Biolistic transformation of elite genotypes of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum).  

E-print Network

??Transformation of elite switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) genotypes would facilitate the characterization of genes related to cell wall recalcitrance to saccharification. However, transformation of explants… (more)

King, Zachary Raymond

2011-01-01

200

Reservoir characterization using wavelet transforms  

E-print Network

...............................................................................................87 A.1 Paleocurrent vectors for cross-stratified fluvial sandstones (from Herries and Cowan, 1997). ........................................................................................................109 A.2 Well correlation for the East Irish Sea....027 cycles/ft, equivalent to wl = 37 ft (very close to the original sinusoid). 11 Figure 3.1 Fourier analysis of a sinusoidal signal with random noise. (a) Signal and noise 0.3 0.8 1.3 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 Depth, ft A m p l i t u d e (c) Signal with noise...

Rivera Vega, Nestor

2004-09-30

201

transformations: representations  

E-print Network

Overview 1. Number transformations: from one base to another 2. Integer representations 3. Real rate, caches... #12; ECS 50, Discussion on 4/25 2 Integer Transformation: From Decimal to Binary Let, Discussion on 4/25 3 Integer Transformation: From Binary to Decimal Compute the weight of each digit position

Nguyen, Dat H.

202

Transformation Composition  

E-print Network

Proc. AGTIVE'99, to appear in LNCS Graph Transformation Modules and their Composition ? Frank,knirsch,kreo,kuskeg@informatik.uni-bremen.de Abstract. In this paper, we investigate the notion of transformation modules as a structuring principle. Based on the notion of transformation units, a concept that allows to specify binary relations on graphs

Drewes, Frank

203

Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy characterization of the lamellar and nonlamellar structures of free lipid A and Re lipopolysaccharides from Salmonella minnesota and Escherichia coli.  

PubMed Central

The structural polymorphism of free lipid A and deep rough mutant lipopolysaccharide (LPS Re) from Salmonella minnesota strain R595 and Escherichia coli strain F515 was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (IR) spectroscopy. For this, the beta <--> alpha phase states and the three-dimensional supramolecular structures, the latter deduced from small-angle synchrotron radiation x-ray diffraction, were investigated at different water contents, Mg2+ concentrations, and temperatures. The analysis of the IR data for vibrations originating from the hydrophobic moiety shows that the beta <--> alpha acyl chain melting is strongly expressed only for the stretching and scissoring modes of the methylene groups. Vibrational groups originating from the interface region sense the acyl chain melting well (ester carbonyl bands) or only weakly (amide bands), and those resulting from the pure polar moiety not at all. From the x-ray data, the existence of lamellar (L), different cubic, and, for lipid A and LPS R595, also inverted hexagonal (HII) structures could be proven in the temperature range 20-80 degrees C with cubic <--> cubic and cubic <--> HII transitions for the Mg(2+)-free and L <--> HII transitions for the Mg(2+)-containing samples. These structural transitions can be characterized most readily by specific changes of the vibrational bands resulting from the interface region: the ester carbonyl and the amide bands. The magnitude of the changes corresponds to that of the structural rearrangement, i.e., is highest for the L <--> HII, lower for the cubic <--> HII, and lowest for the cubic <--> cubic transitions. The structural transitions are only marginally expressed for vibrational bands of the hydrophobic moiety. Similarly, the band contours of vibrations from the hydrophilic region are no indicators of the structural reorientations except for the carboxylate bands of LPS Re. Particularly the stretching vibrations of the phosphate groups are nearly completely invariant; the absolute values of their half bandwidths, however, differ significantly for lipid A and LPS Re, which seems to be of biological relevance. The ability of IR spectroscopy to detect supramolecular changes also beyond the measurability by x-ray diffraction, i.e., at water contents > 95 to 99.5%, is demonstrated. PMID:8494979

Brandenburg, K

1993-01-01

204

Optical characterization of free electron concentration in heteroepitaxial InN layers using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and a 2 Multiplication-Sign 2 transfer-matrix algebra  

SciTech Connect

Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) reflectance spectroscopy has been implemented as a non-destructive, non-invasive, tool for the optical characterization of a set of c-plane InN single heteroepitaxial layers spanning a wide range of thicknesses (30-2000 nm). The c-plane (0001) InN epilayers were grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PAMBE) on GaN(0001) buffer layers which had been grown on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}(0001) substrates. It is shown that for arbitrary multilayers with homogeneous anisotropic layers having their principal axes coincident with the laboratory coordinates, a 2 Multiplication-Sign 2 matrix algebra based on a general transfer-matrix method (GTMM) is adequate to interpret their optical response. Analysis of optical reflectance in the far and mid infrared spectral range has been found capable to discriminate between the bulk, the surface and interface contributions of free carriers in the InN epilayers revealing the existence of electron accumulation layers with carrier concentrations in mid 10{sup 19} cm{sup -3} at both the InN surface and the InN/GaN interface. The spectra could be fitted with a three-layer model, determining the different electron concentration and mobility values of the bulk and of the surface and the interface electron accumulation layers in the InN films. The variation of these values with increasing InN thickness could be also sensitively detected by the optical measurements. The comparison between the optically determined drift mobility and the Hall mobility of the thickest sample reveals a value of r{sub H} = 1.49 for the Hall factor of InN at a carrier concentration of 1.11 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 19} cm{sup -3} at 300 Degree-Sign {Kappa}.

Katsidis, C. C. [Department of Materials Science and Technology, University of Crete, P.O. Box 2208, 71003 Heraklion-Crete (Greece); Ajagunna, A. O.; Georgakilas, A. [Microelectronics Research Group, IESL, FORTH, P.O. Box 1385, 71110 Heraklion-Crete (Greece); Physics Department, University of Crete, P.O. Box 2208, 71003 Heraklion-Crete (Greece)

2013-02-21

205

Characterization of skin abnormalities in a mouse model of osteogenesis imperfecta using high resolution magnetic resonance imaging and Fourier transform infrared imaging spectroscopy.  

PubMed

Evaluation of the skin phenotype in osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) typically involves biochemical measurements, such as histologic or biochemical assessment of the collagen produced from biopsy-derived dermal fibroblasts. As an alternative, the current study utilized non-invasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) microscopy and optical spectroscopy to define biophysical characteristics of skin in an animal model of OI. MRI of skin harvested from control, homozygous oim/oim and heterozygous oim/+ mice demonstrated several differences in anatomic and biophysical properties. Fourier transform infrared imaging spectroscopy (FT-IRIS) was used to interpret observed MRI signal characteristics in terms of chemical composition. Differences between wild-type and OI mouse skin included the appearance of a collagen-depleted lower dermal layer containing prominent hair follicles in the oim/oim mice, accounting for 55% of skin thickness in these. The MRI magnetization transfer rate was lower by 50% in this layer as compared to the upper dermis, consistent with lower collagen content. The MRI transverse relaxation time, T2, was greater by 30% in the dermis of the oim/oim mice compared to controls, consistent with a more highly hydrated collagen network. Similarly, an FT-IRIS-defined measure of collagen integrity was 30% lower in the oim/oim mice. We conclude that characterization of phenotypic differences between the skin of OI and wild-type mice by MRI and FT-IRIS is feasible, and that these techniques provide powerful complementary approaches for the analysis of the skin phenotype in animal models of disease. PMID:21845737

Canuto, H C; Fishbein, K W; Huang, A; Doty, S B; Herbert, R A; Peckham, J; Pleshko, N; Spencer, R G

2012-01-01

206

Design and characterization of a high-power laser-induced acoustic desorption probe coupled with a fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer.  

PubMed

We report here the construction and characterization of a high-power laser-induced acoustic desorption (LIAD) probe designed for Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometers to facilitate analysis of nonvolatile, thermally labile compounds. This "next generation" LIAD probe offers significant improvements in sensitivity and desorption efficiency for analytes with larger molecular weights via the use of higher laser irradiances. Unlike the previous probes which utilized a power-limiting optical fiber to transmit the laser pulses through the probe, this probe employs a set of mirrors and a focusing lens. At the end of the probe, the energy from the laser pulses propagates through a thin metal foil as an acoustic wave, resulting in desorption of neutral molecules from the opposite side of the foil. Following desorption, the molecules can be ionized by electron impact or chemical ionization. Almost an order of magnitude greater power density (up to 5.0x10(9) W/cm2) is achievable on the backside of the foil with the high-power LIAD probe compared to the earlier LIAD probes (maximum power density approximately 9.0x10(8) W/cm2). The use of higher laser irradiances is demonstrated not to cause fragmentation of the analyte. The use of higher laser irradiances increases sensitivity since it results in the evaporation of a greater number of molecules per laser pulse. Measurement of the average velocities of LIAD-evaporated molecules demonstrates that higher laser irradiances do not correlate with higher velocities of the gaseous analyte molecules. PMID:17319645

Shea, Ryan C; Habicht, Steven C; Vaughn, Weldon E; Kenttämaa, Hilkka I

2007-04-01

207

Phenotypic Characterization of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 under Aerobic and Anaerobic Growth Conditions by Using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and High-Performance Liquid Chromatography Analyses?  

PubMed Central

Shewanella oneidensis is able to conserve energy for growth by reducing a wide variety of terminal electron acceptors during anaerobic respiration, including several environmentally hazardous pollutants. This bacterium employs various electron transfer mechanisms for anaerobic respiration, including cell-bound reductases and secreted redox mediators. The aim of this study was to develop rapid tools for profiling the key metabolic changes associated with these different growth regimes and physiological responses. Initial experiments focused on comparing cells grown under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy with cluster analysis showed that there were significant changes in the metabolic fingerprints of the cells grown under these two culture conditions. FT-IR spectroscopy clearly differentiated cells of S. oneidensis MR-1 cultured at various growth points and cells grown using different electron acceptors, resulting in different phenotypic trajectories in the cluster analysis. This growth-related trajectory analysis is applied successfully for the first time, here with FT-IR spectroscopy, to investigate the phenotypic changes in contrasting S. oneidensis cells. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was also used to quantify the concentrations of flavin compounds, which have been identified recently as extracellular redox mediators released by a range of Shewanella species. The partial least-squares regression (PLSR) multivariate statistical technique was combined with FT-IR spectroscopy to predict the concentrations of the flavins secreted by cells of S. oneidensis MR-1, suggesting that this combination could be used as a rapid alternative to conventional chromatographic methods for analysis of flavins in cell cultures. Furthermore, coupling of the FT-IR spectroscopy and HPLC techniques appears to offer a potentially useful tool for rapid characterization of the Shewanella cell metabolome in various process environments. PMID:20675447

Wang, Hui; Hollywood, Katherine; Jarvis, Roger M.; Lloyd, Jonathan R.; Goodacre, Royston

2010-01-01

208

Transformation Station  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Shapes are all over the place in geometry. One way we can move these shapes is with transformations. Use these games to help you practice and identify the three types of transformations: reflections, translations, and rotations. Just as a refresher, watch this video about transformational geometry: Gingerbread Transformer! When you are ready...start playing the games!! Take it to the court for Basketball Geometry! Once you type in your name and choose a player, pay attention to the coach for a review on the three types of transformations. While you play, ...

Mrs. Stroud

2010-09-01

209

Animating Transformations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In most introductory linear algebra courses, prominent applications of transformations or mappings are moving (rotating, reflecting, translating), resizing (contracting, expanding), changing the shape (shearing, projecting) objects in the plane. A typical problem in such courses is to write the matrix of a transformation that changes points in such prescribed ways. The goal of this demo is to help students more easily visualize such transformations on a wide class of plane objects.

Roberts, Lila F.

2003-01-24

210

Transformational Grammar and Cognitive Psycholinguistics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An overview of Noam Chomsky's theories about transformational grammar and phonology is given. Since Chomsky was interested in characterizing what it is to know a language, the ways in which we demonstrate knowledge of our native language are discussed in detail. Particular emphasis is placed on describing how the transformational approach actually…

Lester, Mark

1973-01-01

211

Separate measurement of the density and viscosity of a liquid using a quartz crystal microbalance based on admittance analysis (QCM-A)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We previously used a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) to identify a frequency f2 that allows measurement of the mass load without being affected by the viscous load of a liquid in the liquid phase. Here, we determined that frequency in order to separately measure the density and viscosity of a Newtonian liquid. Martin et al separately measured the density and viscosity of a liquid by immersing two quartz resonators, i.e. a smooth-surface resonator and a textured-surface resonator, in the liquid. We used a QCM based on admittance analysis (QCM-A) in the current study to separately measure the viscosity and density of a liquid using only a textured-surface resonator. In the current experiments, we measured the density and viscosity of 500 µl of 10%, 30%, and 50% aqueous glycerol solutions and compared the measured values to reference values. The density obtained had an error of ±1.5% of reference values and the viscosity had an error of about ±5% of reference values. Similar results were obtained with 500 µl of 10%, 30%, and 50% ethanol solutions. Measurement was possible with a quartz resonator, so measurements were made with even smaller samples. The density and viscosity of a liquid were successfully determined with an extremely small amount of liquid, i.e. 10 µl, with almost the same precision as when using 500 µl of the liquid.

Itoh, Atsushi; Ichihashi, Motoko

2011-01-01

212

CHARACTERIZATION OF PCB (POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL) TRANSFORMER/CAPACITOR FLUIDS AND CORRELATION WITH PCDDS (POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS) AND PCDFS (POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZOFURANS) IN SOOT  

EPA Science Inventory

Dielectric fluids in transformers and capacitors often contain polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) or chlorobenzenes. These substances may generate polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) under certain conditions of combustion/pyrolysis. W...

213

Transformation Telepresence  

E-print Network

of enterprise video collaboration necessary to support business goals. By showing the key business pain points and most effective strategies for integrating video, this report will show end users how telepresence can be used to transform organizations. Why Does Your Business Need to Transform? Traditionally, organizations

Fisher, Kathleen

214

Transformative copy  

E-print Network

The ability to create an unlimited number of identical copies is a privilege of digital documents. What if that would not be the case, if each copy of a digital file would go along with some sort of transformation? This ...

Offenhuber, Dietmar

2008-01-01

215

Transformation Golf  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this game students use the isometric transformations (sliding, flipping and turning) to sink a golf ball into a cup. There are nine holes in the course and learners are challenged to meet or break a par score.

2011-01-01

216

Covariant Transform  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dedicated to the memory of Cora Sadosky The paper develops theory of covariant transform, which is inspired by the wavelet construction. It was observed that many interesting types of wavelets (or coherent states) arise from group representations which are not square integrable or vacuum vectors which are not admissible. Covariant transform extends an applicability of the popular wavelets construction to classic examples like the Hardy space H2, Banach spaces, covariant functional calculus and many others.

Kisil, Vladimir V.

2011-03-01

217

DNA Transformation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Stanley Cohen and Herbert Boyer's historic experiment used techniques to cut and paste DNA to create the first custom-made organism containing recombined or 'recombinant' DNA. Cohen and Boyer inserted the recombinant DNA molecule they created into E. coli bacteria by means of a plasmid, thereby inducing the uptake and expression of a foreign DNA sequence known as 'transformation.' This animation from Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory's Dolan DNA Learning Center presents DNA transformation through a series of illustrations of the processes involved.

2012-04-06

218

Maize Transformation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant genetic transformation technologies have brought fundamental changes to both plant biology laboratory research as well\\u000a as to modern agricultural field practices. Once a recalcitrant plant for tissue culture and gene delivery, maize is becoming\\u000a one of the most targeted cereal crops using genetic transformation for both basic and applied purposes. This chapter provides\\u000a a brief review of the history

Kan Wang; Bronwyn Frame; Yuji Ishida; Toshihiko Komari

219

FOURIER TRANSFORM INFRARED PHOTOACOUSTIC SPECTROSCOPY CHARACTERIZATION OF SULFUR-OXYGEN SPECIES RESULTING FROM THE REACTION OF SO2 WITH CAO AND CACO3  

EPA Science Inventory

Fourier transform infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy (FTIR-PAS) has been used to investigate the reaction of SO2 in He with CaO and CaCO3 particles at temperatures between 25 and 900 C. SO2 reacts with CaC at 25 C, while the reaction of Ca-CO3 with SO2 is first evident at 550 C ...

220

SPATIAL TRANSFORMATIONS 1 Running head: Spatial transformations  

E-print Network

SPATIAL TRANSFORMATIONS 1 Running head: Spatial transformations Multiple Systems for Spatial Imagery: Transformations of Objects and Bodies Jeffrey M. Zacks* and Barbara Tversky * Washington COGNITION & COMPUTATION #12;SPATIAL TRANSFORMATIONS 2 Abstract Problem-solving often requires imagining

Zacks, Jeffrey M.

221

Isolation and Characterization of Human Intestinal Bacteria Capable of Transforming the Dietary Carcinogen 2-Amino-1-Methyl-6-Phenylimidazo[4,5-b]Pyridine?  

PubMed Central

2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) is a carcinogenic heterocyclic aromatic amine formed in meat products during cooking. Although the formation of hazardous PhIP metabolites by mammalian enzymes has been extensively reported, research on the putative involvement of the human intestinal microbiota in PhIP metabolism remains scarce. In this study, the in vitro conversion of PhIP into its microbial derivate, 7-hydroxy-5-methyl-3-phenyl-6,7,8,9-tetrahydropyrido[3?,2?:4,5]imidazo[1,2-a]pyrimidin-5-ium chloride (PhIP-M1), by fecal samples from 18 human volunteers was investigated. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis showed that all human fecal samples transformed PhIP but with efficiencies ranging from 1.8 to 96% after 72 h of incubation. Two PhIP-transforming strains, PhIP-M1-a and PhIP-M1-b, were isolated from human feces and identified by fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism and pheS sequence analyses as Enterococcus faecium strains. Some strains from culture collections belonging to the species E. durans, E. avium, E. faecium, and Lactobacillus reuteri were also able to perform this transformation. Yeast extract, special peptone, and meat extract supported PhIP transformation by the enriched E. faecium strains, while tryptone, monomeric sugars, starch, and cellulose did not. Glycerol was identified as a fecal matrix constituent required for PhIP transformation. Abiotic synthesis of PhIP-M1 and quantification of the glycerol metabolite 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde (3-HPA) confirmed that the anaerobic fermentation of glycerol via 3-HPA is the critical bacterial transformation process responsible for the formation of PhIP-M1. Whether it is a detoxification is still a matter of debate, since PhIP-M1 has been shown to be cytotoxic toward Caco-2 cells but is not mutagenic in the Ames assay. PMID:18192423

Vanhaecke, Lynn; Vercruysse, Filip; Boon, Nico; Verstraete, Willy; Cleenwerck, Ilse; De Wachter, Marjan; De Vos, Paul; van de Wiele, Tom

2008-01-01

222

Fourier Transform Pairs The Fourier transform transforms a function of  

E-print Network

Fourier Transform Pairs The Fourier transform transforms a function of time, f(t), into a function of frequency, F(s): F {f(t)}(s) = F(s) = Z - f(t)e- j2st dt. The inverse Fourier transform transforms a func. The inverse Fourier transform of the Fourier trans- form is the identity transform: f(t) = Z - Z - f()e- j2s

Masci, Frank

223

Establishment and characterization of equine fibroblast cell lines transformed in vivo and in vitro by BPV-1: Model systems for equine sarcoids  

SciTech Connect

It is now widely recognized that BPV-1 and less commonly BPV-2 are the causative agents of equine sarcoids. Here we present the generation of equine cell lines harboring BPV-1 genomes and expressing viral genes. These lines have been either explanted from sarcoid biopsies or generated in vitro by transfection of primary fibroblasts with BPV-1 DNA. Previously detected BPV-1 genome variations in equine sarcoids are also found in sarcoid cell lines, and only variant BPV-1 genomes can transform equine cells. These equine cell lines are morphologically transformed, proliferate faster than parental cells, have an extended life span and can grow independently of substrate. These characteristics are more marked the higher the level of viral E5, E6 and E7 gene expression. These findings confirm that the virus has an active role in the induction of sarcoids and the lines will be invaluable for further studies on the role of BPV-1 in sarcoid pathology.

Yuan, Z.Q.; Gault, E.A.; Gobeil, P.; Nixon, C.; Campo, M.S. [Institute of Comparative Medicine, University of Glasgow Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Bearsden Road, Glasgow G61 1QH (United Kingdom); Nasir, L. [Institute of Comparative Medicine, University of Glasgow Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Bearsden Road, Glasgow G61 1QH (United Kingdom)], E-mail: l.nasir@vet.gla.ac.uk

2008-04-10

224

Laplace-Transform Deep-Level Spectroscopy Characterization of the Intrinsic and Deep-Level States in Self-Assembled InAs Quantum-Dot Structures  

SciTech Connect

The electron emission from the intrinsic and deep-level states in self-assembled InAs/GaAs quantum-dot structures is probed using the Laplace-transform deep-level transient spectroscopy. The technique shows sufficient resolution to resolve electron emission from the singly and doubly occupied QD s states. By applying an appropriate set of voltage pulses across the Schottky-diode structure, we identify the electron distribution profile in the quantum-dot intrinsic states.

Lin, S. W. [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Manchester, Manchester M60 1QD (United Kingdom); School of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Hainan University, Haikou 570228 (China); Song, A. M.; Peaker, A. R. [School of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering, Hainan University, Haikou 570228 (China)

2010-01-04

225

Rapid characterization and identification of fatty acids in margarines using horizontal attenuate total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (HATR-FTIR)  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) with horizontal attenuated total reflectance (HATR) coupled to multivariate\\u000a analysis was used to predict chemical composition, fatty acid profile, nutritional relationships between fatty acids, and\\u000a to identify trans fatty acids (TFA) of margarines. For model building and validation, a set of 42 margarines samples were\\u000a analyzed in terms of fatty acid profile, total fat, moisture,

Maylet Hernández-Martínez; Tzayhri Gallardo-Velázquez; Guillermo Osorio-Revilla

2010-01-01

226

Subsurface characterization of an oxidation-induced phase transformation and twinning in nickel-based superalloy exposed to oxy-combustion environments  

SciTech Connect

In the integration of oxy-fuel combustion to turbine power generation system, turbine alloys are exposed to high temperature and an atmosphere comprised of steam, CO{sub 2} and O{sub 2}. While surface and internal oxidation of the alloy takes place, the microstructure in the subsurface region also changes due to oxidation. In this study, bare metal coupons of Ni-base superalloys were exposed in oxy-fuel combustion environment for up to 1000 h and the oxidation-related microstructures were examined. Phase transformation occurred in the subsurface region in Ni-based superalloy and led to twinning. The transformation product phases were analyzed through thermodynamic equilibrium calculations and various electron microscopy techniques, including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), orientation imaging microscopy (OIM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The mechanism by which the phase transformation and the formation of the microstructure occurred was also discussed. The possible effects of the product phases on the performance of the alloy in service were discussed.

Zhu, Jingxi; Holcomb, Gordon R.; Jablonski, Paul D.; Wise, Adam; Li, Jia; Laughlin, David E.; Sridhar, Seetharaman

2012-07-30

227

Isolation and characterization of a novel mitogenic regulatory gene, 322, which is transcriptionally suppressed in cells transformed by src and ras.  

PubMed Central

In an attempt to isolate novel regulatory and/or tumor suppressor genes, we identified cDNAs whose abundance is low in NIH 3T3 cells and further decreased following the expression of the activated oncogene, v-src. The transcription of one such gene, 322, is suppressed at least 15-fold in src-, ras-, and fos-transformed cells and 3-fold in myc-transformed cells but is unaffected in raf-, mos-, or neu-transformed cells. Activation of a ts-v-src allele in confluent 3Y1 fibroblasts resulted in an initial increase in 322 mRNA levels after 1 to 2 h followed by a rapid decrease to suppressed levels after 4 to 8 h. Morphological transformation was not detected until 12 h later, indicating that the accumulation of 322 transcripts is regulated by v-src and not as a consequence of transformation. Addition of fetal calf serum to starved subconfluent NIH 3T3 or 3Y1 fibroblasts resulted in a similar biphasic regulation of 322, indicating that 322 transcription is responsive to mitogenic factors. Sequence analysis of a putative full-length 322 cDNA clone (5.4 kb) identified a large open reading frame (ORF) encoding a 148.1-kDa product. In vitro transcription and translation of the 322 cDNA from a T7 promoter resulted in a 207-kDa product whose electrophoretic mobility on a sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis gel was unaffected by digestion with endoglycosidase F. The discrepancy in predicted versus measured molecular weights may result from the high percentage of acidic residues (roughly 20% Glu or Asp) in the 322 ORF product. Comparison of the 322 cDNA ORF with sequences in data banks indicates that this gene is novel. The 322 ORF product contains a potential Cys-1-His-3 Zn finger, at least five nuclear localization signals of the adenovirus E1a motif K(R/K)X(R/K), and alternating acidic and basic domains. Overexpression of the 322 cells resulted in the selection of rapidly growing cells which had lost the transduced 322 cDNA. Thus, 322 represent a novel src- and ras-regulated gene which encodes a potential regulator of mitogenesis and/or tumor suppressor. PMID:7739556

Lin, X; Nelson, P J; Frankfort, B; Tombler, E; Johnson, R; Gelman, I H

1995-01-01

228

The Laplace Transform 1 Laplace transform and inverse transform  

E-print Network

The Laplace Transform Name: 1 Laplace transform and inverse transform Definition. Let f(t) be a function defined for t 0. Then the integral L {f(t)} = 0 e-st f(t)dt is said to be the Laplace transform of f provided the integral converges. Fill in the following Laplace transforms. L {tn } = L {eat } = L

Yengulalp, Lynne

229

Transforming IMAGINATION  

E-print Network

and translational research and help drive medical breakthroughs that will transform the health and well by rapid advances and breakthroughs on such fronts as genetics, genomics, immunology, informatics and stem and financial rewards of being the first to achieve major scientific breakthroughs. To compete effectively

Weber, David J.

230

Exploring Transformations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In this activity, students will explore transformations of an absolute value function. Step by step instructions guide students in using graphing calculators to examine the effect that stretching and translating has on the coordinates of the graph. Teacher notes and a worksheet are also included to aid in teaching this lesson.

2011-11-25

231

Transforming Schools.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The authors in this book address the issues that relate to the crisis in American education and review some of the proposed solutions. To transform education, schools must be examined as social systems that are interrelated with families, communities, and the world of work. Following the introduction, section 1, "Conditions for Educational…

Cookson, Peter W., Jr., Ed.; Schneider, Barbara, Ed.

232

Humanitarianism Transformed  

Microsoft Academic Search

The scale, scope, and significance of humanitarian action have expanded significantly since the late 1980s. This article reflects on two ways in which humanitarianism has been transformed. First, its purpose has been politicized. Whereas once humanitarian actors attempted to insulate themselves from the world of politics, they now work closely with states and attempt to eliminate the root causes of

Michael Barnett

2005-01-01

233

Transformation Time  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The program for the march by librarians on America's capital for the American Library Association (ALA) conference is predictably loaded with lobbying, legislation, and DC tours. It also abounds with professional opportunity and reflects the impact of Leslie Burger, one of the most activist ALA presidents in recent history. Her "Transformation"…

Berry, John N., III

2007-01-01

234

Transformation & Metamorphosis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The sculptures of Canadian artist Brian Jungen are a great inspiration for a lesson on creating new forms. Jungen transforms found objects into unique creations without fully concealing their original form or purpose. Frank Stella's sculpture series, including "K.132,2007" made of stainless steel and spray paint, is another great example of…

Lott, Debra

2009-01-01

235

Characterization of the plasminogen activator of herpesvirus-transformed cells and examination of its correlation with the tumorigenic and metastatic ability of in vivo-derived sublines  

SciTech Connect

Herpes simplex virus type 2-transformed hamster embryo fibroblasts (333-8-9 cells) produce increased amounts of plasminogen activator (PA) compared with normal hamster cells. The 333-8-9 PA activity was quantitated in comparison to a PA standard, urokinase (UK). Using a direct PA assay in which /sup 125/I-labeled plasminogen is cleaved, a linear dose-response was seen over a 1000-fold range in UK concentration when plotted on a semi-logarithmic scale. Extracellular PA activity secreted by the HSV-2-transformed cell line, 333-8-9, followed a similar dose-response slop. The optimum pH and osmolarity for detection of the 333-8-9 extracellular PA activity were pH 8.9 and approximately 150 mOsmol, respectively. Secretion of PA by the 333-8-9 cells did not vary significantly on a per cell basis over cell densities ranging from 0.1 to 8.0 x 10/sup 7/ cells/T-75 cm/sup 2/ flask. This assay was accurate, reproducible, and demonstrated that the 333-8-9 cells produced at least a 20-fold greater amount of PA activity than their normal cell counterparts. Based on the molecular weight (50-58 Kd) of the secreted 333-8-9 cell PA and lack of fibrin stimulation of the PA activity, it is concluded to be a urokinase-type PA.

Marks, G.J.

1986-01-01

236

Transformations Journal  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Different forms of communication have always had a tendency to transform interactions and everyday life in ways that have surprised people from many different backgrounds. Academics have long been interested in such dynamic transformations, and this electronic journal represents one of the responses to such processes. As their site notes, this journal is "dedicated to the exploration of ideas, issues and debates emerging out of contemporary global culture." Visitors to the site can read the complete version of every issue on the site, and they will be pleased to find such intriguing titles as "Rethinking Regionality", "Accidental Environments", and "Fleeing the City". Interested parties can also consult the site to learn about the journal's editorial board, their calls for papers, submission guidelines, and related links.

237

Expression and Functional Characterization of the Agrobacterium VirB2 Amino Acid Substitution Variants in T-pilus Biogenesis, Virulence, and Transient Transformation Efficiency  

PubMed Central

Agrobacterium tumefaciens is a phytopathogenic bacterium that causes crown gall disease by transferring transferred DNA (T-DNA) into the plant genome. The translocation process is mediated by the type IV secretion system (T4SS) consisting of the VirD4 coupling protein and 11 VirB proteins (VirB1 to VirB11). All VirB proteins are required for the production of T-pilus, which consists of processed VirB2 (T-pilin) and VirB5 as major and minor subunits, respectively. VirB2 is an essential component of T4SS, but the roles of VirB2 and the assembled T-pilus in Agrobacterium virulence and the T-DNA transfer process remain unknown. Here, we generated 34 VirB2 amino acid substitution variants to study the functions of VirB2 involved in VirB2 stability, extracellular VirB2/T-pilus production and virulence of A. tumefaciens. From the capacity for extracellular VirB2 production (ExB2+ or ExB2?) and tumorigenesis on tomato stems (Vir+ or Vir?), the mutants could be classified into three groups: ExB2?/Vir?, ExB2?/Vir+, and ExB2+/Vir+. We also confirmed by electron microscopy that five ExB2?/Vir+ mutants exhibited a wild-type level of virulence with their deficiency in T-pilus formation. Interestingly, although the five T-pilus?/Vir+ uncoupling mutants retained a wild-type level of tumorigenesis efficiency on tomato stems and/or potato tuber discs, their transient transformation efficiency in Arabidopsis seedlings was highly attenuated. In conclusion, we have provided evidence for a role of T-pilus in Agrobacterium transformation process and have identified the domains and amino acid residues critical for VirB2 stability, T-pilus biogenesis, tumorigenesis, and transient transformation efficiency. PMID:24971727

Wu, Hung-Yi; Chen, Chao-Ying; Lai, Erh-Min

2014-01-01

238

Characterization of ancient glass excavated in Enez (Ancient Ainos) Turkey by combined Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis and Fourier Transform Infrared spectrometry techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Ancient glass fragments excavated in the archaeological district Enez (Ancient Ainos)-Turkey were investigated by combined Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometry techniques. Multi-elemental contents of 15 glass fragments that belong to Hellenistic, Roman, Byzantine, and Ottoman Periods, were determined by INAA. The concentrations of twenty six elements (Na, K, Ca, Sc, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, As, Rb, Sr, Sb, Cs, Ba, Ce, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb, Lu, Hf, Ta, Au and Th), which might be present in the samples as flux, stabilizers, colorants or opacifiers, and impurities, were examined. Chemometric treatment of the INAA data was performed and principle component analysis revealed presence of 3 distinct groups. The thermal history of the glass samples was determined by FTIR spectrometry.

Akyuz, Sevim; Akyuz, Tanil; Mukhamedshina, Nuranya M.; Mirsagatova, A. Adiba; Basaran, Sait; Cakan, Banu

2012-05-01

239

Use of wavelet-packet transforms to develop an engineering model for multifractal characterization of mutation dynamics in pathological and nonpathological gene sequences  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This study uses dynamical analysis to examine in a quantitative fashion the information coding mechanism in DNA sequences. This exceeds the simple dichotomy of either modeling the mechanism by comparing DNA sequence walks as Fractal Brownian Motion (fbm) processes. The 2-D mappings of the DNA sequences for this research are from Iterated Function System (IFS) (Also known as the ``Chaos Game Representation'' (CGR)) mappings of the DNA sequences. This technique converts a 1-D sequence into a 2-D representation that preserves subsequence structure and provides a visual representation. The second step of this analysis involves the application of Wavelet Packet Transforms, a recently developed technique from the field of signal processing. A multi-fractal model is built by using wavelet transforms to estimate the Hurst exponent, H. The Hurst exponent is a non-parametric measurement of the dynamism of a system. This procedure is used to evaluate gene- coding events in the DNA sequence of cystic fibrosis mutations. The H exponent is calculated for various mutation sites in this gene. The results of this study indicate the presence of anti-persistent, random walks and persistent ``sub-periods'' in the sequence. This indicates the hypothesis of a multi-fractal model of DNA information encoding warrants further consideration. This work examines the model's behavior in both pathological (mutations) and non-pathological (healthy) base pair sequences of the cystic fibrosis gene. These mutations both natural and synthetic were introduced by computer manipulation of the original base pair text files. The results show that disease severity and system ``information dynamics'' correlate. These results have implications for genetic engineering as well as in mathematical biology. They suggest that there is scope for more multi-fractal models to be developed.

Walker, David Lee

1999-12-01

240

Characterization of Cancer Stem-Like Cells Derived from Mouse Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells Transformed by Tumor-Derived Extracellular Vesicles  

PubMed Central

Several studies have shown that cancer niche can perform an active role in the regulation of tumor cell maintenance and progression through extracellular vesicles-based intercellular communication. However, it has not been reported whether this vesicle-mediated communication affects the malignant transformation of normal stem cells/progenitors. We have previously reported that the conditioned medium derived from the mouse Lewis Lung Carcinoma (LLC) cell line can convert mouse induced pluripotent stem cells (miPSCs) into cancer stem cells (CSCs), indicating that normal stem cells when placed in an aberrant microenvironment can give rise to functionally active CSCs. Here, we focused on the contribution of tumor-derived extracellular vesicles (tEVs) that are secreted from LLC cells to induce the transformation of miPSCs into CSCs. We isolated tEVs from the conditioned medium of LLC cells, and then the differentiating miPSCs were exposed to tEVs for 4 weeks. The resultant tEV treated cells (miPS-LLCev) expressed Nanog and Oct3/4 proteins comparable to miPSCs. The frequency of sphere formation of the miPS-LLCev cells in suspension culture indicated that the self-renewal capacity of the miPS-LLCev cells was significant. When the miPS-LLCev cells were subcutaneously transplanted into Balb/c nude mice, malignant liposarcomas with extensive angiogenesis developed. miPS-LLCevPT and miPS-LLCevDT, the cells established from primary site and disseminated liposarcomas, respectively, showed their capacities to self-renew and differentiate into adipocytes and endothelial cells. Moreover, we confirmed the secondary liposarcoma development when these cells were transplanted. Taken together, these results indicate that miPS-LLCev cells possess CSC properties. Thus, our current study provides the first evidence that tEVs have the potential to induce CSC properties in normal tissue stem cells/progenitors. PMID:25057308

Yan, Ting; Mizutani, Akifumi; Chen, Ling; Takaki, Mai; Hiramoto, Yuki; Matsuda, Shuichi; Shigehiro, Tsukasa; Kasai, Tomonari; Kudoh, Takayuki; Murakami, Hiroshi; Masuda, Junko; Hendrix, Mary J. C.; Strizzi, Luigi; Salomon, David S.; Fu, Li; Seno, Masaharu

2014-01-01

241

An integrated approach to characterization of microbial exudates and investigation of their role in the spatial distribution and transformations of uranium at the mineral-microbe interface  

SciTech Connect

The long-term aim of this project was to understand the role of microbiota and their polymers (EPS) in controlling the distribution and fates of contaminants in subsurface environments. Additionally, this project also focused on the identification and characterization of extracellular proteins under a variety of growth conditions. Finally, this project sought to develop and advance the use of a variety of synchrotron-based hard-x-ray techniques to address a number of different ERSP elements.

Kemner, K.M.; O'Loughlin, E.J.; Kelly, S.D.; Nealson, K.H.

2006-06-01

242

Characterization of photo-transformation products of the antibiotic drug Ciprofloxacin with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in combination with accurate mass determination using an LTQ-Orbitrap.  

PubMed

The presence of pharmaceuticals, especially antibiotics, in the aquatic environment is of growing concern. Several studies have been carried out on the occurrence and environmental risk of these compounds. Ciprofloxacin (CIP), a broad-spectrum anti-microbial second-generation fluoroquinolone, is widely used in human and veterinary medicine. In this work, photo-degradation of CIP in aqueous solution using UV and xenon lamps was studied. The transformation products (TPs), created from CIP, were initially analyzed by an ion trap in the MS, MS/MS and MS(3) modes. These data were used to clarify the structures of the degradation products. Furthermore, the proposed products were confirmed by accurate mass measurement and empirical formula calculation for the molecular ions of TPs using LTQ-Orbitrap XL mass spectrometer. The degree of mineralization, the abundance of detected TPs and degradation pathways were determined. Eleven TPs were detected in the present study. TP1, which was never detected before, was structurally characterized in this work. All TPs still retained the core quinolone structure, which is responsible for the biological activity. As mineralization of CIP and its transformation products did not happen, the formation of stable TPs can be expected in waste water treatment and in surface water with further follow-up problems. PMID:24630245

Haddad, Tarek; Kümmerer, Klaus

2014-11-01

243

Hamlet's Transformation.  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

William Shakespeare's Hamlet has much evidence to suggest that the Bard was aware of the cosmological models of his time, specifically the geocentric bounded Ptolemaic and Tychonic models, and the infinite Diggesian. Moreover, Shakespeare describes how the Ptolemaic model is to be transformed to the Diggesian. Hamlet's "transformation" is the reason that Claudius, who personifies the Ptolemaic model, summons Rosencrantz and Guildenstern, who personify the Tychonic. Pantometria, written by Leonard Digges and his son Thomas in 1571, contains the first technical use of the word "transformation." At age thirty, Thomas Digges went on to propose his Perfit Description, as alluded to in Act Five where Hamlet's age is given as thirty. In Act Five as well, the words "bore" and "arms" refer to Thomas' vocation as muster-master and his scientific interest in ballistics. England's leading astronomer was also the father of the poet whose encomium introduced the First Folio of 1623. His oldest child Dudley became a member of the Virginia Company and facilitated the writing of The Tempest. Taken as a whole, such manifold connections to Thomas Digges support Hotson's contention that Shakespeare knew the Digges family. Rosencrantz and Guildenstern in Hamlet bear Danish names because they personify the Danish model, while the king's name is latinized like that of Claudius Ptolemaeus. The reason Shakespeare anglicized "Amleth" to "Hamlet" was because he saw a parallel between Book Three of Saxo Grammaticus and the eventual triumph of the Diggesian model. But Shakespeare eschewed Book Four, creating this particular ending from an infinity of other possibilities because it "suited his purpose," viz. to celebrate the concept of a boundless universe of stars like the Sun.

Usher, P. D.

1997-12-01

244

Rotary Transformer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

None given. From first Par: Many spacecraft (S/C) and surface rovers require the transfer of signals and power across rotating interfaces. Science instruments, antennas and solar arrays are elements needing rotary power transfer for certain (S/C) configurations. Delivery of signal and power has mainly been done by using the simplest means, the slip ring approach. This approach, although simple, leaves debris generating noise over a period of time...The rotary transformer is a good alternative to slip rings for signal and power transfer.

McLyman, Colonel Wm. T.

1996-01-01

245

Corn transformed  

SciTech Connect

Researchers have produced fertile corn transformed with a foreign gene that makes the plants resistant to the herbicide bialaphos. This achievement, is the first report of fertile transgenic corn in the reviewed literature, and it is the capstone of almost a decade's efforts to genetically engineer this country's most important crop. The only other major crop to be so manipulated is rice. The ability produce transgenic corn gives biologists a valuable tool to probe the whys and hows of gene expression and regulation. It may also give plant breeders a way to develop new corn varieties with a speed and predictability that would be impossible with classical breeding techniques.

Moffat, A.S.

1990-08-10

246

Identification and Characterization of a Ginsenoside-Transforming ?-Glucosidase from Pseudonocardia sp. Gsoil 1536 and Its Application for Enhanced Production of Minor Ginsenoside Rg2(S)  

PubMed Central

The ginsenoside Rg2(S), which is one of the pharmaceutical components of ginseng, is known to have neuroprotective, anti-inflammation, and anti-diabetic effects. However, the usage of ginsenoside Rg2(S) is restricted owing to the small amounts found in white and red ginseng. To enhance the production of ginsenoside Rg2(S) as a 100 gram unit with high specificity, yield, and purity, an enzymatic bioconversion method was developed to adopt the recombinant glycoside hydrolase (BglPC28), which is a ginsenoside-transforming recombinant ?-glucosidase from Pseudonocardia sp. strain Gsoil 1536. The gene, termed bglPC28, encoding ?-glucosidase (BglPC28) belonging to the glycoside hydrolase family 3 was cloned. bglPC28 consists of 2,232 bp (743 amino acid residues) with a predicted molecular mass of 78,975 Da. This enzyme was overexpressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) using a GST-fused pGEX 4T-1 vector system. The optimum conditions of the recombinant BglPC28 were pH 7.0 and 37°C. BglPC28 can effectively transform the ginsenoside Re to Rg2(S); the Km values of PNPG and Re were 6.36±1.10 and 1.42±0.13 mM, respectively, and the Vmax values were 40.0±2.55 and 5.62±0.21 µmol min?1 mg?1 of protein, respectively. A scaled-up biotransformation reaction was performed in a 10 L jar fermenter at pH 7.0 and 30°C for 12 hours with a concentration of 20 mg/ml of ginsenoside Re from American ginseng roots. Finally, 113 g of Rg2(S) was produced from 150 g of Re with 84.0±1.1% chromatographic purity. These results suggest that this enzymatic method could be usefully exploited in the preparation of ginsenoside Rg2(S) in the cosmetics, functional food, and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:24911166

Park, Sung Chul; Kim, Jin-Kwang; Yu, Hong-Shan; Jin, Feng-Xie; Sun, Changkai; Kim, Sun-Chang; Im, Wan-Taek

2014-01-01

247

A Maximum-Likelihood Approach to the Characterization of the Elastic Lithosphere from Gravity and Topography Data  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the words of Albert Tarantola: "Don't make me a model - make me a thousand models, and then draw randomly from those". For seismology, this may be the only approach viable, but to address the related question: "What is the strength of the lithosphere?" we can do better. There we have a multitude of data (topography, gravity anomalies on dense grids) and only a handful of parameters to invert for - which has, however, historically, been surprisingly hard to do. Nevertheless, as Albert would have liked it, we can derive the exact statistical distribution of the estimated unknowns, the parameters of a differential equation with stochastic inputs, with minimal assumptions on the distribution of the data themselves. From this we construct practical algorithms. The lithosphere is modeled using a differential equation characterized by a set of parameters, at least one of which, under the assumption of elastic behavior, is a proxy for its strength: the flexural rigidity (D), or, by extension, the elastic thickness. This lithospheric "system" takes an input: topographic loading by mountain building and other processes, and maps it into an output: the gravity anomaly and the final, measurable, topography. The input is not measurable but some of its properties can be characterized. The outputs are measurable but the relation between them is obfuscated by their stochastic nature and the presence of unmodeled components. Estimating D, usually in the spectral domain, involves constructing summaries of gravity and topography. Both admittance and coherence are popular; both are ratios of the cross-spectral density of gravity and topography to the power spectral densities of either. Despite the fact that neither admittance nor coherence are Gaussian, estimating D usually comes down to the least-squares fitting of a parameterized curve, where Gaussian behavior is tacitly assumed. In this two-step procedure, admittance or coherence are first estimated, and subsequently inverted for the strength parameters. Rarely, if ever, are lithospheric models found that satisfy both coherence and admittance to within their true error. Why don't they? Poorly characterized errors of admittance and coherence are not the only problems with this procedure. There is also the implicit annihilation of information during the construction of these statistics (coarsely sampled, sometimes squared, ratios, measures of the data as they are) themselves. Then there is the fact that we do not want to know coherence and admittance at all - we want to know properties of the lithosphere! In this presentation, we intend to abandon coherence and admittance studies for good, by proposing an entirely different method of estimating flexural rigidity, which returns it and its confidence interval, as well as a host of tests for the suitability of the assumptions made along the way, and the possible presence of correlated loads and anisotropy in the response. The crux of the method is that it employs a "Whittle" maximum-likelihood formulation that remains very grounded in the data themselves, and which is formulated in terms of variables that do have a Gaussian distribution.

Simons, F. J.; Olhede, S. C.

2010-12-01

248

Characterization of CZTSSe photovoltaic device with an atomic layer-deposited passivation layer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe a CZTSSe (Cu2ZnSn(S1-x,Sex)4) photovoltaic (PV) device with an ALD (atomic layer deposition) coated buffer dielectric layer for CZTSSe surface passivation. An ALD buffer layer, such as TiO2, can be applied in order to reduce the interface recombination and improve the device's open-circuit voltage. Detailed characterization data including current-voltage, admittance spectroscopy, and capacitance profiling are presented in order to compare the performance of PV devices with and without the ALD layer.

Wu, Wei; Cao, Yanyan; Caspar, Jonathan V.; Guo, Qijie; Johnson, Lynda K.; Mclean, Robert S.; Malajovich, Irina; Choudhury, Kaushik Roy

2014-07-01

249

The identification and characterization of defect states in hybrid organic-inorganic perovskite photovoltaics.  

PubMed

Thin film photovoltaic cells based on hybrid halide perovskite absorbers have emerged as promising candidates for next generation photovoltaics. Here, we have characterized and identified the defect energy distribution in the CH3NH3PbI3 perovskite using admittance spectroscopy, which reveals a deep defect state ?0.16 eV above the valence band. According to theoretical calculations, the defect state is possibly attributed to iodine interstitials (Ii), which can become the non-radiative recombination centers in the absorber. PMID:25354141

Duan, Hsin-Sheng; Zhou, Huanping; Chen, Qi; Sun, Pengyu; Luo, Song; Song, Tze-Bin; Bob, Brion; Yang, Yang

2014-12-01

250

Fluorescence excitation-emission matrix spectroscopy with regional integration analysis for characterizing composition and transformation of dissolved organic matter in landfill leachates.  

PubMed

Dissolved organic matter (DOM) obtained from landfill leachates was separated into hydrophobic base, hydrophilic matter (HIM), hydrophobic acid (HOA), and hydrophobic neutral fractions. The composition and transformation of the DOM and its fractions were investigated. The results show that the DOM isolated from young, intermediate, and old landfill leachates were mainly composed of tyrosine-, tryptophan-, and humic- and fulvic-like substances, respectively. The primary fractions of the DOM in leachates were HOA and HIM. The HOA and HIM fractions from young leachates predominantly contained tryptophan- and tyrosine-like materials, respectively. The HOA fractions in intermediate and old leachates were mainly composed of humic- and fulvic-like materials, whereas the HIM fractions were dominated by tryptophan-like materials and humic- and fulvic-like substances. The hydrophobic organic fractions and humic- and fulvic-like substances increased with time, whereas the HIM and the tyrosine-like materials decreased during the landfill process, rendering biological processing of leachates ineffective. PMID:21470772

He, Xiao-Song; Xi, Bei-Dou; Wei, Zi-Min; Jiang, Yong-Hai; Yang, Yu; An, Da; Cao, Jin-Ling; Liu, Hong-Liang

2011-06-15

251

Evaluate and characterize mechanisms controlling transport, fate, and effects of army smokes in the aerosol wind tunnel: Transport, transformations, fate, and terrestrial ecological effects of hexachloroethane obscurant smokes  

SciTech Connect

The terrestrial transport, chemical fate, and ecological effects of hexachloroethane (HC) smoke were evaluated under controlled wind tunnel conditions. The primary objectives of this research program are to characterize and assess the impacts of smoke and obscurants on: (1) natural vegetation characteristic of US Army training sites in the United States; (2) physical and chemical properties of soils representative of these training sites; and (3) soil microbiological and invertebrate communities. Impacts and dose/responses were evaluated based on exposure scenarios, including exposure duration, exposure rate, and sequential cumulative dosing. Key to understanding the environmental impacts of HC smoke/obscurants is establishing the importance of environmental parameters such as relative humidity and wind speed on airborne aerosol characteristics and deposition to receptor surfaces. Direct and indirect biotic effects were evaluated using five plant species and two soil types. HC aerosols were generated in a controlled atmosphere wind tunnel by combustion of hexachloroethane mixtures prepared to simulate normal pot burn rates and conditions. The aerosol was characterized and used to expose plant, soil, and other test systems. Particle sizes of airborne HC ranged from 1.3 to 2.1 {mu}m mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD), and particle size was affected by relative humidity over a range of 20% to 85%. Air concentrations employed ranged from 130 to 680 mg/m{sup 3}, depending on exposure scenario. Chlorocarbon concentrations within smokes, deposition rates for plant and soil surfaces, and persistence were determined. The fate of principal inorganic species (Zn, Al, and Cl) in a range of soils was assessed.

Cataldo, D.A.; Ligotke, M.W.; Bolton, H. Jr.; Fellows, R.J.; Van Voris, P.; McVeety, B.D.; Li, Shu-mei W.; McFadden, K.M.

1989-09-01

252

Testability Transformation --Program Transformation to Improve Testability  

E-print Network

Testability Transformation -- Program Transformation to Improve Testability Mark Harman1 , Andr, 26 Richmond Street, Glasgow G1 1XH, UK. Corresponding Author. Abstract. Testability transformation. The goal is to improve the testing process by transforming a program to one that is more amenable

Binkley, David W.

253

Testability Transformation: Program Transformation to Improve Testability  

E-print Network

Testability Transformation: Program Transformation to Improve Testability An Overview of Recent Author. Abstract. Testability transformation is a new form of program transfor- mation in which the goal to some chosen test adequacy criterion. The goal is to improve the testing process by transforming

Singer, Jeremy

254

Hough Transform from the Radon Transform  

Microsoft Academic Search

An appropriate special case of a transform developed by J. Radon in 1917 is shown to have the major properties of the Hough transform which is useful for finding line segments in digital pictures. Such an observation may be useful in further efforts to generalize the Hough transform. Techniques for applying the Radon transform to lines and pixels are developed

Stanley R. Deans

1981-01-01

255

Lagrangian Characterization of the Sources and Chemical Transformation of Airmasses Observed by the NASA DC-8 During ICARTT/INTEX-A  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The global component of the Regional Air Quality Modeling System (RAQMS global) was used to provide atmospheric chemical composition forecasts for flight planning purposes during the 2004 ICARTT/INTEX-A measurement campaign. A unique aspect of these predictions is that satellite ozone observations, including high-vertical-resolution stratospheric profiles, are assimilated to improve the chemical forecasts. Post mission analysis has focused on using Lagrangian back trajectories, initialized from the NASA DC-8 flight track, to characterize the airmasses sampled by the DC-8. In this analysis the dynamical and chemical fields generated by the RAQMS-global prediction are sampled by 5-day back trajectories and then composited to identify the source regions and chemical and dynamical influences on the sampled airmasses. We briefly demonstrate the fidelity of the RAQMS global predictions through comparisons with ozonesonde and aircraft insitu measurements. We then show results of the Lagrangian source analysis to demonstrate the contributions of chemical and dynamical processes to the observed airmass composition, particularly focusing on budgets of ozone and nitrogen oxides. Our analysis shows that the middle and upper tropospheric air sampled over the continental US during July 2004 was strongly influenced by remote source regions including the central Pacific lower stratosphere, eastern Pacific mid troposphere, Canadian free troposphere, and maritime air from the Gulf of Mexico and the Bahamas. Convective vertical exchange during long range transport of these air masses results in a vertical coupling between the upper and lower troposphere, with Lagrangian averaged convective sinks of upper tropospheric ozone and convective sources of lower tropospheric and boundary layer ozone.

Al-Saadi, J.; Pierce, R. B.; Fairlie, T. D.; Kittaka, C.; Schaack, T. K.; Zapotocny, T.; Johnson, D. R.; Avery, M. A.; Thompson, A.; Cohen, R. C.; Dibb, J. E.; Crawford, J. H.; Rault, D. F.; Szykman, J. J.; Martin, R.

2005-12-01

256

Transforming giants.  

PubMed

Large corporations have long been seen as lumbering, inflexible, bureaucratic--and clueless about global developments. But recently some multinationals seem to be transforming themselves: They're engaging employees, moving quickly, and introducing innovations that show true connection with the world. Harvard Business School's Kanter ventured with a research team inside a dozen global giants--including IBM, Procter & Gamble, Omron, CEMEX, Cisco, and Banco Real--to discover what has been driving the change. After conducting more than 350 interviews on five continents, she and her colleagues came away with a strong sense that we are witnessing the dawn of a new model of corporate power: The coordination of actions and decisions on the front lines now appears to stem from widely shared values and a sturdy platform of common processes and technology, not from top-down decrees. In particular, the values that engage the passions of far-flung workforces stress openness, inclusion, and making the world a better place. Through this shift in what might be called their guidance systems, the companies have become as creative and nimble as much smaller ones, even while taking on social and environmental challenges of a scale that only large enterprises could attempt. IBM, for instance, has created a nonprofit partnership, World Community Grid, through which any organization or individual can donate unused computing power to research projects and see what is being done with the donation in real time. IBM has gained an inspiring showcase for its new technology, helped business partners connect with the company in a positive way, and offered individuals all over the globe the chance to contribute to something big. PMID:18271317

Kanter, Rosabeth Moss

2008-01-01

257

Analyzing Signals Fourier transform  

E-print Network

Page 1 1 Analyzing Signals Fourier transform s frequency content s linear combination of sin frequency analysis s windowed Fourier transform 6 #12;Page 4 7 Gabor Transform function to analyze window Gabor Transform Spatial domain Gabor domain b #12;Page 5 9 Gabor Transform Problems s discrete version

Sweldens, Wim

258

transform your thinking transform your environment  

E-print Network

are looking for problem- solvers. And the ability to think critically--and creatively-- tops the lists in the classroom and equip students with the rigorous critical- thinking skills needed to attack complex businessMBA #12;transform your thinking 2 transform your environment 18 transform your career 26 start your

Subramanian, Venkat

259

Transformers Transformer device used to raise (for  

E-print Network

Transformers Transformer ­ device used to raise (for transmission) and lower (for use) the ac voltage in a circuit, keeping iV constant Has 2 coils (primary and secondary) wound on same iron core with different #s of turns #12;Transformers Alternating primary current induces alternating magnetic flux in iron

Bertulani, Carlos A. - Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A&M University

260

Herbicide Transformation  

PubMed Central

Replacement cultures liberated 3,4-dichloroaniline (DCA) from 3,4-dichloropropionanilide (propanil). The kinetics of the conversion suggest a requirement for de novo enzyme synthesis, but the system was not influenced by chloramphenicol or puromycin. Enzyme activity was detected when acetanilide (Km = 0.195 mm) was used to replace propanil as substrate. Fungal acylamidase (E.C. 3.5.1., an aryl acylamine amidohydrolase) was concentrated by salt precipitation and characterized. The Fusarium solani acylamidase exhibited an optimum at pH 7.5 to 9.0 and was inactivated in 10 min at 50 C. The enzyme was not sensitive to methyl-carbamate or organophosphate insecticides, but the herbicide, Ramrod (N-isopropyl-2-chloroacetanilide), acted as a competitive inhibitor of acetanilide hydrolysis (Ki = 0.167 mm). Hydrolysis rates were decreased by various para substitutions of acetanilide. Chloro substitution in the acyl moiety of acetanilide also reduced the rate of hydrolysis. 3,4-Dichloroacetanilide was less susceptible to enzyme action than acetanilide, but 3,4-dichloropropionanilide was hydrolyzed much more rapidly than propionanilide. The fungal acylamidase was highly specific for N-acetylarylamines. It did not catalyze hydrolysis of formanilide, butyranilide, dicryl, Karsil, fenuron, monuron, or isopropyl-N-phenylcarbamate. It appears to differ from acylamidases that have been isolated from rice, rat liver, chick kidney, and Neurospora. PMID:5437306

Lanzilotta, R. P.; Pramer, David

1970-01-01

261

GIS TRANSFORMATIONS Conference Presentation  

E-print Network

GIS TRANSFORMATIONS Conference Presentation Waldo Tobler Geography Department University, line, area, or field phenomena, then the sixteen common classes of transformation are: point -> point (scalar, vector, tensor) data, to obtain eighty distinct possible classes of transformation. The common

Tobler, Waldo

262

Co-fired magnetoelectric transformer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we demonstrate a co-fired magnetoelectric (ME) laminate consisting of piezoelectric/magnetostrictive/piezoelectric layers with unipoled piezoelectric transformer structure. The ME transformer was characterized by quantifying the voltage gain variation and resonance frequency shift as a function of applied DC magnetic field. We delineate the magnetic tunability feature by considering the magnetoelectric coupling and delta-E effect, where E represents the modulus of magnetic material. The ME response of the composite structure was found to be 473 mV/cm.Oe exhibiting DC field sensitivity of 100 nT under AC field of 1 Oe at 1 kHz. At a magnetic bias of 60 Oe, the transformer exhibited large frequency tunability of the order of 1.4 Hz/Oe. These results present significant advancement towards developing on-chip magnetic-field-tunable devices.

Zhou, Yuan; Yan, Yongke; Priya, Shashank

2014-06-01

263

Phase Transformations in Confined Nanosystems  

SciTech Connect

This project discovered that non-equilibrium structures, including chemically ordered structures not observed in bulk systems, form in isolated nanoscale systems. Further, a generalized model was developed that effectively explained the suppression of equilibrium phase transformations. This thermodynamic model considered the free energy decrease associated with the phase transformation was less than the increase in energy associated with the formation of an interphase interface, therefore inhibiting the phase transformation. A critical diameter exists where the system transitions to bulk behavior, and a generalized equation was formulated that successfully predicted this transition in the Fe-Au system. This provided and explains a new route to novel structures not possible in bulk systems. The structural characterization was accomplished using transmission electron microscopy in collaboration with Matthew Kramer of Ames Laboratory. The PI and graduate student visited Ames Laboratory several times a year to conduct the experiments.

Shield, Jeffrey E. [Department of Mechanical & Materials Engineering] [Department of Mechanical & Materials Engineering; Belashchenko, Kirill [Department of Physics & Astronomy] [Department of Physics & Astronomy

2014-04-29

264

The geology of the Oceanographer Transform: The transform domain  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three dives in submersible ALVIN and four deep-towed camera lowerings have been made along the transform valley of the Oceanographer Transform. These data constrain our understanding of the processes that create and shape the distinctive morphology that is characteristic of slowly slipping ridge-transform-ridge (RTR) plate boundaries. Our data suggest that the locus of strike-slip tectonism, called the transform fault zone (TFZ), is confined to a narrow swath (<4 km) that is centered along the axis of maximum depth. The TFZ is flanked by the inward facing slopes of the transform valley. The lower portions of the valley walls are characterized by broad sloping exposures of undisrupted sediment but at higher elevations the walls are made up of inward facing scarps and terraces of variable dimensions. Although the scarps have been badly degraded by mass wasting, there is no evidence to suggest that these scarps have accommodated significant amounts of strike-slip motion. Plutonic and ultramafic rocks are exposed on these scarps and the occurrence of this diverse assemblage on small-throw faults indicates that the crust is thin and/or discontinuous in this environment. We suggest that this complex igneous assemblage is the product of anomalous accretionary processes that are characteristic of slowly-slipping RTR plate boundaries.

Fox, P. J.; Moody, R. H.; Karson, J. A.; Bonatti, E.; Kidd, W. S. F.; Crane, K.; Gallo, D. G.; Stroup, J. B.; Fornari, D. J.; Elthon, D.; Hamlyn, P.; Casey, J. F.; Needham, D.; Sartori, R.

1985-09-01

265

Characterization of large-scale fluctuations and short-term variability of Seine river daily streamflow (France) over the period 1950-2008 by empirical mode decomposition and the Hilbert-Huang transform  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Daily Seine river flow from 1950 to 2008 was analyzed using Hilbert-Huang Tranform (HHT). For the last ten years, this method which combines the so-called Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) multiresolution analysis and the Hilbert transform has proven its efficiency for the analysis of transient oscillatory signals, although the mathematical definition of the EMD is not totally established yet. HHT also provides an interesting alternative to other time-frequency or time-scale analysis of non-stationary signals, the most famous of which being wavelet-based approaches. In this application of HHT to the analysis of the hydrological variability of the Seine river, we seek to characterize the interannual patterns of daily flow, differenciate them from the short-term dynamics and eventually interpret them in the context of regional climate regime fluctuations. In this aim, HHT is also applied to the North-Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) through the annual winter-months NAO index time series. For both hydrological and climatic signals, dominant variability scales are extracted and their temporal variations analyzed by determination of the intantaneous frequency of each component. When compared to previous ones obtained from continuous wavelet transform (CWT) on the same data, HHT results highlighted the same scales and somewhat the same internal components for each signal. However, HHT allowed the identification and extraction of much more similar features during the 1950-2008 period (e.g., around 7-yr, between NAO and Seine flow than what was obtained from CWT, which comes to say that variability scales in flow likely to originate from climatic regime fluctuations were much properly identified in river flow. In addition, a more accurate determination of singularities in the natural processes analyzed were authorized by HHT compared to CWT, in which case the time-frequency resolution partly depends on the basic properties of the filter (i.e., the reference wavelet chosen initially). Compared to CWT or even to discrete wavelet multiresolution analysis, HHT is auto-adaptive, non-parametric, allows an orthogonal decomposition of the signal analyzed and provides a more accurate estimation of changing variability scales across time for highly transient signals.

Massei, N.; Fournier, M.

2010-12-01

266

Transforming human gait for signature signals characterization  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An integrated wireless inductive sensor is reported based on a system for monitoring human movement and body size. The proposed system senses the presence of human beings using electromagnetic field by making use of basic inductive coupling approach, hence analysing the performance of human monitoring. The amalgamation of the integrated system proposed will help in providing better services to the elderly people resided in healthcare centres. The developed sensing system is of low cost, flexible, robust, and easily implantable and capable of inductive sensing through marking signature waveforms as a result of human movements.

Arshad, Atika; Fadzil Ismail, Ahmad; Khan, Sheroz; Zahirul Alam, A. H. M.; Tasnim, Rumana; Samnan Haider, Syed; Shobaki, Mohammed M.; Shahid, Zeeshan

2013-12-01

267

Discrete Cosine Transform  

Microsoft Academic Search

A discrete cosine transform (DCT) is defined and an algorithm to compute it using the fast Fourier transform is developed. It is shown that the discrete cosine transform can be used in the area of digital processing for the purposes of pattern recognition and Wiener filtering. Its performance is compared with that of a class of orthogonal transforms and is

N. Ahmed; T. Natarajan; K. R. Rao

1974-01-01

268

transformation languages Introduction  

E-print Network

transformation languages Introduction Transformation languages are widely used for to process can I change / transform the design of a certain task without changing it's logic The common/and hierarchical or/and abstract set of information. It can even be a stream of data. · The transformation engine

Nierstrasz, Oscar

269

Hadamard transform image coding  

Microsoft Academic Search

The introduction of the fast Fourier transform algorithm has led to the development of the Fourier transform image coding technique whereby the two-dimensional Fourier transform of an image is transmitted over a channel rather than the image itself. This devlopement has further led to a related image coding technique in which an image is transformed by a Hadamard matrix operator.

W. K. Pratt; J. Kane; H. C. Andrews

1969-01-01

270

Admittance and subthreshold characteristics of atomic-layer-deposition Al2O3 on In0.53Ga0.47As in surface and buried channel flatband metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The admittances and subthreshold characteristics of capacitors and MOSFETs on buried and surface In0.53Ga0.47As channel flatband wafers, with a dielectric of Al2O3 deposited on In0.53Ga0.47As, are reported. The admittance characteristics of both wafers indicate the presence of defect states within the oxide, in common with a number of other oxides on In0.53Ga0.47As. The two wafers studied have not been hydrogen annealed, but do show some similar features to FGA treated oxides on n+ substrates. We discuss how the possible presence of residual hydroxyl ions in as-grown Al2O3 may explain these similarities and also account for many of the changes in the properties of FGA treated n+ samples. The issues around the comparison of subthreshold swing (SS) results and the impact of transistor design parameters on the energy portion of the defect state distribution affecting efficient device switching are discussed. The interface state model is applied to low source-drain voltage SS data to extract an effective interface state density (Dit) that includes interface and oxide traps. The logarithmic gate voltage sweep rate dependence of the SS Dit is used to extract an oxide trap density (Dot) and a simple method is used to estimate the Fermi level position within the band gap, Et. The Al2O3 Dit(Et) and Dot(Et) distributions are found to be similar to each other and to the results of our analysis of Gd0.25Ga0.15O0.6/Ga2O3 and HfO2/Al2O3 on In0.53Ga0.47As, adding weight to the suggestion of there being a common defect state distribution and perhaps a common cause of defects states for a number of oxides on In0.53Ga0.47As.

Paterson, G. W.; Bentley, S. J.; Holland, M. C.; Thayne, I. G.; Ahn, J.; Long, R. D.; McIntyre, P. C.; Long, A. R.

2012-05-01

271

The Funk transform as a Penrose transform  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Funk transform is the integral transform from the space of smooth even functions on the unit sphere S2[subset or is implied by][open face R]3 to itself defined by integration over great circles. One can regard this transform as a limit in a certain sense of the Penrose transform from [open face C][open face P]2 to [open face C][open face P]*ast;2. We exploit this viewpoint by developing a new proof of the bijectivity of the Funk transform which proceeds by considering the cohomology of a certain involutive (or formally integrable) structure on an intermediate space. This is the simplest example of what we hope will prove to be a general method of obtaining results in real integral geometry by means of complex holomorphic methods derived from the Penrose transform.

Bailey, Toby N.; Eastwood, Michael G.; Gover, A. Rod; Mason, Lionel J.

1999-01-01

272

Evaluate and characterize mechanisms controlling transport, fate and effects of Army smokes in the aerosol wind tunnel: Transport, transformations, fate, and terrestrial ecological effects of red phosphorus-butyl rubber and white phosphorus obscurant smokes: Final report  

SciTech Connect

An evaluation of the terrestrial transport, transformations and ecological effects of phosphorus (red phosphorus-butyl rubber (RP/BR)) smoke obscurant was performed at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. A similar evaluation using white phosphorus (WP) smoke/obscurant is currently proceeding. The objective is to characterize the effects of smokes and obscurants on: (1) natural vegetation characteristic of US Army training sites in the United States; (2) physical and chemical properties of representative of soils of those sites; and (3) soil microbiological communities. The influence and interactions of smoke/obscurant concentration, relative humidity (25%, 60%, 90% and simulated rain) and wind speed of 0.22 to 4.45 m/s by smoke is assessed. Five plant species and four soils were exposed to both single and repeated doses of RP/BR smokes in the Pacific Northwest Laboratory ''P-3'' rated recirculating environmental wind tunnel. Detailed results for RP/BR and limited results for WP are presented. Toxicity symptoms for plants exposed for 2, 4, 6, and 8 hours to concentrations of RP/BR ranging from 200 mg/m/sup 3/ included leaf tip burn, leaf curl, leaf abscission and drop, floral abortion, chlorosis, neucrotic spotting, wilting, desiccation and dieback. Grass and bushbean were the most sensitive. The intensity and duration of these effects varied. Soils effects data suggest that there is an increase in the mobility of selected trace elements after exposure; however, this effect appears to be ameliorated with time. Soil microbial community effects show a reduction in the production of nitrate after soil is exposed to RP/BR smoke. Most of the plant, soil and soil microbial effects are transient in nature and are somewhat less intense resulting from repeated exposures; however, there is evidence that some of these environmental impacts may be persistent. 43 refs., 44 figs., 67 tabs.

Van Voris, P.; Ligotke, M.W.; McFadden, K.M.; Li, S.M.W.; Thomas, B.L.; Cataldo, D.A.; Garland, T.R.; Fredrickson, J.K.; Bean, R.M.; Carlile, D.W.

1987-10-01

273

Arsenic(V) Reduction in Relation to Iron(III) Transformation and Molecular Characterization of the Structural and Functional Microbial Community in Sediments of a Basin-Fill Aquifer in Northern Utah  

PubMed Central

Basin-fill aquifers of the Southwestern United States are associated with elevated concentrations of arsenic (As) in groundwater. Many private domestic wells in the Cache Valley Basin, UT, have As concentrations in excess of the U.S. EPA drinking water limit. Thirteen sediment cores were collected from the center of the valley at the depth of the shallow groundwater and were sectioned into layers based on redoxmorphic features. Three of the layers, two from redox transition zones and one from a depletion zone, were used to establish microcosms. Microcosms were treated with groundwater (GW) or groundwater plus glucose (GW+G) to investigate the extent of As reduction in relation to iron (Fe) transformation and characterize the microbial community structure and function by sequencing 16S rRNA and arsenate dissimilatory reductase (arrA) genes. Under the carbon-limited conditions of the GW treatment, As reduction was independent of Fe reduction, despite the abundance of sequences related to Geobacter and Shewanella, genera that include a variety of dissimilatory iron-reducing bacteria. The addition of glucose, an electron donor and carbon source, caused substantial shifts toward domination of the bacterial community by Clostridium-related organisms, and As reduction was correlated with Fe reduction for the sediments from the redox transition zone. The arrA gene sequencing from microcosms at day 54 of incubation showed the presence of 14 unique phylotypes, none of which were related to any previously described arrA gene sequence, suggesting a unique community of dissimilatory arsenate-respiring bacteria in the Cache Valley Basin. PMID:24632255

Mirza, Babur S.; Muruganandam, Subathra; Meng, Xianyu; Sorensen, Darwin L.; Dupont, R. Ryan

2014-01-01

274

Perfect NOT transformation and conjugate transformation  

E-print Network

The perfect NOT transformation, probabilistic perfect NOT transformation and conjugate transformation are studied. Perfect NOT transformation criteria on a quantum state set $S$ of a qubit are obtained. Two necessary and sufficient conditions for realizing a perfect NOT transformation on $S$ are derived. When these conditions are not satisfied we discuss a probabilistic perfect NOT transformation (gate). We construct a probabilistic perfect NOT machine (gate) by a general unitary-reduction operation. With a postselection of the measurement outcomes, the probabilistic NOT gate yields perfectly complements of the input states. We prove that one can realize probabilistically the NOT gate of the input states secretly chosen from a certain set $S=\\{|\\Psi_1>, |\\Psi_2>,..., |\\Psi_n>\\}$ if and only if $|\\Psi_1>, |\\Psi_2>,...,$ and $|\\Psi_n>$ are linearly independent. We also generalize the probabilistic NOT transformation to the conjugate transformation in the multi-level quantum system. The lower bound of the best possible efficiencies attained by a probabilistic perfect conjugate transformation are obtained.

Fengli Yan; Ting Gao; Zhichao Yan

2012-03-15

275

Transformation of the diamond /110/ surface  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The diamond surface undergoes a transformation in its electronic structure by a vacuum anneal at approximately 900 C. This transformation is characterized by the appearance of a feature in the band gap region of the energy loss spectrum. The kinetics of the transformation on the (110) surface is studied by observing the growth of this feature with time and temperature. The transformation is found to be consistent with first-order kinetics with an activation energy of 4.8 eV. It is also found that the band gap feature could be removed by exposure of the transformed surface to excited hydrogen. The results are consistent with the polished diamond (110) surface being covered with hydrogen which removes the band gap states and can be thermally desorbed at approximately 900 C.

Pepper, S. V.

1982-01-01

276

Transformations of $W$-Type Entangled States  

E-print Network

The transformations of $W$-type entangled states by using local operations assisted with classical communication are investigated. For this purpose, a parametrization of the $W$-type states which remains invariant under local unitary transformations is proposed and a complete characterization of the local operations carried out by a single party is given. These are used for deriving the necessary and sufficient conditions for deterministic transformations. A convenient upper bound for the maximum probability of distillation of arbitrary target states is also found.

S. K?nta?; S. Turgut

2010-03-10

277

Optical separable wavelet transform  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Although Optical wavelet transform has some advantages over discrete wavelet transform, but the mother wavelets to used are very few. That limits the signal processing ability of optical wavelet transform. Without scaling functions, the multiresolution analysis of a mother wavelet is not complete. In this paper, almost all the mother wavelets used in discrete wavelet transform are introduced into optical wavelet transform. Based on the analysis, we find whether the mother wavelets have analytical forms is not a necessary condition for implementing them in optical wavelet transform. Optical wavelet transform only needs to obtain the 2D approximations of wavelet functions. Then, with the cascade algorithm, the 1D approximations of scaling and wavelet functions are computed. By the scheme of 2D separable wavelet transform, the approximations of 2D scaling and wavelet functions are constructed. So mother wavelets frequently utilized in discrete wavelet transform are introduced into optical wavelet transform. With the increase of mother wavelet for selection, it is natural to classify optical wavelet transform into separable and non-separable cases as it does in discrete wavelet transform. Since the mothers introduced by the method in this paper are separable, they are included in the separable optical wavelet transform. And the advantages of the separable mothers are listed with corresponding examples.

Cai, De; Tan, Qiaofeng; Yan, Yingbai; Jin, Guofan; He, Qingsheng

2004-11-01

278

Applying Improved Efficiency Transformers  

E-print Network

for reducing transformer losses is based on the evaluation meeting or exceeding a specified internal rate of return (IRR). Proposals for selection and application of improved efficiency transformers are presented as part of the overall summary...

Haggerty, N. K.; Malone, T. P.

279

28-Channel rotary transformer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Transformer transmits power and digital data across rotating interface. Array has many parallel data channels, each with potential l megabaud data rate. Ferrite-cored transformers are spaced along rotor; airgap between them reduces crosstalk.

Mclyman, W. T.

1981-01-01

280

Equations For Rotary Transformers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Equations derived for input impedance, input power, and ratio of secondary current to primary current of rotary transformer. Used for quick analysis of transformer designs. Circuit model commonly used in textbooks on theory of ac circuits.

Salomon, Phil M.; Wiktor, Peter J.; Marchetto, Carl A.

1988-01-01

281

Metrics for enterprise transformation  

E-print Network

The objective of this thesis is to depict the role of metrics in the evolving journey of enterprise transformation. To this end, three propositions are explored: (i) metrics and measurement systems drive transformation, ...

Blackburn, Craig D. (Craig David), S. M. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2009-01-01

282

Entangled symplectic wavelet transformation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The symplectic wavelet transformation proposed in Opt. Lett. 31, 3432 (2006), which is related to the optical Fresnel transform in the quantum optics version, is developed into an entangled symplectic wavelet transformation (ESWT) after pointing out the contrast between the single-mode Fresnel operator and the entangled Fresnel operator. The ESWT possesses well-behaved properties and corresponds to the entangled Fresnel transform [Phys. Lett. A334, 132 (2005)].

Fan, Hong-Yi; Liu, Shu-Guang

2007-06-01

283

Discrete radon transform  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes the discrete Radon transform (DRT) and the exact inversion algorithm for it. Similar to the discrete Fourier transform (DFT), the DRT is defined for periodic vector-sequences and studied as a transform in its own right. Casting the forward transform as a matrix-vector multiplication, the key observation is that the matrix-although very large-has a block-circulant structure. This observation

GREGORY BEYLKIN

1987-01-01

284

Transformer design tradeoffs  

Microsoft Academic Search

In space, power system transformer components are frequently the heaviest and bulkiest items in the power conversion circuit. They also have a significant effect upon the overall performance and efficiency of the system. Accordingly, the design of such transformers has an important effect on overall system weight, power-inversion efficiency, and cost. Relationships were between the parameters used by transformer designers

W. T. McLyman

1977-01-01

285

LAPPED TRANSFORMS COMPRESSION  

E-print Network

Chapter 6 LAPPED TRANSFORMS FOR IMAGE COMPRESSION Ricardo L. de Queiroz Digital Imaging Technology aspects of lapped transforms and their applications to image compression. It is a subject that has been extensively studied mainly because lapped transforms are closely related to filter banks, wavelets, and time

de Queiroz, Ricardo L.

286

Transformations - Composition (NLVM)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Java applet enables learners to explore compositions of two transformations (among sliding, flipping and turning) both informally and within a coordinate system. Students select and compose shapes and manipulate the transformations to see the effect on a transformed image. Links to instructions, activities and teacher/parent information are included.

2011-01-01

287

Animating Transformations Michael Kazhdan  

E-print Network

Animating Transformations Michael Kazhdan (600.357 / 600.457) HB A.6 FvDFH 21.1.3 #12;Recall;Rotations What are rotations? #12;Rotations What are rotations? · A rotation R is a linear transformation? · A rotation R is a linear transformation that has determinant one and preserves angles: Recall that the dot

Kazhdan, Michael

288

Transformational volume holography.  

PubMed

We analyze the bulk elastic transformation of volume holograms as a general approach for three-dimensional pupil engineering. The physical relationship between transformation and the resulting point spread function is discussed by deriving the corresponding analytical expressions. For affine transformations, an analytical solution is directly possible. However, for nonaffine transformations, the analytical solution is not straightforward and we must turn to quasi-analytical solutions using the approximation of the stationary phase. Transformational volume holography offers richer design flexibility and real-time adjustment capabilities for imaging systems. PMID:25401442

Gao, Hanhong; Barbastathis, George

2014-09-01

289

Influence of composition of the near-surface graded-gap layer on the admittance of metal-insulator-semiconductor structures based on graded-gap MBE n-Hg1-xCdxTe in wide temperature range  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Influence of the CdTe content in a near-surface graded-gap layer on the admittance of MIS-structures fabricated on the basis of heteroepitaxial Hg1-xCdxTe (x = 0.22-0.23 and 0.31-0.32) films grown by molecular beam epitaxy was investigated in a wide temperature range. It is shown that a temperature drop from 77 K to 8 K results in a decrease of hysteresis of the capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics and a decrease of frequencies which corresponds to a high-frequency behaviour of C-V characteristics of MIS-structures based on n-HgCdTe (x = 0.22-0.23) with and without graded-gap layersand also for MIS-structures based on n-HgCdTe (x = 0.31-0.32). Temperature dependences of the resistance of the epitaxial film bulk and differential resistance of the space-charge region (SCR) in strong inversion mode were studied. The experimental results can be explained by the fact that for MIS-structures based on n-HgCdTe (x = 0.22-0.23) with the graded-gap layers and for MIS-structures based on n-HgCdTe (x = 0.31-0.32), the differential resistance of SCR is limited by Shockley-Read generation at 25-77 K. Differential resistance of SCR for MIS-structures based on n-HgCdTe (x = 0.22-0.23) without the graded-gap layers is limited by tunnelling through deep levels at 8-77 K.

Voitsekhovskii, A. V.; Nesmelov, S. N.; Dzyadukh, S. M.

2014-12-01

290

Influence of composition of the near-surface graded-gap layer on the admittance of metal-insulator-semiconductor structures based on graded-gap MBE n-Hg1-xCdxTe in wide temperature range  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Influence of the CdTe content in a near-surface graded-gap layer on the admittance of MIS-structures fabricated on the basis of heteroepitaxial Hg1-xCdxTe (x = 0.22-0.23 and 0.31-0.32) films grown by molecular beam epitaxy was investigated in a wide temperature range. It is shown that a temperature drop from 77 K to 8 K results in a decrease of hysteresis of the capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics and a decrease of frequencies which corresponds to a high-frequency behaviour of C-V characteristics of MIS-structures based on n-HgCdTe (x = 0.22-0.23) with and without graded-gap layersand also for MIS-structures based on n-HgCdTe (x = 0.31-0.32). Temperature dependences of the resistance of the epitaxial film bulk and differential resistance of the space-charge region (SCR) in strong inversion mode were studied. The experimental results can be explained by the fact that for MIS-structures based on n-HgCdTe (x = 0.22-0.23) with the graded-gap layers and for MIS-structures based on n-HgCdTe (x = 0.31-0.32), the differential resistance of SCR is limited by Shockley-Read generation at 25-77 K. Differential resistance of SCR for MIS-structures based on n-HgCdTe (x = 0.22-0.23) without the graded-gap layers is limited by tunnelling through deep levels at 8-77 K.

Voitsekhovskii, A. V.; Nesmelov, S. N.; Dzyadukh, S. M.

2014-09-01

291

Estimates for the Fourier-Bessel transforms of multivariate functions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two estimates useful in applications are proved for the Fourier-Bessel (or Hankel) transform in the space {L}_2 ( {{R}_ + ^2 } ) for some classes of two-variable functions characterized by a generalized modulus of continuity.

Abilov, V. A.; Kerimov, M. K.

2012-06-01

292

Transformations between symmetric sets of quantum states  

E-print Network

We investigate probabilistic transformations of quantum states from a `source' set to a `target' set of states. Such transforms have many applications. They can be used for tasks which include state-dependent cloning or quantum state discrimination, and as interfaces between systems whose information encodings are not related by a unitary transform, such as continuous-variable systems and finite-dimensional systems. In a probabilistic transform, information may be lost or leaked, and we explain the concepts of leak and redundancy. Following this, we show how the analysis of probabilistic transforms significantly simplifies for symmetric source and target sets of states. In particular, we give a simple linear program which solves the task of finding optimal transforms, and a method of characterizing the introduced leak and redundancy in information-theoretic terms. Using the developed techniques, we analyse a class of transforms which convert coherent states with information encoded in their relative phase to symmetric qubit states. Each of these sets of states on their own appears in many well studied quantum information protocols. Finally, we suggest an asymptotic realization based on quantum scissors.

Vedran Dunjko; Erika Andersson

2012-06-22

293

PALEYWIENER AND BOAS THEOREMS FOR SINGULAR STURMLIOUVILLE INTEGRAL TRANSFORMS  

E-print Network

PALEY­WIENER AND BOAS THEOREMS FOR SINGULAR STURM­LIOUVILLE INTEGRAL TRANSFORMS VU KIM TUAN that vanishes on some interval (Boas prob­ lem) under this class of transforms. The characterizations­Wiener Theorem, Boas Theorem, Singular Sturm­Liouville Problems, Eigenfunction Expansions, Finite Integral

Zeilberger, Doron

294

Magnetically Controlled Variable Transformer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Improved variable-transformer circuit, output voltage and current of which controlled by use of relatively small current supplied at relatively low power to control windings on its magnetic cores. Transformer circuits of this type called "magnetic amplifiers" because ratio between controlled output power and power driving control current of such circuit large. This ratio - power gain - can be as large as 100 in present circuit. Variable-transformer circuit offers advantages of efficiency, safety, and controllability over some prior variable-transformer circuits.

Kleiner, Charles T.

1994-01-01

295

Amplified quantum transforms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this thesis we investigate two new Amplified Quantum Transforms. In particular we create and analyze the Amplified Quantum Fourier Transform (Amplified-QFT) and the Amplified-Haar Wavelet Transform. The Amplified-QFT algorithm is used to solve the Local Period Problem. We calculate the probabilities of success and compare this algorithm with the QFT and QHS algorithms. We also examine the Amplified-QFT algorithm for solving the Local Period Problem with Error Stream. We use the Amplified-Haar Wavelet Transform for solving the Local Constant or Balanced Signal Decision Problem which is a generalization of the Deutsch-Jozsa problem.

Cornwell, David J.

296

Molecular cloning and characterization of a cellular phosphoprotein that interacts with a conserved C-terminal domain of adenovirus E1A involved in negative modulation of oncogenic transformation.  

PubMed Central

The adenovirus type 2/5 E1A proteins transform primary baby rat kidney (BRK) cells in cooperation with the activated Ras (T24 ras) oncoprotein. The N-terminal half of E1A (exon 1) is essential for this transformation activity. While the C-terminal half of E1A (exon 2) is dispensable, a region located between residues 225 and 238 of the 243R E1A protein negatively modulates in vitro T24 ras cooperative transformation as well as the tumorigenic potential of E1A/T24 ras-transformed cells. The same C-terminal domain is also required for binding of a cellular 48-kDa phosphoprotein, C-terminal binding protein (CtBP). We have cloned the cDNA for CtBP via yeast two-hybrid interaction cloning. The cDNA encodes a 439-amino acid (48 kDa) protein that specifically interacts with exon 2 in yeast two-hybrid, in vitro protein binding, and in vivo coimmunoprecipitation analyses. This protein requires residues 225-238 of the 243R E1A protein for interaction. The predicted protein sequence of the isolated cDNA is identical to amino acid sequences obtained from peptides prepared from biochemically purified CtBP. Fine mapping of the CtBP-binding domain revealed that a 6-amino acid motif highly conserved among the E1A proteins of various human and animal adenoviruses is required for this interaction. These results suggest that interaction of CtBP with the E1A proteins may play a critical role in adenovirus replication and oncogenic transformation. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:7479821

Schaeper, U; Boyd, J M; Verma, S; Uhlmann, E; Subramanian, T; Chinnadurai, G

1995-01-01

297

Shiftable multiscale transforms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Orthogonal wavelet transforms have recently become a popular representation for multiscalesignal and image analysis. One of the major drawbacks of these representations istheir lack of translation invariance: the content of wavelet subbands is unstable under translationsof the input signal. Wavelet transforms are also unstable with respect to dilationsof the input signal, and in two dimensions, rotations of the input signal.

Eero P. Simoncelli; William T. Freeman; Edward H. Adelson; David J. Heeger

1992-01-01

298

Direct current transformer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A direct current transformer in which the primary consists of an elongated strip of superconductive material, across the ends of which is direct current potential is described. Parallel and closely spaced to the primary is positioned a transformer secondary consisting of a thin strip of magnetoresistive material.

Khanna, S. M.; Urban, E. W. (inventors)

1979-01-01

299

Exploring Functional Mellin Transforms  

E-print Network

We define functional Mellin transforms within a scheme for functional integration proposed in [1]. Functional Mellin transforms can be used to define functional traces, logarithms, and determinants. The associated functional integrals are useful tools for probing function spaces in general and $C^\\ast$-algebras in particular. Several interesting aspects are explored.

J. LaChapelle

2015-01-08

300

Transformer design tradeoffs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Technical memorandum includes transformer area product numbers, which are used to summarize dimensional and electrical properties of C-cores, pot cores, lamination, powder cores, and tape-wound cores. To aid in core selection, comparison of five common core materials is presented to indicate their influence on overall transformer efficiency and weight.

Mclyman, W. T.

1977-01-01

301

Genetic Transformation of Bacteria.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

An activity in which students transform an ampicillin-sensitive strain of E. coli with a plasmid containing a gene for ampicillin resistance is described. The procedure for the preparation of competent cells and the transformation of competent E. coli is provided. (KR)

Moss, Robert.

1991-01-01

302

Conformal transformation optics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The field of transformation optics shows that media containing gradients in optical properties are equivalent to curved geometries of spacetime for the propagation of light. Conformal transformation optics -- a particular variant of this feature -- can be used to design devices with novel functionalities from inhomogeneous, isotropic dielectric media.

Xu, Lin; Chen, Huanyang

2015-01-01

303

Deployment & Market Transformation (Brochure)  

SciTech Connect

NREL's deployment and market transformation (D and MT) activities encompass the laboratory's full range of technologies, which span the energy efficiency and renewable energy spectrum. NREL staff educates partners on how they can advance sustainable energy applications and also provides clients with best practices for reducing barriers to innovation and market transformation.

Not Available

2012-04-01

304

A Transformation Called "Twist"  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The transformations found in secondary mathematics curriculum are typically limited to stretches and translations (e.g., ACARA, 2010). Advanced students may find the transformation, twist, to be of further interest. As most available resources are written for professional-level readers, this article is intended to be an introduction accessible to…

Hwang, Daniel

2010-01-01

305

Biochemical transformation of coals  

DOEpatents

A method of biochemically transforming macromolecular compounds found in solid carbonaceous materials, such as coal is provided. The preparation of new microorganisms, metabolically weaned through challenge growth processes to biochemically transform solid carbonaceous materials at extreme temperatures, pressures, pH, salt and toxic metal concentrations is also disclosed. 7 figs.

Lin, M.S.; Premuzic, E.T.

1999-03-23

306

Biochemical transformation of coals  

DOEpatents

A method of biochemically transforming macromolecular compounds found in solid carbonaceous materials, such as coal is provided. The preparation of new microorganisms, metabolically weaned through challenge growth processes to biochemically transform solid carbonaceous materials at extreme temperatures, pressures, pH, salt and toxic metal concentrations is also disclosed.

Lin, Mow S. (Rocky Point, NY); Premuzic, Eugene T. (East Moriches, NY)

1999-03-23

307

Adaptive Wavelet Transforms  

SciTech Connect

Human sensors systems (HSS) may be approximately described as an adaptive or self-learning version of the Wavelet Transforms (WT) that are capable to learn from several input-output associative pairs of suitable transform mother wavelets. Such an Adaptive WT (AWT) is a redundant combination of mother wavelets to either represent or classify inputs.

Szu, H.; Hsu, C. [Univ. of Southwestern Louisiana, Lafayette, LA (United States)

1996-12-31

308

Amplified Quantum Transforms  

E-print Network

In this thesis we investigate two new Amplified Quantum Transforms. In particular we create and analyze the Amplified Quantum Fourier Transform (Amplified-QFT) and the Amplified-Haar Wavelet Transform. First, we provide a brief history of quantum mechanics and quantum computing. Second, we examine the Amplified-QFT in detail and compare it against the Quantum Fourier Transform (QFT) and Quantum Hidden Subgroup (QHS) algorithms for solving the Local Period Problem. We calculate the probabilities of success of each algorithm and show the Amplified-QFT is quadratically faster than the QFT and QHS algorithms. Third, we examine the Amplified-QFT algorithm for solving The Local Period Problem with an Error Stream. Fourth, we produce an uncertainty relation for the Amplified-QFT algorithm. Fifth, we show how the Amplified-Haar Wavelet Transform can solve the Local Constant or Balanced Signal Decision Problem which is a generalization of the Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm.

David Cornwell

2014-06-01

309

Logarithmic transformation of response Logarithmic transformation of response  

E-print Network

Logarithmic transformation of response Logarithmic transformation of response Often, support S of Y is S = (0, ). Logarithm is then one of transformations to consider when trying to obtain a correct (wrong. Model Building 1. Transformation of response #12;Logarithmic transformation of response When does

Komarek, Arnost

310

Program Transformation Mechanics A Classification of Mechanisms for Program Transformation  

E-print Network

Program Transformation Mechanics A Classification of Mechanisms for Program Transformation with a Survey of Existing Transformation Systems Jonne van Wijngaarden Eelco Visser UU-CS-2003-048 Institute Transformation Mechanics A Classification of Mechanisms for Program Transformation with a Survey of Existing

Utrecht, Universiteit

311

Some Properties of Transforms in Culture Theory  

E-print Network

It is shown that, in certain circumstances, systems of cultural rules may be represented by doubly stochastic matrices denoted called possibility transforms, and by certain real valued possibility densities with inner product. Using such objects we may characterize a certain problem of ethnographic and ethological description as a problem of prediction, in which observations are predicted by properties of fixed points of transforms of pure systems, or by properties of convex combinations of such pure systems. That is, ethnographic description is an application of the Birkhoff theorem regarding doubly stochastic matrices on a space whose vertices are permutations.

Paul Ballonoff

2009-03-07

312

Polynomial transformation for MRI feature extraction  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a non-linear (polynomial) transformation to minimize scattering of data points around normal tissue clusters in a normalized MRI feature space, in which normal tissues are clustered around pre-specified target positions. This transformation is motivated by non-linear relationship between MRI pixel intensities and intrinsic tissue parameters (e.g., T1, T2, PD). To determine scattering amount, we use ratio of summation of within-class distances fro clusters to summation of their between-class distances. We find the transformation by minimizing the scattering amount. Next, we generate a 3D visualization of the MRI feature space and define regions of interest (ROI's) on clusters seen for normal and abnormal tissues. We use these ROI's to estimate signature vectors (cluster centers). Finally, we use the signature vectors for segmenting and characterizing tissues. We used simulation, phantom, and brain MRI to evaluate the polynomial transformation and compare it to the linear transformation. In all studies, we were able to identify clusters for normal and abnormal tissues and segment the images. Compared to the linear method, the non-linear approach yields enhanced clustering properties and better separation of normal and abnormal tissues. ON the other hand, the linear transformation is more appropriate than the non-linear method for capturing partial volume information.

Soltanian-Zadeh, Hamid; Kharrat, Mahmood; Peck, Donald J.

2001-07-01

313

A discrete fractional random transform  

E-print Network

We propose a discrete fractional random transform based on a generalization of the discrete fractional Fourier transform with an intrinsic randomness. Such discrete fractional random transform inheres excellent mathematical properties of the fractional Fourier transform along with some fantastic features of its own. As a primary application, the discrete fractional random transform has been used for image encryption and decryption.

Zhengjun Liu; Haifa Zhao; Shutian Liu

2006-05-20

314

Overview of transformer platform showing three original stepup transformer (center), ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

Overview of transformer platform showing three original step-up transformer (center), steel switchback (right), and modern step-down transformer (foreground), view to northwest - Morony Hydroelectric Facility, Dam and Powerhouse, Morony Dam Road, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

315

Lorentz transformation by mimicking the Lorentz transformation  

E-print Network

We show that starting with the fact that special relativity theory is concerned with a distortion of the observed length of a moving rod, without mentioning if it is a "contraction" or "dilation", we can derive the Lorentz transformations for the spacetime coordinates of the same event. This derivation is based on expressing the length of the moving rod as a sum of components with all the lengths involved in this summation being measured by the observers of the same inertial reference frame.

Bernhard Rothenstein; Stefan Popescu

2007-09-24

316

Transformation in Aspergillus ochraceus.  

PubMed

Mutants (lysine requiring) of Aspergillus ochraceus were kept under starvation conditions for 15 days and finally were treated with DNA of a 40-h-old culture of the wild strain. The donor DNA-treated mutant conidia were then grown on plates containing minimal medium at 28 degrees C for 4 days. The number of transformed cells was estimated by colony counting and hence percentage transformants. The transforming activity of the donor DNA was found to be inhibited by the action of heat and variation of pH, and also varied with the period of starvation and with the concentration of donor DNA. PMID:7765888

Saha, D; Das, T K

1995-02-01

317

Biolistics Transformation of Wheat  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a complete, step-by-step guide to the production of transformed wheat plants using a particle bombardment device to deliver plasmid DNA into immature embryos and the regeneration of transgenic plants via somatic embryogenesis. Currently, this is the most commonly used method for transforming wheat and it offers some advantages. However, it will be interesting to see whether this position is challenged as facile methods are developed for delivering DNA by Agrobacterium tumefaciens or by the production of transformants via a germ-line process (see other chapters in this book).

Sparks, Caroline A.; Jones, Huw D.

318

25. VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHWEST INSIDE TRANSFORMER ROOM, SHOWING TRANSFORMERS AND ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

25. VIEW, LOOKING SOUTHWEST INSIDE TRANSFORMER ROOM, SHOWING TRANSFORMERS AND KNIFE SWITCHES - Sacramento River Bridge, Spanning Sacramento River at California State Highway 275, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

319

Transforming California's Freight Transport System  

E-print Network

Transforming California's Freight Transport System Policy Forum on the Role of Freight Transport Standard #12;2050 Vision- Key Conceptual Outcomes Technology Transformation Early Action Cleaner Combustion Multiple Strategies Federal Action Efficiency Gains Energy Transformation 9 #12;Further reduce localized

California at Davis, University of

320

The Quantum Mellin transform  

E-print Network

We uncover a new type of unitary operation for quantum mechanics on the half-line which yields a transformation to ``Hyperbolic phase space''. We show that this new unitary change of basis from the position x on the half line to the Hyperbolic momentum $p_\\eta$, transforms the wavefunction via a Mellin transform on to the critial line $s=1/2-ip_\\eta$. We utilise this new transform to find quantum wavefunctions whose Hyperbolic momentum representation approximate a class of higher transcendental functions, and in particular, approximate the Riemann Zeta function. We finally give possible physical realisations to perform an indirect measurement of the Hyperbolic momentum of a quantum system on the half-line.

J. Twamley; G. J. Milburn

2007-02-12

321

Transformation inverse design  

E-print Network

We present a new technique for the design of transformation-optics devices based on large-scale optimization to achieve the optimal effective isotropic dielectric materials within prescribed index bounds, which is ...

Liu, David

322

Fourier Transform Mass Spectrometry  

PubMed Central

This article provides an introduction to Fourier transform-based mass spectrometry. The key performance characteristics of Fourier transform-based mass spectrometry, mass accuracy and resolution, are presented in the view of how they impact the interpretation of measurements in proteomic applications. The theory and principles of operation of two types of mass analyzer, Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance and Orbitrap, are described. Major benefits as well as limitations of Fourier transform-based mass spectrometry technology are discussed in the context of practical sample analysis, and illustrated with examples included as figures in this text and in the accompanying slide set. Comparisons highlighting the performance differences between the two mass analyzers are made where deemed useful in assisting the user with choosing the most appropriate technology for an application. Recent developments of these high-performing mass spectrometers are mentioned to provide a future outlook. PMID:21742802

Scigelova, Michaela; Hornshaw, Martin; Giannakopulos, Anastassios; Makarov, Alexander

2011-01-01

323

Mathieu integral transforms  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Orthogonality and completeness relations are presented for the quasiorthogonal (i.e., orthogonal with respect to a discontinuous weight function) eigenfunctions of a singular (in the sense of Sturm-Liouville theory) boundary-value problem involving the two-dimensional Helmholtz equation in elliptic-cylinder coordinates. These relations yield as special cases integral transforms whose kernels are products of periodic Mathieu functions and modified Mathieu functions of integral order. The new transforms are analogs of the Weber-Orr transform and of a recently published [J. Math. Phys. 30, 41 (1989)] generalized Hankel transform, and would be applicable to boundary-value problems with elliptical geometries. The proof of the orthogonality and completeness relations is surprisingly simple and is based on a novel application of the Sokhotski-Plemelj equations of distribution theory.

Inayat-Hussain, A. A.

1991-03-01

324

A Classical Science Transformed.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes how satellites and other tools of space technology have transformed classical geodesy into the science of space geodynamics. The establishment and the activities of the French Center for Geodynamic and Astronomical Research Studies (CERGA) are also included. (HM)

Kovalevsky, Jean

1979-01-01

325

Functional Mellin Transforms  

E-print Network

Functional integrals are defined in terms of locally compact topological groups and their associated Banach-valued Haar integrals. This approach generalizes the functional integral scheme of Cartier and DeWitt-Morette. The definition allows a construction of functional Mellin transforms. In turn, the functional Mellin transforms can be used to define functional traces, logarithms, and determinants. The associated functional integrals are useful tools for probing function spaces in general and $C^\\ast$-algebras in particular. Several interesting aspects are explored.

J. LaChapelle

2015-01-07

326

Plant transformation technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Plant transformation has its roots in the research on Agrobacterium that was being undertaken in the early 1980s. The last two decades have seen significant developments in plant transformation\\u000a technology, such that a large number of transgenic crop plants have now been released for commercial production. Advances\\u000a in the technology have been due to development of a range of Agrobacterium-mediated

Christine A. Newell

2000-01-01

327

Admittance of a quantum point contact  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The high frequency conductance G of a quantum point contact was studied for f?300 MHz. While the real part R(G) remains unchanged by frequency we observe a stepwise change of the imaginary part I(G) when adding additional conductance channels. The step height ?I(G) is linear in frequency with a positive slope and thus has capacitive character with a ?C per channel of a few fF.

Hohls, Frank; Fricke, Christian; Haug, Rolf J.

2008-03-01

328

Transformation superplasticity of zirconium  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A tensile strain of 270 pct was achieved for coarse-grained zirconium subjected to transformation superplasticity conditions, where strain increments are accumulated upon repeated thermal cycling around the allotropic transformation temperature under the biasing effect of a uniaxial tensile stress. The strain increment per cycle was found to consist of two equal contributions from transformations on heating and cooling and to increase linearly with the applied stress. The measured strain increments are in good quantitative agreement with predictions based on the average internal stress during the transformation, which was determined independently from experimental transformation times. As the cycling frequency is raised, the average strain rate increases (a maximum value of 1.3·10-4 s-1 was measured), but the strain increment per cycle decreases above a critical cycling frequency, for which the sample gage section undergoes only a partial phase transformation. The resulting reduction in internal mismatch and increase in internal stress are modeled using the experimental observation that ?-Zr deforms by a mixture of diffusional and dislocation creep in the stress range of interest.

Zwigl, Peter; Dunand, David C.

1998-10-01

329

Planar LTCC transformers for high voltage flyback converters.  

SciTech Connect

This paper discusses the design and use of low-temperature (850 C to 950 C) co-fired ceramic (LTCC) planar magnetic flyback transformers for applications that require conversion of a low voltage to high voltage (> 100V) with significant volumetric constraints. Measured performance and modeling results for multiple designs showed that the LTCC flyback transformer design and construction imposes serious limitations on the achievable coupling and significantly impacts the transformer performance and output voltage. This paper discusses the impact of various design factors that can provide improved performance by increasing transformer coupling and output voltage. The experiments performed on prototype units demonstrated LTCC transformer designs capable of greater than 2 kV output. Finally, the work investigated the effect of the LTCC microstructure on transformer insulation. Although this paper focuses on generating voltages in the kV range, the experimental characterization and discussion presented in this work applies to designs requiring lower voltage.

Schofield, Daryl (NASCENT Technology Inc. , Watertown, SD); Schare, Joshua M.; Glass, Sarah Jill; Roesler, Alexander William; Ewsuk, Kevin Gregory; Slama, George (NASCENT Technology Inc. , Watertown, SD); Abel, Dave (NASCENT Technology Inc. , Watertown, SD)

2007-06-01

330

Fungal transformations of uranium oxides.  

PubMed

The biogeochemical activities of free-living and symbiotic fungi must be acknowledged in attempts to understand uranium cycling and dispersal in the environment. Although the near-surface geochemistry of uranium is very complex and a wide variety of mineral phases is known, uranium trioxide (UO3) and triuranium octaoxide (U(3)O(8)) can be used as well characterized models in the study of biotransformations. We have used a complex methodological approach involving advanced solid state speciation and scanning electron microscopy to study the ability of saprotrophic, ericoid and ectomycorrhizal fungi to transform these model oxides. This study has revealed that fungi exhibit a high uranium oxide tolerance, and possess the ability to solubilize UO3 and U(3)O(8) and to accumulate uranium within the mycelium to over 80 mg (g dry weight)(-1) biomass. X-ray absorption spectroscopy of uranium speciation within the biomass showed that in most of the fungi the uranyl ion was coordinated to phosphate ligands, but in ectomycorrhizal fungi mixed phosphate/carboxylate coordination was observed. Abundant uranium precipitates associated with phosphorus were found in the mycelium and encrusted the hyphae. Some of the fungi caused the biomineralization of well-crystallized uranyl phosphate minerals of the meta-autunite group. This is the first experimental evidence for fungal transformations of uranium solids and the production of secondary mycogenic uranium minerals. PMID:17564604

Fomina, M; Charnock, J M; Hillier, S; Alvarez, R; Gadd, G M

2007-07-01

331

Establishment and characterization of a SV40 T-antigen immortalized epithelial-like cell line derived from the newborn rat colorectum and its malignant transformation by the ras oncogene.  

PubMed

Epithelial-like cells from the colorectum of one-day-old newborn rats were immortalized by transfection with the simian virus 40 (SV40) T-antigen gene, and a cell line OUMS-25 was established. The cells were positive for the SV40 T-antigen, and immunoreactive to a colonic epithelial cell monoclonal antibody and a keratin-18 monoclonal antibody. Ultrastructural studies revealed the presence of microvilli on the cell surface and desmosomes between the adjacent cells. Karyotypic analysis showed that OUMS-25 cells were aneuploid. Cloning efficiency of the cells was 0.01% in soft agar. However, the cells were not tumorigenic in the syngeneic newborn rats. The cells were further transformed by transfection with the cloned activated c-Ha-ras oncogene containing a point mutation within codon 61. Characteristics of the activated-c-Ha-ras transfected cells (OUMS-25/RAS) were different in some respects from those of the parent cells (OUMS-25). OUMS-25/RAS cells demonstrated more malignant morphology, elevated cloning efficiency in soft agar, and tumorigenicity. This is the first report on the immortalization and malignant transformation of colorectal epithelial-like cells by transfection with a combination of SV40 T-antigen gene and cloned activated c-Ha-ras oncogene. PMID:8168158

Seshimo, K; Miyazaki, M; Mori, M; Orita, K; Namba, M

1993-10-01

332

Facilities: NHMFL 9.4 Tesla Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometer Citation: Characterization of Pine Pellet and Peanut Hull Pyrolysis of Bio-Oils by Negative-Ion Electrospray Ionization Fourier  

E-print Network

: Characterization of Pine Pellet and Peanut Hull Pyrolysis of Bio-Oils by Negative-Ion Electrospray Ionization pine pellets and peanut hulls, generates a hydrocarbon-rich liquid product (bio-oil) consisting of oily solubility. Peanut hull bio-oil is much more compositionally complex and contains more nitrogen

Weston, Ken

333

From transformation traces to transformation rules: Assisting Model Driven Engineering  

E-print Network

From transformation traces to transformation rules: Assisting Model Driven Engineering approach. In this paper we are interested in semi-automatically gen- erating labelled graph (model) transformations conform to a particu- lar syntax (meta-model). Those transformations are basic operations in model driven

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

334

APPENDIX F. TRANSFORMS, COMPLEX ANALYSIS 1 Transforms, Complex  

E-print Network

APPENDIX F. TRANSFORMS, COMPLEX ANALYSIS 1 Appendix F Transforms, Complex Analysis This appendix discusses Fourier and Laplace transforms as they are used in plasma physics and this book. Also, key properties of complex variable theory that are needed for understanding and inverting these transforms

Callen, James D.

335

Optical transformation from chirplet to fractional Fourier transformation kernel  

E-print Network

We find a new integration transformation which can convert a chirplet function to fractional Fourier transformation kernel, this new transformation is invertible and obeys Parseval theorem. Under this transformation a new relationship between a phase space function and its Weyl-Wigner quantum correspondence operator is revealed.

Hong-yi Fan; Li-yun Hu

2009-02-11

336

Laplace Transforms An integral transform is an operator  

E-print Network

9­28­1998 Laplace Transforms An integral transform is an operator F (s) = Z b a K(s; t)f(t) dt: The input to the transform is the function f(t); the output is the function F (s). (By convention, small letters denote the inputs to a transform, and the corresponding capital letters denote the corresponding

Ikenaga, Bruce

337

Microbial Transformation of TRU and Mixed Wastes: Actinide Speciation and Waste Volume Reduction  

SciTech Connect

I. To characterize the biodegradation of cellulosic materials using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy. II. To develop an electrochemical/spectroscopic methodology to characterize TRU waste microbial transformation III. To develop molecular models of TRU complexes in order to understand microbial transformation In all cases, objectives are designed to compliment the efforts from other team members, and will be periodically coordinated through the lead P.I. at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), A.J. Francis.

Halada, Gary P.

2004-12-01

338

Phase Transformations in Binary Colloidal Monolayers  

E-print Network

Phase transformations can be difficult to characterize at the microscopic level due to the inability to directly observe individual atomic motions. Model colloidal systems, by contrast, permit the direct observation of individual particle dynamics and of collective rearrangements, which allows for real-space characterization of phase transitions. Here, we study a quasi-two-dimensional, binary colloidal alloy that exhibits liquid-solid and solid-solid phase transitions, focusing on the kinetics of a diffusionless transformation between two crystal phases. Experiments are conducted on a monolayer of magnetic and nonmagnetic spheres suspended in a thin layer of ferrofluid and exposed to a tunable magnetic field. A theoretical model of hard spheres with point dipoles at their centers is used to guide the choice of experimental parameters and characterize the underlying materials physics. When the applied field is normal to the fluid layer, a checkerboard crystal forms; when the angle between the field and the normal is sufficiently large, a striped crystal assembles. As the field is slowly tilted away from the normal, we find that the transformation pathway between the two phases depends strongly on crystal orientation, field strength, and degree of confinement of the monolayer. In some cases, the pathway occurs by smooth magnetostrictive shear, while in others it involves the sudden formation of martensitic plates.

Ye Yang; Lin Fu; Catherine Marcoux; Joshua E. S. Socolar; Patrick Charbonneau; Benjamin B. Yellen

2015-02-10

339

Analogue to digital transformation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

ESDU 92044 examines the replacement of an analog controller element by an equivalent digital controller element while retaining for the new hybrid system performance characteristics that are acceptably similar to those of the original continuous system. The main features are described of a system containing both analog and digital elements within the same loop, and the analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog components that are then necessarily a part of the system. The frequency response characteristics of transformation are discussed, introducing the problem of aliasing whereby a digital output can be matched by continuous sine waves of different frequencies that are then indistinguishable to the digital sampler. The need to avoid aliasing is considered and the concept of a folding frequency introduced below which aliasing is impossible. Two transformation methods for designing digital filters equivalent to analog filters are discussed: the impulse invariance and bilinear transformations. They are compared by examining digital equivalents of such analogue filters as simple and compound first-order lag and lead filters, second-order lag filters and first-order notch filters. The methods are compared for two sampling rates using Bode plots illustrating the gain and phase variation with frequency. An example based on an electromechanical instrument servo illustrates the transformation of an analog lag-lead controller using the bilinear transformation.

1992-12-01

340

A Review of Transformer Losses  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article presents an extensive survey of current research on the transformer loss problem, particularly from the view of practical engineering applications. It reveals that the transformer loss problem remains an active research area. This article classified the transformer loss problem into three main groups: (a) tank losses due to high-current bushings, (b) losses in transformer core joints, and (c)

Juan C. Olivares-Galván; Pavlos S. Georgilakis; Rodrigo Ocon-Valdez

2009-01-01

341

Transformation based endorsement systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Evidential reasoning techniques classically represent support for a hypothesis by a numeric value or an evidential interval. The combination of support is performed by an arithmetic rule which often requires restrictions to be placed on the set of possibilities. These assumptions usually require the hypotheses to be exhausitive and mutually exclusive. Endorsement based classification systems represent support for the alternatives symbolically rather than numerically. A framework for constructing endorsement systems is presented in which transformations are defined to generate and update the knowledge base. The interaction of the knowledge base and transformations produces a non-monotonic reasoning system. Two endorsement based reasoning systems are presented to demonstrate the flexibility of the transformational approach for reasoning with ambiguous and inconsistent information.

Sudkamp, Thomas

1988-01-01

342

Plastid transformation in tomato.  

PubMed

Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) is one of the most important vegetable crops and has long been an important model species in plant biology. Plastid biology in tomato is especially interesting due to the chloroplast-to-chromoplast conversion occurring during fruit ripening. Moreover, as tomato represents a major food crop with an edible fruit that can be eaten raw, the development of a plastid transformation protocol for tomato was of particular interest to plant biotechnology. Recent methodological improvements have made tomato plastid transformation more efficient and facilitated applications in metabolic engineering and molecular farming. This article describes the basic methods involved in the generation and analysis of tomato plants with transgenic chloroplast genomes and summarizes current applications of tomato plastid transformation. PMID:24599859

Ruf, Stephanie; Bock, Ralph

2014-01-01

343

Plastid transformation in eggplant.  

PubMed

Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) is an important vegetable crop of tropical and temperate regions of the world. Here we describe a procedure for eggplant plastid transformation, which involves preparation of explants, biolistic delivery of plastid transformation vector into green stem segments, selection procedure, and identification of the transplastomic plants. Shoot buds appear from cut ends of the stem explants following 5-6 weeks of spectinomycin selection after bombardment with the plastid transformation vector containing aadA gene as selectable marker. Transplastomic lines are obtained after the regenerated shoots are subjected to several rounds of spectinomycin selection over a period of 9 weeks. Homoplasmic transplastomic lines are further confirmed by spectinomycin and streptomycin double selection. The transplastomic technology development in this plant species will open up exciting possibilities for improving crop performance, metabolic engineering, and the use of plants as factories for producing biopharmaceuticals. PMID:24599862

Bansal, Kailash C; Singh, Ajay K

2014-01-01

344

Genetic Transformation of Switchgrass  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a highly productive warm-season C4 species that is being developed into a dedicated biofuel crop. This chapter describes a protocol that allows the generation of transgenic switchgrass plants by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Embryogenic calluses induced from caryopses or inflorescences were used as explants for inoculation with A. tumefaciens strain EHA105. Hygromycin phosphotransferase gene (hph) was used as the selectable marker and hygromycin was used as the selection agent. Calluses resistant to hygromycin were obtained after 5-6 weeks of selection. Soil-grown switchgrass plants were regenerated about 6 months after callus induction and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation.

Xi, Yajun; Ge, Yaxin; Wang, Zeng-Yu

345

Coordinate transformations in quaternion spaces  

E-print Network

The quaternion spaces can be used to describe the property of electromagnetic field and gravitational field. In the quaternion space, some coordinate transformations can be deduced from the feature of quaternions, including Lorentz transformation and Galilean transformation etc., when the coordinate system is transformed into others. And some coordinate transformations with variable speed of light can be obtained in the electromagnetic field and gravitational field.

Zihua Weng

2009-05-15

346

Transforming Data into Knowledge  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

School systems can be data rich and information poor if they do not understand and manage their data effectively. The task for school leaders is to put existing data into a format that lends itself to answering questions and improving outcomes for the students. Common barriers to transforming data into knowledge in education settings often include…

Mills, Lane

2006-01-01

347

Transformer Impedance Reflection Demonstration  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Questions often arise as to how a device attached to a transformer can draw power from the electrical power grid since it seems that the primary and secondary are not connected to one another. However, a closer look at how the primary and secondary are linked together magnetically and a consideration of the role of Lenz's law in this linkage…

Layton, William

2014-01-01

348

Teaching, Caring, and Transformation  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Educator Bell Hooks acknowledged the fundamental truth that teaching, caring, and transformation are closely linked, that is, that true teaching must be accompanied by a deep level of care in order for learning to take place. No matter how young or old, no matter the subject matter, and no matter where teaching and learning take place--a…

Nieto, Sonia

2012-01-01

349

NOVEL CATALYTIC TRANSFORMATIONS FOR  

E-print Network

NOVEL CATALYTIC TRANSFORMATIONS FOR THE CHEMICAL RECYCLING OF CO2 CNRS JULY 09 ­ 2013 CEA / DSM selectivity large kinetics low pressure, low temperature high selectivity use of earth abundant materials use of non-toxic materials tolerant to impurities (NOx, SOx, M, etc.) atmospheric pressure of CO2 high

Canet, Léonie

350

Imagination & Transformative Learning.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Research was conducted to gain insight into both the facilitators of consciousness-raising and the nature of this emancipatory process. Consciousness-raising was defined as a transformation of consciousness in which individuals experience critical reflection and action that develops a deepened consciousness of their situation leading them to…

Loughlin, Kathleen A.

351

Transforming American Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In this article the authors accept as a given the National Education Technology Plan's vision of a transformed education system powered by technology such that learners receive personalized and engaging learning experiences, and where assessment, teaching, infrastructure, and productivity are redefined. The article analyzes this vision of a…

Horn, Michael B.; Mackey, Katherine

2011-01-01

352

Transformer and Meter Tester  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Numerically-controlled 5-axis machine tool uses transformer and meter to determine and indicate whether tool is in home position, but lacks built-in test mode to check them. Tester makes possible test, and repair of components at machine rather then replace them when operation seems suspect.

Stoms, R. M.

1984-01-01

353

Fixture for winding transformers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Bench-mounted fixture assists operator in winding toroid-shaped transformer cores. Toroid is rigidly held in place as wires are looped around. Arrangement frees both hands for rapid winding and untangling of wires that occurs when core is hand held.

Mclyman, M. T.

1980-01-01

354

Computerized toroidal transformer design  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Computer program designs transformers which have one primary /center tap permissible/ and up to 20 untapped secondaries, and which can handle up to 500 V across any one winding. Computer determines total secondary power, core type, primary turns, secondary turns, and wire sizes for primary and secondary windings.

1970-01-01

355

Transformations: Rotation (NLVM)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Java applet enables learners to explore the rotation transformation both informally and within a coordinate system. Students select and compose shapes and manipulate the center and angle of rotation to see the effect on a rotated image. Links to instructions, activities and teacher/parent information are included.

2011-01-01

356

Transformations: Reflection (NLVM)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Java applet enables learners to explore the reflection transformation both informally and within a coordinate system. Students select and compose shapes and manipulate the axis of symmetry (the mirror) to see the effect on a reflected image. Links to instructions, activities and teacher/parent information are included.

2011-01-01

357

Watermass transformations in Storfjorden  

Microsoft Academic Search

A recurrent polynya is known to form in Storfjorden in winter time with associated formation of brine-enriched shelf water (BSW). Hydrographic observations made in spring and autumn 1998 to 2002 are studied to reveal watermass compositions and transformations in Storfjorden and to document the seasonal formation, build-up and subsequent drainage of BSW in the fjord basin. A new compiled bathymetry

R. Skogseth; P. M. Haugan; M. Jakobsson

2005-01-01

358

Transforming Young Lives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discussions of transformational change pervade the field of business but are rare in work with young people at risk--those most in need of deep change. Instead, the nation seems preoccupied with punishing or medicating problem behavior. Some propose the alternative of "rehabilitation," but that term means "to restore to former…

Larson, Scott

2014-01-01

359

Transforming Education at Einstein  

E-print Network

of Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University #12;2 EinstEin : WintEr/spring 2012 Meet Our trANsfOrMiNg eDuCAtiON At eiNsteiN Education at Albert Einstein College of Medicine is undergoing the magazine for alumni, faculty, students, friends and supporters of Albert einstein College of Medicine

Yates, Andrew

360

Flexible Power Electronic Transformer  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a new modular flexible power electronic transformer (FPET). The proposed FPET is flexible enough to meet future needs of power electronic centralized systems. The main feature of the FPET is the independent operation of modules each of which contains one port. Each port can be considered as input or output, because bidirectional power flow is provided. The

Mehran Sabahi; Ali Yazdanpanah Goharrizi; Seyed Hossein Hosseini; Mohammad Bagher Bana Sharifian; Gevorg B. Gharehpetian

2010-01-01

361

LEADING, TRANSFORMING, STRATEGIC PLAN  

E-print Network

that supports best educational practices and the LSU national flagship agenda. Values The guiding philosophy education, research, and service. These values include Embracing the ideals of equality, socialLEADING, TRANSFORMING, EMPOWERING FIVE YEAR STRATEGIC PLAN 2008-2013 #12;2 Vision, Values, Mission

362

Transformations: Translation (NLVM)  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Java applet enables learners to explore the translation transformation (sliding) both informally and within a coordinate system. Students select and compose shapes and manipulate the ends of a translation vector to see the effect on a translated image. Links to instructions, activities and teacher/parent information are included.

2011-01-01

363

Crystal symmetry and the reversibility of martensitic transformations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Martensitic transformations are diffusionless, solid-to-solid phase transitions, and have been observed in metals, alloys, ceramics and proteins. They are characterized by a rapid change of crystal structure, accompanied by the development of a rich microstructure. Martensitic transformations can be irreversible, as seen in steels upon quenching, or they can be reversible, such as those observed in shape-memory alloys. In the

Kaushik Bhattacharya; Sergio Conti; Giovanni Zanzotto; Johannes Zimmer

2004-01-01

364

Rainbow Fourier Transform  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We present a novel technique for remote sensing of cloud droplet size distributions. Polarized reflectances in the scattering angle range between 135deg and 165deg exhibit a sharply defined rainbow structure, the shape of which is determined mostly by single scattering properties of cloud particles, and therefore, can be modeled using the Mie theory. Fitting the observed rainbow with such a model (computed for a parameterized family of particle size distributions) has been used for cloud droplet size retrievals. We discovered that the relationship between the rainbow structures and the corresponding particle size distributions is deeper than it had been commonly understood. In fact, the Mie theory-derived polarized reflectance as a function of reduced scattering angle (in the rainbow angular range) and the (monodisperse) particle radius appears to be a proxy to a kernel of an integral transform (similar to the sine Fourier transform on the positive semi-axis). This approach, called the rainbow Fourier transform (RFT), allows us to accurately retrieve the shape of the droplet size distribution by the application of the corresponding inverse transform to the observed polarized rainbow. While the basis functions of the proxy-transform are not exactly orthogonal in the finite angular range, this procedure needs to be complemented by a simple regression technique, which removes the retrieval artifacts. This non-parametric approach does not require any a priori knowledge of the droplet size distribution functional shape and is computationally fast (no look-up tables, no fitting, computations are the same as for the forward modeling).

Alexandrov, Mikhail D.; Cairns, Brian; Mishchenko, Michael I.

2012-01-01

365

Rainbow Fourier transform  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a novel technique for remote sensing of cloud droplet size distributions. Polarized reflectances in the scattering angle range between 135° and 165° exhibit a sharply defined rainbow structure, the shape of which is determined mostly by single scattering properties of cloud particles, and therefore, can be modeled using the Mie theory. Fitting the observed rainbow with such a model (computed for a parameterized family of particle size distributions) has been used for cloud droplet size retrievals. We discovered that the relationship between the rainbow structures and the corresponding particle size distributions is deeper than it had been commonly understood. In fact, the Mie theory-derived polarized reflectance as a function of reduced scattering angle (in the rainbow angular range) and the (monodisperse) particle radius appears to be a proxy to a kernel of an integral transform (similar to the sine Fourier transform on the positive semi-axis). This approach, called the rainbow Fourier transform (RFT), allows us to accurately retrieve the shape of the droplet size distribution by the application of the corresponding inverse transform to the observed polarized rainbow. While the basis functions of the proxy-transform are not exactly orthogonal in the finite angular range, this procedure needs to be complemented by a simple regression technique, which removes the retrieval artifacts. This non-parametric approach does not require any a priori knowledge of the droplet size distribution functional shape and is computationally fast (no look-up tables, no fitting, computations are the same as for the forward modeling).

Alexandrov, Mikhail D.; Cairns, Brian; Mishchenko, Michael I.

2012-12-01

366

Mineralogical transformations controlling acid mine drainage chemistry  

SciTech Connect

The role of Fe(III) minerals in controlling acid mine drainage (AMD) chemistry was studied using samples from two AMD sites [Gum Boot (GB) and Fridays-2 (FR)] located in northern Pennsylvania. Chemical extractions, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to identify and characterize Fe(III) phases. The mineralogical analysis revealed that schwertmannite and goethite were the principal Fe(III) phases in the sediments. Schwertmannite transformation occurred at the GB site where poorly-crystallized goethite rich in surface-bound sulfate was initially formed. In contrast, no schwertmannite transformation occurred at the FR site. The goethite in GB sediments had spherical morphology due to preservation of schwertmannite structure by adsorbed sulfate. Results of chemical extractions showed that poorly-crystallized goethite was subject to further crystallization accompanied by sulfate desorption. Changes in sulfate speciation preceded its desorption, with a conversion of bidentate- to monodentate-bound sulfate surface complexes. Laboratory sediment incubation experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of mineral transformation on water chemistry. Incubation experiments were carried out with schwertmannite-containing sediments and AMD waters with different pH and chemical composition. The pH decreased to 1.9-2.2 in all suspensions and the concentrations of dissolved Fe and S increased significantly. Regardless of differences in the initial water composition, pH, Fe and S were similar in suspensions of the same sediment. XRD measurements revealed that schwertmannite transformed into goethite in GB and FR sediments during laboratory incubation. The incubation experiment demonstrated that schwertmannite transformation controlled AMD water chemistry during “closed system” laboratory contact.

Peretyazhko, Tetyana; Zachara, John M.; Boily, Jean F.; Xia, Yuanxian; Gassman, Paul L.; Arey, Bruce W.; Burgos, William D.

2009-05-30

367

Experiments on transformation thermodynamics: Molding the flow of heat  

E-print Network

It has recently been shown theoretically that the time-dependent heat conduction equation is form-invariant under curvilinear coordinate transformations. Thus, in analogy to transformation optics, fictitious transformed space can be mapped onto (meta-)materials with spatially inhomogeneous and anisotropic heat-conductivity tensors in the laboratory space. On this basis, we design, fabricate, and characterize a micro-structured thermal cloak that molds the flow of heat around an object in a metal plate. This allows for transient protection of the object from heating, while maintaining the same downstream heat flow as without object and cloak.

Schittny, Robert; Guenneau, Sebastien; Wegener, Martin

2012-01-01

368

125. TRANSFORMER SUBSTATIONS ON NORTH SIDE OF TRANSFORMER ROOM (112), ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

125. TRANSFORMER SUBSTATIONS ON NORTH SIDE OF TRANSFORMER ROOM (112), FACING SOUTH - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 West, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

369

Evaluate and characterize mechanisms controlling transport, fate and effects of army smokes in an aerosol wind tunnel: Transport, transformations, fate and terrestrial ecological effects of fog oil obscurant smokes: Final report  

SciTech Connect

The terrestrial transport, chemical fate, and ecological effects of fog oil (FO) smoke obscurants were evaluated under controlled wind tunnel conditions. The primary objectives of this research program are to characterize and assess the impacts of smoke and obscurants on: (1) natural vegetation characteristic of US Army training sites in the United States; (2) physical and chemical properties of soils representative of these training sites; and (3) soil microbiological and invertebrate communities. Impacts and dose/responses were evaluated based on an exposure scenario, including exposure duration, exposure rate, and sequential cumulative dosing. Key to understanding the environmental impacts of fog oil smoke/obscurants is establishing the importance of environmental parameters, such as relative humidity and wind speed on airborne aerosol characteristics and deposition to receptor surfaces. Direct and indirect biotic effects were evaluated using five plant species and three soil types. 29 refs., 35 figs., 32 tabs.

Cataldo, D.A.; Van Voris, P.; Ligotke, M.W.; Fellows, R.J.; McVeety, B.D.; Li, Shu-mei W.; Bolton, H. Jr.; Fredrickson, J.K.

1989-01-01

370

Characterization of sulfided Mo/Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] catalysts by temperature-programmed reduction and low-temperature fourier transform infrared spectroscopy of adsorbed carbon monoxide  

SciTech Connect

Sulfided Mo/Al[sub 2]O[sub 3] catalysts were studied by temperature-programmed reduction (TPRS) and transmission infrared spectroscopy of adsorbed CO at low temperatures. Reductive elimination of nonstoichiometric and stoichiometric sulfur from edge and corner sites creates coordinatively unsaturated Mo[sup 2+] sites. C-O stretching bands at 2100 cm[sup [minus]1] and at ca. 2060-2070 cm[sup [minus]1] were attributed to CO adsorption complexes on edge and corner sites, respectively. Evidence of morphological changes of MoS[sub 2] slabs during H[sub 2] treatment at 770 K is provided. IR spectroscopy of adsorbed CO at low temperature provides unique possibilities for the characterization of sulfided catalysts. 39 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

Mueller, B.; Knoezinger, H. (Universitaet Muenchen (Germany)); Langeveld, A.D. van; Moulijn, J.A. (Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands))

1993-09-02

371

An Interplay Between Infrared Multiphoton Dissociation Fourier-Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry and Density Functional Theory Computations in the Characterization of a Tripodal Quinolin-8-Olate Gd(III) Complex  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new hexadentate, tripodal 8-hydroxyquinoline based ligand (QH3) and its gadolinium(III) tris-chelated (GdQ) complex with hemicage structure was investigated by using high resolution Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICRMS). The protonated adduct of the free ligand and its hemicage tripodal Gd(III) complex, [GdQ + H]+, were first observed in experiments of electrospray ionization (ESI) with a linear ion trap (LTQ) mass spectrometer and further investigated by using high resolution FTICRMS. Gas-phase dissociation of the protonated Gd(III) complex, by infrared multiphoton dissociation (IRMPD) FTICR MS, demonstrated a fragmentation pattern with six main product cluster ions labeled as [Fn]+ ( n = 1 up to 6). These product ions suggest the elimination of 7-amino-alkyl or 7-alkyl chains of the hemicage moiety. High resolution MS conditions allowed the elucidation of the fragmentation pattern and product ion structures along with the determination, among the isotopic pattern of Gd, of the chemical compositions of closely related species, which differ in terms of hydrogen content. Among the Gd six naturally stable isotopes, 158Gd is the most abundant, and its peak within each cluster was used as a reference for distinguishing each product ions. Computational DFT investigations were applied to give support to some hypothesis of fragmentation pathways, which could not have been easily justified on the basis of the experimental work. Furthermore, computational studies suggested the coordination geometry of the protonated parent complex and the five- and four-coordinated complexes, which derive from its fragmentation. Furthermore, experimental and computational evidences were collected about the octet spin state of the parent compound.

De Bonis, Margherita; Bianco, Giuliana; Amati, Mario; Belviso, Sandra; Cataldi, Tommaso R. I.; Lelj, Francesco

2013-04-01

372

An interplay between infrared multiphoton dissociation Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry and density functional theory computations in the characterization of a tripodal quinolin-8-olate Gd(III) complex.  

PubMed

A new hexadentate, tripodal 8-hydroxyquinoline based ligand (QH3) and its gadolinium(III) tris-chelated (GdQ) complex with hemicage structure was investigated by using high resolution Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICRMS). The protonated adduct of the free ligand and its hemicage tripodal Gd(III) complex, [GdQ + H](+), were first observed in experiments of electrospray ionization (ESI) with a linear ion trap (LTQ) mass spectrometer and further investigated by using high resolution FTICRMS. Gas-phase dissociation of the protonated Gd(III) complex, by infrared multiphoton dissociation (IRMPD) FTICR MS, demonstrated a fragmentation pattern with six main product cluster ions labeled as [Fn](+) (n = 1 up to 6). These product ions suggest the elimination of 7-amino-alkyl or 7-alkyl chains of the hemicage moiety. High resolution MS conditions allowed the elucidation of the fragmentation pattern and product ion structures along with the determination, among the isotopic pattern of Gd, of the chemical compositions of closely related species, which differ in terms of hydrogen content. Among the Gd six naturally stable isotopes, (158)Gd is the most abundant, and its peak within each cluster was used as a reference for distinguishing each product ions. Computational DFT investigations were applied to give support to some hypothesis of fragmentation pathways, which could not have been easily justified on the basis of the experimental work. Furthermore, computational studies suggested the coordination geometry of the protonated parent complex and the five- and four-coordinated complexes, which derive from its fragmentation. Furthermore, experimental and computational evidences were collected about the octet spin state of the parent compound. PMID:23436232

De Bonis, Margherita; Bianco, Giuliana; Amati, Mario; Belviso, Sandra; Cataldi, Tommaso R I; Lelj, Francesco

2013-04-01

373

134. VIEW OF TRANSFORMER CABINETS ON NORTH SIDE OF TRANSFORMER ...  

Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

134. VIEW OF TRANSFORMER CABINETS ON NORTH SIDE OF TRANSFORMER ROOM (212), LSB (BLDG. 751), FACING SOUTH. POWER PANEL B AT EAST SIDE OF TRANSFORMER ROOM (212), FACING WEST, AT RIGHT IN PHOTOGRAPH. - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

374

Center for Academic Transformation  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Pew Foundation founded the Center for Academic Transformation "to serve as a source of expertise and support for those in higher education who wish to take advantage of the capabilities of information technology to transform their academic practices." Featuring several initiatives, the Center Website offers concise information on The Pew Learning and Technology Program (including a grant program, a symposium, and a newsletter), The Leadership Forum (which includes workshops and resources for academic leaders), and -- the heart of the site -- Center Resources, a collection of articles, monographs, and Websites. The more than two dozen articles cover (broadly) the theory and implementation of technology into the classroom; monographs cover the implications of virtual learning and academic productivity; and Websites point users to dozens of useful sites.

375

A DC Transformer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A component level dc transformer is described in which no alternating currents or voltages are present. It operates by combining features of a homopolar motor and a homopolar generator, both de devices, such that the output voltage of a de power supply can be stepped up (or down) with a corresponding step down (or up) in current. The basic theory for this device is developed, performance predictions are made, and the results from a small prototype are presented. Based on demonstrated technology in the literature, this de transformer should be scalable to low megawatt levels, but it is more suited to high current than high voltage applications. Significant development would be required before it could achieve the kilovolt levels needed for de power transmission.

Youngquist, Robert C.; Ihlefeld, Curtis M.; Starr, Stanley O.

2013-01-01

376

Transformer Impedance Reflection Demonstration  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Questions often arise as to how a device attached to a transformer can draw power from the electrical power grid since it seems that the primary and secondary are not connected to one another. However, a closer look at how the primary and secondary are linked together magnetically and a consideration of the role of Lenz's law in this linkage may help to clear up this confusion.

Layton, William

2014-10-01

377

Sparse generalized Fourier transforms  

Microsoft Academic Search

Block-diagonalization of sparse equivariant discretization matrices is studied. Such matrices typically arise when partial\\u000a differential equations that evolve in symmetric geometries are discretized via the finite element method or via finite differences.\\u000a \\u000a By considering sparse equivariant matrices as equivariant graphs, we identify a condition for when block-diagonalization via\\u000a a sparse variant of a generalized Fourier transform (GFT) becomes particularly simple

Krister Åhlander; Daniel Henriksson

2007-01-01

378

Transforming revenue management.  

PubMed

Healthcare organizations that want to undertake a patient administrative/revenue management transformation should: Define the vision with underlying business objectives and key performance measures. Strategically partner with key vendors for business process development and technology design. Create a program organization and governance infrastructure. Develop a corporate design model that defines the standards for operationalizing the vision. Execute the vision through technology deployment and corporate design model implementation. PMID:18990839

Silveria, Richard; Alliegro, Debra; Nudd, Steven

2008-11-01

379

Laminated piezoelectric transformer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A laminated piezoelectric transformer is provided using the longitudinal vibration modes for step-up voltage conversion applications. The input portions are polarized to deform in a longitudinal plane and are bonded to an output portion. The deformation of the input portions is mechanically coupled to the output portion, which deforms in the same longitudinal direction relative to the input portion. The output portion is polarized in the thickness direction relative its electrodes, and piezoelectrically generates a stepped-up output voltage.

Vazquez Carazo, Alfredo (Inventor)

2006-01-01

380

Bacterial transformation of terpenoids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Data on the bacterial transformation of terpenoids published in the literature in the past decade are analyzed. Possible pathways for chemo-, regio- and stereoselective modifications of terpenoids are discussed. Considerable attention is given to new technological approaches to the synthesis of terpenoid derivatives suitable for the use in the perfume and food industry and promising as drugs and chiral intermediates for fine organic synthesis. The bibliography includes 246 references.

Grishko, V. V.; Nogovitsina, Y. M.; Ivshina, I. B.

2014-04-01

381

Transformer Abdullah Al-Otaibi  

E-print Network

induces a changing voltage in the secondary. II. HISTORY Michael Faraday demonstrated the principle of the transformer in 1831. The transformer is used by Faraday only to demonstrate the principle of electromagnetic

Masoudi, Husain M.

382

Transformative Wave Technologies Kent, Washington  

E-print Network

Transformative Wave Technologies Kent, Washington www.transformativewave.com #12;#12;North America are shifted to off peak times #12;#12;Transformative Wave Technologies www.transformativewave.com #12

California at Davis, University of

383

RECENT ADVANCES IN BARLEY TRANSFORMATION  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Barley, an important member of the cereals, has been successfully transformed through various methods such as particle bombardment, Agrobacterium-tumefaciens, DNA uptake, and electroporation. Initially, the transformation in barley concentrated on developing protocols using marker genes such as gus,...

384

Thin-Film Power Transformers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Transformer core made of thin layers of insulating material interspersed with thin layers of ferromagnetic material. Flux-linking conductors made of thinner nonferromagnetic-conductor/insulator multilayers wrapped around core. Transformers have geometric features finer than those of transformers made in customary way by machining and mechanical pressing. In addition, some thin-film materials exhibit magnetic-flux-carrying capabilities superior to those of customary bulk transformer materials. Suitable for low-cost, high-yield mass production.

Katti, Romney R.

1995-01-01

385

Nonlocal conservation laws and related Bäcklund transformations via reciprocal transformations  

E-print Network

A set of infinitely many nonlocal conservation laws are revealed for (1+1)-dimensional evolution equations. For some special known integrable systems, say, the KdV and Dym equations, it is found that different nonlocal conservation laws can lead to same new integrable systems via reciprocal transformation. On the other hand, it can be considered as one solution of the new model obtained via reciprocal transformation(s) can be changed to different solutions of the original model. The fact indicates also that two or more different (local and nonlocal) conservation laws can be used to find implicit auto-B\\"acklund transformations via reciprocal transformation to other systems.

Sen-Yue Lou

2014-06-08

386

Quality as Transformation: Educational Metamorphosis  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The notion of "quality as transformation" has been widely used in the higher education sector. However, both quality and transformation are elusive terms. There is little research exploring how quality could be equated to transformation in the learning process. This paper will provide an insight into the relationship between quality and…

Cheng, Ming

2014-01-01

387

Generalized Transforms and Special Functions  

E-print Network

We study the properties of different type of transforms by means of operational methods and discuss the relevant interplay with many families of special functions. We consider in particular the binomial transform and its generalizations. A general method, based on the use of the Fourier transform technique, is proposed for the study of the properties of functions of operators.

G. Dattoli; E. Sabia

2010-10-08

388

Compositions of Tree Series Transformations  

E-print Network

Compositions of Tree Series Transformations A. Maletti Institute of Theoretical Computer Science Germany URL: http://www.inf.tu-dresden.de/ #12;#12;Compositions of Tree Series Transformations Andreas@tcs.inf.tu-dresden.de Abstract Tree series transformations computed by bottom-up and top-down tree series transducers are called

Reyle, Uwe

389

Lightning Protection for Distribution Transformers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Usual methods of connecting arresters for the protection of distribution transformers are often inadequate. In service some transformers still flash over although the arrester, in itself, is capable of protecting the transformer with a large margin of safety. Surge current flowing to ground through the ground lead of the arrester gives rise to inductive drop and resistance drop voltages. These

A. M. Opsahl; A. S. Brookes; R. N. Southgate

1932-01-01

390

Transformation by the oncogene v-fms: The effects of castanospermine on transformation-related parameters  

SciTech Connect

The effects of castanospermine on various parameters associated with transformation were examined in cells expressing the viral oncogene v-fms. Fischer rat embryo (FRE) cells transformed by the oncogene v-fms and grown in the presence of castanospermine reverted to a more normal cell morphology and accumulated fms protein within the endoplasmic reticulum. Treated cells attained contact inhibition of cell growth at a much lower cell density compared to the untreated controls. No effect of castanospermine on cell growth was observed for FRE cells transformed by a different oncogene v-fgr. Castanospermine-treated SM-FRE (v-fms transformed) cells reexpressed extracellular matrix fibronectin and exhibited an extensive actin-containing cytoskeleton similar to that of normal nontransformed FRE cells. Castanospermine treatment of SM-FRE cells resulted in a sixfold decrease in ({sup 3}H)deoxyglucose uptake compared to that of the nonreverted SM-FRE cells. Again, no effect was observed in FRE cells transformed by the oncogene v-fgr (GR-FRE). These results further characterize the reversion caused by castanospermine and indicate that cell surface expression coordinately controls anchorage independent growth, cell morphology, contact inhibition of growth, and hexose uptake.

Nichols, E.J.; Manger, R.; Hakomori, Senitiroh; Rohrschneider, L.R. (Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, WA (United States))

1987-12-01

391

Transformation of Morinda citrifolia via simple mature seed imbibition method.  

PubMed

Morinda citrifolia, is a valuable medicinal plant with a wide range of therapeutic properties and extensive transformation study on this plant has yet been known. Present study was conducted to establish a simple and reliable transformation protocol for M. citrifolia utilising Agrobacterium tumefaciens via direct seed exposure. In this study, the seeds were processed by tips clipping and dried and subsequently incubated in inoculation medium. Four different parameters during the incubation such as incubation period, bacterial density, temperature and binary vectors harbouring beta-glucuronidase (GUS) gene (pBI121 and pGSA1131), were tested to examine its effect on transformation efficiency. The leaves from the treated and germinated seedlings were analysed via Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), histochemical assay of the GUS gene and reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR). Results of the study showed that Agrobacterium strain LBA4404 with optical density of 1.0 and 2 h incubation period were optimum for M. citrifolia transformation. It was found that various co-cultivation temperatures tested and type of vector used did not affect the transformation efficiency. The highest transformation efficiency for M. citrifolia direct seed transformation harbouring pBI121 and pGSA1131 was determined to be 96.8% with 2 h co-cultivation treatment and 80.4% when using bacterial density of 1.0, respectively. The transformation method can be applied for future characterization study of M. citrifolia. PMID:24517006

Lee, J J; Ahmad, S; Roslan, H A

2013-12-15

392

Surface catalyzed mercury transformation reactions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mercury is a known pollutant that has detrimental effect on human health and environment. The anthropogenic emissions of mercury account for 10 to 30% of worldwide mercury emissions. There is a need to control/reduce anthropogenic mercury emissions. Many mercury control technologies are available but their effectiveness is dependent on the chemical form of mercury, because different chemical forms of mercury have different physical and chemical properties. Mercury leaves the boiler in its elemental form but goes through various transformations in the post-combustion zone. There is a need to understand how fly ash and flue gas composition affect speciation, partitioning, and reactions of mercury under the full range of post-combustion zone conditions. This knowledge can then be used to predict the chemical transformation of mercury (elemental, oxidized or particulate) in the post combustion zone and thus help with the control of mercury emissions from coal-burning power plants. To accomplish this goal present study was conducted using five coal fly ashes. These ashes were characterized and their catalytic activity was compared under selected reaction conditions in a fixed bed reactor. Based on the results from these fly ash experiments, three key components (carbon, iron oxide and calcium oxide) were chosen. These three components were then used to prepare model fly ashes. Silica/alumina was used as a base for these model fly ashes. One, two or three component model fly ashes were then prepared to investigate mercury transformation reactions. The third set of experiments was performed with five different oxidation catalysts to further understand the mercury oxidation process. Based on the results of these three studies the key components were predicted for different fly ash compositions under variety of flue gas conditions. A fixed bed reactor system was used to conduct this study. In all the experiments, the inlet concentration of Hg0(g) was maintained at 35 mug/m 3 using a diffusion tube as the source of Hg0(g). All experiments were conducted using 4% O2 in nitrogen mix as a reaction gas, and other reactants (HCl, H2O and SO2, NO 2, Br2) were added as required. The fixed bed reactor was operated over a temperature range of 200 to 400°C. In each experiment, the reactor effluent was analyzed using the modified Ontario-Hydro method. After each experiment, fly ash particles were also analyzed for mercury. The results show that the ability of fly ash to adsorb and/or oxidize mercury is primarily dependent on its carbon, iron and calcium content. There can be either one or more than one key component at a particular temperature and flue gas condition. Surface area played a secondary role in effecting the mercury transformations when compared to the concentration of the key component in the fly ash. Amount carbon and surface area played a key important role in the adsorption of mercury. Increased concentration of gases in the flue gas other than oxygen and nitrogen caused decreased the amount of mercury adsorbed on carbon surface. Mercury adsorption by iron oxide primarily depended on the crystalline structure of iron oxide. alpha-iron oxide had no effect on mercury adsorption or oxidation under most of the flue gas conditions, but gamma-iron oxide adsorbed mercury under most of the flue gas conditions. Bromine is a very good oxidizing agent for mercury. But in the presence of calcium oxide containing fly ashes, all the oxidized mercury would be reduced to elemental form. Among the catalysts, it was observed that presence of free lattice chlorine in the catalyst was very important for the oxidation of mercury. But instead of using the catalyst alone, using it along with carbon may better serve the purpose by providing the adsorption surface for mercury and also some extra surface area for the reaction to occur (especially for fly ashes with low surface area).

Varanasi, Patanjali

393

Computer simulation of martensitic transformations  

SciTech Connect

The characteristics of martensitic transformations in solids are largely determined by the elastic strain that develops as martensite particles grow and interact. To study the development of microstructure, a finite-element computer simulation model was constructed to mimic the transformation process. The transformation is athermal and simulated at each incremental step by transforming the cell which maximizes the decrease in the free energy. To determine the free energy change, the elastic energy developed during martensite growth is calculated from the theory of linear elasticity for elastically homogeneous media, and updated as the transformation proceeds.

Xu, Ping

1993-11-01

394

Fourier-transform lidar.  

PubMed

We propose a new method based on the differential absorption lidar technique for multipollutant detection. A broadband laser is sent into the atmosphere in a wavelength range in which several pollutants absorb. The backscattered light is analyzed by a Fourier-transform spectrometer with time resolution. This mode of detection provides both spatial and high spectral resolution down to 0.01 cm(-1), allowing range-resolved measurements of several pollutants simultaneously. To demonstrate the feasibility of this method, we have measured water vapor concentration by using more than 10 individual lines in the 720-nm absorption band. The potential and the limitations are discussed critically. PMID:19862277

Douard, M; Bacis, R; Rambaldi, P; Ross, A; Wolf, J P; Fabre, G; Stringat, R

1995-10-15

395

Thermal energy transformer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For use in combination with a heat engine, a thermal energy transformer is presented. It is comprised of a flux receiver having a first wall defining therein a radiation absorption cavity for converting solar flux to thermal energy, and a second wall defining an energy transfer wall for the heat engine. There is a heat pipe chamber interposed between the first and second walls having a working fluid disposed within the chamber and a wick lining the chamber for conducting the working fluid from the second wall to the first wall. Thermal energy is transferred from the radiation absorption cavity to the heat engine.

Berdahl, C. M.; Thiele, C. L. (inventors)

1979-01-01

396

Banded transformer cores  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A banded transformer core formed by positioning a pair of mated, similar core halves on a supporting pedestal. The core halves are encircled with a strap, selectively applying tension whereby a compressive force is applied to the core edge for reducing the innate air gap. A dc magnetic field is employed in supporting the core halves during initial phases of the banding operation, while an ac magnetic field subsequently is employed for detecting dimension changes occurring in the air gaps as tension is applied to the strap.

Mclyman, C. W. T. (inventor)

1974-01-01

397

Metasurface transformation optics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transformation optics has been recently proposed as a powerful method to manipulate electromagnetic fields by using anisotropic inhomogeneous volumetric media. This method can be extended to design anisotropic modulated metasurfaces (MTSs) able to control the propagation path of surface waves. In this paper, this extension is formalized by defining a systematic procedure that can be applied to design a large number of planar devices, with a significant technological simplification with respect to the realization based on volumetric media. Practical MTS designs are also presented.

Mencagli, M., Jr.; Martini, E.; González-Ovejero, D.; Maci, S.

2014-12-01

398

Industrial Transformation Science Plan  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

From the International Human Dimensions Programme on Global Environmental Change, this "Industrial Transformation Science Plan" incorporates a multidisciplinary research effort which is "based on the assumption that important changes in production and consumption systems will be required in order to meet the needs and aspirations of a growing world population while using environmental resources in a sustainable manner." The plan has combined the input of experts in a wide range of social science disciplines with that of experts from both life and physical sciences.

399

Energy: Energy Transformations  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This Science Object is the second of four Science Objects in the Energy SciPack. It provides a conceptual and real-world understanding of how energy is transferred, from object to object and from one form of energy to another. Although the various forms of energy appear different, each can be measured in a closed system. This makes it possible to keep track of how much of one form of energy is converted into another form. Most of what goes on in the universe--from exploding stars and biological growth to the operation of machines and the motion of people--involves some form of energy being transformed into another form. The law of conservation of energy states that whenever the amount of energy in one place (or form) decreases, the amount of energy in other places (or forms) increases by the same amount. Learning Outcomes:� Recognize that there are ways to measure the amount of different kinds of energy that allow us to track how much of one form is changed into another.� Recognize that energy is conserved, meaning it is not "used up" and does not appear out of nowhere.� Give examples of transformation of energy, including recognizing the forms of energy involved.� Construct an argument against an example that claims to be a perpetual motion machine.

National Science Teachers Association (NSTA)

2006-11-01

400

TRANSFORMATION VS. GOVERNMENT AUTOMATION  

E-print Network

e-Government is a major policy issue that countries throughout the world are grappling with. Developing countries under the impetus of world policy bodies are trying to get onto the e-government bandwagon the correct way. However and though they will usually stake claims to developing a citizen-centric e-government, in reality their principal aim is to develop a transactional form of government, hence foregoing what many developed countries are on their way of achieving, namely holistic or transformative government. Through the evaluation of major e-government projects from the Gulf region, this paper illustrates how Gulf e-governments were never planned to transform the inner working of government. However and based on the design-reality gap theory, Bahrain’s egovernment is shown to be an exemplary success when design mirrors reality. The paper draws a list of challenges that Gulf e-government projects and programs are facing or will likely face and makes concrete suggestions for dealing with them. Along with citizen and customer involvement in the design of e-government solutions, the absence of research and evaluation of current e-government initiatives is one of the biggest challenges identified. The paper concludes with a set of statements about e-government that are purported to apply throughout the region. Keywords: Design-reality gap, e-Government strategy, e-Government models, e-Government research & evaluation. 1

unknown authors

401

Lorentz-transformation and Galileo-transformation windows  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We define Lorentz-transformation windows as windows that change the direction of transmitted light rays like a Lorentz transformation. Similarly, Galileo-transformation windows change the direction of transmitted light rays like a Galileo transformation. This light-ray-direction change distorts the scene seen through such a window in the same way in which the scene would be distorted in a photo taken with a camera moving through the scene. Lorentz-transformation windows can also undo the distortion of the scene when moving at relativistic velocity relative to it. For small angles between the direction of the light rays and the direction of the velocity, Galileo-transformation windows can be realised with relatively simple telescope windows, which consist of arrays of identical micro-telescopes.

Oxburgh, Stephen; Gray, Norman; Hendry, Martin; Courtial, Johannes

2014-09-01

402

Understanding the Transformation of the IT Function in Organizations  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many IT researchers have tried to describe the IT function and to explain its transformation over time. Nevertheless, we observed that existing characterizations are often based on a single dimension, attached to historical periods or built into a normative discourse that calls for an ideal profile. We do not subscribe to these premises, seeing that there might be a series

Manon G. Guillemette; Guy Pare

2005-01-01

403

Transformation and electrophoretic karyotyping of Coniochaeta ligniaria NRRL30616  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

This study undertook initial characterization of the genetic system of Coniochaeta ligniaria NRRL30616, an Actinomycete with utility for conversion of biomass sugars to fuels and chemicals. Transformation of C. ligniaria using hygromycin as a dominant selectable marker was achieved using protoplasts...

404

Mediating the Conflict between Transformative Pedagogy and Bureaucratic Practice  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article reflects on the authors' experiences during a pilot year of an innovative core curriculum at a state research university and their attempts to create a "collaborative community" characterized by transformative pedagogy. It discusses their students' and colleagues' resistance to their inventive, albeit time-consuming and sometimes…

Inderbitzin, Michelle; Storrs, Debbie A.

2008-01-01

405

Rainbow Fourier transform Mikhail D. Alexandrov a,b,n  

E-print Network

Rainbow Fourier transform Mikhail D. Alexandrov a,b,n , Brian Cairns b , Michael I. Mishchenko b Rainbow Optical particle characterization Remote sensing a b s t r a c t We present a novel technique between 1351 and 1651 exhibit a sharply defined rainbow structure, the shape of which is determined mostly

406

Anthropogenic transformation of the biomes, 1700 to 2000  

E-print Network

RESEARCH PAPER Anthropogenic transformation of the biomes, 1700 to 2000 Erle C. Ellis1 *, Kees biomes (anthromes) were mapped for 1700, 1800, 1900 and 2000 using a rule-based anthrome classification- mation of terrestrial biomes was then characterized by map comparisons at century intervals. Results

Ellis, Erle C.

407

Transformational Leadership Characteristics Necessary for Today's Leaders in Higher Education  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This study is concerned with the traits and characteristics of presidents of institutions of higher education who are considered transformational leaders. The study adds current data to the published and perceived characterization of leaders in higher education and their approaches to changing the learning environment at their institutions. This…

Basham, Lloyd Moman

2012-01-01

408

Syntheses and characterization of copper(II) carboxylate dimers formed from enantiopure ligands containing a strong ?···? stacking synthon: enantioselective single-crystal to single-crystal gas/solid-mediated transformations.  

PubMed

Tri- and tetrafunctional enantiopure ligands have been prepared from 1,8-naphthalic anhydride and the amino acids L-alanine, D-phenylglycine, and L-asparagine to produce (S)-2-(1,8-naphthalimido)propanoic acid (HL(ala)), (R)-2-(1,8-naphthalimido)-2-phenylacetic acid (HL(phg)), and (S)-4-amino-2-(1,8 naphthalimido)-4-oxobutanoic acid (HL(asn)), respectively. Reactions of L(ala)(-) with copper(II) acetate under a variety of solvent conditions has led to the formation and characterization by X-ray crystallography of three similar copper(II) paddlewheel complexes with different axial ligands, [Cu(2)(L(ala))(4)(THF)(2)] (1), [Cu(2)(L(ala))(4)(HL(ala))] (2), and [Cu(2)(L(ala))(4)(py)(THF)] (3). A similar reaction using THF and L(phg)(-) leads to the formation of [Cu(2)(L(phg))(4)(THF)(2)] (4). With the exception of a disordered component in the structure of 4, the naphthalimide groups in all of these compounds are arranged on the same side of the square, central paddlewheel unit, forming what is known as the chiral crown configuration. A variety of ?···? stacking interactions of the 1,8-naphthalimide groups organize all of these complexes into supramolecular structures. The addition of the amide group functionality in the L(asn)(-) ligand leads to the formation of tetrameric [Cu(4)(L(asn))(8)(py)(MeOH)] (5), where reciprocal axial coordination of one of the amide carbonyl oxygen atoms between two dimers leads to the tetramer. Extensive supramolecular interactions in 5, mainly the ?···? stacking interactions of the 1,8-naphthalimide supramolecular synthon, support an open three-dimensional structure containing large pores filled with solvent. When crystals of [Cu(4)(L(asn))(8)(py)(MeOH)] are exposed to (S)-ethyl lactate vapor, the coordinated methanol molecule is replaced by (S)-ethyl lactate, bonding to the copper ion through the carbonyl oxygen, yielding [Cu(4)(L(asn))(8)(py)((S)-ethyl lactate)] (6) without a loss of crystallinity. With the exception of the replacement of the one axial ligand, the molecular structures of 5 and 6 are very similar. In a similar experiment of 5 with vapors of (R)-ethyl lactate, again a change occurs without a loss of crystallinity, but in this case the (R)-ethyl lactate displaces only slightly more than half of the axial methanol molecules forming [Cu(4)(L(asn))(8)(py){((R)-ethyl lactate)(0.58)(MeOH)(0.42)}] (7). Importantly, in 7, the (R)-ethyl lactate coordinates through the hydroxyl group. When crystals of [Cu(4)(L(asn))(8)(py)(MeOH)] are exposed to vapors of racemic ethyl lactate, the coordinated methanol molecule is displaced without a loss of crystallinity exclusively by (S)-ethyl lactate, yielding a new form of the tetramer [Cu(4)(L(asn))(8)(py)((S)-ethyl lactate)], in which the ethyl lactate in the pocket bonds to the copper(II) ion through the carbonyl oxygen as with 6. Exposure of [Cu(4)(L(asn))(8)(py){((R)-ethyl lactate)(0.58)(MeOH)(0.42)}] to racemic ethyl lactate yields a third form of [Cu(4)(L(asn))(8)(py)((S)-ethyl lactate)], where the three forms of [Cu(4)(L(asn))(8)(py)((S)-ethyl lactate)] have differences in the number of ordered (S)-ethyl lactate molecules located in the interstitial sites. These results demonstrate enantioselective bonding to a metal center in the chiral pocket of both 5 and 7 during single-crystal to single-crystal gas/solid-mediated exchange reactions. PMID:21919476

Reger, Daniel L; Horger, Jacob J; Debreczeni, Agota; Smith, Mark D

2011-10-17

409

Heterogeneous susceptibility of valve endothelial cells to mesenchymal transformation in response to TNF?  

PubMed Central

Lack of understanding of the early mechanisms of aortic valve stenosis and calcification hinders the development of diagnostic and therapeutic intervention strategies. Inflammation is a known component of early aortic valve disease (AVD) and can induce mesenchymal transformation in a subset of aortic valve endothelial cells. Here we present a three-dimensional culture system that allows transforming and non-transforming cells to be independently isolated and analyzed. We have used the system to identify and characterize the dynamic invasion and phenotypic transition of two distinct subsets of endothelial cells: those that invade and transform under TNF? treatment, and those that resist mesenchymal transformation and remain endothelial. We determine that non-transformed cells maintain control levels of endothelial genes VE-cadherin and eNOS, while transformed cells lose these endothelial characteristics and upregulate ?-smooth muscle actin. Both subsets of cells have an inflammatory phenotype marked by increased ICAM-1, but transformed cells have increased MMP-9, Notch1, TGF-?, and BMP4, while non-transformed cells do not. Transformed cells also have distinct effects on alignment of collagen fibers as they invade the hydrogel system, which is not found in control endothelial or interstitial valve cells. Understanding the role of transforming and non-transforming endothelial cells in valve disease will provide an important pathological link between early inflammation and later stages of disease. Discovery of the molecular signature of transformation-resistant endothelial cells could inform development of treatment strategies that promote survival of the valve endothelium. PMID:23982279

Farrar, Emily J.; Butcher, Jonathan T.

2013-01-01

410

LU transformation invariant operators and LU transformation invariant  

E-print Network

We proposed a concept of LU transformation invariant operators. By using this operator, arbitrary multi-qubit states LU transformation invariant and SLOCC invariant could be easily obtained. And we find that presences two kinds of invariant operators and corresponding invariants. One kind of operators yields LU invariants and the other operators results in SLOCC invariants. For three-qubit states, all independence LU transformation invariant are obtained. Furthermore, by this system method, arbitrary multi-qubit states invariants can be given.

Xin-wei Zha; Chun-min Zhang

2007-02-06

411

z Transform Chapter Intended Learning Outcomes  

E-print Network

z Transform Chapter Intended Learning Outcomes: (i) Understanding the relationship between transform and the Fourier transform for discrete-time signals (ii) Understanding the characteristics and properties of transform (iii) Ability to compute transform and inverse transform (iv) Ability to apply

So, Hing-Cheung

412

Application of Electronic Transformers in Digital Substation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Embarking from the sensing principle of electronic transformer, the paper introduced the type and the constitution of electronic current transformer and electronic voltage transformer. By comparing the active and passive optical transformer in our country, we pointed out that the passive optical transformer have excellent measurement quality, it also have the same practical conditions as the active optical transformer. The

Hongxing Wang; Guoqing Zhang; Zhizhong Guo; Jiaying Wang; Xingguo Cai

2008-01-01

413

SPECIATION OF HAZARDOUS INORGANIC COMPOUNDS BY FOURIER TRANSFORM INFRARED (FTIR) SPECTROSCOPY  

EPA Science Inventory

The report describes an extension of the application of infrared methodology to characterize hazardous inorganic compounds in solid inorganic emissions, based on recent advances in instrumentation for Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The improved instrumentation, c...

414

Microstructure Design of Low Alloy Transformation-Induced Plasticity Assisted Steels  

E-print Network

treatment (i.e. intercritical annealing-IA, and bainitic isothermal transformation-BIT). The effect of phase constitution on the mechanical properties was first characterized experimentally via systematically varying the volume fractions of these phases...

Zhu, Ruixian

2013-03-20

415

ENANTIOSELECTIVE MICROBIAL TRANSFORMATION OF THE PHENYLPYRAZOLE INSECTICIDE FIPRONIL IN ANOXIC SEDIMENTS  

EPA Science Inventory

Fipronil, a chiral insecticide, was biotransformed initially to fipronil sulfide in anoxic sediment slurries following a short lag period. Sediment slurries characterized as either sulfidogenic or methanogenic transformed fipronil with half-lives of approximately 35 and 40 days, ...

416

Acceleration of the initial phase transformation of mineralization by phosvitin  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Phosvitin has a similar structure and similar properties to the phosphorylated proteins that play an important role in biomineralization, suggesting that phosvitin may have similar regulation properties. This study investigated the effect of phosvitin on regulating the phase transformation of the mineral calcium phosphate in a biomimetic mineralization solution; the characterization techniques used were Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy. The results clearly demonstrated that phosvitin significantly promotes the initiation of phase transformation, accelerated the transformation process and shortened the transformation time from 6 to 0.5 h. Phosvitin was involved in the phase transformation and incorporated into or strongly absorbed on the mineral, as evidenced by the protein peaks observed in the FTIR spectra and XRD patterns. The effects of the substrate-addition sequence on the phase transformation demonstrated that the phosvitin-Ca2+ interaction played a key role in the regulation of mineralization. Compared with those for BSA, the results revealed that the role of phosvitin in mineralization is closely associated with its high level of phosphorylation. This study provides useful information about using phosvitin as a potential candidate for biomaterials.

Zhang, Xiaowei; Geng, Fang; Huang, Xi; Ma, Meihu

2015-01-01

417

A piezoelectric transformer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This work describes a modeling and design method whereby a piezoelectric system is formulated by two sets of second-order equations, one for the mechanical system, and the other for the electrical system, coupled through the piezoelectric effect. The solution to this electromechanical coupled system gives a physical interpretation of the piezoelectric effect as a piezoelectric transformer that is a part of the piezoelectric system, which transfers the applied mechanical force into a force-controlled current source, and short circuit mechanical compliance into capacitance. It also transfers the voltage source into a voltage-controlled relative velocity input, and free motional capacitance into mechanical compliance. The formulation and interpretation simplify the modeling of smart structures and lead to physical insight that aids the designer. Due to its physical realization, the smart structural system can be unconditional stable and effectively control responses. This new concept has been demonstrated in three numerical examples for a simple piezoelectric system.

Won, C. C.

1993-01-01

418

Improving facilities, transforming attitudes.  

PubMed

Providing an effective healing environment for patients facing a wide range of mental health issues, while balancing their needs with security, safety, and affordability considerations, will be key area of focus at this year's Design in Mental Health (DIMH) conference and exhibition, taking place from 13-14 May at the National Motorcycle Museum in Bickenhill near Solihull. As HEJ editor, Jonathan Baillie, reports, conference speakers will include the director of estates and new business at the Priory Group; the chief executive of mental health charity, Mind; architects and designers with substantial mental healthcare experience; top academics, and service-users--all with their own perspective on the 2014 conference theme, 'Improving facilities, transforming attitudes'. PMID:24783329

Baillie, Jonathan

2014-04-01

419

Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer  

SciTech Connect

The operating principles of an Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (IFTS) are discussed. The advantages and disadvantages of such instruments with respect to alternative imaging spectrometers are discussed. The primary advantages of the IFTS are the capacity to acquire more than an order of magnitude more spectral channels than alternative systems with more than an order of magnitude greater etendue than for alternative systems. The primary disadvantage of IFTS, or FTS in general, is the sensitivity to temporal fluctuations, either random or periodic. Data from the IRIFTS (ir IFTS) prototype instrument, sensitive in the infrared, are presented having a spectral sensitivity of 0.01 absorbance units, a spectral resolution of 6 cm{sup {minus}1} over the range 0 to 7899 cm{sup {minus}1}, and a spatial resolution of 2.5 mr.

Bennett, C.L.; Carter, M.R.; Fields, D.J.; Hernandez, J.

1993-04-14

420

Hadamard transform imaging  

SciTech Connect

We have constructed a Hadamard transform Raman microscopic imaging system, and have developed it to a high definition (64K pixel) technique. We have demonstrated multispectral Raman imaging and developed the first three-dimensional (digital confocal) Raman imaging. We have explored the systematic errors in Hadamard multiplexing techniques and developed corrections. We have used our Raman microscope techniques to explore defect distributions on graphite electrodes and damage effects on SERS-activated silver electrodes. We have used the microprobe capabilities of our instrument to investigate the kinetics of polyacrylamide formation in electrolysis capabilities. We have worked closely with a manufacture of holographic displays to develop and incorporate holographic filters and holographic beam splitters into Raman spectrographs and microscopes. Finally, we have developed Hadamard multiplexing techniques for densitometric measurements of protein or nucleic acid blots.

Morris, M.D.

1992-01-01

421

Transforming Cities With Transit  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

How are cities transformed by the creation of new transit lines? How can existing transit lines be modified to create new land use opportunities for housing and commercial properties? These subjects are covered by a 172-page conference edition of a forthcoming paper from the World Bank. The paper was authored by Hiroaki Suzuki, Robert Cervero, and Kanako Iuchi. Visitors will note that the work focuses on "identifying barriers to and opportunities for effective coordination of transport infrastructure and urban development." The work takes on a number of global best practices of transit-oriented metropolises that have direct relevance to cities in developing countries and offers both analysis and suggestions for future projects. Sections here include "Lessons from Sustainable Transit-Oriented Cities," "Integrating Transit and Urban Development in Cities in the Developing World," and "Toward Sustainable Urban Futures."

Cervero, Robert.; Iuchi, Kanako; Suzuki, Hiroaki

422

Biophysical insights into cancer transformation and treatment.  

PubMed

Biological systems are hierarchically self-organized complex structures characterized by nonlinear interactions. Biochemical energy is transformed into work of physical forces required for various biological functions. We postulate that energy transduction depends on endogenous electrodynamic fields generated by microtubules. Microtubules and mitochondria colocalize in cells with microtubules providing tracks for mitochondrial movement. Besides energy transformation, mitochondria form a spatially distributed proton charge layer and a resultant strong static electric field, which causes water ordering in the surrounding cytosol. These effects create conditions for generation of coherent electrodynamic field. The metabolic energy transduction pathways are strongly affected in cancers. Mitochondrial dysfunction in cancer cells (Warburg effect) or in fibroblasts associated with cancer cells (reverse Warburg effect) results in decreased or increased power of the generated electromagnetic field, respectively, and shifted and rebuilt frequency spectra. Disturbed electrodynamic interaction forces between cancer and healthy cells may favor local invasion and metastasis. A therapeutic strategy of targeting dysfunctional mitochondria for restoration of their physiological functions makes it possible to switch on the natural apoptotic pathway blocked in cancer transformed cells. Experience with dichloroacetate in cancer treatment and reestablishment of the healthy state may help in the development of novel effective drugs aimed at the mitochondrial function. PMID:23844381

Pokorný, Ji?í; Foletti, Alberto; Kobilková, Jitka; Jandová, Anna; Vrba, Jan; Vrba, Jan; Nedbalová, Martina; ?o?ek, Aleš; Danani, Andrea; Tuszy?ski, Jack A

2013-01-01

423

Phase transformations in xerogels of mullite composition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Monophasic and diphasic xerogels have been prepared as precursors for mullite (3Al2O3-2SiO2). Monophasic xerogel was synthesized from tetraethyl orthosilicate and aluminum nitrate nanohydrate and the diphasic xerogel from colloidal suspension of silica and boehmite. The chemical and structural evolutions, as a function of thermal treatment, in these two types of sol-gel derived mullite precursor powders have been characterized by DTA, TGA, X-ray diffraction, SEM and infrared spectroscopy. Monophasic xerogel transforms to an Al-Si spinel from an amorphous structure at approximately 980 C. The spinel then changes into mullite on further heating. Diphasic xerogel forms mullite at approximately 1360 C. The components of the diphasic powder react independently up to the point of mullite formation. The transformation in the monophasic powder occurs rapidly and yields strongly crystalline mullite with no other phases present. The diphasic powder, however, transforms rather slowly and contains remnants of the starting materials (alpha-Al2O3, cristobalite) even after heating at high temperatures for long times (1600 C, 6 hr). The diphasic powder could be sintered to high density but not the monophasic powder in spite of its molecular level homogeneity.

Hyatt, Mark J.; Bansal, Narottam P.

1988-01-01

424

Phase transformations in xerogels of mullite composition  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Monophasic and diphasic xerogels have been prepared as precursors for mullite (3Al203-2Si02). Monophasic xerogel was synthesized from tetraethyl orthosilicate and aluminum nitrate nanohydrate and the diphasic xerogel from colloidal suspension of silica and boehmite. The chemical and structural evolutions, as a function of thermal treatment, in these two types of sol-gel derived mullite precursor powders have been characterized by DTA, TGA, X-ray diffraction, SEM and infrared spectroscopy. Monophasic xerogel transforms to an Al-Si spinel from an amorphous structure at approximately 980 C. The spinel then changes into mullite on further heating. Diphasic xerogel forms mullite at approximately 1360 C. The components of the diphasic powder react independently up to the point of mullite formation. The transformation in the monophasic powder occurs rapidly and yields strongly crystalline mullite with no other phases present. The diphasic powder, however, transforms rather slowly and contains remnants of the starting materials (alpha-Al203, cristobalite) even after heating at high temperatures for long times (1600 C, 6 hr). The diphasic powder could be sintered to high density but not the monophasic powder in spite of its molecular level homogeneity.

Hyatt, Mark J.; Bansal, Narottam P.

1990-01-01

425

Infrared transform spectral imager  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A dispersive transform spectral imager named FAROS (FAst Reconfigurable Optical Sensor) has been developed for high frame rate, moderate-to-high resolution hyperspectral imaging. A programmable digital micromirror array (DMA) modulator makes it possible to adjust spectral, temporal and spatial resolution in real time to achieve optimum tradeoff for dynamic monitoring requirements. The system's F/2.8 collection optics produces diffraction-limited images in the mid-wave infrared (MWIR) spectral region. The optical system is based on a proprietary dual-pass Offner configuration with a single spherical mirror and a confocal spherical diffraction grating. FAROS fulfills two functions simultaneously: one output produces two-dimensional polychromatic imagery at the full focal plane array (FPA) frame rate for fast object acquisition and tracking, while the other output operates in parallel and produces variable-resolution spectral images via Hadamard transform encoding to assist in object discrimination and classification. The current version of the FAROS spectral imager is a multispectral technology demonstrator that operates in the MWIR with a 320 x 256 pixel InSb FPA running at 478 frames per second resulting in time resolution of several tens of milliseconds per hypercube. The instrument has been tested by monitoring small-scale rocket engine firings in outdoor environments. The instrument has no macro-scale moving parts, and conforms to a robust, small-volume and lightweight package, suitable for integration with small surveillance vehicles. The technology is also applicable to multispectral/hyperspectral imaging applications in diverse areas such as atmospheric contamination monitoring, agriculture, process control, and biomedical imaging, and can be adapted for use in any spectral domain from the ultraviolet (UV) to the LWIR region.

Vujkovic-Cvijin, Pajo; Lee, Jamine; Gregor, Brian; Goldstein, Neil; Panfili, Raphael; Fox, Marsha

2012-10-01

426

Advances in Microstructural Characterization  

SciTech Connect

Timely development of materials for the demanding fusion energy environment requires a broad range of advanced scientific tools, including advanced structural characterization methods. The current state-of-the-art and emerging capabilities in electron microscopy, atom probe tomography, neutron scattering and X-ray scattering are reviewed with respect to potential applications in fusion materials research and development. Recent dramatic advances in capabilities in all four of these characterization tools are transforming the spatial precision and quantitative information that can be extracted during structural characterization. Examples include spectroscopic identification of single atoms in bulk materials, three-dimensional mapping of millimeter-scale volumes of materials with nanometer resolution, and high-resolution in situ measurements of internal stress and strain during mechanical testing.

Zinkle, Steven J [ORNL; Ice, Gene E [ORNL; Miller, Michael K [ORNL; Pennycook, Stephen J [ORNL; Wang, Xun-Li [ORNL

2009-01-01

427

Quasi-discrete Hankel transform.  

PubMed

A quasi-discrete Hankel transform (QDHT) is presented as a new and efficient framework for numerical evaluation of the zero-order Hankel transform. A discrete form of Parseval's theorem is obtained for the first time to the authors' knowledge, and the transform matrix is discussed. It is shown that the S factor, defined as the products of a truncated radius, is critical to building the QDHT. PMID:18084527

Yu, L; Huang, M; Chen, M; Chen, W; Huang, W; Zhu, Z

1998-03-15

428

Transformation Systems at NASA Ames  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this paper, we describe the experiences of the Automated Software Engineering Group at the NASA Ames Research Center in the development and application of three different transformation systems. The systems span the entire technology range, from deductive synthesis, to logic-based transformation, to almost compiler-like source-to-source transformation. These systems also span a range of NASA applications, including solving solar system geometry problems, generating data analysis software, and analyzing multi-threaded Java code.

Buntine, Wray; Fischer, Bernd; Havelund, Klaus; Lowry, Michael; Pressburger, TOm; Roach, Steve; Robinson, Peter; VanBaalen, Jeffrey

1999-01-01

429

FTIR characterization of advanced materials  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper surveys the application of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to the characterization of advanced materials. FTIR sampling techniques including internal and external reflectance and photoacoustic spectroscopy are discussed. Representative examples from the literature of the analysis of resins, fibers, prepregs and composites are reviewed. A discussion of several promising specialized FTIR techniques is also presented.

Young, P. R.; Chang, A. C.

1986-01-01

430

Genetic transformation: a powerful tool for dissection of adaptive traits in trees  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary Plant transformation and regeneration systems have become indispensable parts of gene discovery and functional characterization over the last two decades. Adoption of transformation methods in studies of plant adaptation to natural environments has been slow. This is a result of poor genomic knowledge and inefficient transfor- mation systems for species dominating terrestrial ecosystems, and logistical difficul- ties in conducting

Victor B. Busov; Amy M. Brunner; Richard Meilan; Sergei Filichkin; Lisa Ganio; Sonali Gandhi; Steven H. Strauss

431

Segal-Bargmann Transform of White Noise Operators and White Noise Differential Equations  

E-print Network

#12;Segal-Bargmann Transform of White Noise Operators and White Noise Differential Equations UN CIG-Bargmann transform is applied to characterization for symbols of white noise operators. Ageneral formulation of an initial value problem for white noise operators is given and unique existence of asolution is proved

Obata, Nobuaki

432

The transforming growth factor-?\\/SMAD signaling pathway is present and functional in human mesangial cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transforming growth factor-?\\/SMAD signaling pathway is present and functional in human mesangial cells.BackgroundTransforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) signals through a unique set of intracellular proteins, called SMADs, that have been characterized mainly in transient overexpression systems. Because several models of glomerulosclerosis suggest a role for TGF-? in the extracellular matrix accumulation, we sought to characterize the role of SMAD proteins

Anne-Christine Poncelet; Mark P. De Caestecker; H. William Schnaper

1999-01-01

433

Color image encryption based on gyrator transform and Arnold transform  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A color image encryption scheme using gyrator transform and Arnold transform is proposed, which has two security levels. In the first level, the color image is separated into three components: red, green and blue, which are normalized and scrambled using the Arnold transform. The green component is combined with the first random phase mask and transformed to an interim using the gyrator transform. The first random phase mask is generated with the sum of the blue component and a logistic map. Similarly, the red component is combined with the second random phase mask and transformed to three-channel-related data. The second random phase mask is generated with the sum of the phase of the interim and an asymmetrical tent map. In the second level, the three-channel-related data are scrambled again and combined with the third random phase mask generated with the sum of the previous chaotic maps, and then encrypted into a gray scale ciphertext. The encryption result has stationary white noise distribution and camouflage property to some extent. In the process of encryption and decryption, the rotation angle of gyrator transform, the iterative numbers of Arnold transform, the parameters of the chaotic map and generated accompanied phase function serve as encryption keys, and hence enhance the security of the system. Simulation results and security analysis are presented to confirm the security, validity and feasibility of the proposed scheme.

Sui, Liansheng; Gao, Bo

2013-06-01

434

Plants having modified response to ethylene by transformation with an ETR nucleic acid  

DOEpatents

The invention includes transformed plants having at least one cell transformed with a modified ETR nucleic acid. Such plants have a phenotype characterized by a decrease in the response of at least one transformed plant cell to ethylene as compared to a plant not containing the transformed plant cell. Tissue and/or temporal specificity for expression of the modified ETR nucleic acid is controlled by selecting appropriate expression regulation sequences to target the location and/or time of expression of the transformed nucleic acid. The plants are made by transforming at least one plant cell with an appropriate modified ETR nucleic acid, regenerating plants from one or more of the transformed plant cells and selecting at least one plant having the desired phenotype.

Meyerowitz, Elliott M. (Pasadena, CA); Chang, Caren (Pasadena, CA); Bleecker, Anthony B. (Madison, WI)

2001-01-01

435

Detrecting and Locating Partial Discharges in Transformers  

SciTech Connect

A collaborative research between the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), the American Electric Power (AEP), the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA), and the State of Ohio Energy Office (OEO) has been formed to conduct a feasibility study to detect and locate partial discharges (PDs) inside large transformers. The success of early detection of the PDs is necessary to avoid costly catastrophic failures that can occur if the process of PD is ignored. The detection method under this research is based on an innovative technology developed by ORNL researchers using optical methods to sense the acoustical energy produced by the PDs. ORNL researchers conducted experimental studies to detect PD using an optical fiber as an acoustic sensor capable of detecting acoustical disturbances at any point along its length. This technical approach also has the potential to locate the point at which the PD was sensed within the transformer. Several optical approaches were experimentally investigated, including interferometric detection of acoustical disturbances along the sensing fiber, light detection and ranging (LIDAR) techniques using frequency modulation continuous wave (FMCW), frequency modulated (FM) laser with a multimode fiber, FM laser with a single mode fiber, and amplitude modulated (AM) laser with a multimode fiber. The implementation of the optical fiber-based acoustic measurement technique would include installing a fiber inside a transformer allowing real-time detection of PDs and determining their locations. The fibers are nonconductive and very small (core plus cladding are diameters of 125 ?m for single-mode fibers and 230 ?m for multimode fibers). The research identified the capabilities and limitations of using optical technology to detect and locate sources of acoustical disturbances such as in PDs in large transformers. Amplitude modulation techniques showed the most promising results and deserve further research to better quantify the technique’s sensitivity and its ability to characterize a PD event. Other sensing techniques have been also identified, such as the wavelength shifting fiber optics and custom fabricated fibers with special coatings.

Shourbaji, A.; Richards, R.; Kisner, R. A.; Hardy, J.

2005-02-04

436

Spreading rate dependence of gravity anomalies along oceanic transform faults.  

PubMed

Mid-ocean ridge morphology and crustal accretion are known to depend on the spreading rate of the ridge. Slow-spreading mid-ocean-ridge segments exhibit significant crustal thinning towards transform and non-transform offsets, which is thought to arise from a three-dimensional process of buoyant mantle upwelling and melt migration focused beneath the centres of ridge segments. In contrast, fast-spreading mid-ocean ridges are characterized by smaller, segment-scale variations in crustal thickness, which reflect more uniform mantle upwelling beneath the ridge axis. Here we present a systematic study of the residual mantle Bouguer gravity anomaly of 19 oceanic transform faults that reveals a strong correlation between gravity signature and spreading rate. Previous studies have shown that slow-slipping transform faults are marked by more positive gravity anomalies than their adjacent ridge segments, but our analysis reveals that intermediate and fast-slipping transform faults exhibit more negative gravity anomalies than their adjacent ridge segments. This finding indicates that there is a mass deficit at intermediate- and fast-slipping transform faults, which could reflect increased rock porosity, serpentinization of mantle peridotite, and/or crustal thickening. The most negative anomalies correspond to topographic highs flanking the transform faults, rather than to transform troughs (where deformation is probably focused and porosity and alteration are expected to be greatest), indicating that crustal thickening could be an important contributor to the negative gravity anomalies observed. This finding in turn suggests that three-dimensional magma accretion may occur near intermediate- and fast-slipping transform faults. PMID:17625563

Gregg, Patricia M; Lin, Jian; Behn, Mark D; Montési, Laurent G J

2007-07-12

437

Database Transformations for Biological Applications  

SciTech Connect

The goal of this project was to develop tools to facilitate data transformations between heterogeneous data sources found throughout biomedical applications. Such transformations are necessary when sharing data between different groups working on related problems as well as when querying data spread over different databases, files and software analysis packages.

Overton, C.; Davidson, S. B.; Buneman, P.; Tannen, V.

2001-04-11

438

Transformations of Gauss hypergeometric functions  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper classifies algebraic transformations of Gauss hypergeometric functions and pull-back trans- formations between hypergeometric dierential equations. This classification recovers the classical trans- formations of degree 2, 3, 4, 6, and finds other transformations of some special classes of the Gauss hypergeometric function.

Raimundas Vidunas

439

Cell transformation by Herpesvirus saimiri.  

PubMed

Herpesvirus saimiri (Saimiriine herpesvirus-2), a gamma2-herpesvirus (rhadinovirus) of non-human primates, causes T-lymphoproliferative diseases in susceptible organisms and transforms human and non-human T lymphocytes to continuous growth in vitro in the absence of stimulation. T cells transformed by H. saimiri retain many characteristics of intact T lymphocytes, such as the sensitivity to interleukin-2 and the ability to recognize the corresponding antigens. As a result, H. saimiri is widely used in immunobiology for immortalization of various difficult-to-obtain and/or -to-maintain T cells in order to obtain useful experimental models. In particular, H. saimiri-transformed human T cells are highly susceptible to infection with HIV-1 and -2. This makes them a convenient tool for propagation of poorly replicating strains of HIV, including primary clinical isolates. Therefore, the mechanisms mediating transformation of T cells by H. saimiri are of considerable interest. A single transformation-associated protein, StpA or StpB, mediates cell transformation by H. saimiri strains of group A or B, respectively. Strains of group C, which exhibit the highest oncogenic potential, have two proteins involved in transformation-StpC and Tip. Both proteins have been shown to dramatically affect signal transduction pathways leading to the activation of crucial transcription factors. This review is focused on the biological effects and molecular mechanisms of action of proteins involved in H. saimiri-dependent transformation. PMID:15389624

Tsygankov, Alexander Y

2005-05-01

440

Will Technology Transform Music Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides historical information about music education, focusing on musical composition and its lack of inclusion within public education. Discusses two ways technology is utilized within music education, either for efficiency or for transformative purposes. Asserts that transformation in musical composition can lead to more educational…

Beckstead, David

2001-01-01

441

Data compression by wavelet transforms  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A wavelet transform algorithm is applied to image compression. It is observed that the algorithm does not suffer from the blockiness characteristic of the DCT-based algorithms at compression ratios exceeding 25:1, but the edges do not appear as sharp as they do with the latter method. Some suggestions for the improved performance of the wavelet transform method are presented.

Shahshahani, M.

1992-01-01

442

Fast-Polynomial-Transform Program  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Computer program uses fast-polynomial-transformation (FPT) algorithm applicable to two-dimensional mathematical convolutions. Two-dimensional cyclic convolutions converted to one-dimensional convolutions in polynomial rings. Program decomposes cyclic polynomials into polynomial convolutions of same length. Only FPT's and fast Fourier transforms of same length required. Modular approach saves computional resources. Program written in C.

Truong, T. K.; Hsu, I. S.; Chu, Y. F.

1987-01-01

443

Travel and Adult Transformative Learning  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This phenomenological research study examines the lived experience of individual adult transformation in the context of travel. Adults throughout history have experienced profound personal and perception changes as a result of significant travel events. Transformative learning occurs through experience, crisis, and reflection, all of which are…

Lindstrom, Steven K.

2011-01-01

444

Presidential address Geomycology: biogeochemical transformations  

E-print Network

­soil interface. The geochemical transformations that take place can influence plant productivity and the mobilityPresidential address Geomycology: biogeochemical transformations of rocks, minerals, metals history: Received 21 November 2006 Received in revised form 26 November 2006 Accepted 12 December 2006

Ahmad, Sajjad

445

Adaptive transformer thermal overload protection  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper is based on a report of the same title, prepared by Working Group K3 of the Substation Protection Subcommittee of the Power System Relaying Committee of the Power Engineering Society of the IEEE. The paper begins with background information on the causes, measurement techniques, and consequences of overheating in mineral-oil-immersed power transformers. Then techniques for adaptive transformer thermal

G. W. Swift; E. S. Zocholl; M. Bajpai; J. F. Burger; C. H. Castro; S. R. Chano; F. Cobelo; P. de Sa; E. C. Fennell; J. G. Gilbert; S. E. Grier; R. W. Haas; W. G. Hartmann; R. A. Hedding; P. Kerrigan; S. Mazumdar; D. H. Miller; P. G. Mysore; M. Nagpal; R. V. Rebbapragada; M. V. Thaden; J. T. Uchiyama; S. M. Usman; J. D. Wardlow; M. Yalla

2001-01-01

446

Conformal Transformations and Space Travel  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conformal transformations are applied to the motion of a space ship experiencing a constant acceleration. The role of proper time is interpreted in terms of atomic periods, and the relationship between the conformal transformations and the general theory of relativity is clarified.

Suraj N. Gupta

1961-01-01

447

A Transformational View of Cartography  

Microsoft Academic Search

Cartographic transformations are applied to locative geographic data and to substantive geographic data. Conversion between locative aliases are between points, lines, and areas. Substantive transformations occur in map interpolation, filtering, and generalization, and in map reading. The theoretical importance of the inverses is in the study of error propagation effects. Leonard Bernstein, in a recent television lecture, made an exciting,

W. R. Tobler

1979-01-01

448

Lightning Protection for Distribution Transformers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a five year history of the results of lightning arrester protection for distribution transformers in New England where the normal ground electrode resistance is much higher than in most other parts of this country. The experience shows that the trouble rate of the protected transformers has consistently been materially less than that of those not protected, notwithstanding

T. H. Haines; C. A. Corney

1932-01-01

449

Transformational Leadership And Organizational Culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nine types of organizational cultures are defined in terms of the extent transformational and transactional leadership and their effects form accepted ways of behaving. The Organizational Description Questionnaire (ODQ) is used by members of the organizations to describe their cultures.The nine types of organizations include the high-contrast culture with both strong transformational and transactional qualities to the \\

Bernard M. Bass; Bruce J. Avolio

1994-01-01

450

Transformation of Wave Height Distribution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Earlier models of random wave transformation are reviewed in the first section. Then the transformation of waves, including dissipation due to breaking and bottom friction, is described by an energy flux balance model. The wave height pdf of all waves (broken and unbroken) is shown by the field data to be well described by the Rayleigh distribution everywhere. The observed

Edward B. Thornton; R. T. Guza

1983-01-01

451

Transformations in Society and Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Breaking with past conceptions of change as a pendulum swing based upon dichotomies, this paper offers a model which depicts change as sequential, emergent, and transformational. Patterns of change identified in the fields of technology and science are also identified in the field of education, and a three stage paradigm depicting transformational

McBeath, Ron J.

452

Inversion of the star transform  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We define the star transform as a generalization of the broken ray transform introduced by us in previous work. The advantages of using the star transform include the possibility to reconstruct the absorption and the scattering coefficients of the medium separately and simultaneously (from the same data) and the possibility to utilize scattered radiation which, in the case of conventional x-ray tomography, is discarded. In this paper, we derive the star transform from physical principles, discuss its mathematical properties and analyze numerical stability of inversion. In particular, it is shown that stable inversion of the star transform can be obtained only for configurations involving odd number of rays. Several computationally-efficient inversion algorithms are derived and tested numerically.

Zhao, Fan; Schotland, John C.; Markel, Vadim A.

2014-10-01

453

Inversion of the star transform  

E-print Network

We define the star transform as a generalization of the broken ray transform introduced by us in previous work. The advantages of using the star transform include the possibility to reconstruct the absorption and the scattering coefficients of the medium separately and simultaneously (from the same data) and the possibility to utilize scattered radiation which, in the case of the conventional X-ray tomography, is discarded. In this paper, we derive the star transform from physical principles, discuss its mathematical properties and analyze numerical stability of inversion. In particular, it is shown that stable inversion of the star transform can be obtained only for configurations involving odd number of rays. Several computationally-efficient inversion algorithms are derived and tested numerically.

Fan Zhao; John C. Schotland; Vadim A. Markel

2014-05-06

454

Biolistic transformation of elite genotypes of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.).  

PubMed

Transformation of elite switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) genotypes would facilitate the characterization of genes related to cell wall recalcitrance to saccharification. However, transformation of explants from switchgrass plants has remained difficult. Therefore, the objective of this study was to develop a biolistic transformation protocol for elite genotypes. Three switchgrass genotypes (ST1, ST2, and AL2) were previously selected for tissue culture responsiveness. One genotype, SA37, was selected for further use due to its improved formation of callus amenable to transformation. Various medium sets were compared and a previously published medium set provided cultures with >96 % embryogenic callus, and data on transient and stable gene expression of RFP were used to optimize biolistic parameters, and further validate the switchgrass (PvUbi1) promoter. SA37 proved to be the most transformable, whereas eight transgenic calli on average were recovered per bombardment of 20 calli (40 % efficiency) when using a three-day day preculture step, 0.6 M osmotic adjustment medium, 4,482 kPa rupture disks and 0.4 ?m gold particles which traveled 9 cm before hitting the target callus tissue. Regenerability was high, especially for ST2, for which it is possible to recover on average over 400 plants per half-gram callus tissue. It is now possible to routinely and efficiently engineer elite switchgrass genotypes using biolistic transformation. PMID:24177598

King, Zachary R; Bray, Adam L; Lafayette, Peter R; Parrott, Wayne A

2014-02-01

455

Multicopy and stochastic transformation of multipartite pure states  

SciTech Connect

Characterizing the transformation and classification of multipartite entangled states is a basic problem in quantum information. We study the problem under the two most common environments, local operations and classical communications (LOCC), stochastic LOCC and two more general environments, multicopy LOCC (MCLOCC), and multicopy SLOCC (MCSLOCC). We show that two transformable multipartite states under LOCC or SLOCC are also transformable under MCLOCC and MCSLOCC. What is more, these two environments are equivalent in the sense that two transformable states under MCLOCC are also transformable under MCSLOCC, and vice versa. Based on these environments we classify the multipartite pure states into a few inequivalent sets and orbits, between which we build the partial order to decide their transformation. In particular, we investigate the structure of SLOCC-equivalent states in terms of tensor rank, which is known as the generalized Schmidt rank. Given the tensor rank, we show that Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states can be used to generate all states with a smaller or equivalent tensor rank under SLOCC, and all reduced separable states with a cardinality smaller than or equivalent to the tensor rank under LOCC. Using these concepts, we extended the concept of the ''maximally entangled state'' in the multipartite system.

Chen Lin [Centre for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 2, 117542 Singapore (Singapore); Hayashi, Masahito [Centre for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 2, 117542 Singapore (Singapore); Graduate School of Information Sciences, Tohoku University, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan)

2011-02-15

456

Structure fragmentation in Fe-based alloys by means of cyclic martensitic transformations of different types  

PubMed Central

The effect of martensite transformations of different types on the misorientation of austenite crystalline lattice, which characterizes the degree of structure fragmentation, was investigated for Fe-Ni and Fe-Mn alloys. As a result of multiple face-centered cubic (f.c.c.)-body-centered cubic (b.c.c.)-f.c.c. transformations, an austenite single-crystalline specimen is transformed in a polycrystalline one due to progressive fragmentation. It was shown that the degree of fragmentation depends on the magnitude of volume change and the density of dislocations generated on martensitic transformations. PMID:24565160

2014-01-01

457

Formal Transformations and WSL Martin Ward  

E-print Network

Formal Transformations and WSL Part Two Martin Ward STRL Senior Research Fellow Royal Society of Transformations #12;Types of Transformations A Syntactic Transformation changes the syntax of the program but preserves the exact sequence of operations carried out by the program. Many restructuring transformations

Singer, Jeremy

458

Germ-line transformation of Arabidopsis lasiocarpa  

Microsoft Academic Search

In planta transformation methods have opened up the possibility of transforming plant species for which no regeneration protocols currently exist. In this study, the suitability of the germ-line transformation method developed for Arabidopsis thaliana was examined for four taxa in the Brassicaceae that have not been previously transformed: Arabidopsis griffithiana, Arabidopsis lasiocarpa, Arabidopsis petraea and Capsella bursa-pastoris. Numerous transformants were

Brian W. Tague

2001-01-01

459

Transformer Efficiency Assessment - Okinawa, Japan  

SciTech Connect

The US Army Engineering & Support Center, Huntsville (USAESCH), and the US Marine Corps Base (MCB), Okinawa, Japan retained Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to conduct a Transformer Efficiency Assessment of “key” transformers located at multiple military bases in Okinawa, Japan. The purpose of this assessment is to support the Marine Corps Base, Okinawa in evaluating medium voltage distribution transformers for potential efficiency upgrades. The original scope of work included the MCB providing actual transformer nameplate data, manufacturer’s factory test sheets, electrical system data (kWh), demand data (kWd), power factor data, and electricity cost data. Unfortunately, the MCB’s actual data is not available and therefore making it necessary to de-scope the original assessment. Note: Any similar nameplate data, photos of similar transformer nameplates, and basic electrical details from one-line drawings (provided by MCB) are not a replacement for actual load loss test data. It is recommended that load measurements are performed on the high and low sides of transformers to better quantify actual load losses, demand data, and power factor data. We also recommend that actual data, when available, be inserted by MCB Okinawa where assumptions have been made and then the LCC analysis updated. This report covers a generalized assessment of modern U.S. transformers in a three level efficiency category, Low-Level efficiency, Medium-Level efficiency, and High-Level efficiency.

Thomas L. Baldwin; Robert J. Turk; Kurt S. Myers; Jake P. Gentle; Jason W. Bush

2012-08-01

460

Transformer Efficiency Assessment - Okinawa, Japan  

SciTech Connect

The US Army Engineering & Support Center, Huntsville (USAESCH), and the US Marine Corps Base (MCB), Okinawa, Japan retained Idaho National Laboratory (INL) to conduct a Transformer Efficiency Assessment of “key” transformers located at multiple military bases in Okinawa, Japan. The purpose of this assessment is to support the Marine Corps Base, Okinawa in evaluating medium voltage distribution transformers for potential efficiency upgrades. The original scope of work included the MCB providing actual transformer nameplate data, manufacturer’s factory test sheets, electrical system data (kWh), demand data (kWd), power factor data, and electricity cost data. Unfortunately, the MCB’s actual data is not available and therefore making it necessary to de-scope the original assessment. Note: Any similar nameplate data, photos of similar transformer nameplates, and basic electrical details from one-line drawings (provided by MCB) are not a replacement for actual load loss test data. It is recommended that load measurements are performed on the high and low sides of transformers to better quantify actual load losses, demand data, and power factor data. We also recommend that actual data, when available, be inserted by MCB Okinawa where assumptions have been made and then the LCC analysis updated. This report covers a generalized assessment of modern U.S. transformers in a three level efficiency category, Low-Level efficiency, Medium-Level efficiency, and High-Level efficiency.

Thomas L. Baldwin; Robert J. Turk; Kurt S. Myers; Jake P. Gentle; Jason W. Bush

2012-05-01

461

Wavelet transforms for infrared applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The wavelet transform has gained much in popularity recently. Although the concepts underlying the wavelet transform have been used for some time, it is only in the last seven years that it began to have an impact, especially on signal and image processing. Wavelets have applications in differential equations, signal processing, image and video compression, and many other domains. We provide a brief introduction to wavelets and wavelet analysis, and compare the wavelet and Fourier transforms. The wavelet transform allows us to analyze nonstationary signals, which the Fourier transform cannot. This is a very important property of wavelets. A wavelet decomposition makes it possible to analyze a signal both in time (or space) and frequency domains and is appropriate for multiresolution analysis. One interesting application of wavelets is image fusion. For this application we take the wavelet transform of images coming from different sensors (e.g., visible and infrared). This provides us with a multiresolution description of visible and infrared images. The two images are then merged at each level of resolution. Applying the inverse wavelet transform on the resulting image generates a new image which is a composite of the two original ones. This concept can be applied to more than two images whether they are in the same spectral band or not. Some results are presented and compared with the classical pyramidal algorithms of Burt and Toet.

Lejeune, Claude

1995-09-01

462

Natural transformation of Gallibacterium anatis.  

PubMed

Gallibacterium anatis is a pathogen of poultry. Very little is known about its genetics and pathogenesis. To enable the study of gene function in G. anatis, we have es