Sample records for transient enhanced diffusion

  1. Complete suppression of boron transient-enhanced diffusion and oxidation-enhanced diffusion in silicon using localized

    E-print Network

    Complete suppression of boron transient-enhanced diffusion and oxidation-enhanced diffusionGexCy layer, to eliminate the enhancement of enhanced boron diffusion in silicon due to an oxidizing surface to reduce the diffusion of dopants. However, the enhancement of boron diffusion due to ion implant damage

  2. Transient enhanced diffusion after laser thermal processing of ion implanted silicon

    E-print Network

    Florida, University of

    Transient enhanced diffusion after laser thermal processing of ion implanted silicon Kevin S. Jones and transient enhanced diffusion TED of boron was investigated. A 270-Å-thick amorphous layer formed by 10 ke atoms during annealing can considerably broaden the profile shape through transient enhanced diffusion

  3. Energy dependence of transient enhanced diffusion and defect kinetics Hugo Saleh and Mark E. Lawa)

    E-print Network

    Florida, University of

    Energy dependence of transient enhanced diffusion and defect kinetics Hugo Saleh and Mark E. Lawa as a function of implant energy dependence. Silicon implants of 1014 /cm2 at various energies were used transient enhanced diffusion TED via interstitials. The boron TED and 311 dissolution rates are explored

  4. Suppression of boron transient enhanced diffusion in SiGe heterojunction bipolar transistors by carbon incorporation

    E-print Network

    Suppression of boron transient enhanced diffusion in SiGe heterojunction bipolar transistors the outdiffusion of boron from the base under postgrowth implantation and annealing procedures. Without the base sheet resistance using base boron doping levels greater than 1020 cm 3 .1 However, high boron

  5. The Effect of Dose Rate and Implant Temperature on Transient Enhanced Diffusion in B Implanted Si

    E-print Network

    Florida, University of

    1361 The Effect of Dose Rate and Implant Temperature on Transient Enhanced Diffusion in B Implanted of ion implantation dose rate and implant temperature on the transientenhanceddiffusion that there is no measurable effect of dose rate or implant temperature on TED of boron implanted silicon for any of the damage

  6. A Predictive Model for Transient Enhanced Diffusion Based on Evolution of f311g Defects

    E-print Network

    Dunham, Scott

    A Predictive Model for Transient Enhanced Diffusion Based on Evolution of f311g Defects Alp H observed that f311g defects form, grow and eventually dissolve during annealing of Si implanted silicon wafers. The fact that for sub­amorphizing silicon implants f311g defects initially contain the full net

  7. Plasma processing of the silicon surface: A novel method to reduce transient enhanced diffusion of boron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mannino, Giovanni; Priolo, Francesco; Privitera, Vittorio; Raineri, Vito; Spinella, Corrado; Napolitani, Enrico; Carnera, Alberto; Arena, Giuseppe; Messina, Alberto; Rapisarda, Cirino

    1998-12-01

    We investigate in detail the effect of plasma processing on the transient enhanced diffusion of implanted boron in silicon. Thermally oxidized silicon wafers were first processed with CHF3/CF4 plasma and subsequently implanted with boron, with energies ranging from 3 to 20 keV and a dose of 1×1013/cm2. Chemical profiles were measured by secondary ion mass spectrometry while lattice extended defects induced in silicon by plasma processing were characterized by transmission electron microscopy. Secondary ion mass spectrometry measurements reveal that the transient enhanced diffusion of boron after rapid thermal annealing is strongly reduced in plasma processed samples with respect to unprocessed samples. Defects induced by plasma processing are responsible for the reduction by acting as very efficient traps for the interstitial atoms generated during the implant. We note that the trapping efficiency is critically dependent on the projected range of the boron implant, being extremely evident at low energies and less marked as the energy is increased (i.e., when the interstitials generated by the B implant are far away from the trapping sites). By varying the plasma conditions (an argon plasma is used instead of a CHF3/CF4 plasma), we are able to establish a general correlation between trapping defect centers and transient enhanced diffusion reduction. Finally, spreading resistance measurements reveal that the amount of electrically active boron in plasma processed pure epitaxial Si is almost equal to that obtained in samples not exposed to plasma bombardment, thus demonstrating that the plasma processing has no detrimental effect on the boron electrical activation.

  8. Ultrashallow Junction Formation for Sub100 nm Complementary MetalOxideSemiconductor Field-Effect Transistor by Controlling Transient Enhanced Diffusion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kazuya Ohuchi; Kanna Adachi; Atsushi Murakoshi; Akira Hokazono; Takahisa Kanemura; Nobutoshi Aoki; Masahito Nishigohri; Kyoichi Suguro; Yoshiaki Toyoshima

    2001-01-01

    The annealing process of implantation damage that induces transient enhanced diffusion during a subsequent thermal process such as low-pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) is optimized from the viewpoint of the process integration of an 80 nm physical gate length complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (CMOSFET) device. For nMOSFETs, a temperature as high as 960°C is necessary to prevent transient enhanced diffusion.

  9. Acoustic Enhancement of Surface Diffusion Chengping Wu,

    E-print Network

    Zhigilei, Leonid V.

    Acoustic Enhancement of Surface Diffusion Chengping Wu, Vladimir Yu. Zaitsev,, and Leonid V, Russia *S Supporting Information ABSTRACT: The idea of acoustic activation of surface diffusion by surface acoustic waves is possible via (1) transient surface strain- induced modification of the diffusion

  10. Transient Diffusion of Beryllium and Silicon in Gallium Arsenide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haddara, Yaser M.; Bravman, John C.

    1998-08-01

    Transient diffusion is an increasingly important phenomenon as thermal budgets for real processes decrease and diffusion during sample growth becomes more important. To fully characterize dopant diffusion in gallium arsenide, an understanding must be developed of the dominant atomistic processes for a given dopant, as well as the sources of transient effects under a given set of experimental conditions. Theoretical, experimental, and simulation results were obtained to understand transient diffusivities of beryllium and silicon in grown-in and implanted samples. In implanted samples, by understanding implant damage and modeling the evolution of point defect populations, the observed transient effects can be explained. Such phenomena cannot account for the time-dependent diffusivity observed when the dopant is introduced during molecular beam epitaxial growth. Transient diffusivities for grown-in beryllium were investigated and explained by modeling the evolution of point defect populations as they increase beyond their equilibrium levels at the growth temperature to achieve equilibrium at the anneal temperature.

  11. Cavity-Enhanced Ultrafast Transient Absorption Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yuning; Reber, Melanie Roberts; Keleher, Kevin; Allison, Thomas K.

    2014-06-01

    We introduce cavity enhanced ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy, which employs frequency combs and high-finesse optical cavities. % The schematic of apparatus is shown in Figure 1. Sub-100 fs pulses with a repetition rate of 90 MHz are generated by a home-built Ytterbium fiber laser. The amplified light has a power up to 10 W, which is used to pump an optical parametric oscillator, followed by second-harmonic generation(SHG) that converts the wavelength from near-IR to visible. A pump comb at 530 nm is separately generated by SHG. Both pump and probe combs are coupled into high-finesse cavities. Compared to the conventional transient absorption spectroscopy method, the detection sensitivity can be improved by a factor of (F/?)^2 ˜ 10^5, where F is the finesse of cavity. This ultrasensitive technology enables the direct all-optical dynamics study in molecular beams. We will apply the cavity enhanced ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy to investigate the dynamics of visible chromophores and then extend the wavelength to mid-IR to study vibrational dynamics of small hydrogen-bonded clusters.

  12. Pore-scale modeling of transient and steady-state vapor diffusion in partially-saturated porous media

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, S.W.

    1998-05-01

    Vapor diffusion in porous media in the presence of its own liquid may be enhanced due to pore-scale processes, such as condensation and evaporation across isolated liquid islands. Webb and Ho (1997) developed a mechanistic pore-scale model of these processes under steady-state conditions in which condensation and evaporation on the liquid island were equal. The vapor diffusion rate was significantly enhanced by these liquid island processes by up to an order of magnitude compared to a dry porous media. However, vapor transport by diffusion is often complicated by transient effects, such as in drying applications, in which net evaporation of liquid may further augment the vapor flux from diffusion. The influence of transient effects on the enhancement factors for vapor diffusion is evaluated in this paper. In addition, the effect of vapor pressure lowering on the enhancement factor and on porescale vapor fluxes is shown.

  13. Experimental Investigation of Transient Supersaturations in a Thermal Diffusion Chamber

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. K. Saxena; J. L. Fowler

    1973-01-01

    The effect of transient supersaturations on the concentration of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) in a conventional parallel-plate type thermal diffusion chamber is experimentally investigated by controlling the relative humidity of the sample and the temperature of the top and bottom plates individually. It is found that the error in CCN counts is quite significant around 90% relative humidity and might

  14. Comparison of radon diffusion coefficients measured by transient-diffusion and steady-state laboratory methods

    SciTech Connect

    Kalwarf, D.R.; Nielson, K.K.; Rich, D.C.; Rogers, V.C.

    1982-11-01

    A method was developed and used to determine radon diffusion coefficients in compacted soils by transient-diffusion measurements. A relative standard deviation of 12% was observed in repeated measurements with a dry soil by the transient-diffusion method, and a 40% uncertainty was determined for moistures exceeding 50% of saturation. Excellent agreement was also obtained between values of the diffusion coefficient for radon in air, as measured by the transient-diffusion method, and those in the published literature. Good agreement was also obtained with diffusion coefficients measured by a steady-state method on the same soils. The agreement was best at low moistures, averaging less than ten percent difference, but differences of up to a factor of two were observed at high moistures. The comparison of the transient-diffusion and steady-state methods at low moistures provides an excellent verification of the theoretical validity and technical accuracy of these approaches, which are based on completely independent experimental conditions, measurement methods and mathematical interpretations.

  15. Enhancing Rotational Diffusion Using Oscillatory Shear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leahy, Brian D.; Cheng, Xiang; Ong, Desmond C.; Liddell-Watson, Chekesha; Cohen, Itai

    2013-05-01

    Taylor dispersion—shear-induced enhancement of translational diffusion—is an important phenomenon with applications ranging from pharmacology to geology. Through experiments and simulations, we show that rotational diffusion is also enhanced for anisotropic particles in oscillatory shear. This enhancement arises from variations in the particle’s rotation (Jeffery orbit) and depends on the strain amplitude, rate, and particle aspect ratio in a manner that is distinct from the translational diffusion. This separate tunability of translational and rotational diffusion opens the door to new techniques for controlling positions and orientations of suspended anisotropic colloids.

  16. Enhanced diffusion in nonstoichiometric quantum wells and the decay of supersaturated vacancy concentrations

    E-print Network

    Woodall, Jerry M.

    characterization was performed under reverse bias to find the excitonic transition energy as a function of anneal of the supersaturated concentration of group-III vacancies. We present a formalism for transient enhanced diffusion- tremely small and unphysical effective migration enthal- pies. In this letter, we present a transient

  17. Transient diffusion from a waste solid into water-saturated, fractured porous rock

    SciTech Connect

    Ahn, J. (Tokyo Univ. (Japan)); Chambre, P.L.; Pigford, T.H.; Lee, W.W.-L. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA))

    1989-09-01

    Numerical illustrations for transient mass transfer from an infinitely long cylinder intersected by a planar fracture are shown based on Chambre's exact analytical solutions. The concentration at the cylinder surface is maintained at the solubility. In the fracture contaminant diffuses in the radial direction. In the rock matrix three-dimensional diffusion is assumed in the cylindrical coordinate. No advection is assumed. Radioactive decay and sorption equilibrium are included. Radioactive decay enhances the mass transfer from the cylinder. Due to the presence of the fracture, the mass flux from the cylinder to the rock matrix becomes smaller, but the fracture effect is limited in the vicinity of the fracture in early times. Even though the fracture is assumed to be a faster diffusion path than the rock matrix, the larger waste surface exposed to the matrix and the greater assumed matrix sorption result in greater release rate to the matrix than to the fracture. 8 refs., 4 figs.

  18. Agent Based Power System Transient Stability Enhancement

    E-print Network

    Pota, Himanshu Roy

    . Hossain and H. R. Pota Abstract--This paper describes an intelligent agent approach to power system fault, various tie lines, large number of electrical devices, etc. So the recent researches indicate a more-agent technology. Index Terms--Multi-agent system, electric power system, fault diagnosis, transient stability

  19. GUI enhances electromagnetic transients simulation tools

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. Nayak; G. Irwin; A. Neufeld

    1995-01-01

    The authors discuss the use of a graphical user interfaces (GUIs) for power system EM transients programs. GUIs increase productivity by enabling swift assembly of circuits, fast interactive simulations, and quick and easy analysis of results. The authors discuss the preparation of data files, running the simulation, analysis and documentation of the results, and the simulation program

  20. Enhanced nitrogen diffusion induced by atomic attrition

    SciTech Connect

    Ochoa, E.A.; Figueroa, C.A.; Czerwiec, T.; Alvarez, F. [Instituto de Fisica 'Gleb Wataghin', Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Unicamp 13083-970, Campinas, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2006-06-19

    The nitrogen diffusion in steel is enhanced by previous atomic attrition with low energy xenon ions. The noble gas bombardment generates nanoscale texture surfaces and stress in the material. The atomic attrition increases nitrogen diffusion at lower temperatures than the ones normally used in standard processes. The stress causes binding energy shifts of the Xe 3d{sub 5/2} electron core level. The heavy ion bombardment control of the texture and stress of the material surfaces may be applied to several plasma processes where diffusing species are involved.

  1. Transient Convection, Diffusion, and Adsorption in Surface-Based Rasmus Hansen,*,

    E-print Network

    Transient Convection, Diffusion, and Adsorption in Surface-Based Biosensors Rasmus Hansen,*, Henrik and diffusive mass transport is reviewed, and an analytical solution is presented. An expression), the nondimensional flow rate (Peclet number), and the model geometry. Transient dynamics is investigated, and we

  2. AMBIPOLAR DIFFUSION IN ACTION: TRANSIENT C SHOCK STRUCTURE AND PRESTELLAR CORE FORMATION

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Cheyu; Ostriker, Eve C., E-mail: cychen@astro.umd.edu, E-mail: ostriker@astro.umd.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)

    2012-01-10

    We analyze the properties of steady and time-dependent C shocks under conditions prevailing in giant molecular clouds. For steady C shocks, we show that ionization equilibrium holds and uses numerical integration to obtain a fitting formula for the shock thickness mediated by ambipolar diffusion, L{sub shock}{proportional_to}n{sub 0}{sup -3/4} v{sub 0}{sup 1/2} B{sub 0}{sup 1/2}{chi}{sub i0}{sup -1}. Our formula also agrees with an analytic estimate based on ion-neutral momentum exchange. Using time-dependent numerical simulations, we show that C shocks have a transient stage when the neutrals are compressed much more strongly than the magnetic field. The transient stage has a duration set by the neutral-ion collision time, t{sub AD} {approx} L{sub shock}/v{sub drift} {approx} 0.1-1 Myr. This transient creates a strong enhancement in the mass-to-magnetic flux ratio. Under favorable conditions, supercritical prestellar cores may form and collapse promptly as a result of magnetic flux loss during the transient stage of C shocks.

  3. Enhancing photocurrent transient spectroscopy by electromagnetic modeling.

    PubMed

    Diesinger, H; Panahandeh-Fard, M; Wang, Z; Baillargeat, D; Soci, C

    2012-05-01

    The shape and duration of photocurrent transients generated by a photoconductive switch depend on both the intrinsic response of the active material and the geometry of the transmission line structure. The present electromagnetic model decouples both shape forming contributions. In contrast to previously published work, it accounts for the particular operating mode of transient spectroscopy. The objective is to increase the time resolution by two approaches, by optimizing structural response and by deconvolving it from experimental data. The switch structure is represented by an effective transimpedance onto which the active material acts as current generator. As proof of concept, the response of a standard microstrip switch is modeled and deconvolved from experimental data acquired in GaAs, yielding a single exponential material response and hence supporting the validity of the approach. Beyond compensating for the response deterioration by the structure, switch architectures can be a priori optimized with respect to frequency response. As an example, it is shown that a microstrip gap that can be deposited on materials incompatible with standard lithography reduces pulse broadening by an order of magnitude if it is provided with transitions to coplanar access lines. PMID:22667598

  4. Anomalous diffusion induced by enhancement of memory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyun-Joo

    2014-07-01

    We introduced simple microscopic non-Markovian walk models which describe the underlying mechanism of anomalous diffusions. In the models, we considered the competitions between randomness and memory effects of previous history by introducing the probability parameters. The memory effects were considered in two aspects: one is the perfect memory of whole history and the other is the latest memory enhanced with time. In the perfect memory model superdiffusion was induced with the relation of the Hurst exponent H to the controlling parameter p as H =p for p >1/2, while in the latest memory enhancement models, anomalous diffusions involving both superdiffusion and subdiffusion were induced with the relations H =(1+?)/2 and H =(1-?)/2 for 0???1, where ? is the parameter controlling the degree of the latest memory enhancement. Also we found that, although the latest memory was only considered, the memory improved with time results in the long-range correlations between steps and the correlations increase as time goes on. Thus we suggest the memory enhancement as a key origin describing anomalous diffusions.

  5. Review of enhanced vapor diffusion in porous media

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, S.W.; Ho, C.K.

    1998-08-01

    Vapor diffusion in porous media in the presence of its own liquid has often been treated similar to gas diffusion. The gas diffusion rate in porous media is much lower than in free space due to the presence of the porous medium and any liquid present. However, enhanced vapor diffusion has also been postulated such that the diffusion rate may approach free-space values. Existing data and models for enhanced vapor diffusion, including those in TOUGH2, are reviewed in this paper.

  6. Thermal diffusivity measurements in organic liquids using transient thermal lens calorimetry

    E-print Network

    Harilal, S. S.

    Thermal diffusivity measurements in organic liquids using transient thermal lens calorimetry C. V. Thermal diffusivity measurements are carried out in certain organic liquids using the pulsed dual beam thermal lens technique. The 532 nm pulses from a frequency doubled Q-switched Nd:YAG laser are used

  7. Transient and steady state supersaturation in a thermal diffusion cloud chamber

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shri S. Chaudhuri

    1983-01-01

    A theoretical analysis of transient and steady state supersaturation distribution inside a thermal diffusion type cloud nuclei counter is presented for simulation of cloud in the laboratory and also for the measurement of cloud nuclei spectra. Solutions of one-dimensional partial differential equations of water vapour diffusion and heat conduction under appropriate initial and boundary conditions are used in this analysis.

  8. Evaluation of the Effect of Gravity Force on Transient Mass Diffusion Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komiya, Atsuki; Maruyama, Shigenao

    In this study, the relationship between gravitational force and diffusion phenomena in aque-ous solutions is discussed. The microgravity environment gives a high quality crystal growth condition which produces high quality medicines or foods. In this condition, a natural con-vection can be neglected and diffusion phenomenon without convection is observed. The mass diffusion coefficient is one of the most important thermophysical properties to investigate that mass transport system. However, the available experimental data of mass diffusion coefficients in microgravity conditions is not enough. Because it is quite a few opportunity that exper-iments can be conducted using facilities which produce microgravity environment for a long time. Then we have developed an observation system of small transient diffusion fields within 20 seconds. The experimental apparatus is composed of phase shifting interferometer, special designed signal processing unit and recorder. The mechanism of test cell used in this study has a unique performance that the transient diffusion fields can be produced continuously with no change of solutions and cell. Therefore this system can be applied to short-time microgravity experiment which is generated by the parabolic flight of an airplane. By using this system, the transient diffusion field of Sodium Chloride (NaCl) solution in microgravity conditions could be clearly observed and the mass diffusion coefficient was estimated from the obtained data. In microgravity condition, the transient diffusion fields have different appearances from the normal gravity condition. A slight acceleration governs the transient diffusion fields because of no density difference, so vibrations applied the apparatus disturb the transient diffusion fields. The measured mass diffusion coefficient has been estimated as a smaller value compared with ones under normal gravity condition. Using the airplane as a facility, not only microgravity condition but also 0.8G, 1.5G or varied gravity level conditions can be generated during flight experiments. On the sudden change of gravity level from microgravity to 1.5G, different ap-pearances in the transient diffusion fields could be observed. The mass diffusion coefficient depends on measurement time. From this phenomenon, it is possible to guess that the dynamic re-clustering process may occur in the solutions.

  9. Picomolar amyloid-? peptides enhance spontaneous astrocyte calcium transients.

    PubMed

    Lee, Linda; Kosuri, Pallav; Arancio, Ottavio

    2014-01-01

    Amyloid-? (A?) peptides are constitutively produced in the brain throughout life via mechanisms that can be regulated by synaptic activity. Although A? has been extensively studied as the pathological plaque-forming protein species in Alzheimer's disease (AD), little is known about the normal physiological function(s) and signaling pathway(s). We previously discovered that physiologically-relevant, low picomolar amounts of A? can enhance synaptic plasticity and hippocampal-dependent cognition in mice. In this study, we demonstrated that astrocytes are cellular candidates for participating in this type of A? signaling. Using calcium imaging of primary astrocyte cultures, we observed that picomolar amounts of A? peptides can enhance spontaneous intracellular calcium transient signaling. After application of 200 pM A?42 peptides, the frequency and amplitude averages of spontaneous cytosolic calcium transients were significantly increased. These effects were dependent on ?7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (?7-nAChRs), as the enhancement effects were blocked by a pharmacological ?7-nAChR inhibitor and in astrocytes from an ?7 deficient mouse strain. We additionally examined evoked intercellular calcium wave signaling but did not detect significant picomolar A?-induced alterations in propagation parameters. Overall, these results indicate that at a physiologically-relevant low picomolar concentration, A? peptides can enhance spontaneous astrocyte calcium transient signaling via ?7-nAChRs. Since astrocyte-mediated gliotransmission has been previously found to have neuromodulatory roles, A? peptides may have a normal physiological function in regulating neuron-glia signaling. Dysfunction of this signaling process may underlie glia-based aspects of AD pathogenesis. PMID:23948929

  10. Fracture-Flow-Enhanced Solute Diffusion into Fractured Rock

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Yu-Shu; Ye, Ming; Sudicky, E.A.

    2007-12-15

    We propose a new conceptual model of fracture-flow-enhanced matrix diffusion, which correlates with fracture-flow velocity, i.e., matrix diffusion enhancement induced by rapid fluid flow within fractures. According to the boundary-layer or film theory, fracture flow enhanced matrix diffusion may dominate mass-transfer processes at fracture-matrix interfaces, because rapid flow along fractures results in large velocity and concentration gradients at and near fracture-matrix interfaces, enhancing matrix diffusion at matrix surfaces. In this paper, we present a new formulation of the conceptual model for enhanced fracture-matrix diffusion, and its implementation is discussed using existing analytical solutions and numerical models. In addition, we use the enhanced matrix diffusion concept to analyze laboratory experimental results from nonreactive and reactive tracer breakthrough tests, in an effort to validate the new conceptual model.

  11. Transient diffusion in a tube with dead ends

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leonardo Dagdug; Alexander M. Berezhkovskii; Yurii A. Makhnovskii; Vladimir Yu. Zitserman

    2007-01-01

    A particle diffusing in a tube with dead ends, from time to time enters a dead end, spends some time in the dead end, and then comes back to the tube. As a result, the particle spends in the tube only a part of the entire observation time that leads to slowdown of its diffusion along the tube. We study

  12. Inhibition enhances memory capacity: optimal feedback, transient replay and oscillations.

    PubMed

    Kammerer, Axel; Tejero-Cantero, Alvaro; Leibold, Christian

    2013-02-01

    Recurring sequences of neuronal activation in the hippocampus are a candidate for a neurophysiological correlate of episodic memory. Here, we discuss a mean-field theory for such spike sequences in phase space and show how they become unstable when the neuronal network operates at maximum memory capacity. We find that inhibitory feedback rescues replay of the sequences, giving rise to oscillations and thereby enhancing the network's capacity. We further argue that transient sequences in an overloaded network with feedback inhibition may provide a mechanistic picture of memory-related neuronal activity during hippocampal sharp-wave ripple complexes. PMID:22782801

  13. Drift-diffusion modeling of photocurrent transients in bulk heterojunction solar cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Inchan Hwang; Christopher R. McNeill; Neil C. Greenham

    2009-01-01

    We utilize a time-dependent drift-diffusion model incorporating electron trapping and field-dependent charge separation to explore the device physics of organic bulk-heterojunction solar cells based on blends of poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) with a red polyfluorene copolymer. The model is used to reproduce experimental photocurrent transients measured in response to a step-function excitation of light of varied intensity. The experimental photocurrent transients are

  14. ENHANCEMENT OF NEAR-INFRARED DIFFUSE OPTICAL TOMOGRAPHY FOR

    E-print Network

    Piao, Daqing

    ENHANCEMENT OF NEAR-INFRARED DIFFUSE OPTICAL TOMOGRAPHY FOR PROSTATE CANCER IMAGING By GUAN (GARY of the requirements for the Degree of DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY December, 2011 #12;ii ENHANCEMENT OF NEAR-INFRARED DIFFUSE death during his last days. His example kept me moving forward regardless of any challenge

  15. TRANSIENT ANOMALOUS SUB-DIFFUSION ON BOUNDED DOMAINS

    PubMed Central

    MEERSCHAERT, MARK M.; NANE, ERKAN; VELLAISAMY, P.

    2013-01-01

    This paper develops strong solutions and stochastic solutions for the tempered fractional diffusion equation on bounded domains. First the eigenvalue problem for tempered fractional derivatives is solved. Then a separation of variables and eigenfunction expansions in time and space are used to write strong solutions. Finally, stochastic solutions are written in terms of an inverse subordinator. PMID:24639592

  16. Transient and diffusion analysis of Hg Cd Te

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clayton, J. C.

    1980-01-01

    The solution of the one dimensional planar interface solidification problem is presented. Numerical solutions are applied to experimental solute profiles to determine the effective diffusion constant for Hg Co Te. Progress on the design and construction of a high gradient furnace is reported.

  17. Transient anomalous sub-diffusion on bounded domains

    E-print Network

    Erkan Nane; Mark M. Meerschaert; Palaniappan Vellaisamy

    2011-05-03

    This paper develops strong solutions and stochastic solutions for the tempered fractional diffusion equation on bounded domains. First the eigenvalue problem for tempered fractional derivatives is solved. Then a separation of variables, and eigenfunction expansions in time and space, are used to write strong solutions. Finally, stochastic solutions are written in terms of an inverse subordinator.

  18. Development of Enhanced Electric Arc Furnace Models for Transient Analysis Gilsoo Jang

    E-print Network

    - plement the chaotic load models in the EMTP--Electromagnetic Transients Program. The simulation resultsDevelopment of Enhanced Electric Arc Furnace Models for Transient Analysis Gilsoo Jang Korea module, which is a FORTRAN interface with TACS--Transient Analysis of Control Systems, is developed to im

  19. Enhanced boron diffusion in excimer laser preannealed Si

    SciTech Connect

    Monakhov, E.V.; Svensson, B.G.; Linnarsson, M.K.; La Magna, A.; Spinella, C.; Bongiorno, C.; Privitera, V.; Fortunato, G.; Mariucci, L. [Department of Physics, Physical Electronics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1048 Blindern, N-0316 Oslo (Norway); Royal Institute of Technology, Lab of Materials and Semiconductor Physics, P.O. Box Electrum 229, SE-164 40 Kista (Sweden); CNR-IMM Sezione Catania, Stradale Primosole 50, 95121 Catania (Italy); IFN-CNR, Via Cineto Romano 42, 00156 Rome (Italy)

    2005-04-11

    We have investigated boron diffusion during rapid thermal annealing in Si implanted with boron using an energy of 1 keV and a dose of 1x10{sup 16} cm{sup -2}. Two types of samples have been studied: As-implanted and pretreated with excimer laser annealing. For both types an enhanced diffusion of boron has been observed with an enhancement by a factor of 3-5 over the 'standard' diffusion. It is suggested that the high concentration of implanted boron is a dominant factor for the diffusion enhancement as compared to the effect of implantation-induced damage. The data indicate that the proximity of the surface can also affect the boron diffusion enhancement.

  20. Stability of the SUPG Finite Element Method for Transient Advection-Diffusion Problems

    E-print Network

    Bochev, Pavel

    Stability of the SUPG Finite Element Method for Transient Advection-Diffusion Problems Pavel B coupled with SUPG discretization in space leads to addi- tional terms that provide consistency and improve of the SUPG method. While consistent with a straightforward finite element stability analysis, this contention

  1. Transient interfacial tension and dilatational rheology of diffuse polymer-polymer interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Gerrit W. M.; Zdravkov, Alexander N.; Meijer, Han E. H.

    2005-03-01

    We demonstrate the influence of molecular weight and molecular weight asymmetry across an interface on the transient behavior of the interfacial tension. The interfacial tension was measured as a function of time for a range of polymer combinations with a broad range of interfacial properties using a pendant/sessile drop apparatus. The results show that neglecting mutual solubility, assumed to be a reasonable approximation in many cases, very often does not sustain. Instead, a diffuse interface layer develops in time with a corresponding transient interfacial tension. Depending on the specific combination of polymers, the transient interfacial tension is found to increase or decrease with time. The results are interpreted in terms of a recently proposed model [Shi et al., Macromolecules 37, 1591 (2004)], giving relative characteristic diffusion time scales in terms of molecular weight, molecular weight distribution, and viscosities. However, the time scales obtained from this theoretical approach do not give a conclusive trend. Using oscillatory dilatational interfacial experiments the viscoelastic behavior of these diffusive interfaces is demonstrated. The time evolution of the interfacial tension and the dilatational elasticity show the same trend as predicted by the theory of diffuse interfaces, supporting the idea that the polymer combinations under consideration indeed form diffuse interfaces. The dilatational elasticity and the dilatational viscosity show a frequency dependency that is described qualitatively by a simple Fickian diffusion model and quantitatively by a Maxwell model. The characteristic diffusion times provided by the latter show that the systems with thick interfaces (tens of microseconds and more) can be considered as slower diffusive systems compared to the systems with thinner interfaces (a few micrometers in thickness and less) can be considered as fast diffusive systems.

  2. Atomic scale modeling of boron transient diffusion in silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Caturla, M. J.; Diaz de la Rubia, T.; Foad, M.; Giles, M.; Johnson, M. D.; Law, M.; Lilak, A.

    1998-06-17

    We presents results from a predictive atomic level simulation of Boron diffusion in Silicon under a wide variety of implant and annealing conditions. The parameters for this simulation have been extracted from first principle approximation models and molecular dynamics simulations. The results are compared with experiments showing good agreement in all cases. The parameters and reactions used have been implemented into a continuum-level model simulator.

  3. The trajectory based network transient energy evaluation and its application to enhancement of transient stability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Cai Guowei; Mu Gang; Liu Zhuo; Lin Zizhao

    1998-01-01

    This paper proposes a method to calculate the transient energy in electrical power networks on the basis of the topological energy function. For a given unstable mode, a novel technique to evaluate cutsets that critically affect the transient stability of the power system is developed according to the change of first swing transient energy of cutsets during the post-fault period.

  4. Induced nuclear fission viewed as a diffusion process: Transients

    SciTech Connect

    Grange, P.; Jun-Qing, L.; Weidenmueller, H.A.

    1983-05-01

    Induced nuclear fission is viewed as a diffusion process of the fission degree of freedom over the fission barrier. We describe this process in terms of a Fokker-Planck equation which contains the fission variable and its canonically conjugate momentum. We solve this equation numerically for several energies (temperatures) of the fissioning nucleus neglecting changes of the fission barrier due to the temperature dependence of nuclear shell effects. We pay particular attention to the time tau needed for the system to build up the quasistationary probability flow over the fission barrier. The rate of the latter is approximated in terms of the Bohr-Wheeler formula or Kramers's transition state expression. Our results for tau are consistent with those obtained earlier in the framework of a simplified model: As long as ..beta..< or =..beta../sub 0/ , the time tau is proportional to ..beta../sup -1/. This relationship exhibits the fact that with increasing friction ..beta.., the diffusion process is accelerated, so that it takes the system increasingly less time to attain the quasistationary distribution. The constant ..beta../sub 0/ is roughly given by 2..omega../sub 1/, where ..omega../sub 1/ is the frequency of a harmonic oscillator potential which osculates the potential at the minimum corresponding to the initial configuration of the fissioning nucleus. The condition ..beta..< or =..beta../sub 0/ is roughly equivalent with the motion in that minimum being underdamped. The converse relationship: tau increases with ..beta..: is found for ..beta..>..beta../sub 0/. Generalizing Kramers's original derivation, we obtain an analytical expression for the time dependence of the probability current over the fission barrier. For ..beta..< or approx. =..beta../sub 0/, this expression agrees well with our numerical results. We use it to calculate the energy dependence of the fission probability P/sub f/ and find that P/sub f/ grows much less rapidly with increasing excitation energy than would be predicted by the Bohr-Wheeler formula.

  5. Transient Localized Patterns in Noise-Driven Reaction-Diffusion Systems

    PubMed Central

    Hecht, Inbal; Kessler, David A.; Levine, Herbert

    2010-01-01

    Noise can induce excitable systems to make transient transitions between quiescent and active states. Here we investigate the possibility that these transitions occur locally in a spatially-extended medium, leading to the occurrence of spatiotemporal patches of activation. We show that this can in fact occur in a parameter range such that there exist (in general unstable) localized solutions of the governing deterministic reaction-diffusion equations. Our work is motivated by a recent biological example showing transiently excited cell membrane regions. PMID:20482022

  6. Peclet number as affected by molecular diffusion controls transient anomalous transport in alluvial aquifer-aquitard complexes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Green, Christopher T; Tick, Geoffrey R

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluates the role of the Peclet number as affected by molecular diffusion in transient anomalous transport, which is one of the major knowledge gaps in anomalous transport, by combining Monte Carlo simulations and stochastic model analysis. Two alluvial settings containing either short- or long-connected hydrofacies are generated and used as media for flow and transport modeling. Numerical experiments show that 1) the Peclet number affects both the duration of the power-law segment of tracer breakthrough curves (BTCs) and the transition rate from anomalous to Fickian transport by determining the solute residence time for a given low-permeability layer, 2) mechanical dispersion has a limited contribution to the anomalous characteristics of late-time transport as compared to molecular diffusion due to an almost negligible velocity in floodplain deposits, and 3) the initial source dimensions only enhance the power-law tail of the BTCs at short travel distances. A tempered stable stochastic (TSS) model is then applied to analyze the modeled transport. Applications show that the time-nonlocal parameters in the TSS model relate to the Peclet number, Pe. In particular, the truncation parameter in the TSS model increases nonlinearly with a decrease in Pe due to the decrease of the mean residence time, and the capacity coefficient increases with an increase in molecular diffusion which is probably due to the increase in the number of immobile particles. The above numerical experiments and stochastic analysis therefore reveal that the Peclet number as affected by molecular diffusion controls transient anomalous transport in alluvial aquifer-aquitard complexes. PMID:26001981

  7. Measurements of the transient velocity field in a strongly curved diffusing bend with periodic inflow unsteadiness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaras, M. I.; Orsi, P.

    This study examined the effects of periodic inflow unsteadiness on the flow development through fishtail-shaped diffusers utilized on small gas turbine engines. The periodic unsteadiness is due to the distortion of the flow in the peripheral direction at the exit of the centrifugal compressor impeller, caused by the jet-wake type of flow discharging from each impeller passage. Measurements of the transient velocity field were performed throughout the diffuser using a miniature 4-wire probe, at frequencies of inflow unsteadiness corresponding to design and off-design operating conditions in gas turbine installations. At the low end of the tested inflow unsteadiness frequencies, significant effects of inflow unsteadiness were observed on the time-averaged flow distortion throughout the diffuser. At these frequencies, the time variation of flow distortion was found to remain at comparable magnitudes throughout the diffuser.

  8. Radio Science, Volume 31, Number 1, Pages41--49,January-February 1996 Asymptotic ray theory for transient diffusive

    E-print Network

    Torres-Verdín, Carlos

    Radio Science, Volume 31, Number 1, Pages41--49,January-February 1996 Asymptotic ray theory, but it contains a finite number of terms. #12;42 DE HOOP ET AL.' RAY THEORY FOR DIFFUSIVE FIE an asymptoticray theory for transient diffusive electromagnetic fields in isotropic media. The formulation is first

  9. Dynamics of surface thermal expansion and diffusivity using two-color reflection transient gratings

    SciTech Connect

    Pennington, D.M.; Harris, C.B. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1993-02-01

    We report ultrafast measurements of the dynamic thermal expansion of a surface and the temperature dependent surface thermal diffusivity using a two-color reflection transient grating technique. Studies were performed on p-type, n-type, and undoped GaAs(100) samples at several temperatures. Using a 75 fs ultraviolet probe with visible excitation beams, the electronic effects that dominate single color experiments become negligible; thus surface expansion due to heating and the subsequent contraction caused by cooling provide the dominant influence on the diffracted probe. The diffracted signal was composed of two components, thermal expansion of the surface and heat flow away from the surface, allowing the determination of the rate of expansion as well as the surface thermal diffusivity. At room temperature a signal rise due to thermal expansion was observed, corresponding to a maximum average displacement of {approx} 1 {angstrom} at 32 ps. Large fringe spacings were used, thus the dominant contributions to the signal were expansion and diffusion perpendicular to the surface. Values for the surface thermal diffusivity of GaAs were measured and found to be in reasonable agreement with bulk values above 50{degrees}K. Below 50{degrees}K, the diffusivity at the surface was more than an order of magnitude slower than in the bulk due to increased phonon boundary scattering. Comparison of the results with a straightforward thermal model yields good agreement over a range of temperatures (12--300{degrees}K). The applicability and advantages of the transient grating technique for studying photothermal and photoacoustic phenomena are discussed.

  10. Modified anisotropic diffusion for image smoothing and enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Zhong; Whitaker, Ross T.

    2001-05-01

    This paper discusses an improved nonlinear filtering approach based on anisotropic diffusion technique. This modified anisotropic diffusion method smooths along curve directions, i.e. the directions of level sets. The upwind scheme for level set is used to solve the diffusion equation. Compared with the conventional anisotropic diffusion, which depends only on the local gradient of intensities of the processed image, this modified scheme overcomes the defect of indefinite edge enhancement associated with Perona-Malik model while depressing noises in a better performance. Moreover, a multi-scale diffusion technique is applied to limit blurring by the presence of edges as measured at the scale of interest, so that accurate information about boundaries of objects could be preserved and small details that fall below the scale of interest be removed. Then an extension into vector-valued diffusion is also presented in this paper, which is capable of smoothing small objects while maintaining boundaries information in vector-valued images. Experiments on gray-scale and color images demonstrate the efficacy of this method in image smoothing as well as image enhancement.

  11. Improved Diffusion Imaging through SNR-Enhancing Joint Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Haldar, Justin P.; Wedeen, Van J.; Nezamzadeh, Marzieh; Dai, Guangping; Weiner, Michael W.; Schuff, Norbert; Liang, Zhi-Pei

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative diffusion imaging is a powerful technique for the characterization of complex tissue microarchitecture. However, long acquisition times and limited signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) represent significant hurdles for many in vivo applications. This paper presents a new approach to reduce noise while largely maintaining resolution in diffusion weighted images, using a statistical reconstruction method that takes advantage of the high level of structural correlation observed in typical datasets. Compared to existing denoising methods, the proposed method performs reconstruction directly from the measured complex k-space data, allowing for Gaussian noise modeling and theoretical characterizations of the resolution and SNR of the reconstructed images. In addition, the proposed method is compatible with many different models of the diffusion signal (e.g., diffusion tensor modeling, q-space modeling, etc.). The joint reconstruction method can provide significant improvements in SNR relative to conventional reconstruction techniques, with a relatively minor corresponding loss in image resolution. Results are shown in the context of diffusion spectrum imaging tractography and diffusion tensor imaging, illustrating the potential of this SNR-enhancing joint reconstruction approach for a range of different diffusion imaging experiments. PMID:22392528

  12. Energy Function Based SMES Controller for Transient Stability Enhancement

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jing Shi; Yuejin Tang; Yajun Xia; Li Ren; Jingdong Li; Fengshun Jiao

    2012-01-01

    Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) which is characterized by its highly efficient energy storage, quick response, and power controllability, is expected to contribute to the transient stability of power system. The energy function approach is frequently used as a convenient way to control or analyse the power system. Based on the dynamic characteristic of SMES, the interaction between the SMES

  13. Enhancing the Sensitivity of HAWC to sub-Tev Transients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wisher, Ian

    2013-04-01

    The High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) Observatory, currently being built 4100 meters above sea level near Pico de Orizaba, Mexico, is well-suited for observing transient phenomena above 1 TeV due to its large field of view (2 sr) and high uptime (˜100%). However, sub-TeV transient events are also of physical interest due to the overlap in energy with satellite experiments such as the Fermi gamma-ray space telescope. This presents a challenge since the sub-TeV primary particles observed with HAWC tend to be difficult to distinguish from noise. To address this problem, we propose a method in which particle arrival directions are fit to triplets of triggered PMTs in a short sliding trigger window (100 ns). The resulting arrival directions are then summed in a coarsely binned significance map of the sky with a time window of one to several seconds. This algorithm is simple enough to be applied online, and can localize the positions of transient sources to within 8 degrees. We run the method over HAWC30 detector data to estimate the noise rate and use simulated events to calculate the sensitivity to transients.

  14. Strong enhancement of surface diffusion by nonlinear surface acoustic waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shugaev, Maxim V.; Manzo, Anthony J.; Wu, Chengping; Zaitsev, Vladimir Yu.; Helvajian, Henry; Zhigilei, Leonid V.

    2015-06-01

    The phenomenon of acoustic activation of surface diffusion is investigated in a combined computational and experimental study. The ability of pulsed laser-generated surface acoustic waves (SAWs) to enhance the mobility of small atomic clusters is demonstrated by directly tracking, with fluorescence microscopy, individual A u8 clusters moving on a (111) silicon substrate. A 19-fold increase in the effective diffusion coefficient is measured in room temperature experiments in the presence of SAWs generated by nanosecond pulse laser irradiation at a 100 Hz repetition rate. A strong enhancement of cluster mobility by SAWs is also observed in large-scale molecular dynamics simulations of surface diffusion of small atomic clusters. The analysis of the computational results demonstrates that the nonlinear sharpening of SAWs and the corresponding enrichment of the SAW spectra by high frequency harmonics which are capable of dynamic coupling to the cluster vibrations are responsible for the efficient acoustic activation of surface mobility in the simulations. The increase in the effective diffusion coefficient is proportional to the number of the SAW pulses passing through the diffusion region per unit time and a dramatic 4500-fold diffusion enhancement (corresponds to an equivalent temperature increase by ˜103K ) is predicted in the simulations for 15 GHz SAWs. The ability of SAWs to affect atomic-level surface processes has far-reaching implications for the design of new techniques where the acoustic energy serves as an effective substitution for thermal activation in applications where heating must be avoided or rapid switching of surface conditions is required.

  15. Parareal in time 3D numerical solver for the LWR Benchmark neutron diffusion transient model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baudron, Anne-Marie; Lautard, Jean-Jacques; Maday, Yvon; Riahi, Mohamed Kamel; Salomon, Julien

    2014-12-01

    In this paper we present a time-parallel algorithm for the 3D neutrons calculation of a transient model in a nuclear reactor core. The neutrons calculation consists in numerically solving the time dependent diffusion approximation equation, which is a simplified transport equation. The numerical resolution is done with finite elements method based on a tetrahedral meshing of the computational domain, representing the reactor core, and time discretization is achieved using a ?-scheme. The transient model presents moving control rods during the time of the reaction. Therefore, cross-sections (piecewise constants) are taken into account by interpolations with respect to the velocity of the control rods. The parallelism across the time is achieved by an adequate use of the parareal in time algorithm to the handled problem. This parallel method is a predictor corrector scheme that iteratively combines the use of two kinds of numerical propagators, one coarse and one fine. Our method is made efficient by means of a coarse solver defined with large time step and fixed position control rods model, while the fine propagator is assumed to be a high order numerical approximation of the full model. The parallel implementation of our method provides a good scalability of the algorithm. Numerical results show the efficiency of the parareal method on large light water reactor transient model corresponding to the Langenbuch-Maurer-Werner benchmark.

  16. Transient stability enhancement and voltage regulation of power systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Youyi Wang; David J. Hill; Richard H. Middleton; Long Gao

    1993-01-01

    Improvement of the transient stability and voltage regulation of a single-machine-infinite-bus power system under the effects of a symmetrical three-phase short-circuit fault is detailed. The dynamical model of the system is described. A design strategy for nonlinear controllers is considered, and the design of a nonlinear variable-structure excitation controller is described. Simulation results obtained using the nonlinear excitation controller are

  17. Enhancing chemical identification efficiency by SAW sensor transients through a data enrichment and information fusion strategy—a simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Prashant; Yadava, R. D. S.

    2013-05-01

    The paper proposes a new approach for improving the odor recognition efficiency of a surface acoustic wave (SAW) transient sensor system based on a single polymer coating. The vapor identity information is hidden in transient response shapes through dependences on specific vapor solvation and diffusion parameters in the polymer coating. The variations in the vapor exposure and purge durations and the sensor operating frequency have been used to create diversity in transient shapes via termination of the vapor-polymer equilibration process up to different stages. The transient signals were analyzed by the discrete wavelet transform using Daubechies-4 mother wavelet basis. The wavelet approximation coefficients were then processed by principal component analysis for creating feature space. The set of principal components define the vapor identity information. In an attempt to enhance vapor class separability we analyze two types of information fusion methods. In one, the sensor operation frequency is fixed and the sensing and purge durations are varied, and in the second, the sensing and purge durations are fixed and the sensor operating frequency is varied. The fusion is achieved by concatenation of discrete wavelet coefficients corresponding to various transients prior to the principal component analysis. The simulation experiments with polyisobutylene SAW sensor coating for operation frequencies over [55-160] MHz and sensing durations over [5-60] s were analyzed. The target vapors are seven volatile organics: chloroform, chlorobenzene, o-dichlorobenzene, n-heptane, toluene, n-hexane and n-octane whose concentrations were varied over [10-100] ppm. The simulation data were generated using a SAW sensor transient response model that incorporates the viscoelastic effects due to polymer coating and an additive noise source in the output. The analysis reveals that: (i) in single transient analysis the class separability increases with sensing duration for a given frequency of operation, and also with frequency for a given sensing duration, and (ii) the information fusion based on both the multiple sensing cycles and the multiple sensing frequencies enhances the class separability by nearly an order of magnitude.

  18. Anodically enhanced diffusion in Cu/Ag thin film couples

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, D.A. [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States). Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering; Jankowski, A.F. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1995-04-01

    Thin, 100-nm films of first silver and then copper were deposited consecutively onto pure single-crystal (111) silicon substrates by magneton sputter deposition. Controlled anodic current density was applied at room temperature to dissolve the outer copper film to varying depths approaching the copper/silver interface. Profiles of copper and silver concentration vs. depth below the anodically dissolved surfaces were subsequently obtained by argon ion sputtering and simultaneous Auger Electron Spectroscopy. Despite some intrinsic mixing during the profile analysis, there is clear evidence that diffusion of copper and silver into one another is enhanced by anodic currents at the outer copper surface. Preliminary interpretation leads the authors to believe that the effect is caused by surface formation of vacancies during anodic dissolution. The anodically generated vacancies can migrate as divacancies to the copper/silver interface where they enhance diffusion by the usual vacancy exchange mechanism.

  19. Membrane Lateral Diffusion and Capture of CFTR within Transient Confinement Zones

    PubMed Central

    Bates, Ian R.; Hébert, Benedict; Luo, Yishan; Liao, Jie; Bachir, Alexia I.; Kolin, David L.; Wiseman, Paul W.; Hanrahan, John W.

    2006-01-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) channel interacts with scaffolding and other proteins that are expected to restrict its lateral movement, yet previous studies have reported predominantly free diffusion. We examined the lateral mobility of CFTR channels on live baby hamster kidney cells using three complementary methods. Channels bearing an extracellular biotinylation target sequence were labeled with streptavidin conjugated with fluorescent dyes (Alexa Fluor 488 or 568) or quantum dots (qDot605). Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching and image correlation spectroscopy of the dye-labeled channels revealed a significant immobile population (?50%), which was confirmed by direct single particle tracking (SPT) of qDot605-labeled CFTR. Adding 10 histidine residues at the C-terminus of CFTR to mask the postsynaptic density 95, Discs large, ZO-1 (PDZ) binding motif abolished its association with EBP50/NHERF1, reduced the immobile fraction, and increased mobility. Other interactions that are not normally detected on this timescale became apparent when binding of PDZ domain proteins was disrupted. SPT revealed that CFTRHis-10 channels diffuse randomly, become immobilized for periods lasting up to 1 min, and in some instances are recaptured at the same location. The impact of transient confinement on the measured diffusion using the three fluorescence techniques were assessed using computer simulations of the biological experiments. Finally, the impact of endosomal CFTR on mobility measurements was assessed by fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. These results reveal unexpected features of CFTR dynamics which may influence its ion channel activity. PMID:16714353

  20. Partial transient liquid phase diffusion bonding of Zircaloy-4 to stabilized austenitic stainless steel 321

    SciTech Connect

    Atabaki, M. Mazar, E-mail: m.mazaratabaki@gmail.com [Department of Materials Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University Technology Malaysia, 81310 (Malaysia); Hanzaei, A. Talebi [Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    An innovative method was applied for bonding Zircaloy-4 to stabilized austenitic stainless steel 321 using an active titanium interlayer. Specimens were joined by a partial transient liquid phase diffusion bonding method in a vacuum furnace at different temperatures under 1 MPa dynamic pressure of contact. The influence of different bonding temperatures on the microstructure, microindentation hardness, joint strength and interlayer thickness has been studied. The diffusion of Fe, Cr, Ni and Zr has been investigated by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy elemental analyses. Results showed that control of the heating and cooling rate and 20 min soaking at 1223 K produces a perfect joint. However, solid-state diffusion of the melting point depressant elements into the joint metal causes the solid/liquid interface to advance until the joint is solidified. The tensile strength of all the bonded specimens was found around 480-670 MPa. Energy dispersive spectroscopy studies indicated that the melting occurred along the interface of the bonded specimens as a result of the transfer of atoms between the interlayer and the matrix during bonding. This technique provides a reliable method of bonding zirconium alloy to stainless steel.

  1. The heat released during catalytic turnover enhances the diffusion of an enzyme.

    PubMed

    Riedel, Clement; Gabizon, Ronen; Wilson, Christian A M; Hamadani, Kambiz; Tsekouras, Konstantinos; Marqusee, Susan; Pressé, Steve; Bustamante, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that the diffusivity of enzymes increases in a substrate-dependent manner during catalysis. Although this observation has been reported and characterized for several different systems, the precise origin of this phenomenon is unknown. Calorimetric methods are often used to determine enthalpies from enzyme-catalysed reactions and can therefore provide important insight into their reaction mechanisms. The ensemble averages involved in traditional bulk calorimetry cannot probe the transient effects that the energy exchanged in a reaction may have on the catalyst. Here we obtain single-molecule fluorescence correlation spectroscopy data and analyse them within the framework of a stochastic theory to demonstrate a mechanistic link between the enhanced diffusion of a single enzyme molecule and the heat released in the reaction. We propose that the heat released during catalysis generates an asymmetric pressure wave that results in a differential stress at the protein-solvent interface that transiently displaces the centre-of-mass of the enzyme (chemoacoustic effect). This novel perspective on how enzymes respond to the energy released during catalysis suggests a possible effect of the heat of reaction on the structural integrity and internal degrees of freedom of the enzyme. PMID:25487146

  2. Enhanced exciton diffusion length via cooperative quantum transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohseni, Masoud; Abasto, Damian; Lloyd, Seth; Zanardi, Paolo

    2011-03-01

    The energy transfer rate in biomolecular systems is typically calculated from the transition probability of an excitation hopping from one molecule to another using Förster energy transfer based on dipole-dipole interaction of individual molecules in the perturbative regime. However, due to strong interactions of among a group of molecules the excitation can become highly delocalized leading to an effective large dipole moment with an enhanced oscillator strength. Under certain symmetries, this could lead to an enhancement in exicton transfer rate via cooperative donation or acceptance of an excitation. Here, we explore this phenomenon in various multichromophoric geometries, under different symmetries, initial conditions, and dynamics. We study the behavior of the exciton diffusion length under the effects of disorders and environmental fluctuations and quantify the crossover from ballistic to diffusive regimes. Specifically, for a quasi-1 D array of rings containing N chromophores interacting with a bosonic bath, an interplay of time scales dictates the exciton dynamics. In the ``far-field'' regime, environmental interactions are dominating and the system properties are approaching those of the incoherent equilibrium Gibbs state. However, in the ``near-field'' the coherent interactions among dipole aggregates dominate other time scales and exciton diffusion length is enhanced by a factor of ?{ N } .

  3. Enhanced photocoagulation with catheter-based diffusing optical device.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hyun Wook; Kim, Jeehyun; Oh, Jungwhan

    2012-11-01

    A novel balloon catheter-based diffusing optical device was designed and evaluated to assist in treating excessive menstrual bleeding. A synthetic fused-silica fiber was micro-machined precisely to create scattering segments on a 25 mm long fiber tip for uniform light distribution. A visible wavelength (?=532??nm) was used to specifically target the endometrium due to the high vascularity of the uterine wall. Optical simulation presented 30% wider distribution of photons along with approximately 40% higher irradiance induced by addition of a glass cap to the diffuser tip. Incorporation of the optical diffuser with a polyurethane balloon catheter considerably enhanced coagulation depth and area (i.e., 3.5 mm and 18.9??cm2 at 1 min irradiation) in tissue in vitro. The prototype device demonstrated the coagulation necrosis of 2.8±1.2??mm (n=18) and no thermal damage to myometrium in in vivo caprine models. A prototype 5 cm long balloon catheter-assisted optical diffuser was also evaluated with a cadaveric human uterus to confirm the coagulative response of the uterine tissue as well as to identify the further design improvement and clinical applicability. The proposed catheter-based diffusing optical device can be a feasible therapeutic tool to photocoagulate endometrial cell layers in an efficient and safe manner. PMID:23154817

  4. Structural dynamics of hydrogen bonded methanol oligomers: Vibrational transient hole burning studies of spectral diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piletic, I. R.; Gaffney, K. J.; Fayer, M. D.

    2003-07-01

    Frequency resolved pump-probe experiments have been conducted on the deuterated hydroxyl stretch of methanol-d in a solution containing 0.8% methanol-d/23% methanol-h in carbon tetrachloride. Methanol-d molecules that both donate and receive hydrogen bonds have an inhomogeneously broadened hydroxyl stretch absorption line centered at 2487 cm-1. With a laser tuned to 2513 cm-1, the high-frequency side of the absorption spectrum is excited. The equilibration of the excited state peak and the ground-state hole results in the time-dependent shift in the frequency of the signal, which is used to monitor the dynamics of spectral diffusion. Model calculations were conducted to address the influence of spectral diffusion in the ground and excited states on the experimental observables when the vibrational lifetime is comparable to the spectral diffusion time. The model calculations illustrate the influence on the signal of absorbers in the ground state that have relaxed from the excited state. This aspect of the problem has not been addressed in previous descriptions of frequency resolved pump-probe spectroscopy. The calculations were used to fit the time-dependent peak maximum, resulting in a bi-exponential frequency-frequency correlation function, with a fast time constant of roughly 0.1 ps and a slower time constant of 1.6±0.3 ps. The observed dynamics have been compared with the predictions of dielectric continuum theory. The inability of a simple dielectric continuum theory to predict the observed spectral diffusion dynamics suggests that these dynamics do not result from the long-wavelength, collective orientational relaxation of the solvent. Instead the dynamics are attributed to fluctuations in the local hydrogen bond network, which is consistent with recent molecular-dynamics simulations of vibrational transient hole burning in water.

  5. Finite analytic numerical method for transient heat diffusion in layered composite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, Fernando M.; Giovannini, Andre

    1992-12-01

    The finite analytic (FA) method, which has been recently developed and used in fluid flow and heat transfer problems, is presented and extended to the solution of the problem of transient heat conduction in a one-dimensional multilayered composite slab. The basic idea of the FA method is to incorporate a local analytic solution of the governing equation in the numerical solution of the boundary-value problem. In this study, the local analytic solutions are obtained by the standard integral-transformation technique and the associated eigenvalue problem is solved by the Galerkin method. Some numerical examples are computed to demonstrate the applicability of the FA method in dealing with heat diffusion in a composite material. It is shown that the FA method is accurate and provides reductions in computational costs.

  6. Enhancing the ABAQUS Thermomechanics Code to Simulate Steady and Transient Fuel Rod Behavior

    SciTech Connect

    R. L. Williamson; D. A. Knoll

    2009-09-01

    A powerful multidimensional fuels performance capability, applicable to both steady and transient fuel behavior, is developed based on enhancements to the commercially available ABAQUS general-purpose thermomechanics code. Enhanced capabilities are described, including: UO2 temperature and burnup dependent thermal properties, solid and gaseous fission product swelling, fuel densification, fission gas release, cladding thermal and irradiation creep, cladding irradiation growth , gap heat transfer, and gap/plenum gas behavior during irradiation. The various modeling capabilities are demonstrated using a 2D axisymmetric analysis of the upper section of a simplified multi-pellet fuel rod, during both steady and transient operation. Computational results demonstrate the importance of a multidimensional fully-coupled thermomechanics treatment. Interestingly, many of the inherent deficiencies in existing fuel performance codes (e.g., 1D thermomechanics, loose thermo-mechanical coupling, separate steady and transient analysis, cumbersome pre- and post-processing) are, in fact, ABAQUS strengths.

  7. Simultaneous Determination of Thermal Conductivity and Thermal Diffusivity of Food and Agricultural Materials Using a Transient Plane-Source Method

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity are two important physical properties essential for designing any food engineering processes. Recently a new transient plane-source method was developed to measure a variety of materials, but its application in foods has not been documented. Therefore, ...

  8. Posterior Fossa Ependymoma with Intense but Transient Disseminated Enhancement but Not Metastasis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William E. Butler; Asad Khan; Saad A. Khan

    2002-01-01

    We report a pediatric patient with a posterior fossa ependymoma in whom the second of two magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans obtained preoperatively within a 10-day span showed intense but transient disseminated enhancement. However, following posterior fossa craniotomy for near total tumor resection, neither three MRI exams nor two craniospinal fluid samplings revealed evidence of disseminated disease. Concerned that the

  9. Time-independent hybrid enrichment for finite element solution of transient conduction–radiation in diffusive grey media

    SciTech Connect

    Mohamed, M. Shadi, E-mail: m.s.mohamed@durham.ac.uk [School of Engineering and Computing Sciences, University of Durham, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Seaid, Mohammed; Trevelyan, Jon [School of Engineering and Computing Sciences, University of Durham, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)] [School of Engineering and Computing Sciences, University of Durham, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Laghrouche, Omar [Institute for Infrastructure and Environment, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS (United Kingdom)] [Institute for Infrastructure and Environment, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS (United Kingdom)

    2013-10-15

    We investigate the effectiveness of the partition-of-unity finite element method for transient conduction–radiation problems in diffusive grey media. The governing equations consist of a semi-linear transient heat equation for the temperature field and a stationary diffusion approximation to the radiation in grey media. The coupled equations are integrated in time using a semi-implicit method in the finite element framework. We show that for the considered problems, a combination of hyperbolic and exponential enrichment functions based on an approximation of the boundary layer leads to improved accuracy compared to the conventional finite element method. It is illustrated that this approach can be more efficient than using h adaptivity to increase the accuracy of the finite element method near the boundary walls. The performance of the proposed partition-of-unity method is analyzed on several test examples for transient conduction–radiation problems in two space dimensions.

  10. A numerical methodology for enforcing maximum principles and the non-negative constraint for transient diffusion equations

    E-print Network

    Nakshatrala, K B

    2012-01-01

    Transient diffusion equations arise in many branches of engineering and applied sciences (e.g., heat transfer and mass transfer), and are parabolic partial differential equations. It is well-known that, under certain assumptions on the input data, these equations satisfy important mathematical properties like maximum principles and the non-negative constraint, which have implications in mathematical modeling. However, existing numerical formulations for these types of equations do not, in general, satisfy maximum principles and the non-negative constraint. In this paper, we present a methodology for enforcing maximum principles and the non-negative constraint for \\emph{transient} anisotropic diffusion equation. The method of horizontal lines (also known as the Rothe method) is applied in which the time is discretized first. This results in solving steady anisotropic diffusion equation with decay equation at every discrete time level, which is solved using the methodology that has been recently proposed by Nag...

  11. Transient Density Enhancements of the Martian Orbiting Dust Torus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juhasz, A.; Horanyi, M.

    2014-12-01

    The moons Phobos and Deimos have been suggested to be responsible for sustaining a permanently present dust cloud around Mars. The equilibrium size and spatial distribution of this dust torus has been the subject of numerous theoretical studies. However, no observational evidence has been found as of yet. Because of the renewed interest in Phobos and Deimos as potential targets for human precursor mission to Mars, there is a new opportunity for the detection of the putative Martian dust clouds using in situ measurements. Both Phobos and Deimos, as all airless bodies in the solar system, are continually bombarded by interplanetary dust grains, generating secondary ejecta particles. The surface gravity escape of these objects are low, hence most secondary particles escapethem, but remain in orbit about Mars. Subsequent perturbations by solar radiation pressure, electromagnetic forces acting on charged grains, and collisions with the moons or Mars itself limit the lifetime of the produced particles. The size dependent production rates and lifetimes set the most abundant particle size range of 10 - 30 micron in radius. Large, but short-lived, dust density enhancements can be predicted during periods of meteor showers. Also, comet Siding Spring will flyby Mars in October, 2014. Its dust tail can 'sand-blast' both Phobos and Deimos, dramatically increasing their dust production for a few hours. We present the results of our numerical studies on the temporal and spatial evolution of the dust clouds raised during highly enhanced production rates that last only hours-to-days.

  12. The Effect of Velocity on the Extinction Behavior of a Diffusion Flame during Transient Depressurization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldmeer, Jeffrey S.; Urban, David L.; Tien, James

    1999-01-01

    Current fire suppression plans for the International Space Station include the use of venting (depressurization) as a method for extinguishing a fire. Until recently this process had only been examined as part of a material flammability experiment performed on Skylab in the early 1970's. Due to the low initial pressure (0.35 Atm) and high oxygen concentration (65%), the Skylab experimental results are not applicable for understanding the effects of venting on a fire in a space station environment (21%O2, 1 Atm). Recent research examined the extinction behavior of a diffusion flame over a polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) cylinder during a transient depressurization in low-gravity. The numerical model was used to examine extinction limits as a function of depressurization rate, forced flow velocity, and initial solid phase temperature. The experimental and numerically predicted extinction data indicated that as the solid phase temperature increased the pressure required to extinguish the flame decreased. The numerical model was also used to examine conditions not obtainable in the low-gravity experiments. From these simulations, a series of extinction boundaries were generated that showed a region of increased flammability existed at a forced flow of 10 cm/s. Analysis of these extinction boundaries indicated that they were quasi-steady in nature, and that the final extinction conditions were independent of the transient process. The velocity range in the previous study was limited and thus the results did not examine the effects of velocities less than 1 cm/s or greater than 20 cm/s. This study utilized low-gravity experiments performed on NASA's Reduced-gravity Research Aircraft Laboratory and numerical simulations to examine conditions applicable to the Space Station environment. This paper extends the analysis of the previous study to a comprehensive examination of the effect of increased velocity on extinction behavior and extinction limits during a transient depressurization in low-gravity. This is achieved by examining extinction data from buoyant (normal-gravity) and low-buoyant (low-gravity) depressurization. experiments, as well as from numerical predictions of flame behavior during depressurization in a non-buoyant (zero-gravity) environment.

  13. Transient stability enhancement of electric power generating systems by 120-degree phase rotation

    DOEpatents

    Cresap, Richard L. (Portland, OR); Taylor, Carson W. (Portland, OR); Kreipe, Michael J. (Portland, OR)

    1982-01-01

    A method and system for enhancing the transient stability of an intertied three-phase electric power generating system. A set of power exporting generators (10) is connected to a set of power importing generators (20). When a transient cannot be controlled by conventional stability controls, and imminent loss of synchronism is detected (such as when the equivalent rotor angle difference between the two generator sets exceeds a predetermined value, such as 150 degrees), the intertie is disconnected by circuit breakers. Then a switch (30) having a 120-degree phase rotation, or a circuit breaker having a 120-degree phase rotation is placed in the intertie. The intertie is then reconnected. This results in a 120-degree reduction in the equivalent rotor angle difference between the two generator sets, making the system more stable and allowing more time for the conventional controls to stabilize the transient.

  14. Strain-Enhanced Diffusion in Metals. II. Dislocation and Grain-Boundary Short-Circuiting Models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. L. Ruoff; R. W. Balluffi

    1963-01-01

    Rapid diffusion along dislocation cores generally enhances the average bulk diffusion in a dislocated crystal. If each diffusing atom has at least several opportunities to make rapid excursions along various dislocation cores, Hart has shown that DT?DT0 = 1+fDP?DT0. DT is the average bulk diffusivity, DT0 is the diffusivity in the dislocation-free lattice, f is the fraction of atoms in

  15. Interactive effect of oxygen diffusion and volatiles advection on transient thermal degradation of poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Arash Kashani; Javad Abolfazli Esfahani

    2008-01-01

    A transient, one-dimensional model has been presented to formulate the substantial role of polymer gasification in the early\\u000a stages of fire growth. The present model comprises the interaction between the oxygen diffusion and the released volatiles\\u000a on the rate of polymer gasification, when the polymeric sample is subjected to an external radiative source. The model also\\u000a includes different mechanisms affecting

  16. Comparison of homogenized and enhanced diffusion solutions of model PWR problems

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, E. E. [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Northwestern Univ., 2145 Sheridan Rd., Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Smith, M. A. [Nuclear Engineering Div., Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Ave, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Model problem comparisons in slab geometry are made between two forms of homogenized diffusion theory and enhanced diffusion theory. The pin-cell discontinuity factors for homogenized diffusion calculations are derived from homogenized variational nodal P1 response matrices and from standard finite differencing. Enhanced diffusion theory consists of applying quasi-reflected interface conditions to reduce variational nodal Pn response matrices to one degree of freedom per interface, without homogenization within the cell. As expected both homogenized diffusion methods preserve reaction rates exactly if the discontinuity factors are derived from the P 11 reference solutions. If no reference lattice solution is available, discontinuity factors may be approximated from single cells with reflected boundary conditions; the computational effort is then comparable to calculating the enhanced diffusion response matrices. In this situation enhanced diffusion theory gives the most accurate results and finite difference discontinuity factors the least accurate. (authors)

  17. Stress enhanced diffusion of krypton ions in polycrystalline titanium

    SciTech Connect

    Nsengiyumva, S., E-mail: s.nsengiyumva@ru.ac.za [Department of Physics and Electronics, Rhodes University, Grahamstown 6140 (South Africa); Raji, A. T. [School of Interdisciplinary Research and Graduate Studies, University of South Africa, Mucklenuek Campus, P O Box 392, UNISA 0003, Pretoria (South Africa); Rivière, J. P. [Laboratoire de Métallurgie Physique, UMR 6630 CNRS- Université de Poitiers, Bd M. et P. Curie, BP30179, 86962 Chasseneuil Futuroscope, Cedex (France); Britton, D. T.; Härting, M. [NanoSciences Innovation Center, Department of Physics, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa)

    2014-07-14

    An experimental investigation on the mutual influence of pre-existing residual stress and point defect following ion implantation is presented. The study has been carried out using polycrystalline titanium samples energetically implanted with krypton ions at different fluences. Ion beam analysis was used to determine the concentration profile of the injected krypton ions, while synchrotron X-ray diffraction has been used for stress determination. Ion beam analysis and synchrotron X-ray diffraction stress profile measurements of the implanted titanium samples show a clear evidence of stress-enhanced diffusion of krypton ions in titanium. It is further observed that for the titanium samples implanted at low fluence, ion implantation modifies the pre-existing residual stress through the introduction of point and open volume defects. The stress fields resulting from the ion implantation act to drift the krypton inclusions towards the surface of titanium.

  18. Enhancement of flow-like structures in hyperspectral imagery using tensor nonlinear anisotropic diffusion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Maider Marin-McGee; Miguel Velez-Reyes

    2011-01-01

    Analyzing flow-like patterns in images for image understanding is an active research area but there have been much less attention paid to the process of enhancement of those structures. The completion of interrupted lines or the enhancement of flow-like structures is known as Coherence-Enhancement (CE). In this work, we are studying nonlinear anisotropic diffusion filtering for coherence enhancement. Anisotropic diffusion

  19. Enhancement of Diffusion-Controlled Reaction Rates by Surface-Induced Orientational Restriction

    E-print Network

    Dinner, Aaron

    Enhancement of Diffusion-Controlled Reaction Rates by Surface-Induced Orientational Restriction-controlled reaction to an interface can enhance the kinetics. One well- known way that a surface can facilitate the means by which immobilization of a substrate on a surface can increase the rate of a diffusion

  20. Transient Liquid Phase Diffusion Bonding of Magnesium Alloy (Mg-AZ31) to Titanium Alloy (Ti-6Al-4V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atieh, Anas Mahmoud

    The magnesium alloy Mg-AZ31 and titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V have physical characteristics and mechanical properties that makes it attractive for a wide range of engineering applications in the aerospace and automotive industries. However, the differences in melting temperature and coefficient of thermal expansion hinder the use of traditional fusion welding techniques. Transient liquid phase (TLP) bonding of magnesium alloy Mg-AZ31 and titanium alloy Ti-6Al- 4V was performed and different interlayer types and configurations were used to facilitate joint formation. The joining of these alloys using Ni foils was successful at a bonding temperature of 515°C, bonding pressure 0.2 MPa, for bonding time of 5 minutes. At the Ni/Mg-AZ31 bond interface, the formation of a eutectic liquid between Mg and Ni was observed. The formation of Mg2Ni and Mg3AlNi2 were identified along the bond interface resulting in an isothermally solidified joint. At the Ni/Ti-6Al-4V interface, the solid-state diffusion process results in joint formation. The use of double Ni-Cu sandwich joint resulted in further enhancement in joint formation and this produced joints with greater shear strength values. The configuration of Mg-AZ31/Cu- Ni/Ti-6Al-4V or Mg-AZ31/Ni-Cu/Ti-6Al-4V influence the mechanism of bonding and the type of intermetallics formed within the joint. The application of thin Ni electrodeposited coatings resulted in further enhancements of joint quality due to better surface-to-surface contact and a reduction in the formation of intermetallics at the joint. The effect of Cu nano-particles in the coatings was found to decrease the eutectic zone width and this resulted in an increase the shear strength of the joints. The highest shear strength of 69 MPa was possible with bonds made using coatings containing Cu nano-particle dispersion.

  1. Influence of Chemically Enhanced Diffusion on Cap Dolostones?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bristow, T.

    2014-12-01

    Cap dolostones, a globally distributed layer of carbonate rock that sits directly on terminal glacial deposits of the severe Cryogenian ice-age, contain important records of the conditions during the early stage of climatic recovery. Negative carbon isotope signals preserved in the cap are central to discussions of the mechanisms, drivers and time-scale of this interval of extreme climate change. These signals have been attributed to the rapid rise in temperature and acidic ocean conditions predicted to result from huge amounts of CO2 in the atmosphere, which bumped the Earth out of the Snowball state. Questions remain however, because detailed investigations of cap dolostone isotopic variability within individual sedimentary basins show systematic variations that are difficult to explain by temperature effects alone. Furthermore, other influences on cap isotopes have been hypothesized including, the release of massive amounts of methane trapped by the ice and upwelling of deep ocean water with negative signals. This contribution will explore the potential impact of chemically enhanced diffusion (CED) on the carbon isotopic compositions of cap dolostones using a box model. CED is a process by which CO2 gas is transferred to solution via reaction with hydroxide anions. In the modern ocean, rates of CED are thought to be insignificant and CO2 gas transfer is accomplished primarily by diffusion and dissolution, with minimal isotopic fraction. However, in various highly productive lakes, the strong negative isotope fraction of -27 ‰ associated CED impacts the isotopic composition of dissolved inorganic carbon. Post-glacial oceans may have been chemically similar to highly productive lakes and initial modeling results indicate that CED could have influenced the carbon isotopic composition of seawater and thus the cap dolostone. Implications for post-glacial oceanic conditions will be discussed.

  2. Diffuse dispersive delay and the time convolution/attenuation of transients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bittner, Burt J.

    1991-01-01

    Test data and analytic evaluations are presented to show that relatively poor 100 KHz shielding of 12 Db can effectively provide an electromagnetic pulse transient reduction of 100 Db. More importantly, several techniques are shown for lightning surge attenuation as an alternative to crowbar, spark gap, or power zener type clipping which simply reflects the surge. A time delay test method is shown which allows CW testing, along with a convolution program to define transient shielding effectivity where the Fourier phase characteristics of the transient are known or can be broadly estimated.

  3. Pore-scale modeling of enhanced vapor diffusion in porous media

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, S.W.; Ho, C.K.

    1997-10-01

    Vapor diffusion in porous media in the presence of its liquid has often been analyzed like air diffusion. The diffusion rate is much lower than in free space due to the presence of the porous medium and any liquid present. However, enhanced vapor diffusion has also been postulated such that the diffusion rate may approach free-space values. The mechanisms postulated to lead to this enhancement include condensation/evaporation across isolated liquid islands in the porous media and an increased temperature gradient in the gas phase. In order to try to understand the mechanisms involved in such an enhancement, pore-scale models have been developed. Vapor diffusion in the presence of liquid islands has been evaluated for a one-dimensional pore network under a concentration gradient. The simulations show that significant enhancement of vapor diffusion is indeed possible in the presence of liquid islands, while air diffusion decreases slightly. While the present pore-scale model indicates that enhanced vapor diffusion is possible, only experimental data can confirm the relevant processes.

  4. Enhanced paracellular transport of insulin can be achieved via transient induction of myosin light chain phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Taverner, Alistair; Dondi, Ruggero; Almansour, Khaled; Laurent, Floriane; Owens, Siân-Eleri; Eggleston, Ian M; Fotaki, Nikoletta; Mrsny, Randall J

    2015-07-28

    The intestinal epithelium functions to effectively restrict the causal uptake of luminal contents but has been demonstrated to transiently increase paracellular permeability properties to provide an additional entry route for dietary macromolecules. We have examined a method to emulate this endogenous mechanism as a means of enhancing the oral uptake of insulin. Two sets of stable Permeant Inhibitor of Phosphatase (PIP) peptides were rationally designed to stimulate phosphorylation of intracellular epithelial myosin light chain (MLC) and screened using Caco-2 monolayers in vitro. Apical application of PIP peptide 640, designed to disrupt protein-protein interactions between protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) and its regulator CPI-17, resulted in a reversible and non-toxic transient reduction in Caco-2 monolayer trans-epithelial electric resistance (TEER) and opening of the paracellular route to 4kDa fluorescent dextran but not 70kDa dextran in vitro. Apical application of PIP peptide 250, designed to impede MYPT1-mediated regulation of PP1, also decreased TEER in a reversible and non-toxic manner but transiently opened the paracellular route to both 4 and 70kDa fluorescent dextrans. Direct injection of PIP peptides 640 or 250 with human insulin into the lumen of rat jejunum caused a decrease in blood glucose levels that was PIP peptide and insulin dose-dependent and correlated with increased pMLC levels. Systemic levels of insulin suggested approximately 3-4% of the dose injected into the intestinal lumen was absorbed, relative to a subcutaneous injection. Measurement of insulin levels in the portal vein showed a time window of absorption that was consistent with systemic concentration-time profiles and approximately 50% first-pass clearance by the liver. Monitoring the uptake of a fluorescent form of insulin suggested its uptake occurred via the paracellular route. Together, these studies add validation to the presence of an endogenous mechanism used by the intestinal epithelium to dynamically regulate its paracellular permeability properties and better define the potential to enhance the oral delivery of biopharmaceuticals via a transient regulation of an endogenous mechanism controlling the intestinal paracellular barrier. PMID:25980620

  5. Enhancement of diffuse reflectance using air tunnel structure.

    PubMed

    Jang, Jae Eun; Lee, Gae Hwang; Song, Byoung Gwon; Cha, Seung Nam; Jung, Jae Eun

    2013-02-01

    Submicrometer air gap structure has formed on diffuse reflection structure to improve light reflectance. Covering polymer or liquid on a diffuse reflector to make optical components induces the severe decrease of the total reflectance, since the diffuse reflected angle of some light rays is larger than the critical angle and the rays travel to the medium until meeting a proper small incident angle. The reflectance drops to 68% of the original value with just a polymer coating on the diffuse reflector. The formation of an air tunnel structure between the polymer layer and the diffuse reflector makes a symmetrical reflective index matching state and recovers 95% of the original reflectance. Due to the simple fabrication process and the chemical stability, the structure can be applied to various optical components and reflective display devices. PMID:23381414

  6. Transient gamma-secretase inhibition accelerates and enhances fracture repair likely via Notch signaling modulation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Cuicui; Shen, Jie; Yukata, Kiminori; Inzana, Jason A; O'Keefe, Regis J; Awad, Hani A; Hilton, Matthew J

    2015-04-01

    Approximately 10% of skeletal fractures result in healing complications and non-union, while most fractures repair with appropriate stabilization and without pharmacologic intervention. It is the latter injuries that cannot be underestimated as the expenses associated with their treatment and subsequent lost productivity are predicted to increase to over $74 billion by 2015. During fracture repair, local mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells (MSCs) differentiate to form new cartilage and bone, reminiscent of events during skeletal development. We previously demonstrated that permanent loss of gamma-secretase activity and Notch signaling accelerates bone and cartilage formation from MSC progenitors during skeletal development, leading to pathologic acquisition of bone and depletion of bone marrow derived MSCs. Here, we investigated whether transient and systemic gamma-secretase and Notch inhibition is capable of accelerating and enhancing fracture repair by promoting controlled MSC differentiation near the fracture site. Our radiographic, microCT, histological, cell and molecular analyses reveal that single and intermittent gamma-secretase inhibitor (GSI) treatments significantly enhance cartilage and bone callus formation via the promotion of MSC differentiation, resulting in only a moderate reduction of local MSCs. Biomechanical testing further demonstrates that GSI treated fractures exhibit superior strength earlier in the healing process, with single dose GSI treated fractures exhibiting bone strength approaching that of un-fractured tibiae. These data further establish that transient inhibition of gamma-secretase activity and Notch signaling temporarily increases osteoclastogenesis and accelerates bone remodeling, which coupled with the effects on MSCs likely explains the accelerated and enhanced fracture repair. Therefore, we propose that the Notch pathway serves as an important therapeutic target during skeletal fracture repair. PMID:25527421

  7. Enhanced Diffusion in a Polymer-Silica Nanocomposite Viewed by Pulse Field Gradient NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Junyan; Wen, Wen-Yang; Jones, Alan A.

    2003-03-01

    Enhanced Diffusion in a Polymer-Silica Nanocomposite Viewed by Pulse Field Gradient NMR Junyan Zhong, Wen-Yang Wen and Alan A. Jones Carlson School of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Clark University, Worcester MA 01610 The addition of fumed silica to the high permeability random copolymer of tetrafluoroethylene (TFE) and 2,2-bis(trifluoromethyl)-4,5-difluoro-1,3-dioxole (PDD) increases diffusion by up to an order of magnitude. The self-diffusion constant of pentane was measured using pulse field gradient NMR and non-Fickian diffusion is observed in cast films of the pure polymer and nanocomposites containing 10, 20 and 30 wtNMR experiment, diffusion can be monitored for different periods of time with an apparent diffusion constant determined for each period. At all compositions, the apparent diffusion constant appears to be faster when observed over shorter times and decreases towards a plateau value at longer times. This result is indicative of tortuous diffusion. The addition of fumed silica not only increases the apparent self-diffusion constants but also changes the dependence of the apparent self-diffusion constants on the time over which diffusion occurs. The self-diffusion constants decrease more slowly as a function of observation time indicating better connectivity of the more permeable domains. The apparent diffusion constants also increase as a function of time after the introduction of pentane. This phenomenon is observed in the pure polymer as well and is described as conditioning of the membrane.

  8. Enhanced Substitution-Diffusion Based Image Cipher Using Improved Chaotic Map

    Microsoft Academic Search

    I. Shatheesh Sam; P. Devaraj; R. S. Bhuvaneswaran

    2010-01-01

    \\u000a This paper proposes an enhanced substitution-diffusion based image cipher using improved chaotic map. The first step consists\\u000a of permutation which uses the odd key values. Byte substitution is applied in the second step to improve the security against\\u000a the known\\/chosen-plaintext attack. Finally, confusion and diffusion are obtained using the sub diagonal diffusion of adjacent\\u000a pixels and XORing with the chaotic

  9. Determination of Silicon Point Defect Properties from Oxidation Enhanced Diffusion of Buried Layers

    E-print Network

    Dunham, Scott

    pressure chemical vapor deposition. The oxide/nitride multilayer serves as an oxidation barrier. The wafersDetermination of Silicon Point Defect Properties from Oxidation Enhanced Diffusion of Buried Layers for integrated circuit fabrication, the published calculations of silicon interstitial diffusivity vary over

  10. Transient liquid phase diffusion bonding and associated recrystallization phenomenon when joining ODS ferritic superalloys

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. I. Khan; E. R. Wallach

    1996-01-01

    Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic superalloys attribute their excellent intermediate and high temperature creep resistant properties to the distribution of an inert oxide, Y2O3 within highly directional and elongated grains. Careful selection of joining techniques is, therefore, of utmost importance so that the parent metal microstructure is not disrupted and is continuous across the bond line. Transient liquid phase (TLP)

  11. Structural dynamics of hydrogen bonded methanol oligomers: Vibrational transient hole burning studies of spectral diffusion

    E-print Network

    Fayer, Michael D.

    Structural dynamics of hydrogen bonded methanol oligomers: Vibrational transient hole burning. The continuous fluctuation of local structures also characterizes the liquid state. The micro- scopic dynamics in the time-dependent shift in the frequency of the signal, which is used to monitor the dynamics of spectral

  12. Transient Expression of Antibodies in Suspension Plant Cell Suspension Cultures is Enhanced When Co-transformed with the Tomato Bushy Stunt Virus p19 Viral

    E-print Network

    Transient Expression of Antibodies in Suspension Plant Cell Suspension Cultures is Enhanced When Co Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com). Two distinct transient expression approaches were compared with assess- ana suspension culture. A parental N. benthamiana cell line was transiently transformed with either

  13. Electric Field Enhanced Diffusion of Salicylic Acid through Polyacrylamide Hydrogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niamlang, Sumonman; Sirivat, Anuvat

    2008-03-01

    The release mechanisms and the diffusion coefficients of salicylic acid -loaded polyacrylamide hydrogels were investigated experimentally by using a modified Franz-diffusion cell at 37 ^oC to determine the effects of crosslinking ratio and electric field strength. A significant amount of salicylic acid is released within 48 hours from the hydrogels of various crosslinking ratios, with and without electric field. The release characteristic follows the Q vs. t^1/2 linear relationship. Diffusion coefficient initially increases with increasing electric field strength and reaches the maximum value at electric field strength of 0.1 V; beyond that it decreases with electric field strength and becomes saturated at electric field strength of 5 V. The diffusion coefficient increases at low electric field strength (less 0.1 V) as a result of the electrophoresis of the salicylic acid, the expansion of pore size, and the induced pathway in pigskin. For electric field strength higher than 0.1 V, the decrease in the diffusion coefficient is due to the reduction of the polyacrylamide pore size. The diffusion coefficient obeys the scaling behavior D/Do=(drug size/pore size)^m, with the scaling exponent m equal to 0.93 and 0.42 at electric fields of 0 and 0.1 V, respectively.

  14. Transient diffusion of radionuclides from a cylindrical waste solid into fractured porous rock

    SciTech Connect

    Ahn, J. (Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering); Chambre, P.L.; Pigford, T.H. (California Univ., Berkeley, CA (USA). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA))

    1990-09-01

    This paper presents the numerical results of an analytical study for mass transfer and transport of radionuclides released from a cylindrical waste solid into water-saturated fractured porous rock. The purposes of this study are (1) to predict the diffusive mass flux from a cylindrical waste solid into a planar fracture and the surrounding rock matrix for the low-flow conditions wherein near-field mass transfer is expected to be controlled by molecular diffusion and (2) to investigate the effects of cylindrical geometry and of multidimensional matrix diffusion including diffusion in the directions parallel to the fracture plane. In the paper are presented the derivation of an analytical solution for the time-dependent mass transfer from the cylinder for low-flow conditions and computer-code implementation and numerical results. The problem was first proposed and solved analytically by Chambre. Numerical results are shown for (1) the diffusive mass fluxes from the cylindrical waste solid into the fracture and into the rock matrix, (2) the diffusive mass flux across the rock/fracture interface, and (3) the instantaneous concentration isopleths in the fracture and in the rock matrix. Comparison of the present cylindrical model with previous planar models, wherein contaminant was assumed to be released only into the fracture and diffusion in the rock matrix was assumed to be one-dimensional perpendicular to the fracture plane, shows that the cylindrical model is more conservative than the planar models with respect to the mass transfer from the source into the fracture and with respect to the far-field transport, provided that diffusion is dominant in the fracture. 21 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Transient plane source (tps) sensors for simultaneous measurements of thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of insulators, fluids and conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maqsood, Asghari; Anis-ur-Rehman, M.

    2013-12-01

    Thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity are two important physical properties for designing any food engineering processes1. The knowledge of thermal properties of the elements, compounds and different materials in many industrial applications is a requirement for their final functionality. Transient plane source (tps) sensors are reported2 to be useful for the simultaneous measurement of thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity and volumetric heat capacity of insulators, conductor liquids3 and high-TC superconductors4. The tps-sensor consists of a resistive element in the shape of double spiral made of 10 micrometer thick Ni-foils covered on both sides with 25 micrometer thick Kapton. This sensor acts both as a heat source and a resistance thermometer for recording the time dependent temperature increase. From the knowledge of the temperature co-efficient of the metal spiral, the temperature increase of the sensor can be determined precisely by placing the sensor in between two surfaces of the same material under test. This temperature increase is then related to the thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity and volumetric heat capacity by simple relations2,5. The tps-sensor has been used to measure thermal conductivities from 0.001 Wm-1K-1to 600 Wm-1K-1 and temperature ranges covered from 77K- 1000K. This talk gives the design, advantages and limitations of the tpl-sensor along with its applications to the measurementof thermal properties in a variety of materials.

  16. Approach to asymptotically diffusive behavior for Brownian particles in periodic potentials: Extracting information from transients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dean, David S.; Oshanin, Gleb

    2014-08-01

    A Langevin process describing diffusion in a periodic potential landscape has a time-dependent diffusion constant, which means that its average mean-squared displacement (MSD) only becomes linear at late times. The long-time, or effective diffusion, constant can be estimated from the slope of a linear fit of the MSD at late times. Due to the crossover between a short time microscopic diffusion constant, which is independent of the potential, to the effective late-time diffusion constant, a linear fit of the MSD will not in general pass through the origin and will have a nonzero constant term. Here we address how to compute the constant term and provide explicit results for Brownian particles in one dimension in periodic potentials. We show that the constant is always positive and that at low temperatures it depends on the curvature of the minimum of the potential. For comparison we also consider the same question for the simpler problem of a symmetric continuous time random walk in discrete space. Here the constant can be positive or negative and can be used to determine the variance of the hopping time distribution.

  17. Cannabidiol enhances microglial phagocytosis via transient receptor potential (TRP) channel activation

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Samia; Eldeeb, Khalil; Millns, Paul J; Bennett, Andrew J; Alexander, Stephen P H; Kendall, David A

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Microglial cells are important mediators of the immune response in the CNS. The phytocannabinoid, cannabidiol (CBD), has been shown to have central anti-inflammatory properties, and the purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of CBD and other phytocannabinoids on microglial phagocytosis. Experimental Approach Phagocytosis was assessed by measuring ingestion of fluorescently labelled latex beads by cultured microglial cells. Drug effects were probed using single-cell Ca2+ imaging and expression of mediator proteins by immunoblotting and immunocytochemistry. Key Results CBD (10??M) enhanced bead phagocytosis to 175 ± 7% control. Other phytocannabinoids, synthetic and endogenous cannabinoids were without effect. The enhancement was dependent upon Ca2+ influx and was abolished in the presence of EGTA, the Ca2+ channel inhibitor SKF96365, the transient receptor potential (TRP) channel blocker ruthenium red, and the TRPV1 antagonists capsazepine and AMG9810. CBD produced a sustained increase in intracellular Ca2+ concentration in BV-2 microglia and this was abolished by ruthenium red. CBD rapidly increased the expression of TRPV2 and TRPV1 proteins and caused a translocation of TRPV2 to the cell membrane. Wortmannin blocked CBD enhancement of BV-2 cell phagocytosis, suggesting that it is mediated by PI3K signalling downstream of the Ca2+ influx. Conclusions and Implications The TRPV-dependent phagocytosis-enhancing effect of CBD suggests that pharmacological modification of TRPV channel activity could be a rational approach to treating neuroinflammatory disorders involving changes in microglial function and that CBD is a potential starting point for future development of novel therapeutics acting on the TRPV receptor family. PMID:24641282

  18. Size and Material Effects on Flow Boiling Enhancement in Microchannels With Diffusion-Brazed Wire Mesh

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hailei Wang; Richard B. Peterson

    2011-01-01

    This paper focuses on flow boiling enhancement in microchannels using a surface enhancement technique based on the diffusion-brazing of a mesh to the channel's inner surface. Both qualitative flow boiling visualization using a high- speed camera and quantitative local variable measurements were carried out. Good agreement was obtained from the qualitative and quantitative results. After validation of single-phase flow in

  19. Revisiting Taylor Dispersion: Differential enhancement of rotational and translational diffusion under oscillatory shear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leahy, Brian; Ong, Desmond; Cheng, Xiang; Cohen, Itai

    2013-03-01

    The idea of Taylor dispersion - enhancement of translational diffusion under shear - has found applications in fields from pharmacology to chemical engineering. Here, in a combination of experiment and simulations, we study the translational and rotational diffusion of colloidal dimers under triangle-wave oscillatory shear. We find that the rotational diffusion is enhanced, in addition to the enhanced translational diffusion. This ``rotational Taylor dispersion'' depends strongly on the strain rate (Peclet number), aspect ratio, and the shear strain, in contradistinction to translational Taylor dispersion in a shear flow, which depends only weakly on strain rate and aspect ratio. This separate tunability of translations and orientations promises important applications in mixing and self-assembly of solutions of anisometric colloids. We discuss the corresponding effect on the structure and rheology of denser suspensions of rod-like particles. The idea of Taylor dispersion - enhancement of translational diffusion under shear - has found applications in fields from pharmacology to chemical engineering. Here, in a combination of experiment and simulations, we study the translational and rotational diffusion of colloidal dimers under triangle-wave oscillatory shear. We find that the rotational diffusion is enhanced, in addition to the enhanced translational diffusion. This ``rotational Taylor dispersion'' depends strongly on the strain rate (Peclet number), aspect ratio, and the shear strain, in contradistinction to translational Taylor dispersion in a shear flow, which depends only weakly on strain rate and aspect ratio. This separate tunability of translations and orientations promises important applications in mixing and self-assembly of solutions of anisometric colloids. We discuss the corresponding effect on the structure and rheology of denser suspensions of rod-like particles. B. L. acknowledges supported by the Department of Defense (DoD) through the National Defense Science & Engineering Graduate Fellowship (NDSEG) Program.

  20. Experimental investigation of the elastic enhancement factor in a transient region between regular and chaotic dynamics.

    PubMed

    ?awniczak, Micha?; Bia?ous, Ma?gorzata; Yunko, Vitalii; Bauch, Szymon; Sirko, Leszek

    2015-03-01

    We present the results of an experimental study of the elastic enhancement factor W for a microwave rectangular cavity simulating a two-dimensional quantum billiard in a transient region between regular and chaotic dynamics. The cavity was coupled to a vector network analyzer via two microwave antennas. The departure of the system from an integrable one due to the presence of antennas acting as scatterers is characterized by the parameter of chaoticity ?=2.8. The experimental results for the rectangular cavity are compared with those obtained for a microwave rough cavity simulating a chaotic quantum billiard. The experimental results were obtained for the frequency range ?=16-18.5 GHz and moderate absorption strength ?=5.2-7.4. We show that the elastic enhancement factor for the rectangular cavity lies below the theoretical value W=3 predicted for integrable systems, and it is significantly higher than that obtained for the rough cavity. The results obtained for the microwave rough cavity are smaller than those obtained within the framework of random matrix theory, and they lie between them and those predicted within a recently introduced model of the two-channel coupling [V. V. Sokolov and O. V. Zhirov, arXiv:1411.6211 [nucl-th

  1. Enhancement of epitaxial lateral overgrowth by vapor-phase diffusion

    E-print Network

    Khenner, Mikhail

    heterostructure lasers, electroadsorption modulators, light-emitting diodes, etc. [1,2]. Micrometer nanostructures by MBE [10­12]. The advances in experimental field of SAG stimulate the interest in fundamental growth mechanism and ignore diffusion in vapor phase; the effect of vapor phase is reduced

  2. Enhanced Diffusion in Quasi-Two-Dimensional Suspensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonn, Adar; Diamant, Haim; Roichman, Yael

    2013-03-01

    We study the Brownian motion of quasi-two-dimensional suspensions of micron-sized particles parallel to a single wall. The dynamics of a suspension near a single wall has two characteristics; the self diffusivity is smaller than in unconfined suspensions, and the hydrodynamic interactions between particles decay with inter-particle distance r, as 1 /r3 . We track the motion of silica beads that sediment to the sample floor due to their high density. Screened Coulomb interactions between the bottom glass wall and the heavily charged surface of the beads maintain the beads floating a few hundred nanometers above the wall. We follow the change in the self diffusivity and hydrodynamic interactions as a function of particle area fraction in the sedimented monolayer, ?. As expected, the self diffusion decreases as ? increases; however, at large ?, we observed an increase in self diffusivity. We also observe strongly correlated motion between particles separated by a distance much larger than their distance from the wall. This long-range hydrodynamic coupling has non-trivial dependence on particles' density. Some possible explanations for these observations will be discussed.

  3. ENHANCED DIFFUSION NEAR AMORPHOUS GRAIN BOUNDARIES IN NANOCRYSTALLINE AND

    E-print Network

    Ovid'ko Ilya A.

    in solids under irradiation and thermal treatment as well in sintered ceramics and is capable of contributing to the anomalously fast diffusion in nanocrystalline solids. Corresponding author: I.A. Ovid'ko, e species in nanocrystalline and poly- crystalline solids. Such boundaries frequently exist in sintered

  4. Stability of Streamline Upwind Petrov-Galerkin (SUPG) finite elements for transient advection-diffusion problems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John Nicolas Shadid; Pavel Blagoveston Bochev; Max Donald Gunzburger

    2003-01-01

    Implicit time integration coupled with SUPG discretization in space leads to additional terms that provide consistency and improve the phase accuracy for convection dominated flows. Recently, it has been suggested that for small Courant numbers these terms may dominate the streamline diffusion term, ostensibly causing destabilization of the SUPG method. While consistent with a straightforward finite element stability analysis, this

  5. Stability of the SUPG finite element method for transient advection–diffusion problems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pavel B. Bochev; Max D. Gunzburger; John N. Shadid

    2004-01-01

    Implicit time integration coupled with SUPG discretization in space leads to additional terms that provide consistency and improve the phase accuracy for convection dominated flows. Recently, it has been suggested that for small Courant numbers these terms may dominate the streamline diffusion term, ostensibly causing destabilization of the SUPG method. While consistent with a straightforward finite element stability analysis, this

  6. Transient Behaviour of Laminar Counterflow Hydrogen-Air Diffusion Flames with Complex Chemistry

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. DARABIHA

    1992-01-01

    The nonsteady behaviour of counterflow diffusion hydrogen-air flames is studied in this article, using a finite difference implicit method and a complex kinetics model. The flame responses to step and sinusoidal strain rale variations are obtained for flames submitted to moderate strain rates and also to strain rates corresponding to extinction conditions. Frequency response curves are obtained for both cases

  7. Experimental correlations for transient soot measurement in diesel exhaust aerosol with light extinction, electrical mobility and diffusion charger sensor techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bermúdez, Vicente; Pastor, José V.; López, J. Javier; Campos, Daniel

    2014-06-01

    A study of soot measurement deviation using a diffusion charger sensor with three dilution ratios was conducted in order to obtain an optimum setting that can be used to obtain accurate measurements in terms of soot mass emitted by a light-duty diesel engine under transient operating conditions. The paper includes three experimental phases: an experimental validation of the measurement settings in steady-state operating conditions; evaluation of the proposed setting under the New European Driving Cycle; and a study of correlations for different measurement techniques. These correlations provide a reliable tool for estimating soot emission from light extinction measurement or from accumulation particle mode concentration. There are several methods and correlations to estimate soot concentration in the literature but most of them were assessed for steady-state operating points. In this case, the correlations are obtained by more than 4000 points measured in transient conditions. The results of the new two correlations, with less than 4% deviation from the reference measurement, are presented in this paper.

  8. Transient Natural Convection Flow with Cosinusoidally Fluctuating Thermal and Mass Diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, P. K.; Saini, S. K.

    2014-11-01

    The problem of a transient natural convection flow of a viscous incompressible fluid past a permeable (porous) flat plate with the temperature and concentration cosinusoidally fluctuating with time is considered. The equations of mass, momentum, and energy conservation that govern the heat and mass transfer problem are solved analytically with the use of the regular perturbation technique. Explicit expressions for the velocity, temperature, and concentration are obtained. Numerical evaluation of the analytical results is performed, and graphical results for the flow characteristics, skin friction, and the rate of heat transfer are presented and discussed.

  9. Experimental demonstration of diffusion signal enhancement in 2D DESIRE images.

    PubMed

    Jelescu, Ileana O; Boulant, Nicolas; Le Bihan, Denis; Ciobanu, Luisa

    2012-05-01

    In magnetic resonance microscopy based on conventional Fourier encoding techniques, molecular self-diffusion leads to a loss in signal to noise ratio while also limiting the spatial resolution. As opposed to standard diffusion-weighted sequences, the DESIRE (Diffusion Enhancement of SIgnal and REsolution) method gains signal through diffusion via a signal difference measurement, corresponding to the total number of spins saturated by a localized pulse applied for a given amount of time. The higher the diffusion coefficient at that location, the larger the number of spins effectively saturated and thus the higher the difference in signal. While the method has been previously demonstrated in 1D, the availability of higher magnetic fields and gradient strengths has recently brought its development within reach in 2D. Here we report the implementation of 2D DESIRE and the first experimental evaluation of enhancements in water and thin silicone oil. Enhancement levels obtained by saturating a 60 ?m diameter region (effectively ~140 ?m) and allowing diffusion lengths of 28 ?m or 7 ?m, respectively, are consistent with theoretical predictions. The typical enhancement values are 100% in water and 20% in silicone oil. PMID:22578554

  10. Bifurcation analysis and transient spatio-temporal dynamics for a diffusive plant-herbivore system with Dirichlet boundary conditions Pages : - , and.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin; Watmough, James; Yu, Fang

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, we study a diffusive plant-herbivore system with homogeneous and nonhomogeneous Dirichlet boundary conditions. Stability of spatially homogeneous steady states is established. We also derive conditions ensuring the occurrence of Hopf bifurcation and steady state bifurcation. Interesting transient spatio-temporal behaviors including oscillations in one or both of space and time are observed through numerical simulations. PMID:25974343

  11. Cortical spreading depression in the feline brain following sustained and transient stimuli studied using diffusion-weighted imaging

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, Daniel P; Smith, Justin M; Smith, Martin I; Bockhorst, Kurt H-J; Papadakis, Nikolas G; Hall, Laurance D; Parsons, Andrew A; James, Michael F; Huang, Christopher L-H

    2002-01-01

    Cortical spreading depression (CSD) was induced by transient (10 min) applications of KCl in agar upon the cortical surface of ?-chloralose anaesthetised cats. Its features were compared with CSD resulting from sustained applications of crystalline KCl through a mapping of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) using diffusion-weighted echo planar imaging (DWI) over a poststimulus period of 60–100 min. Individual CSD events were computationally detected with the aid of Savitzky-Golay smoothing applied to critically sampled data derived from regions of interest (ROIs) made up of 2 × 2 pixel matrices. The latter were consistently placed at three selected sites on the suprasylvian gyrus (SG) and six sites on the marginal gyrus (MG). The CSD events thus detected were then quantitatively characterised for each ROI using the original time series. Both stimuli consistently elicited similar spreading patterns of initial, primary CSD events that propagated over the SG and marginal MG and were restricted to the hemispheres on which the stimuli were applied. There followed secondary events over smaller extents of cortical surface. Sustained stimuli elicited primary and secondary CSD events with similar amplitudes of ADC deflection that were distributed around a single mean. The ADC deflections were also conserved in peak amplitude throughout the course of their propagation. The initial primary event showed a poststimulus latency of 1.1 ± 0.1 min. Successive secondary events followed at longer, but uniform, time intervals of around 10 min. Primary and secondary CSDs showed significantly different velocities of conduction (3.32 ± 0.43 mm min?1vs. 2.11 ± 0.21 mm min?1, respectively; n= 5) across the cerebral hemisphere. In contrast, transient stimuli produced significantly fewer numbers of CSD events (3.8 ± 0.5 events per animal, n= 5) than did sustained stimuli (7.4 ± 0.5 events per animal, mean ±s.e.m., n= 5, P= 0.002). The peak ADC deflection of their primary CSD events declined by ?30 % as they propagated from their initiation site to the interhemispheric boundary. The primary CSD event following a transient stimulus showed a latency of 1.4 ± 0.1 min. It was followed by successive and smaller secondary ADC deflections that were separated by progressively longer time intervals. Conduction velocities of secondary events were similar to those of primary events. Conduction velocities of both primary and secondary events were slower than their counterparts following a sustained stimulus. ADC changes associated with CSD thus persist at times well after stimulus withdrawal and vary markedly with the nature of the initiating stimulus even in brain regions remote from the stimulus site. PMID:12356879

  12. Cholesterol enhances surface water diffusion of phospholipid bilayers.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Chi-Yuan; Olijve, Luuk L C; Kausik, Ravinath; Han, Songi

    2014-12-14

    Elucidating the physical effect of cholesterol (Chol) on biological membranes is necessary towards rationalizing their structural and functional role in cell membranes. One of the debated questions is the role of hydration water in Chol-embedding lipid membranes, for which only little direct experimental data are available. Here, we study the hydration dynamics in a series of Chol-rich and depleted bilayer systems using an approach termed (1)H Overhauser dynamic nuclear polarization (ODNP) NMR relaxometry that enables the sensitive and selective determination of water diffusion within 5-10 Å of a nitroxide-based spin label, positioned off the surface of the polar headgroups or within the nonpolar core of lipid membranes. The Chol-rich membrane systems were prepared from mixtures of Chol, dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine and/or dioctadecyl phosphatidylcholine lipid that are known to form liquid-ordered, raft-like, domains. Our data reveal that the translational diffusion of local water on the surface and within the hydrocarbon volume of the bilayer is significantly altered, but in opposite directions: accelerated on the membrane surface and dramatically slowed in the bilayer interior with increasing Chol content. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) lineshape analysis shows looser packing of lipid headgroups and concurrently tighter packing in the bilayer core with increasing Chol content, with the effects peaking at lipid compositions reported to form lipid rafts. The complementary capability of ODNP and EPR to site-specifically probe the hydration dynamics and lipid ordering in lipid membrane systems extends the current understanding of how Chol may regulate biological processes. One possible role of Chol is the facilitation of interactions between biological constituents and the lipid membrane through the weakening or disruption of strong hydrogen-bond networks of the surface hydration layers that otherwise exert stronger repulsive forces, as reflected in faster surface water diffusivity. Another is the concurrent tightening of lipid packing that reduces passive, possibly unwanted, diffusion of ions and water across the bilayer. PMID:25494784

  13. Transient Evolution of a Planar Diffusion Flame Aft of a Translating Flat Plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gokoglu, Suleyman A.

    2003-01-01

    The high degree of spatial symmetry of a planar diffusion flame affords great simplifications for experimental and modeling studies of gaseous fuel combustion. Particularly, in a microgravity environment, where buoyancy effects are negligible, an effectively strain-rate-free, vigorous flame may be obtained. Such a flame can also provide long residence times and large length scales for practical probing of flame structures and soot processes. This 2-D numerical study explores the feasibility of establishing such a planar diffusion flame in an enclosed container utilizing a realistic test protocol for a microgravity experiment. Fuel and oxygen mixtures, initially segregated into two half-volumes of a squat rectangular container by a thin separator, are ignited as soon as a flammable mixture is formed in the wake of the separator withdrawn in the centerplane. A triple-flame ensues that propagates behind the trailing edge of the separator. The results of calculations show that the mechanically- and thermally-induced convection decays in about two seconds. The establishment of a planar diffusion flame after this period seems feasible in the central region of the container with sufficient quantities of reactants left over for subsequent studies. An analysis of the flame initiation and formation process suggests how the feasibility of creating such a flame can be further improved.

  14. Enhancing adoption of an alcohol abuse prevention program: An application of diffusion theory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Molly Laflin; Elizabeth W. Edmundson; Sarah Moore-Hirschl

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to apply diffusion theory (Rogers, 1983) to an alcohol abuse prevention program in order to\\u000a enhance program adoption. Three of the four stages of diffusion theory (dissemination, adoption, and implementation) are discussed\\u000a relative to the development and implementation of a program designed to increase awareness of the destructive effects upon\\u000a children who live with

  15. Diffusive transport enhancement by isolated resonances and distribution tails growth in hadronic beams

    SciTech Connect

    Gerasimov, A.

    1990-12-06

    The escape rates and evolution of a distribution of particles are considered for a 2-D model of transverse motion of particles in hadronic storage rings, when nonlinear resonances and external diffusion are present. Dynamic enhancement of diffusion inside separatrices can develop under a certain geometry of resonance oscillations and relatively wide resonances, leading to the fast growth of distribution tails and escape rates. The phenomenon is absent in 1-D. 10 refs., 4 figs.

  16. Numerical simulation of multicomponent gas diffusion and flow in coals for CO 2 enhanced coalbed methane recovery

    Microsoft Academic Search

    X. R. Wei; G. X. Wang; P. Massarotto; S. D. Golding; V. Rudolph

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an alternative model of multicomponent gas diffusion and flow in bulk coals, focusing on CH4–CO2 counter-diffusion associated with CO2-sequestration enhanced coalbed methane (CO2-ECBM) recovery. The model was developed based on the bidisperse diffusion mechanism and the Maxwell–Stefan (MS) diffusion theory, which provides an improved simulation of multicomponent gas diffusion dynamics. The model was firstly validated under the

  17. Zn diffusion enhancement of interdiffusion in a GaAs-InGaPAs heterostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, H.-H.; Lee, K. H.; Stevenson, D. A.

    1988-12-01

    The influence of concurrent Zn diffusion on the interdiffusion in an In0.06Ga0.94P0.05As0.95-GaAs heterostructure grown by liquid phase epitaxy was investigated. A 25 h, 700 °C diffusion anneal was performed using an equilibrium ternary diffusion source and profiles of In and P were measured with secondary-ion mass spectrometry. The Zn diffusion selectively enhances the cation (In-Ga) interdiffusion; with concurrent Zn diffusion, the interdiffusion coefficient for the In-Ga components is ?5×10-14 cm2/s, as compared to ?6×10-16 cm2/s for anions (As-P). A kick-out mechanism is proposed to explain the results.

  18. Enhancement of microhomology-mediated genomic rearrangements by transient loss of mouse Bloom syndrome helicase

    PubMed Central

    Yamanishi, Ayako; Yusa, Kosuke; Horie, Kyoji; Tokunaga, Masahiro; Kusano, Kohji; Kokubu, Chikara; Takeda, Junji

    2013-01-01

    Bloom syndrome, an autosomal recessive disorder of the BLM gene, confers predisposition to a broad spectrum of early-onset cancers in multiple tissue types. Loss of genomic integrity is a primary hallmark of such human malignancies, but many studies using disease-affected specimens are limited in that they are retrospective and devoid of an appropriate experimental control. To overcome this, we devised an experimental system to recapitulate the early molecular events in genetically engineered mouse embryonic stem cells, in which cells undergoing loss of heterozygosity (LOH) can be enriched after inducible down-regulation of Blm expression, with or without site-directed DNA double-strand break (DSB) induction. Transient loss of BLM increased the rate of LOH, whose breakpoints were distributed along the chromosome. Combined with site-directed DSB induction, loss of BLM synergistically increased the rate of LOH and concentrated the breakpoints around the targeted chromosomal region. We characterized the LOH events using specifically tailored genomic tools, such as high-resolution array comparative genomic hybridization and high-density single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping, revealing that the combination of BLM suppression and DSB induction enhanced genomic rearrangements, including deletions and insertions, whose breakpoints were clustered in genomic inverted repeats and associated with junctional microhomologies. Our experimental approach successfully uncovered the detailed molecular mechanisms of as-yet-uncharacterized loss of heterozygosities and reveals the significant contribution of microhomology-mediated genomic rearrangements, which could be widely applicable to the early steps of cancer formation in general. PMID:23908384

  19. Enhancement of an anti-tumor immune response by transient blockade of central T cell tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Imran S.; Mouchess, Maria L.; Zhu, Meng-Lei; Conley, Bridget; Fasano, Kayla J.; Hou, Yafei; Fong, Lawrence; Su, Maureen A.

    2014-01-01

    Thymic central tolerance is a critical process that prevents autoimmunity but also presents a challenge to the generation of anti-tumor immune responses. Medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs) eliminate self-reactive T cells by displaying a diverse repertoire of tissue-specific antigens (TSAs) that are also shared by tumors. Therefore, while protecting against autoimmunity, mTECs simultaneously limit the generation of tumor-specific effector T cells by expressing tumor self-antigens. This ectopic expression of TSAs largely depends on autoimmune regulator (Aire), which is expressed in mature mTECs. Thus, therapies to deplete Aire-expressing mTECs represent an attractive strategy to increase the pool of tumor-specific effector T cells. Recent work has implicated the TNF family members RANK and RANK-Ligand (RANKL) in the development of Aire-expressing mTECs. We show that in vivo RANKL blockade selectively and transiently depletes Aire and TSA expression in the thymus to create a window of defective negative selection. Furthermore, we demonstrate that RANKL blockade can rescue melanoma-specific T cells from thymic deletion and that persistence of these tumor-specific effector T cells promoted increased host survival in response to tumor challenge. These results indicate that modulating central tolerance through RANKL can alter thymic output and potentially provide therapeutic benefit by enhancing anti-tumor immunity. PMID:24752296

  20. A simple Boltzmann transport equation for ballistic to diffusive transient heat transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maassen, Jesse; Lundstrom, Mark

    2015-04-01

    Developing simplified, but accurate, theoretical approaches to treat heat transport on all length and time scales is needed to further enable scientific insight and technology innovation. Using a simplified form of the Boltzmann transport equation (BTE), originally developed for electron transport, we demonstrate how ballistic phonon effects and finite-velocity propagation are easily and naturally captured. We show how this approach compares well to the phonon BTE, and readily handles a full phonon dispersion and energy-dependent mean-free-path. This study of transient heat transport shows (i) how fundamental temperature jumps at the contacts depend simply on the ballistic thermal resistance, (ii) that phonon transport at early times approach the ballistic limit in samples of any length, and (iii) perceived reductions in heat conduction, when ballistic effects are present, originate from reductions in temperature gradient. Importantly, this framework can be recast exactly as the Cattaneo and hyperbolic heat equations, and we discuss how the key to capturing ballistic heat effects is to use the correct physical boundary conditions.

  1. Rigid polymer materials with hologram enhancement by molecular diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semenova, Irina V.; Popov, Alexander; Bartsch, Eckhard; Veniaminov, Andrey

    2003-05-01

    The principle of diffusional enhancement has been embodied in the rigid glassy polymer with phenanthrenequinone able to photochemically attach to surrounding macromolecules, thus forming a permanent grating. Owing to material stiffness, it does not suffer from shrinkage and can be made very thick; serving a basis for very stable spectrally selective elements. Replacement of commonly used acrylic glass by polycarbonate ensures further significant improvement of performance and stability of 3D holographic optical elements and memories.

  2. Cosolute Paramagnetic Relaxation Enhancements Detect Transient Conformations of Human Uracil DNA Glycosylase (hUNG)

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yan; Friedman, Joshua I.; Stivers, James T.

    2011-01-01

    The human DNA repair enzyme uracil DNA glycosylase (hUNG) locates and excises rare uracil bases that arise in DNA from cytosine deamination or through dUTP incorporation by DNA polymerases. Previous NMR studies of hUNG have revealed millisecond time scale dynamic transitions in the enzyme-nonspecific DNA complex, but not the free enzyme, that were ascribed to a reversible clamping motion of the enzyme as it scans along short regions of duplex DNA in its search for uracil. Here we further probe the properties of the nonspecific DNA binding surface of {2H12C}{15N}-labeled hUNG using a neutral chelate of a paramagnetic Gd3+ cosolute (Gd(HP-DO3A)). Overall, the measured paramagnetic relaxation enhancements (PREs) on R2 of the backbone amide protons for free hUNG and its DNA complex were in good agreement with those calculated based on their relative exposure observed in the crystal structures of both enzyme forms. However, the calculated PREs systematically underestimated the experimental PREs by large amounts in discrete regions implicated in DNA recognition and catalysis: active site loops involved in DNA recognition (268–274, 246–250), the uracil binding pocket (143–148, 169–170), a transient extrahelical base binding site (214–216), and a remote hinge region (129–132) implicated in dynamic clamping. These reactive hot spots were not correlated with electrostatic, structural or hydrophobic properties that might be common to these regions, leaving the possibility that the effects arise from dynamic sampling of exposed conformations that are distinct from the static structures. Consistent with this suggestion, the above regions have been previously shown to be flexible based on relaxation dispersion measurements and course-grained normal mode analysis. A model is suggested where the intrinsic dynamic properties of these regions allows sampling of transient conformations where the backbone amide groups have greater average exposure to solvent as compared to the static structures. We conclude that PREs derived from the paramagnetic cosolute reveal dynamic hot spots in hUNG and that these regions are highly correlated with substrate binding and recognition. PMID:22077282

  3. Stability of Streamline Upwind Petrov-Galerkin (SUPG) finite elements for transient advection-diffusion problems.

    SciTech Connect

    Shadid, John Nicolas; Bochev, Pavel Blagoveston; Gunzburger, Max Donald (Florida State University, Tallahasse, FL)

    2003-09-01

    Implicit time integration coupled with SUPG discretization in space leads to additional terms that provide consistency and improve the phase accuracy for convection dominated flows. Recently, it has been suggested that for small Courant numbers these terms may dominate the streamline diffusion term, ostensibly causing destabilization of the SUPG method. While consistent with a straightforward finite element stability analysis, this contention is not supported by computational experiments and contradicts earlier Von-Neumann stability analyses of the semidiscrete SUPG equations. This prompts us to re-examine finite element stability of the fully discrete SUPG equations. A careful analysis of the additional terms reveals that, regardless of the time step size, they are always dominated by the consistent mass matrix. Consequently, SUPG cannot be destabilized for small Courant numbers. Numerical results that illustrate our conclusions are reported.

  4. Water diffusion-exchange effect on the paramagnetic relaxation enhancement in off-resonance rotating frame

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Huiming; Xie, Yang; Ji, Tongyu

    2007-01-01

    The off-resonance rotating frame technique based on the spin relaxation properties of off-resonance T1? can significantly increase the sensitivity of detecting paramagnetic labeling at high magnetic fields. However, the in vivo detectable dimension for labeled cell clusters/tissues in T1? -weighted images is limited by the water diffusion-exchange between mesoscopic scale compartments. An experimental investigation of the effect of water diffusion-exchange between compartments on the paramagnetic relaxation enhancement of paramagnetic agent compartment is presented for in vitro/in vivo models. In these models, the size of paramagnetic agent compartment is comparable to the mean diffusion displacement of water molecules during the long RF pulses that are used to generate the off-resonance rotating frame. The three main objectives of this study were: (1) to qualitatively correlate the effect of water diffusion-exchange with the RF parameters of the long pulse and the rates of water diffusion, (2) to explore the effect of water diffusion-exchange on the paramagnetic relaxation enhancement in vitro, and (3) to demonstrate the paramagnetic relaxation enhancement in vivo. The in vitro models include the water permeable dialysis tubes or water permeable hollow fibers embedded in cross-linked proteins gels. The MWCO of the dialysis tubes was chosen from 0.1 to 15 kDa to control the water diffusion rate. Thin hollow fibers were chosen to provide sub-millimeter scale compartments for the paramagnetic agents. The in vivo model utilized the rat cerebral vasculatures as a paramagnetic agent compartment, and intravascular agents (Gd-DTPA)30-BSA were administrated into the compartment via bolus injections. Both in vitro and in vivo results demonstrate that the paramagnetic relaxation enhancement is predominant in the T1? -weighted imaging in the presence of water diffusion exchange. The T1? contrast has substantially higher sensitivity than the conventional T1 contrast in detecting paramagnetic agents, especially at low paramagnetic agent volumetric fractions, low paramagnetic agent concentrations, and low RF amplitudes. Short pulse duration, short pulse recycle delay and efficient paramagnetic relaxation can reduce the influence of water diffusion-exchange on the paramagnetic enhancement. This study paves the way for the design of off-resonance rotating experiments to detect labeled cell clusters/tissue compartments in vivo at a sub-millimeter scale. PMID:17412624

  5. Solvent-enhanced dye diffusion in polymer thin films for polymer light-emitting diode application

    E-print Network

    Solvent-enhanced dye diffusion in polymer thin films for polymer light-emitting diode application-color (red, green, and blue) polymer light-emitting diode displays was investigated in detail. After local dry transfer of dye onto a device polymer film, the dye remains on the surface of the polymer layer

  6. A combination of Al diffusion and surface nanocrystallization of carbon steel for enhanced corrosion resistance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Chen; C. J. Shang; D. Y. Li

    2009-01-01

    Surface nanocrystallization is beneficial to the corrosion resistance of passive alloys, but generally has a negative effect on the corrosion behavior of non-passive alloys due to the enhanced surface reactivity. In this study, a combination of Al diffusion treatment and surface nanocrystallization was applied to carbon steel with the aim of exploring an alternative approach to improve the corrosion resistance

  7. Wrinkles enhance the diffuse reflection from the dragonfly Rhyothemis resplendens.

    PubMed

    Nixon, M R; Orr, A G; Vukusic, P

    2015-02-01

    The dorsal surfaces of the hindwings of the dragonfly Rhyothemis resplendens (Odonata: Libellulidae) reflect a deep blue from the multilayer structure in its wing membrane. The layers within this structure are not flat, but distinctly 'wrinkled', with a thickness of several hundred nanometres and interwrinkle crest distances of 5 µm and greater. A comparison between the backscattered light from R. resplendens and a similar, but un-'wrinkled' multilayer in the damselfly Matronoides cyaneipennis (Odonata: Calopterygidae) shows that the angle over which incident light is backscattered is increased by the wrinkling in the R. resplendens structure. Whereas the reflection from the flat multilayer of M. cyaneipennis is effectively specular, the reflection from the wrinkled R. resplendens multilayer spans 1.47 steradians (equivalent to ±40° for all azimuthal angles). This property enhances the visibility of the static wing over a broader angle range than is normally associated with a smooth multilayer, thereby markedly increasing its conspicuousness. PMID:25540236

  8. A scale-based forward-and-backward diffusion process for adaptive image enhancement and denoising

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yi; Niu, Ruiqing; Zhang, Liangpei; Wu, Ke; Sahli, Hichem

    2011-12-01

    This work presents a scale-based forward-and-backward diffusion (SFABD) scheme. The main idea of this scheme is to perform local adaptive diffusion using local scale information. To this end, we propose a diffusivity function based on the Minimum Reliable Scale (MRS) of Elder and Zucker (IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 20(7), 699-716, 1998) to detect the details of local structures. The magnitude of the diffusion coefficient at each pixel is determined by taking into account the local property of the image through the scales. A scale-based variable weight is incorporated into the diffusivity function for balancing the forward and backward diffusion. Furthermore, as numerical scheme, we propose a modification of the Perona-Malik scheme (IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 12(7), 629-639, 1990) by incorporating edge orientations. The article describes the main principles of our method and illustrates image enhancement results on a set of standard images as well as simulated medical images, together with qualitative and quantitative comparisons with a variety of anisotropic diffusion schemes.

  9. Evidence from simultaneous intracellular- and surface-pH transients that carbonic anhydrase IV enhances CO2 fluxes across Xenopus oocyte plasma membranes.

    PubMed

    Musa-Aziz, Raif; Occhipinti, Rossana; Boron, Walter F

    2014-11-01

    Human carbonic anhydrase IV (CA IV) is GPI-anchored to the outer membrane surface, catalyzing CO2/HCO3 (-) hydration-dehydration. We examined effects of heterologously expressed CA IV on intracellular-pH (pHi) and surface-pH (pHS) transients caused by exposing oocytes to CO2/HCO3 (-)/pH 7.50. CO2 influx causes a sustained pHi fall and a transient pHS rise; CO2 efflux does the opposite. Both during CO2 addition and removal, CA IV increases magnitudes of maximal rate of pHi change (dpHi/dt)max, and maximal pHS change (?pHS) and decreases time constants for pHi changes (?pHi ) and pHS relaxations (?pHS ). Decreases in time constants indicate that CA IV enhances CO2 fluxes. Extracellular acetazolamide blocks all CA IV effects, but not those of injected CA II. Injected acetazolamide partially reduces CA IV effects. Thus, extracellular CA is required for, and the equivalent of cytosol-accessible CA augments, the effects of CA IV. Increasing the concentration of the extracellular non-CO2/HCO3 (-) buffer (i.e., HEPES), in the presence of extracellular CA or at high [CO2], accelerates CO2 influx. Simultaneous measurements with two pHS electrodes, one on the oocyte meridian perpendicular to the axis of flow and one downstream from the direction of extracellular-solution flow, reveal that the downstream electrode has a larger (i.e., slower) ?pHS , indicating [CO2] asymmetry over the oocyte surface. A reaction-diffusion mathematical model (third paper in series) accounts for the above general features, and supports the conclusion that extracellular CA, which replenishes entering CO2 or consumes exiting CO2 at the extracellular surface, enhances the gradient driving CO2 influx across the cell membrane. PMID:24965590

  10. Short-term increases in transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 mediate stress-induced enhancement of neuronal excitation.

    PubMed

    Weitlauf, Carl; Ward, Nicholas J; Lambert, Wendi S; Sidorova, Tatiana N; Ho, Karen W; Sappington, Rebecca M; Calkins, David J

    2014-11-12

    Progression of neurodegeneration in disease and injury is influenced by the response of individual neurons to stressful stimuli and whether this response includes mechanisms to counter declining function. Transient receptor potential (TRP) cation channels transduce a variety of disease-relevant stimuli and can mediate diverse stress-dependent changes in physiology, both presynaptic and postsynaptic. Recently, we demonstrated that knock-out or pharmacological inhibition of the TRP vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) capsaicin-sensitive subunit accelerates degeneration of retinal ganglion cell neurons and their axons with elevated ocular pressure, the critical stressor in the most common optic neuropathy, glaucoma. Here we probed the mechanism of the influence of TRPV1 on ganglion cell survival in mouse models of glaucoma. We found that induced elevations of ocular pressure increased TRPV1 in ganglion cells and its colocalization at excitatory synapses to their dendrites, whereas chronic elevation progressively increased ganglion cell Trpv1 mRNA. Enhanced TRPV1 expression in ganglion cells was transient and supported a reversal of the effect of TRPV1 on ganglion cells from hyperpolarizing to depolarizing, which was also transient. Short-term enhancement of TRPV1-mediated activity led to a delayed increase in axonal spontaneous excitation that was absent in ganglion cells from Trpv1(-/-) retina. In isolated ganglion cells, pharmacologically activated TRPV1 mobilized to discrete nodes along ganglion cell dendrites that corresponded to sites of elevated Ca(2+). These results suggest that TRPV1 may promote retinal ganglion cell survival through transient enhancement of local excitation and axonal activity in response to ocular stress. PMID:25392504

  11. M3B2 and M5B3 Formation in Diffusion-Affected Zone During Transient Liquid Phase Bonding Single-Crystal Superalloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Naicheng; Hu, Xiaobing; Liu, Jide; Jin, Tao; Sun, Xiaofeng; Hu, Zhuangqi

    2015-04-01

    Precipitates in the diffusion-affected zone (DAZ) during transient liquid phase bonding (TLP) single-crystal superalloys were observed and investigated. Small size and dendritic-shaped precipitates were identified to be M3B2 borides and intergrowth of M3B2/M5B3 borides. The orientation relationships among M3B2, M5B3, and matrix were determined using transmission electron microscope (TEM). Composition characteristics of these borides were also analyzed by TEM energy-dispersive spectrometer. Because this precipitating phenomenon deviates from the traditional parabolic transient liquid phase bonding model which assumed a precipitates free DAZ during TLP bonding, some correlations between the deviation of the isothermal solidification kinetics and these newly observed precipitating behaviors were discussed and rationalized when bonding the interlayer containing the high diffusivity melting point depressant elements and substrates of low solubility.

  12. Cladding oxidation model development based on diffusion equations and a simulation of the monoclinic-tetragonal phase transformation of zirconia during transient oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xiaoqiang; Yu, Hongxing; Jiang, Guangming; Dang, Gaojian; Wu, Dan; Zhang, Yu

    2014-08-01

    Zircaloy cladding oxidation is mostly represented by parabolic rate correlation. But the correlation approach is not suitable for long-term isothermal oxidation [4] or oxidation occurs under steam starvation conditions [5] and cannot obtain the detailed oxygen distribution which impacts the detailed mechanical behavior. To obtain the detailed oxygen distribution, a multi-phase diffusion problem with moving boundaries was introduced to simulate the cladding oxidation [9,10]. However, the hysteresis phenomenon related to the coexistence of monoclinic-tetragonal phases of zirconia which are very important to model the cladding oxidation during a LOCA, is not analyzed. In this study, a cladding oxidation model based on diffusion equations in the temperature range from 923 K to 2098 K which contains ?-Zr, ?-Zr, monoclinic-ZrO2, tetragonal-ZrO2, and cubic-ZrO2 is developed and the detailed oxygen distribution in the cladding could be obtained. It showed that the simulations of short-term and long-term isothermal oxidation, transient oxidation, and oxidation under steam starvation conditions were reasonable through comparing with the experimental data. We found that our model can give a reasonable simulation of the hysteresis phenomenon of monoclinic-tetragonal phase transformation during transient oxidation as well as a much better simulation of the hypothetical LOCA transient oxidation experiments [11] in ORNL than that by the code based on the parabolic rate correlation. This indicates that the developed model can accurately simulate the cladding oxidation during a LOCA transient.

  13. Differentiation of Reactive and Tumor Metastatic Lymph Nodes with Diffusion-weighted and SPIO Enhanced MRI

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fan; Zhu, Lei; Huang, Xinglu; Niu, Gang; Chen, Siouan

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Determination of lymphatic metastasis is of great importance for both treatment planning and patient prognosis. We aim to distinguish tumor metastatic lymph nodes (TLNs) and reactive lymph nodes (RLNs) with diffusion-weighted and superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Materials and methods Ipsilateral popliteal lymph node metastasis or lymphadenitis model was established by hock injection of either luciferase-expressing 4T1 murine breast cancer cells or Complete Freund Adjuvant (CFA) in male Balb/C mice. At different time points after inoculation, bioluminescence imaging, T2-weighted, diffusion-weighted and SPIO enhanced MRI were performed. Imaging findings were confirmed by histopathological staining. Results Size enlargement was observed in both TLNs and RLNs. At day 28, TLNs showed strong bioluminescence signal and bigger size than RLNs (p < 0.01). At early stages up to day 21, both TLNs and RLNs appeared homogeneous on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). At day 28, TLNs showed heterogeneous apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) map with significantly higher average ADC value of 0.41 ± 0.03 × 10?3 mm2/s than that of RLNs (0.34 ± 0.02 10?3 mm2/s, p < 0.05). On SPIO enhanced MRI, both TLNs and RLNs showed distinct T2 signal reduction at day 21 after inoculation. At day 28, TLNs demonstrated partial uptake of the iron oxide particles, which was confirmed by Prussian blue staining. Conclusions Both diffusion-weighted and SPIO enhanced MRI can distinguish tumor metastatic lymph nodes from reactive lymph nodes. However, neither method is able to detect tumor metastasis to the draining lymph nodes at early stages. PMID:22588595

  14. Enhanced surface diffusion through termination conversion during epitaxial SrRuO3 growth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guus Rijnders; Dave H. A. Blank; Junghoon Choi; Chang-Beom Eom

    2004-01-01

    During the initial growth of the ferromagnetic oxide SrRuO3 on TiO2-terminated SrTiO3, we observe a self-organized conversion of the terminating atomic layer from RuO2 to SrO. This conversion induces an abrupt change in growth mode from layer by layer to growth by step advancement, indicating a large enhancement of the surface diffusivity. This growth mode enables the growth of single-crystalline

  15. Enhanced surface diffusion through termination conversion during epitaxial SrRuO3 growth

    E-print Network

    Eom, Chang Beom

    Enhanced surface diffusion through termination conversion during epitaxial SrRuO3 growth Guus of the ferromagnetic oxide SrRuO3 on TiO2-terminated SrTiO3 , we observe a self-organized conversion of the terminating prerequisites to utilize all opportunities. SrRuO3 has been subject to many studies because of its unique

  16. Ion beam mixing and radiation enhanced diffusion in metal\\/ceramic interfaces

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Neubeck; C.-E. Lefaucheur; H. Hahn; A. G. Balogh; H. Baumann; K. Bethge; D. M. Rück

    1995-01-01

    Ion beam techniques are frequently used to modify the physical properties of materials. It is the aim of this contribution to obtain information on ion beam effects on irradiated metal\\/ceramic interfaces with bilayer geometry. Ion beam mixing and radiation enhanced diffusion have been investigated in CuAl2O3, AuAl2O3 and AuZrO2 samples. Specimen, with thicknesses of the metallic film in the range

  17. Al diffusion coating on Mg alloy by a surface nanocrystallization enhanced CVD process

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Weiwei Chen; Yedong He; Wei Gao

    2010-01-01

    Surface nanocrystallization by mechanical attrition was used to enhance the chemical vapor deposition process. An aluminum (Al) diffusion coating was produced on AZ91 Mg alloy surface. This process was conducted at a relatively low temperature (400°C) for a short time of 120 min. The results indicated that a continuous and dense Mg17Al12 intermetallic coating with a thickness of ?8 ?m

  18. Enhanced nitrogen removal in single-chamber microbial fuel cells with increased gas diffusion areas.

    PubMed

    Yan, Hengjing; Regan, John M

    2013-03-01

    Single-chamber microbial fuel cells (MFCs) with nitrifiers pre-enriched at the air cathodes have previously been demonstrated as a passive strategy for integrating nitrogen removal into current-generating bioelectrochemical systems. To further define system design parameters for this strategy, we investigated in this study the effects of oxygen diffusion area and COD/N ratio in continuous-flow reactors. Doubling the gas diffusion area by adding an additional air cathode or a diffusion cloth significantly increased the ammonia and COD removal rates (by up to 115% and 39%), ammonia removal efficiency (by up to 134%), the cell voltage and cathode potentials, and the power densities (by a factor of approximately 2). When the COD/N ratio was lowered from 13 to 3, we found up to 244% higher ammonia removal rate but at least 19% lower ammonia removal efficiency. An increase of COD removal rate by up to 27% was also found when the COD/N ratio was lowered from 11 to 3. The Coulombic efficiency was not affected by the additional air cathode, but decreased by an average of 11% with the addition of a diffusion cloth. Ammonia removal by assimilation was also estimated to understand the ammonia removal mechanism in these systems. These results showed that the doubling of gas diffusion area enhanced N and COD removal rates without compromising electrochemical performance. PMID:23097182

  19. An improved direct feedback linearization technique for transient stability enhancement and voltage regulation of power generators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Godpromesse Kenné; Raphaël Goma; Homère Nkwawo; Françoise Lamnabhi-Lagarrigue; Amir Arzandé; Jean Claude Vannier

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a simple improved direct feedback linearization design method for transient stability and voltage regulation of power systems is discussed. Starting with the classical direct feedback linearization technique currently applied to power systems, an adaptive nonlinear excitation control of synchronous generators is proposed, which is new and effective for engineering. The power angle and mechanical power input are

  20. NESTLE: Few-group neutron diffusion equation solver utilizing the nodal expansion method for eigenvalue, adjoint, fixed-source steady-state and transient problems

    SciTech Connect

    Turinsky, P.J.; Al-Chalabi, R.M.K.; Engrand, P.; Sarsour, H.N.; Faure, F.X.; Guo, W. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    1994-06-01

    NESTLE is a FORTRAN77 code that solves the few-group neutron diffusion equation utilizing the Nodal Expansion Method (NEM). NESTLE can solve the eigenvalue (criticality); eigenvalue adjoint; external fixed-source steady-state; or external fixed-source. or eigenvalue initiated transient problems. The code name NESTLE originates from the multi-problem solution capability, abbreviating Nodal Eigenvalue, Steady-state, Transient, Le core Evaluator. The eigenvalue problem allows criticality searches to be completed, and the external fixed-source steady-state problem can search to achieve a specified power level. Transient problems model delayed neutrons via precursor groups. Several core properties can be input as time dependent. Two or four energy groups can be utilized, with all energy groups being thermal groups (i.e. upscatter exits) if desired. Core geometries modelled include Cartesian and Hexagonal. Three, two and one dimensional models can be utilized with various symmetries. The non-linear iterative strategy associated with the NEM method is employed. An advantage of the non-linear iterative strategy is that NSTLE can be utilized to solve either the nodal or Finite Difference Method representation of the few-group neutron diffusion equation.

  1. Focal nodular hyperplasia: characterisation at gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI and diffusion-weighted MRI

    PubMed Central

    An, H S; Kim, Y J; Jung, S I; Jeon, H J

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess the enhancement patterns of hepatic focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) on gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI and diffusion-weighted (DW) MRI. Methods: This retrospective study had institutional review board approval. Gadoxetic acid-enhanced and DW MR images were evaluated in 23 patients with 30 FNHs (26 histologically proven and 4 radiologically diagnosed). The lesion enhancement patterns of the hepatobiliary phase images were classified as heterogeneous or homogeneous signal intensity (SI), and as dominantly high/iso or low SI compared with those of adjacent liver parenchyma. Heterogeneous (any) SI lesions and homogeneous low SI lesions were categorised into the fibrosis group, whereas homogeneous high/iso SI lesions were categorised into the non-fibrosis group. Additionally, lesion SI on T2 weighted images, DW images and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values were compared between the two groups. Results: The lesions showed heterogeneous high/iso SI (n=16), heterogeneous low SI (n=5), homogeneous high/iso SI (n=7) or homogeneous low SI (n=2) at the hepatobiliary phase MR images. The fibrosis group lesions were more likely to show high SI on DW images and T2 weighted images compared with those in the non-fibrosis group (p<0.05). ADC values tended to be lower in the fibrosis group than those in the non-fibrosis group without significance. Conclusion: FNH showed variable enhancement patterns on hepatobiliary phase images during gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI. SI on DW and T2 weighted images differed according to the fibrosis component contained in the lesion. Advances in knowledge: FNH shows a wide spectrum of imaging findings on gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI and DW MRI. PMID:23873903

  2. Quantum transients

    E-print Network

    A. del Campo; G. Garcia-Calderon; J. G. Muga

    2009-05-16

    Quantum transients are temporary features of matter waves before they reach a stationary regime. Transients may arise after the preparation of an unstable initial state or due to a sudden interaction or a change in the boundary conditions. Examples are diffraction in time, buildup processes, decay, trapping, forerunners or pulse formation, as well as other phenomena recently discovered, such as the simultaneous arrival of a wave peak at arbitrarily distant observers. The interest on these transients is nowadays enhanced by new technological possibilities to control, manipulate and measure matter waves.

  3. Enhanced Vapor-Phase Diffusion in Porous Media - LDRD Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, C.K.; Webb, S.W.

    1999-01-01

    As part of the Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) Program at Sandia National Laboratories, an investigation into the existence of enhanced vapor-phase diffusion (EVD) in porous media has been conducted. A thorough literature review was initially performed across multiple disciplines (soil science and engineering), and based on this review, the existence of EVD was found to be questionable. As a result, modeling and experiments were initiated to investigate the existence of EVD. In this LDRD, the first mechanistic model of EVD was developed which demonstrated the mechanisms responsible for EVD. The first direct measurements of EVD have also been conducted at multiple scales. Measurements have been made at the pore scale, in a two- dimensional network as represented by a fracture aperture, and in a porous medium. Significant enhancement of vapor-phase transport relative to Fickian diffusion was measured in all cases. The modeling and experimental results provide additional mechanisms for EVD beyond those presented by the generally accepted model of Philip and deVries (1957), which required a thermal gradient for EVD to exist. Modeling and experimental results show significant enhancement under isothermal conditions. Application of EVD to vapor transport in the near-surface vadose zone show a significant variation between no enhancement, the model of Philip and deVries, and the present results. Based on this information, the model of Philip and deVries may need to be modified, and additional studies are recommended.

  4. Determination of Thermal Diffusivities, Thermal Conductivities, and Sound Speeds of Room-Temperature Ionic Liquids by the Transient Grating Technique

    E-print Network

    Reid, Scott A.

    Determination of Thermal Diffusivities, Thermal Conductivities, and Sound Speeds of Room. The experiments give thermal diffusivities from which thermal conductivities can be determined, sound speeds not only on the sound speed but also on the thermal diffusivity and acoustic damping of the RTILs

  5. Tumor characterization in small animals using magnetic resonance-guided dynamic contrast enhanced diffuse optical tomography

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yuting; Thayer, Dave; Nalcioglu, Orhan; Gulsen, Gultekin

    2011-01-01

    We present a magnetic resonance (MR)-guided near-infrared dynamic contrast enhanced diffuse optical tomography (DCE-DOT) system for characterization of tumors using an optical contrast agent (ICG) and a MR contrast agent [Gd-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA)] in a rat model. Both ICG and Gd-DTPA are injected and monitored simultaneously using a combined MRI-DOT system, resulting in accurate co-registration between two imaging modalities. Fisher rats bearing R3230 breast tumor are imaged using this hybrid system. For the first time, enhancement kinetics of the exogenous contrast ICG is recovered from the DCE-DOT data using MR anatomical a priori information. As tumors grow, they undergo necrosis and the tissue transforms from viable to necrotic. The results show that the physiological changes between viable and necrotic tissue can be differentiated more accurately based on the ICG enhancement kinetics when MR anatomical information is utilized. PMID:22029362

  6. Tumor characterization in small animals using magnetic resonance-guided dynamic contrast enhanced diffuse optical tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yuting; Thayer, Dave; Nalcioglu, Orhan; Gulsen, Gultekin

    2011-10-01

    We present a magnetic resonance (MR)-guided near-infrared dynamic contrast enhanced diffuse optical tomography (DCE-DOT) system for characterization of tumors using an optical contrast agent (ICG) and a MR contrast agent [Gd-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA)] in a rat model. Both ICG and Gd-DTPA are injected and monitored simultaneously using a combined MRI-DOT system, resulting in accurate co-registration between two imaging modalities. Fisher rats bearing R3230 breast tumor are imaged using this hybrid system. For the first time, enhancement kinetics of the exogenous contrast ICG is recovered from the DCE-DOT data using MR anatomical a priori information. As tumors grow, they undergo necrosis and the tissue transforms from viable to necrotic. The results show that the physiological changes between viable and necrotic tissue can be differentiated more accurately based on the ICG enhancement kinetics when MR anatomical information is utilized.

  7. Tumor characterization in small animals using magnetic resonance-guided dynamic contrast enhanced diffuse optical tomography.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yuting; Thayer, Dave; Nalcioglu, Orhan; Gulsen, Gultekin

    2011-10-01

    We present a magnetic resonance (MR)-guided near-infrared dynamic contrast enhanced diffuse optical tomography (DCE-DOT) system for characterization of tumors using an optical contrast agent (ICG) and a MR contrast agent [Gd-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA)] in a rat model. Both ICG and Gd-DTPA are injected and monitored simultaneously using a combined MRI-DOT system, resulting in accurate co-registration between two imaging modalities. Fisher rats bearing R3230 breast tumor are imaged using this hybrid system. For the first time, enhancement kinetics of the exogenous contrast ICG is recovered from the DCE-DOT data using MR anatomical a priori information. As tumors grow, they undergo necrosis and the tissue transforms from viable to necrotic. The results show that the physiological changes between viable and necrotic tissue can be differentiated more accurately based on the ICG enhancement kinetics when MR anatomical information is utilized. PMID:22029362

  8. A New Transient Two-Wire Method for Measuring the Thermal Diffusivity of Electrically Conducting and Highly Corrosive Liquids Using Small Samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadjo, A.; Garnier, J.-P.; Maye, J. P.; Martemianov, S.

    2008-08-01

    The transient hot-wire (THW) technique is widely used for measurements of the thermal conductivity of most fluids, and some attempts have also been carried out for simultaneous measurements of the thermal diffusivity with the same hot wire. However, for some particular liquids like concentrated nitric acid solutions or similar nitric mixtures, for which the thermal properties are important for industrial or security applications, this technique may be difficult to use, because of possible technological incompatibilities between measurement probe materials and highly electrically conducting and corrosive liquids. Moreover, the possible highly energetic (explosive) character of these liquids requires minimum volume liquid samples and safety measurement devices and processes. It is the purpose of this paper to report on a modified THW technique (previously used for thermal-diffusivity measurements in soils), which is associated with a specific patented double-wire probe and is shown to be valid for direct thermal-diffusivity measurements in liquids. This method responds to the previous requirements and allows automatic and quasi-simultaneous thermal-conductivity and thermal-diffusivity measurements to be made safely on liquids compatible with the tantalum technology, with liquid sample volumes < 2 cm3. Low uncertainties are found for the thermal-diffusivity data when relative measurements are carried out with reference liquids like water or toluene.

  9. An extended convection diffusion model for red blood cell-enhanced transport of thrombocytes and leukocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hund, S. J.; Antaki, J. F.

    2009-10-01

    Transport phenomena of platelets and white blood cells (WBCs) are fundamental to the processes of vascular disease and thrombosis. Unfortunately, the dilute volume occupied by these cells is not amenable to fluid-continuum modeling, and yet the cell count is large enough that modeling each individual cell is impractical for most applications. The most feasible option is to treat them as dilute species governed by convection and diffusion; however, this is further complicated by the role of the red blood cell (RBC) phase on the transport of these cells. We therefore propose an extended convection-diffusion (ECD) model based on the diffusive balance of a fictitious field potential, ?, that accounts for the gradients of both the dilute phase and the local hematocrit. The ECD model was applied to the flow of blood in a tube and between parallel plates in which a profile for the RBC concentration field was imposed and the resulting platelet concentration field predicted. Compared to prevailing enhanced-diffusion models that dispersed the platelet concentration field, the ECD model was able to simulate a near-wall platelet excess, as observed experimentally. The extension of the ECD model depends only on the ability to prescribe the hematocrit distribution, and therefore may be applied to a wide variety of geometries to investigate platelet-mediated vascular disease and device-related thrombosis.

  10. Drug diffusion from disperse systems with a hydrophobically modified polysaccharide: Enhancer vs Franz cells.

    PubMed

    Lucero, María Jesús; Claro, Carmen; Casas, Marta; Jiménez-Castellanos, María Rosa

    2013-01-30

    This study assesses the capacity of a new hydrophobically modified polysaccharide -hydroxypropyl cellulose-methyl methacrylate - to control drug release in semisolid formulations. The dispersed systems contain the new polymer, Igepal CO520 as surfactant and theophylline as model drug at three concentrations (0.5, 1 and 1.5%, w/w). Drug release study shows that the systems containing 0.5% (w/w) of drug have faster release and higher diffusion coefficient than the other two concentrations. These results can be explained by two different structures ("relaxed" and "structured") found from a rheological point of view. Also, this paper compares two different devices for testing drug release and diffusion. It has been obtained more reliable and reproducible results with Enhancer Cell respect to Franz diffusion cell. In both cases, Fickian diffusion was the mechanism predominant for all systems. Finally, the utility of this polymer has been demonstrated to make three-dimensional gel structure and control theophylline release from systems in topical application. PMID:23218277

  11. Gradual Diffusion and Punctuated Phase Space Density Enhancements of Highly Relativistic Electrons: Van Allen Probes Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, D. N.; Jaynes, A. N.; Li, X.; Henderson, M. G.; Kanekal, S. G.; Reeves, G. D.; Spence, H. E.; Claudepierre, S. G.; Fennell, J. F.; Hudson, M. K.

    2014-01-01

    The dual-spacecraft Van Allen Probes mission has provided a new window into mega electron volt (MeV) particle dynamics in the Earth's radiation belts. Observations (up to E (is) approximately 10MeV) show clearly the behavior of the outer electron radiation belt at different timescales: months-long periods of gradual inward radial diffusive transport and weak loss being punctuated by dramatic flux changes driven by strong solar wind transient events. We present analysis of multi-MeV electron flux and phase space density (PSD) changes during March 2013 in the context of the first year of Van Allen Probes operation. This March period demonstrates the classic signatures both of inward radial diffusive energization and abrupt localized acceleration deep within the outer Van Allen zone (L (is) approximately 4.0 +/- 0.5). This reveals graphically that both 'competing' mechanisms of multi-MeV electron energization are at play in the radiation belts, often acting almost concurrently or at least in rapid succession.

  12. Heat transport in the $XXZ$ spin chain: from ballistic to diffusive regimes and dephasing enhancement

    E-print Network

    J. J. Mendoza-Arenas; S. Al-Assam; S. R. Clark; D. Jaksch

    2013-06-03

    In this work we study the heat transport in an XXZ spin-1/2 Heisenberg chain with homogeneous magnetic field, incoherently driven out of equilibrium by reservoirs at the boundaries. We focus on the effect of bulk dephasing (energy-dissipative) processes in different parameter regimes of the system. The non-equilibrium steady state of the chain is obtained by simulating its evolution under the corresponding Lindblad master equation, using the time evolving block decimation method. In the absence of dephasing, the heat transport is ballistic for weak interactions, while being diffusive in the strongly-interacting regime, as evidenced by the heat-current scaling with the system size. When bulk dephasing takes place in the system, diffusive transport is induced in the weakly-interacting regime, with the heat current monotonically decreasing with the dephasing rate. In contrast, in the strongly-interacting regime, the heat current can be significantly enhanced by dephasing for systems of small size.

  13. Multispecies diffusion models: A study of uranyl species diffusion

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Chongxuan; Shang, Jianying; Zachara, John M.

    2011-12-14

    Rigorous numerical description of multi-species diffusion requires coupling of species, charge, and aqueous and surface complexation reactions that collectively affect diffusive fluxes. The applicability of a fully coupled diffusion model is, however, often constrained by the availability of species self-diffusion coefficients, as well as by computational complication for imposing charge conservation. In this study, several diffusion models with variable complexity in charge and species coupling were formulated and compared to describe reactive multi-species diffusion in groundwater. Diffusion of uranyl [U(VI)] species was used as an example in demonstrating the effectiveness of the models in describing multi-species diffusion. Numerical simulations found that a diffusion model with a single, common diffusion coefficient for all species was sufficient to describe multi-species U(VI) diffusion under steady-state condition of major chemical composition, but not under transient chemical conditions. Simulations revealed that a fully coupled diffusion model can be well approximated by a component-based diffusion model, which considers difference in diffusion coefficients between chemical components, but not between the species within each chemical component. This treatment significantly enhanced computational efficiency at the expense of minor charge conservation. The charge balance in the component-based diffusion model can be rigorously enforced, if necessary, by adding an artificial kinetic reaction term induced by the charge separation. The diffusion models were applied to describe U(VI) diffusive mass transfer in intragranular domains in two sediments collected from US Department of Energy's Hanford 300A where intragrain diffusion is a rate-limiting process controlling U(VI) adsorption and desorption. The grain-scale reactive diffusion model was able to describe U(VI) adsorption/desorption kinetics that has been described using a semi-empirical, multi-rate model. Compared with the multi-rate model, the diffusion models have the advantage to provide spatiotemporal speciation evolution within the diffusion domains.

  14. The Galactic Central Diffuse X-ray Enhancement: A Differential Absorption/Emission Analysis

    E-print Network

    Yangsen Yao; Q. Daniel Wang

    2007-07-26

    The soft X-ray background shows a general enhancement toward the inner region of the Galaxy. But whether this enhancement is a local feature (e.g., a superbubble within a distance of <= 200 pc) and/or a phenomenon related to energetic outflows from the Galactic center/bulge remains unclear. Here we report a comparative X-ray emission and absorption study of diffuse hot gas along the sight lines toward 3C 273 and Mrk 421, on and off the enhancement, but at similar Galactic latitudes. The diffuse 3/4-keV emission intensity, as estimated from the ROSAT All Sky Survey, is about three times higher toward 3C 273 than toward Mrk 421. Based on archival \\chandra grating observations of these two AGNs, we detect X-ray absorption lines (e.g., OVII Kalpha, Kbeta, and OVIII Kalpha transitions at z~0) and find that the mean hot gas thermal and kinematic properties along the two sight lines are significantly different. By subtracting the foreground and background contribution, as determined along the Mrk 421 sight line, we isolate the net X-ray absorption and emission produced by the hot gas associated with the enhancement in the direction of 3C 273. From a joint analysis of these differential data sets, we obtain the temperature, dispersion velocity, and hydrogen column density as 2.0(1.6, 2.3)E6 K, 216(104,480) km/s, and 2.2(1.4, 4.1)E19 cm^{-2}, respectively (90% confidence intervals), assuming that the gas is approximately isothermal, solar in metal abundances, and equilibrium in collisional ionization. We also constrain the effective line-of-sight extent of the gas to be 3.4(1.0, 10.1) kpc, strongly suggesting that the enhancement most likely represents a Galactic central phenomenon.

  15. Coercivity enhancements of Nd–Fe–B sintered magnets by diffusing DyHx along different axes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Tianyu; Wang, Xuejiao; Liu, Xiaolian; Wu, Chen; Yan, Mi

    2015-06-01

    Diffusing heavy rare earth elements along the grain boundaries (GBs) for Nd2Fe14B-type sintered magnets serves as an effective method to enhance coercivity and to minimize remanence loss simultaneously. Considering the texture anisotropy of Nd-rich GB phases, the coercivity incremental difference by diffusing DyHx fine powders along or perpendicular to the??<0?0?1?>??easy axis (c-axis) has been investigated. The coercivity increases more rapidly to 20.61?kOe (5.76?kOe higher than that of the as-sintered state) when diffusing along the c-axis than that diffusing perpendicular to c-axis (18.85?kOe, 4.00?kOe higher than the as-sintered state). Microstructural investigation reveals that Dy diffuses more easily towards the magnet inner part when treating along the c-axis than that for the perpendicular case due to the anisotropic distribution of the Nd-rich phase. This is verified by a higher Dy content at equivalent diffusing depth and a much deeper final diffusion distance. The local Dy-containing fractions with a stronger anisotropy field are richer for the magnet treated along the c-axis, leading to the much rapider coercivity enhancement. This work reveals that diffusion heavy rare earth along the c-axis is more effective to enhance coercivity for aligned Nd–Fe–B sintered magnets.

  16. Dynamic contrast-enhanced diffuse optical tomography (DCE-DOT): experimental validation with a dynamic phantom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burcin Unlu, Mehmet; Lin, Yuting; Gulsen, Gultekin

    2009-11-01

    Dynamic contrast-enhanced diffuse optical tomography (DCE-DOT) can provide spatially resolved enhancement kinetics of an optical contrast agent. We undertook a systematic phantom study to evaluate the effects of the geometrical parameters such as the depth and size of the inclusion as well as the optical parameters of the background on the recovered enhancement kinetics of the most commonly used optical contrast agent, indocyanine green (ICG). For this purpose a computer-controlled dynamic phantom was constructed. An ICG-intralipid-water mixture was circulated through the inclusions while the DCE-DOT measurements were acquired with a temporal resolution of 16 s. The same dynamic study was repeated using inclusions of different sizes located at different depths. In addition to this, the effect of non-scattering regions was investigated by placing a second inclusion filled with water in the background. The phantom studies confirmed that although the peak enhancement varied substantially for each case, the recovered injection and dilution rates obtained from the percentage enhancement maps agreed within 15% independent of not only the depth and the size of the inclusion but also the presence of a non-scattering region in the background. Although no internal structural information was used in these phantom studies, it may be necessary to use it for small objects buried deep in tissue. However, the different contrast mechanisms of optical and other imaging modalities as well as imperfect co-registration between both modalities may lead to potential errors in the structural a priori. Therefore, the effect of erroneous selection of structural priors was investigated as the final step. Again, the injection and dilution rates obtained from the percentage enhancement maps were also immune to the systematic errors introduced by erroneous selection of the structural priors, e.g. choosing the diameter of the inclusion 20% smaller increased the peak enhancement 60% but changed the injection and dilution rates only less than 10%.

  17. Coronary Plaque Boundary Enhancement in IVUS Image by Using a Modified Perona-Malik Diffusion Filter

    PubMed Central

    Anam, S.; Uchino, E.; Suetake, N.

    2014-01-01

    We propose a modified Perona-Malik diffusion (PMD) filter to enhance a coronary plaque boundary by considering the conditions peculiar to an intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) image. The IVUS image is commonly used for a diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). The IVUS image is however very grainy due to heavy speckle noise. When the normal PMD filter is applied for speckle noise reduction in the IVUS image, the coronary plaque boundary becomes vague. For this problem, we propose a modified PMD filter which is designed in special reference to the coronary plaque boundary detection. It can then not only reduce the speckle noise but also enhance clearly the coronary plaque boundary. After applying the modified PMD filter to the IVUS image, the coronary plaque boundaries are successfully detected further by applying the Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy model. The accuracy of the proposed method has been confirmed numerically by the experiments. PMID:25506357

  18. Transient multidimensional second law analysis of solar collectors subjected to time-varying insolation with diffuse components

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. O. Onyegegbu; J. Morhenne

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents an unsteady two-dimensional analysis of a flat-plate solar collector subjected to time varying insolation with considerable diffuse components as a better characterization of practical solar collectors. The analysis considers the thermal masses of the absorber, tube, glazing, and the working fluid in the system, as well as the different optical and thermodynamic properties of beam and diffuse

  19. Multispecies diffusion models: A study of uranyl species diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chongxuan; Shang, Jianying; Zachara, John M.

    2011-12-01

    Rigorous numerical description of multispecies diffusion requires coupling of species, charge, and aqueous and surface complexation reactions that collectively affect diffusive fluxes. The applicability of a fully coupled diffusion model is, however, often constrained by the availability of species self-diffusion coefficients, as well as by computational complication in imposing charge conservation. In this study, several diffusion models with variable complexity in charge and species coupling were formulated and compared to describe reactive multispecies diffusion in groundwater. Diffusion of uranyl [U(VI)] species was used as an example in demonstrating the effectiveness of the models in describing multispecies diffusion. Numerical simulations found that a diffusion model with a single, common diffusion coefficient for all species was sufficient to describe multispecies U(VI) diffusion under a steady state condition of major chemical composition, but not under transient chemical conditions. Simulations revealed that for multispecies U(VI) diffusion under transient chemical conditions, a fully coupled diffusion model could be well approximated by a component-based diffusion model when the diffusion coefficient for each chemical component was properly selected. The component-based diffusion model considers the difference in diffusion coefficients between chemical components, but not between the species within each chemical component. This treatment significantly enhanced computational efficiency at the expense of minor charge conservation. The charge balance in the component-based diffusion model can be enforced, if necessary, by adding a secondary migration term resulting from model simplification. The effect of ion activity coefficient gradients on multispecies diffusion is also discussed. The diffusion models were applied to describe U(VI) diffusive mass transfer in intragranular domains in two sediments collected from U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford 300A, where intragranular diffusion is a rate-limiting process controlling U(VI) adsorption and desorption. The grain-scale reactive diffusion model was able to describe U(VI) adsorption/desorption kinetics that had been previously described using a semiempirical, multirate model. Compared with the multirate model, the diffusion models have the advantage to provide spatiotemporal speciation evolution within the diffusion domains.

  20. 1,25 (OH)2D3 enhances PTH-induced Ca2+ transients in preosteoblasts by activating L-type Ca2+ channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, W.; Duncan, R. L.; Karin, N. J.; Farach-Carson, M. C.

    1997-01-01

    We previously demonstrated electrophysiologically that 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3] shifts the activation threshold of L-type Ca2+ channels in osteoblasts toward the resting potential and prolongs mean open time. Presently, we used single-cell Ca2+ imaging to study the combined effects of 1,25(OH)2D3 and parathyroid hormone (PTH) during generation of Ca2+ transients in fura 2-loaded MC3T3-E1 cells. Pretreatment with 1,25(OH)2D3 concentrations, which alone did not produce Ca2+ transients, consistently enhanced Ca2+ responses to PTH. Enhancement was dose dependent over the range of 1 to 10 nM and was blocked by pretreatment with 5 microM nitrendipine during pretreatment. A 1,25(OH)2D3 analog that activates L-type channels and shifts their activation threshold also enhanced PTH responses. In contrast, an analog devoid of membrane Ca2+ effects did not enhance PTH-induced Ca2+ transients. The PTH-induced Ca2+ transient involved activation of a dihydropyridine-insensitive cation channel that was inhibited by Gd3+. Together, these data suggest that 1,25(OH)2D3 increases osteoblast responsiveness to PTH through rapid modification of L-type Ca2+ channel gating properties, whose activation enhances Ca2+ entry through other channels such as the PTH-responsive, Gd(3+)-sensitive cation channel.

  1. 1H relaxation enhancement induced by nanoparticles in solutions: Influence of magnetic properties and diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruk, D.; Korpa?a, A.; Taheri, S. Mehdizadeh; Koz?owski, A.; Förster, S.; Rössler, E. A.

    2014-05-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles that induce nuclear relaxation are the most promising materials to enhance the sensitivity in Magnetic Resonance Imaging. In order to provide a comprehensive understanding of the magnetic field dependence of the relaxation enhancement in solutions, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance 1H spin-lattice relaxation for decalin and toluene solutions of various Fe2O3 nanoparticles was investigated. The relaxation experiments were performed in a frequency range of 10 kHz-20 MHz by applying Field Cycling method, and in the temperature range of 257-298 K, using nanoparticles differing in size and shape: spherical - 5 nm diameter, cubic - 6.5 nm diameter, and cubic - 9 nm diameter. The relaxation dispersion data were interpreted in terms of a theory of nuclear relaxation induced by magnetic crystals in solution. The approach was tested with respect to its applicability depending on the magnetic characteristics of the nanocrystals and the time-scale of translational diffusion of the solvent. The role of Curie relaxation and the contributions to the overall 1H spin-lattice relaxation associated with the electronic spin-lattice and spin-spin relaxation was thoroughly discussed. It was demonstrated that the approach leads to consistent results providing information on the magnetic (electronic) properties of the nanocrystals, i.e., effective electron spin and relaxation times. In addition, features of the 1H spin-lattice relaxation resulting from the electronic properties of the crystals and the solvent diffusion were explained.

  2. Integral solutions to transient nonlinear heat (mass) diffusion with a power-law diffusivity: a semi-infinite medium with fixed boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hristov, Jordan

    2015-05-01

    Closed form approximate solutions to nonlinear heat (mass) diffusion equation with power-law nonlinearity of the thermal (mass) diffusivity have been developed by the integral-balance method avoiding the commonly used linearization by the Kirchhoff transformation. The main improvement of the solution is based on the double-integration technique and a new approach to the space derivative. Solutions to Dirichlet and Neumann boundary condition problems have been developed and benchmarked against exact numerical and approximate analytical solutions available in the literature.

  3. Transient Enhancement and Detuning of Laser-Driven Parametric Instabilities by Particle Trapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vu, Hoanh X.

    2000-10-01

    Results are presented on kinetic regimes of backward stimulated Raman scattering [1] (BSRS) dominated by electron trapping in the primary daughter Langmuir wave (LW). This study is motivated by the need to understand the unexpectedly high BSRS reflectivities observed in experiments emulating the conditions of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [2,3]. In the case of BSRS, it is found in our study that electron trapping can lead to much larger transient reflectivities than predicted by standard fluid-like Zakharov models (with fixed, linear, Landau damping)in regimes with high Landau damping of the primary Langmuir wave (LW)with large values of k_1?D [4]. It is also found that the LW frequency shift associated with trapped electrons [5] introduces a secular phase shift between the LW and the BSRS ponderomotive force. This phase shift detunes and saturates BSRS and a similar effect, due to ion trapping, is now understood to be the saturation mechanism for stimulated Brillouin scattering. [1] W.L. Kruer, The Physics of Laser-Plasma Interaction (Addison-Wesley, New York, 1988). [2] J.C. Fernandez et al., Observed Insensitivity of Stimulated Raman Scattering on Electron Density, Phys. Plasmas, accepted (2000). [3] D.S. Montgomery, private communication (1999). [4] D.A. Russell, D.F. DuBois, and H.A. Rose, Phys. Plasmas 6, 1294 (1999). [5] G.J. Morales and T.M. O'Neil, Phys. Rev. Lett. 28, 417 (1972).

  4. Enhanced expression of transient receptor potential channels in idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Ying; Fantozzi, Ivana; Remillard, Carmelle V.; Landsberg, Judd W.; Kunichika, Naomi; Platoshyn, Oleksandr; Tigno, Donna D.; Thistlethwaite, Patricia A.; Rubin, Lewis J.; Yuan, Jason X.-J.

    2004-01-01

    Pulmonary vascular medial hypertrophy caused by excessive pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell (PASMC) proliferation is a major cause for the elevated pulmonary vascular resistance in patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH). Increased Ca2+ influx is an important stimulus for PASMC proliferation. Transient receptor potential (TRP) channel genes encode Ca2+ channels that are responsible for Ca2+ entry during cell proliferation. Normal human PASMC expressed multiple canonical TRP (TRPC) isoforms; TRPC6 was highly expressed and TRPC3 was minimally expressed. The protein expression of TRPC6 in normal PASMC closely correlated with the expression of Ki67, suggesting that TRPC6 expression is involved in the transition of PASMC from quiescent phase to mitosis. In lung tissues and PASMC from IPAH patients, the mRNA and protein expression of TRPC3 and -6 were much higher than in those from normotensive or secondary pulmonary hypertension patients. Inhibition of TRPC6 expression with TRPC6 small interfering RNA markedly attenuated IPAH-PASMC proliferation. These results demonstrate that expression of TRPC channels correlates with the progression of the cell cycle in PASMC. TRPC channel overexpression may be partially responsible for the increased PASMC proliferation and pulmonary vascular medial hypertrophy in IPAH patients. PMID:15358862

  5. Transient regulatory T cell ablation deters oncogene-driven breast cancer and enhances radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Bos, Paula D; Plitas, George; Rudra, Dipayan; Lee, Sue Y; Rudensky, Alexander Y

    2013-10-21

    Rational combinatorial therapeutic strategies have proven beneficial for the management of cancer. Recent success of checkpoint blockade in highly immunogenic tumors has renewed interest in immunotherapy. Regulatory T (T reg) cells densely populate solid tumors, which may promote progression through suppressing anti-tumor immune responses. We investigated the role of T reg cells in murine mammary carcinogenesis using an orthotopic, polyoma middle-T antigen-driven model in Foxp3(DTR) knockin mice. T reg cell ablation resulted in significant determent of primary and metastatic tumor progression. Importantly, short-term ablation of T reg cells in advanced spontaneous tumors led to extensive apoptotic tumor cell death. This anti-tumor activity was dependent on IFN-? and CD4(+) T cells but not on NK or CD8(+) T cells. Combination of T reg cell ablation with CTLA-4 or PD-1/PD-L1 blockade did not affect tumor growth or improve the therapeutic effect attained by T reg cell ablation alone. However, T reg cell targeting jointly with tumor irradiation significantly reduced tumor burden and improved overall survival. Together, our results demonstrate a major tumor-promoting role of T reg cells in an autochthonous model of tumorigenesis, and they reveal the potential therapeutic value of combining transient T reg cell ablation with radiotherapy for the management of poorly immunogenic, aggressive malignancies. PMID:24127486

  6. Diffusion

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Christopher Thomas (None; )

    2006-11-09

    Diffusion is the movement of particles from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration. The molecules move until equilibrium is reached. If a perfume is sprayed on one side of the room, the perfume molecules will eventually spread out all over the room until there are equal concentrations of the molecules throughout the space.

  7. On enforcing maximum principles, comparison principles, monotone property, and the non-negative constraint for linear/nonlinear and steady-state/transient diffusion-type equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakshatrala, K. B.

    2014-12-01

    The governing equations for reactive transport, under appropriate conditions, satisfy many important mathematical properties and physical constraints. To name a few: maximum principles, comparison principles, monotone property, and the non-negative constraint. Unfortunately, conventional numerical methods to solve the reactive transport equations violate these important mathematical properties and physical constraints. For example, one may obtain non-physical values (negative concentrations) under conventional numerical methods, particularly for cases with highly heterogeneous flow fields, irregular grids and full tensor dispersion. Negative concentrations cannot be tolerated when transport is coupled to nonlinear reactions. In this presentation, we discuss the performance of finite element formulations with respect to maximum principles, comparison principles, monotone property, and the non-negative constraints. We shall show that the approach of placing restrictions on the mesh and time-step is not always possible. We shall also show that the consistent Newton-Raphson, which is a standard iterative procedure for solving nonlinear problems, needs preserve these important mathematical properties for semi-linear and quasi-linear diffusion models. We will show that the Pao's method (which is based on Picard linearization) with mesh restrictions can be a viable option for solving semi-linear diffusion models. We shall also discuss the numerical convergence properties of the Pao method. Finally, we shall present optimization-based methods for steady state and transient diffusion models to meet some of these properties. The performance of various approaches will be illustrated using bimolecular (both slow and fast) reactions.

  8. A simplified implementation of a gradient-enhanced damage model with transient length scale effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saroukhani, S.; Vafadari, R.; Simone, A.

    2013-06-01

    Gradient-enhanced damage models with constant gradient activity suffer from spurious damage growth at high deformation levels. This issue was resolved by Geers et al. (Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 160(1-2):133-153, 1998) by expressing the gradient activity parameter as a function of the local equivalent strain at the expense of adding one set of degrees of freedom to those of the standard model. In this contribution, a new formulation of the gradient-enhanced damage model with variable length scale is presented which eliminates the need for the extra set of degrees of freedom. The merits of the proposed formulation are demonstrated, and the choice of the damage evolution law and its impact on the model performance are discussed.

  9. Fermi\\/GBM Detection of Transient Enhanced Emission from SGR J1550-5418

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuku Kaneko; Ersin Gogus; Chryssa Kouveliotou; Jonathan Granot; Enrico Ramirez-Ruiz; Alexander J. van der Horst; Anna L. Watts; Mark H. Finger; Neil Gehrels; Asaf Pe'Er; Michiel van der Klis; Andreas von Kienlin; Stefanie Wachter; Colleen A. Wilson-Hodge; Peter M. Woods

    2010-01-01

    On 2009 January 22, SGR J1550-5418 (previously known as AXP 1E 1547.0-5408) went into a very active bursting episode, and Fermi\\/GBM detected ˜450 bursts from this source on this day alone. Within the GBM data at the onset of this intense bursting period, we identified underlying enhanced persistent emission with coherent pulsation. We present the detailed timing and spectral analysis

  10. Experimental analysis for the transient temperature profiles of a fiber-enhanced polyalcohol binary system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaowu; Li, Yaochao

    2015-06-01

    Polyalcohol has poor heat conduction performance. A fiber-enhanced polyalcohol binary system tightly combines polyalcohol with a copper fiber net to improve its heat conduction performance. Compared to a polyalcohol binary system PE/TRIS without fibers, the fiber-enhanced polyalcohol PE/TRIS system shows quicker response to the external energy input. In the binary system without fibers, more input heat goes to increase the temperatures of points which are closer to the container wall. In the fiber-enhanced polyalcohol binary system, clear phase change and the resulted isothermal stage are seen for points which are close to fibers although temperatures of points which are far away from fibers rise quickly. It is because the porous structure of fibers with pore size at about 100-300 ?m can increase the equilibrium pressure and as a result, points which are closer to fibers are easier to take place phase change. Furthermore, phase change driving force is larger for points which are closer to fibers since their phase change temperatures are lower.

  11. Enhanced activation of the transient receptor potential channel TRPA1 by ajoene, an allicin derivative.

    PubMed

    Yassaka, Ricardo Tsuneo; Inagaki, Hidetoshi; Fujino, Tsuchiyoshi; Nakatani, Kei; Kubo, Tai

    2010-01-01

    TRPA1 is a calcium-permeable, nonselective cation channel expressed in the dorsal root ganglion and trigeminal ganglia nociceptive neurons. It is activated by the pungent compounds in mustard oil (AITC, allyl isothiocyanate), cinnamon (cinnamaldehyde), garlic (allicin), and is believed to mediate the inflammatory actions of environmental irritants and proalgesic agents. Thiosulfinate (allicin) and isothiocyanate (AITC) compounds contain reactive electrophilic chemical groups that react with cysteine residues within the TRPA1 channel N terminus, leading to channel activation. Ajoene also contains reactive electrophilic chemical groups likely to target TRPA1 channel. Here, we have used voltage-clamp recordings to show that TRPA1-responses are enhanced by ajoene application in a Xenopus oocyte expression system. Though ajoene alone did not activate TRPA1, subsequent application of ajoene enhanced the AITC-, allicin- and depolarization-induced responses of TRPA1. Moreover, when increasing concentrations of ajoene were applied along with constant concentrations of allicin or AITC, stronger responses were elicited. These findings suggest that ajoene is a novel TRPA1 channel enhancer, operating in a channel-opening-dependent manner. PMID:19808063

  12. Vacancy diffusion kinetics in arsenic-rich nonstoichiometric AlAsGaAs heterostructures S. Balasubramanian and S. W. Mansour

    E-print Network

    Nolte, David D.

    Vacancy diffusion kinetics in arsenic-rich nonstoichiometric AlAsÕGaAs heterostructures S, 71.55. i, 78.20.Jq Transient-enhanced diffusion occurs in semiconductor crystals when self noticeable in heterostructures that experience enhanced intermixing at elevated temperatures relative

  13. Performance Enhancement of Pharmacokinetic Diffuse Fluorescence Tomography by Use of Adaptive Extended Kalman Filtering

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xin; Wu, Linhui; Yi, Xi; Zhang, Yanqi; Zhang, Limin; Zhao, Huijuan; Gao, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Due to both the physiological and morphological differences in the vascularization between healthy and diseased tissues, pharmacokinetic diffuse fluorescence tomography (DFT) can provide contrast-enhanced and comprehensive information for tumor diagnosis and staging. In this regime, the extended Kalman filtering (EKF) based method shows numerous advantages including accurate modeling, online estimation of multiparameters, and universal applicability to any optical fluorophore. Nevertheless the performance of the conventional EKF highly hinges on the exact and inaccessible prior knowledge about the initial values. To address the above issues, an adaptive-EKF scheme is proposed based on a two-compartmental model for the enhancement, which utilizes a variable forgetting-factor to compensate the inaccuracy of the initial states and emphasize the effect of the current data. It is demonstrated using two-dimensional simulative investigations on a circular domain that the proposed adaptive-EKF can obtain preferable estimation of the pharmacokinetic-rates to the conventional-EKF and the enhanced-EKF in terms of quantitativeness, noise robustness, and initialization independence. Further three-dimensional numerical experiments on a digital mouse model validate the efficacy of the method as applied in realistic biological systems.

  14. Performance Enhancement of Pharmacokinetic Diffuse Fluorescence Tomography by Use of Adaptive Extended Kalman Filtering.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Wu, Linhui; Yi, Xi; Zhang, Yanqi; Zhang, Limin; Zhao, Huijuan; Gao, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Due to both the physiological and morphological differences in the vascularization between healthy and diseased tissues, pharmacokinetic diffuse fluorescence tomography (DFT) can provide contrast-enhanced and comprehensive information for tumor diagnosis and staging. In this regime, the extended Kalman filtering (EKF) based method shows numerous advantages including accurate modeling, online estimation of multiparameters, and universal applicability to any optical fluorophore. Nevertheless the performance of the conventional EKF highly hinges on the exact and inaccessible prior knowledge about the initial values. To address the above issues, an adaptive-EKF scheme is proposed based on a two-compartmental model for the enhancement, which utilizes a variable forgetting-factor to compensate the inaccuracy of the initial states and emphasize the effect of the current data. It is demonstrated using two-dimensional simulative investigations on a circular domain that the proposed adaptive-EKF can obtain preferable estimation of the pharmacokinetic-rates to the conventional-EKF and the enhanced-EKF in terms of quantitativeness, noise robustness, and initialization independence. Further three-dimensional numerical experiments on a digital mouse model validate the efficacy of the method as applied in realistic biological systems. PMID:26089975

  15. Biogeochemical Processes Responsible for the Enhanced Transport of Plutonium Under transient Unsaturated Ground Water Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Fred J. Molz, III

    2010-05-28

    To better understand longer-term vadose zone transport in southeastern soils, field lysimeter experiments were conducted at the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, SC, in the 1980s. Each of the three lysimeters analyzed herein contained a filter paper spiked with different Pu solutions, and they were left exposed to natural environmental conditions (including the growth of annual weed grasses) for 11 years. The resulting Pu activity measurements from each lysimeter core showed anomalous activity distributions below the source, with significant migration of Pu above the source. Such results are not explainable by adsorption phenomena alone. A transient variably saturated flow model with root water uptake was developed and coupled to a soil reactive transport model. Somewhat surprisingly, the fully transient analysis showed results nearly identical to those of a much simpler steady flow analysis performed previously. However, all phenomena studied were unable to produce the upward Pu transport observed in the data. This result suggests another transport mechanism such as Pu uptake by roots and upward transport due to transpiration. Thus, the variably saturated flow and reactive transport model was extended to include uptake and transport of Pu within the root xylem, along with computational methodology and results. In the extended model, flow velocity in the soil was driven by precipitation input along with transpiration and drainage. Water uptake by the roots determined the flow velocity in the root xylem, and this along with uptake of Pu in the transpiration stream drove advection and dispersion of the two Pu species in the xylem. During wet periods with high potential evapotranspiration, maximum flow velocities through the xylem would approached 600 cm/hr, orders of magnitude larger that flow velocities in the soil. Values for parameters and the correct conceptual viewpoint for Pu transport in plant xylem was uncertain. This motivated further experiments devoted to Pu uptake by corn roots and xylem transport. Plants were started in wet paper wrapped around each corn seed. When the tap roots were sufficiently long, the seedlings were transplanted to a soil container with the tap root extending out the container bottom. The soil container was then placed over a nutrient solution container, and the solution served as an additional medium for root growth. To conduct an uptake study, a radioactive substance, such as Pu complexed with the bacterial siderophore DFOB, was added to the nutrient solution. After a suitable elapsed time, the corn plant was sacrificed, cut into 10 cm lengths, and the activity distribution measured. Experimental results clarified the basic nature of Pu uptake and transport in corn plants, and resulting simulations suggested that each growing season Pu in the SRS lysimeters would move into the plant shoots and be deposited on the soil surface during the Fall dieback. Subsequent isotope ratio analyses showed that this did happen. OVERALL RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS - (1) Pu transport downward from the source is controlled by advection, dispersion and adsorption, along with surface-mediated REDOX reactions. (2) Hysteresis, extreme root distribution functions, air-content dependent oxidation rate constants, and large evaporation rates from the soil surface were not able to explain the observed upward migration of Pu. (3) Small amounts of Pu uptake by plant roots and translocation in the transpiration stream creates a realistic mechanism for upward Pu migration (4) Realistic xylem cross-sectional areas imply high flow velocities under hot, wet conditions. Such flow velocities produce the correct shape for the observed activity distributions in the top 20 cm of the lysimeter soil. (5) Simulations imply that Pu should have moved into the above-ground grass tissue each year during the duration of the experiments, resulting in an activity residual accumulating on the soil surface. An isotope ratio analysis showed that the observed surface Pu residue was from the buried sources, not atmospheric fallout. (6) The

  16. Diffusion

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Since the advent of the internet, a number of artists and related organizations have become interested in utilizing the web to promulgate new forms of artistic creation and their subsequent dissemination. Supported by the Arts Council of England, these Diffusion eBooks are essentially pdf files that readers can download, print out and make into booklets. As the site suggests, "the Diffusion format challenges conventions of interactivity-blending the physical and the virtual and breaking the dominance of mouse and screen as the primary forms of human computer interaction...the format's aim is to take the reader away from the screen and computer and engage them in the process of production." There are a number of creative booklets available here for visitors, complete with instruction on how to assemble them for the desired effect. For anyone with even a remote interest in the possibilities afforded by this rather curious new form of expression, this website is worth a look.

  17. Docosahexaenoic acid attenuates hyperglycemia-enhanced hemorrhagic transformation after transient focal cerebral ischemia in rats.

    PubMed

    Lin, Y; Xu, M; Wan, J; Wen, S; Sun, J; Zhao, H; Lou, M

    2015-08-20

    Hemorrhagic transformation (HT) is a feared complication of cerebral ischemic infarction, especially following the use of thrombolytic therapy. In this study, we examined whether docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3), an omega-3 essential fatty acid family member, can protect the brain from injury and whether DHA can decrease the risk of HT enhanced by hyperglycemia after focal ischemic injury. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with 50% dextrose (6ml/kg intraperitoneally) to induce hyperglycemia 10min before 1.5h of filament middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was performed. Treatment with DHA (10mg/kg) 5min before reperfusion reduced HT and further improved the 7-day neurological outcome. It also reduced infarct volume, which is consistent with the restricted DWI and T2WI hyperintensive area. Reduced Evans Blue extravasation and increased expression of collagen IV indicated the improved integrity of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in DHA-treated rats. Moreover, DHA reduced the expression of the intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in the ischemic injured brain. Therefore, we conclude that DHA attenuated hyperglycemia-enhanced HT and improved neurological function by preserving the integrity of BBB and reducing inflammation. PMID:26102005

  18. Shape-parameterized diffuse optical tomography holds promise for sensitivity enhancement of fluorescence molecular tomography

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Linhui; Wan, Wenbo; Wang, Xin; Zhou, Zhongxing; Li, Jiao; Zhang, Limin; Zhao, Huijuan; Gao, Feng

    2014-01-01

    A fundamental approach to enhancing the sensitivity of the fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT) is to incorporate diffuse optical tomography (DOT) to modify the light propagation modeling. However, the traditional voxel-based DOT has been involving a severely ill-posed inverse problem and cannot retrieve the optical property distributions with the acceptable quantitative accuracy and spatial resolution. Although, with the aid of an anatomical imaging modality, the structural-prior-based DOT method with either the hard- or soft-prior scheme holds promise for in vivo acquiring the optical background of tissues, the low robustness of the hard-prior scheme to the segmentation error and inferior performance of the soft-prior one in the quantitative accuracy limit its further application. We propose in this paper a shape-parameterized DOT method for not only effectively determining the regional optical properties but potentially achieving reasonable structural amelioration, lending itself to FMT for comparably improved recovery of fluorescence distribution. PMID:25360379

  19. Enhanced Electro-Static Modulation of Ionic Diffusion through Carbon Nanotube Membranes by Diazonium Grafting Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Majumder, Mainak; Keis, Karin; Zhan, Xin; Meadows, Corey; Cole, Jeggan; Hinds, Bruce J

    2008-05-15

    A membrane structure consisting of an aligned array of open ended carbon nanotubes (~ 7 nm i.d.) spanning across an inert polymer matrix allows the diffusive transport of aqueous ionic species through CNT cores. The plasma oxidation process that opens CNTs tips inherently introduces carboxylic acid groups at the CNT tips, which allows for a limited amount of chemical functional at the CNT pore entrance. However for numerous applications, it is important to increase the density of carboxylic acid groups at the pore entrance for effective separation processes. Aqueous diazonium based electro-chemistry significantly increases the functional density of carboxylic acid groups. pH dependent dye adsorption-desorption and interfacial capacitance measurements indicate ~ 5-6 times increase in functional density. To further control the spatial location of the functional chemistry, a fast flowing inert liquid column inside the CNT core is found to restrict the diazonium grafting to the CNT tips only. This is confirmed by the increased flux of positively charged Ru(bi-py)3 (+2) with anionic functionality. The electrostatic enhancement of ion diffusion is readily screened in 0.1(M) electrolyte solution consistent with the membrane pore geometry and increased functional density. PMID:25132719

  20. Solid-State Solvation and Enhanced Exciton Diffusion in Doped Organic Thin Films under Mechanical Pressure.

    PubMed

    Chang, Wendi; Akselrod, Gleb M; Bulovi?, Vladimir

    2015-04-28

    Direct modification of exciton energy has been previously used to optimize the operation of organic optoelectronic devices. One demonstrated method for exciton energy modification is through the use of the solvent dielectric effects in doped molecular films. To gain a deeper appreciation of the underlying physical mechanisms, in this work we test the solid-state solvation effect in molecular thin films under applied external pressure. We observe that external mechanical pressure increases dipole-dipole interactions, leading to shifts in the Frenkel exciton energy and enhancement of the time-resolved spectral red shift associated with the energy-transfer-mediated exciton diffusion. Measurements are performed on host:dopant molecular thin films, which show bathochromic shifts in photoluminescence (PL) under increasing pressure. This is in agreement with a simple solvation theory model of exciton energetics with a fitting parameter based on the mechanical properties of the host matrix material. We measure no significant change in exciton lifetime with increasing pressure, consistent with unchanged aggregation in molecular films under compression. However, we do observe an increase in exciton spectral thermalization rate for compressed molecular films, indicating enhanced exciton diffusion for increased dipole-dipole interactions under pressure. The results highlight the contrast between molecular energy landscapes obtained when dipole-dipole interactions are increased by the pressure technique versus the conventional dopant concentration variation methods, which can lead to extraneous effects such as aggregation at higher doping concentrations. The present work demonstrates the use of pressure-probing techniques in studying energy disorder and exciton dynamics in amorphous molecular thin films. PMID:25835159

  1. Chronic oleoylethanolamide treatment improves spatial cognitive deficits through enhancing hippocampal neurogenesis after transient focal cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Yang, Li-Chao; Guo, Han; Zhou, Hao; Suo, Da-Qin; Li, Wen-Jun; Zhou, Yu; Zhao, Yun; Yang, Wu-Shuang; Jin, Xin

    2015-04-15

    Oleoylethanolamide (OEA) has been shown to have neuroprotective effects after acute cerebral ischemic injury. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of chronic OEA treatment on ischemia-induced spatial cognitive impairments, electrophysiology behavior and hippocampal neurogenesis. Daily treatments of 30 mg/kg OEA significantly ameliorated spatial cognitive deficits and attenuated the inhibition of long-term potentiation (LTP) in the middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) rat model. Moreover, OEA administration improved cognitive function in a manner associated with enhanced neurogenesis in the hippocampus. Further study demonstrated that treatment with OEA markedly increased the expressions of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors ? (PPAR?). Our data suggest that chronic OEA treatment can exert functional recovery of cognitive impairments and neuroprotective effects against cerebral ischemic insult in rats via triggering of neurogenesis in the hippocampus, which supports the therapeutic use of OEA for cerebral ischemia. PMID:25748831

  2. Analytical resolution of the reactive diffusion equation for transient electronics including materials whose porosity value changes in terms of their thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargas Toro, Agustín.

    2014-05-01

    Transient electronic devices are a new technology development whose main characteristic is that its components can disappear in a programmed and controlled way, which means such devices have a pre-engineered service life. Nowadays, transient electronics have a large application field, involving from the reduction of e-waste in the planet until the development of medical instruments and implants that can be discarded when the patients do not need it anymore, avoiding the trouble of having an extra procedure for them. These devices must be made from biocompatible materials avoiding long-term adverse effects in the environment and patients. It is fundamental to develop an analytical model that allows describing the behavior of these materials considering cases which its porosity may be constant or not, in presence of water or any other biofluid. In order to accomplish this analysis was solve the reactive diffusion equation based on Bromwich's integral and the Residue theorem for two material cases, those whose porosity is constant, and those whose porosity increases linearly in terms of its thickness, where was found a general expression. This allows to the analysis of the relation of the electric resistance (per unit length) and the rate of dissolution of the material.

  3. Optimal Analysis Method for Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Diffuse Optical Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Ghijsen, Michael; Lin, Yuting; Hsing, Mitchell; Nalcioglu, Orhan; Gulsen, Gultekin

    2011-01-01

    Diffuse Optical Tomography (DOT) is an optical imaging modality that has various clinical applications. However, the spatial resolution and quantitative accuracy of DOT is poor due to strong photon scatting in biological tissue. Structural a priori information from another high spatial resolution imaging modality such as Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) has been demonstrated to significantly improve DOT accuracy. In addition, a contrast agent can be used to obtain differential absorption images of the lesion by using dynamic contrast enhanced DOT (DCE-DOT). This produces a relative absorption map that consists of subtracting a reconstructed baseline image from reconstructed images in which optical contrast is included. In this study, we investigated and compared different reconstruction methods and analysis approaches for regular endogenous DOT and DCE-DOT with and without MR anatomical a priori information for arbitrarily-shaped objects. Our phantom and animal studies have shown that superior image quality and higher accuracy can be achieved using DCE-DOT together with MR structural a priori information. Hence, implementation of a combined MRI-DOT system to image ICG enhancement can potentially be a promising tool for breast cancer imaging. PMID:21811492

  4. Noninvasive assessment of the brain redox status after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion using Overhauser-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Yamato, Mayumi; Shiba, Takeshi; Yamada, Ken-ichi; Watanabe, Toshiaki; Utsumi, Hideo

    2009-10-01

    Oxidative stress has been implicated in the cell death that occurs after ischemia-reperfusion of the brain, which causes the production of reactive oxygen species and a decrease in antioxidants, leading to mitochondrial dysfunction. However, the invasive methods used to collect much of this evidence are themselves stress inducing, which could skew the results. In this study, we aimed at demonstrating brain redox alterations after ischemia-reperfusion noninvasively, using Overhauser-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. The reduction rate of 3-methoxycarbonyl-2,2,5,5-tetramethylpyrrolidine-L-oxyl (methoxycarbonyl-PROXYL), a redox-sensitive contrast agent, was used as an index of the redox status in vivo. No changes were observed in the antioxidant concentration, the mitochondrial complex activity, or in the redox status image intensity after 3 h of reperfusion, following transient middle cerebral artery occlusion; however, after 24 h of reperfusion, the methoxycarbonyl-PROXYL reduction rate, calculated from continuous images, had decreased significantly. Concordantly, biochemical assays showed that the concentration of ascorbic acid in the ischemic hemisphere and the activity of mitochondrial complex II had also decreased. Thus, the noninvasive imaging of the brain redox alterations faithfully reflected changes in antioxidant levels and in mitochondrial complex II activity after ischemia-reperfusion. PMID:19553909

  5. Solvent-enhanced dye diffusion in polymer thin films for color tuning of organic light-emitting diodes

    E-print Network

    for organic light-emitting diode OLED application is introduced. After an initial dye transfer from a dyeSolvent-enhanced dye diffusion in polymer thin films for color tuning of organic light-emitting in polymer-based organic light-emitting devices OLEDs demonstrates remarkable potential for commercial

  6. A stochastic model for induced seismicity based on non-linear pressure diffusion and irreversible permeability enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gischig, Valentin S.; Wiemer, Stefan

    2013-08-01

    During deep reservoir engineering projects, in which permeability is enhanced by high-pressure fluid injection, seismicity is invariably induced, posing nuisance to the local population and a potential hazard for structures. Hazard and risk assessment tools that can operate in real-time during reservoir stimulation depend on the ability to efficiently model induced seismicity. We here propose a novel modelling approach based on a combination of physical considerations and stochastic elements. It can model a large number of synthetic event catalogues, and at the same time is constrained by observations of hydraulic behaviour in the injection well. We model fluid flow using non-linear pressure diffusion equations, in which permeability increases irreversibly above a prescribed pressure threshold. The transient pressure field is used to trigger events at so-called `seed points' that are distributed randomly in space and represent potential earthquake hypocentres. We assign to each seed point a differential stress based on the mean estimates of the in situ stress field and add a normal distributed random value. Assuming a fault orientation with respect to the stress field and a Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion, we evaluate at each time step, if a seed point is triggered through a pressure increase. A negative proportional relationship between differential stress and b values is further assumed as observed from tectonic earthquakes and in laboratory experiments. As soon as an event is triggered, we draw a random magnitude from a power-law distribution with a b value corresponding to the differential stress at the triggered seed point. We thus obtain time-dependent catalogues of seismic events including magnitude. The strategy of modelling flow and seismicity in a decoupled manner ensures efficiency and flexibility of the model. The model parameters are calibrated using observations from the Basel deep geothermal experiment in 2006. We are able to reproduce the hydraulic behaviour, the space-time evolution of the seismicity and its frequency-magnitude distribution. A large number of simulations of the calibrated model are then used to capture the variability of the process, an important input to compute probabilistic seismic hazard. We also use the calibrated model to explore alternative injection scenarios by varying injection volume, pressure as well as depth, and show the possible effect of those parameters on seismic hazard.

  7. An asixymmetric diffusion experiment for the determination of diffusion and sorption coefficients of rock samples

    SciTech Connect

    Takeda, M.; Hiratsuka, T.; Ito, K.; Finsterle, S.

    2011-02-01

    Diffusion anisotropy is a critical property in predicting migration of substances in sedimentary formations with very low permeability. The diffusion anisotropy of sedimentary rocks has been evaluated mainly from laboratory diffusion experiments, in which the directional diffusivities are separately estimated by through-diffusion experiments using different rock samples, or concurrently by in-diffusion experiments in which only the tracer profile in a rock block is measured. To estimate the diffusion anisotropy from a single rock sample, this study proposes an axisymmetric diffusion test, in which tracer diffuses between a cylindrical rock sample and a surrounding solution reservoir. The tracer diffusion between the sample and reservoir can be monitored from the reservoir tracer concentrations, and the tracer profile could also be obtained after dismantling the sample. Semi-analytical solutions are derived for tracer concentrations in both the reservoir and sample, accounting for an anisotropic diffusion tensor of rank two as well as the dilution effects from sampling and replacement of reservoir solution. The transient and steady-state analyses were examined experimentally and numerically for different experimental configurations, but without the need for tracer profiling. These experimental configurations are tested for in- and out-diffusion experiments using Koetoi and Wakkanai mudstones and Shirahama sandstone, and are scrutinized by a numerical approach to identify favorable conditions for parameter estimation. The analysis reveals the difficulty in estimating diffusion anisotropy; test configurations are proposed for enhanced identifiability of diffusion anisotropy. Moreover, it is demonstrated that the axisymmetric diffusion test is efficient in obtaining the sorption parameter from both steady-state and transient data, and in determining the effective diffusion coefficient if isotropic diffusion is assumed. Moreover, measuring reservoir concentrations in an axisymmetric diffusion experiment coupled with tracer profiling may be a promising approach to estimate of diffusion anisotropy of sedimentary rocks.

  8. Transient-mode liquid phase epitaxial growth of GaAs on GaAs-coated Si substrates prepared by migration-enhanced molecular beam epitaxy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shuji Nakamura; Shiro Sakai; Shi S. Chang; Ramu V. Ramaswamy; Jae-Hoon Kim; Gouri Radhakrishnan; John K. Liu; Joseph Katz

    1989-01-01

    Planar oxide-maskless growth of GaAs was demonstrated by transient-mode liquid phase epitaxy (TMLPE) on GaAs-coated Si substrates that were prepared by migration-enhanced molecular beam epitaxy (MEMBE). In TMLPE, the cool substrate was brought into contact with hot melts for a short time. A GaAs layer as thick as 30 microns was grown in 10 sec. The etch pits observed in

  9. A cell-penetrating phospholamban-specific RNA aptamer enhances Ca2+ transients and contractile function in cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Hiroki; Ikeda, Yasuhiro; Honda, Takeshi; Tanaka, Yoshie; Shiraishi, Kozo; Inui, Makoto

    2014-11-01

    The sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase 2a (SERCA2a)-phospholamban (PLN) system of sarcoplasmic reticulum plays a pivotal role in regulation of intracellular Ca(2+) cycling in ventricular cardiomyocytes. Given that Ca(2+) cycling is impaired in heart failure, proteins that contribute to this process are potential targets for the treatment of this condition. We have now isolated PLN-specific aptamers with a phosphorothioate-modified backbone from a library of RNA molecules containing a randomized 40-nucleotide sequence by application of the systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX) protocol with a fusion protein containing the cytoplasmic region of human PLN. One of these aptamers was shortened to a 30-nucleotide oligomer (RNA-Apt30) without loss of function. RNA-Apt30 showed a high affinity for the cytoplasmic region of PLN (Kd=11 nM), but it did not bind to the phosphorylated form of PLN or to a phosphomimetic mutant. It also increased SERCA2a activity in isolated cardiac SR vesicles with an EC50 of 18 nM by relieving PLN-mediated inhibition. Conjugation of RNA-Apt30 to a cell-penetrating peptide allowed its delivery into adult rat cardiomyocytes, in which it enhanced both Ca(2+) transients and contractile function. These effects of the aptamer were also apparent in the presence of the ?-adrenergic receptor antagonist propranolol. This cell-penetrating PLN aptamer may thus provide a basis for the development of new therapeutic agents for heart failure without the need for gene transfer or a change in endogenous protein expression. PMID:25240642

  10. Coercivity enhancement of anisotropic die-upset Nd-Fe-B powders by Pr-Cu alloy diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Fangming; Han, Jingzhi; Zhang, Yinfeng; Zhang, Xiaodong; Yang, Jinbo; Yang, Yingchang; Hu, Boping; Rao, Xiaolei; Cai, Daoyan; Chen, Zhian; Chen, Renjie; Yan, Aru

    2013-05-01

    The grain boundary diffusion treatment using the low melting point Pr-Cu eutectic alloy was applied to enhance the coercivity of anisotropic die-upset Nd-Fe-B powders. It was found that the room temperature coercivity of the powders increases from 13 kOe to 24 kOe. The thickness of the grain boundary layer was increased and the Fe and Co content in the grain boundary phases was decreased. The modified boundary layers may thus increase the domain wall nucleation field, leading to an enhancement in the coercivity. The diffusion of Pr-Cu alloy prevents the loss of continuity of the Nd-rich grain boundary phase and retains the crystal texture in the initial grains.

  11. Enhancing weak transient signals in SEVIRI false colour imagery: application to dust source detection in southern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, Jon E.; Brindley, Helen E.; Bryant, Robert G.; Russell, Jacqui E.; Jenkins, Katherine F.

    2013-04-01

    Understanding the processes governing the availability and entrainment of mineral dust into the atmosphere requires dust sources to be identified and the evolution of dust events to be monitored. To achieve this aim a wide range of approaches have been developed utilising observations from a variety of different satellite sensors. Global maps of source regions and their relative strengths have been derived from instruments in low Earth orbit (e.g. Total Ozone Monitoring Spectrometer (TOMS) (Prospero et al., 2002), MODerate resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) (Ginoux et al., 2012)). Instruments such as MODIS can also be used to improve precise source location (Baddock et al., 2009) but the information available is restricted to the satellite overpass times which may not be coincident with active dust emission from the source. Hence, at a regional scale, some of the more successful approaches used to characterise the activity of different sources use high temporal resolution data available from instruments in geostationary orbit. For example, the widely used red-green-blue (RGB) dust scheme developed by Lensky and Rosenfeld (2008) (hereafter LR2008) makes use of observations from selected thermal channels of the Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI) in a false colour rendering scheme in which dust appears pink. This scheme has provided the basis for numerous studies of north African dust sources and factors governing their activation (e.g. Schepanski et al., 2007, 2009, 2012). However, the LR2008 imagery can fail to identify dust events due to the effects of atmospheric moisture, variations in dust layer height and optical properties, and surface conditions (Brindley et al., 2012). Here we introduce a new method designed to circumvent some of these issues and enhance the signature of dust events using observations from SEVIRI. The approach involves the derivation of a composite clear-sky signal for selected channels on an individual time-step and pixel basis. These composite signals are subtracted from each observation in the relevant channels to enhance weak transient signals associated with low levels of dust emission. Different channel combinations are then rendered in false colour imagery to better identify dust source locations and activity. We have applied this new clear-sky difference (CSD) algorithm over three key source regions in southern Africa: the Makgadikgadi Basin, Etosha Pan, and the Namibian and western South African coast. Case studies indicate that advantages associated with the CSD approach include an improved ability to detect dust and distinguish multiple sources, the observation of source activation earlier in the diurnal cycle, and an improved ability to pinpoint dust source locations. These advantages are confirmed by a survey of four-years of data, comparing the results obtained using the CSD technique with those derived from LR2008 dust imagery. On average the new algorithm more than doubles the number of dust events identified, with the greatest improvement for the Makgadigkadi Basin and coastal regions. We anticipate exploiting this new activation record derived using the CSD approach to better understand the surface and meteorological conditions controlling dust uplift and subsequent atmospheric transport.

  12. Radiation-enhanced thermal diffusion of transition metal and rare earth ions into II-VI semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Alán.; Williams, Lamario; Gafarov, Ozarfar; Martyshkin, Dmitry; Fedorov, Vladimir; Mirov, Sergey

    2015-02-01

    We report on study of gamma radiation-enhanced thermal diffusion of Transition Metal and Rare Earth ions into IIVI semiconductor crystals. ZnSe and ZnS samples with of iron thin film deposited on one facet were sealed in evacuated quartz ampoules at 10-3 Torr. The crystals were annealed for 14 days at 950°C under ?-irradiation from 60Co source. The irradiation dose rates of 43.99 R/s, 1.81 R/s were varied by distance between 60Co source and furnaces. For comparison, the samples were also annealed without irradiation at the same temperature. The spatial distributions of transition metal were measured by absorption of focused laser radiation at 5T2-5E mid-IR transitions of iron ions. In addition, samples of ZnSe were similarly sealed in evacuated quartz ampoules in the presence of Praseodymium metal and annealed at 950°C under 43.99 R/s and 0 R/s and the diffusion lengths and Pr concentrations were compared. The ?-irradiation results in better intrusion of the iron ions from the metal film and increase of the diffusion length at ~25%, while Praseodymium diffusion is dramatically enhanced by ?-irradiation during the annealing process.

  13. Diffusion-enhanced Förster resonance energy transfer and the effects of external quenchers and the donor quantum yield.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Maik H; Dsouza, Roy N; Ghosh, Indrajit; Norouzy, Amir; Schwarzlose, Thomas; Nau, Werner M

    2013-01-10

    The structural and dynamic properties of a flexible peptidic chain codetermine its biological activity. These properties are imprinted in intrachain site-to-site distances as well as in diffusion coefficients of mutual site-to-site motion. Both distance distribution and diffusion determine the extent of Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) between two chain sites labeled with a FRET donor and acceptor. Both could be obtained from time-resolved FRET measurements if their individual contributions to the FRET efficiency could be systematically varied. Because the FRET diffusion enhancement (FDE) depends on the donor-fluorescence lifetime, it has been proposed that the FDE can be reduced by shortening the donor lifetime through an external quencher. Benefiting from the high diffusion sensitivity of short-distance FRET, we tested this concept experimentally on a (Gly-Ser)(6) segment labeled with the donor/acceptor pair naphthylalanine/2,3-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-2-ene (NAla/Dbo). Surprisingly, the very effective quencher potassium iodide (KI) had no effect at all on the average donor-acceptor distance, although the donor lifetime was shortened from ca. 36 ns in the absence of KI to ca. 3 ns in the presence of 30 mM KI. We show that the proposed approach had to fail because it is not the experimentally observed but the radiative donor lifetime that controls the FDE. Because of that, any FRET ensemble measurement can easily underestimate diffusion and might be misleading even if it employs the Haas-Steinberg diffusion equation (HSE). An extension of traditional FRET analysis allowed us to evaluate HSE simulations and to corroborate as well as generalize the experimental results. We demonstrate that diffusion-enhanced FRET depends on the radiative donor lifetime as it depends on the diffusion coefficient, a useful symmetry that can directly be applied to distinguish dynamic and structural effects of viscous cosolvents on the polymer chain. We demonstrate that the effective FRET rate and the recovered donor-acceptor distance depend on the quantum yield, most strongly in the absence of diffusion, which has to be accounted for in the interpretation of distance trends monitored by FRET. PMID:23215358

  14. Comparison of Dynamic and Liver-Specific Gadoxetic Acid Contrast-Enhanced MRI versus Apparent Diffusion Coefficients

    PubMed Central

    Morelli, John N.; Michaely, Henrik J.; Meyer, Mathias M.; Rustemeyer, Thassilo; Schoenberg, Stefan O.; Attenberger, Ulrike I.

    2013-01-01

    Background Hepatic lesions often present diagnostic connundrums with conventional MR techniques. Hepatobiliary phase contrast-enhanced imaging with gadoxetic acid can aid in the characterization of such lesions. However, quantitative measures describing late-phase enhancement must be assessed relative to their accuracy of hepatic lesion classification. Purpose: To compare quantitative parameters in gadoxetic acid contrast-enhanced dynamic and hepatobiliary phase imaging versus apparent diffusion coefficients in hepatic lesion characterization. Material and Methods 57 patients with focal hepatic lesions on gadoxetic acid MR were included. Lesion enhancement at standard post-contrast time points and in the hepatobiliary phase (HB; 15 and 25 minutes post-contrast) was assessed via calculation of contrast (CR) and enhancement ratios (ER). Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values were also obtained. Values for these parameters were compared among lesions and ROC analyses performed. Results: HB enhancement was greatest with FNH and adenomas. HB ER parameters but not HB CR could distinguish HCC from benign entities (0.9 ER ROC AUC versus 0.5 CR ROC AUC). There was no statistically significant difference found between the 15 and 25 minutes HB time points in detection of any lesion (p>0.4). ADC values were statistically significantly higher with hemangiomas (p<0.05) without greater accuracy in lesion detection relative to HB phase parameters. Conclusion Hepatobiliary phase gadoxetic acid contrast-enhanced MR characterizes focal hepatic lesions more accurately than ADC and conventional dynamic post-contrast time point enhancement parameters. ER values are generally superior to CR. No discernible benefit of 25 minute versus 15 minute delayed imaging is demonstrated. PMID:23805174

  15. High-Field Diffusion MR Histology: Image-Based Correction of Eddy-Current Ghosts in Diffusion-Weighted Rapid Acquisition With Relaxation Enhancement (DW-RARE)

    PubMed Central

    Tyszka, J. Michael; Frank, Lawrence R.

    2015-01-01

    High-resolution, diffusion-weighted (DW) MR microscopy is gaining increasing acceptance as a nondestructive histological tool for the study of fixed tissue samples. Spin-echo sequences are popular for high-field diffusion imaging due to their high tolerance to B0 field inhomogeneities. Volumetric DW rapid acquisition with relaxation enhancement (DW-RARE) currently offers the best tradeoff between imaging efficiency and image quality, but is relatively sensitive to residual eddy-current effects on the echo train phase, resulting in encoding direction-dependent ghosting in the DW images. We introduce two efficient, image-based phase corrections for ghost artifact reduction in DW-RARE of fixed tissue samples, neither of which require navigator echo acquisition. Both methods rely on the phase difference in k-space between the unweighted reference image and a given DW image and assume a constant, per-echo phase error arising from residual eddy-current effects in the absence of sample motion. Significant qualitative and quantitative ghost artifact reductions are demonstrated for individual DW and calculated diffusion tensor images. PMID:19097246

  16. High-field diffusion MR histology: image-based correction of eddy-current ghosts in diffusion-weighted rapid acquisition with relaxation enhancement (DW-RARE).

    PubMed

    Tyszka, J Michael; Frank, Lawrence R

    2009-03-01

    High-resolution, diffusion-weighted (DW) MR microscopy is gaining increasing acceptance as a nondestructive histological tool for the study of fixed tissue samples. Spin-echo sequences are popular for high-field diffusion imaging due to their high tolerance to B(0) field inhomogeneities. Volumetric DW rapid acquisition with relaxation enhancement (DW-RARE) currently offers the best tradeoff between imaging efficiency and image quality, but is relatively sensitive to residual eddy-current effects on the echo train phase, resulting in encoding direction-dependent ghosting in the DW images. We introduce two efficient, image-based phase corrections for ghost artifact reduction in DW-RARE of fixed tissue samples, neither of which require navigator echo acquisition. Both methods rely on the phase difference in k-space between the unweighted reference image and a given DW image and assume a constant, per-echo phase error arising from residual eddy-current effects in the absence of sample motion. Significant qualitative and quantitative ghost artifact reductions are demonstrated for individual DW and calculated diffusion tensor images. PMID:19097246

  17. Diffusion, Convection and Erosion on R3 Application to the Enhancement of Crossing Fibers

    E-print Network

    Eindhoven, Technische Universiteit

    1 , CASA Applied analysis, Department of Biomedical Engineering2 , BMIA Biomedical image analysis. e Abstract In this article we study both left-invariant (convection-)diffusions and left-invariant Hamilton that combines dilation and diffusion in a single evolution. In our design and analysis for appropriate linear

  18. Stable isotope-enhanced two- and three-dimensional diffusion ordered 13C-NMR spectroscopy (SIE-DOSY 13C-NMR)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stable Isotope-Enhanced Diffusion Ordered (SIE-DOSY) 13C-NMR has been applied to 13C-enriched carbohydrates and has been used to determine diffusion coefficients for pentose and hexose monosaccharides, a disaccharide and a trisaccharide. These 2D spectra were obtained with as little as 8 min of acq...

  19. Investigation of radiation enhanced diffusion of magnesium in substrates flown on the NASA genesis mission.

    SciTech Connect

    King, B. V.; Pellin, M. J.; Burnett, D. S. (Materials Science Division); (Univ. of Newcastle); (California Inst. of Tech.)

    2008-12-01

    The thermal diffusion of an Mg implant in Si has been measured with SIMS and compared to RIMS (resonant ionisation mass spectrometry) measurements of Mg implantation and diffusion in Si wafers exposed to solar wind irradiation in the NASA Genesis mission. The Genesis samples show much more surface segregation that the samples annealed in the laboratory, due to diffusion and segregation of the implanted Mg to the heavily damaged near surface regions of the Genesis wafers. This Mg transport has been modeled by solving a set of stiff differential equations and found to agree with RIMS measurements for a Mg interstitial migration energy of 0.7 eV.

  20. Enhanced diffusion in conic channels by means of geometric stochastic resonance.

    PubMed

    Vazquez, M V; Valdes-Parada, F J; Dagdug, L; Alvarez-Ramirez, J

    2011-11-01

    Geometric stochastic resonance of Brownian particles diffusing across a converging conic channel subject to oscillating forces is studied in this paper. Conic channel geometries have been previously considered as a model for transport of particles in biological membranes, zeolites, and nanostructures. For this system, a broad excess peak of the effective diffusion above the free diffusion limit is exhibited over a wide range of frequencies, suggesting a synchronization effect in the confining geometry as particles respond to the periodic modulation of the external force. This indicates that the geometric stochastic resonance effect with unbiased ac forces can be exploited for improving the transport of particles in complex geometries. PMID:22070287

  1. Enhancing the critical current properties of internal Mg diffusion-processed MgB2 wires by Mg addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, S. J.; Song, M.; Matsumoto, A.; Togano, K.; Zhang, Y.; Kumakura, H.; Takeguchi, M.; Teranishi, R.; Kiyoshi, T.

    2012-12-01

    The internal Mg diffusion (IMD) process produces a high-density MgB2 layer with high critical current properties, which makes it an attractive and promising method for fabricating MgB2 wires. We have obtained high critical current properties in our previous research. However, IMD-processed MgB2 wires can have unreacted B particles remain in the reacted layer due to the long Mg diffusion distance in the B layer during heat treatment. A reduction in the amount of unreacted B particles is expected to enhance the critical current properties. In this study, we attempted to disperse Mg powder in the B layer as an additive in order to decrease the Mg diffusion distance. We found that a 6 mol% Mg powder addition to a B layer drastically decreased the amount of unreacted B particles and enhanced the critical current density to twice the value for IMD-processed MgB2 wire with no Mg powder added. An analysis is presented that relates the microstructure to the critical current density.

  2. Evaluation of Cranial and Cervical Arteries and Brain Tissue in Transient Ischemic Attack Patients with Magnetic Resonance Angiography and Diffusion-Weighted Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jian-Long; Li, Chang-Shan; Fu, Jun-Hua; Zhang, Ke; Xu, Rui; Xu, Wen-Jian

    2015-01-01

    Background Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) have been widely used in the prediction of ischemic stroke; however, the differences of the 2 methods in detection the artery lesion differences between transient ischemic attack (TIA) and infarction patients have been long neglected. We performed the present study to investigate the differences between vessel characteristics detected by MRA and DWI in acute stroke and TIA patients. Material/Methods We classified 110 subjects into 2 groups and all the patients underwent both MRA and DWI. The degree of stenosis of cranial and cervical arteries, the distribution of the stenosis, the development and changes of the vessels, and the DWI scanning results of the brain tissue were all analyzed. Results We detected a significant difference in the number and the degree of stenosis of cranial and cervical arteries among the 3 groups (P=0.006). Compared with health controls, patients with TIA and cerebral infraction had much more severe stenosis and occlusive arteries (P<0.05). However, no significant difference was detected between TIA and cerebral infraction patients (P=0.148). Moreover, a higher rate of unilateral vertebral artery dysplasia was found in the vertebrobasilar TIA patients. Higher lesion signals were also observed by DWI in TIA patients of internal carotid artery system (4/8, 50%). Conclusions Vessel characteristics were not significantly different between TIA and infarction patients. Unilateral vertebral artery hypoplasia was a predisposing factor for vertebrobasilar TIA and ischemic focus in DWI detection was always caused by severe artery lesions. PMID:26073092

  3. Enhanced sensitivity to molecular diffusion with intermolecular double-quantum coherences: implications and potential applications.

    PubMed

    Zhong, J; Chen, Z; Kwok, E; Kennedy, S

    2001-01-01

    Apparent molecular self-diffusion rates for (1)H intermolecular double-quantum coherences (iDQCs) were measured in solvents covering a wide range of intrinsic diffusion coefficients at 1.5, 9.4 and 14T, and water iDQC diffusion-weighted images were obtained at 1.5T in human brains and at 9.4T in rat brains. Conventional single quantum coherence (SQC) measurements were also made in the same samples. Experimental results indicate that iDQCs are approximately twice as sensitive to diffusion as SQC. A general theoretical expression was derived, and a model was proposed to explain the phenomenon. Potential applications in DWI and brain fMRI were also discussed. PMID:11295344

  4. Fracture-Flow-Enhanced Matrix Diffusion in Solute Transport Through Fractured Porous Media

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu-Shu Wu; Ming Ye; E. A. Sudicky

    2010-01-01

    Over the past few decades, significant progress of assessing chemical transport in fractured rocks has been made in laboratory\\u000a and field investigations as well as in mathematic modeling. In most of these studies, however, matrix diffusion on fracture–matrix\\u000a surfaces is considered as a process of molecular diffusion only. Mathematical modeling based on this traditional concept often\\u000a had problems in explaining

  5. Photosynthesis Can Be Enhanced by Lateral CO? Diffusion inside Leaves over Distances of Several Millimeters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roland Pieruschka; Andrés Chavarría-Krauser; Kathrin Cloos; Hanno Scharr; Ulrich Schurr; Siegfried Jahnkel

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the extent to which lateral gas diffusion can influence intercellular CO? concentrations ($c_{i}$) and thus photosynthesis in leaf areas with closed stomata. Leaves were partly greased to close stomata artificially, and effects of laterally diffusing CO? into the greased areas were studied by gas-exchange measurement and chlorophyll fluorescence imaging. Effective quantum yields ($\\\\DeltaF\\/F_{m}'$) across the greased areas

  6. Enhanced diffusivity and intercell transition layers in 2-D models of passive advection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avellaneda, Marco

    1991-11-01

    A class of two-dimensional, isotropic, divergence-free vector fields is introduced and the effective diffusivity of the corresponding advection-diffusion equations is studied. These examples are very idealized flows, but they can be solved exactly in the limit Pe?1. Scaling laws D*?D0(Pe)? are obtained, where D0=molecular diffusion, Pe=Peclet number, with exponents in the range 0

  7. Significant Enhancement of Electronic Thermal Conductivity of Two-Dimensional Zero-Gap Systems by Bipolar-Diffusion Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshino, Harukazu; Murata, Keizo

    2015-02-01

    Electrical conductivity (?), thermopower (S), electronic thermal conductivity (?e), and Lorentz ratio (L = ?e/?T) are examined for two-dimensional (2D) zero-gap systems. The bipolar-diffusion (BD) effect in 2D Dirac cones is discussed for the first time. Semiclassical calculations show that L is enhanced by a factor of 200–400% as compared with the conventional Sommerfeld value L0 = 2.45 × 10?8 W·?·K?2 due to the BD effect. It is, however, shown that this enhancement is not due to the linear dispersion of the Dirac cones but due to the zero band gap and is widely expected to occur in all zero-gap systems under its charge neutrality condition. Calculations taking into account electron–hole puddles revealed that the BD effect is suppressed in pristine graphene devices affected by charged-impurity potentials.

  8. GLP-1 and exendin-4 transiently enhance GABAA receptor-mediated synaptic and tonic currents in rat hippocampal CA3 pyramidal neurons.

    PubMed

    Korol, Sergiy V; Jin, Zhe; Babateen, Omar; Birnir, Bryndis

    2015-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a hormone that stimulates insulin secretion. Receptors for GLP-1 are also found in the brain, including the hippocampus, the center for memory and learning. Diabetes is a risk factor for decreased memory functions. We studied effects of GLP-1 and exendin-4, a GLP-1 receptor agonist, on ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) signaling in hippocampal CA3 pyramidal neurons. GABA is the main inhibitory neurotransmitter and decreases neuronal excitability. GLP-1 (0.01-1 nmol/L) transiently enhanced synaptic and tonic currents, and the effects were blocked by exendin (9-39). Ten pmol/L GLP-1 increased both the spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic current (sIPSC) amplitudes and frequency by a factor of ?1.8. In 0.1, 1 nmol/L GLP-1 or 10, 50, or 100 nmol/L exendin-4, only the sIPSC frequency increased. The tonic current was enhanced by 0.01-1 nmol/L GLP-1 and by 0.5-100 nmol/L exendin-4. When action potentials were inhibited by tetrodotoxin (TTX), inhibitory postsynaptic currents decreased and currents were no longer potentiated by GLP-1 or exendin-4. In contrast, although the tonic current decreased in TTX, it was still enhanced by GLP-1 or exendin-4. The results demonstrate GLP-1 receptor regulation of hippocampal function and are consistent with GLP-1 receptor agonists enhancing GABAA signaling by pre- and postsynaptic mechanisms. PMID:25114295

  9. Diffuse and Coherent Backscattering by Discrete Random Media: Radar Reflectivity, Polarization Ratios, and Enhancement Factors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. I. Mishchenko

    1996-01-01

    It has been demonstrated recently that diffuse, incoherent multiple scattering of electromagnetic waves by media composed of randomly positioned, discrete scattering particles is always accompanied by coherent backscattering and may explain intriguing opposition phenomena observed for some solar system bodies, in particular characteristics of radar returns from ice satellite surfaces. In this paper we study theoretically photometric and polarization characteristics

  10. ICG enhanced co-registered diffuse optical tomography and photoacoustic tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Chen; Kumavor, Patrick D.; Xu, Yan; Zhu, Quing

    2013-03-01

    To overcome the intensive light scattering in the biological tissue, diffuse optical tomography (DOT) in the near infrared range for breast lesion detection usually is combined with other imaging modalities such as ultrasound, X-ray, and MRI, to provide guidance. However, the guided imaging modalities may depend on different contrast mechanics compared to the optical contrast in the DOT. As a result, they can't provide reliable guidance for diffuse optical tomography because some lesions may not be detectable by a non-optical modality but yet have high optical contrast. An imaging modality which can provide the guidance from optical contrast is desirable for DOT. In this paper, we present a system that combines diffuse optical tomography and photoacoustic tomography (PAT), to detect and characterize the deeply-seated targets embedded in a turbid medium. Photoacoustic tomography utilizes a short-pulsed laser beam to penetrate into tissue diffusively. Upon absorption of the light by the target, photoacoustic waves are generated and used to reconstruct, at ultrasound resolution, the optical absorption distribution that reveals optical contrast. The combined system used in the experiment combines a 64-channel photoacoustic system with a frequency-domain diffused optical system. To further improve the contrast, the exogenous contrast agent, indocyanine green (ICG) is used. Our experiment results show that the combined system can detect a tumormimicking phantom up to 2.5 cm in depth and 10 ?M in concentration. Mice experiments also confirmed that the combined system can detect the tumor region and monitor the ICG uptake and washout in the tumor region. This method can potentially improve the accuracy to detect the small breast lesions or any lesions which are sensitive to the reference change, such as the lesions located on the chest wall.

  11. Recombinant Modified Vaccinia Virus Ankara Generating Excess Early Double-Stranded RNA Transiently Activates Protein Kinase R and Triggers Enhanced Innate Immune Responses

    PubMed Central

    Wolferstätter, Michael; Schweneker, Marc; Späth, Michaela; Lukassen, Susanne; Klingenberg, Marieken; Brinkmann, Kay; Wielert, Ursula; Lauterbach, Henning; Hochrein, Hubertus; Chaplin, Paul; Suter, Mark

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) is an important molecular pattern associated with viral infection and is detected by various extra- and intracellular recognition molecules. Poxviruses have evolved to avoid producing dsRNA early in infection but generate significant amounts of dsRNA late in infection due to convergent transcription of late genes. Protein kinase R (PKR) is activated by dsRNA and triggers major cellular defenses against viral infection, including protein synthesis shutdown, apoptosis, and type I interferon (IFN-I) production. The poxviral E3 protein binds and sequesters viral dsRNA and is a major antagonist of the PKR pathway. We found that the highly replication-restricted modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) engineered to produce excess amounts of dsRNA early in infection showed enhanced induction of IFN-? in murine and human cells in the presence of an intact E3L gene. IFN-? induction required a minimum overlap length of 300 bp between early complementary transcripts and was strongly PKR dependent. Excess early dsRNA produced by MVA activated PKR early but transiently in murine cells and induced enhanced systemic levels of IFN-?, IFN-?, and other cytokines and chemokines in mice in a largely PKR-dependent manner. Replication-competent chorioallantois vaccinia virus Ankara (CVA) generating excess early dsRNA also enhanced IFN-I production and was apathogenic in mice even at very high doses but showed no in vitro host range defect. Thus, genetically adjuvanting MVA and CVA to generate excess early dsRNA is an effective method to enhance innate immune stimulation by orthopoxvirus vectors and to attenuate replicating vaccinia virus in vivo. IMPORTANCE Efficient cellular sensing of pathogen-specific components, including double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), is an important prerequisite of an effective antiviral immune response. The prototype poxvirus vaccinia virus (VACV) and its derivative modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) produce dsRNA as a by-product of viral transcription. We found that inhibition of cellular dsRNA recognition established by the virus-encoded proteins E3 and K3 can be overcome by directing viral overexpression of dsRNA early in infection without compromising replication of MVA in permissive cells. Early dsRNA induced transient activation of the cellular dsRNA sensor protein kinase R (PKR), resulting in enhanced production of interferons and cytokines in cells and mice. Enhancing the capacity of MVA to activate the innate immune system is an important approach to further improve the immunogenicity of this promising vaccine vector. PMID:25297997

  12. Pharmacological enhancement of disc diffusion and differentiation of healthy, ageing and degenerated discs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Rajasekaran; K. Venkatadass; J. Naresh Babu; K. Ganesh; Ajoy P. Shetty

    2008-01-01

    Degenerative disc disease (DDD) is still a poorly understood phenomenon because of the lack of availability of precise definition\\u000a of healthy, ageing and degenerated discs. Decreased nutrition is the final common pathway for DDD and the status of the endplate\\u000a (EP) plays a crucial role in controlling the extent of diffusion, which is the only source of nutrition. The vascular

  13. The Monitoring Population Density of Pests Based on Edge-enhancing Diffusion Filtering and Image Processing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yuehuan Wang; Guirong Weng

    2007-01-01

    As is known, agriculture is very important in China, but the problem about pests has hampered the further development of Chinese\\u000a agriculture. Digital image-processing technology and mathematical morphology are referred to as the main research methods,\\u000a and tiny pets like aphids among field are referred to as the research objects. Image processing technology such as edgeenhancing\\u000a diffusion filtering, mathematical morphology

  14. Irradiation-enhanced interdiffusion in the diffusion zone of U-Mo dispersion fuel in Al

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yeon Soo Kim; G. L. Hofman; Ho Jin Ryu; S. L. Hayes

    2006-01-01

    Uranium-molybdenum (U-Mo) alloy fuel particles dispersed in an aluminum (Al) matrix, designated as U-Mo\\/Al dispersion fuel,\\u000a is in the development stage in the worldwide RERTR (Reduced Enrichment for Research and Test Reactors) program. The main issue\\u000a in developing U-Mo\\/Al dispersion fuel is the diffusion reaction occurring at the interface between the fuel particles and\\u000a matrix. To accurately analyze fuel performance,

  15. Flow range enhancement by secondary flow effect in low solidity circular cascade diffusers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakaguchi, Daisaku; Tun, Min Thaw; Mizokoshi, Kanata; Kishikawa, Daiki

    2014-08-01

    High-pressure ratio and wide operating range are highly required for compressors and blowers. The technical issue of the design is achievement of suppression of flow separation at small flow rate without deteriorating the efficiency at design flow rate. A numerical simulation is very effective in design procedure, however, cost of the numerical simulation is generally high during the practical design process, and it is difficult to confirm the optimal design which is combined with many parameters. A multi-objective optimization technique is the idea that has been proposed for solving the problem in practical design process. In this study, a Low Solidity circular cascade Diffuser (LSD) in a centrifugal blower is successfully designed by means of multi-objective optimization technique. An optimization code with a meta-model assisted evolutionary algorithm is used with a commercial CFD code ANSYS-CFX. The optimization is aiming at improving the static pressure coefficient at design point and at low flow rate condition while constraining the slope of the lift coefficient curve. Moreover, a small tip clearance of the LSD blade was applied in order to activate and to stabilize the secondary flow effect at small flow rate condition. The optimized LSD blade has an extended operating range of 114 % towards smaller flow rate as compared to the baseline design without deteriorating the diffuser pressure recovery at design point. The diffuser pressure rise and operating flow range of the optimized LSD blade are experimentally verified by overall performance test. The detailed flow in the diffuser is also confirmed by means of a Particle Image Velocimeter. Secondary flow is clearly captured by PIV and it spreads to the whole area of LSD blade pitch. It is found that the optimized LSD blade shows good improvement of the blade loading in the whole operating range, while at small flow rate the flow separation on the LSD blade has been successfully suppressed by the secondary flow effect.

  16. Histogram analysis of apparent diffusion coefficient within enhancing and nonenhancing tumor volumes in recurrent glioblastoma patients treated with bevacizumab.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Rifaquat; Hamdan, Alhafidz; Zweifler, Rebecca; Jiang, Han; Norden, Andrew D; Reardon, David A; Mukundan, Srinivasan; Wen, Patrick Y; Huang, Raymond Y

    2014-08-01

    While patients with recurrent glioblastoma receiving anti-angiogenic therapy demonstrate significant response rates, the benefit on patient survival is less clear. We assessed whether histogram analysis of diffusion weighted MRI can stratify for progression-free and overall survival. Baseline and 3-6 week post-treatment MRI exams of 91 patients with recurrent glioblastoma treated with bevacizumab were retrospectively evaluated. Histograms of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) within the volume of contrast enhancing and nonenhancing T2/FLAIR lesions were analyzed using curve-fit analysis. Overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were assessed using ADC parameters in a Cox proportional hazards model adjusted for clinical variables. Baseline ADC(L)/ADC(M) within nonenhancing T2/FLAIR volume (> or ?0.64) can stratify OS (HR = 2.24, p = 0.002) and PFS (HR = 1.90, p = 0.005). %ADC(H) within enhancing T1+C volume (> or ?25 %) can also stratify OS (HR = 0.59, p = 0.034) and PFS (HR = 0.56, p = 0.01). Stratification of patient survival can be improved by merging these two ADC parameters into a single combined ADC factor (HR = 0.17, p < 0.0001). The median OS ratio of patient groups stratified by this combined factor was 2.03, larger than median OS ratio when stratifying by either %ADC(H) within T1+C volume alone (1.3) or ADC(L)/ADC(M) within T2/FLAIR alone (1.86). ADC histogram analysis within both enhancing and nonenhancing components of tumor can be used to stratify for PFS and OS in patients with recurrent glioblastoma. PMID:24805151

  17. Permeability Parameters Measured with Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI: Correlation with the Extravasation of Evans Blue in a Rat Model of Transient Cerebral Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hyun Seok; Ahn, Sung Soo; Shin, Na-Young; Kim, Jinna; Kim, Jae Hyung; Lee, Jong Eun; Lee, Hye Yeon; Heo, Ji Hoe

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to correlate permeability parameters measured with dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) using a clinical 3-tesla scanner with extravasation of Evans blue in a rat model with transient cerebral ischemia. Materials and Methods Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 13) with transient middle cerebral artery occlusion were imaged using a 3-tesla MRI with an 8-channel wrist coil. DCE-MRI was performed 12 hours, 18 hours, and 36 hours after reperfusion. Permeability parameters (Ktrans, ve, and vp) from DCE-MRI were calculated. Evans blue was injected after DCE-MRI and extravasation of Evans blue was correlated as a reference with the integrity of the blood-brain barrier. Correlation analysis was performed between permeability parameters and the extravasation of Evans blue. Results All permeability parameters (Ktrans, ve, and vp) showed a linear correlation with extravasation of Evans blue. Among them, Ktrans showed highest values of both the correlation coefficient and the coefficient of determination (0.687 and 0.473 respectively, p < 0.001). Conclusion Permeability parameters obtained by DCE-MRI at 3-T are well-correlated with Evans blue extravasation, and Ktrans shows the strongest correlation among the tested parameters. PMID:26175578

  18. Increases in reactive oxygen species enhance vascular endothelial cell migration through a mechanism dependent on the transient receptor potential melastatin 4 ion channel.

    PubMed

    Sarmiento, Daniela; Montorfano, Ignacio; Cerda, Oscar; Cáceres, Mónica; Becerra, Alvaro; Cabello-Verrugio, Claudio; Elorza, Alvaro A; Riedel, Claudia; Tapia, Pablo; Velásquez, Luis A; Varela, Diego; Simon, Felipe

    2015-03-01

    A hallmark of severe inflammation is reactive oxygen species (ROS) overproduction induced by increased inflammatory mediators secretion. During systemic inflammation, inflammation mediators circulating in the bloodstream interact with endothelial cells (ECs) raising intracellular oxidative stress at the endothelial monolayer. Oxidative stress mediates several pathological functions, including an exacerbated EC migration. Because cell migration critically depends on calcium channel-mediated Ca(2+) influx, the molecular identification of the calcium channel involved in oxidative stress-modulated EC migration has been the subject of intense investigation. The transient receptor potential melastatin 4 (TRPM4) protein is a ROS-modulated non-selective cationic channel that performs several cell functions, including regulating intracellular Ca(2+) overload and Ca(2+) oscillation. This channel is expressed in multiple tissues, including ECs, and contributes to the migration of certain immune cells. However, whether the TRPM4 ion channel participates in oxidative stress-mediated EC migration is not known. Herein, we investigate whether oxidative stress initiates or enhances EC migration and study the role played by the ROS-modulated TRPM4 ion channel in oxidative stress-mediated EC migration. We demonstrate that oxidative stress enhances, but does not initiate, EC migration in a dose-dependent manner. Notably, we demonstrate that the TRPM4 ion channel is critical in promoting H2O2-enhanced EC migration. These results show that TRPM4 is a novel pharmacological target for the possible treatment of severe inflammation and other oxidative stress-mediated inflammatory diseases. PMID:24518820

  19. Enhanced Boiling Heat Transfer in Parallel Microchannels With Diffusion Brazed Wire Mesh

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hailei Wang; Richard B. Peterson

    2010-01-01

    Flow boiling is an important process in energy conversion applications such as power generation and heating, ventilating, and air conditioning systems. Recently, it has drawn interest in the high heat flux electronics cooling community. Flow boiling enhancement, in addition, has the benefit of early onset of nucleate boiling, potentially lowering wall superheat, and increasing the heat transfer coefficient and critical

  20. Hydroxylamine diffusion can enhance N?O emissions in nitrifying biofilms: a modeling study.

    PubMed

    Sabba, Fabrizio; Picioreanu, Cristian; Pérez, Julio; Nerenberg, Robert

    2015-02-01

    Wastewater treatment plants can be significant sources of nitrous oxide (N2O), a potent greenhouse gas. However, little is known about N2O emissions from biofilm processes. We adapted an existing suspended-growth mathematical model to explore N2O emissions from nitrifying biofilms. The model included N2O formation by ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) via the hydroxylamine and the nitrifier denitrification pathways. Our model suggested that N2O emissions from nitrifying biofilms could be significantly greater than from suspended growth systems under similar conditions. The main cause was the formation and diffusion of hydroxylamine, an AOB nitrification intermediate, from the aerobic to the anoxic regions of the biofilm. In the anoxic regions, hydroxylamine oxidation by AOB provided reducing equivalents used solely for nitrite reduction to N2O, since there was no competition with oxygen. For a continuous system, very high and very low dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations resulted in lower emissions, while intermediate values led to higher emissions. Higher bulk ammonia concentrations and greater biofilm thicknesses increased emissions. The model effectively predicted N2O emissions from an actual pilot-scale granular sludge reactor for sidestream nitritation, but significantly underestimated the emissions when the NH2OH diffusion coefficient was assumed to be minimal. This numerical study suggests an unexpected and important role of hydroxylamine in N2O emission in biofilms. PMID:25539140

  1. Selectively enhanced silicide formation by a gold interlayer: Probing the dominant diffusing species and reaction mechanisms during thin-film reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Chin-An; Song, Jerng-Sik

    1987-08-01

    Formation of silicides in the presence of a thin gold interlayer is studied, making use of the rapid outdiffusion of Si through gold. With Si being the dominant diffusing species, an enhanced rate is expected, as observed for PtSi, Fe3Si, CoSi, and MoSi2. No enhancement is expected when metal is the dominant diffusing species, in agreement with the results on Pt2Si, Co2Si, and Ni2Si. Such studies thus provide valuable information regarding reaction mechanisms.

  2. Proton conduction and hydrogen diffusion in olivine: Reconciling laboratory and field observations and implications for the role of grain boundary diffusion in enhanced conductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Alan G.

    2015-04-01

    Proton conduction is directly related to the diffusion of hydrogen through the Nernst-Einstein equation, but prior attempts to use this relationship have always invoked additional terms to try to reconcile proton conduction and hydrogen diffusion data. However, experimental data on hydrogen diffusion through the mineral lattice only constrain the rate of proton migration coupled with defects (such as vacancies) or coupled to polarons (electron holes mostly associated to ferric iron) and not the diffusion of uncoupled free protons. New diffusion experiments on olivine demonstrate that lattice diffusion associated to vacancies is indeed highly dependent on the defect site where hydrogen is bonded, but in any case is not fast enough to explain the observed laboratory proton conduction experiments. Hydrogen diffusion associated to polarons (redox-exchange) is significantly faster but still cannot explain the low activation energy typical of electrical conductivity measurements. A process of bulk diffusion, which combines lattice diffusion (either associated to redox-exchange or vacancies) with the far faster grain boundary diffusion, explains both the laboratory results and also field observations, and infers an average grain size of 0.5-2 cm at 100 km below the Jagersfontein kimberlite field on the Kaapvaal craton, which is consistent with petrological observations on xenolith material. Beneath the Gibeon kimberlite field on the nearby Rehoboth terrane, the higher conductivity observed cannot solely be explained by elevated temperature; either there is more water in the lithosphere (approx. double), or the average grain size is smaller (approx. half), or a combination of the two.

  3. NONLINEAR DIFFUSION Erkut Erdem

    E-print Network

    Erdem, Erkut

    NONLINEAR DIFFUSION Erkut Erdem Hacettepe University March 9th, 2013 CONTENTS 1 Perona-Malik Type Nonlinear Diffusion 1 2 Total Variation (TV) Regularization 5 3 Edge Enhancing Diffusion 8 References 11 1 PERONA-MALIK TYPE NONLINEAR DIFFUSION The main theory behind nonlinear diffusion models is to use

  4. Fabrication and evaluation of enhanced diffusion bonded titanium honeycomb core sandwich panels with titanium aluminide face sheets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffmann, E. K.; Bird, R. K.; Bales, T. T.

    1989-01-01

    A joining process was developed for fabricating lightweight, high temperature sandwich panels for aerospace applications using Ti-14Al-21Nb face sheets and Ti-3Al-2.5V honeycomb core. The process, termed Enhanced Diffusion Bonding (EDB), relies on the formation of a eutectic liquid through solid-state diffusion at elevated temperatures and isothermal solidification to produce joints in thin-gage titanium and titanium aluminide structural components. A technique employing a maskant on the honeycomb core was developed which permitted electroplating a controlled amount of EDB material only on the edges of the honeycomb core in order to minimize the structural weight and metallurgical interaction effects. Metallurgical analyses were conducted to determine the interaction effects between the EDB materials and the constituents of the sandwich structure following EDB processing. The initial mechanical evaluation was conducted with butt joint specimens tested at temperatures from 1400 - 1700 F. Further mechanical evaluation was conducted with EDB sandwich specimens using flatwise tension tests at temperatures from 70 - 1100 F and edgewise compression tests at ambient temperature.

  5. Deposition of SiO2 by Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition as the Diffusion Barrier to Polymer Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Chang Hyun; Lee, June Hee; Lim, Jong Tae; Cho, Nam Gil; Moon, Cheol Hee; Yeom, Geun Young

    2005-02-01

    SiO2 thin films were deposited at the temperatures <150°C by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) using a tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS)/N2/O2 gas mixture, and the physical and chemical characteristics as well as the characteristics as a transparent diffusion barrier to H2O were investigated. Using a gas combination of TEOS(40 sccm)/O2(500 sccm)/N2(100 sccm) at source power of 500 W and dc bias voltage of -350 V, SiO2 with a stoichometric composition of SiO2 and a smooth surface similar to the substrate could be deposited. When a multilayer diffusion barrier composed of parylene(800 nm)/SiO2(100 nm)/parylene(800 nm)/SiO2(100 nm)/parylene(800 nm) was formed on a polyethersulfone (PES) substrate, the water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) of the substrate was decreased from 54.1 to 0.3 gm/(m2\\cdotday).

  6. Dislocation Enhancement of Seismic-Frequency Attenuation: Subgrain Boundary Diffusion and Triggered, Critical Emission of Dislocations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, R. F.; McCarthy, C.

    2012-12-01

    Combined compressional creep and (Young's-modulus) attenuation experiments on polycrystalline ice-I (200 ? T[K] ? 260; 3 ? d[?m] ? 500; ?mean = 1MPa and ?? = 0.16MPa applied in a frequency range 10-4 ? ?[Hz] ? 10-1) demonstrate the attenuation behavior associated with the seismic attenuation band and the "high-temperature background," i.e., a power-law response Q-1 ? ?-m with m ~ 0.33. This response has, in general, been associated with grain boundary sliding rate-limited by atomic diffusion [e.g., 1-3], a mechanism that is very sensitive to grain size. In our experiments, however, with a grain size variation ~102, the attenuation response is independent of grain size, to first order. Scrutiny of the physics suggests that the attenuation is effected primarily by diffusive relaxation of subgrain boundaries [4, 5], the size of which, in materials deforming by a dislocation mechanism (as is the ice in our experiments), is set by the deviatoric stress [6, 7]. Applying the diffusion-effected physics to the subgrain size matches the universal scaling [e.g., 3] for materials that are linear-viscoelastic. Our ice specimens, however, demonstrate modest non-linearity, resulting in greater attenuation than that associated with the diffusion process [cf. 8] and yet retain the power-law form for attenuation, including the same slope m. The result is consistent with "self-organized critical" behavior in dislocation emission [9, 10] and the physics overall can be understood via models of self-similar scaling of crystalline (effective) viscosity [e.g., 11]. The potential application to seismic studies is profound: for example, if the upper mantle of Earth is convecting via a dislocation-creep or dislocation-accommodated grain-boundary-sliding mechanism, then the attenuation response is related not to the grain size, but rather to the subgrain structure associated with the creep of the rock. Thus, seismic attenuation measurements may well be useful for interpreting flow behavior in the mantle. [1] T.T. Gribb and R.F. Cooper, J. Geophys. Res. 103, doi:10.1029/98JB02786 (1998). [2] I. Jackson and U.H. Faul, Phys. Earth Planet. Inter. 183, doi:10.1016/j.pepi.2010.09.005 (2010). [3] C. McCarthy et al., J. Geophys. Res. 116, doi:10.1029/2011JB008384 (2011). [4] D.S. Stone et al., J. Geophys. Res. 109, doi:10.1029/2004JB003064 (2004). [5] Y. Gueguen et al., Phys. Earth Planet. Interior. 55, 254-258 (1989). [6] R.J. Twiss, Pure Appl. Geophys. 115, 227-244 (1977). [7] S.V. Raj and G.M. Pharr, Mater. Sci. Engr. 81, 217-237 (1986). [8] R.J.M. Farla et al., Science 336, 332-335 (2012). [9] T. Richeton et al., Nature Mater. 4, 465-469 (2005). [10] J. Puthoff, M.Sc. Thesis, University of Wisconsin-Madison (2005). [11] D.S. Stone, Acta Metall. Mater. 31, 599-608 (1991).

  7. Double depth-enhanced 3D integral imaging in projection-type system without diffuser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lei; Jiao, Xiao-xue; Sun, Yu; Xie, Yan; Liu, Shao-peng

    2015-05-01

    Integral imaging is a three dimensional (3D) display technology without any additional equipment. A new system is proposed in this paper which consists of the elemental images of real images in real mode (RIRM) and the ones of virtual images in real mode (VIRM). The real images in real mode are the same as the conventional integral images. The virtual images in real mode are obtained by changing the coordinates of the corresponding points in elemental images which can be reconstructed by the lens array in virtual space. In order to reduce the spot size of the reconstructed images, the diffuser in conventional integral imaging is given up in the proposed method. Then the spot size is nearly 1/20 of that in the conventional system. And an optical integral imaging system is constructed to confirm that our proposed method opens a new way for the application of the passive 3D display technology.

  8. Contrast-enhanced diffuse optical tomography of brain perfusion in humans using ICG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habermehl, Christina; Schmitz, Christoph; Steinbrink, Jens

    2012-02-01

    Regular monitoring of brain perfusion at the bedside in neurointensive care is desirable. Currently used imaging modalities are not suited for constant monitoring and often require a transport of the patient. Noninvasive near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in combination with an injection of a safe dye (indocyanine green, ICG) could serve as a quasi-continuous brain perfusion monitor. In this work, we evaluate prerequisites for the development of a brain perfusion monitor using continuous wave (cw) NIRS technique. We present results from a high-resolution diffuse optical tomography (HR-DOT) experiment in humans demonstrating the separation of signals from skin from the brain. This technique can help to monitor neurointensive care patients on a regular basis, detecting changes in cortical perfusion in time.

  9. Loss of the tectorial membrane protein CEACAM16 enhances spontaneous, stimulus-frequency, and transiently evoked otoacoustic emissions.

    PubMed

    Cheatham, Mary Ann; Goodyear, Richard J; Homma, Kazuaki; Legan, P Kevin; Korchagina, Julia; Naskar, Souvik; Siegel, Jonathan H; Dallos, Peter; Zheng, Jing; Richardson, Guy P

    2014-07-30

    ?-Tectorin (TECTA), ?-tectorin (TECTB), and carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 16 (CEACAM) are secreted glycoproteins that are present in the tectorial membrane (TM), an extracellular structure overlying the hearing organ of the inner ear, the organ of Corti. Previous studies have shown that TECTA and TECTB are both required for formation of the striated-sheet matrix within which collagen fibrils of the TM are imbedded and that CEACAM16 interacts with TECTA. To learn more about the structural and functional significance of CEACAM16, we created a Ceacam16-null mutant mouse. In the absence of CEACAM16, TECTB levels are reduced, a clearly defined striated-sheet matrix does not develop, and Hensen's stripe, a prominent feature in the basal two-thirds of the TM in WT mice, is absent. CEACAM16 is also shown to interact with TECTB, indicating that it may stabilize interactions between TECTA and TECTB. Although brain-stem evoked responses and distortion product otoacoustic emissions are, for most frequencies, normal in young mice lacking CEACAM16, stimulus-frequency and transiently evoked emissions are larger. We also observed spontaneous otoacoustic emissions (SOAEs) in 70% of the homozygous mice. This incidence is remarkable considering that <3% of WT controls have SOAEs. The predominance of SOAEs >15 kHz correlates with the loss of Hensen's stripe. Results from mice lacking CEACAM16 are consistent with the idea that the organ of Corti evolved to maximize the gain of the cochlear amplifier while preventing large oscillations. Changes in TM structure appear to influence the balance between energy generation and dissipation such that the system becomes unstable. PMID:25080593

  10. Identifying knowledge-attitude-practice gaps to enhance HPV vaccine diffusion.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Elisia L; Head, Katharine J

    2013-01-01

    To examine differences in knowledge, attitudes, and related practices among adopters and nonadopters of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, the researchers conducted 83 in-depth interviews with 18- to 26-year-old women. The study identified knowledge-attitude-practice gaps in the context of the HPV vaccine to explain why diffusion of a preventive innovation (such as the HPV vaccine) requires targeted risk communication strategies in order to increase demand. Salient findings included similarities between vaccinated and unvaccinated women's lack of knowledge and uncertainties about HPV and cervical cancer. Vaccinated women who had no knowledge of HPV or no-risk/low-risk perceptions of HPV reported receiving vaccination, indicating HPV risk protection behavior could precede knowledge acquisition for vaccinated women. These vaccinated women identified an interpersonal network supportive of vaccination and reported supportive social influences. Among unvaccinated women, unsupportive vaccination attitudes included low perceived personal risk of HPV. In contrast, unvaccinated women often cited erroneous beliefs that HPV could be avoided by abstinence, monogamy, and knowledge of their partners' sexual history as reasons that the vaccine was not personally relevant. Unvaccinated women cited interpersonal influences that activated short- and long-term vaccination safety and efficacy concerns. Different levels of fear regarding the HPV vaccine may underlie (a) attitudinal differences between vaccinated and unvaccinated women in perceived vaccination value and (b) attitude-practice gaps. PMID:23767775

  11. Solvent-enhanced Dye Diffusion in Polymer This-Films for OLED Application F. Pschenitzka, K. Long, and J. C. Sturm

    E-print Network

    Solvent-enhanced Dye Diffusion in Polymer This-Films for OLED Application F. Pschenitzka, K. Long in polymer films for organic light-emitting diode (OLED) application is introduced. After an initial dye transfer from a dye source substrate into the top of the electractive polymer film, the device substrate

  12. Enhancing effects of indirubin on the arsenic disulfide-induced apoptosis of human diffuse large B-cell lymphoma cells

    PubMed Central

    WANG, LING; LI, XIANGLU; LIU, XINYU; LU, KANG; CHEN, NA; LI, PEIPEI; LV, XIAO; WANG, XIN

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the indirubin-enhanced effects of arsenic disulfide (As2S2) on the proliferation and apoptosis of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) cells in order to identify an optimum combination therapy. The human DLBCL cells, LY1 and LY8, were treated with different concentrations of indirubin for 24, 48 and 72 h. Next, the cells were treated with 10 ?M As2S2 or a combination of 10 ?M As2S2 and 20 ?M indirubin for 48 h. Cell proliferation inhibition was detected using cell counting kit-8 and cell apoptosis was determined using flow cytometry. The expression levels of Bcl-2, Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) and caspase-3 were analyzed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and western blotting. The DLBCL cell viability exhibited no significant changes at 24, 48 or 72 h with increasing indirubin concentration. In addition, the apoptotic rates of the LY1 and LY8 cells demonstrated no noticeable effects at 48 h with increasing indirubin concentration. Following treatment with the combination of indirubin and As2S2, the inhibitory and apoptotic rates of the cells were notably increased compared with those of the As2S2-treated group. The qPCR results revealed that indirubin alone had no enhancing effect upon the Bax/Bcl-2 mRNA expression ratio and caspase-3 mRNA expression. Western blot analysis revealed that indirubin alone had an enhancing effect upon the Bax/Bcl-2 protein ratio and procaspase-3 protein expression. In addition, the results demonstrated that the 21-KDa Bax protein was proteolytically cleaved into an 18-KDa Bax in the DLBCL cells treated with the combination of indirubin and As2S2. Indirubin alone did not inhibit proliferation or induce the apoptosis of the LY1 and LY8 cells. However, the combination of indirubin and As2S2 yielded enhancing effects. Therefore, the results of the present study demonstrated that with regard to antitumor activities, As2S2 served as the principal drug, whereas indirubin served as the adjuvant drug. The enhancing effect was due, in part, to the induction of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, which involves the cleavage of Bax. PMID:25789073

  13. Indocyanine green enhanced co-registered diffuse optical tomography and photoacoustic tomography

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Chen; Kumavor, Patrick D.; Alqasemi, Umar; Li, Hai; Xu, Yan; Zanganeh, Saeid; Zhu, Quing

    2013-01-01

    Abstract. To overcome the intensive light scattering in biological tissue, diffuse optical tomography (DOT) in the near-infrared range for breast lesion detection is usually combined with other imaging modalities, such as ultrasound, x-ray, and magnetic resonance imaging, to provide guidance. However, these guiding imaging modalities may depend on different contrast mechanisms compared to the optical contrast in the DOT. As a result, they cannot provide reliable guidance for DOT because some lesions may not be detectable by a nonoptical modality but may have a high optical contrast. An imaging modality that relies on optical contrast to provide guidance is desirable for DOT. We present a system that combines a frequency-domain DOT and real-time photoacoustic tomography (PAT) systems to detect and characterize deeply seated targets embedded in a turbid medium. To further improve the contrast, the exogenous contrast agent, indocyanine green (ICG), is used. Our experimental results show that the combined system can detect a tumor-mimicking phantom, which is immersed in intralipid solution with the concentrations ranging from 100 to 10 ?M and with the dimensions of 0.8??cm×0.8??cm×0.6??cm, up to 2.5 cm in depth. Mice experiments also confirmed that the combined system can detect tumors and monitor the ICG uptake and washout in the tumor region. This method can potentially improve the accuracy to detect small breast lesions as well as lesions that are sensitive to background tissue changes, such as the lesions located just above the chest wall. PMID:24343437

  14. Indocyanine green enhanced co-registered diffuse optical tomography and photoacoustic tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Chen; Kumavor, Patrick D.; Alqasemi, Umar; Li, Hai; Xu, Yan; Zanganeh, Saeid; Zhu, Quing

    2013-12-01

    To overcome the intensive light scattering in biological tissue, diffuse optical tomography (DOT) in the near-infrared range for breast lesion detection is usually combined with other imaging modalities, such as ultrasound, x-ray, and magnetic resonance imaging, to provide guidance. However, these guiding imaging modalities may depend on different contrast mechanisms compared to the optical contrast in the DOT. As a result, they cannot provide reliable guidance for DOT because some lesions may not be detectable by a nonoptical modality but may have a high optical contrast. An imaging modality that relies on optical contrast to provide guidance is desirable for DOT. We present a system that combines a frequency-domain DOT and real-time photoacoustic tomography (PAT) systems to detect and characterize deeply seated targets embedded in a turbid medium. To further improve the contrast, the exogenous contrast agent, indocyanine green (ICG), is used. Our experimental results show that the combined system can detect a tumor-mimicking phantom, which is immersed in intralipid solution with the concentrations ranging from 100 to 10 ?M and with the dimensions of 0.8 cm×0.8 cm×0.6 cm, up to 2.5 cm in depth. Mice experiments also confirmed that the combined system can detect tumors and monitor the ICG uptake and washout in the tumor region. This method can potentially improve the accuracy to detect small breast lesions as well as lesions that are sensitive to background tissue changes, such as the lesions located just above the chest wall.

  15. Diagnosis of Breast Masses from Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced and Diffusion-Weighted MR: A Machine Learning Approach

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Minsheng; Li, Li

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) is increasingly used for breast cancer diagnosis as supplementary to conventional imaging techniques. Combining of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) of morphology and kinetic features from DCE-MRI to improve the discrimination power of malignant from benign breast masses is rarely reported. Materials and Methods The study comprised of 234 female patients with 85 benign and 149 malignant lesions. Four distinct groups of features, coupling with pathological tests, were estimated to comprehensively characterize the pictorial properties of each lesion, which was obtained by a semi-automated segmentation method. Classical machine learning scheme including feature subset selection and various classification schemes were employed to build prognostic model, which served as a foundation for evaluating the combined effects of the multi-sided features for predicting of the types of lesions. Various measurements including cross validation and receiver operating characteristics were used to quantify the diagnostic performances of each feature as well as their combination. Results Seven features were all found to be statistically different between the malignant and the benign groups and their combination has achieved the highest classification accuracy. The seven features include one pathological variable of age, one morphological variable of slope, three texture features of entropy, inverse difference and information correlation, one kinetic feature of SER and one DWI feature of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC). Together with the selected diagnostic features, various classical classification schemes were used to test their discrimination power through cross validation scheme. The averaged measurements of sensitivity, specificity, AUC and accuracy are 0.85, 0.89, 90.9% and 0.93, respectively. Conclusion Multi-sided variables which characterize the morphological, kinetic, pathological properties and DWI measurement of ADC can dramatically improve the discriminatory power of breast lesions. PMID:24498092

  16. The potential of theragnostic 124I-8H9 convection-enhanced delivery in diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma

    PubMed Central

    Luther, Neal; Zhou, Zhiping; Zanzonico, Pat; Cheung, Nai-Kong; Humm, John; Edgar, Mark A.; Souweidane, Mark M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Reasons for failure in prior human glioma convection-enhanced delivery (CED) clinical trials remain unclear. Concentration-dependent volume of distribution (Vd) measurement of CED-infused agents in the human brain is challenging and highlights a potential technical shortcoming. Activity of iodine isotope 124 (124I ) in tissue can be directly measured in vivo with high resolution via PET. With the potential therapeutic utility of radioimmunotherapy, we postulate 124I conjugated to the antiglioma monoclonal antibody 8H9 may serve as a “theragnostic” agent delivered via CED to diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma. Methods Fifteen rats underwent CED of 0.1–1.0 mCi of 131I-8H9 to the pons for toxicity evaluation. Six additional rats underwent CED of 10 µCi of 124I-8H9 to the pons for dosimetry, with serial microPET performed for 1 week. Two primates underwent CED of gadolinium-albumin and 1.0 mCi of 124I-8H9 to the pons for safety and dosimetry analysis. Serial postoperative PET, blood, and CSF radioactivity counts were performed. Results One rat (1.0 mCi 131I-8H9 infusion) suffered toxicity necessitating early sacrifice. PET analysis in rats yielded a pontine absorbed dose of 37 Gy/mCi. In primates, no toxicity was observed, and absorbed pontine dose was 3.8 Gy/mCi. Activity decreased 10-fold with 48 h following CED in both animal models. Mean Vd was 0.14 cc3 (volume of infusion [Vi] to Vd ratio = 14) in the rat and 6.2 cc3 (Vd/Vi = 9.5) in primate. Conclusion The safety and feasibility of 124I dosimetry following CED via PET is demonstrated, establishing a preclinical framework for a trial evaluating CED of 124I-8H9 for diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma. PMID:24526309

  17. Connectivity-based fixel enhancement: Whole-brain statistical analysis of diffusion MRI measures in the presence of crossing fibres.

    PubMed

    Raffelt, David A; Smith, Robert E; Ridgway, Gerard R; Tournier, J-Donald; Vaughan, David N; Rose, Stephen; Henderson, Robert; Connelly, Alan

    2015-08-15

    In brain regions containing crossing fibre bundles, voxel-average diffusion MRI measures such as fractional anisotropy (FA) are difficult to interpret, and lack within-voxel single fibre population specificity. Recent work has focused on the development of more interpretable quantitative measures that can be associated with a specific fibre population within a voxel containing crossing fibres (herein we use fixel to refer to a specific fibre population within a single voxel). Unfortunately, traditional 3D methods for smoothing and cluster-based statistical inference cannot be used for voxel-based analysis of these measures, since the local neighbourhood for smoothing and cluster formation can be ambiguous when adjacent voxels may have different numbers of fixels, or ill-defined when they belong to different tracts. Here we introduce a novel statistical method to perform whole-brain fixel-based analysis called connectivity-based fixel enhancement (CFE). CFE uses probabilistic tractography to identify structurally connected fixels that are likely to share underlying anatomy and pathology. Probabilistic connectivity information is then used for tract-specific smoothing (prior to the statistical analysis) and enhancement of the statistical map (using a threshold-free cluster enhancement-like approach). To investigate the characteristics of the CFE method, we assessed sensitivity and specificity using a large number of combinations of CFE enhancement parameters and smoothing extents, using simulated pathology generated with a range of test-statistic signal-to-noise ratios in five different white matter regions (chosen to cover a broad range of fibre bundle features). The results suggest that CFE input parameters are relatively insensitive to the characteristics of the simulated pathology. We therefore recommend a single set of CFE parameters that should give near optimal results in future studies where the group effect is unknown. We then demonstrate the proposed method by comparing apparent fibre density between motor neurone disease (MND) patients with control subjects. The MND results illustrate the benefit of fixel-specific statistical inference in white matter regions that contain crossing fibres. PMID:26004503

  18. Magnetofection Mediated Transient NANOG Overexpression Enhances Proliferation and Myogenic Differentiation of Human Hair Follicle Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Son, Seoyoung; Liang, Mao-Shih; Lei, Pedro; Xue, Xiaozheng; Furlani, Edward P; Andreadis, Stelios T

    2015-07-15

    We used magnetofection (MF) to achieve high transfection efficiency into human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). A custom-made magnet array, matching well-to-well to a 24-well plate, was generated and characterized. Theoretical predictions of magnetic force distribution within each well demonstrated that there was no magnetic field interference among magnets in adjacent wells. An optimized protocol for efficient gene delivery to human hair follicle derived MSCs (hHF-MSCs) was established using an egfp-encoding plasmid, reaching approximately ?50% transfection efficiency without significant cytotoxicity. Then we applied the optimized MF protocol to express the pluripotency-associated transcription factor NANOG, which was previously shown to reverse the effects of organismal aging on MSC proliferation and myogenic differentiation capacity. Indeed, MF-mediated NANOG delivery increased proliferation and enhanced the differentiation of hHF-MSCs into smooth muscle cells (SMCs). Collectively, our results show that MF can achieve high levels of gene delivery to MSCs and, therefore, may be employed to moderate or reverse the effects of cellular senescence or reprogram cells to the pluripotent state without permanent genetic modification. PMID:25685943

  19. Poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) phase inversion coating as a diffusion layer to enhance the cathode performance in

    E-print Network

    Poly(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) phase inversion coating as a diffusion layer(vinylidene fluoride-co-hexafluoropropylene) (PVDF-HFP) phase inversion coating was developed as a cathode diffusion

  20. Diffusion-weighted imaging and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI in assessing response and recurrent disease in gynaecological malignancies.

    PubMed

    Hameeduddin, Ayshea; Sahdev, Anju

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has an established role in imaging pelvic gynaecological malignancies. It is routinely used in staging endometrial and cervical cancer, characterizing adnexal masses, selecting optimal treatment, monitoring treatment and detecting recurrent disease. MRI has also been shown to have an excellent performance and an evolving role in surveillance of patients after chemoradiotherapy in cervical cancer, post-trachelectomy, detecting early recurrence and planning exenterative surgery in isolated central recurrences in both cervical and endometrial cancer and in young patients on surveillance for medically managed endometrial cancer. However, conventional MRI still has limitations when the morphological appearance of early recurrent or residual disease overlaps with normal pelvic anatomy or treatment effects in the pelvis. In particular, after chemoradiotherapy for cervical cancer, distinguishing between radiotherapy changes and residual or early recurrent disease within the cervix or the vaginal vault can be challenging on conventional MRI alone. Therefore, there is an emerging need for functional imaging to overcome these limitations. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the emerging functional MRI techniques and their applications in predicting treatment response, detecting residual disease and early recurrent disease to optimize the treatment options available using diffusion-weighted imaging and dynamic contrast enhancement particularly in cervical and endometrial cancer. PMID:25889065

  1. Combined prostate diffusion tensor imaging and dynamic contrast enhanced MRI at 3T--quantitative correlation with biopsy.

    PubMed

    Kozlowski, Piotr; Chang, Silvia D; Meng, Ran; Mädler, Burkhard; Bell, Robert; Jones, Edward C; Goldenberg, S Larry

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this work was to compare diagnostic accuracy of Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI), dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE MRI) and their combination in diagnosing prostate cancer. Twenty-five patients with clinical suspicion of prostate cancer underwent MRI, prior to transrectal ultrasound-guided biopsies. MRI data were correlated to biopsy results. Logistic regression models were constructed for the DTI parameters, DCE MRI parameters, and their combination. The areas under the receiver operator characteristic curves (AUC) were compared between the models. The nonparametric Wilcoxon signed rank test was used for statistical analysis. The sensitivity and specificity values were respectively 81% (74-87%) and 85% (79-90%) for DTI and 63% (55-70%) and 90% (85-94%) for DCE. The combination "DTI or DCE MRI" had 100% (97-100%) sensitivity and 77% (69-83%) specificity, while "DTI and DCE MRI" had 44% (37-52%) sensitivity and 98% (94-100%) specificity. The AUC for DTI+DCE parameters was significantly higher than that for either DTI (0.96 vs. 0.92, P=.0143) or DCE MRI parameters (0.96 vs. 0.87, P=.00187) alone. In conclusion, the combination of DTI and DCE MRI has significantly better accuracy in prostate cancer diagnosis than either technique alone. PMID:20392586

  2. Characterization of light transport in scattering media at sub-diffusion length scales with Low-coherence Enhanced Backscattering

    PubMed Central

    Turzhitsky, Vladimir; Rogers, Jeremy D.; Mutyal, Nikhil N.; Roy, Hemant K.; Backman, Vadim

    2009-01-01

    Low-coherence enhanced backscattering (LEBS) is a technique that has recently shown promise for tissue characterization and the detection of early pre-cancer. Although several Monte Carlo models of LEBS have been described, these models have not been accurate enough to predict all of the experimentally observed LEBS features. We present an appropriate Monte Carlo model to simulate LEBS peak properties from polystyrene microsphere suspensions in water. Results show that the choice of the phase function greatly impacts the accuracy of the simulation when the transport mean free path (ls*) is much greater than the spatial coherence length (LSC). When ls* < LSC, a diffusion approximation based model of LEBS is sufficiently accurate. We also use the Monte Carlo model to validate that LEBS can be used to measure the radial scattering probability distribution (radial point spread function), p(r), at small length scales and demonstrate LEBS measurements of p(r) from biological tissue. In particular, we show that pre-cancerous and benign mucosal tissues have different small length scale light transport properties. PMID:21037980

  3. Comparison of diffusion-weighted imaging and contrast-enhanced T1-weighted imaging on a single baseline MRI for demonstrating dissemination in time in multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The 2010 Revisions to the McDonald Criteria have established that dissemination in time (DIT) of multiple sclerosis (MS) can be demonstrated by simultaneous presence of asymptomatic gadolinium-enhancing and nonenhancing lesions on a single magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs) have contraindications. Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) can detect diffusion alterations in active inflammatory lesions. The purpose of this study was to investigate if DWI can be an alternative to contrast-enhanced T1-weighted imaging (CE T1WI) for demonstrating DIT in MS. Methods We selected patients with clinically definite MS and evaluated their baseline brain MRI. Asymptomatic lesions were identified as either hyperintense or nonhyperintense on DWI and enhancing or nonenhancing on CE T1WI. Fisher’s exact test was performed to determine whether the hyperintensity on DWI was related to the enhancement on CE T1WI (P?enhancement were calculated. Results Twenty-two patients with 384 demyelinating lesions that were hyperintense on T2-weighted imaging and more than 3 mm in size were recruited. The diffusion hyperintensity and lesion enhancement were significantly correlated (P <0.001). The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and accuracy were 100%, 67.9%, 32.3%, 100% and 72.1%, respectively. Conclusions A hyperintense DWI finding does not necessarily overlap with contrast enhancement. There are many false positives, possibly representing other stages of lesion development. Although DWI may not replace CE T1WI imaging to demonstrate DIT due to the low PPV, it may serve as a screening MRI sequence where the use of GBCAs is a concern. PMID:24885357

  4. Preoperative diagnosis and staging of rectal cancer using diffusion-weighted and water imaging combined with dynamic contrast-enhanced scanning

    PubMed Central

    ZHAO, QILI; LIU, LIJIAN; WANG, QIUYAN; LIANG, ZEXIA; SHI, GAOFENG

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the value of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and water imaging combined with dynamic contrast-enhanced scanning for the preoperative diagnosis and staging of rectal cancer. In total, 72 patients with pathologically confirmed rectal cancer were selected for examination using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with phased-array coils, DWI, water imaging and dynamic contrast-enhanced scanning. The patients were divided into two groups, experimental (simple enhanced scanning plus diffusion combined with water imaging) and control (simple enhanced scanning), for the pathological observations. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for the T staging of the carcinomas using scan enhancement with DWI and the evaluation of cancer using water imaging were 98.5% (65/66), 66.7% (4/6) and 95.8% (69/72), respectively, and the accuracy for N staging was 89%. Whereas, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for the T staging of the carcinomas using simple scan enhancement were 85.7% (42/49), 78.3% (18/23) and 83.3% (60/72), respectively, and the accuracy for N staging was 61%. Therefore, the combination of multiple MRI techniques may be of high value for the early diagnosis and exact staging of rectal cancer. PMID:25360178

  5. Nonhypervascular Hypointense Nodules at Gadoxetic Acid-enhanced MR Imaging in Chronic Liver Disease: Diffusion-weighted Imaging for Characterization.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jiyoung; Kim, Young Kon; Jeong, Woo Kyoung; Choi, Dongil; Rhim, Hyunchul; Lee, Won Jae

    2015-07-01

    Purpose To compare the diagnostic performance of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging features, including those on diffusion-weighted (DW) and T2-weighted images, in differentiating between hypovascular hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and dysplastic nodules seen as hypointense nodules at hepatobiliary phase gadoxetic acid-enhanced MR imaging. Materials and Methods The institutional review board approved this retrospective study and waived the need to obtain informed patient consent. There were 53 patients (39 men and 14 women; age range, 32-75 years) with histologically proven hypovascular HCCs (n = 25) and/or dysplastic nodules (n = 31) who underwent gadoxetic acid-enhanced MR imaging at 3.0-T between March 2011 and January 2014. Images of 25 HCCs and 31 dysplastic nodules were analyzed for nodule size; signal intensity on T1- and T2-weighted, portal venous phase, and DW (b value = 800 sec/mm(2)) images; and intralesional fat. Correlations between the hyperintensity grade of lesions and the liver-to-lesion signal intensity ratio at T2-weighted and DW imaging were determined by means of analysis with generalized estimating equations. Results Hyperintensity at T2-weighted and DW imaging and hypointensity in the portal venous phase were significant features for differentiating hypovascular HCCs from dysplastic nodules (P < .05). The sensitivity of DW imaging tended to be higher than that of T2-weighted imaging (72.0% [18 of 25] vs 40.0% [10 of 25]; P = .008 for grade 2 and 3 hyperintensity). Use of the parameter of hyperintensity similar to or slightly lower than the signal intensity of the spleen on DW images (b value = 800 sec/mm(2)) yielded a specificity of 100% (31 of 31) for the diagnosis of hypovascular HCC by differentiating it from a dysplastic nodule. Conclusion Hyperintensity at DW imaging could be a useful MR imaging feature for differentiating hypovascular HCCs from dysplastic nodules seen as hypointense nodules at gadoxetic acid-enhanced MR imaging. (©) RSNA, 2015 Online supplemental material is available for this article. PMID:25734551

  6. Atomistic modeling of intrinsic and radiation-enhanced fission gas (Xe) diffusion in UO2±x: Implications for nuclear fuel performance modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, D. A.; Garcia, P.; Liu, X.-Y.; Pastore, G.; Tonks, M.; Millett, P.; Dorado, B.; Gaston, D. R.; Andrs, D.; Williamson, R. L.; Martineau, R. C.; Uberuaga, B. P.; Stanek, C. R.

    2014-08-01

    Based on density functional theory (DFT) and empirical potential calculations, the diffusivity of fission gas atoms (Xe) in UO2 nuclear fuel has been calculated for a range of non-stoichiometry (i.e. UO2±x), under both out-of-pile (no irradiation) and in-pile (irradiation) conditions. This was achieved by first deriving expressions for the activation energy that account for the type of trap site that the fission gas atoms occupy, which includes the corresponding type of mobile cluster, the charge state of these defects and the chemistry acting as boundary condition. In the next step DFT calculations were used to estimate migration barriers and internal energy contributions to the thermodynamic properties and calculations based on empirical potentials were used to estimate defect formation and migration entropies (i.e. pre-exponentials). The diffusivities calculated for out-of-pile conditions as function of the UO2±x non-stoichiometry were used to validate the accuracy of the diffusion models and the DFT calculations against available experimental data. The Xe diffusivity is predicted to depend strongly on the UO2±x non-stoichiometry due to a combination of changes in the preferred Xe trap site and in the concentration of uranium vacancies enabling Xe diffusion, which is consistent with experiments. After establishing the validity of the modeling approach, it was used for studying Xe diffusion under in-pile conditions, for which experimental data is very scarce. The radiation-enhanced Xe diffusivity is compared to existing empirical models. Finally, the predicted fission gas diffusion rates were implemented in the BISON fuel performance code and fission gas release from a Risø fuel rod irradiation experiment was simulated.

  7. Atomistic modeling of intrinsic and radiation-enhanced fission gas (Xe) diffusion in UO2 +/- x: Implications for nuclear fuel performance modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Giovanni Pastore; Michael R. Tonks; Derek R. Gaston; Richard L. Williamson; David Andrs; Richard Martineau

    2014-03-01

    Based on density functional theory (DFT) and empirical potential calculations, the diffusivity of fission gas atoms (Xe) in UO2 nuclear fuel has been calculated for a range of non-stoichiometry (i.e. UO2x), under both out-of-pile (no irradiation) and in-pile (irradiation) conditions. This was achieved by first deriving expressions for the activation energy that account for the type of trap site that the fission gas atoms occupy, which includes the corresponding type of mobile cluster, the charge state of these defects and the chemistry acting as boundary condition. In the next step DFT calculations were used to estimate migration barriers and internal energy contributions to the thermodynamic properties and calculations based on empirical potentials were used to estimate defect formation and migration entropies (i.e. pre-exponentials). The diffusivities calculated for out-of-pile conditions as function of the UO2x nonstoichiometrywere used to validate the accuracy of the diffusion models and the DFT calculations against available experimental data. The Xe diffusivity is predicted to depend strongly on the UO2x non-stoichiometry due to a combination of changes in the preferred Xe trap site and in the concentration of uranium vacancies enabling Xe diffusion, which is consistent with experiments. After establishing the validity of the modeling approach, it was used for studying Xe diffusion under in-pile conditions, for which experimental data is very scarce. The radiation-enhanced Xe diffusivity is compared to existing empirical models. Finally, the predicted fission gas diffusion rates were implemented in the BISON fuel performance code and fission gas release from a Risø fuel rod irradiation experiment was simulated. 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  8. Diagnosis of cirrhosis with intravoxel incoherent motion diffusion MRI and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI alone and in combination: preliminary experience

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jignesh Patel; Eric E. Sigmund; Henry Rusinek; Marcel Oei; James S. Babb; Bachir Taouli

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: To report our preliminary experience with the use of intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) and dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE)-MRI alone and in combination for the diagnosis of liver cirrhosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty subjects (16 with noncirrhotic liver, 14 with cirrhosis) were prospectively assessed with IVIM DW-MRI (n = 27) and DCE-MRI (n = 20). IVIM

  9. Pre- and Posttreatment With Edaravone Protects CA1 Hippocampus and Enhances Neurogenesis in the Subgranular Zone of Dentate Gyrus After Transient Global Cerebral Ischemia in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Shan; Li, Weisong; Gao, Ming; He, Xijing; Zheng, Juan; Li, Xu; Wang, Xiao; Wang, Ning; Zhang, Junfeng; Qi, Cunfang; Lu, Haixia; Chen, Xinlin; Liu, Yong

    2014-01-01

    Edaravone is clinically used for treatment of patients with acute cerebral infarction. However, the effect of double application of edaravone on neurogenesis in the hippocampus following ischemia remains unknown. In the present study, we explored whether pre- and posttreatment of edaravone had any effect on neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) in the subgranular zone of hippocampus in a rat model of transient global cerebral ischemia and elucidated the potential mechanism of its effects. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups: sham-operated (n?=?15), control (n?=?15), and edaravone-treated (n?=?15) groups. Newly generated cells were labeled by 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect neurogenesis. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick-end labeling was used to detect cell apoptosis. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) were detected by 2,7-dichlorofluorescien diacetate assay in NSPCs in vitro. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?) and cleaved caspase-3 proteins were quantified by western blot analysis. Treatment with edaravone significantly increased the number of NSPCs and newly generated neurons in the subgranular zone (p?enhances neurogenesis by protecting NSPCs from apoptosis in the hippocampus, which is probably mediated by decreasing ROS generation and inhibiting protein expressions of HIF-1? and cleaved caspase-3 after cerebral ischemia. PMID:25388889

  10. Sensitivity enhancement in direct coupling of supported liquid membrane extractions to capillary electrophoresis by means of transient isotachophoresis and large electrokinetic injections.

    PubMed

    Pant??ková, Pavla; Kubá?, Pavel; Bo?ek, Petr

    2015-04-10

    Enhanced sensitivity for determination of basic drugs in body fluids was achieved by in-line coupling of extraction across supported liquid membrane (SLM) to large electrokinetic injection and transient isotachophoresis-capillary zone electrophoresis (tITP-CZE) in commercial CZE instrument. Twelve cm long tITP plug of 300mM ammonium acetate was formed in the separation capillary just before the electrokinetic injection of acceptor solution containing nortriptyline, haloperidol and loperamide extracted across the SLM. The tITP plug ensured efficient stacking and preconcentration of the injected basic drugs due to the tITP action of ammonium and the drugs were then separated by CZE using 5.2M acetic acid as background electrolyte. No interferences were observed from highly-abundant body fluid species (NaCl and human serum albumin) due to the excellent clean-up properties of SLMs and analytical sensitivity increased up to 340 times compared to SLM extractions coupled in-line to CZE with standard hydrodynamic injections. The SLM-tITP-CZE method was characterized by good repeatability (RSDs of peak areas below 7.8%), linearity over two orders of magnitude (r(2) better than 0.994) and limits of detection (defined as 3×S/N) between 3 and 45?g/L. Interfacing of SLM extractions to CZE instrumentation was achieved by low-cost, disposable micro-extraction devices, which can be routinely prepared in every analytical laboratory. These devices eliminated sample carry-over, minimized the need for manual sample handling and ensured fully automated determination (including extraction, injection, preconcentration and separation) of the three basic drugs in 20?L of untreated body fluids. PMID:25747667

  11. Evidence from simultaneous intracellular- and surface-pH transients that carbonic anhydrase II enhances CO2 fluxes across Xenopus oocyte plasma membranes.

    PubMed

    Musa-Aziz, Raif; Occhipinti, Rossana; Boron, Walter F

    2014-11-01

    The ?-carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are zinc-containing enzymes that catalyze the interconversion of CO2 and HCO3 (-). Here, we focus on human CA II (CA II), a ubiquitous cytoplasmic enzyme. In the second paper in this series, we examine CA IV at the extracellular surface. After microinjecting recombinant CA II in a Tris solution (or just Tris) into oocytes, we expose oocytes to 1.5% CO2/10 mM HCO3 (-)/pH 7.50 while using microelectrodes to monitor intracellular pH (pHi) and surface pH (pHS). CO2 influx causes the familiar sustained pHi fall as well as a transient pHS rise; CO2 efflux does the opposite. Both during CO2 addition and removal, CA II increases the magnitudes of the maximal rate of pHi change, (dpHi/dt)max, and the maximal change in pHS, ?pHS. Preincubating oocytes with the inhibitor ethoxzolamide eliminates the effects of CA II. Compared with pHS, pHi begins to change only after a delay of ~9 s and its relaxation has a larger (i.e., slower) time constant (?pHi > ?pHS ). Simultaneous measurements with two pHi electrodes, one superficial and one deep, suggest that impalement depth contributes to pHi delay and higher ?pHi . Using higher CO2/HCO3 (-) levels, i.e., 5%/33 mM HCO3 (-) or 10%/66 mM HCO3 (-), increases (dpHi/dt)max and ?pHS, though not in proportion to the increase in [CO2]. A reaction-diffusion mathematical model (described in the third paper in this series) accounts for the above general features and supports the conclusion that cytosolic CA-consuming entering CO2 or replenishing exiting CO2-increases CO2 fluxes across the cell membrane. PMID:24965587

  12. Investigation of starting transients in the thermally choked ram accelerator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burnham, E. A.; Hinkey, J. B.; Bruckner, A. P.

    1992-01-01

    An experimental investigation of the starting transients of the thermally choked ram accelerator is presented in this paper. Construction of a highly instrumented tube section and instrumentation inserts provide high resolution experimental pressure, luminosity, and electromagnetic data of the starting transients. Data obtained prior to and following the entrance diaphragm show detailed development of shock systems in both combustible and inert mixtures. With an evacuated launch tube, starting the diffuser is possible at any Mach number above the Kantrowitz Mach number. The detrimental effects and possible solutions of higher launch tube pressures and excessive obturator leakage (blow-by) are discussed. Ignition of a combustible mixture is demonstrated with both perforated and solid obturators. The relative advantages and disadvantages of each are discussed. Data obtained from these starting experiments enhance the understanding of the ram accelerator, as well as assist in the validation of unsteady, chemically reacting CFD codes.

  13. Nonlinear methods for solving the diffusion equation

    E-print Network

    Shober, Robert Anthony

    1976-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with methods for the transient solution of the neutron diffusion equations in one or two energy groups. Initially, nonlinear methods for solving the static diffusion equations using the finite ...

  14. An enhanced transient expression system in plants based on suppression of gene silencing by the p19 protein of tomato bushy stunt virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Olivier Voinnet; Susana Rivas; Pere Mestre; David Baulcombe

    2003-01-01

    Summary Transient gene expression is a fast, flexible and reproducible approach to high-level expression of useful proteins. In plants, recombinant strains of Agrobacterium tumefaciens can be used for transient expression of genes that have been inserted into the T-DNA region of the bacterial Ti plasmid. A bacterial culture is vacuum-infiltrated into leaves, and upon T-DNA transfer, there is ectopic expression

  15. Label-free in situ detection of individual macromolecular assemblies by surface enhanced Raman scattering.

    PubMed

    Asiala, Steven M; Schultz, Zachary D

    2013-05-14

    We demonstrate label-free detection of lipid vesicles and polystyrene beads freely diffusing in aqueous solution using surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). The signals observed enable real-time identification and monitoring of individual particles interacting with the SERS substrate. SERS is demonstrated as a label-free method capable of monitoring transient species in solution on the millisecond time scale. PMID:23103901

  16. NONLINEAR DIFFUSION PDES Erkut Erdem

    E-print Network

    Erdem, Erkut

    NONLINEAR DIFFUSION PDES Erkut Erdem Hacettepe University March 5th, 2012 CONTENTS 1 Perona-Malik Type Nonlinear Diffusion 1 2 Edge Enhancing Diffusion 5 References 7 1 PERONA-MALIK TYPE NONLINEAR DIFFUSION The main theory behind nonlinear diffusion models is to use nonlinear PDEs to create a scale space

  17. Comparison of dynamic contrast-enhanced and diffusion weighted magnetic resonance image in staging and grading of carcinoma bladder with histopathological correlation

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Neetika; Sureka, Binit; Kumar, Mittal Mahesh; Malik, Amita; Bhushan, Thukral Brij; Mohanty, N. K.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Bladder cancer is the second most common neoplasm of the urinary tract worldwide. Dynamic contrast-enhanced and diffusion-weighted MRI has been introduced in clinical MRI protocols of bladder cancer because of its accuracy in staging and grading. Aim: To evaluate and compare accuracy of Dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) and Diffusion weighted (DW) MRI for preoperative T staging of urinary bladder cancer and find correlation between apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and maximum enhancement with histological grade. Materials and Methods: Sixty patients with bladder cancer were included in study. All patients underwent Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) on a 1.5-T scanner with a phased-array pelvic coil. MR images were evaluated and assigned a stage which was compared with the histolopathological staging. ADC value and maximum enhancement curve were used based on previous studies. Subsequently histological grade was compared with MR characteristics. Results: The extent of agreement between the radiologic staging and histopathological staging was relatively greater with the DW-MRI (?=0.669) than DCE-MRI (?=0.619). The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy are maximum and similar for stage T4 tumors in both DCEMRI (100.0, 96.2 and 96.7) and DW-MRI (100.0, 96.2 and 96.7) while minimum for stage T2 tumors - DCEMRI (83.3, 72.2, and 76.7) and DWI-MRI (91.7, 72.2, and 80). Conclusion: MRI is an effective tool for determining T stage and histological grade of urinary bladder cancers. Stage T2a and T2b can be differentiated only by DCE-MRI. Results were more accurate when both ADC and DCE-MRI were used together and hence a combined approach is suggested. PMID:25835087

  18. Accurate measurements of the intrinsic diffusivities of boron and phosphorus in silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haddara, Yaser M.; Folmer, Brennan T.; Law, Mark E.; Buyuklimanli, Temel

    2000-09-01

    All activity in modeling transient diffusion behavior relies on knowledge of the inert intrinsic diffusivities of dopants in Si. The measurements upon which these values are based were conducted over 15 years ago. Since then, the quality of wafers used in industrial applications has significantly changed. This will affect the effective diffusivity through changes in trap concentrations. The reliability of measurement techniques has also changed dramatically from tracer and staining methods to secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) measurements that are dominant today. Finally, our understanding of diffusion behavior has changed significantly. For example, we now understand that the extraction of diffusivities from implanted samples with no pre-anneal includes a significant transient effect. We have measured the inert intrinsic diffusivities of As, B, P, and Sb in different substrates in defect-free Czochralski and float zone wafers and epitaxially grown layers. All samples underwent a 30 min anneal at 1000 °C in dry oxygen in order to grow a cap oxide and eliminate transient enhanced diffusion. We performed SIMS analysis on an initial batch of samples to evaluate the different factors that may affect the diffusivity in a nonideal manner and concluded that there are no transient effects but that surface effects are important. Hence, for the fast moving dopants (B, P) we restrict our data extraction to the deep implants. Our data show that B and P diffusivities are different than the values commonly assumed in the literature at low temperatures. We compare our results to previously published data in light of the factors mentioned here.

  19. Enhanced Coupling of Light from Organic Electroluminescent Device Using Diffusive Particle Dispersed High Refractive Index Resin Substrate

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toshitaka Nakamura; Hironaka Fujii; Noriyuki Juni; Naoto Tsutsumi

    2006-01-01

    To improve light extraction from organic electroluminescent (EL) devices, we introduced a diffusive substrate with 25 ?m thickness\\u000a consisting of high refractive index resin and scattering particles. It is expected that the diffusive substrate with high\\u000a refractive index matrix converts the waveguided emission into external emission from both glass substrate and indium-tin-oxide\\/organic\\u000a layer. We used the ray tracing method to

  20. Control of diffuser jet flow: turbulent kinetic energy and jet spreading enhancements assisted by a non-thermal plasma discharge

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Benard; N. Balcon; G. Touchard; E. Moreau

    2008-01-01

    An axisymmetric air jet exhausting from a 22-degree-angle diffuser is investigated experimentally by particle image velocimetry\\u000a (PIV) and stereo-PIV measurements. Two opposite dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) actuators are placed along the lips of\\u000a the diffuser in order to force the mixing by a co-flow actuation. The electrohydrodynamic forces generated by both actuators\\u000a modify and excite the turbulent shear layer at

  1. Effects of Lewis Number on Temperatures of Spherical Diffusion Flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santa, K. J.; Sun, Z.; Chao, B. H.; Sunderland, P. B.; Axelbaum, R. I.; Urban, D. L.; Stocker, D. P.

    2007-01-01

    Spherical diffusion flames supported on a porous sphere were studied numerically and experimentally. Experiments were performed in 2.2 s and 5.2 s microgravity facilities. Numerical results were obtained from a Chemkin-based program. The program simulates flow from a porous sphere into a quiescent environment, yields both steady-state and transient results, and accounts for optically thick gas-phase radiation. The low flow velocities and long residence times in these diffusion flames lead to enhanced radiative and diffusive effects. Despite similar adiabatic flame temperatures, the measured and predicted temperatures varied by as much as 700 K. The temperature reduction correlates with flame size but characteristic flow times and, importantly, Lewis number also influence temperature. The numerical results show that the ambient gas Lewis number would have a strong effect on flame temperature if the flames were steady and nonradiating. For example, a 10% decrease in Lewis number would increase the steady-state flame temperature by 200 K. However, for these transient, radiating flames the effect of Lewis number is small. Transient predictions of flame sizes are larger than those observed in microgravity experiments. Close agreement could not be obtained without either increasing the model s thermal and mass diffusion properties by 30% or reducing mass flow rate by 25%.

  2. 3.3.2Transient Transient .

    E-print Network

    100 3.3.2Transient Transient . : Vsrc, Vexp, Vpulse, Vpwl, Vsffm, Vsin. . ) 2.2 ( Transient Bias . ).out( ) 3.7(, , . "" Time. Spice. ) ABM.( , . " Maximum Step Size . Transient BJT. : Q2N2222Bipolar Vcc DC,Vin Vpulse : V1-5 V2--1, . TD­20

  3. Diffusion Geometry Diffusion Geometry

    E-print Network

    Hirn, Matthew

    Diffusion Geometry Diffusion Geometry for High Dimensional Data Matthew J. Hirn July 3, 2013 #12;Diffusion Geometry Introduction Embedding of closed curve Figure: Left: A closed, non-self-intersecting curve in 3 dimensions. Right: Its embedding as a circle. #12;Diffusion Geometry Introduction Cartoon

  4. Plasma-Enhanced Atomic Layer Deposition of Ruthenium-Titanium Nitride Mixed-Phase Layers for Direct-Plate Liner and Copper Diffusion Barrier Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gildea, Adam James

    Current interconnect networks in semiconductor processing utilize a sputtered TaN diffusion barrier, Ta liner, and Cu seed to improve the adhesion, microstructure, and electromigration resistance of electrochemically deposited copper that fills interconnect wires and vias. However, as wire/via widths shrink due to device scaling, it becomes increasingly difficult to have the volume of a wire/via be occupied with ECD Cu which increases line resistance and increases the delay in signal propagation in IC chips. A single layer that could serve the purpose of a Cu diffusion barrier and ECD Cu adhesion promoter could allow ECD Cu to occupy a larger volume of a wire/via, leading to a decrease in line resistance and decrease in signal delay. Previous work has shown RuTaN, RuWCN, and RuCo films can act as Cu diffusion barriers and be directly platable to thickness of 2-3nm. However, other material selections may prove as effective or possibly better. Mixed-phase films of ruthenium titanium nitride grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) were investigated for their performance as a Cu diffusion barrier and as a surface for the direct plating of ECD Cu. All Ru was deposited by plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) while TiN was deposited by either thermal ALD or PEALD. RuTiN, films with thermal ALD TiN and a Ru:Ti of 20:1 showed barrier performance comparable to PVD TaN at 3-4 nm thickness and 15 nm planar films were directly platable. Follow up work is certainly needed for this material set, yet initial results indicate RuTiN could serve as an effective direct plate liner for Cu interconnects.

  5. Measurement of radiation-enhanced diffusion of La in single crystal thin film CeO 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pappas, Harrison K.; Heuser, Brent J.; Strehle, Melissa M.

    2010-10-01

    The diffusion of La, a trivalent cation dopant, actinide surrogate, and high-yield fission product, in CeO 2, a UO 2 nuclear fuel surrogate, during 1.8 MeV Kr + ion bombardment over a temperature range from 673 K to 1206 K has been measured with secondary ion mass spectroscopy. The diffusivity under these irradiation conditions has been analyzed with a model based on a combination of sink-limited and recombination-limited kinetics. This analysis yielded a cation vacancy migration energy of Emv ˜ 0.4 eV below ˜800 K, were recombination-limited kinetics dominated the behavior. The thermal diffusivity of La in the same system was measured over a range of 873-1073 K and was characterized by an activation enthalpy of Ea=Efv+Emv˜1.4 eV. The measurement of both the migration enthalpy and total activation enthalpy separately allows the vacancy formation enthalpy on the cation sublattice to be determined; Efv ˜ 1 eV. The mixing parameter under energetic heavy-ion bombardment at room temperature was measured as well and found to be ˜4 × 10 -5 nm 5/eV.

  6. Anchorage of a Band 3 Population at the Erythrocyte Cytoplasmic Membrane Surface: Protein Rotational Diffusion Measurements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Erich A. Nigg; Richard J. Cherry

    1980-01-01

    Direct physical evidence for the linkage of a band 3 population to the cytoskeleton in the erythrocyte ghost membrane is presented. The rotational diffusion of band 3 proteins was measured by observing flash-induced transient dichroism of a covalently bound eosin probe. After proteolytic release of a 40,000-dalton cytoplasmic segment of band 3 by trypsin, a considerable enhancement in the decay

  7. Sensitivity analysis of the transient energy function method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1989-01-01

    In recent years considerable progress has been achieved in power system transient stability assessment using the transient energy function (TEF) method. Due to the continued development and enhancement, the TEF method now provides accurate and reliable stability assessment. An inherent advantage of the TEF method is the availability of the relative degree of stability in terms of the transient energy

  8. Enhanced localization, energy anomalous diffusion and resonant mode in harmonic chains with correlated mass-spring disorder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Albuquerque, S. S.; dos Santos, J. L. L.; de Moura, F. A. B. F.; Lyra, M. L.

    2015-05-01

    In this work, we study the vibrational modes and energy spreading in a harmonic chain model with diluted second-neighbors couplings and correlated mass-spring disorder. While all nearest neighbor masses are coupled by an elastic spring, second neighbors springs are introduced with a probability pD. The masses are randomly distributed according to the site connectivity m_i=m_0?ft(1+1/n_i?\\right) , where ni is the connectivity of the site i and ? is a tunable exponent. We show that maximum localization of the vibrational modes is achieved for ? ? 3/4. The time-evolution of the energy wave-packet is followed after an initial localized excitation. While the participation number remains finite, the energy spread is shown to be sub-diffusive after a displacement and super-diffusive after an impulse excitation. These features are related to the development of a power-law tail in the wave-packet distribution. Further, we unveil that the spring dilution leads to the emergence of a resonant localized state which is signaled by a van Hove singularity in the density of states.

  9. Transient Ischemic Attack

    MedlinePLUS

    NINDS Transient Ischemic Attack Information Page Synonym(s): Mini Stroke Table of Contents (click to jump to sections) What is ... Trials Organizations Additional resources from MedlinePlus What is Transient Ischemic Attack? A transient ischemic attack (TIA) is ...

  10. Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced and Diffusion MRI Show Rapid and Dramatic Changes in Tumor Microenvironment in Response to Inhibition of HIF-1? Using PX-4781

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, Bénédicte F; Runquist, Matthew; Raghunand, Natarajan; Baker, Amanda; Williams, Ryan; Kirkpatrick, Lynn; Powis, Garth; Gillies, Robert J

    2005-01-01

    Abstract PX-478 is a new agent known to inhibit the hypoxia-responsive transcription factor, HIF-1?, in experimental tumors. The current study was undertaken in preparation for clinical trials to determine which noninvasive imaging endpoint(s) is sensitive to this drug's actions. Dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) and diffusion-weighted (DW) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were used to monitor acute effects on tumor hemodynamics and cellularity, respectively. Mice bearing human xenografts were treated either with PX-478 or vehicle, and imaged over time. DW imaging was performed at three b values to generate apparent diffusion coefficient of water (ADCw) maps. For DCE-MRI, a macromolecular contrast reagent, BSA-Gd-DTPA, was used to determine vascular permeability and vascular volume fractions. PX-478 induced a dramatic reduction in tumor blood vessel permeability within 2 hours after treatment, which returned to baseline by 48 hours. The anti-VEGF antibody, Avastin, reduced both the permeability and vascular volume. PX-478 had no effect on the perfusion behavior of a drug-resistant tumor system, A-549. Tumor cellularity, estimated from ADCw, was significantly decreased 24 and 36 hours after treatment. This is the earliest significant response of ADC to therapy yet reported. Based on these preclinical findings, both of these imaging endpoints will be included in the clinical trial of PX-478. PMID:15967100

  11. Transient based protection using current transients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xia Mingchao; Huang Yizhuang

    2008-01-01

    A transient based protection criterion using the wavelet transform results of current transients from the two ends or three ends (T-type line) of high voltage power transmission line is presented. According to the attenuation effects of high voltage transmission line and busbar capacitance to high-frequency current transients, differences of current transients at each end of the transmission line when in-zone

  12. Low temperature plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition of thin vanadium nitride layers for copper diffusion barriers

    SciTech Connect

    Rampelberg, Geert; Devloo-Casier, Kilian; Deduytsche, Davy; Detavernier, Christophe [Department of Solid State Sciences, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281/S1, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium)] [Department of Solid State Sciences, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281/S1, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Schaekers, Marc [IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium)] [IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Blasco, Nicolas [Air Liquide Electronics US, L.P., 46401 Landing Parkway, Fremont, California 94538 (United States)] [Air Liquide Electronics US, L.P., 46401 Landing Parkway, Fremont, California 94538 (United States)

    2013-03-18

    Thin vanadium nitride (VN) layers were grown by atomic layer deposition using tetrakis(ethylmethylamino)vanadium and NH{sub 3} plasma at deposition temperatures between 70 Degree-Sign C and 150 Degree-Sign C on silicon substrates and polymer foil. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed a composition close to stoichiometric VN, while x-ray diffraction showed the {delta}-VN crystal structure. The resistivity was as low as 200 {mu}{Omega} cm for the as deposited films and further reduced to 143 {mu}{Omega} cm and 93 {mu}{Omega} cm by annealing in N{sub 2} and H{sub 2}/He/N{sub 2}, respectively. A 5 nm VN layer proved to be effective as a diffusion barrier for copper up to a temperature of 720 Degree-Sign C.

  13. Transient Faults in Computer Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masson, Gerald M.

    1993-01-01

    A powerful technique particularly appropriate for the detection of errors caused by transient faults in computer systems was developed. The technique can be implemented in either software or hardware; the research conducted thus far primarily considered software implementations. The error detection technique developed has the distinct advantage of having provably complete coverage of all errors caused by transient faults that affect the output produced by the execution of a program. In other words, the technique does not have to be tuned to a particular error model to enhance error coverage. Also, the correctness of the technique can be formally verified. The technique uses time and software redundancy. The foundation for an effective, low-overhead, software-based certification trail approach to real-time error detection resulting from transient fault phenomena was developed.

  14. Experimental Investigation of Radio-Turbulence Induced Diffusion -- Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Spitz, H. B.; Usman, S.

    2005-07-07

    The outcome of this research project suggests that the transport of radon in water is significantly greater than that predicted solely by molecular diffusion. The original study was related to the long term storage of {sup 226}Ra-bearing sand at the DOE Fernald site and determining whether a barrier of water covering the sand would be effective in reducing the emanation of {sup 222}Rn from the sand. Initial observations before this study found the transport of radon in water to be greater than that predicted solely by molecular diffusion. Fick's law on diffusion was used to model the transport of radon in water including the impact associated with radioactive decay. Initial measurements suggested that the deposition of energy in water associated with the radioactive decay process influences diffusion and enhances transport of radon. A multi-region, one-dimensional, steady-state transport model was used to analyze the movement of radon through a sequential column of air, water and air. An effective diffusion coefficient was determined by varying the thickness of the water column and measuring the time for transport of {sup 222}Rn through of the water barrier. A one-region, one-dimensional transient diffusion equation was developed to investigate the build up of radon at the end of the water column to the time when a steady-state, equilibrium condition was achieved. This build up with time is characteristic of the transport rate of radon in water and established the basis for estimating the effective diffusion coefficient for {sup 222}Rn in water. Several experiments were conducted using different types and physical arrangements of water barriers to examine how radon transport is influenced by the water barrier. Results of our measurements confirm our theoretical analyses which suggest that convective forces other than pure molecular diffusion impact the transport of {sup 222}Rn through the water barrier. An effective diffusion coefficient is defined that includes effects of molecular diffusion and convection to describe the transport of radon in water. The effective diffusion coefficients measured in these experiments are 6.8 x 10{sup -4} {+-} 28% and 3.5 x 10{sup -4} {+-} 34% cm{sup 2} sec{sup -1} for the steady-state and transient diffusion conditions, respectively. Water barriers ranging in thickness from 30-50 cm reduce the amount of radon released from the radium-bearing source material by a factor of 0.3-0.1, respectively.

  15. Enhanced performance of an AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor on Si by means of improved adatom diffusion length during MOCVD epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahedipour-Sandvik, F.; Leathersich, J.; Tompkins, R. P.; Suvarna, P.; Tungare, M.; Walsh, T. A.; Kirchner, K. W.; Zhou, S.; Jones, K. A.

    2013-07-01

    Four types of AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) structures have been epitaxially grown on Si substrates by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) and fabricated into devices. To achieve crack-free device structures, various stress-engineering methods have been employed including the use of AlGaN/AlGaN-graded layers, insertion of low-temperature AlN layers and ion implantation of the AlN/Si substrate. To improve material quality, pulsed MOCVD is used to enhance adatom diffusion length during (Al) GaN epitaxy of various layers in the HEMT structure. A comparison between structural and morphological characteristics of the HEMTs shows improvement in the (0 0 0 2) symmetric rocking curve value to 837.9 s-1 and the surface roughness of 0.21 nm for HEMT structures grown using pulsed epitaxy. An OFF-state breakdown voltage of 217 V at a drain current of 1 mA mm-1 at Vg = -8 V was measured for the structure with enhanced material quality.

  16. Magnetic field enhanced convective diffusion of iron oxide nanoparticles in an osmotically disrupted cell culture model of the blood–brain barrier

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Zhizhi; Worden, Matthew; Wroczynskyj, Yaroslav; Yathindranath, Vinith; van Lierop, Johan; Hegmann, Torsten; Miller, Donald W

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The present study examines the use of an external magnetic field in combination with the disruption of tight junctions to enhance the permeability of iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) across an in vitro model of the blood–brain barrier (BBB). The feasibility of such an approach, termed magnetic field enhanced convective diffusion (MFECD), along with the effect of IONP surface charge on permeability, was examined. Methods The effect of magnetic field on the permeability of positively (aminosilane-coated [AmS]-IONPs) and negatively (N-(trimethoxysilylpropyl)ethylenediaminetriacetate [EDT]-IONPs) charged IONPs was evaluated in confluent monolayers of mouse brain endothelial cells under normal and osmotically disrupted conditions. Results Neither IONP formulation was permeable across an intact cell monolayer. However, when tight junctions were disrupted using D-mannitol, flux of EDT-IONPs across the bEnd.3 monolayers was 28%, increasing to 44% when a magnetic field was present. In contrast, the permeability of AmS-IONPs after osmotic disruption was less than 5%. The cellular uptake profile of both IONPs was not altered by the presence of mannitol. Conclusions MFECD improved the permeability of EDT-IONPs through the paracellular route. The MFECD approach favors negatively charged IONPs that have low affinity for the brain endothelial cells and high colloidal stability. This suggests that MFECD may improve IONP-based drug delivery to the brain. PMID:25018630

  17. Estimating Atomic Diffusivity in Metallic Multilayered Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vohra, Manav; Knio, Omar; Weihs Group Collaboration; Mao'S Group Collaboration

    2014-03-01

    Nanostructured multilayered systems can support self-propagating reactions due to exothermic intermixing and small atomic diffusion distances. In the Zr-Al system under stoichiometric and adiabatic conditions, the temperature increases by about 1500 K over ambient as a result of the formation reaction. This usually results in melting in the individual Al layers, and consequently to enhanced rates of intermixing. In order to characterize this phenomenon, and accordingly quantify the associated heat release rates, we rely on transient temperature measurements of homogeneous ignition, as well as measurements of the velocity of self-propagating fronts. The former enables us to infer averaged intermixing rates in a temperature range falling below the melting point of Al, whereas the latter yield estimates at high temperatures. Implementation of the formalism leads to correlations of the atomic diffusivity that exhibit two Arrhenius branches, with a jump across the melting temperature of Al. The resulting composite Arrhenius relation can be readily incorporated into reduced reaction models, and thus exploited to predict transient, multidimensional reaction phenomena. DTRA Basic Research Award #HDTRA1-11-1-00630.

  18. Transient global amnesia mimics: Transient epileptic amnesia

    PubMed Central

    Nicastro, Nicolas; Picard, Fabienne; Assal, Frederic

    2014-01-01

    We describe the case of a 79-year-old patient referred for suspected transient global amnesia, after an episode of anterograde amnesia which lasted 90 min. An EEG, performed after the episode, showed bilateral temporal electrographic seizures, orienting the diagnosis toward a transient epileptic amnesia. Transient epileptic amnesia is defined by temporal lobe epilepsy characterized by recurrent transient amnestic episodes of 30–90 min in duration, sometimes associated with olfactory hallucinations or oral automatisms. Response to antiepileptic drugs is excellent. We would like to raise awareness toward this epileptic amnesia when facing atypical or recurrent transient amnestic episodes. PMID:25667881

  19. Depth-compensated diffuse optical tomography enhanced by general linear model analysis and an anatomical atlas of human head.

    PubMed

    Tian, Fenghua; Liu, Hanli

    2014-01-15

    One of the main challenges in functional diffuse optical tomography (DOT) is to accurately recover the depth of brain activation, which is even more essential when differentiating true brain signals from task-evoked artifacts in the scalp. Recently, we developed a depth-compensated algorithm (DCA) to minimize the depth localization error in DOT. However, the semi-infinite model that was used in DCA deviated significantly from the realistic human head anatomy. In the present work, we incorporated depth-compensated DOT (DC-DOT) with a standard anatomical atlas of human head. Computer simulations and human measurements of sensorimotor activation were conducted to examine and prove the depth specificity and quantification accuracy of brain atlas-based DC-DOT. In addition, node-wise statistical analysis based on the general linear model (GLM) was also implemented and performed in this study, showing the robustness of DC-DOT that can accurately identify brain activation at the correct depth for functional brain imaging, even when co-existing with superficial artifacts. PMID:23859922

  20. Metadherin interference inhibits proliferation and enhances chemo-sensitivity to doxorubicin in diffuse large B cell lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Li, Pei-Pei; Feng, Li-Li; Chen, Na; Lu, Kang; Meng, Xiao-Hui; Ge, Xue-Ling; Lv, Xiao; Wang, Xin

    2014-01-01

    Metadherin (MTDH) is highly expressed in many tumors and is involved in the proliferation, metastasis and drug resistance of tumor cells by regulating multiple signaling pathways. Our previous studies demonstrated that MTDH is overexpressed in diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and involved in apoptosis resistance, in part, via Wnt signaling. Here, we investigated the role of MTDH in the chemo-sensitivity of DLBCL. The study was performed in the DLBCL cell line LY8 to investigate the relationship between MTDH expression and doxorubicin (DOX) sensitivity in DLBCL. A MTDH interference model was developed in LY8 cells by transfected with lentivirus which is carrying MTDH interference sequence. Western blot was used to detect the protein expression. A CCK-8 assay was used to evaluate cell proliferation. The results showed that DOX treatment had no effect on the intracellular MTDH expression of LY8 cells. The proliferation of LY8 cells was inhibited after MTDH interference. MTDH interference increased the DOX sensitivity in the LY8 cell lines. The results suggested that MTDH is a potential therapeutic target in DLBCL, and it cooperates with DOX in treatment of DLBCL. PMID:25232390

  1. A Transient Modal Analysis of a BWR Instability Event

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Damian GINESTAR; Rafael MIR ´ O; Gumersindo VERD ´ U; Dieter HENNIG

    2002-01-01

    To solve the time dependent neutron diffusion equation a modal method, based on the expansion of the neutronic flux in terms of the dominant Lambda modes of a static configuration of the reactor is presented. This method is used to analyse transients of a nuclear power reactor where an instability event can be developed. A simulation of a transient with

  2. Transient Dimers of Allergens

    PubMed Central

    Rouvinen, Juha; Jänis, Janne; Laukkanen, Marja-Leena; Jylhä, Sirpa; Niemi, Merja; Päivinen, Tero; Mäkinen-Kiljunen, Soili; Haahtela, Tari; Söderlund, Hans; Takkinen, Kristiina

    2010-01-01

    Background Allergen-mediated cross-linking of IgE antibodies bound to the Fc?RI receptors on the mast cell surface is the key feature of the type I allergy. If an allergen is a homodimer, its allergenicity is enhanced because it would only need one type of antibody, instead of two, for cross-linking. Methodology/Principal Findings An analysis of 55 crystal structures of allergens showed that 80% of them exist in symmetric dimers or oligomers in crystals. The majority are transient dimers that are formed at high protein concentrations that are reached in cells by colocalization. Native mass spectrometric analysis showed that native allergens do indeed form transient dimers in solution, while hypoallergenic variants of them exist almost solely in the monomeric form. We created a monomeric Bos d 5 allergen and show that it has a reduced capability to induce histamine release. Conclusions/Significance The results suggest that dimerization would be a very common and essential feature for allergens. Thus, the preparation of purely monomeric variants of allergens could open up novel possibilities for specific immunotherapy. PMID:20140203

  3. Transient Conductivity of Kapton HN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dekany, Justin; Dennison, J. R.; Hart, Steve

    2008-10-01

    The transient conductivity of the polymer Kapton HN has been determined by applying a constant voltage across the material and measuring the resulting current decay, collected over more than four orders of magnitude in time, using a custom vacuum system with a stable low-level electrometer. The model, used to describe conductivity as the material reaches a stable state, includes two distinct components. First, there is a polarization, with exponential time dependence, that results from the realignment of the molecular dipoles in the material that orient parallel to the applied electric field. The second component of the transient current flow, diffusive conductivity, with power law time dependence, results from a diffusion of charge injected into the material from the voltage plate. The model allows for more than one mechanism---and a corresponding decay term---for both polarization and diffusive conductivity. Results of the analysis are interpreted in terms of the polymer's complex molecular structure, blend of amorphous and nanocrystalline structure, and the nature of localized states used to determine the carrier density in insulating polymers.

  4. Pretreatment Diffusion-Weighted and Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI for Prediction of Local Treatment Response in Squamous Cell Carcinomas of the Head and Neck

    PubMed Central

    Chawla, Sanjeev; Kim, Sungheon; Dougherty, Lawrence; Wang, Sumei; Loevner, Laurie A.; Quon, Harry; Poptani, Harish

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The objective of our study was to predict response to chemoradiation therapy in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) by combined use of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and high-spatial-resolution, high-temporal-resolution dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) parameters from primary tumors and metastatic nodes. SUBJECTS AND METHODS Thirty-two patients underwent pretreatment DWI and DCE-MRI using a modified radial imaging sequence. Postprocessing of data included motion-correction algorithms to reduce motion artifacts. The median apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), volume transfer constant (Ktrans), extracellular extravascular volume fraction (ve), and plasma volume fraction (vp) were computed from primary tumors and nodal masses. The quality of the DCE-MRI maps was estimated using a threshold median chi-square value of 0.10 or less. Multivariate logistic regression and receiver operating characteristic curve analyses were used to determine the best model to discriminate responders from nonresponders. RESULTS Acceptable ?2 values were observed from 84% of primary tumors and 100% of nodal masses. Five patients with unsatisfactory DCE-MRI data were excluded and DCEMRI data for three patients who died of unrelated causes were censored from analysis. The median follow-up for the remaining patients (n = 24) was 23.72 months. When ADC and DCE-MRI parameters (Ktrans, ve, vp) from both primary tumors and nodal masses were incorporated into multivariate logistic regression analyses, a considerably higher discriminative accuracy (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.85) with a sensitivity of 81.3% and specificity of 75% was observed in differentiating responders (n = 16) from nonresponders (n = 8). CONCLUSION The combined use of DWI and DCE-MRI parameters from both primary tumors and nodal masses may aid in prediction of response to chemoradiation therapy in patients with HNSCC. PMID:23255739

  5. ON THE X-RAY OUTBURSTS OF TRANSIENT ANOMALOUS X-RAY PULSARS AND SOFT GAMMA-RAY REPEATERS

    SciTech Connect

    Cal Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I skan, Sirin; Ertan, Uenal [Sabanc Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I University, Orhanl Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I -Tuzla, Istanbul, 34956 (Turkey)

    2012-10-20

    We show that the X-ray outburst light curves of four transient anomalous X-ray pulsars (AXPs) and soft gamma-ray repeaters (SGRs), namely, XTE J1810-197, SGR 0501+4516, SGR 1627-41, and CXOU J164710.2-455216, can be produced by the fallback disk model that was also applied to the outburst light curves of persistent AXPs and SGRs in our earlier work. The model solves the diffusion equation for the relaxation of a disk that has been pushed back by a soft gamma-ray burst. The sets of main disk parameters used for these transient sources are very similar to each other and to those employed in our earlier models of persistent AXPs and SGRs. There is a characteristic difference between the X-ray outburst light curves of transient and persistent sources. This can be explained by the differences in the disk surface density profiles of the transient and persistent sources in quiescence indicated by their quiescent X-ray luminosities. Our results imply that a viscous disk instability operating at a critical temperature in the range of {approx}1300-2800 K is a common property of all fallback disks around AXPs and SGRs. The effect of the instability is more pronounced and starts earlier for the sources with lower quiescent luminosities, which leads to the observable differences in the X-ray enhancement light curves of transient and persistent sources. A single active disk model with the same basic disk parameters can account for the enhancement phases of both transient and persistent AXPs and SGRs. We also present a detailed parameter study to show the effects of disk parameters on the evolution of the X-ray luminosity of AXPs and SGRs in the X-ray enhancement phases.

  6. Titan's Magic Island: Transient features in a Titan sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofgartner, J. D.; Hayes, A. G., Jr.; Lunine, J. I.; Zebker, H. A.; Stiles, B. W.; Sotin, C.; Barnes, J. W.; Turtle, E. P.; Baines, K. H.; Brown, R. H.; Buratti, B. J.; Clark, R. N.; Encrenaz, P.; Kirk, R. L.; Le Gall, A. A.; Lopes, R. M. C.; Lorenz, R. D.; Malaska, M. J.; Mitchell, K. L.; Nicholson, P. D.; Paillou, P.; Radebaugh, J.; Wall, S. D.; Wood, C. A.

    2014-12-01

    Transient bright features, popularly referred to as Titan's Magic Island, were observed in Cassini Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images of the northern sea, Ligeia Mare, in July 2013 (Hofgartner et al., 2014, Nature Geosci. 7, 493). Images obtained prior and subsequent to the July 2013 detection do not include these bright features. The features are not consistent with ambiguities, scalloping, gain control or edge effects and are not considered to be standard SAR image artifacts. We compared the measured radar cross-sections from the region of the anomalies to a suite of quasi-specular plus diffuse backscatter models and found that this class of models for a permanent structure can be ruled out to 88% confidence. Thus we conclude that the appearance of the features is the result of a transformation and the subsequent non-detections indicate that they were transient. The observational constraints do not permit tides and/or sea level change to be the dominant cause of the transient expression. We suggest that ephemeral phenomena such as surface waves, rising bubbles, and suspended or floating solids best explain these features. Local meteorology could stimulate or enhance these phenomena, but we are unable to constrain its role in the appearance of these transients. These enigmatic features and the waves reportedly detected in Punga Mare (Barnes et al., 2014, Planetary Science, accepted) are likely the first glimpses of dynamic processes that are commencing in the northern lakes and seas as summer nears in the northern hemisphere. It is plausible that they are an expression of the changing seasons and as Titan's northern hemisphere continues transitioning toward summer they may occur with increased frequency. Ligeia Mare, including the region of the transients, will be observed again during the Cassini Titan flyby on August 21, 2014 and this observation could be diagnostic of the nature of these features. For example, if the transients are waves and waves are detectable at the 12 degrees incidence of the upcoming radar measurements, the predicted increase in wind speeds should result in a higher spatial density of these features.

  7. [Contribution of arterial spin labeling to the diagnosis of sudden and transient neurological deficit].

    PubMed

    Yger, M; Villain, N; Belkacem, S; Bertrand, A; Rosso, C; Crozier, S; Samson, Y; Dormont, D

    2015-02-01

    MRI is the gold standard exploration for sudden transient neurological events. If diffusion MRI is negative, there may be a diagnostic doubt between transient ischemic attack and other causes of transient neurological deficit. We illustrate how sequence arterial spin labeling (ASL), which evaluates cerebral perfusion, contributes to the exploration of transient neurological events. An ASL sequence was performed in seven patients with a normal diffusion MRI explored for a transient deficit. Cortical hyperperfusion not systematized to an arterial territory was found in three and hypoperfusion systematized to an arterial territory in four. ASL helped guide early management of these patients. PMID:25555846

  8. Gas diffusion layers coated with a microporous layer containing hydrophilic carbon nanotubes for performance enhancement of polymer electrolyte fuel cells under both low and high humidity conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitahara, Tatsumi; Nakajima, Hironori; Okamura, Kosuke

    2015-06-01

    Gas diffusion layers (GDLs) coated with a hydrophobic microporous layer (MPL) composed of carbon black and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) have been commonly used to improve the water management characteristics of polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs). However, the hydrophobic MPL coated GDL designed to prevent dehydration of the membrane under low humidity conditions is generally inferior at reducing flooding under high humidity conditions. It is therefore important to develop a robust MPL coated GDL that can enhance the PEFC performance regardless of the humidity conditions. In the present study, a GDL coated with an MPL containing hydrophilic carbon nanotubes (CNTs) was developed. The less hydrophobic pores incorporating CNTs are effective at conserving the membrane humidity under low humidity conditions. The MPL with CNTs is also effective at expelling excess water from the catalyst layer while maintaining oxygen flow pathways from the GDL substrate, allowing the mean flow pore diameter to be decreased to 2 ?m without reducing the ability of the MPL to prevent flooding under high humidity conditions. An MPL coated GDL with a CNT content of 4 mass% exhibits significantly higher performance under both low and high humidity conditions than a hydrophobic MPL coated GDL.

  9. A modified spontaneous emulsification solvent diffusion method for the preparation of curcumin-loaded PLGA nanoparticles with enhanced in vitro anti-tumor activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Cen; Yang, Wei; Wang, Dan-Tong; Chen, Chao-Long; Zhuang, Qing-Ye; Kong, Xiang-Dong

    2014-12-01

    To improve the anti-tumor activity of hydrophobic drug curcumin, we prepared curcumin-loaded PLGA nanoparticles (PLGA-Cur NPs) through a modified spontaneous emulsification solvent diffusion (modified-SESD) method. The influence of main preparation parameters was investigated, such as the volume ratio of binary organic solvents and the concentration of surfactant. Results indicated that the synthesized regular spherical PLGA NPs with the average diameter of 189.7 nm exhibited relatively higher yield (58.9%), drug loading (11.0% (w/w)) and encapsulation efficiency (33.5%), and also a controllable drug release profile. In order to evaluate the in vitro cytotoxicity of the prepared NPs, MTT assay was conducted, and results showed that the NPs could effectively inhibit HL60 and HepG2 cells with lower IC50 values compared with free curcumin. Furthermore, confocal microscopy together with flow cytometry analysis proved the enhanced apoptosis-inducing ability of PLGA-Cur NPs. Polymeric NP formulations are potential to be used for hydrophobic drug delivery systems in cancer therapy.

  10. Growth advantage and enhanced toxicity of Escherichia coli adherent to tissue culture cells due to restricted diffusion of products secreted by the cells.

    PubMed Central

    Zafriri, D; Oron, Y; Eisenstein, B I; Ofek, I

    1987-01-01

    This study was undertaken to examine whether Escherichia coli adherent to tissue cells gain advantages over nonadherent bacteria due to their proximity to the cells. We used tissue culture cells and isogenic derivatives of a proline auxotrophic strain of E. coli that were fimbriated (Fim+) or nonfimbriated (Fim-), and were heat-labile enterotoxin producing (Tox+) or toxin nonproducing (Tox-). We found that the Fim+ bacteria; which were capable of adhering to tissue culture cells, initiated growth much sooner than did nonadherent Fim- bacteria; the adherent bacteria used tissue cell-derived proline, which was available at high concentrations only in the zone of bacterial adherence. Likewise, cyclic AMP secreted by adherent (Fim+) bacteria was maintained at high concentration on the tissue cell surfaces. As few as 2 X 10(5) adherent Fim+ Tox+ bacteria exert toxic activity upon Y1 adrenal cells, whereas toxin secreted in the medium by 6 X 10(6) Fim- Tox+ bacteria was undetectable. The results suggest that the growth advantage and enhanced toxicity of adherent E. coli is due to restricted diffusion of products secreted by the tissue culture and bacterial cells, respectively. Images PMID:3031133

  11. Simulation of the transient response of limiting current oxygen sensor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chaoyang Xia; Xuchen Lu; Yan Yan; TiZhuang Wang; ZhiMin Zhang

    2011-01-01

    The transient response of the limiting current oxygen sensors following step changes in gas composition has been simulated by assuming a Knudsen diffusion of the gases in the diffusion barrier. The simulation results showed that the expression of the stable state current had the same form as that deduced from stable state model. The response time values in the simulation

  12. Transient tachypnea - newborn

    MedlinePLUS

    TTN; Wet lungs - newborns; Retained fetal lung fluid; Transient RDS; Prolonged transition ... Transient tachypnea is a respiratory disorder seen shortly after delivery in full-term or late preterm babies. ...

  13. TIA (Transient Ischemic Attack)

    MedlinePLUS

    TIA (Transient Ischemic Attack) Updated:Jul 1,2015 Excerpted from “ Why Rush? ”, Stroke Connection January/February 2009 (Science update October 2012) While transient ischemic attack (TIA) is often labeled “mini-stroke,” ...

  14. Transient familial hyperbilirubinemia

    MedlinePLUS

    Transient familial hyperbilirubinemia is a metabolic disorder that is passed down through families. Babies with this disorder ... Transient familial hyperbilirubinemia is an inherited disorder. It occurs when the body does not properly break down ( ...

  15. Transient ischemic attack

    MedlinePLUS

    A transient ischemic attack (TIA) occurs when blood flow to a part of the brain stops for a brief ... prevention of stroke in patients with stroke or transient ischemic attack: a guideline for healthcare professionals from ...

  16. Weekly multimodal MRI follow-up of two multiple sclerosis active lesions presenting a transient decrease in ADC

    PubMed Central

    Hannoun, Salem; Roch, Jean-Amédée; Durand-Dubief, Francoise; Vukusic, Sandra; Sappey-Marinier, Dominique; Guttmann, Charles RG; Cotton, Francois

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose Blood-brain barrier disruption during the earliest phases of lesion formation in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients is commonly ascribed to perivenular inflammatory activity and is usually accompanied by increased diffusivity. Reduced diffusivity has also been shown in active lesions, albeit less frequently. This study aimed to characterize the development and natural history of contrast-enhanced lesions by weekly following five relapsing remitting (RR) MS patients. Materials and methods Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), perfusion imaging, FLAIR and contrast-enhanced 3D T1-weighted MR, were weekly performed on five untreated patients recently diagnosed with RR MS. Results All five patients showed significant increases of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) in the lesions compared to the first time point. One of the five patients presented 98 active lesions on ADC maps among which 36 had a volume larger than 10 mm3. In two of these lesions, a 1 week transient decrease in ADC was detected at the time of the first gadolinium enhancement. Also, the perfusion analysis showed a concomitant increase in the relative cerebral blood volume. Conclusions The infrequency detection of such ADC decrease in a new lesion is probably due to its very short duration. This observation may be consistent with a hyper-acute inflammatory stage concomitant with an increased reactional perfusion. PMID:25642392

  17. Characteristics of SiO x N y films deposited by inductively coupled plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition using HMDS\\/NH 3\\/O 2\\/Ar for water vapor diffusion barrier

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. H. Lee; C. H. Jeong; H. B. Kim; J. T. Lim; S. J. Kyung; G. Y. Yeom

    2006-01-01

    SiOxNy thin films were deposited by inductively coupled plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (ICP-PECVD) using hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS, 99.9%)\\/NH3\\/O2\\/Ar at a low temperature, and examined for use as a water vapor diffusion barrier. The film characteristics were investigated as a function of the O2:NH3 ratio. An increase in the O2:NH3 ratio decreased the level of impurities such as –CHx, N–H in

  18. Analysis of coupled bimolecular reaction kinetics and diffusion by two-color fluorescence correlation spectroscopy: enhanced resolution of kinetics by resonance energy transfer.

    PubMed Central

    Hom, Erik F Y; Verkman, A S

    2002-01-01

    In two-color fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (TCFCS), the fluorescence intensities of two fluorescently-labeled species are cross-correlated over time and can be used to identify static and dynamic interactions. Generally, fluorophore labels are chosen that do not undergo Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET). Here, a general TCFCS theory is presented that accounts for the possibility of FRET between reactants in the reversible bimolecular reaction, [reaction: see text] where k(f) and k(b) are forward and reverse rate constants, respectively (dissociation constant K(d) = k(b)/k(f)). Using this theory, we systematically investigated the influence on the correlation function of FRET, reaction rates, reactant concentrations, diffusion, and component visibility. For reactants of comparable size and an energy-transfer efficiency of approximately 90%, experimentally measurable cross-correlation functions should be sensitive to reaction kinetics for K(d) > 10(-8) M and k(f) >or= approximately 10(7) M(-1)s(-1). Measured auto-correlation functions corresponding to donor and acceptor labels are generally less sensitive to reaction kinetics, although for the acceptor, this sensitivity increases as the visibility of the donor increases relative to the acceptor. In the absence of FRET or a significant hydrodynamic difference between reactant species, there is little effect of reaction kinetics on the shape of auto- and cross-correlation functions. Our results suggest that a subset of biologically relevant association-dissociation kinetics can be measured by TCFCS and that FRET can be advantageous in enhancing these effects. PMID:12080140

  19. COMPLEX DIFFUSION ON IMAGE GRAPHS

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Dohyung; Vemuri, Baba C

    2009-01-01

    Complex diffusion was introduced in image processing literature as a means to achieve simultaneous denoising and enhancement of scalar valued images. In this paper, we present a novel geometric framework for achieving complex diffusion on color images expressed as image graphs. In this framework, we develop a new variational formulation for achieving complex diffusion. This formulation involves a modified harmonic map functional and is quite distinct from the Polyakov action described in earlier work by Sochen et al. Our formulation provides a framework for simultaneous (feature preserving) denoising and enhancement. We present results of comparison between the complex diffusion, and Beltrami flow all in the image graph framework. PMID:20490365

  20. Microfluidic Investigation of Tracer Dye Diffusion in Alumina Nanofluids 

    E-print Network

    Ozturk, Serdar 1979-

    2012-10-05

    on enhanced mass diffusion and the possibility of tailoring mass transport by direct manipulation of molecular diffusion. Therefore, a microfluidic approach capable of directly probing tracer diffusion between nanoparticle-laden fluid streams was developed...

  1. Microfluidic Investigation of Tracer Dye Diffusion in Alumina Nanofluids

    E-print Network

    Ozturk, Serdar 1979-

    2012-10-05

    on enhanced mass diffusion and the possibility of tailoring mass transport by direct manipulation of molecular diffusion. Therefore, a microfluidic approach capable of directly probing tracer diffusion between nanoparticle-laden fluid streams was developed...

  2. Artefacts and pitfalls in diffusion measurements by NMR

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Geir Humborstad Sørland; Dagfinn Aksnes

    2002-01-01

    When applying pulsed field gradient (PFG) NMR experiments to determine the molecular mobility characterized by the diffusion coefficient, it is crucial to have control over all experimental parameters that may affect the performance of the diffusion experiment. This could be diffusion measurement in the presence of magneticfield transients, internal magneticfield gradients, either constant or spatially varying, convection, mechanical vibrations, or

  3. Free nitric oxide diffusion in the bronchial microcirculation

    E-print Network

    George, Steven C.

    Free nitric oxide diffusion in the bronchial microcirculation PETER CONDORELLI1 AND STEVEN C in final form 12 August 2002 Condorelli, Peter, and Steven C. George. Free nitric oxide diffusion- tions were determined for transient diffusion of free nitric oxide (NO) generated in vivo from vascular

  4. Portable vapor diffusion coefficient meter

    DOEpatents

    Ho, Clifford K. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2007-06-12

    An apparatus for measuring the effective vapor diffusion coefficient of a test vapor diffusing through a sample of porous media contained within a test chamber. A chemical sensor measures the time-varying concentration of vapor that has diffused a known distance through the porous media. A data processor contained within the apparatus compares the measured sensor data with analytical predictions of the response curve based on the transient diffusion equation using Fick's Law, iterating on the choice of an effective vapor diffusion coefficient until the difference between the predicted and measured curves is minimized. Optionally, a purge fluid can forced through the porous media, permitting the apparatus to also measure a gas-phase permeability. The apparatus can be made lightweight, self-powered, and portable for use in the field.

  5. Diffusion /Osmosis

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jensen

    2007-11-26

    This project is use to review the concepts of diffusion and osmosis 1. Watch the tutorials on diffusion and osmosis. Take the online quiz at the end of each one. Diffusion Animation Osmosis Animation 2. Do the interactive lab on diffusion. Stop when you get to the calculating water potential section. Diffusion/Osmosis Interactive Demo 3. Play the Quia review games. Quia Games- matching/concetration Quia Jeopardy 4. Check out the Elodea leaf cells. Be able to ...

  6. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging of acute stroke: Correlation with T2-weighted and magnetic susceptibility-enhanced MR imaging in cats

    SciTech Connect

    Moseley, M.E.; Kucharczyk, J.; Mintorovitch, J.; Cohen, Y.; Kurhanewicz, J.; Derugin, N.; Asgari, H.; Norman, D. (Univ. of California, San Francisco (USA))

    1990-05-01

    We evaluated the temporal and anatomic relationships between changes in diffusion-weighted MR image signal intensity, induced by unilateral occlusion of the middle cerebral artery in cats, and tissue perfusion deficits observed in the same animals on T2-weighted MR images after administration of a nonionic intravascular T2 shortening agent. Diffusion-weighted images obtained with strong diffusion-sensitizing gradient strengths (5.6 gauss/cm, corresponding to gradient attenuation factor, b, values of 1413 sec/mm2) displayed increased signal intensity in the ischemic middle cerebral artery territory less than 1 hr after occlusion, whereas T2-weighted images without contrast usually failed to detect injury for 2-3 hr after stroke. After contrast administration (0.5-1.0 mmol/kg by Dy-DTPA-BMA, IV), however, T2-weighted images revealed perfusion deficits (relative hyperintensity) within 1 hr after middle cerebral artery occlusion that corresponded closely to the anatomic regions of ischemic injury shown on diffusion-weighted MR images. Close correlations were also found between early increases in diffusion-weighted MR image signal intensity and disrupted phosphorus-31 and proton metabolite levels evaluated with surface coil MR spectroscopy, as well as with postmortem histopathology. These data indicate that diffusion-weighted MR images more accurately reflect early-onset pathophysiologic changes induced by acute cerebral ischemia than do T2-weighted spin-echo images.

  7. Myosin regulation and calcium transients in fibroblast shape change, attachment, and patching.

    PubMed

    Rees, D A; Charlton, J; Ataliotis, P; Woods, A; Stones, A J; Bayley, S A

    1989-01-01

    Following our study in Balb/c 3T3 cells and other cultured fibroblasts of the changes in myosin light chain phosphorylation associated with alterations in cell shape, attachment, and receptor patching, we have now determined the corresponding changes in cytoskeletal myosin distribution, and in the cellular calcium concentration, since this might, in part, mediate such responses. Immunofluorescence microscopy showed that myosin assembly into ordered forms such as actomyosin bundles and myosin sheath almost always correlated with previously shown high phosphorylation levels of myosin regulatory light chain, whereas diffuse distributions usually correlated with low or undetectable levels. An exception was observed in treatment to alter cellular cAMP levels when, in a biphasic response, assembly was correlated inversely with the phosphorylation states shown previously. Fluorescent indicators for intracellular calcium concentration, [Ca++]i, showed that myosin disassembly by trypsin or EGTA acting externally on the cells was preceded by a transient increase in [Ca++]i. For EGTA this was associated with transient recruitment of myosin into dorsal sheath structure as well as the transient enhancement of phosphorylation shown earlier. Blockage of EGTA-induced disassembly could be achieved by azide, which also caused an immediate increase in [Ca++]i and inhibited its subsequent decline. Trypsin-induced dephosphorylation did not appear to involve an eventual reduction of [Ca++]i. Therefore, in many but not all of the systems studied, correlated changes were observed in myosin assembly, [Ca++]i, and the myosin phosphorylation levels shown earlier. PMID:2548742

  8. Computation of electromagnetic transients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    HERMANN W. DOMMEL; W. SCOTT MEYER

    1974-01-01

    Switching operations, faults, and other disturbances produce surges on transmission lines and oscillations in transformer and generator windings. Such electromagnetic transients have primarily been studied with transient network analyzers since the late 1930's. In recent years, digital computer programs have been de-. veloped which make simulation by digital computer competitive. The solution techniques of such programs are described, and their

  9. Derivation of Stability Limits Using Analytical Sensitivity of the Transient Energy Margin

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Vittal; E. Z. Zhou; C. Hwang; A. A. Fouad

    1989-01-01

    In recent years considerable progress has been achieved in power system transient stability assessment using the transient energy function (TEF) method. Due to continued developments and enhancements, the TEF method has matured to a stage where reliable and accurate assessment of transient stability of a power system is now possible. An inherent advantage of the TEF method is the availability

  10. Osmosis and Diffusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sack, Jeff

    2005-01-01

    OsmoBeaker is a CD-ROM designed to enhance the learning of diffusion and osmosis by presenting interactive experimentation to the student. The software provides several computer simulations that take the student through different scenarios with cells, having different concentrations of solutes in them.

  11. Intrinsic electric fields and proton diffusion in immobilized protein membranes. Effects of electrolytes and buffers.

    PubMed Central

    Zabusky, N J; Deem, G S

    1979-01-01

    We present a theory for proton diffusion through an immobilized protein membrane perfused with an electrolyte and a buffer. Using a Nernst-Planck equation for each species and assuming local charge neutrality, we obtain two coupled nonlinear diffusion equations with new diffusion coefficients dependent on the concentration of all species, the diffusion constants or mobilities of the buffers and salts, the pH-derivative of the titration curves of the mobile buffer and the immobilized protein, and the derivative with respect to ionic strength of the protein titration curve. Transient time scales are locally pH-dependent because of protonation-deprotonation reactions with the fixed protein and are ionic strength-dependent because salts provide charge carriers to shield internal electric fields. Intrinsic electric fields arise proportional to the gradient of an "effective" charge concentration. The field may reverse locally if buffer concentrations are large (greater to or equal to 0.1 M) and if the diffusivity of the electrolyte species is sufficiently small. The "ideal" electrolyte case (where each species has the same diffusivity) reduces to a simple form. We apply these theoretical considerations to membranes composed of papain and bovine serum albumin (BSA) and show that intrinsic electric fields greatly enhance the mobility of protons when the ionic strength of the salts is smaller than 0.1 M. These results are consistent with experiments where pH changes are observed to depend strongly on buffer, salt, and proton concentrations in baths adjacent to the membranes. PMID:233570

  12. Investigation Of A Transient Energetic Charge Exchange Fux Enhancement (?spike-on-tail?) Observed In Neutral-beam-heated H-mode Discharges In The National Spherical Torus Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    S.S. Medley et. al.

    2011-08-04

    In the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX), a large increase in the charge exchange neutral flux localized at the Neutral Beam (NB) injection full energy is measured by the E||B (superimposed parallel electric and magnetic fields) Neutral Particle Analyzer (NPA). Termed the High-Energy Feature (HEF), it appears on the NB-injected energetic ion spectrum only in discharges where tearing or kink-type modes (f < 50 kHz) are absent, Toroidal Alfvén Eigenmode (TAE) activity (f ~ 50 - 150 kHz) is weak and Global Alfvén Eigenmode (GAE) activity (f ~ 400 – 1000 kHz) is robust. Compressional Alfvén eigenmode (CAE) activity (f > 1000 kHz) is usually sporadic or absent during the HEF event. The HEF exhibits growth times of ?t ~ 20 - 80 ms, durations of ~ 100 – 600 ms and peak-to-base flux ratios up to H = Fmax /Fmin ~ 10. In infrequent cases, a slowing down distribution below the HEF energy can develop that continues to evolve over periods > 100 ms, a time scale long compared with the typical fast ion equilibration times. HEFs are Transient energetic charge exchange flux enhancement (?spike-on-tail?) 2 observed only in H-mode (not L-mode) discharges with injected power Pb ? 4 MW and in the pitch range ? = vll /v ~ 0.7 – 0.9; i.e. only for passing particles. Increases of ~ 10 - 30 % in the measured neutron yield and total stored energy that are observed to coincide with the feature appear to be driven by concomitant broadening of measured Te(r), Ti(r) and ne(r) profiles and not the HEF itself. While the HEF has minimal impact on plasma performance, it nevertheless poses a challenging wave-particle interaction phenomenon to understand. Candidate mechanisms for HEF formation are developed based on quasilinear theory of wave-particle interaction. The only mechanism found to lead to the large NPA flux ratios, H = Fmax /Fmin , observed in NSTX is the quasilinear evolution of the energetic ion distribution, Fb(E,?,r), in phase space and the concomitant loss of some particles, which occurs due to the cyclotron interaction of the particles with destabilized modes having sufficiently high frequencies, F ~ 700 - 1000 kHz, in the plasma frame that are tentatively identified as Global Alfvén Eigenmodes.

  13. Transient nucleation in glasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelton, K. F.

    1991-01-01

    Nucleation rates in condensed systems are frequently not at their steady state values. Such time dependent (or transient) nucleation is most clearly observed in devitrification studies of metallic and silicate glasses. The origin of transient nucleation and its role in the formation and stability of desired phases and microstructures are discussed. Numerical models of nucleation in isothermal and nonisothermal situations, based on the coupled differential equations describing cluster evolution within the classical theory, are presented. The importance of transient nucleation in glass formation and crystallization is discussed.

  14. Transient growth of Ekman-Couette flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Liang; Hof, Björn; Tilgner, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Coriolis force effects on shear flows are important in geophysical and astrophysical contexts. We report a study on the linear stability and the transient energy growth of the plane Couette flow with system rotation perpendicular to the shear direction. External rotation causes linear instability. At small rotation rates, the onset of linear instability scales inversely with the rotation rate and the optimal transient growth in the linearly stable region is slightly enhanced ˜Re2. The corresponding optimal initial perturbations are characterized by roll structures inclined in the streamwise direction and are twisted under external rotation. At large rotation rates, the transient growth is significantly inhibited and hence linear stability analysis is a reliable indicator for instability.

  15. PSEUDO-TRANSIENT CONTINUATION FOR NONLINEAR TRANSIENT ELASTICITY

    E-print Network

    Kelley, C. T. "Tim"

    PSEUDO-TRANSIENT CONTINUATION FOR NONLINEAR TRANSIENT ELASTICITY MICHAEL W. GEE, C. T. KELLEY, AND R. B. LEHOUCQ Abstract. We show how the method of pseudo-transient continuation can be applied to improve the robustness of the Newton iteration within a nonlinear transient elasticity simulation. Pseudo

  16. The LOFAR Transients Pipeline

    E-print Network

    Swinbank, John D; Molenaar, Gijs J; Rol, Evert; Rowlinson, Antonia; Scheers, Bart; Spreeuw, Hanno; Bell, Martin E; Broderick, Jess W; Carbone, Dario; van der Horst, Alexander J; Law, Casey J; Wise, Michael; Breton, Rene P; Cendes, Yvette; Corbel, Stéphane; Eislöffel, Jochen; Falcke, Heino; Fender, Rob; Greißmeier, Jean-Mathias; Hessels, Jason W T; Stappers, Benjamin W; Stewart, Adam J; Wijers, Ralph A M J; Wijnands, Rudy; Zarka, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Current and future astronomical survey facilities provide a remarkably rich opportunity for transient astronomy, combining unprecedented fields of view with high sensitivity and the ability to access previously unexplored wavelength regimes. This is particularly true of LOFAR, a recently-commissioned, low-frequency radio interferometer, based in the Netherlands and with stations across Europe. The identification of and response to transients is one of LOFAR's key science goals. However, the large data volumes which LOFAR produces, combined with the scientific requirement for rapid response, make automation essential. To support this, we have developed the LOFAR Transients Pipeline, or TraP. The TraP ingests multi-frequency image data from LOFAR or other instruments and searches it for transients and variables, providing automatic alerts of significant detections and populating a lightcurve database for further analysis by astronomers. Here, we discuss the scientific goals of the TraP and how it has been desig...

  17. High energy transients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woosley, S. E.

    1984-01-01

    A meeting was convened on the campus of the University of California at Santa Cruz during the two-week interval July 11 through July 22, 1983. Roughly 100 participants were chosen so as to give broad representation to all aspects of high energy transients. Ten morning review sessions were held in which invited speakers discussed the current status of observations and theory of the above subjects. Afternoon workshops were also held, usually more than one per day, to informally review various technical aspects of transients, confront shortcomings in theoretical models, and to propose productive courses for future research. Special attention was also given to the instrumentation used to study high energy transient and the characteristics and goals of a dedicated space mission to study transients in the next decade were determined. A listing of articles written by various members of the workshop is included.

  18. Femtosecond Transient Imaging

    E-print Network

    Kirmani, Ahmed (Ghulam Ahmed)

    2010-01-01

    This thesis proposes a novel framework called transient imaging for image formation and scene understanding through impulse illumination and time images. Using time-of-flight cameras and multi-path analysis of global light ...

  19. Transients in Frequency Modulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Salinger

    1942-01-01

    In a frequency-modulation system, a sudden jump in carrier frequency corresponding to a Heaviside unit signal will result in a transient depending on the receiving-filter bandwidth. If this bandwith exceeds twice the maximum frequency swing, the shape and duration of the transient is shown to be about the same as in an amplitude-modulation system with the same bandwidth; for narrower

  20. On some applications of diffusion processes for image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morfu, S.

    2009-06-01

    We propose a new algorithm inspired by the properties of diffusion processes for image filtering. We show that purely nonlinear diffusion processes ruled by Fisher equation allows contrast enhancement and noise filtering, but involves a blurry image. By contrast, anisotropic diffusion, described by Perona and Malik algorithm, allows noise filtering and preserves the edges. We show that combining the properties of anisotropic diffusion with those of nonlinear diffusion provides a better processing tool which enables noise filtering, contrast enhancement and edge preserving.

  1. A note on the drawdown, diffusive behavior of fractured rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raghavan, Rajagopal

    2009-02-01

    Transients in fractured media are described using a model in which permeability depends on space and time. The motivation for the differential equation used here draws on recent results for diffusion on fractals in the asymptotic regime. The solution proposed is consistent with the scaling arguments for diffusion on fractal structures. Known results for transients in fractured rocks may be extracted from the solution given here.

  2. Transient drop deformation upon startup of shear in viscoelastic fluids Pengtao Yue and James J. Feng

    E-print Network

    Shen, Jie

    Transient drop deformation upon startup of shear in viscoelastic fluids Pengtao Yue and James J of experimental studies11,12 focused on the transient reaction of a drop to startup of simple shear when either of the nonmonotonic drop behavior upon startup of shear flow. We use a diffuse-interface model based on the system

  3. Dynamic characterization of hydrophobic and hydrophilic solutes in oleic-acid enhanced transdermal delivery using two-photon fluorescence microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Tseng, Te-Yu; Yang, Chiu-Sheng; Chen, Yang-Fang [Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Tsung-Hua [Department of Dermatology, Far Eastern Memorial Hospital, New Taipei City, Taiwan (China); Dong, Chen-Yuan, E-mail: cydong@phys.ntu.edu.tw [Department of Physics, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Center for Quantum Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Center for Optoelectronic Biomedicine, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2014-10-20

    In this letter, we propose an efficient methodology of investigating dynamic properties of sulforhodamine B and rhodamine B hexyl ester molecules transporting across ex-vivo human stratum corneum with and without oleic acid enhancement. Three-dimensional, time-lapse fluorescence images of the stratum corneum can be obtained using two-photon fluorescence microscopy. Furthermore, temporal quantifications of transport enhancements in diffusion parameters can be achieved with the use of Fick's second law. Dynamic characterization of solutes transporting across the stratum corneum is an effective method for understanding transient phenomena in transdermal delivery of probe molecules, leading to improved delivery strategies of molecular species for therapeutic purposes.

  4. Origin of Enhanced Hole Injection in Organic Light-Emitting Diodes with an Electron-Acceptor Doping Layer: p-Type Doping or Interfacial Diffusion?

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Zu, Feng-Shuo; Deng, Ya-Li; Igbari, Femi; Wang, Zhao-Kui; Liao, Liang-Sheng

    2015-06-10

    The electrical doping nature of a strong electron acceptor, 1,4,5,8,9,11-hexaazatriphenylene hexacarbonitrile (HATCN), is investigated by doping it in a typical hole-transport material, N,N'-bis(naphthalen-1-yl)-N,N'-diphenylbenzidine (NPB). A better device performance of organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) was achieved by doping NPB with HATCN. The improved performance could, in principle, arise from a p-type doping effect in the codeposited thin films. However, physical characteristics evaluations including UV-vis absorption, Fourier transform infrared absorption, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy demonstrated that there was no obvious evidence of charge transfer in the NPB:HATCN composite. The performance improvement in NPB:HATCN-based OLEDs is mainly attributed to an interfacial modification effect owing to the diffusion of HATCN small molecules. The interfacial diffusion effect of the HATCN molecules was verified by the in situ ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy evaluations. PMID:25970499

  5. Transient lesion in the splenium of the corpus callosum due to rotavirus infection.

    PubMed

    Mazur-Melewska, Katarzyna; Jonczyk-Potoczna, Katarzyna; Szpura, Krystyna; Biega?ski, Grzegorz; Mania, Anna; Kemnitz, Pawe?; S?u?ewski, Wojciech; Figlerowicz, Magdalena

    2015-06-01

    Transient signal changes in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the splenium of the corpus callosum (SCC) can result from many different reasons, including encephalitis and encephalopathy caused by infection, seizures, metabolic disorders and asphyxia. We report a case of a 6-year-old Polish girl with rotavirus infection demonstrating a reversible SCC lesion on diffusion-weighted MRI images. She presented six episodes of generalized tonic seizures with mild acute gastroenteritis. Stool test for rotavirus antigen was positive. At the time of admission imaging showed the hyperintense region in T2-weighted and fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery MRI, a well-defined lesion in the splenium of the corpus callosum with restricted diffusion in diffusion-weighted MRI and no enhancement in post contrast T1-weighted imaging. Her first EEG showed slow brain activity in the posterior occipitotemporal portion, consisting mainly of theta waves with a frequency of 4.5-5.5 Hz and amplitude of 40 uV. The lesion had completely disappeared on follow-up MRI 10 days later. The patient recovered fully without any sequelae. PMID:25686898

  6. End-to-end diffusion coefficients and distance distributions from fluorescence energy transfer measurements: enhanced resolution by using multiple donors with different lifetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gryczynski, Ignacy; Lakowicz, Joseph R.; Kusba, Jozef

    1994-08-01

    We describe a method to improve the resolution of donor-to- acceptor distance distributions in molecules which are flexing on the timescale of the fluorescence lifetime. We measured the time- dependent donor decays of two donor (D)-acceptor (A) pairs, where the donor lifetimes were substantially different. The donors were an indole residue (5.7 ns) and a naphthalene residue (24.4 ns). The same dansyl acceptor was used for both D-A pairs. The donor decays are complex due to both a distribution of D-A distances and D-A diffusion. Using the donor decay data for each D-A pair alone, it is difficult to resolve both the distance distribution and the D-to-A diffusion coefficient. However, these values are unambiguously recovered from global analysis of the data from both D-A pairs. Simulations were also used to demonstrate the increased reduction of global analysis with different lifetime donors to obtain distance distribution parameters in the presence of D-A diffusion.

  7. The effect of excimer laser pretreatment on diffusion and activation of boron implanted in silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Monakhov, E.V.; Svensson, B.G.; Linnarsson, M.K.; La Magna, A.; Italia, M.; Privitera, V.; Fortunato, G.; Cuscuna, M.; Mariucci, L. [Department of Physics, Physical Electronics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1048 Blindern, N-0316 Oslo (Norway); Royal Institute of Technology, Lab of Materials and Semiconductor Physics, P.O. Box Electrum 229, SE-164 40 Kista (Sweden); CNR-IMM Sezione Catania, Stradale Primosole 50, 95121 Catania (Italy); IFN-CNR, Via Cineto Romano 42, 00156 Rome (Italy)

    2005-11-07

    We have investigated the effect of excimer laser annealing (ELA) on transient enhanced diffusion (TED) and activation of boron implanted in Si during subsequent rapid thermal annealing (RTA). It is observed that ELA with partial melting of the implanted region causes reduction of TED in the region that remains solid during ELA, where the diffusion length of boron is reduced by a factor of {approx}4 as compared to the as-implanted sample. This is attributed to several mechanisms such as liquid-state annealing of a fraction of the implantation induced defects, introduction of excess vacancies during ELA, and solid-state annealing of the defects beyond the maximum melting depth by the heat wave propagating into the Si wafer. The ELA pretreatment provides a substantially improved electrical activation of boron during subsequent RTA.

  8. Time Transient Effects in Heterogeneous Permselective Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Yoav; Park, Sinwook; Yossifon, Gilad

    2015-03-01

    The passage of an electric current through a permselective medium (membranes/nanochannels) under an applied electric field is characterized by the formation of ionic concentration gradients which result in regions of depleted and enriched ionic concentration at opposite ends of the medium, i.e. concentration polarization (CP). In this work, we study the time-transient behavior of the concentration and electric potential distributions in a realistic two dimensional and three layered system (i.e. microchannel-permselective medium-microchannel device). We provide an analytical solution for the concentration under the simplifying assumptions of local-electroneutrality, ideal permselectivity and negligible convection while the electric potential is solved numerically. It is shown that time transient effects occur over the diffusive time scale until steady-state is achieved. The numerical steady state solution is compared with previous analytical results and good quantitative behavior is observed.

  9. The LOFAR Transients Pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swinbank, John D.; Staley, Tim D.; Molenaar, Gijs J.; Rol, Evert; Rowlinson, Antonia; Scheers, Bart; Spreeuw, Hanno; Bell, Martin E.; Broderick, Jess W.; Carbone, Dario; Garsden, Hugh; van der Horst, Alexander J.; Law, Casey J.; Wise, Michael; Breton, Rene P.; Cendes, Yvette; Corbel, Stéphane; Eislöffel, Jochen; Falcke, Heino; Fender, Rob; Grießmeier, Jean-Mathias; Hessels, Jason W. T.; Stappers, Benjamin W.; Stewart, Adam J.; Wijers, Ralph A. M. J.; Wijnands, Rudy; Zarka, Philippe

    2015-06-01

    Current and future astronomical survey facilities provide a remarkably rich opportunity for transient astronomy, combining unprecedented fields of view with high sensitivity and the ability to access previously unexplored wavelength regimes. This is particularly true of LOFAR, a recently-commissioned, low-frequency radio interferometer, based in the Netherlands and with stations across Europe. The identification of and response to transients is one of LOFAR's key science goals. However, the large data volumes which LOFAR produces, combined with the scientific requirement for rapid response, make automation essential. To support this, we have developed the LOFAR Transients Pipeline, or TraP. The TraP ingests multi-frequency image data from LOFAR or other instruments and searches it for transients and variables, providing automatic alerts of significant detections and populating a lightcurve database for further analysis by astronomers. Here, we discuss the scientific goals of the TraP and how it has been designed to meet them. We describe its implementation, including both the algorithms adopted to maximize performance as well as the development methodology used to ensure it is robust and reliable, particularly in the presence of artefacts typical of radio astronomy imaging. Finally, we report on a series of tests of the pipeline carried out using simulated LOFAR observations with a known population of transients.

  10. Influence of defects on excess charge carrier kinetics studied by transient PC and transient PA

    SciTech Connect

    Feist, H.; Kunst, M.; Swiatkowski, C.

    1997-07-01

    By comparison of transient photoconductivity (TPC) and transient photoinduced absorption (PA) the influence of the density of states in the bandgap on excess charge carrier kinetics is studied for a-Si:H films deposited at different temperatures and for state of the art a-Si:H films in two different states of light soaking. In both series the rising deep defect density leads to an enhancement of electron trapping rather than recombination via deep defects. The samples deposited at temperatures lower than 250 C additionally show a lower effective electron mobility, i.e., a broader conduction band tail.

  11. Fokker-Planck . . . Diffusion . . .

    E-print Network

    Fokker-Planck . . . Diffusion . . . Diffusion- . . . Application: . . . Summary and . . . First #12;Fokker-Planck . . . Diffusion . . . Diffusion- . . . Application: . . . Summary and . . . Topics: 1. Fokker-Planck transport equation 2. Diffusion approximation 3. Diffusion-convection transport

  12. Introduction Diffusion Tensor Imaging

    E-print Network

    Zhang, Shuzhong

    Introduction Diffusion Tensor Imaging Diffusion Kurtosis Imaging D-Eigenvalues and . . . Further ·Full Screen ·Close ·Quit Diffusion Tensor and Diffusion Kurtosis Tensor in Biomedical Engineering Diffusion Tensor Imaging Diffusion Kurtosis Imaging D-Eigenvalues and . . . Further Discussion Home Page

  13. Relativistic diffusion

    E-print Network

    Haba, Z

    2008-01-01

    We define a relativistic diffusion equation on the phase space. We consider stochastic Ito (Langevin) differential equation on the phase space as a perturbation by noise of relativistic dynamics. The motion in an electromagnetic field is treated as an example. Transport equations and equilibrium probability distributions are investigated. A relation to diffusions appearing in heavy ion collisions is briefly discussed.

  14. Hillslope diffusion

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Jeni McDermott

    This lab is designed to help students apply hillslope diffusion equations (derived in class prior to the lab) to understand real-world hillslopes. The major goal is a deeper understanding of hillslope processes and the equations used to describe hillslope diffusion by observing the same factors described in the equations on real-world hillslopes.

  15. Effect of noise on neuron transient response

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alix Herrmann; Wulfram Gerstner

    2000-01-01

    A good approximation to the integrate-and-fire model\\u000a with diffusive noise can be obtained using a noisy\\u000a threshold model. This allows the response of a population\\u000a of noisy neurons to a current transient to be described\\u000a using a linear filter. Here we apply these analytical\\u000a results to the peristimulus time histogram (PSTH) of a\\u000a single neuron. The effect of the noise

  16. The Zwicky Transient Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellm, Eric Christopher; Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.; ZTF Collaboration

    2015-01-01

    The Zwicky Transient Facility (ZTF) is a next-generation optical synoptic survey. Building on the experience and infrastructure of the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF), ZTF will use a new 47-square degree survey camera on the 48-inch Palomar Oschin Schmidt Telescope. ZTF will survey more than an order of magnitude faster than PTF, enabling an unprecedented wide area, high-cadence survey. Its major science goals include discovering young supernovae, searching for electromagnetic counterparts to gravitational wave sources, identifying stellar variables, and detecting Near-Earth Asteroids. Public surveys and data releases will enable broad utilization of the ZTF data.

  17. Shock Wave and EUV Transient During a Flare

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gopalswamy, N.; Kaiser, M. L.; Sato, J.; Pick, Monique

    2000-01-01

    A metric type II burst and a 'brow' type enhancement in EUV were observed during the hard X-ray flare of 1997 April 15 from a newly emerging region, AR 8032. The position of the type II burst obtained from the Nancay radioheliograph coincided with the EUV transient. The type II burst and the EUV transient were in the equatorial streamer region to the north of the flaring region. This observation suggests that the EUV transient may be the manifestation of the MHD shock responsible for the type II burst.

  18. Time and Frequency Domain CCD-Based Thermoreflectance Techniques for High-Resolution Transient Thermal Imaging

    E-print Network

    , it is in many applications desirable to observe how the heat diffusion evolves dynamically. Systems able source of systematic error. Illustrative case studies present the transient and AC heat diffusion the dynamic range of a 12-bit CCD to over 18 effective bits, allowing measurements with temperature resolu

  19. DIFFUSION MEASUREMENTS DURING PERVAPORATION THROUGH A ZEOLITE MEMBRANE

    EPA Science Inventory

    An isotopic-transient technique was used to directly measure diffusion times of H2O, methanol, ethanol, 2-propanol, and acetone in pure and binary mixture feeds transporting through a zeolite membrane under steady-state pervaporation conditions. Diffusivities can be determ...

  20. Comparison of arsenic and phosphorus diffusion behavior in silicongermanium alloys

    E-print Network

    Comparison of arsenic and phosphorus diffusion behavior in silicon­germanium alloys S. Eguchia of ion-implanted arsenic and phosphorus in relaxed Si0.8Ge0.2 has been investigated. Under equilibrium is roughly seven for arsenic, and roughly two for phosphorus. Under transient diffusion conditions

  1. [Subtle focal diffusion abnormality in the hippocampus].

    PubMed

    Macht, S; Hellen, F; Wenzel, D; Turowski, B

    2012-07-01

    A 53-year-old female patient presented with sudden onset confusion and disorientation. Further neurological examination was unremarkable and the patient showed a complete recovery after several hours. A magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination performed 2 days later revealed a tiny focal lesion in the lateral hippocampus in the diffusion weighted images consistent with transient global amnesia. PMID:22710991

  2. Primary Diffuse Leptomeningeal Gliosarcomatosis

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Ju Hyung; Kim, Se Hoon; Kim, Eui Hyun; Kang, Seok-Gu

    2015-01-01

    Primary diffuse leptomeningeal gliomatosis (PDLG) is a rare condition with a fatal outcome, characterized by diffuse infiltration of the leptomeninges by neoplastic glial cells without evidence of primary tumor in the brain or spinal cord parenchyma. In particular, PDLG histologically diagnosed as gliosarcoma is extremely rare, with only 2 cases reported to date. We report a case of primary diffuse leptomeningeal gliosarcomatosis. A 68-year-old man presented with fever, chilling, headache, and a brief episode of mental deterioration. Initial T1-weighted post-contrast brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed diffuse leptomeningeal enhancement without a definite intraparenchymal lesion. Based on clinical and imaging findings, antiviral treatment was initiated. Despite the treatment, the patient's neurologic symptoms and mental status progressively deteriorated and follow-up MRI showed rapid progression of the disease. A meningeal biopsy revealed gliosarcoma and was conclusive for the diagnosis of primary diffuse leptomeningeal gliosarcomatosis. We suggest the inclusion of PDLG in the potential differential diagnosis of patients who present with nonspecific neurologic symptoms in the presence of leptomeningeal involvement on MRI. PMID:25977905

  3. The Radio Transient Sky

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazio, J.

    Radio transients are known on time scales from nanoseconds to years, from sources in the Galaxy and beyond, and with either coherent or incoherent emission mechanisms. Observations of this wide variety of sources are relevant to many of the highest profile questions in astronomy and astrophysics. As illustrations of the breadth of the radio transient sky, both coherent and incoherent radio emission has long been known from stars and stellar remnants and has informed topics ranging from stellar evolution to Galactic structure to relativistic jet dynamics to tests of fundamental physics. Coherent radio emission is now also known from brown dwarfs, and there are active programs to find similar emissions from extrasolar planets. Outside of the Galaxy, incoherent radio counterparts to supernovae, tidal disruption events, and gamma-ray bursts is well known and have contributed to topics such as understanding the cosmic star formation rate and the formation of relativistic jets. Excitingly, coherent radio bursts that appear to be at cosmological distances were recently discovered. I provide a survey of the radio transient sky, illustrating both how radio transients are part of the Hot-Wired Sky and are likely to help drive the Hot-Wiring. Part of this research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  4. On Detecting Transients

    E-print Network

    Belanger, G

    2013-01-01

    Transient phenomena are interesting and potentially highly revealing of details about the processes under observation and study that could otherwise go unnoticed. It is therefore important to maximise the sensitivity of the method used to identify such events. In this article we present a general procedure based on the use of the likelihood function for identifying transients that is particularly suited for real-time applications because it requires no grouping or pre-processing of the data. The method is optimal in the sense that all the information that is available in the data is used in the statistical decision making process, and is suitable for a wide range of applications. We here consider those most common in astrophysics which involve searching for transient sources, events or features in images, time series, energy spectra and power spectra, and demonstrate the use of the method in the cases of a transient in a time series or in a power spectrum. We derive a fit statistic that is ideal for fitting a...

  5. Transient RC Circuits Applet

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Hwang, Fu-Kwun.

    This applet simulates the transient behavior of a simple RC circuit. The user can change the magnitudes of the resistance, capacitance, and the voltage of the battery, as well as flip a switch between its two positions. The applet then graphs the voltage and current in the circuit as functions of time, and displays visual representations of those two quantities on a circuit diagram.

  6. Transient sensor development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cash, J.

    1967-01-01

    Pulse width/amplitude- and noise-sensors are updated to integrated circuit design concepts, and rise time/amplitude sensor design is reduced to an operational prototype to make all the sensors compatable for one system operation. Therefore, transients interfering with the design operation of receivers could be individually isolated and identified.

  7. Transient Voltage Decoupling Elements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. E. Gruber

    1968-01-01

    Premature and inexact timing of thyratron generators may occur during parallel operation of capacitor discharge circuits. Voltage transients which enter the trigger circuits can be eliminated by decoupling spark gaps. A simple, two electrode, spark gap with corona illumination is described. The low jitter of this gap allows its insertion in the output line of a 15 kV thyratron generator

  8. Lightning transient interaction control

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. F. Vance; J. E. Nanevicz

    1982-01-01

    Transient or broadband interference from such sources outside an aircraft as lightning strikes can be controlled, through the application of topologically closed electromagnetic barriers. The appropriate choice of barrier configurations can reduce maintenance, increase reliability, and simplify specification and testing at the subsystem level. The appropriate allocation procedures can yield intrasystem compatibility, as well as immunity to lightning strikes.

  9. Diffuse radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    A diffuse celestial radiation which is isotropic at least on a course scale were measured from the soft X-ray region to about 150 MeV, at which energy the intensity falls below that of the galactic emission for most galactic latitudes. The spectral shape, the intensity, and the established degree of isotropy of this diffuse radiation already place severe constraints on the possible explanations for this radiation. Among the extragalactic theories, the more promising explanations of the isotropic diffuse emission appear to be radiation from exceptional galaxies from matter antimatter annihilation at the boundaries of superclusters of galaxies of matter and antimatter in baryon symmetric big bang models. Other possible sources for extragalactic diffuse gamma radiation are discussed and include normal galaxies, clusters of galaxies, primordial cosmic rays interacting with intergalactic matter, primordial black holes, and cosmic ray leakage from galaxies.

  10. Kinesin Motor Transport is Altered by Macromolecular Crowding and Transiently Associated Microtubule-Associated Proteins

    E-print Network

    Leslie Conway; Jennifer L. Ross

    2014-09-11

    Intracellular transport of vesicular cargos, organelles, and other macromolecules is an essential process to move large items through a crowded, and inhomogeneous cellular environment. In an effort to dissect the fundamental effects of crowding and an increasingly complex cellular environment on the transport of individual motor proteins, we have performed in vitro reconstitution experiments with single kinesin-1 motors walking on microtubules in the presence of crowding agents and transient microtubule-associated proteins that more closely emulate the cellular environment. Macromolecular crowding due to inert polymers caused enhanced run lengths of motors, but displayed an increased tendency for non-specific motor association and diffusion, most likely due to depletion interactions. We found that transiently bound associated proteins slowed forward motion, but did not drastically affect the association times, in opposition to previously reported obstacle properties of stably associated microtubule-associated proteins, such as the neuronal protein tau. Such studies of the transport properties of molecular motors in increasingly complex reconstituted environments are important to illuminate the fundamental biophysical principles underlying the essential process of intracellular cargo transport.

  11. Jostein Bakkeheim Improved Transient Performance

    E-print Network

    Johansen, Tor Arne

    with increased transient performance. In this way, the Lyapunov function is used both as a part in the controller measure for the system's transient energy. The first problem may be solved in some situations where#12;#12;Jostein Bakkeheim Improved Transient Performance by Lyapunov-based Reset of Dynamic

  12. Transient analysis using component transforms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Owen

    2011-01-01

    The Clarke component method is applied to solve for transients that occur upon network disturbance. It is applicable to the study of circuit breaker Transient Recovery Voltages, short and open circuit faults. The method may be implemented manually or via Electro-Magnetic-Transient-Program (EMTP) software.

  13. Moisture diffusion and vapour pressure modeling of IC packaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ee Hua Wong; Yong Chua Teo; Thiam Beng Lim

    1998-01-01

    A new physical quantity-wetness fraction-has been introduced to overcome the concentration discontinuity in the application of Fick's diffusion equation to multi-material systems such as in plastic IC packaging. This enables the use of commercial thermal diffusion software to model the transient moisture diffusion phenomenon in IC packaging. More significantly, the wetness fraction provides a simple means of computing the vapour

  14. Differences between thermal and laser-induced diffusion.

    PubMed

    Zaum, Ch; Meyer-Auf-der-Heide, K M; Mehlhorn, M; McDonough, S; Schneider, W F; Morgenstern, K

    2015-04-10

    A combination of femtosecond laser excitation with a low-temperature scanning tunneling microscope is used to study long-range interaction during diffusion of CO on Cu(111). Both thermal and laser-driven diffusion show an oscillatory energy dependence on the distance to neighboring molecules. Surprisingly, the phase is inverted; i.e., at distances at which thermal diffusion is most difficult, it is easiest for laser-driven diffusion and vice versa. We explain this unexpected behavior by a transient stabilization of the negative ion during diffusion as corroborated by ab initio calculations. PMID:25910140

  15. A case of diffuse-type primary hepatic lymphoma mimicking diffuse hepatocellular carcinoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Koichiro Kaneko; Akihiro Nishie; Fumitou Arima; Tsuyoshi Yoshida; Ken Ono; Junichi Omagari; Hiroshi Honda

    2011-01-01

    Primary hepatic lymphoma (PHL) is a very rare disease, especially in the diffuse type. We report a case of a middle-aged man\\u000a with hepatitis C virus infection who developed diffuse-type PHL mimicking diffuse hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Contrast-enhanced\\u000a computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging showed diffusely infiltrated hypovascular lesions throughout the liver,\\u000a but no intrahepatic portal venous thrombus was observed.

  16. Heat diffusion The objective of this laboratory is for you to use measurements of the diffusion of heat in a material to

    E-print Network

    Braun, Paul

    Heat diffusion Objective The objective of this laboratory is for you to use measurements of the diffusion of heat in a material to enhance your understanding of solutions of the diffusion equation, is the thermal diffusivity, D=/C. The MKS units of diffusivity are m2 /s. We can get a rough idea of the time

  17. Transient Numerical Modeling of Catalytic Channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Struk, Peter M.; Dietrich, Daniel L.; Miller, Fletcher J.; T'ien, James S.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a transient model of catalytic combustion suitable for isolated channels and monolith reactors. The model is a lumped two-phase (gas and solid) model where the gas phase is quasi-steady relative to the transient solid. Axial diffusion is neglected in the gas phase; lateral diffusion, however, is accounted for using transfer coefficients. The solid phase includes axial heat conduction and external heat loss due to convection and radiation. The combustion process utilizes detailed gas and surface reaction models. The gas-phase model becomes a system of stiff ordinary differential equations while the solid phase reduces, after discretization, into a system of stiff ordinary differential-algebraic equations. The time evolution of the system came from alternating integrations of the quasi-steady gas and transient solid. This work outlines the numerical model and presents some sensitivity studies on important parameters including internal transfer coefficients, catalytic surface site density, and external heat-loss (if applicable). The model is compared to two experiments using CO fuel: (1) steady-state conversion through an isothermal platinum (Pt) tube and (2) transient propagation of a catalytic reaction inside a small Pt tube. The model requires internal mass-transfer resistance to match the experiments at lower residence times. Under mass-transport limited conditions, the model reasonably predicted exit conversion using global mass-transfer coefficients. Near light-off, the model results did not match the experiment precisely even after adjustment of mass-transfer coefficients. Agreement improved for the first case after adjusting the surface kinetics such that the net rate of CO adsorption increased compared to O2. The CO / O2 surface mechanism came from a sub-set of reactions in a popular CH4 / O2 mechanism. For the second case, predictions improved for lean conditions with increased external heat loss or adjustment of the kinetics as in the first case. Finally, the results show that different initial surface-species distribution leads to different steady-states under certain conditions. These results demonstrate the utility of a lumped two-phase model of a transient catalytic combustor with detailed chemistry.

  18. The role of external electric fields in enhancing ion mobility, drift velocity, and drift-diffusion rates in aqueous electrolyte solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murad, Sohail

    2011-03-01

    Molecular simulations have been carried out using the method of molecular dynamics to investigate the role of external electric fields on the ion mobility, drift velocity, and drift-diffusion rate of ions in aqueous electrolyte solutions. These properties are critical for a range of processes including electrodialysis, electro-deionization, electrophoresis, and electroosmosis. Our results show that external electric fields relax the hydrated ion structure at significantly larger time scales (between 300 and 800 ps), than most other relaxation processes in solutions (generally of the order of 1 ps). Previous studies that did not account for the much longer relaxation times did not observe this behavior for ions even with very high electric fields. External electric fields must also overcome several (at least two or more) activation energy barriers to significantly change the structure of hydrated ions. As a result, the dynamic behavior changes almost in bands as a function of electric field strengths, rather than linearly. Finally, the effect of the field is much less dramatic on water than the ions. Thus electric fields will be of more significance in processes that involve the transport of ions (such as electro-deionization) than the transport of water (electroosmosis).

  19. Diffusion of water submonolayers on hydrophilic surfaces.

    PubMed

    Park, Jae Hyun; Aluru, N R

    2008-12-22

    In this letter, we investigate using molecular dynamics simulations the diffusion of water submonolayers on hydrophilic surfaces. In contrast to a strong hydrophilic Ag surface, on a weak hydrophilic Pb surface, the diffusion coefficient is remarkably enhanced at a critical surface coverage and a Lambda-shape anomaly with surface coverage is observed, i.e., the diffusion coefficient increases with the increase in surface coverage until a critical surface coverage, beyond which the diffusion coefficient decreases. We explain the anomalous diffusion of water on hydrophilic surfaces by a detailed understanding of molecular cavities and monolayer tail contributing to three-dimensional hydrogen bonding. PMID:19529784

  20. Diffusion Models to Describe the Drying Process of Peeled Bananas: Optimization and Simulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Wilton Pereira da Silva; Cleide M. D. P. S. e Silva; Vera S. O. Farias; Josivanda P. Gomes

    2012-01-01

    This article aims to study the mass transient diffusion in solids with a cylindrical shape. To this end, the one-dimensional diffusion equation was discretized using the finite volume method with a fully implicit formulation. The solution can be used to simulate diffusive processes and to determine thermophysical parameters via optimization techniques. The computational package developed was applied to study the

  1. On Transients in Detached Bridgman Growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazuruk, K.; Volz, M. P.

    2011-01-01

    In detached Bridgman growth, a gap exists between the growing crystal and the crucible wall. According to crystal shape stability theory, only specific gap widths will be dynamically stable. Beginning with a crystal diameter that differs from stable conditions, the transient crystal growth process is analyzed. The transient shapes are calculated assuming that the growth angle is constant. Anisotropy and dynamic contact angle effects are considered. In microgravity, dynamic stability depends only on capillary effects and is decoupled from heat transfer. However, heat transfer will influence the crystal-melt interface shape. The local angles and the crystal-melt-vapor triple junction are analyzed and the applicability of the Herring formula is discussed. A potential microgravity experiment is proposed which would enhance our understanding of the detached growth dynamic stability problem.

  2. Transient cosmic acceleration

    E-print Network

    J. S. Alcaniz

    2009-11-05

    We explore cosmological consequences of two quintessence models in which the current cosmic acceleration is a transient phenomenon. We argue that one of them (in which the EoS parameter switches from freezing to thawing regimes) may reconcile the slight preference of observational data for freezing potentials with the impossibility of defining observables in String/M-theory due to the existence of a cosmological event horizon in asymptotically de Sitter universes.

  3. Transient cosmic acceleration

    E-print Network

    Alcaniz, J S

    2009-01-01

    We explore cosmological consequences of two quintessence models in which the current cosmic acceleration is a transient phenomenon. We argue that one of them (in which the EoS parameter switches from freezing to thawing regimes) may reconcile the slight preference of observational data for freezing potentials with the impossibility of defining observables in String/M-theory due to the existence of a cosmological event horizon in asymptotically de Sitter universes.

  4. ON DETECTING TRANSIENT PHENOMENA

    SciTech Connect

    Belanger, G., E-mail: gbelanger@sciops.esa.int [European Space Astronomy Centre (ESA/ESAC), Science Operations Department, Villanueva de la Canada (Madrid) (Spain)

    2013-08-10

    Transient phenomena are interesting and potentially highly revealing of details about the processes under observation and study that could otherwise go unnoticed. It is therefore important to maximize the sensitivity of the method used to identify such events. In this article, we present a general procedure based on the use of the likelihood function for identifying transients which is particularly suited for real-time applications because it requires no grouping or pre-processing of the data. The method makes use of all the information that is available in the data throughout the statistical decision-making process, and is suitable for a wide range of applications. Here we consider those most common in astrophysics, which involve searching for transient sources, events or features in images, time series, energy spectra, and power spectra, and demonstrate the use of the method in the case of a weak X-ray flare in a time series and a short-lived quasi-periodic oscillation in a power spectrum. We derive a fit statistic that is ideal for fitting arbitrarily shaped models to a power density distribution, which is of general interest in all applications involving periodogram analysis.

  5. Enhanced fluorescence diffuse optical tomography with indocyanine green-encapsulating liposomes targeted to receptors for vascular endothelial growth factor in tumor vasculature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanganeh, Saeid; Xu, Yan; Hamby, Carl V.; Backer, Marina V.; Backer, Joseph M.; Zhu, Quing

    2013-12-01

    To develop an indocyanine green (ICG) tracer with slower clearance kinetics, we explored ICG-encapsulating liposomes (Lip) in three different formulations: untargeted (Lip/ICG), targeted to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptors (scVEGF-Lip/ICG) by the receptor-binding moiety single-chain VEGF (scVEGF), or decorated with inactivated scVEGF (inactive-Lip/ICG) that does not bind to VEGF receptors. Experiments were conducted with tumor-bearing mice that were placed in a scattering medium with tumors located at imaging depths of either 1.5 or 2.0 cm. Near-infrared fluorescence diffuse optical tomography that provides depth-resolved spatial distributions of fluorescence in tumor was used for the detection of postinjection fluorescent signals. All liposome-based tracers, as well as free ICG, were injected intravenously into mice in the amounts corresponding to 5 nmol of ICG/mouse, and the kinetics of increase and decrease of fluorescent signals in tumors were monitored. A signal from free ICG reached maximum at 15-min postinjection and then rapidly declined with t of ˜20 min. The signals from untargeted Lip/ICG and inactive-Lip/ICG also reached maximum at 15-min postinjection, however, declined somewhat slower than free ICG with t of ˜30 min. By contrast, a signal from targeted scVEGF-Lip/ICG grew slower than that of all other tracers, reaching maximum at 30-min postinjection and declined much slower than that of other tracers with t of ˜90 min, providing a more extended observation window. Higher scVEGF-Lip/ICG tumor accumulation was further confirmed by the analysis of fluorescence on cryosections of tumors that were harvested from animals at 400 min after injection with different tracers.

  6. Enhanced fluorescence diffuse optical tomography with indocyanine green-encapsulating liposomes targeted to receptors for vascular endothelial growth factor in tumor vasculature

    PubMed Central

    Zanganeh, Saeid; Xu, Yan; Hamby, Carl V.; Backer, Marina V.; Backer, Joseph M.; Zhu, Quing

    2013-01-01

    Abstract. To develop an indocyanine green (ICG) tracer with slower clearance kinetics, we explored ICG-encapsulating liposomes (Lip) in three different formulations: untargeted (Lip/ICG), targeted to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptors (scVEGF-Lip/ICG) by the receptor-binding moiety single-chain VEGF (scVEGF), or decorated with inactivated scVEGF (inactive-Lip/ICG) that does not bind to VEGF receptors. Experiments were conducted with tumor-bearing mice that were placed in a scattering medium with tumors located at imaging depths of either 1.5 or 2.0 cm. Near-infrared fluorescence diffuse optical tomography that provides depth-resolved spatial distributions of fluorescence in tumor was used for the detection of postinjection fluorescent signals. All liposome-based tracers, as well as free ICG, were injected intravenously into mice in the amounts corresponding to 5 nmol of ICG/mouse, and the kinetics of increase and decrease of fluorescent signals in tumors were monitored. A signal from free ICG reached maximum at 15-min postinjection and then rapidly declined with t1/2 of ?20??min. The signals from untargeted Lip/ICG and inactive-Lip/ICG also reached maximum at 15-min postinjection, however, declined somewhat slower than free ICG with t1/2 of ?30??min. By contrast, a signal from targeted scVEGF-Lip/ICG grew slower than that of all other tracers, reaching maximum at 30-min postinjection and declined much slower than that of other tracers with t1/2 of ?90??min, providing a more extended observation window. Higher scVEGF-Lip/ICG tumor accumulation was further confirmed by the analysis of fluorescence on cryosections of tumors that were harvested from animals at 400 min after injection with different tracers. PMID:24346856

  7. IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON AUDIO, SPEECH AND LANGUAGE PROCESSING, VOL. XX, NO. Y, MONTH 2011 1 Transient Noise Reduction Using Nonlocal

    E-print Network

    Cohen, Israel

    IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON AUDIO, SPEECH AND LANGUAGE PROCESSING, VOL. XX, NO. Y, MONTH 2011 1 Transient Noise Reduction Using Nonlocal Diffusion Filters Ronen Talmon, Student Member, IEEE, Israel Cohen problems is the single-channel transient noise reduction. In this paper, we present a novel approach

  8. Anomalous diffusion in Purkinje cell dendrites caused by spines

    PubMed Central

    Santamaria, Fidel; Wils, Stefan; De Schutter, Erik; Augustine, George J.

    2007-01-01

    We combined local photolysis of caged compounds with fluorescence imaging to visualize molecular diffusion within dendrites of cerebellar Purkinje cells. Diffusion of a volume marker, fluorescein dextran, within spiny dendrites was remarkably slow in comparison to its diffusion in smooth dendrites. Computer simulations indicate that this retardation is due to a transient trapping of molecules within dendritic spines, yielding anomalous diffusion. We considered the influence of spine trapping on the diffusion of calcium ions (Ca2+) and inositol-1,4,5-triphospate (IP3), two synaptic second messengers. Diffusion of IP3 was strongly influenced by the presence of dendritic spines while Ca2+ was removed so rapidly that it could not diffuse far enough to be trapped. We conclude that an important function of dendritic spines may be to trap chemical signals and thereby create slowed anomalous diffusion within dendrites. PMID:17114048

  9. proteinsSTRUCTURE O FUNCTION O BIOINFORMATICS Electrostatic rate enhancement and

    E-print Network

    Weston, Ken

    proteinsSTRUCTURE O FUNCTION O BIOINFORMATICS Electrostatic rate enhancement and transient complex interaction energy in a ``transient-complex'' en- semble, and kBT is the thermal energy. The transient- complex ensemble separates the bound state from the unbound state. Predictions of the transient

  10. Clinical Utility of Multimodality Imaging with Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MRI, Diffusion-Weighted MRI, and 18F-FDG PET/CT for the Prediction of Neck Control in Oropharyngeal or Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma Treated with Chemoradiation

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Sheng-Chieh; Lin, Yu-Chun; Yen, Tzu-Chen; Liao, Chun-Ta; Chang, Joseph Tung-Chieh; Ko, Sheung-Fat; Wang, Hung- Ming; Chang, Chee-Jen; Wang, Jiun-Jie

    2014-01-01

    The clinical usefulness of pretreatment imaging techniques for predicting neck control in patients with oropharyngeal or hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OHSCC) treated with chemoradiation remains unclear. In this prospective study, we investigated the role of pretreatment dynamic contrast-enhanced perfusion MR imaging (DCE-PWI), diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI), and [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (18F-FDG PET)/CT derived imaging markers for the prediction of neck control in OHSCC patients treated with chemoradiation. Patients with untreated OHSCC scheduled for chemoradiation between August, 2010 and July, 2012 were eligible for the study. Clinical variables and the following imaging parameters of metastatic neck lymph nodes were examined in relation to neck control: transfer constant, volume of blood plasma, and volume of extracellular extravascular space (Ve) on DCE-PWI; apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) on DWI; maximum standardized uptake value, metabolic tumor volume, and total lesion glycolysis on 18F-FDG PET/CT. There were 69 patients (37 with oropharynx SCC and 32 with hypopharynx SCC) with successful pretreatment DCE-PWI and DWI available for analysis. After a median follow-up of 31 months, 25 (36.2%) participants had neck failure. Multivariate analysis identified hemoglobin level <14.3 g/dL (P?=?0.019), Ve <0.23 (P?=?0.040), and ADC >1.14×10?3 mm2/s (P?=?0.003) as independent prognostic factors for 3-year neck control. A prognostic scoring system was formulated by summing up the three significant predictors of neck control. Patients with scores of 2–3 had significantly poorer neck control and overall survival rates than patients with scores of 0–1. We conclude that hemoglobin levels, Ve, and ADC are independent pretreatment prognostic factors for neck control in OHSCC treated with chemoradiation. Their combination may identify a subgroup of patients at high risk of developing neck failure. PMID:25531391

  11. Transient outburst mechanisms in Supergiant Fast X-ray Transients

    E-print Network

    L. Sidoli

    2009-02-17

    The recent discovery of a new class of recurrent and fast X-ray transient sources, the Supergiant Fast X-ray Transients, poses interesting questions on the possible mechanisms responsible for their transient X-ray emission. The association with blue supergiants, the spectral properties similar to those of accreting pulsars and the detection, in a few cases, of X-ray pulsations, confirm that these transients are High Mass X-ray Binaries. I review the different mechanisms proposed to explain their transient outbursts and the link to persistent wind accretors. I discuss the different models in light of the new observational results coming from an on-going monitoring campaign of four Supergiant Fast X-ray Transients with Swift.

  12. Modeling diffusion in foamed polymer nanocomposites.

    PubMed

    Ippalapalli, Sandeep; Ranaprathapan, A Dileep; Singh, Sachchida N; Harikrishnan, G

    2013-04-15

    Two-way multicomponent diffusion processes in polymeric nanocomposite foams, where the condensed phase is nanoscopically reinforced with impermeable fillers, are investigated. The diffusion process involves simultaneous outward permeation of the components of the dispersed gas phase and inward diffusion of atmospheric air. The transient variation in thermal conductivity of foam is used as the macroscopic property to track the compositional variations of the dispersed gases due to the diffusion process. In the continuum approach adopted, the unsteady-state diffusion process is combined with tortuosity theory. The simulations conducted at ambient temperature reveal distinct regimes of diffusion processes in the nanocomposite foams owing to the reduction in the gas-transport rate induced by nanofillers. Simulations at a higher temperature are also conducted and the predictions are compared with experimentally determined thermal conductivities under accelerated diffusion conditions for polyurethane foams reinforced with clay nanoplatelets of varying individual lamellar dimensions. Intermittent measurements of foam thermal conductivity are performed while the accelerated diffusion proceeded. The predictions under accelerated diffusion conditions show good agreement with experimentally measured thermal conductivities for nanocomposite foams reinforced with low and medium aspect-ratios fillers. The model shows higher deviations for foams with fillers that have a high aspect ratio. PMID:23463718

  13. Diffusion of Hydrogen in Silica under Transient Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palosz, W.

    2003-01-01

    Development of hydrogen in sealed silica glass ampoules during annealing at elevated temperatures was investigated. The dependence of hydrogen pressure in the ampoules as a function of time, for different temperatures and ampoule parameters was measured. The process was modeled assuming chemical solution of hydrogen according to the reaction: silica + H2 = H- Si= + H-O-Si=. The equilibrium constant of the reaction was determined by fitting the theoretical curves to the experimental data. The Gibbs function for this reaction was estimated at deltaG = -25.8 + 54T.

  14. Peach Bottom Transients Analysis with TRAC/BF1-VALKIN

    SciTech Connect

    Verdu, G.; Miro, R.; Sanchez, A.M.; Rosello, O.; Ginestar, D.; Vidal, V. [Universidad Politecnica de Valencia (Spain)

    2004-10-15

    The TRAC/BF1-VALKIN code is a new time domain analysis code for studying transients in a boiling water reactor. This code uses the best-estimate code TRAC/BF1 to give an account of the heat transfer and thermal-hydraulic processes and a three-dimensional neutronics module. This module has two options: the MODKIN option that makes use of a modal method based on the assumption that the neutronic flux can be approximately expanded in terms of the dominant lambda modes associated with a static configuration of the reactor core, and the NOKIN option that uses a one-step backward discretization of the neutron diffusion equation. To check the performance of the TRAC/BF1-VALKIN code, the Peach Bottom turbine trip transient has been simulated, because this transient is a dynamically complex event where neutron kinetics is coupled with thermal hydraulics in the reactor primary system, and reactor variables change very rapidly.

  15. Relativistic diffusion.

    PubMed

    Haba, Z

    2009-02-01

    We discuss relativistic diffusion in proper time in the approach of Schay (Ph.D. thesis, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, 1961) and Dudley [Ark. Mat. 6, 241 (1965)]. We derive (Langevin) stochastic differential equations in various coordinates. We show that in some coordinates the stochastic differential equations become linear. We obtain momentum probability distribution in an explicit form. We discuss a relativistic particle diffusing in an external electromagnetic field. We solve the Langevin equations in the case of parallel electric and magnetic fields. We derive a kinetic equation for the evolution of the probability distribution. We discuss drag terms leading to an equilibrium distribution. The relativistic analog of the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process is not unique. We show that if the drag comes from a diffusion approximation to the master equation then its form is strongly restricted. The drag leading to the Tsallis equilibrium distribution satisfies this restriction whereas the one of the Jüttner distribution does not. We show that any function of the relativistic energy can be the equilibrium distribution for a particle in a static electric field. A preliminary study of the time evolution with friction is presented. It is shown that the problem is equivalent to quantum mechanics of a particle moving on a hyperboloid with a potential determined by the drag. A relation to diffusions appearing in heavy ion collisions is briefly discussed. PMID:19391727

  16. Relativistic diffusion

    E-print Network

    Z. Haba

    2009-02-26

    We discuss a relativistic diffusion in the proper time in an approach of Schay and Dudley. We derive (Langevin) stochastic differential equations in various coordinates.We show that in some coordinates the stochastic differential equations become linear. We obtain momentum probability distribution in an explicit form.We discuss a relativistic particle diffusing in an external electromagnetic field. We solve the Langevin equations in the case of parallel electric and magnetic fields. We derive a kinetic equation for the evolution of the probability distribution.We discuss drag terms leading to an equilibrium distribution.The relativistic analog of the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process is not unique. We show that if the drag comes from a diffusion approximation to the master equation then its form is strongly restricted. The drag leading to the Tsallis equilibrium distribution satisfies this restriction whereas the one of the Juettner distribution does not. We show that any function of the relativistic energy can be the equilibrium distribution for a particle in a static electric field. A preliminary study of the time evolution with friction is presented. It is shown that the problem is equivalent to quantum mechanics of a particle moving on a hyperboloid with a potential determined by the drag. A relation to diffusions appearing in heavy ion collisions is briefly discussed.

  17. Relativistic diffusion

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Z. Haba

    2009-01-01

    We discuss relativistic diffusion in proper time in the approach of Schay (Ph.D. thesis, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, 1961) and Dudley [Ark. Mat. 6, 241 (1965)]. We derive (Langevin) stochastic differential equations in various coordinates. We show that in some coordinates the stochastic differential equations become linear. We obtain momentum probability distribution in an explicit form. We discuss a relativistic

  18. Diffusion Models

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Alexei Sharov

    Web-based intructional material describing the use of diffusion models in population ecology. This page is part of a set of on-line lectures on Quantitative Population Ecology produced by Alexei Sharov in the Department of Entomology at Virginia Tech.

  19. Relativistic diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haba, Z.

    2009-02-01

    We discuss relativistic diffusion in proper time in the approach of Schay (Ph.D. thesis, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ, 1961) and Dudley [Ark. Mat. 6, 241 (1965)]. We derive (Langevin) stochastic differential equations in various coordinates. We show that in some coordinates the stochastic differential equations become linear. We obtain momentum probability distribution in an explicit form. We discuss a relativistic particle diffusing in an external electromagnetic field. We solve the Langevin equations in the case of parallel electric and magnetic fields. We derive a kinetic equation for the evolution of the probability distribution. We discuss drag terms leading to an equilibrium distribution. The relativistic analog of the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process is not unique. We show that if the drag comes from a diffusion approximation to the master equation then its form is strongly restricted. The drag leading to the Tsallis equilibrium distribution satisfies this restriction whereas the one of the Jüttner distribution does not. We show that any function of the relativistic energy can be the equilibrium distribution for a particle in a static electric field. A preliminary study of the time evolution with friction is presented. It is shown that the problem is equivalent to quantum mechanics of a particle moving on a hyperboloid with a potential determined by the drag. A relation to diffusions appearing in heavy ion collisions is briefly discussed.

  20. Triggered Enhancement Confinement and Pedestal Expansion in NSTX: The Enhanced Pedestal H-mode

    E-print Network

    Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

    Triggered Enhancement Confinement and Pedestal Expansion in NSTX: The Enhanced Pedestal H-mode R Aug 2010 2 The Enhanced Pedestal H-mode (EPH) has favorable characteristics and improved long pulse E · A transition to a (transiently) improved confinement with enhanced H-mode pedestal Te, Ti

  1. Workshop on Radio Transients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croft, Steve; Gaensler, Bryan

    2012-04-01

    abstract-type="normal">SummaryWe are entering a new era in the study of variable and transient radio sources. This workshop discussed the instruments and the strategies employed to study those sources, how they are identified and classified, how results from different surveys can be compared, and how radio observations tie in with those at other wavelengths. The emphasis was on learning what common ground there is between the plethora of on-going projects, how methods and code can be shared, and how best practices regarding survey strategy could be adopted. The workshop featured the four topics below. Each topic commenced with a fairly brief introductory talk, which then developed into discussion. By way of preparation, participants had been invited to upload and discuss one slide per topic to a wiki ahead of the workshop. 1. Telescopes, instrumentation and survey strategy. New radio facilities and on-going projects (including upgrades) are both studying the variability of the radio sky, and searching for transients. The discussion first centred on the status of those facilities, and on projects with a time-domain focus, both ongoing and planned, before turning to factors driving choices of instrumentation, such as phased array versus single pixel feeds, the field of view, spatial and time resolution, frequency and bandwidth, depth, area, and cadence of the surveys. 2. Detection, pipelines, and classification. The workshop debated (a) the factors that influence decisions to study variability in the (u,v) plane, in images, or in catalogues, (b) whether, and how much, pipeline code could potentially be shared between one project and another, and which software packages are best for different approaches, (c) how data are stored and later accessed, and (d) how transients and variables are defined and classified. 3. Statistics, interpretation, and synthesis. It then discussed how (i) the choice of facility and strategy and (ii) detection and classification schemes influence what is seen (in terms of types of object and rates) by different surveys, (iii) how results from different surveys could be compared, and (iv) how what we know from existing surveys drives choices (i) and (ii), particularly as regards finding new classes of object. 4. Multiwavelength approaches. The workshop concluded by discussing what information is needed from wavelengths other than radio in order to classify transients and variables adequately and predict their rates as a function of topics (1), (2) and (3). It asked what the constraints are on responding to, and issuing triggers for, follow-up observations, and how that might feed back into considerations for designing our telescopes and surveys.

  2. Thermal transient anemometer

    DOEpatents

    Bailey, J.L.; Vresk, J.

    1989-07-18

    A thermal transient anemometer is disclosed having a thermocouple probe which is utilized to measure the change in temperature over a period of time to provide a measure of fluid flow velocity. The thermocouple probe is located in the fluid flow path and pulsed to heat or cool the probe. The cooling of the heated probe or the heating of the cooled probe from the fluid flow over a period of time is measured to determine the fluid flow velocity. The probe is desired to be locally heated near the tip to increase the efficiency of devices incorporating the probe. 12 figs.

  3. Thermal transient anemometer

    DOEpatents

    Bailey, James L. (829 S. Bruner, Hinsdale, IL 60521); Vresk, Josip (4013 N. Park, Westmont, IL 60559)

    1989-01-01

    A thermal transient anemometer having a thermocouple probe which is utilized to measure the change in temperature over a period of time to provide a measure of fluid flow velocity. The thermocouple probe is located in the fluid flow path and pulsed to heat or cool the probe. The cooling of the heated probe or the heating of the cooled probe from the fluid flow over a period of time is measured to determine the fluid flow velocity. The probe is desired to be locally heated near the tip to increase the efficiency of devices incorporating the probe.

  4. Interstitial-Mediated Diffusion in Germanium under Proton Irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bracht, H.; Schneider, S.; Klug, J. N.; Liao, C. Y.; Hansen, J. Lundsgaard; Haller, E. E.; Larsen, A. Nylandsted; Bougeard, D.; Posselt, M.; Wündisch, C.

    2009-12-01

    We report experiments on the impact of 2.5 MeV proton irradiation on self-diffusion and dopant diffusion in germanium (Ge). Self-diffusion under irradiation reveals an unusual depth independent broadening of the Ge isotope multilayer structure. This behavior and the observed enhanced diffusion of B and retarded diffusion of P demonstrates that an interstitial-mediated diffusion process dominates in Ge under irradiation. This fundamental finding opens up unique ways to suppress vacancy-mediated diffusion in Ge and to solve the donor deactivation problem that hinders the fabrication of Ge-based nanoelectronic devices.

  5. Steady-state and transient results on insulation materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. S. Graves; D. W. Yarbrough; D. L. McElroy; H. A. Fine

    1991-01-01

    The Unguarded Thin-Heater Apparatus (UTHA, ASTM C 1114) was used to determine the thermal conductivity (k), specific heat (C), and thermal diffusivity (α) of selected building materials from 24 to 50°C. Steady-state and transient measurements yielded data on four types of material: gypsum wall board containing 0, 15, and 30 wt % wax; calcium silicate insulations with densities (ρ) of

  6. Simulation and Validation of Vapor Compression System Faults and Start-up/Shut-down Transients 

    E-print Network

    Ayyagari, Balakrishna

    2012-10-19

    as vapor compression system faults. This thesis addresses these concerns and enhances the existing modeling library to capture the transients related to the above mentioned conditions. In this thesis, the various faults occurring in a vapor compressor...

  7. Quantifying protein diffusion and capture on filaments

    E-print Network

    Emanuel Reithmann; Louis Reese; Erwin Frey

    2015-03-03

    The functional relevance of regulating proteins is often limited to specific binding sites such as the ends of microtubules or actin-filaments. A localization of proteins on these functional sites is of great importance. We present a quantitative theory for a diffusion and capture process, where proteins diffuse on a filament and stop diffusing when reaching the filament's end. It is found that end-association after one-dimensional diffusion is the main source for tip-localization of such proteins. As a consequence, diffusion and capture is highly efficient in enhancing the reaction velocity of enzymatic reactions, where proteins and filament ends are to each other as enzyme and substrate. We show that the reaction velocity can effectively be described within a Michaelis-Menten framework. Together one-dimensional diffusion and capture beats the (three-dimensional) Smoluchowski diffusion limit for the rate of protein association to filament ends.

  8. The Palomar transient factory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nugent, Peter; Cao, Yi; Kasliwal, Mansi

    2015-01-01

    Astrophysics is transforming from a data-starved to a data-swamped discipline, fundamentally changing the nature of scientific inquiry and discovery. New technologies are enabling the detection, transmission, and storage of data of hitherto unimaginable quantity and quality across the electromagnetic, gravity and particle spectra. The observational data obtained during this decade alone will supersede everything accumulated over the preceding four thousand years of astronomy. Currently there are 4 large-scale photometric and spectroscopic surveys underway, each generating and/or utilizing hundreds of terabytes of data per year. Some will focus on the static universe while others will greatly expand our knowledge of transient phenomena. Maximizing the science from these programs requires integrating the processing pipeline with high-performance computing resources. These are coupled to large astrophysics databases while making use of machine learning algorithms with near real-time turnaround. Here we present an overview of one of these programs, the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF). We will cover the processing and discovery pipeline we developed at LBNL and NERSC for it and several of the great discoveries made during the 4 years of observations with PTF.

  9. Single file diffusion in microtubules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutenberg, Andrew; Farrell, Spencer; Brown, Aidan

    2015-03-01

    We investigate the single file diffusion (SFD) of large particles entering a confined tubular geometry, such as luminal diffusion of proteins inside microtubules or flagella. While single-file effects have no effect on particle density, we report significant single-file effects for individually-tracked tracer particle motion. Both exact and approximate ordering statistics of particles entering semi-infinite tubes agree well with our stochastic simulations. Considering initially empty semi-infinite tubes, with particles entering at one end starting from an initial time t = 0 , tracked particles display super-diffusive effective exponents just after they enter the system and trends towards diffusive exponents at later times. Equivalently, if diffusive exponents are assumed the effective diffusivity is reduced at early times and enhanced at later times through a logarithmic factor logN , where N is the number of particles in the tube. When we number each particle from the first (n = 1) to the most recent (n = N), we find good scaling collapse of the effective diffusivity for all n. Techniques that track individual particles, or local groups of particles, such as photo-activation or photobleaching, will exhibit single-file effects.

  10. Corrected transient energy function and transient stability limit assessment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. S. Chung; D. Z. Fang

    2000-01-01

    This paper reports the developments in the methodology for analysis of transient stability limit conditions. Concepts, including corrected potential energy and corrected potential energy boundary surface, are presented. Efficient criteria in identifying first swing stability behavior are also developed and used in hybrid method incorporating corrected transient energy margin (CTEM) analysis. Test results on real size power systems, such as

  11. Theoretical comparison of the self diffusion and mutual diffusion of interacting membrane proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Scalettar, B A; Abney, J R; Owicki, J C

    1988-01-01

    Self diffusion and mutual diffusion in two-dimensional membrane systems are analyzed. It is shown that interprotein interactions can produce markedly different density-dependent changes in the diffusion coefficients describing these two processes; the qualitative differences are illustrated by using a theoretical formalism valid for dilute solutions. Results are obtained for three analytical potentials: hard-core repulsions, soft repulsions, and soft repulsions with weak attractions. Self diffusion is inhibited by all three interactions. In contrast, mutual diffusion is inhibited by attractions but is enhanced by repulsions. It is shown that such interaction-dependent differences in self diffusion and mutual diffusion could underlie, among other things, the disparity in protein diffusion coefficients extracted from fluorescence recovery after photobleaching and postelectrophoresis relaxation data. PMID:3413121

  12. Accelerated kinetics and mechanism of growth of boride layers on titanium under isothermal and cyclic diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarma, Biplab

    2011-12-01

    The tendency of titanium (Ti) and its alloys to wear, gall and seize during high contact stresses between sliding surfaces severely limits their applications in bearings, gears etc. One way to mitigate these problems is to modify their surfaces by applying hard and wear resistant surface coatings. Boriding, which involves solid state diffusion of boron (B) into Ti, thereby forming hard surface layers consisting of TiB2 and TiB compounds has been shown to produce extremely high wear resistant surfaces in Ti and its alloys. The growth kinetics of these layers are, however, limited by the low diffusivities of B in the high melting TiB2 and TiB compounds. On the basis of the fact that HCP metals such as Ti show enhanced (anomalous) self-diffusion near the phase transition temperature, the first hypothesis of this work has been that the diffusivity enhancement should cause rapid ingress of B atoms, thereby accelerating the growth of the hard boride layers. Isothermal boriding experiments were performed close to phase transition temperature (890, 910, and 915°C) for time periods ranging from 3 to 24 hours. It was found that indeed a much deeper growth of TiB into the Ti substrate (˜75 mum) occurred at temperatures very close to the transition temperature (910°C), compared to that obtained at 1050°C. A diffusion model based on error-function solutions of Fick's second law was developed to quantitatively illustrate the combined effects of the normal B diffusion in the TiB phase and the anomalous B diffusion in Ti phase in accelerating TiB layer growth. Furthermore, isothermal boriding experiments close to transition temperature (900°C) for a period of 71 hours resulted in coating thickness well above 100 mum, while at 1050°C, the layer growth saturated after about 24 hours of treatment time. In the second part of this work, a novel approach named "cyclic-phase-changediffusion, (CPCD)," to create deeper TiB2 and TiB coating layers on CP-Ti by cyclic thermal processing, has been investigated. It was found that thermal cyclic B diffusion in Ti across the alpha(alpha)-beta(beta) phase transition temperature led to highly hardened surface layers enriched with TiB whiskers that grow to depths exceeding 120 mum. By solving the transient heat transport problem for cyclic changes in surface temperatures, it was found that there is a "heat-packet" that travels back and forth from the surface to the interior of the material. This heat-packet appears to transport B dissolved in beta-Ti into interior causing increased coating depths.

  13. Anomalous cross-field diffusion in a magnetic trap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savel'ev, Sergey E.; Marchesoni, Fabio

    2014-12-01

    We numerically simulated the diffusion of a charged Brownian particle confined to a plane under the action of an orthogonal magnetic field with intensity depending on the distance from a center. Despite its apparent simplicity, this system exhibits anomalous diffusion. For positive field gradients, radial and angular dynamics are asymptotically subdiffusive, with exponents given by simple analytical expressions. In contrast, when driven by a weakly decaying field, the particle attains normal diffusion only after exceedingly long superdiffusive transients. These mechanisms can be related to Bohm diffusion in magnetized plasmas.

  14. Double-diffusive layer formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaussinger, Florian; Kupka, Friedrich; Hücker, Sebastian; Egbers, Christoph

    2015-04-01

    Double-diffusive convection plays an important role in geo- and astrophysical applications. The special case, where a destabilising temperature gradient counteracts a stabilising solute gradient leads to layering phenomena under certain conditions. Convectively mixed layers sandwiched in diffusive interfaces form a so-called stack. Well-known double-diffusive systems are observed in rift lakes in Africa and even from the coffee drink Latte Macciatto. Stacks of layers are also predicted to occur inside massive stars and inside giant planets. Their dynamics depend on the thermal, the solute and the momentum diffusivities, as well on the ratio of the gradients of the opposing stratifications. Since the layering process cannot be derived from linear stability analysis, the full nonlinear set of equations has to be investigated. Numerical simulations have become feasible for this task, despite the physical processes operate on a vast range of length and time scales, which is challenging for numerical hydrodynamical modelling. The oceanographically relevant case of fresh and salty water is investigated here in further details. The heat and mass transfer is compared with theoretical results and experimental measurements. Additionally, the initial dynamic of layering, the transient behaviour of a stack and the long time evolution are presented using the example of Lake Kivu and the interior of a giant planet.

  15. Observations of large transient magnetospheric electric fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aggson, T. L.; Heppner, J. P.

    1977-01-01

    Transient electric field events were observed with the long, double probe instrumentation carried by the IMP-6 satellite. Nine, clearly defined, exceptionally large amplitude events are presented here. The events are observed in the midnight sector at geocentric distances 3.5 to .5.5 R sub e at middle latitudes within a magnetic L-shell range of 4.8 to 7.5. They usually have a total duration of one to several minutes, with peak power spectra amplitudes occurring at a frequency of about 0.3 Hz. The events occur under magnetically disturbed conditions, and in most cases they can be associated with negative dH/dt excursions at magnetic observatories located near the foot of the magnetic field line intersecting IMP-6. The magnetospheric motions calculated for these electric fields indicated a quasi-stochastical diffusive process rather than the general inward magnetospheric collapsing motion expected during the expansive phases of auroral substorm activity.

  16. An efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transient transformation of Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Tsuda, Kenichi; Qi, Yiping; Nguyen, Le V; Bethke, Gerit; Tsuda, Yayoi; Glazebrook, Jane; Katagiri, Fumiaki

    2012-02-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transient transformation has been a useful procedure for characterization of proteins and their functions in plants, including analysis of protein-protein interactions. Agrobacterium-mediated transient transformation of Nicotiana benthamiana by leaf infiltration has been widely used due to its ease and high efficiency. However, in Arabidopsis this procedure has been challenging. Previous studies suggested that this difficulty was caused by plant immune responses triggered by perception of Agrobacterium. Here, we report a simple and robust method for Agrobacterium-mediated transient transformation in Arabidopsis. AvrPto is an effector protein from the bacterial plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae that suppresses plant immunity by interfering with plant immune receptors. We used transgenic Arabidopsis plants that conditionally express AvrPto under the control of a dexamethasone (DEX)-inducible promoter. When the transgenic plants were pretreated with DEX prior to infection with Agrobacterium carrying a ?-glucuronidase (GUS, uidA) gene with an artificial intron and driven by the CaMV 35S promoter, transient GUS expression was dramatically enhanced compared to that in mock-pretreated plants. This transient expression system was successfully applied to analysis of the subcellular localization of a cyan fluorescent protein (CFP) fusion and a protein-protein interaction in Arabidopsis. Our findings enable efficient use of Agrobacterium-mediated transient transformation in Arabidopsis thaliana. PMID:22004025

  17. HEDL experimental transient overpower program

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Hikido; G. E. Culley

    1976-01-01

    HEDL is conducting a series of experiments to evaluate the performance of Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) prototypic fuel pins up to the point of cladding breach. A primary objective of the program is to demonstrate the adequacy of fuel pin and Plant Protective System (PPS) designs for terminated transients. Transient tests of prototypic FFTF fuel pins previously irradiated in

  18. Bright Transient discovered by PSST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, K. W.; Wright, D.; Smartt, S. J.; Huber, M.; Chambers, K. C.; Flewelling, H.; Willman, M.; Primak, N.; Schultz, A.; Gibson, B.; Magnier, E.; Waters, C.; Tonry, J.; Wainscoat, R. J.; Foley, R. J.; Jha, S. W.; Rest, A.; Scolnic, D.

    2015-06-01

    A bright transient has been discovered as part of the Pan-STARRS Survey for Transients (PSST) at g=16.82. The object lies in the Galactic Bulge at l=7.03, b=9.50, and a faint object is visible at that location in the reference image.

  19. Bright transients discovered by PSST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, D.; Smith, K. W.; Smartt, S. J.; Huber, M.; Chambers, K. C.; Flewelling, H.; Willman, M.; Primak, N.; Schultz, A.; Gibson, B.; Magnier, E.; Waters, C.; Tonry, J.; Wainscoat, R. J.; Foley, R. J.; Jha, S. W.; Rest, A.; Scolnic, D.

    2015-07-01

    Two bright transients, have been discovered as part of the Pan-STARRS Survey for Transients (PSST). PS15bep is a probable supernova. PS15ber is either a supernovae in a faint host galaxies or possibly a high amplitude galactic variable.

  20. Perturbations for transient acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Vargas, Cristofher Zuñiga; Zimdahl, Winfried [Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Departamento de Física, Av. Fernando Ferrari, 514, Campus de Goiabeiras, CEP 29075-910, Vitória, Espírito Santo (Brazil); Hipólito-Ricaldi, Wiliam S., E-mail: win_unac@hotmail.com, E-mail: hipolito@ceunes.ufes.br, E-mail: winfried.zimdahl@pq.cnpq.br [Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Departamento de Ciências Naturais, Grupo de Física Teórica, Rodovia BR 101 Norte, km 60, Campus de São Mateus, CEP 29932-540, São Mateus, Espírito Santo (Brazil)

    2012-04-01

    According to the standard ?CDM model, the accelerated expansion of the Universe will go on forever. Motivated by recent observational results, we explore the possibility of a finite phase of acceleration which asymptotically approaches another period of decelerated expansion. Extending an earlier study on a corresponding homogeneous and isotropic dynamics, in which interactions between dark matter and dark energy are crucial, the present paper also investigates the dynamics of the matter perturbations both on the Newtonian and General Relativistic (GR) levels and quantifies the potential relevance of perturbations of the dark-energy component. In the background, the model is tested against the Supernova type Ia (SNIa) data of the Constitution set and on the perturbative level against growth rate data, among them those of the WiggleZ survey, and the data of the 2dFGRS project. Our results indicate that a transient phase of accelerated expansion is not excluded by current observations.

  1. Vapor aluminum diffused steels for high-temperature corrosion resistance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    1995-01-01

    Steel products and fabrications that are vapor aluminum diffused by the pack cementation process offer greatly enhanced corrosion resistance in high-temperature oxidizing, sulfidizing, carburizing, and hydrogen-containing environments. Pipes and tubing are most frequently diffused with aluminum for use as transfer lines, heat exchangers, reactors, or in process furnaces handling corrosive materials. Vapor aluminum diffusion by the pack cementation process is

  2. Reduction of motion artifacts in magnetic resonance diffusion imaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Archie Chih-Ching Chu

    2000-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) diffusion is capable of probing molecular displacement in vivo in a micrometer range. The clinical application of diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is used for early detecting acute stroke, and it may be a sensitive monitor of early response to cancer treatments. NMR diffusion techniques are sensitive to Brownian motion, but also enhance bulk-motion artifacts in

  3. Micro-imaging of transient guest profiles in nanoporous host systems of cylindrical symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binder, Tomas; Hibbe, Florian; Chmelik, Christian; Kärger, Jörg; Martinez-Joaristi, Alberto; Gascon, Jorge; Kapteijn, Freek; Ruthven, Douglas

    2012-10-01

    Nanoporous host materials giving rise to transient guest profiles of cylindrical symmetry during molecular uptake and release are shown to provide particularly advantageous conditions for the study of guest diffusion by micro-imaging. Considering zeolites of structure type DDR (Deca-dodecasil 3R) as a host system and short-chain length hydrocarbons as guest molecules, the benefits thus attainable in micro-imaging studies using interference microscopy are shown to include the determination of transient concentration profiles with improved accuracy, the option to overcome the disturbing impact of surface imperfections, and easy access to concentration-dependent diffusivities.

  4. Analysis of the transient calibration of heat flux sensors: One dimensional case

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dybbs, A.; Ling, J. X.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of transient heat flux on heat flux sensor response and calibration is analyzed. A one dimensional case was studied in order to elucidate the key parameters and trends for the problem. It has the added advantage that the solutions to the governing equations can be obtained by analytic means. The analytical results obtained to date indicate that the transient response of a heat flux sensor depends on the thermal boundary conditions, the geometry and the thermal properties of the sensor. In particular it was shown that if the thermal diffusivity of the sensor is small, then the transient behavior must be taken into account.

  5. Comment to the Paper of Michael J. Saxton: "A Biological Interpretation of Transient Anomalous Subdiffusion. I. Qualitative Model"

    E-print Network

    Nicolas Destainville; Aude Sauliere; Laurence Salome

    2008-07-01

    In a recent paper, Michael J. Saxton proposes to interpret as anomalous diffusion the occurrence of apparent transient sub-diffusive regimes in mean-squared displacements (MSD) plots, calculated from experimental trajectories of molecules diffusing in living cells, acquired by Single Particle (or Molecule) Tracking techniques (SPT or SMT). In this Comment, without questioning the existence of sub-diffusive behaviors, which certainly play a key role in numbers of mechanisms in living systems, we point out that the data used by J.M. Saxton can as well be fitted by a simple law, resulting from confined diffusion at short times, with a slower free diffusion superimposed at larger times. When visualizing MSD plots, the transition from short-term diffusion confined in domains of size L, to slower, longer-term free diffusion, can be confused with anomalous diffusion over several orders of magnitude of time.

  6. Shape of the Quantum Diffusion Front

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jianxin Zhong; R. B. Diener; Daniel A. Steck; Windell H. Oskay; Mark G. Raizen; E. Ward Plummer; Zhenyu Zhang; Qian Niu

    2001-01-01

    We show that quantum diffusion has well-defined front shape. After an initial transient, the wave packet front (tails) is described by a stretched exponential P\\\\(x,t\\\\) = A\\\\(t\\\\)exp\\\\(-\\\\|x\\/w\\\\|gamma\\\\), with 1

  7. Analytical solution of the advection-diffusion transport equation using a change-of-variable and integral transform technique

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper presents a formal exact solution of the linear advection-diffusion transport equation with constant coefficients for both transient and steady-state regimes. A classical mathematical substitution transforms the original advection-diffusion equation into an exclusively diffusive equation. ...

  8. Diffusion coefficients of endogenous cytosolic proteins from rabbit skinned muscle fibers.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Brian E; Vigoreaux, Jim O; Maughan, David W

    2014-02-18

    Efflux time courses of endogenous cytosolic proteins were obtained from rabbit psoas muscle fibers skinned in oil and transferred to physiological salt solution. Proteins were separated by gel electrophoresis and compared to load-matched standards for quantitative analysis. A radial diffusion model incorporating the dissociation and dissipation of supramolecular complexes accounts for an initial lag and subsequent efflux of glycolytic and glycogenolytic enzymes. The model includes terms representing protein crowding, myofilament lattice hindrance, and binding to the cytomatrix. Optimization algorithms returned estimates of the apparent diffusion coefficients, D(r,t), that were very low at the onset of diffusion (?10(-10) cm(2) s(-1)) but increased with time as cytosolic protein density, which was initially high, decreased. D(r,t) at later times ranged from 2.11 × 10(-7) cm(2) s(-1) (parvalbumin) to 0.20 × 10(-7) cm(2) s(-1) (phosphofructose kinase), values that are 3.6- to 12.3-fold lower than those predicted in bulk water. The low initial values are consistent with the presence of complexes in situ; the higher later values are consistent with molecular sieving and transient binding of dissociated proteins. Channeling of metabolic intermediates via enzyme complexes may enhance production of adenosine triphosphate at rates beyond that possible with randomly and/or sparsely distributed enzymes, thereby matching supply with demand. PMID:24559981

  9. The LOFAR Transients Key Project

    E-print Network

    Rob Fender; Robert Braun; Ben Stappers; Ralph Wijers; Michael Wise; Thijs Coenen; Heino Falcke; Jean-Mathias Griessmeier; Michiel van Haarlem; Peter Jonker; Casey Law; Sera Markoff; Joseph Masters; James Miller-Jones; Rachel Osten; Bart Scheers; Hanno Spreeuw; John Swinbank; Corina Vogt; Rudy Wijnands; Philippe Zarka

    2006-11-09

    LOFAR, the Low Frequency Array, is a new radio telescope under construction in the Netherlands, designed to operate between 30 and 240 MHz. The Transients Key Project is one of the four Key Science Projects which comprise the core LOFAR science case. The remit of the Transients Key Project is to study variable and transient radio sources detected by LOFAR, on timescales from milliseconds to years. This will be achieved via both regular snapshot monitoring of historical and newly-discovered radio variables and, most radically, the development of a `Radio Sky Monitor' which will survey a large fraction of the northern sky on a daily basis.

  10. Machine Classification of Transient Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buisson, Lise Du; Sivanandam, Navin; Bassett, Bruce A.; Smith, Mathew

    2014-05-01

    Using transient imaging data from the 2nd and 3rd years of the SDSS supernova survey, we apply various machine learning techniques to the problem of classifying transients (e.g. SNe) from artefacts, one of the first steps in any transient detection pipeline, and one that is often still carried out by human scanners. Using features mostly obtained from PCA, we show that we can match human levels of classification success, and find that a K-nearest neighbours algorithm and SkyNet perform best, while the Naive Bayes, SVM and minimum error classifier have performances varying from slightly to significantly worse.

  11. Enhanced diffusion in smoothly modulated superlattices

    SciTech Connect

    Rakhlin, Dmitry A.

    2001-01-01

    We investigate a superdiffusive behavior found in a quasiclassical model of a square-planar superlattice subjected to a perpendicular magnetic field. It is shown that certain accelerated domains are responsible for long trapping of tracers and setting them into near-ballistic motion. The mechanism of entrapment appears to be two-staged and multifractal. Relatively short trapping occurs in the vicinity of homoclinic tangles, created by intersections of stable and unstable manifolds of a hyperbolic fixed point, connected to itself. A structure of the quasitrap reveals families of multipulse solutions, doubly asymptotic to slow manifolds. The existence of orbits of this type was proved [G. Haller and S. Wiggins, Arch. Rational Mech. Anal. 130, 25 (1995)] for integrable two-degree-of-freedom Hamiltonian systems with perturbation. We describe mixing dynamics in this region and examine characteristic escape time scales. More prolonged quasitrapping is due to sticking to resonant multilayered island chains that are found to accelerate ballistic transport. Phase-space dynamics is analyzed. We successfully employ a renewal process formalism to relate Poincare recurrences and coordinate variance asymptotics for both quasitraps and also justify the use of this formalism for the specific case of gradually increasing average velocity.

  12. Analytical solution for transient partitioning and reaction of a condensing vapor species in a droplet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Albert Tianxiang; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Seinfeld, John H.

    2014-06-01

    We present the exact analytical solution of the transient equation of gas-phase diffusion of a condensing vapor to, and diffusion and reaction in, an aqueous droplet. Droplet-phase reaction is represented by first-order chemistry. The solution facilitates study of the dynamic nature of the vapor uptake process as a function of droplet size, Henry's law coefficient, and first-order reaction rate constant for conversion in the droplet phase.

  13. Photoacoustic thermal diffusion flowmetry

    PubMed Central

    Sheinfeld, Adi; Eyal, Avishay

    2012-01-01

    Thermal Diffusion Flowmetry (TDF) (also called Heat Clearance Method or Thermal Clearance Method) is a longstanding technique for measuring blood flow or blood perfusion in living tissues. Typically, temperature transients and/or gradients are induced in a volume of interest and the temporal and/or spatial temperature variations which follow are measured and used for calculation of the flow. In this work a new method for implementing TDF is studied theoretically and experimentally. The heat deposition which is required for TDF is implemented photothermally (PT) and the measurement of the induced temperature variations is done by photoacoustic (PA) thermometry. Both excitation light beams (the PT and the PA) are produced by directly modulated 830 nm laser diodes and are conveniently delivered to the volume under test by the same optical fiber. The method was tested experimentally using a blood-filled phantom vessel and the results were compared with a theoretical prediction based on the heat and the photoacoustic equations. The fitting of a simplified lumped thermal model to the experimental data yielded estimated values of the blood velocity at different flow rates. By combining additional optical sources at different wavelengths it will be possible to utilize the method for non-invasive simultaneous measurement of blood flow and oxygen saturation using a single fiber probe. PMID:22574267

  14. Non-Steady-State Supersaturations in Thermal Diffusion Chambers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James W. Fitzgerald

    1970-01-01

    A theoretical analysis of non-steady-state supersaturation distributions in thermal-diffusion-type cloud nuclei counters is presented for the particular case when the incoming air sample is saturated. The transport of heat and water vapor is assumed to proceed by molecular diffusion alone. We consider a chamber 1 cm high having top and bottom plate temperatures of 20 and 16C, respectively. Transient supersaturations

  15. Moisture diffusion and heat transfer in plastic IC packages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. A. O. Tay; Tingyu Lin

    1996-01-01

    This paper deals with finite-element (FE) simulations of moisture diffusion during preconditioning of plastic integrated circuit (IC) packages as well as the simultaneous diffusion of heat and moisture during vapor phase reflow (VPR) soldering. More realistic 2-D analyses are described. The results show good agreement with experimental data. The limitations of hitherto one-dimensional (1-D) analyses are also examined. The transient

  16. Transient Heat Transfer in TCAP Coils

    SciTech Connect

    Steimke, J.L.

    1999-03-09

    The Thermal Cycling Absorption Process (TCAP) is used to separate isotopes of hydrogen. TCAP involves passing a stream of mixed hydrogen isotopes through palladium deposited on kieselguhr (Pd/k) while cycling the temperature of the Pd/k. Kieselguhr is a silica mineral also called diatomite. To aid in the design of a full scale facility, the Thermal Fluids Laboratory was used by the Chemical and Hydrogen Technology Section to compare the heat transfer properties of three different configurations of stainless steel coils containing kieselguhr and helium. Testing of coils containing Pd/k and hydrogen isotopes would have been more prototypical but would have been too expensive. Three stainless steel coils filled with kieselguhr were tested; one made from 2.0 inch diameter tubing, one made from 2.0 inch diameter tubing with foam copper embedded in the kieselguhr and one made from 1.25 inch diameter tubing. It was known prior to testing that increasing the tubing diameter from 1.25 inch to 2.0 inch would slow the rate of temperature change. The primary purpose of the testing was to measure to what extent the presence of copper foam in a 2.0 tubing coil would compensate for the effect of larger diameter. Each coil was connected to a pressure gage and the coil was evacuated and backfilled with helium gas. Helium was used instead of a mixture of hydrogen isotopes for reasons of safety. Each coil was quickly immersed in a stirred bath of ethylene glycol at a temperature of approximately 100 degrees Celsius. The coil pressure increased, reflecting the increase in average temperature of its contents. The pressure transient was recored as a function of time after immersion. Because of the actual process will use Pd/k instead of kieselguhr, additional tests were run to determine the differences in thermal properties between the two materials. The method was to position a thermocouple at the center of a hollow sphere and pack the sphere with Pd/k. The sphere was sealed, quickly submerged in a bath of boiling water and the temperature transient was recorded. There sphere was then opened, the Pd/k was replaced with kieselguhr and the transient was repeated. The response was a factor of 1.4 faster for Pd/k than for kieselguhr, implying a thermal diffusivity approximately 40 percent higher than for kieselguhr. Another implication is that the transient tests with the coils would have proceeded faster if the coils had been filled with Pd/k rather than kieselguhr.

  17. Stroke: transient ischemic attack.

    PubMed

    Silver, Brian; Wulf Silver, Rachel

    2014-05-01

    The definitions of transient ischemic attack (TIA) and stroke have evolved with advancements in medical imaging. Approximately one-third of events that last less than 24 hours are associated with new infarctions on modern imaging sequences. These events, previously called apoplexy, are now called strokes. Approximately 10% of patients with TIA will have a stroke within 90 days without urgent evaluation and management; 50% of these events will occur within the first 48 hours. The ABCD(2) and ABCD(3)-I scores are validated measures that can help predict which patients are at greatest risk. With urgent evaluation and management, the rate of stroke after TIA can be reduced by up to 80%. Measures that reduce the rate of recurrence include rapid diagnosis and management of atrial fibrillation, identification and repair of carotid artery stenosis, early antithrombotic management, and use of statins for appropriate patients. Dual antiplatelet management with aspirin and clopidogrel may be useful in the first 30 days after TIA, but these drugs should not be used in combination after that time. Adverse events, including major bleeding and mortality, occur more frequently than with monotherapy with no reduction in ischemic events. Patients also should be encouraged to adopt lifestyle changes, such as regular exercise and weight loss. PMID:24818554

  18. Transient nucleation in condensed systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelton, K. F.; Greer, A. L.; Thompson, C. V.

    1983-01-01

    Using classical nucleation theory we consider transient nucleation occurring in a one-component, condensed system under isothermal conditions. We obtain an exact closed-form expression for the time dependent cluster populations. In addition, a more versatile approach is developed: a numerical simulation technique which models directly the reactions by which clusters are produced. This simulation demonstrates the evolution of cluster populations and nucleation rate in the transient regime. Results from the simulation are verified by comparison with exact analytical solutions for the steady state. Experimental methods for measuring transient nucleation are assessed, and it is demonstrated that the observed behavior depends on the method used. The effect of preexisting cluster distributions is studied. Previous analytical and numerical treatments of transient nucleation are compared to the solutions obtained from the simulation. The simple expressions of Kashchiev are shown to give good descriptions of the nucleation behavior.

  19. LINEAR DIFFUSION Erkut Erdem

    E-print Network

    Erdem, Erkut

    LINEAR DIFFUSION Erkut Erdem Hacettepe University February 24th, 2012 CONTENTS 1 Linear Diffusion 1 2 Appendix - The Calculus of Variations 5 References 6 1 LINEAR DIFFUSION The linear diffusion (heat (noisy) input image and u(x, t) be initialized with u(x, 0) = u0(x) = f (x). Then, the linear diffusion

  20. Diffusion of tagged particles in a crowded medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galanti, Marta; Fanelli, Duccio; Maritan, Amos; Piazza, Francesco

    2014-07-01

    The influence of crowding on the diffusion of tagged particles in a dense medium is investigated in the framework of a mean-field model, derived in the continuum limit from a microscopic stochastic process with exclusion. The probability distribution function of the tagged particles obeys to a nonlinear Smoluchowski equation, where the force and diffusion terms are determined self-consistently by the concentration of crowders in the medium. Transient sub-diffusive or super-diffusive behaviors are observed, depending on the selected initial conditions, that bridge normal diffusion regimes characterized by different diffusion coefficients. These anomalous crossovers originate from the microscopic competition for space and reflect the peculiar form of the non-homogeneous force term in the governing equation. Our results strongly warn against the overly simplistic identification of crowding with anomalous transport tout court.

  1. Photoluminescence and deep-level transient spectroscopy of DX-centers in selectively silicon-doped GaAs-AlAs superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ababou, Soraya; Benyattou, Taha; Marchand, Jean J.; Mayet, Louis; Guillot, Gerard; Mollot, Francis; Planel, Richard

    1991-03-01

    Deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) and photoluminescence (PL) measurements are used to characterize short period selectively or uniformly Si-doped GaAs-AlAs superlattices (SLs) grown by molecular beam epitaxy at two different temperatures. DLTS measurements show the presence of DX center with an apparent activation energy of 0. 42eV and a trap concentration which decreases as the growth temperature is lowered. From an analysis of the DX concentration and binding energy we show that this center is mainly located in the AlAs layers. The high growth temperature enhances the silicon diffusion from the GaAs wells towards the AlAs layers which allows us to detect the DX even when only the GaAs layers are doped. The PL measurements performed on the near band edge show different transitions. No deep luminescence in the near infra-red spectrum is observed on these MBE layers despite the high DX concentration.

  2. On Transient Phenomena in the Cusp Ionosphere (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oksavik, K.; van der Meeren, C.; Moen, J. I.; Lester, M.

    2013-12-01

    In this presentation we will discuss transient phenomena in the cusp ionosphere. One decade ago we were fortunate to use the EISCAT Svalbard Radar to reveal the detailed flow pattern around transients in the dayside aurora, the Poleward Moving Auroral Forms (PMAFs). Using a combination of fast azimuth and elevation scans we detected a series of meso-scale features in the F-region polar ionosphere, including meso-scale flow channel events and polar cap patches of enhanced electron density. These features are believed to be signatures of Flux Transfer Events (FTEs) and transient reconnection at the dayside magnetopause. This year we have installed multi-constellation TEC and scintillation receivers at four locations in Svalbard to study what effect that ionospheric irregularities generated by the same processes have on GNSS navigation systems. Here we present initial measurements from a campaign in January 2013. Enhanced scintillation was observed when a PMAF intersected the signal path of several GNSS spacecraft. Now we know that dayside transients may also represent a space weather challenge for society.

  3. Nonneutral and quasi-neutral diffusion of weakly ionized multiconstituent plasma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. J. Hill

    1978-01-01

    A theory is developed for ambipolar diffusion in a multiconstituent weakly ionized plasma. The implications of the presence of negative ions and of differing positive ion and negative ion diffusion coefficients are found. In particular, the presence of numerous negative ions is found to enhance the diffusion of the electrons. Furthermore, this theory of multiconstituent ambipolar diffusion is extended to

  4. Sound Exposure Calculations for Transient Events and Other Improvements to an Acoustical Tactical Decision Aid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. K. Wilson; V. A. Nguyen; Nassy Srour; John Noble

    2002-01-01

    Recent enhancements to an acoustical tactical decision aid, called the Acoustic Battlefield Aid (ABFA), are described. ABFA predicts the effects of the atmosphere and local terrain on the performance of acoustical sensors, using advanced sound propagation models. Among the enhancements are: (1) sound-exposure and detection calculations for moving and transient sources, (2) new display capabilities including loading of vector-map features

  5. Parallel flow diffusion battery

    DOEpatents

    Yeh, H.C.; Cheng, Y.S.

    1984-01-01

    A parallel flow diffusion battery for determining the mass distribution of an aerosol has a plurality of diffusion cells mounted in parallel to an aerosol stream, each diffusion cell including a stack of mesh wire screens of different density.

  6. Parallel flow diffusion battery

    DOEpatents

    Yeh, Hsu-Chi (Albuquerque, NM); Cheng, Yung-Sung (Albuquerque, NM)

    1984-08-07

    A parallel flow diffusion battery for determining the mass distribution of an aerosol has a plurality of diffusion cells mounted in parallel to an aerosol stream, each diffusion cell including a stack of mesh wire screens of different density.

  7. A Numerical Model for Coupling of Neutron Diffusion and Thermomechanics in Fast Burst Reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Samet Y. Kadioglu; Dana A. Knoll; Cassiano De Oliveira

    2008-11-01

    We develop a numerical model for coupling of neutron diffusion adn termomechanics in order to stimulate transient behavior of a fast burst reactor. The problem involves solving a set of non-linear different equations which approximate neutron diffusion, temperature change, and material behavior. With this equation set we will model the transition from a supercritical to subcritical state and possible mechanical vibration.

  8. A compact transient electrothermal model for integrated power systems: Automotive application

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sabrine MRAD; P. Lefranc; P. Dessante; P. Chiozzi; G. Blondel; M. Fakes; P. Masson

    2009-01-01

    The paper is about a so-called ¿diffusive representation¿, a new modeling dynamic systems method and its application to efficient transient thermal modeling of multichip power module taking into account thermal coupling effects. Compact thermal models are required for many analyses during the design of power systems. Generally a RC-ladder model is used and analytical expressions enable to quantify R and

  9. Transient mantle convection on Venus: The paradoxical coexistence of highlands and coronae in the BAT region

    E-print Network

    Jellinek, Mark

    Transient mantle convection on Venus: The paradoxical coexistence of highlands and coronae on a timescale of thermal diffusion. Applied to Venus, our results support a hypothesis that the contemporaneous convection; Venus; coronae; highlands; mantle thermals and mantle plumes Earth and Planetary Science Letters

  10. Polyhedra Formation and Transient Cone Ejection of a Resonant Microdrop Forced by an ac Electric Field

    E-print Network

    Chang, Hsueh-Chia

    Polyhedra Formation and Transient Cone Ejection of a Resonant Microdrop Forced by an ac Electric of the diffuse layer. The selected polyhedra possess symmetries that ensure a global force balance of the Maxwell and frequencies, specific spherical har- monics are shown to evolve into specific polyhedra at comparatively low

  11. Modeling of transient effects in railgun plasma armatures. Final report, January-September 1986

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. H. Batteh; G. E. Rolader

    1987-01-01

    Two different one-dimensional, time-dependent models are developed to study transient phenomena in railgun plasma armatures. The first model consists of the equations for conservation of mass and momentum, and the magnetic diffusion equation for an isothermal plasma. The second, more general model eliminates the assumption of an isothermal arc, and allows for the generation and transfer of heat within the

  12. Modelling nutrient-periphyton dynamics in streams: the importance of transient storage zones

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. L. DeAngelis; M. Loreau; D. Neergaard; P. J. Mulholland; E. R. Marzolf

    1995-01-01

    The dynamics of a nutrient-limited periphyton community in a segment of stream was modeled. The stream segment was assumed to consist of two zones, free-flowing water and a boundary zone of zero water flow, which acted as a transient storage zone for nutrients. Studies with a biologically unreactive tracer solute (sodium chloride) were used to obtain parameters for diffusion of

  13. Simulation of SBWR startup transient and stability

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, H.S.; Khan, H.J.; Rohatgi, U.S.

    1998-06-01

    The Simplified Boiling Water Reactor (SBWR) designed by General Electric is a natural circulation reactor with enhanced safety features for potential accidents. It has a strong coupling between power and flow in the reactor core, hence the neutronic coupling with thermal-hydraulics is specially important. The potential geysering instability during the early part of a SBWR startup at low flow, low power and low pressure is of particular concern. The RAMONA-4B computer code developed at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) for the SBWR has been used to simulate a SBWR startup transient and evaluate its stability, using a simplified four-channel representation of the reactor core for the thermal-hydraulics. This transient was run for 20,000 sec (5.56 hrs) in order to cover the essential aspect of the SBWR startup. The simulation showed that the SBWR startup was a very challenging event to analyze as it required accurate modeling of the thermal-hydraulics at low pressures. This analysis did not show any geysering instability during the startup, following the startup procedure as proposed by GE.

  14. Transient Thermoelectric Generator: An Active Load Story

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stockholm, J. G.; Goupil, C.; Maussion, P.; Ouerdane, H.

    2015-06-01

    Under stationary conditions, the optimization of maximum power output and efficiency of thermoelectric generators (TEG) is a well-known subject. Use of a finite-time thermodynamics (FTT) approach to the description of TEGs has demonstrated that there exists a closed feedback effect between the output electrical load value and the entering heat current. From the practical point of view, this effect is strongly evidenced by the use of direct current (DC-to-DC) converters as active loads. Both transient conditions and FTT contribute to a complex landscape of the optimization of the power and efficiencies of a TEG. It has been claimed that the use of inductive load may lead to a strong enhancement of the efficiency, and the frequency response of a TEG as a band-pass filter has also been recently reported. We consider these results using a classical linear Onsager approach of a TEG operating under transient conditions. We show that a trans-admittance may be defined as a coupling element between the input and the output, leading to the observed electric-to-thermal feedback. We discuss recent experiments on a TEG connected to an active load, which is reported to boast an efficiency exceeding the usual stationary DC thermoelectric efficiency.

  15. Profiling of Current Transients in Capacitor Type Diamond Sensors.

    PubMed

    Gaubas, Eugenijus; Ceponis, Tomas; Meskauskaite, Dovile; Kazuchits, Nikolai

    2015-01-01

    The operational characteristics of capacitor-type detectors based on HPHT and CVD diamond have been investigated using perpendicular and parallel injection of carrier domain regimes. Simulations of the drift-diffusion current transients have been implemented by using dynamic models based on Shockley-Ramo's theorem, under injection of localized surface domains and of bulk charge carriers. The bipolar drift-diffusion regimes have been analyzed for the photo-induced bulk domain (packet) of excess carriers. The surface charge formation and polarization effects dependent on detector biasing voltage have been revealed. The screening effects ascribed to surface charge and to dynamics of extraction of the injected bulk excess carrier domain have been separated and explained. The parameters of drift mobility of the electrons ?e = 4000 cm2/Vs and holes ?h = 3800 cm2/Vs have been evaluated for CVD diamond using the perpendicular profiling of currents. The coefficient of carrier ambipolar diffusion Da = 97 cm2/s and the carrier recombination lifetime ?R,CVD ? 110 ns in CVD diamond were extracted by combining analysis of the transients of the sensor current and the microwave probed photoconductivity. The carrier trapping with inherent lifetime ?R,HPHT ? 2 ns prevails in HPHT diamond. PMID:26061200

  16. Profiling of Current Transients in Capacitor Type Diamond Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Gaubas, Eugenijus; Ceponis, Tomas; Meskauskaite, Dovile; Kazuchits, Nikolai

    2015-01-01

    The operational characteristics of capacitor-type detectors based on HPHT and CVD diamond have been investigated using perpendicular and parallel injection of carrier domain regimes. Simulations of the drift-diffusion current transients have been implemented by using dynamic models based on Shockley-Ramo’s theorem, under injection of localized surface domains and of bulk charge carriers. The bipolar drift-diffusion regimes have been analyzed for the photo-induced bulk domain (packet) of excess carriers. The surface charge formation and polarization effects dependent on detector biasing voltage have been revealed. The screening effects ascribed to surface charge and to dynamics of extraction of the injected bulk excess carrier domain have been separated and explained. The parameters of drift mobility of the electrons ?e = 4000 cm2/Vs and holes ?h = 3800 cm2/Vs have been evaluated for CVD diamond using the perpendicular profiling of currents. The coefficient of carrier ambipolar diffusion Da = 97 cm2/s and the carrier recombination lifetime ?R,CVD ? 110 ns in CVD diamond were extracted by combining analysis of the transients of the sensor current and the microwave probed photoconductivity. The carrier trapping with inherent lifetime ?R,HPHT ? 2 ns prevails in HPHT diamond. PMID:26061200

  17. A Model for DC Interruption in Diffuse Vacuum Arcs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. E. CHILDSAND; A. N. Greenwood

    1980-01-01

    A theoretical model for current interruption in a diffuse vacuum arc with dc commutation is described. Before current zero the interelectrode plasma is modeled as an ion-neutral fluid through which electrons are flowing. After current zero a positive ion sheath grows into the plasma from the former anode, driven by the transient recovery voltage. Using the basic laws of conservation,

  18. Measurement of the Ultimate Pressures of Oil-Diffusion Pumps

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Blears

    1946-01-01

    By using two ionization gauges to measure the pressure in the same vessel it is shown that the vapours of diffusion-pump oils are absorbed in the gauges by two processes, one transient, the other continuous. At the steady state the equilibrium in the electrode space of each gauge is dynamic, and the equilibrium pressure depends upon the dimensions of the

  19. 3-D transient analysis of pebble-bed HTGR by TORT-TD/ATTICA3D

    SciTech Connect

    Seubert, A.; Sureda, A. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit GRS MbH, Forschungszentrum, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Lapins, J.; Buck, M. [Institut fuer Kernenergetik und Energiesysteme IKE, Universitaet Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 31, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Bader, J. [Institut fuer Kernenergetik und Energiesysteme IKE, Universitaet Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 31, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany); EnBW Kernkraft GmbH, Kernkraftwerk Philippsburg, Rheinschanzinsel, D-76661 Philippsburg (Germany); Laurien, E. [Institut fuer Kernenergetik und Energiesysteme IKE, Universitaet Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 31, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    As most of the acceptance criteria are local core parameters, application of transient 3-D fine mesh neutron transport and thermal hydraulics coupled codes is mandatory for best estimate evaluations of safety margins. This also applies to high-temperature gas cooled reactors (HTGR). Application of 3-D fine-mesh transient transport codes using few energy groups coupled with 3-D thermal hydraulics codes becomes feasible in view of increasing computing power. This paper describes the discrete ordinates based coupled code system TORT-TD/ATTICA3D that has recently been extended by a fine-mesh diffusion solver. Based on transient analyses for the PBMR-400 design, the transport/diffusion capabilities are demonstrated and 3-D local flux and power redistribution effects during a partial control rod withdrawal are shown. (authors)

  20. A case of diffuse-type primary hepatic lymphoma mimicking diffuse hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Koichiro; Nishie, Akihiro; Arima, Fumitou; Yoshida, Tsuyoshi; Ono, Ken; Omagari, Junichi; Honda, Hiroshi

    2011-05-01

    Primary hepatic lymphoma (PHL) is a very rare disease, especially in the diffuse type. We report a case of a middle-aged man with hepatitis C virus infection who developed diffuse-type PHL mimicking diffuse hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging showed diffusely infiltrated hypovascular lesions throughout the liver, but no intrahepatic portal venous thrombus was observed. Diffusion-weighted imaging and (18)F-FDG positron emission tomography/CT, respectively, showed a very low apparent diffusion coefficient value and high FDG uptake. These findings were more suggestive of diffuse-type PHL than diffuse HCC. Liver biopsy examination confirmed a diagnosis of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Systemic staging revealed no evidence of nodal or bone marrow involvement, so PHL was diagnosed. The patient was treated with chemotherapy and achieved complete remission. We suggest that a combination of image modalities may enable differentiation of diffuse-type PHL from diffuse HCC. PMID:21234726

  1. The Transient Plane Source Technique to Measure Thermal Conductivity of Clays of Bikaner Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shekhawat, M. S.; Tak, S. K.; Mangal, R.

    Thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of blended clays have been studied with special reference to Ukrainian clay. The blends were made of three different clays available locally in western part of Rajasthan. Thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity were determined using the transient plane source (TPS) technique at room temperature and normal pressure. It was found that thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of the blends reported maximum at temperature 1200° C and near in the values of Ukrainian clay. The thermal conductivity of blend B2 reported maximum value (1.29 W/m-k) in the present study.

  2. Secure Diffusion for Wireless Sensor Networks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hao Yang; Starsky H. Y. Wong; Songwu Lu; Lixia Zhang

    2006-01-01

    Data dissemination is an indispensible protocol component for the emerging large-scale sensor networks. In this paper, we propose a secure data dissemination protocol that enhances directed diffusion to operate in the presence of compromised sensors. Our proposed solution, Secure Diffu- sion, utilizes a novel security primitive called location-binding keys, and exploits the available end-to-end feedback loop in Directed Diffusion. In

  3. Atomic defects and diffusion in metals

    SciTech Connect

    Siegel, R.W.

    1981-11-01

    The tracer self-diffusion data for fcc and refractory bcc metals are briefly reviewed with respect to (i) the available monovacancy formation and migration properties and (ii) the high-temperature diffusion enhancement above that expected for mass transport via atomic exchange with monovacancies. While the atomic-defect mechanism for low-temperature self-diffusion can be reliably attributed to monovacancies, the mechanisms responsible for high-temperature mass transport are not so easily defined at this time; both divacancies and interstitials must be seriously considered. Possibilities for improving our understanding in this area are discussed. 68 references, 7 figures.

  4. Diffusing Diffusivity: A Model for Anomalous, yet Brownian, Diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chubynsky, Mykyta V.; Slater, Gary W.

    2014-08-01

    Wang et al. [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 106, 15160 (2009)] have found that in several systems the linear time dependence of the mean-square displacement (MSD) of diffusing colloidal particles, typical of normal diffusion, is accompanied by a non-Gaussian displacement distribution G(x ,t), with roughly exponential tails at short times, a situation they termed "anomalous yet Brownian" diffusion. The diversity of systems in which this is observed calls for a generic model. We present such a model where there is diffusivity memory but no direction memory in the particle trajectory, and we show that it leads to both a linear MSD and a non-Gaussian G(x ,t) at short times. In our model, the diffusivity is undergoing a (perhaps biased) random walk, hence the expression "diffusing diffusivity". G(x ,t) is predicted to be exactly exponential at short times if the distribution of diffusivities is itself exponential, but an exponential remains a good fit for a variety of diffusivity distributions. Moreover, our generic model can be modified to produce subdiffusion.

  5. Two-dimensional hygrothermal diffusions into a finite width composite laminate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farley, G. L.; Herakovich, C. T.

    1977-01-01

    Two dimensional hygroscopic diffusion into composite laminates with free edges was obtained through the use of a second order finite difference scheme. A computer program was developed for the transient nonlinear coupled hygrothermal diffusion into finite width laminates with varying surface conditions along two edges. The formulation permits the diffusion coefficient to be a function of temperature, moisture concentration, and fiber orientation. The moisture distributions thus obtained are necessary for analysis of the moisture induced interlaminar stresses in the vicinity of free edges. It is shown that large diffusion times tend to eliminate the significance of stacking sequence, but gradients within and between layers are significant for all diffusion times.

  6. Cohabitation Duration and Transient Domesticity

    PubMed Central

    GOLUB, ANDREW; REID, MEGAN; STRICKLER, JENNIFER; DUNLAP, ELOISE

    2013-01-01

    Research finds that many impoverished urban Black adults engage in a pattern of partnering and family formation involving a succession of short cohabitations yielding children, a paradigm referred to as transient domesticity. Researchers have identified socioeconomic status, cultural adaptations, and urbanicity as explanations for aspects of this pattern. We used longitudinal data from the 2001 Survey of Income and Program Participation to analyze variation in cohabitation and marriage duration by race/ethnicity, income, and urban residence. Proportional hazards regression indicated that separation risk is greater among couples that are cohabiting, below 200% of the federal poverty line, and Black but is not greater among urban dwellers. This provides empirical demographic evidence to support the emerging theory of transient domesticity and suggests that both socioeconomic status and race explain this pattern. We discuss the implications of these findings for understanding transient domesticity and make recommendations for using the Survey of Income and Program Participation to further study this family formation paradigm. PMID:24273358

  7. Do current lattice Boltzmann methods for diffusion and diffusion-type equations respect maximum principles and the non-negative constraint?

    E-print Network

    S. Karimi; K. B. Nakshatrala

    2015-04-10

    The lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) has established itself as a valid numerical method in computational fluid dynamics. Recently, multiple-relaxation-time LBM has been proposed to simulate anisotropic advection-diffusion processes. The governing differential equations of advective-diffusive systems are known to satisfy maximum principles, comparison principles, the non-negative constraint, and the decay property. In this paper, it will be shown that current single- and multiple-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann methods fail to preserve these mathematical properties for transient diffusion-type equations. It will also be shown that the discretization of Dirichlet boundary conditions will affect the performance of lattice Boltzmann methods in meeting these mathematical principles. A new way of discretizing the Dirichlet boundary conditions is also proposed. Several benchmark problems have been solved to illustrate the performance of lattice Boltzmann methods and the effect of discretization of boundary conditions with respect to the aforementioned mathematical properties for transient diffusion and advection-diffusion equations.

  8. Transient Anomalous Subdiffusion: Effects of Specific and Non-specific Probe Binding with Actin Gels

    PubMed Central

    Sanabria, Hugo; Waxham, M. Neal

    2010-01-01

    When signaling molecules diffuse through the cytosol they encounter a wide variety of obstacles that hinder their mobility in space and time. Some of those factors include, but are not limited to, interactions with mobile and immobile targets or obstacles. Besides finding a crowded environment inside the cell, macromolecules assemble into molecular complexes that drive specific biological functions adding additional complexity to their diffusion. Thus, simple models of diffusion often fail to explain mobility through the cell interior and new approaches are needed. Here we used fluorescent correlation spectroscopy to measure diffusion of three molecules of similar size with different surface properties diffusing in actin gels. The fluorescent probes were a) quantum dots, b) yellow-green fluorescent spheres and c) the ? isoform of Ca2+ calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II tagged with green fluorescent protein. We compared various models for fitting the autocorrelation function (ACF) including single component, two-component, and anomalous diffusion. The two-component and anomalous diffusion models were superior and were largely indistinguishable based on a goodness of fit criteria. To better resolve differences between these two models, we modified the ACF to observe temporal variations in diffusion. We found in both simulated and experimental data, a transient anomalous subdiffusion between two freely diffusing regimes produced by binding interactions of the diffusive tracers with actin gels. PMID:20038146

  9. Analytic one dimensional transient conduction into a living perfuse/non-perfuse two layer composite system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Sid

    2012-02-01

    This study considers a two layer composite system in which transport within one layer is governed by pure diffusion and transport within the second layer is governed by both perfusion and diffusion. Previous solutions to this situation have approximated the layer without perfusion by using a small non-zero value of the perfusion coefficient. This study provides an exact one dimensional solution to a two layer composite system in which one layer has a high perfusion rate and the adjacent layer has a zero perfusion value. During the solution development, which uses the separation of variables method, the parametric constants and the perfusion term are coupled directly to the transient component of the governing equation. This is done to isolate the spatially diffusive term. The non-dimensional solution is developed symbolically and an example test case is provided to show the transient behavior of the solution using the first 20 terms of the series.

  10. Thermal characterization of microscale conductive and nonconductive wires using transient electrothermal technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jiaqi; Wang, Xinwei; Wang, Tao

    2007-03-01

    In this paper, a transient technique is developed to characterize the thermophysical properties of one-dimensional conductive and nonconductive microscale wires. In this technique, the to-be-measured thin wire is suspended between two electrodes. When feeding a step dc to the sample, its temperature will increase and take a certain time to reach the steady state. This temperature evolution is probed by measuring the variation of voltage over the wire, which is directly related to resistance/temperature change. The temperature evolution history of the sample can be used to determine its thermal diffusivity. A 25.4?m thick platinum wire is used as the reference sample to verify this technique. Sound agreement is obtained between the measured thermal diffusivity and the reference value. Applying this transient electrothermal technique, the thermal diffusivities of single-wall carbon nanotube bundles and polyester fibers are measured.

  11. Time–transient response for ultrasonic guided waves propagating in damped cylinders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alessandro Marzani

    2008-01-01

    Herein, an enhanced spectral finite element (SFE) formulation to calculate the time–transient response in cylindrical waveguides is proposed. The original aspect over SFE-based formulations consists in the possibility to account for the effect of material absorption, i.e. guided waves attenuation, on the calculation of the time–transient response.First, the damped steady-state response is constructed by a weighted superposition of the waveguide

  12. Studies of Transient Meteor Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenniskens, Peter M. M.

    2002-01-01

    Meteoroids bombard Earth's atmosphere daily, but occasionally meteor rates increase to unusual high levels when Earth crosses the relatively fresh ejecta of comets. These transient events in meteor activity provide clues about the whereabouts of Earth-threatening long-period comets, the mechanisms of large-grain dust ejection from comets, and the particle composition and size distribution of the cometary ejecta. Observations of these transient events provide important insight in natural processes that determine the large grain dust environment of comets, in natural phenomena that were prevalent during the time of the origin of life, and in processes that determine the hazard of civilizations to large impacts and of man-made satellites to the periodic blizzard of small meteoroids. In this proposal, three tasks form a coherent program aimed at elucidating various aspects of meteor outbursts, with special reference to planetary astronomy and astrobiology. Task 1 was a ground-based effort to observe periods of transient meteor activity. This includes: (1) stereoscopic imaging of meteors during transient meteor events for measurements of particle size distribution, meteoroid orbital dispersions and fluxes; and (2) technical support for Global-MS-Net, a network of amateur-operated automatic counting stations for meteor reflections from commercial VHF radio and TV broadcasting stations, keeping a 24h vigil on the level of meteor activity for the detection of new meteor streams. Task 2 consisted of ground-based and satellite born spectroscopic observations of meteors and meteor trains during transient meteor events for measurements of elemental composition, the presence of organic matter in the meteoroids, and products generated by the interaction of the meteoroid with the atmosphere. Task 3 was an airborne effort to explore the 2000 Leonid meteor outbursts, which are anticipated to be the most significant of transient meteor activity events in the remainder of the agreement period. This includes technical support for a multi-instrument aircraft campaign, Leonid MAC.

  13. Effect of the Synthetic NC-1059 Peptide on Diffusion of Riboflavin across an Intact Corneal Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuntao; Sukthankar, Pinakin; Tomich, John M.; Conrad, Gary W.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the effect of the peptide NC-1059 on riboflavin (RF) diffusion across an intact corneal epithelium into the stroma. Methods. NC-1059 peptide was synthesized by solid-phase synthesis with 9-fluorenylmethoxycarbonyl chemistry, characterized by reversed-phase HPLC, and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectroscopy. The diffusion of RF across embryonic day 18 chick corneal epithelium ex vivo was monitored using confocal microscopy. The depth distributions of RF in the corneal stroma were calculated using a group of linear equations based on the relationship between RF fluorescence intensity and concentration. Results. Data presented in this study demonstrate that the NC-1059 peptide can transiently open the intact epithelial barrier to allow the permeation of RF into the stroma. The effect of NC-1059 peptide on RF diffusion across the corneal epithelium was concentration and time dependent. The amount of RF reaching a 50-?m depth of chick corneal stoma increased dramatically after exposure to NC-1059 for 10 minutes, reaching a plateau by 30 minutes. The concentrations of RF in the presence of NC-1059 at corneal stromal depths of 50, 100, and 150 ?m were significantly higher than in the absence of the peptide, and almost as high as in corneas in which the epithelium first had been physically removed. In addition, a cell viability assay indicated that the NC-1059 peptide did not kill corneal epithelial cells. Conclusions. NC-1059 peptide significantly enhances the diffusion of RF across intact corneal epithelium into the stroma. PMID:22447859

  14. Robotic Optical Transient Search Experiment

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Astronomers have observed a visible light emitted at the same time as a gamma-ray burst for the first time on January 27, 1999. The Robotic Optical Transient Search Experiment (ROTSE) Detects Simultaneous Gamma-Ray Burst Optical Counterpart, provides detailed information pertaining to this discovery and ROTSE research in general. ROTSE's objective is to search for "astrophysical optical transients on time scales of a fraction of a second to a few hours." This project is sponsored by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and the University of Michigan.

  15. Transient voltage dip analysis using the transient energy function method

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. A. Fouad; Ramadevi Sreedhara

    1990-01-01

    It is shown that the transient energy function (TEF) method provides a fast approximate approach to voltage dip computations. The TEF method is used to predict the stability of a power system after a disturbance has occurred. The results of application of the technique to test power systems confirmed that the voltage dips predicted by the TEF method compare well

  16. Role of transients in the sustainability of solar coronal plumes

    SciTech Connect

    Raouafi, N.-E. [The John Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, MD 20723-6099 (United States); Stenborg, G., E-mail: NourEddine.Raouafi@jhuapl.edu [SPACS, College of Science, George Mason University, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States)

    2014-06-01

    We report on the role of small-scale, transient magnetic activity in the formation and evolution of solar coronal plumes. Three plumes within equatorial coronal holes are analyzed over the span of several days based on the Solar Dynamic Observatory (SDO)/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly 171 Å and 193 Å images and SDO/Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager line-of-sight magnetograms. The focus is on the role of transient structures at the footpoints in sustaining coronal plumes for relatively long periods of time (i.e., several days). The appearance of plumes is a gradual and lengthy process. In some cases, the initial stages of plume formation are marked by the appearance of pillar-like structures whose footpoints are the sources of transient brightenings. In addition to nominal jets occurring prior to and during the development of plumes, the data show that a large number of small jets (i.e., {sup j}etlets{sup )} and plume transient bright points (PTBPs) occur on timescales of tens of seconds to a few minutes. These features are the result of quasi-random cancellations of fragmented and diffuse minority magnetic polarity with the dominant unipolar magnetic field concentration over an extended period of time. They unambiguously reflect a highly dynamical evolution at the footpoints and are seemingly the main energy source for plumes. This suggests a tendency for plumes to be dependent on the occurrence of transients (i.e., jetlets, and PTBPs) resulting from low-rate magnetic reconnection. The decay phase of plumes is characterized by gradual fainting and multiple rejuvenations as a result of the dispersal of the unipolar magnetic concentration and its precipitation into multiple magnetic centers.

  17. Mechanisms underlying anomalous diffusion in the plasma membrane.

    PubMed

    Krapf, Diego

    2015-01-01

    The plasma membrane is a complex fluid where lipids and proteins undergo diffusive motion critical to biochemical reactions. Through quantitative imaging analyses such as single-particle tracking, it is observed that diffusion in the cell membrane is usually anomalous in the sense that the mean squared displacement is not linear with time. This chapter describes the different models that are employed to describe anomalous diffusion, paying special attention to the experimental evidence that supports these models in the plasma membrane. We review models based on anticorrelated displacements, such as fractional Brownian motion and obstructed diffusion, and nonstationary models such as continuous time random walks. We also emphasize evidence for the formation of distinct compartments that transiently form on the cell surface. Finally, we overview heterogeneous diffusion processes in the plasma membrane, which have recently attracted considerable interest. PMID:26015283

  18. Transient electromagnetic vs. seismic prospecting -- A correspondence principle

    SciTech Connect

    Hoop, A.T. de [Delft Univ. of Technology (Netherlands)

    1996-11-01

    A correspondence principle is derived that relates the Green`s functions (point-receiver responses to point-source excitations) for 2D transient diffusive electromagnetic fields with electric field in the vertical plane to 2D seismic waves (in the acoustic approximation) with particle velocity in the vertical plane in arbitrarily inhomogeneous media. The constituent medium parameters in the two cases are related via two global proportionality constants. The kernels in the integral operators that express the diffusion phenomenon in terms of the wave phenomenon are of a smoothing nature. The fact that they are explicitly known can be of importance to the inverse operation. The correspondence principle is the fundamental tool in comparing the spatial resolving powers in the two methods of geophysical prospecting.

  19. Reaction-diffusion textures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew P. Witkin; Michael Kass

    1991-01-01

    We present a method for texture synthesis based on the simulation of a process of local nonlinear interaction, called reaction-diffusion, which has been proposed as a model of biological pattern formation. We extend traditional reaction-diffusion systems by allowing anisotropic and spatially non-uniform diffusion, as well as multiple competing directions of diffusion. We adapt reaction-diffusion system to the needs of computer

  20. Lateral diffusion contributes to FRET from lanthanide-tagged membrane proteins.

    PubMed

    Lan, Tien-Hung; Wu, Guangyu; Lambert, Nevin A

    2015-08-14

    Diffusion can enhance Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) when donors or acceptors diffuse distances that are similar to the distances separating them during the donor's excited state lifetime. Lanthanide donors remain in the excited state for milliseconds, which makes them useful for time-resolved FRET applications but also allows time for diffusion to enhance energy transfer. Here we show that diffusion dramatically enhances FRET between membrane proteins labeled with lanthanide donors. This phenomenon complicates interpretation of experiments that use long-lived donors to infer association or proximity of mobile membrane proteins, but also offers a method of monitoring diffusion in membrane domains in real time in living cells. PMID:26119691

  1. Transient Analysis of Grounding Systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. P. Meliopoulos; M. G. Moharam

    1983-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of computing the ground potential rise of grounding systems during transients. Finite element analysis is employed to model the constituent parts of a grounding system. Short lengths of earth embedded electrodes are characterized as transmission lines with distributed inductance, capacitance and leakage resistance to earth. Leakage resistance to earth is accurately computed with the method

  2. Transient analysis of grounding systems

    SciTech Connect

    Meliopoulos, A.P.; Moharam, M.G.

    1983-02-01

    This paper addresses the problem of computing the ground potential rise of grounding systems during transients. Finite element analysis is employed to model the constituent parts of a grounding system. Short lengths of earth embedded electrodes are characterized as transmission lines with distributed inductance, capacitance and leakage resistance to earth. Leakage resistance to earth is accurately computed with the method of moments. The other parameters of the finite element, namely inductance and capacitance, are computed from the resistance utilizing Maxwell's equations. This modeling enables the computation of the transient response of substation grounding systems to fast or slow waves striking the substation. The result is obtained in terms of a convolution of the step response of the system and the striking wave. In this way the impedance of substation systems to 60 cycles is accurately computed. Results demonstrate the dependence of the 60 cycle impedance on system parameters. The methodology allows to interface this model of a substation ground mat with the Electromagnetic Transient Analysis Program thus, allowing explicit representation of earth effects in electromagmatic transients computations.

  3. Computer Aided Transient Stability Analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nihad M. Al-Rawi; Afaneen Anwar; Ahmed Muhsin Abdul-Majeed

    2007-01-01

    A program for handling and improving the transient stability of the Iraqi Super Grid electrical network was developed. The idea was demonstrated by applying it to the outages of the main generating units. The methodology was built upon a state of increasing power transfer through the healthy portion of network during disturbances. There were three parts concerned; the first part

  4. Transient electromagnetic sounding for groundwater

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David V. Fitterman; Mark T. Stewart

    1986-01-01

    The feasibility of using the transient electromagnetic sounding (TS or TDEM) method for groundwater exploration can be studied by means of numerical models. As examples of its applicability to groundwater exploration, we study four groundwater exploration problems: (1) mapping of alluvial fill and gravel zones over bedrock; (2) mapping of sand and gravel lenses in till; (3) detection of salt

  5. 2, 267283, 2006 Transient simulations

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Discussion EGU Abstract We examine several aspects of the ocean-atmosphere system over the last 30 000 years parameters. We use the GENIE-1 model with a geostrophic ocean, dynamic sea-ice, an energy balance atmosphere of accelerating the boundary conditions of a transient simulation and find that the South- ern Ocean is the region

  6. Features of postfailure fuel behavior in transient overpower and transient undercooled\\/overpower tests in the transient reactor test facility

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. C. Doerner; T. H. Bauer; J. A. Morman; J. W. Holland

    1992-01-01

    Prototypic oxide fuel was subjected to simulated, fast reactor severe accident conditions in a series of in-pile tests in the Transient Reactor Test Facility reactor. Seven experiments were performed on fresh and previously irradiated oxide fuel pins under transient overpower and transient undercooled. overpower accident conditions. For each of the tests, fuel motions were observed by the hodoscope. Hodoscope data

  7. Gas-core reactor power transient analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kascak, A. F.

    1972-01-01

    The gas core reactor is a proposed device which features high temperatures. It has applications in high specific impulse space missions, and possibly in low thermal pollution MHD power plants. The nuclear fuel is a ball of uranium plasma radiating thermal photons as opposed to gamma rays. This thermal energy is picked up before it reaches the solid cavity liner by an inflowing seeded propellant stream and convected out through a rocket nozzle. A wall-burnout condition will exist if there is not enough flow of propellant to convect the energy back into the cavity. A reactor must therefore operate with a certain amount of excess propellant flow. Due to the thermal inertia of the flowing propellant, the reactor can undergo power transients in excess of the steady-state wall burnout power for short periods of time. The objective of this study was to determine how long the wall burnout power could be exceeded without burning out the cavity liner. The model used in the heat-transfer calculation was one-dimensional, and thermal radiation was assumed to be a diffusion process.

  8. Transient global amnesia in legal proceedings.

    PubMed

    Griebe, Martin; Bäzner, Hansjörg; Kablau, Micha; Hennerici, Michael G; Szabo, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    Transient global amnesia (TGA) is a neurological disorder characterized by an acute onset of severe anterograde amnesia. While retrograde amnesia may be present-although to a lesser extent-patients have no further cognitive disturbances or neurological signs. These symptoms resolve fully within several hours leaving a permanent memory gap for the duration of the episode and do not lead to long-term neurological deficits. In addition to well-defined clinical diagnostic criteria, in up to 80 % of patients, small, point-shaped lesions in the hippocampus are detected 24-48 h after symptom onset on diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance images. Despite several etiological hypotheses, to date, there is no scientific proof for the etiology of TGA or the small hippocampal lesions. Interestingly, in a large number of cases, an emotionally or physically straining event precipitates the onset of TGA, suggesting a stress-related mechanism. We report two cases of TGA occurring in legally relevant settings: affecting the victim of brutal burglary and the key witness in a murder trial. In the context of forensic medicine, the knowledge of this disorder and recognition of its typical features are essential. PMID:24961536

  9. Transient electrophoretic current in a nonpolar solvent

    E-print Network

    Pavel Kornilovitch; Yoocharn Jeon

    2011-08-06

    The transient electric current of surfactants dissolved in a nonpolar solvent is investigated both experimentally and theoretically in the parallel-plate geometry. Due to a low concentration of free charges the cell can be completely polarized by an external voltage of several volts. In this state, all the charged micelles are compacted against the electrodes. After the voltage is set to zero the reverse current features a sharp discharge spike and a broad peak. This shape and its variation with the compacting voltage are reproduced in a one-dimensional drift-diffusion model. The model reveals the broad peak is formed by a competition between an increasing number of charges drifting back to the middle of the cell and a decreasing electric field that drives the motion. After complete polarization is achieved, the shape of the peak stops evolving with further increase of the compacting voltage. The spike-peak separation time grows logarithmically with the charge content in the bulk. The time peak is a useful measure of the micelle mobility. Time integration of the peak yields the total charge in the system. By measuring its variation with temperature, the activation energy of bulk charge generation has been found to be 0.126 eV.

  10. Diffusion Confusion 8 4 Problem set #4: Fun with diffusion

    E-print Network

    Spiegelman, Marc W.

    Diffusion Confusion 8 4 Problem set #4: Fun with diffusion Today's thrill packed exercise will be to deal with diffusion and advection-diffusion in one dimension. All exercises here will be in Matlab-nicolson diffusion of a gaussian initial condition with dirichlet boundary conditions (Diffusion/diffusion cn

  11. Transient Supersonic Methane-Air Flames 

    E-print Network

    Richards, John L.

    2012-07-16

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the thermochemical properties of a transient supersonic flame. Creation of the transient flame was controlled by pulsing air in 200 millisecond intervals into a combustor filled with flowing methane...

  12. EPR Image Based Oxygen Movies for Transient Hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Redler, Gage; Epel, Boris; Halpern, Howard J.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic hypoxia strongly affects the malignant state and resistance to therapy for tumours. Transient hypoxia has been hypothesized, but not proven to be more deleterious. Electron paramagnetic resonance imaging (EPRI) provides non-invasive, quantitative imaging of static pO2 in vivo. Dynamic EPRI produces pO2 movies, enabling non-invasive assessment of in vivo pO2 changes, such as transient hypoxia. Recent developments have been made to enable Dynamic EPRI. Maximally spaced projection sequencing has been implemented to allow for more accurate and versatile acquisition of EPRI data when studying dynamic systems. Principal component analysis filtering has been employed to enhance SNR. Dynamic EPRI studies will provide temporally resolved oxygen movies necessary to perform in vivo studies of physiologically relevant pO2 changes in tumours. These oxygen movies will allow for the localization/quantification of transient hypoxia and will therefore help to disentangle the relationship between chronic and transient hypoxia, in order to better understand their roles in therapeutic optimization and outcome. PMID:24729224

  13. EPR image based oxygen movies for transient hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Redler, Gage; Epel, Boris; Halpern, Howard J

    2014-01-01

    Chronic hypoxia strongly affects the malignant state and resistance to therapy for tumors. Transient hypoxia has been hypothesized, but not proven to be more deleterious. Electron paramagnetic resonance imaging (EPRI) provides non-invasive, quantitative imaging of static pO? in vivo. Dynamic EPRI produces pO? movies, enabling non-invasive assessment of in vivo pO? changes, such as transient hypoxia. Recent developments have been made to enable Dynamic EPRI. Maximally spaced projection sequencing has been implemented to allow for more accurate and versatile acquisition of EPRI data when studying dynamic systems. Principal component analysis filtering has been employed to enhance SNR. Dynamic EPRI studies will provide temporally resolved oxygen movies necessary to perform in vivo studies of physiologically relevant pO? changes in tumors. These oxygen movies will allow for the localization/quantification of transient hypoxia and will therefore help to disentangle the relationship between chronic and transient hypoxia, in order to better understand their roles in therapeutic optimization and outcome. PMID:24729224

  14. 76 FR 57696 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; New York; Motor Vehicle Enhanced Inspection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-16

    ...Motor Vehicle Enhanced Inspection and Maintenance Programs...State Implementation Plan revision submitted by...motor vehicle enhanced inspection and maintenance program...transient emission short test program as it relates...State Implementation Plan revision because it...

  15. 77 FR 11742 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; New York; Motor Vehicle Enhanced Inspection...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-28

    ...Motor Vehicle Enhanced Inspection and Maintenance Program...State Implementation Plan revision submitted by...motor vehicle enhanced inspection and maintenance program...transient emission short test program as it relates...State Implementation Plan revision because it...

  16. Power System Transient Stability Enhancement using Protection Device Agent

    E-print Network

    Pota, Himanshu Roy

    , transmission lines, fault location, tripped voltage, fault current, etc. If the generator load condition@student.adfa.edu.au, and h.pota@adfa.edu.au Abstract--The critical fault clearing time is an indicator-reclosing as soon as the fault is cleared, then the system will not loose its synchronism and remain in stable

  17. Analysis and simulation of electromagnetic transients in

    E-print Network

    Silva, Filipe Faria Da

    the research leading to this thesis "Analysis and simulation of electro- magnetic transients in HVAC cable and one PhD/industrial course on the field of electro- magnetic transients. The research resulted alsoAnalysis and simulation of electromagnetic transients in HVAC cable transmission grids Filipe

  18. Injection of transient faults using electromagnetic pulses

    E-print Network

    Injection of transient faults using electromagnetic pulses Practical results on a cryptographic of magnetic pulses to inject transient faults into the calculations of a RISC micro-controller running the AES to setup time violations resulting in the injection of errors. Transient deviations under nom- inal values

  19. Transient Expression Assays for Quantifying Signaling Output

    E-print Network

    Sheen, Jen

    Chapter 16 Transient Expression Assays for Quantifying Signaling Output Yajie Niu and Jen Sheen Abstract The protoplast transient expression system has become a powerful and popular tool for studying the output of various signaling pathways. Key words: Arabidopsis, Mesophyll protoplast, Transient expression

  20. TRANSIENT THERMAL BEHAVIOR IN RESISTANCE SPOT WELDING

    E-print Network

    Eagar, Thomas W.

    ) ) ) ABSTRACT TRANSIENT THERMAL BEHAVIOR IN RESISTANCE SPOT WELDING by Euiwhan Kim Thomas W. Eagar DEPARTMENT OF MATERIALS SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY The transient. In this work, the transient temperature change on the electrode surface was measured using various electrode

  1. Transient 1/f noise Sudeshna Sinha

    E-print Network

    Sinha, Sudeshna

    Transient 1/f noise Sudeshna Sinha Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Koramangala, Bangalore 560 034, India Received 10 July 1995 We provide examples of transient nonasymptotic ``1/f noise,'' occurring over. These studies contribute towards establishing that transient phenomena, which is often quite relevant

  2. Discrete wavelet analysis of power system transients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. A. Wilkinson; M. D. Cox

    1996-01-01

    Wavelet analysis is a new method for studying power system transients. Through wavelet analysis, transients are decomposed into a series of wavelet components, each of which is a time-domain signal that covers a specific octave frequency band. This paper presents the basic ideas of discrete wavelet analysis. A variety of actual and simulated transient signals are then analyzed using the

  3. Transient Astronomy with the Gaia Satellite

    E-print Network

    Hinton, Jim

    Transient Astronomy with the Gaia Satellite Simon Hodgkin, Lukasz Wyrzykowski, Ross Burgon, Sergey Institute of Astronomy, Cambridge #12;New windows on transients across the universe, April 23-24 2012, Royal windows on transients across the universe, April 23-24 2012, Royal SocietySimon Hodgkin, IoA, Cambridge

  4. Transient Tachypnea of the Newborn (TTN)

    MedlinePLUS

    Transient Tachypnea of the Newborn (TTN) KidsHealth > Parents > Diseases & Conditions > Lungs & Respiratory System > Transient Tachypnea of the Newborn (TTN) Print A A ... than normal because of a lung condition called transient tachypnea of the newborn (TTN). About 1% of ...

  5. Hydraulic transients cause low-pressure problems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas M. Walski; Teresa L. Lutes

    1994-01-01

    Most engineers are familiar with hydraulic transients that cause problems with excessive pressure in water distribution systems. However, transients can also cause short-lived low-pressure problems. This article describes the analysis conducted by the Austin (Texas) Water and Wastewater Utility that identified transients as the source of low pressures in a portion of the city. Pressures recorded during controlled conditions provided

  6. Transient expression of the beta interferon promoter in human cells.

    PubMed Central

    Xanthoudakis, S; Alper, D; Hiscott, J

    1987-01-01

    A human transient expression assay was used to examine the inducible transcriptional activation of beta interferon (IFN-beta) and IFN-alpha 1 promoters in a homologous cellular environment. Use of 293 cells, an adenovirus DNA-transformed human embryonic kidney cell line, permitted Sendai virus-inducible expression of IFN-beta-CAT hybrid gene. Introduction of the simian virus 40 (SV40) enhancer 5' or 3' to the IFN-CAT gene increased basal (uninduced) levels of chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) activity; in one construct the SV40 enhancer--IFN-beta regulatory region combination increased the induced CAT activity 50- to 100-fold, suggesting that this may be a generally useful inducible enhancer-promoter combination. No expression from the IFN-alpha-CAT hybrid gene was detected in 293 cells, indicating that human epithelioid cells lack a factor required for expression of the IFN-alpha promoter. However, when the IFN-alpha regulatory region was combined with the SV40 enhancer, a low level of inducible CAT activity was detected in the human transient system. Images PMID:2824999

  7. International Conference on Power Systems Transients IPST 2003 in Hong Kong Transient Testing of Protection Relays

    E-print Network

    ­ electromagnetic transients, application testing, auto- mated testing, protective relays, digital simulators IInternational Conference on Power Systems Transients ­ IPST 2003 in Hong Kong 1 Transient Testing meth- odology based on the use of transients. The paper outlines examples of test results that can

  8. Transient activation of neuronal populations in a cortical model accounts for the transient

    E-print Network

    Kreiter, Andreas K.

    Transient activation of neuronal populations in a cortical model accounts for the transient the transient dynamics occurring in a Wilson-Cowan type model of neuronal populations. Our structurally simple differences in the strength and dura- tion of these transients. Quantitatively, we find a good agreement

  9. Transient Xray absorption features in GRBs 1 Transient XRay Absorption in GRBs

    E-print Network

    Boettcher, Markus

    Transient X­ray absorption features in GRBs 1 Transient X­Ray Absorption in GRBs and its Abstract The recent detection of a transient absorption feature in the prompt emission of GRB 990705 has candidate to produce observable, transient X­ray absorption features. Washington, D.C., Sept. 5 -- 7, 2001

  10. Channel Transient Simulation Test Figure 1 Channel Transient Test Circuit with 9-bit differential PRBS

    E-print Network

    Palermo, Sam

    Channel Transient Simulation Test Figure 1 Channel Transient Test Circuit with 9-bit differential PRBS Figure 2 Input 9-bit differential PRBS measured at Test+ and Test- #12;Channel Transient6.s4p #12;Channel Transient Simulation Test Figure 6 Waveforms at IN+ and IN- using peters_01_0605_B

  11. Microfabricated diffusion source

    DOEpatents

    Oborny, Michael C. (Albuquerque, NM); Frye-Mason, Gregory C. (Cedar Crest, NM); Manginell, Ronald P. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2008-07-15

    A microfabricated diffusion source to provide for a controlled diffusion rate of a vapor comprises a porous reservoir formed in a substrate that can be filled with a liquid, a headspace cavity for evaporation of the vapor therein, a diffusion channel to provide a controlled diffusion of the vapor, and an outlet to release the vapor into a gas stream. The microfabricated diffusion source can provide a calibration standard for a microanalytical system. The microanalytical system with an integral diffusion source can be fabricated with microelectromechanical systems technologies.

  12. Grain Boundary Diffusion in Copper under Tensile Stress

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin M. Crosby

    2003-01-01

    Stress enhanced self-diffusion of Copper on the $\\\\Sigma$3 twin grain boundary was examined with molecular dynamics simulations. The presence of uniaxial tensile stress results in a significant reduction in activation energy for grain-boundary self-diffusion of magnitude 5 eV per unit strain. Using a theoretical model of point defect formation and diffusion, the functional dependence of the effective activation energy $Q$

  13. Diffusion and pulsations in slowly rotating B stars

    E-print Network

    S. Turcotte; O. Richard

    2005-09-26

    Diffusion in cool B stars of the main sequence has been shown to strongly affect opacities and convection in cool B stars of the main sequence. We show here that diffusion in B stars maintains or enhances the excitation of pulsations in these stars. This result conflicts with observations as cool B stars that show evidence of diffusion, the HgMn stars, are stable to the current detection level. We discuss possible implications of this discrepancy for the models.

  14. Diffusion of an ellipsoid in a quasi-2D bacterial suspension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Yi; Xu, Xinliang; Lai, Lipeng; Cheng, Xiang

    2015-03-01

    Enhanced translational diffusion of tracer particles in a suspension of micro-swimmers has been established as a distinct feature of active fluids. Here, instead of spherical tracers, we study the diffusion of ellipsoidal particles of various aspect ratios in a free-standing film of E. coli. Using high-speed digital video microscopy, we measured the mean-square displacements and calculated the translational and rotational diffusion coefficients of elliptical tracer particles. We found that both the translational and rotational diffusion of the particles are dramatically enhanced by the motion of bacteria. At low concentrations, this enhanced diffusion arises from random scatterings of bacteria, whereas at high concentrations it is attributed to the collective swarming of bacteria. Through a detailed analysis of the coupling between translational and rotational diffusion and theoretical modeling, we explored the origin of enhanced diffusion in translational and rotational degrees of freedom.

  15. Theoretical and experimental investigations of passive and ultrasound-enhanced transdermal drug delivery

    E-print Network

    Kushner, Joseph, IV

    2007-01-01

    In the initial investigation of this thesis, Fick's second law of diffusion was modified to describe both the transient, and the steady-state, transdermal transport of hydrophilic permeants through unbranched, aqueous pore ...

  16. Transient light-induced intracellular oxidation revealed by redox biosensor

    SciTech Connect

    Kolossov, Vladimir L., E-mail: viadimer@illinois.edu [Institute for Genomic Biology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1206 W. Gregory Drive, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Beaudoin, Jessica N. [Institute for Genomic Biology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1206 W. Gregory Drive, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States) [Institute for Genomic Biology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1206 W. Gregory Drive, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Department of Animal Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1207 W. Gregory Drive, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Hanafin, William P. [Institute for Genomic Biology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1206 W. Gregory Drive, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)] [Institute for Genomic Biology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1206 W. Gregory Drive, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); DiLiberto, Stephen J. [Institute for Genomic Biology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1206 W. Gregory Drive, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States) [Institute for Genomic Biology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1206 W. Gregory Drive, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Department of Animal Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1207 W. Gregory Drive, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Kenis, Paul J.A. [Institute for Genomic Biology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1206 W. Gregory Drive, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States) [Institute for Genomic Biology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1206 W. Gregory Drive, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 600 S. Mathews Avenue, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Rex Gaskins, H. [Institute for Genomic Biology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1206 W. Gregory Drive, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States) [Institute for Genomic Biology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1206 W. Gregory Drive, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Department of Animal Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1207 W. Gregory Drive, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Department of Pathobiology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2001 S. Lincoln Avenue, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Division of Nutritional Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 905 S. Goodwin Avenue, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)

    2013-10-04

    Highlights: •Time-resolved live cell imaging revealed light-induced oxidation. •Only the roGFP probe fused with glutaredoxin reveals photooxidation. •The transient oxidation is rapidly reduced by the cytosolic antioxidant system. •Intracellular photooxidation is media-dependent. •Oxidation is triggered exclusively by exposure to short wavelength excitation. -- Abstract: We have implemented a ratiometric, genetically encoded redox-sensitive green fluorescent protein fused to human glutaredoxin (Grx1-roGFP2) to monitor real time intracellular glutathione redox potentials of mammalian cells. This probe enabled detection of media-dependent oxidation of the cytosol triggered by short wavelength excitation. The transient nature of light-induced oxidation was revealed by time-lapse live cell imaging when time intervals of less than 30 s were implemented. In contrast, transient ROS generation was not observed with the parental roGFP2 probe without Grx1, which exhibits slower thiol-disulfide exchange. These data demonstrate that the enhanced sensitivity of the Grx1-roGFP2 fusion protein enables the detection of short-lived ROS in living cells. The superior sensitivity of Grx1-roGFP2, however, also enhances responsiveness to environmental cues introducing a greater likelihood of false positive results during image acquisition.

  17. THEMIS Observations of a Transient Event at the Magnetopause

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korotova, G. I.; Sibeck, D. G.; Weatherwax, A.; Angelopoulos, V.; Styazhkin, V.

    2011-01-01

    This study focuses on Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions During Substorms (THEMIS) observations of a long \\duration transient event in the vicinity of the dayside magnetopause at approx.15:34 UT on 18 July 2008 that was characterized by features typical of a magnetospheric flux transfer event (FTE): a bipolar negative-positive 5-7 nT signature in the Bn component, a positive monopolar variation in the Bl and Bm components, a approx.5-7 nT enhancement in the total magnetic field strength, and a transient density and flow enhancement. The interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) was mostly radial and disturbed during the intervals studied; that is, it was favorable for the repeated formation, disappearance and reformation of the foreshock just upstream from the subsolar bow shock. We show that varying IMF directions and solar wind pressures created significant effects that caused the compressions of the magnetosphere and the bow shock and magnetopause motions and triggered the transient event. Global signatures of magnetic impulse events (MIEs) in ground magnetograms during the period suggest a widespread pressure pulse instead of a localized FTE as the cause of the event in the magnetosphere. The directions of propagation and the flow patterns associated with the event also suggest an interpretation in terms of pressure pulses.

  18. Diffuse and coherent backscattering by discrete random media—I. Radar reflectivity, polarization ratios, and enhancement factors for a half-space of polydisperse, nonabsorbing and absorbing spherical particles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael I. Mishchenko

    1996-01-01

    It has been demonstrated recently that diffuse, incoherent multiple scattering of electromagnetic waves by media composed of randomly positioned, discrete scattering particles is always accompanied by coherent backscattering and may explain intriguing opposition phenomena observed for some solar system bodies, in particular peculiar characteristics of radar returns from icy satellite surfaces. In this paper, we study theoretically photometric and polarization

  19. LONG GAMMA-RAY TRANSIENTS FROM COLLAPSARS

    SciTech Connect

    Woosley, S. E. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Heger, Alexander, E-mail: woosley@ucolick.org, E-mail: alex@physics.umn.edu [Minnesota Institute of Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Twin Cities, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)

    2012-06-10

    In the collapsar model for common gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), the formation of a centrifugally supported disk occurs during the first {approx}10 s following the collapse of the iron core in a massive star. This only occurs in a small fraction of massive stellar deaths, however, and requires unusual conditions. A much more frequent occurrence could be the death of a star that makes a black hole and a weak or absent outgoing shock, but in a progenitor that only has enough angular momentum in its outermost layers to make a disk. We consider several cases where this is likely to occur-blue supergiants with low mass-loss rates, tidally interacting binaries involving either helium stars or giant stars, and the collapse to a black hole of very massive pair-instability supernovae. These events have in common the accretion of a solar mass or so of material through a disk over a period much longer than the duration of a common GRB. A broad range of powers is possible, 10{sup 47}-10{sup 50} erg s{sup -1}, and this brightness could be enhanced by beaming. Such events were probably more frequent in the early universe where mass-loss rates were lower. Indeed, this could be one of the most common forms of gamma-ray transients in the universe and could be used to study first generation stars. Several events could be active in the sky at any one time. Recent examples of this sort of event may have been the Swift transients Sw-1644+57, Sw-2058+0516, and GRB 101225A.

  20. Effect of the diffuse solar radiation on photovoltaic inverter output

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. A. Balafas; M. D. Athanassopoulou; T. Argyropoulos; P. Skafidas; C. T. Dervos

    2010-01-01

    Solar global irradiance received at a horizontal level on the earth varies significantly over short intervals due to diffuse radiation changes. Experimental data on global irradiance profiles received by fast data recording systems show that the global irradiance may be enhanced for a few minute periods by as much as 40%. The diffuse radiation is intensified by dry air mass