Science.gov

Sample records for transient enhanced diffusion

  1. Modeling Of Implantation Induced Transient Enhanced Diffusion Of Boron

    E-print Network

    Dunham, Scott

    Modeling Of Implantation Induced Transient Enhanced Diffusion Of Boron Srinivasan Chakravarthi University, Boston, MA 02215, srini@bu.edu Boron transient enhanced diffusion (TED) is characterised with the clustering of boron in the presence of excess interstitials. A consistent model for process simulation has

  2. The effect of boron implant energy on transient enhanced diffusion J. Liu and V. Krishnamoorthy

    E-print Network

    Florida, University of

    The effect of boron implant energy on transient enhanced diffusion in silicon J. Liu and V 1996; accepted for publication 5 November 1996 Transient enhanced diffusion TED of boron in silica after low energy boron implantation and annealing was investigated using boron-doping superlattices DSLs

  3. Transient enhanced diffusion and deactivation of ion-implanted As in strained Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dilliway, G. D. M.; Smith, A. J.; Hamilton, J. J.; Benson, J.; Xu, Lu; McNally, P. J.; Cooke, G.; Kheyrandish, H.; Cowern, N. E. B.

    2005-08-01

    First results on the effects of strain on transient enhanced diffusion and deactivation of As-implanted ultrashallow junctions are presented. A significant effect of strain on the magnitude and timescale of transient enhanced diffusion is observed, which is consistent with the stabilization of interstitial-type defects by tensile strain. Our results show no significant impact of strain on As electrical activity during the deactivation timescale accessed in this study.

  4. Phosphorous transient enhanced diffusion suppression and activation enhancement with cluster carbon co-implantation

    SciTech Connect

    Nakashima, Yoshiki; Hamamoto, Nariaki; Nagayama, Tsutomu; Koga, Yuji; Umisedo, Sei; Kawamura, Yasunori; Hashimoto, Masahiro; Onoda, Hiroshi

    2012-11-06

    Carbon co-implantation is well known as an effective method for suppressing boron/phosphorous transient enhanced diffusion (TED). Germanium pre-amorphization implantation (PAI) is usually applied prior to carbon co-implantation for suppressing channeling tail of dopants. In this study, cluster carbon was applied instead of the combination of germanium PAI and monomer carbon co-implantation prior to phosphorous implantation. Dependence of phosphorous activation and TED on amorphous layer thickness, carbon dose, carbon distribution and substrate temperature have been investigated. Cluster carbon implantation enables thick amorphous layer formation and TED suppression at the same time and low temperature implantation enhances the ability of amorphous layer formation so that shallow junction and low Rs can be achieved without Ge implantation.

  5. A Predictive Model for Transient Enhanced Diffusion Based on Evolution of f311g Defects

    E-print Network

    Dunham, Scott

    A Predictive Model for Transient Enhanced Diffusion Based on Evolution of f311g Defects Alp H observed that f311g defects form, grow and eventually dissolve during annealing of Si implanted silicon wafers. The fact that for sub­amorphizing silicon implants f311g defects initially contain the full net

  6. Modeling and simulation of transient enhanced diffusion based on interactions of point and extended defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gencer, Alp H.

    As device sizes in VLSI technology get smaller, the importance of predictive process modeling increases. One of the biggest challenges in predictive process modeling today lies in modeling of Transient Enhanced Diffusion (TED). TED is the greatly enhanced diffusion of dopants in silicon seen during annealing of the damage created by the ion implantation of the dopants. As one moves to smaller thermal budgets, TED is often the primary source of diffusion and thus determines the final junction depth. It is known that TED is caused by the excess interstitial concentration that persists due to ion implantation. But how this excess interstitial concentration evolves over time and affects the diffusion of dopants remains unclear. Our work attempts to understand the physical processes occurring during ion implant annealing, express them in a mathematical model, integrate this model into a diffusion equation solver and quantitatively match the experimental observations. To this end, we have developed a solid physical model (KPM) for the evolution of extended defects ({311} defects and dislocation loops) which are observed under TED conditions. We have also developed different versions of KPM that have applicability under different circumstances, and have different levels of computational efficiency. We believe that the range of models developed will give the user the ability to make a compromise between accuracy and computational time. We have applied KPM to {311} defects that are observed under non-amorphizing implant conditions and we were able to get a good agreement. We have then used this model to predict TED behavior based on marker layer experiments and we found a good match. To extend the model to dislocation loops, we assumed that dislocation loops form by unfaulting of {311} defects as observed experimentally. We accounted for this transformation in our model and we were able to obtain a good match to the experimental data without any modifications in the {311} defect model. Our work also involved in developing a computer software that is capable of solving the models that we have postulated. To this end, we have developed DOPDEES, a one-dimensional multi purpose partial differential equation initial value solver. To enable faster technology transfer, we have also developed Process Modeling Modules (PMM) which consists a set of scripts that encapsulate the models that we have developed in a ready to use form.

  7. Nonlinear Diffusion and Transient Osmosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akira, Igarashi; Lamberto, Rondoni; Antonio, Botrugno; Marco, Pizzi

    2011-08-01

    We investigate both analytically and numerically the concentration dynamics of a solution in two containers connected by a narrow and short channel, in which diffusion obeys a porous medium equation. We also consider the variation of the pressure in the containers due to the flow of matter in the channel. In particular, we identify a phenomenon, which depends on the transport of matter across nano-porous membranes, which we call “transient osmosis". We find that nonlinear diffusion of the porous medium equation type allows numerous different osmotic-like phenomena, which are not present in the case of ordinary Fickian diffusion. Experimental results suggest one possible candidate for transiently osmotic processes.

  8. Acoustic Enhancement of Surface Diffusion Chengping Wu,

    E-print Network

    Zhigilei, Leonid V.

    Acoustic Enhancement of Surface Diffusion Chengping Wu, Vladimir Yu. Zaitsev,, and Leonid V, Russia *S Supporting Information ABSTRACT: The idea of acoustic activation of surface diffusion by surface acoustic waves is possible via (1) transient surface strain- induced modification of the diffusion

  9. Enhanced diffusion welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holko, K. H.; Moore, T. J. (inventors)

    1973-01-01

    Surfaces of unrecrystallized alloys are sanded and polished. This is followed by a two-step welding process by which the strength of the parent metal is retained at the weld joint. The first step forces the surfaces into intimate contact at a temperature where the metal still has good ductility. The second step causes diffusion, recrystallization, and grain growth across the original weld interface.

  10. Ultrasonic enhancement of battery diffusion.

    PubMed

    Hilton, R; Dornbusch, D; Branson, K; Tekeei, A; Suppes, G J

    2014-03-01

    It has been demonstrated that sonic energy can be harnessed to enhance convection in Galvanic cells during cyclic voltammetry; however, the practical value of this approach is limited due to the lack of open volumes for convection patterns to develop in most batteries. This study evaluates the ability of ultrasonic waves to enhance diffusion in membrane separators commonly used in sandwich-architecture batteries. Studies include the measuring of open-circuit performance curves to interpret performances in terms of reductions in concentration overpotentials. The use of a 40 kHz sonicator bath can consistently increase the voltage of the battery and reduce overpotential losses up to 30%. This work demonstrates and quantifies battery enhancement due to enhanced diffusion made possible with ultrasonic energy. PMID:24210813

  11. Cavity-Enhanced Ultrafast Transient Absorption Spectroscopy

    E-print Network

    Reber, Melanie A R; Allison, Thomas K

    2015-01-01

    We present a new technique using a frequency comb laser and optical cavities for performing ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy with improved sensitivity. Resonantly enhancing the probe pulses, we demonstrate a sensitivity of $\\Delta$OD $ = 1 \\times 10^{-9}/\\sqrt{\\mbox{Hz}}$ for averaging times as long as 30 s per delay point ($\\Delta$OD$_{min} = 2 \\times 10^{-10}$). Resonantly enhancing the pump pulses allows us to produce a high excitation fraction at high repetition-rate, so that signals can be recorded from samples with optical densities as low as OD $\\approx 10^{-8}$, or column densities $< 10^{10}$ molecules/cm$^2$. This high sensitivity enables new directions for ultrafast spectroscopy.

  12. Thermal Diffusivity Measurements in Edible Oils using Transient Thermal Lens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valdez, R. Carbajal.; Pérez, J. L. Jiménez.; Cruz-Orea, A.; Martín-Martínez, E. San.

    2006-11-01

    Time resolved thermal lens (TL) spectrometry is applied to the study of the thermal diffusivity of edible oils such as olive, and refined and thermally treated avocado oils. A two laser mismatched-mode experimental configuration was used, with a He Ne laser as a probe beam and an Ar+ laser as the excitation one. The characteristic time constant of the transient thermal lens was obtained by fitting the experimental data to the theoretical expression for a transient thermal lens. The results showed that virgin olive oil has a higher thermal diffusivity than for refined and thermally treated avocado oils. This measured thermal property may contribute to a better understanding of the quality of edible oils, which is very important in the food industry. The thermal diffusivity results for virgin olive oil, obtained from this technique, agree with those reported in the literature.

  13. Cavity Enhanced Ultrafast Transient Absorption Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allison, Thomas K.; Reber, Melanie Roberts; Chen, Yuning

    2015-06-01

    Ultrafast spectroscopy on gas phase systems is typically restricted to techniques involving photoionization, whereas solution phase experiments utilize the detection of light. At Stony Brook, we are developing new techniques for performing femtosecond time-resolved spectroscopy using frequency combs and high-finesse optical resonators. A large detection sensitivity enhancement over traditional methods enables the extension of all-optical ultrafast spectroscopies, such as broad-band transient absorption spectroscopy (TAS) and 2D spectroscopy, to dilute gas phase samples produced in molecular beams. Here, gas phase data can be directly compared to solution phase data. Initial demonstration experiments are focusing on the photodissociation of iodine in small neutral argon clusters, where cluster size strongly influences the effects solvent-caging and geminate recombination. I will discuss these initial results, our high power home-built Yb:fiber laser systems, and also extensions of the methods to the mid-IR to study the vibrational dynamics of hydrogen bonded clusters.

  14. Modelling of transient heat conduction with diffuse interface methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ettrich, J.; Choudhury, A.; Tschukin, O.; Schoof, E.; August, A.; Nestler, B.

    2014-12-01

    We present a survey on different numerical interpolation schemes used for two-phase transient heat conduction problems in the context of interface capturing phase-field methods. Examples are general transport problems in the context of diffuse interface methods with a non-equal heat conductivity in normal and tangential directions to the interface. We extend the tonsorial approach recently published by Nicoli M et al (2011 Phys. Rev. E 84 1-6) to the general three-dimensional (3D) transient evolution equations. Validations for one-dimensional, two-dimensional and 3D transient test cases are provided, and the results are in good agreement with analytical and numerical reference solutions.

  15. Resonant enhanced diffusion in time dependent flow

    E-print Network

    P. Castiglione; A. Crisanti; A. Mazzino; M. Vergassola; A. Vulpiani

    1998-03-27

    Explicit examples of scalar enhanced diffusion due to resonances between different transport mechanisms are presented. Their signature is provided by the sharp and narrow peaks observed in the effective diffusivity coefficients and, in the absence of molecular diffusion, by anomalous transport. For the time-dependent flow considered here, resonances arise between their oscillations in time and either molecular diffusion or a mean flow. The effective diffusivities are calculated using multiscale techniques.

  16. Enhancing Rotational Diffusion Using Oscillatory Shear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leahy, Brian D.; Cheng, Xiang; Ong, Desmond C.; Liddell-Watson, Chekesha; Cohen, Itai

    2013-05-01

    Taylor dispersion—shear-induced enhancement of translational diffusion—is an important phenomenon with applications ranging from pharmacology to geology. Through experiments and simulations, we show that rotational diffusion is also enhanced for anisotropic particles in oscillatory shear. This enhancement arises from variations in the particle’s rotation (Jeffery orbit) and depends on the strain amplitude, rate, and particle aspect ratio in a manner that is distinct from the translational diffusion. This separate tunability of translational and rotational diffusion opens the door to new techniques for controlling positions and orientations of suspended anisotropic colloids.

  17. Enhanced diffusion of phosphorus at grain boundaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, L. J.; Shyu, C. M.; Stika, K. M.; Daud, T.; Crotty, G. T.

    1982-01-01

    Enhanced diffusion of phosphorus at grain boundaries in cast polycrystalline photovoltaic materials (Wacker, HEM, and Semix) was studied. It was found that the enhancements for the three materials were the same, indicating that the properties of boundaries are similar, even though they were grown by different techniques. In addition, it was observed that grain boundaries capable of enhancing the diffusion always have strong recombination activities. Both phenomena could be related to dangling bonds existing at the boundaries. The present study gives the first evidence that incoherent second order twins of 111/115-plane type are diffusion-active.

  18. Transient diffusion from a waste solid into water-saturated, fractured porous rock

    SciTech Connect

    Ahn, J. ); Chambre, P.L.; Pigford, T.H.; Lee, W.W.-L. )

    1989-09-01

    Numerical illustrations for transient mass transfer from an infinitely long cylinder intersected by a planar fracture are shown based on Chambre's exact analytical solutions. The concentration at the cylinder surface is maintained at the solubility. In the fracture contaminant diffuses in the radial direction. In the rock matrix three-dimensional diffusion is assumed in the cylindrical coordinate. No advection is assumed. Radioactive decay and sorption equilibrium are included. Radioactive decay enhances the mass transfer from the cylinder. Due to the presence of the fracture, the mass flux from the cylinder to the rock matrix becomes smaller, but the fracture effect is limited in the vicinity of the fracture in early times. Even though the fracture is assumed to be a faster diffusion path than the rock matrix, the larger waste surface exposed to the matrix and the greater assumed matrix sorption result in greater release rate to the matrix than to the fracture. 8 refs., 4 figs.

  19. Shearrate diffusion and constitutive relations during transients in simple shear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ries, Alexander; Brendel, Lothar; Wolf, Dietrich E.

    2015-07-01

    Granular matter, consisting of hard, frictional, cohesionless spheres, sheared in a simple shear geometry with smooth walls undergoes a velocity driven transition from a jammed or creeping state (low wall velocity) to a flow state with a finite shear rate in the bulk (high wall velocity). In the flow state, the state variables volume fraction ? , inertial number I and the macroscopic friction ? of the bulk follow an exponential transient. The characteristic time of this progression grows with the wall velocity and the system size and is typically large compared to the inverse shear rate. It is shown that I, first being stationary in the shear zones, spreads diffusively into the bulk. The other state variables follow according to the constitutive laws, well known from the steady state.

  20. Transient Anomalous Diffusion of Telomeres in the Nucleus of Mammalian Cells I. Bronstein,1

    E-print Network

    van Vliet, Lucas J.

    Transient Anomalous Diffusion of Telomeres in the Nucleus of Mammalian Cells I. Bronstein,1 Y of fluorescently labeled telomeres in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells in the time range of 10À2­104 sec and the transient diffusion is consistent with a model of telomeres that are subject to a local binding mechanism

  1. Enhancing photocurrent transient spectroscopy by electromagnetic modeling.

    PubMed

    Diesinger, H; Panahandeh-Fard, M; Wang, Z; Baillargeat, D; Soci, C

    2012-05-01

    The shape and duration of photocurrent transients generated by a photoconductive switch depend on both the intrinsic response of the active material and the geometry of the transmission line structure. The present electromagnetic model decouples both shape forming contributions. In contrast to previously published work, it accounts for the particular operating mode of transient spectroscopy. The objective is to increase the time resolution by two approaches, by optimizing structural response and by deconvolving it from experimental data. The switch structure is represented by an effective transimpedance onto which the active material acts as current generator. As proof of concept, the response of a standard microstrip switch is modeled and deconvolved from experimental data acquired in GaAs, yielding a single exponential material response and hence supporting the validity of the approach. Beyond compensating for the response deterioration by the structure, switch architectures can be a priori optimized with respect to frequency response. As an example, it is shown that a microstrip gap that can be deposited on materials incompatible with standard lithography reduces pulse broadening by an order of magnitude if it is provided with transitions to coplanar access lines. PMID:22667598

  2. Contrast Enhancement by Nonlinear Diffusion Filtering.

    PubMed

    Liang, Zhetong; Liu, Weijian; Yao, Ruohe

    2016-02-01

    To enhance the visual quality of an image that is degraded by uneven light, an effective method is to estimate the illumination component and compress it. Some previous methods have either defects of halo artifacts or contrast loss in the enhanced image due to incorrect estimation. In this paper, we discuss this problem and propose a novel method to estimate the illumination. The illumination is obtained by iteratively solving a nonlinear diffusion equation. During the diffusion process, surround suppression is embedded in the conductance function to specially enhance the diffusive strength in textural areas of the image. The proposed estimation method has the following two merits: 1) the boundary areas are preserved in the illumination, and thus halo artifacts are prevented and 2) the textural details are preserved in the reflectance to not suffer from illumination compression, which contributes to the contrast enhancement in the result. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm achieves excellent performance in artifact removal and local contrast enhancement. PMID:26685234

  3. Enhanced Nanorod Diffusion in Polymer Melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Composto, Russell J.; Clarke, Nigel; Winey, Karen I.; Choi, Jihoon

    2014-03-01

    Using Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS), the translational diffusion of titanium oxide (TiO2) nanorods (l = 43.1 nm and d = 4.6 nm) is measured in entangled and unentangled polymer melts, polystyrene (PS; Mn = 9-2000 kg/mol). Nanorods in entangled systems (Mn = 160, 650, and 2000 kg/mol) are found to diffuse up to two orders of magnitude faster than predicted by classical theory. However, diffusion of nanorods in unentangled systems (Mn = 9 and 65 kg/mol) is captured by this continuum theory. Below or near the entanglement limitation, Mn <=Me (Me: entanglement molecular weight), unentangled polymer melts described by Rouse dynamics can be modeled as a continuum matrix against nanoscale inclusions. However, in highly entangled systems (Mn >>Me) the standard continuum models are no longer valid and lead to local non-hydrodynamic friction at the length scale of the tube diameter (i.e., dt = 8 nm for PS). Thus, enhanced diffusion of nanorods parallel to the tubes may be responsible for the faster than expected translational diffusion in entangled polymer melts. These experiments provide new insight into the relevant parameters that govern the diffusion of anisotropic nanoparticles in complex fluids.

  4. Enhancement of Diffusive Transport by Nonequilibrium Thermal Fluctuations

    E-print Network

    Bell, John B.

    Enhancement of Diffusive Transport by Nonequilibrium Thermal Fluctuations Aleksandar Donev,1, John-state diffusive flux in a finite system subject to a concentration gradient is enhanced because of long-range cor gradient. The enhancement of the diffusive transport depends on the system size L and grows as ln(L/L0

  5. Structural dynamics of hydrogen bonded methanol oligomers: Vibrational transient hole burning studies of spectral diffusion

    E-print Network

    Fayer, Michael D.

    diffusion. Identifying the relative importance of hydrogen bond length and orientational relaxation dynamicsStructural dynamics of hydrogen bonded methanol oligomers: Vibrational transient hole burning studies of spectral diffusion I. R. Piletic, K. J. Gaffney, and M. D. Fayer Department of Chemistry

  6. Thermal diffusivity measurements in organic liquids using transient thermal lens calorimetry

    E-print Network

    Harilal, S. S.

    Thermal diffusivity measurements in organic liquids using transient thermal lens calorimetry C. V. Thermal diffusivity measurements are carried out in certain organic liquids using the pulsed dual beam thermal lens technique. The 532 nm pulses from a frequency doubled Q-switched Nd:YAG laser are used

  7. Elucidating transient macromolecular interactions using paramagnetic relaxation enhancement

    PubMed Central

    Clore, G. Marius; Tang, Chun; Iwahara, Junji

    2007-01-01

    Recent advances in the use of paramagnetic relaxation enhancement (PRE) in structure refinement and in the analysis of transient dynamic processes involved in macromolecular complex formation are presented. In the slow exchange regime, we show, using the SRY/DNA complex as an example, that the PRE provides a powerful tool that can lead to significant increases in the reliability and accuracy of NMR structure determinations. Refinement necessitates the use of an ensemble representation of the paramagnetic center and a model free extension of the Solomon-Bloembergen equations. In the fast exchange regime, the PRE provides insight into dynamic processes and the existence of transient, low population intermediate species. The PRE allows one to characterize dynamic non-specific binding of a protein to DNA; to directly demonstrate that the search process whereby a transcription factor locates its specific DNA target site involves both intramolecular (sliding) and intermolecular (hopping and intersegment transfer) translocation; and to detect and visualize the distribution of an ensemble of transient encounter complexes in protein-protein association. PMID:17913493

  8. ENHANCED SEVERE TRANSIENT ANALYSIS FOR PREVENTION TECHNICAL PROGRAM PLAN

    SciTech Connect

    Gougar, Hans

    2014-09-01

    This document outlines the development of a high fidelity, best estimate nuclear power plant severe transient simulation capability that will complement or enhance the integral system codes historically used for licensing and analysis of severe accidents. As with other tools in the Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) Toolkit, the ultimate user of Enhanced Severe Transient Analysis and Prevention (ESTAP) capability is the plant decision-maker; the deliverable to that customer is a modern, simulation-based safety analysis capability, applicable to a much broader class of safety issues than is traditional Light Water Reactor (LWR) licensing analysis. Currently, the RISMC pathway’s major emphasis is placed on developing RELAP-7, a next-generation safety analysis code, and on showing how to use RELAP-7 to analyze margin from a modern point of view: that is, by characterizing margin in terms of the probabilistic spectra of the “loads” applied to systems, structures, and components (SSCs), and the “capacity” of those SSCs to resist those loads without failing. The first objective of the ESTAP task, and the focus of one task of this effort, is to augment RELAP-7 analyses with user-selected multi-dimensional, multi-phase models of specific plant components to simulate complex phenomena that may lead to, or exacerbate, severe transients and core damage. Such phenomena include: coolant crossflow between PWR assemblies during a severe reactivity transient, stratified single or two-phase coolant flow in primary coolant piping, inhomogeneous mixing of emergency coolant water or boric acid with hot primary coolant, and water hammer. These are well-documented phenomena associated with plant transients but that are generally not captured in system codes. They are, however, generally limited to specific components, structures, and operating conditions. The second ESTAP task is to similarly augment a severe (post-core damage) accident integral analyses code with high fidelity simulations that would allow investigation of multi-dimensional, multi-phase containment phenomena that are only treated approximately in established codes.

  9. Fracture-Flow-Enhanced Solute Diffusion into Fractured Rock

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Yu-Shu; Ye, Ming; Sudicky, E.A.

    2007-12-15

    We propose a new conceptual model of fracture-flow-enhanced matrix diffusion, which correlates with fracture-flow velocity, i.e., matrix diffusion enhancement induced by rapid fluid flow within fractures. According to the boundary-layer or film theory, fracture flow enhanced matrix diffusion may dominate mass-transfer processes at fracture-matrix interfaces, because rapid flow along fractures results in large velocity and concentration gradients at and near fracture-matrix interfaces, enhancing matrix diffusion at matrix surfaces. In this paper, we present a new formulation of the conceptual model for enhanced fracture-matrix diffusion, and its implementation is discussed using existing analytical solutions and numerical models. In addition, we use the enhanced matrix diffusion concept to analyze laboratory experimental results from nonreactive and reactive tracer breakthrough tests, in an effort to validate the new conceptual model.

  10. COMSOL Multiphysics for Efficient Solution of a Transient Reaction-Diffusion System with Fast Reaction

    E-print Network

    Gobbert, Matthias K.

    COMSOL Multiphysics for Efficient Solution of a Transient Reaction-Diffusion System with Fast Reaction Matthias K. Gobbert, Aaron Churchill, Guan Wang, and Thomas I. Seidman Department of Mathematics@math.umbc.edu Abstract: A reaction between chemical species is modeled by a particular reaction pathway, in which one

  11. Transient Anomalous Diffusion of Telomeres in the Nucleus of Mammalian Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bronstein, I.; Israel, Y.; Kepten, E.; Mai, S.; Shav-Tal, Y.; Barkai, E.; Garini, Y.

    2009-07-01

    We measured individual trajectories of fluorescently labeled telomeres in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells in the time range of 10-2-104sec? by combining a few acquisition methods. At short times the motion is subdiffusive with ?r2?˜t? and it changes to normal diffusion at longer times. The short times diffusion may be explained by the reptation model and the transient diffusion is consistent with a model of telomeres that are subject to a local binding mechanism with a wide but finite distribution of waiting times. These findings have important biological implications with respect to the genome organization in the nucleus.

  12. Peclet number as affected by molecular diffusion controls transient anomalous transport in alluvial aquifer-aquitard complexes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhang, Yong; Green, Christopher T.; Tick, Geoffrey R.

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluates the role of the Peclet number as affected by molecular diffusion in transient anomalous transport, which is one of the major knowledge gaps in anomalous transport, by combining Monte Carlo simulations and stochastic model analysis. Two alluvial settings containing either short- or long-connected hydrofacies are generated and used as media for flow and transport modeling. Numerical experiments show that 1) the Peclet number affects both the duration of the power-law segment of tracer breakthrough curves (BTCs) and the transition rate from anomalous to Fickian transport by determining the solute residence time for a given low-permeability layer, 2) mechanical dispersion has a limited contribution to the anomalous characteristics of late-time transport as compared to molecular diffusion due to an almost negligible velocity in floodplain deposits, and 3) the initial source dimensions only enhance the power-law tail of the BTCs at short travel distances. A tempered stable stochastic (TSS) model is then applied to analyze the modeled transport. Applications show that the time-nonlocal parameters in the TSS model relate to the Peclet number, Pe. In particular, the truncation parameter in the TSS model increases nonlinearly with a decrease in Pe due to the decrease of the mean residence time, and the capacity coefficient increases with an increase in molecular diffusion which is probably due to the increase in the number of immobile particles. The above numerical experiments and stochastic analysis therefore reveal that the Peclet number as affected by molecular diffusion controls transient anomalous transport in alluvial aquifer–aquitard complexes.

  13. Frequency-resolved Raman for transient thermal probing and thermal diffusivity measurement.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tianyu; Xu, Shen; Hurley, David H; Yue, Yanan; Wang, Xinwei

    2016-01-01

    A new transient Raman thermal probing technique, frequency-resolved Raman (FR-Raman), is developed for probing the transient thermal response of materials and measuring their thermal diffusivity. The FR-Raman uses an amplitude-modulated square-wave laser for simultaneous material heating and Raman excitation. The evolution profile of Raman properties: intensity, Raman wavenumber, and emission, against frequency are reconstructed and used for fitting to determine the thermal diffusivity. A microscale silicon (Si) cantilever is used to investigate the capacity of this new technique. The thermal diffusivity is determined as 9.57×10-5??m2/s, 11.00×10-5??m2/s, and 9.02×10-5??m2/s via fitting Raman intensity, wavenumber, and total Raman emission, respectively. The results agree well with literature data. The FR-Raman provides a novel way for transient thermal probing with very high temporal resolution and micrometer-scale spatial resolution. PMID:26696163

  14. Protein motors induced enhanced diffusion in intracellular transport

    E-print Network

    I. Santamaria-Holek; M. H. Vainstein; J. M. Rubi; F. A. Oliveira

    2009-02-04

    Diffusion of transported particles in the intracellular medium is described by means of a generalized diffusion equation containing forces due to the cytoskeleton network and to the protein motors. We find that the enhanced diffusion observed in experiments depends on the nature of the force exerted by the protein motors and on parameters characterizing the intracellular medium which is described in terms of a generalized Debye spectrum for the noise density of states.

  15. Imaging transient formation of diffusion layers with fluorescence-enabled electrochemical microscopy.

    PubMed

    Oja, Stephen M; Zhang, Bo

    2014-12-16

    Fluorescence-enabled electrochemical microscopy (FEEM) is demonstrated as a new technique to image transient concentration profiles of redox species generated on ultramicroelectrodes (UMEs). FEEM converts an electrical signal into an optical signal by electrically coupling a conventional redox reaction to a fluorogenic reporter reaction on a closed bipolar electrode. We describe the implementation of FEEM for diffusion layer imaging and use an array of thousands of parallel bipolar electrodes to image the diffusion layers of UMEs in two and three dimensions. This new technique provides a way to image an entire 2-dimensional lateral cross section of a dynamic diffusion layer in a single experiment. By taking several of these lateral cross sections at different axial positions in the diffusion layer, a 3-dimensional image of the diffusion layer can be built. We image the diffusion layer of a 10 ?m diameter carbon fiber electrode over the course of a cyclic voltammetry experiment and compare the FEEM-generated images to concentration profiles generated from numerical simulation. We also image the diffusion layer of a two electrode array consisting of two 10 ?m diameter carbon fibers over the course of a potential step experiment. PMID:25398201

  16. Persistent Reversal of Enhanced Amphetamine Intake by Transient CaMKII Inhibition

    E-print Network

    Loweth, Jessica A.

    Amphetamine exposure transiently increases Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) ? expression in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) shell and this persistently increases local GluA1 S831 phosphorylation and enhances ...

  17. Color Histogram Diffusion for Image Enhancement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Taemin

    2011-01-01

    Various color histogram equalization (CHE) methods have been proposed to extend grayscale histogram equalization (GHE) for color images. In this paper a new method called histogram diffusion that extends the GHE method to arbitrary dimensions is proposed. Ranges in a histogram are specified as overlapping bars of uniform heights and variable widths which are proportional to their frequencies. This diagram is called the vistogram. As an alternative approach to GHE, the squared error of the vistogram from the uniform distribution is minimized. Each bar in the vistogram is approximated by a Gaussian function. Gaussian particles in the vistoram diffuse as a nonlinear autonomous system of ordinary differential equations. CHE results of color images showed that the approach is effective.

  18. Transient liquid phase diffusion bonding of Udimet 720 for Stirling power converter applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mittendorf, Donald L.; Baggenstoss, William G.

    1992-01-01

    Udimet 720 has been selected for use on Stirling power converters for space applications. Because Udimet 720 is generally considered susceptible to strain age cracking if traditional fusion welding is used, other joining methods are being considered. A process for transient liquid phase diffusion bonding of Udimet 720 has been theoretically developed in an effort to eliminate the strain age crack concern. This development has taken into account such variables as final grain size, joint homogenization, joint efficiency related to bonding aid material, bonding aid material application method, and thermal cycle.

  19. Transient liquid phase diffusion bonding of Udimet 720 for Stirling power converter applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mittendorf, Donald L.; Baggenstoss, William G.

    Udimet 720 has been selected for use on Stirling power converters for space applications. Because Udimet 720 is generally considered susceptible to strain age cracking if traditional fusion welding is used, other joining methods are being considered. A process for transient liquid phase diffusion bonding of Udimet 720 has been theoretically developed in an effort to eliminate the strain age crack concern. This development has taken into account such variables as final grain size, joint homogenization, joint efficiency related to bonding aid material, bonding aid material application method, and thermal cycle.

  20. Moderate MAS enhances local (1)H spin exchange and spin diffusion.

    PubMed

    Roos, Matthias; Micke, Peter; Saalwächter, Kay; Hempel, Günter

    2015-11-01

    Proton NMR spin-diffusion experiments are often combined with magic-angle spinning (MAS) to achieve higher spectral resolution of solid samples. Here we show that local proton spin diffusion can indeed become faster at low (<10kHz) spinning rates as compared to static conditions. Spin diffusion under static conditions can thus be slower than the often referred value of 0.8nm(2)/ms, which was determined using slow MAS (Clauss et al., 1993). The enhancement of spin diffusion by slow MAS relies on the modulation of the orientation-dependent dipolar couplings during sample rotation and goes along with transient level crossings in combination with dipolar truncation. The experimental finding and its explanation is supported by density matrix simulations, and also emphasizes the sensitivity of spin diffusion to the local coupling topology. The amplification of spin diffusion by slow MAS cannot be explained by any model based on independent spin pairs; at least three spins have to be considered. PMID:26397218

  1. Moderate MAS enhances local 1H spin exchange and spin diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roos, Matthias; Micke, Peter; Saalwächter, Kay; Hempel, Günter

    2015-11-01

    Proton NMR spin-diffusion experiments are often combined with magic-angle spinning (MAS) to achieve higher spectral resolution of solid samples. Here we show that local proton spin diffusion can indeed become faster at low (<10 kHz) spinning rates as compared to static conditions. Spin diffusion under static conditions can thus be slower than the often referred value of 0.8 nm2/ms, which was determined using slow MAS (Clauss et al., 1993). The enhancement of spin diffusion by slow MAS relies on the modulation of the orientation-dependent dipolar couplings during sample rotation and goes along with transient level crossings in combination with dipolar truncation. The experimental finding and its explanation is supported by density matrix simulations, and also emphasizes the sensitivity of spin diffusion to the local coupling topology. The amplification of spin diffusion by slow MAS cannot be explained by any model based on independent spin pairs; at least three spins have to be considered.

  2. Parareal in time 3D numerical solver for the LWR Benchmark neutron diffusion transient model

    SciTech Connect

    Baudron, Anne-Marie; Riahi, Mohamed Kamel; Salomon, Julien

    2014-12-15

    In this paper we present a time-parallel algorithm for the 3D neutrons calculation of a transient model in a nuclear reactor core. The neutrons calculation consists in numerically solving the time dependent diffusion approximation equation, which is a simplified transport equation. The numerical resolution is done with finite elements method based on a tetrahedral meshing of the computational domain, representing the reactor core, and time discretization is achieved using a ?-scheme. The transient model presents moving control rods during the time of the reaction. Therefore, cross-sections (piecewise constants) are taken into account by interpolations with respect to the velocity of the control rods. The parallelism across the time is achieved by an adequate use of the parareal in time algorithm to the handled problem. This parallel method is a predictor corrector scheme that iteratively combines the use of two kinds of numerical propagators, one coarse and one fine. Our method is made efficient by means of a coarse solver defined with large time step and fixed position control rods model, while the fine propagator is assumed to be a high order numerical approximation of the full model. The parallel implementation of our method provides a good scalability of the algorithm. Numerical results show the efficiency of the parareal method on large light water reactor transient model corresponding to the Langenbuch–Maurer–Werner benchmark.

  3. Radiation enhanced diffusion of Nd in UO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Xiaochun; Heuser, Brent J.

    2015-11-01

    Single crystal UO2 thin films with Nd as tracer elements in the film mid-plane have been grown on yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) substrates. The films were irradiated with 1.8 MeV Kr+ ions in the temperature range from 400 °C to 1113 °C, where an evident enhanced diffusion was found in UO2. The temperature dependent measurements have shown an activation energy of 0.56 ± 0.04 eV below 800 °C, and 1.9 ± 0.3 eV above 900 °C. The rate-dependent measurements have shown a linear dependence on the radiation flux, which indicates radiation enhanced diffusion (RED) is in the sink limited kinetics regime. Comparison of the RED results between UO2 and CeO2 has shown significant differences, which indicates that CeO2 used as UO2 surrogate may be questioned in terms of cation diffusion.

  4. Anomalous diffusion and multifractality enhance mating encounters in the ocean

    E-print Network

    Stanley, H. Eugene

    for copepods inhabiting the open waters of the ocean, as they typically rely on nonvisual senses for detectingAnomalous diffusion and multifractality enhance mating encounters in the ocean Laurent Seuronta, limited to laboratory experiments conducted in still water. An important open question concerns what

  5. Levy dynamics of enhanced diffusion - Application to turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shlesinger, M. F.; West, B. J.; Klafter, J.

    1987-03-01

    A stochastic process called a Levy (1937) walk is introduced, which is a random walk with a nonlocal memory coupled in space and in time in a scaling fashion. Levy walks result in enhanced diffusion, i.e., diffusion that grows as t exp a, where a is greater than 1. When applied to the description of a passive scalar diffusing in a fluctuating fluid flow, the model generalizes Taylor's (1921) correlated-walk approach. It yields Richardson's t exp 3 law for the turbulent diffusion of a passive scalar in a Kolmogorov (1941) -5/3 homogeneous turbulent flow and also gives the deviations from the 5/3 exponent resulting from Mandelbrot's (1976) intermittency. The model can be extended to studies of chemical reactions in turbulent flow.

  6. Partial transient liquid phase diffusion bonding of Zircaloy-4 to stabilized austenitic stainless steel 321

    SciTech Connect

    Atabaki, M. Mazar; Hanzaei, A. Talebi

    2010-10-15

    An innovative method was applied for bonding Zircaloy-4 to stabilized austenitic stainless steel 321 using an active titanium interlayer. Specimens were joined by a partial transient liquid phase diffusion bonding method in a vacuum furnace at different temperatures under 1 MPa dynamic pressure of contact. The influence of different bonding temperatures on the microstructure, microindentation hardness, joint strength and interlayer thickness has been studied. The diffusion of Fe, Cr, Ni and Zr has been investigated by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy elemental analyses. Results showed that control of the heating and cooling rate and 20 min soaking at 1223 K produces a perfect joint. However, solid-state diffusion of the melting point depressant elements into the joint metal causes the solid/liquid interface to advance until the joint is solidified. The tensile strength of all the bonded specimens was found around 480-670 MPa. Energy dispersive spectroscopy studies indicated that the melting occurred along the interface of the bonded specimens as a result of the transfer of atoms between the interlayer and the matrix during bonding. This technique provides a reliable method of bonding zirconium alloy to stainless steel.

  7. Enhancing chemical identification efficiency by SAW sensor transients through a data enrichment and information fusion strategy—a simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Prashant; Yadava, R. D. S.

    2013-05-01

    The paper proposes a new approach for improving the odor recognition efficiency of a surface acoustic wave (SAW) transient sensor system based on a single polymer coating. The vapor identity information is hidden in transient response shapes through dependences on specific vapor solvation and diffusion parameters in the polymer coating. The variations in the vapor exposure and purge durations and the sensor operating frequency have been used to create diversity in transient shapes via termination of the vapor-polymer equilibration process up to different stages. The transient signals were analyzed by the discrete wavelet transform using Daubechies-4 mother wavelet basis. The wavelet approximation coefficients were then processed by principal component analysis for creating feature space. The set of principal components define the vapor identity information. In an attempt to enhance vapor class separability we analyze two types of information fusion methods. In one, the sensor operation frequency is fixed and the sensing and purge durations are varied, and in the second, the sensing and purge durations are fixed and the sensor operating frequency is varied. The fusion is achieved by concatenation of discrete wavelet coefficients corresponding to various transients prior to the principal component analysis. The simulation experiments with polyisobutylene SAW sensor coating for operation frequencies over [55-160] MHz and sensing durations over [5-60] s were analyzed. The target vapors are seven volatile organics: chloroform, chlorobenzene, o-dichlorobenzene, n-heptane, toluene, n-hexane and n-octane whose concentrations were varied over [10-100] ppm. The simulation data were generated using a SAW sensor transient response model that incorporates the viscoelastic effects due to polymer coating and an additive noise source in the output. The analysis reveals that: (i) in single transient analysis the class separability increases with sensing duration for a given frequency of operation, and also with frequency for a given sensing duration, and (ii) the information fusion based on both the multiple sensing cycles and the multiple sensing frequencies enhances the class separability by nearly an order of magnitude.

  8. Strong enhancement of surface diffusion by nonlinear surface acoustic waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shugaev, Maxim V.; Manzo, Anthony J.; Wu, Chengping; Zaitsev, Vladimir Yu.; Helvajian, Henry; Zhigilei, Leonid V.

    2015-06-01

    The phenomenon of acoustic activation of surface diffusion is investigated in a combined computational and experimental study. The ability of pulsed laser-generated surface acoustic waves (SAWs) to enhance the mobility of small atomic clusters is demonstrated by directly tracking, with fluorescence microscopy, individual A u8 clusters moving on a (111) silicon substrate. A 19-fold increase in the effective diffusion coefficient is measured in room temperature experiments in the presence of SAWs generated by nanosecond pulse laser irradiation at a 100 Hz repetition rate. A strong enhancement of cluster mobility by SAWs is also observed in large-scale molecular dynamics simulations of surface diffusion of small atomic clusters. The analysis of the computational results demonstrates that the nonlinear sharpening of SAWs and the corresponding enrichment of the SAW spectra by high frequency harmonics which are capable of dynamic coupling to the cluster vibrations are responsible for the efficient acoustic activation of surface mobility in the simulations. The increase in the effective diffusion coefficient is proportional to the number of the SAW pulses passing through the diffusion region per unit time and a dramatic 4500-fold diffusion enhancement (corresponds to an equivalent temperature increase by ˜103K ) is predicted in the simulations for 15 GHz SAWs. The ability of SAWs to affect atomic-level surface processes has far-reaching implications for the design of new techniques where the acoustic energy serves as an effective substitution for thermal activation in applications where heating must be avoided or rapid switching of surface conditions is required.

  9. Simultaneous Determination of Thermal Conductivity and Thermal Diffusivity of Food and Agricultural Materials Using a Transient Plane-Source Method

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity are two important physical properties essential for designing any food engineering processes. Recently a new transient plane-source method was developed to measure a variety of materials, but its application in foods has not been documented. Therefore, ...

  10. The heat released during catalytic turnover enhances the diffusion of an enzyme.

    PubMed

    Riedel, Clement; Gabizon, Ronen; Wilson, Christian A M; Hamadani, Kambiz; Tsekouras, Konstantinos; Marqusee, Susan; Pressé, Steve; Bustamante, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that the diffusivity of enzymes increases in a substrate-dependent manner during catalysis. Although this observation has been reported and characterized for several different systems, the precise origin of this phenomenon is unknown. Calorimetric methods are often used to determine enthalpies from enzyme-catalysed reactions and can therefore provide important insight into their reaction mechanisms. The ensemble averages involved in traditional bulk calorimetry cannot probe the transient effects that the energy exchanged in a reaction may have on the catalyst. Here we obtain single-molecule fluorescence correlation spectroscopy data and analyse them within the framework of a stochastic theory to demonstrate a mechanistic link between the enhanced diffusion of a single enzyme molecule and the heat released in the reaction. We propose that the heat released during catalysis generates an asymmetric pressure wave that results in a differential stress at the protein-solvent interface that transiently displaces the centre-of-mass of the enzyme (chemoacoustic effect). This novel perspective on how enzymes respond to the energy released during catalysis suggests a possible effect of the heat of reaction on the structural integrity and internal degrees of freedom of the enzyme. PMID:25487146

  11. The heat released during catalytic turnover enhances the diffusion of an enzyme

    PubMed Central

    Riedel, Clement; Gabizon, Ronen; Wilson, Christian A. M.; Hamadani, Kambiz; Tsekouras, Konstantinos; Marqusee, Susan; Pressé, Steve; Bustamante, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that the diffusivity of enzymes increases in a substrate-dependent manner during catalysis1,2. Although this observation has been reported and characterized for several different systems3–10, the precise origin of this phenomenon is unknown. Calorimetric methods are often used to determine enthalpies from enzyme-catalysed reactions and can therefore provide important insight into their reaction mechanisms11,12. The ensemble averages involved in traditional bulk calorimetry cannot probe the transient effects that the energy exchanged in a reaction may have on the catalyst. Here we obtain single-molecule fluorescence correlation spectroscopy data and analyse them within the framework of a stochastic theory to demonstrate a mechanistic link between the enhanced diffusion of a single enzyme molecule and the heat released in the reaction. We propose that the heat released during catalysis generates an asymmetric pressure wave that results in a differential stress at the protein–solvent interface that transiently displaces the centre-of-mass of the enzyme (chemoacoustic effect). This novel perspective on how enzymes respond to the energy released during catalysis suggests a possible effect of the heat of reaction on the structural integrity and internal degrees of freedom of the enzyme. PMID:25487146

  12. Time-independent hybrid enrichment for finite element solution of transient conduction–radiation in diffusive grey media

    SciTech Connect

    Mohamed, M. Shadi; Seaid, Mohammed; Trevelyan, Jon; Laghrouche, Omar

    2013-10-15

    We investigate the effectiveness of the partition-of-unity finite element method for transient conduction–radiation problems in diffusive grey media. The governing equations consist of a semi-linear transient heat equation for the temperature field and a stationary diffusion approximation to the radiation in grey media. The coupled equations are integrated in time using a semi-implicit method in the finite element framework. We show that for the considered problems, a combination of hyperbolic and exponential enrichment functions based on an approximation of the boundary layer leads to improved accuracy compared to the conventional finite element method. It is illustrated that this approach can be more efficient than using h adaptivity to increase the accuracy of the finite element method near the boundary walls. The performance of the proposed partition-of-unity method is analyzed on several test examples for transient conduction–radiation problems in two space dimensions.

  13. Enhanced diffusion and ordering of self-propelled rods

    E-print Network

    Aparna Baskaran; M. Cristina Marchetti

    2008-06-27

    Starting from a minimal physical model of self propelled hard rods on a substrate in two dimensions, we derive a modified Smoluchowski equation for the system. Self -propulsion enhances longitudinal diffusion and modifies the mean field excluded volume interaction. From the Smoluchowski equation we obtain hydrodynamic equations for rod concentration, polarization and nematic order parameter. New results at large scales are a lowering of the density of the isotropic-nematic transition and a strong enhancement of boundary effects in confined self-propelled systems.

  14. Enhancing the ABAQUS Thermomechanics Code to Simulate Steady and Transient Fuel Rod Behavior

    SciTech Connect

    R. L. Williamson; D. A. Knoll

    2009-09-01

    A powerful multidimensional fuels performance capability, applicable to both steady and transient fuel behavior, is developed based on enhancements to the commercially available ABAQUS general-purpose thermomechanics code. Enhanced capabilities are described, including: UO2 temperature and burnup dependent thermal properties, solid and gaseous fission product swelling, fuel densification, fission gas release, cladding thermal and irradiation creep, cladding irradiation growth , gap heat transfer, and gap/plenum gas behavior during irradiation. The various modeling capabilities are demonstrated using a 2D axisymmetric analysis of the upper section of a simplified multi-pellet fuel rod, during both steady and transient operation. Computational results demonstrate the importance of a multidimensional fully-coupled thermomechanics treatment. Interestingly, many of the inherent deficiencies in existing fuel performance codes (e.g., 1D thermomechanics, loose thermo-mechanical coupling, separate steady and transient analysis, cumbersome pre- and post-processing) are, in fact, ABAQUS strengths.

  15. A review of porous media enhanced vapor-phase diffusion mechanisms, models, and data: Does enhanced vapor-phase diffusion exist?

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, C.K.; Webb, S.W.

    1996-05-01

    A review of mechanisms, models, and data relevant to the postulated phenomenon of enhanced vapor-phase diffusion in porous media is presented. Information is obtained from literature spanning two different disciplines (soil science and engineering) to gain a diverse perspective on this topic. Findings indicate that while enhanced vapor diffusion tends to correct the discrepancies observed between past theory and experiments, no direct evidence exists to support the postulated processes causing enhanced vapor diffusion. Numerical modeling analyses of experiments representative of the two disciplines are presented in this paper to assess the sensitivity of different systems to enhanced vapor diffusion. Pore-scale modeling is also performed to evaluate the relative significance of enhanced vapor diffusion mechanisms when compared to Fickian diffusion. The results demonstrate the need for additional experiments so that more discerning analyses can be performed.

  16. Transient Density Enhancements of the Martian Orbiting Dust Torus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juhasz, A.; Horanyi, M.

    2014-12-01

    The moons Phobos and Deimos have been suggested to be responsible for sustaining a permanently present dust cloud around Mars. The equilibrium size and spatial distribution of this dust torus has been the subject of numerous theoretical studies. However, no observational evidence has been found as of yet. Because of the renewed interest in Phobos and Deimos as potential targets for human precursor mission to Mars, there is a new opportunity for the detection of the putative Martian dust clouds using in situ measurements. Both Phobos and Deimos, as all airless bodies in the solar system, are continually bombarded by interplanetary dust grains, generating secondary ejecta particles. The surface gravity escape of these objects are low, hence most secondary particles escapethem, but remain in orbit about Mars. Subsequent perturbations by solar radiation pressure, electromagnetic forces acting on charged grains, and collisions with the moons or Mars itself limit the lifetime of the produced particles. The size dependent production rates and lifetimes set the most abundant particle size range of 10 - 30 micron in radius. Large, but short-lived, dust density enhancements can be predicted during periods of meteor showers. Also, comet Siding Spring will flyby Mars in October, 2014. Its dust tail can 'sand-blast' both Phobos and Deimos, dramatically increasing their dust production for a few hours. We present the results of our numerical studies on the temporal and spatial evolution of the dust clouds raised during highly enhanced production rates that last only hours-to-days.

  17. The Effect of Velocity on the Extinction Behavior of a Diffusion Flame during Transient Depressurization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldmeer, Jeffrey S.; Urban, David L.; Tien, James

    1999-01-01

    Current fire suppression plans for the International Space Station include the use of venting (depressurization) as a method for extinguishing a fire. Until recently this process had only been examined as part of a material flammability experiment performed on Skylab in the early 1970's. Due to the low initial pressure (0.35 Atm) and high oxygen concentration (65%), the Skylab experimental results are not applicable for understanding the effects of venting on a fire in a space station environment (21%O2, 1 Atm). Recent research examined the extinction behavior of a diffusion flame over a polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) cylinder during a transient depressurization in low-gravity. The numerical model was used to examine extinction limits as a function of depressurization rate, forced flow velocity, and initial solid phase temperature. The experimental and numerically predicted extinction data indicated that as the solid phase temperature increased the pressure required to extinguish the flame decreased. The numerical model was also used to examine conditions not obtainable in the low-gravity experiments. From these simulations, a series of extinction boundaries were generated that showed a region of increased flammability existed at a forced flow of 10 cm/s. Analysis of these extinction boundaries indicated that they were quasi-steady in nature, and that the final extinction conditions were independent of the transient process. The velocity range in the previous study was limited and thus the results did not examine the effects of velocities less than 1 cm/s or greater than 20 cm/s. This study utilized low-gravity experiments performed on NASA's Reduced-gravity Research Aircraft Laboratory and numerical simulations to examine conditions applicable to the Space Station environment. This paper extends the analysis of the previous study to a comprehensive examination of the effect of increased velocity on extinction behavior and extinction limits during a transient depressurization in low-gravity. This is achieved by examining extinction data from buoyant (normal-gravity) and low-buoyant (low-gravity) depressurization. experiments, as well as from numerical predictions of flame behavior during depressurization in a non-buoyant (zero-gravity) environment.

  18. Enhancement of Diffusive Transport by Nonequilibrium Thermal Fluctuations

    E-print Network

    A. Donev; A. de la Fuente; J. B. Bell; A. L. Garcia

    2011-05-10

    We study the contribution of advection by thermal velocity fluctuations to the effective diffusion coefficient in a mixture of two identical fluids. The steady-state diffusive flux in a finite system subject to a concentration gradient is enhanced because of long-range correlations between concentration fluctuations and fluctuations of the velocity parallel to the concentration gradient. The enhancement of the diffusive transport depends on the system size L and grows as \\ln(L/L_{0}) in quasi-two dimensional systems, while in three dimensions it grows as L_{0}^{-1}-L^{-1}, where L_{0} is a reference length. The predictions of a simple fluctuating hydrodynamics theory, closely related to second-order mode-mode coupling analysis, are compared to results from particle simulations and a finite-volume solver and excellent agreement is observed. We elucidate the direct connection to the long-time tail of the velocity autocorrelation function in finite systems, as well as finite-size corrections employed in molecular dynamics calculations. Our results conclusively demonstrate that the nonlinear advective terms need to be retained in the equations of fluctuating hydrodynamics when modeling transport in small-scale finite systems.

  19. Intermolecular Paramagnetic Relaxation Enhancement (PRE) Studies of Transient Complexes in Intrinsically Disordered Proteins.

    PubMed

    Janowska, Maria K; Baum, Jean

    2016-01-01

    NMR interchain paramagnetic relaxation enhancement (PRE) techniques are a very powerful approach for detecting transient interchain interactions between intrinsically disordered proteins. These experiments, requiring a mixed sample containing a 1:1 ratio of isotope-labeled (15)N protein and natural abundance (14)N protein with a paramagnetic spin label, provide data that is limited to interchain interactions only. Application of these experiments to weakly associated transient species such as those that are present in the very early stages of self-assembly processes will aid our understanding of protein aggregation or fibril formation processes. PMID:26453204

  20. ATC Enhancement Considering Transient Stability by Optimal Power Flow Control Using UPFC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masuta, Taisuke; Motoki, Hiroaki; Yokoyama, Akihiko

    With recent development of power electronics technology, power system stability enhancement and optimal power flow control by using Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS) devices have so far been studied. The FACTS devices to relieve multiple constraints can also make it possible to enhance Available Transfer Capability (ATC) without construction of new transmission lines. In this paper, a new method for improving transient stability by Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC) is proposed. Then the proposed method is applied to an OPF control method by using UPFC for relieving multiple constraints. The new OPF method is used for enhancement of ATC taking into account Transient stability constraints as well as overload and steady-state stability constraints. The OPF problem is formulated to minimize total capacity of inverters of UPFC. Effectiveness of the proposed method is shown by numerical examples for IEEJ East-10-machine test system.

  1. Sharpening of neurite morphology using complex coherence enhanced diffusion.

    PubMed

    Mustaffa, Izadora; Trenado, Carlos; Rahim, Hazli Rafis Abd; Schafer, Karl-Herbert; Strauss, Daniel J

    2009-01-01

    The study of the molecular mechanisms involved in neurite outgrowth and differentiation, requires essential accurate and reproducible segmentation and quantification of neuronal processes. The common method used in this study is to detect and trace individual neurites, i.e. neurite tracing. The challenge comes mainly from the morphological problem in which these images contains ambiguities such as neurites discontinuities and intensity differences. In our work, we encounter a bigger challenge as the neurites in our images have a higher density of neurites. In this paper, we present a hybrid complex coherence-enhanced method for sharpening the morphology of neurons from such images. Coherence-enhanced diffusion (CED) is used to enhance the flowlike structures of the neurites, while the imaginary part of the complex nonlinear diffusion of the image cancels the appearance of 'clouds'. We also describe an elementary method for estimating the density of neuritis based on the obtained images. Our preliminary results show that the proposed methodology is a step ahead toward an effective neuronal morphology algorithm. PMID:19964080

  2. Transient stability enhancement of electric power generating systems by 120-degree phase rotation

    DOEpatents

    Cresap, Richard L. (Portland, OR); Taylor, Carson W. (Portland, OR); Kreipe, Michael J. (Portland, OR)

    1982-01-01

    A method and system for enhancing the transient stability of an intertied three-phase electric power generating system. A set of power exporting generators (10) is connected to a set of power importing generators (20). When a transient cannot be controlled by conventional stability controls, and imminent loss of synchronism is detected (such as when the equivalent rotor angle difference between the two generator sets exceeds a predetermined value, such as 150 degrees), the intertie is disconnected by circuit breakers. Then a switch (30) having a 120-degree phase rotation, or a circuit breaker having a 120-degree phase rotation is placed in the intertie. The intertie is then reconnected. This results in a 120-degree reduction in the equivalent rotor angle difference between the two generator sets, making the system more stable and allowing more time for the conventional controls to stabilize the transient.

  3. Enhanced Diffusion of Enzymes that Catalyze Exothermic Reactions

    E-print Network

    Golestanian, Ramin

    2015-01-01

    Enzymes have been recently found to exhibit enhanced diffusion due to their catalytic activities. A recent experiment [C. Riedel et al., Nature 517, 227 (2015)] has found evidence that suggests this phenomenon might be controlled by the degree of exothermicity of the catalytic reaction involved. Four mechanisms that can lead to this effect, namely, self-thermophoresis, boost in kinetic energy, stochastic swimming, and collective heating, are critically discussed, and it is shown that only the last two could be strong enough to account for the observations. The resulting quantitative description is used to examine the biological significance of the effect.

  4. Enhanced Diffusion of Enzymes that Catalyze Exothermic Reactions

    E-print Network

    Ramin Golestanian

    2015-08-13

    Enzymes have been recently found to exhibit enhanced diffusion due to their catalytic activities. A recent experiment [C. Riedel et al., Nature 517, 227 (2015)] has found evidence that suggests this phenomenon might be controlled by the degree of exothermicity of the catalytic reaction involved. Four mechanisms that can lead to this effect, namely, self-thermophoresis, boost in kinetic energy, stochastic swimming, and collective heating, are critically discussed, and it is shown that only the last two could be strong enough to account for the observations. The resulting quantitative description is used to examine the biological significance of the effect.

  5. Enhanced Diffusion of Enzymes that Catalyze Exothermic Reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golestanian, Ramin

    2015-09-01

    Enzymes have been recently found to exhibit enhanced diffusion due to their catalytic activities. A recent experiment [C. Riedel et al., Nature (London) 517, 227 (2015)] has found evidence that suggests this phenomenon might be controlled by the degree of exothermicity of the catalytic reaction involved. Four mechanisms that can lead to this effect, namely, self-thermophoresis, boost in kinetic energy, stochastic swimming, and collective heating are critically discussed, and it is shown that only the last two can be strong enough to account for the observations. The resulting quantitative description is used to examine the biological significance of the effect.

  6. Anomalous enhancement in interfacial perpendicular magnetic anisotropy through uphill diffusion.

    PubMed

    Das, Tanmay; Kulkarni, Prabhanjan D; Purandare, S C; Barshilia, Harish C; Bhattacharyya, Somnath; Chowdhury, Prasanta

    2014-01-01

    We observed interfacial chemical sharpening due to uphill diffusion in post annealed ultrathin multilayer stack of Co and Pt, which leads to enhanced interfacial perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA). This is surprising as these elements are considered as perfectly miscible. This chemical sharpening was confirmed through quantitative energy dispersive x-ray (EDX) spectroscopy and intensity distribution of images taken on high angle annular dark field (HAADF) detector in Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopic (STEM) mode. This observation demonstrates an evidence of miscibility gap in ultrathin coherent Co/Pt multilayer stacks. PMID:24937637

  7. An enhanced finite element technique for diffuse phase transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Münch, I.; Krauß, M.

    2015-10-01

    We propose a finite element technique to enhance phase-field simulations. As adaptive p-method it and can be generally applied to finite element formulations. However, diffuse interfaces have non-linear gradients within regions typically smaller compared to the size of the overall model. Thus, enhanced field interpolation with higher polynomial functions on demand allows for coarser meshing or lower regularization length for the phase transition. Our method preserves continuity of finite elements and is particularly advantageous in the context of parallelized computing. An analytical solution for the evolution of a phase-field variable governed by the Allen-Cahn equation is used to define an error measure and to investigate the proposed method. Several examples demonstrate the capability of this finite element technique.

  8. Diffusion on the 3D Euclidean Motion Group for Enhancement of HARDI Data

    E-print Network

    Eindhoven, Technische Universiteit

    #12;Diffusion on the 3D Euclidean Motion Group for Enhancement of HARDI Data Erik Franken1 , Remco studied linear and nonlinear left-invariant diffusion equations on the 2D Euclidean motion group SE(2), for the pur- pose of crossing-preserving coherence-enhancing diffusion on 2D images. In this paper we study

  9. Diffusion-controlled intermolecular electron transfer studied by transient absorption and degenerate four-wave mixing measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assel, M.; Höfer, T.; Laubereau, A.; Kaiser, W.

    1995-03-01

    The time dependence of intermolecular electron transfer kinetics is studied by two experimental techniques: transient absorption measurements and degenerate four-wave mixing after excitation of the donor molecules by picosecond UV pulses. In the system perylene/phthalic anhydride the electron transfer rate depends strongly on the concentration of the acceptor molecule phthalic anhydride. The value agrees with theoretical calculations based on a diffusion-controlled process.

  10. Distributed Multi-Agent-Based Protection Scheme for Transient Stability Enhancement in Power Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, M. S.; Mahmud, M. A.; Pota, H. R.; Hossain, M. J.; Orchi, T. F.

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents a new distributed agent-based scheme to enhance the transient stability of power systems by maintaining phase angle cohesiveness of interconnected generators through proper relay coordination with critical clearing time (CCT) information. In this distributed multi-agent infrastructure, intelligent agents represent various physical device models to provide dynamic information and energy flow among different physical processes of power systems. The agents can communicate with each other in a distributed manner with a final aim to control circuit breakers (CBs) with CCT information as this is the key issue for maintaining and enhancing the transient stability of power systems. The performance of the proposed scheme is evaluated on a standard IEEE 39-bus New England benchmark system under different large disturbances such as three-phase short-circuit faults and changes in loads within the systems. From the simulation results, it is found that the proposed scheme significantly enhances the transient stability of power systems as compared to a conventional scheme of static CB operation.

  11. Fluorine-enhanced boron diffusion in amorphous silicon J. M. Jacques,a)

    E-print Network

    Florida, University of

    Fluorine-enhanced boron diffusion in amorphous silicon J. M. Jacques,a) L. S. Robertson, and K. S silicon is significantly enhanced in the presence of fluorine. Ellipsometry and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy indicate the enhanced diffusion only occurs in the amorphous layer. Fluorine

  12. Stress enhanced diffusion of krypton ions in polycrystalline titanium

    SciTech Connect

    Nsengiyumva, S.; Raji, A. T.; Rivière, J. P.; Britton, D. T.; Härting, M.

    2014-07-14

    An experimental investigation on the mutual influence of pre-existing residual stress and point defect following ion implantation is presented. The study has been carried out using polycrystalline titanium samples energetically implanted with krypton ions at different fluences. Ion beam analysis was used to determine the concentration profile of the injected krypton ions, while synchrotron X-ray diffraction has been used for stress determination. Ion beam analysis and synchrotron X-ray diffraction stress profile measurements of the implanted titanium samples show a clear evidence of stress-enhanced diffusion of krypton ions in titanium. It is further observed that for the titanium samples implanted at low fluence, ion implantation modifies the pre-existing residual stress through the introduction of point and open volume defects. The stress fields resulting from the ion implantation act to drift the krypton inclusions towards the surface of titanium.

  13. Transient Liquid Phase Diffusion Bonding of Magnesium Alloy (Mg-AZ31) to Titanium Alloy (Ti-6Al-4V)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atieh, Anas Mahmoud

    The magnesium alloy Mg-AZ31 and titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V have physical characteristics and mechanical properties that makes it attractive for a wide range of engineering applications in the aerospace and automotive industries. However, the differences in melting temperature and coefficient of thermal expansion hinder the use of traditional fusion welding techniques. Transient liquid phase (TLP) bonding of magnesium alloy Mg-AZ31 and titanium alloy Ti-6Al- 4V was performed and different interlayer types and configurations were used to facilitate joint formation. The joining of these alloys using Ni foils was successful at a bonding temperature of 515°C, bonding pressure 0.2 MPa, for bonding time of 5 minutes. At the Ni/Mg-AZ31 bond interface, the formation of a eutectic liquid between Mg and Ni was observed. The formation of Mg2Ni and Mg3AlNi2 were identified along the bond interface resulting in an isothermally solidified joint. At the Ni/Ti-6Al-4V interface, the solid-state diffusion process results in joint formation. The use of double Ni-Cu sandwich joint resulted in further enhancement in joint formation and this produced joints with greater shear strength values. The configuration of Mg-AZ31/Cu- Ni/Ti-6Al-4V or Mg-AZ31/Ni-Cu/Ti-6Al-4V influence the mechanism of bonding and the type of intermetallics formed within the joint. The application of thin Ni electrodeposited coatings resulted in further enhancements of joint quality due to better surface-to-surface contact and a reduction in the formation of intermetallics at the joint. The effect of Cu nano-particles in the coatings was found to decrease the eutectic zone width and this resulted in an increase the shear strength of the joints. The highest shear strength of 69 MPa was possible with bonds made using coatings containing Cu nano-particle dispersion.

  14. Comparison of homogenized and enhanced diffusion solutions of model PWR problems

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, E. E.; Smith, M. A.

    2012-07-01

    Model problem comparisons in slab geometry are made between two forms of homogenized diffusion theory and enhanced diffusion theory. The pin-cell discontinuity factors for homogenized diffusion calculations are derived from homogenized variational nodal P1 response matrices and from standard finite differencing. Enhanced diffusion theory consists of applying quasi-reflected interface conditions to reduce variational nodal Pn response matrices to one degree of freedom per interface, without homogenization within the cell. As expected both homogenized diffusion methods preserve reaction rates exactly if the discontinuity factors are derived from the P 11 reference solutions. If no reference lattice solution is available, discontinuity factors may be approximated from single cells with reflected boundary conditions; the computational effort is then comparable to calculating the enhanced diffusion response matrices. In this situation enhanced diffusion theory gives the most accurate results and finite difference discontinuity factors the least accurate. (authors)

  15. Diffuse dispersive delay and the time convolution/attenuation of transients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bittner, Burt J.

    1991-01-01

    Test data and analytic evaluations are presented to show that relatively poor 100 KHz shielding of 12 Db can effectively provide an electromagnetic pulse transient reduction of 100 Db. More importantly, several techniques are shown for lightning surge attenuation as an alternative to crowbar, spark gap, or power zener type clipping which simply reflects the surge. A time delay test method is shown which allows CW testing, along with a convolution program to define transient shielding effectivity where the Fourier phase characteristics of the transient are known or can be broadly estimated.

  16. Exciton diffusion in semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes studied by transient absorption microscopy

    E-print Network

    Ruzicka, Brian Andrew; Wang, Rui; Lohrman, Jessica; Ren, Shenqiang; Zhao, Hui

    2012-11-09

    Spatiotemporal dynamics of excitons in isolated semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes are studied using transient absorption microscopy. Differential reflection and transmission of an 810-nm probe pulse after excitation by a 750-nm pump...

  17. Enhanced diffusion of nonswimmers in a three-dimensional bath of motile bacteria

    E-print Network

    A. Jepson; V. A. Martinez; J. Schwarz-Linek; A. Morozov; W. C. K. Poon

    2013-11-06

    We show, using differential dynamic microscopy, that the diffusivity of non-motile cells in a three-dimensional (3D) population of motile E. coli is enhanced by an amount proportional to the active cell flux. While non-motile mutants without flagella and mutants with paralysed flagella have quite different thermal diffusivities and therefore hydrodynamic radii, their diffusivities are enhanced to the same extent by swimmers in the regime of cell densities explored here. Integrating the advective motion of non-swimmers caused by swimmers with finite persistence-length trajectories predicts our observations to within 2%, indicating that fluid entrainment is not relevant for diffusion enhancement in 3D.

  18. Enhanced oxygen out-diffusion in silicon crystal doped with germanium

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Jiahe; Yang Deren; Ma Xiangyang; Fan Ruixin; Que Duanlin

    2007-09-15

    Out-diffusion of oxygen during high temperature annealing has been investigated in Czochralski silicon with germanium doping through the spreading resistance profile and secondary ion mass spectrometry techniques. It has been suggested that oxygen out-diffusion in silicon could be enhanced by germanium doping when annealed at 1050 deg. C - 1200 deg. C. Such enhancement effect increases with the annealing temperature applied to materials as well as increases with the germanium concentration introduced in silicon. It is proposed that the enhanced oxygen out-diffusion may be due to the fast diffusion channel for the interstitial oxygen atoms, which is induced by the substituted germanium atoms in silicon.

  19. Influence of Chemically Enhanced Diffusion on Cap Dolostones?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bristow, T.

    2014-12-01

    Cap dolostones, a globally distributed layer of carbonate rock that sits directly on terminal glacial deposits of the severe Cryogenian ice-age, contain important records of the conditions during the early stage of climatic recovery. Negative carbon isotope signals preserved in the cap are central to discussions of the mechanisms, drivers and time-scale of this interval of extreme climate change. These signals have been attributed to the rapid rise in temperature and acidic ocean conditions predicted to result from huge amounts of CO2 in the atmosphere, which bumped the Earth out of the Snowball state. Questions remain however, because detailed investigations of cap dolostone isotopic variability within individual sedimentary basins show systematic variations that are difficult to explain by temperature effects alone. Furthermore, other influences on cap isotopes have been hypothesized including, the release of massive amounts of methane trapped by the ice and upwelling of deep ocean water with negative signals. This contribution will explore the potential impact of chemically enhanced diffusion (CED) on the carbon isotopic compositions of cap dolostones using a box model. CED is a process by which CO2 gas is transferred to solution via reaction with hydroxide anions. In the modern ocean, rates of CED are thought to be insignificant and CO2 gas transfer is accomplished primarily by diffusion and dissolution, with minimal isotopic fraction. However, in various highly productive lakes, the strong negative isotope fraction of -27 ‰ associated CED impacts the isotopic composition of dissolved inorganic carbon. Post-glacial oceans may have been chemically similar to highly productive lakes and initial modeling results indicate that CED could have influenced the carbon isotopic composition of seawater and thus the cap dolostone. Implications for post-glacial oceanic conditions will be discussed.

  20. Fluorine-enhanced boron diffusion in germanium-preamorphized silicon J. M. Jacquesa

    E-print Network

    Florida, University of

    Fluorine-enhanced boron diffusion in germanium-preamorphized silicon J. M. Jacquesa and K. S. Jones that fluorine enhances boron motion in germanium-preamorphized materials in the absence of annealing. The magnitude of boron diffusion scales with increasing fluorine dose. Boron motion in as-implanted samples

  1. Diffusion, Convection and Erosion on R3 Application to the Enhancement of Crossing Fibers

    E-print Network

    Eindhoven, Technische Universiteit

    -Jacobi equations (erosions) on the space R3 S2 of 3D-positions and orientations naturally embedded in the group SE-)diffusions and erosions is to obtain crossing- preserving fiber enhancement on probability densities defined on the spaceDiffusion, Convection and Erosion on R3 S2 and their Application to the Enhancement of Crossing

  2. Power Supply Reliability Assessment in UPFC-installed Transmission System for ATC Enhancement Considering Transient Stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masuta, Taisuke; Yokoyama, Akihiko

    With recent development of power electronics technology, power system stability enhancement and optimal power flow control by using Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS) devices have so far been studied. The FACTS devices to relieve multiple constraints can also make it possible to enhance Available Transfer Capability (ATC) without construction of new transmission lines. The previous research revealed that ATC is expanded by avoiding multiple constraints in OPF using Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC). For long-term operation of such ATC-expanded power system, it is necessary to evaluate power system reliability. In this paper, the evaluation method of supply reliability for UPFC-installed power system is proposed. Both thermal capacity and transient stability constraints are considered. The effectiveness of the proposed method is shown by numerical examples for IEEJ East10-machine test system.

  3. Enhanced diffusion of oxygen depending on Fermi level position in heavily boron-doped silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Torigoe, Kazuhisa Fujise, Jun; Ono, Toshiaki; Nakamura, Kozo

    2014-11-21

    The enhanced diffusivity of oxygen in heavily boron doped silicon was obtained by analyzing oxygen out-diffusion profile changes found at the interface between a lightly boron-doped silicon epitaxial layer and a heavily boron-doped silicon substrate by secondary ion mass spectrometry. It was found that the diffusivity is proportional to the square root of boron concentration in the range of 10{sup 18?}cm{sup ?3}–10{sup 19?}cm{sup ?3} at temperatures from 750?°C to 950?°C. The model based on the diffusion of oxygen dimers in double positive charge state could explain the enhanced diffusion. We have concluded that oxygen diffusion enhanced in heavily boron-doped silicon is attributed to oxygen dimers ionized depending on Fermi level position.

  4. Ultrasound speckle suppression and edge enhancement using multiscale nonlinear wavelet diffusion.

    PubMed

    Yue, Yong; Croitoru, Mihai M; Bidani, Akhil; Zwischenberger, Joseph B; Clark, John W

    2005-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel multiscale nonlinear wavelet diffusion (MNWD) method for ultrasound speckle suppression and edge enhancement. It considers wavelet diffusion as an approximation to nonlinear diffusion within the framework of the dyadic wavelet transform. Consequently, this knowledge is exploited in the design of a speckle suppression filter with an edge enhancement feature. MNWD takes advantage of the sparsity and multiresolution properties of wavelet, and the iterative edge enhancement feature of nonlinear diffusion. In our algorithm, speckle is suppressed by employing the iterative multiscale diffusion on the wavelet coefficients, while the edges of the image are enhanced by using an iterative signal compensation process. We validate the proposed method using synthetic and real echocardiographic images. Performance improvement over other traditional denoising filters is quantified in terms of noise suppression and structural preservation indices. The application of the proposed method is demonstrated by the segmentation of the echocardiographic image using the active contour. PMID:17281740

  5. Enhanced paracellular transport of insulin can be achieved via transient induction of myosin light chain phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Taverner, Alistair; Dondi, Ruggero; Almansour, Khaled; Laurent, Floriane; Owens, Siân-Eleri; Eggleston, Ian M.; Fotaki, Nikoletta; Mrsny, Randall J.

    2015-01-01

    The intestinal epithelium functions to effectively restrict the causal uptake of luminal contents but has been demonstrated to transiently increase paracellular permeability properties to provide an additional entry route for dietary macromolecules. We have examined a method to emulate this endogenous mechanism as a means of enhancing the oral uptake of insulin. Two sets of stable Permeant Inhibitor of Phosphatase (PIP) peptides were rationally designed to stimulate phosphorylation of intracellular epithelial myosin light chain (MLC) and screened using Caco-2 monolayers in vitro. Apical application of PIP peptide 640, designed to disrupt protein–protein interactions between protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) and its regulator CPI-17, resulted in a reversible and non-toxic transient reduction in Caco-2 monolayer trans-epithelial electric resistance (TEER) and opening of the paracellular route to 4 kDa fluorescent dextran but not 70 kDa dextran in vitro. Apical application of PIP peptide 250, designed to impede MYPT1-mediated regulation of PP1, also decreased TEER in a reversible and non-toxic manner but transiently opened the paracellular route to both 4 and 70 kDa fluorescent dextrans. Direct injection of PIP peptides 640 or 250 with human insulin into the lumen of rat jejunum caused a decrease in blood glucose levels that was PIP peptide and insulin dose-dependent and correlated with increased pMLC levels. Systemic levels of insulin suggested approximately 3–4% of the dose injected into the intestinal lumen was absorbed, relative to a subcutaneous injection. Measurement of insulin levels in the portal vein showed a time window of absorption that was consistent with systemic concentration-time profiles and approximately 50% first-pass clearance by the liver. Monitoring the uptake of a fluorescent form of insulin suggested its uptake occurred via the paracellular route. Together, these studies add validation to the presence of an endogenous mechanism used by the intestinal epithelium to dynamically regulate its paracellular permeability properties and better define the potential to enhance the oral delivery of biopharmaceuticals via a transient regulation of an endogenous mechanism controlling the intestinal paracellular barrier. PMID:25980620

  6. Diffuse-charge effects on the transient response of electrochemical cells

    E-print Network

    van Soestbergen, M.

    We present theoretical models for the time-dependent voltage of an electrochemical cell in response to a current step, including effects of diffuse charge (or “space charge”) near the electrodes on Faradaic reaction kinetics. ...

  7. Transient plane source (tps) sensors for simultaneous measurements of thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of insulators, fluids and conductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maqsood, Asghari; Anis-ur-Rehman, M.

    2013-12-01

    Thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity are two important physical properties for designing any food engineering processes1. The knowledge of thermal properties of the elements, compounds and different materials in many industrial applications is a requirement for their final functionality. Transient plane source (tps) sensors are reported2 to be useful for the simultaneous measurement of thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity and volumetric heat capacity of insulators, conductor liquids3 and high-TC superconductors4. The tps-sensor consists of a resistive element in the shape of double spiral made of 10 micrometer thick Ni-foils covered on both sides with 25 micrometer thick Kapton. This sensor acts both as a heat source and a resistance thermometer for recording the time dependent temperature increase. From the knowledge of the temperature co-efficient of the metal spiral, the temperature increase of the sensor can be determined precisely by placing the sensor in between two surfaces of the same material under test. This temperature increase is then related to the thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity and volumetric heat capacity by simple relations2,5. The tps-sensor has been used to measure thermal conductivities from 0.001 Wm-1K-1to 600 Wm-1K-1 and temperature ranges covered from 77K- 1000K. This talk gives the design, advantages and limitations of the tpl-sensor along with its applications to the measurementof thermal properties in a variety of materials.

  8. A nonlinear, transient finite element method for coupled solvent diffusion and large deformation of hydrogels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouklas, Nikolaos; Landis, Chad M.; Huang, Rui

    2015-06-01

    Hydrogels are capable of coupled mass transport and large deformation in response to external stimuli. In this paper, a nonlinear, transient finite element formulation is presented for initial boundary value problems associated with swelling and deformation of hydrogels, based on a nonlinear continuum theory that is consistent with classical theory of linear poroelasticity. A mixed finite element method is implemented with implicit time integration. The incompressible or nearly incompressible behavior at the initial stage imposes a constraint to the finite element discretization in order to satisfy the Ladyzhenskaya-Babuska-Brezzi (LBB) condition for stability of the mixed method, similar to linear poroelasticity as well as incompressible elasticity and Stokes flow; failure to choose an appropriate discretization would result in locking and numerical oscillations in transient analysis. To demonstrate the numerical method, two problems of practical interests are considered: constrained swelling and flat-punch indentation of hydrogel layers. Constrained swelling may lead to instantaneous surface instability for a soft hydrogel in a good solvent, which can be regulated by assuming a stiff surface layer. Indentation relaxation of hydrogels is simulated beyond the linear regime under plane strain conditions, in comparison with two elastic limits for the instantaneous and equilibrium states. The effects of Poisson's ratio and loading rate are discussed. It is concluded that the present finite element method is robust and can be extended to study other transient phenomena in hydrogels.

  9. Diffuse dural gadolinium MRI enhancement associated with bilateral chronic subdural hematomas.

    PubMed

    Blitshteyn, Svetlana; Mechtler, Laszlo L; Bakshi, Rohit

    2004-01-01

    Chronic subdural hematomas (CSDHs) typically present with cognitive dysfunction and a history of trauma. Localized dural enhancement on postcontrast MRI scans associated with the surrounding membrane has been described in CSDH. We present an 83-year-old man with rapidly progressing cognitive dysfunction 4 weeks after head trauma related to a fall. MRI showed CSDHs, which in addition to localized dural gadolinium enhancement, showed a marked diffuse, symmetric, contiguous pachymeningeal enhancement of the supratentorial and infratentorial intracranial dural mater. Meningeal biopsy failed to disclose an infectious or neoplastic cause of the enhancement and instead showed fibrocollagenous change. We conclude that diffuse dural enhancement on MRI scans associated with CSDH cause does not necessarily indicate a superimposed process such as infection or malignancy. CSDH should be considered in the differential diagnosis of diffuse dural enhancement, especially when supported by appropriate clinical findings. PMID:15050219

  10. Dynamics of Enhanced Tracer Diffusion in Suspensions of Swimming Eukaryotic Microorganisms

    E-print Network

    Gollub, Jerry P.

    Dynamics of Enhanced Tracer Diffusion in Suspensions of Swimming Eukaryotic Microorganisms Kyriacos, we study passive tracers in suspensions of eukaryotic swimmers, the alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii [11], a biflagellated model eukaryote in the study of photosynthesis and flagella. Relative

  11. A multigroup diffusion solver using pseudo transient continuation for a radiation-hydrodynamic code with patch-based AMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shestakov, Aleksei I.; Offner, Stella S. R.

    2008-01-01

    We present a scheme to solve the nonlinear multigroup radiation diffusion (MGD) equations. The method is incorporated into a massively parallel, multidimensional, Eulerian radiation-hydrodynamic code with Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR). The patch-based AMR algorithm refines in both space and time creating a hierarchy of levels, coarsest to finest. The physics modules are time-advanced using operator splitting. On each level, separate "level-solve" packages advance the modules. Our multigroup level-solve adapts an implicit procedure which leads to a two-step iterative scheme that alternates between elliptic solves for each group with intra-cell group coupling. For robustness, we introduce pseudo transient continuation (?tc). We analyze the magnitude of the ?tc parameter to ensure positivity of the resulting linear system, diagonal dominance and convergence of the two-step scheme. For AMR, a level defines a subdomain for refinement. For diffusive processes such as MGD, the refined level uses Dirichlet boundary data at the coarse-fine interface and the data is derived from the coarse level solution. After advancing on the fine level, an additional procedure, the sync-solve (SS), is required in order to enforce conservation. The MGD SS reduces to an elliptic solve on a combined grid for a system of G equations, where G is the number of groups. We adapt the "partial temperature" scheme for the SS; hence, we reuse the infrastructure developed for scalar equations. Results are presented. We consider a multigroup test problem with a known analytic solution. We demonstrate utility of ?tc by running with increasingly larger timesteps. Lastly, we simulate the sudden release of energy Y inside an Al sphere (r = 15 cm) suspended in air at STP. For Y = 11 kT, we find that gray radiation diffusion and MGD produce similar results. However, if Y = 1 MT, the two packages yield different results. Our large Y simulation contradicts a long-standing theory and demonstrates the inadequacy of gray diffusion.

  12. Effect of Gas Diffusion on Mobility of Foam for Enhanced Oil Recovery Lars E. Nonnekes1

    E-print Network

    Cox, Simon

    and why steam foams are less resistant than foams of steam mixed with N2. In porous media, diffusion can. Keywords Foam ·Diffusion · Enhanced oil recovery · Foam stability ·CO2 foam · Steam foam 1 Introduction is the correct picture of foam in geological formations. These models account for two steady-state flow regimes

  13. Evolution Nonlinear Diffusion-Convection PDE Models for Spectrogram Enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dugnol, B.; Fernández, C.; Galiano, G.; Velasco, J.

    2008-09-01

    In previous works we studied the application of PDE-based image processing techniques applied to the spectrogram of audio signals in order to improve the readability of the signal. In particular we considered the implementation of the nonlinear diffusive model proposed by Álvarez, Lions and Morel [1](ALM) combined with a convective term inspired by the differential reassignment proposed by Chassandre-Mottin, Daubechies, Auger and Flandrin [2]-[3]. In this work we consider the possibility of replacing the diffusive model of ALM by diffusive terms in divergence form. In particular we implement finite element approximations of nonlinear diffusive terms studied by Chen, Levine, Rao [4] and Antontsev, Shmarev [5]-[8] with a convective term.

  14. Pyrrole copolymers with enhanced ion diffusion rates for lithium batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Calvert, P.; Gardlund, Z.; Huntoon, T.; Hall, H.K.; Padias, A.

    1998-07-01

    Copolymers of pyrrole with a polyether-substituted pyrrole were tested as cathodes for lithium batteries. The charge and discharge characteristics showed that anion transport was much faster in the copolymer than in polypyrrole. As a result these electrodes store and release much more charge at higher current densities but are similar to polypyrrole at low currents. Pulse and relaxation measurements of the ion diffusion showed that this difference was due to a ten-fold increase in the anion diffusion coefficient.

  15. Cannabidiol enhances microglial phagocytosis via transient receptor potential (TRP) channel activation

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Samia; Eldeeb, Khalil; Millns, Paul J; Bennett, Andrew J; Alexander, Stephen P H; Kendall, David A

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Microglial cells are important mediators of the immune response in the CNS. The phytocannabinoid, cannabidiol (CBD), has been shown to have central anti-inflammatory properties, and the purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of CBD and other phytocannabinoids on microglial phagocytosis. Experimental Approach Phagocytosis was assessed by measuring ingestion of fluorescently labelled latex beads by cultured microglial cells. Drug effects were probed using single-cell Ca2+ imaging and expression of mediator proteins by immunoblotting and immunocytochemistry. Key Results CBD (10??M) enhanced bead phagocytosis to 175 ± 7% control. Other phytocannabinoids, synthetic and endogenous cannabinoids were without effect. The enhancement was dependent upon Ca2+ influx and was abolished in the presence of EGTA, the Ca2+ channel inhibitor SKF96365, the transient receptor potential (TRP) channel blocker ruthenium red, and the TRPV1 antagonists capsazepine and AMG9810. CBD produced a sustained increase in intracellular Ca2+ concentration in BV-2 microglia and this was abolished by ruthenium red. CBD rapidly increased the expression of TRPV2 and TRPV1 proteins and caused a translocation of TRPV2 to the cell membrane. Wortmannin blocked CBD enhancement of BV-2 cell phagocytosis, suggesting that it is mediated by PI3K signalling downstream of the Ca2+ influx. Conclusions and Implications The TRPV-dependent phagocytosis-enhancing effect of CBD suggests that pharmacological modification of TRPV channel activity could be a rational approach to treating neuroinflammatory disorders involving changes in microglial function and that CBD is a potential starting point for future development of novel therapeutics acting on the TRPV receptor family. PMID:24641282

  16. Search for muon enhancement at sea level from transient solar activity

    E-print Network

    C. R. A. Augusto; C. E. Navia; M. b. Robba

    2005-04-28

    This paper presents first results of an ongoing study of a possible association between muon enhancements at ground observed by the TUPI telescope and transient events such as the Sun's X-ray activity. The analysis of the observed phenomenon by using the GOES satellite archive data seems to indicate that on most cases the Ground Level Enhancements (GLEs) could potentially be associated with solar flares. We show that small scale solar flares, those with prompt X-ray emission classified as C class (power above $10^{-6}Watts m^{-2}$ at 1 AU) may give rise to GLEs, probably associated with solar protons and ions arriving to the Earth as a coherent particle pulse. The TUPI telescope's high performance with these energetic solar particles arises mainly from: (1) its high counting rate (up to $\\sim 100$ KHz). This value in most cases is around 100 times higher than other detectors at ground and (2) due to its tracking system. The telescope is always looking near the direction of the IMF lines. The GLE's delay in relation of the X-ray prompt emission suggest that shock driven by corona mass ejection (CME) is an essential requirement for the particle acceleration efficiency.

  17. Experimental investigation of the elastic enhancement factor in a transient region between regular and chaotic dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ?awniczak, Micha?; Bia?ous, Ma?gorzata; Yunko, Vitalii; Bauch, Szymon; Sirko, Leszek

    2015-03-01

    We present the results of an experimental study of the elastic enhancement factor W for a microwave rectangular cavity simulating a two-dimensional quantum billiard in a transient region between regular and chaotic dynamics. The cavity was coupled to a vector network analyzer via two microwave antennas. The departure of the system from an integrable one due to the presence of antennas acting as scatterers is characterized by the parameter of chaoticity ? =2.8 . The experimental results for the rectangular cavity are compared with those obtained for a microwave rough cavity simulating a chaotic quantum billiard. The experimental results were obtained for the frequency range ? =16 -18.5 GHz and moderate absorption strength ? =5.2 -7.4 . We show that the elastic enhancement factor for the rectangular cavity lies below the theoretical value W =3 predicted for integrable systems, and it is significantly higher than that obtained for the rough cavity. The results obtained for the microwave rough cavity are smaller than those obtained within the framework of random matrix theory, and they lie between them and those predicted within a recently introduced model of the two-channel coupling [V. V. Sokolov and O. V. Zhirov, arXiv:1411.6211 [nucl-th

  18. Transient Evolution of a Planar Diffusion Flame Aft of a Translating Flat Plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gokoglu, Suleyman A.

    2003-01-01

    The high degree of spatial symmetry of a planar diffusion flame affords great simplifications for experimental and modeling studies of gaseous fuel combustion. Particularly, in a microgravity environment, where buoyancy effects are negligible, an effectively strain-rate-free, vigorous flame may be obtained. Such a flame can also provide long residence times and large length scales for practical probing of flame structures and soot processes. This 2-D numerical study explores the feasibility of establishing such a planar diffusion flame in an enclosed container utilizing a realistic test protocol for a microgravity experiment. Fuel and oxygen mixtures, initially segregated into two half-volumes of a squat rectangular container by a thin separator, are ignited as soon as a flammable mixture is formed in the wake of the separator withdrawn in the centerplane. A triple-flame ensues that propagates behind the trailing edge of the separator. The results of calculations show that the mechanically- and thermally-induced convection decays in about two seconds. The establishment of a planar diffusion flame after this period seems feasible in the central region of the container with sufficient quantities of reactants left over for subsequent studies. An analysis of the flame initiation and formation process suggests how the feasibility of creating such a flame can be further improved.

  19. Transient Liquid-Phase Diffusion Bonding of Aluminum Metal Matrix Composite Using a Mixed Cu-Ni Powder Interlayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maity, Joydeep; Pal, Tapan Kumar

    2012-07-01

    In the present study, the transient liquid-phase diffusion bonding of an aluminum metal matrix composite (6061-15 wt.% SiCp) has been investigated for the first time using a mixed Cu-Ni powder interlayer at 560 °C, 0.2 MPa, for different holding times up to 6 h. The microstructure of the isothermally solidified zone contains equilibrium precipitate CuAl2, metastable precipitate Al9Ni2 in the matrix of ?-solid solution along with the reinforcement particles (SiC). On the other hand, the microstructure of the central bond zone consists of equilibrium phases such as NiAl3, Al7Cu4Ni and ?-solid solution along with SiC particles (without any segregation) and the presence of microporosities. During shear test, the crack originates from microporosities and propagates along the interphase interfaces resulting in poor bond strength for lower holding times. As the bonding time increases, with continual diffusion, the structural heterogeneity is diminished, and the microporosities are eliminated at the central bond zone. Accordingly, after 6-h holding, the microstructure of the central bond zone mainly consists of NiAl3 without any visible microporosity. This provides a joint efficiency of 84% with failure primarily occurring through decohesion at the SiC particle/matrix interface.

  20. Opto-Thermal Transient Emission Radiometry (OTTER) to image diffusion in nails in vivo.

    PubMed

    Xiao, P; Zheng, X; Imhof, R E; Hirata, K; McAuley, W J; Mateus, R; Hadgraft, J; Lane, M E

    2011-03-15

    This work describes the first application of Opto-Thermal Transient Emission Radiometry (OTTER), an infrared remote sensing technique, to probe the extent to which solvents permeate the human nail in vivo. Decanol, glycerol and butyl acetate were selected as model solvents. After application of the solvents, individually, to human volunteers, OTTER was used to depth profile the solvents. The permeation rate of the solvents was ranked as glycerol>decanol>butyl acetate. It is possible that some of the butyl acetate may have evaporated during the experiment. The ability of decanol to extract lipids from biological tissue is also considered. These preliminary results demonstrate the potential of OTTER as a tool to identify optimal excipients with which to target drugs to the nail. PMID:21251961

  1. Revisiting Taylor Dispersion: Differential enhancement of rotational and translational diffusion under oscillatory shear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leahy, Brian; Ong, Desmond; Cheng, Xiang; Cohen, Itai

    2013-03-01

    The idea of Taylor dispersion - enhancement of translational diffusion under shear - has found applications in fields from pharmacology to chemical engineering. Here, in a combination of experiment and simulations, we study the translational and rotational diffusion of colloidal dimers under triangle-wave oscillatory shear. We find that the rotational diffusion is enhanced, in addition to the enhanced translational diffusion. This ``rotational Taylor dispersion'' depends strongly on the strain rate (Peclet number), aspect ratio, and the shear strain, in contradistinction to translational Taylor dispersion in a shear flow, which depends only weakly on strain rate and aspect ratio. This separate tunability of translations and orientations promises important applications in mixing and self-assembly of solutions of anisometric colloids. We discuss the corresponding effect on the structure and rheology of denser suspensions of rod-like particles. B. L. acknowledges supported by the Department of Defense (DoD) through the National Defense Science & Engineering Graduate Fellowship (NDSEG) Program.

  2. Diffuse Infantile Hepatic Hemangioendothelioma With Early Central Enhancement in an Adult

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Aisheng; Dong, Hui; Zuo, Changjing; He, Tianlin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Infantile hepatic hemangioendothelioma (IHH) is the most common vascular tumor of the liver in infancy. Adult with IHH is extremely rare. We presented a diffuse IHH in an adult patient with computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance image (MRI) findings. A 39-year-old man was admitted to our hospital because of a 2-year history of abnormal liver function tests and a 7-day history of jaundice. Physical examination revealed enlarged liver. Unenhanced abdominal CT showed enlargement of the liver with diffuse hypodensity. Enhanced CT on the arterial phase revealed multiple centrally enhanced lesions diffusely involved the enlarged liver. The enhanced areas of the lesions became larger on the portal phase and all the lesions became homogeneous enhanced on the delayed phase. These lesions showed heterogeneously hyperintense on T2-weighted image, hypointense on T1-weighted image, and early centrally enhanced on dynamic gadolinium-enhanced MRI, with complete tumor enhancement after 180?s. The patient underwent orthotopic liver transplantation. IHH type 2 was confirmed by pathology. The patient died of tumor recurrence in the liver 4 months after transplantation. Unlike the previously described imaging appearances of IHH, this case showed diffuse nodules with early central enhancement on CT and MRI. Considering the importance of the ability to differentiate IHH from other hepatic tumors, radiologists should be aware of these imaging appearances to establish knowledge of the entire spectrum of IHH. PMID:26705232

  3. REACTION-DIFFUSION FRONT SPEED ENHANCEMENT BY FLOWS ANDREJ ZLATOS

    E-print Network

    Zlato?, Andrej

    -negative reaction function f C1, ([0, 1]) accounts for the increase of temperature due to a chemical reaction the reaction-advection-diffusion equation Tt + u(x) · T = T + f(T) (1.1) for the (normalized) temperature T. If > 0, then f is an ignition reaction (with ignition temperature ), otherwise f is a positive reaction

  4. ENHANCED DIFFUSION NEAR AMORPHOUS GRAIN BOUNDARIES IN NANOCRYSTALLINE AND

    E-print Network

    Ovid'ko Ilya A.

    in solids under irradiation and thermal treatment as well in sintered ceramics and is capable of contributing to the anomalously fast diffusion in nanocrystalline solids. Corresponding author: I.A. Ovid'ko, e species in nanocrystalline and poly- crystalline solids. Such boundaries frequently exist in sintered

  5. Interface- and diffusion-limited capillary rise of reactive melts with a transient contact angle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asthana, Rajiv

    2002-07-01

    The kinetics of unidirectional capillary penetration by a reactive fluid under the limiting cases of diffusion control and interface control has been derived for the reactive infiltration phenomenon characterized by a shrinking capillary radius due to interphase formation and an exponentially decaying contact angle. The computational outcomes for the reactive penetration of Si3N4 capillaries by AgCuTi brazes and of carbon capillaries by Si show that greater lengths are attained at lower values of the parabolic rate constant (under diffusion control), and the limiting length is reached earlier at larger values of the linear rate constant (under interface control). A capillary-driven flow analysis (Washburn equation) overestimates the infiltration kinetics, whereas an analysis that considers pore shrinkage but assumes the contact angle and the capillary pressure to be constant during flow underestimates the kinetics. The penetration lengths predicted by the analysis at pore closure due to reaction choking exhibit a slightly better agreement with the recent measurements in the Si/C system than the models of reactive flows currently in vogue.

  6. A simple Boltzmann transport equation for ballistic to diffusive transient heat transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maassen, Jesse; Lundstrom, Mark

    2015-04-01

    Developing simplified, but accurate, theoretical approaches to treat heat transport on all length and time scales is needed to further enable scientific insight and technology innovation. Using a simplified form of the Boltzmann transport equation (BTE), originally developed for electron transport, we demonstrate how ballistic phonon effects and finite-velocity propagation are easily and naturally captured. We show how this approach compares well to the phonon BTE, and readily handles a full phonon dispersion and energy-dependent mean-free-path. This study of transient heat transport shows (i) how fundamental temperature jumps at the contacts depend simply on the ballistic thermal resistance, (ii) that phonon transport at early times approach the ballistic limit in samples of any length, and (iii) perceived reductions in heat conduction, when ballistic effects are present, originate from reductions in temperature gradient. Importantly, this framework can be recast exactly as the Cattaneo and hyperbolic heat equations, and we discuss how the key to capturing ballistic heat effects is to use the correct physical boundary conditions.

  7. Cholesterol enhances surface water diffusion of phospholipid bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Chi-Yuan; Olijve, Luuk L. C.; Kausik, Ravinath; Han, Songi

    2014-12-01

    Elucidating the physical effect of cholesterol (Chol) on biological membranes is necessary towards rationalizing their structural and functional role in cell membranes. One of the debated questions is the role of hydration water in Chol-embedding lipid membranes, for which only little direct experimental data are available. Here, we study the hydration dynamics in a series of Chol-rich and depleted bilayer systems using an approach termed 1H Overhauser dynamic nuclear polarization (ODNP) NMR relaxometry that enables the sensitive and selective determination of water diffusion within 5-10 Å of a nitroxide-based spin label, positioned off the surface of the polar headgroups or within the nonpolar core of lipid membranes. The Chol-rich membrane systems were prepared from mixtures of Chol, dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine and/or dioctadecyl phosphatidylcholine lipid that are known to form liquid-ordered, raft-like, domains. Our data reveal that the translational diffusion of local water on the surface and within the hydrocarbon volume of the bilayer is significantly altered, but in opposite directions: accelerated on the membrane surface and dramatically slowed in the bilayer interior with increasing Chol content. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) lineshape analysis shows looser packing of lipid headgroups and concurrently tighter packing in the bilayer core with increasing Chol content, with the effects peaking at lipid compositions reported to form lipid rafts. The complementary capability of ODNP and EPR to site-specifically probe the hydration dynamics and lipid ordering in lipid membrane systems extends the current understanding of how Chol may regulate biological processes. One possible role of Chol is the facilitation of interactions between biological constituents and the lipid membrane through the weakening or disruption of strong hydrogen-bond networks of the surface hydration layers that otherwise exert stronger repulsive forces, as reflected in faster surface water diffusivity. Another is the concurrent tightening of lipid packing that reduces passive, possibly unwanted, diffusion of ions and water across the bilayer.

  8. Cholesterol enhances surface water diffusion of phospholipid bilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Chi-Yuan; Kausik, Ravinath; Han, Songi; Olijve, Luuk L. C.

    2014-12-14

    Elucidating the physical effect of cholesterol (Chol) on biological membranes is necessary towards rationalizing their structural and functional role in cell membranes. One of the debated questions is the role of hydration water in Chol-embedding lipid membranes, for which only little direct experimental data are available. Here, we study the hydration dynamics in a series of Chol-rich and depleted bilayer systems using an approach termed {sup 1}H Overhauser dynamic nuclear polarization (ODNP) NMR relaxometry that enables the sensitive and selective determination of water diffusion within 5–10 Å of a nitroxide-based spin label, positioned off the surface of the polar headgroups or within the nonpolar core of lipid membranes. The Chol-rich membrane systems were prepared from mixtures of Chol, dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine and/or dioctadecyl phosphatidylcholine lipid that are known to form liquid-ordered, raft-like, domains. Our data reveal that the translational diffusion of local water on the surface and within the hydrocarbon volume of the bilayer is significantly altered, but in opposite directions: accelerated on the membrane surface and dramatically slowed in the bilayer interior with increasing Chol content. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) lineshape analysis shows looser packing of lipid headgroups and concurrently tighter packing in the bilayer core with increasing Chol content, with the effects peaking at lipid compositions reported to form lipid rafts. The complementary capability of ODNP and EPR to site-specifically probe the hydration dynamics and lipid ordering in lipid membrane systems extends the current understanding of how Chol may regulate biological processes. One possible role of Chol is the facilitation of interactions between biological constituents and the lipid membrane through the weakening or disruption of strong hydrogen-bond networks of the surface hydration layers that otherwise exert stronger repulsive forces, as reflected in faster surface water diffusivity. Another is the concurrent tightening of lipid packing that reduces passive, possibly unwanted, diffusion of ions and water across the bilayer.

  9. A Multigroup diffusion solver using pseudo transient continuation for a radiation-hydrodynamic code with patch-based AMR

    SciTech Connect

    Shestakov, A I; Offner, S R

    2006-09-21

    We present a scheme to solve the nonlinear multigroup radiation diffusion (MGD) equations. The method is incorporated into a massively parallel, multidimensional, Eulerian radiation-hydrodynamic code with adaptive mesh refinement (AMR). The patch-based AMR algorithm refines in both space and time creating a hierarchy of levels, coarsest to finest. The physics modules are time-advanced using operator splitting. On each level, separate 'level-solve' packages advance the modules. Our multigroup level-solve adapts an implicit procedure which leads to a two-step iterative scheme that alternates between elliptic solves for each group with intra-cell group coupling. For robustness, we introduce pseudo transient continuation ({Psi}tc). We analyze the magnitude of the {Psi}tc parameter to ensure positivity of the resulting linear system, diagonal dominance and convergence of the two-step scheme. For AMR, a level defines a subdomain for refinement. For diffusive processes such as MGD, the refined level uses Dirichet boundary data at the coarse-fine interface and the data is derived from the coarse level solution. After advancing on the fine level, an additional procedure, the sync-solve (SS), is required in order to enforce conservation. The MGD SS reduces to an elliptic solve on a combined grid for a system of G equations, where G is the number of groups. We adapt the 'partial temperature' scheme for the SS; hence, we reuse the infrastructure developed for scalar equations. Results are presented. We consider a multigroup test problem with a known analytic solution. We demonstrate utility of {Psi}tc by running with increasingly larger timesteps. Lastly, we simulate the sudden release of energy Y inside an Al sphere (r = 15 cm) suspended in air at STP. For Y = 11 kT, we find that gray radiation diffusion and MGD produce similar results. However, if Y = 1 MT, the two packages yield different results. Our large Y simulation contradicts a long-standing theory and demonstrates the inadequacy of gray diffusion.

  10. A Multigroup diffusion Solver Using Pseudo Transient Continuation for a Radiaiton-Hydrodynamic Code with Patch-Based AMR

    SciTech Connect

    Shestakov, A I; Offner, S R

    2007-03-02

    We present a scheme to solve the nonlinear multigroup radiation diffusion (MGD) equations. The method is incorporated into a massively parallel, multidimensional, Eulerian radiation-hydrodynamic code with adaptive mesh refinement (AMR). The patch-based AMR algorithm refines in both space and time creating a hierarchy of levels, coarsest to finest. The physics modules are time-advanced using operator splitting. On each level, separate 'level-solve' packages advance the modules. Our multigroup level-solve adapts an implicit procedure which leads to a two-step iterative scheme that alternates between elliptic solves for each group with intra-cell group coupling. For robustness, we introduce pseudo transient continuation ({Psi}tc). We analyze the magnitude of the {Psi}tc parameter to ensure positivity of the resulting linear system, diagonal dominance and convergence of the two-step scheme. For AMR, a level defines a subdomain for refinement. For diffusive processes such as MGD, the refined level uses Dirichet boundary data at the coarse-fine interface and the data is derived from the coarse level solution. After advancing on the fine level, an additional procedure, the sync-solve (SS), is required in order to enforce conservation. The MGD SS reduces to an elliptic solve on a combined grid for a system of G equations, where G is the number of groups. We adapt the 'partial temperature' scheme for the SS; hence, we reuse the infrastructure developed for scalar equations. Results are presented. We consider a multigroup test problem with a known analytic solution. We demonstrate utility of {Psi}tc by running with increasingly larger timesteps. Lastly, we simulate the sudden release of energy Y inside an Al sphere (r = 15 cm) suspended in air at STP. For Y = 11 kT, we find that gray radiation diffusion and MGD produce similar results. However, if Y = 1 MT, the two packages yield different results. Our large Y simulation contradicts a long-standing theory and demonstrates the inadequacy of gray diffusion.

  11. Canonical Wnt signaling transiently stimulates proliferation and enhances neurogenesis in neonatal neural progenitor cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Hirsch, Cordula; Campano, Louise M.; Woehrle, Simon; Hecht, Andreas . E-mail: andreas.hecht@mol-med.uni-freiburg.de

    2007-02-01

    Canonical Wnt signaling triggers the formation of heterodimeric transcription factor complexes consisting of {beta}-catenin and T cell factors, and thereby controls the execution of specific genetic programs. During the expansion and neurogenic phases of embryonic neural development canonical Wnt signaling initially controls proliferation of neural progenitor cells, and later neuronal differentiation. Whether Wnt growth factors affect neural progenitor cells postnatally is not known. Therefore, we have analyzed the impact of Wnt signaling on neural progenitors isolated from cerebral cortices of newborn mice. Expression profiling of pathway components revealed that these cells are fully equipped to respond to Wnt signals. However, Wnt pathway activation affected only a subset of neonatal progenitors and elicited a limited increase in proliferation and neuronal differentiation in distinct subsets of cells. Moreover, Wnt pathway activation only transiently stimulated S-phase entry but did not support long-term proliferation of progenitor cultures. The dampened nature of the Wnt response correlates with the predominant expression of inhibitory pathway components and the rapid actuation of negative feedback mechanisms. Interestingly, in differentiating cell cultures activation of canonical Wnt signaling reduced Hes1 and Hes5 expression suggesting that during postnatal neural development, Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling enhances neurogenesis from progenitor cells by interfering with Notch pathway activity.

  12. Transient Stability Enhancement of Power Systems by Lyapunov-Based Recurrent Neural Networks UPFC Controllers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Chia-Chi; Tsai, Hung-Chi; Chang, Wei-Neng

    A Lyapunov-based recurrent neural networks unified power flow controller (UPFC) is developed for improving transient stability of power systems. First, a simple UPFC dynamical model, composed of a controllable shunt susceptance on the shunt side and an ideal complex transformer on the series side, is utilized to analyze UPFC dynamical characteristics. Secondly, we study the control configuration of the UPFC with two major blocks: the primary control, and the supplementary control. The primary control is implemented by standard PI techniques when the power system is operated in a normal condition. The supplementary control will be effective only when the power system is subjected by large disturbances. We propose a new Lyapunov-based UPFC controller of the classical single-machine-infinite-bus system for damping enhancement. In order to consider more complicated detailed generator models, we also propose a Lyapunov-based adaptive recurrent neural network controller to deal with such model uncertainties. This controller can be treated as neural network approximations of Lyapunov control actions. In addition, this controller also provides online learning ability to adjust the corresponding weights with the back propagation algorithm built in the hidden layer. The proposed control scheme has been tested on two simple power systems. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed control strategy is very effective for suppressing power swing even under severe system conditions.

  13. Efficient text segmentation and adaptive color error diffusion for text enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Jae-Hyun; Park, Tae-Yong; Kim, Yun-Tae; Cho, Yang-Ho; Ha, Yeong-Ho

    2004-12-01

    This paper proposes an adaptive error diffusion algorithm for text enhancement followed by an efficient text segmentation that uses the maximum gradient difference (MGD). The gradients are calculated along with scan lines, then the MGD values are filled within a local window to merge text segments. If the value is above a threshold, the pixel is considered as potential text. Isolated segments are then eliminated in a non-text region filtering process. After the text segmentation, a conventional error diffusion method is applied to the background, while edge enhancement error diffusion is used for the text. Since it is inevitable that visually objectionable artifacts are generated when using two different halftoning algorithms, gradual dilation is proposed to minimize the boundary artifacts in the segmented text blocks before halftoning. Sharpening based on the gradually dilated text region (GDTR) then prevents the printing of successive dots around the text region boundaries. The method is extended to halftone color images to sharpen the text regions. The proposed adaptive error diffusion algorithm involves color halftoning that controls the amount of edge enhancement using a general error filter. However, edge enhancement unfortunately produces color distortion, as edge enhancement and color difference are trade-offs. The multiplicative edge enhancement parameters are selected based on the amount of edge sharpening and color difference. Plus, an additional error factor is introduced to reduce the dot elimination artifact generated by the edge enhancement error diffusion. In experiments, the text of a scanned image was sharper when using the proposed algorithm than with conventional error diffusion without changing the background.

  14. Efficient text segmentation and adaptive color error diffusion for text enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Jae-Hyun; Park, Tae-Yong; Kim, Yun-Tae; Cho, Yang-Ho; Ha, Yeong-Ho

    2005-01-01

    This paper proposes an adaptive error diffusion algorithm for text enhancement followed by an efficient text segmentation that uses the maximum gradient difference (MGD). The gradients are calculated along with scan lines, then the MGD values are filled within a local window to merge text segments. If the value is above a threshold, the pixel is considered as potential text. Isolated segments are then eliminated in a non-text region filtering process. After the text segmentation, a conventional error diffusion method is applied to the background, while edge enhancement error diffusion is used for the text. Since it is inevitable that visually objectionable artifacts are generated when using two different halftoning algorithms, gradual dilation is proposed to minimize the boundary artifacts in the segmented text blocks before halftoning. Sharpening based on the gradually dilated text region (GDTR) then prevents the printing of successive dots around the text region boundaries. The method is extended to halftone color images to sharpen the text regions. The proposed adaptive error diffusion algorithm involves color halftoning that controls the amount of edge enhancement using a general error filter. However, edge enhancement unfortunately produces color distortion, as edge enhancement and color difference are trade-offs. The multiplicative edge enhancement parameters are selected based on the amount of edge sharpening and color difference. Plus, an additional error factor is introduced to reduce the dot elimination artifact generated by the edge enhancement error diffusion. In experiments, the text of a scanned image was sharper when using the proposed algorithm than with conventional error diffusion without changing the background.

  15. Enhancement of crop photosynthesis by diffuse light: quantifying the contributing factors

    PubMed Central

    Li, T.; Heuvelink, E.; Dueck, T. A.; Janse, J.; Gort, G.; Marcelis, L. F. M.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Plants use diffuse light more efficiently than direct light. However, experimental comparisons between diffuse and direct light have been obscured by co-occurring differences in environmental conditions (e.g. light intensity). This study aims to analyse the factors that contribute to an increase in crop photosynthesis in diffuse light and to quantify their relative contribution under different levels of diffuseness at similar light intensities. The hypothesis is that the enhancement of crop photosynthesis in diffuse light results not only from the direct effects of more uniform vertical and horizontal light distribution in the crop canopy, but also from crop physiological and morphological acclimation. Methods Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) crops were grown in three greenhouse compartments that were covered by glass with different degrees of light diffuseness (0, 45 and 71 % of the direct light being converted into diffuse light) while maintaining similar light transmission. Measurements of horizontal and vertical photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) distribution in the crop, leaf photosynthesis light response curves and leaf area index (LAI) were used to quantify each factor's contribution to an increase in crop photosynthesis in diffuse light. In addition, leaf temperature, photoinhibition, and leaf biochemical and anatomical properties were studied. Key Results The highest degree of light diffuseness (71 %) increased the calculated crop photosynthesis by 7·2 %. This effect was mainly attributed to a more uniform horizontal (33 % of the total effect) and vertical PPFD distribution (21 %) in the crop. In addition, plants acclimated to the high level of diffuseness by gaining a higher photosynthetic capacity of leaves in the middle of the crop and a higher LAI, which contributed 23 and 13 %, respectively, to the total increase in crop photosynthesis in diffuse light. Moreover, diffuse light resulted in lower leaf temperatures and less photoinhibition at the top of the canopy when global irradiance was high. Conclusions Diffuse light enhanced crop photosynthesis. A more uniform horizontal PPFD distribution played the most important role in this enhancement, and a more uniform vertical PPFD distribution and higher leaf photosynthetic capacity contributed more to the enhancement of crop photosynthesis than did higher values of LAI. PMID:24782436

  16. Nonlinear multiscale wavelet diffusion for speckle suppression and edge enhancement in ultrasound images.

    PubMed

    Yue, Yong; Croitoru, Mihai M; Bidani, Akhil; Zwischenberger, Joseph B; Clark, John W

    2006-03-01

    This paper introduces a novel nonlinear multiscale wavelet diffusion method for ultrasound speckle suppression and edge enhancement. This method is designed to utilize the favorable denoising properties of two frequently used techniques: the sparsity and multiresolution properties of the wavelet, and the iterative edge enhancement feature of nonlinear diffusion. With fully exploited knowledge of speckle image models, the edges of images are detected using normalized wavelet modulus. Relying on this feature, both the envelope-detected speckle image and the log-compressed ultrasonic image can be directly processed by the algorithm without need for additional preprocessing. Speckle is suppressed by employing the iterative multiscale diffusion on the wavelet coefficients. With a tuning diffusion threshold strategy, the proposed method can improve the image quality for both visualization and auto-segmentation applications. We validate our method using synthetic speckle images and real ultrasonic images. Performance improvement over other despeckling filters is quantified in terms of noise suppression and edge preservation indices. PMID:16524086

  17. General treatment of paramagnetic relaxation enhancement associated with translational diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruk, D.; Kowalewski, J.

    2009-05-01

    A theory of nuclear spin relaxation in isotropic liquids for nuclear spins interacting with electron spins, residing in other molecules (the outer-sphere relaxation), is presented. The approach, valid outside of the Redfield limit for electron spin relaxation, is an extension of the Swedish slow motion theory [Benetis et al., Mol. Phys. 48, 329 (1983); Nilsson and Kowalewski, J. Magn. Reson. 146, 345 (2000)] for inner-sphere relaxation. It is demonstrated that the outer-sphere relaxation rate can be expressed as an integral of a product of a translational diffusion correlation function and a function analogous to the inner-sphere spectral density. A numerical implementation of the theory is described and applied to a large number of realistic parameter sets for S =7/2 and S =1, which may correspond to Gd(III) and Ni(II) systems. It is shown that the outer-sphere contribution is relevant and should be included into the analysis of nuclear magnetic relaxation dispersion relaxation profiles, especially for slow relative translational diffusion and fast molecular tumbling.

  18. Note: Using fast digitizer acquisition and flexible resolution to enhance noise cancellation for high performance nanosecond transient absorbance spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rimshaw, A.; Grieco, C.; Asbury, J. B.

    2015-06-01

    We demonstrate a nanosecond transient absorbance spectrometer that utilizes flexible resolution and rapid data acquisition triggering modes. The instrument features signal-to-noise (S/N) levels enhanced by an order of magnitude especially within the first 100 ns. The primary gain in S/N comes from our sequential subtraction method, which requires a fast digitizer trigger rearm time to detect every laser trigger event.

  19. Note: Using fast digitizer acquisition and flexible resolution to enhance noise cancellation for high performance nanosecond transient absorbance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Rimshaw, A; Grieco, C; Asbury, J B

    2015-06-01

    We demonstrate a nanosecond transient absorbance spectrometer that utilizes flexible resolution and rapid data acquisition triggering modes. The instrument features signal-to-noise (S/N) levels enhanced by an order of magnitude especially within the first 100 ns. The primary gain in S/N comes from our sequential subtraction method, which requires a fast digitizer trigger rearm time to detect every laser trigger event. PMID:26133882

  20. M3B2 and M5B3 Formation in Diffusion-Affected Zone During Transient Liquid Phase Bonding Single-Crystal Superalloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Naicheng; Hu, Xiaobing; Liu, Jide; Jin, Tao; Sun, Xiaofeng; Hu, Zhuangqi

    2015-04-01

    Precipitates in the diffusion-affected zone (DAZ) during transient liquid phase bonding (TLP) single-crystal superalloys were observed and investigated. Small size and dendritic-shaped precipitates were identified to be M3B2 borides and intergrowth of M3B2/M5B3 borides. The orientation relationships among M3B2, M5B3, and matrix were determined using transmission electron microscope (TEM). Composition characteristics of these borides were also analyzed by TEM energy-dispersive spectrometer. Because this precipitating phenomenon deviates from the traditional parabolic transient liquid phase bonding model which assumed a precipitates free DAZ during TLP bonding, some correlations between the deviation of the isothermal solidification kinetics and these newly observed precipitating behaviors were discussed and rationalized when bonding the interlayer containing the high diffusivity melting point depressant elements and substrates of low solubility.

  1. Cladding oxidation model development based on diffusion equations and a simulation of the monoclinic-tetragonal phase transformation of zirconia during transient oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xiaoqiang; Yu, Hongxing; Jiang, Guangming; Dang, Gaojian; Wu, Dan; Zhang, Yu

    2014-08-01

    Zircaloy cladding oxidation is mostly represented by parabolic rate correlation. But the correlation approach is not suitable for long-term isothermal oxidation [4] or oxidation occurs under steam starvation conditions [5] and cannot obtain the detailed oxygen distribution which impacts the detailed mechanical behavior. To obtain the detailed oxygen distribution, a multi-phase diffusion problem with moving boundaries was introduced to simulate the cladding oxidation [9,10]. However, the hysteresis phenomenon related to the coexistence of monoclinic-tetragonal phases of zirconia which are very important to model the cladding oxidation during a LOCA, is not analyzed. In this study, a cladding oxidation model based on diffusion equations in the temperature range from 923 K to 2098 K which contains ?-Zr, ?-Zr, monoclinic-ZrO2, tetragonal-ZrO2, and cubic-ZrO2 is developed and the detailed oxygen distribution in the cladding could be obtained. It showed that the simulations of short-term and long-term isothermal oxidation, transient oxidation, and oxidation under steam starvation conditions were reasonable through comparing with the experimental data. We found that our model can give a reasonable simulation of the hysteresis phenomenon of monoclinic-tetragonal phase transformation during transient oxidation as well as a much better simulation of the hypothetical LOCA transient oxidation experiments [11] in ORNL than that by the code based on the parabolic rate correlation. This indicates that the developed model can accurately simulate the cladding oxidation during a LOCA transient.

  2. Enhanced ionic diffusion in ionomer-filled nanopores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allahyarov, Elshad; Taylor, Philip L.; Löwen, Hartmut

    2015-12-01

    Coarse-grained simulations in the united-atom-model approximation are used to investigate confinement-induced morphological changes in Nafion-like ionomers. The system we study models a cylindrical pore in a hydrophobic matrix of supporting material with pore diameters that vary from 0.7 to 3.96 nm. Simulation results indicate a strong dependence of the equilibrium ionomer structures both on the pore diameter and on the sulfonate concentration in the pore. In the case of larger pores, the ionic clustering has the shape of a branched wire-like network oriented parallel to the pore axis. In the case of narrow pores, the ionic clusters occupy the pore center and exhibit strong density modulations both along the pore axis and across the pore diameter. The calculated diffusion coefficients for the ions indicate a sharp increase within the narrow pores. This finding is explained by ballistic-type ionic motion at shorter times and by the collective motion of ions in hydrophilic clusters. The influence of the hydrophobic walls on the distribution of ions and solvent molecules is discussed.

  3. Short-Term Increases in Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid-1 Mediate Stress-Induced Enhancement of Neuronal Excitation

    PubMed Central

    Weitlauf, Carl; Ward, Nicholas J.; Lambert, Wendi S.; Sidorova, Tatiana N.; Ho, Karen W.; Sappington, Rebecca M.

    2014-01-01

    Progression of neurodegeneration in disease and injury is influenced by the response of individual neurons to stressful stimuli and whether this response includes mechanisms to counter declining function. Transient receptor potential (TRP) cation channels transduce a variety of disease-relevant stimuli and can mediate diverse stress-dependent changes in physiology, both presynaptic and postsynaptic. Recently, we demonstrated that knock-out or pharmacological inhibition of the TRP vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) capsaicin-sensitive subunit accelerates degeneration of retinal ganglion cell neurons and their axons with elevated ocular pressure, the critical stressor in the most common optic neuropathy, glaucoma. Here we probed the mechanism of the influence of TRPV1 on ganglion cell survival in mouse models of glaucoma. We found that induced elevations of ocular pressure increased TRPV1 in ganglion cells and its colocalization at excitatory synapses to their dendrites, whereas chronic elevation progressively increased ganglion cell Trpv1 mRNA. Enhanced TRPV1 expression in ganglion cells was transient and supported a reversal of the effect of TRPV1 on ganglion cells from hyperpolarizing to depolarizing, which was also transient. Short-term enhancement of TRPV1-mediated activity led to a delayed increase in axonal spontaneous excitation that was absent in ganglion cells from Trpv1?/? retina. In isolated ganglion cells, pharmacologically activated TRPV1 mobilized to discrete nodes along ganglion cell dendrites that corresponded to sites of elevated Ca2+. These results suggest that TRPV1 may promote retinal ganglion cell survival through transient enhancement of local excitation and axonal activity in response to ocular stress. PMID:25392504

  4. Short-term increases in transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 mediate stress-induced enhancement of neuronal excitation.

    PubMed

    Weitlauf, Carl; Ward, Nicholas J; Lambert, Wendi S; Sidorova, Tatiana N; Ho, Karen W; Sappington, Rebecca M; Calkins, David J

    2014-11-12

    Progression of neurodegeneration in disease and injury is influenced by the response of individual neurons to stressful stimuli and whether this response includes mechanisms to counter declining function. Transient receptor potential (TRP) cation channels transduce a variety of disease-relevant stimuli and can mediate diverse stress-dependent changes in physiology, both presynaptic and postsynaptic. Recently, we demonstrated that knock-out or pharmacological inhibition of the TRP vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) capsaicin-sensitive subunit accelerates degeneration of retinal ganglion cell neurons and their axons with elevated ocular pressure, the critical stressor in the most common optic neuropathy, glaucoma. Here we probed the mechanism of the influence of TRPV1 on ganglion cell survival in mouse models of glaucoma. We found that induced elevations of ocular pressure increased TRPV1 in ganglion cells and its colocalization at excitatory synapses to their dendrites, whereas chronic elevation progressively increased ganglion cell Trpv1 mRNA. Enhanced TRPV1 expression in ganglion cells was transient and supported a reversal of the effect of TRPV1 on ganglion cells from hyperpolarizing to depolarizing, which was also transient. Short-term enhancement of TRPV1-mediated activity led to a delayed increase in axonal spontaneous excitation that was absent in ganglion cells from Trpv1(-/-) retina. In isolated ganglion cells, pharmacologically activated TRPV1 mobilized to discrete nodes along ganglion cell dendrites that corresponded to sites of elevated Ca(2+). These results suggest that TRPV1 may promote retinal ganglion cell survival through transient enhancement of local excitation and axonal activity in response to ocular stress. PMID:25392504

  5. Evidence from simultaneous intracellular- and surface-pH transients that carbonic anhydrase IV enhances CO2 fluxes across Xenopus oocyte plasma membranes.

    PubMed

    Musa-Aziz, Raif; Occhipinti, Rossana; Boron, Walter F

    2014-11-01

    Human carbonic anhydrase IV (CA IV) is GPI-anchored to the outer membrane surface, catalyzing CO2/HCO3 (-) hydration-dehydration. We examined effects of heterologously expressed CA IV on intracellular-pH (pHi) and surface-pH (pHS) transients caused by exposing oocytes to CO2/HCO3 (-)/pH 7.50. CO2 influx causes a sustained pHi fall and a transient pHS rise; CO2 efflux does the opposite. Both during CO2 addition and removal, CA IV increases magnitudes of maximal rate of pHi change (dpHi/dt)max, and maximal pHS change (?pHS) and decreases time constants for pHi changes (?pHi ) and pHS relaxations (?pHS ). Decreases in time constants indicate that CA IV enhances CO2 fluxes. Extracellular acetazolamide blocks all CA IV effects, but not those of injected CA II. Injected acetazolamide partially reduces CA IV effects. Thus, extracellular CA is required for, and the equivalent of cytosol-accessible CA augments, the effects of CA IV. Increasing the concentration of the extracellular non-CO2/HCO3 (-) buffer (i.e., HEPES), in the presence of extracellular CA or at high [CO2], accelerates CO2 influx. Simultaneous measurements with two pHS electrodes, one on the oocyte meridian perpendicular to the axis of flow and one downstream from the direction of extracellular-solution flow, reveal that the downstream electrode has a larger (i.e., slower) ?pHS , indicating [CO2] asymmetry over the oocyte surface. A reaction-diffusion mathematical model (third paper in series) accounts for the above general features, and supports the conclusion that extracellular CA, which replenishes entering CO2 or consumes exiting CO2 at the extracellular surface, enhances the gradient driving CO2 influx across the cell membrane. PMID:24965590

  6. Major mouse placental compartments revealed by diffusion-weighted MRI, contrast-enhanced MRI, and

    E-print Network

    Frydman, Lucio

    Major mouse placental compartments revealed by diffusion-weighted MRI, contrast-enhanced MRI, 2014 (received for review January 27, 2014) Mammalian models, and mouse studies in particular, play, the unavoidable motions, and the challenging air/water/fat heteroge- neities, associated with mouse placental

  7. Proton diffusion along the membrane surface of thylakoids is not enhanced over that in bulk water

    E-print Network

    Junge, Wolfgang

    Proton diffusion along the membrane surface of thylakoids is not enhanced over that in bulk water synthesis is powered by a transmembrane protonmotive force. Membrane bound proton pumps and proton translocating ATPsynthases are coupled by lateral proton flow. Whether it leads through the aqueous bulk phases

  8. Enhanced Diffusion by Reciprocal Swimming Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California San Diego,

    E-print Network

    Lauga, Eric

    Enhanced Diffusion by Reciprocal Swimming Eric Lauga Department of Mechanical and Aerospace) cannot swim. Using numerical simulations and theoretical calculations we show here that, in a fluctuating of microns) to create fluid- based locomotion [3]. In contrast, ciliated microorganisms swim by using

  9. Analysis of model equations for stress-enhanced diffusion in coal

    E-print Network

    Segatti, Antonio

    Analysis of model equations for stress-enhanced diffusion in coal layers Andro Mikeli´c Andro coal seams. A typical procedure is the injection of carbon dioxide via deviated wells drilled inside the coal seams. Carbon dioxide displaces the methane adsorbed on the internal surface of the coal

  10. Effects of low-dose Si implantation damage on diffusion of phosphorus and arsenic in Si

    E-print Network

    Florida, University of

    Effects of low-dose Si implantation damage on diffusion of phosphorus and arsenic in Si Heemyong of defects.In the caseof arsenic,previous resultscontradict eachother. Someresearchersshowedini- tial transient enhanced diffusion of arsenic during RTA,13*14while others observedno initial transient,15or only

  11. Obstruction enhances the diffusivity of self-propelled rod-like particles

    E-print Network

    Hamidreza Khalilian; Hossein Fazli

    2015-08-09

    Diffusion of self-propelled particles in the presence of randomly distributed obstacles in three dimensions is studied using molecular dynamics simulations. It is found that depending on the magnitude of the propelling force and the particle aspect ratio, the diffusion coefficient can be a monotonically decreasing or a non-monotonic concave function of the obstructed volume fraction. Counterintuitive enhancement of the particle diffusivity with increasing the obstacles crowd is shown to be a combinatory effect of the self-propelling force and the anisotropy in the shape of the particle. Regions corresponding to monotonic and non-monotonic dependence of the particle diffusivity on the obstacle density in propelling force-aspect ratio plane are specified theoretically and using the simulation results.

  12. Transient enhanced diffusion without ^311 defects in low energy -implanted silicon

    E-print Network

    Florida, University of

    microscopy TEM and secondary ion mass spectrometry SIMS. Czochralski-grown 100 Si wafers were implanted, 8­20 cm, Czochralski-grown Si wa- fers. The samples were implanted with 11 B at 4 keV to a dose

  13. Application of a combined superconducting fault current limiter and STATCOM to enhancement of power system transient stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahdad, Belkacem; Srairi, K.

    2013-12-01

    Stable and reliable operation of the power system network is dependent on the dynamic equilibrium between energy production and power demand under large disturbance such as short circuit or important line tripping. This paper investigates the use of combined model based superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) and shunt FACTS Controller (STATCOM) for assessing the transient stability of a power system considering the automatic voltage regulator. The combined model located at a specified branch based on voltage stability index using continuation power flow. The main role of the proposed combined model is to achieve simultaneously a flexible control of reactive power using STATCOM Controller and to reduce fault current using superconducting technology based SFCL. The proposed combined model has been successfully adapted within the transient stability program and applied to enhance the transient power system stability of the WSCC9-Bus system. Critical clearing time (CCT) has been used as an index to evaluate and validate the contribution of the proposed coordinated Controller. Simulation results confirm the effectiveness and perspective of this combined Controller to enhance the dynamic power system performances.

  14. A scale-based forward-and-backward diffusion process for adaptive image enhancement and denoising

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yi; Niu, Ruiqing; Zhang, Liangpei; Wu, Ke; Sahli, Hichem

    2011-12-01

    This work presents a scale-based forward-and-backward diffusion (SFABD) scheme. The main idea of this scheme is to perform local adaptive diffusion using local scale information. To this end, we propose a diffusivity function based on the Minimum Reliable Scale (MRS) of Elder and Zucker (IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 20(7), 699-716, 1998) to detect the details of local structures. The magnitude of the diffusion coefficient at each pixel is determined by taking into account the local property of the image through the scales. A scale-based variable weight is incorporated into the diffusivity function for balancing the forward and backward diffusion. Furthermore, as numerical scheme, we propose a modification of the Perona-Malik scheme (IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell. 12(7), 629-639, 1990) by incorporating edge orientations. The article describes the main principles of our method and illustrates image enhancement results on a set of standard images as well as simulated medical images, together with qualitative and quantitative comparisons with a variety of anisotropic diffusion schemes.

  15. POZylation: a new approach to enhance nanoparticle diffusion through mucosal barriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansfield, Edward D. H.; Sillence, Katy; Hole, Patrick; Williams, Adrian C.; Khutoryanskiy, Vitaliy V.

    2015-08-01

    The increasing use of nanoparticles in the pharmaceutical industry is generating concomitant interest in developing nanomaterials that can rapidly penetrate into, and permeate through, biological membranes to facilitate drug delivery and improve the bioavailability of active pharmaceutical ingredients. Here, we demonstrate that the permeation of thiolated silica nanoparticles through porcine gastric mucosa can be significantly enhanced by their functionalization with either 5 kDa poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline) or poly(ethylene glycol). Nanoparticle diffusion was assessed using two independent techniques; Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis, and fluorescence microscopy. Our results show that poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline) and poly(ethylene glycol) have comparable abilities to enhance diffusion of silica nanoparticles in mucin dispersions and through the gastric mucosa. These findings provide a new strategy in the design of nanomedicines, by surface modification or nanoparticle core construction, for enhanced transmucosal drug delivery.The increasing use of nanoparticles in the pharmaceutical industry is generating concomitant interest in developing nanomaterials that can rapidly penetrate into, and permeate through, biological membranes to facilitate drug delivery and improve the bioavailability of active pharmaceutical ingredients. Here, we demonstrate that the permeation of thiolated silica nanoparticles through porcine gastric mucosa can be significantly enhanced by their functionalization with either 5 kDa poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline) or poly(ethylene glycol). Nanoparticle diffusion was assessed using two independent techniques; Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis, and fluorescence microscopy. Our results show that poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline) and poly(ethylene glycol) have comparable abilities to enhance diffusion of silica nanoparticles in mucin dispersions and through the gastric mucosa. These findings provide a new strategy in the design of nanomedicines, by surface modification or nanoparticle core construction, for enhanced transmucosal drug delivery. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr03178h

  16. Differentiation of Reactive and Tumor Metastatic Lymph Nodes with Diffusion-weighted and SPIO Enhanced MRI

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fan; Zhu, Lei; Huang, Xinglu; Niu, Gang; Chen, Siouan

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Determination of lymphatic metastasis is of great importance for both treatment planning and patient prognosis. We aim to distinguish tumor metastatic lymph nodes (TLNs) and reactive lymph nodes (RLNs) with diffusion-weighted and superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Materials and methods Ipsilateral popliteal lymph node metastasis or lymphadenitis model was established by hock injection of either luciferase-expressing 4T1 murine breast cancer cells or Complete Freund Adjuvant (CFA) in male Balb/C mice. At different time points after inoculation, bioluminescence imaging, T2-weighted, diffusion-weighted and SPIO enhanced MRI were performed. Imaging findings were confirmed by histopathological staining. Results Size enlargement was observed in both TLNs and RLNs. At day 28, TLNs showed strong bioluminescence signal and bigger size than RLNs (p < 0.01). At early stages up to day 21, both TLNs and RLNs appeared homogeneous on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). At day 28, TLNs showed heterogeneous apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) map with significantly higher average ADC value of 0.41 ± 0.03 × 10?3 mm2/s than that of RLNs (0.34 ± 0.02 10?3 mm2/s, p < 0.05). On SPIO enhanced MRI, both TLNs and RLNs showed distinct T2 signal reduction at day 21 after inoculation. At day 28, TLNs demonstrated partial uptake of the iron oxide particles, which was confirmed by Prussian blue staining. Conclusions Both diffusion-weighted and SPIO enhanced MRI can distinguish tumor metastatic lymph nodes from reactive lymph nodes. However, neither method is able to detect tumor metastasis to the draining lymph nodes at early stages. PMID:22588595

  17. NESTLE: Few-group neutron diffusion equation solver utilizing the nodal expansion method for eigenvalue, adjoint, fixed-source steady-state and transient problems

    SciTech Connect

    Turinsky, P.J.; Al-Chalabi, R.M.K.; Engrand, P.; Sarsour, H.N.; Faure, F.X.; Guo, W.

    1994-06-01

    NESTLE is a FORTRAN77 code that solves the few-group neutron diffusion equation utilizing the Nodal Expansion Method (NEM). NESTLE can solve the eigenvalue (criticality); eigenvalue adjoint; external fixed-source steady-state; or external fixed-source. or eigenvalue initiated transient problems. The code name NESTLE originates from the multi-problem solution capability, abbreviating Nodal Eigenvalue, Steady-state, Transient, Le core Evaluator. The eigenvalue problem allows criticality searches to be completed, and the external fixed-source steady-state problem can search to achieve a specified power level. Transient problems model delayed neutrons via precursor groups. Several core properties can be input as time dependent. Two or four energy groups can be utilized, with all energy groups being thermal groups (i.e. upscatter exits) if desired. Core geometries modelled include Cartesian and Hexagonal. Three, two and one dimensional models can be utilized with various symmetries. The non-linear iterative strategy associated with the NEM method is employed. An advantage of the non-linear iterative strategy is that NSTLE can be utilized to solve either the nodal or Finite Difference Method representation of the few-group neutron diffusion equation.

  18. Determination of Thermal Diffusivities, Thermal Conductivities, and Sound Speeds of Room-Temperature Ionic Liquids by the Transient Grating Technique

    E-print Network

    Reid, Scott A.

    Determination of Thermal Diffusivities, Thermal Conductivities, and Sound Speeds of Room. The experiments give thermal diffusivities from which thermal conductivities can be determined, sound speeds to decreases in the sound speed, thermal diffusivity, and thermal conductivity. The size of the cation, however

  19. Enhanced nitrogen removal in single-chamber microbial fuel cells with increased gas diffusion areas.

    PubMed

    Yan, Hengjing; Regan, John M

    2013-03-01

    Single-chamber microbial fuel cells (MFCs) with nitrifiers pre-enriched at the air cathodes have previously been demonstrated as a passive strategy for integrating nitrogen removal into current-generating bioelectrochemical systems. To further define system design parameters for this strategy, we investigated in this study the effects of oxygen diffusion area and COD/N ratio in continuous-flow reactors. Doubling the gas diffusion area by adding an additional air cathode or a diffusion cloth significantly increased the ammonia and COD removal rates (by up to 115% and 39%), ammonia removal efficiency (by up to 134%), the cell voltage and cathode potentials, and the power densities (by a factor of approximately 2). When the COD/N ratio was lowered from 13 to 3, we found up to 244% higher ammonia removal rate but at least 19% lower ammonia removal efficiency. An increase of COD removal rate by up to 27% was also found when the COD/N ratio was lowered from 11 to 3. The Coulombic efficiency was not affected by the additional air cathode, but decreased by an average of 11% with the addition of a diffusion cloth. Ammonia removal by assimilation was also estimated to understand the ammonia removal mechanism in these systems. These results showed that the doubling of gas diffusion area enhanced N and COD removal rates without compromising electrochemical performance. PMID:23097182

  20. Effects of Pulse Current on Transient Liquid Phase (TLP) Diffusion Bonding of SiCp/2024Al Composites Sheet Using Mixed Al, Cu, and Ti Powder Interlayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bo; Jiang, Shaosong; Zhang, Kaifeng

    2012-09-01

    The effects of pulse current on transient liquid phase (TLP) diffusion bonding of SiCp/2024Al composites sheet were investigated at 853 K (580 °C) using a mixed slurry of Al, Cu, and Ti powder interlayer. The process parameters were as follows: the pulse current density of 1.15 × 102 A/mm2, the original pressure of 0.5 MPa, the vacuum of 1.3 × 10-3 Pa, and the bonding time from 15 to 60 minutes. Moreover, the bonding mechanism in correlation with the microstructural and mechanical properties variation was analyzed.

  1. Assessing the accuracy of 1-D analytical heat tracing for estimating near-surface sediment thermal diffusivity and water flux under transient conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rau, Gabriel C.; Cuthbert, Mark O.; McCallum, Andrew M.; Halloran, Landon J. S.; Andersen, Martin S.

    2015-08-01

    Amplitude decay and phase delay of oscillating temperature records measured at two vertical locations in near-surface sediments can be used to infer water fluxes, thermal diffusivity, and sediment scour/deposition. While methods that rely on the harmonics-based analytical heat transport solution assume a steady state water flux, many applications have reported transient fluxes but ignored the possible violation of this assumption in the method. Here we use natural heat tracing as an example to investigate the extent to which changes in the water flux, and associated temperature signal nonstationarity, can be separated from other influences. We systematically scrutinize the assumption of steady state flow in analytical heat tracing and test the capabilities of the method to detect the timing and magnitude of flux transients. A numerical model was used to synthesize the temperature response to different step and ramp changes in advective thermal velocity magnitude and direction for both a single-frequency and multifrequency temperature boundary. Time-variable temperature amplitude and phase information were extracted from the model output with different signal-processing methods. We show that a worst-case transient flux induces a temperature nonstationarity, the duration of which is less than 1 cycle for realistic sediment thermal diffusivities between 0.02 and 0.13 m2/d. However, common signal-processing methods introduce erroneous temporal spreading of advective thermal velocities and significant anomalies in thermal diffusivities or sensor spacing, which is used as an analogue for streambed scour/deposition. The most time-variant spectral filter can introduce errors of up to 57% in velocity and 33% in thermal diffusivity values with artifacts spanning ±2 days around the occurrence of rapid changes in flux. Further, our results show that analytical heat tracing is unable to accurately resolve highly time-variant fluxes and thermal diffusivities and does not allow for the inference of scour/depositional processes due to the limitations of signal processing in disentangling flux-related signal nonstationarities from those stemming from other sources. To prevent erroneous interpretations, hydrometric data should always be acquired in combination with temperature records.

  2. Enhanced thrust and speed revealed in the forward flight of a butterfly with transient body translation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fei, Yueh-Han John; Yang, Jing-Tang

    2015-09-01

    A butterfly with broad wings, flapping at a small frequency, flies an erratic trajectory at an inconstant speed. A large variation of speed within a cycle is observed in the forward flight of a butterfly. A self-propulsion model to simulate a butterfly is thus created to investigate the transient translation of the body; the results, which are in accordance with experimental data, show that the shape of the variation of the flight speed is similar to a sinusoidal wave with a maximum (J =0.89 ) at the beginning of the downstroke, and a decrease to a minimum (J =0.17 ) during a transition from downstroke to upstroke; the difference between the extrema of the flight speed is enormous in a flapping cycle. At a high speed, a clapping motion of the butterfly wings decreases the generation of drag. At a small speed, a butterfly is able to capture the induced wakes generated in a downstroke, and effectively generates a thrust at the beginning of an upstroke. The wing motion of a butterfly skillfully interacts with its speed so as to enable an increased speed with the same motion. Considering a butterfly to fly in a constant inflow leads to either an underestimate of its speed or an overestimate of its generated lift, which yields an inaccurate interpretation of the insect's flight. Our results reveal the effect of transient translation on a butterfly in forward flight, which is especially important for an insect with a small flapping frequency.

  3. Gradual Diffusion and Punctuated Phase Space Density Enhancements of Highly Relativistic Electrons: Van Allen Probes Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baker, D. N.; Jaynes, A. N.; Li, X.; Henderson, M. G.; Kanekal, S. G.; Reeves, G. D.; Spence, H. E.; Claudepierre, S. G.; Fennell, J. F.; Hudson, M. K.

    2014-01-01

    The dual-spacecraft Van Allen Probes mission has provided a new window into mega electron volt (MeV) particle dynamics in the Earth's radiation belts. Observations (up to E (is) approximately 10MeV) show clearly the behavior of the outer electron radiation belt at different timescales: months-long periods of gradual inward radial diffusive transport and weak loss being punctuated by dramatic flux changes driven by strong solar wind transient events. We present analysis of multi-MeV electron flux and phase space density (PSD) changes during March 2013 in the context of the first year of Van Allen Probes operation. This March period demonstrates the classic signatures both of inward radial diffusive energization and abrupt localized acceleration deep within the outer Van Allen zone (L (is) approximately 4.0 +/- 0.5). This reveals graphically that both 'competing' mechanisms of multi-MeV electron energization are at play in the radiation belts, often acting almost concurrently or at least in rapid succession.

  4. An extended convection diffusion model for red blood cell-enhanced transport of thrombocytes and leukocytes

    PubMed Central

    Hund, S J; Antaki, J F

    2011-01-01

    Transport phenomena of platelets and white blood cells (WBCs) are fundamental to the processes of vascular disease and thrombosis. Unfortunately, the dilute volume occupied by these cells is not amenable to fluid-continuum modeling, and yet the cell count is large enough that modeling each individual cell is impractical for most applications. The most feasible option is to treat them as dilute species governed by convection and diffusion; however, this is further complicated by the role of the red blood cell (RBC) phase on the transport of these cells. We therefore propose an extended convection–diffusion (ECD) model based on the diffusive balance of a fictitious field potential, ?, that accounts for the gradients of both the dilute phase and the local hematocrit. The ECD model was applied to the flow of blood in a tube and between parallel plates in which a profile for the RBC concentration field was imposed and the resulting platelet concentration field predicted. Compared to prevailing enhanced-diffusion models that dispersed the platelet concentration field, the ECD model was able to simulate a near-wall platelet excess, as observed experimentally. The extension of the ECD model depends only on the ability to prescribe the hematocrit distribution, and therefore may be applied to a wide variety of geometries to investigate platelet-mediated vascular disease and device-related thrombosis. PMID:19809124

  5. Multispecies diffusion models: A study of uranyl species diffusion

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Chongxuan; Shang, Jianying; Zachara, John M.

    2011-12-14

    Rigorous numerical description of multi-species diffusion requires coupling of species, charge, and aqueous and surface complexation reactions that collectively affect diffusive fluxes. The applicability of a fully coupled diffusion model is, however, often constrained by the availability of species self-diffusion coefficients, as well as by computational complication for imposing charge conservation. In this study, several diffusion models with variable complexity in charge and species coupling were formulated and compared to describe reactive multi-species diffusion in groundwater. Diffusion of uranyl [U(VI)] species was used as an example in demonstrating the effectiveness of the models in describing multi-species diffusion. Numerical simulations found that a diffusion model with a single, common diffusion coefficient for all species was sufficient to describe multi-species U(VI) diffusion under steady-state condition of major chemical composition, but not under transient chemical conditions. Simulations revealed that a fully coupled diffusion model can be well approximated by a component-based diffusion model, which considers difference in diffusion coefficients between chemical components, but not between the species within each chemical component. This treatment significantly enhanced computational efficiency at the expense of minor charge conservation. The charge balance in the component-based diffusion model can be rigorously enforced, if necessary, by adding an artificial kinetic reaction term induced by the charge separation. The diffusion models were applied to describe U(VI) diffusive mass transfer in intragranular domains in two sediments collected from US Department of Energy's Hanford 300A where intragrain diffusion is a rate-limiting process controlling U(VI) adsorption and desorption. The grain-scale reactive diffusion model was able to describe U(VI) adsorption/desorption kinetics that has been described using a semi-empirical, multi-rate model. Compared with the multi-rate model, the diffusion models have the advantage to provide spatiotemporal speciation evolution within the diffusion domains.

  6. Transient Electrochemical Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy: A Millisecond Time-Resolved Study of an Electrochemical Redox Process.

    PubMed

    Zong, Cheng; Chen, Chan-Juan; Zhang, Meng; Wu, De-Yin; Ren, Bin

    2015-09-16

    The pursuit of techniques with a high time resolution together with molecular signature information at the electrochemical interfaces has never stopped in order to explicitly monitor and understand the dynamic electrochemical processes. Here, we developed a transient electrochemical surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TEC-SERS) to monitor the structural evolution of surface species at a time resolution that equals the transient electrochemical methods (e.g., cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry), so that the Raman signal with the molecular signature information and the electrochemical current signal can be precisely correlated. The technique was employed to study the redox process of nile blue on Ag surfaces. We revealed an interesting two-rate constant process and a peculiar increase of the absolute intensity during the reduction of nile blue on the Ag surface, which both related to the dissociation of nile blue aggregates and the follow-up reduction. Therefore, we were able to uncover the processes that are impossible to observe by conventional steady state SERS methods. The ability to provide a time resolution shorter than the charging time of the double layer capacitance with molecular fingerprint information has unprecedented significance for investigation of both reversible and irreversible electrochemical processes. PMID:26325244

  7. Entropy-driven enhanced self-diffusion in confined reentrant supernematics

    E-print Network

    Marco G. Mazza; Manuel Greschek; Rustem Valiullin; Jörg Kärger; Martin Schoen

    2010-10-31

    We present a molecular dynamics study of reentrant nematic phases using the Gay-Berne-Kihara model of a liquid crystal in nanoconfinement. At densities above those characteristic of smectic A phases, reentrant nematic phases form that are characterized by a large value of the nematic order parameter $S\\simeq1$. Along the nematic director these "supernematic" phases exhibit a remarkably high self-diffusivity which exceeds that for ordinary, lower-density nematic phases by an order of magnitude. Enhancement of self-diffusivity is attributed to a decrease of rotational configurational entropy in confinement. Recent developments in the pulsed field gradient NMR technique are shown to provide favorable conditions for an experimental confirmation of our simulations.

  8. Quantification and normalization of noise variance with sparsity regularization to enhance diffuse optical tomography

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Jixing; Tian, Fenghua; Rakvongthai, Yothin; Oraintara, Soontorn; Liu, Hanli

    2015-01-01

    Conventional reconstruction of diffuse optical tomography (DOT) is based on the Tikhonov regularization and the white Gaussian noise assumption. Consequently, the reconstructed DOT images usually have a low spatial resolution. In this work, we have derived a novel quantification method for noise variance based on the linear Rytov approximation of the photon diffusion equation. Specifically, we have implemented this quantification of noise variance to normalize the measurement signals from all source-detector channels along with sparsity regularization to provide high-quality DOT images. Multiple experiments from computer simulations and laboratory phantoms were performed to validate and support the newly developed algorithm. The reconstructed images demonstrate that quantification and normalization of noise variance with sparsity regularization (QNNVSR) is an effective reconstruction approach to greatly enhance the spatial resolution and the shape fidelity for DOT images. Since noise variance can be estimated by our derived expression with relatively limited resources available, this approach is practically useful for many DOT applications. PMID:26309760

  9. Entropy-Driven Enhanced Self-Diffusion in Confined Reentrant Supernematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazza, Marco G.; Greschek, Manuel; Valiullin, Rustem; Kärger, Jörg; Schoen, Martin

    2010-11-01

    We present a molecular dynamics study of reentrant nematic phases using the Gay-Berne-Kihara model of a liquid crystal in nanoconfinement. At densities above those characteristic of smectic A phases, reentrant nematic phases form that are characterized by a large value of the nematic order parameter S?1. Along the nematic director these “supernematic” phases exhibit a remarkably high self-diffusivity, which exceeds that for ordinary, lower-density nematic phases by an order of magnitude. Enhancement of self-diffusivity is attributed to a decrease of rotational configurational entropy in confinement. Recent developments in the pulsed field gradient NMR technique are shown to provide favorable conditions for an experimental confirmation of our simulations.

  10. Speech Enhancement Using a Square Microphone Array in the Presence of Directional and Diffuse Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, Tetsuji; Takada, Shintaro; Akagiri, Kenzo; Kobayashi, Tetsunori

    We propose a new speech enhancement method suitable for mobile devices used in the presence of various types of noise. In order to achieve high-performance speech recognition and auditory perception in mobile devices, various types of noise have to be removed under the constraints of a space-saving microphone arrangement and few computational resources. The proposed method can reduce both the directional noise and the diffuse noise under the abovementioned constraints for mobile devices by employing a square microphone array and conducting low-computational-cost processing that consists of multiple null beamforming, minimum power channel selection, and Wiener filtering. The effectiveness of the proposed method is experimentally verified in terms of speech recognition accuracy and speech quality when both the directional noise and the diffuse noise are observed simultaneously; this method reduces the number of word errors and improves the log-spectral distances as compared to conventional methods.

  11. 1,25 (OH)2D3 enhances PTH-induced Ca2+ transients in preosteoblasts by activating L-type Ca2+ channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, W.; Duncan, R. L.; Karin, N. J.; Farach-Carson, M. C.

    1997-01-01

    We previously demonstrated electrophysiologically that 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3] shifts the activation threshold of L-type Ca2+ channels in osteoblasts toward the resting potential and prolongs mean open time. Presently, we used single-cell Ca2+ imaging to study the combined effects of 1,25(OH)2D3 and parathyroid hormone (PTH) during generation of Ca2+ transients in fura 2-loaded MC3T3-E1 cells. Pretreatment with 1,25(OH)2D3 concentrations, which alone did not produce Ca2+ transients, consistently enhanced Ca2+ responses to PTH. Enhancement was dose dependent over the range of 1 to 10 nM and was blocked by pretreatment with 5 microM nitrendipine during pretreatment. A 1,25(OH)2D3 analog that activates L-type channels and shifts their activation threshold also enhanced PTH responses. In contrast, an analog devoid of membrane Ca2+ effects did not enhance PTH-induced Ca2+ transients. The PTH-induced Ca2+ transient involved activation of a dihydropyridine-insensitive cation channel that was inhibited by Gd3+. Together, these data suggest that 1,25(OH)2D3 increases osteoblast responsiveness to PTH through rapid modification of L-type Ca2+ channel gating properties, whose activation enhances Ca2+ entry through other channels such as the PTH-responsive, Gd(3+)-sensitive cation channel.

  12. Absorption enhancement and carrier diffusion in single lead sulfide nanowire Schottky solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yiming; Peng, Xingyue; Hyatt, Steven; Yu, Dong

    2015-08-01

    Semiconductor nanowire (NW) solar cells have promising potentials in solar energy conversion, benefiting from their low fabrication cost and enhanced optical absorption through light confinement. Recently, we have shown that the absorption efficiency can be significantly improved in lead sulfide (PbS) NWs with high refractive indices, by a direct observation of 350% external quantum efficiency (EQE). In this proceeding paper, we further examine the optical resonance mechanism in this promising nanomaterial. Particularly, we will present our recent results on resonance modes calculation, polarization and substrate effects on optical resonance, and intensity dependent minority carrier diffusion lengths in single PbS NW Schottky junction solar cells.

  13. Multispecies diffusion models: A study of uranyl species diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chongxuan; Shang, Jianying; Zachara, John M.

    2011-12-01

    Rigorous numerical description of multispecies diffusion requires coupling of species, charge, and aqueous and surface complexation reactions that collectively affect diffusive fluxes. The applicability of a fully coupled diffusion model is, however, often constrained by the availability of species self-diffusion coefficients, as well as by computational complication in imposing charge conservation. In this study, several diffusion models with variable complexity in charge and species coupling were formulated and compared to describe reactive multispecies diffusion in groundwater. Diffusion of uranyl [U(VI)] species was used as an example in demonstrating the effectiveness of the models in describing multispecies diffusion. Numerical simulations found that a diffusion model with a single, common diffusion coefficient for all species was sufficient to describe multispecies U(VI) diffusion under a steady state condition of major chemical composition, but not under transient chemical conditions. Simulations revealed that for multispecies U(VI) diffusion under transient chemical conditions, a fully coupled diffusion model could be well approximated by a component-based diffusion model when the diffusion coefficient for each chemical component was properly selected. The component-based diffusion model considers the difference in diffusion coefficients between chemical components, but not between the species within each chemical component. This treatment significantly enhanced computational efficiency at the expense of minor charge conservation. The charge balance in the component-based diffusion model can be enforced, if necessary, by adding a secondary migration term resulting from model simplification. The effect of ion activity coefficient gradients on multispecies diffusion is also discussed. The diffusion models were applied to describe U(VI) diffusive mass transfer in intragranular domains in two sediments collected from U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford 300A, where intragranular diffusion is a rate-limiting process controlling U(VI) adsorption and desorption. The grain-scale reactive diffusion model was able to describe U(VI) adsorption/desorption kinetics that had been previously described using a semiempirical, multirate model. Compared with the multirate model, the diffusion models have the advantage to provide spatiotemporal speciation evolution within the diffusion domains.

  14. Visualization of Transient Ultra-Weak Protein Self-Association in Solution Using Paramagnetic Relaxation Enhancement

    E-print Network

    Clore, G. Marius

    Relaxation Enhancement Chun Tang, Rodolfo Ghirlando, and G. Marius Clore*, Laboratories of Chemical Physics and Molecular Biology, Building 5, National Institute of Diabetes and DigestiVe and Kidney Diseases, National-3 These processes can generally be viewed as a phase transition, whereby molecules gradually shift from bulk solvent

  15. Diffuse Infantile Hepatic Hemangioendothelioma With Early Central Enhancement in an Adult: A Case Report of CT and MRI Findings.

    PubMed

    Dong, Aisheng; Dong, Hui; Zuo, Changjing; He, Tianlin

    2015-12-01

    Infantile hepatic hemangioendothelioma (IHH) is the most common vascular tumor of the liver in infancy. Adult with IHH is extremely rare. We presented a diffuse IHH in an adult patient with computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance image (MRI) findings.A 39-year-old man was admitted to our hospital because of a 2-year history of abnormal liver function tests and a 7-day history of jaundice. Physical examination revealed enlarged liver. Unenhanced abdominal CT showed enlargement of the liver with diffuse hypodensity. Enhanced CT on the arterial phase revealed multiple centrally enhanced lesions diffusely involved the enlarged liver. The enhanced areas of the lesions became larger on the portal phase and all the lesions became homogeneous enhanced on the delayed phase. These lesions showed heterogeneously hyperintense on T2-weighted image, hypointense on T1-weighted image, and early centrally enhanced on dynamic gadolinium-enhanced MRI, with complete tumor enhancement after 180?s. The patient underwent orthotopic liver transplantation. IHH type 2 was confirmed by pathology. The patient died of tumor recurrence in the liver 4 months after transplantation.Unlike the previously described imaging appearances of IHH, this case showed diffuse nodules with early central enhancement on CT and MRI. Considering the importance of the ability to differentiate IHH from other hepatic tumors, radiologists should be aware of these imaging appearances to establish knowledge of the entire spectrum of IHH. PMID:26705232

  16. Transient Enhancement and Detuning of Laser-Driven Parametric Instabilities by Particle Trapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vu, Hoanh X.

    2000-10-01

    Results are presented on kinetic regimes of backward stimulated Raman scattering [1] (BSRS) dominated by electron trapping in the primary daughter Langmuir wave (LW). This study is motivated by the need to understand the unexpectedly high BSRS reflectivities observed in experiments emulating the conditions of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [2,3]. In the case of BSRS, it is found in our study that electron trapping can lead to much larger transient reflectivities than predicted by standard fluid-like Zakharov models (with fixed, linear, Landau damping)in regimes with high Landau damping of the primary Langmuir wave (LW)with large values of k_1?D [4]. It is also found that the LW frequency shift associated with trapped electrons [5] introduces a secular phase shift between the LW and the BSRS ponderomotive force. This phase shift detunes and saturates BSRS and a similar effect, due to ion trapping, is now understood to be the saturation mechanism for stimulated Brillouin scattering. [1] W.L. Kruer, The Physics of Laser-Plasma Interaction (Addison-Wesley, New York, 1988). [2] J.C. Fernandez et al., Observed Insensitivity of Stimulated Raman Scattering on Electron Density, Phys. Plasmas, accepted (2000). [3] D.S. Montgomery, private communication (1999). [4] D.A. Russell, D.F. DuBois, and H.A. Rose, Phys. Plasmas 6, 1294 (1999). [5] G.J. Morales and T.M. O'Neil, Phys. Rev. Lett. 28, 417 (1972).

  17. Segregation and enhanced diffusion of nitrogen in silicon induced by low energy ion bombardment

    SciTech Connect

    Stoddard, N.; Duscher, G.; Karoui, A.; Stevie, F.; Rozgonyi, G.

    2005-04-15

    A sample of nitrogen-doped, single crystal Czochralski silicon was subjected to several different surface preparations. Secondary ion mass spectrometry depth profiling has shown that prolonged glancing-angle bombardment by 3-5 kV Ar{sup +} ions significantly increases the nitrogen concentration in the near surface by up to an order of magnitude over the bulk value. Concentrations are observed to be elevated over the bulk value to a depth up to 25 {mu}m. Nitrogen-implanted samples and samples with a 1 nm surface nitride did not exhibit nitrogen segregation under the same conditions, but a sample with 100 nm of surface nitride did exhibit ion bombardment induced drive-in. In nitride-free samples, the source of the nitrogen is indicated to be a nitrogen-rich layer in the first micron of material. The diffusion behavior of nitrogen in silicon is discussed and the Crowdion mechanism for diffusion is suggested as the enabling mechanism for the enhanced low temperature diffusion.

  18. Experimental analysis for the transient temperature profiles of a fiber-enhanced polyalcohol binary system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaowu; Li, Yaochao

    2015-06-01

    Polyalcohol has poor heat conduction performance. A fiber-enhanced polyalcohol binary system tightly combines polyalcohol with a copper fiber net to improve its heat conduction performance. Compared to a polyalcohol binary system PE/TRIS without fibers, the fiber-enhanced polyalcohol PE/TRIS system shows quicker response to the external energy input. In the binary system without fibers, more input heat goes to increase the temperatures of points which are closer to the container wall. In the fiber-enhanced polyalcohol binary system, clear phase change and the resulted isothermal stage are seen for points which are close to fibers although temperatures of points which are far away from fibers rise quickly. It is because the porous structure of fibers with pore size at about 100-300 ?m can increase the equilibrium pressure and as a result, points which are closer to fibers are easier to take place phase change. Furthermore, phase change driving force is larger for points which are closer to fibers since their phase change temperatures are lower.

  19. Is there an enhancement of muons at sea level from transient events?

    E-print Network

    C. E. Navia; C. R. A. Augusto; M. B. Robba; M. Malheiro; H. Shigueoka

    2004-11-25

    In a recent study of a search for enhancements from the galactic center with muons at sea level using the TUPI muon telescope, we have found several ground level enhancements (GLEs) as very sharp peaks above the count rate background. This paper reports a consistent analysis of two GLEs observed in December 2003 and detected after an up-grade of the data acquisition system, which includes a noise filter and which allows us to verify that the GLEs are not mere background fluctuations. The main target of this study is a search for the origin of the GLEs. The results show that one of them has a strong correlation with a solar flare, while the other has an unknown origin, because there is neither a satellite report of a solar flare, nor prompt X-ray emission, and nor a excess of nuclei during the raster scan where the GLE was observed. Even so, two possibilities are analyzed: the solar flare hypothesis and the gamma ray burst (GRB) hypothesis. We show, by using the FLUKA Monte Carlo results for photo-production, that under certain conditions there is the possibility of an enhancement of muons at sea level from GeV GRBs.

  20. {sup 1}H relaxation enhancement induced by nanoparticles in solutions: Influence of magnetic properties and diffusion

    SciTech Connect

    Kruk, D.; Korpa?a, A.; Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Reymonta 4, 30-059 Kraków ; Taheri, S. Mehdizadeh; Förster, S.; Koz?owski, A.; Rössler, E. A.

    2014-05-07

    Magnetic nanoparticles that induce nuclear relaxation are the most promising materials to enhance the sensitivity in Magnetic Resonance Imaging. In order to provide a comprehensive understanding of the magnetic field dependence of the relaxation enhancement in solutions, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance {sup 1}H spin-lattice relaxation for decalin and toluene solutions of various Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles was investigated. The relaxation experiments were performed in a frequency range of 10 kHz–20 MHz by applying Field Cycling method, and in the temperature range of 257–298 K, using nanoparticles differing in size and shape: spherical – 5 nm diameter, cubic – 6.5 nm diameter, and cubic – 9 nm diameter. The relaxation dispersion data were interpreted in terms of a theory of nuclear relaxation induced by magnetic crystals in solution. The approach was tested with respect to its applicability depending on the magnetic characteristics of the nanocrystals and the time-scale of translational diffusion of the solvent. The role of Curie relaxation and the contributions to the overall {sup 1}H spin-lattice relaxation associated with the electronic spin-lattice and spin-spin relaxation was thoroughly discussed. It was demonstrated that the approach leads to consistent results providing information on the magnetic (electronic) properties of the nanocrystals, i.e., effective electron spin and relaxation times. In addition, features of the {sup 1}H spin-lattice relaxation resulting from the electronic properties of the crystals and the solvent diffusion were explained.

  1. Application of a modified flux-coupling type superconducting fault current limiter to transient performance enhancement of micro-grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Lei; Zheng, Feng; Deng, Changhong; Li, Shichun; Li, Miao; Liu, Hui; Zhu, Lin; Guo, Fang

    2015-11-01

    Concerning the application and development of a micro-grid system which is designed to accommodate high penetration of intermittent renewable resources, one of the main issues is related to an increase in the fault-current level. It is crucial to ensure the micro-grid's operational stability and service reliability when a fault occurs in the main network. In this paper, our research group suggests a modified flux-coupling type superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) to enhance the transient performance of a typical micro-grid system. The SFCL is installed at the point of common coupling (PCC) between the main network and the micro-grid, and it is expected to actively improve the micro-grid's fault ride-through capability. And for some specific faults, the micro-grid should disconnect from the main network, and the SFCL's contribution is to make the micro-grid carry out a smooth transition between its grid-connected and islanded modes. Related theory derivation, technical discussion and simulation analysis are performed. From the demonstrated results, applying the SFCL can effectively limit the fault current, maintain the power balance, and enhance the voltage and frequency stability of the micro-grid.

  2. Biogeochemical Processes Responsible for the Enhanced Transport of Plutonium Under transient Unsaturated Ground Water Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Fred J. Molz, III

    2010-05-28

    To better understand longer-term vadose zone transport in southeastern soils, field lysimeter experiments were conducted at the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, SC, in the 1980s. Each of the three lysimeters analyzed herein contained a filter paper spiked with different Pu solutions, and they were left exposed to natural environmental conditions (including the growth of annual weed grasses) for 11 years. The resulting Pu activity measurements from each lysimeter core showed anomalous activity distributions below the source, with significant migration of Pu above the source. Such results are not explainable by adsorption phenomena alone. A transient variably saturated flow model with root water uptake was developed and coupled to a soil reactive transport model. Somewhat surprisingly, the fully transient analysis showed results nearly identical to those of a much simpler steady flow analysis performed previously. However, all phenomena studied were unable to produce the upward Pu transport observed in the data. This result suggests another transport mechanism such as Pu uptake by roots and upward transport due to transpiration. Thus, the variably saturated flow and reactive transport model was extended to include uptake and transport of Pu within the root xylem, along with computational methodology and results. In the extended model, flow velocity in the soil was driven by precipitation input along with transpiration and drainage. Water uptake by the roots determined the flow velocity in the root xylem, and this along with uptake of Pu in the transpiration stream drove advection and dispersion of the two Pu species in the xylem. During wet periods with high potential evapotranspiration, maximum flow velocities through the xylem would approached 600 cm/hr, orders of magnitude larger that flow velocities in the soil. Values for parameters and the correct conceptual viewpoint for Pu transport in plant xylem was uncertain. This motivated further experiments devoted to Pu uptake by corn roots and xylem transport. Plants were started in wet paper wrapped around each corn seed. When the tap roots were sufficiently long, the seedlings were transplanted to a soil container with the tap root extending out the container bottom. The soil container was then placed over a nutrient solution container, and the solution served as an additional medium for root growth. To conduct an uptake study, a radioactive substance, such as Pu complexed with the bacterial siderophore DFOB, was added to the nutrient solution. After a suitable elapsed time, the corn plant was sacrificed, cut into 10 cm lengths, and the activity distribution measured. Experimental results clarified the basic nature of Pu uptake and transport in corn plants, and resulting simulations suggested that each growing season Pu in the SRS lysimeters would move into the plant shoots and be deposited on the soil surface during the Fall dieback. Subsequent isotope ratio analyses showed that this did happen. OVERALL RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS - (1) Pu transport downward from the source is controlled by advection, dispersion and adsorption, along with surface-mediated REDOX reactions. (2) Hysteresis, extreme root distribution functions, air-content dependent oxidation rate constants, and large evaporation rates from the soil surface were not able to explain the observed upward migration of Pu. (3) Small amounts of Pu uptake by plant roots and translocation in the transpiration stream creates a realistic mechanism for upward Pu migration (4) Realistic xylem cross-sectional areas imply high flow velocities under hot, wet conditions. Such flow velocities produce the correct shape for the observed activity distributions in the top 20 cm of the lysimeter soil. (5) Simulations imply that Pu should have moved into the above-ground grass tissue each year during the duration of the experiments, resulting in an activity residual accumulating on the soil surface. An isotope ratio analysis showed that the observed surface Pu residue was from the buried sources, not atmospheric fallout. (6) The

  3. Enhanced-Transient Expression of Hepatitis C Virus Core Protein in Nicotiana tabacum, a Protein With Potential Clinical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadzadeh, Sara; Khabiri, Alireza; Roohvand, Farzin; Memarnejadian, Arash; Salmanian, Ali Hatef; Ajdary, Soheila; Ehsani, Parastoo

    2014-01-01

    Background: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is major cause of liver cirrhosis in humans. HCV capsid (core) protein (HCVcp) is a highly demanded antigen for various diagnostic, immunization and pathogenesis studies. Plants are considered as an expression system for producing safe and inexpensive biopharmaceutical proteins. Although invention of transgenic (stable) tobacco plants expressing HCVcp with proper antigenic properties was recently reported, no data for “transient-expression” that is currently the method of choice for rapid, simple and lower-priced protein expression in plants is available for HCVcp. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to design a highly codon-optimized HCVcp gene for construction of an efficient transient-plant expression system for production of HCVcp with proper antigenic properties in a regional tobacco plant (Iranian Jafarabadi-cultivar) by evaluation of different classes of vectors and suppression of gene-silencing in tobacco. Materials and Methods: A codon-optimized gene encoding the Kozak sequence, 6xHis-tag, HCVcp (1-122) and KDEL peptide in tandem (from N- to C-terminal) was designed and inserted into potato virus-X (PVX) and classic pBI121 binary vectors in separate cloning reactions. The resulted recombinant plasmids were transferred into Agrobacterium tumefaciens and vacuum infiltrated into tobacco leaves. The effect of gene silencing suppressor P19 protein derived from tomato bushy stunt virus on the expression yield of HCVcp by each construct was also evaluated by co-infiltration in separate groups. The expressed HCVcp was evaluated by dot and western blotting and ELISA assays. Results: The codon-optimized gene had an increased adaptation index value (from 0.65 to 0.85) and reduced GC content (from 62.62 to 51.05) in tobacco and removed the possible deleterious effect of “GGTAAG” splice site in native HCVcp. Blotting assays via specific antibodies confirmed the expression of the 15 kDa HCVcp. The expression level of HCVcp was enhanced by 4-5 times in P19 co-agroinfiltrated plants with better outcomes for PVX, compared to pBI121 vector (0.022% versus 0.019% of the total soluble protein). The plant-derived HCVcp (pHCVcp) could properly identify the HCVcp antibody in HCV-infected human sera compared to Escherichia coli-derived HCVcp (eHCVcp), indicating its potential for diagnostic/immunization applications. Conclusions: By employment of gene optimization strategies, use of viral-based vectors and suppression of plant-derived gene silencing effect, efficient transient expression of HCVcp in tobacco with proper antigenic properties could be possible. PMID:25598788

  4. Analytical resolution of the reactive diffusion equation for transient electronics including materials whose porosity value changes in terms of their thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vargas Toro, Agustín.

    2014-05-01

    Transient electronic devices are a new technology development whose main characteristic is that its components can disappear in a programmed and controlled way, which means such devices have a pre-engineered service life. Nowadays, transient electronics have a large application field, involving from the reduction of e-waste in the planet until the development of medical instruments and implants that can be discarded when the patients do not need it anymore, avoiding the trouble of having an extra procedure for them. These devices must be made from biocompatible materials avoiding long-term adverse effects in the environment and patients. It is fundamental to develop an analytical model that allows describing the behavior of these materials considering cases which its porosity may be constant or not, in presence of water or any other biofluid. In order to accomplish this analysis was solve the reactive diffusion equation based on Bromwich's integral and the Residue theorem for two material cases, those whose porosity is constant, and those whose porosity increases linearly in terms of its thickness, where was found a general expression. This allows to the analysis of the relation of the electric resistance (per unit length) and the rate of dissolution of the material.

  5. Performance Enhancement of Pharmacokinetic Diffuse Fluorescence Tomography by Use of Adaptive Extended Kalman Filtering

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xin; Wu, Linhui; Yi, Xi; Zhang, Yanqi; Zhang, Limin; Zhao, Huijuan; Gao, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Due to both the physiological and morphological differences in the vascularization between healthy and diseased tissues, pharmacokinetic diffuse fluorescence tomography (DFT) can provide contrast-enhanced and comprehensive information for tumor diagnosis and staging. In this regime, the extended Kalman filtering (EKF) based method shows numerous advantages including accurate modeling, online estimation of multiparameters, and universal applicability to any optical fluorophore. Nevertheless the performance of the conventional EKF highly hinges on the exact and inaccessible prior knowledge about the initial values. To address the above issues, an adaptive-EKF scheme is proposed based on a two-compartmental model for the enhancement, which utilizes a variable forgetting-factor to compensate the inaccuracy of the initial states and emphasize the effect of the current data. It is demonstrated using two-dimensional simulative investigations on a circular domain that the proposed adaptive-EKF can obtain preferable estimation of the pharmacokinetic-rates to the conventional-EKF and the enhanced-EKF in terms of quantitativeness, noise robustness, and initialization independence. Further three-dimensional numerical experiments on a digital mouse model validate the efficacy of the method as applied in realistic biological systems. PMID:26089975

  6. Shape-parameterized diffuse optical tomography holds promise for sensitivity enhancement of fluorescence molecular tomography

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Linhui; Wan, Wenbo; Wang, Xin; Zhou, Zhongxing; Li, Jiao; Zhang, Limin; Zhao, Huijuan; Gao, Feng

    2014-01-01

    A fundamental approach to enhancing the sensitivity of the fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT) is to incorporate diffuse optical tomography (DOT) to modify the light propagation modeling. However, the traditional voxel-based DOT has been involving a severely ill-posed inverse problem and cannot retrieve the optical property distributions with the acceptable quantitative accuracy and spatial resolution. Although, with the aid of an anatomical imaging modality, the structural-prior-based DOT method with either the hard- or soft-prior scheme holds promise for in vivo acquiring the optical background of tissues, the low robustness of the hard-prior scheme to the segmentation error and inferior performance of the soft-prior one in the quantitative accuracy limit its further application. We propose in this paper a shape-parameterized DOT method for not only effectively determining the regional optical properties but potentially achieving reasonable structural amelioration, lending itself to FMT for comparably improved recovery of fluorescence distribution. PMID:25360379

  7. Diffusion coefficients and dissociation constants of enhanced green fluorescent protein binding to free standing membranes

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Franziska A.; Visco, Ilaria; Petrášek, Zden?k; Heinemann, Fabian; Schwille, Petra

    2015-01-01

    Recently, a new and versatile assay to determine the partitioning coefficient KP as a measure for the affinity of peripheral membrane proteins for lipid bilayers was presented in the research article entitled, “Introducing a fluorescence-based standard to quantify protein partitioning into membranes” [1]. Here, the well-characterized binding of hexahistidine-tag (His6) to NTA(Ni) was utilized. Complementarily, this data article reports the average diffusion coefficient D of His6-tagged enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP-His6) and the fluorescent lipid analog ATTO?647N?DOPE in giant unilamellar vesicles (GUVs) containing different amounts of NTA(Ni) lipids. In addition, dissociation constants Kd of the NTA(Ni)/eGFP-His6 system are reported. Further, a conversion between Kd and KP is provided. PMID:26587560

  8. Management of Microbial Communities through Transient Disturbances Enhances the Functional Resilience of Nitrifying Gas-Biofilters to Future Disturbances.

    PubMed

    Cabrol, Léa; Poly, Franck; Malhautier, Luc; Pommier, Thomas; Lerondelle, Catherine; Verstraete, Willy; Lepeuple, Anne-Sophie; Fanlo, Jean-Louis; Roux, Xavier Le

    2016-01-01

    Microbial communities have a key role for the performance of engineered ecosystems such as waste gas biofilters. Maintaining constant performance despite fluctuating environmental conditions is of prime interest, but it is highly challenging because the mechanisms that drive the response of microbial communities to disturbances still have to be disentangled. Here we demonstrate that the bioprocess performance and stability can be improved and reinforced in the face of disturbances, through a rationally predefined strategy of microbial resource management (MRM). This strategy was experimentally validated in replicated pilot-scale nitrifying gas-biofilters, for the two steps of nitrification. The associated biological mechanisms were unraveled through analysis of functions, abundances and community compositions for the major actors of nitrification in these biofilters, that is, ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and Nitrobacter-like nitrite-oxidizers (NOB). Our MRM strategy, based on the application of successive, transient perturbations of increasing intensity, enabled to steer the nitrifier community in a favorable way through the selection of more resistant AOB and NOB sharing functional gene sequences close to those of, respectively, Nitrosomonas eutropha and Nitrobacter hamburgensis that are well adapted to high N load. The induced community shifts resulted in significant enhancement of nitrification resilience capacity following the intense perturbation. PMID:26651080

  9. Selective-diffusion regularization for enhancement of microcalcifications in digital breast tomosynthesis reconstruction

    SciTech Connect

    Lu Yao; Chan, Heang-Ping; Wei Jun; Hadjiiski, Lubomir M.

    2010-11-15

    Purpose: Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) has been shown to improve mass detection. Detection of microcalcifications is more challenging because of the large breast volume to be searched for subtle signals. The simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique (SART) was found to provide good image quality for DBT, but the image noise is amplified with an increasing number of iterations. In this study, the authors developed a selective-diffusion (SD) method for noise regularization with SART to improve the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of microcalcifications in the DBT slices for human or machine detection. Methods: The SD method regularizes SART reconstruction during updating with each projection view. Potential microcalcifications are differentiated from the noisy background by estimating the local gradient information. Different degrees of regularization are applied to the signal or noise classes, such that the microcalcifications will be enhanced while the noise is suppressed. The new SD method was compared to several current methods, including the quadratic Laplacian (QL) method, the total variation (TV) method, and the nonconvex total p-variation (TpV) method for noise regularization with SART. A GE GEN2 prototype DBT system with a stationary digital detector was used for the acquisition of DBT scans at 21 angles in 3 deg. increments over a {+-}30 deg. range. The reconstruction image quality without regularization and that with the different regularization methods were compared using the DBT scans of an American College of Radiology phantom and a human subject. The CNR and the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the line profiles of microcalcifications within the in-focus DBT slices were used as image quality measures. Results: For the comparison of large microcalcifications in the DBT data of the subject, the SD method resulted in comparable CNR to the nonconvex TpV method. Both of them performed better than the other two methods. For subtle microcalcifications, the SD method was superior to other methods in terms of CNR. In both the subject and phantom DBT data, for large microcalcifications, the FWHM of the SD method was comparable to that without regularization, which was wider than that of the TV type methods. For subtle microcalcifications, the SD method had comparable FWHM values to the TV type methods. All three regularization methods were superior to the QL method in terms of FWHM. Conclusions: The SART regularized by the selective-diffusion method enhanced the CNR and preserved the sharpness of microcalcifications. In comparison with three existing regularization methods, the selective-diffusion regularization was superior to the other methods for subtle microcalcifications.

  10. An asixymmetric diffusion experiment for the determination of diffusion and sorption coefficients of rock samples

    SciTech Connect

    Takeda, M.; Hiratsuka, T.; Ito, K.; Finsterle, S.

    2011-02-01

    Diffusion anisotropy is a critical property in predicting migration of substances in sedimentary formations with very low permeability. The diffusion anisotropy of sedimentary rocks has been evaluated mainly from laboratory diffusion experiments, in which the directional diffusivities are separately estimated by through-diffusion experiments using different rock samples, or concurrently by in-diffusion experiments in which only the tracer profile in a rock block is measured. To estimate the diffusion anisotropy from a single rock sample, this study proposes an axisymmetric diffusion test, in which tracer diffuses between a cylindrical rock sample and a surrounding solution reservoir. The tracer diffusion between the sample and reservoir can be monitored from the reservoir tracer concentrations, and the tracer profile could also be obtained after dismantling the sample. Semi-analytical solutions are derived for tracer concentrations in both the reservoir and sample, accounting for an anisotropic diffusion tensor of rank two as well as the dilution effects from sampling and replacement of reservoir solution. The transient and steady-state analyses were examined experimentally and numerically for different experimental configurations, but without the need for tracer profiling. These experimental configurations are tested for in- and out-diffusion experiments using Koetoi and Wakkanai mudstones and Shirahama sandstone, and are scrutinized by a numerical approach to identify favorable conditions for parameter estimation. The analysis reveals the difficulty in estimating diffusion anisotropy; test configurations are proposed for enhanced identifiability of diffusion anisotropy. Moreover, it is demonstrated that the axisymmetric diffusion test is efficient in obtaining the sorption parameter from both steady-state and transient data, and in determining the effective diffusion coefficient if isotropic diffusion is assumed. Moreover, measuring reservoir concentrations in an axisymmetric diffusion experiment coupled with tracer profiling may be a promising approach to estimate of diffusion anisotropy of sedimentary rocks.

  11. A stochastic model for induced seismicity based on non-linear pressure diffusion and irreversible permeability enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gischig, Valentin S.; Wiemer, Stefan

    2013-08-01

    During deep reservoir engineering projects, in which permeability is enhanced by high-pressure fluid injection, seismicity is invariably induced, posing nuisance to the local population and a potential hazard for structures. Hazard and risk assessment tools that can operate in real-time during reservoir stimulation depend on the ability to efficiently model induced seismicity. We here propose a novel modelling approach based on a combination of physical considerations and stochastic elements. It can model a large number of synthetic event catalogues, and at the same time is constrained by observations of hydraulic behaviour in the injection well. We model fluid flow using non-linear pressure diffusion equations, in which permeability increases irreversibly above a prescribed pressure threshold. The transient pressure field is used to trigger events at so-called `seed points' that are distributed randomly in space and represent potential earthquake hypocentres. We assign to each seed point a differential stress based on the mean estimates of the in situ stress field and add a normal distributed random value. Assuming a fault orientation with respect to the stress field and a Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion, we evaluate at each time step, if a seed point is triggered through a pressure increase. A negative proportional relationship between differential stress and b values is further assumed as observed from tectonic earthquakes and in laboratory experiments. As soon as an event is triggered, we draw a random magnitude from a power-law distribution with a b value corresponding to the differential stress at the triggered seed point. We thus obtain time-dependent catalogues of seismic events including magnitude. The strategy of modelling flow and seismicity in a decoupled manner ensures efficiency and flexibility of the model. The model parameters are calibrated using observations from the Basel deep geothermal experiment in 2006. We are able to reproduce the hydraulic behaviour, the space-time evolution of the seismicity and its frequency-magnitude distribution. A large number of simulations of the calibrated model are then used to capture the variability of the process, an important input to compute probabilistic seismic hazard. We also use the calibrated model to explore alternative injection scenarios by varying injection volume, pressure as well as depth, and show the possible effect of those parameters on seismic hazard.

  12. A cell-penetrating phospholamban-specific RNA aptamer enhances Ca2+ transients and contractile function in cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Hiroki; Ikeda, Yasuhiro; Honda, Takeshi; Tanaka, Yoshie; Shiraishi, Kozo; Inui, Makoto

    2014-11-01

    The sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase 2a (SERCA2a)-phospholamban (PLN) system of sarcoplasmic reticulum plays a pivotal role in regulation of intracellular Ca(2+) cycling in ventricular cardiomyocytes. Given that Ca(2+) cycling is impaired in heart failure, proteins that contribute to this process are potential targets for the treatment of this condition. We have now isolated PLN-specific aptamers with a phosphorothioate-modified backbone from a library of RNA molecules containing a randomized 40-nucleotide sequence by application of the systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX) protocol with a fusion protein containing the cytoplasmic region of human PLN. One of these aptamers was shortened to a 30-nucleotide oligomer (RNA-Apt30) without loss of function. RNA-Apt30 showed a high affinity for the cytoplasmic region of PLN (Kd=11 nM), but it did not bind to the phosphorylated form of PLN or to a phosphomimetic mutant. It also increased SERCA2a activity in isolated cardiac SR vesicles with an EC50 of 18 nM by relieving PLN-mediated inhibition. Conjugation of RNA-Apt30 to a cell-penetrating peptide allowed its delivery into adult rat cardiomyocytes, in which it enhanced both Ca(2+) transients and contractile function. These effects of the aptamer were also apparent in the presence of the ?-adrenergic receptor antagonist propranolol. This cell-penetrating PLN aptamer may thus provide a basis for the development of new therapeutic agents for heart failure without the need for gene transfer or a change in endogenous protein expression. PMID:25240642

  13. A finite element simulation on transient large deformation and mass diffusion in electrodes for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Yonghao; Jiang, Hanqing

    2013-10-01

    Lithium-ion batteries have attracted great deal of attention recently. Silicon is one of the most promising anode materials for high-performance lithium-ion batteries, due to its highest theoretical specific capacity. However, the short lifetime confined by mechanical failure in the silicon anode is now considered to be the biggest challenge in desired applications. High stress induced by the huge volume change due to lithium insertion/extraction is the main reason underlying this problem. Some theoretical models have been developed to address this issue. In order to properly implement these models, we develop a finite element based numerical method using a commercial software package, ABAQUS, as a platform at the continuum level to study fully coupled large deformation and mass diffusion problem. Using this method, large deformation, elasticity-plasticity of the electrodes, various spatial and temporal conditions, arbitrary geometry and dimension could be fulfilled. The interaction between anode and other components of the lithium ion batteries can also be studied as an integrated system. Several specific examples are presented to demonstrate the capability of this numerical platform.

  14. Effect of fluorine on the diffusion of boron in ion implanted Si Daniel F. Downeya)

    E-print Network

    Florida, University of

    Effect of fluorine on the diffusion of boron in ion implanted Si Daniel F. Downeya) and Judy W to investigate the effects of the fluorine in BF2 implants on transient enhanced diffusion TED . By using the chemical effect of the fluorine on the TED of the B in the regrown Si to be studied independent

  15. Lévy diffusion in a force field, Huber relaxation kinetics, and nonequilibrium thermodynamics: H theorem for enhanced diffusion with Lévy white noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlad, Marcel O.; Ross, John; Schneider, Friedemann W.

    2000-08-01

    A characteristic functional approach is suggested for Lévy diffusion in disordered systems with external force fields. We study the overdamped motion of an ensemble of independent particles and assume that the force acting upon one particle is made up of two additive components: a linear term generated by a harmonic potential and a second term generated by the interaction with the disordered system. The stochastic properties of the second term are evaluated by using Huber's approach to complex relaxation [Phys. Rev. B 31, 6070 (1985)]. We assume that the interaction between a moving particle and the environment can be expressed by the contribution of a large number of relaxation channels, each channel having a very small probability of being open and obeying Poisson statistics. Two types of processes are investigated: (a) Lévy diffusion with static disorder for which the fluctuations of the random force are frozen and last forever and (b) diffusion with strong dynamic disorder and independent Lévy fluctuations (Lévy white noise). In both cases we show that the probability distribution of the position of a diffusing particle tends towards a stationary nonequilibrium form. The characteristic functional of concentration fluctuations is evaluated in both cases by using the theory of random point processes. For large times the fluctuations of the concentration field are stationary and the corresponding probability density functional can be evaluated analytically. In this limit the fluctuations depend on the distribution of the total number of particles but are independent of the initial positions of the particles. We show that the logarithm of the stationary probability functional plays the role of a nonequilibrium thermodynamic potential, which has a structure similar to the Helmholtz free energy in equilibrium thermodynamics: it is made up of the sum of an energetic component, depending on the external mechanical potential, and of an entropic component, depending on the concentration field. We show that the conditions for the existence and stability of the nonequilibrium steady state, which emerges for large times, can be expressed in terms of the stochastic potential. For Lévy white noise the average concentration field can be expressed as the solution of a fractional Fokker-Planck equation. We show that the stochastic potential is a Lyapunov function of the fractional Fokker-Planck equation, which ensures that all transient solutions for the average concentration field tend towards a unique stationary form.

  16. Enhanced diffusion of Uranium and Thorium linked to crystal plasticity in zircon

    PubMed Central

    Timms, Nicholas E; Kinny, Peter D; Reddy, Steven M

    2006-01-01

    The effects of crystal-plasticity on the U-Th-Pb system in zircon is studied by quantitative microstructural and microchemical analysis of a large zircon grain collected from pyroxenite of the Lewisian Complex, Scotland. Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) mapping reveals a c.18° variation in crystallographic orientation that comprises both a gradual change in orientation and a series of discrete low-angle (<4°) boundaries. These microstructural data are consistent with crystal-plastic deformation of zircon associated with the formation and migration of dislocations. A heterogeneous pattern of dark cathodoluminescence, with the darkest domains coinciding with low-angle boundaries, mimics the deformation microstructure identified by EBSD. Geochemical data collected using the Sensitive High Resolution Ion MicroProbe (SHRIMP) shows a positive correlation between concentrations of the elements U, Th and Pb (ranging from 20–60 ppm, 30–110 ppm, and 14–36 ppm, respectively) and Th/U ratio (1.13 – 1.8) with the deformation microstructure. The highest measured concentrations and Th/U coincide with low-angle boundaries. This enrichment is interpreted to reflect enhanced bulk diffusion of U and Th due to the formation and migration of high-diffusivity dislocations. 207Pb/206Pb ages for individual analyses show no significant variation across the grain, and define a concordant, combined mean age of 2451 ± 14 Ma. This indicates that the grain was deformed shortly after initial crystallization, most probably during retrograde Inverian metamorphism at amphibolite facies conditions. The elevated Th over U and consistent 207Pb/206Pb ages indicates that deformation most likely occurred in the presence of a late-stage magmatic fluid that drove an increase in the Th/U during deformation. The relative enrichment of Th over U implies that Th/U ratio may not always be a robust indicator of crystallization environment. This study provides the first evidence of deformation-related modification of the U-Th system in zircon and has fundamental implications for the application and interpretation of zircon trace element data. PMID:17181855

  17. Enhanced diffusion of uranium and thorium linked to crystal plasticity in zircon.

    PubMed

    Timms, Nicholas E; Kinny, Peter D; Reddy, Steven M

    2006-01-01

    The effects of crystal-plasticity on the U-Th-Pb system in zircon is studied by quantitative microstructural and microchemical analysis of a large zircon grain collected from pyroxenite of the Lewisian Complex, Scotland. Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) mapping reveals a c.18 degree variation in crystallographic orientation that comprises both a gradual change in orientation and a series of discrete low-angle (<4 degrees) boundaries. These microstructural data are consistent with crystal-plastic deformation of zircon associated with the formation and migration of dislocations. A heterogeneous pattern of dark cathodoluminescence, with the darkest domains coinciding with low-angle boundaries, mimics the deformation microstructure identified by EBSD. Geochemical data collected using the Sensitive High Resolution Ion MicroProbe (SHRIMP) shows a positive correlation between concentrations of the elements U, Th and Pb (ranging from 20-60 ppm, 30-110 ppm, and 14-36 ppm, respectively) and Th/U ratio (1.13-1.8) with the deformation microstructure. The highest measured concentrations and Th/U coincide with low-angle boundaries. This enrichment is interpreted to reflect enhanced bulk diffusion of U and Th due to the formation and migration of high-diffusivity dislocations. 207Pb/206Pb ages for individual analyses show no significant variation across the grain, and define a concordant, combined mean age of 2451 +/- 14 Ma. This indicates that the grain was deformed shortly after initial crystallization, most probably during retrograde Inverian metamorphism at amphibolite facies conditions. The elevated Th over U and consistent 207Pb/206Pb ages indicates that deformation most likely occurred in the presence of a late-stage magmatic fluid that drove an increase in the Th/U during deformation. The relative enrichment of Th over U implies that Th/U ratio may not always be a robust indicator of crystallization environment. This study provides the first evidence of deformation-related modification of the U-Th system in zircon and has fundamental implications for the application and interpretation of zircon trace element data. PMID:17181855

  18. Diffusion-enhanced Förster resonance energy transfer and the effects of external quenchers and the donor quantum yield.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Maik H; Dsouza, Roy N; Ghosh, Indrajit; Norouzy, Amir; Schwarzlose, Thomas; Nau, Werner M

    2013-01-10

    The structural and dynamic properties of a flexible peptidic chain codetermine its biological activity. These properties are imprinted in intrachain site-to-site distances as well as in diffusion coefficients of mutual site-to-site motion. Both distance distribution and diffusion determine the extent of Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) between two chain sites labeled with a FRET donor and acceptor. Both could be obtained from time-resolved FRET measurements if their individual contributions to the FRET efficiency could be systematically varied. Because the FRET diffusion enhancement (FDE) depends on the donor-fluorescence lifetime, it has been proposed that the FDE can be reduced by shortening the donor lifetime through an external quencher. Benefiting from the high diffusion sensitivity of short-distance FRET, we tested this concept experimentally on a (Gly-Ser)(6) segment labeled with the donor/acceptor pair naphthylalanine/2,3-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-2-ene (NAla/Dbo). Surprisingly, the very effective quencher potassium iodide (KI) had no effect at all on the average donor-acceptor distance, although the donor lifetime was shortened from ca. 36 ns in the absence of KI to ca. 3 ns in the presence of 30 mM KI. We show that the proposed approach had to fail because it is not the experimentally observed but the radiative donor lifetime that controls the FDE. Because of that, any FRET ensemble measurement can easily underestimate diffusion and might be misleading even if it employs the Haas-Steinberg diffusion equation (HSE). An extension of traditional FRET analysis allowed us to evaluate HSE simulations and to corroborate as well as generalize the experimental results. We demonstrate that diffusion-enhanced FRET depends on the radiative donor lifetime as it depends on the diffusion coefficient, a useful symmetry that can directly be applied to distinguish dynamic and structural effects of viscous cosolvents on the polymer chain. We demonstrate that the effective FRET rate and the recovered donor-acceptor distance depend on the quantum yield, most strongly in the absence of diffusion, which has to be accounted for in the interpretation of distance trends monitored by FRET. PMID:23215358

  19. Radiation-enhanced thermal diffusion of transition metal and rare earth ions into II-VI semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Alán.; Williams, Lamario; Gafarov, Ozarfar; Martyshkin, Dmitry; Fedorov, Vladimir; Mirov, Sergey

    2015-02-01

    We report on study of gamma radiation-enhanced thermal diffusion of Transition Metal and Rare Earth ions into IIVI semiconductor crystals. ZnSe and ZnS samples with of iron thin film deposited on one facet were sealed in evacuated quartz ampoules at 10-3 Torr. The crystals were annealed for 14 days at 950°C under ?-irradiation from 60Co source. The irradiation dose rates of 43.99 R/s, 1.81 R/s were varied by distance between 60Co source and furnaces. For comparison, the samples were also annealed without irradiation at the same temperature. The spatial distributions of transition metal were measured by absorption of focused laser radiation at 5T2-5E mid-IR transitions of iron ions. In addition, samples of ZnSe were similarly sealed in evacuated quartz ampoules in the presence of Praseodymium metal and annealed at 950°C under 43.99 R/s and 0 R/s and the diffusion lengths and Pr concentrations were compared. The ?-irradiation results in better intrusion of the iron ions from the metal film and increase of the diffusion length at ~25%, while Praseodymium diffusion is dramatically enhanced by ?-irradiation during the annealing process.

  20. DIFFUSION OF INNOVATION: ENHANCING THE DISSEMINATION OF THE PONSETI METHOD IN LATIN AMERICA THROUGH VIRTUAL FORUMS

    PubMed Central

    Jayawardena, Asitha; Boardman, Allison; Cook, Thomas; Oprescu, Florin; Morcuende, Jose A

    2011-01-01

    This ethnographic study evaluated the use of low-bandwidth web-conferencing to enhance diffusion of a specific best practice, the Ponseti method to treat clubfoot, in three economically diverse countries in Latin America. A “Ponseti Virtual Forum” (PVF) was organized in Guatemala, Peru and Chile to examine the influences of economic level and telecommunication infrastructure on the effectiveness of tins approach. Across the three countries, a total of 14 different sites participated in the PVFs. Thirty-three Ponseti-trained practitioners were interviewed before and after each PVF, which included interactions with a Spanish-speaking Ponseti method expert. Semi-structured interviews, observations, and IP address data were triangulated and analyzed. The results demonstrated that 100% of the practitioners rated the sessions as very useful and that they would use this approach again. The largest obstacles to using PVFs were financial (7 out of 9 practitioners) in Guatemala; a lack of equipment and network access (6 out of 11) in Peru; and the organization and implementation of the conferences themselves (7 out of 9) in Chile. This study illustrates the usefulness of Ponseti Virtual Forums in Latin America. Health officials in Peru are currently developing a large-scale information session for traumatologists about the Ponseti method, while practitioners in Guatemala and Chile are organizing monthly scholarly meetings for physicians in remote areas. This initial feedback suggests that low-bandwidth web-conferencing can be an important vehicle for the dissemination of best practices, such as the Ponseti method, in developing countries. PMID:22096417

  1. Correlation of end-of-range damage evolution and transient enhanced diffusion of boron in regrown silicon

    E-print Network

    Florida, University of

    -type Czochralski wafer was achieved using a series of Si implants of 30 and 120 keV, each at a dose of 1 1015 cm2 that drive TED during postimplantation annealing of amorphized silicon. A 150 mm, 100 n-type Czochralski

  2. Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance findings in hepatic epithelioid angiomyolipoma: A case report

    PubMed Central

    SUN, JUN; WANG, SHOUAN; CHEN, WENXIN; WU, JINGTAO

    2015-01-01

    The present study reports a case of histologically proven hepatic epithelioid angiomyolipoma that was evaluated with gadolinium ethoxybenzyl diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA)-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion-weighted imaging. A 23-year-old female was admitted to the Northern Jiangsu People's Hospital (Yangzhou, Jiangsu, China) due to a 5.6-cm mass in the liver, and a right partial hepatectomy was performed. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed a hypointense mass on T1-weighted imaging, and a hyperintense mass on T2-weighted and diffusion-weighted imaging, with a higher apparent diffusion coefficient value compared with normal liver parenchyma. On the dynamic Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI scan, the lesion manifested as hypervascular with multiple filiform vessels and a pseudocapsule image, and in the hepatobiliary phase the lesion demonstrated a lack of contrast retention, thus appearing hypointense compared with the background liver. Pre-operatively, EMAL was diagnosed on the basis of these findings in the tumor. The optimum treatment is complete surgical excision and subsequent follow-up. The patient was healthy and free from recurrence at 6 months and 1 year post-surgery. Therefore, knowledge of EAML specific features on dynamic Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced and DWI scans may improve the diagnostic accuracy of hypervascular hepatic tumors and may facilitate treatment selection.

  3. Major mouse placental compartments revealed by diffusion-weighted MRI, contrast-enhanced MRI, and fluorescence imaging

    PubMed Central

    Solomon, Eddy; Avni, Reut; Hadas, Ron; Raz, Tal; Garbow, Joel Richard; Bendel, Peter; Frydman, Lucio; Neeman, Michal

    2014-01-01

    Mammalian models, and mouse studies in particular, play a central role in our understanding of placental development. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) could be a valuable tool to further these studies, providing both structural and functional information. As fluid dynamics throughout the placenta are driven by a variety of flow and diffusion processes, diffusion-weighted MRI could enhance our understanding of the exchange properties of maternal and fetal blood pools—and thereby of placental function. These studies, however, have so far been hindered by the small sizes, the unavoidable motions, and the challenging air/water/fat heterogeneities, associated with mouse placental environments. The present study demonstrates that emerging methods based on the spatiotemporal encoding (SPEN) of the MRI information can robustly overcome these obstacles. Using SPEN MRI in combination with albumin-based contrast agents, we analyzed the diffusion behavior of developing placentas in a cohort of mice. These studies successfully discriminated the maternal from the fetal blood flows; the two orders of magnitude differences measured in these fluids’ apparent diffusion coefficients suggest a nearly free diffusion behavior for the former and a strong flow-based component for the latter. An intermediate behavior was observed by these methods for a third compartment that, based on maternal albumin endocytosis, was associated with trophoblastic cells in the interphase labyrinth. Structural features associated with these dynamic measurements were consistent with independent intravital and ex vivo fluorescence microscopy studies and are discussed within the context of the anatomy of developing mouse placentas. PMID:24969421

  4. Diffusion of myosin light chain kinase on actin: A mechanism to enhance myosin phosphorylation rates in smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Hong, Feng; Brizendine, Richard K; Carter, Michael S; Alcala, Diego B; Brown, Avery E; Chattin, Amy M; Haldeman, Brian D; Walsh, Michael P; Facemyer, Kevin C; Baker, Josh E; Cremo, Christine R

    2015-10-01

    Smooth muscle myosin (SMM) light chain kinase (MLCK) phosphorylates SMM, thereby activating the ATPase activity required for muscle contraction. The abundance of active MLCK, which is tightly associated with the contractile apparatus, is low relative to that of SMM. SMM phosphorylation is rapid despite the low ratio of MLCK to SMM, raising the question of how one MLCK rapidly phosphorylates many SMM molecules. We used total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy to monitor single molecules of streptavidin-coated quantum dot-labeled MLCK interacting with purified actin, actin bundles, and stress fibers of smooth muscle cells. Surprisingly, MLCK and the N-terminal 75 residues of MLCK (N75) moved on actin bundles and stress fibers of smooth muscle cell cytoskeletons by a random one-dimensional (1-D) diffusion mechanism. Although diffusion of proteins along microtubules and oligonucleotides has been observed previously, this is the first characterization to our knowledge of a protein diffusing in a sustained manner along actin. By measuring the frequency of motion, we found that MLCK motion is permitted only if acto-myosin and MLCK-myosin interactions are weak. From these data, diffusion coefficients, and other kinetic and geometric considerations relating to the contractile apparatus, we suggest that 1-D diffusion of MLCK along actin (a) ensures that diffusion is not rate limiting for phosphorylation, (b) allows MLCK to locate to areas in which myosin is not yet phosphorylated, and (c) allows MLCK to avoid getting "stuck" on myosins that have already been phosphorylated. Diffusion of MLCK along actin filaments may be an important mechanism for enhancing the rate of SMM phosphorylation in smooth muscle. PMID:26415568

  5. Transient ischemia elicits a sustained enhancement of thrombus development in the cerebral microvasculature: Effects of anti-thrombotic therapy

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Ya Hui; Vital, Shantel; Russell, Janice; Seifert, Hilary; Senchenkova, Elena; Granger, D. Neil

    2014-01-01

    Objective: While transient ischemic attack (TIA) is a well-known harbinger of ischemic stroke, the mechanisms that link TIA to subsequent strokes remain poorly understood. The overall aim of this study was to determine whether: 1) brief periods of transient cerebral ischemia render this tissue more vulnerable to thrombus development and 2) antiplatelet agents used in TIA patients alter ischemia-induced thrombogenesis. Approach & Results: The middle cerebral artery of C57BL/6 mice was occluded for 2.5 – 10 minutes, followed by reperfusion periods of 1 – 28 days. Intravital microscopy was used to monitor thrombus development in cerebral microvessels induced by light/dye photoactivation. Thrombosis was quantified as the time to platelet aggregation on the vessel wall and the time for complete blood flow cessation. While brief periods of cerebral ischemia were not associated with neurological deficits or brain infarction (evaluated after 1 day), it yielded a pronounced and prolonged (up to 28 days) acceleration of thrombus formation, compared to control (sham) mice. This prothrombotic phenotype was not altered by pre- and/or post-treatment of mice with either aspirin (A), clopidogrel (C), dipyridamole (D), or atorvastatin (S), or with A + D + S. Conclusions: The increased vulnerability of the cerebral vasculature to thrombus development after a brief period of transient ischemia can be recapitulated in a murine model. Antiplatelet or antithrombotic agents used in patients with TIA show no benefit in this mouse model of brief transient ischemia. PMID:25058045

  6. Evidence of enhanced self-organized criticality (SOC) dynamics during the radially non-local transient transport in the HL-2A tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, O.; Xu, Y.; Hidalgo, C.; Zhong, W. L.; Shi, Z. B.; Ji, X. Q.; Jiang, M.; Feng, B. B.; Zhou, Y.; Cheng, J.; Liu, Y.; Xu, M.; Chen, W.; Ding, X. T.; Yan, L. W.; Yang, Q. W.; Duan, X. R.; Liu, Yong; the HL-2A Team

    2015-09-01

    Self-organized criticality (SOC) dynamics have been investigated in non-local transport regimes induced by the supersonic molecular beam injection in the HL-2A tokamak. Experimental evidence shows that the SOC or avalanche behaviors, such as the Hurst parameter, self-similarity and large-scale radial correlations in turbulence, are remarkably enhanced during the prompt non-local phase, together with an increase of inward propagation of turbulent events. These results highlight the importance of SOC paradigm during the transient non-local thermal transport in magnetically confined plasmas.

  7. Control of diffuser jet flow: turbulent kinetic energy and jet spreading enhancements assisted by a non-thermal plasma discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benard, N.; Balcon, N.; Touchard, G.; Moreau, E.

    2008-08-01

    An axisymmetric air jet exhausting from a 22-degree-angle diffuser is investigated experimentally by particle image velocimetry (PIV) and stereo-PIV measurements. Two opposite dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) actuators are placed along the lips of the diffuser in order to force the mixing by a co-flow actuation. The electrohydrodynamic forces generated by both actuators modify and excite the turbulent shear layer at the diffuser jet exit. Primary air jet velocities from 10 to 40 m/s are studied (Reynolds numbers ranging from 3.2 to 12.8 × 104), and baseline and forced flows are compared by analysing streamwise and cross-stream PIV fields. The mixing enhancement in the near field region is characterized by the potential core length, the centreline turbulent kinetic energy (TKE), the integrated value of the TKE over various slices along the jet, the turbulent Reynolds stresses and the vorticity fields. The time-averaged fields demonstrate that an effective increase in mixing is achieved by a forced flow reattachment along the wall of the diffuser at 10 m/s, whereas mixing enhancement is realized by excitation of the coherent structures for a primary velocity of 20 and 30 m/s. The actuation introduces two pairs of contra-rotating vortices above each actuator. These structures entrain the higher speed core fluid toward the ambient air. Unsteady actuations over Strouhal numbers ranging from 0.08 to 1 are also studied. The results suggest that the excitation at a Strouhal number around 0.3 is more effective to enhance the turbulence kinetic energy in the near-field region for primary jet velocity up to 30 m/s.

  8. Stable isotope-enhanced two- and three-dimensional diffusion ordered 13C-NMR spectroscopy (SIE-DOSY 13C-NMR)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stable Isotope-Enhanced Diffusion Ordered (SIE-DOSY) 13C-NMR has been applied to 13C-enriched carbohydrates and has been used to determine diffusion coefficients for pentose and hexose monosaccharides, a disaccharide and a trisaccharide. These 2D spectra were obtained with as little as 8 min of acq...

  9. Multiphoton microscopy guides neurotrophin modification with poly(ethylene glycol) to enhance interstitial diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stroh, Mark; Zipfel, Warren R.; Williams, Rebecca M.; Ma, Shu Chin; Webb, Watt W.; Saltzman, W. Mark

    2004-07-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a promising therapeutic agent for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. However, the limited distribution of this molecule after administration into the brain tissue considerably hampers its efficacy. Here, we show how multiphoton microscopy of fluorescently tagged BDNF in brain-tissue slices provides a useful and rapid screening method for examining the diffusion of large molecules in tissues, and for studying the effects of chemical modifications-for example, conjugating with polyethylene glycol (PEG)-on the diffusion constant. This single variable, obtained by monitoring short-term diffusion in real time, can be effectively used for rational drug design. In this study on fluorescently tagged BDNF and BDNF-PEG, we identify slow diffusion as a major contributing factor to the limited penetration of BDNF, and demonstrate how chemical modification can be used to overcome this barrier.

  10. Semi-permeable Diffusion Barriers Enhance Patterning Robustness in the C. elegans Germline.

    PubMed

    Cinquin, Amanda; Zheng, Likun; Taylor, Pete H; Paz, Adrian; Zhang, Lei; Chiang, Michael; Snow, Joshua J; Nie, Qing; Cinquin, Olivier

    2015-11-23

    Positional information derived from local morphogen concentration plays an important role in patterning. A key question is how morphogen diffusion and gene expression regulation shape positional information into an appropriate profile with suitably low noise. We address this question using a model system-the C. elegans germline-whose regulatory network has been well characterized genetically but whose spatiotemporal dynamics are poorly understood. We show that diffusion within the germline syncytium is a critical control of stem cell differentiation and that semi-permeable diffusion barriers present at key locations make it possible-in combination with a feedback loop in the germline regulatory network-for mitotic zone size to be robust against spatial noise in Notch signaling. Spatial averaging within compartments defined by diffusion barriers is an advantageous patterning strategy, which attenuates noise while still allowing for sharp transitions between compartments. This strategy could apply to other organs. PMID:26609956

  11. Calcium diffusion enhanced after cleavage of negatively charged components of brain extracellular matrix by chondroitinase ABC

    PubMed Central

    Hrab?tová, Sabina; Masri, Daniel; Tao, Lian; Xiao, Fanrong; Nicholson, Charles

    2009-01-01

    The concentration of extracellular calcium plays a critical role in synaptic transmission and neuronal excitability as well as other physiological processes. The time course and extent of local fluctuations in the concentration of this ion largely depend on its effective diffusion coefficient (D*) and it has been speculated that fixed negative charges on chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans (CSPGs) and other components of the extracellular matrix may influence calcium diffusion because it is a divalent cation. In this study we used ion-selective microelectrodes combined with pressure ejection or iontophoresis of ions from a micropipette to quantify diffusion characteristics of neocortex and hippocampus in rat brain slices. We show that D* for calcium is less than the value predicted from the behaviour of the monovalent cation tetramethylammonium (TMA), a commonly used diffusion probe, but D* for calcium increases in both brain regions after the slices are treated with chondroitinase ABC, an enzyme that predominantly cleaves chondroitin sulphate glycans. These results suggest that CSPGs do play a role in determining the local diffusion properties of calcium in brain tissue, most likely through electrostatic interactions mediating rapid equilibrium binding. In contrast, chondroitinase ABC does not affect either the TMA diffusion or the extracellular volume fraction, indicating that the enzyme does not alter the structure of the extracellular space and that the diffusion of small monovalent cations is not affected by CSPGs in the normal brain ionic milieu. Both calcium and CSPGs are known to have many distinct roles in brain physiology, including brain repair, and our study suggests they may be functionally coupled through calcium diffusion properties. PMID:19546165

  12. Thaumatin crystallization aboard the International Space Station using liquid-liquid diffusion in the Enhanced Gaseous Nitrogen Dewar (EGN).

    PubMed

    Barnes, Cindy L; Snell, Edward H; Kundrot, Craig E

    2002-05-01

    This paper reports results from the first biological crystal-growth experiment on the International Space Station (ISS). Crystals of thaumatin were grown using liquid-liquid diffusion in Tygon tubing transported in the Enhanced Gaseous Nitrogen Dewar (EGN). Different volume ratios and concentrations of protein and precipitant were used to test different adaptations of the vapor-diffusion crystallization recipe to the liquid-liquid diffusion method. The EGN warmed up from 77 to 273 K in about 4 d, about the same time it took to warm from 273 to 293 K. The temperature within the EGN was 293-297 K for the majority of the experiment. Air gaps that blocked liquid-liquid diffusion formed in the tubes. Nonetheless, crystals were grown. Synchrotron diffraction data collected from the best space-grown crystal extended to 1.28 A, comparable to previous studies of space-grown thaumatin crystals. The resolution of the best ground-control crystal was only 1.47 A. It is not clear if the difference in diffraction limit arises from factors other than crystal size. Improvements in temperature control and the elimination of air gaps are needed, but the results show that the EGN on the ISS can be used to produce space-grown crystals that diffract to high resolution. PMID:11976485

  13. LED lamp or bulb with remote phosphor and diffuser configuration with enhanced scattering properties

    DOEpatents

    Tong, Tao; Le Toquin, Ronan; Keller, Bernd; Tarsa, Eric; Youmans, Mark; Lowes, Theodore; Medendorp, Jr., Nicholas W; Van De Ven, Antony; Negley, Gerald

    2014-11-11

    An LED lamp or bulb is disclosed that comprises a light source, a heat sink structure and an optical cavity. The optical cavity comprises a phosphor carrier having a conversions material and arranged over an opening to the cavity. The phosphor carrier comprises a thermally conductive transparent material and is thermally coupled to the heat sink structure. An LED based light source is mounted in the optical cavity remote to the phosphor carrier with light from the light source passing through the phosphor carrier. A diffuser dome is included that is mounted over the optical cavity, with light from the optical cavity passing through the diffuser dome. The properties of the diffuser, such as geometry, scattering properties of the scattering layer, surface roughness or smoothness, and spatial distribution of the scattering layer properties may be used to control various lamp properties such as color uniformity and light intensity distribution as a function of viewing angle.

  14. Transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 activation enhances hapten sensitization in a T-helper type 2-driven fluorescein isothiocyanate-induced contact hypersensitivity mouse model

    SciTech Connect

    Shiba, Takahiro; Tamai, Takuma; Sahara, Yurina; Kurohane, Kohta; Watanabe, Tatsuo; Imai, Yasuyuki

    2012-11-01

    Some chemicals contribute to the development of allergies by increasing the immunogenicity of other allergens. We have demonstrated that several phthalate esters, including dibutyl phthalate (DBP), enhance skin sensitization to fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) in a mouse contact hypersensitivity model, in which the T-helper type 2 (Th2) response is essential. On the other hand, some phthalate esters were found to activate transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) cation channels on sensory neurons. We then found a positive correlation between the enhancing effects of several types of phthalate esters on skin sensitization to FITC and their ability to activate TRPA1. Here we examined the involvement of TRPA1 in sensitization to FITC by using TRPA1 agonists other than phthalate esters. During skin sensitization to FITC, the TRPA1 agonists (menthol, carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde and DBP) augmented the ear-swelling response as well as trafficking of FITC-presenting dendritic cells to draining lymph nodes. We confirmed that these TRPA1 agonists induced calcium influx into TRPA1-expressing Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. We also found that TRPA1 antagonist HC-030031 inhibited DBP-induced calcium influx into TRPA1-expressing CHO cells. After pretreatment with this antagonist upon skin sensitization to FITC, the enhancing effect of DBP on sensitization was suppressed. These results suggest that TRPA1 activation will become a useful marker to find chemicals that facilitate sensitization in combination with other immunogenic haptens. -- Highlights: ? Role of TRPA1 activation was revealed in a mouse model of skin sensitization to FITC. ? TRPA1 agonists enhanced skin sensitization as well as dendritic cell trafficking. ? Dibutyl phthalate (DBP) has been shown to enhance skin sensitization to FITC. ? TRPA1 activation by DBP was inhibited by a selective antagonist, HC-030031. ? HC-030031 inhibited the enhancing effect of DBP on skin sensitization to FITC.

  15. Crossing-Preserving Coherence-Enhancing Diffusion on Invertible Orientation Scores

    E-print Network

    Eindhoven, Technische Universiteit

    -invariant evolution equations yielding the appropriate scale space representations of the orientation score. We, such as ridges, edges, and oriented texture patterns in noisy images. Consider for example blood vessels blood vessels. At a position with a crossing, the anisotropic diffusion equation is not appropriate

  16. A Study of the Effect of Nanosized Particles on Transient Liquid Phase Diffusion Bonding Al6061 Metal-Matrix Composite (MMC) Using Ni/Al2O3 Nanocomposite Interlayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooke, Kavian O.

    2012-06-01

    Transient liquid phase (TLP) diffusion bonding of Al-6061 containing 15 vol pct alumina particles was carried out at 873 K (600 °C) using electrodeposited nanocomposite coatings as the interlayer. Joint formation was attributed to the solid-state diffusion of Ni into the Al-6061 alloy followed by eutectic formation and isothermal solidification of the joint region. An examination of the joint region using an electron probe microanalyzer (EPMA), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), wavelength-dispersive spectroscopy (WDS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) showed the formation of intermetallic phases such as Al3Ni, Al9FeNi, and Ni3Si within the joint zone. The result indicated that the incorporation of 50 nm Al2O3 dispersions into the interlayer can be used to improve the joint significantly.

  17. Increases in reactive oxygen species enhance vascular endothelial cell migration through a mechanism dependent on the transient receptor potential melastatin 4 ion channel.

    PubMed

    Sarmiento, Daniela; Montorfano, Ignacio; Cerda, Oscar; Cáceres, Mónica; Becerra, Alvaro; Cabello-Verrugio, Claudio; Elorza, Alvaro A; Riedel, Claudia; Tapia, Pablo; Velásquez, Luis A; Varela, Diego; Simon, Felipe

    2015-03-01

    A hallmark of severe inflammation is reactive oxygen species (ROS) overproduction induced by increased inflammatory mediators secretion. During systemic inflammation, inflammation mediators circulating in the bloodstream interact with endothelial cells (ECs) raising intracellular oxidative stress at the endothelial monolayer. Oxidative stress mediates several pathological functions, including an exacerbated EC migration. Because cell migration critically depends on calcium channel-mediated Ca(2+) influx, the molecular identification of the calcium channel involved in oxidative stress-modulated EC migration has been the subject of intense investigation. The transient receptor potential melastatin 4 (TRPM4) protein is a ROS-modulated non-selective cationic channel that performs several cell functions, including regulating intracellular Ca(2+) overload and Ca(2+) oscillation. This channel is expressed in multiple tissues, including ECs, and contributes to the migration of certain immune cells. However, whether the TRPM4 ion channel participates in oxidative stress-mediated EC migration is not known. Herein, we investigate whether oxidative stress initiates or enhances EC migration and study the role played by the ROS-modulated TRPM4 ion channel in oxidative stress-mediated EC migration. We demonstrate that oxidative stress enhances, but does not initiate, EC migration in a dose-dependent manner. Notably, we demonstrate that the TRPM4 ion channel is critical in promoting H2O2-enhanced EC migration. These results show that TRPM4 is a novel pharmacological target for the possible treatment of severe inflammation and other oxidative stress-mediated inflammatory diseases. PMID:24518820

  18. Experimental Assessment and Enhancement of Planar Laser-Induced Fluorescence Measurements of Nitric Oxide in an Inverse Diffusion Flame

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Partridge, William P.; Laurendeau, Normand M.

    1997-01-01

    We have experimentally assessed the quantitative nature of planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) measurements of NO concentration in a unique atmospheric pressure, laminar, axial inverse diffusion flame (IDF). The PLIF measurements were assessed relative to a two-dimensional array of separate laser saturated fluorescence (LSF) measurements. We demonstrated and evaluated several experimentally-based procedures for enhancing the quantitative nature of PLIF concentration images. Because these experimentally-based PLIF correction schemes require only the ability to make PLIF and LSF measurements, they produce a more broadly applicable PLIF diagnostic compared to numerically-based correction schemes. We experimentally assessed the influence of interferences on both narrow-band and broad-band fluorescence measurements at atmospheric and high pressures. Optimum excitation and detection schemes were determined for the LSF and PLIF measurements. Single-input and multiple-input, experimentally-based PLIF enhancement procedures were developed for application in test environments with both negligible and significant quench-dependent error gradients. Each experimentally-based procedure provides an enhancement of approximately 50% in the quantitative nature of the PLIF measurements, and results in concentration images nominally as quantitative as LSF point measurements. These correction procedures can be applied to other species, including radicals, for which no experimental data are available from which to implement numerically-based PLIF enhancement procedures.

  19. Pulse generation with ultra-superluminal pulse propagation in semiconductor heterostructures by superradiant phase transition enhanced by transient coherent population gratings

    E-print Network

    Vasil'ev, Peter P; White, Ian H

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the observation of ultra-superluminal pulse propagation in GaAs/AlGaAs multiple contact heterostuctures in a superradiant emission regime, and shows definitively that it is a different class of emission from conventional spontaneous or stimulated emission. It is shown that coherent population gratings induced in the semiconductor medium under strong electrical pumping have great impact in causing a decrease of the group refractive index in the range of 5-40%. This decrease is much greater than that which would be observed due to conventional carrier depletion or chirp mechanisms. The decrease in refractive index in turn causes faster-than-c propagation of femtosecond pulses. The measurement also shows unequivocally the exist of coherent amplification of electromagnetic pulses in semiconductors at room temperature, the coherence being strongly enhanced by interactions of the light with coherent transient gratings locked to carrier gratings. This pulse generation technique can be anticipated ...

  20. Increasing the sensitivity of NMR diffusion measurements by paramagnetic longitudinal relaxation enhancement, with application to ribosome-nascent chain complexes.

    PubMed

    Chan, Sammy H S; Waudby, Christopher A; Cassaignau, Anaïs M E; Cabrita, Lisa D; Christodoulou, John

    2015-10-01

    The translational diffusion of macromolecules can be examined non-invasively by stimulated echo (STE) NMR experiments to accurately determine their molecular sizes. These measurements can be important probes of intermolecular interactions and protein folding and unfolding, and are crucial in monitoring the integrity of large macromolecular assemblies such as ribosome-nascent chain complexes (RNCs). However, NMR studies of these complexes can be severely constrained by their slow tumbling, low solubility (with maximum concentrations of up to 10 ?M), and short lifetimes resulting in weak signal, and therefore continuing improvements in experimental sensitivity are essential. Here we explore the use of the paramagnetic longitudinal relaxation enhancement (PLRE) agent NiDO2A on the sensitivity of (15)N XSTE and SORDID heteronuclear STE experiments, which can be used to monitor the integrity of these unstable complexes. We exploit the dependence of the PLRE effect on the gyromagnetic ratio and electronic relaxation time to accelerate recovery of (1)H magnetization without adversely affecting storage on N z during diffusion delays or introducing significant transverse relaxation line broadening. By applying the longitudinal relaxation-optimized SORDID pulse sequence together with NiDO2A to 70S Escherichia coli ribosomes and RNCs, NMR diffusion sensitivity enhancements of up to 4.5-fold relative to XSTE are achieved, alongside ~1.9-fold improvements in two-dimensional NMR sensitivity, without compromising the sample integrity. We anticipate these results will significantly advance the use of NMR to probe dynamic regions of ribosomes and other large, unstable macromolecular assemblies. PMID:26253948

  1. Flow range enhancement by secondary flow effect in low solidity circular cascade diffusers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakaguchi, Daisaku; Tun, Min Thaw; Mizokoshi, Kanata; Kishikawa, Daiki

    2014-08-01

    High-pressure ratio and wide operating range are highly required for compressors and blowers. The technical issue of the design is achievement of suppression of flow separation at small flow rate without deteriorating the efficiency at design flow rate. A numerical simulation is very effective in design procedure, however, cost of the numerical simulation is generally high during the practical design process, and it is difficult to confirm the optimal design which is combined with many parameters. A multi-objective optimization technique is the idea that has been proposed for solving the problem in practical design process. In this study, a Low Solidity circular cascade Diffuser (LSD) in a centrifugal blower is successfully designed by means of multi-objective optimization technique. An optimization code with a meta-model assisted evolutionary algorithm is used with a commercial CFD code ANSYS-CFX. The optimization is aiming at improving the static pressure coefficient at design point and at low flow rate condition while constraining the slope of the lift coefficient curve. Moreover, a small tip clearance of the LSD blade was applied in order to activate and to stabilize the secondary flow effect at small flow rate condition. The optimized LSD blade has an extended operating range of 114 % towards smaller flow rate as compared to the baseline design without deteriorating the diffuser pressure recovery at design point. The diffuser pressure rise and operating flow range of the optimized LSD blade are experimentally verified by overall performance test. The detailed flow in the diffuser is also confirmed by means of a Particle Image Velocimeter. Secondary flow is clearly captured by PIV and it spreads to the whole area of LSD blade pitch. It is found that the optimized LSD blade shows good improvement of the blade loading in the whole operating range, while at small flow rate the flow separation on the LSD blade has been successfully suppressed by the secondary flow effect.

  2. Enhancement in Quality Factor of SRF Niobium Cavities by Material Diffusion

    SciTech Connect

    Dhakal, Pashupati; Ciovati, Gianluigi; Kneisel, Peter K.; Myneni, Ganapati Rao

    2015-06-01

    An increase in the quality factor of superconducting radiofrequency cavities is achieved by minimizing the surface resistance during processing steps. The surface resistance is the sum of temperature independent residual resistance and temperature/material dependent Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) resistance. High temperature heat treatment usually reduces the impurities concentration from the bulk niobium, lowering the residual resistance. The BCS part can be reduced by selectively doping non-magnetic impurities. The increase in quality factor, termed as Q-rise, was observed in cavities when titanium or nitrogen thermally diffused in the inner cavity surface.

  3. Enhancement in Quality Factor of SRF Niobium Cavities by Material Diffusion

    E-print Network

    Dhakal, Pashupati; Kneisel, Peter; Myneni, Ganapati Rao

    2014-01-01

    An increase in the quality factor of superconducting radiofrequency cavities is achieved by minimizing the surface resistance during processing steps. The surface resistance is the sum of temperature independent residual resistance and temperature/material dependent Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) resistance. High temperature heat treatment usually reduces the impurities concentration from the bulk niobium, lowering the residual resistance. The BCS part can be reduced by selectively doping non-magnetic impurities. The increase in quality factor, termed as Q-rise, was observed in cavities when titanium or nitrogen thermally diffused in the inner cavity surface.

  4. Redox Signal-mediated Enhancement of the Temperature Sensitivity of Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin 2 (TRPM2) Elevates Glucose-induced Insulin Secretion from Pancreatic Islets.

    PubMed

    Kashio, Makiko; Tominaga, Makoto

    2015-05-01

    Transient receptor potential melastatin 2 (TRPM2) is a thermosensitive Ca(2+)-permeable cation channel expressed by pancreatic ? cells where channel function is constantly affected by body temperature. We focused on the physiological functions of redox signal-mediated TRPM2 activity at body temperature. H2O2, an important molecule in redox signaling, reduced the temperature threshold for TRPM2 activation in pancreatic ? cells of WT mice but not in TRPM2KO cells. TRPM2-mediated [Ca(2+)]i increases were likely caused by Ca(2+) influx through the plasma membrane because the responses were abolished in the absence of extracellular Ca(2+). In addition, TRPM2 activation downstream from the redox signal plus glucose stimulation enhanced glucose-induced insulin secretion. H2O2 application at 37 °C induced [Ca(2+)]i increases not only in WT but also in TRPM2KO ? cells. This was likely due to the effect of H2O2 on KATP channel activity. However, the N-acetylcysteine-sensitive fraction of insulin secretion by WT islets was increased by temperature elevation, and this temperature-dependent enhancement was diminished significantly in TRPM2KO islets. These data suggest that endogenous redox signals in pancreatic ? cells elevate insulin secretion via TRPM2 sensitization and activity at body temperature. The results in this study could provide new therapeutic approaches for the regulation of diabetic conditions by focusing on the physiological function of TRPM2 and redox signals. PMID:25817999

  5. Proton conduction and hydrogen diffusion in olivine: Reconciling laboratory and field observations and implications for the role of grain boundary diffusion in enhanced conductivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Alan G.

    2015-04-01

    Proton conduction is directly related to the diffusion of hydrogen through the Nernst-Einstein equation, but prior attempts to use this relationship have always invoked additional terms to try to reconcile proton conduction and hydrogen diffusion data. However, experimental data on hydrogen diffusion through the mineral lattice only constrain the rate of proton migration coupled with defects (such as vacancies) or coupled to polarons (electron holes mostly associated to ferric iron) and not the diffusion of uncoupled free protons. New diffusion experiments on olivine demonstrate that lattice diffusion associated to vacancies is indeed highly dependent on the defect site where hydrogen is bonded, but in any case is not fast enough to explain the observed laboratory proton conduction experiments. Hydrogen diffusion associated to polarons (redox-exchange) is significantly faster but still cannot explain the low activation energy typical of electrical conductivity measurements. A process of bulk diffusion, which combines lattice diffusion (either associated to redox-exchange or vacancies) with the far faster grain boundary diffusion, explains both the laboratory results and also field observations, and infers an average grain size of 0.5-2 cm at 100 km below the Jagersfontein kimberlite field on the Kaapvaal craton, which is consistent with petrological observations on xenolith material. Beneath the Gibeon kimberlite field on the nearby Rehoboth terrane, the higher conductivity observed cannot solely be explained by elevated temperature; either there is more water in the lithosphere (approx. double), or the average grain size is smaller (approx. half), or a combination of the two.

  6. Loss of the Tectorial Membrane Protein CEACAM16 Enhances Spontaneous, Stimulus-Frequency, and Transiently Evoked Otoacoustic Emissions

    PubMed Central

    Goodyear, Richard J.; Homma, Kazuaki; Legan, P. Kevin; Korchagina, Julia; Naskar, Souvik; Siegel, Jonathan H.; Dallos, Peter; Zheng, Jing

    2014-01-01

    ?-Tectorin (TECTA), ?-tectorin (TECTB), and carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 16 (CEACAM) are secreted glycoproteins that are present in the tectorial membrane (TM), an extracellular structure overlying the hearing organ of the inner ear, the organ of Corti. Previous studies have shown that TECTA and TECTB are both required for formation of the striated-sheet matrix within which collagen fibrils of the TM are imbedded and that CEACAM16 interacts with TECTA. To learn more about the structural and functional significance of CEACAM16, we created a Ceacam16-null mutant mouse. In the absence of CEACAM16, TECTB levels are reduced, a clearly defined striated-sheet matrix does not develop, and Hensen's stripe, a prominent feature in the basal two-thirds of the TM in WT mice, is absent. CEACAM16 is also shown to interact with TECTB, indicating that it may stabilize interactions between TECTA and TECTB. Although brain-stem evoked responses and distortion product otoacoustic emissions are, for most frequencies, normal in young mice lacking CEACAM16, stimulus-frequency and transiently evoked emissions are larger. We also observed spontaneous otoacoustic emissions (SOAEs) in 70% of the homozygous mice. This incidence is remarkable considering that <3% of WT controls have SOAEs. The predominance of SOAEs >15 kHz correlates with the loss of Hensen's stripe. Results from mice lacking CEACAM16 are consistent with the idea that the organ of Corti evolved to maximize the gain of the cochlear amplifier while preventing large oscillations. Changes in TM structure appear to influence the balance between energy generation and dissipation such that the system becomes unstable. PMID:25080593

  7. Loss of the tectorial membrane protein CEACAM16 enhances spontaneous, stimulus-frequency, and transiently evoked otoacoustic emissions.

    PubMed

    Cheatham, Mary Ann; Goodyear, Richard J; Homma, Kazuaki; Legan, P Kevin; Korchagina, Julia; Naskar, Souvik; Siegel, Jonathan H; Dallos, Peter; Zheng, Jing; Richardson, Guy P

    2014-07-30

    ?-Tectorin (TECTA), ?-tectorin (TECTB), and carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 16 (CEACAM) are secreted glycoproteins that are present in the tectorial membrane (TM), an extracellular structure overlying the hearing organ of the inner ear, the organ of Corti. Previous studies have shown that TECTA and TECTB are both required for formation of the striated-sheet matrix within which collagen fibrils of the TM are imbedded and that CEACAM16 interacts with TECTA. To learn more about the structural and functional significance of CEACAM16, we created a Ceacam16-null mutant mouse. In the absence of CEACAM16, TECTB levels are reduced, a clearly defined striated-sheet matrix does not develop, and Hensen's stripe, a prominent feature in the basal two-thirds of the TM in WT mice, is absent. CEACAM16 is also shown to interact with TECTB, indicating that it may stabilize interactions between TECTA and TECTB. Although brain-stem evoked responses and distortion product otoacoustic emissions are, for most frequencies, normal in young mice lacking CEACAM16, stimulus-frequency and transiently evoked emissions are larger. We also observed spontaneous otoacoustic emissions (SOAEs) in 70% of the homozygous mice. This incidence is remarkable considering that <3% of WT controls have SOAEs. The predominance of SOAEs >15 kHz correlates with the loss of Hensen's stripe. Results from mice lacking CEACAM16 are consistent with the idea that the organ of Corti evolved to maximize the gain of the cochlear amplifier while preventing large oscillations. Changes in TM structure appear to influence the balance between energy generation and dissipation such that the system becomes unstable. PMID:25080593

  8. NONLINEAR DIFFUSION Erkut Erdem

    E-print Network

    Erdem, Erkut

    NONLINEAR DIFFUSION Erkut Erdem Hacettepe University March 9th, 2013 CONTENTS 1 Perona-Malik Type Nonlinear Diffusion 1 2 Total Variation (TV) Regularization 5 3 Edge Enhancing Diffusion 8 References 11 1 PERONA-MALIK TYPE NONLINEAR DIFFUSION The main theory behind nonlinear diffusion models is to use

  9. Fabrication and evaluation of enhanced diffusion bonded titanium honeycomb core sandwich panels with titanium aluminide face sheets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffmann, E. K.; Bird, R. K.; Bales, T. T.

    1989-01-01

    A joining process was developed for fabricating lightweight, high temperature sandwich panels for aerospace applications using Ti-14Al-21Nb face sheets and Ti-3Al-2.5V honeycomb core. The process, termed Enhanced Diffusion Bonding (EDB), relies on the formation of a eutectic liquid through solid-state diffusion at elevated temperatures and isothermal solidification to produce joints in thin-gage titanium and titanium aluminide structural components. A technique employing a maskant on the honeycomb core was developed which permitted electroplating a controlled amount of EDB material only on the edges of the honeycomb core in order to minimize the structural weight and metallurgical interaction effects. Metallurgical analyses were conducted to determine the interaction effects between the EDB materials and the constituents of the sandwich structure following EDB processing. The initial mechanical evaluation was conducted with butt joint specimens tested at temperatures from 1400 - 1700 F. Further mechanical evaluation was conducted with EDB sandwich specimens using flatwise tension tests at temperatures from 70 - 1100 F and edgewise compression tests at ambient temperature.

  10. Double depth-enhanced 3D integral imaging in projection-type system without diffuser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lei; Jiao, Xiao-xue; Sun, Yu; Xie, Yan; Liu, Shao-peng

    2015-05-01

    Integral imaging is a three dimensional (3D) display technology without any additional equipment. A new system is proposed in this paper which consists of the elemental images of real images in real mode (RIRM) and the ones of virtual images in real mode (VIRM). The real images in real mode are the same as the conventional integral images. The virtual images in real mode are obtained by changing the coordinates of the corresponding points in elemental images which can be reconstructed by the lens array in virtual space. In order to reduce the spot size of the reconstructed images, the diffuser in conventional integral imaging is given up in the proposed method. Then the spot size is nearly 1/20 of that in the conventional system. And an optical integral imaging system is constructed to confirm that our proposed method opens a new way for the application of the passive 3D display technology.

  11. Diameter-dependent boron diffusion in silicon nanowire-based transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulze, Andreas; Florakis, Antonios; Hantschel, Thomas; Eyben, Pierre; Verhulst, Anne S.; Rooyackers, Rita; Vandooren, Anne; Vandervorst, W.

    2013-02-01

    We analyzed the carrier profile in silicon nanowire-based tunnel-FETs as a function of nanowire diameter using scanning spreading resistance microscopy. The nanowires were etched into an epitaxially grown stack, of which the top layer was in situ boron doped and the top contact was implanted. We revealed a significantly reduced boron diffusion inside narrower nanowires and a nonuniform diffusion depth in wider nanowires. Using process simulations, we attribute the latter to a reduced transient enhanced diffusion close to the nanowire sidewall caused by the recombination of excess interstitials. The shallower profile in narrower nanowires is related to an enhanced interstitial annihilation.

  12. Transient Intervals of Hyper-Gravity Enhance Endothelial Barrier Integrity: Impact of Mechanical and Gravitational Forces Measured Electrically

    PubMed Central

    Szulcek, Robert; van Bezu, Jan; Boonstra, Johannes; van Loon, Jack J. W. A.; van Nieuw Amerongen, Geerten P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Endothelial cells (EC) guard vascular functions by forming a dynamic barrier throughout the vascular system that sensitively adapts to ‘classical’ biomechanical forces, such as fluid shear stress and hydrostatic pressure. Alterations in gravitational forces might similarly affect EC integrity, but remain insufficiently studied. Methods In an unique approach, we utilized Electric Cell-substrate Impedance Sensing (ECIS) in the gravity-simulators at the European Space Agency (ESA) to study dynamic responses of human EC to simulated micro- and hyper-gravity as well as to classical forces. Results Short intervals of micro- or hyper-gravity evoked distinct endothelial responses. Stimulated micro-gravity led to decreased endothelial barrier integrity, whereas hyper-gravity caused sustained barrier enhancement by rapid improvement of cell-cell integrity, evidenced by a significant junctional accumulation of VE-cadherin (p = 0.011), significant enforcement of peripheral F-actin (p = 0.008) and accompanied by a slower enhancement of cell-matrix interactions. The hyper-gravity triggered EC responses were force dependent and nitric-oxide (NO) mediated showing a maximal resistance increase of 29.2±4.8 ohms at 2g and 60.9±6.2 ohms at 4g vs. baseline values that was significantly suppressed by NO blockage (p = 0.011). Conclusion In conclusion, short-term application of hyper-gravity caused a sustained improvement of endothelial barrier integrity, whereas simulated micro-gravity weakened the endothelium. In clear contrast, classical forces of shear stress and hydrostatic pressure induced either short-lived or no changes to the EC barrier. Here, ECIS has proven a powerful tool to characterize subtle and distinct EC gravity-responses due to its high temporal resolution, wherefore ECIS has a great potential for the study of gravity-responses such as in real space flights providing quantitative assessment of a variety of cell biological characteristics of any adherent growing cell type in an automated and continuous fashion. PMID:26637177

  13. Enhancing effects of indirubin on the arsenic disulfide-induced apoptosis of human diffuse large B-cell lymphoma cells

    PubMed Central

    WANG, LING; LI, XIANGLU; LIU, XINYU; LU, KANG; CHEN, NA; LI, PEIPEI; LV, XIAO; WANG, XIN

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the indirubin-enhanced effects of arsenic disulfide (As2S2) on the proliferation and apoptosis of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) cells in order to identify an optimum combination therapy. The human DLBCL cells, LY1 and LY8, were treated with different concentrations of indirubin for 24, 48 and 72 h. Next, the cells were treated with 10 ?M As2S2 or a combination of 10 ?M As2S2 and 20 ?M indirubin for 48 h. Cell proliferation inhibition was detected using cell counting kit-8 and cell apoptosis was determined using flow cytometry. The expression levels of Bcl-2, Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) and caspase-3 were analyzed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and western blotting. The DLBCL cell viability exhibited no significant changes at 24, 48 or 72 h with increasing indirubin concentration. In addition, the apoptotic rates of the LY1 and LY8 cells demonstrated no noticeable effects at 48 h with increasing indirubin concentration. Following treatment with the combination of indirubin and As2S2, the inhibitory and apoptotic rates of the cells were notably increased compared with those of the As2S2-treated group. The qPCR results revealed that indirubin alone had no enhancing effect upon the Bax/Bcl-2 mRNA expression ratio and caspase-3 mRNA expression. Western blot analysis revealed that indirubin alone had an enhancing effect upon the Bax/Bcl-2 protein ratio and procaspase-3 protein expression. In addition, the results demonstrated that the 21-KDa Bax protein was proteolytically cleaved into an 18-KDa Bax in the DLBCL cells treated with the combination of indirubin and As2S2. Indirubin alone did not inhibit proliferation or induce the apoptosis of the LY1 and LY8 cells. However, the combination of indirubin and As2S2 yielded enhancing effects. Therefore, the results of the present study demonstrated that with regard to antitumor activities, As2S2 served as the principal drug, whereas indirubin served as the adjuvant drug. The enhancing effect was due, in part, to the induction of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, which involves the cleavage of Bax. PMID:25789073

  14. Indocyanine green enhanced co-registered diffuse optical tomography and photoacoustic tomography

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Chen; Kumavor, Patrick D.; Alqasemi, Umar; Li, Hai; Xu, Yan; Zanganeh, Saeid; Zhu, Quing

    2013-01-01

    Abstract. To overcome the intensive light scattering in biological tissue, diffuse optical tomography (DOT) in the near-infrared range for breast lesion detection is usually combined with other imaging modalities, such as ultrasound, x-ray, and magnetic resonance imaging, to provide guidance. However, these guiding imaging modalities may depend on different contrast mechanisms compared to the optical contrast in the DOT. As a result, they cannot provide reliable guidance for DOT because some lesions may not be detectable by a nonoptical modality but may have a high optical contrast. An imaging modality that relies on optical contrast to provide guidance is desirable for DOT. We present a system that combines a frequency-domain DOT and real-time photoacoustic tomography (PAT) systems to detect and characterize deeply seated targets embedded in a turbid medium. To further improve the contrast, the exogenous contrast agent, indocyanine green (ICG), is used. Our experimental results show that the combined system can detect a tumor-mimicking phantom, which is immersed in intralipid solution with the concentrations ranging from 100 to 10 ?M and with the dimensions of 0.8??cm×0.8??cm×0.6??cm, up to 2.5 cm in depth. Mice experiments also confirmed that the combined system can detect tumors and monitor the ICG uptake and washout in the tumor region. This method can potentially improve the accuracy to detect small breast lesions as well as lesions that are sensitive to background tissue changes, such as the lesions located just above the chest wall. PMID:24343437

  15. Enhanced Oxygen Diffusion Within the Internal Oxidation Zone of Alloy 617 in Controlled Impurity Helium Environments from 1023 K to 1123 K (750 °C to 850 °C)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulsoy, Gokce; Was, Gary S.

    2015-04-01

    Alloy 617 was exposed to He-CO-CO2 environments with of either 9 or 1320 at temperatures from 1023 K to 1123 K (750 °C to 850 °C) to determine the oxygen diffusion coefficients within the internal oxidation zone of the alloy. The oxygen diffusion coefficients determined based on both intergranular and transgranular oxidation rates were several orders of magnitude greater than those reported in pure nickel and in nickel-based binary alloys, indicating that the rapid internal aluminum oxidation of Alloy 617 was primarily due to enhanced oxygen diffusion along the incoherent Al2O3-alloy interfaces. The range of activation energy values determined for oxygen diffusion associated with the intergranular aluminum oxidation was from 149.6 to 154.7 kJ/mol, and that associated with the transgranular aluminum oxidation was from 244.7 to 283.5 kJ/mol.

  16. Blueberry- and spirulina-enriched diets enhance striatal dopamine recovery and induce a rapid, transient microglia activation after injury of the rat nigrostriatal dopamine system.

    PubMed

    Strömberg, Ingrid; Gemma, Carmelina; Vila, Jennifer; Bickford, Paula C

    2005-12-01

    Neuroinflammation plays a critical role in loss of dopamine neurons during brain injury and in neurodegenerative diseases. Diets enriched in foods with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions may modulate this neuroinflammation. The model of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) injected into the dorsal striatum of normal rats, causes a progressive loss of dopamine neurons in the ventral mesencephalon. In this study, we have investigated the inflammatory response following 6-OHDA injected into the striatum of adult rats treated with diet enriched in blueberry or spirulina. One week after the dopamine lesion, a similar size of dopamine degeneration was found in the striatum and in the globus pallidus in all lesioned animals. At 1 week, a significant increase in OX-6- (MHC class II) positive microglia was found in animals fed with blueberry- and spirulina-enriched diets in both the striatum and the globus pallidus. These OX-6-positive cells were located within the area of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) -negativity. At 1 month after the lesion, the number of OX-6-positive cells was reduced in diet-treated animals while a significant increase beyond that observed at 1 week was now present in lesioned control animals. Dopamine recovery as revealed by TH-immunohistochemistry was significantly enhanced at 4 weeks postlesion in the striatum while in the globus pallidus the density of TH-positive nerve fibers was not different from control-fed lesioned animals. In conclusion, enhanced striatal dopamine recovery appeared in animals treated with diet enriched in antioxidants and anti-inflammatory phytochemicals and coincided with an early, transient increase in OX-6-positive microglia. PMID:16176814

  17. Enhanced slow wave sleep and improved sleep maintenance after gaboxadol administration during seven nights of exposure to a traffic noise model of transient insomnia.

    PubMed

    Dijk, D-J; Stanley, N; Lundahl, J; Groeger, J A; Legters, A; Trap Huusom, A K; Deacon, S

    2012-08-01

    Slow wave sleep (SWS) has been reported to correlate with sleep maintenance, but whether pharmacological enhancement of SWS also leads to improved sleep maintenance is not known. Here we evaluate the time-course of the effects of gaboxadol, an extra-synaptic gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) agonist, on SWS, sleep maintenance, and other sleep measures in a traffic noise model of transient insomnia. After a placebo run-in, 101 healthy subjects (20-78?y) were randomized to gaboxadol (n?=?50; 15?mg in subjects <65?y and 10?mg in subjects ?65?y) or placebo (n?=?51) for 7 nights (N1-N7). The model caused some disruption of sleep initiation and maintenance, with greatest effects on N1. Compared with placebo, gaboxadol increased SWS and slow wave activity throughout N1 to N7 (p?enhanced SWS and reduced the disruptive effects of noise on sleep initiation and maintenance. PMID:22002961

  18. Transient-mode liquid phase epitaxial growth of GaAs on GaAs-coated Si substrates prepared by migration-enhanced molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakamura, Shuji; Sakai, Shiro; Chang, Shi S.; Ramaswamy, Ramu V.; Kim, Jae-Hoon; Radhakrishnan, Gouri; Liu, John K.; Katz, Joseph

    1989-01-01

    Planar oxide-maskless growth of GaAs was demonstrated by transient-mode liquid phase epitaxy (TMLPE) on GaAs-coated Si substrates that were prepared by migration-enhanced molecular beam epitaxy (MEMBE). In TMLPE, the cool substrate was brought into contact with hot melts for a short time. A GaAs layer as thick as 30 microns was grown in 10 sec. The etch pits observed in TMLPE-grown layers became longer in one direction and decreased in density with increasing the TMLPE epilayer thickness. The density of etch pits in a 20 micron-thick layer was approximately 5 x 10 the 6th/sq cm. Strong bandgap emission elliptically polarized with a major axis perpendicular to the surface was observed at about 910 nm, while deep-level emission from the TMLPE/MEMBE GaAs interface was detected at 980 nm. The photoluminescence intensity divided by the carrier concentration of the TMLPE-grown layer was about 270 times larger than that of the MEMBE-grown layer used as a substrate.

  19. Evaluation of Transient Elastography, Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse Imaging (ARFI), and Enhanced Liver Function (ELF) Score for Detection of Fibrosis in Morbidly Obese Patients

    PubMed Central

    Karlas, Thomas; Dietrich, Arne; Peter, Veronica; Wittekind, Christian; Lichtinghagen, Ralf; Garnov, Nikita; Linder, Nicolas; Schaudinn, Alexander; Busse, Harald; Prettin, Christiane; Keim, Volker; Tröltzsch, Michael; Schütz, Tatjana; Wiegand, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Background Liver fibrosis induced by non-alcoholic fatty liver disease causes peri-interventional complications in morbidly obese patients. We determined the performance of transient elastography (TE), acoustic radiation force impulse (ARFI) imaging, and enhanced liver fibrosis (ELF) score for fibrosis detection in bariatric patients. Patients and Methods 41 patients (median BMI 47 kg/m2) underwent 14-day low-energy diets to improve conditions prior to bariatric surgery (day 0). TE (M and XL probe), ARFI, and ELF score were performed on days -15 and -1 and compared with intraoperative liver biopsies (NAS staging). Results Valid TE and ARFI results at day -15 and -1 were obtained in 49%/88% and 51%/90% of cases, respectively. High skin-to-liver-capsule distances correlated with invalid TE measurements. Fibrosis of liver biopsies was staged as F1 and F3 in n = 40 and n = 1 individuals. However, variations (median/range at d-15/-1) of TE (4.6/2.6–75 and 6.7/2.9–21.3 kPa) and ARFI (2.1/0.7–3.7 and 2.0/0.7–3.8 m/s) were high and associated with overestimation of fibrosis. The ELF score correctly classified 87.5% of patients. Conclusion In bariatric patients, performance of TE and ARFI was poor and did not improve after weight loss. The ELF score correctly classified the majority of cases and should be further evaluated. PMID:26528818

  20. TU-A-9A-11: Gold Nanoparticles Enhanced Diffuse Optical Tomography: A Proof of Concept Study

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Y; Dogan, N

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate the feasibility and potential of gold nanoparticles (GNP) enhanced diffuse optical tomography (DOT) as a novel imaging strategy for tumor detection. Methods: Simulation was performed on a digital homogeneous cylindrical phantom of 30mm×30mm. Gold nanorods (GNR) with aspect ratio 3.9 and effective radius 21.86nm were used as contrast agent. The peak light absorption for these GNR occurs at 842nm within the near-infrared region, with the absorption cross-section of 1.97×10{sup -14}m{sup -2} and scatter cross-section of 1.07×10{sup -14}m{sup -2}. A 6mmdiameter sphere of GNR solution was positioned inside the tissue-simulating phantom. Simulations were performed at the GNR concentration level of 1nM, 100pM and 10pM, respectively. The points representing laser sources and light detectors were around the phantom with 30o apart tangentially and 1mm apart axially for 9 rows. As one point being source, all the other points within the current row and nearby four rows become detectors. Hence there are 108 source points in total and 55 detector points corresponding to each source. Forward light transport at 842nm wavelength was run on a three-dimensional mesh of 33186 nodes (?0.5mm resolution) to acquire the light emission data. Reconstruction was performed on a coarse mesh of 19408 nodes (?1mm resolution) with ?20minutes on a 2.4GHz CPU and 8GB RAM computer. Results: The position of the GNR solution at 1nM, 100pM and 10pM concentration was reconstructed, respectively, with <1mm error. The GNR concentration was interpreted from the reconstructed absorption coefficient within the enhanced volume. The reconstructed maximum concentrations were 0.3nM, 120.0pM, and 5.3pM, respectively. Conclusion: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time to apply GNP to enhance DOT. The simulation results showed the high sensitivity of GNP enhanced DOT, which is in pM concentration level, compared to the ?M level for MRI agents and nM level for PET agents.

  1. Connectivity-based fixel enhancement: Whole-brain statistical analysis of diffusion MRI measures in the presence of crossing fibres

    PubMed Central

    Raffelt, David A.; Smith, Robert E.; Ridgway, Gerard R.; Tournier, J-Donald; Vaughan, David N.; Rose, Stephen; Henderson, Robert; Connelly, Alan

    2015-01-01

    In brain regions containing crossing fibre bundles, voxel-average diffusion MRI measures such as fractional anisotropy (FA) are difficult to interpret, and lack within-voxel single fibre population specificity. Recent work has focused on the development of more interpretable quantitative measures that can be associated with a specific fibre population within a voxel containing crossing fibres (herein we use fixel to refer to a specific fibre population within a single voxel). Unfortunately, traditional 3D methods for smoothing and cluster-based statistical inference cannot be used for voxel-based analysis of these measures, since the local neighbourhood for smoothing and cluster formation can be ambiguous when adjacent voxels may have different numbers of fixels, or ill-defined when they belong to different tracts. Here we introduce a novel statistical method to perform whole-brain fixel-based analysis called connectivity-based fixel enhancement (CFE). CFE uses probabilistic tractography to identify structurally connected fixels that are likely to share underlying anatomy and pathology. Probabilistic connectivity information is then used for tract-specific smoothing (prior to the statistical analysis) and enhancement of the statistical map (using a threshold-free cluster enhancement-like approach). To investigate the characteristics of the CFE method, we assessed sensitivity and specificity using a large number of combinations of CFE enhancement parameters and smoothing extents, using simulated pathology generated with a range of test-statistic signal-to-noise ratios in five different white matter regions (chosen to cover a broad range of fibre bundle features). The results suggest that CFE input parameters are relatively insensitive to the characteristics of the simulated pathology. We therefore recommend a single set of CFE parameters that should give near optimal results in future studies where the group effect is unknown. We then demonstrate the proposed method by comparing apparent fibre density between motor neurone disease (MND) patients with control subjects. The MND results illustrate the benefit of fixel-specific statistical inference in white matter regions that contain crossing fibres. PMID:26004503

  2. Enhanced hydroxyl radical generation in the combined ozonation and electrolysis process using carbon nanotubes containing gas diffusion cathode.

    PubMed

    Wu, Donghai; Lu, Guanghua; Zhang, Ran; Lin, Qiuhong; Yan, Zhenhua; Liu, Jianchao; Li, Yi

    2015-10-01

    Combination of ozone together with electrolysis (ozone-electrolysis) is a promising wastewater treatment technology. This work investigated the potential use of carbon nanotube (CNT)-based gas diffusion cathode (GDC) for ozone-electrolysis process employing hydroxyl radicals (·OH) production as an indicator. Compared with conventional active carbon (AC)-polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and carbon black (CB)-PTFE cathodes, the production of ·OH in the coupled process was improved using CNTs-PTFE GDC. Appropriate addition of acetylene black (AB) and pore-forming agent Na2SO4 could enhance the efficiency of CNTs-PTFE GDC. The optimum GDC composition was obtained by response surface methodology (RSM) analysis and was determined as CNTs 31.2 wt%, PTFE 60.6 wt%, AB 3.5 wt%, and Na2SO4 4.7 wt%. Moreover, the optimized CNT-based GDC exhibited much more effective than traditional Ti and graphite cathodes in Acid Orange 7 (AO7) mineralization and possessed the desirable stability without performance decay after ten times reaction. The comparison tests revealed that peroxone reaction was the main pathway of ·OH production in the present system, and cathodic reduction of ozone could significantly promote ·OH generation. These results suggested that application of CNT-based GDC offers considerable advantages in ozone-electrolysis of organic wastewater. PMID:26036588

  3. Virtual-source diffusion approximation for enhanced near-field modeling of photon-migration in low-albedo medium.

    PubMed

    Jia, Mengyu; Chen, Xueying; Zhao, Huijuan; Cui, Shanshan; Liu, Ming; Liu, Lingling; Gao, Feng

    2015-01-26

    Most analytical methods for describing light propagation in turbid medium exhibit low effectiveness in the near-field of a collimated source. Motivated by the Charge Simulation Method in electromagnetic theory as well as the established discrete source based modeling, we herein report on an improved explicit model for a semi-infinite geometry, referred to as "Virtual Source" (VS) diffuse approximation (DA), to fit for low-albedo medium and short source-detector separation. In this model, the collimated light in the standard DA is analogously approximated as multiple isotropic point sources (VS) distributed along the incident direction. For performance enhancement, a fitting procedure between the calculated and realistic reflectances is adopted in the near-field to optimize the VS parameters (intensities and locations). To be practically applicable, an explicit 2VS-DA model is established based on close-form derivations of the VS parameters for the typical ranges of the optical parameters. This parameterized scheme is proved to inherit the mathematical simplicity of the DA approximation while considerably extending its validity in modeling the near-field photon migration in low-albedo medium. The superiority of the proposed VS-DA method to the established ones is demonstrated in comparison with Monte-Carlo simulations over wide ranges of the source-detector separation and the medium optical properties. PMID:25835892

  4. Characterization of light transport in scattering media at sub-diffusion length scales with Low-coherence Enhanced Backscattering

    PubMed Central

    Turzhitsky, Vladimir; Rogers, Jeremy D.; Mutyal, Nikhil N.; Roy, Hemant K.; Backman, Vadim

    2009-01-01

    Low-coherence enhanced backscattering (LEBS) is a technique that has recently shown promise for tissue characterization and the detection of early pre-cancer. Although several Monte Carlo models of LEBS have been described, these models have not been accurate enough to predict all of the experimentally observed LEBS features. We present an appropriate Monte Carlo model to simulate LEBS peak properties from polystyrene microsphere suspensions in water. Results show that the choice of the phase function greatly impacts the accuracy of the simulation when the transport mean free path (ls*) is much greater than the spatial coherence length (LSC). When ls* < LSC, a diffusion approximation based model of LEBS is sufficiently accurate. We also use the Monte Carlo model to validate that LEBS can be used to measure the radial scattering probability distribution (radial point spread function), p(r), at small length scales and demonstrate LEBS measurements of p(r) from biological tissue. In particular, we show that pre-cancerous and benign mucosal tissues have different small length scale light transport properties. PMID:21037980

  5. Sensitivity enhancement in direct coupling of supported liquid membrane extractions to capillary electrophoresis by means of transient isotachophoresis and large electrokinetic injections.

    PubMed

    Pant??ková, Pavla; Kubá?, Pavel; Bo?ek, Petr

    2015-04-10

    Enhanced sensitivity for determination of basic drugs in body fluids was achieved by in-line coupling of extraction across supported liquid membrane (SLM) to large electrokinetic injection and transient isotachophoresis-capillary zone electrophoresis (tITP-CZE) in commercial CZE instrument. Twelve cm long tITP plug of 300mM ammonium acetate was formed in the separation capillary just before the electrokinetic injection of acceptor solution containing nortriptyline, haloperidol and loperamide extracted across the SLM. The tITP plug ensured efficient stacking and preconcentration of the injected basic drugs due to the tITP action of ammonium and the drugs were then separated by CZE using 5.2M acetic acid as background electrolyte. No interferences were observed from highly-abundant body fluid species (NaCl and human serum albumin) due to the excellent clean-up properties of SLMs and analytical sensitivity increased up to 340 times compared to SLM extractions coupled in-line to CZE with standard hydrodynamic injections. The SLM-tITP-CZE method was characterized by good repeatability (RSDs of peak areas below 7.8%), linearity over two orders of magnitude (r(2) better than 0.994) and limits of detection (defined as 3×S/N) between 3 and 45?g/L. Interfacing of SLM extractions to CZE instrumentation was achieved by low-cost, disposable micro-extraction devices, which can be routinely prepared in every analytical laboratory. These devices eliminated sample carry-over, minimized the need for manual sample handling and ensured fully automated determination (including extraction, injection, preconcentration and separation) of the three basic drugs in 20?L of untreated body fluids. PMID:25747667

  6. Atomistic modeling of intrinsic and radiation-enhanced fission gas (Xe) diffusion in UO2±x: Implications for nuclear fuel performance modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersson, D. A.; Garcia, P.; Liu, X.-Y.; Pastore, G.; Tonks, M.; Millett, P.; Dorado, B.; Gaston, D. R.; Andrs, D.; Williamson, R. L.; Martineau, R. C.; Uberuaga, B. P.; Stanek, C. R.

    2014-08-01

    Based on density functional theory (DFT) and empirical potential calculations, the diffusivity of fission gas atoms (Xe) in UO2 nuclear fuel has been calculated for a range of non-stoichiometry (i.e. UO2±x), under both out-of-pile (no irradiation) and in-pile (irradiation) conditions. This was achieved by first deriving expressions for the activation energy that account for the type of trap site that the fission gas atoms occupy, which includes the corresponding type of mobile cluster, the charge state of these defects and the chemistry acting as boundary condition. In the next step DFT calculations were used to estimate migration barriers and internal energy contributions to the thermodynamic properties and calculations based on empirical potentials were used to estimate defect formation and migration entropies (i.e. pre-exponentials). The diffusivities calculated for out-of-pile conditions as function of the UO2±x non-stoichiometry were used to validate the accuracy of the diffusion models and the DFT calculations against available experimental data. The Xe diffusivity is predicted to depend strongly on the UO2±x non-stoichiometry due to a combination of changes in the preferred Xe trap site and in the concentration of uranium vacancies enabling Xe diffusion, which is consistent with experiments. After establishing the validity of the modeling approach, it was used for studying Xe diffusion under in-pile conditions, for which experimental data is very scarce. The radiation-enhanced Xe diffusivity is compared to existing empirical models. Finally, the predicted fission gas diffusion rates were implemented in the BISON fuel performance code and fission gas release from a Risø fuel rod irradiation experiment was simulated.

  7. Atomistic modeling of intrinsic and radiation-enhanced fission gas (Xe) diffusion in UO2 +/- x: Implications for nuclear fuel performance modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Giovanni Pastore; Michael R. Tonks; Derek R. Gaston; Richard L. Williamson; David Andrs; Richard Martineau

    2014-03-01

    Based on density functional theory (DFT) and empirical potential calculations, the diffusivity of fission gas atoms (Xe) in UO2 nuclear fuel has been calculated for a range of non-stoichiometry (i.e. UO2x), under both out-of-pile (no irradiation) and in-pile (irradiation) conditions. This was achieved by first deriving expressions for the activation energy that account for the type of trap site that the fission gas atoms occupy, which includes the corresponding type of mobile cluster, the charge state of these defects and the chemistry acting as boundary condition. In the next step DFT calculations were used to estimate migration barriers and internal energy contributions to the thermodynamic properties and calculations based on empirical potentials were used to estimate defect formation and migration entropies (i.e. pre-exponentials). The diffusivities calculated for out-of-pile conditions as function of the UO2x nonstoichiometrywere used to validate the accuracy of the diffusion models and the DFT calculations against available experimental data. The Xe diffusivity is predicted to depend strongly on the UO2x non-stoichiometry due to a combination of changes in the preferred Xe trap site and in the concentration of uranium vacancies enabling Xe diffusion, which is consistent with experiments. After establishing the validity of the modeling approach, it was used for studying Xe diffusion under in-pile conditions, for which experimental data is very scarce. The radiation-enhanced Xe diffusivity is compared to existing empirical models. Finally, the predicted fission gas diffusion rates were implemented in the BISON fuel performance code and fission gas release from a Risø fuel rod irradiation experiment was simulated. 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  8. Quantification of fibrosis in infarcted swine hearts by ex vivo late gadolinium-enhancement and diffusion-weighted MRI methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pop, Mihaela; Ghugre, Nilesh R.; Ramanan, Venkat; Morikawa, Lily; Stanisz, Greg; Dick, Alexander J.; Wright, Graham A.

    2013-08-01

    Many have speculated that MRI signal characteristics can be used to identify regions of heterogeneous infarct associated with an arrhythmogenic substrate; however, direct evidence of this relationship is limited. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the remodelling characteristics of fibrosis by means of histology and high-resolution MR imaging. For this purpose, we performed whole-mount histology in heart samples (n = 9) collected from five swine at six weeks post-infarction and compared the extent of fibrosis in the infarcted areas delineated in these histological images with that obtained ex vivo by MRI using late gadolinium-enhancement (LGE) and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) methods. All MR images were obtained at a submillimetre resolution (i.e., voxel size of 0.6×0.6×1.2 mm3). Specifically, in the histology images, we differentiated moderate fibrosis (consisting of a mixture of viable and non-viable myocytes, known as border zone, BZ) from severe fibrosis (i.e., the dense scar). Correspondingly, tissue heterogeneities in the MR images were categorized by a Gaussian mixture model into healthy, BZ and scar. Our results showed that (a) both MRI methods were capable of qualitatively distinguishing sharp edges between dense scar and healthy tissue from regions of heterogeneous BZ; (b) the BZ and dense scar areas had intermediate-to-high increased values of signal intensity in the LGE images and of apparent diffusion coefficient in the DWI, respectively. In addition, as demonstrated by the Picrosirius Red and immunohistochemistry stains, the viable bundles in the BZ were clearly separated by thin collagen strands and had reduced expression of Cx43, whereas the core scar was composed of dense fibrosis. A quantitative analysis demonstrated that the comparison between BZ/scar extent in LGE and DWI to the corresponding areas identified in histology yielded very good correlations (i.e., for the scar identified by LGE, R2 was 0.96 compared to R2 = 0.93 for the scar identified in ADC maps, whereas the BZ had R2 = 0.95 for the correlation between LGE and histology compared to R2 = 0.91 obtained for ADC). This novel study represents an intermediate step in translating such research to the in vivo stages, as well as in establishing the best and most accurate MR method to help identify arrhythmia substrate in patients with structural heart disease.

  9. Coercivity enhancement of recycled Nd-Fe-B sintered magnets by grain boundary diffusion with DyH3 nano-particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Weixiao; Liu, Weiqiang; Yue, Ming; Zhang, Dongtao; Zhang, Jiuxing

    2015-11-01

    The waste VCM magnets were disassembled from hard disk. After removing the coating of nickel by electrochemical method, the waste VCM magnets were recycled by grain boundary diffusion with DyH3 nano-particles. Compared to that of the original magnet, the coercivity of recycled magnets increases by 11.81 kOe, while the remanence keeps almost invariant. Investigation shows that Dy is preferentially enriched as (Nd,Dy)2Fe14B phase in the surface region of the Nd2Fe14B matrix grains indicated by the remarkable enhancement of the magneto-crystalline anisotropy field of the magnet. As a result, the magnet diffused with a small amount of DyH3 nano-particles possesses enhanced coercivity without remarkably sacrificing its magnetization.

  10. Self- and dopant diffusion in extrinsic boron doped isotopically controlled silicon multilayer structures

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, Ian D.; Bracht, Hartmut A.; Silvestri, Hughes H.; Nicols, Samuel P.; Beeman, Jeffrey W.; Hansen, John L.; Nylandsted Larsen, Arne; Haller, Eugene E.

    2002-04-01

    Isotopically controlled silicon multilayer structures were used to measure the enhancement of self- and dopant diffusion in extrinsic boron doped silicon. {sup 30}Si was used as a tracer through a multilayer structure of alternating natural Si and enriched {sup 28}Si layers. Low energy, high resolution secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) allowed for simultaneous measurement of self- and dopant diffusion profiles of samples annealed at temperatures between 850 C and 1100 C. A specially designed ion- implanted amorphous Si surface layer was used as a dopant source to suppress excess defects in the multilayer structure, thereby eliminating transient enhanced diffusion (TED) behavior. Self- and dopant diffusion coefficients, diffusion mechanisms, and native defect charge states were determined from computer-aided modeling, based on differential equations describing the diffusion processes. We present a quantitative description of B diffusion enhanced self-diffusion in silicon and conclude that the diffusion of both B and Si is mainly mediated by neutral and singly positively charged self-interstitials under p-type doping. No significant contribution of vacancies to either B or Si diffusion is observed.

  11. Intravoxel Incoherent Motion Diffusion-weighted Imaging of Multiple Myeloma Lesions: Correlation with Whole-Body Dynamic Contrast Agent-enhanced MR Imaging.

    PubMed

    Bourillon, Camille; Rahmouni, Alain; Lin, Chieh; Belhadj, Karim; Beaussart, Pauline; Vignaud, Alexandre; Zerbib, Pierre; Pigneur, Frédéric; Cuenod, Charles-André; Bessalem, Hocine; Cavet, Madeleine; Boutekadjirt, Amal; Haioun, Corinne; Luciani, Alain

    2015-12-01

    Purpose To correlate intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) parameters with the enhancement patterns of bone marrow and focal lesion obtained on whole-body (WB) dynamic contrast agent-enhanced (DCE) magnetic resonance (MR) images in patients with stage-III multiple myeloma (MM) before and after systemic therapy. Materials and Methods Twenty-seven patients with MM were retrospectively included in this institutional review board-approved study. Requirement for written informed consent was waived. All patients underwent WB DCE MR imaging before treatment and 18 patients underwent repeat MR imaging 3 months after treatment. A transverse IVIM DWI sequence with 10 b values (0, 10, 20, 30, 50, 80, 100, 200, 400, and 800 sec/mm(2)) was acquired within bone marrow and focal lesions. The IVIM parameters (perfusion fraction [f], molecular diffusion coefficient [D], and perfusion-related D [D*]) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) were extracted for both focal lesions and bone marrow and correlated with focal lesions and maximal bone marrow enhancement (BMEmax) (Spearman correlation coefficient) at baseline and at follow-up (Wilcoxon signed-rank test). Results D and ADC values positively correlated with BMEmax (r = 0.7, P < .001; and r = 0.455, P = .0435, respectively). Patients with increased BMEmax showed significantly increased ADC and D within bone marrow versus patients who did not have increased BMEmax (ADC, 0.67 × 10(-3) mm(2)/sec vs 0.54 × 10(-3) mm(2)/sec, P = .03; D, 0.58 × 10(-3) mm(2)/sec vs 0.42 × 10(-3) mm(2)/sec, P < .001). Within focal lesions, f was the maximum in lesions that showed enhancement followed by washout. After treatment in good responders, the significant decrease in maximal enhancement value of focal lesions (baseline vs after treatment, 213.9% ± 78.7 [standard deviation] vs 131% ± 53.6, respectively; P < .001) was accompanied by a significant decrease in f (baseline vs after treatment, 11% ± 3.8 vs 5.8% ± 4.7, respectively; P < .001). Conclusion Diffuse bone marrow involvement is associated with increased D. Hypervascular focal lesions with high maximal enhancement value of focal lesions also show high f value. Likewise, the decreased maximal enhancement value of focal lesions after treatment is accompanied by decreased f. (©) RSNA, 2015 Online supplemental material is available for this article. PMID:26131910

  12. NONLINEAR DIFFUSION PDES Erkut Erdem

    E-print Network

    Erdem, Erkut

    NONLINEAR DIFFUSION PDES Erkut Erdem Hacettepe University March 5th, 2012 CONTENTS 1 Perona-Malik Type Nonlinear Diffusion 1 2 Edge Enhancing Diffusion 5 References 7 1 PERONA-MALIK TYPE NONLINEAR DIFFUSION The main theory behind nonlinear diffusion models is to use nonlinear PDEs to create a scale space

  13. Effects of Lewis Number on Temperatures of Spherical Diffusion Flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santa, K. J.; Sun, Z.; Chao, B. H.; Sunderland, P. B.; Axelbaum, R. I.; Urban, D. L.; Stocker, D. P.

    2007-01-01

    Spherical diffusion flames supported on a porous sphere were studied numerically and experimentally. Experiments were performed in 2.2 s and 5.2 s microgravity facilities. Numerical results were obtained from a Chemkin-based program. The program simulates flow from a porous sphere into a quiescent environment, yields both steady-state and transient results, and accounts for optically thick gas-phase radiation. The low flow velocities and long residence times in these diffusion flames lead to enhanced radiative and diffusive effects. Despite similar adiabatic flame temperatures, the measured and predicted temperatures varied by as much as 700 K. The temperature reduction correlates with flame size but characteristic flow times and, importantly, Lewis number also influence temperature. The numerical results show that the ambient gas Lewis number would have a strong effect on flame temperature if the flames were steady and nonradiating. For example, a 10% decrease in Lewis number would increase the steady-state flame temperature by 200 K. However, for these transient, radiating flames the effect of Lewis number is small. Transient predictions of flame sizes are larger than those observed in microgravity experiments. Close agreement could not be obtained without either increasing the model s thermal and mass diffusion properties by 30% or reducing mass flow rate by 25%.

  14. Radiologic-Pathologic Analysis of Contrast-enhanced and Diffusion-weighted MR Imaging in Patients with HCC after TACE: Diagnostic Accuracy of 3D Quantitative Image Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chapiro, Julius; Wood, Laura D.; Lin, MingDe; Duran, Rafael; Cornish, Toby; Lesage, David; Charu, Vivek; Schernthaner, Rüdiger; Wang, Zhijun; Tacher, Vania; Savic, Lynn Jeanette; Kamel, Ihab R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the diagnostic performance of three-dimensional (3Dthree-dimensional) quantitative enhancement-based and diffusion-weighted volumetric magnetic resonance (MR) imaging assessment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCChepatocellular carcinoma) lesions in determining the extent of pathologic tumor necrosis after transarterial chemoembolization (TACEtransarterial chemoembolization). Materials and Methods This institutional review board–approved retrospective study included 17 patients with HCChepatocellular carcinoma who underwent TACEtransarterial chemoembolization before surgery. Semiautomatic 3Dthree-dimensional volumetric segmentation of target lesions was performed at the last MR examination before orthotopic liver transplantation or surgical resection. The amount of necrotic tumor tissue on contrast material–enhanced arterial phase MR images and the amount of diffusion-restricted tumor tissue on apparent diffusion coefficient (ADCapparent diffusion coefficient) maps were expressed as a percentage of the total tumor volume. Visual assessment of the extent of tumor necrosis and tumor response according to European Association for the Study of the Liver (EASLEuropean Association for the Study of the Liver) criteria was performed. Pathologic tumor necrosis was quantified by using slide-by-slide segmentation. Correlation analysis was performed to evaluate the predictive values of the radiologic techniques. Results At histopathologic examination, the mean percentage of tumor necrosis was 70% (range, 10%–100%). Both 3Dthree-dimensional quantitative techniques demonstrated a strong correlation with tumor necrosis at pathologic examination (R2 = 0.9657 and R2 = 0.9662 for quantitative EASLEuropean Association for the Study of the Liver and quantitative ADCapparent diffusion coefficient, respectively) and a strong intermethod agreement (R2 = 0.9585). Both methods showed a significantly lower discrepancy with pathologically measured necrosis (residual standard error [RSEresidual standard error] = 6.38 and 6.33 for quantitative EASLEuropean Association for the Study of the Liver and quantitative ADCapparent diffusion coefficient, respectively), when compared with non-3Dthree-dimensional techniques (RSEresidual standard error = 12.18 for visual assessment). Conclusion This radiologic-pathologic correlation study demonstrates the diagnostic accuracy of 3Dthree-dimensional quantitative MR imaging techniques in identifying pathologically measured tumor necrosis in HCChepatocellular carcinoma lesions treated with TACEtransarterial chemoembolization. © RSNA, 2014 Online supplemental material is available for this article. PMID:25028783

  15. Cation diffusion in the electrical double layer enhances the mass transfer rates for Sr2+, Co2+ and Zn2+ in compacted illite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glaus, M. A.; Aertsens, M.; Appelo, C. A. J.; Kupcik, T.; Maes, N.; Van Laer, L.; Van Loon, L. R.

    2015-09-01

    Enhanced mass transfer rates have been frequently observed in diffusion studies with alkaline and earth alkaline elements in compacted clay minerals and clay rocks. Whether this phenomenon - often termed surface diffusion - is also relevant for more strongly sorbing species is an open question. We therefore investigated the diffusion of Sr2+, Co2+ and Zn2+ in compacted illite with respect to variations of the concentration of the background electrolyte, pH and carbonate. New experimental techniques were developed in order to avoid artefacts stemming from the confinement of the clay sample. A distinct dependence of the effective diffusion coefficients on the concentration of the background electrolyte was observed for all three elements. A similar correlation was found for the sorption distribution ratio (Rd) derived from tracer breakthrough in the case of Sr2+, while this dependence was much weaker for Co2+ and Zn2+. Model calculations using Phreeqc resulted in a good agreement with the experimental data when it was assumed that the cationic species, present in the electrical double layer (EDL) of the charged clay surface, are mobile. Species bound to the specific surface complexation sites at the clay edges were assumed to be immobile. An assessment of the mobility of the type of cationic elements studied here in argillaceous media thus requires an analysis of their distribution among specifically sorbed surface species and species in the EDL. The normal approach of deriving unknown effective diffusion coefficients from reference values of an uncharged water tracer may significantly underestimate the mobility of metal cations in argillaceous media.

  16. Note: The role of external electric fields in enhancing ion mobility, drift velocity, and drift-diffusion rates in aqueous electrolyte solutions [J. Chem. Phys. 134, 114504 (2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murad, Sohail

    2012-02-01

    The effect of external electric fields on enhancing ion mobility, drift velocity, and drift diffusion as a function of solution concentration has been investigated using molecular dynamics simulations. Our results show that the unusual nonlinear behavior observed when the solution concentration matches seawater is also observed when the concentration is reduced to half of that value. These results are of significance in designing processes for desalinating seawater using electro-deionization in which the concentration would decrease during salt removal, and for purification of brackish waters which also have lower salt content.

  17. Early annihilation and diffuse backgrounds in models of weakly interacting massive particles in which the cross section for pair annihilation is enhanced by 1/upsilon.

    PubMed

    Kamionkowski, Marc; Profumo, Stefano

    2008-12-31

    Recent studies have considered modifications to the standard weakly interacting massive particle scenario in which the pair annihilation cross section (times relative velocity v) is enhanced by a factor 1/upsilon to approximately 10(-3) in the Galaxy, enough to explain several puzzling Galactic radiation signals. We show that in these scenarios a burst of weakly interacting massive particle annihilation occurs in the first collapsed dark-matter halos. We show that severe constraints to the annihilation cross section derive from measurements of the diffuse extragalactic radiation and from ionization and heating of the intergalactic medium. PMID:19437633

  18. Diffusion Geometry Diffusion Geometry

    E-print Network

    Hirn, Matthew

    Diffusion Geometry Diffusion Geometry for High Dimensional Data Matthew J. Hirn July 3, 2013 #12;Diffusion Geometry Introduction Embedding of closed curve Figure: Left: A closed, non-self-intersecting curve in 3 dimensions. Right: Its embedding as a circle. #12;Diffusion Geometry Introduction Cartoon

  19. Binary and ternary gas mixtures with temperature enhanced diffuse glow discharge characteristics for use in closing switches

    DOEpatents

    Christophorou, L.G.; Hunter, S.R.

    1988-06-28

    An improvement to the gas mixture used in diffuse glow discharge closing switches is disclosed which includes binary and ternary gas mixtures which are formulated to exhibit decreasing electron attachment with increasing temperature. This increases the efficiency of the conductance of the glow discharge and further inhibits the formation of an arc. 11 figs.

  20. Microgravity Turbulent Gas-Jet Diffusion Flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    A gas-jet diffusion flame is similar to the flame on a Bunsen burner, where a gaseous fuel (e.g., propane) flows from a nozzle into an oxygen-containing atmosphere (e.g., air). The difference is that a Bunsen burner allows for (partial) premixing of the fuel and the air, whereas a diffusion flame is not premixed and gets its oxygen (principally) by diffusion from the atmosphere around the flame. Simple gas-jet diffusion flames are often used for combustion studies because they embody the mechanisms operating in accidental fires and in practical combustion systems. However, most practical combustion is turbulent (i.e., with random flow vortices), which enhances the fuel/air mixing. These turbulent flames are not well understood because their random and transient nature complicates analysis. Normal gravity studies of turbulence in gas-jet diffusion flames can be impeded by buoyancy-induced instabilities. These gravitycaused instabilities, which are evident in the flickering of a candle flame in normal gravity, interfere with the study of turbulent gas-jet diffusion flames. By conducting experiments in microgravity, where buoyant instabilities are avoided, we at the NASA Lewis Research Center hope to improve our understanding of turbulent combustion. Ultimately, this could lead to improvements in combustor design, yielding higher efficiency and lower pollutant emissions. Gas-jet diffusion flames are often researched as model flames, because they embody mechanisms operating in both accidental fires and practical combustion systems (see the first figure). In normal gravity laboratory research, buoyant air flows, which are often negligible in practical situations, dominate the heat and mass transfer processes. Microgravity research studies, however, are not constrained by buoyant air flows, and new, unique information on the behavior of gas-jet diffusion flames has been obtained.

  1. Stable isotope-enhanced two- and three-dimensional diffusion ordered 13C NMR spectroscopy (SIE-DOSY 13C NMR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vermillion, Karl; Price, Neil P. J.

    2009-06-01

    The feasibility of obtaining high quality homonuclear or heteronuclear diffusion-ordered 13C NMR data is shown to be greatly improved by using 13C isotopically-enriched samples. Stable isotope-enhanced diffusion ordered (SIE-DOSY) 13C NMR has been applied to 13C-enriched carbohydrates, and has been used to determine diffusion coefficients for pentose and hexose monosaccharides, and a disaccharide and trisaccharide. These 2D spectra were obtained with as little as 8 min of acquisition time. Fully resolved 3D DOSY-HMQC NMR spectra of [U- 13C]xylose, [U- 13C]glucose, and [1- 13C gal]lactose were obtained in 5 h. Sample derivatization with [ carbonyl- 13C]acetate (peracetylation) extends the usefulness of the technique to included non-labeled sugars; the 13C-carbonyl - carbohydrate ring proton 1H- 13C correlations also provide additional structural information, as shown for the 3-D DOSY-HMQC analysis of a mixture of maltotriose and lactose per-[ carbonyl- 13C]acetates.

  2. Transient heliosheath modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quenby, J. J.; Webber, W. R.

    2015-10-01

    Voyager 1 has explored the solar wind-interstellar medium interaction region between the terminal shock and heliopause, following the intensity distribution of Galactic cosmic ray protons above 200 MeV energy. Before this component reached the expected galactic flux level at 121.7 au from the Sun, four episodes of rapid intensity change occurred with a behaviour similar to that found in Forbush Decreases in the inner Solar system, rather than that expected from a mechanism related to models for the long-term modulation found closer to the Sun. Because the mean solar wind flow is both expected and observed to be perpendicular to the radial direction close to the heliopause, an explanation is suggested in terms of transient radial flows related to possible heliopause boundary flapping. It is necessary that the radial flows are of the order either of the sound speed found for conditions downstream of the terminal shock or of the fluctuations found near the boundary by the Voyager 1 Low Energy Charged Particle detector and that the relevant cosmic ray diffusion perpendicular to the mean field is controlled by `slab' fluctuations accounting for about 20 per cent of the total power in the field variance. However, additional radial drift motion related to possible north to south gradients in the magnetic field may allow the inclusion of some diffusion according to the predictions of a theory based upon the presence of 2D turbulence. The required field gradients may arise due to field variation in the field carried by solar plasma flow deflected away from the solar equatorial plane. Modulation amounting to a total 30 per cent drop in galactic intensity requires explanation by a combination of transient effects.

  3. Thermal diffusion of Co into sputtered ZnO:Co thin film for enhancing visible-light-induced photo-catalytic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kao, Chi-Yuan; Liao, Jiunn-Der; Chang, Chia-Wei; Wang, Ru-Yang

    2011-12-01

    ZnO has received a lot of attention in for the degradation and complete mineralization of environmental pollutants. In this study, efficient ZnO-based visible-light photocatalysts are synthesized via a low-cost method by increasing the Co concentration at the outermost surface of ZnO:Co thin film under an annealing process. The simply adjusted Co concentration gradient (?1.5% increase) into the surface of ZnO:Co is driven by thermal diffusion. Co ions substitute Zn sites in the ZnO lattice. The band gap narrowed due to sp-d exchange interactions between the conduction band electrons and the d electrons of Co. The annealing process enhances the grain size and the degree of crystallinity of the diffused Co/ZnO:Co, which contributes to the absorption edge red-shift. Photocatalytic activities such as the photo-degradation of methylene blue and the inactivation of bacteria are obviously enhanced. The proposed low-cost method significantly increases the efficiency of ZnO for the generation of the photocatalytic effect under visible-light exposure.

  4. Destruction of ultra-slow diffusion in a three dimensional cylindrical comb structure

    E-print Network

    A. Iomin; V. Mendez

    2015-08-21

    We present a rigorous result on ultra-slow diffusion by solving a Fokker-Planck equation, which describes anomalous transport in a three dimensional (3D) comb. This 3D cylindrical comb consists of a cylinder of discs threaten on a backbone. It is shown that the ultra-slow contaminant spreading along the backbone is described by the mean squared displacement (MSD) of the order of $\\ln (t)$. This phenomenon takes place only for normal two dimensional diffusion inside the infinite secondary branches (discs). When the secondary branches have finite boundaries, the ultra-slow motion is a transient process and the asymptotic behavior is normal diffusion. In another example, when anomalous diffusion takes place in the secondary branches, a destruction of ultra-slow (logarithmic) diffusion takes place as well. As the result, one observes "enhanced" subdiffusion with the MSD $\\sim t^{1-\\alpha}\\ln t$, where $0<\\alpha<1$.

  5. Enhanced diffusive ion scattering in front of the Earth's quasi-parallel bow shock: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kis, Arpad; Scholer, Manfred; Klecker, Berndt; Lucek, Elisabeth; Dandouras, Iannis; Lemperger, István; Wesztergom, Viktor; Novák, Attila; Szalai, Sándor

    2014-05-01

    In our study we report on observations of energetic ions upstream of the Earth's quasi-parallel bow shock by Cluster at times of large inter-spacecraft separation distance. For the analysis we use the ion data provided by the CIS-HIA in the 10-32 keV energy range and the magnetic data recorded by the FGM instrument. We determine the spatial gradient of partial energetic ion densities at various distances from the bow shock. The gradient in all energy channels decreases exponentially with distance and the e-folding distance of the gradients depends approximately linearly on energy but there is a significant difference in their values obtained at the observed three upstream ion events. We demonstrate for the first time that under specific interplanetary conditions the mechanism of the diffuse ion scattering can change significantly and results in an anomalous diffusive process charactized by an unusually small e-folding distance.

  6. Relationship between diffusion parameters derived from intravoxel incoherent motion MRI and perfusion measured by dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI of soft tissue tumors.

    PubMed

    Marzi, Simona; Stefanetti, Linda; Sperati, Francesca; Anelli, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    Our aim was to evaluate the link between diffusion parameters measured by intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and the perfusion metrics obtained with dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI in soft tissue tumors (STTs). Twenty-eight patients affected by histopathologically confirmed STT were included in a prospective study. All patients underwent both DCE MRI and IVIM DWI. The perfusion fraction f, diffusion coefficient D and perfusion-related diffusion coefficient D* were estimated using a bi-exponential function to fit the DWI data. DCE MRI was acquired with a temporal resolution of 3-5?s. Maps of the initial area under the gadolinium concentration curve (IAUGC), time to peak (TTP) and maximum slope of increase (MSI) were derived using commercial software. The relationships between the DCE MRI and IVIM DWI measurements were assessed by Spearman's test. To exclude false positive results under multiple testing, the false discovery rate (FDR) procedure was applied. The Mann-Whitney test was used to evaluate the differences between all variables in patients with non-myxoid and myxoid STT. No significant relationship was found between IVIM parameters and any DCE MRI parameters. Higher f and D*f values were found in non-myxoid tumors compared with myxoid tumors (p?=?0.004 and p?=?0.003, respectively). MSI was significantly higher in non-myxoid tumors than in myxoid tumors (p?=?0.029). From the visual assessments of single clinical cases, both f and D*f maps were in satisfactory agreement with DCE maps in the extreme cases of an avascular mass and a highly vascularized mass, whereas, for tumors with slight vascularity or with a highly heterogeneous perfusion pattern, this association was not straightforward. Although IVIM DWI was demonstrated to be feasible in STT, our data did not support evident relationships between perfusion-related IVIM parameters and perfusion measured by DCE MRI. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26602061

  7. Transient Faults in Computer Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masson, Gerald M.

    1993-01-01

    A powerful technique particularly appropriate for the detection of errors caused by transient faults in computer systems was developed. The technique can be implemented in either software or hardware; the research conducted thus far primarily considered software implementations. The error detection technique developed has the distinct advantage of having provably complete coverage of all errors caused by transient faults that affect the output produced by the execution of a program. In other words, the technique does not have to be tuned to a particular error model to enhance error coverage. Also, the correctness of the technique can be formally verified. The technique uses time and software redundancy. The foundation for an effective, low-overhead, software-based certification trail approach to real-time error detection resulting from transient fault phenomena was developed.

  8. Triple microporous layer coated gas diffusion layer for performance enhancement of polymer electrolyte fuel cells under both low and high humidity conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitahara, Tatsumi; Nakajima, Hironori; Inamoto, Masaoki; Shinto, Kosuke

    2014-02-01

    Enhancement of the performance of polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs) requires an appropriate water balance between the conservation of membrane humidity and the discharge of excess water produced in the cell. In the present study, a novel triple microporous layer (MPL) coated gas diffusion layer (GDL), in which a hydrophilic layer was coated on a hydrophobic double MPL, was developed to enhance the PEFC performance under both low and high humidity. The thin hydrophilic layer in the triple MPL is effective at conserving the humidity of the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) under low humidity, while the hydrophobic double MPL between the hydrophilic layer and the carbon paper substrate prevents removal of water from the hydrophilic layer. This results in a significant enhancement of the ability of the GDL to prevent dehydration of the MEA. The triple MPL coated GDL, where the polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) content in the hydrophobic MPL in contact with the hydrophilic layer is set to 30 mass% and that in contact with the substrate is set to 10 mass%, is effective at expelling excess water from the catalyst layer, which results in much higher PEFC performance under high humidity than that for a conventional hydrophobic MPL coated GDL.

  9. Enhanced localization, energy anomalous diffusion and resonant mode in harmonic chains with correlated mass-spring disorder.

    PubMed

    de Albuquerque, S S; dos Santos, J L L; de Moura, F A B F; Lyra, M L

    2015-05-01

    In this work, we study the vibrational modes and energy spreading in a harmonic chain model with diluted second-neighbors couplings and correlated mass-spring disorder. While all nearest neighbor masses are coupled by an elastic spring, second neighbors springs are introduced with a probability pD. The masses are randomly distributed according to the site connectivity mi = m0 (1 + 1/n(?)(I), where ni is the connectivity of the site i and ? is a tunable exponent. We show that maximum localization of the vibrational modes is achieved for ? ? 3/4. The time-evolution of the energy wave-packet is followed after an initial localized excitation. While the participation number remains finite, the energy spread is shown to be sub-diffusive after a displacement and super-diffusive after an impulse excitation. These features are related to the development of a power-law tail in the wave-packet distribution. Further, we unveil that the spring dilution leads to the emergence of a resonant localized state which is signaled by a van Hove singularity in the density of states. PMID:25836635

  10. Fluorescence-guided bone resection by using Visually Enhanced Lesion Scope in diffuse chronic sclerosingosteomyelitis of the mandible: Clinical and pathological evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Sasaguri, Masaaki; Matsuo, Kou; Yoshida, Sei; Uehara, Masataka; Habu, Manabu; Haraguchi, Kazuya; Tanaka, Tatsurou; Morimoto, Yasuhiro; Yoshioka, Izumi; Tominaga, Kazuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Diffuse chronic sclerosingosteomyelitis (DCSO) is a refractory disease, becausethe etiology and pathogenesis remain poorly understood and to determine the border betweenunhealthy boneandhealthybone is difficult. However, progressive inflammation, clinical symptoms and a high recurrence rate of DCSO were the reasons for surgical treatment. We report a case of a 66-year old woman with DCSO of the right side of mandible who was treated with hemimandibulectomy and simultaneous reconstruction by vascularized free fibula flap. After preoperative administration of minocycline for 1 month, the bone fluorescence was successfully monitored by using a Visually Enhanced Lesion Scope (VELscope®). Intraoperatively, we could determine the resection boundaries. We investigated the clinical and histopathological findings. The fluorescence findings were well correlated with histopathological findings. Using a VELscope®was handy and useful to determine the border between DCSO lesion andhealthybone.The free fibula flap under the minocycline-derived bone fluorescence by using a VELscope®offered a good quality of mandibular bone and the successful management of an advanced and refractory DCSO. Key words:Fluorescence-guided bone resection, fibular free flap, osteomyelitis of the mandible, diffuse chronicosteomyelitis, VELscope®. PMID:26535106

  11. Low temperature plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition of thin vanadium nitride layers for copper diffusion barriers

    SciTech Connect

    Rampelberg, Geert; Devloo-Casier, Kilian; Deduytsche, Davy; Detavernier, Christophe; Blasco, Nicolas

    2013-03-18

    Thin vanadium nitride (VN) layers were grown by atomic layer deposition using tetrakis(ethylmethylamino)vanadium and NH{sub 3} plasma at deposition temperatures between 70 Degree-Sign C and 150 Degree-Sign C on silicon substrates and polymer foil. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed a composition close to stoichiometric VN, while x-ray diffraction showed the {delta}-VN crystal structure. The resistivity was as low as 200 {mu}{Omega} cm for the as deposited films and further reduced to 143 {mu}{Omega} cm and 93 {mu}{Omega} cm by annealing in N{sub 2} and H{sub 2}/He/N{sub 2}, respectively. A 5 nm VN layer proved to be effective as a diffusion barrier for copper up to a temperature of 720 Degree-Sign C.

  12. Reduced boron diffusion under interstitial injection in fluorine implanted silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Kham, M. N.; Matko, I.; Chenevier, B.; Ashburn, P.

    2007-12-01

    Point defect injection studies are performed to investigate how fluorine implantation influences the diffusion of boron marker layers in both the vacancy-rich and interstitial-rich regions of the fluorine damage profile. A 185 keV, 2.3x10{sup 15} cm{sup -2} F{sup +} implant is made into silicon samples containing multiple boron marker layers and rapid thermal annealing is performed at 1000 deg. C for times of 15-120 s. The boron and fluorine profiles are characterized by secondary ion mass spectroscopy and the defect structures by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Fluorine implanted samples surprisingly show less boron diffusion under interstitial injection than those under inert anneal. This effect is particularly noticeable for boron marker layers located in the interstitial-rich region of the fluorine damage profile and for short anneal times (15 s). TEM images show a band of dislocation loops around the range of the fluorine implant and the density of dislocation loops is lower under interstitial injection than under inert anneal. It is proposed that interstitial injection accelerates the evolution of interstitial defects into dislocation loops, thereby giving transient enhanced boron diffusion over a shorter period of time. The effect of the fluorine implant on boron diffusion is found to be the opposite for boron marker layers in the interstitial-rich and vacancy-rich regions of the fluorine damage profile. For marker layers in the interstitial-rich region of the fluorine damage profile, the boron diffusion coefficient decreases with anneal time, as is typically seen for transient enhanced diffusion. The boron diffusion under interstitial injection is enhanced by the fluorine implant at short anneal times but suppressed at longer anneal times. It is proposed that this behavior is due to trapping of interstitials at the dislocation loops introduced by the fluorine implant. For boron marker layers in the vacancy-rich region of the fluorine damage profile, suppression of boron diffusion is seen for short anneals and then increased diffusion after a critical time, which is longer for inert anneal than interstitial injection. This behavior is explained by the annealing of vacancy-fluorine clusters, which anneal quicker under interstitial injection because the injected interstitials annihilate vacancies in the clusters.

  13. Experimental Investigation of Radio-Turbulence Induced Diffusion -- Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Spitz, H. B.; Usman, S.

    2005-07-07

    The outcome of this research project suggests that the transport of radon in water is significantly greater than that predicted solely by molecular diffusion. The original study was related to the long term storage of {sup 226}Ra-bearing sand at the DOE Fernald site and determining whether a barrier of water covering the sand would be effective in reducing the emanation of {sup 222}Rn from the sand. Initial observations before this study found the transport of radon in water to be greater than that predicted solely by molecular diffusion. Fick's law on diffusion was used to model the transport of radon in water including the impact associated with radioactive decay. Initial measurements suggested that the deposition of energy in water associated with the radioactive decay process influences diffusion and enhances transport of radon. A multi-region, one-dimensional, steady-state transport model was used to analyze the movement of radon through a sequential column of air, water and air. An effective diffusion coefficient was determined by varying the thickness of the water column and measuring the time for transport of {sup 222}Rn through of the water barrier. A one-region, one-dimensional transient diffusion equation was developed to investigate the build up of radon at the end of the water column to the time when a steady-state, equilibrium condition was achieved. This build up with time is characteristic of the transport rate of radon in water and established the basis for estimating the effective diffusion coefficient for {sup 222}Rn in water. Several experiments were conducted using different types and physical arrangements of water barriers to examine how radon transport is influenced by the water barrier. Results of our measurements confirm our theoretical analyses which suggest that convective forces other than pure molecular diffusion impact the transport of {sup 222}Rn through the water barrier. An effective diffusion coefficient is defined that includes effects of molecular diffusion and convection to describe the transport of radon in water. The effective diffusion coefficients measured in these experiments are 6.8 x 10{sup -4} {+-} 28% and 3.5 x 10{sup -4} {+-} 34% cm{sup 2} sec{sup -1} for the steady-state and transient diffusion conditions, respectively. Water barriers ranging in thickness from 30-50 cm reduce the amount of radon released from the radium-bearing source material by a factor of 0.3-0.1, respectively.

  14. Nerve Growth Factor Regulates Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 2 via Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase Signaling To Enhance Neurite Outgrowth in Developing Neurons.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Matthew R; Johnson, William M; Pilat, Jennifer M; Kiselar, Janna; DeFrancesco-Lisowitz, Alicia; Zigmond, Richard E; Moiseenkova-Bell, Vera Y

    2015-12-15

    Neurite outgrowth is key to the formation of functional circuits during neuronal development. Neurotrophins, including nerve growth factor (NGF), increase neurite outgrowth in part by altering the function and expression of Ca(2+)-permeable cation channels. Here we report that transient receptor potential vanilloid 2 (TRPV2) is an intracellular Ca(2+)-permeable TRPV channel upregulated by NGF via the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway to augment neurite outgrowth. TRPV2 colocalized with Rab7, a late endosome protein, in addition to TrkA and activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) in neurites, indicating that the channel is closely associated with signaling endosomes. In line with these results, we showed that TRPV2 acts as an ERK substrate and identified the motifs necessary for phosphorylation of TRPV2 by ERK. Furthermore, neurite length, TRPV2 expression, and TRPV2-mediated Ca(2+) signals were reduced by mutagenesis of these key ERK phosphorylation sites. Based on these findings, we identified a previously uncharacterized mechanism by which ERK controls TRPV2-mediated Ca(2+) signals in developing neurons and further establish TRPV2 as a critical intracellular ion channel in neuronal function. PMID:26416880

  15. Recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator transiently enhances blood-brain barrier permeability during cerebral ischemia through vascular endothelial growth factor-mediated endothelial endocytosis in mice.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Nagai, Nobuo; Yamakawa, Kasumi; Muranaka, Yoshinori; Hokamura, Kazuya; Umemura, Kazuo

    2015-12-01

    Recombinant tissue-type plasminogen activator (rt-PA) modulates cerebrovascular permeability and exacerbates brain injury in ischemic stroke, but its mechanisms remain unclear. We studied the involvement of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-mediated endocytosis in the increase of blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability potentiated by rt-PA after ischemic stroke. The rt-PA treatment at 4 hours after middle cerebral artery occlusion induced a transient increase in BBB permeability after ischemic stroke in mice, which was suppressed by antagonists of either low-density lipoprotein receptor families (LDLRs) or VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR-2). In immortalized bEnd.3 endothelial cells, rt-PA treatment upregulated VEGF expression and VEGFR-2 phosphorylation under ischemic conditions in an LDLR-dependent manner. In addition, rt-PA treatment increased endocytosis and transcellular transport in bEnd.3 monolayers under ischemic conditions, which were suppressed by the inhibition of LDLRs, VEGF, or VEGFR-2. The rt-PA treatment also increased the endocytosis of endothelial cells in the ischemic brain region after stroke in mice. These findings indicate that rt-PA increased BBB permeability via induction of VEGF, which at least partially mediates subsequent increase in endothelial endocytosis. Therefore, inhibition of VEGF induction may have beneficial effects after thrombolytic therapy with rt-PA treatment after stroke. PMID:26219596

  16. Patterning with Diffusion Barriers.

    PubMed

    Miller, Michael A

    2015-11-23

    Notch signaling instructs equivalent cells to form precise differentiation patterns. In this issue of Developmental Cell, Cinquin et al. (2015) characterize diffusion barriers that enhance Notch patterning within the Caenorhabditis elegans gonad. PMID:26609951

  17. Magnetic field enhanced convective diffusion of iron oxide nanoparticles in an osmotically disrupted cell culture model of the blood–brain barrier

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Zhizhi; Worden, Matthew; Wroczynskyj, Yaroslav; Yathindranath, Vinith; van Lierop, Johan; Hegmann, Torsten; Miller, Donald W

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The present study examines the use of an external magnetic field in combination with the disruption of tight junctions to enhance the permeability of iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) across an in vitro model of the blood–brain barrier (BBB). The feasibility of such an approach, termed magnetic field enhanced convective diffusion (MFECD), along with the effect of IONP surface charge on permeability, was examined. Methods The effect of magnetic field on the permeability of positively (aminosilane-coated [AmS]-IONPs) and negatively (N-(trimethoxysilylpropyl)ethylenediaminetriacetate [EDT]-IONPs) charged IONPs was evaluated in confluent monolayers of mouse brain endothelial cells under normal and osmotically disrupted conditions. Results Neither IONP formulation was permeable across an intact cell monolayer. However, when tight junctions were disrupted using D-mannitol, flux of EDT-IONPs across the bEnd.3 monolayers was 28%, increasing to 44% when a magnetic field was present. In contrast, the permeability of AmS-IONPs after osmotic disruption was less than 5%. The cellular uptake profile of both IONPs was not altered by the presence of mannitol. Conclusions MFECD improved the permeability of EDT-IONPs through the paracellular route. The MFECD approach favors negatively charged IONPs that have low affinity for the brain endothelial cells and high colloidal stability. This suggests that MFECD may improve IONP-based drug delivery to the brain. PMID:25018630

  18. The chemistry of transient dense cores in interstellar clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrod, Robin Tristan

    I model the chemical effects on dark clouds of their being composed of small (<0.1 pc), transient (order of 1 Myr), dense cores (which are only observed with high-resolution interferometry) within which most of the clouds' mass resides, surrounded by a diffuse background gas. I investigate the chemical evolution of the cores, and the resultant chemical enhancement of the background gas by cyclical processing through core formation and dissipation. I approximate the MHD mechanism of Falleh Hartquist (2002), by which large transient density inhomogeneities may be produced by slow-mode waves in a cold plasma, into a multi-point 1-D chemical code. Molecular freeze-out onto dust grains and subsequent re-injection into the gas phase are switched on or off according to the attainment of a critical visual extinction at individual points. I explore a grid of parameter space in five physical and chemical variables. Among a number of conclusions, I find firstly that multi-point chemical codes are highly necessary for modelling dark cloud regions, due to the large chemical variation over time and space. I find that the core chemistry is young at all times, in keeping with observations, and that the abundance and spatial extent of several important species is significantly enhanced by the cycling process. Further to this, I construct (non-interacting) assemblies of such cores, producing convolved maps mimicking observational constraints, and present evidence that such collections of transient dense cores may reproduce the morphologies observed in both low- and high-resolution molecular line studies of dark clouds. I further modify the convolution method in a number of ways, using this mapping procedure to test hypotheses derived from the chemical analysis. Hence I obtain observational diagnostics for the determination of physical and chemical conditions in dark clouds.

  19. Depth-compensated diffuse optical tomography enhanced by general linear model analysis and an anatomical atlas of human head

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Fenghua; Liu, Hanli

    2013-01-01

    One of the main challenges in functional diffuse optical tomography (DOT) is to accurately recover the depth of brain activation, which is even more essential when differentiating true brain signals from task-evoked artifacts in the scalp. Recently, we developed a depth-compensated algorithm (DCA) to minimize the depth localization error in DOT. However, the semi-infinite model that was used in DCA deviated significantly from the realistic human head anatomy. In the present work, we incorporated depth-compensated DOT (DC-DOT) with a standard anatomical atlas of human head. Computer simulations and human measurements of sensorimotor activation were conducted to examine and prove the depth specificity and quantification accuracy of brain atlas-based DC-DOT. In addition, node-wise statistical analysis based on the general linear model (GLM) was also implemented and performed in this study, showing the robustness of DC-DOT that can accurately identify brain activation at the correct depth for functional brain imaging, even when co-existing with superficial artifacts. PMID:23859922

  20. Enhanced blue light shielding property of light-diffusion polycarbonate composites by CeO2-coated silicate microspheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yu; Shi, Liyi; Tang, Anjie; Song, Na; Tang, Shengfu; Ding, Peng

    2015-07-01

    The CeO2 coated silicate microspheres (SMSs) core-shell particles (SMS-CeO2) were synthesized for enhancing blue light shielding property of polycarbonate (PC) composites. The structure analysis showed that CeO2 particles were homogenously coated on SMS by Ce-O-Si bonds. The optical analysis indicated that the transmittance of PC/SMS-CeO2 composites were enhanced to 63.2% from 42.9% for PC/SMS/CeO2 composites when 0.6 wt.% fillers were loaded, while there was no obvious influence on the haze of the composites. UV-Vis analysis showed that the absorbance at 450-nm wavelength of blue-light increased from 24% of PC/SMS to 50% of PC/SMS-CeO2 composites, while the absorbance at 650-nm wavelength of red-light was unchanged. These results indicated that the PC/SMS-CeO2 composites had blue light shielding property and better performance on transmitting other visible lights.

  1. Transient Wellbore Fluid Flow Model

    Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)

    1982-04-06

    WELBORE is a code to solve transient, one-dimensional two-phase or single-phase non-isothermal fluid flow in a wellbore. The primary thermodynamic variables used in solving the equations are the pressure and specific energy. An equation of state subroutine provides the density, quality, and temperature. The heat loss out of the wellbore is calculated by solving a radial diffusion equation for the temperature changes outside the bore. The calculation is done at each node point in themore »wellbore.« less

  2. Forerunners - Outer rims of solar coronal transients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, B. V.; Hildner, E.

    1978-01-01

    The large loop or blob-like transient events viewed in the white-light corona are rimmed by broad regions where the density is slightly enhanced above the pretransient corona. Every one of the Skylab events studied for which sufficiently good Skylab coronagraph coverage is available shows this effect. The upper boundaries of these 'forerunners' blend gradually into the background corona 1-2 solar radii above the transient's leading edges. In any single event, the coronal mass enhancement represented by the forerunner comprises up to 25% of the total excess mass present in the coronagraph's field of view and includes a much larger volume of the corona than previously attributed to the underlying transient. A forerunner without an accompanying transient has not yet been seen. Clearly, forerunners must be reckoned with in any proposed models of discrete outward coronal mass motions, because they indicate the presence of disturbed corona far ahead of the denser portions of the event.

  3. Secondary porosity in a transient vadose zone

    SciTech Connect

    Frederick, W.T.; Grasso, T.X. Jr. )

    1993-03-01

    The Western New York Nuclear Service Center is the site of low and high level radioactive waster buried in a series of trenches excavated in a 28 m thick, Lavery-age silty clay diamicton that exhibits a 6 meter thick transient vadoes zone where exposed at the surface. Hydrostratigraphy of this till includes a 0.25 m thick poorly developed macroporous soil, a 3.5 m thick weathered zone of densely spaced and randomly orientated horizontal and vertical fractures, a 2 m thick unweathered zone of intermittently spaced fractures exhibiting east-west orientations, and a massive 23 m thick unweathered till zone that exhibits isolated, east-west orientated fractures. Bulk hydraulic conductivity of this active flow zone decreases with depth from 10[sup [minus]5] to 10[sup [minus]8] cm/s. The specific discharge of vertically flowing groundwater in the massive till zone is 1.25 cm/yr. A water surplus in the recharge season saturates the fractured zone to grade with up to 7.37 cm/yr of net infiltration. Tritium and radionuclides from the waste trenches and surrounding soil matrix hydrodynamically disperse into the field-saturated fracture network that contains meteoric recharge water. A soil moisture deficit in discharge season produces a vadose zone of widened fractures that via capillarity enhances the diffusion of contaminants into the soil matrix. These enlarged connecting conduits laterally channel the excess infiltration from the recharge season and diffused contaminants to local lowlands and incised streams that truncate the unweathered till. The current vadose and phreatic zone flow study will be used in numeric simulations that will delineate the areal extend and temporal duration of these seepage faces and the time frame of possible surfaces water contamination.

  4. Titan's Magic Island: Transient features in a Titan sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofgartner, J. D.; Hayes, A. G., Jr.; Lunine, J. I.; Zebker, H. A.; Stiles, B. W.; Sotin, C.; Barnes, J. W.; Turtle, E. P.; Baines, K. H.; Brown, R. H.; Buratti, B. J.; Clark, R. N.; Encrenaz, P.; Kirk, R. L.; Le Gall, A. A.; Lopes, R. M. C.; Lorenz, R. D.; Malaska, M. J.; Mitchell, K. L.; Nicholson, P. D.; Paillou, P.; Radebaugh, J.; Wall, S. D.; Wood, C. A.

    2014-12-01

    Transient bright features, popularly referred to as Titan's Magic Island, were observed in Cassini Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images of the northern sea, Ligeia Mare, in July 2013 (Hofgartner et al., 2014, Nature Geosci. 7, 493). Images obtained prior and subsequent to the July 2013 detection do not include these bright features. The features are not consistent with ambiguities, scalloping, gain control or edge effects and are not considered to be standard SAR image artifacts. We compared the measured radar cross-sections from the region of the anomalies to a suite of quasi-specular plus diffuse backscatter models and found that this class of models for a permanent structure can be ruled out to 88% confidence. Thus we conclude that the appearance of the features is the result of a transformation and the subsequent non-detections indicate that they were transient. The observational constraints do not permit tides and/or sea level change to be the dominant cause of the transient expression. We suggest that ephemeral phenomena such as surface waves, rising bubbles, and suspended or floating solids best explain these features. Local meteorology could stimulate or enhance these phenomena, but we are unable to constrain its role in the appearance of these transients. These enigmatic features and the waves reportedly detected in Punga Mare (Barnes et al., 2014, Planetary Science, accepted) are likely the first glimpses of dynamic processes that are commencing in the northern lakes and seas as summer nears in the northern hemisphere. It is plausible that they are an expression of the changing seasons and as Titan's northern hemisphere continues transitioning toward summer they may occur with increased frequency. Ligeia Mare, including the region of the transients, will be observed again during the Cassini Titan flyby on August 21, 2014 and this observation could be diagnostic of the nature of these features. For example, if the transients are waves and waves are detectable at the 12 degrees incidence of the upcoming radar measurements, the predicted increase in wind speeds should result in a higher spatial density of these features.

  5. [Contribution of arterial spin labeling to the diagnosis of sudden and transient neurological deficit].

    PubMed

    Yger, M; Villain, N; Belkacem, S; Bertrand, A; Rosso, C; Crozier, S; Samson, Y; Dormont, D

    2015-02-01

    MRI is the gold standard exploration for sudden transient neurological events. If diffusion MRI is negative, there may be a diagnostic doubt between transient ischemic attack and other causes of transient neurological deficit. We illustrate how sequence arterial spin labeling (ASL), which evaluates cerebral perfusion, contributes to the exploration of transient neurological events. An ASL sequence was performed in seven patients with a normal diffusion MRI explored for a transient deficit. Cortical hyperperfusion not systematized to an arterial territory was found in three and hypoperfusion systematized to an arterial territory in four. ASL helped guide early management of these patients. PMID:25555846

  6. Transient drainage summary report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-01

    This report summarizes the history of transient drainage issues on the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. It defines and describes the UMTRA Project disposal cell transient drainage process and chronicles UMTRA Project treatment of the transient drainage phenomenon. Section 4.0 includes a conceptual cross section of each UMTRA Project disposal site and summarizes design and construction information, the ground water protection strategy, and the potential for transient drainage.

  7. Quantitative Evaluation of Diffusion and Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MR in Tumor Parenchyma and Peritumoral Area for Distinction of Brain Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jing; Yang, Zhi-yun; Luo, Bo-ning; Yang, Jian-yong; Chu, Jian-ping

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To quantitatively evaluate the diagnostic efficiency of parameters from diffusion and dynamic contrast-enhanced MR which based on tumor parenchyma (TP) and peritumoral (PT) area in classification of brain tumors. Methods 45 patients (male: 23, female: 22; mean age: 46 y) were prospectively recruited and they underwent conventional, DCE-MR and DWI examination. With each tumor, 10–15 regions of interest (ROIs) were manually placed on TP and PT area. ADC and permeability parameters (Ktrans, Ve, Kep and iAUC) were calculated and their diagnostic efficiency was assessed. Results In TP, all permeability parameters and ADC value could significantly discriminate Low- from High grade gliomas (HGG) (p<0.001); among theses parameters, Ve demonstrated the highest diagnostic power (iAUC: 0.79, cut-off point: 0.15); the most sensitive and specific index for gliomas grading were Ktrans (84%) and Kep (89%). While, in PT area, only Ktrans could help in gliomas grading (P = 0.009, cut-off point: 0.03 min-1). Moreover, in TP, mean Ve and iAUC of primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) and metastases were significantly higher than that in HGG (p<0.003). Further, in PT area, mean Ktrans (p?0.004) could discriminate PCNSL from HGG and ADC (p?0.003) could differentiate metastases with HGG. Conclusions Quantitative ADC and permeability parameters from Diffusion and DCE-MR in TP and PT area, especially DCE-MR, can aid in gliomas grading and brain tumors discrimination. Their combined application is strongly recommended in the differential diagnosis of these tumor entities. PMID:26384329

  8. Nanoparticle dispersion in polymer nanocomposites by spin-diffusion-averaged paramagnetic enhanced NMR relaxometry: scaling relations and applications.

    PubMed

    Xu, Bo; Leisen, Johannes; Beckham, Haskell W

    2014-08-21

    Scaling relationships are identified between NMR longitudinal relaxation times and clay dispersion quality in polymer-paramagnetic clay nanocomposites. Derived from a previously published analytical relationship developed from a lamella-based model, the scaling relationships are based on the enhancement of NMR relaxation rates with increasing exfoliation and dispersion homogeneity. The paramagnetic contribution to the NMR relaxation rate is inversely proportional to the square of the clay interparticle spacing, and directly proportional to the square of the clay weight fraction. These scaling relationships allow the prediction of relative exfoliation of clay particles for a given series of polymer-clay nanocomposites. With independent knowledge of clay exfoliation in a single sample (e.g., from transmission electron microscopy), NMR relaxometry data may be converted into absolute measures of exfoliation. These scaling relations are confirmed with samples of fully exfoliated poly(vinyl alcohol)-montmorillonite nanocomposites, and then used to reveal exfoliation and dispersion quality in a series of nylon-6-montmorillonite nanocomposites. This characterization route is advantageous because NMR relaxometry can more rapidly provide clay dispersion information that is averaged over larger sample volumes than transmission electron microscopy. PMID:25000915

  9. Spice (DC, AC, Transient) Spice

    E-print Network

    3. Spice (DC, AC, Transient) Spice .(Parametric, Temperature, Performance analysis) , , . , ., )( )Transient AC, DC( . )Loop( . . . DC ) Transient Vsin DC­ 2.2 .( 2.2 , . , ) .( , , Vsin Transient Ac, Dc) , .( ) ( " ) AC

  10. Gas diffusion layers coated with a microporous layer containing hydrophilic carbon nanotubes for performance enhancement of polymer electrolyte fuel cells under both low and high humidity conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitahara, Tatsumi; Nakajima, Hironori; Okamura, Kosuke

    2015-06-01

    Gas diffusion layers (GDLs) coated with a hydrophobic microporous layer (MPL) composed of carbon black and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) have been commonly used to improve the water management characteristics of polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs). However, the hydrophobic MPL coated GDL designed to prevent dehydration of the membrane under low humidity conditions is generally inferior at reducing flooding under high humidity conditions. It is therefore important to develop a robust MPL coated GDL that can enhance the PEFC performance regardless of the humidity conditions. In the present study, a GDL coated with an MPL containing hydrophilic carbon nanotubes (CNTs) was developed. The less hydrophobic pores incorporating CNTs are effective at conserving the membrane humidity under low humidity conditions. The MPL with CNTs is also effective at expelling excess water from the catalyst layer while maintaining oxygen flow pathways from the GDL substrate, allowing the mean flow pore diameter to be decreased to 2 ?m without reducing the ability of the MPL to prevent flooding under high humidity conditions. An MPL coated GDL with a CNT content of 4 mass% exhibits significantly higher performance under both low and high humidity conditions than a hydrophobic MPL coated GDL.

  11. A modified spontaneous emulsification solvent diffusion method for the preparation of curcumin-loaded PLGA nanoparticles with enhanced in vitro anti-tumor activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Cen; Yang, Wei; Wang, Dan-Tong; Chen, Chao-Long; Zhuang, Qing-Ye; Kong, Xiang-Dong

    2014-12-01

    To improve the anti-tumor activity of hydrophobic drug curcumin, we prepared curcumin-loaded PLGA nanoparticles (PLGA-Cur NPs) through a modified spontaneous emulsification solvent diffusion (modified-SESD) method. The influence of main preparation parameters was investigated, such as the volume ratio of binary organic solvents and the concentration of surfactant. Results indicated that the synthesized regular spherical PLGA NPs with the average diameter of 189.7 nm exhibited relatively higher yield (58.9%), drug loading (11.0% (w/w)) and encapsulation efficiency (33.5%), and also a controllable drug release profile. In order to evaluate the in vitro cytotoxicity of the prepared NPs, MTT assay was conducted, and results showed that the NPs could effectively inhibit HL60 and HepG2 cells with lower IC50 values compared with free curcumin. Furthermore, confocal microscopy together with flow cytometry analysis proved the enhanced apoptosis-inducing ability of PLGA-Cur NPs. Polymeric NP formulations are potential to be used for hydrophobic drug delivery systems in cancer therapy.

  12. Transient isotachophoresis focusing of DNA and DNA-protein complexes is essentially enhanced by spontaneously dissolved aerial carbon dioxide in electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shengquan; Zhang, Dapeng; Wang, Hailin

    2015-01-01

    The formation of a highly adapted high-E zone is critical to isotachophoresis separation and focusing. Recently, we discovered that the high-E zone is present only in a small portion of electrophoresis channel in the presence of EOF (Liu, S. Q. et al. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2013, 135, 4644-4647). Accordingly, a much narrower high-E zone is presumably present in t-ITP. If so, it is hard to achieve efficient t-ITP focusing. Indeed, by online coupling t-ITP with CE-LIF immunoassay, the immunocomplexes of carcinogenic BPDE-dG adducts are not efficiently focused using a freshly prepared background electrolyte. Intriguingly, we observed that 20-day stored background electrolyte displays a 10-fold better focusing efficiency. We hypothesize that the unexpected phenomenon is associated with the dissolution of aerial carbon dioxide, which is mainly converted to ionic HCO3(-) in the weak alkaline background electrolyte. Consequently, HCO3(-) of high electrophoretic mobility will be continuously injected into the capillary along with the background electrolyte and act as an alternative leading ion to improve the focusing. By addition of dry ice (without causing significant pH decrease, ?pH < 0.4) to freshly prepared background electrolytes, we immediately observed the enhanced focusing of immunocomplexes of the DNA adducts. NH4HCO3 and Na2CO3, included in the background electrolyte, also improve the focusing efficiency and reproducibility. All these consistently support our hypothesis. To understand the underlying mechanism, an advanced CE-SMFI was exploited to monitor in real time the motion of single DNA molecules and the E change throughout t-ITP. We uncovered that t-ITP can induce a local high-E zone, but the presence of HCO3(-) in the background electrolyte could greatly increase the E value in the high-E zone, which allows more DNA molecules to rapidly move backward and to be efficiently stacked at LE/TE boundary. This study provides new insight into nonuniform electric field-induced electrophoresis focusing. PMID:25437902

  13. Weekly multimodal MRI follow-up of two multiple sclerosis active lesions presenting a transient decrease in ADC

    PubMed Central

    Hannoun, Salem; Roch, Jean-Amédée; Durand-Dubief, Francoise; Vukusic, Sandra; Sappey-Marinier, Dominique; Guttmann, Charles RG; Cotton, Francois

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose Blood-brain barrier disruption during the earliest phases of lesion formation in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients is commonly ascribed to perivenular inflammatory activity and is usually accompanied by increased diffusivity. Reduced diffusivity has also been shown in active lesions, albeit less frequently. This study aimed to characterize the development and natural history of contrast-enhanced lesions by weekly following five relapsing remitting (RR) MS patients. Materials and methods Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), perfusion imaging, FLAIR and contrast-enhanced 3D T1-weighted MR, were weekly performed on five untreated patients recently diagnosed with RR MS. Results All five patients showed significant increases of the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) in the lesions compared to the first time point. One of the five patients presented 98 active lesions on ADC maps among which 36 had a volume larger than 10 mm3. In two of these lesions, a 1 week transient decrease in ADC was detected at the time of the first gadolinium enhancement. Also, the perfusion analysis showed a concomitant increase in the relative cerebral blood volume. Conclusions The infrequency detection of such ADC decrease in a new lesion is probably due to its very short duration. This observation may be consistent with a hyper-acute inflammatory stage concomitant with an increased reactional perfusion. PMID:25642392

  14. Transient global amnesia.

    PubMed

    Szabo, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    Transient global amnesia (TGA) is a sudden and severe anterograde memory disturbance accompanied by various degrees of retrograde amnesia and sometimes executive dysfunction. TGA affects elderly individuals and men and women equally. During the episode, patients cannot recall novel episodic information and therefore repeatedly ask the same questions. They are not fully oriented to space and time. Diagnostic criteria first established in 1985, and elaborated in 1990, demand that there is no clouding of consciousness, other impairments of cognition, or a history of epilepsy or head trauma. An episode of TGA resolves within 24 h leaving a memory gap for the length of the attack. While in rare cases TGA might happen repeatedly, it mostly occurs as a single attack. TGA is considered a benign disorder as memory deficits resolve completely and do not lead to long-term sequelae. In up to 90% of reported TGA cases, a precipitating event - mainly described as physical or emotional stress - is present. The cause of TGA has been a matter of long-standing debate among researchers. In search of an answer, several possible causes (ischemia, migraine, epileptic seizures, or, more recently, a disturbance of venous hemodynamics) have been hypothesized. However, to date there is no scientific proof of any of these mechanisms. By using diffusion-weighted MRI 24-48 h after a TGA episode, small dot-like lesions have been detected in the hippocampus. This has led to the implication that the selective vulnerability of CA1 neurons to metabolic stress might play a role in the pathophysiology of TGA. PMID:24777137

  15. A Broad G Protein-Coupled Receptor Internalization Assay that Combines SNAP-Tag Labeling, Diffusion-Enhanced Resonance Energy Transfer, and a Highly Emissive Terbium Cryptate

    PubMed Central

    Levoye, Angélique; Zwier, Jurriaan M.; Jaracz-Ros, Agnieszka; Klipfel, Laurence; Cottet, Martin; Maurel, Damien; Bdioui, Sara; Balabanian, Karl; Prézeau, Laurent; Trinquet, Eric; Durroux, Thierry; Bachelerie, Françoise

    2015-01-01

    Although G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) internalization has long been considered as a major aspect of the desensitization process that tunes ligand responsiveness, internalization is also involved in receptor resensitization and signaling, as well as the ligand scavenging function of some atypical receptors. Internalization thus contributes to the diversity of GPCR-dependent signaling, and its dynamics and quantification in living cells has generated considerable interest. We developed a robust and sensitive assay to follow and quantify ligand-induced and constitutive-induced GPCR internalization but also receptor recycling in living cells. This assay is based on diffusion-enhanced resonance energy transfer (DERET) between cell surface GPCRs labeled with a luminescent terbium cryptate donor and a fluorescein acceptor present in the culture medium. GPCR internalization results in a quantifiable reduction of energy transfer. This method yields a high signal-to-noise ratio due to time-resolved measurements. For various GPCRs belonging to different classes, we demonstrated that constitutive and ligand-induced internalization could be monitored as a function of time and ligand concentration, thus allowing accurate quantitative determination of kinetics of receptor internalization but also half-maximal effective or inhibitory concentrations of compounds. In addition to its selectivity and sensitivity, we provided evidence that DERET-based internalization assay is particularly suitable for characterizing biased ligands. Furthermore, the determination of a Z?-factor value of 0.45 indicates the quality and suitability of DERET-based internalization assay for high-throughput screening (HTS) of compounds that may modulate GPCRs internalization. PMID:26617570

  16. Added value of diffusion-weighted MRI in detection of cervical cancer recurrence: comparison with morphologic and dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI sequences

    PubMed Central

    Lucas, Rita; Dias, João Lopes; Cunha, Teresa Margarida

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE We aimed to evaluate the added value of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) to standard magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for detecting post-treatment cervical cancer recurrence. The detection accuracy of T2-weighted (T2W) images was compared with that of T2W MRI combined with either dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI or DWI. METHODS Thirty-eight women with clinically suspected uterine cervical cancer recurrence more than six months after treatment completion were examined with 1.5 Tesla MRI including T2W, DCE, and DWI sequences. Disease was confirmed histologically and correlated with MRI findings. The diagnostic performance of T2W imaging and its combination with either DCE or DWI were analyzed. Sensitivity, positive predictive value, and accuracy were calculated. RESULTS Thirty-six women had histologically proven recurrence. The accuracy for recurrence detection was 80% with T2W/DCE MRI and 92.1% with T2W/DWI. The addition of DCE sequences did not significantly improve the diagnostic ability of T2W imaging, and this sequence combination misclassified two patients as falsely positive and seven as falsely negative. The T2W/DWI combination revealed a positive predictive value of 100% and only three false negatives. CONCLUSION The addition of DWI to T2W sequences considerably improved the diagnostic ability of MRI. Our results support the inclusion of DWI in the initial MRI protocol for the detection of cervical cancer recurrence, leaving DCE sequences as an option for uncertain cases. PMID:26200480

  17. Gas diffusion ultrabarriers on polymer substrates using Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} atomic layer deposition and SiN plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Carcia, P. F.; McLean, R. S.; Groner, M. D.; Dameron, A. A.; George, S. M.

    2009-07-15

    Thin films grown by Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} atomic layer deposition (ALD) and SiN plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) have been tested as gas diffusion barriers either individually or as bilayers on polymer substrates. Single films of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ALD with thicknesses of >=10 nm had a water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) of <=5x10{sup -5} g/m{sup 2} day at 38 deg. C/85% relative humidity (RH), as measured by the Ca test. This WVTR value was limited by H{sub 2}O permeability through the epoxy seal, as determined by the Ca test for the glass lid control. In comparison, SiN PECVD films with a thickness of 100 nm had a WVTR of approx7x10{sup -3} g/m{sup 2} day at 38 deg. C/85% RH. Significant improvements resulted when the SiN PECVD film was coated with an Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ALD film. An Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ALD film with a thickness of only 5 nm on a SiN PECVD film with a thickness of 100 nm reduced the WVTR from approx7x10{sup -3} to <=5x10{sup -5} g/m{sup 2} day at 38 deg. C/85% RH. The reduction in the permeability for Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ALD on the SiN PECVD films was attributed to either Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ALD sealing defects in the SiN PECVD film or improved nucleation of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ALD on SiN.

  18. The Effective Vertical Advection-Diffusion Balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, M.; Tailleux, R.; Ferreira, D.; Kuhlbrodt, T.; Gregory, J. M.

    2014-12-01

    The capacity of the world ocean to transfer heat to deeper levels is a crucial factor in setting the magnitude and temporal evolution of the global temperature response under transient climate change. A traditional framework to discuss the vertical ocean heat balance is the classic upwelling-diffusive model of Munk [1966] between upwelling of cold abyssal waters and downward diffusion of warm waters. This simple framework is also often used to interpret (and predict) transient heat uptake under climate change. However, this is done in an ad-hoc manner, with little acknowledgment of the complex physics hidden behind the vertical velocity w and diffusivity k? of the classic model (advection of heat by the mean and eddy circulation, diffusion along and across surfaces of constant density, deep convection). Here, we derive an effective vertical velocity and an effective diffusivity for each advective and diffusive process from the steady-state temperature tendencies of two models, an eddy-parameterizing (HadCM3) and an eddy-permitting climate model (HiGEM). For both models, we find that both the effective vertical velocity and diffusivity change sign in mid-depth, highlighting the two physical regimes in which the residual advection is balanced by diapycnal diffusion (deep ocean) and isopycnal diffusion (upper to mid-depths). These findings are at odds with common practices which assume that w and k? are positive constants (in space and time), but is consistent with previous studies of the modeled heat balance. We further present the time-evolution of the effective quantities under an idealized transient climate change simulation. We demonstrate that these spatial and time variations are key to evaluate the transient heat uptake. Implications for the use of simple upwelling-diffusive models to interpret transient heat uptake will be discussed.

  19. Portable vapor diffusion coefficient meter

    DOEpatents

    Ho, Clifford K. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2007-06-12

    An apparatus for measuring the effective vapor diffusion coefficient of a test vapor diffusing through a sample of porous media contained within a test chamber. A chemical sensor measures the time-varying concentration of vapor that has diffused a known distance through the porous media. A data processor contained within the apparatus compares the measured sensor data with analytical predictions of the response curve based on the transient diffusion equation using Fick's Law, iterating on the choice of an effective vapor diffusion coefficient until the difference between the predicted and measured curves is minimized. Optionally, a purge fluid can forced through the porous media, permitting the apparatus to also measure a gas-phase permeability. The apparatus can be made lightweight, self-powered, and portable for use in the field.

  20. Asymmetric Diffusional Solidification during Transient Liquid Phase Bonding of Dissimilar Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghoneim, A.; Ojo, O. A.

    2012-03-01

    A theoretical analysis of diffusional solidification during transient liquid phase (TLP) bonding of dissimilar materials was performed in conjunction with experimental verification. A fully implicit, two-dimensional, finite element numerical simulation model, without the inherent symmetry assumption, was developed and used for the theoretical calculations, and good correlations between the model predictions and experimental results were observed. The study showed that an asymmetric distribution of residual interlayer liquid during a dissimilar joining of polycrystal and single crystal alloys is attributable to a mismatch between their lattice diffusion coefficients or solute solubility, irrespective of enhanced intergranular diffusion as was assumed previously. Also, notwithstanding increased solute diffusivity with temperature, it was found that an increase in bonding temperature can result in the prolongation of processing time t f that is required to prevent the formation of deleterious eutectic during bonding of dissimilar materials. The occurrence of this seemingly anomalous behavior, however, reduces when a material is coupled with another type that exhibits a higher solute solubility or better capability of accommodating diffusing melting point depressant solute from the liquid interlayer.

  1. Model of Transient Response of Semiconductor Gas Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujimoto, Akira; Kuwahara, Takashi

    The model of transient response of semiconductor gas sensor under modulation heating has been constructed successfully. The model consists of the heat conduction process from heater to the sensor surface, the reaction process on the sensor surface and diffusion process near the sensor surface to supply the inflammable gas. The calculated sensor response agreed well with experimental result under step power supplying to the heater. We can predict the sensor transient response so that the model will be useful to distinguish gases and smells by using transient response of semiconductor gas sensors.

  2. Combined use of diffusion tensor tractography and multifused contrast-enhanced FIESTA for predicting facial and cochlear nerve positions in relation to vestibular schwannoma.

    PubMed

    Yoshino, Masanori; Kin, Taichi; Ito, Akihiro; Saito, Toki; Nakagawa, Daichi; Ino, Kenji; Kamada, Kyousuke; Mori, Harushi; Kunimatsu, Akira; Nakatomi, Hirofumi; Oyama, Hiroshi; Saito, Nobuhito

    2015-12-01

    OBJECT The authors assessed whether the combined use of diffusion tensor tractography (DTT) and contrast-enhanced (CE) fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition (FIESTA) could improve the accuracy of predicting the courses of the facial and cochlear nerves before surgery. METHODS The population was composed of 22 patients with vestibular schwannoma in whom both the facial and cochlear nerves could be identified during surgery. According to DTT, depicted fibers running from the internal auditory canal to the brainstem were judged to represent the facial or vestibulocochlear nerve. With regard to imaging, the authors investigated multifused CE-FIESTA scans, in which all 3D vessel models were shown simultaneously, from various angles. The low-intensity areas running along the tumor from brainstem to the internal auditory canal were judged to represent the facial or vestibulocochlear nerve. RESULTS For all 22 patients, the rate of fibers depicted by DTT coinciding with the facial nerve was 13.6% (3/22), and that of fibers depicted by DTT coinciding with the cochlear nerve was 63.6% (14/22). The rate of candidates for nerves predicted by multifused CE-FIESTA coinciding with the facial nerve was 59.1% (13/22), and that of candidates for nerves predicted by multifused CE-FIESTA coinciding with the cochlear nerve was 4.5% (1/22). The rate of candidates for nerves predicted by combined DTT and multifused CE-FIESTA coinciding with the facial nerve was 63.6% (14/22), and that of candidates for nerves predicted by combined DTT and multifused CE-FIESTA coinciding with the cochlear nerve was 63.6% (14/22). The rate of candidates predicted by DTT coinciding with both facial and cochlear nerves was 0.0% (0/22), that of candidates predicted by multifused CE-FIESTA coinciding with both facial and cochlear nerves was 4.5% (1/22), and that of candidates predicted by combined DTT and multifused CE-FIESTA coinciding with both the facial and cochlear nerves was 45.5% (10/22). CONCLUSIONS By using a combination of DTT and multifused CE-FIESTA, the authors were able to increase the number of vestibular schwannoma patients for whom predicted results corresponded with the courses of both the facial and cochlear nerves, a result that has been considered difficult to achieve by use of a single modality only. Although the 3D image including these prediction results helped with comprehension of the 3D operative anatomy, the reliability of prediction remains to be established. PMID:26053235

  3. Transient nucleation in glasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelton, K. F.

    1991-01-01

    Nucleation rates in condensed systems are frequently not at their steady state values. Such time dependent (or transient) nucleation is most clearly observed in devitrification studies of metallic and silicate glasses. The origin of transient nucleation and its role in the formation and stability of desired phases and microstructures are discussed. Numerical models of nucleation in isothermal and nonisothermal situations, based on the coupled differential equations describing cluster evolution within the classical theory, are presented. The importance of transient nucleation in glass formation and crystallization is discussed.

  4. Luminous Extragalactic Transients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, Paul; Jonker, Peter; Athena Explosive Transients Working Group

    2015-09-01

    The ESA Athena X-ray observatory mission will combine exceptionally high throughout with high spectral-energy resolution and will revolutionise many aspects of high-energy astrophysics. Many of the most powerful transient sources, including gamma-ray bursts and tidal disruptions events, are bright X-ray sources. Athena will be designed to have a fast-response capability permitting efficient observations of many transients. We will summarise the proposed capability of the mission and illustrate science programs to study transients ranging from the most distant GRBs to nuclear activity in nearby galaxies.

  5. GaN Selective Area Metal-Organic Vapor Phase Epitaxy: Prediction of Growth Rate Enhancement by Vapor Phase Diffusion Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shioda, Tomonari; Tomita, Yuki; Sugiyama, Masakazu; Shimogaki, Yukihiro; Nakano, Yoshiaki

    2007-11-01

    Thickness profiles of GaN grown by selective area metal-organic vapor phase epitaxy (SA-MOVPE) were successfully reproduced by a vapor phase diffusion model that employs only one parameter—effective diffusion length D/ks. The value of D/ks of Ga-containing precursors changes from 10 to 50 ?m under growth temperature of 1000-1250 °C and reactor total pressure of 100 mbar. It was confirmed that, in the wide-stripe SA-MOVPE of GaN, the vapor phase diffusion of Ga-containing precursors govern the profile of growth rate. Numerical simulation using the vapor phase diffusion model is of great help for the design and control of thickness profiles in the SA-MOVPE of GaN.

  6. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging of acute stroke: Correlation with T2-weighted and magnetic susceptibility-enhanced MR imaging in cats

    SciTech Connect

    Moseley, M.E.; Kucharczyk, J.; Mintorovitch, J.; Cohen, Y.; Kurhanewicz, J.; Derugin, N.; Asgari, H.; Norman, D. )

    1990-05-01

    We evaluated the temporal and anatomic relationships between changes in diffusion-weighted MR image signal intensity, induced by unilateral occlusion of the middle cerebral artery in cats, and tissue perfusion deficits observed in the same animals on T2-weighted MR images after administration of a nonionic intravascular T2 shortening agent. Diffusion-weighted images obtained with strong diffusion-sensitizing gradient strengths (5.6 gauss/cm, corresponding to gradient attenuation factor, b, values of 1413 sec/mm2) displayed increased signal intensity in the ischemic middle cerebral artery territory less than 1 hr after occlusion, whereas T2-weighted images without contrast usually failed to detect injury for 2-3 hr after stroke. After contrast administration (0.5-1.0 mmol/kg by Dy-DTPA-BMA, IV), however, T2-weighted images revealed perfusion deficits (relative hyperintensity) within 1 hr after middle cerebral artery occlusion that corresponded closely to the anatomic regions of ischemic injury shown on diffusion-weighted MR images. Close correlations were also found between early increases in diffusion-weighted MR image signal intensity and disrupted phosphorus-31 and proton metabolite levels evaluated with surface coil MR spectroscopy, as well as with postmortem histopathology. These data indicate that diffusion-weighted MR images more accurately reflect early-onset pathophysiologic changes induced by acute cerebral ischemia than do T2-weighted spin-echo images.

  7. Transient microcavity sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Fang-Jie; Zou, Chang-Ling; Özdemir, ?ahin Kaya; Yang, Lan; Guo, Guang-Can

    2015-11-01

    A transient and high sensitivity sensor based on high-Q microcavity is proposed and studied theoretically. There are two ways to realize the transient sensor: monitor the spectrum by fast scanning of probe laser frequency or monitor the transmitted light with fixed laser frequency. For both methods, the non-equilibrium response not only tells the ultrafast environment variance, but also enable higher sensitivity. As examples of application, the transient sensor for nanoparticles adhering and passing by the microcavity is studied. It's demonstrated that the transient sensor can sense coupling region, external linear variation together with the speed and the size of a nanoparticle. We believe that our researches will open a door to the fast dynamic sensing by microcavity.

  8. Femtosecond Transient Imaging

    E-print Network

    Kirmani, Ahmed (Ghulam Ahmed)

    2010-01-01

    This thesis proposes a novel framework called transient imaging for image formation and scene understanding through impulse illumination and time images. Using time-of-flight cameras and multi-path analysis of global light ...

  9. The LOFAR Transients Pipeline

    E-print Network

    Swinbank, John D; Molenaar, Gijs J; Rol, Evert; Rowlinson, Antonia; Scheers, Bart; Spreeuw, Hanno; Bell, Martin E; Broderick, Jess W; Carbone, Dario; van der Horst, Alexander J; Law, Casey J; Wise, Michael; Breton, Rene P; Cendes, Yvette; Corbel, Stéphane; Eislöffel, Jochen; Falcke, Heino; Fender, Rob; Greißmeier, Jean-Mathias; Hessels, Jason W T; Stappers, Benjamin W; Stewart, Adam J; Wijers, Ralph A M J; Wijnands, Rudy; Zarka, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Current and future astronomical survey facilities provide a remarkably rich opportunity for transient astronomy, combining unprecedented fields of view with high sensitivity and the ability to access previously unexplored wavelength regimes. This is particularly true of LOFAR, a recently-commissioned, low-frequency radio interferometer, based in the Netherlands and with stations across Europe. The identification of and response to transients is one of LOFAR's key science goals. However, the large data volumes which LOFAR produces, combined with the scientific requirement for rapid response, make automation essential. To support this, we have developed the LOFAR Transients Pipeline, or TraP. The TraP ingests multi-frequency image data from LOFAR or other instruments and searches it for transients and variables, providing automatic alerts of significant detections and populating a lightcurve database for further analysis by astronomers. Here, we discuss the scientific goals of the TraP and how it has been desig...

  10. Gamma ray transients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cline, Thomas L.

    1987-01-01

    The discovery of cosmic gamma ray bursts was made with systems designed at Los Alamos Laboratory for the detection of nuclear explosions beyond the atmosphere. HELIOS-2 was the first gamma ray burst instrument launched; its initial results in 1976, seemed to deepen the mystery around gamma ray transients. Interplanetary spacecraft data were reviewed in terms of explaining the behavior and source of the transients.

  11. On Asymmetric Diffusional Solidification During Transient Liquid Phase Bonding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghobadi Bigvand, A.; Ojo, Olanrewaju A.

    2014-04-01

    The underlying cause of asymmetric diffusion solidification which alters microstructure during transient liquid phase bonding under low temperature gradient was studied. A new solute-conserving asymmetric numerical model coupled with experimental verification showed that a transition from bi-directional to unidirectional solidification, under a constant temperature gradient, is controlled by competition between liquid and solid-state diffusion at one of the two liquid-solid interfaces. This mechanistic understanding would aid a more effective use of the process.

  12. Transient amnesic syndromes.

    PubMed

    Bartsch, Thorsten; Butler, Christopher

    2013-02-01

    Transient amnesic syndromes are striking clinical phenomena that are commonly encountered by physicians in acute medical settings. Diagnosis of such syndromes can be challenging, and their causes have been debated for over 50 years. Critical clinical distinctions, such as between transient global amnesia (TGA) and transient epileptic amnesia (TEA), as well as important clues to the underlying pathophysiology, have recently been revealed. TGA is characterized by the sudden onset of a profound anterograde and retrograde amnesia that lasts for up to 24 h, with neuroimaging after an acute TGA event showing transient perturbation of specific hippocampal circuits that are involved in memory processing. Some cases of transient amnesia are attributable to focal seizure activity and are termed TEA, which has a clinical presentation similar to that of TGA, but can be distinguished from the latter by the brevity and frequency of amnesic attacks. Moreover, TEA carries a risk of persistent memory impairment that can be mistaken for dementia. Here, we summarize clinically relevant aspects of transient amnesic syndromes, giving practical recommendations for diagnosis and patient management. We describe results from imaging and epidemiological studies that have shed light on the functional anatomy and pathophysiological mechanisms underlying these conditions. PMID:23296343

  13. How are Forbush decreases related to interplanetary magnetic field enhancements?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arunbabu, K. P.; Antia, H. M.; Dugad, S. R.; Gupta, S. K.; Hayashi, Y.; Kawakami, S.; Mohanty, P. K.; Oshima, A.; Subramanian, P.

    2015-08-01

    Aims: A Forbush decrease (FD) is a transient decrease followed by a gradual recovery in the observed galactic cosmic ray intensity. We seek to understand the relationship between the FDs and near-Earth interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) enhancements associated with solar coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Methods: We used muon data at cutoff rigidities ranging from 14 to 24 GV from the GRAPES-3 tracking muon telescope to identify FD events. We selected those FD events that have a reasonably clean profile, and magnitude >0.25%. We used IMF data from ACE/WIND spacecrafts. We looked for correlations between the FD profile and that of the one-hour averaged IMF. We wanted to find out whether if the diffusion of high-energy protons into the large scale magnetic field is the cause of the lag observed between the FD and the IMF. Results: The enhancement of the IMF associated with FDs occurs mainly in the shock-sheath region, and the turbulence level in the magnetic field is also enhanced in this region. The observed FD profiles look remarkably similar to the IMF enhancement profiles. The FDs typically lag behind the IMF enhancement by a few hours. The lag corresponds to the time taken by high-energy protons to diffuse into the magnetic field enhancement via cross-field diffusion. Conclusions: Our findings show that high-rigidity FDs associated with CMEs are caused primarily by the cumulative diffusion of protons across the magnetic field enhancement in the turbulent sheath region between the shock and the CME. Appendices are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  14. Osmosis and Diffusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sack, Jeff

    2005-01-01

    OsmoBeaker is a CD-ROM designed to enhance the learning of diffusion and osmosis by presenting interactive experimentation to the student. The software provides several computer simulations that take the student through different scenarios with cells, having different concentrations of solutes in them.

  15. Connecting molecular structure and exciton diffusion length in rubrene derivatives.

    PubMed

    Mullenbach, Tyler K; McGarry, Kathryn A; Luhman, Wade A; Douglas, Christopher J; Holmes, Russell J

    2013-07-19

    Connecting molecular structure and exciton diffusion length in rubrene derivatives demonstrates how the diffusion length of rubrene can be enhanced through targeted functionalization aiming to enhance self-Förster energy transfer. Functionalization adds steric bulk, forcing the molecules farther apart on average, and leading to increased photoluminescence efficiency. A diffusion length enhancement greater than 50% is realized over unsubstituted rubrene. PMID:23754475

  16. Temperature Dependence of Digital Single-Event Transients in Bulk and Fully-Depleted SOI Technologies

    E-print Network

    Gouker, Pascale M.

    Factors that affect single-event transient pulse widths, such as drift, diffusion, and parasitic bipolar transistor parameters, are also strong functions of operating temperature. In this paper, SET pulse-width measurements ...

  17. Quantum diffusion

    E-print Network

    Roumen Tsekov

    2011-04-20

    Quantum diffusion is studied via dissipative Madelung hydrodynamics. Initially the wave packet spreads ballistically, than passes for an instant through normal diffusion and later tends asymptotically to a sub-diffusive law. It is shown that the apparent quantum diffusion coefficient is not a universal physical parameter since it depends on the initial wave packet preparation. The overdamped quantum diffusion of an electron in the field of a periodic potential is also investigated; in this case the wave packet spreads logarithmically in time. Thermo-quantum diffusion of heavier particles as hydrogen, deuterium and tritium atoms in periodic potentials is studied and a simple estimate of the tunneling effect is obtained in the frames of a quasi-equilibrium semiclassical approach. The effective thermo-quantum temperature is also discussed in relation to the known temperature dependence of muon diffusivity in solids.

  18. Inhomogeneous Forcing and Transient Climate Sensitivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shindell, Drew T.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding climate sensitivity is critical to projecting climate change in response to a given forcing scenario. Recent analyses have suggested that transient climate sensitivity is at the low end of the present model range taking into account the reduced warming rates during the past 10-15 years during which forcing has increased markedly. In contrast, comparisons of modelled feedback processes with observations indicate that the most realistic models have higher sensitivities. Here I analyse results from recent climate modelling intercomparison projects to demonstrate that transient climate sensitivity to historical aerosols and ozone is substantially greater than the transient climate sensitivity to CO2. This enhanced sensitivity is primarily caused by more of the forcing being located at Northern Hemisphere middle to high latitudes where it triggers more rapid land responses and stronger feedbacks. I find that accounting for this enhancement largely reconciles the two sets of results, and I conclude that the lowest end of the range of transient climate response to CO2 in present models and assessments (less than 1.3 C) is very unlikely.

  19. The LOFAR Transients Pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swinbank, John D.; Staley, Tim D.; Molenaar, Gijs J.; Rol, Evert; Rowlinson, Antonia; Scheers, Bart; Spreeuw, Hanno; Bell, Martin E.; Broderick, Jess W.; Carbone, Dario; Garsden, Hugh; van der Horst, Alexander J.; Law, Casey J.; Wise, Michael; Breton, Rene P.; Cendes, Yvette; Corbel, Stéphane; Eislöffel, Jochen; Falcke, Heino; Fender, Rob; Grießmeier, Jean-Mathias; Hessels, Jason W. T.; Stappers, Benjamin W.; Stewart, Adam J.; Wijers, Ralph A. M. J.; Wijnands, Rudy; Zarka, Philippe

    2015-06-01

    Current and future astronomical survey facilities provide a remarkably rich opportunity for transient astronomy, combining unprecedented fields of view with high sensitivity and the ability to access previously unexplored wavelength regimes. This is particularly true of LOFAR, a recently-commissioned, low-frequency radio interferometer, based in the Netherlands and with stations across Europe. The identification of and response to transients is one of LOFAR's key science goals. However, the large data volumes which LOFAR produces, combined with the scientific requirement for rapid response, make automation essential. To support this, we have developed the LOFAR Transients Pipeline, or TraP. The TraP ingests multi-frequency image data from LOFAR or other instruments and searches it for transients and variables, providing automatic alerts of significant detections and populating a lightcurve database for further analysis by astronomers. Here, we discuss the scientific goals of the TraP and how it has been designed to meet them. We describe its implementation, including both the algorithms adopted to maximize performance as well as the development methodology used to ensure it is robust and reliable, particularly in the presence of artefacts typical of radio astronomy imaging. Finally, we report on a series of tests of the pipeline carried out using simulated LOFAR observations with a known population of transients.

  20. Uphill diffusion in multicomponent mixtures.

    PubMed

    Krishna, Rajamani

    2015-05-21

    Molecular diffusion is an omnipresent phenomena that is important in a wide variety of contexts in chemical, physical, and biological processes. In the majority of cases, the diffusion process can be adequately described by Fick's law that postulates a linear relationship between the flux of any species and its own concentration gradient. Most commonly, a component diffuses down the concentration gradient. The major objective of this review is to highlight a very wide variety of situations that cause the uphill transport of one constituent in the mixture. Uphill diffusion may occur in multicomponent mixtures in which the diffusion flux of any species is strongly coupled to that of its partner species. Such coupling effects often arise from strong thermodynamic non-idealities. For a quantitative description we need to use chemical potential gradients as driving forces. The transport of ionic species in aqueous solutions is coupled with its partner ions because of the electro-neutrality constraints; such constraints may accelerate or decelerate a specific ion. When uphill diffusion occurs, we observe transient overshoots during equilibration; the equilibration process follows serpentine trajectories in composition space. For mixtures of liquids, alloys, ceramics and glasses the serpentine trajectories could cause entry into meta-stable composition zones; such entry could result in phenomena such as spinodal decomposition, spontaneous emulsification, and the Ouzo effect. For distillation of multicomponent mixtures that form azeotropes, uphill diffusion may allow crossing of distillation boundaries that are normally forbidden. For mixture separations with microporous adsorbents, uphill diffusion can cause supra-equilibrium loadings to be achieved during transient uptake within crystals; this allows the possibility of over-riding adsorption equilibrium for achieving difficult separations. PMID:25761383

  1. Transient and quasisteady behavior with rotating magnetic field current drive

    E-print Network

    Washington at Seattle, University of

    . RMF can be generated by simple antennas, operate at low frequency MHz , and may be very efficient time but slower than timescales associated with the electron inertia plasma frequency, electron on the relatively slow diffusion timescale. The fast transient timescale is set by the ion inertia. Unless

  2. Transient Uncoupling Induces Synchronization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröder, Malte; Mannattil, Manu; Dutta, Debabrata; Chakraborty, Sagar; Timme, Marc

    2015-07-01

    Finding conditions that support synchronization is a fertile and active area of research with applications across multiple disciplines. Here we present and analyze a scheme for synchronizing chaotic dynamical systems by transiently uncoupling them. Specifically, systems coupled only in a fraction of their state space may synchronize even if fully coupled they do not. While for many standard systems coupling strengths need to be bounded to ensure synchrony, transient uncoupling removes this bound and thus enables synchronization in an infinite range of effective coupling strengths. The presented coupling scheme therefore opens up the possibility to induce synchrony in (biological or technical) systems whose parameters are fixed and cannot be modified continuously.

  3. Transient Uncoupling Induces Synchronization.

    PubMed

    Schröder, Malte; Mannattil, Manu; Dutta, Debabrata; Chakraborty, Sagar; Timme, Marc

    2015-07-31

    Finding conditions that support synchronization is a fertile and active area of research with applications across multiple disciplines. Here we present and analyze a scheme for synchronizing chaotic dynamical systems by transiently uncoupling them. Specifically, systems coupled only in a fraction of their state space may synchronize even if fully coupled they do not. While for many standard systems coupling strengths need to be bounded to ensure synchrony, transient uncoupling removes this bound and thus enables synchronization in an infinite range of effective coupling strengths. The presented coupling scheme therefore opens up the possibility to induce synchrony in (biological or technical) systems whose parameters are fixed and cannot be modified continuously. PMID:26274420

  4. Influence of defects on excess charge carrier kinetics studied by transient PC and transient PA

    SciTech Connect

    Feist, H.; Kunst, M.; Swiatkowski, C.

    1997-07-01

    By comparison of transient photoconductivity (TPC) and transient photoinduced absorption (PA) the influence of the density of states in the bandgap on excess charge carrier kinetics is studied for a-Si:H films deposited at different temperatures and for state of the art a-Si:H films in two different states of light soaking. In both series the rising deep defect density leads to an enhancement of electron trapping rather than recombination via deep defects. The samples deposited at temperatures lower than 250 C additionally show a lower effective electron mobility, i.e., a broader conduction band tail.

  5. Rotor transient analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allaire, P. E.; Choy, K. C.; Gunter, E. J.

    1980-01-01

    Undamped modes approximate dynamic behavior of rotors and bearings. Application of modal analysis to uncouple equations of motion simplifies stability, steady-state unbalance response, and transient response analysis of system; nonlinear stability is predicted from calculated frequency spectra. Analysis provides designers with complete information without involving large-scale computational costs. Programs are written in FORTRAN IV for use on CDC 6600 computer.

  6. Analytical boron diffusivity model in silicon for thermal diffusion from boron silicate glass film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurachi, Ikuo; Yoshioka, Kentaro

    2015-09-01

    An analytical boron diffusivity model in silicon for thermal diffusion from a boron silicate glass (BSG) film has been proposed in terms of enhanced diffusion due to boron-silicon interstitial pair formation. The silicon interstitial generation is considered to be a result of the silicon kick-out mechanism by the diffused boron at the surface. The additional silicon interstitial generation in the bulk silicon is considered to be the dissociation of the diffused pairs. The former one causes the surface boron concentration dependent diffusion. The latter one causes the local boron concentration dependent diffusion. The calculated boron profiles based on the diffusivity model are confirmed to agree with the actual diffusion profiles measured by secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) for a wide range of the BSG boron concentration. This analytical diffusivity model is a helpful tool for p+ boron diffusion process optimization of n-type solar cell manufacturing.

  7. Syndrome of transient epileptic amnesia 

    E-print Network

    Butler, Christopher R.

    2009-01-01

    Transient epileptic amnesia (TEA) is a form of epilepsy of which the principle manifestation is recurrent, transient episodes of isolated memory loss. Although the phenomenon has been recognised for over a century, it ...

  8. Dynamic characterization of hydrophobic and hydrophilic solutes in oleic-acid enhanced transdermal delivery using two-photon fluorescence microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, Te-Yu; Yang, Chiu-Sheng; Tsai, Tsung-Hua; Chen, Yang-Fang; Dong, Chen-Yuan

    2014-10-01

    In this letter, we propose an efficient methodology of investigating dynamic properties of sulforhodamine B and rhodamine B hexyl ester molecules transporting across ex-vivo human stratum corneum with and without oleic acid enhancement. Three-dimensional, time-lapse fluorescence images of the stratum corneum can be obtained using two-photon fluorescence microscopy. Furthermore, temporal quantifications of transport enhancements in diffusion parameters can be achieved with the use of Fick's second law. Dynamic characterization of solutes transporting across the stratum corneum is an effective method for understanding transient phenomena in transdermal delivery of probe molecules, leading to improved delivery strategies of molecular species for therapeutic purposes.

  9. Dynamic characterization of hydrophobic and hydrophilic solutes in oleic-acid enhanced transdermal delivery using two-photon fluorescence microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Tseng, Te-Yu; Yang, Chiu-Sheng; Chen, Yang-Fang; Tsai, Tsung-Hua; Dong, Chen-Yuan

    2014-10-20

    In this letter, we propose an efficient methodology of investigating dynamic properties of sulforhodamine B and rhodamine B hexyl ester molecules transporting across ex-vivo human stratum corneum with and without oleic acid enhancement. Three-dimensional, time-lapse fluorescence images of the stratum corneum can be obtained using two-photon fluorescence microscopy. Furthermore, temporal quantifications of transport enhancements in diffusion parameters can be achieved with the use of Fick's second law. Dynamic characterization of solutes transporting across the stratum corneum is an effective method for understanding transient phenomena in transdermal delivery of probe molecules, leading to improved delivery strategies of molecular species for therapeutic purposes.

  10. Fokker-Planck . . . Diffusion . . .

    E-print Network

    Fokker-Planck . . . Diffusion . . . Diffusion- . . . Application: . . . Summary and . . . First #12;Fokker-Planck . . . Diffusion . . . Diffusion- . . . Application: . . . Summary and . . . Topics: 1. Fokker-Planck transport equation 2. Diffusion approximation 3. Diffusion-convection transport

  11. Optimal Network Modularity for Information Diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nematzadeh, Azadeh; Ferrara, Emilio; Flammini, Alessandro; Ahn, Yong-Yeol

    2014-08-01

    We investigate the impact of community structure on information diffusion with the linear threshold model. Our results demonstrate that modular structure may have counterintuitive effects on information diffusion when social reinforcement is present. We show that strong communities can facilitate global diffusion by enhancing local, intracommunity spreading. Using both analytic approaches and numerical simulations, we demonstrate the existence of an optimal network modularity, where global diffusion requires the minimal number of early adopters.

  12. DIFFUSION MEASUREMENTS DURING PERVAPORATION THROUGH A ZEOLITE MEMBRANE

    EPA Science Inventory


    An isotopic-transient technique was used to directly measure diffusion times of H2O, methanol, ethanol, 2-propanol, and acetone in pure and binary mixture feeds transporting through a zeolite membrane under steady-state pervaporation conditions. Diffusivities can be determ...

  13. Comparison of arsenic and phosphorus diffusion behavior in silicongermanium alloys

    E-print Network

    Comparison of arsenic and phosphorus diffusion behavior in silicon­germanium alloys S. Eguchia of ion-implanted arsenic and phosphorus in relaxed Si0.8Ge0.2 has been investigated. Under equilibrium is roughly seven for arsenic, and roughly two for phosphorus. Under transient diffusion conditions

  14. Transient electrochemistry: beyond simply temporal resolution.

    PubMed

    Zhou, X-S; Mao, B-W; Amatore, C; Compton, R G; Marignier, J-L; Mostafavi, M; Nierengarten, J-F; Maisonhaute, E

    2016-01-01

    Some physicochemical intrigues for which transient electrochemistry was necessary to solve the problem are summarized in this feature article. First, we highlight the main constraints to be aware of to access to low time scales, and particularly focus on the effects of stray capacitances. Then, the electron transfer rate constant measured for redox molecules in a self-assembled monolayer configuration is compared to the conductance measured through the same systems, but at the single molecule level. This evidences strong conformational changes when molecules are trapped in the nanogap created between both electrodes. We also report about dendrimers, for which a short electrochemical perturbation induces creation of a diffusion layer within the molecule, allowing the electron hopping rate to be measured and analyzed in terms of molecular motions of the redox centers. Finally, we show that transient electrochemistry provides also useful information when coupled to other methodologies. For example, when an ultrasonic field drives very fast movements of a bubble situated above the electrode surface, the motion can be detected indirectly through a modification of the diffusion flux. Another field concerns pulse radiolysis, and we describe how the reactivity (at the electrode or within the solution) of radicals created by a radiolytic pulse can be quantified, widening the possibilities of electrochemistry to operate in biological media. PMID:26561921

  15. Diffusion in silicon isotope heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Silvestri, Hughes Howland

    2004-05-14

    The simultaneous diffusion of Si and the dopants B, P, and As has been studied by the use of a multilayer structure of isotopically enriched Si. This structure, consisting of 5 pairs of 120 nm thick natural Si and {sup 28}Si enriched layers, enables the observation of {sup 30}Si self-diffusion from the natural layers into the {sup 28}Si enriched layers, as well as dopant diffusion from an implanted source in an amorphous Si cap layer, via Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS). The dopant diffusion created regions of the multilayer structure that were extrinsic at the diffusion temperatures. In these regions, the Fermi level shift due to the extrinsic condition altered the concentration and charge state of the native defects involved in the diffusion process, which affected the dopant and self-diffusion. The simultaneously recorded diffusion profiles enabled the modeling of the coupled dopant and self-diffusion. From the modeling of the simultaneous diffusion, the dopant diffusion mechanisms, the native defect charge states, and the self- and dopant diffusion coefficients can be determined. This information is necessary to enhance the physical modeling of dopant diffusion in Si. It is of particular interest to the modeling of future electronic Si devices, where the nanometer-scale features have created the need for precise physical models of atomic diffusion in Si. The modeling of the experimental profiles of simultaneous diffusion of B and Si under p-type extrinsic conditions revealed that both species are mediated by neutral and singly, positively charged Si self-interstitials. The diffusion of As and Si under extrinsic n-type conditions yielded a model consisting of the interstitialcy and vacancy mechanisms of diffusion via singly negatively charged self-interstitials and neutral vacancies. The simultaneous diffusion of P and Si has been modeled on the basis of neutral and singly negatively charged self-interstitials and neutral and singly positively charged P species. Additionally, the temperature dependence of the diffusion coefficient of Si in Ge was measured over the temperature range of 550 C to 900 C using a buried Si layer in an epitaxially grown Ge layer.

  16. Transient Numerical Modeling of Catalytic Channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Struk, Peter M.; Dietrich, Daniel L.; Miller, Fletcher J.; T'ien, James S.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a transient model of catalytic combustion suitable for isolated channels and monolith reactors. The model is a lumped two-phase (gas and solid) model where the gas phase is quasi-steady relative to the transient solid. Axial diffusion is neglected in the gas phase; lateral diffusion, however, is accounted for using transfer coefficients. The solid phase includes axial heat conduction and external heat loss due to convection and radiation. The combustion process utilizes detailed gas and surface reaction models. The gas-phase model becomes a system of stiff ordinary differential equations while the solid phase reduces, after discretization, into a system of stiff ordinary differential-algebraic equations. The time evolution of the system came from alternating integrations of the quasi-steady gas and transient solid. This work outlines the numerical model and presents some sensitivity studies on important parameters including internal transfer coefficients, catalytic surface site density, and external heat-loss (if applicable). The model is compared to two experiments using CO fuel: (1) steady-state conversion through an isothermal platinum (Pt) tube and (2) transient propagation of a catalytic reaction inside a small Pt tube. The model requires internal mass-transfer resistance to match the experiments at lower residence times. Under mass-transport limited conditions, the model reasonably predicted exit conversion using global mass-transfer coefficients. Near light-off, the model results did not match the experiment precisely even after adjustment of mass-transfer coefficients. Agreement improved for the first case after adjusting the surface kinetics such that the net rate of CO adsorption increased compared to O2. The CO / O2 surface mechanism came from a sub-set of reactions in a popular CH4 / O2 mechanism. For the second case, predictions improved for lean conditions with increased external heat loss or adjustment of the kinetics as in the first case. Finally, the results show that different initial surface-species distribution leads to different steady-states under certain conditions. These results demonstrate the utility of a lumped two-phase model of a transient catalytic combustor with detailed chemistry.

  17. Transient neonatal Behçet's disease

    PubMed Central

    Antonelou, Marilina; Braha, Nirit

    2013-01-01

    A term neonate with a transient form of Behçet's disease (BD) is described. The mother had a 3-year history of BD treated with corticosteroids, which remained in remission during pregnancy. On day 1 of life, the neonate was noted to have papulopustular lesions of the labia and perineum. She remained clinically well and bacterial and viral infection screens were negative. The lesions disappeared within 3?weeks without scarring. No recurrence has been reported. PMID:23391945

  18. Transient cosmic acceleration

    E-print Network

    Alcaniz, J S

    2009-01-01

    We explore cosmological consequences of two quintessence models in which the current cosmic acceleration is a transient phenomenon. We argue that one of them (in which the EoS parameter switches from freezing to thawing regimes) may reconcile the slight preference of observational data for freezing potentials with the impossibility of defining observables in String/M-theory due to the existence of a cosmological event horizon in asymptotically de Sitter universes.

  19. Transient global amnesia.

    PubMed

    Arena, Julieta E; Rabinstein, Alejandro A

    2015-02-01

    Transient global amnesia (TGA) is a clinical syndrome characterized by the sudden onset of anterograde amnesia (the inability to encode new memories), accompanied by repetitive questioning, sometimes with a retrograde component, lasting up to 24 hours, without compromise of other neurologic functions. Herein, we review current knowledge on the epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical diagnosis, and prognosis of TGA. For this review, we conducted a literature search of PubMed, with no date limitations, using the following search terms (or combinations of them): transient global amnesia, etiology, pathophysiology, venous hypertension, migraine, magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography, electroencephalography, prognosis, and outcome. We also reviewed the bibliography cited in the retrieved articles. Transient global amnesia is a clinical diagnosis, and recognition of its characteristic features can avoid unnecessary testing. Several pathophysiologic mechanisms have been proposed (venous insufficiency, arterial ischemia, and migrainous or epileptic phenomena), but none of them has been proved to consistently explain cases of TGA. Brain imaging may be considered and electroencephalography is recommended when episodes are brief and recurrent, but otherwise no investigations are necessary in most cases. Data on long-term prognosis are limited, but available information suggests that the relapse rate is low, the risk of stroke and seizures is not considerably increased, and cognitive outcome is generally good. PMID:25659242

  20. ON DETECTING TRANSIENT PHENOMENA

    SciTech Connect

    Belanger, G.

    2013-08-10

    Transient phenomena are interesting and potentially highly revealing of details about the processes under observation and study that could otherwise go unnoticed. It is therefore important to maximize the sensitivity of the method used to identify such events. In this article, we present a general procedure based on the use of the likelihood function for identifying transients which is particularly suited for real-time applications because it requires no grouping or pre-processing of the data. The method makes use of all the information that is available in the data throughout the statistical decision-making process, and is suitable for a wide range of applications. Here we consider those most common in astrophysics, which involve searching for transient sources, events or features in images, time series, energy spectra, and power spectra, and demonstrate the use of the method in the case of a weak X-ray flare in a time series and a short-lived quasi-periodic oscillation in a power spectrum. We derive a fit statistic that is ideal for fitting arbitrarily shaped models to a power density distribution, which is of general interest in all applications involving periodogram analysis.

  1. Diffuse radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    A diffuse celestial radiation which is isotropic at least on a course scale were measured from the soft X-ray region to about 150 MeV, at which energy the intensity falls below that of the galactic emission for most galactic latitudes. The spectral shape, the intensity, and the established degree of isotropy of this diffuse radiation already place severe constraints on the possible explanations for this radiation. Among the extragalactic theories, the more promising explanations of the isotropic diffuse emission appear to be radiation from exceptional galaxies from matter antimatter annihilation at the boundaries of superclusters of galaxies of matter and antimatter in baryon symmetric big bang models. Other possible sources for extragalactic diffuse gamma radiation are discussed and include normal galaxies, clusters of galaxies, primordial cosmic rays interacting with intergalactic matter, primordial black holes, and cosmic ray leakage from galaxies.

  2. Finite volume scheme for double convection-diffusion exchange of solutes in bicarbonate high-flux hollow-fiber dialyzer therapy.

    PubMed

    Annan, Kodwo

    2012-01-01

    The efficiency of a high-flux dialyzer in terms of buffering and toxic solute removal largely depends on the ability to use convection-diffusion mechanism inside the membrane. A two-dimensional transient convection-diffusion model coupled with acid-base correction term was developed. A finite volume technique was used to discretize the model and to numerically simulate it using MATLAB software tool. We observed that small solute concentration gradients peaked and were large enough to activate solute diffusion process in the membrane. While CO(2) concentration gradients diminished from their maxima and shifted toward the end of the membrane, HCO(3)(-) concentration gradients peaked at the same position. Also, CO(2) concentration decreased rapidly within the first 47 minutes while optimal HCO(3)(-) concentration was achieved within 30 minutes of the therapy. Abnormally high diffusion fluxes were observed near the blood-membrane interface that increased diffusion driving force and enhanced the overall diffusive process. While convective flux dominated total flux during the dialysis session, there was a continuous interference between convection and diffusion fluxes that call for the need to seek minimal interference between these two mechanisms. This is critical for the effective design and operation of high-flux dialyzers. PMID:23197994

  3. Finite Volume Scheme for Double Convection-Diffusion Exchange of Solutes in Bicarbonate High-Flux Hollow-Fiber Dialyzer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Annan, Kodwo

    2012-01-01

    The efficiency of a high-flux dialyzer in terms of buffering and toxic solute removal largely depends on the ability to use convection-diffusion mechanism inside the membrane. A two-dimensional transient convection-diffusion model coupled with acid-base correction term was developed. A finite volume technique was used to discretize the model and to numerically simulate it using MATLAB software tool. We observed that small solute concentration gradients peaked and were large enough to activate solute diffusion process in the membrane. While CO2 concentration gradients diminished from their maxima and shifted toward the end of the membrane, HCO3 ? concentration gradients peaked at the same position. Also, CO2 concentration decreased rapidly within the first 47 minutes while optimal HCO3 ? concentration was achieved within 30 minutes of the therapy. Abnormally high diffusion fluxes were observed near the blood-membrane interface that increased diffusion driving force and enhanced the overall diffusive process. While convective flux dominated total flux during the dialysis session, there was a continuous interference between convection and diffusion fluxes that call for the need to seek minimal interference between these two mechanisms. This is critical for the effective design and operation of high-flux dialyzers. PMID:23197994

  4. Exercise-triggered transient R-wave enhancement and ST-segment elevation in II, III, and aVF ECG leads: a testament to the "plasticity" of the QRS complex during ischemia.

    PubMed

    Madias, John E; Attari, Mehran

    2004-04-01

    We describe a patient with coronary artery disease who showed transiently augmented R-waves in his electrocardiogram (ECG) during the course of an exercise treadmill test (ETT), an ECG pattern occasionally associated with the hyperacute phase of myocardial infarction and variant angina. This change in the R-waves was noted in II, III, and aVF ECG leads and was associated with ST-segment elevation; both changed gradually and were normalized during the recovery period. Cardiac enzymes after ETT were negative, and arteriography revealed 3-vessel coronary artery disease, with a completely occluded right coronary artery. The ventriculogram showed very mild hypokinesis of the inferior left ventricular wall, while the global ejection fraction was 75%. These ECG changes, noted previously during ETT in precordial ECG leads, are herein reported to occur also in II, III, and aVF ECG leads. The generation of these ECG changes, which hinges upon a late unopposed depolarization occurring in the course and at the site of severe ischemic injury, constitutes a transient focal ventricular conduction abnormality. PMID:15127379

  5. Thermal transient anemometer

    DOEpatents

    Bailey, James L. (829 S. Bruner, Hinsdale, IL 60521); Vresk, Josip (4013 N. Park, Westmont, IL 60559)

    1989-01-01

    A thermal transient anemometer having a thermocouple probe which is utilized to measure the change in temperature over a period of time to provide a measure of fluid flow velocity. The thermocouple probe is located in the fluid flow path and pulsed to heat or cool the probe. The cooling of the heated probe or the heating of the cooled probe from the fluid flow over a period of time is measured to determine the fluid flow velocity. The probe is desired to be locally heated near the tip to increase the efficiency of devices incorporating the probe.

  6. The Rapid Transient Surveyor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranec, Christoph; Tonry, John; Wright, Shelley; Tully, R. Brent; Lu, Jessica R.; Takamiya, Marianne Y.; Hunter, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    The next decade of astronomy will be dominated by large area surveys (see the detailed discussion in the Astro-2010 Decadal survey and NRC's recent OIR System Report). Ground-based optical transient surveys, e.g., LSST, ZTF and ATLAS and space-based exoplanet, supernova, and lensing surveys such as TESS and WFIRST will join the Gaia all-sky astrometric survey in producing a flood of data that will enable leaps in our understanding of the universe. There is a critical need for further characterization of these discoveries through high angular resolution images, deeper images, spectra, or observations at different cadences or periods than the main surveys. Such follow-up characterization must be well matched to the particular surveys, and requires sufficient additional observing resources and time to cover the extensive number of targets.We describe plans for the Rapid Transient Surveyor (RTS), a permanently mounted, rapid-response, high-cadence facility for follow-up characterization of transient objects on the U. of Hawai'i 2.2-m telescope on Maunakea. RTS will comprise an improved robotic laser adaptive optics system, based on the prototype Robo-AO system (formerly at the Palomar 1.5-m and now at the Kitt Peak 2.2-m telescope), with simultaneous visible and near-infrared imagers as well as a near-infrared integral field spectrograph (R~100, ? = 850 - 1830 nm, 0.15? spaxels, 8.7?×6.0? FoV). RTS will achieve an acuity of ~0.07? in visible wavelengths and < 0.16? in the near infrared leading to an increase of the infrared point-source sensitivity against the sky background by a factor of ~9, crucial for efficient near-infrared spectroscopy.RTS will allow us to map the dark matter distribution in the z < 0.1 local universe with ten times better accuracy and precision than previous experiments. ATLAS will discover several thousand SNIae per year, measuring SNIa peak brightness, and decline rates, while RTS will measure reddening by dust, confirm SN type and confirm redshifts of the host galaxies. This unique combination of automated detection and characterization of astrophysical transients during a sustained observing campaign will yield the necessary statistics to precisely map dark matter in the local universe.

  7. Transient and diffusion analysis of HgCdTe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clayton, J. C.

    1982-01-01

    Solute redistribution during directional solidification of HgCdTe is addressed. Both one-dimensional and two-dimensional models for solute redistribution are treated and model results compared to experiment. The central problem studied is the cause of radial inhomogeneities found in directionally solidified HgCdTe. A large scale gravity-driven interface instability, termed shape instability, is postulated to be the cause of radial inhomogeneities. Recommendations for future work, along with appropriate computer programs, are included.

  8. Diffusion of Hydrogen in Silica under Transient Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palosz, W.

    2003-01-01

    Development of hydrogen in sealed silica glass ampoules during annealing at elevated temperatures was investigated. The dependence of hydrogen pressure in the ampoules as a function of time, for different temperatures and ampoule parameters was measured. The process was modeled assuming chemical solution of hydrogen according to the reaction: silica + H2 = H- Si= + H-O-Si=. The equilibrium constant of the reaction was determined by fitting the theoretical curves to the experimental data. The Gibbs function for this reaction was estimated at deltaG = -25.8 + 54T.

  9. Diffusion of light in semitransparent media

    E-print Network

    Pattelli, Lorenzo; Wiersma, Diederik; Toninelli, Costanza

    2015-01-01

    Light diffusion is usually associated with thick, opaque media. Indeed, multiple scattering is necessary for the onset of the diffusive regime and such condition is generally not met in almost transparent media. Nonetheless, at long enough times, transport in an infinite thin slab is still determined by a multiple scattering process whose complete characterization is lacking. In this paper we show that, after a short transient, the mean square width of the transmitted intensity still exhibits a simple linear increase with time as predicted by diffusion theory, even at optical thickness as low as one. Interestingly, such linear growth is predicted not to depend neither on the slab thickness nor on its refractive index contrast, yet the accuracy of this simple approximation in the ballistic-to-diffusive regime hasn't been investigated so far. By means of Monte Carlo simulations, we find clear evidence that boundary conditions play an active role in redefining the very asymptotic value of the diffusion coefficie...

  10. Formation of magnetized prestellar cores with ambipolar diffusion and turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Che-Yu; Ostriker, Eve C. E-mail: eco@astro.princeton.edu

    2014-04-10

    We investigate the roles of magnetic fields and ambipolar diffusion during prestellar core formation in turbulent giant molecular clouds, using three-dimensional numerical simulations. Our simulations focus on the shocked layer produced by a converging large-scale flow and survey varying ionization and the angle between the upstream flow and magnetic field. We also include ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) and hydrodynamic models. From our simulations, we identify hundreds of self-gravitating cores that form within 1 Myr, with masses M ? 0.04-2.5 M {sub ?} and sizes L ? 0.015-0.07 pc, consistent with observations of the peak of the core mass function. Median values are M = 0.47 M {sub ?} and L = 0.03 pc. Core masses and sizes do not depend on either the ionization or upstream magnetic field direction. In contrast, the mass-to-flux ratio does increase with lower ionization, from twice to four times the critical value. The higher mass-to-flux ratio for low ionization is the result of enhanced transient ambipolar diffusion when the shocked layer first forms. However, ambipolar diffusion is not necessary to form low-mass supercritical cores. For ideal MHD, we find similar masses to other cases. These masses are one to two orders of magnitude lower than the value M {sub mag,} {sub sph} = 0.007B {sup 3}/(G {sup 3/2}?{sup 2}) that defines a magnetically supercritical sphere under post-shock ambient conditions. This discrepancy is the result of anisotropic contraction along field lines, which is clearly evident in both ideal MHD and diffusive simulations. We interpret our numerical findings using a simple scaling argument that suggests that gravitationally critical core masses will depend on the sound speed and mean turbulent pressure in a cloud, regardless of magnetic effects.

  11. An upregulation in the expression of vanilloid transient potential channels 2 enhances hypotonicity-induced cytosolic Ca²? rise in human induced pluripotent stem cell model of Hutchinson-Gillford Progeria.

    PubMed

    Lo, Chun-Yin; Tjong, Yung-Wui; Ho, Jenny Chung-Yee; Siu, Chung-Wah; Cheung, Sin-Ying; Tang, Nelson L; Yu, Shan; Tse, Hung-Fat; Yao, Xiaoqiang

    2014-01-01

    Hutchinson-Gillford Progeria Syndrome (HGPS) is a fatal genetic disorder characterized by premature aging in multiple organs including the skin, musculoskeletal and cardiovascular systems. It is believed that an increased mechanosensitivity of HGPS cells is a causative factor for vascular cell death and vascular diseases in HGPS patients. However, the exact mechanism is unknown. Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are cationic channels that can act as cellular sensors for mechanical stimuli. The aim of this present study was to examine the expression and functional role of TRP channels in human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived endothelial cells (iPSC-ECs) from the patients with HGPS. The mRNA and protein expression of TRP channels in HGPS and control (IMR90) iPSC-ECs were examined by semi-quantitative RT-PCRs and immunoblots, respectively. Hypotonicity-induced cytosolic Ca²? ([Ca²?](i)) rise in iPSC-ECs was measured by confocal microscopy. RT-PCRs and immunoblots showed higher expressional levels of TRPV2 in iPSC-ECs from HGPS patients than those from normal individuals. In functional studies, hypotonicity induced a transient [Ca²?](i) rise in iPSC-ECs from normal individuals but a sustained [Ca²?](i) elevation in iPSC-ECs from HGPS patients. A nonselective TRPV inhibitor, ruthenium red (RuR, 20 µM), and a specific TRPV2 channel inhibitor, tranilast (100 µM), abolished the sustained phase of hypotonicity-induced [Ca²?](i) rise in iPSC-ECs from HGPS patients, and also markedly attenuated the transient phase of the [Ca²?](i) rise in these cells. Importantly, a short 10 min hypotonicity treatment caused a substantial increase in caspase 8 activity in iPSC-ECs from HGPS patients but not in cells from normal individuals. Tranilast could also inhibit the hypotonicity-induced increase in caspase 8 activity. Taken together, our data suggest that an up-regulation in TRPV2 expression causes a sustained [Ca²?](i) elevation in HGPS-iPSC-ECs under hypotonicity, consequently resulting in apoptotic cell death. This mechanism may contribute to the pathogenesis of vascular diseases in HGPS patients. PMID:24475260

  12. The role of external electric fields in enhancing ion mobility, drift velocity, and drift-diffusion rates in aqueous electrolyte solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murad, Sohail

    2011-03-01

    Molecular simulations have been carried out using the method of molecular dynamics to investigate the role of external electric fields on the ion mobility, drift velocity, and drift-diffusion rate of ions in aqueous electrolyte solutions. These properties are critical for a range of processes including electrodialysis, electro-deionization, electrophoresis, and electroosmosis. Our results show that external electric fields relax the hydrated ion structure at significantly larger time scales (between 300 and 800 ps), than most other relaxation processes in solutions (generally of the order of 1 ps). Previous studies that did not account for the much longer relaxation times did not observe this behavior for ions even with very high electric fields. External electric fields must also overcome several (at least two or more) activation energy barriers to significantly change the structure of hydrated ions. As a result, the dynamic behavior changes almost in bands as a function of electric field strengths, rather than linearly. Finally, the effect of the field is much less dramatic on water than the ions. Thus electric fields will be of more significance in processes that involve the transport of ions (such as electro-deionization) than the transport of water (electroosmosis).

  13. Encapsulation of diphenylmethyl phosphonium salts in reverse micelles: Enhanced bimolecular reaction of the photofragments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sailer, Christian F.; Singh, Rupashree Balia; Ammer, Johannes; Riedle, Eberhard; Pugliesi, Igor

    2011-08-01

    We investigate the effects of encapsulation on the dynamics after photoinduced bond cleavage of a diphenylmethyl phosphonium salt in acetonitrile reverse micellar nanopools by femtosecond UV/Vis transient absorption. The small volume of the nanopool is just large enough to accommodate one precursor molecule and therefore eliminates the effects of diffusion present in bulk solution. The tight environment keeps the fragments together and prolongs the time for geminate recombination to occur. We therefore observe an enhanced yield of this bimolecular reaction of the ground state photofragments.

  14. The joy of transient chaos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tél, Tamás

    2015-09-01

    We intend to show that transient chaos is a very appealing, but still not widely appreciated, subfield of nonlinear dynamics. Besides flashing its basic properties and giving a brief overview of the many applications, a few recent transient-chaos-related subjects are introduced in some detail. These include the dynamics of decision making, dispersion, and sedimentation of volcanic ash, doubly transient chaos of undriven autonomous mechanical systems, and a dynamical systems approach to energy absorption or explosion.

  15. Peach Bottom Transients Analysis with TRAC/BF1-VALKIN

    SciTech Connect

    Verdu, G.; Miro, R.; Sanchez, A.M.; Rosello, O.; Ginestar, D.; Vidal, V.

    2004-10-15

    The TRAC/BF1-VALKIN code is a new time domain analysis code for studying transients in a boiling water reactor. This code uses the best-estimate code TRAC/BF1 to give an account of the heat transfer and thermal-hydraulic processes and a three-dimensional neutronics module. This module has two options: the MODKIN option that makes use of a modal method based on the assumption that the neutronic flux can be approximately expanded in terms of the dominant lambda modes associated with a static configuration of the reactor core, and the NOKIN option that uses a one-step backward discretization of the neutron diffusion equation. To check the performance of the TRAC/BF1-VALKIN code, the Peach Bottom turbine trip transient has been simulated, because this transient is a dynamically complex event where neutron kinetics is coupled with thermal hydraulics in the reactor primary system, and reactor variables change very rapidly.

  16. Transient ion-drift-induced capacitance signals in semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Heiser, T.; Weber, E.R.

    1998-08-01

    A theoretical model is developed that describes capacitance signals induced by drift of mobile ions in the space charge region of a Schottky diode. Pairing between the diffusing ion and the doping impurities is taken into account. The coupled partial differential equations are resolved numerically and the influence of key parameters on the signal shape is analyzed. Special emphasis is put on those features that enable transient ion-drift- (TID-) induced signals to be distinguished from capacitance transients caused by deep-level carrier emission processes. Relaxation kinetics and reverse bias dependence of the signal shape represent two reliable tools to verify the ion-drift nature of the signals. Methods for extracting quantitative information on both diffusion and pairing properties of the mobile ions are described. The question of whether pairing or diffusion is limiting the process is addressed. The influence of the doping level on the signal time constant is used to evaluate whether or not the diffusion is trap limited. A semiempirical model is described that permits the estimation of diffusion and pairing coefficients without resolving numerically the differential equations. Experiments are performed on interstitial copper in {ital p}-type silicon to test the predictions of the theoretical model. An overall agreement is found between theory and experiments. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  17. The Palomar transient factory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nugent, Peter; Cao, Yi; Kasliwal, Mansi

    2015-01-01

    Astrophysics is transforming from a data-starved to a data-swamped discipline, fundamentally changing the nature of scientific inquiry and discovery. New technologies are enabling the detection, transmission, and storage of data of hitherto unimaginable quantity and quality across the electromagnetic, gravity and particle spectra. The observational data obtained during this decade alone will supersede everything accumulated over the preceding four thousand years of astronomy. Currently there are 4 large-scale photometric and spectroscopic surveys underway, each generating and/or utilizing hundreds of terabytes of data per year. Some will focus on the static universe while others will greatly expand our knowledge of transient phenomena. Maximizing the science from these programs requires integrating the processing pipeline with high-performance computing resources. These are coupled to large astrophysics databases while making use of machine learning algorithms with near real-time turnaround. Here we present an overview of one of these programs, the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF). We will cover the processing and discovery pipeline we developed at LBNL and NERSC for it and several of the great discoveries made during the 4 years of observations with PTF.

  18. Perspectives of transient tracer applications and limiting cases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stöven, T.; Tanhua, T.; Hoppema, M.; Bullister, J. L.

    2015-09-01

    Currently available transient tracers have different application ranges that are defined by their temporal input (chronological transient tracers) or their decay rate (radioactive transient tracers). Transient tracers range from tracers for highly ventilated water masses such as sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) through tritium (3H) and chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) up to tracers for less ventilated deep ocean basins such as argon-39 (39Ar) and radiocarbon (14C). In this context, highly ventilated water masses are defined as water masses that have been in contact with the atmosphere during the last decade. Transient tracers can be used to empirically constrain the transit time distribution (TTD), which can often be approximated with an inverse Gaussian (IG) distribution. The IG-TTD provides information about ventilation and the advective/diffusive characteristics of a water parcel. Here we provide an overview of commonly used transient tracer couples and the corresponding application range of the IG-TTD by using the new concept of validity areas. CFC-12, CFC-11 and SF6 data from three different cruises in the South Atlantic Ocean and Southern Ocean as well as 39Ar data from the 1980s and early 1990s in the eastern Atlantic Ocean and the Weddell Sea are used to demonstrate this method. We found that the IG-TTD can be constrained along the Greenwich Meridian south to 46° S, which corresponds to the Subantarctic Front (SAF) denoting the application limit. The Antarctic Intermediate Water (AAIW) describes the limiting water layer in the vertical. Conspicuous high or lower ratios between the advective and diffusive components describe the transition between the validity area and the application limit of the IG-TTD model rather than describing the physical properties of the water parcel. The combination of 39Ar and CFC data places constraints on the IG-TTD in the deep water north of the SAF, but not beyond this limit.

  19. Inferring transient particle transport dynamics in live cells.

    PubMed

    Monnier, Nilah; Barry, Zachary; Park, Hye Yoon; Su, Kuan-Chung; Katz, Zachary; English, Brian P; Dey, Arkajit; Pan, Keyao; Cheeseman, Iain M; Singer, Robert H; Bathe, Mark

    2015-09-01

    Live-cell imaging and particle tracking provide rich information on mechanisms of intracellular transport. However, trajectory analysis procedures to infer complex transport dynamics involving stochastic switching between active transport and diffusive motion are lacking. We applied Bayesian model selection to hidden Markov modeling to infer transient transport states from trajectories of mRNA-protein complexes in live mouse hippocampal neurons and metaphase kinetochores in dividing human cells. The software is available at http://hmm-bayes.org/. PMID:26192083

  20. Enhanced fluorescence diffuse optical tomography with indocyanine green-encapsulating liposomes targeted to receptors for vascular endothelial growth factor in tumor vasculature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zanganeh, Saeid; Xu, Yan; Hamby, Carl V.; Backer, Marina V.; Backer, Joseph M.; Zhu, Quing

    2013-12-01

    To develop an indocyanine green (ICG) tracer with slower clearance kinetics, we explored ICG-encapsulating liposomes (Lip) in three different formulations: untargeted (Lip/ICG), targeted to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptors (scVEGF-Lip/ICG) by the receptor-binding moiety single-chain VEGF (scVEGF), or decorated with inactivated scVEGF (inactive-Lip/ICG) that does not bind to VEGF receptors. Experiments were conducted with tumor-bearing mice that were placed in a scattering medium with tumors located at imaging depths of either 1.5 or 2.0 cm. Near-infrared fluorescence diffuse optical tomography that provides depth-resolved spatial distributions of fluorescence in tumor was used for the detection of postinjection fluorescent signals. All liposome-based tracers, as well as free ICG, were injected intravenously into mice in the amounts corresponding to 5 nmol of ICG/mouse, and the kinetics of increase and decrease of fluorescent signals in tumors were monitored. A signal from free ICG reached maximum at 15-min postinjection and then rapidly declined with t of ˜20 min. The signals from untargeted Lip/ICG and inactive-Lip/ICG also reached maximum at 15-min postinjection, however, declined somewhat slower than free ICG with t of ˜30 min. By contrast, a signal from targeted scVEGF-Lip/ICG grew slower than that of all other tracers, reaching maximum at 30-min postinjection and declined much slower than that of other tracers with t of ˜90 min, providing a more extended observation window. Higher scVEGF-Lip/ICG tumor accumulation was further confirmed by the analysis of fluorescence on cryosections of tumors that were harvested from animals at 400 min after injection with different tracers.

  1. The Zwicky Transient Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.

    2016-01-01

    The Zwicky Transient Facility (ZTF) has been designed with a singular focus: a systematic exploration of the night sky at a magnitude level well suited for spectral classification and follow up with the existing class of 4-m to 10-m class telescopes. ZTF is the successor to the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF). The discovery engine for ZTF is a 47 square degree camera (realized through 16 e2V monolithic CCDs) that fills the entire focal plane of the 48-inch Oschin telescope of the Palomar Observatory. Single 30-s epoch sensitivity is about 20.5 in g and R bands. The Infarared Processing & Analysis Center (IPAC) is the data center for ZTF. ZTF is a public-private partnership with equal contributions from a consortium of world-wide partners and an NSF MSIP grant. Forty percent of ZTF time is set aside for two major community surveys: a 3-day cadence survey of high latitudes (to mimic LSST) and a time domain survey of the entire Northern Galactic plane. We expect first light in February 2017 and begin a 3-year survey starting summer of 2017. The first year will be spent on building up deep reference images of the sky (a must for transient surveys). During the second year IPAC will deliver near archival quality photometric products within 12 hours of observations. By comparison to reference images photometric alerts will be sent out. Year 3 will see the near real-time release of image differencing products. A Community Science Advisory Committee (CSAC), chaired by S. Ridgway (NOAO), has been set up to both advise the PI and to ensure that the US community's interests are well served. Astronomers interested in getting a head start on ZTF may wish to peruse the data releases from PTF. Young people (or young at heart) may wish to attend the annual summer school on PTF/ZTF (August, Caltech campus). The Principal Investigator (PI) for the project is S. Kulkarni and the Project Scientist is Eric Bellm.For further details please consult http://www.ptf.caltech.edu/ztf

  2. Demonstrating Diffusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foy, Barry G.

    1977-01-01

    Two demonstrations are described. Materials and instructions for demonstrating movement of molecules into cytoplasm using agar blocks, phenolphthalein, and sodium hydroxide are given. A simple method for demonstrating that the rate of diffusion of a gas is inversely proportional to its molecular weight is also presented. (AJ)

  3. Defusing Diffusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dou, Remy; Hogan, DaNel; Kossover, Mark; Spuck, Timothy; Young, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Diffusion has often been taught in science courses as one of the primary ways by which molecules travel, particularly within organisms. For years, classroom teachers have used the same common demonstrations to illustrate this concept (e.g., placing drops of food coloring in a beaker of water). Most of the time, the main contributor to the motion…

  4. Nonlinear Diffusion. Porous Medium and Fast Diffusion.

    E-print Network

    Moroz, Vitaly

    Nonlinear Diffusion. Porous Medium and Fast Diffusion. From Analysis to Physics and Geometry Juan Swansea, July 2008 Juan L. V´azquez - Nonlinear Diffusion. Porous Medium and Fast Diffusion Equations ­ p. 1/?? #12;Introduction Main topic after 1981: Nonlinear Diffusion Juan L. V´azquez - Nonlinear

  5. Transient Dentritic Solidification Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The Transient Dentritic Solidification Experiment (TDSE) is being developed as a candidate for flight aboard the International Space Station. TDSE will study the growth of dentrites (treelike crystalline structures) in a transparent material (succinonitrile or SCN) that mimics the behavior of widely used iron-based metals. Basic work by three Space Shuttle flights (STS-62, STS-75, and STS-87) of the Isothermal Dendritic Growth Experiment (IDGE) is yielding new insights into virtually all industrially relevant metal and alloy forming operations. The TDSE is similar to IDGE, but will maintain a constant temperature while varying pressure on the dentrites. Shown here is a cutaway of the isothermal bath containing its growth cell at the heart of the TDSE. The principal investigator is Matthew Koss of College of the Holy Cross in Worcester, MA. Note: an Acrobat PDF version is available from http://microgravity.nasa.gov/gallery

  6. Perturbations for transient acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Vargas, Cristofher Zuñiga; Zimdahl, Winfried; Hipólito-Ricaldi, Wiliam S. E-mail: hipolito@ceunes.ufes.br

    2012-04-01

    According to the standard ?CDM model, the accelerated expansion of the Universe will go on forever. Motivated by recent observational results, we explore the possibility of a finite phase of acceleration which asymptotically approaches another period of decelerated expansion. Extending an earlier study on a corresponding homogeneous and isotropic dynamics, in which interactions between dark matter and dark energy are crucial, the present paper also investigates the dynamics of the matter perturbations both on the Newtonian and General Relativistic (GR) levels and quantifies the potential relevance of perturbations of the dark-energy component. In the background, the model is tested against the Supernova type Ia (SNIa) data of the Constitution set and on the perturbative level against growth rate data, among them those of the WiggleZ survey, and the data of the 2dFGRS project. Our results indicate that a transient phase of accelerated expansion is not excluded by current observations.

  7. Microfluidic stochastic confinement enhances analysis of rare cells by isolating cells and creating high density environments for control of diffusible signals

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, Meghan E.; Liu, Weishan; Haney, Elizabeth B.; Ismagilov, Rustem F.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Rare cells can be difficult to analyze because they either occur in low numbers or coexist with a more abundant cell type, yet their detection is crucial for diagnosing disease and maintaining human health. In this tutorial review, we introduce the concept of microfluidic stochastic confinement for use in detection and analysis of rare cells. Stochastic confinement provides two advantages: 1) it separates rare single cells from the bulk mixture and 2) it allows signals to locally accumulate to a higher concentration around a single cell than in the bulk mixture. Microfluidics is an attractive method for implementing stochastic confinement because it provides simple handling of small volumes. We present technologies for microfluidic stochastic confinement that utilize both wells and droplets for the detection and analysis of single cells. We address how these microfluidic technologies have be used to observe new behavior, increase speed of detection, and enhance cultivation of rare cells. We discuss potential applications of microfluidic stochastic confinement to fields such as human diagnostics and environmental testing. PMID:20179819

  8. Critical current density enhancement by ion irradiation for thick YBa2Cu3O7-? films prepared by diffusion reaction technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kujur, A.; Asokan, K.; Behera, D.

    2015-01-01

    In the present work we have investigated the effect of 200 MeV Ag ions on YBa2Cu3O7-?/Y2O3 (5 wt.% and 10 wt.%) composite thick films. The samples were characterized using temperature dependent resistivity and magnetization measurements. The residual resistivity, mean field transition temperature and the zero resistance state are appreciably modified due to swift heavy ion irradiation (SHI). With the increase in defect density for 10 wt.% Y2O3 added samples irradiated with ? ? 5 × 1011 ions/cm2 shows semiconducting behavior above the transition temperature marked by broadening of transition width. Pseudogap temperature regime estimated from the deviation of linear behaviour from resistivity data indicates a shift to lower temperature zone. Synergetic effect of SHI and Y2O3 show enhancement of critical current density and flux pinning at 40 K for 5 wt.% Y2O3 inclusions. However, 10 wt.% Y2O3 added films after ion bombardment records lower values of critical current density and flux pinning. The results are explained on the basis of interplay of defect density and pinning of vortices in the YBCO matrix.

  9. Observations of large transient magnetospheric electric fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aggson, T. L.; Heppner, J. P.

    1977-01-01

    Transient electric field events were observed with the long, double probe instrumentation carried by the IMP-6 satellite. Nine, clearly defined, exceptionally large amplitude events are presented here. The events are observed in the midnight sector at geocentric distances 3.5 to .5.5 R sub e at middle latitudes within a magnetic L-shell range of 4.8 to 7.5. They usually have a total duration of one to several minutes, with peak power spectra amplitudes occurring at a frequency of about 0.3 Hz. The events occur under magnetically disturbed conditions, and in most cases they can be associated with negative dH/dt excursions at magnetic observatories located near the foot of the magnetic field line intersecting IMP-6. The magnetospheric motions calculated for these electric fields indicated a quasi-stochastical diffusive process rather than the general inward magnetospheric collapsing motion expected during the expansive phases of auroral substorm activity.

  10. Diffusion in membranes: Toward a two-dimensional diffusion map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toppozini, Laura; Garcia-Sakai, Victoria; Bewley, Robert; Dalgliesh, Robert; Perring, Toby; Rheinstädter, Maikel C.

    2015-01-01

    For decades, quasi-elastic neutron scattering has been the prime tool for studying molecular diffusion in membranes over relevant nanometer distances. These experiments are essential to our current understanding of molecular dynamics of lipids, proteins and membrane-active molecules. Recently, we presented experimental evidence from X-ray diffraction and quasi-elastic neutron scattering demonstrating that ethanol enhances the permeability of membranes. At the QENS 2014/WINS 2014 conference we presented a novel technique to measure diffusion across membranes employing 2-dimensional quasi-elastic neutron scattering. We present results from our preliminary analysis of an experiment on the cold neutron multi-chopper spectrometer LET at ISIS, where we studied the self-diffusion of water molecules along lipid membranes and have the possibility of studying the diffusion in membranes. By preparing highly oriented membrane stacks and aligning them horizontally in the spectrometer, our aim is to distinguish between lateral and transmembrane diffusion. Diffusion may also be measured at different locations in the membranes, such as the water layer and the hydrocarbon membrane core. With a complete analysis of the data, 2-dimensional mapping will enable us to determine diffusion channels of water and ethanol molecules to quantitatively determine nanoscale membrane permeability.

  11. Chronic sodium salicylate administration enhances population spike long-term potentiation following a combination of theta frequency primed-burst stimulation and the transient application of pentylenetetrazol in rat CA1 hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed

    Gholami, Masoumeh; Moradpour, Farshad; Semnanian, Saeed; Naghdi, Nasser; Fathollahi, Yaghoub

    2015-11-15

    The effect of chronic administration of sodium salicylate (NaSal) on the excitability and synaptic plasticity of the rodent hippocampus was investigated. Repeated systemic treatment with NaSal reliably induced tolerance to the anti-nociceptive effect of NaSal (one i.p. injection per day for 6 consecutive days). Following chronic NaSal or vehicle treatment, a series of electrophysiological experiments on acute hippocampal slices (focusing on the CA1 circuitry) were tested whether tolerance to NaSal would augment pentylenetetrazol (PTZ)-induced long-term potentiation (LTP) and /or epileptic activity, and whether the augmentation was the same after priming activity with a natural stimulus pattern prior to PTZ. We noted an altered synaptic input-to-spike transformation, such that neuronal firing increased after a given synaptic drive. Population spike-LTP (PS-LTP) was increased in the NaSal-tolerant animals, but only when it was induced via a combination of electrical stimulation (theta pattern primed-burst stimulation) and the transient application of PTZ. Identifying and understanding these changes in neuronal excitability and synaptic plasticity following chronic salicylate treatment could prove useful in the clinical diagnosis or treatment of chronic aspirin-induced, or even idiopathic, seizure activity. PMID:26481164

  12. Thermophysical property testing using transient techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, R. E.; Shoemaker, R. L.; Stark, J. A.; Koshigoe, L. G.

    1984-06-01

    Transient techniques were applied to the study of energetic materials (AP, HMX, RDX and HTPB) used in solid rocket fuel to carbon/carbon materials used as rocket nozzles. Studies on AP included single crystals, pressed powders and AP/HTPB mixtures. It was found that the conductivity of AP can be considered isotropic, even the orthrohombic phase. The conductivity values for pure AP calculated from the AP/HTPB mixtures were somewhat larger than those measured directly on single crystals due to imperfections in the relatively large single crystals. Conductivity values for Beta HMX obtained on pressed powders are believed to be 20% below those that would be obtained on good single crystals if they were available. Delta phase values are believed representative. Conductivity data useful for modeling AP/binder and HMX/binder fuel from RT to combustion were obtained. Successful techniques for determining in-situ conductivity values for carbon fibers and matrix in c/c composites were developed. The relative roles of the fibers and matrix in c/c subject to transient heat fluxes were delineated. The advantages of off-axis testing were revealed. Diffusivity values corresponding to thermal conductivity results could be obtained. The presence of a surface layer in which interconstituent thermal gradients are important and beyond which they are negligible was demonstrated.

  13. Hippocampal modifications in transient global amnesia.

    PubMed

    Quinette, P; Constans, J M; Hainselin, M; Desgranges, B; Eustache, F; Viader, F

    2015-03-01

    Transient global amnesia (TGA) is an acute and transient syndrome with a remarkably stereotypical set of signs and symptoms. It is characterized by the abrupt onset (no forewarning) of massive episodic memory impairment, both anterograde and retrograde. Ever since it was first described, TGA has fascinated neurologists and other memory experts, and in recent years, there has been a surge of neuroimaging studies seeking to pin down the brain dysfunction responsible for it. Several pathophysiological hypotheses have been put forward, including the short-lived suggestion of an epileptic mechanism. All the available data indicate that the brain modifications are reversible, and that the mechanism behind TGA is of a functional nature. However, while diffusion-weighted imaging studies have clearly identified the hippocampus and, more specifically, the CA1 area, as the locus of brain modifications associated with TGA, researchers have yet to determine whether the origin of the mechanism is vascular or neurochemical. Spectroscopy may provide a means of settling this issue once and for all. PMID:25769554

  14. Observations of large transient magnetospheric electric fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aggson, T. L.; Heppner, J. P.

    1977-01-01

    Transient electric field events were studied by means of the long double-probe instrumentation carried by the Imp 6 satellite, and nine clearly defined exceptionally large amplitude events are described. The events were observed in the midnight sector at geocentric distances of 3.5 to 5.5 earth radii at middle latitudes within a magnetic L shell range of 4.8 to 7.5; the duration is from one to several minutes with peak power spectra amplitudes occurring at a frequency of about 0.3 Hz. The events occur under magnetically disturbed conditions and are often associated with negative dH/dt excursions. The magnetospheric motions calculated for these electric fields indicate a quasi-stochastical diffusive process rather than the general inward magnetospheric collapsing motion expected during the expansive phases of auroral substorm activity. It is likely that the transient electric fields are responsible for the impulsive acceleration and injection of plasma to populate the outer radiation belt.

  15. Quantifying protein diffusion and capture on filaments

    E-print Network

    Emanuel Reithmann; Louis Reese; Erwin Frey

    2015-03-03

    The functional relevance of regulating proteins is often limited to specific binding sites such as the ends of microtubules or actin-filaments. A localization of proteins on these functional sites is of great importance. We present a quantitative theory for a diffusion and capture process, where proteins diffuse on a filament and stop diffusing when reaching the filament's end. It is found that end-association after one-dimensional diffusion is the main source for tip-localization of such proteins. As a consequence, diffusion and capture is highly efficient in enhancing the reaction velocity of enzymatic reactions, where proteins and filament ends are to each other as enzyme and substrate. We show that the reaction velocity can effectively be described within a Michaelis-Menten framework. Together one-dimensional diffusion and capture beats the (three-dimensional) Smoluchowski diffusion limit for the rate of protein association to filament ends.

  16. Cytoplasmic hydrogen ion diffusion coefficient.

    PubMed Central

    al-Baldawi, N F; Abercrombie, R F

    1992-01-01

    The apparent cytoplasmic proton diffusion coefficient was measured using pH electrodes and samples of cytoplasm extracted from the giant neuron of a marine invertebrate. By suddenly changing the pH at one surface of the sample and recording the relaxation of pH within the sample, an apparent diffusion coefficient of 1.4 +/- 0.5 x 10(-6) cm2/s (N = 7) was measured in the acidic or neutral range of pH (6.0-7.2). This value is approximately 5x lower than the diffusion coefficient of the mobile pH buffers (approximately 8 x 10(-6) cm2/s) and approximately 68x lower than the diffusion coefficient of the hydronium ion (93 x 10(-6) cm2/s). A mobile pH buffer (approximately 15% of the buffering power) and an immobile buffer (approximately 85% of the buffering power) could quantitatively account for the results at acidic or neutral pH. At alkaline pH (8.2-8.6), the apparent proton diffusion coefficient increased to 4.1 +/- 0.8 x 10(-6) cm2/s (N = 7). This larger diffusion coefficient at alkaline pH could be explained quantitatively by the enhanced buffering power of the mobile amino acids. Under the conditions of these experiments, it is unlikely that hydroxide movement influences the apparent hydrogen ion diffusion coefficient. PMID:1617134

  17. Materials interactions during high temperature transients: Discussion about the use of the kinetic rate constants in Zircaloy oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piotrkowski, R.; Denis, A.; Kovacs, J.; García, E. A.

    1993-07-01

    The codes that simulate materials interactions in nuclear core degradation or core meltdown generally use the kinetic rate constants obtained from isothermal diffusion experiments. They calculate the interphase boundaries (IB) movements during temperature transients as a succession of isothermal steps at different temperatures. An alternative procedure based on a diffusion model is presented here, which we consider more appropriate for studying materials interactions during high temperature transients. As a system to be simulated we have chosen the transient oxidation of Zry at high temperatures (1000-1300°C). It is shown that the evolution of the oxidized Zry when described by both methods throws different results. The same could happen in other materials interacting at high temperature transients. In these cases diffusion codes should be used; otherwise kinetic parameters obtained from isothermal measurements have to be validated in each case.

  18. Analysis of the transient calibration of heat flux sensors: One dimensional case

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dybbs, A.; Ling, J. X.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of transient heat flux on heat flux sensor response and calibration is analyzed. A one dimensional case was studied in order to elucidate the key parameters and trends for the problem. It has the added advantage that the solutions to the governing equations can be obtained by analytic means. The analytical results obtained to date indicate that the transient response of a heat flux sensor depends on the thermal boundary conditions, the geometry and the thermal properties of the sensor. In particular it was shown that if the thermal diffusivity of the sensor is small, then the transient behavior must be taken into account.

  19. Micro-imaging of transient guest profiles in nanoporous host systems of cylindrical symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binder, Tomas; Hibbe, Florian; Chmelik, Christian; Kärger, Jörg; Martinez-Joaristi, Alberto; Gascon, Jorge; Kapteijn, Freek; Ruthven, Douglas

    2012-10-01

    Nanoporous host materials giving rise to transient guest profiles of cylindrical symmetry during molecular uptake and release are shown to provide particularly advantageous conditions for the study of guest diffusion by micro-imaging. Considering zeolites of structure type DDR (Deca-dodecasil 3R) as a host system and short-chain length hydrocarbons as guest molecules, the benefits thus attainable in micro-imaging studies using interference microscopy are shown to include the determination of transient concentration profiles with improved accuracy, the option to overcome the disturbing impact of surface imperfections, and easy access to concentration-dependent diffusivities.

  20. Double-diffusive layer formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaussinger, Florian; Kupka, Friedrich; Hücker, Sebastian; Egbers, Christoph

    2015-04-01

    Double-diffusive convection plays an important role in geo- and astrophysical applications. The special case, where a destabilising temperature gradient counteracts a stabilising solute gradient leads to layering phenomena under certain conditions. Convectively mixed layers sandwiched in diffusive interfaces form a so-called stack. Well-known double-diffusive systems are observed in rift lakes in Africa and even from the coffee drink Latte Macciatto. Stacks of layers are also predicted to occur inside massive stars and inside giant planets. Their dynamics depend on the thermal, the solute and the momentum diffusivities, as well on the ratio of the gradients of the opposing stratifications. Since the layering process cannot be derived from linear stability analysis, the full nonlinear set of equations has to be investigated. Numerical simulations have become feasible for this task, despite the physical processes operate on a vast range of length and time scales, which is challenging for numerical hydrodynamical modelling. The oceanographically relevant case of fresh and salty water is investigated here in further details. The heat and mass transfer is compared with theoretical results and experimental measurements. Additionally, the initial dynamic of layering, the transient behaviour of a stack and the long time evolution are presented using the example of Lake Kivu and the interior of a giant planet.

  1. Additional Value of Diffusion-weighted MRI to Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced Hepatic MRI for the Detection of Liver Metastasis: the Difference Depending on the Experience of the Radiologists.

    PubMed

    Fukumoto, Wataru; Nakamura, Yuko; Higaki, Toru; Tatsugami, Fuminari; Iida, Makoto; Awai, Kazuo

    2015-06-01

    This retrospective study was to investigate whether adding diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) to Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI (EOB-MRI) improved the detection of liver metastasis in radiology resident and board-certified radiologist groups. It was approved by our institutional review board. We selected 18 patients with 35 liver metastases and 12 patients without liver tumors. Five board-certified radiologists and 5 radiology residents participated in the observer performance study. Each observer first interpreted T1- and T2-weighted-, plain-, arterial phase-, and hepatobiliary phase images and specified the location of the liver metastases. The software subsequently displayed the DWI images simultaneously and all participants repeated the reading. We used Jackknife alternative free-response receiver operating characteristic (JAFROC) analysis to compare the observer performance in detecting liver metastases. The mean values for the area under the curve (AUC) for EOB-MRI without and with DWI were 0.78 ± 0.13 [standard deviation: SD] and 0.87 ± 0.09, respectively, for the radiology residents, and the difference was statistically significant (p = 0.045). For the board- certified radiologists these values were 0.92 ± 0.02 and 0.96 ± 0.01, respectively, and the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.092). EOB-MRI with DWI significantly improved the performance of radiology residents in the identification of liver metastases. PMID:26211220

  2. Transient catalytic combustor model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tien, J. S.

    1981-01-01

    A quasi-steady gas phase and thermally thin substrate model is used to analyze the transient behavior of catalytic monolith combustors in fuel lean operation. The combustor response delay is due to the substrate thermal inertia. Fast response is favored by thin substrate, short catalytic bed length, high combustor inlet and final temperatures, and small gas channel diameters. The calculated gas and substrate temperature time history at different axial positions provides an understanding of how the catalytic combustor responds to an upstream condition change. The computed results also suggest that the gas residence times in the catalytic bed in the after bed space are correlatable with the nondimensional combustor response time. The model also performs steady state combustion calculations; and the computed steady state emission characteristics show agreement with available experimental data in the range of parameters covered. A catalytic combustor design for automotive gas turbine engine which has reasonably fast response ( 1 second) and can satisfy the emission goals in an acceptable total combustor length is possible.

  3. Transient global amnesia.

    PubMed

    Marazzi, Chiara; Scoditti, Umberto; Ticinesi, Andrea; Nouvenne, Antonio; Pigna, Federica; Guida, Loredana; Morelli, Ilaria; Borghi, Loris; Meschi, Tiziana

    2014-01-01

    Transient Global Amnesia (TGA) is a clinical syndrome characterized by temporary inability to form new memories described as anterograde amnesia. It is associated with retrograde amnesia and repetitive questioning. During the attack patients remain conscious and communicative and personal identity is preserved. Focal neurological symptoms and epileptic features are absent and general conditions appear intact. The ability to store new memories gradually recovers and subjects return to normal conditions except for a substantial amnestic gap for the duration of the attack. TGA has an incidence of 3-8 per 100 000 people per year. It usually affects patients between the ages of 50 and 70 years, at an average age of 61 years; occurrence in patients younger than 40 years of age is rare. The rate of recurrence is between 6% and 10% per years. No gender prevalence has been recorded. The patients with definite TGA have a very good prognosis; their rate of subsequent major vascular events is less than 1% per year. PMID:25567459

  4. Transient characteristics of rocket turbopumps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimura, Takashi; Watanabe, Mitsuo

    Transient characteristics of high-speed, high-pressure cryogenic turbopumps for rocket engines were examined experimentally by starting and stopping several rocket turbopumps rapidly by gas turbine drive. Aspects of transient characteristics studied were instantaneous pump head coefficient and pump efficiency, cavitation growth in the inducer during rapid acceleration, effects of the starting mode related to the propulsion system mission, and transient behavior of a self-balancing type axial thrust balancing system. Based on the test results, the feasibility of definite starting modes for the LE-5 turbopump was confirmed and the self-balancing type axial thrust balancing system for the LE-7 LOX turbopump was completed.

  5. Transient upsets in microprocessor controllers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glaser, R. E.; Masson, G. M.

    1981-05-01

    The modeling and analysis of transient faults in microprocessor based controllers are discussed. Such controllers typically consist of a microprocessor, read only memory storing and application program, random access memory for data storage, and input/output devices for external communications. The effects of transient faults on the performance of the controller are reviewed. An instruction level perspective of performance is taken which is the basis of a useful high level program state description of the microprocessor controller. A transition matrix is defined which determines the controller's response to transient fault arrivals.

  6. Transient upsets in microprocessor controllers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaser, R. E.; Masson, G. M.

    1981-01-01

    The modeling and analysis of transient faults in microprocessor based controllers are discussed. Such controllers typically consist of a microprocessor, read only memory storing and application program, random access memory for data storage, and input/output devices for external communications. The effects of transient faults on the performance of the controller are reviewed. An instruction level perspective of performance is taken which is the basis of a useful high level program state description of the microprocessor controller. A transition matrix is defined which determines the controller's response to transient fault arrivals.

  7. Comment to the Paper of Michael J. Saxton: "A Biological Interpretation of Transient Anomalous Subdiffusion. I. Qualitative Model"

    E-print Network

    Nicolas Destainville; Aude Sauliere; Laurence Salome

    2008-07-01

    In a recent paper, Michael J. Saxton proposes to interpret as anomalous diffusion the occurrence of apparent transient sub-diffusive regimes in mean-squared displacements (MSD) plots, calculated from experimental trajectories of molecules diffusing in living cells, acquired by Single Particle (or Molecule) Tracking techniques (SPT or SMT). In this Comment, without questioning the existence of sub-diffusive behaviors, which certainly play a key role in numbers of mechanisms in living systems, we point out that the data used by J.M. Saxton can as well be fitted by a simple law, resulting from confined diffusion at short times, with a slower free diffusion superimposed at larger times. When visualizing MSD plots, the transition from short-term diffusion confined in domains of size L, to slower, longer-term free diffusion, can be confused with anomalous diffusion over several orders of magnitude of time.

  8. Transient Heat Transfer in TCAP Coils

    SciTech Connect

    Steimke, J.L.

    1999-03-09

    The Thermal Cycling Absorption Process (TCAP) is used to separate isotopes of hydrogen. TCAP involves passing a stream of mixed hydrogen isotopes through palladium deposited on kieselguhr (Pd/k) while cycling the temperature of the Pd/k. Kieselguhr is a silica mineral also called diatomite. To aid in the design of a full scale facility, the Thermal Fluids Laboratory was used by the Chemical and Hydrogen Technology Section to compare the heat transfer properties of three different configurations of stainless steel coils containing kieselguhr and helium. Testing of coils containing Pd/k and hydrogen isotopes would have been more prototypical but would have been too expensive. Three stainless steel coils filled with kieselguhr were tested; one made from 2.0 inch diameter tubing, one made from 2.0 inch diameter tubing with foam copper embedded in the kieselguhr and one made from 1.25 inch diameter tubing. It was known prior to testing that increasing the tubing diameter from 1.25 inch to 2.0 inch would slow the rate of temperature change. The primary purpose of the testing was to measure to what extent the presence of copper foam in a 2.0" tubing coil would compensate for the effect of larger diameter. Each coil was connected to a pressure gage and the coil was evacuated and backfilled with helium gas. Helium was used instead of a mixture of hydrogen isotopes for reasons of safety. Each coil was quickly immersed in a stirred bath of ethylene glycol at a temperature of approximately 100 degrees Celsius. The coil pressure increased, reflecting the increase in average temperature of its contents. The pressure transient was recored as a function of time after immersion. Because of the actual process will use Pd/k instead of kieselguhr, additional tests were run to determine the differences in thermal properties between the two materials. The method was to position a thermocouple at the center of a hollow sphere and pack the sphere with Pd/k. The sphere was sealed, quickly submerged in a bath of boiling water and the temperature transient was recorded. There sphere was then opened, the Pd/k was replaced with kieselguhr and the transient was repeated. The response was a factor of 1.4 faster for Pd/k than for kieselguhr, implying a thermal diffusivity approximately 40 percent higher than for kieselguhr. Another implication is that the transient tests with the coils would have proceeded faster if the coils had been filled with Pd/k rather than kieselguhr.

  9. Transient transfection of DT40.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Roger; Sale, Julian E

    2006-01-01

    Transient transfection of cell lines can be extremely useful in a number of applications. However, until recently, obtaining useful and reproducible percentages of transiently expressing DT40 was almost impossible. Standard techniques such as electroporation usually give low transfection efficiencies (can be up to 40%, but ususally less than 5%) while many liposome-based protocols result in the death of all cells. Recently Amaxa Biosystems GmbH (Cologne, Germany) have developed the 'nucleofector' system which has been shown to be effective in transfecting previously resistant cell lines. This system has, for the first time, allowed efficient and non-toxic transient transfection of DT40, routinely achieving transient transfection efficiencies of over 50%. PMID:17623924

  10. Transient nucleation in condensed systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelton, K. F.; Greer, A. L.; Thompson, C. V.

    1983-01-01

    Using classical nucleation theory we consider transient nucleation occurring in a one-component, condensed system under isothermal conditions. We obtain an exact closed-form expression for the time dependent cluster populations. In addition, a more versatile approach is developed: a numerical simulation technique which models directly the reactions by which clusters are produced. This simulation demonstrates the evolution of cluster populations and nucleation rate in the transient regime. Results from the simulation are verified by comparison with exact analytical solutions for the steady state. Experimental methods for measuring transient nucleation are assessed, and it is demonstrated that the observed behavior depends on the method used. The effect of preexisting cluster distributions is studied. Previous analytical and numerical treatments of transient nucleation are compared to the solutions obtained from the simulation. The simple expressions of Kashchiev are shown to give good descriptions of the nucleation behavior.

  11. Ultrahigh exciton diffusion in intrinsic diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morimoto, Hikaru; Hazama, Yuji; Tanaka, Koichiro; Naka, Nobuko

    2015-11-01

    We observe exceptionally high diffusion of excitons in diamond using time-resolved photoluminescence imaging. The diffusivity is found to increase with decreasing temperature more rapidly than well-established predictions. The highest diffusion constant, 9.2 ×103cm2/s , measured for thermalized excitons is 150 times that recorded previously in diamond. We elucidate the momentum relaxation mechanisms determining transport: intraband and interband scattering by acoustic phonons in the exciton fine-structure levels. The enhanced diffusivity above 100 K is explained by a free-carrier contribution.

  12. Diffusion bonding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, L. E.

    1993-03-01

    A temperature between 400 and 500 and a pressure between 40 MPa and 160 MPa were indicated by a two-factor, three-level factorial experiment for diffusion bonding of molybdenum sheet substrates. These substrates were sputter ion plated with palladium (0.5 microns) and silver (10 microns) films on the mating surfaces, with the silver used as a bonding interlayer. The palladium acted as an adhesive layer between the silver film and molybdenum substrate. The silver diffusion bonds that resulted were qualitatively characterized at the interfacial regions, and bonds with no visible interface were obtained at 7500X magnification. Correlations were obtained for voids found optically at the silver/silver bonding interface and colored image maps, illustrating bond quality, produced by nondestructive ultrasonic imaging. Above 160 MPa, the bonding process produces samples with a nonuniform load distribution. These samples contained regions with gaps and well-bonded regions at the silver/silver interface, and all had macroscopic deformation of the silver films.

  13. Analytical solution of the advection-diffusion transport equation using a change-of-variable and integral transform technique

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper presents a formal exact solution of the linear advection-diffusion transport equation with constant coefficients for both transient and steady-state regimes. A classical mathematical substitution transforms the original advection-diffusion equation into an exclusively diffusive equation. ...

  14. Advanced LIGO and Multi-Messenger Transient Searches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shawhan, Peter S.; LIGO Scientific Collaboration, Virgo Collaboration

    2016-01-01

    The first Advanced LIGO observing run, which began in September 2015, is on track to extend the volume*time reach of the gravitational wave (GW) detector network by an order of magnitude by the end of the year. Searches for transient GW signals from compact binary mergers and other possible sources are a central part of the LIGO-Virgo science program. To enhance those searches and to try to place any detected signals into an astronomical context, we have undertaken an extensive program of partnering with observers to enable prompt transient survey correlations and follow-up observations at all wavelengths, from optical and radio telescopes on the ground to astroparticle detectors to space missions including Fermi and Swift. I will summarize the data collected from the first Advanced LIGO observing run, the transient searches being carried out, and the multi-messenger observing effort.

  15. Enhancement of vascular endothelial growth factor release in long-term drug-treated breast cancer via transient receptor potential channel 5-Ca(2+)-hypoxia-inducible factor 1? pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yifei; Pan, Qiongxi; Meng, Huan; Jiang, Yueshui; Mao, Aiqin; Wang, Teng; Hua, Dong; Yao, Xiaoqiang; Jin, Jian; Ma, Xin

    2015-03-01

    Chemotherapy targeting anti-angiogenesis in tumors may have insufficient efficacy, but little is known about the underlying mechanisms. Here, we showed that the Ca(2+)-permeable channel, TrpC5, is highly expressed in human breast cancer after long-term chemotherapy drug-treatment. It mediates downstream hypoxia-inducible factor 1? accumulation in the nucleus, and then activates the transcription of vascular endothelial growth factor which promotes tumor angiogenesis, leading to a poor chemotherapeutic outcome. We verified this mechanism at both the cellular and xenograft levels. Moreover, in samples from patients, high TrpC5 expression was correlated with enhanced tumor vasculature after chemotherapy. Taken together, our research demonstrated the essential role of TrpC5 in tumor angiogenesis when facing the challenge of chemotherapy and presents a new potential target for overcoming the high vasculature of human breast cancer after chemotherapy. PMID:25579062

  16. Implementation of Wavelet-Based Neural Network for the detection of Very Low Frequency (VLF) Whistlers Transients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sondhiya, Deepak Kumar; Gwal, Ashok Kumar; Verma, Shivali; Kasde, Satish Kumar

    Abstract: In this paper, a wavelet-based neural network system for the detection and identification of four types of VLF whistler’s transients (i.e. dispersive, diffuse, spiky and multipath) is implemented and tested. The discrete wavelet transform (DWT) technique is integrated with the feed forward neural network (FFNN) model to construct the identifier. First, the multi-resolution analysis (MRA) technique of DWT and the Parseval’s theorem are employed to extract the characteristics features of the transients at different resolution levels. Second, the FFNN identifies these extracted features to identify the transients according to the features extracted. The proposed methodology can reduce a great quantity of the features of transients without losing its original property; less memory space and computing time are required. Various transient events are tested; the results show that the identifier can detect whistler transients efficiently. Keywords: Discrete wavelets transform, Multi-resolution analysis, Parseval’s theorem and Feed forward neural network

  17. Molecular crowding affects diffusion and binding of nuclear proteins in heterochromatin and reveals the fractal organization of chromatin

    PubMed Central

    Bancaud, Aurélien; Huet, Sébastien; Daigle, Nathalie; Mozziconacci, Julien; Beaudouin, Joël; Ellenberg, Jan

    2009-01-01

    The nucleus of eukaryotes is organized into functional compartments, the two most prominent being heterochromatin and nucleoli. These structures are highly enriched in DNA, proteins or RNA, and thus thought to be crowded. In vitro, molecular crowding induces volume exclusion, hinders diffusion and enhances association, but whether these effects are relevant in vivo remains unclear. Here, we establish that volume exclusion and diffusive hindrance occur in dense nuclear compartments by probing the diffusive behaviour of inert fluorescent tracers in living cells. We also demonstrate that chromatin-interacting proteins remain transiently trapped in heterochromatin due to crowding induced enhanced affinity. The kinetic signatures of these crowding consequences allow us to derive a fractal model of chromatin organization, which explains why the dynamics of soluble nuclear proteins are affected independently of their size. This model further shows that the fractal architecture differs between heterochromatin and euchromatin, and predicts that chromatin proteins use different target-search strategies in the two compartments. We propose that fractal crowding is a fundamental principle of nuclear organization, particularly of heterochromatin maintenance. PMID:19927119

  18. Photoacoustic thermal diffusion flowmetry

    PubMed Central

    Sheinfeld, Adi; Eyal, Avishay

    2012-01-01

    Thermal Diffusion Flowmetry (TDF) (also called Heat Clearance Method or Thermal Clearance Method) is a longstanding technique for measuring blood flow or blood perfusion in living tissues. Typically, temperature transients and/or gradients are induced in a volume of interest and the temporal and/or spatial temperature variations which follow are measured and used for calculation of the flow. In this work a new method for implementing TDF is studied theoretically and experimentally. The heat deposition which is required for TDF is implemented photothermally (PT) and the measurement of the induced temperature variations is done by photoacoustic (PA) thermometry. Both excitation light beams (the PT and the PA) are produced by directly modulated 830 nm laser diodes and are conveniently delivered to the volume under test by the same optical fiber. The method was tested experimentally using a blood-filled phantom vessel and the results were compared with a theoretical prediction based on the heat and the photoacoustic equations. The fitting of a simplified lumped thermal model to the experimental data yielded estimated values of the blood velocity at different flow rates. By combining additional optical sources at different wavelengths it will be possible to utilize the method for non-invasive simultaneous measurement of blood flow and oxygen saturation using a single fiber probe. PMID:22574267

  19. Pregnancy-induced remodelling and enhanced endothelium-derived hyperpolarization-type vasodilator activity in rat uterine radial artery: transient receptor potential vanilloid type 4 channels, caveolae and myoendothelial gap junctions

    PubMed Central

    Senadheera, Sevvandi; Bertrand, Paul P; Grayson, T Hilton; Leader, Leo; Murphy, Timothy V; Sandow, Shaun L

    2013-01-01

    In pregnancy, the vasculature of the uterus undergoes rapid remodelling to increase blood flow and maintain perfusion to the fetus. The present study determines the distribution and density of caveolae, transient receptor potential vanilloid type 4 channels (TRPV4) and myoendothelial gap junctions, and the relative contribution of related endothelium-dependent vasodilator components in uterine radial arteries of control virgin non-pregnant and 20-day late-pregnant rats. The hypothesis examined is that specific components of endothelium-dependent vasodilator mechanisms are altered in pregnancy-related uterine radial artery remodelling. Conventional and serial section electron microscopy were used to determine the morphological characteristics of uterine radial arteries from control and pregnant rats. TRPV4 distribution and expression was examined using conventional confocal immunohistochemistry, and the contribution of endothelial TRPV4, nitric oxide (NO) and endothelium-derived hyperpolarization (EDH)-type activity determined using pressure myography with pharmacological intervention. Data show outward hypertrophic remodelling occurs in uterine radial arteries in pregnancy. Further, caveolae density in radial artery endothelium and smooth muscle from pregnant rats was significantly increased by ?94% and ?31%, respectively, compared with control, whereas caveolae density did not differ in endothelium compared with smooth muscle from control. Caveolae density was significantly higher by ?59% on the abluminal compared with the luminal surface of the endothelium in uterine radial artery of pregnant rats but did not differ at those surfaces in control. TRPV4 was present in endothelium and smooth muscle, but not associated with internal elastic lamina hole sites in radial arteries. TRPV4 fluorescence intensity was significantly increased in the endothelium and smooth muscle of radial artery of pregnant compared with control rats by ?2.6- and 5.5-fold, respectively. The TRPV4 signal was significantly higher in the endothelium compared with the smooth muscle in radial artery of both control and pregnant rats, by ?5.7- and 2.7-fold, respectively. Myoendothelial gap junction density was significantly decreased by ?37% in radial artery from pregnant compared with control rats. Pressure myography with pharmacological intervention showed that NO contributes ?80% and ?30%, and the EDH-type component ?20% and ?70% of the total endothelium-dependent vasodilator response in radial arteries of control and pregnant rats, respectively. TRPV4 plays a functional role in radial arteries, with a greater contribution in those from pregnant rats. The correlative association of increased TRPV4 and caveolae density and role of EDH-type activity in uterine radial artery of pregnant rats is suggestive of their causal relationship. The decreased myoendothelial gap junction density and lack of TRPV4 density at such sites is consistent with their having an integral, albeit complex, interactive role in uterine vascular signalling and remodelling in pregnancy. PMID:24128141

  20. Transient Alerts in LSST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kantor, J.

    During LSST observing, transient events will be detected and alerts generated at the LSST Archive Center at NCSA in Champaign-Illinois. As a very high rate of alerts is expected, approaching ˜ 10 million per night, we plan for VOEvent-compliant Distributor/Brokers (http://voevent.org) to be the primary end-points of the full LSST alert streams. End users will then use these Distributor/Brokers to classify and filter events on the stream for those fitting their science goals. These Distributor/Brokers are envisioned to be operated as a community service by third parties who will have signed MOUs with LSST. The exact identification of Distributor/Brokers to receive alerts will be determined as LSST approaches full operations and may change over time, but it is in our interest to identify and coordinate with them as early as possible. LSST will also operate a limited Distributor/Broker with a filtering capability at the Archive Center, to allow alerts to be sent directly to a limited number of entities that for some reason need to have a more direct connection to LSST. This might include, for example, observatories with significant follow-up capabilities whose observing may temporarily be more directly tied to LSST observing. It will let astronomers create simple filters that limit what alerts are ultimately forwarded to them. These user defined filters will be possible to specify using an SQL-like declarative language, or short snippets of (likely Python) code. We emphasize that this LSST-provided capability will be limited, and is not intended to satisfy the wide variety of use cases that a full-fledged public Event Distributor/Broker could. End users will not be able to subscribe to full, unfiltered, alert streams coming directly from LSST. In this session, we will discuss anticipated LSST data rates, and capabilities for alert processing and distribution/brokering. We will clarify what the LSST Observatory will provide versus what we anticipate will be a community effort.

  1. Transient Tsunamis in Lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Couston, L.; Mei, C.; Alam, M.

    2013-12-01

    A large number of lakes are surrounded by steep and unstable mountains with slopes prone to failure. As a result, landslides are likely to occur and impact water sitting in closed reservoirs. These rare geological phenomena pose serious threats to dam reservoirs and nearshore facilities because they can generate unexpectedly large tsunami waves. In fact, the tallest wave experienced by contemporary humans occurred because of a landslide in the narrow bay of Lituya in 1958, and five years later, a deadly landslide tsunami overtopped Lake Vajont's dam, flooding and damaging villages along the lakefront and in the Piave valley. If unstable slopes and potential slides are detected ahead of time, inundation maps can be drawn to help people know the risks, and mitigate the destructive power of the ensuing waves. These maps give the maximum wave runup height along the lake's vertical and sloping boundaries, and can be obtained by numerical simulations. Keeping track of the moving shorelines along beaches is challenging in classical Eulerian formulations because the horizontal extent of the fluid domain can change over time. As a result, assuming a solid slide and nonbreaking waves, here we develop a nonlinear shallow-water model equation in the Lagrangian framework to address the problem of transient landslide-tsunamis. In this manner, the shorelines' three-dimensional motion is part of the solution. The model equation is hyperbolic and can be solved numerically by finite differences. Here, a 4th order Runge-Kutta method and a compact finite-difference scheme are implemented to integrate in time and spatially discretize the forced shallow-water equation in Lagrangian coordinates. The formulation is applied to different lake and slide geometries to better understand the effects of the lake's finite lengths and slide's forcing mechanism on the generated wavefield. Specifically, for a slide moving down a plane beach, we show that edge-waves trapped by the shoreline and free-waves moving away from it coexist. On an open coast, these two types of waves would never interact, but because of the lake's finite dimensions, here we show that local inundation height maxima are due to wave superposition on the shoreline. These interactions can be dramatic near the lake's corners. For instance, in a rectangular lake delimited by two opposite and plane beaches and two vertical walls, we find that a landslide tsunami results in an inundation height at a corner 50% larger than anywhere else. The nonlinear and linear models produce different inundation maps, and here we show that maximum wave runups can be increased by up to 56% when nonlinear terms are included.

  2. Gaia transient detection efficiency: hunting for nuclear transients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blagorodnova, N.; Van Velzen, S.; Harrison, D. L.; Koposov, S.; Mattila, S.; Campbell, H.; Walton, N. A.; Wyrzykowski, ?.

    2016-01-01

    We present a study of the detectability of transient events associated with galaxies for the Gaia European Space Agency astrometric mission. We simulated the on-board detections, and on-ground processing for a mock galaxy catalogue to establish the properties required for the discovery of transient events by Gaia, specifically tidal disruption events (TDEs) and supernovae (SNe). Transients may either be discovered by the on-board detection of a new source or by the brightening of a previously known source. We show that Gaia transients can be identified as new detections on-board for offsets from the host galaxy nucleus of 0.1-0.5 arcsec, depending on magnitude and scanning angle. The Gaia detection system shows no significant loss of SNe at close radial distances to the nucleus. We used the detection efficiencies to predict the number of transients events discovered by Gaia. For a limiting magnitude of 19, we expect around 1300 SNe per year: 65 per cent SN Ia, 28 per cent SN II and 7 per cent SN Ibc, and ˜20 TDEs per year.

  3. Gaia transient detection efficiency: hunting for nuclear transients

    E-print Network

    Blagorodnova, Nadejda; Harrison, Diana L; Koposov, Sergey; Mattila, Seppo; Campbell, Heather; Walton, Nicholas A; Wyrzykowski, Lukasz

    2015-01-01

    We present a study of the detectability of transient events associated with galaxies for the Gaia European Space Agency astrometric mission. We simulated the on-board detections, and on-ground processing for a mock galaxy catalogue to establish the properties required for the discovery of transient events by Gaia, specifically tidal disruption events (TDEs) and supernovae (SNe). Transients may either be discovered by the on-board detection of a new source or by the brightening of a previously known source. We show that Gaia transients can be identified as new detections on-board for offsets from the host galaxy nucleus of 0.1--0.5,arcsec, depending on magnitude and scanning angle. The Gaia detection system shows no significant loss of SNe at close radial distances to the nucleus. We used the detection efficiencies to predict the number of transients events discovered by Gaia. For a limiting magnitude of 19, we expect around 1300 SNe per year: 65% SN Ia, 28% SN II and 7% SN Ibc, and ~20 TDEs per year.

  4. Sound diffusers based on sonic crystals.

    PubMed

    Redondo, J; Picó, R; Sánchez-Morcillo, V J; Woszczyk, W

    2013-12-01

    A sound diffuser is proposed based on sonic crystals, structures formed by a periodic distribution of cylindrical scatterers in a host medium, which is usually air. The diffuser is a so-called biperiodic structure, as formed by two arrays of sonic crystals with slightly different periodicities. Large diffusivity at low frequencies is achieved when the typical scale of the blocks is much larger than the periodicity of the crystals, determined by its lattice constant. An interpretation of the low frequency behavior of the diffuser is given in the homogenization limit in terms of multiple reflections and interference between the fields scattered by the different blocks. It is also shown that sonic crystal based diffusers enhance time spreading in comparison with other conventional diffusers. PMID:25669252

  5. The excess radio background and fast radio transients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kehayias, John; Kephart, Thomas W.; Weiler, Thomas J.

    2015-10-01

    In the last few years ARCADE 2, combined with older experiments, has detected an additional radio background, measured as a temperature and ranging in frequency from 22 MHz to 10 GHz, not accounted for by known radio sources and the cosmic microwave background. One type of source which has not been considered in the radio background is that of fast transients (those with event times much less than the observing time). We present a simple estimate, and a more detailed calculation, for the contribution of radio transients to the diffuse background. As a timely example, we estimate the contribution from the recently-discovered fast radio bursts (FRBs). Although their contribution is likely 6 or 7 orders of magnitude too small (though there are large uncertainties in FRB parameters) to account for the ARCADE 2 excess, our development is general and so can be applied to any fast transient sources, discovered or yet to be discovered. We estimate parameter values necessary for transient sources to noticeably contribute to the radio background.

  6. The Excess Radio Background and Fast Radio Transients

    E-print Network

    John Kehayias; Thomas W. Kephart; Thomas J. Weiler

    2015-10-26

    In the last few years ARCADE 2, combined with older experiments, has detected an additional radio background, measured as a temperature and ranging in frequency from 22 MHz to 10 GHz, not accounted for by known radio sources and the cosmic microwave background. One type of source which has not been considered in the radio background is that of fast transients (those with event times much less than the observing time). We present a simple estimate, and a more detailed calculation, for the contribution of radio transients to the diffuse background. As a timely example, we estimate the contribution from the recently-discovered fast radio bursts (FRBs). Although their contribution is likely 6 or 7 orders of magnitude too small (though there are large uncertainties in FRB parameters) to account for the ARCADE~2 excess, our development is general and so can be applied to any fast transient sources, discovered or yet to be discovered. We estimate parameter values necessary for transient sources to noticeably contribute to the radio background.

  7. Ion beam microtexturing and enhanced surface diffusion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, R. S.

    1982-01-01

    Ion beam interactions with solid surfaces are discussed with particular emphasis on microtexturing induced by the deliberate deposition of controllable amounts of an impurity material onto a solid surface while simultaneously sputtering the surface with an ion beam. Experimental study of the optical properties of microtextured surfaces is described. Measurements of both absorptance as a function of wavelength and emissivity are presented. A computer code is described that models the sputtering and ion reflection processes involved in microtexture formation.

  8. LINEAR DIFFUSION Erkut Erdem

    E-print Network

    Erdem, Erkut

    LINEAR DIFFUSION Erkut Erdem Hacettepe University February 24th, 2012 CONTENTS 1 Linear Diffusion 1 2 Appendix - The Calculus of Variations 5 References 6 1 LINEAR DIFFUSION The linear diffusion (heat (noisy) input image and u(x, t) be initialized with u(x, 0) = u0(x) = f (x). Then, the linear diffusion

  9. Profiling of Current Transients in Capacitor Type Diamond Sensors.

    PubMed

    Gaubas, Eugenijus; Ceponis, Tomas; Meskauskaite, Dovile; Kazuchits, Nikolai

    2015-01-01

    The operational characteristics of capacitor-type detectors based on HPHT and CVD diamond have been investigated using perpendicular and parallel injection of carrier domain regimes. Simulations of the drift-diffusion current transients have been implemented by using dynamic models based on Shockley-Ramo's theorem, under injection of localized surface domains and of bulk charge carriers. The bipolar drift-diffusion regimes have been analyzed for the photo-induced bulk domain (packet) of excess carriers. The surface charge formation and polarization effects dependent on detector biasing voltage have been revealed. The screening effects ascribed to surface charge and to dynamics of extraction of the injected bulk excess carrier domain have been separated and explained. The parameters of drift mobility of the electrons ?(e) = 4000 cm2/Vs and holes ?(h) = 3800 cm2/Vs have been evaluated for CVD diamond using the perpendicular profiling of currents. The coefficient of carrier ambipolar diffusion D(a) = 97 cm2/s and the carrier recombination lifetime ?(R,CVD) ? 110 ns in CVD diamond were extracted by combining analysis of the transients of the sensor current and the microwave probed photoconductivity. The carrier trapping with inherent lifetime ?R,HPHT ? 2 ns prevails in HPHT diamond. PMID:26061200

  10. Profiling of Current Transients in Capacitor Type Diamond Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Gaubas, Eugenijus; Ceponis, Tomas; Meskauskaite, Dovile; Kazuchits, Nikolai

    2015-01-01

    The operational characteristics of capacitor-type detectors based on HPHT and CVD diamond have been investigated using perpendicular and parallel injection of carrier domain regimes. Simulations of the drift-diffusion current transients have been implemented by using dynamic models based on Shockley-Ramo’s theorem, under injection of localized surface domains and of bulk charge carriers. The bipolar drift-diffusion regimes have been analyzed for the photo-induced bulk domain (packet) of excess carriers. The surface charge formation and polarization effects dependent on detector biasing voltage have been revealed. The screening effects ascribed to surface charge and to dynamics of extraction of the injected bulk excess carrier domain have been separated and explained. The parameters of drift mobility of the electrons ?e = 4000 cm2/Vs and holes ?h = 3800 cm2/Vs have been evaluated for CVD diamond using the perpendicular profiling of currents. The coefficient of carrier ambipolar diffusion Da = 97 cm2/s and the carrier recombination lifetime ?R,CVD ? 110 ns in CVD diamond were extracted by combining analysis of the transients of the sensor current and the microwave probed photoconductivity. The carrier trapping with inherent lifetime ?R,HPHT ? 2 ns prevails in HPHT diamond. PMID:26061200

  11. Transient thermal stress problem for a circumferentially cracked hollow cylinder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nied, H. F.; Erdogan, F.

    1982-01-01

    The transient thermal stress problem for a hollow elasticity cylinder containing an internal circumferential edge crack is considered. It is assumed that the problem is axisymmetric with regard to the crack geometry and the loading, and that the inertia effects are negligible. The problem is solved for a cylinder which is suddenly cooled from inside. First the transient temperature and stress distributions in an uncracked cylinder are calculated. By using the equal and opposite of this thermal stress as the crack surface traction in the isothermal cylinder the crack problem is then solved and the stress intensity factor is calculated. The numerical results are obtained as a function of the Fourier number tD/b(2) representing the time for various inner-to-outer radius ratios and relative crack depths, where D and b are respectively the coefficient of diffusivity and the outer radius of the cylinder.

  12. A magnetohydrodynamic theory of coronal loop transients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeh, T.

    1982-01-01

    The physical and geometrical characteristics of solar coronal loop transients are described in an MHD model based on Archimedes' MHD buoyancy force. The theory was developed from interpretation of coronagraphic data, particularly from Skylab. The brightness of a loop is taken to indicate the electron density, and successive pictures reveal the electron enhancement in different columns. The forces which lift the loop off the sun surface are analyzed as an MHD buoyancy force affecting every mass element by imparting an inertial force necessary for heliocentrifugal motion. Thermal forces are responsible for transferring the ambient stress to the interior of the loop to begin the process. The kinematic and hydrostatic buoyancy overcome the gravitational force, and a flux rope can then curve upward, spiralling like a corkscrew with varying cross section around the unwinding solar magnetic field lines.

  13. M. Bahrami ENSC 388 (F09) Transient Conduction Heat Transfer 1 Transient Heat Conduction

    E-print Network

    Bahrami, Majid

    M. Bahrami ENSC 388 (F09) Transient Conduction Heat Transfer 1 Transient Heat Conduction In general, temperature of a body varies with time) Transient Conduction Heat Transfer 2 Fig. 2: Temperature of a lump system. Using above

  14. Parallel flow diffusion battery

    DOEpatents

    Yeh, H.C.; Cheng, Y.S.

    1984-01-01

    A parallel flow diffusion battery for determining the mass distribution of an aerosol has a plurality of diffusion cells mounted in parallel to an aerosol stream, each diffusion cell including a stack of mesh wire screens of different density.

  15. Parallel flow diffusion battery

    DOEpatents

    Yeh, Hsu-Chi (Albuquerque, NM); Cheng, Yung-Sung (Albuquerque, NM)

    1984-08-07

    A parallel flow diffusion battery for determining the mass distribution of an aerosol has a plurality of diffusion cells mounted in parallel to an aerosol stream, each diffusion cell including a stack of mesh wire screens of different density.

  16. Studies of Transient Meteor Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenniskens, Peter M. M.

    2002-01-01

    Meteoroids bombard Earth's atmosphere daily, but occasionally meteor rates increase to unusual high levels when Earth crosses the relatively fresh ejecta of comets. These transient events in meteor activity provide clues about the whereabouts of Earth-threatening long-period comets, the mechanisms of large-grain dust ejection from comets, and the particle composition and size distribution of the cometary ejecta. Observations of these transient events provide important insight in natural processes that determine the large grain dust environment of comets, in natural phenomena that were prevalent during the time of the origin of life, and in processes that determine the hazard of civilizations to large impacts and of man-made satellites to the periodic blizzard of small meteoroids. In this proposal, three tasks form a coherent program aimed at elucidating various aspects of meteor outbursts, with special reference to planetary astronomy and astrobiology. Task 1 was a ground-based effort to observe periods of transient meteor activity. This includes: (1) stereoscopic imaging of meteors during transient meteor events for measurements of particle size distribution, meteoroid orbital dispersions and fluxes; and (2) technical support for Global-MS-Net, a network of amateur-operated automatic counting stations for meteor reflections from commercial VHF radio and TV broadcasting stations, keeping a 24h vigil on the level of meteor activity for the detection of new meteor streams. Task 2 consisted of ground-based and satellite born spectroscopic observations of meteors and meteor trains during transient meteor events for measurements of elemental composition, the presence of organic matter in the meteoroids, and products generated by the interaction of the meteoroid with the atmosphere. Task 3 was an airborne effort to explore the 2000 Leonid meteor outbursts, which are anticipated to be the most significant of transient meteor activity events in the remainder of the agreement period. This includes technical support for a multi-instrument aircraft campaign, Leonid MAC.

  17. The Transient Plane Source Technique to Measure Thermal Conductivity of Clays of Bikaner Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shekhawat, M. S.; Tak, S. K.; Mangal, R.

    Thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of blended clays have been studied with special reference to Ukrainian clay. The blends were made of three different clays available locally in western part of Rajasthan. Thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity were determined using the transient plane source (TPS) technique at room temperature and normal pressure. It was found that thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of the blends reported maximum at temperature 1200° C and near in the values of Ukrainian clay. The thermal conductivity of blend B2 reported maximum value (1.29 W/m-k) in the present study.

  18. Modeling a Transient Catalytic Combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tien, J. S.

    1985-01-01

    Transient model of monolith catalytic combustor presented in report done under NASA/DOE contract. Model assumes quasi-steady gas phase and thermally "thin" solid. In gas-phase treatment, several quasi-global chemical reactions assumed capable of describing CO and unburnt hydrocarbon emissions in fuel-lean operations. In steady-state computation presented, influence of selected operating and design parameters on minimum combustor length studied. When fast transient responses required, both steady and unsteady studies made to achieve meaningful compromise in design.

  19. FRACTIONAL PEARSON DIFFUSIONS

    PubMed Central

    Leonenko, Nikolai N.; Meerschaert, Mark M.

    2013-01-01

    Pearson diffusions are governed by diffusion equations with polynomial coefficients. Fractional Pearson diffusions are governed by the corresponding time-fractional diffusion equation. They are useful for modeling sub-diffusive phenomena, caused by particle sticking and trapping. This paper provides explicit strong solutions for fractional Pearson diffusions, using spectral methods. It also presents stochastic solutions, using a non-Markovian inverse stable time change. PMID:23626377

  20. Transient hypothyroidism associated with viral Human Parechovirus encephalitis in a newborn.

    PubMed

    Dereymaeker, Anneleen; Vanhaesebrouck, Sophie; Jansen, Katrien; Lagae, Lieven; de Vries, Linda; Naulaers, Gunnar

    2015-11-01

    Human Parechovirus type 3 (HPeV-3) is a neurotropic virus which can cause neonatal encephalitis, presenting as encephalopathy with seizures and diffuse white matter lesions on brain imaging. Neurodevelopmental outcome is linked to the extent of white matter abnormalities. We report on a neonate with clinical and biochemical findings of transient central hypothyroidism associated with HPeV-3 encephalitis. The co-occurrence of transient hypothyroidism and viral encephalitis has not been reported in newborns before. Transient suppression of the hypothalamo-pituitary-thyroidal axis is described in critically ill babies as the nonthyroidal-illness syndrome. Assessment of thyroid function in neonatal cases of HPeV-3 infection is required to conclude whether a transient hypothyroidism as in nonthyroidal-illness syndrome may be triggered by viral meningo-encephalitis and if treatment may influence neurodevelopmental outcome. PMID:26314768

  1. Nonlinear Transient Problems Using Structure Compatible Heat Transfer Code

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hou, Gene

    2000-01-01

    The report documents the recent effort to enhance a transient linear heat transfer code so as to solve nonlinear problems. The linear heat transfer code was originally developed by Dr. Kim Bey of NASA Largely and called the Structure-Compatible Heat Transfer (SCHT) code. The report includes four parts. The first part outlines the formulation of the heat transfer problem of concern. The second and the third parts give detailed procedures to construct the nonlinear finite element equations and the required Jacobian matrices for the nonlinear iterative method, Newton-Raphson method. The final part summarizes the results of the numerical experiments on the newly enhanced SCHT code.

  2. Role of transients in the sustainability of solar coronal plumes

    SciTech Connect

    Raouafi, N.-E.; Stenborg, G.

    2014-06-01

    We report on the role of small-scale, transient magnetic activity in the formation and evolution of solar coronal plumes. Three plumes within equatorial coronal holes are analyzed over the span of several days based on the Solar Dynamic Observatory (SDO)/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly 171 Å and 193 Å images and SDO/Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager line-of-sight magnetograms. The focus is on the role of transient structures at the footpoints in sustaining coronal plumes for relatively long periods of time (i.e., several days). The appearance of plumes is a gradual and lengthy process. In some cases, the initial stages of plume formation are marked by the appearance of pillar-like structures whose footpoints are the sources of transient brightenings. In addition to nominal jets occurring prior to and during the development of plumes, the data show that a large number of small jets (i.e., {sup j}etlets{sup )} and plume transient bright points (PTBPs) occur on timescales of tens of seconds to a few minutes. These features are the result of quasi-random cancellations of fragmented and diffuse minority magnetic polarity with the dominant unipolar magnetic field concentration over an extended period of time. They unambiguously reflect a highly dynamical evolution at the footpoints and are seemingly the main energy source for plumes. This suggests a tendency for plumes to be dependent on the occurrence of transients (i.e., jetlets, and PTBPs) resulting from low-rate magnetic reconnection. The decay phase of plumes is characterized by gradual fainting and multiple rejuvenations as a result of the dispersal of the unipolar magnetic concentration and its precipitation into multiple magnetic centers.

  3. Diffusion of an ellipsoid in bacterial suspensions

    E-print Network

    Yi Peng; Lipeng Lai; Yi-Shu Tai; Kechun Zhang; Xinliang Xu; Xiang Cheng

    2015-09-19

    Active matter such as swarming bacteria and motile colloids exhibits exotic properties different from conventional equilibrium materials. Among these properties, the enhanced diffusion of tracer particles is generally deemed as a hallmark of active matter. Here, rather than spherical tracers, we investigate the diffusion of isolated ellipsoids in quasi-two-dimensional bacterial bath. Our study reveals a nonlinear enhancement of both translational and rotational diffusions. More importantly, we uncover an anomalous coupling between translation and rotation that is strictly prohibited in the classic Brownian diffusion. Combining experiments with theoretical modeling, we show that such an anomaly arises from generic stretching flows induced by swimming bacteria. Our work illustrates a universal organizing principle of active matter and sheds new light on fundamental transport processes in microbiological systems.

  4. Lecture Topics Transient Droplet Vaporization

    E-print Network

    Heydari, Payam

    to liquid conditions occurs. #12;For H2 / O2 propellants, the oxygen droplet vaporizes more slowly. #12Lecture Topics Transient Droplet Vaporization Convective Vaporization Liquid Circulation Lectures Droplet Groups and Array Instability of Injected Liquid Liquid Fuel-Films Other Book Topics

  5. Transient Synovitis of the Hip

    MedlinePLUS

    ... have this condition want to lie on their back with the knee on the side that hurts bent and turned out with their ... exact cause of transient synovitis of the hip. It might be caused by a virus or it might be from an allergic reaction ...

  6. Gas-core reactor power transient analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kascak, A. F.

    1972-01-01

    The gas core reactor is a proposed device which features high temperatures. It has applications in high specific impulse space missions, and possibly in low thermal pollution MHD power plants. The nuclear fuel is a ball of uranium plasma radiating thermal photons as opposed to gamma rays. This thermal energy is picked up before it reaches the solid cavity liner by an inflowing seeded propellant stream and convected out through a rocket nozzle. A wall-burnout condition will exist if there is not enough flow of propellant to convect the energy back into the cavity. A reactor must therefore operate with a certain amount of excess propellant flow. Due to the thermal inertia of the flowing propellant, the reactor can undergo power transients in excess of the steady-state wall burnout power for short periods of time. The objective of this study was to determine how long the wall burnout power could be exceeded without burning out the cavity liner. The model used in the heat-transfer calculation was one-dimensional, and thermal radiation was assumed to be a diffusion process.

  7. TEMPEST. Transient 3-D Thermal-Hydraulic

    SciTech Connect

    Eyler, L.L.

    1992-01-31

    TEMPEST is a transient, three-dimensional, hydrothermal program that is designed to analyze a range of coupled fluid dynamic and heat transfer systems of particular interest to the Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR) thermal-hydraulic design community. The full three-dimensional, time-dependent equations of motion, continuity, and heat transport are solved for either laminar or turbulent fluid flow, including heat diffusion and generation in both solid and liquid materials. The equations governing mass, momentum, and energy conservation for incompressible flows and small density variations (Boussinesq approximation) are solved using finite-difference techniques. Analyses may be conducted in either cylindrical or Cartesian coordinate systems. Turbulence is treated using a two-equation model. Two auxiliary plotting programs, SEQUEL and MANPLOT, for use with TEMPEST output are included. SEQUEL may be operated in batch or interactive mode; it generates data required for vector plots, contour plots of scalar quantities, line plots, grid and boundary plots, and time-history plots. MANPLOT reads the SEQUEL-generated data and creates the hardcopy plots. TEMPEST can be a valuable hydrothermal design analysis tool in areas outside the intended FBR thermal-hydraulic design community.

  8. Transient global amnesia in legal proceedings.

    PubMed

    Griebe, Martin; Bäzner, Hansjörg; Kablau, Micha; Hennerici, Michael G; Szabo, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    Transient global amnesia (TGA) is a neurological disorder characterized by an acute onset of severe anterograde amnesia. While retrograde amnesia may be present-although to a lesser extent-patients have no further cognitive disturbances or neurological signs. These symptoms resolve fully within several hours leaving a permanent memory gap for the duration of the episode and do not lead to long-term neurological deficits. In addition to well-defined clinical diagnostic criteria, in up to 80 % of patients, small, point-shaped lesions in the hippocampus are detected 24-48 h after symptom onset on diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance images. Despite several etiological hypotheses, to date, there is no scientific proof for the etiology of TGA or the small hippocampal lesions. Interestingly, in a large number of cases, an emotionally or physically straining event precipitates the onset of TGA, suggesting a stress-related mechanism. We report two cases of TGA occurring in legally relevant settings: affecting the victim of brutal burglary and the key witness in a murder trial. In the context of forensic medicine, the knowledge of this disorder and recognition of its typical features are essential. PMID:24961536

  9. Two-dimensional hygrothermal diffusions into a finite width composite laminate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farley, G. L.; Herakovich, C. T.

    1977-01-01

    Two dimensional hygroscopic diffusion into composite laminates with free edges was obtained through the use of a second order finite difference scheme. A computer program was developed for the transient nonlinear coupled hygrothermal diffusion into finite width laminates with varying surface conditions along two edges. The formulation permits the diffusion coefficient to be a function of temperature, moisture concentration, and fiber orientation. The moisture distributions thus obtained are necessary for analysis of the moisture induced interlaminar stresses in the vicinity of free edges. It is shown that large diffusion times tend to eliminate the significance of stacking sequence, but gradients within and between layers are significant for all diffusion times.

  10. Do current lattice Boltzmann methods for diffusion and diffusion-type equations respect maximum principles and the non-negative constraint?

    E-print Network

    S. Karimi; K. B. Nakshatrala

    2015-04-10

    The lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) has established itself as a valid numerical method in computational fluid dynamics. Recently, multiple-relaxation-time LBM has been proposed to simulate anisotropic advection-diffusion processes. The governing differential equations of advective-diffusive systems are known to satisfy maximum principles, comparison principles, the non-negative constraint, and the decay property. In this paper, it will be shown that current single- and multiple-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann methods fail to preserve these mathematical properties for transient diffusion-type equations. It will also be shown that the discretization of Dirichlet boundary conditions will affect the performance of lattice Boltzmann methods in meeting these mathematical principles. A new way of discretizing the Dirichlet boundary conditions is also proposed. Several benchmark problems have been solved to illustrate the performance of lattice Boltzmann methods and the effect of discretization of boundary conditions with respect to the aforementioned mathematical properties for transient diffusion and advection-diffusion equations.

  11. Comparison of Diffusion Coefficients of Aryl Carbonyls and Aryl Alcohols in Hydroxylic Solvents. Evidence that the Diffusion of Ketyl Radicals in Hydrogen-Bonding Solvents is Not Anomalous?

    SciTech Connect

    Autrey, S Thomas ); Camaioni, Donald M. ); Kandanarachchi, Pramod H.; Franz, James A. )

    2000-12-01

    The diffusion coefficients of a benzyl-, sec-phenethyl-, and diphenylmethyl alcohol and the corresponding aryl carbonyls (benzaldehyde, acetophenone and benzophenone) were measured by Taylor's dispersion method in both ethyl and isopropyl alcohol. The experimental values are compared to published transient grating measurements of the corresponding aryl ketyl radicals (benzyl-, sec-phenethyl-, and diphenylmethyl-ketyl radical). In general, the diffusion coefficient of the aryl alcohols and the corresponding aryl ketyl radicals are equivalent within experimental error. This work shows that the diffusion of ketyl radicals is not anomalously slow and that aryl alcohols are significantly better models than the corresponding aryl ketones for analyzing the diffusion of aryl ketyl radicals in both ethyl and isopropyl alcohol. Empirical estimates of the diffusion coefficients of aryl alcohols using the Spernol-Wirtz and Wilke-Chang modifications to the Stokes-Einstein diffusion equation do not adequately account for the interactions between the aryl ketyl radicals or aryl alcohols with the hydroxylic solvents ethyl and isopropyl alcohol. The excellent agreement between the experimental diffusion coefficients of the aryl alcohols and the corresponding ketyl radicals show that the transient grating method can provide accurate estimates for the diffusion coefficients of transient species. This is especially important when a stable model is not available, for example the pyranyl radical.

  12. Atomic defects and diffusion in metals

    SciTech Connect

    Siegel, R.W.

    1981-11-01

    The tracer self-diffusion data for fcc and refractory bcc metals are briefly reviewed with respect to (i) the available monovacancy formation and migration properties and (ii) the high-temperature diffusion enhancement above that expected for mass transport via atomic exchange with monovacancies. While the atomic-defect mechanism for low-temperature self-diffusion can be reliably attributed to monovacancies, the mechanisms responsible for high-temperature mass transport are not so easily defined at this time; both divacancies and interstitials must be seriously considered. Possibilities for improving our understanding in this area are discussed. 68 references, 7 figures.

  13. Numerical Analysis of Transient Temperature Response of Soap Film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Seiichi; Tatesaku, Akihiro; Dantsuka, Yuki; Fujiwara, Seiji; Kunimine, Kanji

    2015-10-01

    Measurements of thermophysical properties of thin liquid films are important to understand interfacial phenomena due to film structures composed of amphiphilic molecules in soap film, phospholipid bilayer of biological cell and emulsion. A transient hot-wire technique for liquid films less than 1 \\upmu m thick such as soap film has been proposed to measure the thermal conductivity and diffusivity simultaneously. Two-dimensional heat conduction equations for a solid cylinder with a liquid film have been solved numerically. The temperature of a thin wire with liquid film increases steeply with its own heat generation. The feasibility of this technique is verified through numerical experiments for various thermal conductivities, diffusivities, and film thicknesses. Calculated results indicate that the increase in the volumetric average temperature of the thin wire sufficiently varies with the change of thermal conductivity and diffusivity of the soap film. Therefore, the temperature characteristics could be utilized to evaluate both the thermal conductivity and diffusivity using the Gauss-Newton method.

  14. Passive Diffusion as a Mechanism Underlying Ribbon Synapse Vesicle Release and Resupply

    PubMed Central

    Graydon, Cole W.; Zhang, Jun; Oesch, Nicholas W.; Sousa, Alioscka A.; Leapman, Richard D.

    2014-01-01

    Synaptic ribbons are presynaptic protein structures found at many synapses that convey graded, “analog” sensory signals in the visual, auditory, and vestibular pathways. Ribbons, typically anchored to the presynaptic membrane and surrounded by tethered synaptic vesicles, are thought to regulate or facilitate vesicle delivery to the presynaptic membrane. No direct evidence exists, however, to indicate how vesicles interact with the ribbon or, once attached, move along the ribbon's surface to reach the presynaptic release sites at its base. To address these questions, we have created, validated, and tested a passive vesicle diffusion model of retinal rod bipolar cell ribbon synapses. We used axial (bright-field) electron tomography in the scanning transmission electron microscopy to obtain 3D structures of rat rod bipolar cell terminals in 1-?m-thick sections of retinal tissue at an isotropic spatial resolution of ?3 nm. The resulting structures were then incorporated with previously published estimates of vesicle diffusion dynamics into numerical simulations that accurately reproduced electrophysiologically measured vesicle release/replenishment rates and vesicle pool sizes. The simulations suggest that, under physiologically realistic conditions, diffusion of vesicles crowded on the ribbon surface gives rise to a flow field that enhances delivery of vesicles to the presynaptic membrane without requiring an active transport mechanism. Numerical simulations of ribbon–vesicle interactions predict that transient binding and unbinding of multiple tethers to each synaptic vesicle may achieve sufficiently tight association of vesicles to the ribbon while permitting the fast diffusion along the ribbon that is required to sustain high release rates. PMID:24990916

  15. LONG GAMMA-RAY TRANSIENTS FROM COLLAPSARS

    SciTech Connect

    Woosley, S. E.; Heger, Alexander E-mail: alex@physics.umn.edu

    2012-06-10

    In the collapsar model for common gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), the formation of a centrifugally supported disk occurs during the first {approx}10 s following the collapse of the iron core in a massive star. This only occurs in a small fraction of massive stellar deaths, however, and requires unusual conditions. A much more frequent occurrence could be the death of a star that makes a black hole and a weak or absent outgoing shock, but in a progenitor that only has enough angular momentum in its outermost layers to make a disk. We consider several cases where this is likely to occur-blue supergiants with low mass-loss rates, tidally interacting binaries involving either helium stars or giant stars, and the collapse to a black hole of very massive pair-instability supernovae. These events have in common the accretion of a solar mass or so of material through a disk over a period much longer than the duration of a common GRB. A broad range of powers is possible, 10{sup 47}-10{sup 50} erg s{sup -1}, and this brightness could be enhanced by beaming. Such events were probably more frequent in the early universe where mass-loss rates were lower. Indeed, this could be one of the most common forms of gamma-ray transients in the universe and could be used to study first generation stars. Several events could be active in the sky at any one time. Recent examples of this sort of event may have been the Swift transients Sw-1644+57, Sw-2058+0516, and GRB 101225A.

  16. Geometric analysis of transient bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osinga, Hinke M.; Tsaneva-Atanasova, Krasimira T.

    2013-12-01

    We consider the effect of a brief stimulation from the rest state of a minimal neuronal model with multiple time scales. Such transient dynamics brings out the intrinsic bursting capabilities of the system. Our main goal is to show that a minimum of three dimensions is enough to generate spike-adding phenomena in transient responses, and that the onset of a new spike can be tracked using existing continuation packages. We take a geometric approach to illustrate how the underlying fast subsystem organises the spike adding in much the same way as for spike adding in periodic bursts, but the bifurcation analysis for spike onset is entirely different. By using a generic model, we further strengthen claims made in our earlier work that our numerical method for spike onset can be used for a broad class of systems.

  17. How are Forbush decreases related with interplanetary magnetic field enhancements ?

    E-print Network

    Arunbabu, K P; Dugad, S R; Gupta, S K; Hayashi, Y; Kawakami, S; Mohanty, P K; Oshima, A; Subramanian, P

    2015-01-01

    Aims. Forbush decrease (FD) is a transient decrease followed by a gradual recovery in the observed galactic cosmic ray intensity. We seek to understand the relationship between the FDs and near-Earth interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) enhancements associated with solar coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Methods. We use muon data at cutoff rigidities ranging from 14 to 24 GV from the GRAPES-3 tracking muon telescope to identify FD events. We select those FD events that have a reasonably clean profile, and magnitude > 0.25%. We use IMF data from ACE/WIND spacecrafts. We look for correlations between the FD profile and that of the one hour averaged IMF. We ask if the diffusion of high energy protons into the large scale magnetic field is the cause of the lag observed between the FD and the IMF. Results. The enhancement of the IMF associated with FDs occurs mainly in the shock-sheath region, and the turbulence level in the magnetic field is also enhanced in this region. The observed FD profiles look remarkably simil...

  18. Transient light-induced intracellular oxidation revealed by redox biosensor

    SciTech Connect

    Kolossov, Vladimir L.; Beaudoin, Jessica N.; Department of Animal Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1207 W. Gregory Drive, Urbana, IL 61801 ; Hanafin, William P.; DiLiberto, Stephen J.; Department of Animal Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1207 W. Gregory Drive, Urbana, IL 61801 ; Kenis, Paul J.A.; Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 600 S. Mathews Avenue, Urbana, IL 61801 ; Rex Gaskins, H.; Department of Animal Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1207 W. Gregory Drive, Urbana, IL 61801; Department of Pathobiology, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 2001 S. Lincoln Avenue, Urbana, IL 61801; Division of Nutritional Sciences, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 905 S. Goodwin Avenue, Urbana, IL 61801

    2013-10-04

    Highlights: •Time-resolved live cell imaging revealed light-induced oxidation. •Only the roGFP probe fused with glutaredoxin reveals photooxidation. •The transient oxidation is rapidly reduced by the cytosolic antioxidant system. •Intracellular photooxidation is media-dependent. •Oxidation is triggered exclusively by exposure to short wavelength excitation. -- Abstract: We have implemented a ratiometric, genetically encoded redox-sensitive green fluorescent protein fused to human glutaredoxin (Grx1-roGFP2) to monitor real time intracellular glutathione redox potentials of mammalian cells. This probe enabled detection of media-dependent oxidation of the cytosol triggered by short wavelength excitation. The transient nature of light-induced oxidation was revealed by time-lapse live cell imaging when time intervals of less than 30 s were implemented. In contrast, transient ROS generation was not observed with the parental roGFP2 probe without Grx1, which exhibits slower thiol-disulfide exchange. These data demonstrate that the enhanced sensitivity of the Grx1-roGFP2 fusion protein enables the detection of short-lived ROS in living cells. The superior sensitivity of Grx1-roGFP2, however, also enhances responsiveness to environmental cues introducing a greater likelihood of false positive results during image acquisition.

  19. Transient adhesion of neutrophils to endothelium

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    Fluorescently labeled polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) were used to measure adhesion to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (EC) cultured in vitro. Stimulation of PMN with phorbol dibutyrate (PDB), TNF, or C5a caused an increase in adhesion followed by a return to prestimulation levels of adhesion of longer times of incubation. Maximal adhesion of PMN to EC occurred rapidly in response to C5a (5 min) and more slowly with TNF or PDB (15 min). PMN stimulated to adhere with C5a detached from EC by 15 min. PMN from CD11/CD18-deficient patients and PMN incubated with anti-CD18 mAbs failed to bind to EC despite maximal stimulation. Anti-CD11a/CD18 and anti-CD11b/CD18 each partially inhibited adhesion, and a combination of these two reagents completely blocked adhesion. The adhesion we measured was therefore completely dependent on CD11/CD18, and CD11a/CD18 and CD11b/CD18 each contributed to adhesion. Stimuli that enhanced adhesion of PMN to EC also enhanced expression of CD11b/CD18 on the cell surface, but the time course of expression correlated poorly with changes in adhesivity. To determine if changes in the expression of CD11b/CD18 are necessary for the changes in adhesivity, we used enucleate cytoplasts that did not increase expression of CD11b/CD18. Cytoplasts showed a normal rise and fall in adhesivity in response to PDB. We conclude that the transient adhesion of stimulated PMN to naive EC is regulated by changes in the nature of existing CD11/CD18 molecules on the PMN surface. Changes in expression of CD11b/CD18 may contribute to enhancement of adhesivity, but a definite role for this phenomenon has yet to be established. PMID:2565948

  20. Nonlinear transient simulation of transformers

    SciTech Connect

    Pierrat, L.; Tran-Quoc, T.; Montmeat, A.

    1995-12-31

    In this paper, a nonlinear model of transformer which takes into account both the saturation and the hysteresis is proposed. In order to simulate transient phenomena in transformers, a system of equations is presented. The digital simulation of the energization and de-energization of a three-phase distribution transformer is studied. Ferroresonant phenomena in iron core transformers supplied through capacitive links are presented. Finally, the influence of MOV arresters on overvoltage reduction is investigated.

  1. Spectral signatures of penumbral transients

    SciTech Connect

    Reardon, K.; Tritschler, A.

    2013-12-20

    In this work we investigate the properties of penumbral transients observed in the upper photospheric and chromospheric region above a sunspot penumbra using two-dimensional spectroscopic observations of the Ca II 854.21 nm line with a 5 s cadence. In our 30 minutes of observations, we identify several penumbral-micro jets (PMJs) with cotemporal observations from Dunn Solar Telescope/IBIS and Hinode/SOT. We find that the line profiles of these PMJ events show emission in the two wings of the line (±0.05 nm), but little modification of the line core. These are reminiscent of the line profiles of Ellerman bombs observed in plage and network regions. Furthermore, we find evidence that some PMJ events have a precursor phase starting 1 minute prior to the main brightening that might indicate initial heating of the plasma prior to an acoustic or bow shock event. With the IBIS data, we also find several other types of transient brightenings with timescales of less than 1 minute that are not clearly seen in the Hinode/SOT data. The spectral profiles and other characteristics of these events are significantly different from those of PMJs. The different appearances of all these transients are an indicator of the general complexity of the chromospheric magnetic field and underscore the highly dynamic behavior above sunspots. It also highlights the care that is needed in interpreting broadband filter images of chromospheric lines, which may conceal very different spectral profiles, and the underlying physical mechanisms at work.

  2. Igniter heater EMI transient test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, M.

    1989-01-01

    Testing to evaluate Redesigned Solid Rocket Motor igniter heater electromagnetic interference (EMI) effects on the Safe and Arm (S and A) device was completed. It was suspected that EMI generated by the igniter heater and it's associated electromechanical relay could cause a premature firing of the NASA Standard Initiators (NSIs) inside the S and A. The maximum voltage induced into the NSI fire lines was 1/4 of the NASA specified no-fire limit of one volt (SKB 26100066). As a result, the igniter heaters are not expected to have any adverse EMI effects on the NSIs. The results did show, however, that power switching causes occasional high transients within the igniter heater power cable. These transients could affect the sensitive equipment inside the forward skirt. It is therefore recommended that the electromechanical igniter heater relays be replaced with zero crossing solid state relays. If the solid state relays are installed, it is also recommended that they be tested for EMI transient effects.

  3. Diffusion Confusion 8 4 Problem set #4: Fun with diffusion

    E-print Network

    Spiegelman, Marc W.

    Diffusion Confusion 8 4 Problem set #4: Fun with diffusion Today's thrill packed exercise will be to deal with diffusion and advection-diffusion in one dimension. All exercises here will be in Matlab-nicolson diffusion of a gaussian initial condition with dirichlet boundary conditions (Diffusion/diffusion cn

  4. Lateral diffusion contributes to FRET from lanthanide-tagged membrane proteins.

    PubMed

    Lan, Tien-Hung; Wu, Guangyu; Lambert, Nevin A

    2015-08-14

    Diffusion can enhance Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) when donors or acceptors diffuse distances that are similar to the distances separating them during the donor's excited state lifetime. Lanthanide donors remain in the excited state for milliseconds, which makes them useful for time-resolved FRET applications but also allows time for diffusion to enhance energy transfer. Here we show that diffusion dramatically enhances FRET between membrane proteins labeled with lanthanide donors. This phenomenon complicates interpretation of experiments that use long-lived donors to infer association or proximity of mobile membrane proteins, but also offers a method of monitoring diffusion in membrane domains in real time in living cells. PMID:26119691

  5. Interface Evolution During Transient Pressure Solution Creep

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dysthe, D. K.; Podladchikov, Y. Y.; Renard, F.; Jamtveit, B.; Feder, J.

    When aggregates of small grains are pressed together in the presence of small amounts of solvent the aggregate compacts and the grains tend to stick together. This hap- pens to salt and sugar in humid air, and to sediments when buried in the Earths crust. Stress concentration at the grain contacts cause local dissolution, diffusion of the dissolved material out of the interface and deposition on the less stressed faces of the grains{1}. This process, in geology known as pressure solution, plays a cen- tral role during compaction of sedimentary basins{1,2}, during tectonic deformation of the Earth's crust{3}, and in strengthening of active fault gouges following earth- quakes{4,5}. Experimental data on pressure solution has so far not been sufficiently accurate to understand the transient processes at the grain scale. Here we present ex- perimental evidence that pressure solution creep does not establish a steady state inter- face microstructure as previously thought. Conversely, cumulative creep strain and the characteristic size of interface microstructures grow as the cubic root of time. A sim- ilar transient phenomenon is known in metallurgy (Andrade creep) and is explained here using an analogy with spinodal dewetting. 1 Weyl, P. K., Pressure solution and the force of crystallization - a phenomenological theory. J. Geophys. Res., 64, 2001-2025 (1959). 2 Heald, M. T., Cementation of Simpson and St. Peter Sandstones in parts of Okla- homa, Arkansas and Missouri, J. Geol. Chicago, 14, 16-30 (1956). 3 Schwartz, S., Stöckert, B., Pressure solution in siliciclastic HP-LT metamorphic rocks constraints on the state of stress in deep levels of accretionary complexes. Tectonophysics, 255, 203-209 (1996). 4 Renard, F., Gratier, J.P., Jamtveit, B., Kinetics of crack-sealing, intergranular pres- sure solution, and compaction around active faults. J. Struct. Geol., 22, 1395-1407, (2000). 5 Miller, S. A., BenZion, Y., Burg, J. P.,A three-dimensional fluid-controlled earth- quake model: Behavior and implications. J. Geophys. Res., 104, 10621-10638 (1999).

  6. Microfabricated diffusion source

    DOEpatents

    Oborny, Michael C. (Albuquerque, NM); Frye-Mason, Gregory C. (Cedar Crest, NM); Manginell, Ronald P. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2008-07-15

    A microfabricated diffusion source to provide for a controlled diffusion rate of a vapor comprises a porous reservoir formed in a substrate that can be filled with a liquid, a headspace cavity for evaporation of the vapor therein, a diffusion channel to provide a controlled diffusion of the vapor, and an outlet to release the vapor into a gas stream. The microfabricated diffusion source can provide a calibration standard for a microanalytical system. The microanalytical system with an integral diffusion source can be fabricated with microelectromechanical systems technologies.

  7. Voltage transients elicited by sudden step-up of auxin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pickard, B. G.

    1984-01-01

    It is hypothesized (i) that the molecular mechanism for the reception of friction and flexure and the mechanism by which auxin enhances ethylene production have in common a release of free calcium into the cytosol, (ii) that elevated cytosolic calcium initiates vesicle exocytosis, and (iii) that the vesicles release a factor or set of factors which depolarizes the plasmalemma and promotes ethylene synthesis. One consequence of such exocytosis should be small, extracellularly observable voltage transients. Transients, ranging in size up to 600 microvolts and possessing risetimes (10-90%) of approximately 200 ms, are known to be elicited in etiolated stems of Pisum sativum L. by friction and are here shown to be elicited by sudden increase of auxin concentration and also by a Ca2+ ionophore.

  8. Technical Note: Analytical Solution for Transient Partitioning and Reaction of a Condensing Vapor Species in a Droplet

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Albert T.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Seinfeld, John H.

    2014-03-28

    We present the exact analytical solution of the transient equation of gas-phase diffusion of a condensing vapor to, and diffusion and reaction in, an aqueous droplet. Droplet-phase reaction is represented by first-order chemistry. The solution facilitates study of the dynamic nature of the vapor uptake process as a function of droplet size, Henry’s law coefficient, and first-order reaction rate constant for conversion in the droplet phase.

  9. Imperfect diffusion on temporal networks

    E-print Network

    Gueuning, Martin; Lambiotte, Renaud

    2015-01-01

    We study diffusion on networks where the contact dynamics between the nodes is governed by a random process and where the inter-contact time distribution may differ from the exponential. We consider a process of imperfect diffusion, where transmission is successful with a determined probability at each contact. We first derive an expression for the inter-success time distribution, determining the speed of the propagation, and then focus on a problem related to epidemic spreading, by estimating the epidemic threshold in a system where nodes remain infectious during a finite, random period of time. Finally, we discuss the implications of our work to design an efficient strategy to enhance spreading on temporal networks.

  10. Numerical simulation and experimental study of transient liquid phase bonding of single crystal superalloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghoneim, Adam

    The primary goals of the research in this dissertation are to perform a systematic study to identify and understand the fundamental cause of prolonged processing time during transient liquid phase bonding of difficult-to-bond single crystal Ni-base materials, and use the acquired knowledge to develop an effective way to reduce the isothermal solidification time without sacrificing the single crystalline nature of the base materials. To achieve these objectives, a multi-scale numerical modeling approach, that involves the use of a 2-D fully implicit moving-mesh Finite Element method and a Cellular Automata method, was developed to theoretically investigate the cause of long isothermal solidification times and determine a viable way to minimize the problem. Subsequently, the predictions of the theoretical models are experimentally validated. Contrary to previous suggestions, numerical calculations and experimental verifications have shown that enhanced intergranular diffusivity has a negligible effect on solidification time in cast superalloys and that another important factor must be responsible. In addition, it was found that the concept of competition between solute diffusivity and solubility as predicted by standard analytical TLP bonding models and reported in the literature as a possible cause of long solidification times is not suitable to explain salient experimental observations. In contrast, however, this study shows that the problem of long solidification times, which anomalously increase with temperature is fundamentally caused by departure from diffusion controlled parabolic migration of the liquid-solid interface with holding time during bonding due to a significant reduction in the solute concentration gradient in the base material. Theoretical analyses showed it is possible to minimize the solidification time and prevent formation of stray-grains in joints between single crystal substrates by using a composite powder mixture of brazing alloy and base alloy as the interlayer material, which prior to the present work has been reported to be unsuitable. This was experimentally verified and the use of the composite powder mixture as interlayer material to reduce the solidification time and avoid stray-grain formation during TLP bonding of single crystal superalloys has been reported for the first time in this research.

  11. Transient Testing of Nuclear Fuels and Materials in United States

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel M. Wachs

    2012-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has been engaged in an effort to develop and qualify next generation LWR fuel with enhanced performance and safety and reduced waste generation since 2010. This program, which has emphasized collaboration between the DOE, U.S. national laboratories and nuclear industry, was refocused from enhanced performance to enhanced accident tolerance following the events at Fukushima in 2011. Accident tolerant fuels have been specifically described as fuels that, in comparison with standard UO2-Zircaloy, can tolerate loss of active cooling in the reactor core for a considerably longer time period (depending on the LWR system and accident scenario) while maintaining or improving the fuel performance during normal operations, operational transients, as well as design-basis and beyond design-basis events. The program maintains an ambitious goal to insert a lead test assembly (LTA) of the new design into a commercial power reactor by 2022 .

  12. Mutual diffusion of interacting membrane proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Abney, J R; Scalettar, B A; Owicki, J C

    1989-01-01

    The generalized Stokes-Einstein equation is used, together with the two-dimensional pressure equation, to analyze mutual diffusion in concentrated membrane systems. These equations can be used to investigate the role that both direct and hydrodynamic interactions play in determining diffusive behavior. Here only direct interactions are explicitly incorporated into the theory at high densities; however, both direct and hydrodynamic interactions are analyzed for some dilute solutions. We look at diffusion in the presence of weak attractions, soft repulsions, and hard-core repulsions. It is found that, at low densities, attractions retard mutual diffusion while repulsions enhance it. Mechanistically, attractions tend to tether particles together and oppose the dissipation of gradients or fluctuations in concentration, while repulsions provide a driving force that pushes particles apart. At higher concentrations, changes in the structure of the fluid enhance mutual diffusion even in the presence of attractions. It is shown that the theoretical description of postelectrophoresis relaxation and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy experiments must be modified if interacting systems are studied. The effects of interactions on mutual diffusion coefficients have probably already been seen in postelectrophoresis relaxation experiments. PMID:2775829

  13. Mapping Spatio-Temporal Diffusion inside the Human Brain Using a Numerical Solution of the Diffusion Equation

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Wang; Jiang, Li; Loew, Murray; Yang, Yihong

    2008-01-01

    Diffusion is an important mechanism for molecular transport in living biological tissues. Diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) provides a unique probe to examine microscopic structures of the tissues in vivo, but current dMRI techniques usually ignore the spatio-temporal evolution process of the diffusive medium. In the present study, we demonstrate the feasibility to reveal the spatio-temporal diffusion process inside the human brain based on a numerical solution of the diffusion equation. Normal human subjects were scanned with a diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) technique on a 3-Tesla MRI scanner, and the diffusion tensor in each voxel was calculated from the DTI data. The diffusion equation, a partial-derivative description of Fick’s Law for the diffusion process, was discretized into equivalent algebraic equations. A finite-difference method was employed to obtain the numerical solution of the diffusion equation with a Crank-Nicholson iteration scheme to enhance the numerical stability. By specifying boundary and initial conditions, the spatio-temporal evolution of the diffusion process inside the brain can be virtually reconstructed. Our results exhibit similar medium profiles and diffusion coefficients as those of light fluorescence dextrans measured in integrative optical imaging experiments. The proposed method highlights the feasibility to non-invasively estimate the macroscopic diffusive transport time for a molecule in a given region of the brain. PMID:18440744

  14. Theoretical and experimental investigations of passive and ultrasound-enhanced transdermal drug delivery

    E-print Network

    Kushner, Joseph, IV

    2007-01-01

    In the initial investigation of this thesis, Fick's second law of diffusion was modified to describe both the transient, and the steady-state, transdermal transport of hydrophilic permeants through unbranched, aqueous pore ...

  15. Investigation of transient heat current from first principles using complex absorbing potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Zhizhou; Zhang, Lei; Xing, Yanxia; Wang, Jian

    2014-09-01

    We report on a first-principles investigation of transient heat current through molecular devices under steplike pulse of external and gate voltages. Using the nonequilibrium Green's function (NEGF) approach, an exact solution of transient heat current is obtained that goes beyond the wide-band limit. Combining with density-functional theory (DFT), we propose a time-dependent NEGF-DFT formalism to study the transient heat current under a steplike pulse for molecular devices from first principles. Anticipating the huge computational cost in the transient regime, we develop an algorithm to speed up the calculation using the complex absorbing potential (CAP). By adding the CAP to replace the Hamiltonian of leads, the effective self-energy of the Green's function becomes independent of energy, allowing analytic calculation of the triple integrations in the exact solution of transient heat current using the theorem of residue. With this linear scaling algorithm, the computational complexity is greatly reduced, and a first-principles calculation of transient heat current of molecular devices becomes possible. As an example, we apply our NEGF-DFT-CAP formalism for a molecular device, the Di-thiol benzene molecule connected by two semi-infinite aluminum leads, and we calculate the transient heat current under an upward gate voltage pulse. The enhancement of heat current is observed.

  16. Relativistic diffusion and heavy-ion collisions

    E-print Network

    Rajeev S. Bhalerao; Sourendu Gupta

    2009-02-24

    We study first and second order theories of relativistic diffusion coupled to hydrodynamics under the approximation, valid at mid-rapidity in the RHIC and LHC, that conserved number densities are much smaller than the entropy density. We identify experimentally accessible quantities of interest, and show that the first and second order theories may lead to radically different evolutions of these quantities. In the first order theory the memory of the initial state is almost completely washed out, whereas in the second order theory it is possible that freezeout occurs at a time when transient dynamics is still on, and the memory of the initial state remains. There are observational consequences which we touch upon. In the first order theory, and for initial conditions when the second order theory mimics the first order, one may be able to put a bound on the diffusion constant.

  17. Diffusion bonding aeroengine components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzpatrick, G. A.; Broughton, T.

    1988-10-01

    The use of diffusion bonding processes at Rolls-Royce for the manufacture of titanium-alloy aircraft engine components and structures is described. A liquid-phase diffusion bonding process called activated diffusion bonding has been developed for the manufacture of the hollow titanium wide chord fan blade. In addition, solid-state diffusion bonding is being used in the manufacture of hollow vane/blade airfoil constructions mainly in conjunction with superplastic forming and hot forming techniques.

  18. RELAP5-3D Transient Modelling for NGNP Integrated Plant

    SciTech Connect

    P. Sabharwall; N.A. Anderson

    2014-06-01

    The High-Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (HTGR) is designed with outlet temperatures ranging between 750°C and 800°C. These high outlet temperatures enhance the power production efficiency and facilitate a variety of industrial applications. The objective of this study is to understand the response of the primary system to potential transients in the secondary system. For this analysis, the transient condition originates in the Intermediate Heat Exchanger (IHX) or Steam Generator (SG) of the HTGR-integrated plant. The transients analysed are: a loss of pressure; loss of feedwater flow; inadvertent closure of main steam valve; decrease in returning gas temperature and heat load step change. The results show a large dependence on the negative reactivity added to the fuel as a function of increased temperature. The returning gas temperature decrease transient resulted in the highest fuel temperature (1361°C). Fuel temperature was shown to be less than the 1600°C fuel limit for each case analysed.

  19. Transient impulsive electronic Raman redistribution.

    PubMed

    Miyabe, S; Bucksbaum, P

    2015-04-10

    Resonant Raman excitation by ultrafast vacuum ultraviolet laser pulses is a powerful means to study electron dynamics in molecules, but experiments must contend with linear background ionization: frequencies high enough to reach resonant core-valence transitions will usually ionize all occupied orbitals as well, and the ionization cross sections are usually dominant. Here we show that attosecond pulses can induce a process, transient impulsive stimulated Raman scattering, which can overwhelm valence ionization. Calculations are performed for atomic sodium, but the principal is valid for many molecular systems. This approach opens the path for high-fidelity multidimensional spectroscopy with attosecond pulses. PMID:25910119

  20. Transient eddy current flow metering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forbriger, J.; Stefani, F.

    2015-10-01

    Measuring local velocities or entire flow rates in liquid metals or semiconductor melts is a notorious problem in many industrial applications, including metal casting and silicon crystal growth. We present a new variant of an old technique which relies on the continuous tracking of a flow-advected transient eddy current that is induced by a pulsed external magnetic field. This calibration-free method is validated by applying it to the velocity of a spinning disk made of aluminum. First tests at a rig with a flow of liquid GaInSn are also presented.

  1. foundations THE UNDERSTANDING OF THE DIFFUSION

    E-print Network

    Xie, Xiaoliang Sunney

    used the technique to capture deep-skin penetration by dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), a compound added OF THE PENETRATION PATHWAYS FOR THE DRUG DIFFUSION ENHANCER DMSO. Image courtesy of Chris Freudiger, Wei Min, and Brian Saar H O M E : F O U N D AT IO N S New label-free method tracks molecules and drugs in live cells

  2. Beating the Quality of JPEG 2000 with Anisotropic Diffusion

    E-print Network

    Beating the Quality of JPEG 2000 with Anisotropic Diffusion Christian Schmaltz, Joachim Weickert,weickert,bruhn}@mia.uni-saarland.de Abstract. Although widely used standards such as JPEG and JPEG 2000 exist in the literature, lossy image on edge-enhancing anisotropic diffusion can outperform JPEG for medium to high compression ratios when

  3. Diffusion of an ellipsoid in a quasi-2D bacterial suspension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Yi; Xu, Xinliang; Lai, Lipeng; Cheng, Xiang

    2015-03-01

    Enhanced translational diffusion of tracer particles in a suspension of micro-swimmers has been established as a distinct feature of active fluids. Here, instead of spherical tracers, we study the diffusion of ellipsoidal particles of various aspect ratios in a free-standing film of E. coli. Using high-speed digital video microscopy, we measured the mean-square displacements and calculated the translational and rotational diffusion coefficients of elliptical tracer particles. We found that both the translational and rotational diffusion of the particles are dramatically enhanced by the motion of bacteria. At low concentrations, this enhanced diffusion arises from random scatterings of bacteria, whereas at high concentrations it is attributed to the collective swarming of bacteria. Through a detailed analysis of the coupling between translational and rotational diffusion and theoretical modeling, we explored the origin of enhanced diffusion in translational and rotational degrees of freedom.

  4. Reduce Confusion about Diffusion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hebrank, Mary R.

    1997-01-01

    Presents activities that allow students to explore the fundamental but poorly understood concept of diffusion by appealing to their kinesthetic senses first, then challenging their analytical skills as they try to deduce the mathematical principle involved. Presents a computer simulation of diffusion and discusses diffusion's limitations and…

  5. Diffusion Strategy Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCutcheon, James R.; Sanders, John R.

    A methodology is presented for planning and managing the spread of educational innovations. The first portion of the guide develops a theoretical framework for diffusion which summarizes and capitalizes on the latest marketing and on the latest marketing and diffusion research findings. Major stages in the diffusion paradigm discussed include…

  6. Diffusion, dimensionality and noise in transcriptional regulation

    E-print Network

    Gasper Tkacik; William Bialek

    2007-12-12

    The precision of biochemical signaling is limited by randomness in the diffusive arrival of molecules at their targets. For proteins binding to the specific sites on the DNA and regulating transcription, the ability of the proteins to diffuse in one dimension by sliding along the length of the DNA, in addition to their diffusion in bulk solution, would seem to generate a larger target for DNA binding, consequently reducing the noise in the occupancy of the regulatory site. Here we show that this effect is largely cancelled by the enhanced temporal correlations in one dimensional diffusion. With realistic parameters, sliding along DNA has surprisingly little effect on the physical limits to the precision of transcriptional regulation.

  7. Mass flow in loop type coronal transients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anzer, U.; Poland, A. I.

    1979-01-01

    Coronal transients having characteristics of a well-defined loop structure are examined, particularly with respect to temporal changes in the density and mass per unit length along the loop over periods of several days after the initial eruption. Measurements of mass distributions as a function of time are presented for eight transients, and one particular transient with a fairly simple configuration is investigated in more detail. Theoretical calculations are combined with the masses and densities derived from the observations to obtain estimates of the material flow in the transients; this flow is modeled on the assumption that magnetic forces drive and confine the loop. The flow field is found to be diverging everywhere, indicating that the density decreases in time. It is inferred that the transient legs are approximately in hydrostatic equilibrium and that most of the mass of the transient is lost from the sun during the initial phase.

  8. Non-universal tracer diffusion in crowded media of non-inert obstacles

    E-print Network

    Surya K. Ghosh; Andrey G. Cherstvy; Ralf Metzler

    2014-12-23

    We study the diffusion of a tracer particle, which moves in continuum space between a lattice of excluded volume, immobile non-inert obstacles. In particular, we analyse how the strength of the tracer-obstacle interactions and the volume occupancy of the crowders alter the diffusive motion of the tracer. From the details of the partitioning of the tracer diffusion modes between trapping states when bound to obstacles and bulk diffusion, we examine the degree of localisation of the tracer in the lattice of crowders. We study the properties of the tracer diffusion in terms of the ensemble and time averaged mean squared displacements, the trapping time distributions, the amplitude variation of the time averaged mean squared displacements, and the non-Gaussianity parameter of the diffusing tracer. We conclude that tracer-obstacle adsorption and binding triggers a transient anomalous diffusion. From a very narrow spread of recorded individual time averaged trajectories we exclude continuous type random walk processes as the underlying physical model of the tracer diffusion in our system. For moderate tracer-crowder attraction the motion is found to be fully ergodic, while at stronger attraction strength a transient disparity between ensemble and time averaged mean squared displacements occurs. We also put our results into perspective with findings from experimental single-particle tracking and simulations of the diffusion of tagged tracers in dense crowded suspensions. Our results have implications for the diffusion, transport, and spreading of chemical components in highly crowded environments inside living cells and other structured liquids.

  9. Non-universal tracer diffusion in crowded media of non-inert obstacles.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Surya K; Cherstvy, Andrey G; Metzler, Ralf

    2015-01-21

    We study the diffusion of a tracer particle, which moves in continuum space between a lattice of excluded volume, immobile non-inert obstacles. In particular, we analyse how the strength of the tracer-obstacle interactions and the volume occupancy of the crowders alter the diffusive motion of the tracer. From the details of partitioning of the tracer diffusion modes between trapping states when bound to obstacles and bulk diffusion, we examine the degree of localisation of the tracer in the lattice of crowders. We study the properties of the tracer diffusion in terms of the ensemble and time averaged mean squared displacements, the trapping time distributions, the amplitude variation of the time averaged mean squared displacements, and the non-Gaussianity parameter of the diffusing tracer. We conclude that tracer-obstacle adsorption and binding triggers a transient anomalous diffusion. From a very narrow spread of recorded individual time averaged trajectories we exclude continuous type random walk processes as the underlying physical model of the tracer diffusion in our system. For moderate tracer-crowder attraction the motion is found to be fully ergodic, while at stronger attraction strength a transient disparity between ensemble and time averaged mean squared displacements occurs. We also put our results into perspective with findings from experimental single-particle tracking and simulations of the diffusion of tagged tracers in dense crowded suspensions. Our results have implications for the diffusion, transport, and spreading of chemical components in highly crowded environments inside living cells and other structured liquids. PMID:25474476

  10. Transient Mirror Heating Theory and Experiment in the Jefferson Lab IR Demo FEL

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, S.; Michelle D. Shinn.; Neil, G.R.

    2001-01-01

    During commissioning of the IR Demo FEL at Jefferson Lab, we noticed that the FEL exhibited a rapid power drop with time when the first set of 3 mu-m mirrors was used. Thought the rate of power drop was unexpected, it was thought that it could be due to a distortion of the mirrors during a time short compared to a the thermal diffusion time. This transient distortion might affect the laser more than the steady state distortion. This paper presents some analysis of the transient mirror heating problem and some recent experimental results using different mirror substrates and coatings. It is found that the behavior of the first mirror set cannot be reconciled with the observed power fall-off if a linear absorption is assumed. The power drop in more recent experiments is consistent with linear thermal analysis. No anomalous transient effects are seen.

  11. Transient spatiotemporal chaos in the Morris-Lecar neuronal ring network

    SciTech Connect

    Keplinger, Keegan Wackerbauer, Renate

    2014-03-15

    Transient behavior is thought to play an integral role in brain functionality. Numerical simulations of the firing activity of diffusively coupled, excitable Morris-Lecar neurons reveal transient spatiotemporal chaos in the parameter regime below the saddle-node on invariant circle bifurcation point. The neighborhood of the chaotic saddle is reached through perturbations of the rest state, in which few initially active neurons at an effective spatial distance can initiate spatiotemporal chaos. The system escapes from the neighborhood of the chaotic saddle to either the rest state or to a state of pulse propagation. The lifetime of the chaotic transients is manipulated in a statistical sense through a singular application of a synchronous perturbation to a group of neurons.

  12. Postseismic relaxation and transient creep

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Savage, J.C.; Svarc, J.L.; Yu, S.-B.

    2005-01-01

    Postseismic deformation has been observed in the epicentral area following the 1992 Landers (M = 7.3), 1999 Chi-Chi (M = 7.6), 1999 Hector Mine (M = 7.1), 2002 Denali (M = 7.9), 2003 San Simeon (M = 6.5), and 2004 Parkfield (M = 6.0) earthquakes. The observations consist of repeated GPS measurements of the position of one monument relative to another (separation ???100 km). The early observations (t < 0.1 year) are well fit by the function a' + c'log(t), where t is the time after the earthquake and a' and c' are constants chosen to fit the data. Because a log(t) time dependence is characteristic of transient (primary) creep, the early postseismic response may be governed by transient creep as Benioff proposed in 1951. That inference is provisional as the stress conditions prevailing in postseismic relaxation are not identical to the constant stress condition in creep experiments. The observed logarithmic time dependence includes no characteristic time that might aid in identifying the micromechanical cause.

  13. PRISMATIC CORE COUPLED TRANSIENT BENCHMARK

    SciTech Connect

    J. Ortensi; M.A. Pope; G. Strydom; R.S. Sen; M.D. DeHart; H.D. Gougar; C. Ellis; A. Baxter; V. Seker; T.J. Downar; K. Vierow; K. Ivanov

    2011-06-01

    The Prismatic Modular Reactor (PMR) is one of the High Temperature Reactor (HTR) design concepts that have existed for some time. Several prismatic units have operated in the world (DRAGON, Fort St. Vrain, Peach Bottom) and one unit is still in operation (HTTR). The deterministic neutronics and thermal-fluids transient analysis tools and methods currently available for the design and analysis of PMRs have lagged behind the state of the art compared to LWR reactor technologies. This has motivated the development of more accurate and efficient tools for the design and safety evaluations of the PMR. In addition to the work invested in new methods, it is essential to develop appropriate benchmarks to verify and validate the new methods in computer codes. The purpose of this benchmark is to establish a well-defined problem, based on a common given set of data, to compare methods and tools in core simulation and thermal hydraulics analysis with a specific focus on transient events. The benchmark-working group is currently seeking OECD/NEA sponsorship. This benchmark is being pursued and is heavily based on the success of the PBMR-400 exercise.

  14. Initial Transient in Zn-doped InSb Grown in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostrogorsky, A G.; Marin, C.; Volz, M.; Duffar, T.

    2009-01-01

    Three Zn-doped InSb crystals were directionally solidified under microgravity conditions at the International Space Station (ISS) Alpha. The distribution of the Zn was measured using SIMS. A short diffusion-controlled transient, typical for systems with k greater than 1 was demonstrated. Static pressure of approximately 4000 N/m2 was imposed on the melt, to prevent bubble formation and dewetting. Still, partial de-wetting has occurred in one experiment, and apparently has disturbed the diffusive transport of Zn in the melt.

  15. Titanium diffusion in olivine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherniak, Daniele J.; Liang, Yan

    2014-12-01

    Diffusion of Ti has been characterized in natural olivine and synthetic forsterite. Experiments on the natural olivines were run under buffered conditions (IW and NNO), and those on synthetic forsterite were run in air. Titanium diffusion appears relatively insensitive to crystallographic orientation and oxygen fugacity under the range of investigated conditions, and diffusivities are similar for Fe-bearing olivine and forsterite. For Ti diffusion in synthetic forsterite, we obtain the following Arrhenius relation for diffusion over the temperature range 900-1400 °C:

  16. Spectroscopic Classifications of Optical Transients with SOAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foley, R. J.; Hounsell, R. A.; Downing, S.; Pan, Y.-C.; Scolnic, D.; Jha, S. W.; Rest, A.; Smith, K. W.; Wright, D.; Smartt, S. J.; Huber, M.; Chambers, K. C.; Flewelling, H.; Willman, M.; Primak, N.; Schultz, A.; Gibson, B.; Magnier, E.; Waters, C.; Tonry, J.; Wainscoat, R. J.

    2015-07-01

    We report the following classifications of optical transients from spectroscopic observations with the Goodman spectrograph (wavelength range 3100 - 7100) on the Southern Astrophysical Research (SOAR) telescope.

  17. Subtleties of capacitance transients in amorphous silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Crandall, R.S.; Lips, K.

    1996-12-31

    Using junction capacitance methods, the authors describe the effect of contacts on charge emission transients in n-type hydrogenated amorphous silicon. The results demonstrate some of the difficulties encountered in observing and interpreting anomalous temperature independent emission transients (slow relaxation). In this paper, the authors present additional data and reconcile the absence of anomalous emission transients in some cases with a discussion of the dynamics of depletion width filling. The authors show that the transient capacitance response of Schottky structure is not only related to the contact configuration but is connected to the rate of charge injection into the depletion region.

  18. Potent stimulation of gene expression by histone deacetylase inhibitors on transiently transfected DNA.

    PubMed

    Nan, Xinsheng; Hyndman, Laura; Agbi, Nike; Porteous, David J; Boyd, A Christopher

    2004-11-01

    Transcription activity of chromatin is associated with histone acetylation which is regulated by recruitment of histone acetyltransferases and deacetylases (HDAC) to specific chromatin regions. We have tested how expression of a transfected or stably introduced gene correlates with histone acetylation. Our results demonstrate that expression of transiently transfected green fluorescence protein (GFP) genes is significantly enhanced by HDAC inhibitors. Although HDAC treatment did not induce noticeable changes in the chromatin structure of genomic DNA, chromatin immunoprecipitation showed that more transiently transfected DNA is assembled into chromatin containing acetylated histones in HDAC inhibitor treated cells when compared to untreated cells. For stably integrated GFP, the expression response to HDAC inhibitors varies between independent stable cell lines. However, there was no difference in histone acetylation associated with the integrated transgene between HDAC inhibitor responsive and non-responsive cells. Furthermore, the overall enhancement of transgene expression by HDAC inhibitors was not as pronounced as in transiently transfected cells. PMID:15465025

  19. Cages and anomalous diffusion in vibrated dense granular media

    E-print Network

    Camille Scalliet; Andrea Gnoli; Andrea Puglisi; Angelo Vulpiani

    2015-04-28

    A vertically shaken granular medium hosts a blade rotating around a fixed vertical axis, which acts as a mesorheological probe. At high densities, independently from the shaking intensity, the blade's dynamics show strong caging effects, marked by transient sub-diffusion and a maximum in the velocity power density spectrum (vpds), at a resonant frequency $\\sim 10$ Hz. Interpreting the data through a diffusing harmonic cage model allows us to retrieve the elastic constant of the granular medium and its collective diffusion coefficient. For high frequencies $f$, a tail $\\sim 1/f$ in the vpds reveals non-trivial correlations in the intra-cage micro-dynamics. At very long times (larger than $10$ s), a super-diffusive behavior emerges, ballistic in the most extreme cases. Consistently, the distribution of slow velocity inversion times $\\tau$ displays a power-law decay, likely due to persistent collective fluctuations of the host medium.

  20. Intrinsic Diffusion Coefficient of Interstitial Copper in Silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Istratov, A.A.; Flink, C.; Hieslmair, H.; Weber, E.R.; Heiser, T.

    1998-08-01

    Transient ion drift experiments designed to obtain reliable values for the intrinsic copper diffusivity in silicon are reported. From these measurements, the diffusion barrier of Cu in Si is determined to be 0.18{plus_minus}0.01 eV . It is shown that the commonly used expression of Hall and Racette [J.thinspthinspAppl.thinspthinspPhys.thinspthinsp{bold 35}, 379 (1964)] actually gives an effective diffusion coefficient for heavily boron-doped silicon and can neither be used for other doping levels nor extrapolated to lower temperatures. A model is developed which predicts the effective diffusion coefficient as a function of temperature, doping level, and the type of dopant. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  1. Reduction of soot emissions by iron pentacarbonyl in isooctane diffusion flames

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, K.B.; Masiello, K.A.; Hahn, D.W.

    2008-07-15

    Light-scattering measurements, in situ laser-induced fluorescence, and thermophoretic sampling with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis, were performed in laboratory isooctane diffusion flames seeded with 4000 ppm iron pentacarbonyl. These measurements allowed the determination of the evolution of the size, number density, and volume fraction of soot particles through the flame. Comparison to unseeded flame data provided a detailed assessment of the effects of iron addition on soot particle inception, growth, and oxidation processes. Iron was found to produce a minor soot-enhancing effect at early residence times, while subsequent soot particle growth was largely unaffected. It is concluded that primarily elemental iron is incorporated within the soot particles during particle inception and growth. However, iron addition was found to enhance the rate of soot oxidation during the soot burnout regime, yielding a two-thirds reduction in overall soot emissions. In situ spectroscopic measurements probed the transient nature of elemental iron throughout the flame, revealing significant loss of elemental iron, presumably to iron oxides, with increasing flame residence, suggesting catalysis of soot oxidation via iron oxide species. (author)

  2. Determination of Coal Permeability Using Pressure Transient Methods

    SciTech Connect

    McLendon, T.R.; Siriwardane, H.; Haljasmaa, I.V.; Bromhal, G.S.; Soong, Y.; Irdi, G.A.

    2007-05-01

    Coalbed methane is a significant natural resource in the Appalachian region. It is believed that coalbed methane production can be enhanced by injection of carbon dioxide into coalbeds. However, the influence of carbon dioxide injection on coal permeability is not yet well understood. Competitive sorption of carbon dioxide and methane gases onto coal is a known process. Laboratory experiments and limited field experience indicate that coal will swell during sorption of a gas and shrink during desorption of a gas. The swelling and shrinkage may change the permeability of the coal. In this study, the permeability of coal was determined by using carbon dioxide as the flowing fluid. Coal samples with different dimensions were prepared for laboratory permeability tests. Carbon dioxide was injected into the coal and the permeability was determined by using pressure transient methods. The confining pressure was variedto cover a wide range of depths. The permeability was also determined as a function of exposure time of carbon dioxide while the confining stress was kept constant. CT scans were taken before and after the introduction of carbon dioxide. Results show that the porosity and permeability of the coal matrix was very low. The paper presents experimental data and theoretical aspects of the flow of carbon dioxide through a coal sample during pressure transient tests. The suitability of the pressure transient methods for determining permeability of coal during carbon dioxide injection is discussed in the paper.

  3. CONTROL OF TRANSIENT INCINERATOR EMISSIONS WITH AN OXYGEN BASED COMBUSTION SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The subject of this paper is the experience with a novel and field-proven method for the enhanced control of transient emissions from rotary kiln incinerators using oxygen enrichment. hen high-BTU content wastes are fed into rotary kiln incinerators in an intermittent mode (typic...

  4. Transient Plasticity of Hippocampal CA1 Neuron Glutamate Receptors Contributes to Benzodiazepine

    E-print Network

    Abraham, Nader G.

    Transient Plasticity of Hippocampal CA1 Neuron Glutamate Receptors Contributes to Benzodiazepine-week oral administration of the benzodiazepine (BZ), flurazepam (FZP) is associated with enhanced AMPA that the distinct clinical effects of benzodiazepines (BZs) are mediated by the contributions of different GABAA

  5. Analytical Study of Gravity Effects on Laminar Diffusion Flames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edelman, R. B.; Fortune, O.; Weilerstein, G.

    1972-01-01

    A mathematical model is presented for the description of axisymmetric laminar-jet diffusion flames. The analysis includes the effects of inertia, viscosity, diffusion, gravity and combustion. These mechanisms are coupled in a boundary layer type formulation and solutions are obtained by an explicit finite difference technique. A dimensional analysis shows that the maximum flame width radius, velocity and thermodynamic state characterize the flame structure. Comparisons with experimental data showed excellent agreement for normal gravity flames and fair agreement for steady state low Reynolds number zero gravity flames. Kinetics effects and radiation are shown to be the primary mechanisms responsible for this discrepancy. Additional factors are discussed including elipticity and transient effects.

  6. Reactor dependent starting transients of doping profiles in MOVPE grown GaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köhler, K.; Gutt, R.; Müller, S.; Wiegert, J.; Menner, H. P.; Kirste, L.; Protzmann, H.; Heuken, M.

    2011-04-01

    The quality of heterostructures greatly depends on the accurate placement of dopants. However, doping transients remain as drawback in vapor-phase epitaxy. In this work starting transients of doping profiles of Si and Mg in GaN layers grown by low pressure metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy (MOVPE) on sapphire have been investigated. Here we restrict the investigation to concentrations typically used for electrical or electro-optical devices which are in the range of 2×10 17 cm -3 to 1×10 19 cm -3 for Si and 3×10 19 cm -3 to 1×10 20 cm -3 for Mg. In the case of Mg possible diffusion was excluded by growing the doped layers at a lower growth temperature, far too low for device structures, where the profiles show essentially no sign of Mg back-diffusion. In the case of lower Si concentrations we did not observe diffusion at usual growth temperatures. The profiles were measured by secondary ion mass spectrometry. By comparing the transients from two different reactor types we show and quantitatively explain the influence of adsorption at the internal surfaces of the reactor on the dopant incorporation.

  7. Diffusion in confined geometries.

    PubMed

    Burada, P Sekhar; Hänggi, Peter; Marchesoni, Fabio; Schmid, Gerhard; Talkner, Peter

    2009-01-12

    Diffusive transport of particles or, more generally, small objects, is a ubiquitous feature of physical and chemical reaction systems. In configurations containing confining walls or constrictions, transport is controlled both by the fluctuation statistics of the jittering objects and the phase space available to their dynamics. Consequently, the study of transport at the macro- and nanoscales must address both Brownian motion and entropic effects. Herein we report on recent advances in the theoretical and numerical investigation of stochastic transport occurring either in microsized geometries of varying cross sections or in narrow channels wherein the diffusing particles are hindered from passing each other (single-file diffusion). For particles undergoing biased diffusion in static suspension media enclosed by confining geometries, transport exhibits intriguing features such as 1) a decrease in nonlinear mobility with increasing temperature or also 2) a broad excess peak of the effective diffusion above the free diffusion limit. These paradoxical aspects can be understood in terms of entropic contributions resulting from the restricted dynamics in phase space. If, in addition, the suspension medium is subjected to external, time-dependent forcing, rectification or segregation of the diffusing Brownian particles becomes possible. Likewise, the diffusion in very narrow, spatially modulated channels is modified via contact particle-particle interactions, which induce anomalous sub-diffusion. The effective sub-diffusion constant for a driven single file also develops a resonance-like structure as a function of the confining coupling constant. PMID:19025741

  8. Transient Dendritic Solidification Experiment (TDSE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The Transient Dendritic Solidification Expepriment (TDSE) is being developed as a candidate for flight aboard the International Space Station. TDSE will study the growth of dendrites (treelike crystalline structures) in a transparent material (succinonitrile or SCN) that mimics the behavior of widely used iron-based metals. Basic work by three Space Shuttle missions of the Isothermal Dendritic Growth Expepriment (IDGE) is yielding new insights into virtually all industrially relevant metal and alloy forming operations. The TDSE is similar to IDGE, but will maintain a constant temperature while varying pressure on the dendrites. Shown here is an exploded view of major elements of TDSE. A similar view is available with labels. The principal investigator is Matthew Koss of College of the Holy Cross in Worcester, MA. Photo credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC)

  9. Transient Dendritic Solidification Experiment (TDSE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The Transient Dendritic Solidification Experiment (TDSE) is being developed as a candidate for flight aboard the International Space Station. TDSE will study the growth of dendrites (treelike crystalline structures) in a transparent material (succinonitrile or SCN) that mimics the behavior or widely used iron-based metals. Basic work by three Space Shuttle missions of the Isothermal Dendritic Growth Experiment (IDGE) is yielding new insights into virtually all industrially relevant metal and alloy forming operations. The TDSE is similar to IDGE, but will maintain a constant temperature while varying pressure on the dendrites. Shown here is an exploded view of major elements of the TDSE. A similar view is availble without labels. The principal investigator is Matthew Koss of College of the Holy Cross in Worcester, MA. Photo credit: NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC)

  10. Adaptation to transient postural perturbations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andres, Robert O.

    1992-01-01

    This research was first proposed in May, 1986, to focus on some of the problems encountered in the analysis of postural responses gathered from crewmembers. The ultimate driving force behind this line of research was the desire to treat, predict, or explain 'Space Adaptation Syndrome' (SAS) and hence circumvent any adverse effects of space motion sickness on crewmember performance. The aim of this project was to develop an easily implemented analysis of the transient responses to platform translation that can be elicited with a protocol designed to force sensorimotor reorganization, utilizing statistically reliable criterion measures. This report will present: (1) a summary of the activity that took place in each of the three funded years of the project; (2) discussion of experimental results and their implications for future research; and (3) a list of presentations and publications resulting from this project.

  11. Quantitative microdialysis under transient conditions.

    PubMed

    Olson, R J; Justice, J B

    1993-04-15

    A microdialysis method is described which allows for the quantitative determination of extracellular analyte concentration under transient conditions. The method provides the extracellular concentration and the in vivo probe recovery as a function of time. The technique is based on the method for steady-state conditions but differs in the use of a between-group rather than a within-group design. Following cocaine and amphetamine administration, a significantly greater increase in extracellular DA was found than was estimated from the dialysate using conventional microdialysis methods. The discrepancy is due to microdialysis probe recovery decreasing concurrently with the increase observed in extracellular DA following cocaine and amphetamine injections. The method estimates the extracellular concentration independently of any changes in recovery. PMID:8494171

  12. Novel effective fuzzy diffusion algorithm for noise removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yingtao; Cheng, Heng-Da; Huang, Jianhua; Tang, Xianglong

    2010-12-01

    Anisotropic diffusion is widely used for noise reduction. The performance of anisotropic diffusion, in general, depends on the shape of the energy surface. The partial differential equation model is established and analyzed in the continuous domain while is implemented in the discrete domain. Therefore, the anisotropic diffusion bears some fuzziness due to the approximation. We present a novel noise removal algorithm based on fuzzy logic and anisotropic diffusion theory. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method has the advantage of maximizing noise reduction and preserving fine details of the images. In addition, the method can enhance the contrast of the images well.

  13. Transient protein-protein interactions visualized by solution NMR.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhu; Gong, Zhou; Dong, Xu; Tang, Chun

    2016-01-01

    Proteins interact with each other to establish their identities in cell. The affinities for the interactions span more than ten orders of magnitude, and KD values in ?M-mM regimen are considered transient and are important in cell signaling. Solution NMR including diamagnetic and paramagnetic techniques has enabled atomic-resolution depictions of transient protein-protein interactions. Diamagnetic NMR allows characterization of protein complexes with KD values up to several mM, whereas ultraweak and fleeting complexes can be modeled with the use of paramagnetic NMR especially paramagnetic relaxation enhancement (PRE). When tackling ever-larger protein complexes, PRE can be particularly useful in providing long-range intermolecular distance restraints. As NMR measurements are averaged over the ensemble of complex structures, structural information for dynamic protein-protein interactions besides the stereospecific one can often be extracted. Herein the protein interaction dynamics are exemplified by encounter complexes, alternative binding modes, and coupled binding/folding of intrinsically disordered proteins. Further integration of NMR with other biophysical techniques should allow better visualization of transient protein-protein interactions. In particular, single-molecule data may facilitate the interpretation of ensemble-averaged NMR data. Though same structures of proteins and protein complexes were found in cell as in diluted solution, we anticipate that the dynamics of transient protein protein-protein interactions be different, which awaits awaits exploration by NMR. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Physiological Enzymology and Protein Functions. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Physiological Enzymology and Protein Functions. PMID:25896389

  14. Experimental study of vortex diffusers

    SciTech Connect

    Shakerin, S.; Miller, P.L.

    1995-11-01

    This report documents experimental research performed on vortex diffusers used in ventilation and air-conditioning systems. The main objectives of the research were (1) to study the flow characteristics of isothermal jets issuing from vortex diffusers, (2) to compare the vortex diffuser`s performance with that of a conventional diffuser, and (3) to prepare a report that disseminates the results to the designers of ventilation and air-conditioning systems. The researchers considered three diffusers: a conventional round ceiling diffuser and two different styles of vortex diffusers. Overall, the vortex diffusers create slightly more induction of ambient air in comparison to the conventional diffuser.

  15. Diffusion-limited interaction of dislocation loops and interstitials during dry oxidation in silicon

    E-print Network

    Florida, University of

    Diffusion-limited interaction of dislocation loops and interstitials during dry oxidation reduction of OED (oxidation enhanced diffusion) of boron in a buried layer due to very efficient interstitial capturing action of dislocation loops, suggesting diffusion-limited dislocation loop growth

  16. Current status of the Explosive Transient Camera. [automated sky survey instument sensitive to optical transients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanderspek, Roland; Doty, John P.; Ricker, George R.

    1992-01-01

    The current configuration and performance of the Explosive Transient Camera (ETC), a wide-field sky monitor capable of detecting short-timescale optical transients, are briefly reviewed, as are plans for future improvements. The primary objective of the ETC is to detect an optical transient that is spatially and temporally coincident with a gamma-ray burster. However, the ETC is sensitive to all sources of short-timescale optical transients and will conduct a systematic survey of the night sky for all optical transients. Results of preliminary observations of the night sky conducted since January 1991 are summarized, and long-term variability searches with the ETC are discussed.

  17. Analysis of tracer and thermal transients during reinjection

    SciTech Connect

    Kocabas, I.

    1989-10-01

    This work studied tracer and thermal transients during reinjection in geothermal reserviors and developed a new technique which combines the results from interwell tracer tests and thermal injection-backflow tests to estimate the thermal breakthrough times. Tracer tests are essential to determine the degree of connectivity between the injection wells and the producing wells. To analyze the tracer return profiles quantitatively, we employed three mathematical models namely, the convection-dispersion (CD) model, matrix diffusion (MD) model, and the Avodnin (AD) model, which were developed to study tracer and heat transport in a single vertical fracture. We considered three types of tracer tests namely, interwell tracer tests without recirculation, interwell tracer tests with recirculation, and injection-backflow tracer tests. To estimate the model parameters, we used a nonlinear regression program to match tracer return profiles to the solutions.

  18. Diffusion in Solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahnström, Göran

    A knowledge of diffusion in solids is necessary in order to describe the kinetics of various solid state reactions such as phase transformations, creep, annealing, precipitation, oxidation, corrosion, etc., all fundamental processes in materials science. There are two main approaches to diffusion in solids [1-5]: (i) the atomistic approach, where the atomic nature of the diffusing entities is explicitly considered; and (ii) the continuum approach, where the diffusing entities are treated as a continuous medium and the atomic nature of the diffusion process is ignored. Many useful results and general relations can be obtained within the continuum approach, but a more complete picture is obtained if the atomic motions are considered. Macroscopic quantities, such as diffusion fluxes, can then be related to microscopic quantities, such as atomic jump frequencies. Knowledge of how atoms move in solids is also intimately connected with the study of defects in solids.

  19. Two dimensional, transient catalytic combustion of CO-air on platinum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinha, N.; Bruno, C.; Bracco, F. V.

    1985-01-01

    The light off transient of catalytic combustion of lean CO-air mixtures in a platinum coated channel of a honeycomb monolith is studied with a model that resolves transient radial and axial gradients in both the gas and the solid. For the conditions studied it is concluded that: the initial heat release occurs near the entrance at the gas-solid interface and is controlled by heterogeneous reactions; large spatial and temporal temperature gradients occur in the solid near the entrance controlled mostly by the availability of fuel; the temperature of the solid near the entrance achieves almost its steady state value before significant heating of the back; heterogeneous reactions and the gas heated up front and flowing downstream heat the back of the solid; the overall transient time is controlled by the thermal inertia of the solid and by forced convection; radiation significantly influences both transient and steady state particularly near the entrance; the oxidation of CO occurs mostly on the catalyst and becomes diffusion controlled soon into the transient.

  20. Direct and diffuse light propagation through coral tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wangpraseurt, Daniel; Kühl, Michael

    2014-02-01

    This study describes the propagation of direct and diffuse light through coral tissue and how changes in the directional quality of light affect photosynthesis. Scalar irradiance microsensors were used in vivo to measure tissue light propagation of incident collimated and diffuse irradiance. O2 microsensors were used to estimate changes in local O2 evolution. The results show that the directional quality of incident irradiance affects both coral optics and photosynthesis. Collimated irradiance is enhanced at the coral surface while diffuse irradiance is enhanced at the coral skeleton. Coral O2 evolution is enhanced under collimated compared to diffuse light. It is concluded that the directional quality of light is an important and hitherto ignored parameter in coral photosynthesis.

  1. Analytical solutions to matrix diffusion problems

    SciTech Connect

    Kekäläinen, Pekka

    2014-10-06

    We report an analytical method to solve in a few cases of practical interest the equations which have traditionally been proposed for the matrix diffusion problem. In matrix diffusion, elements dissolved in ground water can penetrate the porous rock surronuding the advective flow paths. In the context of radioactive waste repositories this phenomenon provides a mechanism by which the area of rock surface in contact with advecting elements is greatly enhanced, and can thus be an important delay mechanism. The cases solved are relevant for laboratory as well for in situ experiments. Solutions are given as integral representations well suited for easy numerical solution.

  2. Transient effects in the interaction between polypyrrole and methanol vapor

    SciTech Connect

    Topart, P.; Josowicz, M.

    1992-10-15

    A quantitative study of the room temperature transient behavior of polypyrrole thin films containing tosylate and tetrafluoroborate anions exposed to methanol vapor was carried out. Both films had the same doping level. Changes of mass, work function, and optical absorbance were recorded simultaneously. A Langmuir-type isotherm fits adequately the experimental data. The dependence of the equilibrium vapor uptake on the polymer film thickness proves that a bulk absorption occurs. The linear dependence of the change in work function on the concentration of molecules present in the film indicates that a weak change-transfer interaction is taking place. The authors demonstrate that the sorption is the driving force of the interaction which is affected by the nature of the counteranion incorporated in the polymer matrix. As a result, the rate constants of the mass transients for the absorption and desorption processes are found to increase with the amount of vapor in the film. Owing to the weak interaction between the small sized vapor molecules and the network solid, the diffusion occurs instantly so the adsorption appears to be the rate-limiting process. 20 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Nonlinear Transient Thermal Analysis by the Force-Derivative Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balakrishnan, Narayani V.; Hou, Gene

    1997-01-01

    High-speed vehicles such as the Space Shuttle Orbiter must withstand severe aerodynamic heating during reentry through the atmosphere. The Shuttle skin and substructure are constructed primarily of aluminum, which must be protected during reentry with a thermal protection system (TPS) from being overheated beyond the allowable temperature limit, so that the structural integrity is maintained for subsequent flights. High-temperature reusable surface insulation (HRSI), a popular choice of passive insulation system, typically absorbs the incoming radiative or convective heat at its surface and then re-radiates most of it to the atmosphere while conducting the smallest amount possible to the structure by virtue of its low diffusivity. In order to ensure a successful thermal performance of the Shuttle under a prescribed reentry flight profile, a preflight reentry heating thermal analysis of the Shuttle must be done. The surface temperature profile, the transient response of the HRSI interior, and the structural temperatures are all required to evaluate the functioning of the HRSI. Transient temperature distributions which identify the regions of high temperature gradients, are also required to compute the thermal loads for a structural thermal stress analysis. Furthermore, a nonlinear analysis is necessary to account for the temperature-dependent thermal properties of the HRSI as well as to model radiation losses.

  4. Analysis of Alongwind Tall Building Response to Transient Nonstationary Winds

    E-print Network

    Chen, Xinzhong

    Analysis of Alongwind Tall Building Response to Transient Nonstationary Winds Xinzhong Chen1 Abstract: Transient nonstationary extreme winds such as thunderstorm downbursts are responsible tall building response to transient nonstationary winds based on nonstationary random vibration theory

  5. Optimal arrangements of fiber optic probes to enhance the spatial resolution in depth for 3D reflectance diffuse optical tomography with time-resolved measurements performed with fast-gated single-photon avalanche diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puszka, Agathe; Di Sieno, Laura; Dalla Mora, Alberto; Pifferi, Antonio; Contini, Davide; Boso, Gianluca; Tosi, Alberto; Hervé, Lionel; Planat-Chrétien, Anne; Koenig, Anne; Dinten, Jean-Marc

    2014-02-01

    Fiber optic probes with a width limited to a few centimeters can enable diffuse optical tomography (DOT) in intern organs like the prostate or facilitate the measurements on extern organs like the breast or the brain. We have recently shown on 2D tomographic images that time-resolved measurements with a large dynamic range obtained with fast-gated single-photon avalanche diodes (SPADs) could push forward the imaged depth range in a diffusive medium at short source-detector separation compared with conventional non-gated approaches. In this work, we confirm these performances with the first 3D tomographic images reconstructed with such a setup and processed with the Mellin- Laplace transform. More precisely, we investigate the performance of hand-held probes with short interfiber distances in terms of spatial resolution and specifically demonstrate the interest of having a compact probe design featuring small source-detector separations. We compare the spatial resolution obtained with two probes having the same design but different scale factors, the first one featuring only interfiber distances of 15 mm and the second one, 10 mm. We evaluate experimentally the spatial resolution obtained with each probe on the setup with fast-gated SPADs for optical phantoms featuring two absorbing inclusions positioned at different depths and conclude on the potential of short source-detector separations for DOT.

  6. Inference of protein diffusion probed via fluorescence correlation spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsekouras, Konstantinos

    2015-03-01

    Fluctuations are an inherent part of single molecule or few particle biophysical data sets. Traditionally, ``noise'' fluctuations have been viewed as a nuisance, to be eliminated or minimized. Here we look on how statistical inference methods - that take explicit advantage of fluctuations - have allowed us to draw an unexpected picture of single molecule diffusional dynamics. Our focus is on the diffusion of proteins probed using fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS). First, we discuss how - in collaboration with the Bustamante and Marqusee labs at UC Berkeley - we determined using FCS data that individual enzymes are perturbed by self-generated catalytic heat (Riedel et al, Nature, 2014). Using the tools of inference, we found how distributions of enzyme diffusion coefficients shift in the presence of substrate revealing that enzymes performing highly exothermic reactions dissipate heat by transiently accelerating their center of mass following a catalytic reaction. Next, when molecules diffuse in the cell nucleus they often appear to diffuse anomalously. We analyze FCS data - in collaboration with Rich Day at the IU Med School - to propose a simple model for transcription factor binding-unbinding in the nucleus to show that it may give rise to apparent anomalous diffusion. Here inference methods extract entire binding affinity distributions for the diffusing transcription factors, allowing us to precisely characterize their interactions with different components of the nuclear environment. From this analysis, we draw key mechanistic insight that goes beyond what is possible by simply fitting data to ``anomalous diffusion'' models.

  7. Modulation of transient receptor vanilloid 1 activity by transient receptor potential ankyrin 1.

    PubMed

    Spahn, Viola; Stein, Christoph; Zöllner, Christian

    2014-02-01

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is a nonselective ligand-gated cation channel responding to noxious heat, protons, and chemicals such as capsaicin. TRPV1 is expressed in sensory neurons and plays a critical role in pain associated with tissue injury, inflammation, and nerve lesions. Transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) is coexpressed with TRPV1. It is activated by compounds that cause a burning sensation (e.g., mustard oil) and, indirectly, by components of the inflammatory milieu eliciting nociceptor excitation and pain hypersensitivity. Previous studies indicate an interaction of TRPV1 and TRPA1 signaling pathways. Here we sought to examine the molecular mechanisms underlying such interactions in nociceptive neurons. We first excluded physical interactions of both channels using radioligand binding studies. By microfluorimetry, electrophysiological experiments, cAMP measurements, and site-directed mutagenesis we found a sensitization of TRPV1 after TRPA1 stimulation with mustard oil in a calcium and cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA)-dependent manner. TRPA1 stimulation enhanced TRPV1 phosphorylation via the putative PKA phosphorylation site serine 116. We also detected calcium-sensitive increased TRPV1 activity after TRPA1 activation in dorsal root ganglion neurons. The inhibition of TRPA1 by HC-030031 (1,2,3,6-tetrahydro-1,3-dimethyl-N-[4-(1-methylethyl)phenyl]-2,6-dioxo-7H-purine-7-acetamide, 2-(1,3-dimethyl-2,6-dioxo-1,2,3,6-tetrahydro-7H-purin-7-yl)-N-(4-isopropylphenyl)acetamide) after its initial stimulation (and the calcium-insensitive TRPA1 mutant D477A) still showed increased capsaicin-induced TRPV1 activity. This excludes a calcium-induced additive TRPA1 current after TRPV1 stimulation. Our study shows sensitization of TRPV1 via activation of TRPA1, which involves adenylyl cyclase, increased cAMP, subsequent translocation and activation of PKA, and phosphorylation of TRPV1 at PKA phosphorylation residues. This suggests that cross-sensitization of TRP channels contributes to enhanced pain sensitivity in inflamed tissues. PMID:24275229

  8. Diffusion of n-type dopants in germanium

    SciTech Connect

    Chroneos, A.; Bracht, H.

    2014-03-15

    Germanium is being actively considered by the semiconductor community as a mainstream material for nanoelectronic applications. Germanium has advantageous materials properties; however, its dopant-defect interactions are less understood as compared to the mainstream material, silicon. The understanding of self- and dopant diffusion is essential to form well defined doped regions. Although p-type dopants such as boron exhibit limited diffusion, n-type dopants such as phosphorous, arsenic, and antimony diffuse quickly via vacancy-mediated diffusion mechanisms. In the present review, we mainly focus on the impact of intrinsic defects on the diffusion mechanisms of donor atoms and point defect engineering strategies to restrain donor atom diffusion and to enhance their electrical activation.

  9. Apparatus Characterizes Transient Voltages in Real Time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Medelius, Pedro

    2005-01-01

    The figure shows a prototype of a relatively inexpensive electronic monitoring apparatus that measures and records selected parameters of lightning-induced transient voltages on communication and power cables. The selected parameters, listed below, are those most relevant to the ability of lightning-induced transients to damage electronic equipment. This apparatus bridges a gap between some traditional transient-voltage recorders that record complete waveforms and other traditional transient-voltage recorders that record only peak values: By recording the most relevant parameters and only those parameters this apparatus yields more useful information than does a traditional peak-value (only) recorder while imposing much smaller data-storage and data-transmission burdens than does a traditional complete-waveform recorder. Also, relative to a complete-waveform recorder, this apparatus is more reliable and can be built at lower cost because it contains fewer electronic components. The transients generated by sources other than lightning tend to have frequency components well below 1 MHz. Most commercial transient recorders can detect and record such transients, but cannot respond rapidly enough for recording lightning-induced transient voltage peaks, which can rise from 10 to 90 percent of maximum amplitude in a fraction of a microsecond. Moreover, commercial transient recorders cannot rearm themselves rapidly enough to respond to the multiple transients that occur within milliseconds of each other on some lightning strikes. One transient recorder, designed for Kennedy Space Center earlier [ Fast Transient-Voltage Recorder (KSC- 11991), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 23, No. 10, page 6a (October 1999)], is capable of sampling transient voltages at peak values up to 50 V in four channels at a rate of 20 MHz. That recorder contains a trigger circuit that continuously compares the amplitudes of the signals on four channels to a preset triggering threshold. When a trigger signal is received, a volatile memory is filled with data for a total time of 200 ms. After the data are transferred to nonvolatile memory, the recorder rearms itself within 400 ms to enable recording of subsequent transients. Unfortunately, the recorded data must be retrieved through a serial communication link. Depending on the amount of data recorded, the memory can be filled before retrieval is completed. Although large amounts of data are recorded and retrieved, only a small part of the information (the selected parameters) is usually required. The present transient-voltage recorder provides the required information, without incurring the overhead associated with the recording, storage, and retrieval of complete transient-waveform data. In operation, this apparatus processes transient voltage waveforms in real time to extract and record the selected parameters. An analog-to-digital converter that operates at a speed of as much as 100 mega-samples per second is used to sample a transient waveform. A real-time comparator and peak detector are implemented by use of fast field-programmable gate arrays.

  10. An Oscillating Boundary Temperature Method for the Determination of Transient Thermal Conductivity and Internal Heat Generation with a Comparison to a Transient Hot-Wire Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chirdon, William M.; Patil, Abhijeet P.

    2011-10-01

    An oscillating boundary temperature (OBT) method is proposed to simultaneously determine transient thermal properties including thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, internal heat generation, and volumetric heat capacity for exothermic solids and semi-solids over a narrow, controlled temperature range by using internal temperature measurements of the thermal wave. A comparison of this method and a transient hot-wire (THW) method is conducted in the presence of heat generation using physical properties which change over time. The advantages and disadvantages of both methods are discussed. The OBT method is potentially useful for the analysis of exothermic solid or semi-solid materials such as hydrating (freshly mixed) cement and concrete, polymers and composites undergoing polymerization reactions, and biological tissues.

  11. Cosmology with matter diffusion

    SciTech Connect

    Calogero, Simone; Velten, Hermano E-mail: velten@cce.ufes.br

    2013-11-01

    We construct a viable cosmological model based on velocity diffusion of matter particles. In order to ensure the conservation of the total energy-momentum tensor in the presence of diffusion, we include a cosmological scalar field ? which we identify with the dark energy component of the universe. The model is characterized by only one new degree of freedom, the diffusion parameter ?. The standard ?CDM model can be recovered by setting ? = 0. If diffusion takes place (? > 0) the dynamics of the matter and of the dark energy fields are coupled. We argue that the existence of a diffusion mechanism in the universe may serve as a theoretical motivation for interacting models. We constrain the background dynamics of the diffusion model with Supernovae, H(z) and BAO data. We also perform a perturbative analysis of this model in order to understand structure formation in the universe. We calculate the impact of diffusion both on the CMB spectrum, with particular attention to the integrated Sachs-Wolfe signal, and on the matter power spectrum P(k). The latter analysis places strong constraints on the magnitude of the diffusion mechanism but does not rule out the model.

  12. Phantom for Diffusion MRI

    Cancer.gov

    Combining a Diffusion MRI phantom with a resolution phantom would allow the same device to be used to calibrate an MR scanner''s image quality and the accuracy and precision of its diffusion measurements. This would be useful particularly for Radiological QA and for use in assuring data quality in longitudinal and multi-subject studies.

  13. Investigating Diffusion with Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Jon S.; Windelborn, Augden F.

    2013-01-01

    The activities described here allow students to explore the concept of diffusion with the use of common equipment such as computers, webcams and analysis software. The procedure includes taking a series of digital pictures of a container of water with a webcam as a dye slowly diffuses. At known time points, measurements of the pixel densities…

  14. Anatomy of Particle Diffusion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bringuier, E.

    2009-01-01

    The paper analyses particle diffusion from a thermodynamic standpoint. The main goal of the paper is to highlight the conceptual connection between particle diffusion, which belongs to non-equilibrium statistical physics, and mechanics, which deals with particle motion, at the level of third-year university courses. We start out from the fact…

  15. POET: POlarimeters for Energetic Transients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, J. E.; McConnell, M. L.; Bloser, P.; Legere, J.; Macri, J.; Ryan, J.; Barthelmy, S.; Angelini, L.; Sakamoto, T.; Black, J. K.; Hartmann, D. H.; Kaaret, P.; Zhang, B.; Ioka, K.; Nakamura, T.; Toma, K.; Yamazaki, R.; Wu, X.

    2008-01-01

    POET (Polarimeters for Energetic Transients) is a Small Explorer mission concept proposed to NASA in January 2008. The principal scientific goal of POET is to measure GRB polarization between 2 and 500 keV. The payload consists of two wide FoV instruments: a Low Energy Polarimeter (LEP) capable of polarization measurements in the energy range from 2-15 keV and a high energy polarimeter (Gamma-Ray Polarimeter Experiment - GRAPE) that will measure polarization in the 60-500 keV energy range. Spectra will be measured from 2 keV up to 1 MeV. The POET spacecraft provides a zenith-pointed platform for maximizing the exposure to deep space. Spacecraft rotation will provide a means of effectively dealing with systematics in the polarization response. POET will provide sufficient sensitivity and sky coverage to measure statistically significant polarization for up to 100 GRBs in a two-year mission. Polarization data will also be obtained for solar flares, pulsars and other sources of astronomical interest.

  16. Transient spirals as superposed instabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Sellwood, J. A.; Carlberg, R. G. E-mail: carlberg@astro.utoronto.ca

    2014-04-20

    We present evidence that recurrent spiral activity, long manifested in simulations of disk galaxies, results from the superposition of a few transient spiral modes. Each mode lasts between 5 and 10 rotations at its corotation radius where its amplitude is greatest. The scattering of stars as each wave decays takes place over narrow ranges of angular momentum, causing abrupt changes to the impedance of the disk to subsequent traveling waves. Partial reflections of waves at these newly created features allows new standing-wave instabilities to appear that saturate and decay in their turn, scattering particles at new locations, creating a recurring cycle. The spiral activity causes the general level of random motion to rise, gradually decreasing the ability of the disk to support further activity unless the disk contains a dissipative gas component from which stars form on near-circular orbits. We also show that this interpretation is consistent with the behavior reported in other recent simulations with low-mass disks.

  17. Transient Spirals as Superposed Instabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sellwood, J. A.; Carlberg, R. G.

    2014-04-01

    We present evidence that recurrent spiral activity, long manifested in simulations of disk galaxies, results from the superposition of a few transient spiral modes. Each mode lasts between 5 and 10 rotations at its corotation radius where its amplitude is greatest. The scattering of stars as each wave decays takes place over narrow ranges of angular momentum, causing abrupt changes to the impedance of the disk to subsequent traveling waves. Partial reflections of waves at these newly created features allows new standing-wave instabilities to appear that saturate and decay in their turn, scattering particles at new locations, creating a recurring cycle. The spiral activity causes the general level of random motion to rise, gradually decreasing the ability of the disk to support further activity unless the disk contains a dissipative gas component from which stars form on near-circular orbits. We also show that this interpretation is consistent with the behavior reported in other recent simulations with low-mass disks.

  18. Transient liquid phase ceramic bonding

    DOEpatents

    Glaeser, Andreas M. (Berkeley, CA)

    1994-01-01

    Ceramics are joined to themselves or to metals using a transient liquid phase method employing three layers, one of which is a refractory metal, ceramic or alloy. The refractory layer is placed between two metal layers, each of which has a lower melting point than the refractory layer. The three layers are pressed between the two articles to be bonded to form an assembly. The assembly is heated to a bonding temperature at which the refractory layer remains solid, but the two metal layers melt to form a liquid. The refractory layer reacts with the surrounding liquid and a single solid bonding layer is eventually formed. The layers may be designed to react completely with each other and form refractory intermetallic bonding layers. Impurities incorporated into the refractory metal may react with the metal layers to form refractory compounds. Another method for joining ceramic articles employs a ceramic interlayer sandwiched between two metal layers. In alternative embodiments, the metal layers may include sublayers. A method is also provided for joining two ceramic articles using a single interlayer. An alternate bonding method provides a refractory-metal oxide interlayer placed adjacent to a strong oxide former. Aluminum or aluminum alloys are joined together using metal interlayers.

  19. Transient shocks beyond the heliopause

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fermo, R. L.; Pogorelov, N. V.; Burlaga, L. F.

    2015-09-01

    The heliopause is a rich, dynamic surface affected by the time-dependent solar wind. Stream interactions due to coronal mass ejections (CMEs), corotating interaction regions (CIRs), and other transient phenomena are known to merge producing global merged interaction regions (GMIRs). Numerical simulations of the solar wind interaction with the local interstellar medium (LISM) show that GMIRs, as well other time-dependent structures in the solar wind, may produce compression/rarefaction waves and shocks in the LISM behind the heliopause. These shocks may initiate wave activity observed by the Voyager spacecraft. The magnetometer onboard Voyager 1 indeed observed a few structures that may be interpreted as shocks. We present numerical simulations of such shocks in the year of 2000, when both Voyager spacecraft were in the supersonic solar wind region, and in 2012, when Voyager 1 observed traveling shocks. In the former case, Voyager observations themselves provide time- dependent boundary conditions in the solar wind. In the latter case, we use OMNI data at 1 AU to analyze the plasma and magnetic field behavior after Voyager 1 crossed the heliospheric boundary. Numerical results are compared with spacecraft observations.

  20. Transient response of the Hadley Centre coupled ocean-atmosphere model to increasing carbon dioxide. Part 3: Analysis of global-mean response using simple models

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, J.M.

    1995-03-01

    The roles of surface, atmospheric, and oceanic feedbacks in controlling the global-mean transient response of a coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation model (AOGCM) to increasing carbon dioxide are investigated. The analysis employs a four-box energy balance model (EBM) and an oceanic box-diffusion model (BDM) both tuned to the simulated general circulation model response. The land-sea contrast in the surface warming is explained almost entirely by the shortwave radiative feedbacks associated with changes in cloud and surface albedo. The oceanic thermal inertia delays the response; however, the initial delay is enhanced by increases in Anarctic sea-ice cover, which substantially reduce the effective climate sensitivity of the model in the first half of the 75-year experiment. When driven by the observed anthropogenic greenhouse forcing from the pre-industrial period to present day, the energy balance model overestimates the warming observed over land. However, inclusion of the direct forcing due to anthropogenic tropospheric sulphate aerosol eliminates the land/sea contrast in the response at 1990, leaving the simulated warming over land slightly below the observed value, although the rapid warming observed during the 1980s is well reproduced. The vertical penetration of the oceanic response is small below 1000 m. Within the top 1000 m the effective diffusivities are substantially enhanced by reduced convection and thermohaline overturning, driven by increased precipitation minus evaporation at high latitudes. These changes in ocean heat transport become significant after year 30, whereupon the effective oceanic heat capacity increases substantially, although this increase is partially offset by the effect of changes in the sea-ice margin.