Science.gov

Sample records for transformer admittance characterization

  1. Analytical admittance characterization of high mobility channel

    SciTech Connect

    Mammeri, A. M.; Mahi, F. Z.; Varani, L.

    2015-03-30

    In this contribution, we investigate the small-signal admittance of the high electron mobility transistors field-effect channels under a continuation branching of the current between channel and gate by using an analytical model. The analytical approach takes into account the linearization of the 2D Poisson equation and the drift current along the channel. The analytical equations discuss the frequency dependence of the admittance at source and drain terminals on the geometrical transistor parameters.

  2. Characterizing the eardrum admittance: Comparisons of tympanometry and reflectance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Sarah; Thompson, Suzanne; Allen, Jont B.

    2015-12-01

    The residual ear canal (REC) between the probe and tympanic membrane (TM) is a significant source of non-pathological variability for acoustic measurements made in the ear canal. Tympanometry and reflectance, which seek to characterize the middle ear based on the TM admittance, must account for unknown REC dimensions. In tympanometry, the REC volume and 226 Hz TM admittance are estimated by varying the canal static pressure. Using a reflectance parametrization developed by the authors, typical assumptions for removing the REC effect are extended, and methods to estimate the REC volume and TM admittance are presented and compared to tympanometry. Results of this method are shown for reflectance measurements of human ears with varying static middle ear pressures (MEPs). The data show that the 226 Hz TM compliance is non-zero at tympanometric pressure extremes, and that acoustic parameters of the middle ear have highly variable, nonlinear dependence on the MEP level.

  3. Electrical admittance of piezoelectric parallelepipeds: application to tensorial characterization of piezoceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Diallo, O.; Bavencoffe, M.; Feuillard, G.; Clezio, E. Le; Delaunay, T.

    2014-01-15

    This work deals with the characterization of functional properties, including determination of mechanical and electrical losses, of piezoelectric materials using only one sample and one measurement. First, the natural resonant frequencies of a piezoelectric parallelepiped are calculated and the electrical admittance is determined from calculations of the charge quantity on both electrodes of the parallelepiped. A first validation of the model is performed using a comparison with Mason's model. Results are reported for a PMN-34.5PT ceramic cube and a good agreement is found between experimental admittance measurements and their modeling. The functional properties of the PMN-34.5PT are then extracted.

  4. Electrical admittance of piezoelectric parallelepipeds: application to tensorial characterization of piezoceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diallo, O.; Clezio, E. Le; Delaunay, T.; Bavencoffe, M.; Feuillard, G.

    2014-01-01

    This work deals with the characterization of functional properties, including determination of mechanical and electrical losses, of piezoelectric materials using only one sample and one measurement. First, the natural resonant frequencies of a piezoelectric parallelepiped are calculated and the electrical admittance is determined from calculations of the charge quantity on both electrodes of the parallelepiped. A first validation of the model is performed using a comparison with Mason's model. Results are reported for a PMN-34.5PT ceramic cube and a good agreement is found between experimental admittance measurements and their modeling. The functional properties of the PMN-34.5PT are then extracted.

  5. Feasibility of anomaly detection and characterization using trans-admittance mammography with 60 × 60 electrode array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Mingkang; Wi, Hun; Lee, Eun Jung; Woo, Eung Je; In Oh, Tong

    2014-10-01

    Electrical impedance imaging has the potential to detect an early stage of breast cancer due to higher admittivity values compared with those of normal breast tissues. The tumor size and extent of axillary lymph node involvement are important parameters to evaluate the breast cancer survival rate. Additionally, the anomaly characterization is required to distinguish a malignant tumor from a benign tumor. In order to overcome the limitation of breast cancer detection using impedance measurement probes, we developed the high density trans-admittance mammography (TAM) system with 60 × 60 electrode array and produced trans-admittance maps obtained at several frequency pairs. We applied the anomaly detection algorithm to the high density TAM system for estimating the volume and position of breast tumor. We tested four different sizes of anomaly with three different conductivity contrasts at four different depths. From multifrequency trans-admittance maps, we can readily observe the transversal position and estimate its volume and depth. Specially, the depth estimated values were obtained accurately, which were independent to the size and conductivity contrast when applying the new formula using Laplacian of trans-admittance map. The volume estimation was dependent on the conductivity contrast between anomaly and background in the breast phantom. We characterized two testing anomalies using frequency difference trans-admittance data to eliminate the dependency of anomaly position and size. We confirmed the anomaly detection and characterization algorithm with the high density TAM system on bovine breast tissue. Both results showed the feasibility of detecting the size and position of anomaly and tissue characterization for screening the breast cancer.

  6. Electrical characterization and thermal admittance spectroscopy analysis of InGaN/GaN MQW blue LED structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourim, El-Mostafa; Han, Jeong In

    2015-11-01

    Characterizations of InGaN/GaN-quantum wells based LED heterostructure were undertaken by static and dynamic electrical measurements at different temperatures. The analysis of the current-voltage ( I- V) characteristics demonstrated different mechanisms involved in the current charge transport in the LED device. Experimental admittance spectra have been investigated in broad frequency range, at various temperature and different direct current biases. A specific extraction of the quantum well conductance, based on Nicollian and Goetzberger's model related to interface state conductance in Metal-Insulator-Semiconductor structure, has shown the effect of the quantum structure on the electric transport, and hence a correlation between the I- V electrical characteristics and the admittance spectroscopy has revealed the different conduction mechanisms involved in the charge transport in the InGaN/GaN LED. Activation energies and carrier capture velocity obtained from Arrhenius plots, determined from the thermally activated quantum well conductance peaks which are revealed with the used model, have confirmed that quantum well parameters are related to the carrier emission from confined levels in quantum wells. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  7. Multi-dimensional admittance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieland, K.; Vasko, A.; Karpov, V. G.

    2013-01-01

    We introduce the concept of multi-dimensional admittance spectroscopy capable of characterizing thin-film diode structures in both the (standard) transversal and lateral directions. This extends the capabilities of standard admittance spectroscopy based on the model of leaky capacitor with area defined by the metal contacts. In our approach, the ac signal spreads in the lateral directions far beyond the contact area. The spreading range defines the area of the effective capacitor determining the measured capacitance and conductance. It depends on the ac signal frequency, dc bias, and various structure parameters. A phenomenological description of these dependencies here is verified numerically using our original software to model the distributed admittance via finite element circuits. We analyze the case of photovoltaic devices and show how the multi-dimensional admittance spectroscopy is sensitive to lateral nonuniformity of the system, particularly to the presence of shunts and weak diodes and their location. In addition, the proposed characterization provides information about the system lump parameters, such as sheet resistance, shunt resistance, and open circuit voltage.

  8. Tevatron admittance measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, X.L.; Shiltsev, V.; Tan, C.Y.; /Fermilab

    2005-05-01

    We measured the Tevatron beam admittance by the means of exciting the beam with noise and causing emittance growth. The noise power was about 3W with a bandwidth of 100Hz and centered either in the horizontal betatron frequency or vertical betatron frequency. We were able to controllably blow the beam emittance up quickly. From the point where the beam emittance stopped growing, we measured the beam acceptance of the Tevatron.

  9. A new estimate of the effective elastic thickness of the Canadian shield from admittance analyses using the wavelet transform, and models of flexure and mantle convection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirby, J. F.; Swain, C. J.

    2013-12-01

    The flexural rigidity of the Earth's cratonic regions is a topic of much controversy. While many studies have suggested that cratons possess high elastic strength, others maintain that the continental lithosphere is everywhere weak. In this study we focus on the Canadian shield, and show that perceived evidence for weak cratonic lithosphere is compromised by shortcomings of the spectral analysis technique. Here we compare estimates of the admittance between free-air gravity and topography in the spectral domain from wavelet and multitaper methods. We apply particular attention to their long wavelength values, since it is here that the signals from mantle convection, glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) and flexure are often present together. Our results show that, when used with certain parameter values, the multitaper method has a comparatively poor resolution at long wavelengths, and hence is not always able to distinguish between the harmonics due to convection and flexural processes. This renders it unreliable for estimating the flexural rigidity. We then show that the wavelet method does have the requisite properties to make this distinction, since it is able to correctly resolve a low-admittance dip at long wavelengths in both synthetic and real data. When the observed wavelet admittance of the Canadian shield is inverted against the predictions of a combined flexural, convection and GIA model, we find that the shield possesses a core of high effective elastic thickness (Te), greater than 118 km to 95% confidence, located to the immediate south-west of Hudson Bay.

  10. Effective Admittivity of Biological Tissues as a Coefficient of Elliptic PDE

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Hyeuknam; Sadleir, Rosalind

    2013-01-01

    The electrical properties of biological tissues can be described by a complex tensor comprising a simple expression of the effective admittivity. The effective admittivities of biological tissues depend on scale, applied frequency, proportions of extra- and intracellular fluids, and membrane structures. The effective admittivity spectra of biological tissue can be used as a means of characterizing tissue structural information relating to the biological cell suspensions, and therefore measuring the frequency-dependent effective conductivity is important for understanding tissue's physiological conditions and structure. Although the concept of effective admittivity has been used widely, it seems that its precise definition has been overlooked. We consider how we can determine the effective admittivity for a cube-shaped object with several different biologically relevant compositions. These precise definitions of effective admittivity may suggest the ways of measuring it from boundary current and voltage data. As in the homogenization theory, the effective admittivity can be computed from pointwise admittivity by solving Maxwell equations. We compute the effective admittivity of simple models as a function of frequency to obtain Maxwell-Wagner interface effects and Debye relaxation starting from mathematical formulations. Finally, layer potentials are used to obtain the Maxwell-Wagner-Fricke expression for a dilute suspension of ellipses and membrane-covered spheres. PMID:23710251

  11. Grasp admittance center. A concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimoga, K. B.; Goldenberg, A. A.

    1991-05-01

    The ultimate goal of the research on articulated hands in general is to use them to do tasks in a way similar to that of humans. A systematic analysis reveals that the day-to-day tasks of humans include some common task primitives such as twist, turn, insert, pullout, push, pull, lift, and place. During each of these operations, the grasp dynamic behavior plays an important role and more so in tasks involving manipulation of delicate objects. Introduced in this paper is the concept of the grasp admittance center, a notion that aims to make an articulated grasp exhibit a directionally decoupled dynamic behavior. An admittance center is conceptualized as the superposition of compliance, accommodation, and mobility centers in a desired coordinate frame. A grasp with an admittance center will have three useful features: stability, decoupled force motion relation, and decoupled time-response. These features are also useful to other closed kinematic chain robotic devices such as the cooperating multiarms and multilegged mobile robots engaged in non-quasistatic (dynamic) manipulation tasks. As a preparation to demonstrate the concept experimentally, a method of synthesizing articulated grasps so as to achieve an admittance center has been developed as well as a method of choosing appropriate location and related parameters for the center. The sensitivity of the center to its parameter imprecision has also been analyzed.

  12. Characterization of CdS/CdTe thin-film solar cells by admittance spectroscopy and deep-level transient spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isett, L. C.

    1984-12-01

    Mitchell (1982) and Tyan (1980) have described several thin-film CdTe solar-cell configurations. Power conversion efficiencies greater than 8 percent were demonstrated. It is pointed out that for a clearer understanding of the solar cell, a determination of the electronic character of semiconductor imperfection states is required in addition to measurement of solar-cell parameters (efficiency, short-circuit current, open-circuit voltage). The present investigation is concerned with the analysis of CdS/CdTe thin-film solar cells prepared by close-spaced sublimation (CSS), taking into account the employment of deep-level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) and admittance spectroscopy. The analysis provides information on both the structure of the CdS/CdTe solar cell and the deep-level impurities in CdTe. Deep-level impurities in the p-CdTe layer are discussed.

  13. Multi-port admittance model for quantifying the scattering response of loaded plasmonic nanorod antennas.

    PubMed

    Panaretos, Anastasios H; Werner, Douglas H

    2015-02-23

    In this paper we demonstrate the feasibility of using multiport network theory to describe the admittance properties of a longitudinally loaded plasmonic nanorod antenna. Our analysis reveals that if the appropriate terminal ports are defined across the nanorod geometry then the corresponding voltage and current quantities can be probed and thus it becomes feasible to extract the admittance matrix of the structure. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that by utilizing cylindrical dielectric waveguide theory, closed form expressions can be derived that uniquely characterize the loading material in terms of its admittance. The combination of the admittance matrix information along with the load admittance expressions provides an effective methodology for computing the nanorod's input admittance/impedance for arbitrary loading scenarios. This is important because the admittance resonances are associated with the structure's scattering peaks which are excited by a plane wave polarized parallel to its long dimension. Subsequently, the proposed approach provides a fast and computationally efficient circuit-based methodology to predict and custom engineer the scattering properties of a loaded plasmonic nanorod without having to rely on repetitive lengthy full wave simulations. PMID:25836483

  14. Applications of Admittance Spectroscopy in Photovoltaic Devices Beyond Majority Carrier Trapping Defects: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Li, J. V.; Crandall, R. S.; Repins, I. L.; Nardes, A. M.; Levi, D. H.; Sulima, O.

    2011-07-01

    Admittance spectroscopy is commonly used to characterize majority-carrier trapping defects. In today's practical photovoltaic devices, however, a number of other physical mechanisms may contribute to the admittance measurement and interfere with the data interpretation. Such challenges arise due to the violation of basic assumptions of conventional admittance spectroscopy such as single-junction, ohmic contact, highly conductive absorbers, and measurement in reverse bias. We exploit such violations to devise admittance spectroscopy-based methods for studying the respective origins of 'interference': majority-carrier mobility, non-ohmic contact potential barrier, minority-carrier inversion at hetero-interface, and minority-carrier lifetime in a device environment. These methods are applied to a variety of photovoltaic technologies: CdTe, Cu(In,Ga)Se2, Si HIT cells, and organic photovoltaic materials.

  15. Characterization of interface defects in ALD Al2O3/p-GaSb MOS capacitors using admittance measurements in range from kHz to GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Siyuan; Min, Jie; Taur, Yuan; Asbeck, Peter M.

    2016-04-01

    Atomic layer deposited (ALD) Al2O3/p-type GaSb Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (MOS) capacitors are studied with capacitance-voltage (C-V) and conductance-voltage (G-V) measurements using AC signal frequencies covering the range from kHz to GHz. The potential and limitations of the measurements at GHz frequencies for oxide and interface defect characterization are described. The effect of bulk oxide traps in communication with the GaSb valence band via hole tunneling is highlighted. Modeling indicates that the C-V and G-V frequency dispersions observed in the accumulation, flat-band and depletion regions of the Al2O3/p-GaSb MOS capacitors are due to combined contributions of bulk-oxide traps and interface traps.

  16. Localized Gravity/Topography Admittances on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGovern, Patrick J.; Solomon, Sean C.; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Head, James W.

    2000-01-01

    Admittances from Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) gravity and topography yield estimates of lithosphere thickness on Mars: central Tharsis > 100 km, Alba Patera = 50 km, southern highlands < 20 km (but south polar cap > 50 km). Alba Patera and Elysium Rise are similar structures.

  17. A creatinine biosensor based on admittance measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ching, Congo Tak-Shing; Sun, Tai-Ping; Jheng, Deng-Yun; Tsai, Hou-Wei; Shieh, Hsiu-Li

    2015-08-01

    Regular check of blood creatinine level is very important as it is a measurement of renal function. Therefore, the objective of this study is to develop a simple and reliable creatinine biosensor based on admittance measurement for precise determination of creatinine. The creatinine biosensor was fabricated with creatinine deiminase immobilized on screen-printed carbon electrodes. Admittance measurement at a specific frequency ranges (22.80 - 84.71 Hz) showed that the biosensor has an excellent linear (r2 > 0.95) response range (50 - 250 uM), which covers the normal physiological and pathological ranges of blood creatinine levels. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) showed that the biosensor has excellent reliability and validity (ICC = 0.98). In conclusion, a simple and reliable creatinine biosensor was developed and it is capable of precisely determining blood creatinine levels in both the normal physiological and pathological ranges.

  18. Antenna admittance determination of electron density.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunn, M. G.; Blum, R. J.; Swift, C. T.; Beck, F. B.; Grantham, W. L.

    1973-01-01

    A circular-aperture flush-mounted antenna for which a theoretical description of the antenna-plasma interaction has been developed was used to obtain a comparison between theoretical and experimental antenna admittance in the presence of ionized boundary layers of low-collision frequency. The antenna was located in a flat-plate model which was in turn located in the expanding-flow environment of a reflected-shock tunnel. The electron-temperature and electron-density distributions in the plate boundary layer at the antenna location were independently measured using voltage-swept thin-wire Langmuir probes for one of the test conditions. The antenna admittance was measured using a four-probe microwave reflectometer and these measured values were found to be in good agreement with those predicted from the theory. Measurements were also performed with another type of circular-aperture antenna which did not satisfy all of the constraints of the theoretical model, although good agreement was obtained between the calculations and the experimental results.

  19. Admittance relay helps wash out system instability

    SciTech Connect

    Sweezy, G.; Swift, G.; Zhang, Z.

    1996-01-01

    This article describes how delta-current admittance relays detect severe power system disturbances and initiate a power reduction signal on the dc transmission system to help stabilize the integrated ac/HVDC transmission system. It is always desirable to transmit as much power as possible over major transmission line interconnections, and the 500 kV line linking Manitoba in Canada to Minnesota in the US is a good example. A static var system (SVS) is part of this strategy. Note the southern end of an HVDC line through which the power is delivered from northern hydro-electric generation. The ability to quickly control dc-delivered power combined with the complication of SVS switching and the installation of series capacitors has led to special circumstances requiring an unusual approach to maintenance of system stability. The availability of a new protection-oriented computing platform has made the required algorithms feasible.

  20. Coulometric differential FFT admittance voltammetry determination of Amlodipine in pharmaceutical formulation by nano-composite electrode.

    PubMed

    Norouzi, Parviz; Gupta, Vinod Kumar; Larijani, Bagher; Rasoolipour, Solmaz; Faridbod, Farnoush; Ganjali, Mohammad R

    2015-01-01

    An electrochemical detection technique based on combination of was coulometric differential fast Fourier transformation admittance voltammetry (CDFFTAV) and nano-composite film modified glassy carbon electrode was successfully applied for sensitive determination of Amlodipine. The nano-composite film was made by a mixture of ionic liquid, 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (EMIMBF4), multiwall carbon nanotube and Au nanoparticles as electrochemical mediators. Studies reveal that the irreversible oxidation of Amlodipine was highly facile on the electrode surface. The electrochemical response was established on calculation of the charge under the admittance peak, which was obtained by discrete integration of the admittance response in a selected potential range, obtained in a flow injection analysis. Once established the best operative optimum conditions, the resulting nano-composite film electrode showed a catalytic effect on the oxidation of the analyte. The response is linear in the Amlodipine concentration range of 1.0 × 10(-9) to 2.0 × 10(-7)M with a detection limit of 1.25 × 10(-10)M. Moreover, the proposed technique exhibited high sensitivity, fast response time (less than 6s) and long-term stability and reproducibility around 96%, and it was successfully used to the determination of Amlodipine content in the pharmaceutical formulation. PMID:25281143

  1. Temperature admittance spectroscopy of boron doped chemical vapor deposition diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zubkov, V. I.; Kucherova, O. V.; Bogdanov, S. A.; Zubkova, A. V.; Butler, J. E.; Ilyin, V. A.; Afanas'ev, A. V.; Vikharev, A. L.

    2015-10-01

    Precision admittance spectroscopy measurements over wide temperature and frequency ranges were carried out for chemical vapor deposition epitaxial diamond samples doped with various concentrations of boron. It was found that the experimentally detected boron activation energy in the samples decreased from 314 meV down to 101 meV with an increase of B/C ratio from 600 to 18000 ppm in the gas reactants. For the heavily doped samples, a transition from thermally activated valence band conduction to hopping within the impurity band (with apparent activation energy 20 meV) was detected at temperatures 120-150 K. Numerical simulation was used to estimate the impurity DOS broadening. Accurate determination of continuously altering activation energy, which takes place during the transformation of conduction mechanisms, was proposed by numerical differentiation of the Arrhenius plot. With increase of boron doping level the gradual decreasing of capture cross section from 3 × 10-13 down to 2 × 10-17 cm2 was noticed. Moreover, for the hopping conduction the capture cross section becomes 4 orders of magnitude less (˜2 × 10-20 cm2). At T > Troom in doped samples the birth of the second conductance peak was observed. We attribute it to a defect, related to the boron doping of the material.

  2. Acoustic transfer admittance of cylindrical cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guianvarc'h, C.; Durocher, J.-N.; Bruneau, M.; Bruneau, A.-M.

    2006-05-01

    The reciprocity calibration method uses two microphones acoustically connected by a coupler, a cylindrical cavity closed at each end by the diaphragms of the transmitting and receiving microphones. The acoustic transfer admittance of the coupler, including the thermal conductivity effect of the fluid, must be modelled precisely to obtain the accurate sensitivity of the microphones from the electrical transfer impedance measurement. It appears that the analytical model quoted in the current standard [International Electrotechnical Commission IEC 61064-2, Measurement Microphones, Part 2: Primary Method for Pressure Calibration of Laboratory Standard Microphones by the Reciprocity Technique, 1992] is not the appropriate one and that it should be revised, as also suggested by a recent EUROMET project report [K. Rasmussen, Datafiles simulating a pressure reciprocity calibration of microphones, EUROMET Project 294 Report PL-13, 2001]. Thus, it is the aim of the paper to investigate analytically the acoustic field inside the coupler, revisiting the assumptions of the earlier work, leading to a coherent description and therefore providing clarity which should facilitate discussion of a possible revised standard.

  3. Anomaly depth detection in trans-admittance mammography: a formula independent of anomaly size or admittivity contrast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Tingting; Lee, Eunjung; Seo, Jin Keun

    2014-04-01

    Trans-admittance mammography (TAM) is a bioimpedance technique for breast cancer detection. It is based on the comparison of tissue conductivity: cancerous tissue is identified by its higher conductivity in comparison with the surrounding normal tissue. In TAM, the breast is compressed between two electrical plates (in a similar architecture to x-ray mammography). The bottom plate has many sensing point electrodes that provide two-dimensional images (trans-admittance maps) that are induced by voltage differences between the two plates. Multi-frequency admittance data (Neumann data) are measured over the range 50 Hz-500 kHz. TAM aims to determine the location and size of any anomaly from the multi-frequency admittance data. Various anomaly detection algorithms can be used to process TAM data to determine the transverse positions of anomalies. However, existing methods cannot reliably determine the depth or size of an anomaly. Breast cancer detection using TAM would be improved if the depth or size of an anomaly could also be estimated, properties that are independent of the admittivity contrast. A formula is proposed here that can estimate the depth of an anomaly independent of its size and the admittivity contrast. This depth estimation can also be used to derive an estimation of the size of the anomaly. The proposed estimations are verified rigorously under a simplified model. Numerical simulation shows that the proposed method also works well in general settings.

  4. Harmonic admittance and dispersion equations--the theorem.

    PubMed

    Plessky, Viktor P; Biryukov, Sergey V; Koskela, Julius

    2002-04-01

    The harmonic admittance is known as a powerful tool for analyzing the excitation and propagation of surface acoustic waves (SAWs) in periodic electrode arrays. In particular, the dispersion relationships for open- and short-circuited systems are indicated, respectively, by the zeros and poles of the harmonic admittance. Here, we show that a strict reverse relationship also exists: the harmonic admittance of a periodic system of electrodes may always be expressed as the ratio of two determinants, which have been specifically constructed to describe the eigen-modes of the open- and short-circuited systems. There is no need to solve these equations to find the admittance. The existence of a connection between the excitation and propagation problems was recognized within the coupling-of-modes theory by Chen and Haus and was recently used to model surface transverse waves by Koskela et al., but a rigorous mathematical proof was only found later by Biryukov. Here, we reproduce this theorem in detail, give some examples of calculations based on this theorem, and compare the results with measured admittance curves. PMID:11989710

  5. Admittance of multiterminal quantum Hall conductors at kilohertz frequencies

    SciTech Connect

    Hernández, C.; Consejo, C.; Chaubet, C.; Degiovanni, P.

    2014-03-28

    We present an experimental study of the low frequency admittance of quantum Hall conductors in the [100 Hz, 1 MHz] frequency range. We show that the frequency dependence of the admittance of the sample strongly depends on the topology of the contacts connections. Our experimental results are well explained within the Christen and Büttiker approach for finite frequency transport in quantum Hall edge channels taking into account the influence of the coaxial cables capacitance. In the Hall bar geometry, we demonstrate that there exists a configuration in which the cable capacitance does not influence the admittance measurement of the sample. In this case, we measure the electrochemical capacitance of the sample and observe its dependence on the filling factor.

  6. Improved multimodal admittance method in varying cross section waveguides

    PubMed Central

    Maurel, Agnès; Mercier, Jean-François; Pagneux, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    An improved version of the multimodal admittance method in acoustic waveguides with varying cross sections is presented. This method aims at a better convergence with respect to the number of transverse modes that are taken into account. It is based on an enriched modal expansion of the pressure: the N first modes are the local transverse modes and a supplementary (N+1)th mode, called boundary mode, is a well-chosen transverse function orthogonal to the N first modes. This expansion leads to the classical form of the coupled mode equations where the component of the boundary mode is of evanescent character. Under this form, the multimodal admittance method based on the Riccati equation on the admittance matrix (the Dirichlet-to-Neumann operator) is straightforwardly implemented. With this supplementary mode, in addition to the improvement of the convergence of the pressure field, results show a superconvergence of the scattered field outside of the varying cross sections region. PMID:24711716

  7. CHARACTERIZATION OF A SPONTANEOUSLY TRANSFORMED CHICKEN MONONUCLEAR CELL LINE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We describe the characterization of a spontaneously transformed chicken monocytic cell line that developed as a single colony of cells in a heterophil culture that was inadvertently left in the incubator over a period of 25 days. These cells, hitherto named HTC, grow efficiently at both 37 C or 41 C...

  8. Validation of the computation of rocket nozzle admittances with linearized euler equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kathan, R.; Morgenweck, D.; Kaess, R.; Sattelmayer, T.

    2013-03-01

    High pressure fluctuations coupled with unsteady heat release can affect a rocket engine seriously. Especially when the oscillations match eigenmodes such as T1, T1L1 and T2, T2L1, the acoustic pressure amplitude can reach a critical level. This paper deals with the investigation of the nozzle admittance, which is an important value to characterize the influence of the nozzle on the pressure inside the combustion chamber. Two different nozzle geometries are investigated experimentally at high frequencies. A method to decouple the acoustic modes is presented. The results are compared against an existing theory and simulated data.

  9. 9 CFR 117.3 - Admittance of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Admittance of animals. 117.3 Section 117.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS ANIMALS AT...

  10. 9 CFR 117.3 - Admittance of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Admittance of animals. 117.3 Section 117.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS ANIMALS AT...

  11. 9 CFR 117.3 - Admittance of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Admittance of animals. 117.3 Section 117.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS ANIMALS AT...

  12. 9 CFR 117.3 - Admittance of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Admittance of animals. 117.3 Section 117.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS ANIMALS AT...

  13. 9 CFR 117.3 - Admittance of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Admittance of animals. 117.3 Section 117.3 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS ANIMALS AT...

  14. Experimental and theoretical determination of the admittances of a family of nozzles subjected to axial instabilities.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, W. A.; Daniel, B. R.; Zinn, B. T.

    1973-01-01

    The interaction between the oscillations in the combustor and the wave system in the nozzle (required in combustion instability analysis of rocket engines) can be determined once the nozzle admittance is known. Experimental and theoretical methods of determining the admittance of nozzles subjected to axial oscillations are discussed. One-dimensional nozzle admittances were measured by an impedance tube technique modified to account for the presence of a mean flow. Crocco's nozzle admittance theory is applied to the prediction of admittances for several test nozzles.

  15. TRANSFORMER

    DOEpatents

    Baker, W.R.

    1959-08-25

    Transformers of a type adapted for use with extreme high power vacuum tubes where current requirements may be of the order of 2,000 to 200,000 amperes are described. The transformer casing has the form of a re-entrant section being extended through an opening in one end of the cylinder to form a coaxial terminal arrangement. A toroidal multi-turn primary winding is disposed within the casing in coaxial relationship therein. In a second embodiment, means are provided for forming the casing as a multi-turn secondary. The transformer is characterized by minimized resistance heating, minimized external magnetic flux, and an economical construction.

  16. The long-wavelength admittance and effective elastic thickness of the Canadian Shield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirby, J. F.; Swain, C. J.

    2014-06-01

    The strength of the cratonic lithosphere has been controversial. On the one hand, many estimates of effective elastic thickness (Te) greatly exceed the crustal thickness, but on the other the great majority of cratonic earthquakes occur in the upper crust. This implies that the seismogenic thickness of cratons is much smaller than Te, whereas in the ocean basins they are approximately the same, leading to suspicions about the large Te estimates. One region where such estimates have been questioned is the Canadian Shield, where glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) and mantle convection are thought to contribute to the long-wavelength undulations of the topography and gravity. To date these have not been included in models used to estimate Te from topography and gravity which conventionally are based only on loading and flexure. Here we devise a theoretical expression for the free-air (gravity/topography) admittance that includes the effects of GIA and convection as well as flexure and use it to estimate Te over the Canadian Shield. We use wavelet transforms for estimating the observed admittances, after showing that multitaper estimates, which have hitherto been popular for Te studies, have poor resolution at the long wavelengths where GIA and convection predominate, compared to wavelets. Our results suggest that Te over most of the shield exceeds 80 km, with a higher-Te core near the southwest shore of Hudson Bay. This means that the lack of mantle earthquakes in this craton is simply due to its high strength compared to the applied stresses.

  17. RF sheath and admittance characteristics of a spherical plasma probe.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kan, J. R.

    1972-01-01

    Development of a radio-frequency sheath model for a spherical probe in a collisionless plasma. The method of solution is based on the quasi-static approximation and the electrostatic probe theory of Bernstein and Rabinowitz (1959). The resistive part of the admittance is ascribed to the sheath transit-time collisionless dissipation mechanism suggested by Mayer (1963) and developed by Gould (1964). Expressions are obtained for the effective sheath thickness and the equivalent resistance of the transit-time dissipation. The sheath model and, hence, the admittance are completely determined in terms of the bias potential, the probe radius, the plasma frequency, and the Debye length - i.e., there are no adjustable parameters in the proposed theory which are to be determined by experiment. The results obtained agree favorably with Cohen and Bekefi's (1971) experimental data on the conductance resonant frequency and the width of the conductance peak.

  18. Negative admittance in resistive metal oxide gas sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varpula, A.; Novikov, S.; Sinkkonen, J.; Utriainen, M.

    2008-03-01

    The negative admittance effect is observed in a WO3-based resistive gas sensor MOS1 from Environics Oy. The effect is caused by electron trapping (i.e. oxygen ionization) at the grain boundary. The results show that the current component related to the modulation of the grain-boundary barrier dominates in dry clean air and the charging or discharging current dominates in humid air conditions. An equivalent electrical circuit model for the sensor response is presented.

  19. Impact and admittance modeling of the Isidis Planitia, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mancinelli, Paolo; Mondini, Alessandro C.; Pauselli, Cristina; Federico, Costanzo

    2015-11-01

    In this study, the impact event that produced the Martian Isidis basin (0-20°N and 70-100°E) was modeled using the iSALE hydrocode, and the current lithospheric structure was obtained comparing the calculated admittance from topography and gravity data, with the admittance from top-load and bottom-load flexure models. The best-fit admittance model was obtained using a bottom-load flexure with a thinned crust of 10 km, likely formed by cooling of the surficial melt pool after the impact, and an elastic thickness of 36 km. We found that the impact produced crustal excavation and thickening, surficial melt pool and temperatures >1500 K beneath the area where the free-air maxima is observed. The geometry resulting from the impact modeling is compatible with the radius of the Isidis basin. Derived thermal gradient and heat flux are in agreement with an early-Noachian epoch for the Isidis impact event and with the intense volcanic activity that followed the impact.

  20. Cross-spectral recognition method of bridge deck aerodynamic admittance function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Lin; Ge, Yaojun

    2015-12-01

    This study proposes a new identification algorithm about the admittance function, which can estimate the full set of six aerodynamic admittance functions considering cross power spectral density functions about the forces and the turbulence components. The method was first numerically validated through Monte Carlo simulations, and then adopted to estimate the aerodynamic admittance of a streamlined bridge deck. The identification method was further validated through a comparison between the numerical calculation and wind tunnel tests on a moving bridge section.

  1. Infrastructure in the electric sense: admittance data from shark hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Brown, Brandon R; Hughes, Mary E; Russo, Clementina

    2005-02-01

    Elasmobranchs (sharks, skates, and rays) possess an electrosensory system with an infrastructure of canals connecting the electrosensors to the environment. The electrosensors and canals are filled with a uniform hydrogel, but the gel's function has not yet been determined. We present electrical admittance spectra collected from the hydrogel from 0.05 to 100 kHz, covering the effective range of the electrosensors. We have taken samples of this gel, postmortem, from Triaenodon obesus and Carcharodon carcharias; for purposes of comparison, we have synthesized a series of collagen-based hydrogel samples. The shark hydrogels demonstrate suppressed admittance when compared to both seawater and collagen gels. In particular, collagen hydrogels with equivalent ion concentrations are roughly 2.5 times more polarizable than the shark samples. We conclude that the shark hydrogels strongly localize ionic species, and we discuss the implications for the related roles of the gel and the canals in the electric sense. The gel-filled canals appear better suited to fostering voltage differences along their length than to providing direct electrical contact to the seawater environment. PMID:15711967

  2. Gravity/Topography Admittances and Lithospheric Evolution on Mars: The Importance of Finite-Amplitude Topography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGovern, Patrick J.; Solomon, Sean C.; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Head, J. W., III; Phillips, Roger J.; Simons, Mark

    2001-01-01

    We calculate localized gravity/topography admittances for Mars, in order to estimate elastic lithosphere thickness. A finite-amplitude correction to modeled gravity is required to properly interpret admittances in high-relief regions of Mars. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  3. Non-contact structural damage detection using magnetic admittance approach with circuitry tuning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X.; Tang, J.

    2010-03-01

    One limitation of piezoelectric impedance/admittance approach is that the sensor is permanently fixed after it is bonded/embedded into the mechanical structure to be monitored. Recently, the magnetic transducer, which is essentially an electrical coil inserted with a permanent magnet, is explored for impedance/admittance-based damage detection. Since there is no direct contact between the magnetic sensor and the host structure, the magnetic impedance/admittance approach is capable of online health monitoring of structures with complicated geometries and boundaries. Also, the magnetic impedance/admittance sensor is moveable above the structure surface, which may reduce the number of sensors needed to cover a large structural area. In an earlier study a new magnetic impedance sensing scheme with circuitry integration is proposed, which can greatly enhance the signal-to-noise ratio and amplify the damage induced admittance change. In this research, we systematically study the sensor location on the performance of the magnetic impedance/admittance-based damage detection scheme with circuitry integration. By examining the resonant peaks in the circuitry impedance curves, the damage-induced change of circuitry admittance and the two-way magneto-mechanical coupling, the different amplification effects of the magnetic sensor on the dynamical responses around mechanical modes is investigated. The criteria of tuning the capacitance of the tunable capacitor to achieve significantly amplified admittance changes in a wide frequency range are also developed. Correlated numerical and experimental studies are carried out to validate our proposed tuning criteria.

  4. Quality control of dairy products using single frequency admittance measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mabrook, M. F.; Darbyshire, A. M.; Petty, M. C.

    2006-02-01

    A reusable device for the detection of adulteration in dairy products such as milk and cream has been developed. The ac electrical admittance spectra of different samples have been studied using both uncoated and alkyl mercaptan-coated gold electrodes. Uncoated gold electrodes exhibited a polarization at around 250 Hz for full fat milk, while mercaptan-coated gold electrodes showed a similar effect at around 2 kHz. The characteristics at 100 kHz and 8 °C for all skimmed milk samples revealed a linear decrease in conductance with increasing water content over the entire range of water concentration. In contrast, the conductance of full fat milk, single and double cream, showed a linear decrease only at added water concentration higher than 6%. At lower concentrations, these dairy products exhibited anomalous conductivity maxima.

  5. Automatically calibrating admittances in KATE's autonomous launch operations model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, Steve

    1992-01-01

    This report documents a 1000-line Symbolics LISP program that automatically calibrates all 15 fluid admittances in KATE's Autonomous Launch Operations (ALO) model. (KATE is Kennedy Space Center's Knowledge-based Autonomous Test Engineer, a diagnosis and repair expert system created for use on the Space Shuttle's various fluid flow systems.) As a new KATE application, the calibrator described here breaks new ground for KSC's Artificial Intelligence Lab by allowing KATE to both control and measure the hardware she supervises. By automating a formerly manual process, the calibrator: (1) saves the ALO model builder untold amounts of labor; (2) enables quick repairs after workmen accidently adjust ALO's hand valves; and (3) frees the modeler to pursue new KATE applications that previously were too complicated. Also reported are suggestions for enhancing the program: (1) to calibrate ALO's TV cameras, pumps, and sensor tolerances; and (2) to calibrate devices in other KATE models, such as the shuttle's LOX and Environment Control System (ECS).

  6. Automatically calibrating admittances in KATE's autonomous launch operations model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, Steve

    1992-09-01

    This report documents a 1000-line Symbolics LISP program that automatically calibrates all 15 fluid admittances in KATE's Autonomous Launch Operations (ALO) model. (KATE is Kennedy Space Center's Knowledge-based Autonomous Test Engineer, a diagnosis and repair expert system created for use on the Space Shuttle's various fluid flow systems.) As a new KATE application, the calibrator described here breaks new ground for KSC's Artificial Intelligence Lab by allowing KATE to both control and measure the hardware she supervises. By automating a formerly manual process, the calibrator: (1) saves the ALO model builder untold amounts of labor; (2) enables quick repairs after workmen accidently adjust ALO's hand valves; and (3) frees the modeler to pursue new KATE applications that previously were too complicated. Also reported are suggestions for enhancing the program: (1) to calibrate ALO's TV cameras, pumps, and sensor tolerances; and (2) to calibrate devices in other KATE models, such as the shuttle's LOX and Environment Control System (ECS).

  7. Use of paravascular admittance waveforms to monitor relative change in arterial blood pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zielinski, Todd M.; Hettrick, Doug; Cho, Yong

    2010-04-01

    Non-invasive methods to monitor ambulatory blood pressure often have limitations that can affect measurement accuracy and patient adherence [1]. Minimally invasive measurement of a relative blood pressure surrogate with an implantable device may provide a useful chronic diagnostic and monitoring tool. We assessed a technique that uses electrocardiogram and paravascular admittance waveform morphology analysis to one, measure a time duration (vascular tone index, VTI in milliseconds) change from the electrocardiogram R-wave to admittance waveform peak and two, measure the admittance waveform minimum, maximum and magnitude as indicators of change in arterial compliance/distensibility or pulse pressure secondary to change in afterload. Methods: Five anesthetized domestic pigs (32 ± 4.2 kg) were used to study the effects of phenylephrine (1-5 ug/kg/min) on femoral artery pressure and admittance waveform morphology measured with a quadrapolar electrode array catheter placed next to the femoral artery to assess the relative change in arterial compliance due to change in peripheral vascular tone. Results: Statistical difference was observed (p < 0.05) comparing baseline VTI to phenylephrine VTI (246 ± .05 ms to 320 ± .07 ms) and baseline admittance waveform maximum to phenylephrine admittance waveform maximum (0.0148 ± .002 siemens to 0.0151 ± .002 siemens). Conclusion: Chronic minimally invasive admittance measurement techniques that monitor relative change in blood pressure may be suitable for implantable devices to detect progression of cardiovascular disease such as hypertension.

  8. Surface acoustic admittance of highly porous open-cell, elastic foams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, R. F.

    1983-01-01

    This work presents a comprehensive study of the surface acoustic admittance properties of graded sizes of open-cell foams that are highly porous and elastic. The intrinsic admittance as well as properties of samples of finite depth were predicted and then measured for sound at normal incidence over a frequency range extending from about 35-3500 Hz. The agreement between theory and experiment for a range of mean pore size and volume porosity is excellent. The implications of fibrous structure on the admittance of open-cell foams is quite evident from the results.

  9. Simultaneous reconstruction of permittivity and conductivity using multi-frequency admittance measurement in electrical capacitance tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Maomao; Soleimani, Manuchehr

    2016-02-01

    Electrical capacitance tomography (ECT) is an imaging method mainly capable of reconstructing dielectric permittivity. Generally, the reactance part of complex admittance is measured in a selected frequency. This paper presents for the first time an in depth and systematic analysis of complex admittance data for simultaneous reconstruction of both electrical conductivity and dielectric permittivity. A complex-valued forward model, Jacobian matrix and inverse solution are developed in the time harmonic excitation mode to allow for multi-frequency measurements. Realistic noise models are used to evaluate the performance of complex admittance ECT in a range of excitation frequencies. This paper demonstrates far greater potential for ECT as a versatile imaging tool through novel analysis of complex admittance imaging using a dual conductivity permittivity inversion method. The paper demonstrates that various classes of contactless capacitance based measurement devices can be analysed through complex multi-frequency ECT.

  10. In-situ characterization of transformation plasticity during an isothermal austenite-to-bainite phase transformation

    SciTech Connect

    Holzweissig, M.J.; Canadinc, D.; Maier, H.J.

    2012-03-15

    This paper elucidates the stress-induced variant selection process during the isothermal austenite-to-bainite phase transformation in a tool steel. Specifically, a thorough set of experiments combining electron backscatter diffraction and in-situ digital image correlation (DIC) was carried out to establish the role of superimposed stress level on the evolution of transformation plasticity (TP) strains. The important finding is that TP increases concomitant with the superimposed stress level, and strain localization accompanies phase transformation at all stress levels considered. Furthermore, TP strain distribution within the whole material becomes more homogeneous with increasing stress, such that fewer bainitic variants are selected to grow under higher stresses, yielding a more homogeneous strain distribution. In particular, the bainitic variants oriented along [101] and [201] directions are favored to grow parallel to the loading axis and are associated with large TP strains. Overall, this very first in-situ DIC investigation of the austenite-to-bainite phase transformation in steels evidences the clear relationship between the superimposed stress level, variant selection, and evolution of TP strains. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Local variations of strain were observed by DIC throughout the phase transformation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The study clearly established the role of the stress-induced variant selection. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Variant selection is a key parameter that governs distortion.

  11. Global Admittance Estimates of Elastic and Crustal Thickness of Venus: Results from Top, Hot Spot, and Bottom Loading Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smrekar, S. E.; Anderson, F. S.

    2005-01-01

    We have calculated admittance spectra using the spatio-spectral method [14] for Venus by moving the central location of the spectrum over a 1 grid, create 360x180 admittance spectra. We invert the observed admittance using top-loading (TL), hot spot (HS), and bottom loading (BL) models, resulting in elastic, crustal, and lithospheric thickness estimates (Te, Zc, and Zl) [0]. The result is a global map for interpreting subsurface structure. Estimated values of Te and Zc concur with previous TL local admittance results, but BL estimates indicate larger values than previously suspected.

  12. TRANSFORMATION

    SciTech Connect

    LACKS,S.A.

    2003-10-09

    Transformation, which alters the genetic makeup of an individual, is a concept that intrigues the human imagination. In Streptococcus pneumoniae such transformation was first demonstrated. Perhaps our fascination with genetics derived from our ancestors observing their own progeny, with its retention and assortment of parental traits, but such interest must have been accelerated after the dawn of agriculture. It was in pea plants that Gregor Mendel in the late 1800s examined inherited traits and found them to be determined by physical elements, or genes, passed from parents to progeny. In our day, the material basis of these genetic determinants was revealed to be DNA by the lowly bacteria, in particular, the pneumococcus. For this species, transformation by free DNA is a sexual process that enables cells to sport new combinations of genes and traits. Genetic transformation of the type found in S. pneumoniae occurs naturally in many species of bacteria (70), but, initially only a few other transformable species were found, namely, Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitides, Neisseria gonorrheae, and Bacillus subtilis (96). Natural transformation, which requires a set of genes evolved for the purpose, contrasts with artificial transformation, which is accomplished by shocking cells either electrically, as in electroporation, or by ionic and temperature shifts. Although such artificial treatments can introduce very small amounts of DNA into virtually any type of cell, the amounts introduced by natural transformation are a million-fold greater, and S. pneumoniae can take up as much as 10% of its cellular DNA content (40).

  13. Structural Characterization of Carbohydrates by Fourier Transform Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wen; Hkansson, Kristina

    2011-12-01

    Fourier transform tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) provides high mass accuracy, high sensitivity, and analytical versatility and has therefore emerged as an indispensable tool for structural elucidation of biomolecules. Glycosylation is one of the most common posttranslational modifications, occurring in ~50% of proteins. However, due to the structural diversity of carbohydrates, arising from non-template driven biosynthesis, achievement of detailed structural insight is highly challenging. This review briefly discusses carbohydrate sample preparation and ionization methods, and highlights recent developments in alternative high-resolution MS/MS strategies, including infrared multiphoton dissociation (IRMPD), electron capture dissociation (ECD), and electron detachment dissociation (EDD), for carbohydrates with a focus on glycans and proteoglycans from mammalian glycoproteins. PMID:22389641

  14. Synthesis and characterization of JBW structure and its thermal transformation

    SciTech Connect

    Hegazy, Eman Z.; Kosa, Samia A.; Abd El Maksod, Islam Hamdy

    2012-12-15

    In this paper, JBW zeolite prepared from Egyptian kaolin was investigated by means of XRD, IR, SEM, EDX and ion exchange of some heavy metals. Adsorption isotherms were used to investigate the structure and properties of the prepared zeolite. XRD analysis showed that the JBW was a pure crystalline phase with orthorhombic crystal symmetry. Thermal treatment showed that the JBW transformed into the It-Carn phase at 1000 Degree-Sign C through an intermediate crystalline alumino silicate phase. SEM images showed that the JBW crystallised in a cylindrical shape. However, spherical agglomerates were observed at lower magnifications. The ion exchange isotherms with Cu{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+} and Co{sup 2+} were found to follow a Freundlich isotherm. In addition, it shows higher affinity towards Cu{sup 2+} than other ions. - Graphical abstract: JBW zeolite structure was prepared from Egyptian kaolin and characterised. XRD analysis showed that the JBW was a pure crystalline phase with orthorhombic crystal symmetry. Thermal treatment showed that the JBW transformed into the It-Carn phase at 1000 Degree-Sign C through an intermediate crystalline alumino silicate phase. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Egyptian kaolin was successfully used to prepare pure phase of JBW Structure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer JBW is stable till <300 Degree-Sign C. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer JBW phase crystallizes as cylindrical shape but agglomerates in a Nano spherical shape. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The ion exchange isotherms of Cu{sup 2+}, Ni{sup 2+}, and Co{sup 2+} followed up Freundlich isotherm. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Selectivity towards Cu{sup 2+} is much higher than Co{sup 2+} or Ni{sup 2+}.

  15. Fermi level pinning at GaN-interfaces: Correlation of electrical admittance and transient spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Witte, H.; Krtschil, A.; Lisker, M.; Rudloff, D.; Christen, J.; Krost, A.; Stutzmann, M.; Scholz, F.

    2000-07-01

    In GaN layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy as well as metal organic vapor phase epitaxy significant differences were found in the appearance of deep defects detected by thermal admittance spectroscopy as compared for deep level transient spectroscopy measurements. While, thermal admittance spectroscopy measurements which were made under zero bias conditions only show thermal emissions at activation energies between 130 and 170 meV, further deep levels existing in these GaN layers were evidenced by transient spectroscopy. This discrepancy is explained by a pinning effect of the Fermi level at the metal/GaN interface induced by high a concentration of the deep levels showing up in thermal admittance spectroscopy. The authors compare their results with a GaAs:Te Schottky-diode as a reference sample. Here, both spectroscopic methods give exactly the same deep level emissions.

  16. Effect of nonzero surface admittance on receptivity and stability of compressible boundary layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choudhari, Meelan

    1994-01-01

    The effect of small-amplitude short-scale variations in surface admittance on the acoustic receptivity and stability of two-dimensional compressible boundary layers is examined. In the linearized limit, the two problems are shown to be related both physically and mathematically. This connection between the two problems is used, in conjunction with some previously reported receptivity results, to infer the modification of stability properties due to surface permeability. Numerical calculations are carried out for a self-similar flat-plate boundary layer at subsonic and low supersonic speeds. Variations in mean suction velocity at the perforated admittance surface can also induce receptivity to an acoustic wave. For a subsonic boundary layer, the dependence of admittance-induced receptivity on the acoustic-wave orientation is significantly different from that of the receptivity produced via mean suction variation. The admittance-induced receptivity is generally independent of the angle of acoustic incidence, except in a relatively narrow range of upstream-traveling waves for which the receptivity becomes weaker. However, this range of angles is precisely that for which the suction-induced receptivity tends to be large. At supersonic Mach numbers, the admittance-induced receptivity to slow acoustic models is relatively weaker than that in the case of the fast acoustic modes. We also find that purely real values for the surface admittance tend to have a destabilizing effect on the evolution of an instability wave over a slightly permeable surface. The limits on the validity of the linearized approximation are also assessed in one specific case.

  17. Systematic characterization of the Herschel SPIRE Fourier Transform Spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopwood, R.; Polehampton, E. T.; Valtchanov, I.; Swinyard, B. M.; Fulton, T.; Lu, N.; Marchili, N.; van der Wiel, M. H. D.; Benielli, D.; Imhof, P.; Baluteau, J.-P.; Pearson, C.; Clements, D. L.; Griffin, M. J.; Lim, T. L.; Makiwa, G.; Naylor, D. A.; Noble, G.; Puga, E.; Spencer, L. D.

    2015-05-01

    A systematic programme of calibration observations was carried out to monitor the performance of the Spectral and Photometric Imaging REceiver (SPIRE) Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) instrument on board the Herschel Space Observatory. Observations of planets (including the prime point-source calibrator, Uranus), asteroids, line sources, dark sky and cross-calibration sources were made in order to monitor repeatability and sensitivity, and to improve FTS calibration. We present a complete analysis of the full set of calibration observations and use them to assess the performance of the FTS. Particular care is taken to understand and separate out the effect of pointing uncertainties, including the position of the internal beam steering mirror for sparse observations in the early part of the mission. The repeatability of spectral-line centre positions is <5 km s-1, for lines with signal-to-noise ratios >40, corresponding to <0.5-2.0 per cent of a resolution element. For spectral-line flux, the repeatability is better than 6 per cent, which improves to 1-2 per cent for spectra corrected for pointing offsets. The continuum repeatability is 4.4 per cent for the SPIRE Long Wavelength spectrometer (SLW) band and 13.6 per cent for the SPIRE Short Wavelength spectrometer (SSW) band, which reduces to ˜1 per cent once the data have been corrected for pointing offsets. Observations of dark sky were used to assess the sensitivity and the systematic offset in the continuum, both of which were found to be consistent across the FTS-detector arrays. The average point-source calibrated sensitivity for the centre detectors is 0.20 and 0.21 Jy [1σ; 1 h], for SLW and SSW. The average continuum offset is 0.40 Jy for the SLW band and 0.28 Jy for the SSW band.

  18. Heterogeneities characterization from a core image using the wavelet transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaci, S.; Zaourar, N.; Ouadfeul, S.

    2012-04-01

    Core analysis provides valuable information about rocks properties in the sub-surface. In this paper, we suggest a new approach which goes beyond the conventional core analysis. It consists of investigating heterogeneities from core image using two-dimensional Brownian motion (2D-mBm) model. The latter allows to study processes whose regularity varies in space. Synthetic 2D-mBm paths are firstly generated using the kriging method. Then, these simulated paths are used to validate algorithms, developed for estimating Hölderian regularity functions, which are: FFT-based algorithms using the Morlet wavelet and the Mexican hat, and the multiple filter technique generalized to 2 dimensions (2D MFT). The results showed that the latter algorithm yields the best regularity estimates. Next, the suggested analysis is extended to digitalized image data of a core extracted from an Algerian borehole. It is demonstrated that the data exhibit a fractal behavior. In addition, the derived regularity maps can characterize the core heterogeneities. The lithological changes (faults, breaks, stratifications, etc.) are perfectly reflected by local variations of the Hölder exponent value. Keywords: core image, two-dimensional multifractional Brownian motion, fractal, regularity

  19. Transformation

    PubMed Central

    Knauer, Stefan H.; Rösch, Paul; Artsimovitch, Irina

    2012-01-01

    The textbook view that a primary sequence determines the unique fold of a given protein has been challenged by identification of proteins with variant structures, such as prions. Our recent studies revealed that the transcription factor RfaH simultaneously changes its topology and function. RfaH is a two-domain protein whose N-terminal domain binds to transcribing RNA polymerase, stimulating its processivity. The α-helical C-terminal domain masks the RNA polymerase-binding site of the N-terminal domain, preventing unwarranted recruitment to genes lacking a specific DNA sequence. Upon binding to its DNA target, RfaH domains dissociate, and the C-terminal domain refolds into a β-barrel. This dramatic transformation allows binding to the ribosomal protein S10 and subsequent recruitment of a ribosome, coupling transcription and translation. We define RfaH as first example of “transformer proteins”, in which two alternative structural states have distinct cellular functions and hypothesize that transformer proteins may be widespread in nature. PMID:23131843

  20. Admittance model for the shuttle remote manipulator system in four configurations. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papadopoulos, Loukas; Tolson, Robert H.

    1993-01-01

    A possible scenario for robot task performance in space is to mount two small, dexterous arms to the end of the Shuttle Remote Manipulator System (SRMS). As these small robots perform tasks, the flexibility of the SRMS may cause unsuccessful task executions. In order to simulate the dynamic coupling between the SRMS and the arms, admittance models of the SRMS in four brakes locked configurations were developed. The admittance model permits calculation of the SRMS end-effector response due to end-effector disturbing forces. The model will then be used in conjunction with a Stewart Platform, a vehicle emulation system. An application of the admittance model was shown by simulating the disturbing forces using two SRMS payloads, the Dextrous Orbital Servicing System (DOSS) manipulator and DOSS carrying a 1000 lb. cylinder. Mode by mode comparisons were conducted to determine the minimum number of modes required in the admittance model while retaining dynamic fidelity. It was determined that for all four SRMS configurations studied, between 4 and 6 modes of the SRMS structure (depending on the excitation loads) were sufficient to retain tolerance of 0.01 inches and 0.01 deg. These tolerances correspond to the DOSS manipulator carrying no object. When the DOSS carries the 1000 lb. cylinder, between 15 and 20 modes were sufficient, approximately three or four times as many modes as for the unloaded case.

  1. Damage detection on the joint of steel frame through high-frequency admittance signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dansheng; Zhu, Hongping; Zhou, Huaqiang; Yang, Haiping

    2008-11-01

    The basic idea of a piezoelectric admittance (reciprocal of impedance) technique for structural health monitoring is presented in this paper. An experimental study on damage detection of a steel frame structure is operated by the use of the high-frequency piezoelectric admittance signals. In this experiment, three PZT active sensors are bonded to three different components around a joint of the steel frame separately, and the looseness of bolts is identified by monitoring the variations of piezoelectric admittance measurements. From the experimental results it is found that the PZT active sensors hold the ability to detect structural local damage, i.e. they are insensitive to the damage in far fields. Subsequently, two damage indexes, the covariance and the cross correlation coefficient between two real admittance data sets are defined respectively, by which the extent of damage of the frame structure is evaluated. It is found that the cross correlation coefficient index can correctly reflect the damage extent of the frame structure qualitatively in different frequency ranges, but the covariance index can not.

  2. 48 CFR 3022.101-70 - Admittance of union representatives to DHS installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Basic Labor Policies 3022.101-70 Admittance of union... policy of DHS to admit non-employee labor union representatives of contractor employees to DHS installations to visit work sites and transact labor union business with contractors, their employees, and...

  3. 48 CFR 1222.101-70 - Admittance of union representatives to DOT installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Basic Labor Policies 1222.101-70 Admittance of union representatives to DOT installations. (a) It is DOT policy to admit labor union representatives of contractor employees to DOT installations to visit work sites and transact labor union business with contractors, their employees, or union stewards pursuant...

  4. 48 CFR 3022.101-70 - Admittance of union representatives to DHS installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Basic Labor Policies 3022.101-70 Admittance of union... policy of DHS to admit non-employee labor union representatives of contractor employees to DHS installations to visit work sites and transact labor union business with contractors, their employees, and...

  5. 48 CFR 3022.101-70 - Admittance of union representatives to DHS installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Basic Labor Policies 3022.101-70 Admittance of union... policy of DHS to admit non-employee labor union representatives of contractor employees to DHS installations to visit work sites and transact labor union business with contractors, their employees, and...

  6. 48 CFR 1222.101-70 - Admittance of union representatives to DOT installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Basic Labor Policies 1222.101-70 Admittance of union representatives to DOT installations. (a) It is DOT policy to admit labor union representatives of contractor employees to DOT installations to visit work sites and transact labor union business with contractors, their employees, or union stewards pursuant...

  7. 48 CFR 1222.101-70 - Admittance of union representatives to DOT installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Basic Labor Policies 1222.101-70 Admittance of union representatives to DOT installations. (a) It is DOT policy to admit labor union representatives of contractor employees to DOT installations to visit work sites and transact labor union business with contractors, their employees, or union stewards pursuant...

  8. 48 CFR 1222.101-70 - Admittance of union representatives to DOT installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Basic Labor Policies 1222.101-70 Admittance of union representatives to DOT installations. (a) It is DOT policy to admit labor union representatives of contractor employees to DOT installations to visit work sites and transact labor union business with contractors, their employees, or union stewards pursuant...

  9. 48 CFR 1222.101-70 - Admittance of union representatives to DOT installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Admittance of union representatives to DOT installations. 1222.101-70 Section 1222.101-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Basic Labor Policies...

  10. 48 CFR 3022.101-70 - Admittance of union representatives to DHS installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Basic Labor Policies 3022.101-70 Admittance of union... policy of DHS to admit non-employee labor union representatives of contractor employees to DHS installations to visit work sites and transact labor union business with contractors, their employees, and...

  11. 48 CFR 3022.101-70 - Admittance of union representatives to DHS installations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Basic Labor Policies 3022.101-70 Admittance of union... policy of DHS to admit non-employee labor union representatives of contractor employees to DHS installations to visit work sites and transact labor union business with contractors, their employees, and...

  12. Experimental determination of the admittances of aluminized propellants by the impedance tube method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baum, J. D.; Daniel, B. R.; Zinn, B. T.

    1980-01-01

    The adaptation of the impedance tube concept for the determination of the pressure coupled admittances and response functions of burning solid propellants is discussed. The results obtained in experiments with UTP-3001 and UTP-19360 aluminized propellants are presented. It is shown that the admittance Y remains constant during the quasi-steady burn period of a test, indicating constant driving of the gas phase disturbance by the burning solid propellant. The measured real part of the admittance is positive, indicating that the burning aluminized propellant is driving the gas phase oscillations. In addition, the measured high gas phase damping, provided by the aluminum oxide particles in the gas phase, suggests that the latter can significantly increase the damping in unstable solid rockets over the investigated frequency range. Finally, it is shown that the wave structure obtained by numerically solving the impedance tube wave equations which utilize the determined propellant admittance as an initial condition and the determined value of G to describe the gas phase losses is in excellent agreement with the measured wave structure.

  13. An admittance control scheme for a robotic upper- limb stroke rehabilitation system.

    PubMed

    Culmer, P; Jackson, A; Levesley, M C; Savage, J; Richardson, R; Cozens, J A; Bhakta, B B

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a control scheme for a dual robot upper-limb stroke rehabilitation system. A model of the human arm is outlined and used to formulate an admittance controller operating in human upper-limb joint space. Initial results are provided together with a discrussion of future work. PMID:17281389

  14. Assessment of conduction properties and thermal noise in cell membranes by admittance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Fishman, H M

    1992-01-01

    Advances in the speed of signal processing enable application of a Fourier-synthesized function as a small perturbation (1 mV) superposed on voltage clamp steps to rapidly (< 1 sec) acquire cell membrane complex driving-point functions (impedance or admittance) in several frequency bands ranging from 1 Hz to 10 kHz. Curve fits of admittance models to these data yield a complete quantitative linear description of membrane conduction systems and their kinetics. Furthermore, the rate constants between microscopic states of an ion channel can be calculated from conductance parameters derived from model curve fits of membrane admittances. Additionally, the power spectrum of membrane thermal noise is obtainable from impedance determinations by use of the Nyquist relation. Consequently, rapid driving-point function determinations provide the most complete macroscopic assessment of membrane conduction properties presently available. Admittance determinations of the potassium conduction system in squid giant axon and the potassium conducting "inward rectifier" in snail neuron are used to illustrate the above points. PMID:1285724

  15. Characterization of fluids involved in the Gneiss-Charnockite transformation in Southern Kerala (India)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klatt, E.; Hoernes, S.; Raith, M.

    1988-01-01

    The characterization of fluids involved in the gneiss-charnockite transformation in southern Kerala are discussed. Using a variety of techniques, including microthermometry, Raman laser probe analysis, and mass spectrometry, it was concluded that the CO2-rich, N2-bearing metamorphic fluids in these rocks were internally-derived rather than having been introduced by CO2-streaming.

  16. Localization and Characterization of the Carbon Tetrachloride Transformation Activity of Pseudomonas sp. Strain KC

    PubMed Central

    Dybas, M. J.; Tatara, G. M.; Criddle, C. S.

    1995-01-01

    Previous research has established that Pseudomonas sp. strain KC rapidly transforms carbon tetrachloride (CT) to carbon dioxide (45 to 55%), a nonvolatile fraction (45 to 55%), and a cell-associated fraction ((equiv)5%) under denitrifying, iron-limited conditions. The present study provides additional characterization of the nonvolatile fraction, demonstrates that electron transfer plays a role in the transformation, and establishes the importance of both extracellular and intracellular factors. Experiments with (sup14)C-labeled CT indicate that more than one nonvolatile product is produced during CT transformation by strain KC. One of these products, accounting for about 20% of the [(sup14)C]CT transformed, was identified as formate on the basis of its elution time from an ion-exchange column, its boiling point, and its conversion to (sup14)CO(inf2) when incubated with formate dehydrogenase. Production of formate requires transfer of two electrons to the CT molecule. The role of electron transfer was also supported by experiments demonstrating that stationary-phase cells that do not transform CT can be stimulated to transform CT when supplemented with acetate (electron donor), nitrate (electron acceptor), or a protonophore (carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone). The location of transformation activity was also evaluated. By themselves, washed cells did not transform CT to a significant degree. Occasionally, CT transformation was observed by cell-free culture supernatant, but this activity was not reliable. Rapid and reliable CT transformation was only obtained when washed whole cells were reconstituted with culture supernatant, indicating that both extracellular and intracellular factors are normally required for CT transformation. Fractionation of culture supernatant by ultrafiltration established that the extracellular factor or factors are small, with an apparent molecular mass of less than 500 Da. The extracellular factor or factors were stable after lyophilization to powder and were extractable with acetone. Addition of micromolar levels of iron inhibited CT transformation in whole cultures, but the level of iron needed to inhibit CT transformation was over 100-fold higher for washed cells reconstituted with a 10,000-Da supernatant filtrate. Thus, the inhibitory effects of iron are exacerbated by a supernatant factor or factors with a molecular mass greater than 10,000 Da. PMID:16534941

  17. Analysis of a rectangular ceramic plate in electrically forced thickness-twist vibration as a piezoelectric transformer.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jiashi; Liu, Jinjin; Li, Jiangyu

    2007-04-01

    A rectangular ceramic plate with appropriate electrical load and operating mode is analyzed for piezoelectric transformer application. An exact solution from the three-dimensional equations of linear piezoelectricity is obtained. The solution simulates the real operating situation of a transformer as a vibrating piezoelectric body connected to a circuit. Transforming ratio, input admittance, and efficiency of the transformer are obtained. PMID:17441592

  18. Solid-state characterization and transformation of various creatine phosphate sodium hydrates.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yun; Jiang, Linglei; Huang, Ying; Wang, Jian-Rong; Mei, Xuefeng

    2014-11-01

    Creatine phosphate sodium (CPS) salt is a first-line cardiovascular drug for severe diastolic heart failure. The drug exists in different hydrate forms. The marketed drug form was determined as CPS·4.5H2 O (H1); however, the reference standard was supplied as CPS·6H2 O (H2). In this work, we present two newly identified hydrate forms: a thermodynamically stable low hydrate form, CPS·1.5H2 O (H3), and a pressure-sensitive transit form, CPS·7H2 O (H4). The hydrate forms were discovered through a comprehensive solid-state screening experiment and fully characterized using a range of analytical techniques including X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), FTIR, Raman spectroscopy, hot-stage microscopy (HSM), thermogravimetric analysis, and differential scanning calorimetry. Stability tests revealed that H3 was the most stable hydrate under thermal stimulation. H4 is a pressure-sensitive hydrate and easily transforms to H2 and then H1 upon grinding. The form transformation process was closely monitored using the HSM, variable-temperature XRPD (VT-XRPD), and VT-Raman spectroscopy techniques. Specifically, the transformation of H4 to H1 is characterized in a single-crystal-to-single-crystal transformation process. The newly discovered hydrate form H3 has superior physicochemical properties than the marketed forms and is worthy of further development. PMID:25223726

  19. Voice source characterization using pitch synchronous discrete cosine transform for speaker identification.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishnan, A G; Abhiram, B; Prasanna, S R Mahadeva

    2015-06-01

    A characterization of the voice source (VS) signal by the pitch synchronous (PS) discrete cosine transform (DCT) is proposed. With the integrated linear prediction residual (ILPR) as the VS estimate, the PS DCT of the ILPR is evaluated as a feature vector for speaker identification (SID). On TIMIT and YOHO databases, using a Gaussian mixture model (GMM)-based classifier, it performs on par with existing VS-based features. On the NIST 2003 database, fusion with a GMM-based classifier using MFCC features improves the identification accuracy by 12% in absolute terms, proving that the proposed characterization has good promise as a feature for SID studies. PMID:26093457

  20. Dielectric studies of boron sub phthalocyanine chloride thin films by admittance spectroscopic techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalia, Sameer; Mahajan, Aman; Neerja, Sharma, Anshul Kumar; Kumar, Sanjeev; Bedi, R. K.

    2016-05-01

    The dielectric properties of Boron Sub Phthalocyanine Chloride (Cl-SubPc) thermally deposited on ITO substrate have been studied using admittance spectroscopic techniques. The I-V and capacitance -frequency (C-F) studies at various bias voltages reveal that the mobility of charge carriers decrease with bias voltage, however the conduction phenomenon still remain hopping in nature. From the differential susceptance curve, the contribution of the Schottky barrier contact in the charge carrier concentration was found to be absent. The mobility of charge carriers have been determined using differential susceptance variation and from the phase of admittance curve. The values obtained in two cases have been found to be in agreement with each other.

  1. Development and evaluation of spectral transformation algorithms for analysis and characterization of forest vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Guang

    1998-11-01

    This research reviewed and evaluated some of the most important statistically based spectral transformation algorithms. Two spectral transformation algorithms, canonical discriminant analysis (CDA) and multiple logistic regression (MLR) transformations were developed and evaluated in two independent studies. The objectives were to investigate if the methods are capable of solving the two fundamental questions raised in the beginning: separating spectral overlap and quantifying spatial variability under forest conditions. It was generalized from previous research that spectral transformations are usually performed to complete one or more tasks, with ultimate goal of optimizing data structure for improving visual interpretation, analysis, and classification performance. PCA is the most widely used spectral transformation techniques. Kauth-Thomas Tasseled Cap transformed components are important vegetation indices, and they are developed using sensor and scene physical characteristics and Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization process. A theoretical comparison was conducted to identify major differences among Tasseled Cap, PCA, and CDA transformations in their objectives, prior knowledge requirements, limitations, processes, and variance-covariance usage. CDA was a better "separation" algorithm than PCA in improving overall classification accuracy. CDA was used as a transformation technique to not only increase class separation, but also reduce data dimension and noise. The last two canonical components usually contain largely noise variances, which hold less than 1 percent of the variance found in source variables. A sub-dimension (the first four components) is preferable for final classifications than the whole derived canonical component data sets, as the noise variances associated with the last two components were removed. Comparison of CDA and PCA eigenstructure matrices revealed that there is no distinct pattern in terms of source variable contribution and load signs between the canonical and the principal components. Three-dimensional graphing was a useful tool for the examination of classes which have spectral overlap in multidimensional discriminant space. When comparing dissimilarities of spatial characterizations between using ordinary classification output and probability surface, and when an ordinary classification output was used, spatially varied vegetation communities were sketched as large, homogeneous patches. Inter-class spatial gradients were lost under ordinary membership structure. However, when probability surfaces were combined with ordinary classification output for representation, inter-class and within-class spatial variations were better modeled with certainty. Overall classification accuracies based on MLR images were equivalent to using PCA transformation. The results assured that the MLR transformation can be considered as a "adequate" technique in term of its ability to preserve information for ordinary classification output. The probability surface derived through MLR may also be considered "reliable and predictive" compared to PCA scores.

  2. Development of a trans-admittance mammography (TAM) using 60×60 electrode array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Mingkang; Liu, Qin; In Oh, Tong; Woo, Eung Je; Seo, Jin Keun

    2010-04-01

    We have developed a trans-admittance mammography (TAM) system as a supplementary or alternative method of the X-ray mammography to diagnose the breast cancer. Mechanical structure of the system is similar to the X-ray mammography with the breast placed between two plates. The pair of plates is movable to accommodate breasts with different sizes and rotatable to provide multiple images with different projection angles. Without using ionizing radiation, it acquires a projection image of tissue admittivity values. One plate is a flat solid electrode where we apply a constant sinusoidal voltage with a variable frequency. The other is equipped with 60×60 array of current-sensing electrodes, of which potentials are kept at the signal reference level. The electrode array is connected to six switching modules and each module routes current signals from 600 electrodes to two ammeter modules. Each ammeter module includes six channels of ammeters and each one of them comprises an independent current-to-voltage converter, voltage amplifier, ADC and digital phase-sensitive demodulator. Each ammeter sequentially measures exit currents from 50 electrodes chosen by the corresponding switching module. An FPGA controls six ammeters to collect real- and imaginary-parts of trans-admittance data from 300 electrodes. A separate FPGA arbitrates data and command exchanges between a DSP-based main controller and ammeter modules. It also generates a sinusoidal voltage signal to be applied to the breast. All the 3600 complex current data from 12 ammeter modules are transferred to the main controller, which is interfaced to a PC through an isolated USB. The system is provided with a program to display real- and imaginary-parts of measured trans-admittance maps. The measured maps at multiple frequencies are incorporated into a frequency-difference anomaly detection algorithm. In this paper, we describe the design and construction of the system.

  3. Admittance analysis in (PPE-PPV) polymer (AnE-PVstat) light emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özdemir, Orhan; Mucur, Selin P.; Tekin, Emine; Boudiba, Sameh; Ulbricht, Christoph; Egbe, Daniel A. M.; Deneb Menda, U.; Kavak, Pelin Aydogan; Kutlu, Kubilay

    2013-09-01

    In this work, admittance analysis of organic light emitting diode (OLED) (anode/active layer/cathode) was performed at room temperature within the frequency range of 1 kHz-1MHz to find out transport properties of both injected carriers from each side. Moreover, by proper chosen metals, electron or hole only OLED devices were prepared and the measurement was resumed to identify the governed transport path of injected carrier. Mobility of injected carriers followed the Poole-Frenkel type conduction mechanism and distinguished in the frequency range due to the difference of transit times in admittance measurement. Beginning of light output and onset of negative capacitance took place at the turn-on voltage (or flat band voltage), 1.8 V, which was the difference of energy band gap of polymer and two barrier offsets between metals and polymer. The proposed analytical model for admittance, derived for the frequency dependent space charge limited behavior leading negative capacitance issues, was applied on the measured data for the present OLED device.

  4. Application of admittance spectroscopy to evaluate carrier mobility in organic charge transport materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsang, S. W.; So, S. K.; Xu, J. B.

    2006-01-01

    We examine the feasibility of admittance spectroscopy (AS) and susceptance analysis in the determination of the charge-carrier mobility in an organic material. The complex admittance of the material is analyzed as a function of frequency in AS. We found that the susceptance, which is the imaginary part of the complex admittance, is related to the carrier transport properties of the materials. A plot of the computer-simulated negative differential susceptance versus frequency yields a maximum at a frequency τr-1. The position of the maximum τr-1 is related to the average carrier transit time τdc by τdc=0.56τr. Thus, knowledge of τr can be used to determine the carrier mobility in the material. Devices with the structure ITO/4,4',4'' -tris[N, -(3-methylphenyl)-N-phenylamino] triphenylamine/Ag have been designed to investigate the validity of the susceptance analysis in the hole mobility determination. The hole mobilities were measured both as functions of the electric field and the temperature. The hole mobility data extracted by susceptance analysis were in excellent agreement with those independently obtained from time-of-flight (TOF) measurements. Using the temperature dependence results, we further analyzed the mobility data by the Gaussian disorder model (GDM). The GDM disorder parameters are also in good agreement with those determined from TOF.

  5. Characterization and immunotherapeutic potential of a monoclonal antibody against a ras oncogene transformed cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Ames, R.S. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Transformed cells express cell surface antigens not present, or present in diminished amounts on normal cells. Monoclonal antibodies can be used to identify and biochemically characterize tumor-associated antigens. Monoclonal antibody (MoAb) 45-2D9 was produced by immunization of BALB/c mice with a transformed cell line (45-2D9) induced by transfection of NIH 3T3 cells with a c-H-ras oncogene in DNA isolated from a human lung carcinoma. By immunoperoxidase staining, this antibody binds to the 45-342 cells as well as to the ras transformed primary and 3 secondary transfectants, including the one used to induce 45-342, but not to other ras transformed cell lines. Murine tumors as well as human fetal and most normal adult tissues are not stained. This antibody does bind to a variety of human tumors, including lung adenocarcinomas, as well as breast, colon and esophageal carcinomas. The ability of MoAb 45-2D9 to target ricin toxin A chain (RTA) and radio-isotopes to gp74 expressing cells was investigated. An immunotoxin generated by conjugating RTA to MoAb 45-2D9 inhibits protein and DNA synthesis by the 45-342 cells. Radiolabeled antibody specifically localizes to and can be used to image subcutaneous and pulmonary gp74 expressing tumors in nu/nu mice. Monoclonal antibodies against oncogene transformed cell lines may be useful for the detection and characterization of tumor-associated antigens as well as for the development of new tumor therapeutic and diagnostic reagents.

  6. Characterization of genetically transformed Saccharomyces cerevisiae baker's yeasts able to metabolize melibiose.

    PubMed Central

    Gasent-Ramrez, J M; Codn, A C; Bentez, T

    1995-01-01

    Three transformant (Mel+) Saccharomyces cerevisiae baker's yeast strains, CT-Mel, VS-Mel, and DADI-Mel, have been characterized. The strains, which originally lacked alpha-galactosidase activity (Mel-), had been transformed with a DNA fragment which possessed an ILV1-SMR1 allele of the ILV2 gene and a MEL1 gene. The three transformed strains showed growth rates similar to those of the untransformed controls in both minimal and semi-industrial (molasses) media. The alpha-galactosidase specific activity of strain CT-Mel was twice that of VS-Mel and DADI-Mel. The yield, YX/S (milligrams of protein per milligram of substrate), in minimal medium with raffinose as the carbon source was 2.5 times higher in the transformed strains than in the controls and was 1.5 times higher in CT-Mel than in VS-Mel and DADI-Mel. When molasses was used, YX/S (milligrams of protein per milliliter of culture) increased 8% when the transformed strains CT-Mel and DADI-Mel were used instead of the controls. Whereas no viable spores were recovered from either DADI-Mel or VS-Mel tetrads, genetic analysis carried out with CT-Mel indicated that the MEL1 gene has been integrated in two of three homologous loci. Analysis of the DNA content by flow cytometry indicated that strain CT-Mel was 3n, whereas VS-Mel was 2n and DADI-Mel was 1.5n. Electrophoretic karyotype and Southern blot analyses of the transformed strains showed that the MEL1 gene has been integrated in the same chromosomic band, probably chromosome XIII, in the three strains.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7793932

  7. Malignant Transformation of a Dysembryoplastic Neuroepithelial Tumor (DNET) Characterized by Genome-Wide Methylation Analysis.

    PubMed

    Heiland, Dieter Henrik; Staszewski, Ori; Hirsch, Martin; Masalha, Waseem; Franco, Pamela; Grauvogel, Jürgen; Capper, David; Schrimpf, Daniel; Urbach, Horst; Weyerbrock, Astrid

    2016-04-01

    Dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumors (DNET) are considered to be rare, benign, and associated with chronic epilepsy. We present the case of a 28-year-old man with a history of epilepsy since age 12. Surgery of an occipital cortical lesion in 2009 revealed a DNET. Five years later, a recurrent tumor at the edge of the resection cavity was removed, and the tissue underwent an intensive diagnostic workup. The first tumor was unequivocally characterized as a DNET, but neuropathological diagnostics of the recurrent tumor revealed a glioblastoma. After 6 months, another recurrent tumor was detected next to the location of the original tumor, and this was also resected. An Illumina 450 K beadchip methylation array was performed to characterize all of the tumors. The methylation profile of these tumors significantly differed from other glioblastoma and epilepsy-associated tumor profiles and revealed a DNET-like methylation profile. Thus, molecular characterization of these recurrent tumors suggests malignant transformation of a previously benign DNET. We found increased copy number changes in the recurrent DNET tumors after malignant transformation. Modern high-throughput analysis adds essential molecular information in addition to standard histopathology for proper identification of rare brain tumors that present with an unusual clinical course. PMID:26921879

  8. Characterization of biotechnologically and medically relevant yeasts (fungi) by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serfas, Ottmar; Naumann, Dieter; Standfuss, Gabriele; Brueggemann, Lutz; Flemming, Ingeborg

    1992-03-01

    The Fourier-transform infrared spectra of intact procaryotic cells (bacteria) have already been used in the past to characterize (differentiate, classify and identify) a variety of bacterial strains and taxa. In this paper the essential features of a methodology are described which extend the FT-IR pattern recognition approach to intact eucaryotic cells (yeasts/fungi). Basically, the characteristic information pertaining to microbial FT-IR patterns is explored by applying multivariate statistics and cluster analysis to both the time and frequency domain of the mid-ir spectral data.

  9. Light field camera as a Fourier transform spectrometer sensor: instrument characterization and passive spectral ranging.

    PubMed

    Côté, Alex; Levasseur, Simon; Boudreau, Sylvain; Genest, Jérôme

    2014-07-01

    This paper presents a concept using field cameras in combination with Fourier transform spectrometers. The device can produce five-dimensional (position-angle-spectra) data cubes. This can lead to accurate measurements in both spectrum and distance and allows a thorough characterization of the interferometer, as well as adds passive ranging information to hyperspectral images. Shear and tilt fringes are simultaneously observed in a fixed optical path difference interferometer, and a passive spectral ranging demonstration is done in both absorption and emission for the 500-900 nm spectral bands. PMID:25089997

  10. Characterization of Solid State Phase Transformation in Continuously Heated and Cooled Ferritic Weld Metal

    SciTech Connect

    Narayana, B; Mills, Michael J.; Specht, Eliot D; Santella, Michael L; Babu, Sudarsanam Suresh

    2010-12-01

    Arc welding processes involve cooling rates that vary over a wide range (1-100 K/s). The final microstructire is thus a product of the heating and cooling cycles experienced by the weld in addition to the weld composition. It has been shown that the first phase to form under weld cooling conditions may not be that predicted by equilibrium calculations. The partitioning of different interstitial/substitutional alloying elements at high temperatures can dramatically affect the subsequent phase transformations. In order to understand the effect of alloying on phase transformation temperatures and final microstructures time-resolved X-ray diffraction technique has been successfully used for characterization. The work by Jacot and Rappaz on pearlitic steels provided insight into austenitization of hypoeutectic steels using a finite volume model. However there is very little work done on the effect of heating and cooling rates on the phase transformation paths in bainitic/martensitic steels and weld metals. Previous work on a weld with higher aluminum content, deposited with a FCAW-S process indicated that even at aluminum levels where the primary phase to solidify from liquid should be delta ferrite, non-equilibrium austenite was observed. The presence of inhomogeneity in composition of the parent microstructure has been attributed to differences in transformation modes, temperatures and microstructures in dual-phase, TRIP steels and ferritic welds. The objectives of the work included the identification of the stability regions of different phases during heating and cooling, differences in the effect of weld heating and cooling rates on the phase transformation temperatures, and the variation in phase fractions of austenite and ferrite in the two phase regions as a function of temperature. The base composition used for the present work is a Fe-1%Al-2%Mn-1%Ni-0.04%C weld metal. A pseudo-binary phase diagram shows the expected solidification path under equilibrium conditions. However, the effect of heating and cooling rates on the phase transformation path due to non-equilibrium partitioning of alloying elements cannot be predicted by equilibrium phase diagrams. Also, it is unclear if there is retention of delta ferrite to room temperature due to compositional or thermal effects. This would dramatically affect the austenite to ferrite transformation due to carbon and nitrogen enrichment in the austenite.

  11. Automatic heart sounds detection and systolic murmur characterization using wavelet transform and AR modeling.

    PubMed

    Ning, Taikang; Hsieh, Kai-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes a signal processing procedure that identifies the first and the second heart sounds (S1 and S2), extracts the systole from the diastole, detects and characterizes the systolic murmur found within. The identification of heart sounds was facilitated by discrete wavelet transform (DWT) approximation using the Coiflet wavelet and followed by using indicators that quantify signal activity and strength. The systole was isolated and divided into smaller short segments where the signal activity measure and absolute amplitude were computed. S1 and S2, and the onset and duration of a systolic murmur were marked. Using the indices derived from AR modeling, a systolic murmur can be characterized by its timing, duration, pitch, and shape either as crescendo, decrescendo, crescendo-decrescendo, or plateau. The performance of the proposed procedure was evaluated and proved with clinically recorded systolic murmur episodes. PMID:24110248

  12. Characterization of coarse bainite transformation in low carbon steel during simulated welding thermal cycles

    SciTech Connect

    Lan, Liangyun; Kong, Xiangwei; Qiu, Chunlin

    2015-07-15

    Coarse austenite to bainite transformation in low carbon steel under simulated welding thermal cycles was morphologically and crystallographically characterized by means of optical microscope, transmission electron microscope and electron backscattered diffraction technology. The results showed that the main microstructure changes from a mixture of lath martensite and bainitic ferrite to granular bainite with the increase in cooling time. The width of bainitic laths also increases gradually with the cooling time. For a welding thermal cycle with relatively short cooling time (e.g. t{sub 8/5} is 30 s), the main mode of variant grouping at the scale of individual prior austenite grains changes from Bain grouping to close-packed plane grouping with the progress of phase transformation, which results in inhomogeneous distribution of high angle boundaries. As the cooling time is increased, the Bain grouping of variants becomes predominant mode, which enlarges the effective grain size of product phase. - Highlights: • Main microstructure changes and the width of lath structure increases with cooling time. • Variant grouping changes from Bain zone to close-packed plane grouping with the transformation. • The change of variant grouping results in uneven distribution of high angle grain boundary. • Bain grouping is main mode for large heat input, which lowers the density of high angle boundary.

  13. Real time pressure-volume loops in mice using complex admittance: measurement and implications.

    PubMed

    Kottam, Anil T G; Porterfield, John; Raghavan, Karthik; Fernandez, Daniel; Feldman, Marc D; Valvano, Jonathan W; Pearce, John A

    2006-01-01

    Real time left ventricular (LV) pressure-volume (P-V) loops have provided a framework for understanding cardiac mechanics in experimental animals and humans. Conductance measurements have been used for the past 25 years to generate an instantaneous left ventricular (LV) volume signal. The standard conductance method yields a combination of blood and ventricular muscle conductance; however, only the blood signal is used to estimate LV volume. The state of the art techniques like hypertonic saline injection and IVC occlusion, determine only a single steady-state value of the parallel conductance of the cardiac muscle. This is inaccurate, since the cardiac muscle component should vary instantaneously throughout the cardiac cycle as the LV contracts and fills, because the distance from the catheter to the muscle changes. The capacitive nature of cardiac muscle can be used to identify its contribution to the combined conductance signal. This method, in contrast to existing techniques, yields an instantaneous estimate of the parallel admittance of cardiac muscle that can be used to correct the measurement in real time. The corrected signal consists of blood conductance alone. We present the results of real time in vivo measurements of pressure-admittance and pressure-phase loops inside the murine left ventricle. We then use the magnitude and phase angle of the measured admittance to determine pressure volume loops inside the LV on a beat by beat basis. These results may be used to achieve a substantial improvement in the state of the art in this measurement method by eliminating the need for hypertonic saline injection. PMID:17946238

  14. Delays in Admittance-Controlled Haptic Devices Make Simulated Masses Feel Heavier

    PubMed Central

    Kuling, Irene A.; Smeets, Jeroen B. J.; Lammertse, Piet; Onneweer, Bram; Mugge, Winfred

    2015-01-01

    In an admittance-controlled haptic device, input forces are used to calculate the movement of the device. Although developers try to minimize delays, there will always be delays between the applied force and the corresponding movement in such systems, which might affect what the user of the device perceives. In this experiment we tested whether these delays in a haptic human-robot interaction influence the perception of mass. In the experiment an admittance-controlled manipulator was used to simulate various masses. In a staircase design subjects had to decide which of two virtual masses was heavier after gently pushing them leftward with the right hand in mid-air (no friction, no gravity). The manipulator responded as quickly as possible or with an additional delay (25 or 50 ms) to the forces exerted by the subject on the handle of the haptic device. The perceived mass was ~10% larger for a delay of 25 ms and ~20% larger for a delay of 50 ms. Based on these results, we estimated that the delays that are present in nowadays admittance-controlled haptic devices (up to 20ms) will give an increase in perceived mass which is smaller than the Weber fraction for mass (~10% for inertial mass). Additional analyses showed that the subjects’ decision on mass when the perceptual differences were small did not correlate with intuitive variables such as force, velocity or a combination of these, nor with any other measured variable, suggesting that subjects did not have a consistent strategy during guessing or used other sources of information, for example the efference copy of their pushes. PMID:26361353

  15. Admittance Test and Conceptual Study of a CW Positron Source for CEBAF

    SciTech Connect

    Golge, Serkan; Hyde, Charles E.; Freyberger, Arne

    2009-09-02

    A conceptual study of a Continuous Wave (CW) positron production is presented in this paper. The Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) at Jefferson Lab (JLAB) operates with a CW electron beam with a well-defined emittance, time structure and energy spread. Positrons created via bremsstrahlung photons in a high-Z target emerge with a large emittance compared to incoming electron beam. An admittance study has been performed at CEBAF to estimate the maximum beam phase space area that can be transported in the LINAC and in the Arcs. A positron source is described utilizing the CEBAF injector electron beam, and directly injecting the positrons into the CEBAF LINAC.

  16. Measuring the complex admittance of a nearly isolated graphene quantum dot

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Miao-Lei; Wei, Da; Deng, Guang-Wei; Li, Shu-Xiao; Li, Hai-Ou; Cao, Gang; Tu, Tao; Xiao, Ming; Guo, Guang-Can; Guo, Guo-Ping; Jiang, Hong-Wen

    2014-08-18

    We measured the radio-frequency reflection spectrum of an on-chip reflection line resonator coupled to a graphene double quantum dot (DQD), which was etched almost isolated from the reservoir and reached the low tunnel rate region. The charge stability diagram of DQD was investigated via dispersive phase and magnitude shift of the resonator with a high quality factor. Its complex admittance and low tunnel rate to the reservoir was also determined from the reflected signal of the on-chip resonator. Our method may provide a non-invasive and sensitive way of charge state readout in isolated quantum dots.

  17. Admittance measurements on Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} polycrystalline thin-film solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Scofield, J.H.; Contreras, M.; Gabor, A.M.; Noufi, R.; Sites, J.R.

    1994-12-31

    The authors have measured the complex admittance for approximately 30 CIS and CIGS polycrystalline thin film solar cells having efficiencies of 12% or better. Measurements were performed for frequencies ranging from 1 to 1,000 kHz and bias voltages from {minus}2.0 to 0.4 V and were usually at room temperature. Capacitance versus voltage data were used to extract effective charge densities. Frequency-dependent capacitance and conductance data revealed information about trapping. While results vary from cell to cell, several common features emerge from the data. These results are described in this paper.

  18. Dynamic virtual fixture on the Euclidean group for admittance-type manipulator in deforming environments

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In a deforming anatomic environment, the motion of an instrument suffers from complex geometrical and dynamic constraints, robot assisted minimally invasive surgery therefore requires more sophisticated skills for surgeons. This paper proposes a novel dynamic virtual fixture (DVF) to enhance the surgical operation accuracy of admittance-type medical robotics in the deforming environment. Methods A framework for DVF on the Euclidean Group SE(3) is presented, which unites rotation and translation in a compact form. First, we constructed the holonomic/non-holonomic constraints, and then searched for the corresponded reference to make a distinction between preferred and non-preferred directions. Second, different control strategies are employed to deal with the tasks along the distinguished directions. The desired spatial compliance matrix is synthesized from an allowable motion screw set to filter out the task unrelated components from manual input, the operator has complete control over the preferred directions; while the relative motion between the surgical instrument and the anatomy structures is actively tracked and cancelled, the deviation relative to the reference is compensated jointly by the operator and DVF controllers. The operator, haptic device, admittance-type proxy and virtual deforming environment are involved in a hardware-in-the-loop experiment, human-robot cooperation with the assistance of DVF controller is carried out on a deforming sphere to simulate beating heart surgery, performance of the proposed DVF on admittance-type proxy is evaluated, and both human factors and control parameters are analyzed. Results The DVF can improve the dynamic properties of human-robot cooperation in a low-frequency (0 ~ 40 rad/sec) deforming environment, and maintain synergy of orientation and translation during the operation. Statistical analysis reveals that the operator has intuitive control over the preferred directions, human and the DVF controller jointly control the motion along the non-preferred directions, the target deformation is tracked actively. Conclusions The proposed DVF for an admittance-type manipulator is capable of assisting the operator to deal with skilled operations in a deforming environment. PMID:24767578

  19. Localized Gravity/Topography Admittance and Correlation Spectra on Mars: Implications for Regional and Global Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGovern, Patrick J.; Solomon, Sean C.; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.; Simons, Mark; Wieczorek, Mark A.; Phillips, Roger J.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Aharonson, Oded; Head, James W.

    2002-01-01

    [i] From gravity and topography data collected by the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft we calculate gravity/topography admittances and correlations in the spectral domain and compare them to those predicted from models of lithospheric flexure. On the basis of these comparisons we estimate the thickness of the Martian elastic lithosphere (T(sub e)) required to support the observed topographic load since the time of loading. We convert T(sub e) to estimates of heat flux and thermal gradient in the lithosphere through a consideration of the response of an elastic/plastic shell. In regions of high topography on Mars (e.g., the Tharsis rise and associated shield volcanoes), the mass-sheet (small-amplitude) approximation for the calculation of gravity from topography is inadequate. A correction that accounts for finite-amplitude topography tends to increase the amplitude of the predicted gravity signal at spacecraft altitudes. Proper implementation of this correction requires the use of radii from the center of mass (collectively known as the planetary shape ) in lieu of topography referenced to a gravitational equipotential. Anomalously dense surface layers or buried excess masses are not required to explain the observed admittances for the Tharsis Montes or Olympus Mons volcanoes when this correction is applied. Derived T, values generally decrease with increasing age of the lithospheric load, in a manner consistent with a rapid decline of mantle heat flux during the Noachian and more modest rates of decline during subsequent epochs.

  20. A Multi-Function Force Sensing Instrument for Variable Admittance Robot Control in Retinal Microsurgery.

    PubMed

    He, Xingchi; Balicki, Marcin; Gehlbach, Peter; Handa, James; Taylor, Russell; Iordachita, Iulian

    2014-05-01

    Robotic systems have the potential to assist vitreoretinal surgeons in extremely difficult surgical tasks inside the human eye. In addition to reducing hand tremor and improving tool positioning, a robotic assistant can provide assistive motion guidance using virtual fixtures, and incorporate real-time feedback from intraocular force sensing ophthalmic instruments to present tissue manipulation forces, that are otherwise physically imperceptible to the surgeon. This paper presents the design of an FBG-based, multi-function instrument that is capable of measuring mN-level forces at the instrument tip located inside the eye, and also the sclera contact location on the instrument shaft and the corresponding contact force. The given information is used to augment cooperatively controlled robot behavior with variable admittance control. This effectively creates an adaptive remote center-of-motion (RCM) constraint to minimize eye motion, but also allows the translation of the RCM location if the instrument is not near the retina. In addition, it provides force scaling for sclera force feedback. The calibration and validation of the multi-function force sensing instrument are presented, along with demonstration and performance assessment of the variable admittance robot control on an eye phantom. PMID:25383234

  1. A Multi-Function Force Sensing Instrument for Variable Admittance Robot Control in Retinal Microsurgery*

    PubMed Central

    He, Xingchi; Balicki, Marcin; Gehlbach, Peter; Handa, James; Taylor, Russell; Iordachita, Iulian

    2014-01-01

    Robotic systems have the potential to assist vitreoretinal surgeons in extremely difficult surgical tasks inside the human eye. In addition to reducing hand tremor and improving tool positioning, a robotic assistant can provide assistive motion guidance using virtual fixtures, and incorporate real-time feedback from intraocular force sensing ophthalmic instruments to present tissue manipulation forces, that are otherwise physically imperceptible to the surgeon. This paper presents the design of an FBG-based, multi-function instrument that is capable of measuring mN-level forces at the instrument tip located inside the eye, and also the sclera contact location on the instrument shaft and the corresponding contact force. The given information is used to augment cooperatively controlled robot behavior with variable admittance control. This effectively creates an adaptive remote center-of-motion (RCM) constraint to minimize eye motion, but also allows the translation of the RCM location if the instrument is not near the retina. In addition, it provides force scaling for sclera force feedback. The calibration and validation of the multi-function force sensing instrument are presented, along with demonstration and performance assessment of the variable admittance robot control on an eye phantom. PMID:25383234

  2. Hole transport characteristics in phosphorescent dye-doped NPB films by admittance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ying; Chen, Jiangshan; Huang, Jinying; Dai, Yanfeng; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Liu, Su; Ma, Dongge

    2014-05-01

    Admittance spectroscopy is a powerful tool to determine the carrier mobility. The carrier mobility is a significant parameter to understand the behavior or to optimize the organic light-emitting diode or other organic semiconductor devices. Hole transport in phosphorescent dye, bis[2-(9,9-diethyl-9H-fluoren-2-yl)-1-phenyl-1Hbenzoimidazol-N,C3] iridium(acetylacetonate [(fbi)2Ir(acac)]) doped into N,N-diphenyl-N,N-bis(1-naphthylphenyl)-1,1-biphenyl-4,4-diamine (NPB) films was investigated by admittance spectroscopy. The results show that doped (fbi)2Ir(acac) molecules behave as hole traps in NPB, and lower the hole mobility. For thicker films(≳300 nm), the electric field dependence of hole mobility is as expected positive, i.e., the mobility increases exponentially with the electric field. However, for thinner films (≲300 nm), the electric field dependence of hole mobility is negative, i.e., the hole mobility decreases exponentially with the electric field. Physical mechanisms behind the negative field dependence of hole mobility are discussed. In addition, three frequency regions were divided to analyze the behaviors of the capacitance in the hole-only device and the physical mechanism was explained by trap theory and the parasitic capacitance effect.

  3. Experimental characterization of shear transformation zones for plastic flow of bulk metallic glasses

    PubMed Central

    Pan, D.; Inoue, A.; Sakurai, T.; Chen, M. W.

    2008-01-01

    We report experimental characterization of shear transformation zones (STZs) for plastic flow of bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) based on a newly developed cooperative shearing model [Johnson WL, Samwer K (2005) A universal criterion for plastic yielding of metallic glasses with a (T/Tg)2/3 temperature dependence. Phys Rev Lett 95: 195501]. The good agreement between experimental measurements and theoretical predictions in the STZ volumes provides compelling evidence that the plastic flow of metallic glasses occurs through cooperative shearing of unstable STZs activated by shear stresses. Moreover, the ductility of BMGs was found to intrinsically correlate with their STZ volumes. The experiments presented herein pave a way to gain a quantitative insight into the atomic-scale mechanisms of BMG mechanical behavior. PMID:18815377

  4. Glycosaminoglycan Characterization by Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry Including Fourier Transform Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Laremore, Tatiana N.; Leach, Franklin E.; Solakyildirim, Kemal; Amster, I. Jonathan; Linhardt, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI MS) is a versatile analytical technique in glycomics of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). Combined with enzymology, ESI MS is used for assessing changes in disaccharide composition of GAGs biosynthesized under different environmental or physiological conditions. ESI coupled with high-resolution mass analyzers such as a Fourier transform mass spectrometer (FTMS) permits accurate mass measurement of large oligosaccharides and intact GAGs as well as structural characterization of GAG oligosaccharides using information-rich fragmentation methods such as electron detachment dissociation. The first part of this chapter describes methods for disaccharide compositional profiling using ESI MS and the second part is dedicated to FTMS and tandem MS methods of GAG compositional and structural analysis. PMID:20816475

  5. Time frequency characterization of hand-transmitted, impulsive vibrations using analytic wavelet transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jay; Welcome, Daniel E.; Dong, Ren G.; Joon Song, Won; Hayden, Charles

    2007-11-01

    Current guidelines to assess health risk of hand-arm vibration are based on the frequency-weighted rms acceleration level, therefore do not fully consider the effect of temporal variations of the spectral energy. Time averaging effect involved with the frequency analysis may severely underestimate the risk of impact tools. A time-frequency ( T- F) analysis is necessary to characterize a highly transient signal whose spectral characteristics change rapidly in time. The analytic wavelet transform (AWT) is an ideal T- F analysis tool as it possesses the advantages of both the Fourier and wavelet transforms. The AWT is applied to acceleration signals measured from six tools, five impact type tools and one relatively steady-type tool, to explore possible improvements of the current risk assessment method of hand-arm vibration exposure. Based on the unique capability of the AWT, several new concepts including frequency-weighted time history, cumulative injury function, and cumulative injury index are defined in this study. Possible applications of these new concepts to hand-arm vibration research are described. Based on the results from this study, needs for future research are discussed.

  6. Transformation twinning of Ni–Mn–Ga characterized with temperature-controlled atomic force microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Reinhold, Matthew; Watson, Chad; Knowlton, William B.; Müllner, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The magnetomechanical properties of ferromagnetic shape memory alloy Ni–Mn–Ga single crystals depend strongly on the twin microstructure, which can be modified through thermomagnetomechanical training. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and magnetic force microscopy (MFM) were used to characterize the evolution of twin microstructures during thermomechanical training of a Ni–Mn–Ga single crystal. Experiments were performed in the martensite phase at 25 °C and in the austenite phase at 55 °C. Two distinct twinning surface reliefs were observed at room temperature. At elevated temperature (55 °C), the surface relief of one twinning mode disappeared while the other relief remained unchanged. When cooled back to 25 °C, the twin surface relief recovered. The relief persisting at elevated temperature specifies the positions of twin boundaries that were present when the sample was polished prior to surface characterization. AFM and MFM following thermomechanical treatment provide a nondestructive method to identify the crystallographic orientation of each twin and of each twin boundary plane. Temperature dependent AFM and MFM experiments reveal the twinning history thereby establishing the technique as a unique predictive tool for revealing the path of the martensitic and reverse transformations of magnetic shape memory alloys. PMID:20589105

  7. Sixteen-Year Change in Acoustic-Admittance Measures among Older Adults: Data from a Population-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nondahl, David M.; Cruickshanks, Karen J.; Wiley, Terry L.; Tweed, Ted S.; Dalton, Dayna S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The primary purpose of this study was to measure the 16-year change in peak compensated static acoustic admittance (Peak Y[subscript tm]) in a population-based cohort of older adults, and to determine whether age was associated with any observed change in Peak Y[subscript tm]. Other tympanometric measures also were taken and analyzed.…

  8. 76 FR 31306 - Admittance to Practice and Roster of Registered Patent Attorneys and Agents Admitted to Practice...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-31

    .../news/fedreg/fr_2011.jsp . This information is currently collected without a form as part of the... Patent and Trademark Office Admittance to Practice and Roster of Registered Patent Attorneys and Agents Admitted to Practice Before the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) (Proposed...

  9. Sixteen-Year Change in Acoustic-Admittance Measures among Older Adults: Data from a Population-Based Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nondahl, David M.; Cruickshanks, Karen J.; Wiley, Terry L.; Tweed, Ted S.; Dalton, Dayna S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The primary purpose of this study was to measure the 16-year change in peak compensated static acoustic admittance (Peak Y[subscript tm]) in a population-based cohort of older adults, and to determine whether age was associated with any observed change in Peak Y[subscript tm]. Other tympanometric measures also were taken and analyzed.

  10. Chinchilla middle-ear admittance and sound power: High-frequency estimates and effects of inner-ear modifications

    PubMed Central

    Ravicz, Michael E.; Rosowski, John J.

    2012-01-01

    The middle-ear input admittance relates sound power into the middle ear (ME) and sound pressure at the tympanic membrane (TM). ME input admittance was measured in the chinchilla ear canal as part of a larger study of sound power transmission through the ME into the inner ear. The middle ear was open, and the inner ear was intact or modified with small sensors inserted into the vestibule near the cochlear base. A simple model of the chinchilla ear canal, based on ear canal sound pressure measurements at two points along the canal and an assumption of plane-wave propagation, enables reliable estimates of YTM, the ME input admittance at the TM, from the admittance measured relatively far from the TM. YTM appears valid at frequencies as high as 17 kHz, a much higher frequency than previously reported. The real part of YTM decreases with frequency above 2 kHz. Effects of the inner-ear sensors (necessary for inner ear power computation) were small and generally limited to frequencies below 3 kHz. Computed power reflectance was ∼0.1 below 3.5 kHz, lower than with an intact ME below 2.5 kHz, and nearly 1 above 16 kHz. PMID:23039439

  11. Admittance Investigation of MIS Structures with HgTe-Based Single Quantum Wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izhnin, Ihor I.; Nesmelov, Sergey N.; Dzyadukh, Stanislav M.; Voitsekhovskii, Alexander V.; Gorn, Dmitry I.; Dvoretsky, Sergey A.; Mikhailov, Nikolaj N.

    2016-02-01

    This work presents results of the investigation of admittance of metal-insulator-semiconductor structure based on Hg1 - x Cd x Te grown by molecular beam epitaxy. The structure contains a single quantum well Hg0.35Cd0.65Te/HgTe/Hg0.35Cd0.65Te with thickness of 5.6 nm in the sub-surface layer of the semiconductor. Both the conductance-voltage and capacitance-voltage characteristics show strong oscillations when the metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) structure with a single quantum well based on HgTe is biased into the strong inversion mode. Also, oscillations on the voltage dependencies of differential resistance of the space charge region were observed. These oscillations were related to the recharging of quantum levels in HgTe.

  12. Admittance Investigation of MIS Structures with HgTe-Based Single Quantum Wells.

    PubMed

    Izhnin, Ihor I; Nesmelov, Sergey N; Dzyadukh, Stanislav M; Voitsekhovskii, Alexander V; Gorn, Dmitry I; Dvoretsky, Sergey A; Mikhailov, Nikolaj N

    2016-12-01

    This work presents results of the investigation of admittance of metal-insulator-semiconductor structure based on Hg1 - x Cd x Te grown by molecular beam epitaxy. The structure contains a single quantum well Hg0.35Cd0.65Te/HgTe/Hg0.35Cd0.65Te with thickness of 5.6 nm in the sub-surface layer of the semiconductor. Both the conductance-voltage and capacitance-voltage characteristics show strong oscillations when the metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) structure with a single quantum well based on HgTe is biased into the strong inversion mode. Also, oscillations on the voltage dependencies of differential resistance of the space charge region were observed. These oscillations were related to the recharging of quantum levels in HgTe. PMID:26831691

  13. Lunar Internal Structure Estimated From Local Admittance Between Gravity and Topography (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namiki, N.

    2010-12-01

    A new spherical harmonic model of the lunar gravity field, complete to degree and order 100 (SGM100g), has been developed from four-way Doppler measurements of Kaguya. On nearside, a comparison of SGM100g with a previous lunar gravity models reveals a general agreement. The five principal gravity highs on Imbrium, Serenitatis, Crisium, Nectaris, and Humorum are clearly visible, as in the previous models. On farside, in contrast, the new gravity field model shows several circular signatures that correspond to topographic structures such as Moscoviense, Freundlich-Sharonov, Mendeleev, Hertzsprung, Korolev and Apollo basins that used to be identified as linear signatures in previous models. For the study of lunar basins of which diameter are comparable to lunar radius, localization by two-dimensional Fourier analysis is not appropriate. Instead, we use spectral filter of wavelet analysis. This method has an advantage to Fourier analysis that the gravity and topography models can be calculated without a loss of spectral information. This advantage is particularly important for distinguishing several compensation mechanisms of the lunar basins. New analysis reveals a difference of internal structures of basins on nearside and farside. We have classified lunar basins into Type I, Type II, and primary mascon basins. Type I basins include Korolev, Dirichlet-Jackson, and Mendeleev basins on the farside. Localized free-air gravity anomalies of Type I basins show two peaks which are representing topographic depression of the basins. Second peak has more power than expected from topography, indicating additional contribution from mass anomalies beneath basins. An agreement of second peak wavelength of topography and gravity implies genetic relationship of the central gravity high with impact process. Admittance of Type I basins show two constant plateaus. They suggests little compensation of topography. A plateau at shorter wavelength is higher than that at longer wavelength, as expected from localized topography and gravity. On the other hand,primary mascon basins on the nearside reveal the power spectrum of local gravity and topography similar to those of Type I basins. However, admittance is very different. Negative admittance and the cross sections show that the first peak of the local gravity is indeed representing broad central gravity high of primary mascon basin. Type II basins include Freundlich-Sharonov, Hertzsprung, and Orientale basins on the farside and limb. Localized free-air gravity anomalies of Type II basins show tow peaks, similar to Type I basins, while a central degree of the second peak is lower than that of the local topography, corresponding to broad central gravity high of Type II basins. In contrast to Type I basins, admittance of Type II basins show a wide variation, likely suggesting that Type II basins are transitional between farside Type I basins and primary mascon basins on the nearside. An internal structures of primary mascon basins could be inferred as an extrapolation of Type I and II basins.

  14. Low-frequency sheath admittance of a sphere in a collisionless plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godard, R.; Laframboise, J. G.

    1986-06-01

    The low-frequency sheath admittance of a spherical electrode immersed in a collisionless nonflowing Maxwellian plasma with zero magnetic field is determined for nondimensional electrode dc bias potentials between -25 and 25, and the case of small signal amplitude is primarily considered. For an ion to electron temperature ratio of 1, the curves of capacitance versus dc bias voltage are symmetric about space potential, and for values between 0 and 1, the capacitance has a discontinuous value at space potential. These curves have a triple-peak structure for electrode radius to Debye length ratios (which were varied between 0 and 200) near 50, and a double-peak structure for larger values. Various plasma-diagnostics applications are discussed, and it is suggested that comparison of experimental and theoretical capacitance curves may provide a method for measuring probe surface contamination.

  15. Localized Gravity/Topography Correlation and Admittance Spectra one the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishihara, Y.; Namiki, N.; Sugita, S.; Matsumoto, K.; Goossens, S.; Araki, H.; Noda, H.; Sasaki, S.; Iwata, T.; Hanada, H.

    2009-04-01

    Lunar surface and structure can be separate into two parts. The lunar near side crust and far side crust differ remarkably in thickness. This difference probably caused by difference of thermal evolution and state (elastic thickness) and catering history on both side. The correlations and admittance between the topography and gravity anomalies provide important information on the level of isostatic compensation of the lithosphere at the geological timescale, and reflect its thermo-mechanical state. Therefore, localized correlation and admittance analysis is one of the most important studies of selenodesy. A global correlation between topography and gravity of the Moon obtained by Clementine and Lunar Prospector missions, respectively, reveals high value at long wavelength and low value at short wavelength. Such characteristics are distinguished from those of the Earth and other terrestrial planets, whose global correlation between topography and gravity is low at long wavelength. The distinct correlation between topography and gravity of the Moon may indicate that the lunar topography is supported by multiple compensation mechanism. Further, an incomplete coverage of Doppler tracking data prior to Kaguya (SELENE) gravity experiment probably contributed to the correlation. Because the Moon is synchronously rotating with its revolution around the Earth, a spacecraft orbiting over the far side is not visible from ground stations. In either case, it is significant to decompose local correlation from global ones in order to investigate internal structure of the Moon from spherical harmonic model of gravity (LP75G [1]) and topography (GLTM-2 [2]). Japanese lunar exploration Kaguya (SELENE) has two kinds of selenodesical experiments. One is RSAT/VRAD (gravity mapping with direct tracking over far-side) experiment and another is Laser ALTimeter (LALT; topography mapping) experiment. These two experiments enable us to conduct localized analysis for the Moon. Therefore we attempt localized spectral analysis of the Moon first and then apply possible compensation mechanisms to explain the observed admittance. Kaguya mission has been yielding representation of lunar gravity and topography (shape) substantially superior in resolution and accuracy to earlier solutions. For global lunar gravity field, an accurate spherical harmonic model of gravitational potential up to degree and order 100 (SGM100g) was derived from one year tracking (including 4-way Doppler) data [3]. For topography, LALT has obtained more than 6 million altitude measurements with 5 m precision, from which a spherical harmonic expansion of topography to degree and order 359 (STM359_grid-02) has been determined [4]. In this study, we use those new models. We employ the spatio-spectral localization technique [5] to obtain gravity/shape correlation and admittance spectra as function of position on the Moon. In this analysis, we localize harmonic field with axisymmetric windows of constant diameter, described by Lwin zonal harmonic coefficients. This restricts the permissible range of l in the windowed fields at both the low- (l > Lwin) and high-wave number ends (l < Lobs-Lwin, ; Lobs is the maximum degree of observation) . We chose four fixed windows with Lwin = 5, 10, 17, 26 (equivalent to spatial scales 2200, 1100, 640 and 420 km, respectively). These window sizes correspond to huge-, large-, middle-, and small-size of impact basins. For up to degree 50 with Lwin = 5 scale, it is clearly shown that the near-side contains distinct anti-correlation regions whereas the far-side is mostly occupied by high correlation regions. This difference is mainly due to large mascon basins in near-side, such as mare Imbrium. For Lwin = 10 and 17 scales, we can see anti-correlation regions at not only near-side but also far-side. Locations of anti-correlation regions in the far-side correspond to impact basins (Type II basin [6]). However, lots of far side basins (Type I basin [6]) are not indicated by anti-correlations for these window sizes. For Lwin = 26 scale, we can see weak and spatially small anti-correlation at center of Type I basins. This difference mainly due to spatial size of anti-correlation. In contrast, almost all near-side basins show anti-correlations for all window sizes. This difference is probably due to the difference of elastic thickness between near-side and far-side during the age of impact basin formation. It provides important information on the origin of lunar dichotomy and lunar thermal history. The admittance spectra of the South Pole-Aitken basin (SPA) and far-side highland terrain (FHT) show no significant difference. This means that elastic thickness of two regions are not so different. On the other hand, crustal thickness of two regions are drastically different. It suggests that elatic part of upper mantle of SPA region is probably thicker than FHT. Acknowledgements: SHTOOLS2.4 [7] was used for calculating localized correlation and admittance spectra. References: [1] A. S. Konopliv et al. (1998) Science, 281, 1476-1480. [2] D. E. Smith et al. (1997) JGR, 102, 1591-1611. [3] K. Matsumoto et al. this meeting. [4] H. Araki et al. Submitted to Science. [5] M. Simons et al., (1997) Geophys. J. Int., 131, 24-44. [6] N. Namiki et al. Science in press. [7] M. Wieczorek, (2007) http://www.ipgp.jussieu.fr/~wieczor/SHTOOLS/SHTOOLS.html.

  16. Chemical characterization of the dentin/adhesive interface by Fourier transform infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Spencer, P; Byerley, T J; Eick, J D; Witt, J D

    1992-01-01

    Irreversible bonding of composite materials to tooth structure depends on chemical as well as mechanical adhesion. The proposed bonding mechanism for several commercial dental adhesives is chemical adhesion to the dentin surface. The purpose of this in vitro investigation was to characterize the chemical nature of the surface interaction between dentin and two commercial adhesives by use of Fourier transform infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy (FTIR/PAS). The occlusal thirds of the crowns of freshly extracted, non-carious, unerupted human molars were sectioned perpendicular to the long axis. Dentin disks, 6 mm x 2 mm, were prepared from these sectioned teeth. The exposed dentin surface was treated with either Scotchbond 2, a BIS-GMA resin, or Dentin-Adhesit, a polyurethane resin. All spectra were recorded from 4000 to 400 cm-1 by use of an Analect RFX-65 FTIR spectrometer equipped with an MTEC Photoacoustics Model 200 photoacoustic cell. An initial spectrum of the dentin surface was collected. This surface was primed according to manufacturer's instructions and spectra recorded of the primed surface plus one to three layers of adhesive. By comparison of these spectra, it was possible for us to record changes in the phosphate and amide I and II bands due to surface interactions between the adhesive and the dentin. Although early results do not indicate covalent bonding between the dentin and these adhesives, this technique presents several advantages for spectroscopic evaluation of the dentin/adhesive interface. PMID:1521677

  17. Quantitative characterization of the surface topography of rolled sheets by laser scanning microscopy and fourier transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gjønnes, Liv

    1996-08-01

    The surface of twin-roll cast aluminum sheets undergoes dramatic changes during cold rolling. This is mainly due to variables in the roll gap, topography of the rolls, lubrication, material properties, and in particular the initial structure and topography of the cast sheet. Therefore, it is important to have means to quantitatively describe the changes in the surface structure of each pass and from pass to pass in order to optimize the desired final surface structure. To achieve this, the laser scanning microscope (LSM) with its confocal technique has been employed to image the three-dimensional (3-D) topography and to digitize the image for further computer analysis. The digitization of the image is primarily motivated by the need to introduce a Fourier transformation of the surface topography. The method is effective in describing qualitative periodic trends in the surface features. Information is gained on the shape and periodicities as well as roughness directionality. For instance, grooves and cross hatches and their remnants can be followed from one pass to the other. Important characteristics of the surface topography such as rolling ridges and shingles can also easily be characterized.

  18. Characterization of primary human keratinocytes transformed by human papillomavirus type 18

    SciTech Connect

    Kaur, P.; McDougall, J.K. )

    1988-06-01

    Primary human epithelial cells were cotransfected with pHPV-18 and pSV2neo, and cell strains were generated by selecting in G418. Southern blot analysis revealed the presence of at least one intact, integrated viral genome in these cells. FE-A cells showed altered growth properties, characterized by a change in morphology, and clonal density. Differentiation markers analyzed by Western blotting (immunoblotting), such as cytokeratins and involucrin, indicated that the cells resembled a partially differentiated epithelial population. Increased expression of the 40-kilodalton cytokeratin was observed in FE-A cells, similar to that observed in simian virus 40-immortalized human keratinocytes. Calcium and 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate treatment induced normal epithelial cells to differentiate, whereas the human papillomavirus 18 (HPV-18)-containing keratinocytes were resistant to these signals, indicating their partially transformed nature. These cells were not able to induce tumors in nude mice over a period of up to 8 months. A second cell strain, FE-H18L, also generated by transfecting HPV-18, also exhibited an extended life span and similar alterations in morphology. Viral RNA transcribed from the early region of HPV-18 was detected in both cell strains by Northern (RNA) blot analysis. These cell strains should provide a useful model for determining the role of HPV in carcinogenesis.

  19. Characterization of underground storage tank sludge using fourier transform infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, S.; Bajic, S.J.; Jones, R.W.

    1994-12-31

    Analysis of underground storage tank (UST) contents is critical for the determination of proper disposal protocols and storage procedures of nuclear waste materials. Tank volume reduction processes during the 1940`s and 50`s have produced a waste form that compositionally varies widely and has a consistency that ranges from paste like sludge to saltcake. The heterogeneity and chemical reactivity of the waste form makes analysis difficult by most conventional methods which require extensive sample preparation. In this paper, a method is presented to characterize nuclear waste from UST`s at the Westinghouse Hanford Site in Washington State, using Fourier transform infrared-photoacoustic spectroscopy (FTIR-PAS). FTIR-PAS measurements on milligram amounts of surrogate sludge samples have been used to accurately identify phosphate, sulfate, nitrite, nitrate and ferrocyanide components. A simple sample preparation method was followed to provide a reproducible homogeneous sample for quantitative analysis. The sample preparation method involved freeze drying the sludge sample prior to analysis to prevent the migration of soluble species. Conventional drying (e.g., air or, oven) leads to the formation of crystals near the surface where evaporation occurs. Sample preparation as well as the analytical utility of this method will be discussed.

  20. Characterization of Transformation Stasis in Low-Carbon Steels Microalloyed with B and Mo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furuhara, Tadashi; Tsuzumi, Kenji; Miyamoto, Goro; Amino, Takafumi; Shigesato, Genichi

    2014-12-01

    In the present study, bainite transformation kinetics was examined in low C-Mn steels with the addition of small amounts of B and Mo. This addition delays the onset of the bainite transformation. Mo addition causes transformation stasis at temperatures between 873 K and 823 K (600 C and 550 C) just below the bainite-start ( B s) temperature, resulting from an incomplete bainite transformation. Post-stasis transformation after a prolonged hold proceeds by the formation of ferrite with a low dislocation density, and in Mo-containing alloys, often the formation of carbides. The volume fraction at which the transformation stops is higher for lower carbon contents and lower transformation temperatures. By contrast, at 773 K (500 C), the bainite transformation accompanying cementite precipitation occurs regardless of microalloying and is completed after shorter hold times. EDX measurement performed on the Mo-added 0.15 pct C alloy with aberration-corrected STEM revealed that segregation at the bainite/austenite interphase boundary is small for Mn and negligible for Mo in the early stages of stasis, which does not support the incomplete transformation mechanism based on the solute drag theory for the alloys used.

  1. Characterization of Transformation Stasis in Low-Carbon Steels Microalloyed with B and Mo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furuhara, Tadashi; Tsuzumi, Kenji; Miyamoto, Goro; Amino, Takafumi; Shigesato, Genichi

    2014-09-01

    In the present study, bainite transformation kinetics was examined in low C-Mn steels with the addition of small amounts of B and Mo. This addition delays the onset of the bainite transformation. Mo addition causes transformation stasis at temperatures between 873 K and 823 K (600 C and 550 C) just below the bainite-start (B s) temperature, resulting from an incomplete bainite transformation. Post-stasis transformation after a prolonged hold proceeds by the formation of ferrite with a low dislocation density, and in Mo-containing alloys, often the formation of carbides. The volume fraction at which the transformation stops is higher for lower carbon contents and lower transformation temperatures. By contrast, at 773 K (500 C), the bainite transformation accompanying cementite precipitation occurs regardless of microalloying and is completed after shorter hold times. EDX measurement performed on the Mo-added 0.15 pct C alloy with aberration-corrected STEM revealed that segregation at the bainite/austenite interphase boundary is small for Mn and negligible for Mo in the early stages of stasis, which does not support the incomplete transformation mechanism based on the solute drag theory for the alloys used.

  2. Characterization of oligodeoxynucleotides by electron detachment dissociation fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jiong; Mo, Jingjie; Adamson, Julie T; Håkansson, Kristina

    2005-03-15

    Electron detachment dissociation (EDD), recently introduced by Zubarev and co-workers for the dissociation of multiply charged biomolecular anions via a radical ion intermediate, has been shown to be analogous to electron capture dissociation (ECD) in several respects, including more random peptide fragmentation and retention of labile posttranslational modifications. We have previously demonstrated unique fragmentation behavior in ECD compared to vibrational excitation for oligodeoxynucleotide cations. However, that approach is limited by the poor sensitivity for oligonucleotide ionization in positive ion mode. Here, we show implementation of EDD on a commercial Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer utilizing two different configurations: a heated filament electron source and an indirectly heated hollow dispenser cathode electron source. The dispenser cathode configuration provides higher EDD efficiency and additional fragmentation channels for hexamer oligodeoxynucleotides. As in ECD, even-electron d/w ion series dominate the spectra, but we also detect numerous a/z (both even-electron and radical species), (a/z - B), c/x, (c/x - B), and (d/w - B) ions with minimal nucleobase loss from the precursor ions. In contrast to previous high-energy collision-activated dissociation (CAD) and ion trap CAD of radical oligonucleotide anions, we only observe minimum sugar cross-ring cleavage, possibly due to the short time scale of EDD, which limits secondary fragmentation. Thus, EDD provides fragmentation similar to ECD for oligodeoxynucleotides but at enhanced sensitivity. Finally, we show that noncovalent bonding in a DNA duplex can be preserved following EDD, illustrating another analogy with ECD. We believe the latter finding implies EDD has promise for characterization of nucleic acid structure and folding. PMID:15762599

  3. High density trans-admittance mammography development and preliminary phantom tests

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Malignant breast tumor tissue has a significantly different electrical impedance spectrum than surrounding normal tissues. This has led to the development of impedance imaging as a supplementary or alternative method to X-ray mammography for screening and assessment of breast cancers. However low spatial resolution and poor signal to noise ratio has limited the clinical application. Methods In order to improve spatial resolution we developed a trans-admittance mammography (TAM) system including an array of 60×60 current sensing electrodes. We adopted a similar setup to X-ray mammography where the breast is situated between two holding plates. The top plate is a large solid metal electrode for applying a sinusoidal voltage over a range of frequencies from 50 Hz to 500 kHz. The bottom plate has 3600 current sensing electrodes that are kept at the ground potential. Currents are generated from the top voltage-applying electrode and spread throughout the breast, entering the TAM system through the array of current sensing electrodes on the bottom plate. The TAM system measures the exit currents through 6 switching modules connected to 600 electrodes each. Each switching module is connected to 12 ammeter channels which are switched sequentially to 50 of the 600 electrodes each measurement time. Each ammeter channel is comprised of a current-to-voltage converter, a gain amplifier, filters, an analog to digital converter, and a digital phase sensitive demodulator. Results We found an average noise level of 38 nA, amplitude stability of less than 0.2%, crosstalk of better than -60 dB and 70 dB signal to noise ratio over all channels and operating frequencies. Images were obtained in time difference and frequency difference modes in a saline phantom. Conclusion We describe the design, construction, and calibration of a high density TAM system in detail. Successful high resolution time and frequency difference images showed regions of interest with the expected admittivity changes in the frequency spectrum. PMID:23009288

  4. ZnO thin film characterization by X-ray reflectivity optimization using genetic algorithm and Fourier transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solookinejad, Ghahraman; Rozatian, Amir Sayid Hassan; Habibi, Mohammad Hossein

    2011-10-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO) thin film was fabricated by sol-gel spin coating method on glass substrate. X-ray reflectivity (XRR) and its optimization have been used for characterization and extracting physical parameters of the film. Genetic algorithm (GA) has been applied for this optimization process. The model independent information was needed to establish data analyzing process for X-ray reflectivity before optimization process. Independent information was exploited from Fourier transform of Fresnel reflectivity normalized X-ray reflectivity. This Fourier transformation (Auto Correlation Function) yields thickness of each coated layer on substrate. This information is a keynote for constructing optimization process. Specular X-ray reflectivity optimization yields structural parameters such as thickness, roughness of surface and interface and electron density profile of the film. Acceptable agreement exists between results obtained from Fourier transformation and X-ray reflectivity fitting.

  5. Morpho-anatomical characterization of mature embryo-derived callus of rice (Oryza sativa L.) suitable for transformation.

    PubMed

    Bevitori, R; Popielarska-Konieczna, M; dos Santos, E M; Grossi-de-Sá, M F; Petrofeza, S

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this study was to morpho-anatomically characterize embryogenic rice calli during early induction of somatic embryogenesis of three Brazilian rice cultivars. Herein, we explored embryogenic units (EUs) from 2-week-old cut proliferated calli to verify whether they were suitable for Agrobacterium tumefasciens-mediated transformation. Histological analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to analyze these types of calli during early rice callogenesis in the cultivars BRS Primavera, BRS Bonança, and BRS Caiapó. The characteristics of the embryogenic cells were preserved in the EUs, which showed a globular, compact structure that contained tightly packed cells and thus rendered the cells suitable for transformation. The EUs of BRS Caiapó also maintained the characteristics of the non-embryogenic callus, such as an elongated morphology and a lack of cellular organization. In general, the observations of the histological sections corresponded with those of the SEM images. The histological analysis suggested that all cultivars used in these experiments have morphogenic potential. The EUs from proliferated 2-week-old cut calli maintained their embryogenic features. The EUs were subjected to Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, which exhibited a regeneration frequency of 58 % for transformed hygromycin-resistant cell lines. These results show that EUs from proliferated 2-week-old cut calli are suitable for plant transformation. PMID:24085343

  6. In-Situ Raman Indentation of ??-Eucryptite: Characterization of the Pressure Induced Phase Transformation

    SciTech Connect

    Lance, Michael J

    2009-01-01

    A pressure-induced phase transformation in the lithium aluminum silicate -eucryptite was studied with in-situ Raman spectroscopy. Dense -eucryptite composites were made via powder synthesis followed by sintering. The specimens were then subjected to diamond indentation up to applied contact stresses of about 8 GPa, while collecting Raman spectra. The appearance of a Raman peak (~520 cm-1) at a contact stress of about 3 GPa likely corresponds to the reversible phase transformation of -eucryptite to the orthorhombic phase -eucryptite. Loading and unloading in-situ Raman indentation experiments are discussed with regards to this transformation.

  7. Isolation and characterization of three fungi with the potential of transforming glycyrrhizin.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chao; Guo, Xiao-Xiao; Wang, Xiao-Yan; Qi, Feng; Feng, Shi-Jiang; Li, Chun; Zhou, Xiao-Hong

    2013-05-01

    Three fungi with different types of transformation of glycyrrhizin (GL) were isolated from the soil samples of glycyrrhiza glabra planting area in China. According to their morphologies and 18 S rDNA gene sequence analysis, the three fungi were identified and named as Penicillium purpurogenum Li-3, Aspergillus terreus Li-20 and Aspergillus ustus Li-62. Transforming products analysis by TLC and HPLC-MS indicated that P. purpurogenum Li-3, A. terreus Li-20 and A. ustus Li-62 could stably transform GL into GAMG, GAMG and GA, and GA, respectively. P. purpurogenum Li-3 was especially valuable to directly prepare GAMG for applications in the pharmaceutical industry. PMID:23247917

  8. Admittance spectroscopy of solar cells based on GaPNAs layers

    SciTech Connect

    Baranov, A. I. Gudovskikh, A. S.; Zelentsov, K. S.; Nikitina, E. V.; Egorov, A. Yu.

    2015-04-15

    Admittance spectroscopy is used to study defect levels in the layers of a GaPNAs quaternary solid solution. Centers with an activation energy of 0.22 eV and a capture cross section of ∼2.4 × 10{sup −15} cm{sup 2} are found in doped n-GaPNAs layers grown on GaP substrates. These centers correspond to already known Si{sub Ga} + V{sub P} defects in n-GaP; annealing decreases their concentration by several times. A level with an activation energy of 0.23–0.24 eV and capture cross section of ∼9.0 × 10{sup −20} cm{sup 2} is found in undoped GaPNAs layers grown on Si and GaP substrates. The concentration of these centers substantially decreases upon annealing, and, at annealing temperatures exceeding 600°C, there is absolutely no response from these defects. For undoped GaPNAs layers grown on GaP substrates, a level with an activation energy of 0.18 eV and capture cross section of ∼1.1 × 10{sup −16} cm{sup 2} is also found. The concentration of these centers remains unchanged upon annealing.

  9. Universal Impedance, Admittance and Scattering Fluctuations in Quantum-chaotic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemmady, Sameer

    2006-03-01

    We experimentally investigate fluctuations in the eigenvalues of the impedance, admittance and scattering matrices of wave chaotic systems using a microwave analog of a quantum chaotic infinite square well potential. We consider a 2-D, time-reversal symmetric chaotic microwave resonator driven by two non-ideally coupled ports. The system-specific coupling effects are removed using the measured radiation impedance matrix (3pt<->Z Rad) [1] of the two ports. A normalized impedance matrix (3pt<->z ) is thus obtained, and the Probability Density Function (PDF) of its eigenvalues is predicted to be universal depending only on the cavity loss. We observe remarkable agreement between the statistical properties of 3pt<->z and 3pt<->y =3pt<->z -1 for all degrees of loss, which is in accordance with [1, 2] and Random Matrix Theory (RMT). We compare the joint PDF of the eigenphases of the normalized scattering matrix (3pt<->s ) with that obtained from RMT for varying degrees of loss. We study the joint PDF of the eigenvalues of 3pt<->s 3pt<->s ^ and find good agreement with [3]. [1] X. Zheng, et al., -- Electromagnetics (in press); condmat/0408317; S. Hemmady, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 014102 (2005).[2] Y. V. Fyodorov, et al.,-- condmat/0507016.[3] P. W. Brouwer and C. W. J Beenakker -- PRB 55, 4695 (1997). Work supported by DOD MURI AFOSR Grant F496200110374, DURIP Grants FA95500410295 and FA95500510240.

  10. Universal Impedance, Admittance and Scattering Fluctuations in Quantum-chaotic Systems.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemmady, Sameer; Zheng, Xing; Antonsen, Thomas; Ott, Edward; Anlage, Steven M.

    2006-03-01

    We experimentally investigate fluctuations in the eigenvalues of the impedance, admittance and scattering matrices of wave chaotic systems using a microwave analog of a quantum chaotic infinite square well potential. We consider a 2-D, time-reversal symmetric chaotic microwave resonator driven by two non-ideally coupled ports. The system-specific coupling effects are removed using the measured radiation impedance matrix (3pt<->Z Rad) [1] of the two ports. A normalized impedance matrix (3pt<->z ) is thus obtained, and the Probability Density Function (PDF) of its eigenvalues is predicted to be universal depending only on the cavity loss. We observe remarkable agreement between the statistical properties of 3pt<->z and 3pt<->y =3pt<->z -1 for all degrees of loss, which is in accordance with [1, 2] and Random Matrix Theory (RMT). We compare the joint PDF of the eigenphases of the normalized scattering matrix (3pt<->s ) with that obtained from RMT for varying degrees of loss. We study the joint PDF of the eigenvalues of 3pt<->s 3pt<->s ^ and find good agreement with [3]. [1] X. Zheng, et al., -- Electromagnetics (in press); condmat/0408317; S. Hemmady, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 014102 (2005).[2] Y. V. Fyodorov, et al.,-- condmat/0507016.[3] P. W. Brouwer and C. W. J Beenakker -- PRB 55, 4695 (1997). Work supported by DOD MURI AFOSR Grant F496200110374, DURIP Grants FA95500410295 and FA95500510240.

  11. An Admittance Survey of Large Volcanoes on Venus: Implications for Volcano Growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brian, A. W.; Smrekar, S. E.; Stofan, E. R.

    2004-01-01

    Estimates of the thickness of the venusian crust and elastic lithosphere are important in determining the rheological and thermal properties of Venus. These estimates offer insights into what conditions are needed for certain features, such as large volcanoes and coronae, to form. Lithospheric properties for much of the large volcano population on Venus are not well known. Previous studies of elastic thickness (Te) have concentrated on individual or small groups of edifices, or have used volcano models and fixed values of Te to match with observations of volcano morphologies. In addition, previous studies use different methods to estimate lithospheric parameters meaning it is difficult to compare their results. Following recent global studies of the admittance signatures exhibited by the venusian corona population, we performed a similar survey into large volcanoes in an effort to determine the range of lithospheric parameters shown by these features. This survey of the entire large volcano population used the same method throughout so that all estimates could be directly compared. By analysing a large number of edifices and comparing our results to observations of their morphology and models of volcano formation, we can help determine the controlling parameters that govern volcano growth on Venus.

  12. Tandem Stance Avoidance Using Adaptive and Asymmetric Admittance Control for Fall Prevention.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Shotaro; Hasegawa, Yasuhisa; Fukuda, Toshio; Kondo, Izumi; Tanimoto, Masanori; Di, Pei; Huang, Jian; Huang, Qiang

    2016-05-01

    Fall prevention is one of the most important functions of walking assistance devices for user's safety. It is preferable that these devices prevent the user from being in the state where the risk of falling is high rather than helping them recovering from falling motion. During turning, when the user is in the tandem stance, a state where both legs form a line along walking direction, a support base that is surrounded by two legs becomes small, and a stability margin becomes small. This paper therefore aims to prevent the tandem stance by using nonwearable robot "intelligent cane" for the elderly or physically challenged person. Generally, the behavior of the lower limb follows the upper body turning. This paper therefore introduces a cane robot control method which constrains the behavior of user's upper body. By adjusting an admittance parameter of the robot according to the positions of a support leg, the robot resists to turn while a support leg is on the same side of the turning direction. A swing leg on the turning direction side therefore freely moves to the turning direction, while a swing leg on the opposite direction side of turning hardly move to the turning direction. PMID:25955991

  13. Determining the defect density of states by temperature derivative admittance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jian V.; Levi, Dean H.

    2011-04-01

    We demonstrate that the temperature derivative admittance spectroscopy method can be used to directly determine the defect density of states. The density of defect states is proportional to the temperature derivative of the capacitance. This method is equivalent to the existing frequency derivative method in principle but possesses certain key advantages for detection of deep levels. To illustrate these advantages, we define the activation energy of a fictitious defect the Arrhenius plot of which extends diagonally across the measurable temperature-frequency range. Below this level (that is, shallower defects), the frequency derivative method is advantageous, and above this level (that is, deeper defects), the temperature derivative method is advantageous. The temperature derivative method allows a wider observation window of defect energy that avoids possible detection failure and facilitates simultaneous observation of multiple defects. For deep defects, it also yields more Arrhenius plot data points and therefore enables more accurate extraction of defect energy and capture cross-sections. In general, the temperature derivative method can avoid system noise at low frequency and is relatively immune to baseline effects due to parasitic circuit effects.

  14. Inconsistent Definitions of the Pressure-Coupled Response and the Admittance of Solid Propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cardiff, Eric H.

    2003-01-01

    When an acoustic wave is present in a solid propellant combustion environment, the mass flux from the combustion zone oscillates at the same frequency as the acoustics. The acoustic wave is either amplified or attenuated by the response of the combustion to the acoustic disturbance. When the acoustic wave is amplified, this process is called combustion instability. The amplification is quantitatively measured by a response function. The ability to predict combustion stability for a solid propellant formulation is essential to the formulator to prevent or minimize the effects of instabilities, such as an oscillatory thrust. Unfortunately, the prediction of response values for a particular propellant remains a technical challenge. Most predictions of the response of propellants are based on test data, but there are a number of questions about the reliability of the standard test method, the T-burner. Alternate methods have been developed to measure the response of a propellant, including the ultrasound burner, the magnetic flowmeter and the rotating valve burner, but there are still inconsistencies between the results obtained by these different methods. Aside from the experimental differences, the values of the pressure-coupled responses obtained by different researchers are often compared erroneously, for the simple reason that inconsistencies in the definitions of the responses and admittances are not considered. The use of different definitions has led to substantial confusion since the first theoretical treatments of the problem by Hart and McClure in 1959. The definitions and relations derived here seek to alleviate this problem.

  15. A high-frequency method for determining winding faults in transformers and electrical machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florkowski, Marek; Furgał, Jakub

    2005-11-01

    Improvement of diagnostic methods of both power transformers and electrical machines is crucial considering the function they play in electrical networks and industry as well as the cost of those devices. High-frequency measurements are used more and more frequently as a diagnostic tool for the investigation of transformer and machine windings. They are also used for identifying winding faults. As a base are measurement results of frequency dependencies of the winding admittance or the transfer function. Therefore, relations between different kinds of winding faults and changes of frequency dependencies of winding admittances or transfer functions should be determined. Much research work is done in that field, which aims to determine the sensitivity of this method and to develop the recognition criteria with regard to the type and range of faults. This article presents the comparison of measurement results of the admittance performed on the medium-voltage transformer winding. The quantitative results of detecting deformations and dislocations of windings by means of frequency response analysis are described. Of particular importance is the early detection of winding failures in electrical machines, both during the manufacturing process and in operation. The results of investigations of winding faults in electrical machines of different construction are presented. The influence of turn-to-turn faults between adjacent winding wires on the admittance wave form has been also investigated.

  16. Characterizing the microstructures of biological tissues using Mueller matrix and transformed polarization parameters

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Minghao; He, Honghui; Zeng, Nan; Du, E; Guo, Yihong; Liu, Shaoxiong; Wu, Jian; He, Yonghong; Ma, Hui

    2014-01-01

    Mueller matrices can be used as a powerful tool to probe qualitatively the microstructures of biological tissues. Certain transformation processes can provide new sets of parameters which are functions of the Mueller matrix elements but represent more explicitly the characteristic features of the sample. In this paper, we take the backscattering Mueller matrices of a group of tissues with distinctive structural properties. Using both experiments and Monte Carlo simulations, we demonstrate qualitatively the characteristic features of Mueller matrices corresponding to different structural and optical properties. We also calculate two sets of transformed polarization parameters using the Mueller matrix transformation (MMT) and Mueller matrix polar decomposition (MMPD) techniques. We demonstrate that the new parameters can separate the effects due to sample orientation and present quantitatively certain characteristic features of these tissues. Finally, we apply the transformed polarization parameters to the unstained human cervix cancerous tissues. Preliminary results show that the transformed polarization parameters can provide characteristic information to distinguish the cancerous and healthy tissues. PMID:25574434

  17. Topographic characterization of unworn contact lenses assessed by atomic force microscopy and wavelet transform.

    PubMed

    Ţălu, Ştefan; StȨpień, Krzysztof; Caglayan, Mustafa Oguzhan

    2015-11-01

    This paper analyses the three-dimensional (3-D) surface morphology of optic surface of unworn contact lenses (CLs) using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and wavelet transform. Refractive powers of all lens samples were 2.50 diopters. Topographic images were acquired in contact mode in air-conditioned medium (35% RH, 23°C). Topographic measurements were taken over a 5 µm × 5 µm area with 512 pixel resolution. Resonance frequency of the tip was 65 kHz. The 3-D surface morphology of CL unworn samples revealed (3-D) micro-textured surfaces that can be analyzed using (AFM) and wavelet transform. AFM and wavelet transform are accurate and sensitive tools that may assist CL manufacturers in developing CLs with optimal surface characteristics. PMID:26389706

  18. A Complex Permittivity Based Sensor for the Electrical Characterization of High-Voltage Transformer Oils

    PubMed Central

    Dervos, Constantine T.; Paraskevas, Christos D.; Skafidas, Panayotis D.; Vassiliou, Panayota

    2005-01-01

    This work investigates the use of a specially designed cylindrical metal cell, in order to obtain complex permittivity and tan? data of highly insulating High Voltage (HV) transformer oil samples. The data are obtained at a wide range of frequencies and operation temperatures to demonstrate the polarization phenomena and the thermally stimulated effects. Such complex permittivity measurements may be utilized as a criterion for the service life prediction of oil field electrical equipment (OFEE). Therefore, by one set of measurements on a small oil volume, data may be provided on the impending termination, or continuation of the transformer oil service life. The oil incorporating cell, attached to the appropriate measuring units, could be described as a complex permittivity sensor. In this work, the acquired dielectric data from a great number of operating distribution network power transformers were correlated to corresponding physicochemical ones to demonstrate the future potential employment of the proposed measuring technique.

  19. Electromagnetic characterization of current transformer with toroidal core under sinusoidal conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koprivica, Branko; Milovanovic, Alenka

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this paper is to present a new procedure for the electromagnetic analysis of a measuring current transformer under sinusoidal conditions in its electrical and magnetic circuit. The influence of the magnetic hysteresis has been taken into account using the measured inverse magnetization curve and phase lag between the time waveforms of the magnetic field and the magnetic induction. Using the proposed analysis, ratio and phase errors of the current transformer have been calculated. The results of the calculation have been compared with experimental results and a good agreement has been found.

  20. Establishment and characterization of hamster cell lines transformed by restriction endonuclease fragments of adenovirus 5.

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, D T; Branton, P E; Yee, S P; Bacchetti, S; Graham, F L

    1984-01-01

    We have established a library of hamster cells transformed by adenovirus 5 DNA fragments comprising all (XhoI-C, 0 to 16 map units) or only a part (HindIII-G, 0 to 7.8 map units) of early region 1 (E1: 0 to 11.2 map units). These lines have been analyzed in terms of content of viral DNA, expression of E1 antigens, and capacity to induce tumors in hamsters. All cells tested were found to express up to eight proteins encoded within E1A (0 to 4.5 map units) with apparent molecular weights between 52,000 (52K) and 25K. Both G and C fragment-transformed lines expressed a 19K antigen encoded within E1B (4.5 to 11.2 map units), whereas an E1B 58K protein was detected in C fragment-transformed, but not G-fragment-transformed, lines. No clear distinction could be drawn between cells transformed by HindIII-G and by XhoI-C in terms of morphology or tumorigenicity, suggesting that the E1B 58K antigen plays no major role in the maintenance of oncogenic transformation, although possible involvement of truncated forms of 58K cannot be ruled out. Sera were collected from tumor-bearing animals and examined for ability to immunoprecipitate proteins from infected cells. The relative avidity of sera for different proteins was characteristic of the cell line used for tumor induction, and the specificity generally reflected the array of viral proteins expressed by the corresponding transformed cells. However, one notable observation was that even though all transformed lines examined expressed antigens encoded by both the 1.1- and 0.9-kilobase mRNAs transcribed from E1A, tumor sera made against these lines only precipitated products of the 1.1-kilobase message. Thus, two families of E1A proteins, highly related in terms of primary amino acid sequence, appear to be immunologically quite distinct. Images PMID:6690708

  1. Characterization of Antisense Transformed Plants Deficient in the Tobacco Anionic Peroxidase.

    PubMed Central

    Lagrimini, L. M.; Gingas, V.; Finger, F.; Rothstein, S.; Liu, TTY.

    1997-01-01

    On the basis of the biological compounds that they metabolize, plant peroxidases have long been implicated in plant growth, cell wall biogenesis, lignification, and host defenses. Transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) plants that underexpress anionic peroxidase were generated using antisense RNA. The antisense RNA was found to be specific for the anionic isoenzyme and highly effective, reducing endogenous transcript levels and total peroxidase activity by as much as 1600-fold. Antisense-transformed plants appeared normal at initial observation; however, growth studies showed that plants with reduced peroxidase activity grow taller and flower sooner than control plants. In contrast, previously transformed plants overproducing anionic peroxidase were shorter and flowered later than controls. Axillary buds were more developed in antisense-transformed plants and less developed in plants overproducing this enzyme. It was found that the lignin content in leaf, stem, and root was unchanged in antisense-transformed plants, which does not support a role for anionic peroxidase in the lignification of secondary xylem vessels. However, studies of wounded tissue show some reduction in wound-induced deposition of lignin-like polymers. The data support a possible role for tobacco anionic peroxidase in host defenses but not without a reduction in growth potential. PMID:12223765

  2. CHARACTERIZATION OF A SPONTANEOUSLY TRANSFORMED CHICKEN MACROPHAGE/MONOCYTIC CELL LINE HTC

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transformed and immortalized cells provide excellent models to study many functional aspects of their naturally occurring counterparts because of the ease of manipulations and their abilities to undergo innumerable cell divisions. Such cells are generated naturally or in culture through neoplastic ...

  3. Characterization of pyrogenic black carbon by desorption atmospheric pressure photoionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Podgorski, David C; Hamdan, Rasha; McKenna, Amy M; Nyadong, Leonard; Rodgers, Ryan P; Marshall, Alan G; Cooper, William T

    2012-02-01

    We present a new method for molecular characterization of intact biochar directly, without sample preparation or pretreatment, on the basis of desorption atmospheric pressure photoionization (DAPPI) coupled to Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) mass spectrometry. Conventional ionization methods (e.g., electrospray or atmospheric pressure photoionization) for characterization of natural organic matter have limited utility for the characterization of chars due to incomplete solubility in common solvents. Therefore, direct ionization techniques that do not require sample dissolution prior to analysis are ideal. Here, we apply DAPPI FTICR mass spectrometry to enable the first molecular characterization of uncharred parent oak biomass and after combustion (250 °C) or pyrolysis (400 °C). Parent oak is primarily composed of cellulose-, lignin-, and resin-like compounds. Oak combusted at 250 °C contains condensed aromatic compounds with low H/C and O/C ratios while retaining compounds with high H/C and O/C ratios. The bimodal distribution of aromatic and aliphatic compounds observed in the combusted oak sample is attributed to incomplete thermal degradation of lignin and hemicellulose. Pyrolyzed oak constituents exhibit lower H/C and O/C ratios: approximately three-quarters of the identified species are aromatic. DAPPI FTICR MS results agree with bulk elemental composition as well as functional group distributions determined by elemental analysis and solid state (13)C NMR spectroscopy. Complete molecular characterization of biomass upon thermal transformation may provide insight into the biogeochemical cycles of biochar and future renewable energy sources, particularly for samples currently limited by solubility, separation, and sample preparation. PMID:22242739

  4. Products of Allicin Transformation: Ajoenes and Dithiins, Characterization and their Determination by HPLC*.

    PubMed

    Iberl, B; Winkler, G; Knobloch, K

    1990-04-01

    Constituents of crushed garlic bulbs ( ALLIUM SATIVUM L.), such as allicin, ( E/Z)-ajoene, and the vinyldithiins, were synthesized and purified by an LC method. Purity was proved by TLC, HPLC, and GC systems. Identity was confirmed by comparison with spectral data from the literature. In order to establish external standards, silica gel adsorbates of the respective substances were prepared. For quantitative determination of allicin and its transformation products, an isocratic HPLC method was developed. Calibration was performed by the use of these external standards, and by comparison to an internal standard. The influence of different media on allicin transformation, including the ( E/Z)-ratio of the ajoenes, has been elaborated. PMID:17221396

  5. Microbial toxicity and characterization of DNAN (bio)transformation product mixtures.

    PubMed

    Olivares, Christopher I; Sierra-Alvarez, Reyes; Alvarez-Nieto, Cristina; Abrell, Leif; Chorover, Jon; Field, Jim A

    2016-07-01

    2,4-Dinitroanisole (DNAN) is an emerging insensitive munitions compound. It undergoes rapid (bio)transformation in soils and anaerobic sludge. The primary transformation pathway catalyzed by a combination of biotic and abiotic factors is nitrogroup reduction followed by coupling of reactive intermediates to form azo-dimers. Additional pathways include N-acetylation and O-demethoxylation. Toxicity due to (bio)transformation products of DNAN has received little attention. In this study, the toxicity of DNAN (bio)transformation monomer products and azo-dimer and trimer surrogates to acetoclastic methanogens and the marine bioluminescent bacterium, Allivibrio fischeri, were evaluated. Methanogens were severely inhibited by 3-nitro-4-methoxyaniline (MENA), with a 50%-inhibiting concentration (IC50) of 25 μM, which is more toxic than DNAN with the same assay, but posed a lower toxicity to Allivibrio fischeri (IC50 = 219 μM). On the other hand, N-(5-amino-2-methoxyphenyl) acetamide (Ac-DAAN) was the least inhibitory test-compound for both microbial targets. Azo-dimer and trimer surrogates were very highly toxic to both microbial systems, with a toxicity similar or stronger than that of DNAN. A semi-quantitative LC-QTOF-MS method was employed to determine product mixture profiles at different stages of biotransformation, and compared with the microbial toxicity of the product-mixtures formed. Methanogenic toxicity increased due to putative reactive nitroso-intermediates as DNAN was reduced. However, the inhibition later attenuated as dimers became the predominant products in the mixtures. In contrast, A. fischeri tolerated the initial biotransformation products but were highly inhibited by the predominant azo-dimer products formed at longer incubation times, suggesting these ultimate products are more toxic than DNAN. PMID:27085064

  6. Filter implementation technique for multicriteria characterization of coding domains in the joint transform correlator.

    PubMed

    Bigué, L; Ambs, P

    1999-07-10

    An improved method for implementing correlation filters in the joint transform correlator architecture is proposed. We derived the method from computer-generated holography techniques. It allows us to use any correlation filters, especially ones that provide an optimal trade-off between noise robustness, peak sharpness, and optical efficiency, with any spatial light modulator (SLM). This method also allows for an objective comparison of the performance of the coding domains of various SLM's. PMID:18323915

  7. Transformation of Chloroplast Ribosomal RNA Genes in Chlamydomonas: Molecular and Genetic Characterization of Integration Events

    PubMed Central

    Newman, S. M.; Boynton, J. E.; Gillham, N. W.; Randolph-Anderson, B. L.; Johnson, A. M.; Harris, E. H.

    1990-01-01

    Transformation of chloroplast ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes in Chlamydomonas has been achieved by the biolistic process using cloned chloroplast DNA fragments carrying mutations that confer antibiotic resistance. The sites of exchange employed during the integration of the donor DNA into the recipient genome have been localized using a combination of antibiotic resistance mutations in the 16S and 23S rRNA genes and restriction fragment length polymorphisms that flank these genes. Complete or nearly complete replacement of a region of the chloroplast genome in the recipient cell by the corresponding sequence from the donor plasmid was the most common integration event. Exchange events between the homologous donor and recipient sequences occurred preferentially near the vector:insert junctions. Insertion of the donor rRNA genes and flanking sequences into one inverted repeat of the recipient genome was followed by intramolecular copy correction so that both copies of the inverted repeat acquired identical sequences. Increased frequencies of rRNA gene transformants were achieved by reducing the copy number of the chloroplast genome in the recipient cells and by decreasing the heterology between donor and recipient DNA sequences flanking the selectable markers. In addition to producing bona fide chloroplast rRNA transformants, the biolistic process induced mutants resistant to low levels of streptomycin, typical of nuclear mutations in Chlamydomonas. PMID:1981764

  8. An Investigation into the Admittance of MIS-Structures Based on MBE HgCdTe with Quantum Wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzyadukh, S. M.; Voitsekhovskii, A. V.; Nesmelov, S. N.; Dvoretskii, S. A.; N. Mikhailov, N.; Gorn, D. I.

    2013-12-01

    The results of investigations into the complex admittance of the MIS-structures based on heteroepitaxial MBE Hg1- x Cd x Te with quantum wells (QW) in the test-signal frequency range 1 kHz - 2 МHz at temperatures 8-300 K are reported. The thickness of single HgTe QWs was 5.6 and 7.1 nm, the content in the 35-nm thick barrier layers - 0.65 and 0.62, respectively.

  9. Clinicopathologic and Immunophenotypic Characterization of 25 Cases of Acinic Cell Carcinoma with High-Grade Transformation.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Lester D; Aslam, Muhammad N; Stall, Jennifer N; Udager, Aaron M; Chiosea, Simion; McHugh, Jonathan B

    2016-06-01

    Acinic cell carcinoma (AiCC) with high-grade transformation is a rare variant of AiCC composed of both a conventional low-grade (LG) AiCC and a separate high-grade (HG) component. We describe here, the clinicopathologic and immunohistochemical features of 25 cases diagnosed between 1990 and 2015. Available tissue was analyzed and compared with a cohort of pure LG AiCC for the morphologic and immunophenotypic profile. Incidence was higher in females (1.8:1) than males with an overall mean age at presentation of 63.2 years. All tumors occurred in the parotid gland including 76 % with facial nerve trunk and branches involvement. Most patients were treated with extensive resection and adjuvant therapy. Local recurrence or distant metastasis occurred in most patients, with 72.7 % dead with disease (mean 2.9 years) and 3 patients alive with disease (mean 2.4 years). The majority of the tumors were composed of a LG microcystic AiCC and a HG component consisting of invasive lobules of undifferentiated cells with predominantly solid, cribriform, and glandular patterns. Acinic differentiation was still present in HG areas but aggressive features such as perineural invasion (76 %), lymphovascular invasion (62 %), positive margins (72 %), high mitotic rate, atypical mitoses and/or comedonecrosis (86 %) were easily identified. Compared to the pure LG AiCC, the cases with HG transformation showed significantly increased expression of cyclin-D1, p53 and Ki-67. Most HG areas of AiCC expressed membranous β-catenin (92 %) and were negative for p63 (three cases were focally positive), S100, SMA, androgen, and estrogen receptors. DOG1 expression was present in all LG AiCC tested with retained expression in 91 % of cases with HG transformation, supporting acinic differentiation in the HG foci. Recognition of AiCC with high-grade transformation is imperative as more aggressive clinical management is warranted. PMID:26245749

  10. Characterization of gear faults in variable rotating speed using Hilbert-Huang Transform and instantaneous dimensionless frequency normalization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, T. Y.; Chen, J. C.; Wang, C. C.

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this research is to investigate the feasibility of utilizing the instantaneous dimensionless frequency (DLF) normalization and Hilbert-Huang Transform (HHT) to characterize the different gear faults in case of variable rotating speed. The normalized DLF of the vibration signals are calculated based on the rotating speed of shaft and the instantaneous frequencies of Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMFs) which are decomposed by Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) process. The faulty gear features on DLF-energy distribution of vibration signal can be extracted without the presence of shaft rotating speed, so that the proposed approach can be applied for characterizing the malfunctions of gearbox system under variable shaft rotating speed. A test rig of gear transmission system is performed to illustrate the gear faults, including worn tooth, broken tooth and gear unbalance. Different methods to determine the instantaneous frequency are employed to verify the consistence of characterization results. The DLF-energy distributions of vibration signals are investigated in different faulty gear conditions. The analysis results demonstrate the capability and effectiveness of the proposed approach for characterizing the gear malfunctions at the DLFs corresponding to the meshing frequency as well as the shaft rotating frequency. The support vector machine (SVM) is then employed to classify the vibration patterns of gear transmission system at different malfunctions. Using the energy distribution at the characteristic DLFs as the features, the different fault types of gear can be identified by SVM with high accuracy.

  11. Characterization of carbon ion implantation induced graded microstructure and phase transformation in stainless steel

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Kai; Wang, Yibo; Li, Zhuguo; Chu, Paul K.

    2015-08-15

    Austenitic stainless steel 316L is ion implanted by carbon with implantation fluences of 1.2 × 10{sup 17} ions-cm{sup −} {sup 2}, 2.4 × 10{sup 17} ions-cm{sup −} {sup 2}, and 4.8 × 10{sup 17} ions-cm{sup −} {sup 2}. The ion implantation induced graded microstructure and phase transformation in stainless steel is investigated by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and high resolution transmission electron microscopy. The corrosion resistance is evaluated by potentiodynamic test. It is found that the initial phase is austenite with a small amount of ferrite. After low fluence carbon ion implantation, an amorphous layer and ferrite phase enriched region underneath are formed. Nanophase particles precipitate from the amorphous layer due to energy minimization and irradiation at larger ion implantation fluence. The morphology of the precipitated nanophase particles changes from circular to dumbbell-like with increasing implantation fluence. The corrosion resistance of stainless steel is enhanced by the formation of amorphous layer and graphitic solid state carbon after carbon ion implantation. - Highlights: • Carbon implantation leads to phase transformation from austenite to ferrite. • The passive film on SS316L becomes thinner after carbon ion implantation. • An amorphous layer is formed by carbon ion implantation. • Nanophase precipitate from amorphous layer at higher ion implantation fluence. • Corrosion resistance of SS316L is improved by carbon implantation.

  12. Characterization of rabbit liver P450IIE1 synthesized in transformed yeast cells.

    PubMed

    Imai, Y; Uno, T; Nakamura, M

    1990-10-01

    cDNA for chimeric protein, P450(3P4), consisting of the amino-terminal 43 residues (the membrane-anchor region) of rabbit P450IIC14 and the remaining 447 residues of rabbit P450IIE1 was constructed, then cloned into expression vector pAAH5, and expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae AH22 cells under the control of yeast ADH1 promoter. P450(3P4) thus synthesized in the transformed yeast cells was partially purified, and its spectral and catalytic properties were examined. In the oxidized state P450(3P4) exhibited a high-spin type absorption spectrum even in the absence of a substrate. The reduced CO complex of the P450 showed a Soret absorption maximum at 452 nm. P450(3P4) catalyzed aniline p-hydroxylation, N-nitrosodimethylamine demethylation, benzphetamine N-demethylation, and laurate and caprate (omega-1)-hydroxylation in the reconstituted system containing the P450 and NADPH-P450 reductase. These results indicate that P450(3P4) preparation obtained from the transformed yeast cells has spectral and catalytic characteristics identical with those of P450IIE1 purified from rabbit liver microsomes, confirming the substrate specificity reported of P450IIE1. PMID:2292581

  13. Computational Modeling and Experimental Characterization of Martensitic Transformations in Nicoal for Self-Sensing Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, T. A.; Yamakov, V. I.; Hochhalter, J. D.; Leser, W. P.; Warner, J. E.; Newman, J. A.; Purja Pun, G. P.; Mishin, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Fundamental changes to aero-vehicle management require the utilization of automated health monitoring of vehicle structural components. A novel method is the use of self-sensing materials, which contain embedded sensory particles (SP). SPs are micron-sized pieces of shape-memory alloy that undergo transformation when the local strain reaches a prescribed threshold. The transformation is a result of a spontaneous rearrangement of the atoms in the crystal lattice under intensified stress near damaged locations, generating acoustic waves of a specific spectrum that can be detected by a suitably placed sensor. The sensitivity of the method depends on the strength of the emitted signal and its propagation through the material. To study the transition behavior of the sensory particle inside a metal matrix under load, a simulation approach based on a coupled atomistic-continuum model is used. The simulation results indicate a strong dependence of the particle's pseudoelastic response on its crystallographic orientation with respect to the loading direction and suggest possible ways of optimizing particle sensitivity. The technology of embedded sensory particles will serve as the key element in an autonomous structural health monitoring system that will constantly monitor for damage initiation in service, which will enable quick detection of unforeseen damage initiation in real-time and during onground inspections.

  14. Processing and characterization of transformation-toughened ceramics with strength retention to elevated temperatures. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Cutler, R.A.; Brinkpeter, C.B.; Vircar, A.V.; Shetty, D.K.

    1994-09-01

    Monolithic and three-layered Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} -- 15 vol % ZrO{sub 2} composites were fabricated by slip casting aqueous slurries. The outer and inner layers of three-layer composites contained unstabilized and partially stabilized ZrO{sub 2}, respectively. Transformation of part of the unstabilized ZrO{sub 2} led to surface compressive stresses in the outer layers. Strain gage, x-ray, indentation crack length, and strength measurements were used to determine the magnitude of residual stresses in the composites. The strength of the three-layer composites ({approx}1200 MPa) was 500--700 MPa higher than that of the monolithic outer layer composites at room temperature and 350 MPa higher at 750{degree}C. The strength differential decreased rapidly above the m {yields} t transformation temperature. Three-layered composites showed excellent damage resistance and improved reliability. Cam follower rollers were fabricated to demonstrate the applicability of this technique for making automotive components.

  15. Force Control and Nonlinear Master-Slave Force Profile to Manage an Admittance Type Multi-Fingered Haptic User Interface

    SciTech Connect

    Anthony L. Crawford

    2012-08-01

    Natural movements and force feedback are important elements in using teleoperated equipment if complex and speedy manipulation tasks are to be accomplished in remote and/or hazardous environments, such as hot cells, glove boxes, decommissioning, explosives disarmament, and space to name a few. In order to achieve this end the research presented in this paper has developed an admittance type exoskeleton like multi-fingered haptic hand user interface that secures the user’s palm and provides 3-dimensional force feedback to the user’s fingertips. Atypical to conventional haptic hand user interfaces that limit themselves to integrating the human hand’s characteristics just into the system’s mechanical design this system also perpetuates that inspiration into the designed user interface’s controller. This is achieved by manifesting the property differences of manipulation and grasping activities as they pertain to the human hand into a nonlinear master-slave force relationship. The results presented in this paper show that the admittance-type system has sufficient bandwidth that it appears nearly transparent to the user when the user is in free motion and when the system is subjected to a manipulation task, increased performance is achieved using the nonlinear force relationship compared to the traditional linear scaling techniques implemented in the vast majority of systems.

  16. Open-path Fourier transform infrared spectrometry characterization of low temperature combustion gases in biomass fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Castro, A. J.; Lerma, A. M.; López, F.; Guijarro, M.; Díez, C.; Hernando, C.; Madrigal, J.

    2007-07-01

    Accurate determination of gas concentration emitted during thermal degradation (pyrolysis) of biomass in forest fires is one of the keypoints in recent research on physical-based fire spread models. However, it is a very cumbersome task not well solved by classical invasive sensors and procedures. In this work, a methodology to use open-path Fourier transform-based infrared (OP-FTIR) spectrometry has been applied as a remote sensing technique that permits in situ, non-intrusive and simultaneous measurements. Main gaseous by-products (CO, CO2, CH4 and NH3) have been measured and quantified in terms of path-integrated concentrations. Different emission ratios have been determined for the species under study. These results can help to simplify the modelling of pyrolysis processes inside the physical-based models for fire spread.

  17. Functional Characterization of the Plasmodium falciparum Chloroquine-Resistance Transporter (PfCRT) in Transformed Dictyostelium discoideum Vesicles

    PubMed Central

    Papakrivos, Janni; S, Juliana M.; Wellems, Thomas E.

    2012-01-01

    Background Chloroquine (CQ)-resistant Plasmodium falciparum malaria has been a global health catastrophe, yet much about the CQ resistance (CQR) mechanism remains unclear. Hallmarks of the CQR phenotype include reduced accumulation of protonated CQ as a weak base in the digestive vacuole of the erythrocyte-stage parasite, and chemosensitization of CQ-resistant (but not CQ-sensitive) P. falciparum by agents such as verapamil. Mutations in the P. falciparum CQR transporter (PfCRT) confer CQR; particularly important among these mutations is the charge-loss substitution K?T at position 76. Dictyostelium discoideum transformed with mutant PfCRT expresses key features of CQR including reduced drug accumulation and verapamil chemosensitization. Methodology and Findings We describe the isolation and characterization of PfCRT-transformed, hematin-free vesicles from D. discoideum cells. These vesicles permit assessments of drug accumulation, pH, and membrane potential that are difficult or impossible with hematin-containing digestive vacuoles from P. falciparum-infected erythrocytes. Mutant PfCRT-transformed D. discoideum vesicles show features of the CQR phenotype, and manipulations of vesicle membrane potential by agents including ionophores produce large changes of CQ accumulation that are dissociated from vesicular pH. PfCRT in its native or mutant form blunts the ability of valinomycin to reduce CQ accumulation in transformed vesicles and decreases the ability of K+ to reverse membrane potential hyperpolarization caused by valinomycin treatment. Conclusion Isolated vesicles from mutant-PfCRT-transformed D. discoideum exhibit features of the CQR phenotype, consistent with evidence that the drug resistance mechanism operates at the P. falciparum digestive vacuole membrane in malaria. Membrane potential apart from pH has a major effect on the PfCRT-mediated CQR phenotype of D. discoideum vesicles. These results support a model of PfCRT as an electrochemical potential-driven transporter in the drug/metabolite superfamily that (appropriately mutated) acts as a saturable simple carrier for the facilitated diffusion of protonated CQ. PMID:22724026

  18. Toxicological characterization of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene, its transformation products, and two nitramine explosives.

    PubMed

    Neuwoehner, Judith; Schofer, Andrea; Erlenkaemper, Bibiane; Steinbach, Klaus; Hund-Rinke, T Kerstin; Eisentraeger, Adolf

    2007-06-01

    The soil and groundwater of former ordnance plants and their dumping sites have often been highly contaminated with the explosive 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (2,4,6-TNT) leading to a potential hazard for humans and the environment. Further hazards can arise from metabolites of transformation, by-products of the manufacturing process, or incomplete combustion. This work examines the toxicity of polar nitro compounds relative to their parent compound 2,4,6-TNT using four different ecotoxicological bioassays (algae growth inhibition test, daphnids immobilization test, luminescence inhibition test, and cell growth inhibition test), three genotoxicological assays (umu test, NM2009 test, and SOS Chromotest), and the Ames fluctuation test for detection of mutagenicity. For this study, substances typical for certain steps of degradation/transformation of 2,4,6-TNT were chosen for investigation. This work determines that the parent compounds 2,4,6-TNT and 1,3,5-trinitrobenzene are the most toxic substances followed by 3,5-dinitrophenol, 3,5-dinitroaniline and 4-amino-2-nitrotoluene. Less toxic are the direct degradation products of 2,4,6-TNT like 2,4-dinitrotoluene, 2,6-dinitrotoluene, 2-amino-4,6-dinitrotoluene, and 4-amino-2,6-dinitrotoluene. A weak toxic potential was observed for 2,4,6-trinitrobenzoic acid, 2,4-diamino-6-nitrotoluene, 2,4-dinitrotoluene-5-sulfonic acid, and 2,6-diamino-4-nitrotoluene. Octahydro-l,3,5,7-tetranitro-l,3,5,7-tetrazocine and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-l,3,5-triazine show no hint of acute toxicity. Based on the results of this study, we recommend expanding future monitoring programs of not only the parent substances but also potential metabolites based on conditions at the contaminated sites and to use bioassays as tools for estimating the toxicological potential directly by testing environmental samples. Site-specific protocols should be developed. If hazardous substances are found in relevant concentrations, action should be taken to prevent potential risks for humans and the environment. Analyses can then be used to prioritise reliable estimates of risk. PMID:17571672

  19. Characterization of microflora and transformation of organic matters in urban sewer system.

    PubMed

    Jin, Pengkang; Wang, Bin; Jiao, Ding; Sun, Guangxi; Wang, Baobao; Wang, Xiaochang C

    2015-11-01

    A study was conducted using a pilot sewer system consisting of 35 sequential sections, totalling 1200 m of gravity pipe. Urban sewage flowed into the sewer system at a constant flow rate until it reached physical and microbiological steady states. Microflora in the biofilm that attached to the inner surface along the pipe length were analysed. The organic compositions in both the liquid and gaseous phases of the sewer system were monitored. The results showed that typical fermentation bacteria, such as bacteroidetes and bacillus, were abundant in the system, indicating that the anoxic environment (DO = 0.3 mg/L) was suitable for fermentative bacterial growth. This resulted in a substantial reduction of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) along the pipe length and an increase of the biodegradable oxygen demand/chemical oxygen demand (BOD/COD) ratio from 0.68 at the beginning of the sewer system to 0.84 at the end of the sewer system; this was an indication of a transformation of organic matters from less-biodegradable to more-biodegradable products. Via molecular weight (MW) analysis, it was further identified that the larger organic molecules (MW > 10,000 Da) were transformed into products with smaller molecular weights. Regarding the fermentation products, the concentrations of the volatile fatty acids (VFAs) increased dramatically in the initial 600-m sections and then remained constant for the later sections except for the end section of the sewer; acetic acid was found to be the primary product of the VFAs. Gaseous carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) were found to increase along the length of the sewer system, whereas the concentrations of ethanol, lactic acid, and hydrogen (H2) were high at the beginning of the sewer and then decreased in the rear sections of the sewer system. It could thus be concluded that in an urban wastewater sewer system, fermentative microflora could perform important roles in contributing to organic matter removal and/or improving the biodegradability of organic matter. PMID:26218464

  20. Fourier transform infrared absorption spectroscopy characterization of gaseous atmospheric pressure plasmas with 2 mm spatial resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laroche, G.; Vallade, J.; Bazinette, R.; van Nijnatten, P.; Hernandez, E.; Hernandez, G.; Massines, F.

    2012-10-01

    This paper describes an optical setup built to record Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) absorption spectra in an atmospheric pressure plasma with a spatial resolution of 2 mm. The overall system consisted of three basic parts: (1) optical components located within the FTIR sample compartment, making it possible to define the size of the infrared beam (2 mm × 2 mm over a path length of 50 mm) imaged at the site of the plasma by (2) an optical interface positioned between the spectrometer and the plasma reactor. Once through the plasma region, (3) a retro-reflector module, located behind the plasma reactor, redirected the infrared beam coincident to the incident path up to a 45° beamsplitter to reflect the beam toward a narrow-band mercury-cadmium-telluride detector. The antireflective plasma-coating experiments performed with ammonia and silane demonstrated that it was possible to quantify 42 and 2 ppm of these species in argon, respectively. In the case of ammonia, this was approximately three times less than this gas concentration typically used in plasma coating experiments while the silane limit of quantification was 35 times lower. Moreover, 70% of the incoming infrared radiation was focused within a 2 mm width at the site of the plasma, in reasonable agreement with the expected spatial resolution. The possibility of reaching this spatial resolution thus enabled us to measure the gaseous precursor consumption as a function of their residence time in the plasma.

  1. Fourier transform infrared absorption spectroscopy characterization of gaseous atmospheric pressure plasmas with 2 mm spatial resolution.

    PubMed

    Laroche, G; Vallade, J; Bazinette, R; van Nijnatten, P; Hernandez, E; Hernandez, G; Massines, F

    2012-10-01

    This paper describes an optical setup built to record Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) absorption spectra in an atmospheric pressure plasma with a spatial resolution of 2 mm. The overall system consisted of three basic parts: (1) optical components located within the FTIR sample compartment, making it possible to define the size of the infrared beam (2 mm × 2 mm over a path length of 50 mm) imaged at the site of the plasma by (2) an optical interface positioned between the spectrometer and the plasma reactor. Once through the plasma region, (3) a retro-reflector module, located behind the plasma reactor, redirected the infrared beam coincident to the incident path up to a 45° beamsplitter to reflect the beam toward a narrow-band mercury-cadmium-telluride detector. The antireflective plasma-coating experiments performed with ammonia and silane demonstrated that it was possible to quantify 42 and 2 ppm of these species in argon, respectively. In the case of ammonia, this was approximately three times less than this gas concentration typically used in plasma coating experiments while the silane limit of quantification was 35 times lower. Moreover, 70% of the incoming infrared radiation was focused within a 2 mm width at the site of the plasma, in reasonable agreement with the expected spatial resolution. The possibility of reaching this spatial resolution thus enabled us to measure the gaseous precursor consumption as a function of their residence time in the plasma. PMID:23126767

  2. Fourier transform infrared absorption spectroscopy characterization of gaseous atmospheric pressure plasmas with 2 mm spatial resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Laroche, G.; Vallade, J.; Bazinette, R.; Hernandez, E.; Hernandez, G.; Massines, F.; Nijnatten, P. van

    2012-10-15

    This paper describes an optical setup built to record Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) absorption spectra in an atmospheric pressure plasma with a spatial resolution of 2 mm. The overall system consisted of three basic parts: (1) optical components located within the FTIR sample compartment, making it possible to define the size of the infrared beam (2 mm Multiplication-Sign 2 mm over a path length of 50 mm) imaged at the site of the plasma by (2) an optical interface positioned between the spectrometer and the plasma reactor. Once through the plasma region, (3) a retro-reflector module, located behind the plasma reactor, redirected the infrared beam coincident to the incident path up to a 45 Degree-Sign beamsplitter to reflect the beam toward a narrow-band mercury-cadmium-telluride detector. The antireflective plasma-coating experiments performed with ammonia and silane demonstrated that it was possible to quantify 42 and 2 ppm of these species in argon, respectively. In the case of ammonia, this was approximately three times less than this gas concentration typically used in plasma coating experiments while the silane limit of quantification was 35 times lower. Moreover, 70% of the incoming infrared radiation was focused within a 2 mm width at the site of the plasma, in reasonable agreement with the expected spatial resolution. The possibility of reaching this spatial resolution thus enabled us to measure the gaseous precursor consumption as a function of their residence time in the plasma.

  3. Characterizing the transformation and transfer of nitrogen during the aerobic treatment of organic wastes and digestates

    SciTech Connect

    Zeng Yang; Guardia, Amaury de; Daumoin, Mylene; Benoist, Jean-Claude

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ammonia emissions varied depending on the nature of wastes and the treatment conditions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nitrogen losses resulted from ammonia emissions and nitrification-denitrification. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ammonification can be estimated from biodegradable carbon and carbon/nitrogen ratio. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ammonification was the main process contributing to N losses. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nitrification rate was negatively correlated to stripping rate of ammonia nitrogen. - Abstract: The transformation and transfer of nitrogen during the aerobic treatment of seven wastes were studied in ventilated air-tight 10-L reactors at 35 Degree-Sign C. Studied wastes included distinct types of organic wastes and their digestates. Ammonia emissions varied depending on the kind of waste and treatment conditions. These emissions accounted for 2-43% of the initial nitrogen. Total nitrogen losses, which resulted mainly from ammonia emissions and nitrification-denitrification, accounted for 1-76% of the initial nitrogen. Ammonification was the main process responsible for nitrogen losses. An equation which allows estimating the ammonification flow of each type of waste according to its biodegradable carbon and carbon/nitrogen ratio was proposed. As a consequence of the lower contribution of storage and leachate rates, stripping and nitrification rates of ammonia nitrogen were negatively correlated. This observation suggests the possibility of promotingnitrification in order to reduce ammonia emissions.

  4. Ultrasonic characterization of soft tissue vibrations based on the two-dimensional Fourier transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sikdar, Siddhartha; Kim, Yongmin; Beach, Kirk W.

    2005-09-01

    It has recently been demonstrated that soft tissue vibrations in the body, traditionally associated with vascular bruits and cardiac murmurs, can potentially be used for the ultrasonic diagnosis of coronary artery disease and vascular trauma. In this paper, the ultrasonic spectrum of soft tissue vibrations is formulated using the two-dimensional Fourier transform, making full use of the information present in the backscattered ultrasound echoes from vibrating tissue. Parametric simulation studies show that vibrations with amplitude 1 μm may be detected even with tissue velocity of 20 cm/s and acceleration of 5 m/s2, e.g., during peak cardiac motion. Vibrations with amplitude as low as 0.1 μm may be detected when the tissue acceleration is negligible, e.g., during mid-diastole. Also, it was found that tissue vibrations in a direction transverse to the ultrasound beam can be detected. In vivo examples of cardiac wall vibrations in patients with coronary artery disease are presented. Tissue vibrations can provide improved sensitivity over conventional duplex ultrasound since the scattering strength from tissue is significantly higher than that from blood. In addition, detection of tissue vibrations has reduced angle dependency and does not require visualization of the vessel lumen, making the exam less dependent on operator skill.

  5. Characterizing microstructures of cancerous tissues using multispectral transformed Mueller matrix polarization parameters

    PubMed Central

    He, Chao; He, Honghui; Chang, Jintao; Dong, Yang; Liu, Shaoxiong; Zeng, Nan; He, Yonghong; Ma, Hui

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we take the transmission 3 × 3 linear polarization Mueller matrix images of the unstained thin slices of human cervical and thyroid cancer tissues, and analyze their multispectral behavior using the Mueller matrix transformation (MMT) parameters. The experimental results show that for both cervical and thyroid cancerous tissues, the characteristic features of multispectral transmitted MMT parameters can be used to distinguish the normal and abnormal areas. Moreover, Monte Carlo simulations based on the sphere-cylinder birefringence model (SCBM) provide additional information of the relations between the characteristic spectral features of the MMT parameters and the microstructures of the tissues. Comparisons between the experimental and simulated data confirm that the contrast mechanism of the transmission MMT imaging for cancer detection is the breaking down of birefringent normal tissues for cervical cancer, or the formation of birefringent surrounding structures accompanying the inflammatory reaction for thyroid cancer. It is also testified that, the characteristic spectral features of polarization imaging techniques can provide more detailed microstructural information of tissues for diagnosis applications. PMID:26309757

  6. Isolation and characterization of mink lung epithelial cell mutants resistant to transforming growth factor. beta

    SciTech Connect

    Chinkers, M.

    1987-01-01

    Mink lung epithelial cells resistant to growth inhibition by transforming growth factor ..beta.. (TGF-..beta..) have been isolated by chemical mutagenesis and growth in the presence of platelet extracts enriched in TGF-..beta... Several resistant clones were isolated, at least one of which stably retained its resistance to TGF-..beta.. when grown in the absence of the factor. The cells of this clone were similar to the parent cells in morphology and growth properties. However, unlike the parent cells, the resistant cells did not show any of the following responses to /sup 125/I TGF-..beta..: (1) inhibition of DNA synthesis and proliferation; (2) morphological changes involving increased cell spreading; or (3) stimulation of synthesis of a 48-kilodalton secreted /sup 35/S-protein. The resistant cells do, however, retain a functional TGF-..beta.. receptor. The TGF-..beta.. resistant cell lines may be useful in genetic studies designed to identify the biochemical events required for inhibition of epithelial cell growth by this factor.

  7. Identification and characterization of tebuconazole transformation products in soil by combining suspect screening and molecular typology.

    PubMed

    Storck, Veronika; Lucini, Luigi; Mamy, Laure; Ferrari, Federico; Papadopoulou, Evangelia S; Nikolaki, Sofia; Karas, Panagiotis A; Servien, Remi; Karpouzas, Dimitrios G; Trevisan, Marco; Benoit, Pierre; Martin-Laurent, Fabrice

    2016-01-01

    Pesticides generate transformation products (TPs) when they are released into the environment. These TPs may be of ecotoxicological importance. Past studies have demonstrated how difficult it is to predict the occurrence of pesticide TPs and their environmental risk. The monitoring approaches mostly used in current regulatory frameworks target only known ecotoxicologically relevant TPs. Here, we present a novel combined approach which identifies and categorizes known and unknown pesticide TPs in soil by combining suspect screening time-of-flight mass spectrometry with in silico molecular typology. We used an empirical and theoretical pesticide TP library for compound identification by both non-target and target time-of-flight (tandem) mass spectrometry, followed by structural proposition through a molecular structure correlation program. In silico molecular typology was then used to group TPs according to common molecular descriptors and to indirectly elucidate their environmental parameters by analogy to known pesticide compounds with similar molecular descriptors. This approach was evaluated via the identification of TPs of the triazole fungicide tebuconazole occurring in soil during a field dissipation study. Overall, 22 empirical and 12 yet unknown TPs were detected, and categorized into three groups with defined environmental properties. This approach combining suspect screening time-of-flight mass spectrometry with molecular typology could be extended to other organic pollutants and used to rationalize the choice of TPs to be investigated towards a more comprehensive environmental risk assessment scheme. PMID:26552540

  8. Characterization of near-terahertz complementary metal-oxide semiconductor circuits using a Fourier-transform interferometer

    SciTech Connect

    Arenas, D. J.; Shim, Dongha; Koukis, D. I.; Seok, Eunyoung; Tanner, D. B.; O, Kenneth K.

    2011-10-24

    Optical methods for measuring of the emission spectra of oscillator circuits operating in the 400-600 GHz range are described. The emitted power from patch antennas included in the circuits is measured by placing the circuit in the source chamber of a Fourier-transform interferometric spectrometer. The results show that this optical technique is useful for measuring circuits pushing the frontier in operating frequency. The technique also allows the characterization of the circuit by measuring the power radiated in the fundamental and in the harmonics. This capability is useful for oscillator architectures designed to cancel the fundamental and use higher harmonics. The radiated power was measured using two techniques: direct measurement of the power by placing the device in front of a bolometer of known responsivity, and by comparison to the estimated power from blackbody sources. The latter technique showed that these circuits have higher emission than blackbody sources at the operating frequencies, and, therefore, offer potential spectroscopy applications.

  9. Characterization of near-terahertz complementary metal-oxide semiconductor circuits using a Fourier-transform interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arenas, D. J.; Shim, Dongha; Koukis, D. I.; Seok, Eunyoung; Tanner, D. B.; O, Kenneth K.

    2011-10-01

    Optical methods for measuring of the emission spectra of oscillator circuits operating in the 400-600 GHz range are described. The emitted power from patch antennas included in the circuits is measured by placing the circuit in the source chamber of a Fourier-transform interferometric spectrometer. The results show that this optical technique is useful for measuring circuits pushing the frontier in operating frequency. The technique also allows the characterization of the circuit by measuring the power radiated in the fundamental and in the harmonics. This capability is useful for oscillator architectures designed to cancel the fundamental and use higher harmonics. The radiated power was measured using two techniques: direct measurement of the power by placing the device in front of a bolometer of known responsivity, and by comparison to the estimated power from blackbody sources. The latter technique showed that these circuits have higher emission than blackbody sources at the operating frequencies, and, therefore, offer potential spectroscopy applications.

  10. Long-term batch study of sorption, transformation and extractability to characterize the fate of the veterinary antibiotic sulfadiazine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sittig, Stephan; Kasteel, Roy; Groeneweg, Joost; Vereecken, Harry

    2010-05-01

    The occurrence of veterinary antibiotic substances in various environmental compartments is of growing concern. Once released into the environment (e.g. via manure), these organic substances can cause changes in the composition of microbial populations, provoke the development and spreading of resistance genes and finally reach the food chain. The substance under study is the veterinary antibiotic sulfadiazine (SDZ), which belongs to the chemical group of the sulfonamides. These compounds are widely applied in animal husbandry. There are hardly any studies on the macroscopic sorption and desorption behaviour in combination with transformation processes, particularly investigating the sorbed fraction. We are conducting long-term batch sorption experiments to characterize the partitioning between the liquid and the solid phases as well as formation of transformation products. A sequential extraction procedure enables us to analyse the composition of the various sorbed fractions. We applied 14C-labelled SDZ in aqueous solution to fresh soil, originating from an agricultural field (silty loam). Adsorption and desorption studies are conducted for the duration of 60 d and 80 d, respectively. Unique setups for single time-steps allow us to trace the development of the partition process between the liquid and the solid phase and also partitioning within the solid phase. The composition of these liquid phases concerning the parent substance and the transformation products is analyzed. Using Radio-HPLC we find at least five transformation products: 4-hydroxy-sulfadiazine (4-OH-SDZ), 4-(2-iminopyrimidin-1(2H)-yl)-aniline (An-SDZ) and additionally three yet unknown products. By means of a sequential extraction, differently strong bound fractions of the compound can be distinguished. Extractions consist of a mild method (0.01 M CaCl2-solution; 24 h) followed by a methanol extraction (4 h). Finally, a residual fraction is gained by microwave extraction at an elevated temperature (150°C) and pressure (mixture of water and acetonitril, 4:1). Bound residues are determined by combustion. The course of the kinetic adsorption/desorption processes as well as the partitioning of the compound over the various solid phase fractions is observed. Sorption is time-dependent and strongly non-linear. The topsoil shows a significantly higher sorption affinity than the subsoil. While the amount of radioactivity sorbed to the soil matrix increases with time, the extractability decreases significantly, i. e. at the end of the experimental time there is no yield with mild extraction methods. On the contrary, after 60 d, there is still a considerably mass gained with the microwave extraction. Desorption is very slow due to hysteresis. In the topsoil transformation occurs with higher rates, leading to more detectable transformation products as in the subsoil. With our experimental setup it will be possible to set up a kinetic modell for the partitioning of the solute between the liquid and the solid phase. This description will also include an estimation of the transformation parameters.

  11. Characterization of buried metal-molecule-metal junctions using Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babayco, Christopher B.; Land, Donald P.; Parikh, Atul N.; Kiehl, Richard A.

    2014-09-01

    We have devised an infrared spectromicroscopy based experimental configuration to enable structural characterization of buried molecular junctions. Our design utilizes a small mercury drop at the focal point of an infrared microscope to act as a mirror in studying metal-molecule-metal (MmM) junctions. An organic molecular monolayer is formed either directly on the mercury drop or on a thin, infrared (IR) semi-transparent layer of Au deposited onto an IR transparent, undoped silicon substrate. Following the formation of the monolayer, films on either metal can be examined independently using specular reflection spectroscopy. Furthermore, by bringing together the two monolayers, a buried molecular bilayer within the MmM junction can be characterized. Independent examination of each half of the junction prior to junction formation also allows probing any structural and/or conformational changes that occur as a result of forming the bilayer. Because our approach allows assembling and disassembling microscopic junctions by forming and withdrawing Hg drops onto the monolayer covered metal, spatial mapping of junctions can be performed simply by translating the location of the derivatized silicon wafer. Finally, the applicability of this technique for the longer-term studies of changes in molecular structure in the presence of electrical bias is discussed.

  12. Mineralogical characterization of Greda clays and monitoring of their phase transformations on thermal treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panduro, E. Chavez; Cabrejos, J. Bravo

    2010-01-01

    The mineralogical characterization of two clay samples from the Central Andean Region of Peru, denominated White Greda and Red Greda, is reported. These clays contain the clay minerals mica and illite respectively. Both clays were treated thermally in an oxidising atmosphere under controlled conditions up to 1,100°C with the purpose of obtaining information about structural changes that may be useful for pottery manufacture. X-ray fluorescence was used for the elemental characterization of the samples and X-ray diffractometry was used to determine the collapse and formation of the mineral phases present in the samples caused by thermal treatment. At temperatures above 1,000°C it is observed the formation of spinel in the case of White Greda and of hematite, corundum and cristobalite in the case of Red Greda. Room temperature transmission Mössbauer spectroscopy allowed the monitoring of the variation of the hyperfine parameters with the thermal treatment temperature; In the case of the evolution of the quadruple splitting of the paramagnetic Fe3 + sites with temperature, in both clays, the analyses reproduced results such as the “camel back” curve shape, found by other workers (Wagner and Wagner, Hyperfine Interact 154:35-82, 2004; Wagner and Kyek, Hyperfine Interact 154:5-33, 2004).

  13. DNA binding to crystalline silica characterized by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Y; Daniel, L N; Whittaker, N; Saffiotti, U

    1994-01-01

    The interaction of DNA with crystalline silica in buffered aqueous solutions at physiologic pH has been investigated by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). In aqueous buffer, significant changes occur in the spectra of DNA and silica upon coincubation, suggesting that a DNA-silica complex forms as silica interacts with DNA. As compared to the spectrum of silica alone, the changes in the FT-IR spectrum of silica in the DNA-silica complex are consistent with an Si-O bond perturbation on the surface of the silica crystal. DNA remains in a B-form conformation in the DNA-silica complex. The most prominent changes in the DNA spectrum occur in the 1225 to 1000 cm-1 region. Upon binding, the PO2- asymmetric stretch at 1225 cm-1 is increased in intensity and slightly shifted to lower frequencies; the PO2- symmetric stretch at 1086 cm-1 is markedly increased in intensity and the band at 1053 cm-1, representing either the phosphodiester or the C-O stretch of DNA backbone, is significantly reduced in intensity. In D2O buffer, the DNA spectrum reveals a marked increase in intensity of the peak at 1086 cm-1 and a progressive decrease in intensity of the peak at 1053 cm-1 when DNA is exposed to increasing concentrations of silica. The carbonyl band at 1688 cm-1 diminishes and shifts to slightly lower frequencies with increasing concentrations of silica. The present study demonstrates that crystalline silica binds to the phosphate-sugar backbone of DNA.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7705292

  14. Isolation and characterization of an Arthrobacter sp. strain HB-5 that transforms atrazine.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinhua; Zhu, Lusheng; Liu, Aiju; Ma, Tingting; Wang, Qi; Xie, Hui; Wang, Jun; Jiang, Ting; Zhao, Rusong

    2011-06-01

    A bacterial strain (HB-5) capable of utilizing atrazine as sole carbon and nitrogen source for growth was isolated from an industrial wastewater sample by enrichment culture. The isolate was identified as Arthrobacter sp. according to its phenotypic features, physiologic and biochemical characteristics, and phylogenetic analysis. The strain exhibited faster atrazine degradation rates in atrazine-containing mineral media than the well-characterized atrazine-degrading bacteria Pseudomonas sp. ADP. The broad optimum pH and temperature ranges observed for strain HB-5 indicate that it has potential for remediation of atrazine-contaminated sites. Strain HB-5 first metabolizes atrazine to yield hydroxyatrazine. Then, the bacterium metabolizes hydroxyatrazine to cyanuric acid, but could not mineralize atrazine. PMID:20686824

  15. In situ monitoring, separation, and characterization of gold nanorod transformation during seed-mediated synthesis.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thao M; Pettibone, John M; Gigault, Julien; Hackley, Vincent A

    2016-03-01

    The control of gold nanorod (GNR) solution-based syntheses has been hindered in part by the inability to examine and control the conversion of precursor seed populations to anisotropic materials, which have resulted in low yields of desired products and limited their commercial viability. The advantages offered by tandem separation and characterization methods utilizing asymmetric-flow field flow fractionation (A4F) are principally achieved as a result of their non-disruptive nature (minimizing artefacts), fast throughput, and in-situ analysis. With hyphenated A4F methods, resolved populations of seeds and secondary products, up to long aspect ratio rods, have been achieved and exemplify progress towards elucidating mechanistic aspects of formation and thus rational design. While there have been previously reported studies on A4F separation of GNRs, to our knowledge, this is the first published investigation of in situ GNR growth, separation, and characterization based on A4F, where its utilization in this capacity goes beyond traditional separation analysis. By using hydroquinone as the reducing agent, the conversion of the initial seed population to a distribution of products, including the GNRs, could be monitored in real time using A4F hyphenated with a diode array detector. Transmission electron microscopy confirms that the number of peaks observed during fractionation corresponds with size and shape dispersity. This proof-of-principle study introduces A4F as a technique that establishes a foundation for future mechanistic studies on the growth of GNRs from gold seeds, including conversion of the seed population to initial products, a topic highly relevant to advancing progress in nanomanufacturing. Graphical Abstract ᅟ. PMID:26873210

  16. Bio-telemetric device for measurement of left ventricular pressure-volume loops using the admittance technique in conscious, ambulatory rats

    PubMed Central

    Raghavan, Karthik; Feldman, Marc D; Porterfield, John E; Larson, Erik R; Jenkins, J Travis; Escobedo, Daniel; Pearce, John A

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents the design, construction and testing of a device to measure pressure volume loops in the left ventricle of conscious, ambulatory rats. Pressure is measured with a standard sensor, but volume is derived from data collected from a tetrapolar electrode catheter using a novel admittance technique. There are two main advantages of the admittance technique to measure volume. First, the contribution from the adjacent muscle can be instantaneously removed. Second, the admittance technique incorporates the nonlinear relationship between the electric field generated by the catheter and the blood volume. A low power instrument weighing 27 g was designed, which takes pressure-volume loops every 2 minutes and runs for 24 hours. Pressure-volume data are transmitted wirelessly to a base station. The device was first validated in thirteen rats with an acute preparation with 2-D echocardiography used to measure true volume. From an accuracy standpoint, the admittance technique is superior to both the conductance technique calibrated with hypertonic saline injections, and calibrated with cuvettes. The device was then tested in six rats with a 24-hour chronic preparation. Stability of the animal preparation and careful calibration are important factors affecting the success of the device. PMID:21606560

  17. Physical Characterization of human centromeric regions using transformation-associated recombination cloning technology

    SciTech Connect

    Vladimir Larionov, Ph D

    2007-06-05

    A special interest in the organization of human centromeric DNA was stimulated a few years ago when two independent groups succeeded in reconstituting a functional human centromere, using constructs carrying centromere-specific alphoid DNA arrays. This work demonstrated the importance of DNA components in mammalian centromeres and opened a way for studying the structural requirements for de novo kinetochore formation and for construction of human artificial chromosomes (HACs) with therapeutic potential. To elucidate the structural requirements for formation of HACs with a functional kinetochore, we developed a new method for cloning of large DNA fragments for human centromeric regions that can be used as a substrate for HAC formation. This method exploits in vivo recombination in yeast (TAR cloning). In addition, a new strategy for the construction of alphoid DNA arrays was developed in our lab. The strategy involves the construction of uniform or hybrid synthetic alphoid DNA arrays by the RCA-TAR technique. This technique comprises two steps: rolling circle amplification of an alphoid DNA dimer and subsequent assembling of the amplified fragments by in vivo homologous recombination in yeast (Figure 1). Using this system, we constructed a set of different synthetic alphoid DNA arrays with a predetermined sequence varying in size from 30 to 140 kb and demonstrated that some of the arrays are competent in HAC formation. Because any nucleotide can be changed in a dimer before its amplification, this new technique is optimal for identifying the structural requirements for de novo kinetochore formation in HACs. Moreover, the technique makes possible to introduce into alphoid DNA arrays recognition sites for DNA-binding proteins. We have made the following progress on the studying of human centromeric regions using transformation-associated recombination cloning technology: i) minimal size of alphoid DNA array required for de novo kinetochore formation was estimated; ii) critical role of CENP-B binding site in do novo kinetochore formation was demonstrated; iii) role of gamma-satellite DNA in functional centromere was elucidated; iv) new generation of HAC with a conditional centromere was constructed for the study of epigenetic control of kinetochore function and for gene expression studies. These studies de novo kinetochore formation may thus provide both a fundamental knowledge and new points of intervention for therapy.

  18. Characterization of biomass burning: Fourier transform infrared analysis of wood and vegetation combustion products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padilla, Diomaris

    The Fourier transform infrared examination of the combustion products of a selection of forest materials has been undertaken in order to guide future detection of biomass burning using satellite remote sensing. Combustion of conifer Pinus strobus (white pine) and deciduous Prunus serotina (cherry), Acer rubrum (red maple), Friglans nigra (walnut), Fraxinus americana (ash), Betula papyrifera (birch), Querus alba (white oak) and Querus rubra (red oak) lumber, in a Meeker burner flame at temperatures of 400 to 900 degrees Fahrenheit produces a broad and relatively flat signal with a few distinct peaks throughout the wavelength spectra (400 to 4000 cm-1). The distinct bands located near wavelengths of 400-700, 1500-1700, 2200-2400 and 3300-3600 cm-1 vary in intensity with an average difference between the highest and lowest absorbing species of 47 percent. Spectral band differences of 10 percent are within the range of modern satellite spectrometers, and support the argument that band differences can be used to discriminate between various types of vegetation. A similar examination of soot and smoke derived from the leaves and branches of the conifer Pinus strobus and deciduous Querus alba (white oak), Querus rubra (red oak), Liquidambar styraciflua (sweetgum), Acer rubrum (maple) and Tilea americana (American basswood) at combustion temperatures of 400 to 900 degrees Fahrenheit produce a similar broad spectrum with a shift in peak location occurring in peaks below the 1700 cm-1 wavelength. The new peaks occur near wavelengths of 1438-1444, 875 and 713 cm-1. This noted shift in wavelength location may be indicative of a fingerprint region for green woods distinguishable from lumber through characteristic biomass suites. Temperature variations during burning show that the spectra of low temperature smoldered aerosols, occurring near 400 to 450 degrees Fahrenheit, may be distinguished from higher temperature soot aerosols that occur above 600 degrees Fahrenheit. A heightened peak intensity of 50 percent is observed throughout the spectra of the lower temperature generated soot and smoke, with respect to the higher temperature generated soot and smoke. These observations suggest the possibility of establishing biomass reduction markers using a ratio method.

  19. Characterization of a novel transcriptionally active domain in the transforming growth factor beta-regulated Smad3 protein.

    PubMed

    Prokova, Vassiliki; Mavridou, Sofia; Papakosta, Paraskevi; Kardassis, Dimitris

    2005-01-01

    Transforming growth factor beta (TGFbeta) regulates transcriptional responses via activation of cytoplasmic effector proteins termed Smads. Following their phosphorylation by the type I TGFbeta receptor, Smads form oligomers and translocate to the nucleus where they activate the transcription of TGFbeta target genes in cooperation with nuclear cofactors and coactivators. In the present study, we have undertaken a deletion analysis of human Smad3 protein in order to characterize domains that are essential for transcriptional activation in mammalian cells. With this analysis, we showed that Smad3 contains two domains with transcriptional activation function: the MH2 domain and a second middle domain that includes the linker region and the first two beta strands of the MH2 domain. Using a protein-protein interaction assay based on biotinylation in vivo, we were able to show that a Smad3 protein bearing an internal deletion in the middle transactivation domain is characterized by normal oligomerization and receptor activation properties. However, this mutant has reduced transactivation capacity on synthetic or natural promoters and is unable to interact physically and functionally with the histone acetyltransferase p/CAF. The loss of interaction with p/CAF or other coactivators could account, at least in part, for the reduced transactivation capacity of this Smad3 mutant. Our data support an essential role of the previously uncharacterized middle region of Smad3 for nuclear functions, such as transcriptional activation and interaction with coactivators. PMID:15994459

  20. Characterization of full-scale carbon contactors for siloxane removal from biogas using online Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Hepburn, C A; Martin, B D; Simms, N; McAdam, E J

    2015-01-01

    In this study, online Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy has been used to generate the first comprehensive characterization of full-scale carbon contactors for siloxane removal from biogas. Using FTIR, two clear operational regions within the exhaustion cycle were evidenced: an initial period of pseudo-steady state where the outlet siloxane concentration was consistently below the proposed siloxane limits; and a second period characterized by a progressive rise in outlet siloxane concentration during and after breakthrough. Due to the sharp breakthrough front identified, existing detection methods (which comprise field sampling coupled with laboratory-based chromatographic determination) are insufficiently responsive to define breakthrough, thus carbon contactors currently remain in service while providing limited protection to the combined heat and power engine. Integration of the exhaustion cycle to breakthrough identified average specific media capacities of 8.5-21.5 gsiloxane kg(-1)GAC, which are lower than that has been reported for vapour phase granular activated carbon (GAC). Further speciation of the biogas phase identified co-separation of organic compounds (alkanes and aromatics), which will inevitably reduce siloxane capacity. However, comparison of the five full-scale contactors identified that greater media capacity was accessible through operating contactors at velocities sufficient to diminish axial dispersion effects. In addition to enabling significant insight into gas phase GAC contactors, the use of FTIR for online control of GAC for siloxane removal is also presented. PMID:25413112

  1. Characterization of a water-dispersible metal protective coating with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, modulated differential scanning calorimetry, and ellipsometry.

    PubMed

    Boyatzis, Stamatis C; Douvas, Antonios M; Argyropoulos, Vassilike; Siatou, Amalia; Vlachopoulou, Marilena

    2012-05-01

    An ethylene-methacrylic acid copolymer, formulated by BASF as a waterborne suspension of its alkylammonium salt and used, among other applications, in art conservation as a temporary protective coating was characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy aided by modulated differential scanning calorimetry (MDSC) and ellipsometry. The thermal conversion of thin copolymer films from the freshly applied state, where carboxylic acid and carboxylate ion functional groups co-exist, to a purely acidic working state was spectroscopically followed. Transmission mid-infrared data of the working state showed a 1 : 12 ratio of methacrylic acid towards ethylene units. The glass transition temperature (T(g)) in the same state was found at 45 °C. Copolymer films spin-coated on mechanically polished bronze and iron coupons were characterized with transflection infrared spectroscopy and compared to corresponding transmission mid-infrared spectra of copolymer films spin-coated on silicon wafers. In the case of bronze coupons, evidence for interaction of the carboxylate ion with the copper substrate was obtained. The chemical structure and the thermal behavior of the coating, as well as some implications on its protective capability towards iron and copper alloys, is discussed as this material has received considerable attention in the field of metal conservation and coatings. PMID:22524964

  2. Fibre optic sensors for load-displacement measurements and comparisons to piezo sensor based electromechanical admittance signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maheshwari, Muneesh; Annamdas, Venu Gopal Madhav; Pang, John H. L.; Tjin, Swee Chuan; Asundi, Anand

    2015-04-01

    Structural health monitoring techniques using smart materials are on rise to meet the ever ending demand due to increased construction and manufacturing activities worldwide. The civil-structural components such as slabs, beams and columns and aero-components such as wings are constantly subjected to some or the other forms of external loading. This article thus focuses on condition monitoring due to loading/unloading cycle for a simply supported aluminum beam using multiple smart materials. On the specimen, fibre optic polarimetric sensor (FOPS) and fibre Bragg grating (FBG) sensors were glued. Piezoelectric wafer active sensor (PWAS) was also bonded at the centre of the specimen. FOPS and FBG provided the global and local strain measurements respectively whereas, PWAS predicted boundary condition variations by electromechanical admittance signatures. Thus these multiple smart materials together successfully assessed the condition of structure for loading and unloading tests.

  3. A sensitive and versatile method for characterization of protein-mediated transformations of quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Matczuk, Magdalena; Legat, Joanna; Timerbaev, Andrei R; Jarosz, Maciej

    2016-04-21

    We report the development and application of an analytical system consisting of capillary electrophoresis (CE) interfaced with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) for sensitive and high-resolution characterization of quantum dots (QDs) interacting with serum proteins. Separation resolution between the intact CdSeS/ZnS QDs and their protein conjugates was optimized by varying the type and concentration of background electrolyte, applied voltage, and sample loading. Special attention was paid to the CE system compatibility with physiological conditions, avoiding aggregation effects, and analyte recovery. Optimization trials allowed for acquiring satisfactory stability of migration times (within 6.0% between different days), peak area precision of 5.2-8.0%, capillary recoveries in the range of 90-96%, and a lower limit of detection of 7.5 × 10(-9) mol L(-1) Cd. With the developed method distinct metal-specific profiles were obtained for the QDs in combination with individual serum proteins, their mixtures, and in human serum. Particularly, it was found that albumin binding to the particle surface is completed after 1 h, without noticeable disruption of the core-shell integrity. The transferrin adsorption is accompanied by the removal of the ZnS shell, resulting in evolving two different metal-protein conjugated forms. On the other hand, proteinization in real-serum environment occurs without binding to major transport proteins, the QDs also lose their the shell (the higher the dose the longer is the time they stay unbroken). The concomitant changes in migration behavior can be attributed to interactions with serum proteins other than albumin and transferrin. Speciation information provided by CE-ICP-MS may shed light on the mechanism of QD delivery to the target regions of the body. PMID:27032066

  4. Spectral Characterizations of the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Thermistor Bolometers using Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornhill, K. Lee; Bitting, Herbert; Lee, Robert B., III; Paden, Jack; Pandey, Dhirendra K.; Priestley, Kory J.; Thomas, Susan; Wilson, Robert S.

    1998-01-01

    Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) techniques are being used to characterize the relative spectral response, or sensitivity, of scanning thermistor bolometers in the infrared (IR) region (2 - >= 100-micrometers). The bolometers are being used in the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) program. The CERES measurements are designed to provide precise, long term monitoring of the Earth's atmospheric radiation energy budget. The CERES instrument houses three bolometric radiometers, a total wavelength (0.3- >= 150-micrometers) sensor, a shortwave (0.3-5-micrometers) sensor, and an atmospheric window (8-12-micrometers) sensor. Accurate spectral characterization is necessary for determining filtered radiances for longwave radiometric calibrations. The CERES bolometers spectral response's are measured in the TRW FTS Vacuum Chamber Facility (FTS - VCF), which uses a FTS as the source and a cavity pyroelectric trap detector as the reference. The CERES bolometers and the cavity detector are contained in a vacuum chamber, while the FTS source is housed in a GN2 purged chamber. Due to the thermal time constant of the CERES bolometers, the FTS must be operated in a step mode. Data are acquired in 6 IR spectral bands covering the entire longwave IR region. In this paper, the TRW spectral calibration facility design and data measurement techniques are described. Two approaches are presented which convert the total channel FTS data into the final CERES spectral characterizations, producing the same calibration coefficients (within 0.1 percent). The resulting spectral response curves are shown, along with error sources in the two procedures. Finally, the impact of each spectral response curve on CERES data validation will be examined through analysis of filtered radiance values from various typical scene types.

  5. Secondary organic aerosol (trans)formation through aqueous phase guaiacol photonitration: chemical characterization of the products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grgić, Irena; Kitanovski, Zoran; Kroflič, Ana; Čusak, Alen

    2014-05-01

    One of the largest primary sources of organic aerosol in the atmosphere is biomass burning (BB) (Laskin et al. 2009); in Europe its contribution to annual mean of PM10 is between 3 and 14 % (Maenhaut et al. 2012). During the process of wood burning many different products are formed via thermal degradation of wood lignin. Hardwood burning produces mainly syringol (2,6-dimetoxyphenol) derivatives, while softwood burning exclusively guaiacol (2-methoxyphenol) and its derivatives. Taking into account physical properties of methoxyphenols only, their concentrations in atmospheric waters might be underestimated. So, their aqueous phase reactions can be an additional source of SOA, especially in regions under significant influence of wood combustion. An important class of compounds formed during physical and chemical aging of the primary BBA in the atmosphere is nitrocatechols, known as strong absorbers of UV and Vis light (Claeys et al. 2012). Very recently, methyl-nitrocatechols were proposed as suitable markers for highly oxidized secondary BBA (Iinuma et al. 2010, Kitanovski et al. 2012). In the present work, the formation of SOA through aqueous phase photooxidation and nitration of guaiacol was examined. The key objective was to chemically characterize the main low-volatility products and further to check their possible presence in the urban atmospheric aerosols. The aqueous phase reactions were performed in a thermostated reactor under simulated sunlight in the presence of H2O2 and nitrite. Guaiacol reaction products were first concentrated by solid-phase extraction (SPE) and then subjected to semi-preparative liquid chromatography.The main product compounds were fractionated and isolated as pure solids and their structure was further elucidated by using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H, 13C and 2D NMR) and direct infusion negative ion electro-spray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (( )ESI-MS/MS). The main photonitration products of guaiacol (4-nitroguaiacol, 6-nitroguaiacol and 4,6-dinitroguaiacol) were examined for their presence in winter aerosol samples by using an optimized HPLC-(-)ESI-MS/MS. 4-nitroguaiacol and 4,6-dinitroguaiacol were unambiguously identified in winter PM10 from Ljubljana, Slovenia, whereas the absence of 6-nitroguaiacol was further explained with the help of long-term reaction monitoring. To our knowledge, our study represents the first report on the identification of 4,6-dinitroguaiacol in ambient aerosols. Laskin, A. et al. (2009) Environ. Sci. Technol. 43, 3764-3771. Maenhaut, W. et al. (2012) Sci. Tot. Environ. 437, 226-236. Claeys, M. et al. (2012) Environ. Chem. 9, 273-284. Iinuma, Y. et al. (2010) Environ. Sci. Technol. 44, 8453-8459. Kitanovski, Z. et al. (2012)J. Chromatogr. A 1268, 35-43.

  6. Synthesis and characterization of catalysts for the selective transformation of biomass-derived materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghampson, Isaac Tyrone

    The experimental work in this thesis focuses on generating catalysts for two intermediate processes related to the thermal conversion of lignocellulosic biomass: the synthesis and characterization of mesoporous silica supported cobalt catalysts for the Fischer-Tropsch reaction, and an exploration of the reactivity of bulk and supported molybdenum-based nitride catalysts for the hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) of guaiacol, a lignin model compound. The first section of the work details the synthesis of a series of silica-supported cobalt Fischer-Tropsch catalysts with pore diameters ranging from 2-23 nm. Detailed X-ray diffraction measurements were used to determine the composition and particle diameters of the metal fraction, analyzed as a three-phase system containing Cofcc, Cohcp and CoO particles. Catalyst properties were determined at three stages in catalyst history: (1) after the initial calcination step to thermally decompose the catalyst precursor into Co3O4, (2) after the hydrogen reduction step to activate the catalyst to Co and (3) after the FT reaction. From the study, it was observed that larger pore diameters supported higher turnover frequency; smaller pore diameters yielded larger mole fraction of CoO; XRD on post-reduction and post-FTS catalyst samples indicated significant changes in dispersivity after reduction. In the next section, the catalytic behaviors of unsupported, activated carbon-, alumina-, and SBA-15 mesoporous silica-supported molybdenum nitride catalysts were evaluated for the hydrodeoxygenation of guaiacol (2-methoxy phenol) at 300°C and 5 MPa. The nitride catalysts were prepared by thermal decomposition of bulk and supported ammonium heptamolybdate to form MoO 3 followed by nitridation in either flowing ammonia or a nitrogen/hydrogen mixture. The catalytic properties were strongly affected by the nitriding and purging treatment as well as the physical and chemical properties of support. The overall reaction was influenced by the crystalline phase present in the catalyst, dispersion of molybdenum nitride/oxynitride, and the porosity of the support. The hydrodeoxygenation of guaiacol followed two proposed reaction pathways: demethylation (DME) of guaiacol to form catechol, followed by dehydroxylation to form phenol; or a direct demethoxylation (DMO) to form phenol. The selectivity of the reaction was expressed in terms of the phenol/catechol ratio. Phenol was the predominant product for all the catalysts studied, except for the alumina-supported catalysts (an effect of the alumina support). The results from this thesis are encouraging for the application of Mo nitride based catalysts for hydrodeoxygenation of whole pyrolysis oil.

  7. Air pollutant concentrations near three Texas roadways, part II: Chemical characterization and transformation of pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clements, Andrea L.; Jia, Yuling; Denbleyker, Allison; McDonald-Buller, Elena; Fraser, Matthew P.; Allen, David T.; Collins, Donald R.; Michel, Edward; Pudota, Jayanth; Sullivan, David; Zhu, Yifang

    Spatial gradients of vehicular emitted air pollutants were measured in the vicinity of three roadways in the Austin, Texas area: (1) State Highway 71 (SH-71), a heavily traveled arterial highway dominated by passenger vehicles; (2) Interstate 35 (I-35), a limited access highway north of Austin in Georgetown; and (3) Farm to Market Road 973 (FM-973), a heavily traveled surface roadway with significant truck traffic. A mobile monitoring platform was used to characterize the gradients of CO and NO x concentrations with increased distance from each roadway, while concentrations of carbonyls in the gas-phase and fine particulate matter mass and composition were measured at stationary sites upwind and at one (I-35 and FM-973) or two (SH-71) downwind sites. Regardless of roadway type or wind direction, concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO), nitric oxide (NO), and oxides of nitrogen (NO x) returned to background levels within a few hundred meters of the roadway. Under perpendicular wind conditions, CO, NO and NO x concentrations decreased exponentially with increasing distance perpendicular to the roadways. The decay rate for NO was more than a factor of two greater than for CO, and it comprised a larger fraction of NO x closer to the roadways than further downwind suggesting the potential significance of near roadway chemical processing as well as atmospheric dilution. Concentrations of most carbonyl species decreased with distance downwind of SH-71. However, concentrations of acetaldehyde and acrolein increased farther downwind of SH-71, suggesting chemical generation from the oxidation of primary vehicular emissions. The behavior of particle-bound organic species was complex and further investigation of the size-segregated chemical composition of particulate matter (PM) at increasing downwind distances from roadways is warranted. Fine particulate matter (PM 2.5) mass concentrations, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), hopanes, and elemental carbon (EC) concentrations generally exhibited concentrations that decreased with distance downwind of SH-71. Concentrations of organic carbon (OC) increased from upwind concentrations immediately downwind of SH-71 and continued to increase further downwind from the roadway. This behavior may have primarily resulted from condensation of semi-volatile organic species emitted from vehicle sources with transport downwind of the roadway.

  8. Fabrication, phase transformation studies and characterization of SiC-AlN-Al sub 2 OC ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Virkar, A.V.

    1992-01-12

    SiC and AlN are two of the important high temperature structural ceramics. AlN and the 2H polytype of SiC are isostructural. Prior work has shown that they form an extension solid solution at temperatures {ge} 2000{degrees}C. At lower temperatures, the solid solution can undergo phase separation. Additionally, Al{sub 2}OC is also isostructural and can form extensive solid solutions with SiC and AlN. The formation of solid solutions in such refractory materials as well as the tendency to undergo diffusional phase transformations suggests that a potential exists to improve properties through alloying. The principal objective of the proposed work is to examine phase relations, phase transformations, the resulting precipitate morphologies and their influence on mechanical properties of SiC-AlN-Al{sub 2}OC ceramics. Formation of modulated structures have been documented in SiC-AlN ceramics in our work. It has been shown that modulations occur along directions other than the (0001) direction and this results in the formation of a tweed type of a microstructure. In the AlN-Al{sub 2}OC system, the occurrence of cellular precipitates as well as coherent, disc-shaped precipitates has been observed. During the past year, work has progressed in the following areas: (1) Phase separation in SiC-AlN system: The effect of coherency strain energy on the precipitate morphology. (2) High temperature creep of SiC-AlN ceramics containing modulated structures and SiC-Al{sub 2}OC ceramics. (3) Fabrication and characterization of damage-resistant SiC-AlN ceramics. Three manuscripts have been submitted for publication.

  9. Fabrication, phase transformation studies and characterization of SiC-AlN-Al{sub 2}OC ceramics. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Virkar, A.V.

    1992-01-12

    SiC and AlN are two of the important high temperature structural ceramics. AlN and the 2H polytype of SiC are isostructural. Prior work has shown that they form an extension solid solution at temperatures {ge} 2000{degrees}C. At lower temperatures, the solid solution can undergo phase separation. Additionally, Al{sub 2}OC is also isostructural and can form extensive solid solutions with SiC and AlN. The formation of solid solutions in such refractory materials as well as the tendency to undergo diffusional phase transformations suggests that a potential exists to improve properties through alloying. The principal objective of the proposed work is to examine phase relations, phase transformations, the resulting precipitate morphologies and their influence on mechanical properties of SiC-AlN-Al{sub 2}OC ceramics. Formation of modulated structures have been documented in SiC-AlN ceramics in our work. It has been shown that modulations occur along directions other than the [0001] direction and this results in the formation of a tweed type of a microstructure. In the AlN-Al{sub 2}OC system, the occurrence of cellular precipitates as well as coherent, disc-shaped precipitates has been observed. During the past year, work has progressed in the following areas: (1) Phase separation in SiC-AlN system: The effect of coherency strain energy on the precipitate morphology. (2) High temperature creep of SiC-AlN ceramics containing modulated structures and SiC-Al{sub 2}OC ceramics. (3) Fabrication and characterization of damage-resistant SiC-AlN ceramics. Three manuscripts have been submitted for publication.

  10. Purification and Characterization of Catechol 1,2-Dioxygenase from Acinetobacter sp. Y64 Strain and Escherichia coli Transformants.

    PubMed

    Lin, J; Milase, R N

    2015-12-01

    This study intends to purify and characterize catechol 1,2-dioxygenase (C1,2O) of phenol-degrading Acinetobacter sp. Y64 and of E. coli transformant. Acinetobacter sp. Y64 was capable of degrading 1000 mg/L of phenol within 14 ± 2 h at 30 °C, 160 rpm and pH of 7. One C1,2O of 36 kDa was purified using ammonium sulphate precipitation and Hitrap QFF column chromatograph with 49% recovery and a 10.6-fold increase in purity. Purified Y64 C1,2O had temperature and pH optimum at 37 °C and pH 7.7 respectively with the Michaelis constant of 17.53 µM and the maximal velocity of 1.95 U/mg, respectively. The presence of Fe(3+) or Fe(2+) enhanced the activity of Y64 C1,2O while other compounds such as Ca(2+), and EDTA had an inhibitory effect. 80% of C1,2O activity remained using 4-nitrocatechol as substrate while 2% remained using 3-methylcatechol compared with that using catechol. Y64 catA gene encoding C1,2O was amplified using PCR cloned into pET22b vector and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 DE3 (pLysS) after transformation. Purified and cloned Y64 C1,2O show no significant differences in the biochemical properties. The phylogenetic tree based on the protein sequences indicates that these C1,2Os possess a common ancestry. PMID:26563518

  11. Modeling of a ring rosen-type piezoelectric transformer by Hamilton's principle.

    PubMed

    Nadal, Clément; Pigache, Francois; Erhart, Jiří

    2015-04-01

    This paper deals with the analytical modeling of a ring Rosen-type piezoelectric transformer. The developed model is based on a Hamiltonian approach, enabling to obtain main parameters and performance evaluation for the first radial vibratory modes. Methodology is detailed, and final results, both the input admittance and the electric potential distribution on the surface of the secondary part, are compared with numerical and experimental ones for discussion and validation. PMID:25881348

  12. Spatiotemporal characterization of land subsidence and uplift in Phoenix using InSAR time series and wavelet transforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Megan Marie; Shirzaei, Manoochehr

    2015-08-01

    The effects of land subsidence pose a significant hazard to the environment and infrastructure in the arid, alluvial basins of Phoenix, Arizona. Improving our understanding of the source and mechanisms of subsidence is important for planning and risk management. Here we employ multitemporal interferometric analysis of large synthetic aperture radar data sets acquired by ERS and Envisat satellites to investigate ground deformation. The ERS data sets from 1992 to 1996 and Envisat, 2003-2010, are used to generate line of sight (LOS) time series and velocities in both the ascending and descending tracks. The general deformation pattern is consistent among data sets and is characterized by three zones of subsidence and a broad zone of uplift. The multitrack Envisat LOS time series of surface deformation are inverted to obtain spatiotemporal maps of the vertical and horizontal deformation fields. We use observation wells to provide an in situ, independent data set of hydraulic head levels. Then we analyze vertical interferometric synthetic aperture radar and hydraulic head level time series using continuous wavelet transform to separate periodic signal components and the long-term trend. The isolated signal components are used to estimate the elastic storage coefficient, the inelastic skeletal storage coefficient, and compaction time constants. Together these parameters describe the storage response of an aquifer system to changes in hydraulic head and surface elevation. Understanding aquifer parameters is useful for the ongoing management of groundwater resources.

  13. Characterization of near-terahertz complementary metal-oxide semiconductor circuits using a Fourier-transform interferometer

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Arenas, D. J.; Shim, Dongha; Koukis, D. I.; Seok, Eunyoung; Tanner, D. B.; O, Kenneth K.

    2011-10-24

    Optical methods for measuring of the emission spectra of oscillator circuits operating in the 400-600 GHz range are described. The emitted power from patch antennas included in the circuits is measured by placing the circuit in the source chamber of a Fourier-transform interferometric spectrometer. The results show that this optical technique is useful for measuring circuits pushing the frontier in operating frequency. The technique also allows the characterization of the circuit by measuring the power radiated in the fundamental and in the harmonics. This capability is useful for oscillator architectures designed to cancel the fundamental and use higher harmonics. Themore » radiated power was measured using two techniques: direct measurement of the power by placing the device in front of a bolometer of known responsivity, and by comparison to the estimated power from blackbody sources. The latter technique showed that these circuits have higher emission than blackbody sources at the operating frequencies, and, therefore, offer potential spectroscopy applications.« less

  14. Novel MoO2/carbon hierarchical nano/microcomposites: synthesis, characterization, solid state transformations and thiophene HDS activity.

    PubMed

    Avendaño, Carlos; Briceño, Alexander; Méndez, Franklin J; Brito, Joaquín L; González, Gema; Cañizales, Edgar; Atencio, Reinaldo; Dieudonné, Philippe

    2013-02-28

    Novel MoO(2)/C nano/microcomposites were prepared via a bottom-up approach by hydrothermal carbonization of a solution of glucose as a carbon precursor in the presence of polyoxometalates (POMs: phosphomolybdic acid [H(3)PMo(12)O(40)] and ammonium heptamolybdate tetrahydrate [(NH(4))(6)Mo(7)O(24)]·4H(2)O). The structural characterization by FT-IR, XRPD, SEM and TEM analyses revealed the controlled formation of hierarchical MoO(2)/C composites with different morphologies: strawberry-like, based on carbon microspheres decorated with MoO(2) nanoparticles; MoO(2)/C core-shell composites; and irregular aggregates in combination with ring-like microstructures bearing amorphous Mo species. These composites can be fine-tuned by varying reaction time, glucose/POM ratio and type of POM precursor. Subsequent transformations in the solid state through calcinations of MoO(2)/C core-shell composites in air lead to hollow nanostructured molybdenum trioxide microspheres together with nanorods and plate microcrystals or cauliflower-like composites (MoO(2)/C). In addition, the MoO(2)/C composite undergoes a morphology evolution to urchin-like composites when it is calcined under nitrogen atmosphere (MoO(2)/C-N(2)). The MoO(2)/C strawberry-like and MoO(2)/C-N(2) composites were transformed into Mo carbide and nitride supported on carbon microspheres (Mo(2)C/C, MoN/C, and MoN/C-N(2)). These phases were tested as precursors in thiophene hydrodesulphurization (HDS) at 400 °C, observing the following trend in relation to the thiophene steady-state conversion: MoN/C-N(2) > MoN/C > Mo(2)C/C > MoO(2)/C-N(2) > MoO(2)/C. According to these conversion values, a direct correlation was observed between higher HDS activity and decreasing crystal size as estimated from the Scherrer equation. These results suggest that such composites represent interesting and promising precursors for HDS catalysts, where the activity and stability can be modified either by chemical or structural changes of the composites under different conditions. PMID:23243664

  15. Propagation and radiation of sound from flanged circular ducts with circumferentially varying wall admittances. I Semi-infinite ducts. II - Finite ducts with sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuller, C. R.

    1984-04-01

    Sound propagation in infinite, semiinfinite, and finite circular ducts with circumferentially varying wall admittances is investigated analytically. The infinite case is considered, and an example demonstrates the effects of wall-admittance distribution on dispersion characteristics and mode shapes. An exact solution is obtained for the semiinfinite case, a circular duct with a flanged opening: sidelobe suppression and circumferential-mode energy scattering leading to radiated-field asymmetry are found. A finite duct system with specified hard-walled pressure sources is examined in detail, evaluating reflection coefficients, transmission losses, and radiated-field directivity. Graphs and diagrams are provided, and the implications of the results obtained for the design of aircraft-turbofan inlet liners are discussed.

  16. Detailed characterization of polar compounds of residual oil in contaminated soil revealed by Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian; Zhang, Xu; Li, Guanghe

    2011-10-01

    Effects of remediation technologies on polar compounds of crude oil in contaminated soils have not been well understood when compared to hydrocarbons. In this study, ultrahigh resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) was used to characterize the changes in NSO polar compounds of crude oil and residual oil after long-term natural attenuation, biostimulation and subsequent ozonation following biostimulation of contaminated soils. N1 and O1 species, which were abundant in the crude oil, were selectively biodegraded, and species with higher double bond equivalent values and smaller carbon numbers appeared to be more resistant to microbial alteration. O2-O6 species were enriched by biodegradation and contained a large number of compounds with a high degree of unsaturation. Ozone could react with a variety of polar compounds in residual oil after biodegradation and showed high reactivity with polar species containing aromatic or multi-aliphatic rings, including the residual N1 and O1 species, naphthenic acids and unsaturated O3-O6 compounds. Fatty acids and O3-O8 species dominated by saturated alkyl compounds were resistant to ozonation or the primarily incomplete ozonation products. Principal component analysis of identified peaks in the FT-ICR MS spectra provided a comprehensive overview of the complex samples at the molecular level and the results were consistent with the detailed analysis. Taken together, these results showed the high complexity of polar compounds in residual oils after biodegradation or ozonation in contaminated soil and would contribute to a better understanding of bioremediation and ozonation processes. PMID:21777939

  17. Characterization of large amyloid fibers and tapes with Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Ridgley, Devin M; Claunch, Elizabeth C; Barone, Justin R

    2013-12-01

    Amyloids are self-assembled protein structures implicated in a host of neurodegenerative diseases. Organisms can also produce "functional amyloids" to perpetuate life, and these materials serve as models for robust biomaterials. Amyloids are typically studied using fluorescent dyes, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), or Raman spectroscopy analysis of the protein amide I region, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) because the self-assembled ?-sheet secondary structure of the amyloid can be easily identified with these techniques. Here, FT-IR and Raman spectroscopy analyses are described to characterize amyloid structures beyond just identification of the ?-sheet structure. It has been shown that peptide mixtures can self-assemble into nanometer-sized amyloid structures that then continue to self-assemble to the micrometer scale. The resulting structures are flat tapes of low rigidity or cylinders of high rigidity depending on the peptides in the mixture. By monitoring the aggregation of peptides in solution using FT-IR spectroscopy, it is possible to identify specific amino acids implicated in ?-sheet formation and higher order self-assembly. It is also possible to predict the final tape or cylinder morphology and gain insight into the structure's physical properties based on observed intermolecular interactions during the self-assembly process. Tapes and cylinders are shown to both have a similar core self-assembled ?-sheet structure. Soft tapes also have weak hydrophobic interactions between alanine, isoleucine, leucine, and valine that facilitate self-assembly. Rigid cylinders have similar hydrophobic interactions that facilitate self-assembly and also have extensive hydrogen bonding between glutamines. Raman spectroscopy performed on the dried tapes and fibers shows the persistence of these interactions. The spectroscopic analyses described could be generalized to other self-assembling amyloid systems to explain property and morphological differences. PMID:24359656

  18. Characterizing Intermittency of 4-Hz Quasi-periodic Oscillation in XTE J1550-564 Using Hilbert-Huang Transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Yi-Hao; Chou, Yi; Hu, Chin-Ping; Yang, Ting-Chang

    2015-12-01

    We present time-frequency analysis results based on the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) for the evolution of a 4-Hz low-frequency quasi-periodic oscillation (LFQPO) around the black hole X-ray binary XTE J1550-564. The origin of LFQPOs is still debated. To understand the cause of the peak broadening, we utilized a recently developed time-frequency analysis, HHT, for tracking the evolution of the 4-Hz LFQPO from XTE J1550-564. By adaptively decomposing the ˜4-Hz oscillatory component from the light curve and acquiring its instantaneous frequency, the Hilbert spectrum illustrates that the LFQPO is composed of a series of intermittent oscillations appearing occasionally between 3 and 5 Hz. We further characterized this intermittency by computing the confidence limits of the instantaneous amplitudes of the intermittent oscillations, and constructed both the distributions of the QPO’s high- and low-amplitude durations, which are the time intervals with and without significant ˜4-Hz oscillations, respectively. The mean high-amplitude duration is 1.45 s and 90% of the oscillation segments have lifetimes below 3.1 s. The mean low-amplitude duration is 0.42 s and 90% of these segments are shorter than 0.73 s. In addition, these intermittent oscillations exhibit a correlation between the oscillation’s rms amplitude and mean count rate. This correlation could be analogous to the linear rms-flux relation found in the 4-Hz LFQPO through Fourier analysis. We conclude that the LFQPO peak in the power spectrum is broadened owing to intermittent oscillations with varying frequencies, which could be explained by using the Lense-Thirring precession model.

  19. Characterization of organic matter in beef feedyard manure by ultraviolet-visible and fourier transform infrared spectroscopies.

    PubMed

    Waldrip, Heidi M; He, Zhongqi; Todd, Richard W; Hunt, James F; Rhoades, Marty B; Cole, N Andy

    2014-03-01

    Manure from beef cattle feedyards is a valuable source of nutrients and assists with maintaining soil quality. However, humification and decomposition processes occurring during feedyard manure's on-farm life cycle influence the forms, concentrations, and availability of carbon (C) and nutrients such as nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P). Improved understanding of manure organic matter (OM) chemistry will provide better estimates of potential fertilizer value of manure from different feedyard sources (e.g., manure accumulated in pens, stockpiled manure after pen scraping) and in settling basin and retention pond sediments. This will also assist with identifying factors related to nutrient loss and environmental degradation via volatilization of ammonia and nitrous oxide and nitrate leaching. We used Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) and ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopies to characterize structural and functional properties of OM and water-extractable OM (WEOM) from different sources (surface manure, manure pack, settling basin, retention pond) on a typical commercial beef feedyard in the Texas Panhandle. Results showed that as beef manure completes its on-farm life cycle, concentrations of dissolved organic C and N decrease up to 98 and 95%, respectively. The UV-vis analysis of WEOM indicated large differences in molecular weight, lignin content, and proportion of humified OM between manures from different sources. The FTIR spectra of OM and WEOM indicate preferential decomposition of fats, lipids, and proteins over aromatic polysaccharides such as lignin. Further work is warranted to evaluate how application of feedyard manure from different sources influences soil metabolic functioning and fertility. PMID:25602670

  20. Characterization of Low Temperature Ferrite/Austenite Transformations in the Heat Affected Zone of 2205 Duplex Stainless Steel Arc Welds

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, T A; Elmer, J W; Babu, S S; Vitek, J M

    2003-08-20

    Spatially Resolved X-Ray Diffraction (SRXRD) has been used to identify a previously unobserved low temperature ferrite ({delta})/austenite({gamma}) phase transformation in the heat affected zone (HAZ) of 2205 Duplex Stainless Steel (DSS) welds. In this ''ferrite dip'' transformation, the ferrite transforms to austenite during heating to peak temperatures on the order of 750 C, and re-transforms to ferrite during cooling, resulting in a ferrite volume fraction equivalent to that in the base metal. Time Resolved X-Ray Diffraction (TRXRD) and laser dilatometry measurements during Gleeble{reg_sign} thermal simulations are performed in order to verify the existence of this low temperature phase transformation. Thermodynamic and kinetic models for phase transformations, including both local-equilibrium and para-equilibrium diffusion controlled growth, show that diffusion of substitutional alloying elements does not provide a reasonable explanation for the experimental observations. On the other hand, the diffusion of interstitial alloying elements may be rapid enough to explain this behavior. Based on both the experimental and modeling results, two mechanisms for the ''ferrite dip'' transformation, including the formation and decomposition of secondary austenite and an athermal martensitic-type transformation of ferrite to austenite, are considered.

  1. Characterization of phase transformation during hot compressive deformation in a β-stabilized Ti–45Al–7Nb–0.4W–0.15B alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Bin; Liu, Yong Huang, Lan; Li, Huizhong; He, Yuehui

    2015-07-15

    A β-stabilized Ti–45Al–7Nb–0.4W–0.15B (at.%) alloy was hot deformed by uniaxial compression and the phase evolution during the compression was characterized with X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and electron probe microanalysis. The results show that modest deformation stress during hot compression restrains the γ → α transformation and the decomposition of β phase. The restrained γ → α transformation is a result of a modified equilibrium of the γ and α phases due to the applied stress, and the restrained β decomposition is a kinetic effect due to the decelerated diffusion of β-stabilizing elements caused by the compressive stress. - Highlights: • In β-stabilized TiAl alloys, hot deformation has great influence on the equilibrium of the γ, α, and β phases. • Deformation restrains the γ → α transformation. • Deformation inhibits the decomposition of the β phase.

  2. Transformational Learners: Transformational Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Marguerite

    2009-01-01

    Transformational learning, according to Mezirow (1981), involves transforming taken-for-granted frames of reference into more discriminating, flexible "habits of mind". In teacher education, transformative learning impacts on the development of students' action theories, self-efficacy and professional attributes. Although considered imperative to

  3. LOPES II-Design and Evaluation of an Admittance Controlled Gait Training Robot With Shadow-Leg Approach.

    PubMed

    Meuleman, Jos; van Asseldonk, Edwin; van Oort, Gijs; Rietman, Hans; van der Kooij, Herman

    2016-03-01

    Robotic gait training is gaining ground in rehabilitation. Room for improvement lies in reducing donning and doffing time, making training more task specific and facilitating active balance control, and by allowing movement in more degrees of freedom. Our goal was to design and evaluate a robot that incorporates these improvements. LOPES II uses an end-effector approach with parallel actuation and a minimum amount of clamps. LOPES II has eight powered degrees of freedom (hip flexion/extension, hip abduction/adduction, knee flexion/extension, pelvis forward/aft and pelvis mediolateral). All other degrees of freedom can be left free and pelvis frontal- and transversal rotation can be constrained. Furthermore arm swing is unhindered. The end-effector approach eliminates the need for exact alignment, which results in a donning time of 10-14 min for first-time training and 5-8 min for recurring training. LOPES II is admittance controlled, which allows for the control over the complete spectrum from low to high impedance. When the powered degrees of freedom are set to minimal impedance, walking in the device resembles free walking, which is an important requisite to allow task-specific training. We demonstrated that LOPES II can provide sufficient support to let severely affected patients walk and that we can provide selective support to impaired aspects of gait of mildly affected patients. PMID:26731771

  4. Performance analysis of a plasmonic sensor based on gold nanoparticle film in infrared light using the admittance loci method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brahmachari, Kaushik; Ray, Mina

    2015-02-01

    A theoretical design of surface plasmon resonance (SPR) structure operating in attenuated total reflection (ATR) mode and comprising of silicon or chalcogenide (2S2G) prism material coated with gold film having different nanoparticle sizes has been reported along with some interesting performance related simulation results at the operating wavelength of 1200 nm in infrared. The admittance loci based technique has been employed for the appropriate choice of the metal layer thickness. The sensitivity and other performance parameters of the structure based on the choice of the high index prism material and correct gold nanoparticle size have also been presented. In comparison to other conventional prism based plasmonic structures, the proposed model provides the extra degree of freedom, i.e., variations of nanoparticle size in addition to the variation in layer thickness and the use of different high index prism materials like silicon, 2S2G materials, etc. Moreover, the width of the SPR curve can be controlled by using different high index prism materials as well as by changing gold nanoparticle size. Higher sensitivity can be achieved with 2S2G while higher detection accuracy is provided by silicon as prism material.

  5. Identification and characterization of salmonella serotypes using DNA spectral characteristics by fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Analysis of DNA samples of Salmonella serotypes (Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis, Salmonella Infantis, Salmonella Heidelberg and Salmonella Kentucky) were performed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) spectrometer by placing directly in contact with a diamond attenua...

  6. Characterization of the chemical composition of soil humic acids using Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeya, Kosuke; Sleighter, Rachel L.; Hatcher, Patrick G.; Watanabe, Akira

    2015-03-01

    The composition of humic acids (HAs) with varying degrees of humification isolated from 10 common Japanese soils was characterized using negative ion mode electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry at 12 T. In particular, attention was paid to polynuclear aromatic components, which are more associated with the refractory nature of HAs and their resistance to biodegradation in soil than single C ring aromatic entities, such as lignin-like components, and aliphatic functionalities. Thousands of peaks were observed in the m/z range of 200-700, and molecular formulas were assigned to 817-2457 peaks in each sample. The molecular formulas having H/C and O/C ratios similar to those of lipid, protein, and other aliphatics with low double bond equivalents (DBE) of 0-7 were generally observed across the m/z range of 200-700. Although there were a number of molecular formulas having H/C and O/C values similar to those of lignin across the wide m/z range in the HAs with a low degree of humification, most lignin-like molecular formulas in the larger m/z range (450-650) or irrespective of m/z were lacking in the HAs with middle and high degrees of humification, respectively. These observations suggest a longer residence time for lignin monomers/dimers (and their derivatives; m/z 200-400) than larger lignin oligomers (m/z 450-650) in HA structural domains. The number of molecular formulas having H/C and O/C values similar to condensed aromatics increased with increasing degree of humification. The m/z and DBE values of condensed aromatic-like molecular formulas in the HAs with a lower degree of humification were <500 and 10-25, respectively, whilst the ranges expanded to 600 and 30-33, respectively, in the highly-humified black HAs. Kendrick mass defect analysis using a carboxyl group as the characteristic functional group found that 31, 73, and 39 molecular formulas had chain-type, net-type, and biphenyl-type condensed aromatic acids, respectively, as possible structures. Summed peak magnitudes of the condensed aromatic-like molecular formulas, in particular those with higher DBE values (>17) expected to have at least 5 rings, increased with increasing degree of humification and aromatic C content (evaluated by solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy), suggesting their contribution to the intrinsic recalcitrance of HAs in soil.

  7. Characterization of Atomic Structure, Relaxation and Phase Transformation Mechanisms in Bulk and Thin Film Amorphous Chalcogenides and Gallium Antimonide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Trenton Gerard

    This dissertation details the characterization of the atomic structure, relaxation processes and phase transformation mechanisms in a variety of chalcogenide (selenides and tellurides) and other non-oxide (Ga-Sb alloys) glasses which are highly relevant to optoelectronic and phase change memory applications. One of the principal goals of these studies is to develop a fundamental, atomistic understanding of the structure-property relationships in these materials. Variable temperature Raman spectroscopy is used to the study the structure and its temperature dependent relaxation in GexSe100-x glasses and supercooled liquids with x ≤ 33.33 %. It is shown that the compositional dependence of the relative fractions of the edge- and corner-shared GeSe4 tetrahedra is fully consistent with a structural model based on random connectivity between the tetrahedral and chain elements. Temperature-dependent structural changes involve a progressive conversion of edge-shared to corner shared GeSe4 tetrahedra with decreasing equilibration temperature. The time scale of this structural conversion agrees with both enthalpy and shear relaxation near the glass transition. The temperature dependent change in the edge- vs. corner- sharing tetrahedral speciation is shown to be related to the production of configurational entropy, indicating a connection between structural relaxation, configurational entropy, and viscous flow. A combination of Raman and 77Se nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is applied to study the structure of a series of Se-deficient GexSe100-x glasses, with 42 ≥ x ≥ 33.33. Considerable violation of chemical order in the nearest-neighbor coordination environments of the constituent atoms is observed in the stoichiometric GeSe2 glass. On the other hand, the presence of a random distribution of Ge-Ge bonds can be inferred in the Se-deficient glasses. Furthermore, the results of this study conclusively indicate that the structure of these glasses is intermediate between a randomly connected and a fully clustered network of GeSe4 tetrahedra and Se chains. Additionally, a new two-dimensional NMR spectroscopic technique is developed and applied to Ge-Se glasses that allowed the separation of isotropic and anisotropic chemical shifts. Through the analysis of the anisotropic sideband pattern in the second dimension it is possible to detect up to four distinct types of Se environments in the glass structure on the basis of their characteristic chemical shift anisotropies. 125Te NMR chemical shift systematics is established for coordination environments of Te atoms in a wide range of crystalline and glassy tellurides in the Ga-As-Sb-Te system. 125Te NMR spectroscopy is then used to investigate the short-range structure of amorphous and crystalline Ge1Sb2 Te4 and Ge2Sb2Te5 phase change alloys. Both alloys are found to consist of only heteropolar Ge/Sb-Te bonds in the amorphous and crystalline state and strong vacancy clustering in the nanocrystalline state that may facilitate a rapid displacive transformation between the amorphous and crystalline states without the need of significant atomic rearrangement or diffusion. Based on these 125Te NMR results a Te-centric model of the phase change mechanism in GST alloys is proposed. Structure and phase changes in amorphous Ga-Sb alloys are studied using synchrotron x-ray diffraction and 71Ga and 121Sb NMR spectroscopy. Pressure induced phase transformations in amorphous GaSb is shown to be consistent with the existence of an underlying polyamorphic phase transition between a low and a high-density amorphous phase. NMR results for amorphous Ga46Sb54 indicate that both Ga and Sb atoms are fourfold coordinated with 40% of these atoms participating in homopolar bonding in the as-deposited film. Subsequent crystallization into the zinc blend structure therefore requires extensive bond switching and elimination of homopolar bonds. For amorphous Ga14Sb86 both Ga and Sb atoms are found to be threefold coordinated allowing for a fast phase change kinetics although crystallization of this alloy leads to phase separation of GaSb domains in an Sb matrix, whereby all Ga becomes 4 coordinated. These structural characteristics of the amorphous and crystalline Ga-Sb alloys may have important implications in understanding the kinetics of the associated phase change process that defines the suitability of these materials for non-volatile memory applications.

  8. Numerical calculations for effects of structure of skeletal muscle on frequency-dependence of its electrical admittance and impedance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekine, Katsuhisa; Yamada, Ayumi; Kageyama, Hitomi; Igarashi, Takahiro; Yamamoto, Nana; Asami, Koji

    2015-06-01

    Numerical calculations were carried out by the finite difference method using three-dimensional models to examine effects of the structure of skeletal muscle on the frequency-dependence of its electrical admittance Y and impedance Z in transversal and longitudinal directions. In the models, the muscle cell was represented by a rectangular solid surrounded by a smooth surface membrane, and the cells were assumed to be distributed periodically. The width of the cross section of the cell, thickness of the intercellular medium, and the relative permittivities and the conductivities of the cell interior, the intercellular medium and the surface membrane were changed. Based on the results of the calculations, reported changes in Y and Z of the muscles from 1 kHz to 1 MHz were analyzed. The analyses revealed that a decreased cell radius was reasonable to explain the Y and Z of the muscles of immature rats, rats subjected to sciatic nerve crush at chronic stage and the amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) mice. Changes in Y and Z due to the sciatic nerve crush at acute stage were attributable to the decreased cell radius, the increased space between the cells, the increased permittivity of the surface membrane and the increased conductivity of the cell interior. The changes in Z due to contraction were explained by the changes in the cell radius, and the conductivities of the cell interior and the intercellular medium. The changes in Z of meat due to aging were compared with the effects of the increase in the conductivity of the surface membrane.

  9. Characterization of human vascular smooth muscle cells transformed by the early genetic region of SV40 virus.

    PubMed Central

    Legrand, A.; Greenspan, P.; Nagpal, M. L.; Nachtigal, S. A.; Nachtigal, M.

    1991-01-01

    Human arterial smooth muscle cells transfected with the plasmid pSV3-neo, which contains the SV40 virus early region and the neor gene, developed colonies of morphologically transformed cells. Five cell strains were initiated from these colonies and could be subcultivated for up to 9 months before entering a stage of crisis that ended their life span. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) molecules containing viral sequences were found free and integrated in the transformed cells. The intranuclear SV40 large T antigen and the p53 cellular protein were expressed in the transformed cells. Most of the transformed cells were spindle shaped but some were large and multinucleated. The modal chromosome numbers were in the triploid range, and aberrations, particularly dicentrics, were common. The transcripts for smooth muscle actins were significantly reduced and there were less alpha-actin filaments detected by immunofluorescence. Cytochemical staining disclosed a large accumulation of lipid droplets in the transformed cells incubated with rabbit hypercholesterolemic beta-very-low-density lipoprotein. Chemical analysis showed that cholesteryl esters were significantly elevated in these cells. Phenotypic changes induced in human vascular smooth muscle cells by SV40 early genes are similar to those found in smooth muscle cells from atherosclerotic lesions and may indicate common pathogenetic mechanisms. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:1653520

  10. Biological properties of "partial" transformation mutants of Rous sarcoma virus and characterization of their pp60src kinase.

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, D D; Beckmann, R P; Harms, E H; Nakamura, K; Weber, M J

    1981-01-01

    We have isolated mutants of Rous sarcoma virus from an unmutagenized stock of the Schmidt-Ruppin strain of Rous sarcoma virus. These mutants induce only a "partial" transformation, and the transformation properties induced show unusual properties or combinations. Cells infected with mutant CU2 have a unique "blebby" morphology, have lost surface fibronectin, form very small colonies in soft agar, and are nearly normal with respect to adhesiveness and hexose transport. Cells infected with mutant tsCU11 have a nearly normal morphology, but grow well in soft agar. Cells infected with mutant CU12 have a fusiform morphology, intermediate levels of hexose transport and fibronectin, and form very large colonies in soft agar. Because the appearance of the different parameters of transformation is dissociated in these mutant-infected cells, these data are interpreted as supporting a model in which the transforming protein pp60src interacts with more than one primary target in generating the transformed phenotype. All of the mutants display levels of pp60src kinase activity less than that of the wild type. In the case of mutant CU12, the lower kinase activity is in part a consequence of a lower steady-state amount of pp60src inside the cell. Images PMID:6163869

  11. The isolation and characterization of growth regulatory factors produced by a herpes simplex virus Type 2 transformed mouse tumor cell line, H238

    SciTech Connect

    Stagg, R.B.

    1988-01-01

    This study was performed in an attempt to associate HSV-2-transformation with specific growth factors in order to develop a testable model for HSV-2-transformation. We report here the isolation and characterization of four growth regulatory factors produced by H238, an HSV-2-transformed mouse tumor cell line. These factors were separated from the H238-CM by heparin-sepharose affinity chromatography into three peaks of mitogenic activity and a fourth containing inhibitory activity for splenocytes. The three peaks of mitogenic activity have been identified based on physiochemical characteristics: the first supported the anchorage-independent growth of EGF treated NRK-c-49 cells and resembles transforming growth factor-{beta} (TGF-{beta}); the second bound to lectin-coated sepharose beads and was sensitive to trypsin, neuroaminidase, and the reducing agent dithiothreitol (DTT) and, resembled a platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-like factor; and the third displaced ({sup 125}I)-labeled basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) in a dose-dependent fashion when tested with a radioimmune assay. The fourth peak was inhibitory for a variety of splenocyte function assays. A model for the interaction of these factors in vivo is presented with an emphasis on testability.

  12. Generation and characterization of soybean and marker-free tobacco plastid transformants over-expressing a bacterial 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase which provides strong herbicide tolerance.

    PubMed

    Dufourmantel, Nathalie; Dubald, Manuel; Matringe, Michel; Canard, Hélène; Garcon, Frédéric; Job, Claudette; Kay, Elisabeth; Wisniewski, Jean-Pierre; Ferullo, Jean-Marc; Pelissier, Bernard; Sailland, Alain; Tissot, Ghislaine

    2007-01-01

    Plant 4-hydroxyphenylpyruvate dioxygenase (HPPD) is part of the biosynthetic pathway leading to plastoquinone and vitamin E. This enzyme is also the molecular target of various new bleaching herbicides for which genetically engineered tolerant crops are being developed. We have expressed a sensitive bacterial hppd gene from Pseudomonas fluorescens in plastid transformants of tobacco and soybean and characterized in detail the recombinant lines. HPPD accumulates to approximately 5% of total soluble protein in transgenic chloroplasts of both species. As a result, the soybean and tobacco plastid transformants acquire a strong herbicide tolerance, performing better than nuclear transformants. In contrast, the over-expression of HPPD has no significant impact on the vitamin E content of leaves or seeds, quantitatively or qualitatively. A new strategy is presented and exemplified in tobacco which allows the rapid generation of antibiotic marker-free plastid transformants containing the herbicide tolerance gene only. This work reports, for the first time, the plastome engineering for herbicide tolerance in a major agronomic crop, and a technology leading to marker-free lines for this trait. PMID:17207262

  13. Characterization of KTaWO/sub 6/. H/sub 2/O

    SciTech Connect

    Mari, C.M.; Catti, M.; Castelli, A.

    1986-07-01

    The pyrochlore-type compound KTaWO/sub 6/ . H/sub 2/O has been characterized by X-ray diffraction technique, thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry. Electrical conductivity measurements have been carried out in the temperature range 25-500/sup 0/C by complex admittance method.

  14. Characterization and localization of the Campylobacter jejuni transformation system proteins CtsE, CtsP, and CtsX.

    PubMed

    Beauchamp, Jessica M; Erfurt, Rebecca S; DiRita, Victor J

    2015-02-01

    The human pathogen Campylobacter jejuni is naturally competent for transformation with its own DNA. Genes required for efficient transformation in C. jejuni include those similar to components of type II secretion systems found in many Gram-negative bacteria (R. S. Wiesner, D. R. Hendrixson, and V. J. DiRita, J Bacteriol 185:5408-5418, 2003, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JB.185.18.5408-5418.2003). Two of these, ctsE and ctsP, encode proteins annotated as putative nucleotide binding nucleoside triphosphatases (NTPases) or nucleoside triphosphate (NTP) binding proteins. Here we demonstrate that the nucleotide binding motifs of both proteins are essential for their function in transformation of C. jejuni. Localization experiments demonstrated that CtsE is a soluble protein while CtsP is membrane associated in C. jejuni. A bacterial two-hybrid screen identified an interaction between CtsP and CtsX, an integral membrane protein also required for transformation. Topological analysis of CtsX by the use of LacZ and PhoA fusions demonstrated it to be a bitopic, integral membrane protein with a cytoplasmic amino terminus and a periplasmic carboxyl terminus. Notwithstanding its interaction with membrane-localized CtsX, CtsP inherently associates with the membrane, requiring neither CtsX nor several other Cts proteins for this association. PMID:25448813

  15. Characterization and Localization of the Campylobacter jejuni Transformation System Proteins CtsE, CtsP, and CtsX

    PubMed Central

    Beauchamp, Jessica M.; Erfurt, Rebecca S.

    2014-01-01

    The human pathogen Campylobacter jejuni is naturally competent for transformation with its own DNA. Genes required for efficient transformation in C. jejuni include those similar to components of type II secretion systems found in many Gram-negative bacteria (R. S. Wiesner, D. R. Hendrixson, and V. J. DiRita, J Bacteriol 185:5408–5418, 2003, http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JB.185.18.5408-5418.2003). Two of these, ctsE and ctsP, encode proteins annotated as putative nucleotide binding nucleoside triphosphatases (NTPases) or nucleoside triphosphate (NTP) binding proteins. Here we demonstrate that the nucleotide binding motifs of both proteins are essential for their function in transformation of C. jejuni. Localization experiments demonstrated that CtsE is a soluble protein while CtsP is membrane associated in C. jejuni. A bacterial two-hybrid screen identified an interaction between CtsP and CtsX, an integral membrane protein also required for transformation. Topological analysis of CtsX by the use of LacZ and PhoA fusions demonstrated it to be a bitopic, integral membrane protein with a cytoplasmic amino terminus and a periplasmic carboxyl terminus. Notwithstanding its interaction with membrane-localized CtsX, CtsP inherently associates with the membrane, requiring neither CtsX nor several other Cts proteins for this association. PMID:25448813

  16. Diffuse-reflectance fourier-transform mid-infrared spectroscopy as a method of characterizing changes in soil organic matter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diffuse-Reflectance Fourier-Transform Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy (MidIR) can identify the presence of important organic functional groups in soil organic matter (SOM). Soils contain myriad organic and inorganic components that absorb in the MidIR so spectral interpretation needs to be validated in or...

  17. Diffuse-Reflectance Fourier-Transform Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy as a Method of Characterizing Changes in Soil Organic Matter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diffuse-Reflectance Fourier-Transform Mid-Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) can be used quickly and non destructively to identify and quantify the presence of important organic functional groups in environmental samples. However, soils contain myriad organic and inorganic components that absorb in the M...

  18. Iron nanotube-silica composite (ZVI-S-PCAT modified silica composite) preparation, characterization and application as a recyclable catalytic system for 5-membered ring organic transformations.

    PubMed

    Kour, Gurpreet; Gupta, Monika; Vishwanathan, B; Thirunavukkarasu, K

    2015-09-01

    Iron nanotube silica composite have been synthesized and studied through particle-size analysis, FTIR, SEM-EDX, TEM, XRD, UV, VSM, TGA-DTA and XPS techniques. The application of nanoframeworks as sustainable recyclable catalytic systems has been observed for azole cyclic ring organic transformations. The good reaction yields and characterization through (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and mass analysis support the performance of the nanoframeworks. We also present here the synthesis of two novel compounds. Also the prepared nanoframework has been observed to show soft magnetism which provides a scope to be used in sensing devices. PMID:26228908

  19. Study and characterization of the irreversible transformation of electrically stressed planar Ti/TiOx/Ti junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillaume, N.; Puyoo, E.; Le Berre, M.; Albertini, D.; Baboux, N.; Chevalier, C.; Ayadi, K.; Grégoire, J.; Gautier, B.; Calmon, F.

    2015-10-01

    We investigate the properties and characteristics of planar Ti/TiOx/Ti junctions, which consist of transverse TiOx lines drawn on Ti test patterns. Junctions are elaborated by means of local anodic oxidation using atomic force microscopy. An irreversible morphological transformation occurring in a reproducible manner is observed when these planar junctions are electrically stressed under ambient atmosphere. Structural and chemical analyses based on transmission electron microscopy techniques reveal the extension of the initial amorphous TiOx into a crystalline rutile phase. This irreversible transformation is proven to vanish completely if the electrical stress occurs under vacuum atmosphere. Finally, we carry out temperature dependent electrical measurements in order to elucidate their conduction mechanism: Schottky emission above an ultra-low potential barrier is assumed to dominate under vacuum atmosphere whereas ionic conduction seems to prevail in air.

  20. Fourier transform infrared and Raman spectroscopic characterization of homogeneous solution concentration gradients near a container wall at different temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loo, B. H.; Burns, D. H.; Lee, Y. G. L.; Emerson, M. T.

    1991-01-01

    Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopic techniques were used to study the solution concentration gradient in succino nitrile-rich and water-rich homogeneous solutions. The spectroscopic data shows significant concentration dependency. Although FTIR-attenuated total reflectance could not yield surface spectra since the evanescent infrared wave penetrated deep into the bulk solution, it showed that water-rich clusters were decreased at higher temperatures. This result is consistent with the calorimetric results reported earlier.

  1. Initial characterizations of nontransformed and transformed (/sup 3/H )aldosterone-type I receptor complexes in brain cytosol

    SciTech Connect

    Luttge, W.G.; Rupp, M.E.; Emadian, S.M.

    1989-04-01

    Incubation of (/sup 3/H)aldosterone-type I receptor complexes in mouse brain cytosol with the chaotropic anion thiocyanate increased the fraction of receptors retained by DNA-cellulose from less than 10% to over 40%, whereas it decreased the fraction retained by protamine sulfate from more than 90% to less than 10%. Thiocyanate-induced transformation to the DNA-binding species was also accompanied by a 2.1-fold decrease in the rate of (/sup 3/H)aldosterone dissociation from type I receptors as well as by an increase in the apparent positive charge and hydrophobicity of the surface of these receptors, as revealed by DEAE Bio-Gel ion exchange and pentyl agarose hydrophobic interaction chromatography. Sucrose density gradient sedimentation and Sephacryl S-300 gel exclusion chromatography revealed a reduction in the sedimentation coefficient and Stokes radius of the steroid-receptor complex from 9.6S and 8.0 nm before to 4.7S and 6.1 nm after transformation, respectively. These changes in hydrodynamic parameters were found to correspond to a 2.8-fold reduction in the apparent molecular mass from 331,000 before to 120,000 after transformation. In view of these various findings as well as the known differential affinity of protamine sulfate for the 90K heat shock protein, we suggest that thiocyanate-induced transformation is initiated by the dissociation of two molecules of heat shock protein from each steroid/DNA-binding type I receptor subunit.

  2. Characterization of separability and entanglement in (2xD)- and (3xD)-dimensional systems by single-qubit and single-qutrit unitary transformations

    SciTech Connect

    Giampaolo, Salvatore M.; Illuminati, Fabrizio

    2007-10-15

    We investigate the geometric characterization of pure state bipartite entanglement of (2xD)- and (3xD)-dimensional composite quantum systems. To this aim, we analyze the relationship between states and their images under the action of particular classes of local unitary operations. We find that invariance of states under the action of single-qubit and single-qutrit transformations is a necessary and sufficient condition for separability. We demonstrate that in the (2xD)-dimensional case the von Neumann entropy of entanglement is a monotonic function of the minimum squared Euclidean distance between states and their images over the set of single qubit unitary transformations. Moreover, both in the (2xD)- and in the (3xD)-dimensional cases the minimum squared Euclidean distance exactly coincides with the linear entropy [and thus as well with the tangle measure of entanglement in the (2xD)-dimensional case]. These results provide a geometric characterization of entanglement measures originally established in informational frameworks. Consequences and applications of the formalism to quantum critical phenomena in spin systems are discussed.

  3. Characterization of pHV2 from Halobacterium volcanii and its use in demonstrating transformation of an archaebacterium.

    PubMed Central

    Charlebois, R L; Lam, W L; Cline, S W; Doolittle, W F

    1987-01-01

    We determined the complete nucleotide sequence of the 6354-base-pair plasmid pHV2 of the archaebacterium Halobacterium volcanii. This plasmid is present in approximately six copies per chromosome. We have generated a strain, H. volcanii WFD11, cured of pHV2 by treatment of liquid cultures with ethidium bromide. We describe PEG-mediated transformation of H. volcanii WFD11 with intact pHV2 and with a form of pHV2 marked by a 93-base-pair deletion generated in vitro. Images PMID:2825193

  4. Resin characterization in cured graphite fiber reinforced composites using diffuse reflectance-FTIR. [Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, P. R.; Stein, B. A.; Chang, A. C.

    1983-01-01

    The feasibility of using diffuse reflectance in combination with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to obtain information on cured graphite fiber reinforced polymeric matrix resin composites was investigated. Several graphite/epoxy, polysulfone, and polyimide composites exposed to thermal or radiation environments were examined. An experimental polyimide-sulfone adhesive tape was also studied during processing. In each case, significant changes in resin molecular structure was observed due to environmental exposure. These changes in molecular structure were correlated with previously observed changes in material properties providing new insights into material behavior.

  5. Synchrotron radiation-based Fourier-transform infrared spectromicroscopy for characterization of the protein/peptide distribution in single microspheres

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Manli; Lu, Xiaolong; Yin, Xianzhen; Tong, Yajun; Peng, Weiwei; Wu, Li; Li, Haiyan; Yang, Yan; Gu, Jingkai; Xiao, Tiqiao; Chen, Min; Zhang, Jiwen

    2015-01-01

    The present study establishes a visualization method for the measurement of the distribution and localization of protein/peptide constituents within a single poly-lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA) microsphere using synchrotron radiation–based Fourier-transform infrared spectromicroscopy (SR-FTIR). The representative infrared wavenumbers specific for protein/peptide (Exenatide) and excipient (PLGA) were identified and chemical maps at the single microsphere level were generated by measuring and plotting the intensity of these specific bands. For quantitative analysis of the distribution within microspheres, Matlab software was used to transform the map file into a 3D matrix and the matrix values specific for the drug and excipient were extracted. Comparison of the normalized SR-FTIR maps of PLGA and Exenatide indicated that PLGA was uniformly distributed, while Exenatide was relatively non-uniformly distributed in the microspheres. In conclusion, SR-FTIR is a rapid, nondestructive and sensitive detection technology to provide the distribution of chemical constituents and functional groups in microparticles and microspheres. PMID:26579456

  6. Genetic transformation, recovery, and characterization of fertile soybean transgenic for a synthetic Bacillus thuringiensis cryIAc gene.

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, C N; Adang, M J; All, J N; Boerma, H R; Cardineau, G; Tucker, D; Parrott, W A

    1996-01-01

    Somatic embryos of jack, a Glycine max (L.) Merrill cultivar, were transformed using microprojectile bombardment with a synthetic Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal crystal protein gene (Bt cryIAc) driven by the 35S promoter and linked to the HPH gene. Approximately 10 g of tissue was bombarded, and three transgenic lines were selected on hygromycin-containing media and converted into plants. The recovered lines contained the HPH gene, but the Bt gene was lost in one line. The plasmid was rearranged in the second line, and the third line had two copies, one of which was rear-ranged. The CryIAc protein accumulated up to 46 ng mg-1 extractable protein. In detached-leaf bioassays, plants with an intact copy of the Bt gene, and to a lesser extent those with the rearranged copy, were protected from damage from corn earworm (Helicoverpa zea), soybean looper (Pseudoplusia includens), tobacco budworm (Heliothis virescens), and velvetbean caterpillar (Anticarsia gemmatalis). Corn earworm produced less than 3% defoliation on transgenic plants, compared with 20% on the lepidopteran-resistant breeding line GatIR81-296, and more than 40% on susceptible cultivars. Unlike previous reports of soybean transformation using this technique, all plants were fertile. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a soybean transgenic for a highly expressed insecticidal gene. PMID:8819322

  7. Characterizing a large shear-zone with seismic and magnetotelluric methods: The case of the Dead Sea Transform

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maercklin, N.; Bedrosian, P.A.; Haberland, C.; Ritter, O.; Ryberg, T.; Weber, M.; Weckmann, U.

    2005-01-01

    Seismic tomography, imaging of seismic scatterers, and magnetotelluric soundings reveal a sharp lithologic contrast along a ???10 km long segment of the Arava Fault (AF), a prominent fault of the southern Dead Sea Transform (DST) in the Middle East. Low seismic velocities and resistivities occur on its western side and higher values east of it, and the boundary between the two units coincides partly with a seismic scattering image. At 1-4 km depth the boundary is offset to the east of the AF surface trace, suggesting that at least two fault strands exist, and that slip occurred on multiple strands throughout the margin's history. A westward fault jump, possibly associated with straightening of a fault bend, explains both our observations and the narrow fault zone observed by others. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.

  8. Characterization of plasmonic hole arrays as transparent electrical contacts for organic photovoltaics using high-brightness Fourier transform methods

    PubMed Central

    Camino, Fernando E.; Nam, Chang-Yong; Pang, Yutong T.; Hoy, Jessica; Eisaman, Matthew D.; Black, Charles T.; Sfeir, Matthew Y.

    2014-01-01

    We present a methodology for probing light-matter interactions in prototype photovoltaic devices consisting of an organic semiconductor active layer with a semitransparent metal electrical contact exhibiting surface plasmon-based enhanced optical transmission. We achieve high-spectral irradiance in a spot size of less than 100 μm using a high-brightness laser-driven light source and appropriate coupling optics. Spatially resolved Fourier transform photocurrent spectroscopy in the visible and near-infrared spectral regions allows us to measure external quantum efficiency with high sensitivity in small-area devices (<1 mm2). This allows for rapid fabrication of variable-pitch sub-wavelength hole arrays in metal films for use as transparent electrical contacts, and evaluation of the evanescent and propagating mode coupling to resonances in the active layer. PMID:25705085

  9. Isolation and characterization of human prorenin secreted from murine cells transformed with a bovine papillomavirus-preprorenin expression vector

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, D.B.; Weighous, T.F.; Cornette, J.C.; Tarpley, W.G.; Sharma, S.K.

    1987-07-01

    The authors report the construction of a plasmid-based expression vector that carries the murine metallothionein gene promoter, the human preprorenin gene, the Tn5 phosphotransferase gene, and a complete bovine papilloma virus genome. Murine cells transformed with this vector constitutively secrete high levels of human prorenin as determined by immunoprecipitation of culture media with anti-human renin antibody and activity assays. An immunoaffinity system for the isolation of human prorenin from serum-free media, or media containing serum, was developed. Purified human prorenin is stable for months and is fully activated to enzymatically mature renin by limited tryptic digestion. This is the first example of a recombinant system leading to the isolation of research quantities of highly pure and fully activatable human prorenin.

  10. Thermal behavior of silicone rubber-based ceramizable composites characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and microcalorimetry.

    PubMed

    Anyszka, Rafał; Bieliński, Dariusz M; Jędrzejczyk, Marcin

    2013-12-01

    Ceramizable (ceramifiable) silicone rubber-based composites are commonly used for cable insulation. These materials are able to create a protective ceramic layer during fire due to the ceramization process, which occurs at high temperature. When the temperature is increased, the polymer matrix is degraded and filler particles stick together by the fluxing agent, producing a solid, continuous ceramic phase that protects the copper wire from heat and mechanical stress. Despite increasing interest in these materials that has resulted in growing applications in the cable industry, their thermal behavior and ceramization process are still insufficiently described in the literature. In this paper, the thermal behavior of ceramizable silicone rubber-based composites is studied using microcalorimetry and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The analysis of the experimental data made it possible to develop complete information on the mechanism of composite ceramization. PMID:24359658

  11. Fabrication, phase transformation studies and characterization of SiC-AlN-Al sub 2 OC ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Virkar, A.N.

    1991-01-11

    The principal objective of the work has been to examine phase relations, phase transformations, the resulting precipitate morphologies and their influence on high temperature creep of the SiC-A1N-Al{sub 2}OC ceramics. This system was chosen as prior work has shown the existence of extensive of solid solubility at elevated temperatures and tendency for phase separation at lower temperatures. Phase separation by cellular precipitation as well as by the formation of modulated structures has been documented. The directions of modulations can be rationalized in terms of elastic strain energy considerations of the coherent precipitates. The shapes of the precipitates are also in accord with theoretical predictions. This report briefly describes the mechanisms of phase decomposition with particular emphasis on the role of elastic strain energy, the work on electron microscopic examination of modulated structures, and results of creep studies. 9 refs., 7 figs.

  12. Characterization of hyaluronate binding proteins isolated from 3T3 and murine sarcoma virus transformed 3T3 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Turley, E.A.; Moore, D.; Hayden, L.J.

    1987-06-02

    A hyaluronic acid binding fraction was purified from the supernatant media of both 3T3 and murine sarcoma virus (MSV) transformed 3T3 cultures by hyaluronate and immunoaffinity chromatography. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis resolved the hyaluronate affinity-purified fraction into three major protein bands of estimated molecular weight (M/sub r,e/) 70K, 66K, and 56K which contained hyaluronate binding activity and which were termed hyaluronate binding proteins (HABP). Hyaluronate affinity chromatography combined with immunoaffinity chromatography, using antibody directed against the larger HABP, allowed a 20-fold purification of HABP. Fractions isolated from 3T3 supernatant medium also contained additional binding molecules in the molecular weight range of 20K. This material was present in vanishingly small amounts and was not detected with a silver stain or with (/sup 35/S)methionine label. The three protein species isolated by hyaluronate affinity chromatography (M/sub r,e/ 70K, 66K, and 56K) were related to one another since they shared antigenic determinants and exhibited similar pI values. In isocratic conditions, HABP occurred as aggregates of up to 580 kilodaltons. Their glycoprotein nature was indicated by their incorporation of /sup 3/H-sugars. Enzyme-linked immunoadsorbent assay showed they were antigenically distinct from other hyaluronate binding proteins such as fibronectin, cartilage link protein, and the hyaluronate binding region of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan. The results are discussed with regard both to the functional significance of hyaluronate-cell surface interactions in transformed as well as normal cells and to the relationship of HABP to other reported hyaluronate binding proteins.

  13. Suitability of the normalized difference vegetation index and the adjusted transformed soil-adjusted vegetation index for spatially characterizing loggerhead shrike habitats in North American mixed prairie

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Li; He, Yuhong; Guo, Xulin

    2013-01-01

    Habitat loss has become one major cause of prairie loggerhead shrike population decline, which is associated with some important grassland biophysical features. However, our understanding of what and how biophysical variables can spatially characterize shrike habitats is poor. The purpose of this study is to investigate the suitability of two vegetation indices (VIs) for spatially characterizing shrike habitats in North American mixed prairies. Our research, conducted in Grasslands National Park of Canada, is based on the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and the adjusted transformed soil-adjusted vegetation index (ATSAVI) as derived from both in situ measurements and SPOT imagery for three types of nesting categories at three spatial scales. Our results demonstrated that shrikes in mixed North American prairies prefer sparsely vegetated areas with a leaf area index less than 2.01 and shrub cover of around 25%. Our results also demonstrated that ATSAVI is superior to NDVI in estimating vegetation abundance and structure. Loggerhead shrikes seems to prefer habitats characterized by NDVI ranging from 0.562 to 0.616 and ATSAVI ranging from 0.319 to 0.372 with the spatial scale varying from 100 to 20 m. ATSAVI also had better performance in detecting the spatial variation of shrike habitats due to its higher sensitivity to background information.

  14. Preparation, Characterization and Microelectronic Applications of Langmuir Blodgett Films.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maccagno, Pierre Luigi

    This thesis evaluates the use of ultrathin Langmuir Blodgett (LB) films in semiconductor technology. Three different applications are explored: electron-beam resists, dielectric films, and tunneling dimension insulators. Deposition processes are established for LB films of cadmium brassidate, and Poly-Methyl-Methacrylate (PMMA). Film are characterized on the water subphase of the LB trough with a Wilhelmy balance and on various substrates with X-ray diffraction, Grazing Incidence Reflection Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (GIR FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Ellipsometry, Scanning Tunnelling Microscopy (STM) and electrical conduction and admittance measurements. Ultrathin PMMA LB films are shown to behave as excellent e-beam resists. PMMA LB films 10.5nm thick (13 monolayers) have pinhole densities (10/cm^2 ) three orders of magnitude smaller than those spin cast films of the same thickness. Furthermore, the same PMMA LB film thickness is able to protect a 50nm Cr underlayer for well over 13 minutes from chemical etchants. Low energy e-beam exposure of ultrathin PMMA LB films was demonstrated with the STM. The advantages of the STM as a lithography tool is that small diameter (<50nm) low energy (20eV to 100eV) e-beams may be used with LB resist films to obtain submicron resolution and reduced proximity effects due to less scattering of electrons within the ultrathin LB resist. Electrical conduction and admittance of metal/insulator/metal capacitors are studied for various thickness LB PMMA films, and electrode materials. Capacitors with Au electrodes were shorted due to pinholes in the LB film. Shorts were not observed with Al electrodes as a result of the native alumina. The thickness and dielectric constant of PMMA monolayers and Al_2O_3 are obtained. Diverse conduction mechanisms are proposed for Al electrode capacitors separated by no PMMA film; one monolayer; and three or more monolayers. Electrical properties of Au/PMMA/n-Si diodes with various thickness LB PMMA films was investigated. Inversion of the Si surface was not possible due to leakage of minority carriers through pinholes in the PMMA. MIS diodes incorporating LB PMMA films thinner than 4nm were shown to perform as solar cells with a larger open circuit voltage and efficiency compared to MS diodes.

  15. On the Laplace transform for distributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, D. B.

    1975-01-01

    A new characterization of the Laplace transform for Schwartz distributions is developed, using sequences of linear transformations on the space of distributions. The standard theorems on analyticity, uniqueness and invertibility of the transform are proved, using the new characterization as the definition of the Laplace transform. It is shown that this sequential definition is equivalent to Schwartz's extension of the ordinary Laplace transform to distributions which he obtained from the Fourier transform.

  16. Characterization of a new melanocyte-specific gene (QNR-71) expressed in v-myc-transformed quail neuroretina.

    PubMed Central

    Turque, N; Denhez, F; Martin, P; Planque, N; Bailly, M; Bègue, A; Stéhelin, D; Saule, S

    1996-01-01

    Quail neuroretina cells (QNR) infected with the v-myc-expressing retrovirus MC29 become pigmented after several passages in vitro. After differential screening of a cDNA library constructed from these cells, we have isolated a cDNA clone (QNR-71) which identifies an RNA expressed only in the pigmented layer of the retina and in the epidermis. This gene can also be induced in other cell types transformed by MC29, suggesting that QNR-71 may be regulated by the v-myc protein. Sequence analysis showed that the QNR-71 cDNA exhibits stretches of homologies with melanosomal proteins encoding genes. From bacterially expressed QNR-71 peptides we obtained rabbit antisera able to specifically recognize two proteins of 95 and 100 kDa in pigmented retinal cells, but not in the neuroretina. To study the regulation of QNR-71, we used promoter fragments linked to the CAT reporter gene, in transient co-expression assay. We observed an increase in CAT expression with a c-MYC and microphtalmia (mi) expression vectors. Both MYC and mi activate the QNR-71 promoter through direct binding to a CATGTG site present in the promoter fragment. Images PMID:8670835

  17. Characterization of the surfaces of platinum/tin oxide based catalysts by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keiser, Joseph T.; Upchurch, Billy T.

    1990-01-01

    A Pt/SnO2 catalyst has been developed at NASA Langley that is effective for the oxidation of CO at room temperature (1). A mechanism has been proposed to explain the effectiveness of this catalyst (2), but most of the species involved in this mechanism have not been observed under actual catalytic conditions. A number of these species are potentially detectable by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), e.g., HOSnO sub x, HO sub y PtO sub z, Pt-CO, and SnHCO3. Therefore a preliminary investigation was conducted to determine what might be learned about this particular catalyst by transmission FTIR. The main advantage of FTIR for this work is that the catalyst can be examined under conditions similar to the actual catalytic conditions. This can be of critical importance since some surface species may exist only when the reaction gases are present. Another advantage of the infrared approach is that since vibrations are probed, subtle chemical details may be obtained. The main disadvantage of this approach is that FTIR is not nearly as sensitive as the Ultra High Vacuum (UHV) surface analytical techniques such as Auger, Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis (ESCA), Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy (EELS), etc. Another problem is that the assignment of the observed infrared bands may be difficult.

  18. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopic characterization and optimization of Pb(II) biosorption by fish (Labeo rohita) scales.

    PubMed

    Nadeem, Raziya; Ansari, Tariq Mahmood; Khalid, Ahmad Mukhtar

    2008-08-15

    The present study reports the use of locally available fish (Labeo rohita) scales for Pb(II) removal from aqueous solutions under different experimental conditions. Maximum Pb(II) adsorption (196.8 mg g(-1)) occurred at pH 3.5. Pb(II) sorption was found to be pH, dose, initial metal concentration, contact time and shaking speed dependent while particle size and temperature independent. Experimental data of Pb(II) biosorption onto fish scales fitted well to Freundlich isotherm model in comparison to the model of Langmuir. The fast adsorption process in first 30 min followed by subsequent slow adsorption rate was suitably described by pseudo-second order model. In addition, this study was designed to evaluate the effect of physical and chemical pretreatments on surface properties of fish scales by the application of Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopic analysis. Physical pretreatments resulted in partial degradation of some functional groups. Alkaline pretreatments of fish scales did not have any significant influence on the nature of functional groups responsible for Pb(II) uptake, while acidic pretreatments resulted in degeneration of the most of functional groups on biosorbent cell wall. FTIR analysis confirmed the involvement of amino, carboxylic, phosphate and carbonyl groups in Pb(II) biosorption by fish scales. PMID:18242826

  19. Efficient Heterologous Transformation of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii npq2 Mutant with the Zeaxanthin Epoxidase Gene Isolated and Characterized from Chlorella zofingiensis

    PubMed Central

    Couso, Inmaculada; Cordero, Baldo F.; Vargas, María Ángeles; Rodríguez, Herminia

    2012-01-01

    In the violaxanthin cycle, the violaxanthin de-epoxidase and zeaxanthin epoxidase catalyze the inter-conversion between violaxanthin and zeaxanthin in both plants and green algae. The zeaxanthin epoxidase gene from the green microalga Chlorella zofingiensis (Czzep) has been isolated. This gene encodes a polypeptide of 596 amino acids. A single copy of Czzep has been found in the C. zofingiensis genome by Southern blot analysis. qPCR analysis has shown that transcript levels of Czzep were increased after zeaxanthin formation under high light conditions. The functionality of Czzep gene by heterologous genetic complementation in the Chlamydomonas mutant npq2, which lacks zeaxanthin epoxidase (ZEP) activity and accumulates zeaxanthin in all conditions, was analyzed. The Czzep gene was adequately inserted in the pSI105 vector and expressed in npq2. The positive transformants were able to efficiently convert zeaxanthin into violaxanthin, as well as to restore their maximum quantum efficiency of the PSII (Fv/Fm). These results show that Chlamydomonas can be an efficient tool for heterologous expression and metabolic engineering for biotechnological applications. PMID:23118714

  20. Efficient heterologous transformation of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii npq2 mutant with the zeaxanthin epoxidase gene isolated and characterized from Chlorella zofingiensis.

    PubMed

    Couso, Inmaculada; Cordero, Baldo F; Vargas, María Ángeles; Rodríguez, Herminia

    2012-09-01

    In the violaxanthin cycle, the violaxanthin de-epoxidase and zeaxanthin epoxidase catalyze the inter-conversion between violaxanthin and zeaxanthin in both plants and green algae. The zeaxanthin epoxidase gene from the green microalga Chlorella zofingiensis (Czzep) has been isolated. This gene encodes a polypeptide of 596 amino acids. A single copy of Czzep has been found in the C. zofingiensis genome by Southern blot analysis. qPCR analysis has shown that transcript levels of Czzep were increased after zeaxanthin formation under high light conditions. The functionality of Czzep gene by heterologous genetic complementation in the Chlamydomonas mutant npq2, which lacks zeaxanthin epoxidase (ZEP) activity and accumulates zeaxanthin in all conditions, was analyzed. The Czzep gene was adequately inserted in the pSI105 vector and expressed in npq2. The positive transformants were able to efficiently convert zeaxanthin into violaxanthin, as well as to restore their maximum quantum efficiency of the PSII (Fv/Fm). These results show that Chlamydomonas can be an efficient tool for heterologous expression and metabolic engineering for biotechnological applications. PMID:23118714

  1. Characterization of copper surfaces used in electronic circuit boards by reflectance FT-IR[Fouier Transform - Infrared

    SciTech Connect

    Sloan, J.M.; Pergantis, C.G.

    2000-07-01

    Organic and organo-metallic coatings are presently being applied over bare copper as an approach to improve the co-planarity of circuit boards. Conformal organic solderability preservative coatings (OSP) are environmentally and economically advantageous over the more commonly used lead based coatings. Problems arise in assessing the solderability of the bare copper and the integrity of the organic coating. Specular reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) was utilized to monitor and evaluate the formation of Cu oxides occurring on copper substrates used in the manufacturing of electronic circuit boards. Previous studies reported the utility of this technique. By measuring the oxide and protective coating characteristics of these surfaces, their solderability performance can rapidly be evaluated in a manufacturing environment. OSP coated test specimens were subjected to hot-dry and hot-wet environmental conditions using MIL-STD-202F and MIL-STD-883E as guides. The resultant FT-IR spectra provided clear evidence for the formation of various Cu oxides at the Cu/OSP interface over exposure time, for the samples subjected to the hot-dry environment. IR spectral bands consistent with O-Cu-O and Cu{sub 2}O{sub 2} formation appear, while very minimal deterioration to the OSP coating was observed. The appearance of the Cu oxide layers grew steadily with increased environmental exposure. Specimens subjected to the hot-wet conditions showed no significant signs of deterioration. The IR data can be directly correlated to solderability performance as evaluated by wet balance testing.

  2. Molecular characterization of inhibiting biochar water-extractable substances using electrospray ionization fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Smith, Cameron R; Sleighter, Rachel L; Hatcher, Patrick G; Lee, James W

    2013-01-01

    Biochar has gained significant interest worldwide for its potential use as both a carbon sequestration technique and soil amendment. Recently, research has shown that pinewood-derived biochar water extracts inhibited the growth of aquatic photosynthetic microorganisms, both prokaryotic and eukaryotic algae, while chicken litter- and peanut shell-derived biochar water extracts showed no growth inhibition. With the use of electrodialysis, the pinewood-derived biochar water extract is separated into 3 fractions (anode-isolated, center chamber retained, and cathode-isolated substances) all with varying toxic effects. Because of its ultrahigh resolution and mass precision, electrospray ionization (ESI) coupled to Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR-MS) is utilized in this study to analyze biochar water extracts at a molecular level to enhance our understanding of the toxic nature of pinewood-derived biochar water extracts as compared to benign peanut shell-derived biochar water extracts. The molecular composition of pinewood-derived biochar water extracts shows unique carbohydrate ligneous components and sulfur containing condensed ligneous components that are both absent from the peanut shell water extracts and more prevalent in the anode-isolated substances. Using Kendrick mass defect analysis, we also determine that the most likely inhibitor species contain carboxyl and hydroxyl homologous series, both of which are characteristic functional groups hypothesized in our previous research for the inhibitor species. We have suggested that inhibition of aquatic photosynthetic microorganism growth is most likely due to degraded lignin-like species rich in oxygen containing functionalities. From the study conducted here, we show the potential of ultrahigh resolution FTICR-MS as a valuable analytical technique for determining whether certain biochars are safe and benign for use as carbon sequestration and soil amendment. PMID:24180747

  3. Structural characterization of the latent complex between transforming growth factor beta 1 and beta 1-latency-associated peptide.

    PubMed Central

    McMahon, G A; Dignam, J D; Gentry, L E

    1996-01-01

    The formation of a non-covalent complex between mature transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-beta 1) and its pro region, the beta 1-latency-associated peptide (beta 1-LAP), is important in regulating the activity of this multipotent growth factor. We have overexpressed simian beta 1-LAP in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells to produce a cell line which secretes beta 1-LAP into the culture medium at > 1 mg/l, thus enabling structural studies of complex formation between beta 1-LAP and TGF-beta 1. The simian beta 1-LAP expressed in CHO cells reversed the growth inhibitory effect of exogenous TGF-beta 1 on Mv1Lu (mink lung epithelial) cells and was able to form a cross-linked complex with 125I-TGF-beta 1. Simian beta 1-LAP was purified to homogeneity by a combination of ammonium sulphate precipitation, gel filtration, dye ligand chromatography and anion-exchange chromatography, with a yield of 15%. The purified protein had an apparent molecular mass of 114 kDa as determined by SDS/PAGE, which is greater than that determined for the transient expression of simian beta 1-LAP in COS-1 and for the simian precursor of TGF-beta 1 (pro-TGF-beta 1) in CHO cells, this major difference being due to more extensive glycosylation of beta 1-LAP expressed by this CHO clone. Far-UV CD spectroscopy of simian beta 1-LAP indicates a mostly beta-sheet structure, with extensive structural rearrangements occurring upon formation of the latent complex between TGF-beta 1 and beta 1-LAP. PMID:8546705

  4. Electronic properties of the Cu2ZnSn(Se,S)4 absorber layer in solar cells as revealed by admittance spectroscopy and related methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunawan, Oki; Gokmen, Tayfun; Warren, Charles W.; Cohen, J. David; Todorov, Teodor K.; Barkhouse, D. Aaron R.; Bag, Santanu; Tang, Jiang; Shin, Byungha; Mitzi, David B.

    2012-06-01

    Admittance spectra and drive-level-capacitance profiles of several high performance Cu2ZnSn(Se,S)4 (CZTSSe) solar cells with bandgap ˜1.0-1.5 eV are reported. In contrast to the case for Cu(In,Ga)(S,Se)2, the CZTSSe capacitance spectra exhibit a dielectric freeze out to the geometric capacitance plateau at moderately low frequencies and intermediate temperatures (120-200 K). These spectra reveal important information regarding the bulk properties of the CZTSSe films, such as the dielectric constant and a dominant acceptor with energy level of 0.13-0.2 eV depending on the bandgap. This deep acceptor leads to a carrier freeze out effect that quenches the CZTSSe fill factor and efficiency at low temperatures.

  5. Remote characterization of dominant wavelengths of surface folds on lava flows using Lidar and Discrete Fourier Transform analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deardorff, N.; Cashman, K.

    2014-12-01

    The crust of lava flows (of all compositions) is commonly folded into arcuate ridges, bent such that the convex ridges point down flow. In theory, the geometry of flow surface folds can be used to constrain the thickness and viscosity of the folding layer (from the fold wavelength) and the compressional stress (from the fold amplitude). Crustal thickness is controlled primarily by lava composition and extent of cooling. Therefore, lavas of more evolved compositions (higher silica content) have thicker crusts, which should generate surface folds with larger wavelengths. We have determined the characteristic scale of surface folds using 1000m along-channel segments from Lidar-derived 3D Digital Terrain Models over a range of lava compositions (53-72 wt% SiO2). All profiles were analyzed by discrete Fourier transform (DFT) analysis in Matlab, used to determine the spatial scale of periodic surface features. The DFT periodograms produce 1D arrays of spectral density over a range of spatial frequencies, which describe the amplitude and spatial scale (wavelength) of lava surface topography. The DFT analysis allows for unbiased measurements of dominant surface fold wavelengths as well as identification of primary and secondary folds (i.e. folds within folds). Measurements of multiple fold generations are not possible from satellite images or in the field on intermediate to high silica blocky lavas. In our analyses, strong signals of surface periodicities were found at multiple frequencies for all lava flows, indicating multiple generations of surface folds. Additionally, mafic to intermediate lavas (<60 wt% SiO2) show a positive correlation between dominant fold wavelengths and wt% silica. This correlation breaks down with high silica lavas (>65 wt% SiO2) which have a much larger range in dominant wavelength (10 - >100m). The deviation in expected dominant wavelengths for high silica flows is likely explained by effective viscosity, which is strongly influenced by lava crystallinity. Crystallization both adds solid particles to the lava, increasing the effective viscosity, and increases the silica content (and viscosity) of the remaining matrix melt. Therefore, dominant surface fold wavelengths likely increase with increasing effective viscosity, rather than more evolved compositions.

  6. Identification and characterization of an anti-oxidative stress-associated mutant of Aspergillus fumigatus transformed by Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    PubMed

    Fan, Zhongqi; Yu, Huimei; Guo, Qi; He, Dan; Xue, Baiji; Xie, Xiangli; Yokoyama, Koji; Wang, Li

    2016-03-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is one of the most common opportunistic pathogenic fungi, surviving in various environmental conditions. Maintenance of the redox homeostasis of the fungus relies upon the well‑organized regulation between reactive oxygen species generated by immune cells or its own organelles, and the activated anti‑oxidative stress mechanism. To investigate such a mechanism, the present study obtained a number of randomly‑inserted mutants of A. fumigatus, mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. In addition, a high throughput hydrogen peroxide screening system was established to examine ~1,000 mutants. A total of 100 mutants exhibited changes in hydrogen peroxide sensitivity, among which a significant increase in sensitivity was observed in the AFM2658 mutant. Further investigations of the mutant were also performed, in which the sequence of this mutant was characterized using thermal asymmetric interlaced‑polymerase chain reaction. This revealed that the insertion site was located on chromosome 2 afu1_92, and the 96 bp sequence was knocked out, which partially comprised a sequence localized between the integral membrane protein coding region and the helix‑loop‑helix transcription factor coding region. A decrease in the levels of anti‑oxidative stress‑associated mRNAs were observed, and an increase in reactive oxygen species were detected using fluorescence. The results of the present study demonstrated that this sequence may have a protective role in A. fumigatus in the presence of oxidative stress. PMID:26847000

  7. Identification and characterization of an anti-oxidative stress-associated mutant of Aspergillus fumigatus transformed by Agrobacterium tumefaciens

    PubMed Central

    FAN, ZHONGQI; YU, HUIMEI; GUO, QI; HE, DAN; XUE, BAIJI; XIE, XIANGLI; YOKOYAMA, KOJI; WANG, LI

    2016-01-01

    Aspergillus fumigatus is one of the most common opportunistic pathogenic fungi, surviving in various environmental conditions. Maintenance of the redox homeostasis of the fungus relies upon the well-organized regulation between reactive oxygen species generated by immune cells or its own organelles, and the activated anti-oxidative stress mechanism. To investigate such a mechanism, the present study obtained a number of randomly-inserted mutants of A. fumigatus, mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. In addition, a high throughput hydrogen peroxide screening system was established to examine ~1,000 mutants. A total of 100 mutants exhibited changes in hydrogen peroxide sensitivity, among which a significant increase in sensitivity was observed in the AFM2658 mutant. Further investigations of the mutant were also performed, in which the sequence of this mutant was characterized using thermal asymmetric interlaced-polymerase chain reaction. This revealed that the insertion site was located on chromosome 2 afu1_92, and the 96 bp sequence was knocked out, which partially comprised a sequence localized between the integral membrane protein coding region and the helix-loop-helix transcription factor coding region. A decrease in the levels of anti-oxidative stress-associated mRNAs were observed, and an increase in reactive oxygen species were detected using fluorescence. The results of the present study demonstrated that this sequence may have a protective role in A. fumigatus in the presence of oxidative stress. PMID:26847000

  8. Catalytic coherence transformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bu, Kaifeng; Singh, Uttam; Wu, Junde

    2016-04-01

    Catalytic coherence transformations allow the otherwise impossible state transformations using only incoherent operations with the aid of an auxiliary system with finite coherence that is not being consumed in any way. Here we find the necessary and sufficient conditions for the deterministic and stochastic catalytic coherence transformations between a pair of pure quantum states. In particular, we show that the simultaneous decrease of a family of Rényi entropies of the diagonal parts of the states under consideration is a necessary and sufficient condition for the deterministic catalytic coherence transformations. Similarly, for stochastic catalytic coherence transformations we find the necessary and sufficient conditions for achieving a higher optimal probability of conversion. We thus completely characterize the coherence transformations among pure quantum states under incoherent operations. We give numerous examples to elaborate our results. We also explore the possibility of the same system acting as a catalyst for itself and find that indeed self-catalysis is possible. Further, for the cases where no catalytic coherence transformation is possible we provide entanglement-assisted coherence transformations and find the necessary and sufficient conditions for such transformations.

  9. Characterization of phospholipid bilayer formation on a thin film of porous SiO2 by reflective interferometric Fourier transform spectroscopy (RIFTS).

    PubMed

    Pace, Stéphanie; Seantier, Bastien; Belamie, Emmanuel; Lautrédou, Nicole; Sailor, Michael J; Milhiet, Pierre-Emmanuel; Cunin, Frédérique

    2012-05-01

    Classical methods for characterizing supported artificial phospholipid bilayers include imaging techniques such as atomic force microscopy and fluorescence microscopy. The use in the past decade of surface-sensitive methods such as surface plasmon resonance and ellipsometry, and acoustic sensors such as the quartz crystal microbalance, coupled to the imaging methods, have expanded our understanding of the formation mechanisms of phospholipid bilayers. In the present work, reflective interferometric Fourier transform spectrocopy (RIFTS) is employed to monitor the formation of a planar phospholipid bilayer on an oxidized mesoporous Si (pSiO(2)) thin film. The pSiO(2) substrates are prepared as thin films (3 μm thick) with pore dimensions of a few nanometers in diameter by the electrochemical etching of crystalline silicon, and they are passivated with a thin thermal oxide layer. A thin film of mica is used as a control. Interferometric optical measurements are used to quantify the behavior of the phospholipids at the internal (pores) and external surfaces of the substrates. The optical measurements indicate that vesicles initially adsorb to the pSiO(2) surface as a monolayer, followed by vesicle fusion and conversion to a surface-adsorbed lipid bilayer. The timescale of the process is consistent with prior measurements of vesicle fusion onto mica surfaces. Reflectance spectra calculated using a simple double-layer Fabry-Perot interference model verify the experimental results. The method provides a simple, real-time, nondestructive approach to characterizing the growth and evolution of lipid vesicle layers on the surface of an optical thin film. PMID:22486481

  10. Characterization of organic composition in snow and surface waters in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region, using ultrahigh resolution Fourier transform mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Yi, Y; Birks, S J; Cho, S; Gibson, J J

    2015-06-15

    This study was conducted to characterize the composition of dissolved organic compounds present in snow and surface waters in the Athabasca Oil Sands Region (AOSR) with the goal of identifying whether atmospherically-derived organic compounds present in snow are a significant contributor to the compounds detected in surface waters (i.e., rivers and lakes). We used electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (ESI-FTICR MS) to characterize the dissolved organic compound compositions of snow and surface water samples. The organic profiles obtained for the snow samples show compositional differences between samples from near-field sites (<5 km from oil sands activities) and those from more distant locations (i.e., far-field sites). There are also significant compositional differences between samples collected in near-field sites and surface water samples in the AOSR. The composition of dissolved organic compounds at the upstream Athabasca River site (i.e., Athabasca River at Athabasca) is found to be different from samples obtained from downstream sites in the vicinity of oil sands operations (i.e., Athabasca River at Fort McMurray and Athabasca River at Firebag confluence). The upstream Athabasca River sites tended to share some compositional similarities with far-field snow deposition, while the downstream Athabasca River sites are more similar to local lakes and tributaries. This contrast likely indicates the relative role of regional snowmelt contributions to the Athabasca River vs inputs from local catchments in the reach downstream of Fort McMurray. PMID:25747374

  11. Comparing Laser Desorption Ionization and Atmospheric Pressure Photoionization Coupled to Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry To Characterize Shale Oils at the Molecular Level

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cho, Yunjo; Jin, Jang Mi; Witt, Matthias; Birdwell, Justin E.; Na, Jeong-Geol; Roh, Nam-Sun; Kim, Sunghwan

    2013-01-01

    Laser desorption ionization (LDI) coupled to Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) was used to analyze shale oils. Previous work showed that LDI is a sensitive ionization technique for assessing aromatic nitrogen compounds, and oils generated from Green River Formation oil shales are well-documented as being rich in nitrogen. The data presented here demonstrate that LDI is effective in ionizing high-double-bond-equivalent (DBE) compounds and, therefore, is a suitable method for characterizing compounds with condensed structures. Additionally, LDI generates radical cations and protonated ions concurrently, the distribution of which depends upon the molecular structures and elemental compositions, and the basicity of compounds is closely related to the generation of protonated ions. This study demonstrates that LDI FT-ICR MS is an effective ionization technique for use in the study of shale oils at the molecular level. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that LDI FT-ICR MS has been applied to shale oils.

  12. Structural characterization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon dihydrodiol epoxide DNA adducts using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization Fourier transform mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Stemmler, E.A. ); Buchanan, M.V.; Hurst, G.B.; Hettich, R.L. )

    1994-04-15

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTMS) has been applied for the structural characterization of four polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon dihydrodiol epoxide (PAH-DE) adducts, including the 5,6-dimethylchrysene DE adduct of 2[prime]-deoxyadenosine, the 5-methyl- and 5,6-dimethylchrysene DE adducts of 2[prime]-deoxyguanosine, and the benzo[a]pyrene-DE adduct of 2[prime]-deoxyguanosyl 3[prime]-phosphate. Measurement of positive and negative ion mass spectra, accurate mass determinations, and CID experiments were carried out using 10-40 ng (20-70 pmol) of sample. An evaluation of five MALDI matrices showed that matrix selection can be used to control the degree of analyte fragmentation. Three MALDI matrices commonly used for the analysis of proteins (sinapinic acid, ferulic acid, 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid) gave positive ion adduct mass spectra showing protonated or sodiated molecular ions accompanied by abundant, structurally informative fragment ions. Fragmentation was significantly reduced when working with two matrices used for oligonucleotide analysis (an anthranilic-nicotinic acid mixture and 3-hydroxypicolinic acid). Using the CID capabilities of FTMS, isolation and activation of the MALDI-produced ions was used to provide additional structural information. 68 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Characterization of oligomeric compounds in secondary organic aerosol using liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Müller, Lars; Reinnig, Marc-Christopher; Hayen, Heiko; Hoffmann, Thorsten

    2009-04-01

    The components of secondary organic aerosols (SOAs) generated from the gas-phase ozonolysis of two C(10)H(16)-terpenes (alpha-pinene; sabinene) and a cyclic C(6)H(10) alkene (cyclohexene) were characterized by the use of a Fourier transform ion cyclotron mass spectrometer equipped with an electrospray ionization source operated in the negative ion mode. Reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography was used to achieve chromatographic separation of highly oxidized organic compounds. In addition to the well-known group of low molecular weight oxidation products (monomers; e.g. dicarboxylic acids), higher molecular weight compounds (dimers) were also detected and their exact elemental compositions were determined. In order to provide additional information for the structural elucidation of these compounds, collision-induced dissociation was applied. Based on the MS/MS spectra, two higher molecular weight products are proposed to be an ester and a peroxide. Molecular formulae calculated from the exact masses show that the SOA-compounds are heavily oxidized and this information creates the background to a discussion of potential reaction pathways for the formation of higher molecular weight compounds. PMID:19242953

  14. Characterization of organic material in ice core samples from North America, Greenland, and Antarctica using ultrahigh resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catanzano, V.; Grannas, A. M.; Sleighter, R. L.; Hatcher, P. G.

    2013-12-01

    Historically, it has been an analytical challenge to detect and identify the organic components present in ice cores, due to the low abundance of organic carbon. In order to detect and characterize the small amounts of organic matter in ice cores, ultra high resolution instrumentation is required. Here we report the use of ultrahigh resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry, coupled with electrospray ionization, to identify the molecular formulas and compound classes of organic matter in both modern and ancient ice core and glacial samples from Wyoming, Greenland, and Antarctica. A suite of 21 samples were analyzed and thousands of distinct molecular species were identified in each sample, providing clues to the nature and sources of organic matter in these regions. Major biochemical classes of compounds were detected such as lignins, tannins, carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, unsaturated hydrocarbons, and condensed aromatic compounds. We will compare the nature of the organic matter present in the samples in order to determine the differences in dominant organic compound classes and in heteroatom (nitrogen and sulfur) abundance. By analyzing these differences, it is possible to investigate the historical patterns of organic matter deposition/source, and begin to investigate the influence of climate change, volcanism, and onset of the industrial revolution on the nature of organic matter preserved in ice cores.

  15. Admittance of metal-insulator-semiconductor structures based on graded-gap HgCdTe grown by molecular-beam epitaxy on GaAs substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voitsekhovskii, A. V.; Nesmelov, S. N.; Dzyadukh, S. M.; Vasil'ev, V. V.; Varavin, V. S.; Dvoretsky, S. A.; Mikhailov, N. N.; Yakushev, M. V.

    2015-07-01

    Metal-insulator-semiconductor structures based on n-Hg1-xCdxTe (x = 0.19-0.25) were grown by molecular-beam epitaxy on the GaAs (0 1 3) substrates. Near-surface graded-gap layers with high CdTe content were formed on both sides of the epitaxial HgCdTe. Admittance of these structures was studied experimentally in a wide temperature range (8-150) K. It is shown that an increase in the composition of the working layer and a decrease in temperature lead to a decrease in the frequency of transition to high-frequency behavior of the capacitance-voltage characteristics. The differential resistance of space charge region in the strong inversion increases with the composition of the working layer and for x = 0.22 and 0.25, the differential resistance is limited by the Shockley-Read generation. The values of the differential resistance of space charge region at different frequencies and temperatures were found.

  16. Optical characterization of free electron concentration in heteroepitaxial InN layers using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and a 2 Multiplication-Sign 2 transfer-matrix algebra

    SciTech Connect

    Katsidis, C. C.; Ajagunna, A. O.; Georgakilas, A.

    2013-02-21

    Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) reflectance spectroscopy has been implemented as a non-destructive, non-invasive, tool for the optical characterization of a set of c-plane InN single heteroepitaxial layers spanning a wide range of thicknesses (30-2000 nm). The c-plane (0001) InN epilayers were grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy (PAMBE) on GaN(0001) buffer layers which had been grown on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}(0001) substrates. It is shown that for arbitrary multilayers with homogeneous anisotropic layers having their principal axes coincident with the laboratory coordinates, a 2 Multiplication-Sign 2 matrix algebra based on a general transfer-matrix method (GTMM) is adequate to interpret their optical response. Analysis of optical reflectance in the far and mid infrared spectral range has been found capable to discriminate between the bulk, the surface and interface contributions of free carriers in the InN epilayers revealing the existence of electron accumulation layers with carrier concentrations in mid 10{sup 19} cm{sup -3} at both the InN surface and the InN/GaN interface. The spectra could be fitted with a three-layer model, determining the different electron concentration and mobility values of the bulk and of the surface and the interface electron accumulation layers in the InN films. The variation of these values with increasing InN thickness could be also sensitively detected by the optical measurements. The comparison between the optically determined drift mobility and the Hall mobility of the thickest sample reveals a value of r{sub H} = 1.49 for the Hall factor of InN at a carrier concentration of 1.11 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 19} cm{sup -3} at 300 Degree-Sign {Kappa}.

  17. A simple, sensitive and non-destructive technique for characterizing bovine dental enamel erosion: attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, In-Hye; Son, Jun Sik; Min, Bong Ki; Kim, Young Kyoung; Kim, Kyo-Han; Kwon, Tae-Yub

    2016-01-01

    Although many techniques are available to assess enamel erosion in vitro, a simple, non-destructive method with sufficient sensitivity for quantifying dental erosion is required. This study characterized the bovine dental enamel erosion induced by various acidic beverages in vitro using attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy. Deionized water (control) and 10 acidic beverages were selected to study erosion, and the pH and neutralizable acidity were measured. Bovine anterior teeth (110) were polished with up to 1 200-grit silicon carbide paper to produce flat enamel surfaces, which were then immersed in 20 mL of the beverages for 30 min at 37 °C. The degree of erosion was evaluated using ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and Vickers' microhardness measurements. The spectra obtained were interpreted in two ways that focused on the ν1, ν3 phosphate contour: the ratio of the height amplitude of ν3 PO4 to that of ν1 PO4 (Method 1) and the shift of the ν3 PO4 peak to a higher wavenumber (Method 2). The percentage changes in microhardness after the erosion treatments were primarily affected by the pH of the immersion media. Regression analyses revealed highly significant correlations between the surface hardness change and the degree of erosion, as detected by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy (P<0.001). Method 1 was the most sensitive to these changes, followed by surface hardness change measurements and Method 2. This study suggests that ATR-FTIR spectroscopy is potentially advantageous over the microhardness test as a simple, non-destructive, sensitive technique for the quantification of enamel erosion. PMID:27025266

  18. Phenotypic characterization of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 under aerobic and anaerobic growth conditions by using fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and high-performance liquid chromatography analyses.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hui; Hollywood, Katherine; Jarvis, Roger M; Lloyd, Jonathan R; Goodacre, Royston

    2010-09-01

    Shewanella oneidensis is able to conserve energy for growth by reducing a wide variety of terminal electron acceptors during anaerobic respiration, including several environmentally hazardous pollutants. This bacterium employs various electron transfer mechanisms for anaerobic respiration, including cell-bound reductases and secreted redox mediators. The aim of this study was to develop rapid tools for profiling the key metabolic changes associated with these different growth regimes and physiological responses. Initial experiments focused on comparing cells grown under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy with cluster analysis showed that there were significant changes in the metabolic fingerprints of the cells grown under these two culture conditions. FT-IR spectroscopy clearly differentiated cells of S. oneidensis MR-1 cultured at various growth points and cells grown using different electron acceptors, resulting in different phenotypic trajectories in the cluster analysis. This growth-related trajectory analysis is applied successfully for the first time, here with FT-IR spectroscopy, to investigate the phenotypic changes in contrasting S. oneidensis cells. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was also used to quantify the concentrations of flavin compounds, which have been identified recently as extracellular redox mediators released by a range of Shewanella species. The partial least-squares regression (PLSR) multivariate statistical technique was combined with FT-IR spectroscopy to predict the concentrations of the flavins secreted by cells of S. oneidensis MR-1, suggesting that this combination could be used as a rapid alternative to conventional chromatographic methods for analysis of flavins in cell cultures. Furthermore, coupling of the FT-IR spectroscopy and HPLC techniques appears to offer a potentially useful tool for rapid characterization of the Shewanella cell metabolome in various process environments. PMID:20675447

  19. A simple, sensitive and non-destructive technique for characterizing bovine dental enamel erosion: attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Kim, In-Hye; Son, Jun Sik; Min, Bong Ki; Kim, Young Kyoung; Kim, Kyo-Han; Kwon, Tae-Yub

    2016-01-01

    Although many techniques are available to assess enamel erosion in vitro, a simple, non-destructive method with sufficient sensitivity for quantifying dental erosion is required. This study characterized the bovine dental enamel erosion induced by various acidic beverages in vitro using attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy. Deionized water (control) and 10 acidic beverages were selected to study erosion, and the pH and neutralizable acidity were measured. Bovine anterior teeth (110) were polished with up to 1 200-grit silicon carbide paper to produce flat enamel surfaces, which were then immersed in 20 mL of the beverages for 30 min at 37 °C. The degree of erosion was evaluated using ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and Vickers' microhardness measurements. The spectra obtained were interpreted in two ways that focused on the ν1, ν3 phosphate contour: the ratio of the height amplitude of ν3 PO4 to that of ν1 PO4 (Method 1) and the shift of the ν3 PO4 peak to a higher wavenumber (Method 2). The percentage changes in microhardness after the erosion treatments were primarily affected by the pH of the immersion media. Regression analyses revealed highly significant correlations between the surface hardness change and the degree of erosion, as detected by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy (P<0.001). Method 1 was the most sensitive to these changes, followed by surface hardness change measurements and Method 2. This study suggests that ATR-FTIR spectroscopy is potentially advantageous over the microhardness test as a simple, non-destructive, sensitive technique for the quantification of enamel erosion. PMID:27025266

  20. Characterization of skin abnormalities in a mouse model of osteogenesis imperfecta using high resolution magnetic resonance imaging and Fourier transform infrared imaging spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Canuto, H C; Fishbein, K W; Huang, A; Doty, S B; Herbert, R A; Peckham, J; Pleshko, N; Spencer, R G

    2012-01-01

    Evaluation of the skin phenotype in osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) typically involves biochemical measurements, such as histologic or biochemical assessment of the collagen produced from biopsy-derived dermal fibroblasts. As an alternative, the current study utilized non-invasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) microscopy and optical spectroscopy to define biophysical characteristics of skin in an animal model of OI. MRI of skin harvested from control, homozygous oim/oim and heterozygous oim/+ mice demonstrated several differences in anatomic and biophysical properties. Fourier transform infrared imaging spectroscopy (FT-IRIS) was used to interpret observed MRI signal characteristics in terms of chemical composition. Differences between wild-type and OI mouse skin included the appearance of a collagen-depleted lower dermal layer containing prominent hair follicles in the oim/oim mice, accounting for 55% of skin thickness in these. The MRI magnetization transfer rate was lower by 50% in this layer as compared to the upper dermis, consistent with lower collagen content. The MRI transverse relaxation time, T2, was greater by 30% in the dermis of the oim/oim mice compared to controls, consistent with a more highly hydrated collagen network. Similarly, an FT-IRIS-defined measure of collagen integrity was 30% lower in the oim/oim mice. We conclude that characterization of phenotypic differences between the skin of OI and wild-type mice by MRI and FT-IRIS is feasible, and that these techniques provide powerful complementary approaches for the analysis of the skin phenotype in animal models of disease. PMID:21845737

  1. Design and Characterization of a High-power Laser-induced Acoustic Desorption (LIAD) Probe Coupled with a Fourier-transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometer

    PubMed Central

    Shea, Ryan C.; Habicht, Steven C.; Vaughn, Weldon E.; Kenttämaa, Hilkka I.

    2008-01-01

    We report here the construction and characterization of a high-power laser-induced acoustic desorption (LIAD) probe designed for Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometers to facilitate analysis of non-volatile, thermally labile compounds. This “next generation” LIAD probe offers significant improvements in sensitivity and desorption efficiency for analytes with larger molecular weights via the use of higher laser irradiances. Unlike the previous probes which utilized a power limiting optical fiber to transmit the laser pulses through the probe, this probe employs a set of mirrors and a focusing lens. At the end of the probe, the energy from the laser pulses propagates through a thin metal foil as an acoustic wave, resulting in desorption of neutral molecules from the opposite side of the foil. Following desorption, the molecules can be ionized by electron impact or chemical ionization. Almost an order of magnitude greater power density (up to 5.0 × 109 W/cm2) is achievable on the backside of the foil with the high-power LIAD probe compared to the earlier LIAD probes (maximum power density ~9.0 × 108 W/cm2). The use of higher laser irradiances is demonstrated not to cause fragmentation of the analyte. The use of higher laser irradiances increases sensitivity since it results in the evaporation of a greater number of molecules per laser pulse. Measurement of the average velocities of LIAD evaporated molecules demonstrates that higher laser irradiances do not correlate with higher velocities of the gaseous analyte molecules. PMID:17319645

  2. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy characterization of the lamellar and nonlamellar structures of free lipid A and Re lipopolysaccharides from Salmonella minnesota and Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Brandenburg, K

    1993-01-01

    The structural polymorphism of free lipid A and deep rough mutant lipopolysaccharide (LPS Re) from Salmonella minnesota strain R595 and Escherichia coli strain F515 was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (IR) spectroscopy. For this, the beta <--> alpha phase states and the three-dimensional supramolecular structures, the latter deduced from small-angle synchrotron radiation x-ray diffraction, were investigated at different water contents, Mg2+ concentrations, and temperatures. The analysis of the IR data for vibrations originating from the hydrophobic moiety shows that the beta <--> alpha acyl chain melting is strongly expressed only for the stretching and scissoring modes of the methylene groups. Vibrational groups originating from the interface region sense the acyl chain melting well (ester carbonyl bands) or only weakly (amide bands), and those resulting from the pure polar moiety not at all. From the x-ray data, the existence of lamellar (L), different cubic, and, for lipid A and LPS R595, also inverted hexagonal (HII) structures could be proven in the temperature range 20-80 degrees C with cubic <--> cubic and cubic <--> HII transitions for the Mg(2+)-free and L <--> HII transitions for the Mg(2+)-containing samples. These structural transitions can be characterized most readily by specific changes of the vibrational bands resulting from the interface region: the ester carbonyl and the amide bands. The magnitude of the changes corresponds to that of the structural rearrangement, i.e., is highest for the L <--> HII, lower for the cubic <--> HII, and lowest for the cubic <--> cubic transitions. The structural transitions are only marginally expressed for vibrational bands of the hydrophobic moiety. Similarly, the band contours of vibrations from the hydrophilic region are no indicators of the structural reorientations except for the carboxylate bands of LPS Re. Particularly the stretching vibrations of the phosphate groups are nearly completely invariant; the absolute values of their half bandwidths, however, differ significantly for lipid A and LPS Re, which seems to be of biological relevance. The ability of IR spectroscopy to detect supramolecular changes also beyond the measurability by x-ray diffraction, i.e., at water contents > 95 to 99.5%, is demonstrated. PMID:8494979

  3. Reading Transformation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reeves, Melinda

    2006-01-01

    The parents of students who attend Decatur High School thought that there was little hope of their kids going on to college. After a year or so in Decatur's reading program, their sons and daughters were both transformed and college bound. In this article, the author describes how Decatur was able to successfully transform their students. Seven…

  4. Isostatic response of the Alula-Fartak and Owen transforms in the Eastern Gulf of Aden and the adjoining Arabian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radhakrishna, M.; Searle, R. C.

    2006-04-01

    The Alula-Fartak and Owen transforms are the active parts of major fracture zones with a distinct topographic expression in the Eastern Gulf of Aden and the Arabian Sea, respectively. While the Alula-Fartak transform offsets the Sheba Ridge by about 180 km and is associated with a broad steep-sided valley with a relief of nearly 3.5 km, the Owen transform offsets the Carlsberg Ridge by nearly 300 km and is associated with a broad step-like valley surrounded by deeper water depths. The gravity and topography data along several profiles selected across these two transforms have been analysed using cross-spectral analysis in order to investigate their isostatic compensation. The observed admittance estimates have been compared with three theoretical isostatic compensation models, two local compensation models (Airy I and II) and one regional compensation (plate) model. Comparing the longer wavelength admittance estimates suggests that the regional compensation model gives the best fit for both the Alula-Fartak transform and the Owen transform, with effective elastic thickness (Te) of 5 km and slightly less than 10 km, respectively. For the Alula-Fartak transform, the Airy II model might also be acceptable, though with large scatter in the observed values: it suggests a mean value of 9 km for the mantle layer with a 6 km thick crust. For the Owen transform, on the other hand, the two local compensation models failed. The difference in Te estimate between the two transforms could be ascribed to differences in thermal structure arising from their varied tectonic history. A comparison with the isostatic response estimates of transform/fracture zones along the slow-spreading Mid-Atlantic Ridge suggests that the regional compensation model is generally applicable for transform/fracture zone topography along such mid-ocean ridges.

  5. Lightweight transformer

    SciTech Connect

    Swallom, D.W.; Enos, G.

    1990-05-01

    The technical effort described in this report relates to the program that was performed to design, fabricate, and test a lightweight transformer for Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) mission requirements. The objectives of this program were two-fold: (1) design and fabricate a lightweight transformer using liquid hydrogen as the coolant; and (2) test the completed transformer assembly with a low voltage, dc power source. Although the full power testing with liquid helium was not completed, the program demonstrated the viability of the design approach. The lightweight transformer was designed and fabricated, and low and moderate power testing was completed. The transformer is a liquid hydrogen cooled air core transformer that uses thin copper for its primary and secondary windings. The winding mass was approximately 12 kg, or 0.03 kg/kW. Further refinements of the design to a partial air core transformer could potentially reduce the winding mass to as low as 4 or 5 kg, or 0.0125 kg/kW. No attempt was made on this program to reduce the mass of the related structural components or cryogenic container. 8 refs., 39 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Transformational Grammar and Cognitive Psycholinguistics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, Mark

    1973-01-01

    An overview of Noam Chomsky's theories about transformational grammar and phonology is given. Since Chomsky was interested in characterizing what it is to know a language, the ways in which we demonstrate knowledge of our native language are discussed in detail. Particular emphasis is placed on describing how the transformational approach actually…

  7. CHARACTERIZATION OF PCB (POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL) TRANSFORMER/CAPACITOR FLUIDS AND CORRELATION WITH PCDDS (POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZO-P-DIOXINS) AND PCDFS (POLYCHLORINATED DIBENZOFURANS) IN SOOT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dielectric fluids in transformers and capacitors often contain polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) or chlorobenzenes. These substances may generate polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) under certain conditions of combustion/pyrolysis. W...

  8. Triple transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Farrukh I.; Schinn, Dustin S.

    2013-08-01

    A new business plan that enables policy transformation and resource mobilization at the national and international level, while improving access to resources, will allow the Green Climate Fund to integrate development goals and action on climate change.

  9. Covariant Transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kisil, Vladimir V.

    2011-03-01

    Dedicated to the memory of Cora Sadosky The paper develops theory of covariant transform, which is inspired by the wavelet construction. It was observed that many interesting types of wavelets (or coherent states) arise from group representations which are not square integrable or vacuum vectors which are not admissible. Covariant transform extends an applicability of the popular wavelets construction to classic examples like the Hardy space H2, Banach spaces, covariant functional calculus and many others.

  10. Characterization of Archaeological Sediments Using Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) and Portable X-ray Fluorescence (pXRF): An Application to Formative Period Pyro-Industrial Sites in Pacific Coastal Southern Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Neff, Hector; Bigney, Scott J; Sakai, Sachiko; Burger, Paul R; Garfin, Timothy; George, Richard G; Culleton, Brendan J; Kennett, Douglas J

    2016-01-01

    Archaeological sediments from mounds within the mangrove zone of far-southern Pacific coastal Chiapas, Mexico, are characterized in order to test the hypothesis that specialized pyro-technological activities of the region's prehistoric inhabitants (salt and ceramic production) created the accumulations visible today. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) is used to characterize sediment mineralogy, while portable X-ray fluorescence (pXRF) is used to determine elemental concentrations. Elemental characterization of natural sediments by both instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and pXRF also contribute to understanding of processes that created the archaeological deposits. Radiocarbon dates combined with typological analysis of ceramics indicate that pyro-industrial activity in the mangrove zone peaked during the Late Formative and Terminal Formative periods, when population and monumental activity on the coastal plain and piedmont were also at their peaks. PMID:26767637

  11. SHARP transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyatt, Stephan

    2004-08-01

    The U.S. Navy"s SHAred Reconnaissance Pod (SHARP) employs the Recon/Optical, Inc. (ROI) CA-279 dual spectral band (visible/IR) digital cameras operating from an F-18E/F aircraft to perform low-to-high altitude reconnaissance missions. SHARP has proven itself combat worthy, with a rapid transition from development to operational deployment culminating in a highly reliable and effective reconnaissance capability for joint forces operating in Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF). The U.S. Navy"s intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR) roadmap transforms the SHARP system from being solely an independent reconnaissance sensor to a node in the growing Joint ISR network. ROI and the U.S. Navy have combined their resources to ensure the system"s transformation continues to follow the ISR road map. Pre-planned product improvements (P3I) for the CA-270 camera systems will lead the way in that transformation.

  12. FOURIER TRANSFORM INFRARED PHOTOACOUSTIC SPECTROSCOPY CHARACTERIZATION OF SULFUR-OXYGEN SPECIES RESULTING FROM THE REACTION OF SO2 WITH CAO AND CACO3

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fourier transform infrared photoacoustic spectroscopy (FTIR-PAS) has been used to investigate the reaction of SO2 in He with CaO and CaCO3 particles at temperatures between 25 and 900 C. SO2 reacts with CaC at 25 C, while the reaction of Ca-CO3 with SO2 is first evident at 550 C ...

  13. Identification and Characterization of ComE and ComF, Two Novel Pilin-Like Competence Factors Involved in Natural Transformation of Acinetobacter sp. Strain BD413

    PubMed Central

    Busch, Silke; Rosenplänter, Christine; Averhoff, Beate

    1999-01-01

    Although the high level of competence for natural transformation of Acinetobacter sp. strain BD413 has been the subject of numerous studies, only two competence genes, comC and comP, have been identified to date. By chromosomal walking analysis we found two overlapping open reading frames, designated comE and comF, starting 61 bp downstream of comC. comE and comF are expressed as stable proteins in Escherichia coli, thus proving that they are indeed coding regions, but expression was successful only with 5′-deleted genes. ComE and ComF are similar to pilins and pilin-like components. Both genes were mutated, and the phenotypes of the mutants were analyzed. Natural transformation in comF mutants is 1,000-fold reduced, whereas comE mutants exhibit 10-fold-reduced transformation frequencies. This is clear evidence that comE and comF are involved in natural transformation. However, ComE and ComF are specific for DNA translocation, since comE and comF defects affected neither piliation nor lipase secretion. These results suggest that the type IV pili, the general protein secretion pathway, and the DNA translocation machinery in Acinetobacter sp. strain BD413 are evolutionary related but functionally distinct systems. PMID:10508090

  14. Transformation & Metamorphosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lott, Debra

    2009-01-01

    The sculptures of Canadian artist Brian Jungen are a great inspiration for a lesson on creating new forms. Jungen transforms found objects into unique creations without fully concealing their original form or purpose. Frank Stella's sculpture series, including "K.132,2007" made of stainless steel and spray paint, is another great example of

  15. Transformation Time

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, John N., III

    2007-01-01

    The program for the march by librarians on America's capital for the American Library Association (ALA) conference is predictably loaded with lobbying, legislation, and DC tours. It also abounds with professional opportunity and reflects the impact of Leslie Burger, one of the most activist ALA presidents in recent history. Her "Transformation"…

  16. Transforming Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cookson, Peter W., Jr., Ed.; Schneider, Barbara, Ed.

    The authors in this book address the issues that relate to the crisis in American education and review some of the proposed solutions. To transform education, schools must be examined as social systems that are interrelated with families, communities, and the world of work. Following the introduction, section 1, "Conditions for Educational…

  17. Transformation & Metamorphosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lott, Debra

    2009-01-01

    The sculptures of Canadian artist Brian Jungen are a great inspiration for a lesson on creating new forms. Jungen transforms found objects into unique creations without fully concealing their original form or purpose. Frank Stella's sculpture series, including "K.132,2007" made of stainless steel and spray paint, is another great example of…

  18. Isolation and Characterization of Human Intestinal Bacteria Capable of Transforming the Dietary Carcinogen 2-Amino-1-Methyl-6-Phenylimidazo[4,5-b]Pyridine▿

    PubMed Central

    Vanhaecke, Lynn; Vercruysse, Filip; Boon, Nico; Verstraete, Willy; Cleenwerck, Ilse; De Wachter, Marjan; De Vos, Paul; van de Wiele, Tom

    2008-01-01

    2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) is a carcinogenic heterocyclic aromatic amine formed in meat products during cooking. Although the formation of hazardous PhIP metabolites by mammalian enzymes has been extensively reported, research on the putative involvement of the human intestinal microbiota in PhIP metabolism remains scarce. In this study, the in vitro conversion of PhIP into its microbial derivate, 7-hydroxy-5-methyl-3-phenyl-6,7,8,9-tetrahydropyrido[3′,2′:4,5]imidazo[1,2-a]pyrimidin-5-ium chloride (PhIP-M1), by fecal samples from 18 human volunteers was investigated. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis showed that all human fecal samples transformed PhIP but with efficiencies ranging from 1.8 to 96% after 72 h of incubation. Two PhIP-transforming strains, PhIP-M1-a and PhIP-M1-b, were isolated from human feces and identified by fluorescent amplified fragment length polymorphism and pheS sequence analyses as Enterococcus faecium strains. Some strains from culture collections belonging to the species E. durans, E. avium, E. faecium, and Lactobacillus reuteri were also able to perform this transformation. Yeast extract, special peptone, and meat extract supported PhIP transformation by the enriched E. faecium strains, while tryptone, monomeric sugars, starch, and cellulose did not. Glycerol was identified as a fecal matrix constituent required for PhIP transformation. Abiotic synthesis of PhIP-M1 and quantification of the glycerol metabolite 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde (3-HPA) confirmed that the anaerobic fermentation of glycerol via 3-HPA is the critical bacterial transformation process responsible for the formation of PhIP-M1. Whether it is a detoxification is still a matter of debate, since PhIP-M1 has been shown to be cytotoxic toward Caco-2 cells but is not mutagenic in the Ames assay. PMID:18192423

  19. Advanced oxidation of the antibiotic sulfapyridine by UV/H2O2: Characterization of its transformation products and ecotoxicological implications.

    PubMed

    García-Galán, M Jesús; Anfruns, Alba; Gonzalez-Olmos, Rafael; Rodriguez-Mozaz, Sara; Comas, Joaquim

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the present work is to investigate, under lab-scale conditions, the removal and transformation of the antibiotic sulfapyridine (SPY) upon advanced oxidation with UV/H2O2. High resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) analyses by means of an ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC)-linear ion trap high resolution Orbitrap instrument (LTQ-Orbitrap-MS) were carried out in order to elucidate the different transformation products (TPs) generated. The abatement (>99%) of the antibiotic was only achieved after 180 min, highlighting its resilience to elimination and its potential persistence in the environment A total of 10 TPs for SPY were detected and their molecular structures elucidated by means of MS(2) and MS(3) scans. Finally, the combined ecotoxicity at different treatment times was evaluated by means of bioluminescence inhibition assays with the marine bacteria Vibrio fischeri. PMID:26789837

  20. Establishment and characterization of equine fibroblast cell lines transformed in vivo and in vitro by BPV-1: Model systems for equine sarcoids

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, Z.Q.; Gault, E.A.; Gobeil, P.; Nixon, C.; Campo, M.S.; Nasir, L.

    2008-04-10

    It is now widely recognized that BPV-1 and less commonly BPV-2 are the causative agents of equine sarcoids. Here we present the generation of equine cell lines harboring BPV-1 genomes and expressing viral genes. These lines have been either explanted from sarcoid biopsies or generated in vitro by transfection of primary fibroblasts with BPV-1 DNA. Previously detected BPV-1 genome variations in equine sarcoids are also found in sarcoid cell lines, and only variant BPV-1 genomes can transform equine cells. These equine cell lines are morphologically transformed, proliferate faster than parental cells, have an extended life span and can grow independently of substrate. These characteristics are more marked the higher the level of viral E5, E6 and E7 gene expression. These findings confirm that the virus has an active role in the induction of sarcoids and the lines will be invaluable for further studies on the role of BPV-1 in sarcoid pathology.

  1. GC and GC-MS characterization of crude oil transformation in sediments and microbial mat samples after the 1991 oil spill in the Saudi Arabian Gulf coast.

    PubMed

    Garcia de Oteyza, T; Grimalt, J O

    2006-02-01

    The massive oil discharge in the Saudi Arabian coast at the end of the 1991 Gulf War is used here as a natural experiment to study the ability of microbial mats to transform oil residues after major spills. The degree of oil transformation has been evaluated from the analysis of the aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons by gas chromatography (GC) and GC coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The oil-polluted microbial mat samples from coastal environments exhibited an intermediate degree of transformation between that observed in superficial and deep sediments. Evaporation, photo-oxidation and water-washing seemed to lead to more effective and rapid elimination of hydrocarbons than cyanobacteria and its associated microorganisms. Furthermore, comparison of some compounds (e.g. regular isoprenoid hydrocarbons or alkylnaphthalenes) in the oil collected in the area after the spill or in the mixtures retained by cyanobacterial growth gave rise to an apparent effect of hydrocarbon preservation in the microbial mat ecosystems. PMID:16095784

  2. Characterization and use of monoclonal antibodies for isolation of phosphotyrosyl proteins from retrovirus-transformed cells and growth factor-stimulated cells.

    PubMed Central

    Frackelton, A R; Ross, A H; Eisen, H N

    1983-01-01

    Protein kinases that phosphorylate the hydroxyl group of tyrosine residues of proteins have been implicated in cell transformation by some retroviruses and in regulation of normal cell growth by some polypeptide growth factors. To facilitate the identification of tyrosine kinase substrates, we developed monoclonal antibodies to the hapten azobenzylphosphonate. One of these antibodies, MA-2G8, proved to be especially attractive in that it bound a derivative of aminophenylphosphate, a close phosphotyrosine analog, with higher affinity than it bound the corresponding derivative of aminobenzylphosphonate; however, its affinity for phosphoserine was negligible. In this paper we describe the optimal conditions for using this antibody to isolate phosphotyrosine proteins, emphasizing particularly that its interaction with phosphotyrosyl proteins is sensitive to ionic detergents and to antibody density on the immunosorbent matrix. The antibody also bound ATP citrate lyase; this enzyme lacks phosphotyrosine but contains phosphohistidine, which is similar structurally to phosphotyrosine. By attaching the antibody at high density to Sepharose beads and omitting ionic detergents from the buffers, it was possible by microbatch immunoadsorption (followed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis) to isolate the 120,000-dalton transforming protein and several other phosphotyrosyl proteins from cells transformed by Abelson murine leukemia virus. Under the same conditions, phosphotyrosyl proteins were also isolated from human epidermal carcinoma cells (A431) that had been stimulated with epidermal growth factor; most prominent among these proteins was the 170,000-dalton receptor for epidermal growth factor. Images PMID:6194425

  3. Subsurface characterization of an oxidation-induced phase transformation and twinning in nickel-based superalloy exposed to oxy-combustion environments

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Jingxi; Holcomb, Gordon R.; Jablonski, Paul D.; Wise, Adam; Li, Jia; Laughlin, David E.; Sridhar, Seetharaman

    2012-07-30

    In the integration of oxy-fuel combustion to turbine power generation system, turbine alloys are exposed to high temperature and an atmosphere comprised of steam, CO{sub 2} and O{sub 2}. While surface and internal oxidation of the alloy takes place, the microstructure in the subsurface region also changes due to oxidation. In this study, bare metal coupons of Ni-base superalloys were exposed in oxy-fuel combustion environment for up to 1000 h and the oxidation-related microstructures were examined. Phase transformation occurred in the subsurface region in Ni-based superalloy and led to twinning. The transformation product phases were analyzed through thermodynamic equilibrium calculations and various electron microscopy techniques, including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), orientation imaging microscopy (OIM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The mechanism by which the phase transformation and the formation of the microstructure occurred was also discussed. The possible effects of the product phases on the performance of the alloy in service were discussed.

  4. RF transformer

    DOEpatents

    Smith, James L.; Helenberg, Harold W.; Kilsdonk, Dennis J.

    1979-01-01

    There is provided an improved RF transformer having a single-turn secondary of cylindrical shape and a coiled encapsulated primary contained within the secondary. The coil is tapered so that the narrowest separation between the primary and the secondary is at one end of the coil. The encapsulated primary is removable from the secondary so that a variety of different capacity primaries can be utilized with one secondary.

  5. Transformation plasmonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadic, Muamer; Guenneau, Sébastien; Enoch, Stefan; Huidobro, Paloma A.; Martín-Moreno, Luis; García-Vidal, Francisco J.; Renger, Jan; Quidant, Romain

    2012-07-01

    Surface plasmons polaritons (SPPs) at metal/dielectric interfaces have raised lots of expectations in the on-going quest towards scaling down optical devices. SPP optics offers a powerful and flexible platform for real two-dimensional integrated optics, capable of supporting both light and electrons. Yet, a full exploitation of the features of SPPs is conditioned by an accurate control of their flow. Most efforts have so far focused on the extrapolation of concepts borrowed from guided optics. This strategy has already led to many important breakthroughs but a fully deterministic control of SPP modes remains a challenge. Recently, the field of optics was stimulated by a novel paradigm, transformation optics, which offers the capability to control light flow in any desired fashion. While it has already significantly contributed to the design of metamaterials with unprecedented optical properties, its versatility offers new opportunities towards a fully deterministic control of SPPs and the design of a new class of plasmonic functionalities. Here, we review recent progress in the application of transformation optics to SPPs. We first briefly describe the theoretical formalism of transformation plasmonics, focusing on its specificities over its three-dimensional optical counterpart. Numerical simulations are then used to illustrate its capability to tame SPP flows at a metal interface patterned with a dielectric load. Finally, we review recent experimental implementations leading to unique SPP functionalities at optical frequencies.

  6. Transformative learning.

    PubMed

    Nemec, Patricia B

    2012-12-01

    The whole point of teaching and training is to have the learners leave in some way different from how they came in-more skilled, more knowledgeable, more self-aware. Transformative learning refers to dramatic change, where the learner achieves a shift in perspective. This shift results from a critical examination of one's own assumptions, values, and beliefs, and of the foundations and expectations of the system in which one operates. Educators are in the change business, and educators focused on implementing psychiatric rehabilitation, recovery-oriented services, and person-centered planning are in the transformative learning business. The shift from a traditional medical model to a recovery perspective, the shift from "illness" to "disability" to "wellness," and the shift from risk prevention to promoting opportunities for growth all require "standing outside ourselves" and looking at a "stark and highlighted picture" of the all-too-common status quo of mental health services today. With the right approach, learners can be developed, encouraged, disrupted, and transformed. PMID:23276245

  7. Recent advances in transformation optics.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yongmin; Zhang, Xiang

    2012-09-01

    Within the past a few years, transformation optics has emerged as a new research area, since it provides a general methodology and design tool for manipulating electromagnetic waves in a prescribed manner. Using transformation optics, researchers have demonstrated a host of striking phenomena and devices; many of which were only thought possible in science fiction. In this paper, we review the most recent advances in transformation optics. We focus on the theory, design, fabrication and characterization of transformation devices such as the carpet cloak, "Janus" lens and plasmonic cloak at optical frequencies, which allow routing light at the nanoscale. We also provide an outlook of the challenges and future directions in this fascinating area of transformation optics. PMID:22847459

  8. Hamlet's Transformation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usher, P. D.

    1997-12-01

    William Shakespeare's Hamlet has much evidence to suggest that the Bard was aware of the cosmological models of his time, specifically the geocentric bounded Ptolemaic and Tychonic models, and the infinite Diggesian. Moreover, Shakespeare describes how the Ptolemaic model is to be transformed to the Diggesian. Hamlet's "transformation" is the reason that Claudius, who personifies the Ptolemaic model, summons Rosencrantz and Guildenstern, who personify the Tychonic. Pantometria, written by Leonard Digges and his son Thomas in 1571, contains the first technical use of the word "transformation." At age thirty, Thomas Digges went on to propose his Perfit Description, as alluded to in Act Five where Hamlet's age is given as thirty. In Act Five as well, the words "bore" and "arms" refer to Thomas' vocation as muster-master and his scientific interest in ballistics. England's leading astronomer was also the father of the poet whose encomium introduced the First Folio of 1623. His oldest child Dudley became a member of the Virginia Company and facilitated the writing of The Tempest. Taken as a whole, such manifold connections to Thomas Digges support Hotson's contention that Shakespeare knew the Digges family. Rosencrantz and Guildenstern in Hamlet bear Danish names because they personify the Danish model, while the king's name is latinized like that of Claudius Ptolemaeus. The reason Shakespeare anglicized "Amleth" to "Hamlet" was because he saw a parallel between Book Three of Saxo Grammaticus and the eventual triumph of the Diggesian model. But Shakespeare eschewed Book Four, creating this particular ending from an infinity of other possibilities because it "suited his purpose," viz. to celebrate the concept of a boundless universe of stars like the Sun.

  9. Cloning and characterization of a novel stress-responsive WRKY transcription factor gene (MusaWRKY71) from Musa spp. cv. Karibale Monthan (ABB group) using transformed banana cells.

    PubMed

    Shekhawat, Upendra K Singh; Ganapathi, Thumballi R; Srinivas, Lingam

    2011-08-01

    WRKY transcription factor proteins play significant roles in plant stress responses. Here, we report the cloning and characterization of a novel WRKY gene, MusaWRKY71 isolated from an edible banana cultivar Musa spp. Karibale Monthan (ABB group). MusaWRKY71, initially identified using in silico approaches from an abiotic stress-related EST library, was later extended towards the 3' end using rapid amplification of cDNA ends technique. The 1299-bp long cDNA of MusaWRKY71 encodes a protein with 280 amino acids and contains a characteristic WRKY domain in the C-terminal half. Although MusaWRKY71 shares good similarity with other monocot WRKY proteins the substantial size difference makes it a unique member of the WRKY family in higher plants. The 918-bp long 5' proximal region determined using thermal asymmetric interlaced-polymerase chain reaction has many putative cis-acting elements and transcription factor binding motifs. Subcellular localization assay of MusaWRKY71 performed using a GFP-fusion platform confirmed its nuclear targeting in transformed banana suspension cells. Importantly, MusaWRKY71 expression in banana plantlets was up-regulated manifold by cold, dehydration, salt, ABA, H2O2, ethylene, salicylic acid and methyl jasmonate treatment indicating its involvement in response to a variety of stress conditions in banana. Further, transient overexpression of MusaWRKY71 in transformed banana cells led to the induction of several genes, homologues of which have been proven to be involved in diverse stress responses in other important plants. The present study is the first report on characterization of a banana stress-related transcription factor using transformed banana cells. PMID:21110110

  10. TRANSFORMER APPARATUS

    DOEpatents

    Wolfgang, F.; Nicol, J.

    1962-11-01

    Transformer apparatus is designed for measuring the amount of a paramagnetic substance dissolved or suspended in a diamagnetic liquid. The apparatus consists of a cluster of tubes, some of which are closed and have sealed within the diamagnetic substance without any of the paramagnetic material. The remaining tubes are open to flow of the mix- ture. Primary and secondary conductors are wrapped around the tubes in such a way as to cancel noise components and also to produce a differential signal on the secondaries based upon variations of the content of the paramagnetic material. (AEC)

  11. Rotary Transformer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McLyman, Colonel Wm. T.

    1996-01-01

    None given. From first Par: Many spacecraft (S/C) and surface rovers require the transfer of signals and power across rotating interfaces. Science instruments, antennas and solar arrays are elements needing rotary power transfer for certain (S/C) configurations. Delivery of signal and power has mainly been done by using the simplest means, the slip ring approach. This approach, although simple, leaves debris generating noise over a period of time...The rotary transformer is a good alternative to slip rings for signal and power transfer.

  12. Characterization of the plasminogen activator of herpesvirus-transformed cells and examination of its correlation with the tumorigenic and metastatic ability of in vivo-derived sublines

    SciTech Connect

    Marks, G.J.

    1986-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 2-transformed hamster embryo fibroblasts (333-8-9 cells) produce increased amounts of plasminogen activator (PA) compared with normal hamster cells. The 333-8-9 PA activity was quantitated in comparison to a PA standard, urokinase (UK). Using a direct PA assay in which /sup 125/I-labeled plasminogen is cleaved, a linear dose-response was seen over a 1000-fold range in UK concentration when plotted on a semi-logarithmic scale. Extracellular PA activity secreted by the HSV-2-transformed cell line, 333-8-9, followed a similar dose-response slop. The optimum pH and osmolarity for detection of the 333-8-9 extracellular PA activity were pH 8.9 and approximately 150 mOsmol, respectively. Secretion of PA by the 333-8-9 cells did not vary significantly on a per cell basis over cell densities ranging from 0.1 to 8.0 x 10/sup 7/ cells/T-75 cm/sup 2/ flask. This assay was accurate, reproducible, and demonstrated that the 333-8-9 cells produced at least a 20-fold greater amount of PA activity than their normal cell counterparts. Based on the molecular weight (50-58 Kd) of the secreted 333-8-9 cell PA and lack of fibrin stimulation of the PA activity, it is concluded to be a urokinase-type PA.

  13. Further characterization of IgM antibodies against maternal alloreactive T cells produced by cloned Epstein Barr virus-transformed cord B cells.

    PubMed

    Miyagawa, Y

    1984-09-01

    The mother obviously recognizes the fetus as an antigen, and the fetus is protected from the maternal immunologic attacks by eliciting anti-alloreactive T cell antibodies (T lymphocytotoxic human fetal antibody; TLFA). TLFA contains several antibodies against the maternal cells. It is thus necessary for further understanding of TLFA to obtain a single antibody from EBV-transformed cord B cells. EBV-transformations were performed in 28 cord B cell samples, and 16 cell lines were established. Antibody-binding assays of the cloned fetal IgM antibodies were performed by the respective maternal T cells grown in secondary mixed lymphocyte culture (MLC) stimulated by the paternal non-T cells and the maternal long-term culture killer T cells (LCT) in three different families. There were two types of cloned antibodies as identified by their binding to the respective maternal MLC responding T cells and the LCT. Their functions were further analyzed by the maternal MLC and lymphocytotoxic assays by using maternal-paternal cell combinations from the three families. One type of antibody inhibited the maternal MLC T cell proliferation (% inhibition: up to 28.2%, p less than 0.01), and the other inhibited the killer activity of the maternal LCT (% inhibition: up to 45.2%, p less than 0.001). Such a fetomaternal interaction bears perhaps on the fundamental mechanism whereby the mother does not reject the fetus. PMID:6086753

  14. Transformational leadership.

    PubMed

    Marlow, D L

    1996-01-01

    In these uncertain times in the healthcare industry, administrators are asked to do more with less time and resources. Because of the extended roles they are playing in today's organizations, radiology administrators are looked upon as agents of change. What leadership skills do they need in this turbulent and uncertain healthcare environment? What are the trait's of tomorrow's leaders? The transformational leader is the one who will guide us through this changing healthcare environment. Several behavioral patterns emerge as important traits for tomorrow's leaders to have-individual consideration, intellectual stimulation and charisma. Tomorrow's leader must view each person as an individual, showing genuine concern and belief in each person's ability to perform. Transformational leaders stimulate others by encouraging them to be curious and try new ideas. The final characteristic, charisma, is the ability to inspire others. Luckily, leaders are made, not born: today's leaders can learn to be responsive, to draw out new ideas from employees, and to communicate self-esteem, energy and enthusiasm. PMID:10163135

  15. Expression and Functional Characterization of the Agrobacterium VirB2 Amino Acid Substitution Variants in T-pilus Biogenesis, Virulence, and Transient Transformation Efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Hung-Yi; Chen, Chao-Ying; Lai, Erh-Min

    2014-01-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens is a phytopathogenic bacterium that causes crown gall disease by transferring transferred DNA (T-DNA) into the plant genome. The translocation process is mediated by the type IV secretion system (T4SS) consisting of the VirD4 coupling protein and 11 VirB proteins (VirB1 to VirB11). All VirB proteins are required for the production of T-pilus, which consists of processed VirB2 (T-pilin) and VirB5 as major and minor subunits, respectively. VirB2 is an essential component of T4SS, but the roles of VirB2 and the assembled T-pilus in Agrobacterium virulence and the T-DNA transfer process remain unknown. Here, we generated 34 VirB2 amino acid substitution variants to study the functions of VirB2 involved in VirB2 stability, extracellular VirB2/T-pilus production and virulence of A. tumefaciens. From the capacity for extracellular VirB2 production (ExB2+ or ExB2−) and tumorigenesis on tomato stems (Vir+ or Vir−), the mutants could be classified into three groups: ExB2−/Vir−, ExB2−/Vir+, and ExB2+/Vir+. We also confirmed by electron microscopy that five ExB2−/Vir+ mutants exhibited a wild-type level of virulence with their deficiency in T-pilus formation. Interestingly, although the five T-pilus−/Vir+ uncoupling mutants retained a wild-type level of tumorigenesis efficiency on tomato stems and/or potato tuber discs, their transient transformation efficiency in Arabidopsis seedlings was highly attenuated. In conclusion, we have provided evidence for a role of T-pilus in Agrobacterium transformation process and have identified the domains and amino acid residues critical for VirB2 stability, T-pilus biogenesis, tumorigenesis, and transient transformation efficiency. PMID:24971727

  16. Collision cross sectional areas from analysis of Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance line width: a new method for characterizing molecular structure.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fan; Voelkel, Jacob E; Dearden, David V

    2012-06-01

    We demonstrate a technique for determining molecular collision cross sections via measuring the variation of Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FTICR) line width with background damping gas pressure, under conditions where the length of the FTICR transient is pressure limited. Key features of our method include monoisotopic isolation of ions, the pulsed introduction of damping gas to a constant pressure using a pulsed leak valve, short excitation events to minimize collisions during the excitation, and proper choice of damping gas (Xe is superior to He). The measurements are reproducible within a few percent, which is sufficient for distinguishing between many structural possibilities and is comparable to the uncertainty in cross sections calculated from computed molecular structures. These techniques complement drift ion mobility measurements obtained on dedicated instruments. They do not require a specialized instrument, but should be easily performed on any FTICR mass spectrometer equipped with a pulsed leak valve. PMID:22540423

  17. Characterization of Japanese color sticks by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manso, M.; Valadas, S.; Pessanha, S.; Guilherme, A.; Queralt, I.; Candeias, A. E.; Carvalho, M. L.

    2010-04-01

    This work comprises the use of energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) techniques for the study of the composition of twentieth century traditional Japanese color sticks. By using the combination of analytical techniques it was possible to obtain information on inorganic and organic pigments, binders and fillers present in the sticks. The colorant materials identified in the sticks were zinc and titanium white, chrome yellow, yellow and red ochre, vermillion, alizarin, indigo, Prussian and synthetic ultramarine blue. The results also showed that calcite and barite were used as inorganic mineral fillers while Arabic gum was the medium used. EDXRF offered great potential for such investigations since it allowed the identification of the elements present in the sample preserving its integrity. However, this information alone was not enough to clearly identify some of the materials in study and therefore it was necessary to use XRD and FTIR techniques.

  18. Characterization of ancient glass excavated in Enez (Ancient Ainos) Turkey by combined Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis and Fourier Transform Infrared spectrometry techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akyuz, Sevim; Akyuz, Tanil; Mukhamedshina, Nuranya M.; Mirsagatova, A. Adiba; Basaran, Sait; Cakan, Banu

    2012-05-01

    Ancient glass fragments excavated in the archaeological district Enez (Ancient Ainos)-Turkey were investigated by combined Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) and Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometry techniques. Multi-elemental contents of 15 glass fragments that belong to Hellenistic, Roman, Byzantine, and Ottoman Periods, were determined by INAA. The concentrations of twenty six elements (Na, K, Ca, Sc, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, As, Rb, Sr, Sb, Cs, Ba, Ce, Sm, Eu, Tb, Yb, Lu, Hf, Ta, Au and Th), which might be present in the samples as flux, stabilizers, colorants or opacifiers, and impurities, were examined. Chemometric treatment of the INAA data was performed and principle component analysis revealed presence of 3 distinct groups. The thermal history of the glass samples was determined by FTIR spectrometry.

  19. Characterization of imazamox degradation by-products by using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry and high-resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Harir, M; Frommberger, M; Gaspar, A; Martens, D; Kettrup, A; El Azzouzi, M; Schmitt-Kopplin, Ph

    2007-11-01

    The photodecomposition of imazamox, a herbicide of the imidazolinone family, was investigated in pure water. The main photoproducts from the photolysis were followed over time by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry and structures were proposed from exact mass determinations obtained by electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. The method comprised exact mass determination with better than 0.2 ppm mass accuracy and a corresponding structural visualization taking care of respective isotopes with an adapted van Krevelen diagram that enabled a systematic approach to the characterisation of the elementary composition of each photoproduct. By taking advantage of the high resolving power of FT-ICR MS to make precise formula assignments, the derived 2D van Krevelen diagram (O/C; H/C; m/z) enabled one to structurally differentiate the formed photoproducts and to propose a degradation pathway for imazamox. PMID:17554530

  20. Isolation and Characterization of Three Streptococcus pneumoniae Transformation-Specific Loci by Use of a lacZ Reporter Insertion Vector

    PubMed Central

    Pestova, Ekaterina V.; Morrison, Donald A.

    1998-01-01

    Although more than a dozen new proteins are produced when Streptococcus pneumoniae cells become competent for genetic transformation, only a few of the corresponding genes have been identified to date. To find genes responsible for the production of competence-specific proteins, a random lacZ transcriptional fusion library was constructed in S. pneumoniae by using the insertional lacZ reporter vector pEVP3. Screening the library for clones with competence-specific β-galactosidase (β-Gal) production yielded three insertion mutants with induced β-Gal levels of about 4, 10, and 40 Miller units. In all three clones, activation of the lacZ reporter correlated with competence and depended on competence-stimulating peptide. Chromosomal loci adjacent to the integrated vector were subcloned from the insertion mutants, and their nucleotide sequences were determined. Genes at two of the loci exhibited strong similarity to parts of Bacillus subtilis com operons. One locus contained open reading frames (ORFs) homologous to the comEA and comEC genes in B. subtilis but lacked a comEB homolog. A second locus contained four ORFs with homology to the B. subtilis comG gene ORFs 1 to 4, but comG gene ORFs 5 to 7 were replaced in S. pneumoniae with an ORF encoding a protein homologous to transport ATP-binding proteins. Genes at all three loci were confirmed to be required for transformation by mutagenesis using pEVP3 for insertion duplications or an erm cassette for gene disruptions. PMID:9573156

  1. Identification and initial characterization of a new low-molecular-weight virus-encoded T antigen in a line of simian virus 40-transformed cells.

    PubMed Central

    Spangler, G J; Griffin, J D; Rubin, H; Livingston, D M

    1980-01-01

    SV80 cells, a simian virus 40 (SV40)-transformed derivative of a strain of human fibroblasts, synthesize an 8-kilodalton anti-T reactive polypeptide in addition to large T and small t antigens. Although not observed during lytic infection carried out under a variety of conditions, an anti-T reactive molecule which comigrated with the SV80 8-kilodalton protein during sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was synthesized by one of five other SV40-transformed cell lines studied. The SV40 8-kilodalton protein was present in lysates of cells exposed to a brief pulse of radioactive methionine and did not accumulate during an extended chase period. This polypeptide could not by generated by mixing an unlabeled extract of SV80 cells with a labeled extract of infected monkey cells. The 8-kilodalton molecule reacts with antibody raised against homogeneous large T antigen, is present only in the cytoplasm, is not complexed with T, lacks DNA-binding properties, and is not phosphorylated. This protein could be translated in a cell-free system programmed by SV40-specific mRNA. At least two messenger species (approximately 19S and approximately 22S) directed its synthesis. Tryptic peptide analysis of [35S]methionine-labeled proteins demonstrated that the 8-kilodalton protein contains all eight of the common T/t peptides and one additional peptide not present in the maps of t or T. It lacks both of the t-unique peptides. The organization of the integrated viral sequences which encode this molecule was determined by restriction endonuclease analysis. In particular, SV80 cells contain at least two integrated SV40 genomes which are oriented in tandem, with an intervening cellular sequence.. Images PMID:6159482

  2. Use of wavelet-packet transforms to develop an engineering model for multifractal characterization of mutation dynamics in pathological and nonpathological gene sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, David Lee

    1999-12-01

    This study uses dynamical analysis to examine in a quantitative fashion the information coding mechanism in DNA sequences. This exceeds the simple dichotomy of either modeling the mechanism by comparing DNA sequence walks as Fractal Brownian Motion (fbm) processes. The 2-D mappings of the DNA sequences for this research are from Iterated Function System (IFS) (Also known as the ``Chaos Game Representation'' (CGR)) mappings of the DNA sequences. This technique converts a 1-D sequence into a 2-D representation that preserves subsequence structure and provides a visual representation. The second step of this analysis involves the application of Wavelet Packet Transforms, a recently developed technique from the field of signal processing. A multi-fractal model is built by using wavelet transforms to estimate the Hurst exponent, H. The Hurst exponent is a non-parametric measurement of the dynamism of a system. This procedure is used to evaluate gene- coding events in the DNA sequence of cystic fibrosis mutations. The H exponent is calculated for various mutation sites in this gene. The results of this study indicate the presence of anti-persistent, random walks and persistent ``sub-periods'' in the sequence. This indicates the hypothesis of a multi-fractal model of DNA information encoding warrants further consideration. This work examines the model's behavior in both pathological (mutations) and non-pathological (healthy) base pair sequences of the cystic fibrosis gene. These mutations both natural and synthetic were introduced by computer manipulation of the original base pair text files. The results show that disease severity and system ``information dynamics'' correlate. These results have implications for genetic engineering as well as in mathematical biology. They suggest that there is scope for more multi-fractal models to be developed.

  3. An integrated approach to characterization of microbial exudates and investigation of their role in the spatial distribution and transformations of uranium at the mineral-microbe interface

    SciTech Connect

    Kemner, K.M.; O'Loughlin, E.J.; Kelly, S.D.; Nealson, K.H.

    2006-06-01

    The long-term aim of this project was to understand the role of microbiota and their polymers (EPS) in controlling the distribution and fates of contaminants in subsurface environments. Additionally, this project also focused on the identification and characterization of extracellular proteins under a variety of growth conditions. Finally, this project sought to develop and advance the use of a variety of synchrotron-based hard-x-ray techniques to address a number of different ERSP elements.

  4. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in ambient aerosols from Beijing: characterization of low volatile PAHs by positive-ion atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) coupled with Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Bin; Liang, Yongmei; Xu, Chunming; Zhang, Jingyi; Hu, Miao; Shi, Quan

    2014-05-01

    Aromatic fractions derived from aerosol samples were characterized by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS), high temperature simulated distillation (SIMDIS), and positive-ion atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS), respectively. It was found that about 27 wt % compounds in aromatic fractions could not be eluted from a GC column and some large molecule PAHs were neglected in GC-MS analysis. APPI FT-ICR MS was proven to be a powerful approach for characterizing the molecular composition of aromatics, especially for the large molecular species. An aromatic sample from Beijing urban aerosol was successfully characterized by APPI FT-ICR MS. Results showed that most abundant aromatic compounds in PM2.5 (particles with aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 μm) were highly condensed hydrocarbons with 4-8 aromatic rings and their homologues with very short alkyl chains. Furthermore, heteroatom-containing hydrocarbons were found as the significant components of the aromatic fractions: O1, O2, N1, and S1 class species with 10-28 DBEs (double bond equivalents) and 14-38 carbon numbers were identified by APPI FT-ICR MS. The heteroatom PAHs had similar DBEs and carbon number distribution as regular PAHs. PMID:24702199

  5. Identification and Characterization of a Ginsenoside-Transforming β-Glucosidase from Pseudonocardia sp. Gsoil 1536 and Its Application for Enhanced Production of Minor Ginsenoside Rg2(S)

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sung Chul; Kim, Jin-Kwang; Yu, Hong-Shan; Jin, Feng-Xie; Sun, Changkai; Kim, Sun-Chang; Im, Wan-Taek

    2014-01-01

    The ginsenoside Rg2(S), which is one of the pharmaceutical components of ginseng, is known to have neuroprotective, anti-inflammation, and anti-diabetic effects. However, the usage of ginsenoside Rg2(S) is restricted owing to the small amounts found in white and red ginseng. To enhance the production of ginsenoside Rg2(S) as a 100 gram unit with high specificity, yield, and purity, an enzymatic bioconversion method was developed to adopt the recombinant glycoside hydrolase (BglPC28), which is a ginsenoside-transforming recombinant β-glucosidase from Pseudonocardia sp. strain Gsoil 1536. The gene, termed bglPC28, encoding β-glucosidase (BglPC28) belonging to the glycoside hydrolase family 3 was cloned. bglPC28 consists of 2,232 bp (743 amino acid residues) with a predicted molecular mass of 78,975 Da. This enzyme was overexpressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3) using a GST-fused pGEX 4T-1 vector system. The optimum conditions of the recombinant BglPC28 were pH 7.0 and 37°C. BglPC28 can effectively transform the ginsenoside Re to Rg2(S); the Km values of PNPG and Re were 6.36±1.10 and 1.42±0.13 mM, respectively, and the Vmax values were 40.0±2.55 and 5.62±0.21 µmol min−1 mg−1 of protein, respectively. A scaled-up biotransformation reaction was performed in a 10 L jar fermenter at pH 7.0 and 30°C for 12 hours with a concentration of 20 mg/ml of ginsenoside Re from American ginseng roots. Finally, 113 g of Rg2(S) was produced from 150 g of Re with 84.0±1.1% chromatographic purity. These results suggest that this enzymatic method could be usefully exploited in the preparation of ginsenoside Rg2(S) in the cosmetics, functional food, and pharmaceutical industries. PMID:24911166

  6. EDITORIAL: Transformation optics Transformation optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shalaev, Vladimir M.; Pendry, John

    2011-02-01

    Metamaterials are artificial materials with versatile properties that can be tailored to fit almost any practical need and thus go well beyond what can be obtained with `natural' materials. Recent progress in developing optical metamaterials allows unprecedented extreme control over the flow of light at both the nano- and macroscopic scales. The innovative field of transformation optics, which is enabled by metamaterials, inspired researchers to take a fresh look at the very foundations of optics and helped to create a new paradigm for the science of light. Similar to general relativity, where time and space are curved, transformation optics shows that the space for light can also be bent in an almost arbitrary way. Most importantly, the optical space can be designed and engineered, opening up the fascinating possibility of controlling the flow of light with nanometer spatial precision. This new paradigm enables a number of novel optical devices guiding how, using metamaterials, the space for light can be curved in a pre-designed and well-controlled way. Metamaterials which incorporate the innovative theories of transformation optics are pertinent to the important areas of optical cloaking, optical black holes, super-resolution imaging, and other sci-fi-like devices. One such exciting device is an electromagnetic cloak that can bend light around itself, similar to the flow of water around a stone, making invisible both the cloak and the object hidden inside. Another important application is a flat hyperlens that can magnify the nanometer-scale features of an object that cannot be resolved with conventional optics. This could revolutionize the field of optical imaging, for instance, because such a meta-lens could become a standard add-on tool for microscopes. By enabling nanoscale resolution in optical microscopy, metamaterial-based transformation optics could allow one to literally see extremely small objects with the eye, including biological cells, viruses, and possibly even DNA molecules. Light-concentrating devices, such as the optical black hole, can be used for efficient solar light collection in photovoltaic elements for renewable energy. With the dramatic advances in micro- and nanofabrication methods, we are presented with the opportunity to control light in a way that was not possible with the materials provided to us by nature. In an artificial pattern of sub-wavelength elements, the propagation of electromagnetic energy can be defined by an equivalent spatial and spectral dispersion of effective dielectric and magnetic properties. These synthetic structures, which can be fabricated with a desired spatial distribution of effective permittivity epsilon(r) and permeability μ(r), offer a unique potential to guide and control the flow of electromagnetic energy in such an engineered optical space. No longer are we constrained by the electromagnetic response of natural materials and their chemical compounds. Instead, we can tailor the shape and size of the structural units of the metamaterials, or tune their composition and morphology to provide new functionality.

  7. Phase transformations coupled to deformation processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lookman, Turab

    2013-06-01

    Phase transformation processes have a substantial impact on the inelastic and damage response of materials. Yet, our understanding of how different loading conditions affect volume fractions of transformed phases, microstructure and transformation pathways is very much in its infancy. With an emphasis on distilling single crystal physics that can, in principle, be incorporated into higher length scale models, I will discuss how recent atomistic simulations on Ti are beginning to provide insights into transformation pathways and the interplay of phase transformations and deformation processes. These simulations are complemented by shock experiments on Zr, Ti together with characterization studies at the Advanced Photon Source.

  8. Special Features of Admittance in Mis Structures Based on Graded-Gap MBE n-Hg1- x Cd x Te ( x = 0.31-0.32) in a Temperature Range OF 8-300 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voitsekhovskii, A. V.; Nesmelov, S. N.; Dzyadukh, S. M.; Vasil'ev, V. V.; Varavin, V. S.; Dvoretskii, S. A.; Mikhailov, N. N.; Kuz'min, V. D.; Remesnik, V. G.

    2014-09-01

    Admittance of MIS structures based on graded-gap n-Hg1- х Cd х Te ( x = 0.31-0.32) grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) is investigated in a wide temperature range (8-300 K). It is shown that the temperature and frequency dependences of the differential resistance of space charge region for structures with a graded-gap layer are qualitatively similar to those for structures without a graded-gap layer. It is found that for MIS structures based on MBE n-Hg1- х Cd х Te ( x = 0.31-0.32), regardless of the presence of a graded-gap layer, the differential resistance of space charge region is limited by the processes of Shockley-Read generation in the temperature range of 25-100 K.

  9. The Use of Accurate Mass Tags based upon High-Throughput Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry for Global Proteomic Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.

    2004-07-30

    In this review, we describe the technological basis and progress towards a new global proteomics strategy that uses peptide accurate mass measurements augmented by information from separations (e.g. LC retention times) to provide large improvements in sensitivity, dynamic range, comprehensiveness and throughput. The use of ?accurate mass and time? (AMT) tags serves to eliminate the need for routine MS/MS measurements [#4109]. As the case study, we use our own research efforts to illustrate the role of AMTs within the broader context of a state-of-the-art proteomics effort. Our strategy exploits high-resolution capillary LC separations combined with Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR). AMTs represent peptide biomarkers and can be used to confidently identify proteins based on the high mass measurement accuracy provided by FTICR combined with LC elution times. Once identified using MS/MS, these biomarkers provide the foundation for subsequent high throughput studies using only AMT tags to identify and quantify the proteins expressed within a cell system. Key attractions of this approach include the feasibility of completely automated high confidence protein identifications, extensive proteome coverage, and the capability for exploiting stable-isotope labeling methods for high precision abundance measurements [#4019]. Additional developments described in this review include methods for more effective coverage of membrane proteins [#4184], for dynamic range expansion of proteome measurements [#4012], and for multi-stage separations that promise to enable more focused analyses, further extend the quality of measurements, and also extend measurements to more complex proteomes.

  10. Contribution made by multivariate curve resolution applied to gel permeation chromatography-Fourier transform infrared data for an in-depth characterization of styrene-butadiene rubber blends.

    PubMed

    Ruckebusch, C; Vilmin, F; Coste, N; Huvenne, J P

    2008-07-01

    We evaluate the contribution made by multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) for resolving gel permeation chromatography-Fourier transform infrared (GPC-FT-IR) data collected on butadiene rubber (BR) and styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) blends in order to access in-depth knowledge of polymers along the molecular weight distribution (MWD). In the BR-SBR case, individual polymers differ in chemical composition but share almost the same MWD. Principal component analysis (PCA) gives a general overview of the data structure and attests to the feasibility of modeling blends as a binary system. MCR-ALS is then performed. It allows resolving the chromatographic coelution and validates the chosen methodology. For SBR-SBR blends, the problem is more challenging since the individual elastomers present the same chemical composition. Rank deficiency is detected from the PCA data structure analysis. MCR-ALS is thus performed on column-wise augmented matrices. It brings very useful insight into the composition of the analyzed blends. In particular, a weak change in the composition of individual SBR in the MWD's lowest mass region is revealed. PMID:18935830

  11. Applications of open-path Fourier transform infrared for identification of volatile organic compound pollution sources and characterization of source emission behaviors.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chitsan; Liou, Naiwei; Sun, Endy

    2008-06-01

    An open-path Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (OP-FTIR) system was set up for 3-day continuous line-averaged volatile organic compound (VOC) monitoring in a paint manufacturing plant. Seven VOCs (toluene, m-xylene, p-xylene, styrene, methanol, acetone, and 2-butanone) were identified in the ambient environment. Daytime-only batch operation mode was well explained by the time-series concentration plots. Major sources of methanol, m-xylene, acetone, and 2-butanone were identified in the southeast direction where paint solvent manufacturing processes are located. However, an attempt to uncover sources of styrene was not successful because the method detection limit (MDL) of the OP-FTIR system was not sensitive enough to produce conclusive data. In the second scenario, the OP-FTIR system was set up in an industrial complex to distinguish the origins of several VOCs. Eight major VOCs were identified in the ambient environment. The pollutant detected wind-rose percentage plots that clearly showed that ethylene, propylene, 2-butanone, and toluene mainly originated from the tank storage area, whereas the source of n-butane was mainly from the butadiene manufacturing processes of the refinery plant, and ammonia was identified as an accompanying reduction product in the gasoline desulfuration process. Advantages of OP-FTIR include its ability to simultaneously and continuously analyze many compounds, and its long path length monitoring has also shown advantages in obtaining more comprehensive data than the traditional multiple, single-point monitoring methods. PMID:18581812

  12. General linear chirplet transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Gang; Zhou, Yiqi

    2016-03-01

    Time-frequency (TF) analysis (TFA) method is an effective tool to characterize the time-varying feature of a signal, which has drawn many attentions in a fairly long period. With the development of TFA, many advanced methods are proposed, which can provide more precise TF results. However, some restrictions are introduced inevitably. In this paper, we introduce a novel TFA method, termed as general linear chirplet transform (GLCT), which can overcome some limitations existed in current TFA methods. In numerical and experimental validations, by comparing with current TFA methods, some advantages of GLCT are demonstrated, which consist of well-characterizing the signal of multi-component with distinct non-linear features, being independent to the mathematical model and initial TFA method, allowing for the reconstruction of the interested component, and being non-sensitivity to noise.

  13. Characterization by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry of the major photoproducts of temoporfin (m-THPC) and bacteriochlorin (m-THPBC).

    PubMed

    Angotti, M; Maunit, B; Muller, J F; Bezdetnaya, L; Guillemin, F

    2001-07-01

    The photobleaching of 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(m-hydroxyphenyl)chlorin (temoporfin, m-THPC) and 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(m-hydroxyphenyl)bacteriochlorin (bacteriochlorin, m-THPBC) was studied in ethanol-water (1 : 99, v/v) and in physiological medium (phosphate-buffered saline, PBS) with or without fetal calf serum (FCS). m-THPC solution was irradiated with the laser radiation of 650 nm, whereas m-THPBC solution underwent two consecutive irradiations at 532 and 650 nm. The photoproducts were characterized by UV-visible absorption spectrophotometry and by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) coupled with Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICRMS). Independent of the solvent used, the phototransformation of either photosensitizer yielded the formation of 5,10,15,20-tetrakis (m-hydroxyphenyl)porphyrin (m-THPP) through a major dehydrogenation process. PMID:11473406

  14. ATMOSPHERIC TRANSFORMATION OF DIESEL EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The investigators anticipate successfully conducting a complex study to characterize the atmospheric transformations of DE under the influence of sunlight, O3, radicals, and organic compounds. It is hope that this study will present novel results on the atmospheric aging of...

  15. Characterization of the Adsorption of Nucleic Acid Bases onto Ferrihydrite via Fourier Transform Infrared and Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy and X-ray Diffractometry.

    PubMed

    Canhisares-Filho, José E; Carneiro, Cristine E A; de Santana, Henrique; Urbano, Alexandre; da Costa, Antonio C S; Zaia, Cássia T B V; Zaia, Dimas A M

    2015-09-01

    Minerals could have played an important role in concentration, protection, and polymerization of biomolecules. Although iron is the fourth most abundant element in Earth's crust, there are few works in the literature that describe the use of iron oxide-hydroxide in prebiotic chemistry experiments. In the present work, the interaction of adenine, thymine, and uracil with ferrihydrite was studied under conditions that resemble those of prebiotic Earth. At acidic pH, anions in artificial seawater decreased the pH at the point of zero charge (pHpzc) of ferrihydrite; and at basic pH, cations increased the pHpzc. The adsorption of nucleic acid bases onto ferrihydrite followed the order adenine > uracil > thymine. Adenine adsorption peaked at neutral pH; however, for thymine and uracil, adsorption increased with increasing pH. Electrostatic interactions did not appear to play an important role on the adsorption of nucleic acid bases onto ferrihydrite. Adenine adsorption onto ferrihydrite was higher in distilled water compared to artificial seawater. After ferrihydrite was mixed with artificial seawaters or nucleic acid bases, X-ray diffractograms and Fourier transform infrared spectra did not show any change. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy showed that the interaction of adenine with ferrihydrite was not pH-dependent. In contrast, the interactions of thymine and uracil with ferrihydrite were pH-dependent such that, at basic pH, thymine and uracil lay flat on the surface of ferrihydrite, and at acidic pH, thymine and uracil were perpendicular to the surface. Ferrihydrite adsorbed much more adenine than thymine; thus adenine would have been better protected against degradation by hydrolysis or UV radiation on prebiotic Earth. PMID:26393397

  16. Transforming giants.

    PubMed

    Kanter, Rosabeth Moss

    2008-01-01

    Large corporations have long been seen as lumbering, inflexible, bureaucratic--and clueless about global developments. But recently some multinationals seem to be transforming themselves: They're engaging employees, moving quickly, and introducing innovations that show true connection with the world. Harvard Business School's Kanter ventured with a research team inside a dozen global giants--including IBM, Procter & Gamble, Omron, CEMEX, Cisco, and Banco Real--to discover what has been driving the change. After conducting more than 350 interviews on five continents, she and her colleagues came away with a strong sense that we are witnessing the dawn of a new model of corporate power: The coordination of actions and decisions on the front lines now appears to stem from widely shared values and a sturdy platform of common processes and technology, not from top-down decrees. In particular, the values that engage the passions of far-flung workforces stress openness, inclusion, and making the world a better place. Through this shift in what might be called their guidance systems, the companies have become as creative and nimble as much smaller ones, even while taking on social and environmental challenges of a scale that only large enterprises could attempt. IBM, for instance, has created a nonprofit partnership, World Community Grid, through which any organization or individual can donate unused computing power to research projects and see what is being done with the donation in real time. IBM has gained an inspiring showcase for its new technology, helped business partners connect with the company in a positive way, and offered individuals all over the globe the chance to contribute to something big. PMID:18271317

  17. Evaluate and characterize mechanisms controlling transport, fate, and effects of army smokes in the aerosol wind tunnel: Transport, transformations, fate, and terrestrial ecological effects of hexachloroethane obscurant smokes

    SciTech Connect

    Cataldo, D.A.; Ligotke, M.W.; Bolton, H. Jr.; Fellows, R.J.; Van Voris, P.; McVeety, B.D.; Li, Shu-mei W.; McFadden, K.M.

    1989-09-01

    The terrestrial transport, chemical fate, and ecological effects of hexachloroethane (HC) smoke were evaluated under controlled wind tunnel conditions. The primary objectives of this research program are to characterize and assess the impacts of smoke and obscurants on: (1) natural vegetation characteristic of US Army training sites in the United States; (2) physical and chemical properties of soils representative of these training sites; and (3) soil microbiological and invertebrate communities. Impacts and dose/responses were evaluated based on exposure scenarios, including exposure duration, exposure rate, and sequential cumulative dosing. Key to understanding the environmental impacts of HC smoke/obscurants is establishing the importance of environmental parameters such as relative humidity and wind speed on airborne aerosol characteristics and deposition to receptor surfaces. Direct and indirect biotic effects were evaluated using five plant species and two soil types. HC aerosols were generated in a controlled atmosphere wind tunnel by combustion of hexachloroethane mixtures prepared to simulate normal pot burn rates and conditions. The aerosol was characterized and used to expose plant, soil, and other test systems. Particle sizes of airborne HC ranged from 1.3 to 2.1 {mu}m mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD), and particle size was affected by relative humidity over a range of 20% to 85%. Air concentrations employed ranged from 130 to 680 mg/m{sup 3}, depending on exposure scenario. Chlorocarbon concentrations within smokes, deposition rates for plant and soil surfaces, and persistence were determined. The fate of principal inorganic species (Zn, Al, and Cl) in a range of soils was assessed.

  18. Identification and characterization of transforming growth factor β-activated kinase 1 from Litopenaeus vannamei involved in anti-bacterial host defense.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sheng; Li, Haoyang; L, Kai; Qian, Zhe; Weng, Shaoping; He, Jianguo; Li, Chaozheng

    2016-05-01

    LvTAK1, a member of transforming growth factor β-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) families, has been identified from Litopenaeus vannamei in this study. The full length of LvTAK1 is 2670 bp, including a 2277 bp open reading frame (ORF) that encoded a putative protein of 758 amino acids with a calculated molecular weight of ∼83.4 kDa LvTAK1 expression was most abundant in muscles and was up-regulated in gills after LPS, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Staphhylococcu saureus, Poly (I:C) and WSSV challenge. Both in vivo and in vitro experiments indicated that LvTAK1 could activate the expression of several antimicrobial peptide genes (AMPs). In addition, the dsRNA-mediated knockdown of LvTAK1 enhanced the susceptibility of shrimps to Vibrio parahaemolyticus, a kind of Gram-negative bacteria. These results suggested LvTAK1 played important roles in anti-bacterial infection. CoIP and subcellular localization assay demonstrated that LvTAK1 could interact with its binding protein LvTAB2, a key component of IMD pathway. Moreover, over-expression of LvTAK1 in Drosophila S2 cell could strongly induce the promoter activity of Diptericin (Dpt), a typical AMP which is used to read out of the activation of IMD pathway. These findings suggested that LvTAK1 could function as a component of IMD pathway. Interestingly, with the over-expression of LvTAK1 in S2 cell, the promoter activity of Metchnikowin (Mtk), a main target gene of Toll/Dif pathway, was up-regulated over 30 times, suggesting that LvTAK1 may also take part in signal transduction of the Toll pathway. In conclusion, we provided some evidences that the involvement of LvTAK1 in the regulation of both Toll and IMD pathways, as well as innate immune against bacterial infection in shrimp. PMID:27033469

  19. Molecular Characterization and Reactivity of Dissolved Organic Matter by High Resolution Nanospray Ionization Fourier Transform-Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry (FTICR-MS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sleighter, R. L.; Hatcher, S. A.; Hatcher, P. G.

    2006-12-01

    The ultrahigh resolving power of FTICR-MS allows for the intense characterization of dissolved organic matter (DOM). DOM is the largest reactive component of the global carbon cycle, and an improved understanding of its composition is necessary to determine the transport and eventual fate of pollutants. The seasonal and spatial variations in DOM composition are investigated by taking surface water samples from five different sampling sites, four times a year. Water sampling begins at the Dismal Swamp in North Carolina, continues north up the Elizabeth River to the Chesapeake Bay, and concludes approximately ten miles off the coast in the Atlantic Ocean. DOM was extracted from the water samples using C18 extraction disks and were prepared in 50:50 methanol:water. Ammonium hydroxide was added prior to nanospray in order to solubilize the DOM as well as to increase the ionization efficiency. The samples were continuously infused into the Apollo II ion source with an Advion TriVersa NanoMate system of a Bruker 12 Tesla Apex QE FTICR-MS with resolving powers exceeding 400,000. All samples were analyzed in negative ion mode and were externally and internally calibrated prior to data analysis. Our DOM mass spectra consist of a multitude of peaks spanning the range of 200-850 m/z. Complexity is apparent from the detection of up to 20 peaks per nominal mass at nearly every mass throughout that range. A molecular formula calculator generated molecular formula matches from which van Krevelen plots were constructed for characterization purposes. A wide range of molecules were observed each containing oxygen, sulfur and nitrogen functional groups. We utilize the van Krevelen diagram to assist in clustering the molecules according to their functional group compositions. To test the hypothesis that formation of adducts to DOM serve to protect peptides from bacterial degradation, microcosm experiments were performed with a small isotopically enriched peptide, GGGR. This peptide was predicted to covalently bond to DOM via a Michael addition reaction or Schiff base formation. Following the incubation of GGGR with DOM, adduct formation was examined by FTICR-MS. Covalent binding of GGGR to DOM is a process that may reduce the bioavailability and degradation of proteins in the environment and could potentially lead to their preservation on longer time scales. FTICR-MS is clearly a powerful technique used to examine the complex composition of DOM and allow for advancements in the areas of aquatic and analytical chemistry.

  20. Formation and characterization of iron-oligonucleotide complexes with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hettich, R L

    1999-10-01

    Iron-containing oligonucleotide negative ions can be generated by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization from a stainless steel target disk (by either defocusing the laser beam or by mixing iron salts such as FeCl3 with the matrix compound during the sample preparation). High resolution mass measurements reveal the presence of both Fe2+ (as M + Fe - 3H)- and Fe3+ (as M + Fe - 4H)- in the metal-oligonucleotide ions. The presence of Fe3+ is unexpected, and must involve replacement of protons from the nucleic bases or ribose groups as well as the phosphate groups of the oligonucleotides. Inspection of a range of small oligonucleotides and mononucleotides reveals that the presence of both Fe2+ and Fe3+ in the iron-biomolecule complexes is dependent on the number of acidic hydrogens that can be replaced in the oligonucleotide or nucleotide. Collisional dissociation of several metal-tetranucleotide ions revealed that the presence of the iron ion alters the fragmentation observed. The iron atom was observed to be present in all of the fragment ions, and, whenever possible, seemed to enhance the abundance of fragment ions containing both iron and a guanine nucleic base. These results suggest that iron may serve as a useful probe for characterizing phosphorylated biomolecules. PMID:10497807

  1. Enterprise transformation :lessons learned, pathways to success.

    SciTech Connect

    Slavin, Adam M.; Woodard, Joan Brune

    2006-05-01

    In this report, we characterize the key themes of transformation and tie them together in a ''how to'' guide. The perspectives were synthesized from strategic management literature, case studies, and from interviews with key management personnel from private industry on their transformation experiences.

  2. Natural and anthropogenic impacts on biogeochemical cycle in Yangtze River basin: Source, transformation and fate of dissolved organic matter (DOM) characterized by 3-D fluorescence spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, Shuchai; Wu, Ying; Bao, Hongyan; Zhang, Jing

    2013-04-01

    Inland waters play an important role in the global carbon cycle as reactors for DOM cycling, transformation and transportation. With large amounts of terrestrial DOM, the Yangtze River is vital for coastal environment and ecosystem. In the context of climate change, it's critical to evaluate both hydrodynamic conditions and increasing human activities' impacts on biogeochemical cycle of DOM in Yangtze River across different climatic and hydrologic regions which are poorly understood. What's more, the hydrologic condition changes caused by the Three Gorges Dam (TGD, world's largest power station in terms of installed capacity) have recently proven to be a partition factor for fluvial particle. However, it's still an enigma for dissolved matter cycle. To address those issues, this study applies EEMs combined with bulk characteristics, chlorophyll and absorption spectrum in an attempt to assess characteristics and dynamics of DOM in Yangtze River. It's a novel optical approach that could 'see' molecular structure of DOM without the limits of time-consuming and laborious molecular measurements. Combined with parallel factor analysis, 5 individual fluorescent components have been identified: 3 humic-like (H1, H2, H3) and 2 protein-like components (P1, P2). With typical bioavailability and photo-reactivity, these components suggest different sources and dynamics. On the whole, both DOC and the sum of all 5 components (? Fluo) increased remarkably from the upper reach especially to the Three Gorge Dam and thereafter remained constant (R2between DOC and - Fluo: 0.92). The protein-like components (- P) accounted for 1/4 of - Fluo with apparently weak correlations with DOC and chlorophyll, which implied that the DOM is not dominated by autochthonous production, especially for the upper reach with high concentration of total suspended matter. As for Humic-like component, increasing H1 and DOC in the TGD reservoir area implied impacts from human activities there with intercept of sewage rather than an enabling environment for degradation. While in the lower reach where H3(Ex/Em:250/450~485nm) was accumulated, the other components (H1, H2) and a350 (absorption coefficient at 350nm) seemed to be degraded faster than H3 indicating that DOM might be subjected to selective biological and photochemical degradation processes, combined with remarkably higher Sr (absorption coefficient slope ratio, indicator of the degradation degree and aromatic property) in the lower reach after TGD, these facts suggests that the contrasting hydrology before and after TGD has led to a more significant composition differences and selective degradation of DOM. In case of any biased views, we conducted both dark and light incubations which showed consistency with the conclusion above. Besides, a comparison of Yangtze River and the other large rivers shows that the EEMs and a350 vary with land use, latitude and human activities, which verified their potential to trace the source and fate of fluvial DOM, even for different regions and water masses. Such knowledge on compositional differences of DOM resulting from variations in DOM sources and local environmental conditions (different photo-/bio-reactivity associated re-mineralization potential) during fluvial transport, would undoubtedly assist in predicting the consequences of global change and its relationship to global carbon cycling.

  3. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and imaging of the nucleus to characterize DNA contributions in different phases of the cell cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, Saumya; Zong, Xinying; Holton, Sarah E.; Prasanth, K. V.; Bhargava, Rohit

    2015-03-01

    Determination of neoplasia is largely dependent on the state of cell growth. Infrared (IR) spectroscopy has the potential to measure differences between normal and cancerous cells. When analyzing biopsy sections using IR spectroscopy, careful analyses become important since biochemical variations may be misinterpreted due to variations in cell cycle. Processes like DNA replication, transcription and translation to produce proteins are important in determining if the cells are actively dividing but no studies on this aspect using IR spectroscopy have been conducted on isolated cell nuclei. Nuclei hold critical information about the phase of cell and its capacity to divide, but IR spectra of nuclei are often confounded by cytoplasmic signals during data acquisition from intact cells and tissues. Therefore, we sought to separate nuclear signals from cytoplasmic signals and identify spectral differences that characterize different phases of the cell cycle. Both cells and isolated nuclei were analyzed to assess the effect of the cytoplasmic background and to identify spectral changes in nuclei in different phases of cell cycle. We observed that signals of DNA could be obtained when imaging nuclei isolated from cells in different phases of cell cycle, which is in contrast to the oft-cited case in cells wherein nuclear contributions are obscured. The differences across cell cycle phases were more pronounced in nucleic acid regions of the spectra, showing that the use of nuclear spectrum can provide additional information on cellular state. These results can aid in developing computational models that extract nuclear spectra from whole cells and tissues for more accurate assessment of biochemical variations.

  4. Characterization of CZTSSe photovoltaic device with an atomic layer-deposited passivation layer

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Wei Cao, Yanyan; Caspar, Jonathan V.; Guo, Qijie; Johnson, Lynda K.; Mclean, Robert S.; Malajovich, Irina; Choudhury, Kaushik Roy

    2014-07-28

    We describe a CZTSSe (Cu{sub 2}ZnSn(S{sub 1−x},Se{sub x}){sub 4}) photovoltaic (PV) device with an ALD (atomic layer deposition) coated buffer dielectric layer for CZTSSe surface passivation. An ALD buffer layer, such as TiO{sub 2}, can be applied in order to reduce the interface recombination and improve the device's open-circuit voltage. Detailed characterization data including current-voltage, admittance spectroscopy, and capacitance profiling are presented in order to compare the performance of PV devices with and without the ALD layer.

  5. Co-fired magnetoelectric transformer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yuan; Yan, Yongke; Priya, Shashank

    2014-06-01

    In this study, we demonstrate a co-fired magnetoelectric (ME) laminate consisting of piezoelectric/magnetostrictive/piezoelectric layers with unipoled piezoelectric transformer structure. The ME transformer was characterized by quantifying the voltage gain variation and resonance frequency shift as a function of applied DC magnetic field. We delineate the magnetic tunability feature by considering the magnetoelectric coupling and delta-E effect, where E represents the modulus of magnetic material. The ME response of the composite structure was found to be 473 mV/cm.Oe exhibiting DC field sensitivity of 100 nT under AC field of 1 Oe at 1 kHz. At a magnetic bias of 60 Oe, the transformer exhibited large frequency tunability of the order of 1.4 Hz/Oe. These results present significant advancement towards developing on-chip magnetic-field-tunable devices.

  6. Phase Transformations in Confined Nanosystems

    SciTech Connect

    Shield, Jeffrey E.; Belashchenko, Kirill

    2014-04-29

    This project discovered that non-equilibrium structures, including chemically ordered structures not observed in bulk systems, form in isolated nanoscale systems. Further, a generalized model was developed that effectively explained the suppression of equilibrium phase transformations. This thermodynamic model considered the free energy decrease associated with the phase transformation was less than the increase in energy associated with the formation of an interphase interface, therefore inhibiting the phase transformation. A critical diameter exists where the system transitions to bulk behavior, and a generalized equation was formulated that successfully predicted this transition in the Fe-Au system. This provided and explains a new route to novel structures not possible in bulk systems. The structural characterization was accomplished using transmission electron microscopy in collaboration with Matthew Kramer of Ames Laboratory. The PI and graduate student visited Ames Laboratory several times a year to conduct the experiments.

  7. Refinement of printer transformations using weighted regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balasubramanian, Raja; Maltz, Martin S.

    1996-03-01

    Printer characterization and color correction are often complex transformations, and are derived with numerous measurements or printer models. There are many sources of errors in these transforms, including inaccuracies in lookup table approximation, errors in the printer model, noise in the data, and spatial and temporal non-uniformities in the printer. A method is proposed to increase the accuracy of an existing printer transform with a relatively small number of refinement measurements. A weighted linear least-squares regression technique is used to improve the fit of the printer response to the refinement data. The hypothesis is that a locally linear transform can adequately capture the difference between the true printer transform and its approximation. In contrast to existing approaches that only refine the individual C, M, Y, K responses, the proposed method attempts to account for cross-colorant interactions by using mixed colors in the refinement set. Furthermore, the refinement data is not restricted to lying on a regular grid, and can be freely chosen based on any a priori knowledge about the printer. The approach is tested for two related transforms: the characterization transform which maps CMYK to L*a*b*; and its inverse, the color correction transform that maps L*a*b* to CMYK. Results show an improvement in transform accuracy with a relatively small number of measurements.

  8. The Funk transform as a Penrose transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, Toby N.; Eastwood, Michael G.; Gover, A. Rod; Mason, Lionel J.

    1999-01-01

    The Funk transform is the integral transform from the space of smooth even functions on the unit sphere S2[subset or is implied by][open face R]3 to itself defined by integration over great circles. One can regard this transform as a limit in a certain sense of the Penrose transform from [open face C][open face P]2 to [open face C][open face P]*ast;2. We exploit this viewpoint by developing a new proof of the bijectivity of the Funk transform which proceeds by considering the cohomology of a certain involutive (or formally integrable) structure on an intermediate space. This is the simplest example of what we hope will prove to be a general method of obtaining results in real integral geometry by means of complex holomorphic methods derived from the Penrose transform.

  9. Transforming human gait for signature signals characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arshad, Atika; Fadzil Ismail, Ahmad; Khan, Sheroz; Zahirul Alam, A. H. M.; Tasnim, Rumana; Samnan Haider, Syed; Shobaki, Mohammed M.; Shahid, Zeeshan

    2013-12-01

    An integrated wireless inductive sensor is reported based on a system for monitoring human movement and body size. The proposed system senses the presence of human beings using electromagnetic field by making use of basic inductive coupling approach, hence analysing the performance of human monitoring. The amalgamation of the integrated system proposed will help in providing better services to the elderly people resided in healthcare centres. The developed sensing system is of low cost, flexible, robust, and easily implantable and capable of inductive sensing through marking signature waveforms as a result of human movements.

  10. Hydrolytic Amino Acids Employed as a Novel Organic Nitrogen Source for the Preparation of PGPF-Containing Bio-Organic Fertilizer for Plant Growth Promotion and Characterization of Substance Transformation during BOF Production.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fengge; Meng, Xiaohui; Feng, Chenglong; Ran, Wei; Yu, Guanghui; Zhang, Yingjun; Shen, Qirong

    2016-01-01

    Opportunity costs seriously limit the large-scale production of bio-organic fertilizers (BOFs) both in China and internationally. This study addresses the utilization of amino acids resulting from the acidic hydrolysis of pig corpses as organic nitrogen sources to increase the density of TrichodermaharzianumT-E5 (a typical plant growth-promoting fungi, PGPF). This results in a novel, economical, highly efficient and environmentally friendly BOF product. Fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectroscopy combined with fluorescence regional integration (FRI) was employed to monitor compost maturity levels, while pot experiments were utilized to test the effects of this novel BOF on plant growth. An optimization experiment, based on response surface methodologies (RSMs), showed that a maximum T-E5 population (3.72 × 108 ITS copies g-1) was obtained from a mixture of 65.17% cattle manure compost (W/W), 19.33% maggot manure (W/W), 15.50% (V/W)hydrolytic amino acid solution and 4.69% (V/W) inoculum at 28.7°C after a 14 day secondary solid fermentation. Spectroscopy analysis revealed that the compost transformation process involved the degradation of protein-like substances and the formation of fulvic-like and humic-like substances. FRI parameters (PI, n, PII, n, PIII, n and PV, n) were used to characterize the degree of compost maturity. The BOF resulted in significantly higher increased chlorophyll content, shoot length, and shoot and root dry weights of three vegetables (cucumber, tomato and pepper) by 9.9%~22.4%, 22.9%~58.5%, 31.0%~84.9%, and 24.2%~34.1%, respectively. In summary, this study presents an operational means of increasing PGPF T-E5 populations in BOF to promote plant growth with a concomitant reduction in production cost. In addition, a BOF compost maturity assessment using fluorescence EEM spectroscopy and FRI ensured its safe field application. PMID:26974549

  11. Hydrolytic Amino Acids Employed as a Novel Organic Nitrogen Source for the Preparation of PGPF-Containing Bio-Organic Fertilizer for Plant Growth Promotion and Characterization of Substance Transformation during BOF Production

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Chenglong; Ran, Wei; Yu, Guanghui; Zhang, Yingjun; Shen, Qirong

    2016-01-01

    Opportunity costs seriously limit the large-scale production of bio-organic fertilizers (BOFs) both in China and internationally. This study addresses the utilization of amino acids resulting from the acidic hydrolysis of pig corpses as organic nitrogen sources to increase the density of TrichodermaharzianumT-E5 (a typical plant growth-promoting fungi, PGPF). This results in a novel, economical, highly efficient and environmentally friendly BOF product. Fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectroscopy combined with fluorescence regional integration (FRI) was employed to monitor compost maturity levels, while pot experiments were utilized to test the effects of this novel BOF on plant growth. An optimization experiment, based on response surface methodologies (RSMs), showed that a maximum T-E5 population (3.72 × 108 ITS copies g−1) was obtained from a mixture of 65.17% cattle manure compost (W/W), 19.33% maggot manure (W/W), 15.50% (V/W)hydrolytic amino acid solution and 4.69% (V/W) inoculum at 28.7°C after a 14 day secondary solid fermentation. Spectroscopy analysis revealed that the compost transformation process involved the degradation of protein-like substances and the formation of fulvic-like and humic-like substances. FRI parameters (PI, n, PII, n, PIII, n and PV, n) were used to characterize the degree of compost maturity. The BOF resulted in significantly higher increased chlorophyll content, shoot length, and shoot and root dry weights of three vegetables (cucumber, tomato and pepper) by 9.9%~22.4%, 22.9%~58.5%, 31.0%~84.9%, and 24.2%~34.1%, respectively. In summary, this study presents an operational means of increasing PGPF T-E5 populations in BOF to promote plant growth with a concomitant reduction in production cost. In addition, a BOF compost maturity assessment using fluorescence EEM spectroscopy and FRI ensured its safe field application. PMID:26974549

  12. Evaluate and characterize mechanisms controlling transport, fate and effects of Army smokes in the aerosol wind tunnel: Transport, transformations, fate, and terrestrial ecological effects of red phosphorus-butyl rubber and white phosphorus obscurant smokes: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Van Voris, P.; Ligotke, M.W.; McFadden, K.M.; Li, S.M.W.; Thomas, B.L.; Cataldo, D.A.; Garland, T.R.; Fredrickson, J.K.; Bean, R.M.; Carlile, D.W.

    1987-10-01

    An evaluation of the terrestrial transport, transformations and ecological effects of phosphorus (red phosphorus-butyl rubber (RP/BR)) smoke obscurant was performed at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. A similar evaluation using white phosphorus (WP) smoke/obscurant is currently proceeding. The objective is to characterize the effects of smokes and obscurants on: (1) natural vegetation characteristic of US Army training sites in the United States; (2) physical and chemical properties of representative of soils of those sites; and (3) soil microbiological communities. The influence and interactions of smoke/obscurant concentration, relative humidity (25%, 60%, 90% and simulated rain) and wind speed of 0.22 to 4.45 m/s by smoke is assessed. Five plant species and four soils were exposed to both single and repeated doses of RP/BR smokes in the Pacific Northwest Laboratory ''P-3'' rated recirculating environmental wind tunnel. Detailed results for RP/BR and limited results for WP are presented. Toxicity symptoms for plants exposed for 2, 4, 6, and 8 hours to concentrations of RP/BR ranging from 200 mg/m/sup 3/ included leaf tip burn, leaf curl, leaf abscission and drop, floral abortion, chlorosis, neucrotic spotting, wilting, desiccation and dieback. Grass and bushbean were the most sensitive. The intensity and duration of these effects varied. Soils effects data suggest that there is an increase in the mobility of selected trace elements after exposure; however, this effect appears to be ameliorated with time. Soil microbial community effects show a reduction in the production of nitrate after soil is exposed to RP/BR smoke. Most of the plant, soil and soil microbial effects are transient in nature and are somewhat less intense resulting from repeated exposures; however, there is evidence that some of these environmental impacts may be persistent. 43 refs., 44 figs., 67 tabs.

  13. Arsenic(V) Reduction in Relation to Iron(III) Transformation and Molecular Characterization of the Structural and Functional Microbial Community in Sediments of a Basin-Fill Aquifer in Northern Utah

    PubMed Central

    Mirza, Babur S.; Muruganandam, Subathra; Meng, Xianyu; Sorensen, Darwin L.; Dupont, R. Ryan

    2014-01-01

    Basin-fill aquifers of the Southwestern United States are associated with elevated concentrations of arsenic (As) in groundwater. Many private domestic wells in the Cache Valley Basin, UT, have As concentrations in excess of the U.S. EPA drinking water limit. Thirteen sediment cores were collected from the center of the valley at the depth of the shallow groundwater and were sectioned into layers based on redoxmorphic features. Three of the layers, two from redox transition zones and one from a depletion zone, were used to establish microcosms. Microcosms were treated with groundwater (GW) or groundwater plus glucose (GW+G) to investigate the extent of As reduction in relation to iron (Fe) transformation and characterize the microbial community structure and function by sequencing 16S rRNA and arsenate dissimilatory reductase (arrA) genes. Under the carbon-limited conditions of the GW treatment, As reduction was independent of Fe reduction, despite the abundance of sequences related to Geobacter and Shewanella, genera that include a variety of dissimilatory iron-reducing bacteria. The addition of glucose, an electron donor and carbon source, caused substantial shifts toward domination of the bacterial community by Clostridium-related organisms, and As reduction was correlated with Fe reduction for the sediments from the redox transition zone. The arrA gene sequencing from microcosms at day 54 of incubation showed the presence of 14 unique phylotypes, none of which were related to any previously described arrA gene sequence, suggesting a unique community of dissimilatory arsenate-respiring bacteria in the Cache Valley Basin. PMID:24632255

  14. A dynamic phase-field model for structural transformations and twinning: Regularized interfaces with transparent prescription of complex kinetics and nucleation. Part I: Formulation and one-dimensional characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agrawal, Vaibhav; Dayal, Kaushik

    2015-12-01

    The motion of microstructural interfaces is important in modeling twinning and structural phase transformations. Continuum models fall into two classes: sharp-interface models, where interfaces are singular surfaces; and regularized-interface models, such as phase-field models, where interfaces are smeared out. The former are challenging for numerical solutions because the interfaces need to be explicitly tracked, but have the advantage that the kinetics of existing interfaces and the nucleation of new interfaces can be transparently and precisely prescribed. In contrast, phase-field models do not require explicit tracking of interfaces, thereby enabling relatively simple numerical calculations, but the specification of kinetics and nucleation is both restrictive and extremely opaque. This prevents straightforward calibration of phase-field models to experiment and/or molecular simulations, and breaks the multiscale hierarchy of passing information from atomic to continuum. Consequently, phase-field models cannot be confidently used in dynamic settings. This shortcoming of existing phase-field models motivates our work. We present the formulation of a phase-field model - i.e., a model with regularized interfaces that do not require explicit numerical tracking - that allows for easy and transparent prescription of complex interface kinetics and nucleation. The key ingredients are a re-parametrization of the energy density to clearly separate nucleation from kinetics; and an evolution law that comes from a conservation statement for interfaces. This enables clear prescription of nucleation - through the source term of the conservation law - and kinetics - through a distinct interfacial velocity field. A formal limit of the kinetic driving force recovers the classical continuum sharp-interface driving force, providing confidence in both the re-parametrized energy and the evolution statement. We present some 1D calculations characterizing the formulation; in a companion paper, we present more extensive 2D calculations.

  15. Arsenic(V) reduction in relation to Iron(III) transformation and molecular characterization of the structural and functional microbial community in sediments of a basin-fill aquifer in Northern Utah.

    PubMed

    Mirza, Babur S; Muruganandam, Subathra; Meng, Xianyu; Sorensen, Darwin L; Dupont, R Ryan; McLean, Joan E

    2014-05-01

    Basin-fill aquifers of the Southwestern United States are associated with elevated concentrations of arsenic (As) in groundwater. Many private domestic wells in the Cache Valley Basin, UT, have As concentrations in excess of the U.S. EPA drinking water limit. Thirteen sediment cores were collected from the center of the valley at the depth of the shallow groundwater and were sectioned into layers based on redoxmorphic features. Three of the layers, two from redox transition zones and one from a depletion zone, were used to establish microcosms. Microcosms were treated with groundwater (GW) or groundwater plus glucose (GW+G) to investigate the extent of As reduction in relation to iron (Fe) transformation and characterize the microbial community structure and function by sequencing 16S rRNA and arsenate dissimilatory reductase (arrA) genes. Under the carbon-limited conditions of the GW treatment, As reduction was independent of Fe reduction, despite the abundance of sequences related to Geobacter and Shewanella, genera that include a variety of dissimilatory iron-reducing bacteria. The addition of glucose, an electron donor and carbon source, caused substantial shifts toward domination of the bacterial community by Clostridium-related organisms, and As reduction was correlated with Fe reduction for the sediments from the redox transition zone. The arrA gene sequencing from microcosms at day 54 of incubation showed the presence of 14 unique phylotypes, none of which were related to any previously described arrA gene sequence, suggesting a unique community of dissimilatory arsenate-respiring bacteria in the Cache Valley Basin. PMID:24632255

  16. Chemical Transformation Simulator

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Chemical Transformation Simulator (CTS) is a web-based, high-throughput screening tool that automates the calculation and collection of physicochemical properties for an organic chemical of interest and its predicted products resulting from transformations in environmental sy...

  17. 28-Channel rotary transformer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclyman, W. T.

    1981-01-01

    Transformer transmits power and digital data across rotating interface. Array has many parallel data channels, each with potential l megabaud data rate. Ferrite-cored transformers are spaced along rotor; airgap between them reduces crosstalk.

  18. Equations For Rotary Transformers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salomon, Phil M.; Wiktor, Peter J.; Marchetto, Carl A.

    1988-01-01

    Equations derived for input impedance, input power, and ratio of secondary current to primary current of rotary transformer. Used for quick analysis of transformer designs. Circuit model commonly used in textbooks on theory of ac circuits.

  19. Power quality assessment via wavelet transform analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Santoso, S.; Powers, E.J.; Grady, W.M.; Hofmann, P.

    1996-04-01

    In this paper the authors present a new approach to detect, localize, and investigate the feasibility of classifying various types of power quality disturbances. The approach is based on wavelet transform analysis, particularly the dyadic-orthonormal wavelet transform. The key idea underlying the approach is to decompose a given disturbance signal into other signals which represent a smoothed version and a detailed version of the original signal. The decomposition is performed using multiresolution signal decomposition techniques. They demonstrate and test the proposed technique to detect and localize disturbances with actual power line disturbances. In order to enhance the detection outcomes, the authors utilize the squared wavelet transform coefficients of the analyzed power line signal. Based on the results of the detection and localization, they carry out an initial investigation of the ability to uniquely characterize various types of power quality disturbances. This investigation is based on characterizing the uniqueness of the squared wavelet transform coefficients for each power quality disturbance.

  20. Shiftable multiscale transforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simoncelli, Eero P.; Freeman, William T.; Adelson, Edward H.; Heeger, David J.

    1992-01-01

    A type of translational invariance, referred to as shiftability, is defined for wavelet transforms. The property of shiftability is first discussed with respect to individual parameters: spatial position, orientation, and scale. The discussion then focuses on transformations that are simultaneously shiftable with respect to subsets of these parameters. It is shown that the critical sampling condition on the wavelet transforms must be relaxed to achieve shiftability. Two example transforms are implemented and applied to several signal and image processing problems.

  1. Achieving Perspective Transformation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nowak, Jens

    Perspective transformation is a consciously achieved state in which the individual's perspective on life is transformed. The new perspective serves as a vantage point for life's actions and interactions, affecting the way life is lived. Three conditions are basic to achieving perspective transformation: (1) "feeling" experience, i.e., getting in

  2. Transformation of Dermatofibrosarcoma Protuberans into a Fibrosarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Sbai, Mohamed Ali; Benzarti, Sofien; Bouzaidi, Khaled; Sbei, Feten; Maalla, Riadh

    2016-01-01

    Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans is a rare cutaneous mesenchymal tumor characterized by a low potential of malignancy with a very low rate of metastasis but an important rate of local recurrence. Its transformation into a fibrosarcoma is exceptional, responsible for a higher metastatic potential. This transformation implies a closer surveillance. Through a case report and literature review, we will try to expose epidemiological, clinical, histological, therapeutic, and outcome particularities of this entity. PMID:26955135

  3. Signals on graphs: Transforms and tomograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilela Mendes, R.; Mendes, Hugo C.; Araújo, Tanya

    2016-05-01

    Development of efficient tools for the representation of large datasets is a precondition for the study of dynamics on networks. Generalizations of the Fourier transform on graphs have been constructed through projections on the eigenvectors of graph matrices. By exploring mappings of the spectrum of these matrices we show how to construct more general transforms, in particular wavelet-like transforms on graphs. For time-series, tomograms, a generalization of the Radon transforms to arbitrary pairs of non-commuting operators, are positive bilinear transforms with a rigorous probabilistic interpretation which provide a full characterization of the signals and are robust in the presence of noise. Here the notion of tomogram is also extended to signals on arbitrary graphs.

  4. Modelling the pulse transformer in SPICE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godlewska, Malgorzata; Górecki, Krzysztof; Górski, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    The paper is devoted to modelling pulse transformers in SPICE. It shows the character of the selected models of this element, points out their advantages and disadvantages, and presents the results of experimental verification of the considered models. These models are characterized by varying degrees of complexity - from linearly coupled linear coils to nonlinear electrothermal models. The study was conducted for transformer with ring cores made of a variety of ferromagnetic materials, while exciting the sinusoidal signal of a frequency 100 kHz and different values of load resistance. The transformers operating conditions under which the considered models ensure the acceptable accuracy of calculations are indicated.

  5. Note: Tesla transformer damping.

    PubMed

    Reed, J L

    2012-07-01

    Unexpected heavy damping in the two winding Tesla pulse transformer is shown to be due to small primary inductances. A small primary inductance is a necessary condition of operability, but is also a refractory inefficiency. A 30% performance loss is demonstrated using a typical "spiral strip" transformer. The loss is investigated by examining damping terms added to the transformer's governing equations. A significant alteration of the transformer's architecture is suggested to mitigate these losses. Experimental and simulated data comparing the 2 and 3 winding transformers are cited to support the suggestion. PMID:22852736

  6. Note: Tesla transformer damping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, J. L.

    2012-07-01

    Unexpected heavy damping in the two winding Tesla pulse transformer is shown to be due to small primary inductances. A small primary inductance is a necessary condition of operability, but is also a refractory inefficiency. A 30% performance loss is demonstrated using a typical "spiral strip" transformer. The loss is investigated by examining damping terms added to the transformer's governing equations. A significant alteration of the transformer's architecture is suggested to mitigate these losses. Experimental and simulated data comparing the 2 and 3 winding transformers are cited to support the suggestion.

  7. Analyses of temperature-dependent interface states, series resistances, and AC electrical conductivities of Al/p—Si and Al/Bi4Ti3O12/p—Si structures by using the admittance spectroscopy method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mert, Yıldırım; Perihan, Durmuş; Şemsettin, Altındal

    2013-10-01

    In this study, Al/p—Si and Al/Bi4Ti3O12/p—Si structures are fabricated and their interface states (Nss), the values of series resistance (Rs), and AC electrical conductivity (σac) are obtained each as a function of temperature using admittance spectroscopy method which includes capacitance—voltage (C—V) and conductance—voltage (G—V) measurements. In addition, the effect of interfacial Bi4Ti3O12 (BTO) layer on the performance of the structure is investigated. The voltage-dependent profiles of Nss and Rs are obtained from the high-low frequency capacitance method and the Nicollian method, respectively. Experimental results show that Nss and Rs, as strong functions of temperature and applied bias voltage, each exhibit a peak, whose position shifts towards the reverse bias region, in the depletion region. Such a peak behavior is attributed to the particular distribution of Nss and the reordering and restructuring of Nss under the effect of temperature. The values of activation energy (Ea), obtained from the slope of the Arrhenius plot, of both structures are obtained to be bias voltage-independent, and the Ea of the metal-ferroelectric-semiconductor (MFS) structure is found to be half that of the metal—semiconductor (MS) structure. Furthermore, other main electrical parameters, such as carrier concentration of acceptor atoms (NA), built-in potential (Vbi), Fermi energy (EF), image force barrier lowering (Δ Φb), and barrier height (Φb), are extracted using reverse bias C-2—V characteristics as a function of temperature.

  8. Cells transformed by murine herpesvirus 68 (MHV-68) release compounds with transforming and transformed phenotype suppressing activity resembling growth factors.

    PubMed

    Šupolíková, M; Staňová, A Vojs; Kúdelová, M; Marák, J; Zelník, V; Golais, F

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we investigated the medium of three cell lines transformed with murine herpesvirus 68 (MHV-68) in vitro and in vivo, 68/HDF, 68/NIH3T3, and S11E, for the presence of compounds resembling growth factors of some herpesviruses which have displayed transforming and transformed phenotype suppressing activity in normal and tumor cells. When any of spent medium was added to cell culture we observed the onset of transformed phenotype in baby hamster kidney cells (BHK-21) cells and transformed phenotype suppressing activity in tumor human epithelial cells (HeLa). In media tested, we have identified the presence of putative growth factor related to MHV-68 (MHGF-68). Its bivalent properties have been blocked entirely by antisera against MHV-68 and two monoclonal antibodies against glycoprotein B (gB) of MHV-68 suggesting viral origin of MHGF-68. The results of initial efforts to separate MHGF-68 on FPLC Sephadex G15 column in the absence of salts revealed the loss of its transforming activity but transformed phenotype suppressing activity retained. On the other hand, the use of methanol-water mobile phase on RP-HPLC C18 column allowed separation of MHGF-68 to two compounds. Both separated fractions, had only the transforming activity to normal cells. Further experiments exploring the nature and the structure of hitherto unknown MHGF-68 are now in the progress to characterize its molecular and biological properties. PMID:26666191

  9. Frequency analysis of DC tolerant current transformers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mlejnek, P.; Kaspar, P.

    2013-09-01

    This article deals with wide frequency range behaviour of DC tolerant current transformers that are usually used in modern static energy meters. In this application current transformers must comply with European and International Standards in their accuracy and DC tolerance. Therefore, the linear DC tolerant current transformers and double core current transformers are used in this field. More details about the problems of these particular types of transformers can be found in our previous works. Although these transformers are designed mainly for power distribution network frequency (50/60 Hz), it can be interesting to understand their behaviour in wider frequency range. Based on this knowledge the new generations of energy meters with measuring quality of electric energy will be produced. This solution brings better measurement of consumption of nonlinear loads or measurement of non-sinusoidal voltage and current sources such as solar cells or fuel cells. The determination of actual power consumption in such energy meters is done using particular harmonics component of current and voltage. We measured the phase and ratio errors that are the most important parameters of current transformers, to characterize several samples of current transformers of both types.

  10. Fourier-transform optical microsystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, S. D.; Smith, R. L.; Gonzalez, C.; Stewart, K. P.; Hagopian, J. G.; Sirota, J. M.

    1999-01-01

    The design, fabrication, and initial characterization of a miniature single-pass Fourier-transform spectrometer (FTS) that has an optical bench that measures 1 cm x 5 cm x 10 cm is presented. The FTS is predicated on the classic Michelson interferometer design with a moving mirror. Precision translation of the mirror is accomplished by microfabrication of dovetailed bearing surfaces along single-crystal planes in silicon. Although it is miniaturized, the FTS maintains a relatively high spectral resolution, 0.1 cm-1, with adequate optical throughput.

  11. Magnetically Controlled Variable Transformer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleiner, Charles T.

    1994-01-01

    Improved variable-transformer circuit, output voltage and current of which controlled by use of relatively small current supplied at relatively low power to control windings on its magnetic cores. Transformer circuits of this type called "magnetic amplifiers" because ratio between controlled output power and power driving control current of such circuit large. This ratio - power gain - can be as large as 100 in present circuit. Variable-transformer circuit offers advantages of efficiency, safety, and controllability over some prior variable-transformer circuits.

  12. Program Transformation in HATS

    SciTech Connect

    Winter, V.L.

    1999-02-24

    HATS is a general purpose syntax derivation tree based transformation system in which transformation sequences are described in special purpose language. A powerful feature of this language is that unification is an explicit operation. By making unification explicit, an elegant framework arises in which to express complex application conditions which in turn enables refined control strategies to be realized. This paper gives an overview of HATS, focusing especially on the framework provided by the transformation language and its potential with respect to control and general purpose transformation.

  13. Partially transformed relaxor ferroelectric single crystals with distributed phase transformation behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallagher, John A.

    2015-11-01

    Relaxor ferroelectric single crystals such as PMN-PT and PIN-PMN-PT undergo field driven phase transformations when electrically or mechanically loaded in crystallographic directions that provide a positive driving force for the transformation. The observed behavior in certain compositions is a phase transformation distributed over a range of fields without a distinct forward or reverse coercive field. This work focuses on the material behavior that is observed when the crystals are loaded sufficiently to drive a partial transformation and then unloaded, as might occur when driving a transducer to achieve high power levels. Distributed transformations have been modeled using a normal distribution of transformation thresholds. A set of experiments was conducted to characterize the hysteresis loops that occur with the partial transformations. In this work the normal distribution model is extended to include the partial transformations that occur when the field is reversed before the transformation is complete. The resulting hysteresis loops produced by the model are in good agreement with the experimental results.

  14. Phase Transformation in Cast Superaustenitic Stainless Steels

    SciTech Connect

    Nathaniel Steven Lee Phillips

    2006-12-12

    Superaustenitic stainless steels constitute a group of Fe-based alloys that are compositionally balanced to have a purely austenitic matrix and exhibit favorable pitting and crevice corrosion resistant properties and mechanical strength. However, intermetallic precipitates such as sigma and Laves can form during casting or exposure to high-temperature processing, which degrade the corrosion and mechanical properties of the material. The goal of this study was to accurately characterize the solid-solid phase transformations seen in cast superaustenitic stainless steels. Heat treatments were performed to understand the time and temperature ranges for intermetallic phase formations in alloys CN3MN and CK3MCuN. Microstructures were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and energy and wavelength dispersive spectroscopy (EDS, WDS). The equilibrium microstructures, composed primarily of sigma and Laves within purely austenitic matrices, showed slow transformation kinetics. Factors that determine the extent of transformation, including diffusion, nucleation, and growth, are discussed.

  15. Biochemical transformation of coals

    DOEpatents

    Lin, M.S.; Premuzic, E.T.

    1999-03-23

    A method of biochemically transforming macromolecular compounds found in solid carbonaceous materials, such as coal is provided. The preparation of new microorganisms, metabolically weaned through challenge growth processes to biochemically transform solid carbonaceous materials at extreme temperatures, pressures, pH, salt and toxic metal concentrations is also disclosed. 7 figs.

  16. Transformative Learning and Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illeris, Knud

    2014-01-01

    Transformative learning has usually been defined as transformations of meaning perspectives, frames of reference, and habits of mind--as proposed initially by Jack Mezirow. However, several authors have found this definition too narrow and too cognitively oriented, and Mezirow has later emphasized that emotional and social conditions are also…

  17. Support Principals, Transform Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguilar, Elena; Goldwasser, Davina; Tank-Crestetto, Kristina

    2011-01-01

    The Transformational Coaching Team in Oakland Unified School District provides differentiated, sustained, job-embedded support to the district's school leaders. In this article, members of the team describe how they work with principals to transform the culture of schools. Student achievement data show above-average improvement in schools in which…

  18. Power transformer testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zagrobelna, Magdalena; Wasilewski, Andrzej

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents the method of oil-filled transformer monitoring by means of a fiber optic sensor. Our method can be extremely useful in case of prevent overheating and the winding failure. A special semiconductor technology plays an important role in such measurement. The tests were carried out by means of the developed test stand imitating a real power transformer.

  19. Support Principals, Transform Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguilar, Elena; Goldwasser, Davina; Tank-Crestetto, Kristina

    2011-01-01

    The Transformational Coaching Team in Oakland Unified School District provides differentiated, sustained, job-embedded support to the district's school leaders. In this article, members of the team describe how they work with principals to transform the culture of schools. Student achievement data show above-average improvement in schools in which

  20. Pathways to Transformation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Bob; Cushing, Pamela

    The ubiquitous use of the term "transformation" in experiential education has blurred its specific meaning in any given case. Designing an effective curriculum requires instructors to determine what kind of transformation they would like to generate. A review of two research projects provides insights about different types of personal change and…

  1. Genetic Transformation of Bacteria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Robert.

    1991-01-01

    An activity in which students transform an ampicillin-sensitive strain of E. coli with a plasmid containing a gene for ampicillin resistance is described. The procedure for the preparation of competent cells and the transformation of competent E. coli is provided. (KR)

  2. Transformation optics and metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Huanyang; Chan, C. T.; Sheng, Ping

    2010-05-01

    Underpinned by the advent of metamaterials, transformation optics offers great versatility for controlling electromagnetic waves to create materials with specially designed properties. Here we review the potential of transformation optics to create functionalities in which the optical properties can be designed almost at will. This approach can be used to engineer various optical illusion effects, such as the invisibility cloak.

  3. Direct current transformer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khanna, S. M.; Urban, E. W. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A direct current transformer in which the primary consists of an elongated strip of superconductive material, across the ends of which is direct current potential is described. Parallel and closely spaced to the primary is positioned a transformer secondary consisting of a thin strip of magnetoresistive material.

  4. Transformer design tradeoffs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclyman, W. T.

    1977-01-01

    Technical memorandum includes transformer area product numbers, which are used to summarize dimensional and electrical properties of C-cores, pot cores, lamination, powder cores, and tape-wound cores. To aid in core selection, comparison of five common core materials is presented to indicate their influence on overall transformer efficiency and weight.

  5. Two Different Squeeze Transformations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, D. (Editor); Kim, Y. S.

    1996-01-01

    Lorentz boosts are squeeze transformations. While these transformations are similar to those in squeezed states of light, they are fundamentally different from both physical and mathematical points of view. The difference is illustrated in terms of two coupled harmonic oscillators, and in terms of the covariant harmonic oscillator formalism.

  6. A Transformation Called "Twist"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    The transformations found in secondary mathematics curriculum are typically limited to stretches and translations (e.g., ACARA, 2010). Advanced students may find the transformation, twist, to be of further interest. As most available resources are written for professional-level readers, this article is intended to be an introduction accessible to…

  7. Disc piezoelectric ceramic transformers.

    PubMed

    Erhart, Jirií; Půlpán, Petr; Doleček, Roman; Psota, Pavel; Lédl, Vít

    2013-08-01

    In this contribution, we present our study on disc-shaped and homogeneously poled piezoelectric ceramic transformers working in planar-extensional vibration modes. Transformers are designed with electrodes divided into wedge, axisymmetrical ring-dot, moonie, smile, or yin-yang segments. Transformation ratio, efficiency, and input and output impedances were measured for low-power signals. Transformer efficiency and transformation ratio were measured as a function of frequency and impedance load in the secondary circuit. Optimum impedance for the maximum efficiency has been found. Maximum efficiency and no-load transformation ratio can reach almost 100% and 52 for the fundamental resonance of ring-dot transformers and 98% and 67 for the second resonance of 2-segment wedge transformers. Maximum efficiency was reached at optimum impedance, which is in the range from 500 Ω to 10 kΩ, depending on the electrode pattern and size. Fundamental vibration mode and its overtones were further studied using frequency-modulated digital holographic interferometry and by the finite element method. Complementary information has been obtained by the infrared camera visualization of surface temperature profiles at higher driving power. PMID:25004532

  8. Deployment & Market Transformation (Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-04-01

    NREL's deployment and market transformation (D and MT) activities encompass the laboratory's full range of technologies, which span the energy efficiency and renewable energy spectrum. NREL staff educates partners on how they can advance sustainable energy applications and also provides clients with best practices for reducing barriers to innovation and market transformation.

  9. Biochemical transformation of coals

    DOEpatents

    Lin, Mow S.; Premuzic, Eugene T.

    1999-03-23

    A method of biochemically transforming macromolecular compounds found in solid carbonaceous materials, such as coal is provided. The preparation of new microorganisms, metabolically weaned through challenge growth processes to biochemically transform solid carbonaceous materials at extreme temperatures, pressures, pH, salt and toxic metal concentrations is also disclosed.

  10. Phase Transformation Kinetics: Advanced Modeling Strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rheingans, B.; Mittemeijer, E. J.

    2013-09-01

    Phase transformations in the solid state are often heterogeneous and can be described by concurring modes of nucleation, growth, and impingement. The classical Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Kolmogorov-(JMAK-) model, although offering an easy-to-use description of the transformation kinetics, is limited to very specific cases of the transformation modes. Instead, a generalized modular model of phase transformation kinetics can be proposed that provides a flexible formalism adaptable to various modes of nucleation, growth, and impingement. Due to its large versatility, the modular model approach can be easily applied for characterization of phase transformation kinetics beyond the scope of classical JMAK(-type) modeling. Three different strategies recently employed for such advanced modeling are presented: (I) deliberate variation of the nucleation mode upon crystallization of an Fe-Ni-B metallic glass in order to determine separate activation energies for nucleation and growth, (II) incorporation of specific, dedicated modes for nucleation and growth kinetics for the allotropic hcp-fcc transformation in cobalt introducing driving-force-dependent rates of transformation, and (III) implementation of quantitative microstructural data for the description of the precipitation kinetics in a supersaturated CuCo alloy.

  11. Genetic Transformation in Citrus

    PubMed Central

    Donmez, Dicle; Simsek, Ozhan; Izgu, Tolga; Aka Kacar, Yildiz; Yalcin Mendi, Yesim

    2013-01-01

    Citrus is one of the world's important fruit crops. Recently, citrus molecular genetics and biotechnology work have been accelerated in the world. Genetic transformation, a biotechnological tool, allows the release of improved cultivars with desirable characteristics in a shorter period of time and therefore may be useful in citrus breeding programs. Citrus transformation has now been achieved in a number of laboratories by various methods. Agrobacterium tumefaciens is used mainly in citrus transformation studies. Particle bombardment, electroporation, A. rhizogenes, and a new method called RNA interference are used in citrus transformation studies in addition to A. tumefaciens. In this review, we illustrate how different gene transformation methods can be employed in different citrus species. PMID:23983635

  12. An extension of the Laplace transform to Schwartz distributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, D. R.

    1974-01-01

    A characterization of the Laplace transform is developed which extends the transform to the Schwartz distributions. The class of distributions includes the impulse functions and other singular functions which occur as solutions to ordinary and partial differential equations. The standard theorems on analyticity, uniqueness, and invertibility of the transform are proved by using the characterization as the definition of the Laplace transform. The definition uses sequences of linear transformations on the space of distributions which extends the Laplace transform to another class of generalized functions, the Mikusinski operators. It is shown that the sequential definition of the transform is equivalent to Schwartz' extension of the ordinary Laplace transform to distributions but, in contrast to Schwartz' definition, does not use the distributional Fourier transform. Several theorems concerning the particular linear transformations used to define the Laplace transforms are proved. All the results proved in one dimension are extended to the n-dimensional case, but proofs are presented only for those situations that require methods different from their one-dimensional analogs.

  13. Highly efficient sorghum transformation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guoquan; Godwin, Ian D

    2012-06-01

    A highly efficient microprojectile transformation system for sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) has been developed by using immature embryos (IEs) of inbred line Tx430. Co-bombardment was performed with the neomycin phosphotransferase II (nptII) gene and the green fluorescent protein (gfp) gene, both under the control of the maize ubiquitin1 (ubi1) promoter. After optimization of both tissue culture media and parameters of microprojectile transformation, 25 independent transgenic events were obtained from 121 bombarded IEs. The average transformation frequency (the total number of independent transgenic events divided by the total number of bombarded IEs) was 20.7% in three independent experiments. Transgenic events were confirmed by both PCR screening and Southern hybridization of genomic DNA from primary transgenics (T₀). More than 90% of transformants were fertile and displayed normal morphology in a containment glasshouse. Co-transformation rate of the nptII and gfp genes was 72% in these experiments. The segregation of nptII and gfp in T₁ progenies was observed utilizing fluorescence microscopy and geneticin selection of seedlings indicating both were inherited in the T₁ generation. The transformation procedure, from initiating IEs to planting putative transgenic plantlets in the glasshouse, was completed within 11-16 weeks, and was approximately threefold more efficient than the previously reported best sorghum transformation system. PMID:22234443

  14. Modified rapid transform.

    PubMed

    Fang, M; Häusler, G

    1989-03-15

    We describe a new fast, shift-invariant transform, the modified rapid transform (MRT). The MRT combines the well-known rapid transform with preprocessing steps. Computer simulations show that for 1-D binary patterns the MRT with a sufficient number of preprocessing steps may perform shift-invariant one-to-one mapping. The modification is also efficient for 2-D patterns. The MRT can be usefully applied as a preprocessing step in automatic inspection and pattern recognition, where shift invariance, uniqueness, and low computing time is required. As an example, the use of MRT in optical character recognition is discussed. PMID:20548649

  15. Biolistics Transformation of Wheat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparks, Caroline A.; Jones, Huw D.

    We present a complete, step-by-step guide to the production of transformed wheat plants using a particle bombardment device to deliver plasmid DNA into immature embryos and the regeneration of transgenic plants via somatic embryogenesis. Currently, this is the most commonly used method for transforming wheat and it offers some advantages. However, it will be interesting to see whether this position is challenged as facile methods are developed for delivering DNA by Agrobacterium tumefaciens or by the production of transformants via a germ-line process (see other chapters in this book).

  16. Transformer design tradeoffs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclyman, W. T.

    1976-01-01

    Material was presented to assist transformer designers in the transition from long-used English units to the less familiar metric equivalents. A coordination between the area product numbers ap (product of window and core cross-section areas) and current density J was developed for a given regulation and temperature rise. Straight-line relationships for Ap and Volume, Ap and surface area At and, Ap and weight were developed. These relationships can now be used as new tools to simplify and standardize the process of transformer design. They also made it possible to design transformers of small bulk and volume or to optimize efficiency.

  17. Institutional Transformation at South African Universities: Implications for Academic Staff.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fourie, Magda

    1999-01-01

    Identifies five interlinked and interdependent issues characterizing institutional transformation in South African higher education: (1) democratizing institutional governance structures; (2) increasing access for educationally and financially disadvantaged students; (3) restructuring the curriculum; (4) focusing on developmental needs in research

  18. Interfaith Dialogue as a Means for Transformational Conversations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krebs, Stephanie Russell

    2015-01-01

    This article reports findings, inspired by the researcher's personal, transformational experience, on students' responses to an interfaith dialogue at an Interfaith Youth Core Interfaith Leadership Institute. Results demonstrated that several factors characterize interfaith dialogue: the environment, individual relationships fostered through…

  19. Understanding Rigid Geometric Transformations: Jeff's Learning Path for Translation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yanik, Huseyin Bahadir; Flores, Alfinio

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the development of knowledge and understanding of translations of Jeff, a prospective elementary teacher, during a teaching experiment that also included other rigid transformations. His initial conceptions of translations and other rigid transformations were characterized as undefined motions of a single object. He…

  20. Martensitic nature of {delta} {yields} {gamma} allotropic transformation in plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez, P.C.; Cost, J.R.; Axler, K.M.

    1996-09-01

    Isothermal and isoplethal studies using differential scanning calorimetry have been conducted to characterize the allotropic transformations of plutonium. The {delta}-{gamma} transformation (upon cooling) was observed to have a classic martensitic nature. The work described herein is the first quantitative study of this phenomena in plutonium.

  1. A discrete fractional random transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhengjun; Zhao, Haifa; Liu, Shutian

    2005-11-01

    We propose a discrete fractional random transform based on a generalization of the discrete fractional Fourier transform with an intrinsic randomness. Such discrete fractional random transform inheres excellent mathematical properties of the fractional Fourier transform along with some fantastic features of its own. As a primary application, the discrete fractional random transform has been used for image encryption and decryption.

  2. Overview of transformer platform showing three original stepup transformer (center), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Overview of transformer platform showing three original step-up transformer (center), steel switchback (right), and modern step-down transformer (foreground), view to northwest - Morony Hydroelectric Facility, Dam and Powerhouse, Morony Dam Road, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

  3. Managing IT Transformation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hitt, John C.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses how making information technology (IT) transformation an overt higher education institutional goal, as opposed to a by-product of other processes, allows true progress. Describes such efforts at the University of Central Florida. (EV)

  4. Fourier Transform Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Scigelova, Michaela; Hornshaw, Martin; Giannakopulos, Anastassios; Makarov, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    This article provides an introduction to Fourier transform-based mass spectrometry. The key performance characteristics of Fourier transform-based mass spectrometry, mass accuracy and resolution, are presented in the view of how they impact the interpretation of measurements in proteomic applications. The theory and principles of operation of two types of mass analyzer, Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance and Orbitrap, are described. Major benefits as well as limitations of Fourier transform-based mass spectrometry technology are discussed in the context of practical sample analysis, and illustrated with examples included as figures in this text and in the accompanying slide set. Comparisons highlighting the performance differences between the two mass analyzers are made where deemed useful in assisting the user with choosing the most appropriate technology for an application. Recent developments of these high-performing mass spectrometers are mentioned to provide a future outlook. PMID:21742802

  5. A Classical Science Transformed.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kovalevsky, Jean

    1979-01-01

    Describes how satellites and other tools of space technology have transformed classical geodesy into the science of space geodynamics. The establishment and the activities of the French Center for Geodynamic and Astronomical Research Studies (CERGA) are also included. (HM)

  6. Finite BMS transformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnich, Glenn; Troessaert, Cédric

    2016-03-01

    The action of finite BMS and Weyl transformations on the gravitational data at null infinity is worked out in three and four dimensions in the case of an arbitrary conformal factor for the boundary metric induced on Scri.

  7. Mechanisms of transformation toughening

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, G.B.; Parks, D.M.

    1988-01-01

    Mechanisms of transformation toughening in ductile solids are investigated by (a) detailed observations of crack-tip processes and (b) numerical modeling with experimentally-derived constitutive relations. Two series of model ally steels have been developed for convenient study of constitutive behavior. Constitutive relations based on strain-induced transformation kinetics are being refined for these homogeneous austenitic alloys and extended to dispersed-phase systems. Using alloy composition to vary phase stability, processes of shear-instability-controlled fracture at sectioned crack tips are observed with and without transformation plasticity interactions. Quantitative constitutive relations developed for the experimental alloys are applied to (a) crack-tip and notch fields to study transformation plasticity interaction with various models of microvoid-softening-induced shear localization, and (b) inclusion particle fields to examine direct interactions with microvoid nucleation. 21 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Proof in Transformation Geometry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, A. W.

    1971-01-01

    The first of three articles showing how inductively-obtained results in transformation geometry may be organized into a deductive system. This article discusses two approaches to enlargement (dilatation), one using coordinates and the other using synthetic methods. (MM)

  9. Fractals and Transformations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bannon, Thomas J.

    1991-01-01

    Discussed are several different transformations based on the generation of fractals including self-similar designs, the chaos game, the koch curve, and the Sierpinski Triangle. Three computer programs which illustrate these concepts are provided. (CW)

  10. Transformer design tradeoffs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclyman, W. T.

    1977-01-01

    In space, power system transformer components are frequently the heaviest and bulkiest items in the power conversion circuit. They also have a significant effect upon the overall performance and efficiency of the system. Accordingly, the design of such transformers has an important effect on overall system weight, power-inversion efficiency, and cost. Relationships were between the parameters used by transformer designers that can be used as new tools to standardize and simplify transformer design. They can be used to optimize the design either for small size and weight or efficiency. The metric system of units, rather than the familiar English units, is used; however, material is presented to assist the reader in the transition from one system to the other.

  11. Series Transmission Line Transformer

    DOEpatents

    Buckles, Robert A.; Booth, Rex; Yen, Boris T.

    2004-06-29

    A series transmission line transformer is set forth which includes two or more of impedance matched sets of at least two transmissions lines such as shielded cables, connected in parallel at one end ans series at the other in a cascading fashion. The cables are wound about a magnetic core. The series transmission line transformer (STLT) which can provide for higher impedance ratios and bandwidths, which is scalable, and which is of simpler design and construction.

  12. Bar piezoelectric ceramic transformers.

    PubMed

    Erhart, Ji?; Pulpan, P?lpn; Rusin, Lubo

    2013-07-01

    Bar-shaped piezoelectric ceramic transformers (PTs) working in the longitudinal vibration mode (k31 mode) were studied. Two types of the transformer were designed--one with the electrode divided into two segments of different length, and one with the electrodes divided into three symmetrical segments. Parameters of studied transformers such as efficiency, transformation ratio, and input and output impedances were measured. An analytical model was developed for PT parameter calculation for both two- and three-segment PTs. Neither type of bar PT exhibited very high efficiency (maximum 72% for three-segment PT design) at a relatively high transformation ratio (it is 4 for two-segment PT and 2 for three-segment PT at the fundamental resonance mode). The optimum resistive loads were 20 and 10 k? for two- and three-segment PT designs for the fundamental resonance, respectively, and about one order of magnitude smaller for the higher overtone (i.e., 2 k? and 500 ?, respectively). The no-load transformation ratio was less than 27 (maximum for two-segment electrode PT design). The optimum input electrode aspect ratios (0.48 for three-segment PT and 0.63 for two-segment PT) were calculated numerically under no-load conditions. PMID:25004515

  13. Relativistic Transformation of Solid Angle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinley, John M.

    1980-01-01

    Rederives the relativistic transformations of light intensity from compact sources (stars) to show where and how the transformation of a solid angle contributes. Discusses astrophysical and other applications of the transformations. (Author/CS)

  14. General inversion formulas for wavelet transforms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holschneider, Matthias

    1993-09-01

    This article is the continuation of a series of articles about group theory and wavelet analysis [A. Grossmann, J. Morlet, and T. Paul, J. Math. Phys. 26, 2473 (1985)]. As is well-known in the case of the afine group, the reconstruction wavelet and the analyzing wavelet need not be identic. In this article it is shown that this holds for arbitrary groups. In addition it is shown that even for nonadmissible analyzing wavelets the wavelet transform may be inverted. Accordingly the image of the wavelet transform can be characterized by many different reproducing kernels.

  15. Some Properties of Transforms in Cultural Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballonoff, Paul

    2010-12-01

    It is shown that, in certain circumstances, systems of cultural rules may be represented by doubly stochastic matrices denoted Π, called “possibility transforms,” and by certain real valued “possibility densities” π=( π 1, π 2,…, π n ) with inner product <π,πrangle=sumiπi2=1. We may characterize a certain problem of ethnographic or ethological description as a problem of prediction, in which observations are predicted by properties of fixed points of transforms of “pure systems”, or by properties of convex combinations of such “pure systems”. Other relationships to quantum methods are noted.

  16. A Characterization of the CH 2ã1A1(1,2,0),(2,0,0),(0,5,0),(1,3,0) and b˜1B1(1,14 2,0),(0,18 0,0),(0,19 1,0) Vibronic Levels by Fourier-Transform Dispersed Fluorescence Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, D.; Hartland, G. V.; Dai, H. L.

    1994-12-01

    The CH2ã1A1, (1, 2, 0), (2, 0, 0), (0, 5, 0), (1, 3, 0) and b˜1B1 (1, 142, 0), (0, 180, 0), (0, 191, 0) levels are characterized by Fourier-transform dispersed fluorescence spectroscopy (FTDFS). Rotational transitions in the b˜ ← ã 1102140, 2180, and 2190 fluorescence excitation bands and those of the b˜ → ã 1012162, 1012172, 1022160, 2185, 2195, 1012183 and 1102193 bands in dispersed fluorescence spectra have been assigned. The rotational constants and vibrational term values for these vibrational levels have been obtained. Due to the limits brought by Renner-Teller coupling and Franck-Condon factors, this work, along with previous studies on lower vibrational levels, has characterized almost all ã vibrational levels detectable in the b˜↔ã transitions.

  17. Solid-state current transformer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farnsworth, D. L. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A signal transformation network which is uniquely characterized to exhibit a very low input impedance while maintaining a linear transfer characteristic when driven from a voltage source and when quiescently biased in the low microampere current range is described. In its simplest form, it consists of a tightly coupled two transistor network in which a common emitter input stage is interconnected directly with an emitter follower stage to provide virtually 100 percent negative feedback to the base input of the common emitter stage. Bias to the network is supplied via the common tie point of the common emitter stage collector terminal and the emitter follower base stage terminal by a regulated constant current source, and the output of the circuit is taken from the collector of the emitter follower stage.

  18. Analogue to digital transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1992-12-01

    ESDU 92044 examines the replacement of an analog controller element by an equivalent digital controller element while retaining for the new hybrid system performance characteristics that are acceptably similar to those of the original continuous system. The main features are described of a system containing both analog and digital elements within the same loop, and the analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog components that are then necessarily a part of the system. The frequency response characteristics of transformation are discussed, introducing the problem of aliasing whereby a digital output can be matched by continuous sine waves of different frequencies that are then indistinguishable to the digital sampler. The need to avoid aliasing is considered and the concept of a folding frequency introduced below which aliasing is impossible. Two transformation methods for designing digital filters equivalent to analog filters are discussed: the impulse invariance and bilinear transformations. They are compared by examining digital equivalents of such analogue filters as simple and compound first-order lag and lead filters, second-order lag filters and first-order notch filters. The methods are compared for two sampling rates using Bode plots illustrating the gain and phase variation with frequency. An example based on an electromechanical instrument servo illustrates the transformation of an analog lag-lead controller using the bilinear transformation.

  19. Martensitic transformation in zirconia

    SciTech Connect

    Deville, Sylvain . E-mail: sylvain.deville@insa-lyon.fr; Guenin, Gerard; Chevalier, Jerome

    2004-11-08

    We investigate by atomic force microscopy (AFM) the surface relief resulting from martensitic tetragonal to monoclinic phase transformation induced by low temperature autoclave aging in ceria-stabilized zirconia. AFM appears as a very powerful tool to investigate martensite relief quantitatively and with a great precision. The crystallographic phenomenological theory is used to predict the expected relief induced by the transformation, for the particular case of lattice correspondence ABC1, where tetragonal c axis becomes the monoclinic c axis. A model for variants spatial arrangement for this lattice correspondence is proposed and validated by the experimental observations. An excellent agreement is found between the quantitative calculations outputs and the experimental measurements at nanometer scale yielded by AFM. All the observed features are explained fully quantitatively by the calculations, with discrepancies between calculations and quantitative experimental measurements within the measurements and calculations precision range. In particular, the crystallographic orientation of the transformed grains is determined from the local characteristics of transformation induced relief. It is finally demonstrated that the strain energy is the controlling factor of the surface transformation induced by low temperature autoclave treatments in this material.

  20. The patch transform.

    PubMed

    Cho, Taeg Sang; Avidan, Shai; Freeman, William T

    2010-08-01

    The patch transform represents an image as a bag of overlapping patches sampled on a regular grid. This representation allows users to manipulate images in the patch domain, which then seeds the inverse patch transform to synthesize modified images. Possible modifications include the spatial locations of patches, the size of the output image, or the pool of patches from which an image is reconstructed. When no modifications are made, the inverse patch transform reduces to solving a jigsaw puzzle. The inverse patch transform is posed as a patch assignment problem on a Markov random field (MRF), where each patch should be used only once and neighboring patches should fit to form a plausible image. We find an approximate solution to the MRF using loopy belief propagation, introducing an approximation that encourages the solution to use each patch only once. The image reconstruction algorithm scales well with the total number of patches through label pruning. In addition, structural misalignment artifacts are suppressed through a patch jittering scheme that spatially jitters the assigned patches. We demonstrate the patch transform and its effectiveness on natural images. PMID:20558879

  1. Invariants of polarization transformations.

    PubMed

    Sadjadi, Firooz A

    2007-05-20

    The use of polarization-sensitive sensors is being explored in a variety of applications. Polarization diversity has been shown to improve the performance of the automatic target detection and recognition in a significant way. However, it also brings out the problems associated with processing and storing more data and the problem of polarization distortion during transmission. We present a technique for extracting attributes that are invariant under polarization transformations. The polarimetric signatures are represented in terms of the components of the Stokes vectors. Invariant algebra is then used to extract a set of signature-related attributes that are invariant under linear transformation of the Stokes vectors. Experimental results using polarimetric infrared signatures of a number of manmade and natural objects undergoing systematic linear transformations support the invariancy of these attributes. PMID:17514238

  2. Transformation based endorsement systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sudkamp, Thomas

    1988-01-01

    Evidential reasoning techniques classically represent support for a hypothesis by a numeric value or an evidential interval. The combination of support is performed by an arithmetic rule which often requires restrictions to be placed on the set of possibilities. These assumptions usually require the hypotheses to be exhausitive and mutually exclusive. Endorsement based classification systems represent support for the alternatives symbolically rather than numerically. A framework for constructing endorsement systems is presented in which transformations are defined to generate and update the knowledge base. The interaction of the knowledge base and transformations produces a non-monotonic reasoning system. Two endorsement based reasoning systems are presented to demonstrate the flexibility of the transformational approach for reasoning with ambiguous and inconsistent information.

  3. Transformation of cyanobacteria.

    PubMed

    Vioque, Agustín

    2007-01-01

    Cyanobacteria are a diverse and successful group of bacteria defined by their ability to carry out oxygenic photosynthesis. They occupy diverse ecological niches and are important primary producers in the oceans. Cyanobacteria are amenable to genetic manipulation. Some strains are naturally transformable. Many others have been transformed in the lab by conjugation or electroporation. The ability to transform cyanobacteria has been determinant in the development of the molecular biology of these organisms and has been the basis of many of their biotechnological applications. Cyanobacteria are the source of natural products and toxins of potential use and can be engineered to synthesize substances of biotechnological interest. Their high protein and vitamin content makes them useful as a dietary supplement. Because of their ability to occupy diverse ecological niches, they can be used to deliver to the medium substances of interest or as biosensors. PMID:18161487

  4. Translating and Transforming Care

    PubMed Central

    Gillespie, Alex; Moore, Helen

    2015-01-01

    This article examines how the Disability Living Allowance claim form, used in the United Kingdom to allocate £13 billion of disability benefits, translates and transforms disability and care. Twenty-two people with acquired brain injury and their main informal caregivers (n = 44) were video-recorded filling in the disability claim form. Participants disagreed on 26% of the questions, revealing two types of problems. Translation problems arose as participants struggled to provide categorical responses to ambiguous questions and were unable to report contextual variability in care needs or divergences of perception. Transformation problems arose as participants resisted the way in which the form positioned them, forcing them to conceptualize their relationship in terms of dependency and burden. The disability claim form co-opts claimants to translate care and disability into bureaucratically predefined categories, and it transforms the care relationship that it purports to document. PMID:25792487

  5. Genetic Transformation of Switchgrass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xi, Yajun; Ge, Yaxin; Wang, Zeng-Yu

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a highly productive warm-season C4 species that is being developed into a dedicated biofuel crop. This chapter describes a protocol that allows the generation of transgenic switchgrass plants by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Embryogenic calluses induced from caryopses or inflorescences were used as explants for inoculation with A. tumefaciens strain EHA105. Hygromycin phosphotransferase gene (hph) was used as the selectable marker and hygromycin was used as the selection agent. Calluses resistant to hygromycin were obtained after 5-6 weeks of selection. Soil-grown switchgrass plants were regenerated about 6 months after callus induction and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation.

  6. Localized transformation optics devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang Jiang, Wei; Ge, Shuo; Luo, Chenyang; Jun Cui, Tie

    2013-11-01

    We propose a strategy to design localized transformation optics devices, and take the localized invisibility cloaks as examples to illustrate their special properties. Different from the global cloaks that make the enclosed objects completely invisible, the localized cloaks will conceal the scattering signals of certain parts of the enclosed objects and keep the signals of remaining parts being unchanged. We design, fabricate, and measure a localized dc invisibility cloak in the steady currents by using the localized transformation electrostatics. Simulation and experimental results show that the potential distribution outside the localized dc invisibility cloak is exactly the same as that of a part of the cloaked object.

  7. Successful Transformational Radiology Leaders.

    PubMed

    Douget, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Transformational radiology leaders elevate subordinates, expand self-awareness, develop lasting relationships, strive to exceed expectations, and uphold the vision and goals of the organization. In order for radiology leaders to become more transformational in their leadership style there are four fundamental elements they must learn: idealized influence, individualized consideration, inspirational motivation, and intellectual stimulation. Leaders can utilize personality and self-assessments to learn more about themselves, identify areas of strengths and weaknesses, and learn to be more effective when leading employees. PMID:26710553

  8. Genetic transformation of switchgrass.

    PubMed

    Xi, Yajun; Ge, Yaxin; Wang, Zeng-Yu

    2009-01-01

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a highly productive warm-season C4 species that is being developed into a dedicated biofuel crop. This chapter describes a protocol that allows the generation of transgenic switchgrass plants by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Embryogenic calluses induced from caryopses or inflorescences were used as explants for inoculation with A. tumefaciens strain EHA105. Hygromycin phosphotransferase gene (hph) was used as the selectable marker and hygromycin was used as the selection agent. Calluses resistant to hygromycin were obtained after 5-6 weeks of selection. Soil-grown switchgrass plants were regenerated about 6 months after callus induction and Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. PMID:19768615

  9. Thermodynamic and structural characterization of the transformation from a metastable low-density to a very high-density form of supercooled TIP4P-Ew model water.

    PubMed

    Paschek, Dietmar; Rüppert, Andreas; Geiger, Alfons

    2008-12-22

    We explore the phase diagram of the metastable TIP4P-Ew liquid model water from 360 K down to 150 K at densities ranging from 0.950 to 1.355 g cm(-3). In addition to the low-density/high-density (LDL/HDL) liquid-liquid transition, we observe a structural high-density/very high-density (HDL/VHDL) transformation for the lowest temperatures at 1.30 g cm(-3). The characteristics of the isobars and isotherms suggest the presence of a stepwise HDL/VHDL transition with first-order-like appearance. In addition, we also identify an apparent pretransition at 1.24 g cm(-3), which suggests that the experimentally detected LDA/VHDA transformation might evolve into a multiple-step process with different local structures representing local minima in the free-energy landscape. Such a scenario is supported by a pronounced correlation between the isothermal density dependence of the pressure, with a stepwise increase of the oxygen coordination number, due to the appearance of interstitial water molecules. PMID:19035392

  10. Planar LTCC transformers for high voltage flyback converters.

    SciTech Connect

    Schofield, Daryl; Schare, Joshua M.; Glass, Sarah Jill; Roesler, Alexander William; Ewsuk, Kevin Gregory; Slama, George; Abel, Dave

    2007-06-01

    This paper discusses the design and use of low-temperature (850 C to 950 C) co-fired ceramic (LTCC) planar magnetic flyback transformers for applications that require conversion of a low voltage to high voltage (> 100V) with significant volumetric constraints. Measured performance and modeling results for multiple designs showed that the LTCC flyback transformer design and construction imposes serious limitations on the achievable coupling and significantly impacts the transformer performance and output voltage. This paper discusses the impact of various design factors that can provide improved performance by increasing transformer coupling and output voltage. The experiments performed on prototype units demonstrated LTCC transformer designs capable of greater than 2 kV output. Finally, the work investigated the effect of the LTCC microstructure on transformer insulation. Although this paper focuses on generating voltages in the kV range, the experimental characterization and discussion presented in this work applies to designs requiring lower voltage.

  11. School Culture in Transformation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Scott

    1991-01-01

    The principal of Samuel Gompers Fine Arts Option School in Chicago (Illinois) has transformed the culture and atmosphere through emphasizing strong leadership, cracking down on safety issues, developing programs of which the whole school could be proud, emphasizing excellence, and encouraging community involvement. (JB)

  12. Transformation Problem Solving Abilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harmel, Sarah Jane

    The relationship between transformation problem performance and Guilford Structure of Intellect (SI) abilities is explored. During two group sessions 42 females and 35 males, age 18-39, were administered 12 Guilford SI tests exemplifying all five symbolic content (numeric) operations, and three contents in the divergent production area. Logical…

  13. Transforming American Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horn, Michael B.; Mackey, Katherine

    2011-01-01

    In this article the authors accept as a given the National Education Technology Plan's vision of a transformed education system powered by technology such that learners receive personalized and engaging learning experiences, and where assessment, teaching, infrastructure, and productivity are redefined. The article analyzes this vision of a…

  14. Transformer Impedance Reflection Demonstration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Layton, William

    2014-01-01

    Questions often arise as to how a device attached to a transformer can draw power from the electrical power grid since it seems that the primary and secondary are not connected to one another. However, a closer look at how the primary and secondary are linked together magnetically and a consideration of the role of Lenz's law in this linkage

  15. Transformative Mixed Methods Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mertens, Donna M.

    2010-01-01

    Paradigms serve as metaphysical frameworks that guide researchers in the identification and clarification of their beliefs with regard to ethics, reality, knowledge, and methodology. The transformative paradigm is explained and illustrated as a framework for researchers who place a priority on social justice and the furtherance of human rights.…

  16. Focus On: Transforming Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karal, Pearl; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Karal describes the psychodynamics by which children learn to fear and distrust long-term commitments. Vaines proposes a conceptualization of the home economist as transforming actor. LeBow addresses methods of treating obese youth. Fewster and Kuhonta offer insights on communicating with Third World rural women. (SK)

  17. Is Distance Learning Transformational?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoskins, Barbara J.

    2013-01-01

    Is distance learning transformational? The author heard this question posed to a panel of faculty members during Distance Education Week activities. After reflecting upon her own students' reaction to her syllabus, her answer to the question changed from an initial, enthusiastic "yes" to a reflective "maybe," given the most favorable environment.

  18. The Lorentz transformation enigma.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, Russell

    2003-03-01

    Consider a charge enclosed by a spherical conducting shell. Put into motion, the Lorentz transformation tells us the perpendicular E field inside is increased by γ, but the parallel E field inside remains the same. By SR, the shell morphs into an oblate spheroid. One must then expect differences of potential along the shell, and the SR prediction of E fields cannot be sustained. The Lorentz transformation is illogical. A different transformation is suggested, arising from the mass-metric concept. (1) The anisotropic shortening of distance in SR is an optical illusion, but the kinetic energy leads to a real increase of mass; distances actually shrink, by 1/γ. The conducting shell remains spherical and shrinks, which increases E isotropically by γ^2. That is, all E_i^' = γ^2 × E_i. The potential on the shell is the same, everywhere, at any given speed. This modified transformation avoids the 4/3 problem in assigning the mass of an electron wholly to the energy content of its electric fields. (1) (R.L. Collins, mass-metric relativity, arXiv:physics/0012059, Dec. 2000)

  19. Transformative Change Initiative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bragg, D. D.; Kirby, C.; Witt, M. A.; Richie, D.; Mix, S.; Feldbaum, M.; Liu, S.; Mason, M.

    2014-01-01

    The Transformative Change Initiative (TCI) is dedicated to assisting community colleges to scale up innovation in the form of guided pathways, programs of study, and evidence-based strategies to improve student outcomes and program, organization, and system performance. The impetus for TCI is the Trade Adjustment Assistance Community College and…

  20. Fourier Transform Mass Spectrometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Michael L.; Rempel, Don L.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the nature of Fourier transform mass spectrometry and its unique combination of high mass resolution, high upper mass limit, and multichannel advantage. Examines its operation, capabilities and limitations, applications (ion storage, ion manipulation, ion chemistry), and future applications and developments. (JN)

  1. Transformer and Meter Tester

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoms, R. M.

    1984-01-01

    Numerically-controlled 5-axis machine tool uses transformer and meter to determine and indicate whether tool is in home position, but lacks built-in test mode to check them. Tester makes possible test, and repair of components at machine rather then replace them when operation seems suspect.

  2. Computerized toroidal transformer design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    Computer program designs transformers which have one primary /center tap permissible/ and up to 20 untapped secondaries, and which can handle up to 500 V across any one winding. Computer determines total secondary power, core type, primary turns, secondary turns, and wire sizes for primary and secondary windings.

  3. Fixture for winding transformers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclyman, M. T.

    1980-01-01

    Bench-mounted fixture assists operator in winding toroid-shaped transformer cores. Toroid is rigidly held in place as wires are looped around. Arrangement frees both hands for rapid winding and untangling of wires that occurs when core is hand held.

  4. Transforming Education with Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scherer, Marge

    2011-01-01

    In this EL interview, Karen Cator, the director of the Office of Educational Technology at the U.S. Department of Education, talks about ways to realize the potential of technology to transform education. She discusses what students need: their own digital devices for classroom use, the ability to use the information they access, the skills to…

  5. Transforming Young Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Scott

    2014-01-01

    Discussions of transformational change pervade the field of business but are rare in work with young people at risk--those most in need of deep change. Instead, the nation seems preoccupied with punishing or medicating problem behavior. Some propose the alternative of "rehabilitation," but that term means "to restore to former…

  6. Winthrop College Transformed Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawisher, Margaret F.

    Dealing with the issue of a changing society and recognizing that teacher education has remained basically unchanged for 100 years, the faculty of the Winthrop College School of Education agreed to take the risk involved with transforming the teacher education curriculum. Three interdisciplinary teams have identified curriculum to be taught to…

  7. Transforming Data into Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Lane

    2006-01-01

    School systems can be data rich and information poor if they do not understand and manage their data effectively. The task for school leaders is to put existing data into a format that lends itself to answering questions and improving outcomes for the students. Common barriers to transforming data into knowledge in education settings often include…

  8. Leading System Transformation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Alma

    2010-01-01

    This article outlines progress made towards education transformation in Wales. It explores the way in which tri-level reform is guiding system level change in Wales and looks at the implementation of the School Effectiveness Framework, which is at the heart of the reform process. It describes the way in which professional learning communities are…

  9. Improved Transformation of Anthurium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Methods to increase transformation efficiency and yields of transgenic Anthurium andraeanum Linden ex. André hybrids were sought while effecting gene transfer for resistance to the two most important pests, bacterial blight (Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. dieffenbachiae) and nematodes (Radopholus simili...

  10. Global Transformations and Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Rex R.

    1990-01-01

    Examines worldwide political, economic, and social transformations and their impact on agriculture, focusing on biotechnology. Discusses rise of international corporations and accompanying constraints on government power. Sees trend toward increasing agribusiness role in world food and agricultural sectors. Calls for broader views and research in

  11. Transforming Primary Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Askew, Mike

    2011-01-01

    What is good mathematics teaching? What is mathematics teaching good for? Who is mathematics teaching for? These are just some of the questions addressed in "Transforming Primary Mathematics", a highly timely new resource for teachers which accessibly sets out the key theories and latest research in primary maths today. Under-pinned by findings…

  12. Teaching, Caring, and Transformation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nieto, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    Educator Bell Hooks acknowledged the fundamental truth that teaching, caring, and transformation are closely linked, that is, that true teaching must be accompanied by a deep level of care in order for learning to take place. No matter how young or old, no matter the subject matter, and no matter where teaching and learning take place--a…

  13. Transformer Impedance Reflection Demonstration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Layton, William

    2014-01-01

    Questions often arise as to how a device attached to a transformer can draw power from the electrical power grid since it seems that the primary and secondary are not connected to one another. However, a closer look at how the primary and secondary are linked together magnetically and a consideration of the role of Lenz's law in this linkage…

  14. Multilayer modal actuator-based piezoelectric transformers.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yao-Tien; Wu, Wen-Jong; Wang, Yen-Chieh; Lee, Chih-Kung

    2007-02-01

    An innovative, multilayer piezoelectric transformer equipped with a full modal filtering input electrode is reported herein. This modal-shaped electrode, based on the orthogonal property of structural vibration modes, is characterized by full modal filtering to ensure that only the desired vibration mode is excited during operation. The newly developed piezoelectric transformer is comprised of three layers: a multilayered input layer, an insulation layer, and a single output layer. The electrode shape of the input layer is derived from its structural vibration modal shape, which takes advantage of the orthogonal property of the vibration modes to achieve a full modal filtering effect. The insulation layer possesses two functions: first, to couple the mechanical vibration energy between the input and output, and second, to provide electrical insulation between the two layers. To meet the two functions, a low temperature, co-fired ceramic (LTCC) was used to provide the high mechanical rigidity and high electrical insulation. It can be shown that this newly developed piezoelectric transformer has the advantage of possessing a more efficient energy transfer and a wider optimal working frequency range when compared to traditional piezoelectric transformers. A multilayer piezoelectric, transformer-based inverter applicable for use in LCD monitors or portable displays is presented as well. PMID:17328332

  15. Rainbow Fourier Transform

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexandrov, Mikhail D.; Cairns, Brian; Mishchenko, Michael I.

    2012-01-01

    We present a novel technique for remote sensing of cloud droplet size distributions. Polarized reflectances in the scattering angle range between 135deg and 165deg exhibit a sharply defined rainbow structure, the shape of which is determined mostly by single scattering properties of cloud particles, and therefore, can be modeled using the Mie theory. Fitting the observed rainbow with such a model (computed for a parameterized family of particle size distributions) has been used for cloud droplet size retrievals. We discovered that the relationship between the rainbow structures and the corresponding particle size distributions is deeper than it had been commonly understood. In fact, the Mie theory-derived polarized reflectance as a function of reduced scattering angle (in the rainbow angular range) and the (monodisperse) particle radius appears to be a proxy to a kernel of an integral transform (similar to the sine Fourier transform on the positive semi-axis). This approach, called the rainbow Fourier transform (RFT), allows us to accurately retrieve the shape of the droplet size distribution by the application of the corresponding inverse transform to the observed polarized rainbow. While the basis functions of the proxy-transform are not exactly orthogonal in the finite angular range, this procedure needs to be complemented by a simple regression technique, which removes the retrieval artifacts. This non-parametric approach does not require any a priori knowledge of the droplet size distribution functional shape and is computationally fast (no look-up tables, no fitting, computations are the same as for the forward modeling).

  16. How Political Science Became Modern: Racial Thought and the Transformation of the Discipline, 1880-1930

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blatt, Jessica

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation argues that changing ideas about race and engagement with race science were at the heart of a major transformation of political science in the 1920s, a transformation that I characterize as "becoming modern." This transformation was at once conceptual--visible in the basic categories and theoretical apparatus of the…

  17. How Political Science Became Modern: Racial Thought and the Transformation of the Discipline, 1880-1930

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blatt, Jessica

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation argues that changing ideas about race and engagement with race science were at the heart of a major transformation of political science in the 1920s, a transformation that I characterize as "becoming modern." This transformation was at once conceptual--visible in the basic categories and theoretical apparatus of the

  18. Transformation of Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Zhou; You, Chun; Zhang, Yi-Heng Percival

    2014-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis has tremendous applications in both academic research and industrial production. However, molecular cloning and transformation of B. subtilis are not as easy as those of Escherichia coli. Here we developed a simple protocol based on super-competent cells prepared from the recombinant B. subtilis strain SCK6 and multimeric plasmids generated by prolonged overlap extension-PCR. Super-competent B. subtilis SCK6 cells were prepared by overexpression of the competence master regulator ComK that was induced by adding xylose. This new protocol is simple (e.g., restriction enzyme, phosphatase, and ligase free), fast, and highly efficient (i.e., ~10(7) or ~10(4) transformants per ?g of multimeric plasmid or ligated plasmid DNA, respectively). Shuttle vectors for E. coli-B. subtilis are not required. PMID:24838881

  19. Reduction/Transformation Operators

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    2006-09-01

    RTOp (reduction/transformation operators) is a collection of C++ software that provides the basic mechanism for implementinig vector operations in a flexible and efficient manner. This is the main interface utilized by Thyra to allow for the specification of specific vector reduction and/or transformation operations. The RTOp package contains three different types of software. (a) a small number of interoperability interfaces. (b) support software including code for the parallel SPMD mode based on only Teuchos::Comm(and notmore » MPl directly(, and (c) a library of pre-implemented RTOp subclasses for everything from simple AXPYs and norms, to more specialized vector operations. RTOp allows an algorithm developer to implement their own RTOp subclasses in a way that is independent from any specific serial, parallel, out-of-core or other type of vector implementation. RTOp is a required package by Thyra and MOOCHO. (c)« less

  20. Transforming the optical landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pendry, J. B.; Luo, Yu; Zhao, Rongkuo

    2015-05-01

    Electromagnetism provides us with some of the most powerful tools in science, encompassing lasers, optical microscopes, magnetic resonance imaging scanners, radar, and a host of other techniques. To understand and develop the technology requires more than a set of formal equations. Scientists and engineers have to form a vivid picture that fires their imaginations and enables intuition to play a full role in the process of invention. It is to this end that transformation optics has been developed, exploiting Faraday’s picture of electric and magnetic fields as lines of force, which can be manipulated by the electrical permittivity and magnetic permeability of surrounding materials. Transformation optics says what has to be done to place the lines of force where we want them to be.

  1. Dynamically tunable transformation thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Meca, Carlos; Barceló, Carlos

    2016-04-01

    Recently, the introduction of transformation thermodynamics has provided a way to design thermal media that alter the flow of heat according to any spatial deformation, enabling the construction of novel devices such as thermal cloaks or concentrators. However, in its current version, this technique only allows static deformations of space. Here, we develop a space–time theory of transformation thermodynamics that incorporates the possibility of performing time-varying deformations. This extra freedom greatly widens the range of achievable effects, providing an additional degree of control for heat management applications. As an example, we design a reconfigurable thermal cloak that can be opened and closed dynamically, therefore being able to gradually adjust the temperature distribution of a given region.

  2. A DC Transformer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youngquist, Robert C.; Ihlefeld, Curtis M.; Starr, Stanley O.

    2013-01-01

    A component level dc transformer is described in which no alternating currents or voltages are present. It operates by combining features of a homopolar motor and a homopolar generator, both de devices, such that the output voltage of a de power supply can be stepped up (or down) with a corresponding step down (or up) in current. The basic theory for this device is developed, performance predictions are made, and the results from a small prototype are presented. Based on demonstrated technology in the literature, this de transformer should be scalable to low megawatt levels, but it is more suited to high current than high voltage applications. Significant development would be required before it could achieve the kilovolt levels needed for de power transmission.

  3. High voltage isolation transformer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clatterbuck, C. H.; Ruitberg, A. P. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A high voltage isolation transformer is provided with primary and secondary coils separated by discrete electrostatic shields from the surfaces of insulating spools on which the coils are wound. The electrostatic shields are formed by coatings of a compound with a low electrical conductivity which completely encase the coils and adhere to the surfaces of the insulating spools adjacent to the coils. Coatings of the compound also line axial bores of the spools, thereby forming electrostatic shields separating the spools from legs of a ferromagnetic core extending through the bores. The transformer is able to isolate a high constant potential applied to one of its coils, without the occurrence of sparking or corona, by coupling the coatings, lining the axial bores to the ferromagnetic core and by coupling one terminal of each coil to the respective coating encasing the coil.

  4. Transforming the optical landscape.

    PubMed

    Pendry, J B; Luo, Yu; Zhao, Rongkuo

    2015-05-01

    Electromagnetism provides us with some of the most powerful tools in science, encompassing lasers, optical microscopes, magnetic resonance imaging scanners, radar, and a host of other techniques. To understand and develop the technology requires more than a set of formal equations. Scientists and engineers have to form a vivid picture that fires their imaginations and enables intuition to play a full role in the process of invention. It is to this end that transformation optics has been developed, exploiting Faraday's picture of electric and magnetic fields as lines of force, which can be manipulated by the electrical permittivity and magnetic permeability of surrounding materials. Transformation optics says what has to be done to place the lines of force where we want them to be. PMID:25931549

  5. Transforming revenue management.

    PubMed

    Silveria, Richard; Alliegro, Debra; Nudd, Steven

    2008-11-01

    Healthcare organizations that want to undertake a patient administrative/revenue management transformation should: Define the vision with underlying business objectives and key performance measures. Strategically partner with key vendors for business process development and technology design. Create a program organization and governance infrastructure. Develop a corporate design model that defines the standards for operationalizing the vision. Execute the vision through technology deployment and corporate design model implementation. PMID:18990839

  6. Laminated piezoelectric transformer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vazquez Carazo, Alfredo (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A laminated piezoelectric transformer is provided using the longitudinal vibration modes for step-up voltage conversion applications. The input portions are polarized to deform in a longitudinal plane and are bonded to an output portion. The deformation of the input portions is mechanically coupled to the output portion, which deforms in the same longitudinal direction relative to the input portion. The output portion is polarized in the thickness direction relative its electrodes, and piezoelectrically generates a stepped-up output voltage.

  7. Bacterial transformation of terpenoids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grishko, V. V.; Nogovitsina, Y. M.; Ivshina, I. B.

    2014-04-01

    Data on the bacterial transformation of terpenoids published in the literature in the past decade are analyzed. Possible pathways for chemo-, regio- and stereoselective modifications of terpenoids are discussed. Considerable attention is given to new technological approaches to the synthesis of terpenoid derivatives suitable for the use in the perfume and food industry and promising as drugs and chiral intermediates for fine organic synthesis. The bibliography includes 246 references.

  8. Transforming the dilemma.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Christine; Nowak, Martin A

    2007-10-01

    How does natural selection lead to cooperation between competing individuals? The Prisoner's Dilemma captures the essence of this problem. Two players can either cooperate or defect. The payoff for mutual cooperation, R, is greater than the payoff for mutual defection, P. But a defector versus a cooperator receives the highest payoff, T, where as the cooperator obtains the lowest payoff, S. Hence, the Prisoner's Dilemma is defined by the payoff ranking T > R > P > S. In a well-mixed population, defectors always have a higher expected payoff than cooperators, and therefore natural selection favors defectors. The evolution of cooperation requires specific mechanisms. Here we discuss five mechanisms for the evolution of cooperation: direct reciprocity, indirect reciprocity, kin selection, group selection, and network reciprocity (or graph selection). Each mechanism leads to a transformation of the Prisoner's Dilemma payoff matrix. From the transformed matrices, we derive the fundamental conditions for the evolution of cooperation. The transformed matrices can be used in standard frameworks of evolutionary dynamics such as the replicator equation or stochastic processes of game dynamics in finite populations. PMID:17711471

  9. 60. VIEW OF THE CURRENT TRANSFORMER VAULT. THIS CURRENT TRANSFORMER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    60. VIEW OF THE CURRENT TRANSFORMER VAULT. THIS CURRENT TRANSFORMER WAS USED TO SENSE HIGH CURRENT BEING GENERATED ON GENERATOR NUMBER 3 AND REDUCE IT TO A LOWER, EXACT ANALOG VALUE THAT COULD BE SAFELY HANDLED AND MONITORED WITH THE CONTROL CIRCUITRY. THE CURRENT TRANSFORMER IS LOCATED IN THE CENTER OF THE PHOTOGRAPH. THE CONNECTING BUS ABOVE THE TRANSFORMER WAS REMOVED FOR SALVAGE. - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Cos Cob Power Plant, Sound Shore Drive, Greenwich, Fairfield County, CT

  10. Coded holography for Walsh transform and Haar transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Uri, Joseph

    1993-03-01

    Digital transforms, such as Walsh or Haar transforms for example, are often used to improve the quality of the picture and obtain a better resolution. The mathematical computer procedure of the transform operation can, however, be lengthy and complicated. We suggest use of coded holography with a mask representing the Walsh or Haar transform as a reference beam. Details of the set up and the construction of the mask are discussed and the results are shown.

  11. Atmospheric transformation of diesel emissions.

    PubMed

    Zielinska, Barbara; Samy, Shar; McDonald, Jacob D; Seagrave, JeanClare

    2010-04-01

    The hypothesis of this study was that exposing diesel exhaust (DE*) to the atmosphere transforms its composition and toxicity. Our specific aims were (1) to characterize the gas- and particle-phase products of atmospheric transformations of DE under the influence of daylight, ozone (O3), hydroxyl (OH) radicals, and nitrate (NO3) radicals; and (2) to explore the biologic activity of DE before and after the transformations took place. The study was executed with the aid of the EUPHORE (European Photoreactor) outdoor simulation chamber facility in Valencia, Spain. EUPHORE is one of the largest and best-equipped facilities of its kind in the world, allowing investigation of atmospheric transformation processes under realistic ambient conditions (with dilutions in the range of 1:300). DE was generated on-site using a modern light-duty diesel engine and a dynamometer system equipped with a continuous emission-gas analyzer. The engine (a turbocharged, intercooled model with common-rail direct injection) was obtained from the Ford Motor Company. A first series of experiments was carried out in January 2005 (the winter 2005 campaign), a second in May 2005 (the summer 2005 campaign), and a third in May and June 2006 (the summer 2006 campaign). The diesel fuel that was used closely matched the one currently in use in most of the United States (containing 47 ppm sulfur and 15% aromatic compounds). Our experiments examined the effects on the composition of DE aged in the dark with added NO3 radicals and of DE aged in daylight with added OH radicals both with and without added volatile organic compounds (VOCs). In order to remove excess nitrogen oxides (NO(x)), a NO(x) denuder was devised and used to conduct experiments in realistic low-NO(x) conditions in both summer campaigns. A scanning mobility particle sizer was used to determine the particle size and the number and volume concentrations of particulate matter (PM) in the DE. O3, NO(x), and reactive nitrogen oxides (NO(y)) were monitored using chemiluminescence and Fourier transform infrared instruments. At the end of the exposures, samples of particle-associated and semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) were collected from the chamber for chemical analysis using an XAD-coated annular denuder followed by a filter and XAD cartridge. (XAD is an adsorbent polystyrene divinylbenzene resin used in sampling cartridges.) Samples for toxicity testing were collected using Teflon filters followed by two XAD cartridges. The chemical analyses included determination of organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), carbon fractions, inorganic ions (e.g., sulfate and nitrate), and speciated organic compounds (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons [PAHs], nitro-PAHs, polar compounds, alkanes, hopanes, and steranes). The toxicity tests were performed with extracts of PM combined with the SVOCs. The biologic activity of these extracts was evaluated in vivo by instilling them into the tracheas of rodents and measuring pulmonary toxicity, inflammation, and oxidative-stress responses. Results from the chemical analyses indicated that aging DE in the dark with added NO3 radicals and aging DE in daylight with and without additions led to the formation of additional particles and SVOC mass caused by reactions of VOCs, SVOCs, and inorganic gases. The greatest increase in mass occurred with the addition of VOCs as co-reactants. The proportions of the pyrolized OC (POC) fraction increased in the organic mass, which suggested that highly polar and oligomeric compounds had been formed. Results from the toxicity testing were consistent with the hypothesis that the toxicity of the samples had been affected by changes in their composition (caused both by the atmospheric aging and by changes in the initial composition of the DE presumably associated with changes in the engine, which was new at the outset and accrued wear during the study). PMID:20572366

  12. Fabrication and characterization of Na0.5K0.5NbO3-CuNb2O6 lead-free step-down piezoelectric transformers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ming-Ru; Chu, Sheng-Yuan; Chan, I.-Hao; Huang, Sheng-Kai

    2011-08-01

    Lead-free (Na0.5K0.5)NbO3 (NKN) ceramics doped with 1 mol% CuNb2O6 (01CN) ceramics were prepared using the conventional mixed oxide method at a sintering temperature of 1075 °C. NKN + 1 mol% CuTa2O6 (NKN-01CN) ceramics sintered at 1075 °C exhibit excellent "hard" piezoelectric properties of kp = 40%, kt = 45%, and k33 = 57%, with ferroelectric property Ec = 23 kV/cm. The mechanical quality factor (Qm) is extraordinarily high (1933) and the temperature stability is excellent (Temperature coefficient of frequency (TCF) = -154 ppm/°C). The piezoelectric transformer (PT) was fabricated on NKN-01CN lead-free substrates, and the electrical characteristics were investigated. The devices were simplified into an equivalent circuit and analyzed using the MATLAB software package. The simulation results matched the experimental results. By reversing the input and the output, the step-down PT can be easily fabricated using a simple disk-type structure. A maximum efficiency of 93% with a voltage gain of 0.12 was measured, which was in good agreement with the simulation results (a maximum efficiency of 98.7% with a voltage gain of 0.13) for the step-down mode.

  13. Transformational Leadership, Integrity, and Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Laura M.

    2011-01-01

    Transformational leadership enjoys widespread appeal among student affairs professionals. National Association of Student Personnel Administrators (NASPA) and American College Personnel Association (ACPA) conferences frequently feature speakers who promote transformational leadership's two primary tenets: (1) change is the central purpose of

  14. The Transformation of Disabilities Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schalock, Robert L.; Verdugo, Miguel-Angel

    2013-01-01

    This article summarizes the five major characteristics of the transformation era and describes how intellectual and closely related developmental disabilities organizations can apply specific transformation strategies associated with each characteristic. Collectively, the characteristics and strategies provide a framework for transformation…

  15. Transformation method and wave control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Zheng; Hu, Jin; Hu, Geng-Kai

    2010-12-01

    Transformation method provides an efficient way to control wave propagation by materials. The transformed relations for field and material during a transformation are essential to fulfill this method. We propose a systematic method to derive the transformed relations for a general physic process, the constraint conditions are obtained by considering geometrical and physical constraint during a mapping. The proposed method is applied to Navier's equation for elastodynamics, Helmholtz's equation for acoustic wave and Maxwell's equation for electromagnetic wave, the corresponding transformed relations are derived, which can be used in the framework of transformation method for wave control. We show that contrary to electromagnetic wave, the transformed relations are not uniquely determined for elastic wave and acoustic wave, so we have a freedom to choose them differently. Using the obtained transformed relations, we also provide some examples for device design, a concentrator for elastic wave, devices for illusion acoustic and illusion optics are conceived and validated by numerical simulations.

  16. Transformational Leadership, Integrity, and Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Laura M.

    2011-01-01

    Transformational leadership enjoys widespread appeal among student affairs professionals. National Association of Student Personnel Administrators (NASPA) and American College Personnel Association (ACPA) conferences frequently feature speakers who promote transformational leadership's two primary tenets: (1) change is the central purpose of…

  17. RECENT ADVANCES IN BARLEY TRANSFORMATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Barley, an important member of the cereals, has been successfully transformed through various methods such as particle bombardment, Agrobacterium-tumefaciens, DNA uptake, and electroporation. Initially, the transformation in barley concentrated on developing protocols using marker genes such as gus,...

  18. Mineralogical transformations controlling acid mine drainage chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Peretyazhko, Tetyana; Zachara, John M.; Boily, Jean F.; Xia, Yuanxian; Gassman, Paul L.; Arey, Bruce W.; Burgos, William D.

    2009-05-30

    The role of Fe(III) minerals in controlling acid mine drainage (AMD) chemistry was studied using samples from two AMD sites [Gum Boot (GB) and Fridays-2 (FR)] located in northern Pennsylvania. Chemical extractions, X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to identify and characterize Fe(III) phases. The mineralogical analysis revealed that schwertmannite and goethite were the principal Fe(III) phases in the sediments. Schwertmannite transformation occurred at the GB site where poorly-crystallized goethite rich in surface-bound sulfate was initially formed. In contrast, no schwertmannite transformation occurred at the FR site. The goethite in GB sediments had spherical morphology due to preservation of schwertmannite structure by adsorbed sulfate. Results of chemical extractions showed that poorly-crystallized goethite was subject to further crystallization accompanied by sulfate desorption. Changes in sulfate speciation preceded its desorption, with a conversion of bidentate- to monodentate-bound sulfate surface complexes. Laboratory sediment incubation experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of mineral transformation on water chemistry. Incubation experiments were carried out with schwertmannite-containing sediments and AMD waters with different pH and chemical composition. The pH decreased to 1.9-2.2 in all suspensions and the concentrations of dissolved Fe and S increased significantly. Regardless of differences in the initial water composition, pH, Fe and S were similar in suspensions of the same sediment. XRD measurements revealed that schwertmannite transformed into goethite in GB and FR sediments during laboratory incubation. The incubation experiment demonstrated that schwertmannite transformation controlled AMD water chemistry during “closed system” laboratory contact.

  19. Spectrum transformation for divergent iterations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gupta, Murli M.

    1991-01-01

    Certain spectrum transformation techniques are described that can be used to transform a diverging iteration into a converging one. Two techniques are considered called spectrum scaling and spectrum enveloping and how to obtain the optimum values of the transformation parameters is discussed. Numerical examples are given to show how this technique can be used to transform diverging iterations into converging ones; this technique can also be used to accelerate the convergence of otherwise convergent iterations.

  20. Thin-Film Power Transformers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Katti, Romney R.

    1995-01-01

    Transformer core made of thin layers of insulating material interspersed with thin layers of ferromagnetic material. Flux-linking conductors made of thinner nonferromagnetic-conductor/insulator multilayers wrapped around core. Transformers have geometric features finer than those of transformers made in customary way by machining and mechanical pressing. In addition, some thin-film materials exhibit magnetic-flux-carrying capabilities superior to those of customary bulk transformer materials. Suitable for low-cost, high-yield mass production.

  1. Enhancing Understanding of Transformation Matrices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dick, Jonathan; Childrey, Maria

    2012-01-01

    With the Common Core State Standards' emphasis on transformations, teachers need a variety of approaches to increase student understanding. Teaching matrix transformations by focusing on row vectors gives students tools to create matrices to perform transformations. This empowerment opens many doors: Students are able to create the matrices for

  2. Canonical Transformations of Kepler Trajectories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mostowski, Jan

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, canonical transformations generated by constants of motion in the case of the Kepler problem are discussed. It is shown that canonical transformations generated by angular momentum are rotations of the trajectory. Particular attention is paid to canonical transformations generated by the Runge-Lenz vector. It is shown that these

  3. Canonical Transformations of Kepler Trajectories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mostowski, Jan

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, canonical transformations generated by constants of motion in the case of the Kepler problem are discussed. It is shown that canonical transformations generated by angular momentum are rotations of the trajectory. Particular attention is paid to canonical transformations generated by the Runge-Lenz vector. It is shown that these…

  4. Teacher Transformation: Transcending Hegemonic Roots

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Gregory

    2012-01-01

    In this dissertation study, I build from the research on transformative teaching (transformative for students), liberating theories (Liberating, Liberation and Liberating Theories) as well as literature about transformation, reflection and discourse to make the case that our historic and continuously inequitable results for students based on…

  5. Teacher Transformation: Transcending Hegemonic Roots

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Gregory

    2012-01-01

    In this dissertation study, I build from the research on transformative teaching (transformative for students), liberating theories (Liberating, Liberation and Liberating Theories) as well as literature about transformation, reflection and discourse to make the case that our historic and continuously inequitable results for students based on

  6. Enhancing Understanding of Transformation Matrices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dick, Jonathan; Childrey, Maria

    2012-01-01

    With the Common Core State Standards' emphasis on transformations, teachers need a variety of approaches to increase student understanding. Teaching matrix transformations by focusing on row vectors gives students tools to create matrices to perform transformations. This empowerment opens many doors: Students are able to create the matrices for…

  7. Quality as Transformation: Educational Metamorphosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Ming

    2014-01-01

    The notion of "quality as transformation" has been widely used in the higher education sector. However, both quality and transformation are elusive terms. There is little research exploring how quality could be equated to transformation in the learning process. This paper will provide an insight into the relationship between quality and…

  8. The transformation of disabilities organizations.

    PubMed

    Schalock, Robert L; Verdugo, Miguel-Angel

    2013-08-01

    This article summarizes the five major characteristics of the transformation era and describes how intellectual and closely related developmental disabilities organizations can apply specific transformation strategies associated with each characteristic. Collectively, the characteristics and strategies provide a framework for transformation thinking, learning, and acting. Specific application examples are given. PMID:23909588

  9. Quality as Transformation: Educational Metamorphosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Ming

    2014-01-01

    The notion of "quality as transformation" has been widely used in the higher education sector. However, both quality and transformation are elusive terms. There is little research exploring how quality could be equated to transformation in the learning process. This paper will provide an insight into the relationship between quality and

  10. Inversion of the circular averages transform using the Funk transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evren Yarman, Can; Yazıcı, Birsen

    2011-06-01

    The integral of a function defined on the half-plane along the semi-circles centered on the boundary of the half-plane is known as the circular averages transform. Circular averages transform arises in many tomographic image reconstruction problems. In particular, in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) when the transmitting and receiving antennas are colocated, the received signal is modeled as the integral of the ground reflectivity function of the illuminated scene over the intersection of spheres centered at the antenna location and the surface topography. When the surface topography is flat the received signal becomes the circular averages transform of the ground reflectivity function. Thus, SAR image formation requires inversion of the circular averages transform. Apart from SAR, circular averages transform also arises in thermo-acoustic tomography and sonar inverse problems. In this paper, we present a new inversion method for the circular averages transform using the Funk transform. For a function defined on the unit sphere, its Funk transform is given by the integrals of the function along the great circles. We used hyperbolic geometry to establish a diffeomorphism between the circular averages transform, hyperbolic x-ray and Funk transforms. The method is exact and numerically efficient when fast Fourier transforms over the sphere are used. We present numerical simulations to demonstrate the performance of the inversion method. Dedicated to Dennis Healy, a friend of Applied Mathematics and Engineering.

  11. An Interplay Between Infrared Multiphoton Dissociation Fourier-Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry and Density Functional Theory Computations in the Characterization of a Tripodal Quinolin-8-Olate Gd(III) Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Bonis, Margherita; Bianco, Giuliana; Amati, Mario; Belviso, Sandra; Cataldi, Tommaso R. I.; Lelj, Francesco

    2013-04-01

    A new hexadentate, tripodal 8-hydroxyquinoline based ligand (QH3) and its gadolinium(III) tris-chelated (GdQ) complex with hemicage structure was investigated by using high resolution Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICRMS). The protonated adduct of the free ligand and its hemicage tripodal Gd(III) complex, [GdQ + H]+, were first observed in experiments of electrospray ionization (ESI) with a linear ion trap (LTQ) mass spectrometer and further investigated by using high resolution FTICRMS. Gas-phase dissociation of the protonated Gd(III) complex, by infrared multiphoton dissociation (IRMPD) FTICR MS, demonstrated a fragmentation pattern with six main product cluster ions labeled as [Fn]+ ( n = 1 up to 6). These product ions suggest the elimination of 7-amino-alkyl or 7-alkyl chains of the hemicage moiety. High resolution MS conditions allowed the elucidation of the fragmentation pattern and product ion structures along with the determination, among the isotopic pattern of Gd, of the chemical compositions of closely related species, which differ in terms of hydrogen content. Among the Gd six naturally stable isotopes, 158Gd is the most abundant, and its peak within each cluster was used as a reference for distinguishing each product ions. Computational DFT investigations were applied to give support to some hypothesis of fragmentation pathways, which could not have been easily justified on the basis of the experimental work. Furthermore, computational studies suggested the coordination geometry of the protonated parent complex and the five- and four-coordinated complexes, which derive from its fragmentation. Furthermore, experimental and computational evidences were collected about the octet spin state of the parent compound.

  12. Transformation and invariance in creative translations and analytic interpretations: a Bionian reading of Borges and Cervantes.

    PubMed

    Priel, Beatriz

    2013-12-01

    Bion's basic theory of transformations includes the concept of invariances: those aspects that are kept unchanged in the transformation. Translations are considered transformations that include invariances that allow for the recognition of the transformation. Psychoanalytic interpretations are seen by the author of this paper as a special case of such transformations. From Borges's radically open perspective on translation, psychoanalytic interpretations can be characterized as pertaining to one of three categories: (1) interpretations that change the unfamiliar to the familiar, (2) rigid motion transformations, or (3) interpretations that are transformations towards O. These ideas are dramatized in the reading of two of Borges's fictional stories that present two different approaches to translation, Averroes' search and Pierre Menard, author of the Quixote. These stories exemplify transformations in -K and + K. Finally, Cervantes' intuition of a hybrid language that approaches O and allows for a peaceful and multilayered interpretation of reality (transformation towards O) is discussed. PMID:24372110

  13. Transformation of Anaplasma marginale

    PubMed Central

    Felsheim, Roderick F.; Chávez, Adela S. Oliva; Palmer, Guy H.; Crosby, Liliana; Barbet, Anthony F.; Kurtti, Timothy J.; Munderloh, Ulrike G.

    2010-01-01

    The tick-borne pathogen, Anaplasma marginale, has a complex life cycle involving ruminants and ixodid ticks. It causes bovine anaplasmosis, a disease with significant economic impact on cattle farming worldwide. The obligate intracellular growth requirement of the bacteria poses a challenging obstacle to their genetic manipulation, a problem shared with other prokaryotes in the genera Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, and Rickettsia. Following our successful transformation of the human anaplasmosis agent, A. phagocytophilum, we produced plasmid constructs (a transposon bearing plasmid, pHimarAm-trTurboGFP-SS, and a transposase expression plasmid, pET28Am-trA7) designed to mediate random insertion of the TurboGFP and spectinomycin/streptomycin resistance genes by the Himar1 allele A7 into the A. marginale chromosome. In these trans constructs, expression of the fluorescent and the selectable markers on the transposon, and expression of the transposase are under control of the A. marginale tr promoter. Constructs were co-electroporated into A. marginale St. Maries purified from tick cell culture, and bacteria incubated for 2 months under selection with a combination of spectinomycin and streptomycin. At that time, ≤1% of tick cells contained colonies of brightly fluorescent Anaplasma, which eventually increased to infect about 80–90% of the cells. Cloning of the insertion site in E. coli and DNA sequence analyses demonstrated insertion of the entire plasmid pHimarAm-trTurboGFP-SS encoding the transposon in frame into the native tr region of A. marginale in an apparent single homologous crossover event not mediated by the transposase. Transformants are fastidious and require longer subculture intervals than wild type A. marginale. This result suggests that A. marginale, as well as possibly other species of Anaplasma and Ehrlichia, can be transformed using a strategy of homologous recombination. PMID:19837516

  14. Transformation of Anaplasma marginale.

    PubMed

    Felsheim, Roderick F; Chávez, Adela S Oliva; Palmer, Guy H; Crosby, Liliana; Barbet, Anthony F; Kurtti, Timothy J; Munderloh, Ulrike G

    2010-02-10

    The tick-borne pathogen, Anaplasma marginale, has a complex life cycle involving ruminants and ixodid ticks. It causes bovine anaplasmosis, a disease with significant economic impact on cattle farming worldwide. The obligate intracellular growth requirement of the bacteria poses a challenging obstacle to their genetic manipulation, a problem shared with other prokaryotes in the genera Anaplasma, Ehrlichia, and Rickettsia. Following our successful transformation of the human anaplasmosis agent, A. phagocytophilum, we produced plasmid constructs (a transposon bearing plasmid, pHimarAm-trTurboGFP-SS, and a transposase expression plasmid, pET28Am-trA7) designed to mediate random insertion of the TurboGFP and spectinomycin/streptomycin resistance genes by the Himar1 allele A7 into the A. marginale chromosome. In these trans constructs, expression of the fluorescent and the selectable markers on the transposon, and expression of the transposase are under control of the A. marginale tr promoter. Constructs were co-electroporated into A. marginale St. Maries purified from tick cell culture, and bacteria incubated for 2 months under selection with a combination of spectinomycin and streptomycin. At that time, < or =1% of tick cells contained colonies of brightly fluorescent Anaplasma, which eventually increased to infect about 80-90% of the cells. Cloning of the insertion site in E. coli and DNA sequence analyses demonstrated insertion of the entire plasmid pHimarAm-trTurboGFP-SS encoding the transposon in frame into the native tr region of A. marginale in an apparent single homologous crossover event not mediated by the transposase. Transformants are fastidious and require longer subculture intervals than wild type A. marginale. This result suggests that A. marginale, as well as possibly other species of Anaplasma and Ehrlichia, can be transformed using a strategy of homologous recombination. PMID:19837516

  15. Phase Transformations in Cast Superaustenitic Stainless Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Nathaniel S. L.; Scott Chumbley, L.; Gleeson, Brian

    2009-12-01

    The goal of this investigation was to study phase transformations in cast superaustenitic stainless steels. Experiments were performed to determine the phase transformation behavior for alloys CN3MN and CK3MCuN. Samples were taken from keel bars that were heat treated between 1160 and 1230 °C and then isothermally held for times ranging from 1 min to 2040 h at temperatures in the range of 700-900 °C. The resulting microstructures were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy and wavelength dispersive spectroscopy. The microstructures, composed primarily of sigma- and Laves-phases within a purely austenitic matrix, showed relatively slow transformation kinetics, with transformation not completed even after the longest anneals. SEM and TEM analysis of superaustenitic samples reveal that precipitation takes place initially on grain boundaries and proceeds intragranularly. The results of these SEM and TEM investigations, along with volume fractions and number densities as a function of time and temperature, will be presented and discussed.

  16. Fast geodetic coordinate transformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, N. A.

    1980-07-01

    The shape of the earth and its gravity field are well represented by a reference ellipsoid. New algorithms are presented for computationally efficient transformations between geodetic ellipsoidal (altitude, latitude, longitude) and geocentric Cartesian coordinates, including high-accuracy direct approximations and fast iterative exact solution. These algorithms provide significant speed and accuracy advantages over existing techniques. Terrestrial navigation equations based on the new algorithms are developed, and extended to various navigation functions from inertial data processing to Kalman filtering. Applied to a typical GPS/inertial navigator, this mechanization provides a 10% to 15% speed increase over conventional mechanizations.

  17. Thermal energy transformer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berdahl, C. M.; Thiele, C. L. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    For use in combination with a heat engine, a thermal energy transformer is presented. It is comprised of a flux receiver having a first wall defining therein a radiation absorption cavity for converting solar flux to thermal energy, and a second wall defining an energy transfer wall for the heat engine. There is a heat pipe chamber interposed between the first and second walls having a working fluid disposed within the chamber and a wick lining the chamber for conducting the working fluid from the second wall to the first wall. Thermal energy is transferred from the radiation absorption cavity to the heat engine.

  18. Banded transformer cores

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclyman, C. W. T. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A banded transformer core formed by positioning a pair of mated, similar core halves on a supporting pedestal. The core halves are encircled with a strap, selectively applying tension whereby a compressive force is applied to the core edge for reducing the innate air gap. A dc magnetic field is employed in supporting the core halves during initial phases of the banding operation, while an ac magnetic field subsequently is employed for detecting dimension changes occurring in the air gaps as tension is applied to the strap.

  19. Microbial transformation of pyrethrosin.

    PubMed

    Galal, A M

    2001-08-01

    Microbial transformation of the germacranolide pyrethrosin (1) using Rhizopus nigricans NRRL 1477 has resulted in the isolation of 6 alpha-acetoxy-1 beta,4 alpha-dihydroxy-5,7 alpha H,8 beta H-eudesm-11 beta,13-dihydro-8,12-olide (5), a new eudesmanolide-type metabolite, in addition to the previously reported eudesmanolides: 2, 3, 4, and 6. The structure elucidation of these metabolites was based primarily on 1D and 2D NMR analyses. The isolated metabolites exhibited cytotoxic, antifungal, and antiprotozoal activities. PMID:11520238

  20. A Fast Hermite Transform?

    PubMed Central

    Leibon, Gregory; Rockmore, Daniel N.; Park, Wooram; Taintor, Robert; Chirikjian, Gregory S.

    2008-01-01

    We present algorithms for fast and stable approximation of the Hermite transform of a compactly supported function on the real line, attainable via an application of a fast algebraic algorithm for computing sums associated with a three-term relation. Trade-offs between approximation in bandlimit (in the Hermite sense) and size of the support region are addressed. Numerical experiments are presented that show the feasibility and utility of our approach. Generalizations to any family of orthogonal polynomials are outlined. Applications to various problems in tomographic reconstruction, including the determination of protein structure, are discussed. PMID:20027202

  1. Evaluate and characterize mechanisms controlling transport, fate and effects of army smokes in an aerosol wind tunnel: Transport, transformations, fate and terrestrial ecological effects of fog oil obscurant smokes: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Cataldo, D.A.; Van Voris, P.; Ligotke, M.W.; Fellows, R.J.; McVeety, B.D.; Li, Shu-mei W.; Bolton, H. Jr.; Fredrickson, J.K.

    1989-01-01

    The terrestrial transport, chemical fate, and ecological effects of fog oil (FO) smoke obscurants were evaluated under controlled wind tunnel conditions. The primary objectives of this research program are to characterize and assess the impacts of smoke and obscurants on: (1) natural vegetation characteristic of US Army training sites in the United States; (2) physical and chemical properties of soils representative of these training sites; and (3) soil microbiological and invertebrate communities. Impacts and dose/responses were evaluated based on an exposure scenario, including exposure duration, exposure rate, and sequential cumulative dosing. Key to understanding the environmental impacts of fog oil smoke/obscurants is establishing the importance of environmental parameters, such as relative humidity and wind speed on airborne aerosol characteristics and deposition to receptor surfaces. Direct and indirect biotic effects were evaluated using five plant species and three soil types. 29 refs., 35 figs., 32 tabs.

  2. Computer simulation of martensitic transformations

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Ping

    1993-11-01

    The characteristics of martensitic transformations in solids are largely determined by the elastic strain that develops as martensite particles grow and interact. To study the development of microstructure, a finite-element computer simulation model was constructed to mimic the transformation process. The transformation is athermal and simulated at each incremental step by transforming the cell which maximizes the decrease in the free energy. To determine the free energy change, the elastic energy developed during martensite growth is calculated from the theory of linear elasticity for elastically homogeneous media, and updated as the transformation proceeds.

  3. Surface catalyzed mercury transformation reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varanasi, Patanjali

    Mercury is a known pollutant that has detrimental effect on human health and environment. The anthropogenic emissions of mercury account for 10 to 30% of worldwide mercury emissions. There is a need to control/reduce anthropogenic mercury emissions. Many mercury control technologies are available but their effectiveness is dependent on the chemical form of mercury, because different chemical forms of mercury have different physical and chemical properties. Mercury leaves the boiler in its elemental form but goes through various transformations in the post-combustion zone. There is a need to understand how fly ash and flue gas composition affect speciation, partitioning, and reactions of mercury under the full range of post-combustion zone conditions. This knowledge can then be used to predict the chemical transformation of mercury (elemental, oxidized or particulate) in the post combustion zone and thus help with the control of mercury emissions from coal-burning power plants. To accomplish this goal present study was conducted using five coal fly ashes. These ashes were characterized and their catalytic activity was compared under selected reaction conditions in a fixed bed reactor. Based on the results from these fly ash experiments, three key components (carbon, iron oxide and calcium oxide) were chosen. These three components were then used to prepare model fly ashes. Silica/alumina was used as a base for these model fly ashes. One, two or three component model fly ashes were then prepared to investigate mercury transformation reactions. The third set of experiments was performed with five different oxidation catalysts to further understand the mercury oxidation process. Based on the results of these three studies the key components were predicted for different fly ash compositions under variety of flue gas conditions. A fixed bed reactor system was used to conduct this study. In all the experiments, the inlet concentration of Hg0(g) was maintained at 35 mug/m 3 using a diffusion tube as the source of Hg0(g). All experiments were conducted using 4% O2 in nitrogen mix as a reaction gas, and other reactants (HCl, H2O and SO2, NO 2, Br2) were added as required. The fixed bed reactor was operated over a temperature range of 200 to 400°C. In each experiment, the reactor effluent was analyzed using the modified Ontario-Hydro method. After each experiment, fly ash particles were also analyzed for mercury. The results show that the ability of fly ash to adsorb and/or oxidize mercury is primarily dependent on its carbon, iron and calcium content. There can be either one or more than one key component at a particular temperature and flue gas condition. Surface area played a secondary role in effecting the mercury transformations when compared to the concentration of the key component in the fly ash. Amount carbon and surface area played a key important role in the adsorption of mercury. Increased concentration of gases in the flue gas other than oxygen and nitrogen caused decreased the amount of mercury adsorbed on carbon surface. Mercury adsorption by iron oxide primarily depended on the crystalline structure of iron oxide. alpha-iron oxide had no effect on mercury adsorption or oxidation under most of the flue gas conditions, but gamma-iron oxide adsorbed mercury under most of the flue gas conditions. Bromine is a very good oxidizing agent for mercury. But in the presence of calcium oxide containing fly ashes, all the oxidized mercury would be reduced to elemental form. Among the catalysts, it was observed that presence of free lattice chlorine in the catalyst was very important for the oxidation of mercury. But instead of using the catalyst alone, using it along with carbon may better serve the purpose by providing the adsorption surface for mercury and also some extra surface area for the reaction to occur (especially for fly ashes with low surface area).

  4. Fast Fourier transform telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Tegmark, Max; Zaldarriaga, Matias

    2009-04-15

    We propose an all-digital telescope for 21 cm tomography, which combines key advantages of both single dishes and interferometers. The electric field is digitized by antennas on a rectangular grid, after which a series of fast Fourier transforms recovers simultaneous multifrequency images of up to half the sky. Thanks to Moore's law, the bandwidth up to which this is feasible has now reached about 1 GHz, and will likely continue doubling every couple of years. The main advantages over a single dish telescope are cost and orders of magnitude larger field-of-view, translating into dramatically better sensitivity for large-area surveys. The key advantages over traditional interferometers are cost (the correlator computational cost for an N-element array scales as Nlog{sub 2}N rather than N{sup 2}) and a compact synthesized beam. We argue that 21 cm tomography could be an ideal first application of a very large fast Fourier transform telescope, which would provide both massive sensitivity improvements per dollar and mitigate the off-beam point source foreground problem with its clean beam. Another potentially interesting application is cosmic microwave background polarization.

  5. Fast Fourier transform telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tegmark, Max; Zaldarriaga, Matias

    2009-04-01

    We propose an all-digital telescope for 21 cm tomography, which combines key advantages of both single dishes and interferometers. The electric field is digitized by antennas on a rectangular grid, after which a series of fast Fourier transforms recovers simultaneous multifrequency images of up to half the sky. Thanks to Moore’s law, the bandwidth up to which this is feasible has now reached about 1 GHz, and will likely continue doubling every couple of years. The main advantages over a single dish telescope are cost and orders of magnitude larger field-of-view, translating into dramatically better sensitivity for large-area surveys. The key advantages over traditional interferometers are cost (the correlator computational cost for an N-element array scales as Nlog⁡2N rather than N2) and a compact synthesized beam. We argue that 21 cm tomography could be an ideal first application of a very large fast Fourier transform telescope, which would provide both massive sensitivity improvements per dollar and mitigate the off-beam point source foreground problem with its clean beam. Another potentially interesting application is cosmic microwave background polarization.

  6. Transformational silicon electronics.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Jhonathan Prieto; Torres Sevilla, Galo Andres; Ghoneim, Mohamed Tarek; Inayat, Salman Bin; Ahmed, Sally M; Hussain, Aftab Mustansir; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa

    2014-02-25

    In today's traditional electronics such as in computers or in mobile phones, billions of high-performance, ultra-low-power devices are neatly integrated in extremely compact areas on rigid and brittle but low-cost bulk monocrystalline silicon (100) wafers. Ninety percent of global electronics are made up of silicon. Therefore, we have developed a generic low-cost regenerative batch fabrication process to transform such wafers full of devices into thin (5 μm), mechanically flexible, optically semitransparent silicon fabric with devices, then recycling the remaining wafer to generate multiple silicon fabric with chips and devices, ensuring low-cost and optimal utilization of the whole substrate. We show monocrystalline, amorphous, and polycrystalline silicon and silicon dioxide fabric, all from low-cost bulk silicon (100) wafers with the semiconductor industry's most advanced high-κ/metal gate stack based high-performance, ultra-low-power capacitors, field effect transistors, energy harvesters, and storage to emphasize the effectiveness and versatility of this process to transform traditional electronics into flexible and semitransparent ones for multipurpose applications. PMID:24476361

  7. Image Transformations-Montserrat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    A slightly oblique digital photograph of Montserrat taken from the International Space Station was posted to Earth Observatory in December 2001. An Earth Observatory reader used widely available software to correct the oblique perspective and adjust the color. The story of how he modified the image includes step-by-step instructions that can be applied to other photographs. Photographs of Earth taken by astronauts have shaped our view of the Earth and are part of our popular culture because NASA makes them easily accessible to the public. Read the Transformations Story for more information. The original image was digital photograph number ISS002-E-9309, taken on July 9, 2001, from the International Space Station and was provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth. Bill Innanen provided the transformed image and the story of how he did it.

  8. Transformations of emotional experience.

    PubMed

    de Cortiñas, Lia Pistiner

    2013-06-01

    In this paper the author approaches mental pain and the problems in a psychoanalytic treatment of patients with difficulties in the psychic transformation of their emotional experiences. The author is interested in the symbolic failure related to the obstruction of development of phantasies, dreams, dream-thoughts, etc. She differentiates symbolization disturbances related to hypertrophic projective identification from a detention of these primitive communications and emotional isolation. She puts forward the conjecture that one factor in the arrest of this development is the detention of projective identifications and that, when this primitive means of communication is re-established in a container-contained relationship of mutual benefit, this initiates the development of a symbolization process that can replace the pathological 'protection'. Another hypothesis she develops is that of inaccessible caesuras that, associated with the detention of projective identification, obstruct any integrative or interactive movement. This caesura and the detention of projective identifications affect mental functions needed for dealing with mental pain. The personality is left with precarious mental equipment for transforming emotional experiences. How can a psychoanalytical process stimulate the development of creative symbolization, transforming the emotional experiences and leading towards mental growth? The author approaches the clinical problem with the metaphor of the psychic birth of emotional experience. The modulation of mental pain in a container-contained relationship is a central problem for the development of the human mind. For discovering and giving a meaning to emotional experience, the infant depends on reverie, a function necessary in order to develop an evolved consciousness capable of being aware, which is different from the rudimentary consciousness that perceives but does not understand. The development of mature mental equipment is associated with the personality's attitude towards mental pain. The differentiation between psychotic, neurotic or autistic functioning depends on what defences are erected to avoid mental pain. The primary link between infant and mother is where the building of mental equipment takes place, through communicational forms that, to begin with, are not verbal. The author suggests the need for the development of an ideo-grammar (in gestures, paralinguistic forms, etc.) in primary relations, as the precursor forms that will become the matrix for the mental tools for dealing with emotional experiences in a mature way. The paper stresses the significance of the parental containing function for the development of symbolization of prenatal emotional experiences. This containment develops ideograms, transformations of sense impressions into proto-symbols, instruments that attenuate the traumatic experiences of helplessness. The author takes Bion's ideas about extending the notion of dream-work to an alpha function that goes on continually, day and night, transforming raw emotional experiences in a 'dream'. In order to acquire a meaning, facts need to be 'dreamed' in this extended sense. Meaning and truth are the nurture of the mind. Mental growth, the development of adequate tools--including reverie--for dealing with mental pain, seen from a psychoanalytic perspective including reverie, implies that the object becomes a provider of meanings. Analysis begins to aim primarily at the generation or expansion of the mental container, instead of predominantly working on unconscious contents as such. PMID:23781834

  9. Transforming genes in chronic myelogenous leukemia.

    PubMed Central

    Liu, E; Hjelle, B; Bishop, J M

    1988-01-01

    Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) is a hematopoietic malignancy characterized by an indolent chronic phase that invariably leads to a "blast crisis" indistinguishable from acute leukemia. Using a sensitive assay based on gene transfer and tumorigenesis, we sought evidence that damage to protooncogenes might figure in the progression from the chronic to the blast phase of CML. Seven of the 12 patients with CML examined in this manner harbored transforming genes. Mutations in RAS protooncogenes were detected in the leukemic cells from 1 of 6 chronic-phase patients, and 3 of 6 blast-crisis patients. In addition, a presently unidentified transforming gene (neither RAS nor RAF) was detected in 1 patient with chronic phase and 1 with blast crisis. Our data indicate that mutations in RAS genes may play diverse roles in the pathogenesis of CML. Images PMID:3279421

  10. Protein kinases in normal and transformed melanocytes.

    PubMed

    Quong, R Y; Bickford, S T; Ing, Y L; Terman, B; Herlyn, M; Lassam, N J

    1994-10-01

    Aberrant function of protein kinases has been implicated in the development of melanoma. In an effort to define the molecular events involved in initiation and progression of this malignancy, we used RT-PCR to identify protein kinases in both normal and transformed melanocytes. Collectively, we identified seven clones corresponding to previously characterized protein kinases (JAK-1, TYK02, AXL/UFO, IGF1-R, KDR and FER) as well as the recently identified MLK-3/PTK1 protein kinase. Northern analysis was used to determine the expression pattern of each protein kinase in both normal melanocytes and a variety of melanoma cell lines. Relatively abundant levels of UFO/AXL and KDR mRNAs were observed in a subset of the melanoma cell lines whereas most of the remaining protein kinases were expressed at similar levels in both normal and transformed melanocytes. PMID:7858416

  11. Transformation of Verapamil by Cunninghamella blakesleeana

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Lu; Huang, Hai-Hua; Liu, Lei; Zhong, Da-Fang

    2004-01-01

    A filamentous fungus, Cunninghamella blakesleeana AS 3.153, was used as a microbial model of mammalian metabolism to transform verapamil, a calcium channel antagonist. The metabolites of verapamil were separated and assayed by the liquid chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry method. After 96 h of incubation, nearly 93% of the original drug was metabolized to 23 metabolites. Five major metabolites were isolated by semipreparative high-performance liquid chromatography and were identified by proton nuclear magnetic resonance and electrospray mass spectrometry. Other metabolites were characterized according to their chromatographic behavior and mass spectral data. The major metabolic pathways of verapamil transformation by the fungus were N dealkylation, O demethylation, and sulfate conjugation. The phase I metabolites of verapamil (introduction of a functional group) by C. blakesleeana paralleled those in mammals; therefore, C. blakesleeana could be a useful tool for generating the mammalian phase I metabolites of verapamil. PMID:15128524

  12. Transforming genes in chronic myelogenous leukemia

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, E.; Hjelle, B.; Bishop, J.M. )

    1988-03-01

    Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) is a hematopoietic malignancy characterized by an indolent chronic phase that invariably leads to a blast crisis indistinguishable from acute leukemia. Using a sensitive assay based on gene transfer and tumorigenesis, the authors sought evidence that damage to protooncogenes might figure in the progression from the chronic to the blast phase of CML. Seven of the 12 patients with CML examined in this manner harbored transforming genes. Mutations in RAS protooncogenes were detected in the leukemic cells from 1 or 6 chronic-phase patients, and 3 of 6 blast-crisis patients. In addition, a presently unidentified transforming gene (neither RAS nor RAF) was detected in 1 patient with chronic phase and 1 with blast crisis. These data indicate that mutations in RAS genes may play diverse roles in the pathogenesis of CML.

  13. Transformation by the oncogene v-fms: The effects of castanospermine on transformation-related parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, E.J.; Manger, R.; Hakomori, Senitiroh; Rohrschneider, L.R. )

    1987-12-01

    The effects of castanospermine on various parameters associated with transformation were examined in cells expressing the viral oncogene v-fms. Fischer rat embryo (FRE) cells transformed by the oncogene v-fms and grown in the presence of castanospermine reverted to a more normal cell morphology and accumulated fms protein within the endoplasmic reticulum. Treated cells attained contact inhibition of cell growth at a much lower cell density compared to the untreated controls. No effect of castanospermine on cell growth was observed for FRE cells transformed by a different oncogene v-fgr. Castanospermine-treated SM-FRE (v-fms transformed) cells reexpressed extracellular matrix fibronectin and exhibited an extensive actin-containing cytoskeleton similar to that of normal nontransformed FRE cells. Castanospermine treatment of SM-FRE cells resulted in a sixfold decrease in ({sup 3}H)deoxyglucose uptake compared to that of the nonreverted SM-FRE cells. Again, no effect was observed in FRE cells transformed by the oncogene v-fgr (GR-FRE). These results further characterize the reversion caused by castanospermine and indicate that cell surface expression coordinately controls anchorage independent growth, cell morphology, contact inhibition of growth, and hexose uptake.

  14. Shock phase transformation and release properties of aluminum nitride

    SciTech Connect

    Kipp, M.E.; Grady, D.E.

    1993-12-31

    Aluminum nitride is characterized by a non-recoverable volume phase transformation from the wurtzite (hexagonal) to the rocksalt (cubic) structure that commences about 22 GPa, accompanied by a volume strain of about 20%. A study of the manifestation of this large volume change under shock loading was made with four uniaxial strain impact experiments. Particle velocity histories of the shock and release states were obtained corresponding to impact pressures of 40 GPa, including the evolution of the shock and release waves with propagation distance. Stress-strain features characterizing aluminum nitride, including the phase transformation, were determined with numerical analysis techniques.

  15. Characterization of the semi-insulating properties of AlHfO3.5 for power devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alandia, B. S.; Huanca, D. R.; Christiano, V.; dos Santos Filho, S. G.

    2015-03-01

    Physical and electrical characterization of hafnium aluminates gate dielectrics was carried out to investigate their semi-insulating characteristics as passivating layer for power devices. The deposited films were annealed in pure nitrogen to simulate the thermal budget during a conventional CMOS processing. C-V measurements were performed having as a result a high-frequency behavior of the flat band voltage (VFB) and values greater than or equal to zero. On the other hand, the leakage phenomenon was modeled with a simplified electrical model using a leakage admittance YC whose influence was predominant at the accumulation region. Using X-ray reflectometry (XRR), the average thickness obtained was 15.5nm and a leakage process was inferred to occur for AlHfO3.5 due to the observed phase separation and crystallization that occurs after annealing in pure N2.

  16. Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, C.L.; Carter, M.R.; Fields, D.J.; Hernandez, J.

    1993-04-14

    The operating principles of an Imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (IFTS) are discussed. The advantages and disadvantages of such instruments with respect to alternative imaging spectrometers are discussed. The primary advantages of the IFTS are the capacity to acquire more than an order of magnitude more spectral channels than alternative systems with more than an order of magnitude greater etendue than for alternative systems. The primary disadvantage of IFTS, or FTS in general, is the sensitivity to temporal fluctuations, either random or periodic. Data from the IRIFTS (ir IFTS) prototype instrument, sensitive in the infrared, are presented having a spectral sensitivity of 0.01 absorbance units, a spectral resolution of 6 cm{sup {minus}1} over the range 0 to 7899 cm{sup {minus}1}, and a spatial resolution of 2.5 mr.

  17. [Transformational leadership in nursing].

    PubMed

    Strapasson, Maria Rejane; Medeiros, Cássia R G

    2009-01-01

    This qualitative research aimed at verifying if the presuppositions of Transformational Leadership are present in the nurses practice in a medium size hospital in the countryside of Rio Grande do Sul. The researched people were eleven head nurses in different sectors of the hospital, who have been working for one year or more in the inquired medical institution. The tools used for the research was a semi-structured interview. The data have been analysed through content analyses method, in which five categories emerged: the meaning of leadership; essential abilities for leadership activity; leadership ability in everyday nurse activity; participation of the Institution in leadership development; and the resistance of nurses to the changing process. Some of the presuppositions are identified and noticed as important, although not totally present in everyday activity of nurses. PMID:19430681

  18. Hadamard transform imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, M.D.

    1992-01-01

    We have constructed a Hadamard transform Raman microscopic imaging system, and have developed it to a high definition (64K pixel) technique. We have demonstrated multispectral Raman imaging and developed the first three-dimensional (digital confocal) Raman imaging. We have explored the systematic errors in Hadamard multiplexing techniques and developed corrections. We have used our Raman microscope techniques to explore defect distributions on graphite electrodes and damage effects on SERS-activated silver electrodes. We have used the microprobe capabilities of our instrument to investigate the kinetics of polyacrylamide formation in electrolysis capabilities. We have worked closely with a manufacture of holographic displays to develop and incorporate holographic filters and holographic beam splitters into Raman spectrographs and microscopes. Finally, we have developed Hadamard multiplexing techniques for densitometric measurements of protein or nucleic acid blots.

  19. Fourier Transform Spectrometer System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Joel F. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) data acquisition system includes an FTS spectrometer that receives a spectral signal and a laser signal. The system further includes a wideband detector, which is in communication with the FTS spectrometer and receives the spectral signal and laser signal from the FTS spectrometer. The wideband detector produces a composite signal comprising the laser signal and the spectral signal. The system further comprises a converter in communication with the wideband detector to receive and digitize the composite signal. The system further includes a signal processing unit that receives the composite signal from the converter. The signal processing unit further filters the laser signal and the spectral signal from the composite signal and demodulates the laser signal, to produce velocity corrected spectral data.

  20. Anaerobic transformation of TNT

    SciTech Connect

    Kulpa, C.F.; Roopathy, R.

    1995-12-31

    Most studies on the microbial metabolism of nitroaromatic compounds have used aerobic tempts to degrade nitroaromatics under aerobic microorganisms. In many cases attempts to degrade nitroaromatics under aerobic conditions results in no mineralization and only superficial modifications of the structure. However, under anaerobic sulfate-reducing conditions, the nitroaromatic compounds undergo a series of reductions with the formation of amino compounds. Trinitrotoluene under sulfate-reducing conditions is reduced to triaminotoluene presumably by the enzyme nitrite reductase, which is commonly found in many Desulfovibrio spp. The removal of nitrate from trinitrotoluene is achieved by a series of reductive reactions with the production of ammonia and toluene by Desulfovibrio sp. (B strain). Similar metabolic processes could be applied to other nitroaromatic compounds like nitrobenzene, nitrobenzoic acids, nitrophenols, and aniline. This presentation will review the data supporting the anaerobic transformation of TNT and other nitroaromatics.