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1

Complete suppression of boron transient-enhanced diffusion and oxidation-enhanced diffusion in silicon using localized substitutional carbon incorporation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this letter, we show the ability, through introduction of a thin Si1-x-yGexCy layer, to eliminate the enhancement of enhanced boron diffusion in silicon due to an oxidizing surface or ion implant damage. This reduction of diffusion is accomplished through a low-temperature-grown thin epitaxial Si1-x-yGexCy layer which completely filters out excess interstitials introduced by oxidation or ion implant damage. We also quantify the oxidation-enhanced diffusion (OED) and transient-enhanced diffusion (TED) dependence on substitutional carbon level, and further report both the observation of carbon TED and OED, and its dependence on carbon levels.

Carroll, M. S.; Chang, C.-L.; Sturm, J. C.; Büyüklimanli, T.

1998-12-01

2

Phosphorous transient enhanced diffusion suppression and activation enhancement with cluster carbon co-implantation  

SciTech Connect

Carbon co-implantation is well known as an effective method for suppressing boron/phosphorous transient enhanced diffusion (TED). Germanium pre-amorphization implantation (PAI) is usually applied prior to carbon co-implantation for suppressing channeling tail of dopants. In this study, cluster carbon was applied instead of the combination of germanium PAI and monomer carbon co-implantation prior to phosphorous implantation. Dependence of phosphorous activation and TED on amorphous layer thickness, carbon dose, carbon distribution and substrate temperature have been investigated. Cluster carbon implantation enables thick amorphous layer formation and TED suppression at the same time and low temperature implantation enhances the ability of amorphous layer formation so that shallow junction and low Rs can be achieved without Ge implantation.

Nakashima, Yoshiki; Hamamoto, Nariaki; Nagayama, Tsutomu; Koga, Yuji; Umisedo, Sei; Kawamura, Yasunori; Hashimoto, Masahiro; Onoda, Hiroshi [Nissin Ion Equipment Co., Ltd., 575 Kuze Tonoshiro-cho, Minami-ku, Kyoto, 601-8205 (Japan)

2012-11-06

3

Simulation of Dopant Redistribution During Gate Oxidation Including Transient-Enhanced Diffusion Caused by Implantation Damage  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Dopant redistribution during gate oxidation in metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) fabrication processes has been studied by secondary-ion mass spectrometry (SIMS). In the first set of experiments, dopant profiles after gate oxidation are measured and compared to those after N2 annealing. From the measured profiles, the contribution of oxidation-enhanced diffusion (OED) to the entire dopant redistribution is determined and an OED model parameter is calibrated. In the second set of experiments, samples which are subjected only to wafer loading and unloading steps are prepared and dopant profiles are measured. From the measured profiles, the magnitude of transient-enhanced diffusion (TED) which occurs during the wafer loading step is estimated and an interstitial-clustering parameter is calibrated. The parameters calibrated in this study are combined with the point-defect parameters taken from the literature, and dopant redistribution during the entire gate oxidation cycle is simulated. Calculated dopant profiles agree well with the measured SIMS profiles and show correct time dependence of TED and OED, as observed in the present experiments. In the simulations, interstitial concentration at the oxidizing Si/SiO2 interface is found to be 40 times the equilibrium concentration. The supersaturation caused by surface oxidation is small and the contribution of OED is negligible under typical gate oxidation conditions where oxide thickness is less than 100 \\AA@. Dopant profiles after gate oxidation are mainly dominated by TED@. However, as oxidation proceeds, the contribution of OED increases because it continues while TED almost ends in the wafer loading step of gate oxidation. Segregation of boron in the channel region is also studied. It is found that a greater amount of boron is lost in oxidation than in N2 annealing. The effect of segregation on device characteristics is not negligible for buried-channel PMOS devices, because the threshold voltage of the devices is sensitive to the change in the amount of boron.

Uchida, Tetsuya; Eikyu, Katsumi; Tsukuda, Eiji; Fujinaga, Masato; Teramoto, Akinobu; Yamashita, Tomohiro; Kunikiyo, Tatsuya; Ishikawa, Kiyoshi; Kotani, Norihiko; Kawazu, Satoru; Hamaguchi, Chihiro; Nishimura, Tadashi

2000-05-01

4

Prediction of boron transient enhanced diffusion through the atom-by-atom modeling of extended defects  

Microsoft Academic Search

The modeling of the atom-by-atom growth of extended defects is coupled to the diffusion equations of boron by transferring the free interstitial supersaturation calculated with a defect model into a process simulator. Two methods to achieve this coupling (equilibrium method and fully coupled method, respectively) are presented and tested against a variety of experimental conditions. They are first applied to

E. Lampin; F. Cristiano; Y. Lamrani; A. Claverie; B. Colombeau; N. E. B. Cowern

2003-01-01

5

Acoustic Enhancement of Surface Diffusion Chengping Wu,  

E-print Network

Acoustic Enhancement of Surface Diffusion Chengping Wu, Vladimir Yu. Zaitsev,, and Leonid V, Russia *S Supporting Information ABSTRACT: The idea of acoustic activation of surface diffusion by surface acoustic waves is possible via (1) transient surface strain- induced modification of the diffusion

Zhigilei, Leonid V.

6

Enhanced diffusion welding  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Surfaces of unrecrystallized alloys are sanded and polished. This is followed by a two-step welding process by which the strength of the parent metal is retained at the weld joint. The first step forces the surfaces into intimate contact at a temperature where the metal still has good ductility. The second step causes diffusion, recrystallization, and grain growth across the original weld interface.

Holko, K. H.; Moore, T. J. (inventors)

1973-01-01

7

Boride-enhanced diffusion in silicon: Bulk and surface layers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epitaxial silicon boride layers, located at the surface or within the bulk of single-crystal silicon, give rise to enhanced diffusion of B during annealing. A submonolayer buried boride layer releases ~0.4 interstitials per B atom in the layer, generating a transient diffusion enhancement in the range of 10-100 for several minutes at 900 °C. The resulting profile broadening is comparable

N. E. B. Cowern; M. J. J. Theunissen; F. Roozeboom; J. G. M. van Berkum

1999-01-01

8

Boride-enhanced diffusion in silicon: Bulk and surface layers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epitaxial silicon boride layers, located at the surface or within the bulk of single-crystal silicon, give rise to enhanced diffusion of B during annealing. A submonolayer buried boride layer releases ≈0.4 interstitials per B atom in the layer, generating a transient diffusion enhancement in the range of 10–100 for several minutes at 900 °C. The resulting profile broadening is comparable

N. E. B. Cowern; M. J. J. Theunissen; F. Roozeboom; J. G. M. van Berkum

1999-01-01

9

Cavity-Enhanced Ultrafast Transient Absorption Spectroscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce cavity enhanced ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy, which employs frequency combs and high-finesse optical cavities. % The schematic of apparatus is shown in Figure 1. Sub-100 fs pulses with a repetition rate of 90 MHz are generated by a home-built Ytterbium fiber laser. The amplified light has a power up to 10 W, which is used to pump an optical parametric oscillator, followed by second-harmonic generation(SHG) that converts the wavelength from near-IR to visible. A pump comb at 530 nm is separately generated by SHG. Both pump and probe combs are coupled into high-finesse cavities. Compared to the conventional transient absorption spectroscopy method, the detection sensitivity can be improved by a factor of (F/?)^2 ˜ 10^5, where F is the finesse of cavity. This ultrasensitive technology enables the direct all-optical dynamics study in molecular beams. We will apply the cavity enhanced ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy to investigate the dynamics of visible chromophores and then extend the wavelength to mid-IR to study vibrational dynamics of small hydrogen-bonded clusters.

Chen, Yuning; Reber, Melanie Roberts; Keleher, Kevin; Allison, Thomas K.

2014-06-01

10

Pore-scale modeling of transient and steady-state vapor diffusion in partially-saturated porous media  

SciTech Connect

Vapor diffusion in porous media in the presence of its own liquid may be enhanced due to pore-scale processes, such as condensation and evaporation across isolated liquid islands. Webb and Ho (1997) developed a mechanistic pore-scale model of these processes under steady-state conditions in which condensation and evaporation on the liquid island were equal. The vapor diffusion rate was significantly enhanced by these liquid island processes by up to an order of magnitude compared to a dry porous media. However, vapor transport by diffusion is often complicated by transient effects, such as in drying applications, in which net evaporation of liquid may further augment the vapor flux from diffusion. The influence of transient effects on the enhancement factors for vapor diffusion is evaluated in this paper. In addition, the effect of vapor pressure lowering on the enhancement factor and on porescale vapor fluxes is shown.

Webb, S.W.

1998-05-01

11

Wave Enhancement of Diffusivities within Surficial Sediments  

Microsoft Academic Search

The enhancement of solute diffusivities within coastal surficial sediments as a result of wave action is examined. Fluctuating pressure gradients associated with passing waves cause interstitial water motions leading to enhanced diffusivities through the mechanism of shear dispersion. Wave amplification of diffusivities is likely to be greatest for waves of period ~10 s, in shallow water, over a bottom of

Ian T. Webster

2003-01-01

12

Modelling of transient heat conduction with diffuse interface methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a survey on different numerical interpolation schemes used for two-phase transient heat conduction problems in the context of interface capturing phase-field methods. Examples are general transport problems in the context of diffuse interface methods with a non-equal heat conductivity in normal and tangential directions to the interface. We extend the tonsorial approach recently published by Nicoli M et al (2011 Phys. Rev. E 84 1–6) to the general three-dimensional (3D) transient evolution equations. Validations for one-dimensional, two-dimensional and 3D transient test cases are provided, and the results are in good agreement with analytical and numerical reference solutions.

Ettrich, J.; Choudhury, A.; Tschukin, O.; Schoof, E.; August, A.; Nestler, B.

2014-12-01

13

Enhancing Rotational Diffusion Using Oscillatory Shear  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Taylor dispersion—shear-induced enhancement of translational diffusion—is an important phenomenon with applications ranging from pharmacology to geology. Through experiments and simulations, we show that rotational diffusion is also enhanced for anisotropic particles in oscillatory shear. This enhancement arises from variations in the particle’s rotation (Jeffery orbit) and depends on the strain amplitude, rate, and particle aspect ratio in a manner that is distinct from the translational diffusion. This separate tunability of translational and rotational diffusion opens the door to new techniques for controlling positions and orientations of suspended anisotropic colloids.

Leahy, Brian D.; Cheng, Xiang; Ong, Desmond C.; Liddell-Watson, Chekesha; Cohen, Itai

2013-05-01

14

Electric field dependence of transient electron longitudinal and transverse diffusion coefficients in rare-gas moderators  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transient behaviour of the longitudinal and transverse diffusion coefficients of electrons in rare-gas moderators is studied with solutions of the Boltzmann equation. The method of solution employed is the discrete ordinate method employed in an earlier study of the transient behaviour of the energy, transverse diffusion coefficient and mobility for both zero electric field and finite field conditions. The

D. R. A. McMahon; K. Ness; B. Shizgal

1986-01-01

15

Can disorder enhance incoherent exciton diffusion?  

E-print Network

Recent experiments aimed at probing the dynamics of excitons have revealed that semiconducting films composed of disordered molecular subunits, unlike expectations for their perfectly ordered counterparts, can exhibit a time-dependent diffusivity in which the effective early time diffusion constant is larger than that of the steady state. This observation has led to speculation about what role, if any, microscopic disorder may play in enhancing exciton transport properties. In this article, we present the results of a model study aimed at addressing this point. Specifically, we present a general model, based upon F\\"orster theory, for incoherent exciton diffusion in a material composed of independent molecular subunits with static energetic disorder. Energetic disorder leads to heterogeneity in molecule-to-molecule transition rates which we demonstrate has two important consequences related to exciton transport. First, the distribution of local site-specific diffusivity is broadened in a manner that results i...

Lee, Elizabeth M Y; Willard, Adam P

2015-01-01

16

Enhancement of diffusive transport in oscillatory flows  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The theory of transport of passive scalars in oscillatory flows is reexamined. The differences between transport in standing and traveling waves are emphasized. Both Lagrangian and Eulerian diffusivities are calculated, and the conditions for their applicability are discussed. Numerical simulations are conducted to understand the expulsion of gradients from time-dependent eddies and the resulting transport. The results indicate that it is the Eulerian diffusivity that is of primary relevance for describing enhanced transport on spatial scales larger than that of the eddies.

Knobloch, E.; Merryfield, W. J.

1992-01-01

17

Thermal diffusivity measurements in organic liquids using transient thermal lens calorimetry  

E-print Network

Thermal diffusivity measurements in organic liquids using transient thermal lens calorimetry C. V thermal lens technique. The 532 nm pulses from a frequency doubled Q-switched Nd:YAG laser are used determination of the character- istic time constant of the transient thermal lens signal is verified theoreti

Harilal, S. S.

18

Enhancing Mixing and Diffusion with Plastic Flow  

E-print Network

We use numerical simulations to examine two-dimensional particle mixtures that strongly phase separate in equilibrium. When the system is externally driven in the presence of quenched disorder, plastic flow occurs in the form of meandering and strongly mixing channels. In some cases this can produce a fast and complete mixing of previously segregated particle species, as well as an enhancement of transverse diffusion even in the absence of thermal fluctuations. We map the mixing phase diagram as a function of external driving and quenched disorder parameters.

A. Libal; C. Reichhardt; C. J. Olson Reichhardt

2007-06-18

19

Picomolar amyloid-? peptides enhance spontaneous astrocyte calcium transients.  

PubMed

Amyloid-? (A?) peptides are constitutively produced in the brain throughout life via mechanisms that can be regulated by synaptic activity. Although A? has been extensively studied as the pathological plaque-forming protein species in Alzheimer's disease (AD), little is known about the normal physiological function(s) and signaling pathway(s). We previously discovered that physiologically-relevant, low picomolar amounts of A? can enhance synaptic plasticity and hippocampal-dependent cognition in mice. In this study, we demonstrated that astrocytes are cellular candidates for participating in this type of A? signaling. Using calcium imaging of primary astrocyte cultures, we observed that picomolar amounts of A? peptides can enhance spontaneous intracellular calcium transient signaling. After application of 200 pM A?42 peptides, the frequency and amplitude averages of spontaneous cytosolic calcium transients were significantly increased. These effects were dependent on ?7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (?7-nAChRs), as the enhancement effects were blocked by a pharmacological ?7-nAChR inhibitor and in astrocytes from an ?7 deficient mouse strain. We additionally examined evoked intercellular calcium wave signaling but did not detect significant picomolar A?-induced alterations in propagation parameters. Overall, these results indicate that at a physiologically-relevant low picomolar concentration, A? peptides can enhance spontaneous astrocyte calcium transient signaling via ?7-nAChRs. Since astrocyte-mediated gliotransmission has been previously found to have neuromodulatory roles, A? peptides may have a normal physiological function in regulating neuron-glia signaling. Dysfunction of this signaling process may underlie glia-based aspects of AD pathogenesis. PMID:23948929

Lee, Linda; Kosuri, Pallav; Arancio, Ottavio

2014-01-01

20

Picomolar Amyloid-? Peptides Enhance Spontaneous Astrocyte Calcium Transients  

PubMed Central

Amyloid-? (A?) peptides are constitutively produced in the brain throughout life via mechanisms that can be regulated by synaptic activity. Although A? has been extensively studied as the pathological plaque-forming protein species in Alzheimer’s disease (AD), little is known about the normal physiological function(s) and signaling pathway(s). We previously discovered that physiologically-relevant, low picomolar amounts of A? can enhance synaptic plasticity and hippocampal-dependent cognition in mice. In this study, we demonstrated that astrocytes are cellular candidates for participating in this type of A? signaling. Using calcium imaging of primary astrocyte cultures, we observed that picomolar amounts of A? peptides can enhance spontaneous intracellular calcium transient signaling. After application of 200 pM A?42 peptides, the frequency and amplitude averages of spontaneous cytosolic calcium transients were significantly increased. These effects were dependent on ?7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (?7-nAChRs), as the enhancement effects were blocked by a pharmacological ?7-nAChR inhibitor and in astrocytes from an ?7 deficient mouse strain. We additionally examined evoked intercellular calcium wave signaling but did not detect significant picomolar A?-induced alterations in propagation parameters. Overall, these results indicate that at a physiologically-relevant low picomolar concentration, A? peptides can enhance spontaneous astrocyte calcium transient signaling via ?7-nAChRs. Since astrocyte-mediated gliotransmission has been previously found to have neuromodulatory roles, A? peptides may have a normal physiological function in regulating neuron-glia signaling. Dysfunction of this signaling process may underlie glia-based aspects of AD pathogenesis. PMID:23948929

Lee, Linda; Kosuri, Pallav; Arancio, Ottavio

2014-01-01

21

Transient model of an intermediate surge system for the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant  

SciTech Connect

Engineering design work (Reference 1) is underway for intermediate surge systems to be added to the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) cascade as part of the Process Inventory Control System (PICS) project. These systems would be located between 000 buildings and lower half 00 buildings and would remove or add inventory during cascade transients in order to protect cascade compressors from overload and surge. Similar systems were operated in the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant cascade and are operated in the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant cascade. A steady state flow analysis of the system to be installed at the PGDP has been made. The flow analysis did not address response of the surge system to the cascade transients, nor did it address automatic control of the system. The need to address these issues prompted development of the transient model described in this report. 2 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

Beard, B.; Blankenship, J.G.; McGrady, P.W.

1989-09-01

22

ENHANCED SEVERE TRANSIENT ANALYSIS FOR PREVENTION TECHNICAL PROGRAM PLAN  

SciTech Connect

This document outlines the development of a high fidelity, best estimate nuclear power plant severe transient simulation capability that will complement or enhance the integral system codes historically used for licensing and analysis of severe accidents. As with other tools in the Risk Informed Safety Margin Characterization (RISMC) Toolkit, the ultimate user of Enhanced Severe Transient Analysis and Prevention (ESTAP) capability is the plant decision-maker; the deliverable to that customer is a modern, simulation-based safety analysis capability, applicable to a much broader class of safety issues than is traditional Light Water Reactor (LWR) licensing analysis. Currently, the RISMC pathway’s major emphasis is placed on developing RELAP-7, a next-generation safety analysis code, and on showing how to use RELAP-7 to analyze margin from a modern point of view: that is, by characterizing margin in terms of the probabilistic spectra of the “loads” applied to systems, structures, and components (SSCs), and the “capacity” of those SSCs to resist those loads without failing. The first objective of the ESTAP task, and the focus of one task of this effort, is to augment RELAP-7 analyses with user-selected multi-dimensional, multi-phase models of specific plant components to simulate complex phenomena that may lead to, or exacerbate, severe transients and core damage. Such phenomena include: coolant crossflow between PWR assemblies during a severe reactivity transient, stratified single or two-phase coolant flow in primary coolant piping, inhomogeneous mixing of emergency coolant water or boric acid with hot primary coolant, and water hammer. These are well-documented phenomena associated with plant transients but that are generally not captured in system codes. They are, however, generally limited to specific components, structures, and operating conditions. The second ESTAP task is to similarly augment a severe (post-core damage) accident integral analyses code with high fidelity simulations that would allow investigation of multi-dimensional, multi-phase containment phenomena that are only treated approximately in established codes.

Gougar, Hans [Idaho National Laboratory

2014-09-01

23

Pressure TRansients and Crossflow Caused by Diffusivities In Multilayer Reservoirs  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers single-phase unsteady flow in a system of homogeneous layers separated by thin, low-permeability shales, and having interlayer crossflow caused by different diffusivities for different layers. The model considers all layers open to a single well that flows at a constant total rate. Numerical simulations of the problem for the semipermeable-wall model are used to find the structure

Gao Cheng-Tai; H. A. Deans

1988-01-01

24

Transient spatiotemporal chaos in a diffusively and synaptically coupled Morris-Lecar neuronal network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transient spatiotemporal chaos was reported in models for chemical reactions and in experiments for turbulence in shear flow. This study shows that transient spatiotemporal chaos also exists in a diffusively coupled Morris-Lecar (ML) neuronal network, with a collapse to either a global rest state or to a state of pulse propagation. Adding synaptic coupling to this network reduces the average lifetime of spatiotemporal chaos for small to intermediate coupling strengths and almost all numbers of synapses. For large coupling strengths, close to the threshold of excitation, the average lifetime increases beyond the value for only diffusive coupling, and the collapse to the rest state dominates over the collapse to a traveling pulse state. The regime of spatiotemporal chaos is characterized by a slightly increasing Lyapunov exponent and degree of phase coherence as the number of synaptic links increases. In contrast to the diffusive network, the pulse solution must not be asymptotic in the presence of synapses. The fact that chaos could be transient in higher dimensional systems, such as the one being explored in this study, point to its presence in every day life. Transient spatiotemporal chaos in a network of coupled neurons and the associated chaotic saddle provide a possibility for switching between metastable states observed in information processing and brain function. Such transient dynamics have been observed experimentally by Mazor, when stimulating projection neurons in the locust antennal lobe with different odors.

Lafranceschina, Jacopo

25

Stability of the SUPG Finite Element Method for Transient Advection-Diffusion Problems  

E-print Network

Stability of the SUPG Finite Element Method for Transient Advection-Diffusion Problems Pavel B coupled with SUPG discretization in space leads to addi- tional terms that provide consistency and improve of the SUPG method. While consistent with a straightforward finite element stability analysis, this contention

Bochev, Pavel

26

Spectral diffusion in organic glasses. Temperature dependence of permanent and transient holes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spectral diffusion of the S 1?S 0 0—0 transition (Q y) of bacteriochlorophyll a (BChl a) as guest in the glasses ethanol (EtOH), triethylamine (TEA), 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (MTHF) and diethylether at low temperature has been studied by transient and permanent hole burning with a single-mode GaAlAs diode laser at ? 780 nm. Transient holes decay on a time scale of about 100 ms, determined by the triplet-state lifetime of BChl a. Their widths are compared to those of permanent holes probed on a time scale of minutes; both follow a T1.3±0.1 temperature dependence between 1.2 and 4.2 K and extrapolate to the fluorescence lifetime-limited value for T?0. The amount of spectral diffusion, derived from the difference in width of permanent and transient holes over a time span between ? 10 -5 and ?10 2 s, strongly depends on the glassy host.

Wannemacher, R.; Koedijk, J. M. A.; Völker, S.

1993-04-01

27

Transient anomalous diffusion of telomeres in the nucleus of mammalian cells.  

PubMed

We measured individual trajectories of fluorescently labeled telomeres in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells in the time range of 10(-2)-10(4)sec by combining a few acquisition methods. At short times the motion is subdiffusive with r2 approximately talpha and it changes to normal diffusion at longer times. The short times diffusion may be explained by the reptation model and the transient diffusion is consistent with a model of telomeres that are subject to a local binding mechanism with a wide but finite distribution of waiting times. These findings have important biological implications with respect to the genome organization in the nucleus. PMID:19659180

Bronstein, I; Israel, Y; Kepten, E; Mai, S; Shav-Tal, Y; Barkai, E; Garini, Y

2009-07-01

28

Investigation of phosphorus transient diffusion in silicon below the solid solubility limit and at a low implant energy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transient diffusion of ion-implanted phosphorus under nonoxidizing conditions is studied for P doses of 7 x 10(exp 13) and 1 x 10(exp 15) cm(exp -2) at 20 keV. The annealing steps (rapid thermal anneal (RTA) or furnace anneal (FA)) are carried out in an N2 ambient at 950 or 1050 C. A 'kink' is observed in secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) profiles for both RTA and FA runs. A significant enhanced diffusion is observed in the concentration regime below the kink. In addition, from the SIMS profiles it appears that phosphorus atoms in the surface region tend to pile up at the SiO2/Si interface. Phosphorus diffusion is modeled using a previously reported empirical model for boron and arsenic diffusion. Activation energies and other model coefficients have been fit based on the RTA data only, and then applied to both RTA and FA diffusions. The long preannealing cycle in FA runs has been accounted for in simulations. A comparison of simulations, SIMS, SRP, and electrical measurements shows that phosphorus concentration above the kink (i.e., phosphorus pileup) is immobile. Further, phosphorus pileup appears to be active in the high dose samples, but inactive in the low dose ones. This deactivation is believed to be due to the formation of some type of phosphorus-vacancy complex in the vacancy-rich region at the surface.

Soleimani, Hamid R.

1994-08-01

29

Anomalous diffusion process applied to magnetic resonance image enhancement.  

PubMed

Diffusion process is widely applied to digital image enhancement both directly introducing diffusion equation as in anisotropic diffusion (AD) filter, and indirectly by convolution as in Gaussian filter. Anomalous diffusion process (ADP), given by a nonlinear relationship in diffusion equation and characterized by an anomalous parameters q, is supposed to be consistent with inhomogeneous media. Although classic diffusion process is widely studied and effective in various image settings, the effectiveness of ADP as an image enhancement is still unknown. In this paper we proposed the anomalous diffusion filters in both isotropic (IAD) and anisotropic (AAD) forms for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) enhancement. Filters based on discrete implementation of anomalous diffusion were applied to noisy MRI T2w images (brain, chest and abdominal) in order to quantify SNR gains estimating the performance for the proposed anomalous filter when realistic noise is added to those images. Results show that for images containing complex structures, e.g. brain structures, anomalous diffusion presents the highest enhancements when compared to classical diffusion approach. Furthermore, ADP presented a more effective enhancement for images containing Rayleigh and Gaussian noise. Anomalous filters showed an ability to preserve anatomic edges and a SNR improvement of 26% for brain images, compared to classical filter. In addition, AAD and IAD filters showed optimum results for noise distributions that appear on extreme situations on MRI, i.e. in low SNR images with approximate Rayleigh noise distribution, and for high SNR images with Gaussian or non central ? noise distributions. AAD and IAD filter showed the best results for the parametric range 1.2 < q < 1.6, suggesting that the anomalous diffusion regime is more suitable for MRI. This study indicates the proposed anomalous filters as promising approaches in qualitative and quantitative MRI enhancement. PMID:25716129

da S Senra Filho, A C; Garrido Salmon, C E; Murta Junior, L O

2015-03-21

30

Anomalous diffusion process applied to magnetic resonance image enhancement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diffusion process is widely applied to digital image enhancement both directly introducing diffusion equation as in anisotropic diffusion (AD) filter, and indirectly by convolution as in Gaussian filter. Anomalous diffusion process (ADP), given by a nonlinear relationship in diffusion equation and characterized by an anomalous parameters q, is supposed to be consistent with inhomogeneous media. Although classic diffusion process is widely studied and effective in various image settings, the effectiveness of ADP as an image enhancement is still unknown. In this paper we proposed the anomalous diffusion filters in both isotropic (IAD) and anisotropic (AAD) forms for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) enhancement. Filters based on discrete implementation of anomalous diffusion were applied to noisy MRI T2w images (brain, chest and abdominal) in order to quantify SNR gains estimating the performance for the proposed anomalous filter when realistic noise is added to those images. Results show that for images containing complex structures, e.g. brain structures, anomalous diffusion presents the highest enhancements when compared to classical diffusion approach. Furthermore, ADP presented a more effective enhancement for images containing Rayleigh and Gaussian noise. Anomalous filters showed an ability to preserve anatomic edges and a SNR improvement of 26% for brain images, compared to classical filter. In addition, AAD and IAD filters showed optimum results for noise distributions that appear on extreme situations on MRI, i.e. in low SNR images with approximate Rayleigh noise distribution, and for high SNR images with Gaussian or non central ? noise distributions. AAD and IAD filter showed the best results for the parametric range 1.2 < q < 1.6, suggesting that the anomalous diffusion regime is more suitable for MRI. This study indicates the proposed anomalous filters as promising approaches in qualitative and quantitative MRI enhancement.

Senra Filho, A. C. da S.; Garrido Salmon, C. E.; Murta Junior, L. O.

2015-03-01

31

Fracture-Flow-Enhanced Solute Diffusion into Fractured Rock  

E-print Network

of Naturally Fractured Reservoirs, Society of Petroleumresources from fractured reservoirs (e.g. , Warren and Root,Reservoir Engineering Stanford University, Stanford, California, January 28-30, 2008 SGP-TR-185 FRACTURE-FLOW-ENHANCED SOLUTE DIFFUSION INTO FRACTURED

Wu, Yu-Shu; Ye, Ming; Sudicky, E.A.

2008-01-01

32

Thermal diffusivity measurements in organic liquids using transient thermal lens calorimetry  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal diffusivity measurements are carried out in certain organic liquids using the pulsed dual beam thermal lens technique. The 532 nm pulses from a frequency doubled Q-switched Nd:YAG laser are used as the heating source and an intensity stabilized He-Ne laser serves as the probe beam. Experimental determination of the character- istic time constant of the transient thermal lens signal

C. V. Bindhu; S. S. Harilal; V. P. N. Nampoori; C. P. G. Vallabhan

1998-01-01

33

Diffusive Transport Enhanced by Thermal Velocity Fluctuations Aleksandar Donev,1,  

E-print Network

collisions, the diffusive transport of concentration c = 1/ can only occur via advective motion hydrodynamics theory and particle and finite-volume simulations. The enhancement of the diffusive transport-equilibrium systems in which a constant (temperature, concentration, velocity) gradient is imposed externally exhibit

34

Sodium channels in transient retinal bipolar cells enhance visual responses in ganglion cells.  

PubMed

Retinal bipolar cells are slow potential neurons that respond to photoreceptor inputs with graded potentials and do not fire action potentials. We found that transient ON bipolar cells recorded in retinal slices possess voltage-gated sodium channels located on either their dendrites or somas. The sodium currents in these neurons did not generate spikes but enhanced voltage responses evoked by visual stimulation, which selectively boosted transmission to transient ganglion cells. In contrast, sodium currents were not found in sustained ON bipolar cells, and light responses in sustained bipolar cells and ganglion cells were not affected by TTX. The presence of sodium channels in transient ON bipolar cells contributed to the separation of transient and sustained signals by selectively enhancing the responses of ON transient ganglion cells to light. Our results suggest that bipolar cell sodium channels augment transient signals and contribute to the temporal segregation of visual information. PMID:15716422

Ichinose, Tomomi; Shields, Colleen R; Lukasiewicz, Peter D

2005-02-16

35

Enhanced diffusion of tracer particles in dilute bacterial suspensions.  

PubMed

Swimming bacteria create long-range velocity fields that stir a large volume of fluid and move around passive particles dispersed in the fluid. Recent experiments and simulations have shown that long-time mean-squared displacement of passive particles in a bath of swimming bacteria exhibits diffusive behaviour with an effective diffusion coefficient significantly larger than its thermal counterpart. A comprehensive theoretical prediction of this effective diffusion coefficient and the understanding of the enhancement mechanism remain a challenge. Here, we adapt the kinetic theory by Lin et al., J. Fluid Mech., 2011, 669, 167 developed for 'squirmers' to the bacterial case to quantitatively predict enhanced diffusivity of tracer particles in dilute two- and three-dimensional suspensions of swimming bacteria. We demonstrate that the effective diffusion coefficient is a product of the bacterial number density, their swimming speed, a geometric factor characterising the velocity field created by a single bacterium, and a numerical factor. We show that the numerical factor is, in fact, a rather strong function of the system parameters, most notably the run length of the bacteria, and that these dependencies have to be taken into account to quantitatively predict the enhanced diffusivity. We perform molecular-dynamics-type simulations to confirm the conclusions of the kinetic theory. Our results are in good agreement with the values of enhanced diffusivity measured in recent two- and three-dimensional experiments. PMID:24668266

Morozov, Alexander; Marenduzzo, Davide

2014-04-28

36

Determination of Thermal Diffusivities, Thermal Conductivities, and Sound Speeds of Room-Temperature Ionic Liquids by the Transient Grating Technique  

E-print Network

-Temperature Ionic Liquids by the Transient Grating Technique Clifford Frez* and Gerald J. Diebold Department measurements of thermal diffusivity of several room-temperature ionic liquids (RTILs) using the transient grating method. Measurements are carried out using ionic liquids with small concentrations of an inert dye

Reid, Scott A.

37

Color Histogram Diffusion for Image Enhancement  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Various color histogram equalization (CHE) methods have been proposed to extend grayscale histogram equalization (GHE) for color images. In this paper a new method called histogram diffusion that extends the GHE method to arbitrary dimensions is proposed. Ranges in a histogram are specified as overlapping bars of uniform heights and variable widths which are proportional to their frequencies. This diagram is called the vistogram. As an alternative approach to GHE, the squared error of the vistogram from the uniform distribution is minimized. Each bar in the vistogram is approximated by a Gaussian function. Gaussian particles in the vistoram diffuse as a nonlinear autonomous system of ordinary differential equations. CHE results of color images showed that the approach is effective.

Kim, Taemin

2011-01-01

38

Enhanced transport through desorption-mediated diffusion.  

PubMed

We present a master equation approach to the study of the bulk-mediated surface diffusion mechanism in a three-dimensional confined domain. The proposed scheme allowed us to evaluate analytically a number of magnitudes that were used to characterize the efficiency of the bulk-mediated surface transport mechanism, for instance, the mean escape time from the domain, and the mean number of distinct visited sites on the confined domain boundary. PMID:23410291

Rojo, Félix; Budde, Carlos E; Wio, Horacio S; Budde, Carlos E

2013-01-01

39

Persistent Reversal of Enhanced Amphetamine Intake by Transient CaMKII Inhibition  

E-print Network

Amphetamine exposure transiently increases Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) ? expression in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) shell and this persistently increases local GluA1 S831 phosphorylation and enhances ...

Loweth, Jessica A.

40

Radio Science, Volume 31, Number 1, Pages41--49,January-February 1996 Asymptotic ray theory for transient diffusive  

E-print Network

Radio Science, Volume 31, Number 1, Pages41--49,January-February 1996 Asymptotic ray theory, but it contains a finite number of terms. #12;42 DE HOOP ET AL.' RAY THEORY FOR DIFFUSIVE FIE an asymptoticray theory for transient diffusive electromagnetic fields in isotropic media. The formulation is first

Torres-Verdín, Carlos

41

Measurement of thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity and heat capacity of highly porous building materials using transient plane source technique  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents both experimental and theoretical works concerning evaluation of the thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity and heat capacity of wood composites. Moreover, the aim of this study is to show that the transient plane source technique originally used for measuring thermal properties of isotropic materials can be spread worthy of heat capacity, thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity measurements of

M. B. Diop

2001-01-01

42

Deep-level transient spectroscopy studies of Ni- and Zn-diffused vapor-phase-epitaxy n-GaAs  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The paper presents deep-level transient spectroscopy studies of Ni- and Zn-diffused vapor-phase epitaxy n-GaAs. Nickel diffused into VPE n-GaAs reduces the hole diffusion length L sub p from 4.3 to 1.1 microns. Deep-level transient spectroscopy was used to identify energy levels in Ni-diffused GaAs; the as-grown VPE GaAs contains traces of these levels and an electron trap. Ni diffusion reduces the concentration of this level by an amount that matches the increase in concentration of each of the two Ni-related levels. A technique for measuring minority-carrier capture cross sections was developed, which indicates that L sub p in Ni-diffused VPE n-GaAs is controlled by the E sub c - 0.39 eV defect level.

Partin, D. L.; Chen, J. W.; Milnes, A. G.; Vassamillet, L. F.

1979-01-01

43

Flow-enhanced transient response in whispering gallery mode biosensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Whispering gallery mode (WGM) optical resonator sensors are an extremely sensitive label-free technology for detecting the binding of biomolecules in solution. To better understand the fast transient response observed with these devices, we model mass transfer to spherical and toroidal WGM sensors of identical outer radius. Finite element simulations predict a 3-10 fold higher binding frequency for toroidal sensors. These results agree to within an order of magnitude with experimental data from the literature and suggest a design strategy to improve the transient response of a sensor by making the device small only in the dimension that governs boundary layer development.

Gamba, Jason M.; Flagan, Richard C.

2011-12-01

44

Hole diffusivity in GaAsBi alloys measured by a picosecond transient grating technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We applied a time-resolved transient grating technique for investigation of nonequilibrium carrier dynamics in GaAs1-xBix alloys with x =0.025-0.063. The observed decrease in carrier bipolar diffusivity with lowering temperature and its saturation below 80 K revealed a strong localization of nonequilibrium holes. Thermal activation energy ?Ea=46 meV of diffusivity and low hole mobility value ?h=10-20 cm2/V s at room temperature confirmed the hybridization model of the localized Bi states with the valence band of GaAs. Nonlinear increase in carrier recombination rate with the Bi content, 1/?R?Bi(x )3.2 indicated an increasing structural disorder in the alloy.

Nargelas, S.; Jarašiunas, K.; Bertulis, K.; Pa?ebutas, V.

2011-02-01

45

Parareal in time 3D numerical solver for the LWR Benchmark neutron diffusion transient model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we present a time-parallel algorithm for the 3D neutrons calculation of a transient model in a nuclear reactor core. The neutrons calculation consists in numerically solving the time dependent diffusion approximation equation, which is a simplified transport equation. The numerical resolution is done with finite elements method based on a tetrahedral meshing of the computational domain, representing the reactor core, and time discretization is achieved using a ?-scheme. The transient model presents moving control rods during the time of the reaction. Therefore, cross-sections (piecewise constants) are taken into account by interpolations with respect to the velocity of the control rods. The parallelism across the time is achieved by an adequate use of the parareal in time algorithm to the handled problem. This parallel method is a predictor corrector scheme that iteratively combines the use of two kinds of numerical propagators, one coarse and one fine. Our method is made efficient by means of a coarse solver defined with large time step and fixed position control rods model, while the fine propagator is assumed to be a high order numerical approximation of the full model. The parallel implementation of our method provides a good scalability of the algorithm. Numerical results show the efficiency of the parareal method on large light water reactor transient model corresponding to the Langenbuch-Maurer-Werner benchmark.

Baudron, Anne-Marie; Lautard, Jean-Jacques; Maday, Yvon; Riahi, Mohamed Kamel; Salomon, Julien

2014-12-01

46

Enhancement of Diffusive Transport by Nonequilibrium Thermal Fluctuations  

E-print Network

-state diffusive flux in a finite system subject to a concentration gradient is enhanced because of long-range cor concentration gradient c. The solution of the linearized equations of fluctuating Electronic address: donev parameters but with an externally-imposed concentration gradient (via the top and bottom wall boundary

47

Oxidation enhanced and concentration dependent diffusions of dopants in silicon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Diffusions of impurities in silicon under oxidizing ambient and under extrinsic conditions have been analyzed by developing the Hu's model. The general expression of diffusion coefficient, which includes both the vacancy and interstitialcy mechanisms, is used. The temperature dependences of a fraction of interstitialcy mechanism for arsenic fAs, phosphorus fP, and boron fB are obtained from the data of oxidation enhanced diffusion (OED) and oxidation induced stacking faults. fAs =42 exp(-0.542/kT), fP =156 exp(-0.666/kT), and fB =860 exp(-0.829/kT). Time dependence of OED and the concentration dependence of the diffusion coefficient of arsenic and boron under extrinsic conditions can be explained by this model.

Matsumoto, Satoru; Ishikawa, Yutaka; Niimi, Tatsuya

1983-09-01

48

Levy dynamics of enhanced diffusion - Application to turbulence  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A stochastic process called a Levy (1937) walk is introduced, which is a random walk with a nonlocal memory coupled in space and in time in a scaling fashion. Levy walks result in enhanced diffusion, i.e., diffusion that grows as t exp a, where a is greater than 1. When applied to the description of a passive scalar diffusing in a fluctuating fluid flow, the model generalizes Taylor's (1921) correlated-walk approach. It yields Richardson's t exp 3 law for the turbulent diffusion of a passive scalar in a Kolmogorov (1941) -5/3 homogeneous turbulent flow and also gives the deviations from the 5/3 exponent resulting from Mandelbrot's (1976) intermittency. The model can be extended to studies of chemical reactions in turbulent flow.

Shlesinger, M. F.; West, B. J.; Klafter, J.

1987-03-01

49

Advectional enhancement of eddy diffusivity under parametric disorder  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Frozen parametric disorder can lead to the appearance of sets of localized convective currents in an otherwise stable (quiescent) fluid layer heated from below. These currents significantly influence the transport of an admixture (or any other passive scalar) along the layer. When the molecular diffusivity of the admixture is small in comparison to the thermal one, which is quite typical in nature, disorder can enhance the effective (eddy) diffusivity by several orders of magnitude in comparison to the molecular diffusivity. In this paper, we study the effect of an imposed longitudinal advection on the delocalization of convective currents, both numerically and analytically, and report a subsequent drastic boost of the effective diffusivity for weak advection.

Goldobin, Denis S.

2010-12-01

50

Enhancing chemical identification efficiency by SAW sensor transients through a data enrichment and information fusion strategy—a simulation study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper proposes a new approach for improving the odor recognition efficiency of a surface acoustic wave (SAW) transient sensor system based on a single polymer coating. The vapor identity information is hidden in transient response shapes through dependences on specific vapor solvation and diffusion parameters in the polymer coating. The variations in the vapor exposure and purge durations and the sensor operating frequency have been used to create diversity in transient shapes via termination of the vapor-polymer equilibration process up to different stages. The transient signals were analyzed by the discrete wavelet transform using Daubechies-4 mother wavelet basis. The wavelet approximation coefficients were then processed by principal component analysis for creating feature space. The set of principal components define the vapor identity information. In an attempt to enhance vapor class separability we analyze two types of information fusion methods. In one, the sensor operation frequency is fixed and the sensing and purge durations are varied, and in the second, the sensing and purge durations are fixed and the sensor operating frequency is varied. The fusion is achieved by concatenation of discrete wavelet coefficients corresponding to various transients prior to the principal component analysis. The simulation experiments with polyisobutylene SAW sensor coating for operation frequencies over [55-160] MHz and sensing durations over [5-60] s were analyzed. The target vapors are seven volatile organics: chloroform, chlorobenzene, o-dichlorobenzene, n-heptane, toluene, n-hexane and n-octane whose concentrations were varied over [10-100] ppm. The simulation data were generated using a SAW sensor transient response model that incorporates the viscoelastic effects due to polymer coating and an additive noise source in the output. The analysis reveals that: (i) in single transient analysis the class separability increases with sensing duration for a given frequency of operation, and also with frequency for a given sensing duration, and (ii) the information fusion based on both the multiple sensing cycles and the multiple sensing frequencies enhances the class separability by nearly an order of magnitude.

Singh, Prashant; Yadava, R. D. S.

2013-05-01

51

Diffusion Enhancement in Core-softened fluid confined in nanotubes  

E-print Network

We study the effect of confinement in the dynamical behavior of a core-softened fluid. The fluid is modeled as a two length scales potential. This potential in the bulk reproduces the anomalous behavior observed in the density and in the diffusion of liquid water. A series of $NpT$ Molecular Dynamics simulations for this two length scales fluid confined in a nanotube were performed. We obtain that the diffusion coefficient increases with the increase of the nanotube radius for wide channels as expected for normal fluids. However, for narrow channels, the confinement shows an enhancement in the diffusion coefficient when the nanotube radius decreases. This behavior, observed for water, is explained in the framework of the two length scales potential.

José R. Bordin; Alan B. de Oliveira; Alexandre Diehl; Marcia C. Barbosa

2012-08-05

52

The heat released during catalytic turnover enhances the diffusion of an enzyme  

PubMed Central

Recent studies have shown that the diffusivity of enzymes increases in a substrate-dependent manner during catalysis1,2. Although this observation has been reported and characterized for several different systems3–10, the precise origin of this phenomenon is unknown. Calorimetric methods are often used to determine enthalpies from enzyme-catalysed reactions and can therefore provide important insight into their reaction mechanisms11,12. The ensemble averages involved in traditional bulk calorimetry cannot probe the transient effects that the energy exchanged in a reaction may have on the catalyst. Here we obtain single-molecule fluorescence correlation spectroscopy data and analyse them within the framework of a stochastic theory to demonstrate a mechanistic link between the enhanced diffusion of a single enzyme molecule and the heat released in the reaction. We propose that the heat released during catalysis generates an asymmetric pressure wave that results in a differential stress at the protein–solvent interface that transiently displaces the centre-of-mass of the enzyme (chemoacoustic effect). This novel perspective on how enzymes respond to the energy released during catalysis suggests a possible effect of the heat of reaction on the structural integrity and internal degrees of freedom of the enzyme. PMID:25487146

Riedel, Clement; Gabizon, Ronen; Wilson, Christian A. M.; Hamadani, Kambiz; Tsekouras, Konstantinos; Marqusee, Susan; Pressé, Steve; Bustamante, Carlos

2015-01-01

53

The heat released during catalytic turnover enhances the diffusion of an enzyme.  

PubMed

Recent studies have shown that the diffusivity of enzymes increases in a substrate-dependent manner during catalysis. Although this observation has been reported and characterized for several different systems, the precise origin of this phenomenon is unknown. Calorimetric methods are often used to determine enthalpies from enzyme-catalysed reactions and can therefore provide important insight into their reaction mechanisms. The ensemble averages involved in traditional bulk calorimetry cannot probe the transient effects that the energy exchanged in a reaction may have on the catalyst. Here we obtain single-molecule fluorescence correlation spectroscopy data and analyse them within the framework of a stochastic theory to demonstrate a mechanistic link between the enhanced diffusion of a single enzyme molecule and the heat released in the reaction. We propose that the heat released during catalysis generates an asymmetric pressure wave that results in a differential stress at the protein-solvent interface that transiently displaces the centre-of-mass of the enzyme (chemoacoustic effect). This novel perspective on how enzymes respond to the energy released during catalysis suggests a possible effect of the heat of reaction on the structural integrity and internal degrees of freedom of the enzyme. PMID:25487146

Riedel, Clement; Gabizon, Ronen; Wilson, Christian A M; Hamadani, Kambiz; Tsekouras, Konstantinos; Marqusee, Susan; Pressé, Steve; Bustamante, Carlos

2015-01-01

54

Enhanced photocoagulation with catheter-based diffusing optical device  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel balloon catheter-based diffusing optical device was designed and evaluated to assist in treating excessive menstrual bleeding. A synthetic fused-silica fiber was micro-machined precisely to create scattering segments on a 25 mm long fiber tip for uniform light distribution. A visible wavelength (?=532 nm) was used to specifically target the endometrium due to the high vascularity of the uterine wall. Optical simulation presented 30% wider distribution of photons along with approximately 40% higher irradiance induced by addition of a glass cap to the diffuser tip. Incorporation of the optical diffuser with a polyurethane balloon catheter considerably enhanced coagulation depth and area (i.e., 3.5 mm and 18.9 cm2 at 1 min irradiation) in tissue in vitro. The prototype device demonstrated the coagulation necrosis of 2.8±1.2 mm (n=18) and no thermal damage to myometrium in in vivo caprine models. A prototype 5 cm long balloon catheter-assisted optical diffuser was also evaluated with a cadaveric human uterus to confirm the coagulative response of the uterine tissue as well as to identify the further design improvement and clinical applicability. The proposed catheter-based diffusing optical device can be a feasible therapeutic tool to photocoagulate endometrial cell layers in an efficient and safe manner.

Kang, Hyun Wook; Kim, Jeehyun; Oh, Jungwhan

2012-11-01

55

Simultaneous Determination of Thermal Conductivity and Thermal Diffusivity of Food and Agricultural Materials Using a Transient Plane-Source Method  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity are two important physical properties essential for designing any food engineering processes. Recently a new transient plane-source method was developed to measure a variety of materials, but its application in foods has not been documented. Therefore, ...

56

Simultaneous determination of thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of food and agricultural materials using a transient plane-source method  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thermal conductivity (K) and thermal diffusivity (?) are two important physical properties essential for designing any food engineering processes. Recently a new transient plane-source method was developed to measure K and ? in a variety of materials, but its application in foods has not been documented. Therefore, the objective of this work was to evaluate the feasibility of using this

Lihan Huang; Lin-Shu Liu

2009-01-01

57

Time-independent hybrid enrichment for finite element solution of transient conduction–radiation in diffusive grey media  

SciTech Connect

We investigate the effectiveness of the partition-of-unity finite element method for transient conduction–radiation problems in diffusive grey media. The governing equations consist of a semi-linear transient heat equation for the temperature field and a stationary diffusion approximation to the radiation in grey media. The coupled equations are integrated in time using a semi-implicit method in the finite element framework. We show that for the considered problems, a combination of hyperbolic and exponential enrichment functions based on an approximation of the boundary layer leads to improved accuracy compared to the conventional finite element method. It is illustrated that this approach can be more efficient than using h adaptivity to increase the accuracy of the finite element method near the boundary walls. The performance of the proposed partition-of-unity method is analyzed on several test examples for transient conduction–radiation problems in two space dimensions.

Mohamed, M. Shadi, E-mail: m.s.mohamed@durham.ac.uk [School of Engineering and Computing Sciences, University of Durham, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Seaid, Mohammed; Trevelyan, Jon [School of Engineering and Computing Sciences, University of Durham, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)] [School of Engineering and Computing Sciences, University of Durham, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Laghrouche, Omar [Institute for Infrastructure and Environment, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS (United Kingdom)] [Institute for Infrastructure and Environment, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS (United Kingdom)

2013-10-15

58

Enhancing the ABAQUS thermomechanics code to simulate multipellet steady and transient LWR fuel rod behavior  

SciTech Connect

A powerful multidimensional fuels performance analysis capability, applicable to both steady and transient fuel behavior, is developed based on enhancements to the commercially available ABAQUS general-purpose thermomechanics code. Enhanced capabilities are described, including: UO2 temperature and burnup dependent thermal properties, solid and gaseous fission product swelling, fuel densification, fission gas release, cladding thermal and irradiation creep, cladding irradiation growth, gap heat transfer, and gap/plenum gas behavior during irradiation. This new capability is demonstrated using a 2D axisymmetric analysis of the upper section of a simplified multipellet fuel rod, during both steady and transient operation. Comparisons are made between discrete and smeared-pellet simulations. Computational results demonstrate the importance of a multidimensional, multipellet, fully-coupled thermomechanical approach. Interestingly, many of the inherent deficiencies in existing fuel performance codes (e.g., 1D thermomechanics, loose thermomechanical coupling, separate steady and transient analysis, cumbersome pre- and post-processing) are, in fact, ABAQUS strengths.

R. L. Williamson

2011-08-01

59

Enhancing the ABAQUS Thermomechanics Code to Simulate Steady and Transient Fuel Rod Behavior  

SciTech Connect

A powerful multidimensional fuels performance capability, applicable to both steady and transient fuel behavior, is developed based on enhancements to the commercially available ABAQUS general-purpose thermomechanics code. Enhanced capabilities are described, including: UO2 temperature and burnup dependent thermal properties, solid and gaseous fission product swelling, fuel densification, fission gas release, cladding thermal and irradiation creep, cladding irradiation growth , gap heat transfer, and gap/plenum gas behavior during irradiation. The various modeling capabilities are demonstrated using a 2D axisymmetric analysis of the upper section of a simplified multi-pellet fuel rod, during both steady and transient operation. Computational results demonstrate the importance of a multidimensional fully-coupled thermomechanics treatment. Interestingly, many of the inherent deficiencies in existing fuel performance codes (e.g., 1D thermomechanics, loose thermo-mechanical coupling, separate steady and transient analysis, cumbersome pre- and post-processing) are, in fact, ABAQUS strengths.

R. L. Williamson; D. A. Knoll

2009-09-01

60

Gas cloud infrared image enhancement based on anisotropic diffusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Leakage of dangerous gases will not only pollute the environment, but also seriously threat public safety. Thermal infrared imaging has been proved to be an efficient method to qualitatively detect the gas leakage. But some problems are remained, especially when monitoring the leakage in a passive way. For example, the signal is weak and the edge of gas cloud in the infrared image is not obvious enough. However, we notice some important characteristics of the gas plume and therefore propose a gas cloud infrared image enhancement method based on anisotropic diffusion. As the gas plume presents a large gas cloud in the image and the gray value is even inside the cloud, strong forward diffusion will be used to reduce the noise and to expand the range of the gas cloud. Frames subtraction and K-means cluttering pop out the gas cloud area. Forward-and-Backward diffusion is to protect background details. Additionally, the best iteration times and the time step parameters are researched. Results show that the gas cloud can be marked correctly and enhanced by black or false color, and so potentially increase the possibility of gas leakage detection.

Li, Jiakun; Wang, Lingxue; Zhang, Changxing; Long, Yunting; Zhang, Bei

2011-05-01

61

ATC Enhancement Considering Transient Stability by Optimal Power Flow Control Using UPFC  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With recent development of power electronics technology, power system stability enhancement and optimal power flow control by using Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS) devices have so far been studied. The FACTS devices to relieve multiple constraints can also make it possible to enhance Available Transfer Capability (ATC) without construction of new transmission lines. In this paper, a new method for improving transient stability by Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC) is proposed. Then the proposed method is applied to an OPF control method by using UPFC for relieving multiple constraints. The new OPF method is used for enhancement of ATC taking into account Transient stability constraints as well as overload and steady-state stability constraints. The OPF problem is formulated to minimize total capacity of inverters of UPFC. Effectiveness of the proposed method is shown by numerical examples for IEEJ East-10-machine test system.

Masuta, Taisuke; Motoki, Hiroaki; Yokoyama, Akihiko

62

Enhanced self-diffusion of adsorbed methanol in silica aerogel  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Molecular transport of a two-component system of liquid and vapor in a porous medium can be anomalously increased owing to fast exchange between the two phases [Phys. Rev. Lett. 63, 43 (1989), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.63.43]. We have investigated this phenomenon measuring the self-diffusion coefficient of methanol adsorbed in a 98% porosity aerogel using nuclear magnetic resonance field gradient techniques. We found enhancement of several orders of magnitude from which we determined the ballistic mean-free path in the vapor phase. We have grown globally uniform anisotropic aerogels and applied the diffusion measurements to characterize the anisotropy. Our results are important for understanding the novel properties of superfluid 3He confined within an aerogel framework and for application to other physical systems.

Lee, Jeongseop A.; Mounce, A. M.; Oh, Sangwon; Zimmerman, A. M.; Halperin, W. P.

2014-11-01

63

Enhanced diffusion of dopants in vacancy supersaturation produced by MeV implantation  

SciTech Connect

The diffusion of Sb and B markers has been studied in vacancy supersaturations produced by MeV Si implantation in float zone (FZ) silicon and bonded etch-back silicon-on-insulator (BESOI) substrates. MeV Si implantation produces a vacancy supersaturated near-surface region and an interstitial-rich region at the projected ion range. Transient enhanced diffusion (TED) of Sb in the near surface layer was observed as a result of a 2 MeV Si{sup +}, 1 {times} 10{sup 16}/cm{sup 2}, implant. A 4{times} larger TED of Sb was observed in BESOI than in FZ silicon, demonstrating that the vacancy supersaturation persists longer in BESOI than in FZ. B markers in samples with MeV Si implant showed a factor of 10{times} smaller diffusion relative to markers without the MeV Si{sup +} implant. This data demonstrates that a 2 MeV Si{sup +} implant injects vacancies into the near surface region.

Venezia, V.C. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Solid State Div.]|[Univ. of North Texas, Denton, TX (United States). Dept. of Physics; Haynes, T.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Solid State Div.; Agarwal, A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Solid State Div.]|[Lucent Technologies, Murray Hill, NJ (United States). Bell Lab.; Gossmann, H.J.; Eaglesham, D.J. [Lucent Technologies, Murray Hill, NJ (United States). Bell Lab.

1997-04-01

64

Non-Gaussian Diffusion Imaging for Enhanced Contrast of Brain Tissue Affected by Ischemic Stroke  

PubMed Central

Recent diffusion MRI studies of stroke in humans and animals have shown that the quantitative parameters characterising the degree of non-Gaussianity of the diffusion process are much more sensitive to ischemic changes than the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) considered so far as the “gold standard”. The observed changes exceeded that of the ADC by a remarkable factor of 2 to 3. These studies were based on the novel non-Gaussian methods, such as diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) and log-normal distribution function imaging (LNDFI). As shown in our previous work investigating the animal stroke model, a combined analysis using two methods, DKI and LNDFI provides valuable complimentary information. In the present work, we report the application of three non-Gaussian diffusion models to quantify the deviations from the Gaussian behaviour in stroke induced by transient middle cerebral artery occlusion in rat brains: the gamma-distribution function (GDF), the stretched exponential model (SEM), and the biexponential model. The main goal was to compare the sensitivity of various non-Gaussian metrics to ischemic changes and to investigate if a combined application of several models will provide added value in the assessment of stroke. We have shown that two models, GDF and SEM, exhibit a better performance than the conventional method and allow for a significantly enhanced visualization of lesions. Furthermore, we showed that valuable information regarding spatial properties of stroke lesions can be obtained. In particular, we observed a stratified cortex structure in the lesions that were well visible in the maps of the GDF and SEM metrics, but poorly distinguishable in the ADC-maps. Our results provided evidence that cortical layers tend to be differently affected by ischemic processes. PMID:24586610

Geffroy, Françoise; Le Bihan, Denis; Shah, N. Jon

2014-01-01

65

Anomalous enhancement in interfacial perpendicular magnetic anisotropy through uphill diffusion  

PubMed Central

We observed interfacial chemical sharpening due to uphill diffusion in post annealed ultrathin multilayer stack of Co and Pt, which leads to enhanced interfacial perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA). This is surprising as these elements are considered as perfectly miscible. This chemical sharpening was confirmed through quantitative energy dispersive x-ray (EDX) spectroscopy and intensity distribution of images taken on high angle annular dark field (HAADF) detector in Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopic (STEM) mode. This observation demonstrates an evidence of miscibility gap in ultrathin coherent Co/Pt multilayer stacks. PMID:24937637

Das, Tanmay; Kulkarni, Prabhanjan D.; Purandare, S. C.; Barshilia, Harish C.; Bhattacharyya, Somnath; Chowdhury, Prasanta

2014-01-01

66

Transient stability enhancement of electric power generating systems by 120-degree phase rotation  

DOEpatents

A method and system for enhancing the transient stability of an intertied three-phase electric power generating system. A set of power exporting generators (10) is connected to a set of power importing generators (20). When a transient cannot be controlled by conventional stability controls, and imminent loss of synchronism is detected (such as when the equivalent rotor angle difference between the two generator sets exceeds a predetermined value, such as 150 degrees), the intertie is disconnected by circuit breakers. Then a switch (30) having a 120-degree phase rotation, or a circuit breaker having a 120-degree phase rotation is placed in the intertie. The intertie is then reconnected. This results in a 120-degree reduction in the equivalent rotor angle difference between the two generator sets, making the system more stable and allowing more time for the conventional controls to stabilize the transient.

Cresap, Richard L. (Portland, OR); Taylor, Carson W. (Portland, OR); Kreipe, Michael J. (Portland, OR)

1982-01-01

67

Fluorine-enhanced boron diffusion in amorphous silicon J. M. Jacques,a)  

E-print Network

Fluorine-enhanced boron diffusion in amorphous silicon J. M. Jacques,a) L. S. Robertson, and K. S silicon is significantly enhanced in the presence of fluorine. Ellipsometry and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy indicate the enhanced diffusion only occurs in the amorphous layer. Fluorine

Florida, University of

68

Incorporating Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging into an Observation Unit Transient Ischemic Attack Pathway  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose: National guidelines advocate for early, aggressive transient ischemic attack (TIA) evaluations and recommend diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for brain imaging. The purpose of this study is to examine clinician compliance, the yield of MRI, and patient-centered clinical outcomes following implementation of an emergency department observation unit (EDOU) clinical pathway incorporating routine MRI into the acute evaluation of patients with TIA. Methods: This is a prospective observational study of patients with TIA admitted from the ED. Patients with low-risk TIA were transferred to an EDOU for diagnostic testing including MRI; high-risk patients were directed to hospital admission. Clinical variables, diagnostic tests, and treatment were recorded for all patients. The primary clinical outcome was the rate of stroke or recurrent TIA, determined through telephone follow-up and medical record review at 7 and 30 days. Results: A total of 116 patients with TIA were enrolled. In all, 92 (79.3%) patients were transferred to the EDOU, of whom 69 (59.5%) were discharged without hospitalization. Compliance with the EDOU pathway was 83 (91.2%) of 92. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated acute infarct in 16 (15.7%) of 102 patients. Stroke (n = 2) or TIA (n = 3) occurred in 5 patients with TIA (4.3%, 95% confidence interval: 1.6%-10.0%) within 30 days; no strokes occurred after discharge. Conclusions: Implementation of a TIA clinical pathway incorporating MRI effectively encouraged guideline-compliant diagnostic testing; however, patient-important outcomes appear similar to diagnostic protocols without routine MRI. Further study is needed to assess the benefits and costs associated with routinely incorporating MRI into TIA evaluation. PMID:24707334

Oostema, J. Adam; DeLano, Mark; Bhatt, Archit; Brown, Michael D.

2014-01-01

69

Stress enhanced diffusion of krypton ions in polycrystalline titanium  

SciTech Connect

An experimental investigation on the mutual influence of pre-existing residual stress and point defect following ion implantation is presented. The study has been carried out using polycrystalline titanium samples energetically implanted with krypton ions at different fluences. Ion beam analysis was used to determine the concentration profile of the injected krypton ions, while synchrotron X-ray diffraction has been used for stress determination. Ion beam analysis and synchrotron X-ray diffraction stress profile measurements of the implanted titanium samples show a clear evidence of stress-enhanced diffusion of krypton ions in titanium. It is further observed that for the titanium samples implanted at low fluence, ion implantation modifies the pre-existing residual stress through the introduction of point and open volume defects. The stress fields resulting from the ion implantation act to drift the krypton inclusions towards the surface of titanium.

Nsengiyumva, S., E-mail: s.nsengiyumva@ru.ac.za [Department of Physics and Electronics, Rhodes University, Grahamstown 6140 (South Africa); Raji, A. T. [School of Interdisciplinary Research and Graduate Studies, University of South Africa, Mucklenuek Campus, P O Box 392, UNISA 0003, Pretoria (South Africa); Rivière, J. P. [Laboratoire de Métallurgie Physique, UMR 6630 CNRS- Université de Poitiers, Bd M. et P. Curie, BP30179, 86962 Chasseneuil Futuroscope, Cedex (France); Britton, D. T.; Härting, M. [NanoSciences Innovation Center, Department of Physics, University of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701 (South Africa)

2014-07-14

70

Multiple step algorithm for fluorescence-enhanced diffuse optical tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A discussion on recent works on diffusive inverse problems is presented with a special focus on three-dimensional imaging methods and their application to small animal imaging by fluorescence-enhanced Diffuse Optical Tomography. A numerical approach using the Finite Element Method for handling problems modelled by elliptic coupled partial differential equations is justified by the complexity of the geometry of the system but is known to be time- and memory-consuming. The resolution of the adjoint problem considerably speeds up the treatment and allows a full 3D resolution. Nevertheless, because of the ill-posedness of the problem, the reconstruction scheme is sensitive to a priori knowledge on the parameters to be reconstructed. In this study, a multiple step, self-regularized, reconstruction algorithm for the spatial distribution of the fluorescent regions is presented. We introduce the prior knowledge of the regions of interest via a segmentation of the results performed with a first rough reconstruction of the fluorescent regions. The results are then refined along iterations of the segmentation/reconstruction scheme.

Da Silva, A.; Planat-Chretien, A.; Dinten, J.-M.; Gliere, A.

2005-04-01

71

Comparison of homogenized and enhanced diffusion solutions of model PWR problems  

SciTech Connect

Model problem comparisons in slab geometry are made between two forms of homogenized diffusion theory and enhanced diffusion theory. The pin-cell discontinuity factors for homogenized diffusion calculations are derived from homogenized variational nodal P1 response matrices and from standard finite differencing. Enhanced diffusion theory consists of applying quasi-reflected interface conditions to reduce variational nodal Pn response matrices to one degree of freedom per interface, without homogenization within the cell. As expected both homogenized diffusion methods preserve reaction rates exactly if the discontinuity factors are derived from the P 11 reference solutions. If no reference lattice solution is available, discontinuity factors may be approximated from single cells with reflected boundary conditions; the computational effort is then comparable to calculating the enhanced diffusion response matrices. In this situation enhanced diffusion theory gives the most accurate results and finite difference discontinuity factors the least accurate. (authors)

Lewis, E. E. [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Northwestern Univ., 2145 Sheridan Rd., Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Smith, M. A. [Nuclear Engineering Div., Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Ave, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

2012-07-01

72

Transient Liquid Phase Diffusion Bonding of Magnesium Alloy (Mg-AZ31) to Titanium Alloy (Ti-6Al-4V)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The magnesium alloy Mg-AZ31 and titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V have physical characteristics and mechanical properties that makes it attractive for a wide range of engineering applications in the aerospace and automotive industries. However, the differences in melting temperature and coefficient of thermal expansion hinder the use of traditional fusion welding techniques. Transient liquid phase (TLP) bonding of magnesium alloy Mg-AZ31 and titanium alloy Ti-6Al- 4V was performed and different interlayer types and configurations were used to facilitate joint formation. The joining of these alloys using Ni foils was successful at a bonding temperature of 515°C, bonding pressure 0.2 MPa, for bonding time of 5 minutes. At the Ni/Mg-AZ31 bond interface, the formation of a eutectic liquid between Mg and Ni was observed. The formation of Mg2Ni and Mg3AlNi2 were identified along the bond interface resulting in an isothermally solidified joint. At the Ni/Ti-6Al-4V interface, the solid-state diffusion process results in joint formation. The use of double Ni-Cu sandwich joint resulted in further enhancement in joint formation and this produced joints with greater shear strength values. The configuration of Mg-AZ31/Cu- Ni/Ti-6Al-4V or Mg-AZ31/Ni-Cu/Ti-6Al-4V influence the mechanism of bonding and the type of intermetallics formed within the joint. The application of thin Ni electrodeposited coatings resulted in further enhancements of joint quality due to better surface-to-surface contact and a reduction in the formation of intermetallics at the joint. The effect of Cu nano-particles in the coatings was found to decrease the eutectic zone width and this resulted in an increase the shear strength of the joints. The highest shear strength of 69 MPa was possible with bonds made using coatings containing Cu nano-particle dispersion.

Atieh, Anas Mahmoud

73

Enhanced transient reactivity of an O-sputtered Au(111) surface  

SciTech Connect

The interaction of SO{sub 2} with oxygen-sputtered Au(111) surfaces ({theta}{sub oxygen} {le} 0.35 ML) was studied by monitoring the oxygen and sulfur coverages as a function of SO{sub 2} exposure. Two reaction regimes were observed: oxygen depletion followed by sulfur deposition. An enhanced, transient sulfur deposition rate is observed at the oxygen depletion point. This effect is specifically pronounced if the Au surface is continuously exposed to SO{sub 2}. The enhanced reactivity towards S deposition seems to be linked to the presence of highly reactive, under-coordinated Au atoms. Adsorbed oxygen appears to stabilize, but also to block these sites. In absence of the stabilization effect of adsorbed oxygen, i.e. at the oxygen depletion point, the enhanced reactivity decays on a timescale of a few minutes. These observations shed a new light on the catalytic reactivity of highly dispersed gold nanoparticles.

Biener, M M; Biener, J; Friend, C M

2004-12-02

74

Enhanced diffusion of non-swimmers in a 3D bath of motile bacteria  

E-print Network

We show using differential dynamic microscopy that the diffusive motion of non-motile cells in a three-dimensional population of motile E. coli is enhanced by an amount that is strictly proportional to the active cell flux. While non-motile mutants without flagella and mutants with paralysed flagella have quite different thermal diffusivities and therefore hydrodynamic radii, their diffusivities are enhanced to the same extent by swimmers in the regime of cell densities explored here. Integrating the motion of non-swimmers caused by swimmers with finite persistence-length trajectories predicts quantitatively the observed linear dependence of enhanced diffusivity and active cell flux.

Jepson, A; Schwarz-Linek, J; Morozov, A; Poon, W C K

2013-01-01

75

Fluorine-enhanced boron diffusion in germanium-preamorphized silicon J. M. Jacquesa  

E-print Network

Fluorine-enhanced boron diffusion in germanium-preamorphized silicon J. M. Jacquesa and K. S. Jones that fluorine enhances boron motion in germanium-preamorphized materials in the absence of annealing. The magnitude of boron diffusion scales with increasing fluorine dose. Boron motion in as-implanted samples

Florida, University of

76

Fission Enhanced diffusion of uranium in zirconia N. Brerd, A. Chevarier, N. Moncoffre,  

E-print Network

Fission Enhanced diffusion of uranium in zirconia N. Bérerd, A. Chevarier, N. Moncoffre, Institut and Fission Enhanced Diffusion (FED) of uranium into zirconia, representative of the inner face of cladding is irradiated in the ILL high flux reactor. The fission product flux is about 1011 ions cm-2 s-1 and the target

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

77

Optical Transient-Grating Measurements of Spin Diffusion andRelaxation in a Two-Dimensional Electron Gas  

SciTech Connect

Spin diffusion in n-GaAs quantum wells, as measured by our optical transient-grating technique, is strongly suppressed relative to that of charge. Over a broad range of temperatures and dopings, the suppression of Ds relative to Dc agrees quantitatively with the prediction of ''spin Coulomb dra'' theory, which takes into account the exchange of spin in electron-electron collisions. Moreover, the spin-diffusion length, Ls, is a nearly constant 1 micrometer over the same range of T and n, despite Ds's varying by nearly two orders of magnitude. This constancy supports the D'yakonov-Perel'-Kachorovskii model of spin relaxation through interrupted precessional dephasing in the spin-orbit field.

Weber, Christopher P.

2005-12-15

78

Optical transient-grating measurements of spin diffusion and relaxation in a two-dimensional electron gas  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spin diffusion in n-GaAs quantum wells, as measured by our optical transient-grating technique, is strongly suppressed relative to that of charge. Over a broad range of temperatures and dopings, the suppression of Ds relative to D c agrees quantitatively with the prediction of "spin Coulomb drag" theory, which takes into account the exchange of spin in electron-electron collisions. Moreover, the spin-diffusion length, Ls, is a nearly constant 1 mum over the same range of T and n, despite Ds's varying by nearly two orders of magnitude. This constancy supports the D'yakonov-Perel'-Kachorovskii model of spin relaxation through interrupted precessional dephasing in the spin-orbit field.

Weber, Christopher Phillip

79

Power Supply Reliability Assessment in UPFC-installed Transmission System for ATC Enhancement Considering Transient Stability  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With recent development of power electronics technology, power system stability enhancement and optimal power flow control by using Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS) devices have so far been studied. The FACTS devices to relieve multiple constraints can also make it possible to enhance Available Transfer Capability (ATC) without construction of new transmission lines. The previous research revealed that ATC is expanded by avoiding multiple constraints in OPF using Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC). For long-term operation of such ATC-expanded power system, it is necessary to evaluate power system reliability. In this paper, the evaluation method of supply reliability for UPFC-installed power system is proposed. Both thermal capacity and transient stability constraints are considered. The effectiveness of the proposed method is shown by numerical examples for IEEJ East10-machine test system.

Masuta, Taisuke; Yokoyama, Akihiko

80

Experimental observations of Soret-driven convection in the transient diffusive boundary layer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The onset of transient Soret-driven convection is investigated experimentally in a colloidal suspension of thermosensitive nanoparticles by the shadowgraph technique and by particle tracking observations. From the shadowgraph images, the concentration profile is reconstructed, giving evidence of a convective motion inside the transient boundary layer. Furthermore, the latency times for the convection onset are extracted from the measurements. The results point out that particle tracking is superior to the shadowgraph method for detecting the onset of convection. The onset latency times obtained from these experiments obey scaling laws which are in accordance with the predictions from theoretical treatments.

Messlinger, Stephan; Kramer, Christoph; Schmied, Jürgen J.; Winkel, Florian; Schöpf, Wolfgang; Rehberg, Ingo

2013-11-01

81

Multiple copies of virG enhance the transient transformation of celery, carrot and rice tissues by Agrobacterium tumefaciens  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an effort to improve the T-DNA-mediated transformation frequency of economically important crops, we investigated the possible enhancement effect of multiple copies of virG genes contained in Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains upon the transient transformation of celery, carrot and rice tissues. Four days after A. tumefaciens infection, we performed histochemical ß-glucuronidase (GUS) assays to determine the frequency of transient transformation of

Chang-Nong Liu; Xiu-Qing Li; Stanton B. Gelvin

1992-01-01

82

Structural dynamics of hydrogen bonded methanol oligomers: Vibrational transient hole burning studies of spectral diffusion  

E-print Network

Structural dynamics of hydrogen bonded methanol oligomers: Vibrational transient hole burning resolved pump-probe experiments have been conducted on the deuterated hydroxyl stretch of methanol-d in a solution containing 0.8% methanol-d/23% methanol-h in carbon tetrachloride. Methanol-d molecules that both

Fayer, Michael D.

83

Transient gamma-secretase inhibition accelerates and enhances fracture repair likely via Notch signaling modulation.  

PubMed

Approximately 10% of skeletal fractures result in healing complications and non-union, while most fractures repair with appropriate stabilization and without pharmacologic intervention. It is the latter injuries that cannot be underestimated as the expenses associated with their treatment and subsequent lost productivity are predicted to increase to over $74 billion by 2015. During fracture repair, local mesenchymal stem/progenitor cells (MSCs) differentiate to form new cartilage and bone, reminiscent of events during skeletal development. We previously demonstrated that permanent loss of gamma-secretase activity and Notch signaling accelerates bone and cartilage formation from MSC progenitors during skeletal development, leading to pathologic acquisition of bone and depletion of bone marrow derived MSCs. Here, we investigated whether transient and systemic gamma-secretase and Notch inhibition is capable of accelerating and enhancing fracture repair by promoting controlled MSC differentiation near the fracture site. Our radiographic, microCT, histological, cell and molecular analyses reveal that single and intermittent gamma-secretase inhibitor (GSI) treatments significantly enhance cartilage and bone callus formation via the promotion of MSC differentiation, resulting in only a moderate reduction of local MSCs. Biomechanical testing further demonstrates that GSI treated fractures exhibit superior strength earlier in the healing process, with single dose GSI treated fractures exhibiting bone strength approaching that of un-fractured tibiae. These data further establish that transient inhibition of gamma-secretase activity and Notch signaling temporarily increases osteoclastogenesis and accelerates bone remodeling, which coupled with the effects on MSCs likely explains the accelerated and enhanced fracture repair. Therefore, we propose that the Notch pathway serves as an important therapeutic target during skeletal fracture repair. PMID:25527421

Wang, Cuicui; Shen, Jie; Yukata, Kiminori; Inzana, Jason A; O'Keefe, Regis J; Awad, Hani A; Hilton, Matthew J

2015-04-01

84

Transient restricted diffusion of corpus callosum and subcortical white matter following febrile status epilepticus.  

PubMed

We describe the case of a 4½-year-old girl with prolonged febrile status followed by abnormal behavior and loss of speech. Interesting findings on diffusion-restricted imaging were noted. The clinicoradiologic possibilities are discussed. PMID:24850571

Jain, Puneet; Sharma, Suvasini; Dhingra, Dhulika; Aneja, Satinder

2015-05-01

85

Improved Diffusion Imaging through SNR-Enhancing Joint Reconstruction  

E-print Network

is highly sensitive to tissue microstructure, making DW-MRI a powerful clinical tool for the detection at http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mrm.24229. 1 #12;ABSTRACT Quantitative diffusion imaging is a powerful reconstruction; feature preservation; 2 #12;INTRODUCTION Diffusion-weighted (DW) MR imaging can be used

Leahy, Richard M.

86

Transient plane source (tps) sensors for simultaneous measurements of thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of insulators, fluids and conductors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity are two important physical properties for designing any food engineering processes1. The knowledge of thermal properties of the elements, compounds and different materials in many industrial applications is a requirement for their final functionality. Transient plane source (tps) sensors are reported2 to be useful for the simultaneous measurement of thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity and volumetric heat capacity of insulators, conductor liquids3 and high-TC superconductors4. The tps-sensor consists of a resistive element in the shape of double spiral made of 10 micrometer thick Ni-foils covered on both sides with 25 micrometer thick Kapton. This sensor acts both as a heat source and a resistance thermometer for recording the time dependent temperature increase. From the knowledge of the temperature co-efficient of the metal spiral, the temperature increase of the sensor can be determined precisely by placing the sensor in between two surfaces of the same material under test. This temperature increase is then related to the thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity and volumetric heat capacity by simple relations2,5. The tps-sensor has been used to measure thermal conductivities from 0.001 Wm-1K-1to 600 Wm-1K-1 and temperature ranges covered from 77K- 1000K. This talk gives the design, advantages and limitations of the tpl-sensor along with its applications to the measurementof thermal properties in a variety of materials.

Maqsood, Asghari; Anis-ur-Rehman, M.

2013-12-01

87

Solute Field across Diffuse Interface during Transient Process of Binary Alloys Solidification in Phase Field Mode  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The establishment of solute boundary layer is studied by using a quantitative phase field model during the initial transient stage of binary alloys solidification. Results reveal that the time-dependent solute distribution shows good agreements with the previous analytical results. The planar instability is discussed according to the time-dependent constitutional supercooling with different pulling velocities. Moreover, the critical pulling velocity of planar instability can be obtained by investigating the interface velocity of the critical instability with different pulling velocities.

Wang, Zhijun; Wang, Jincheng; Yang, Gencang

88

Enhancing the Social Capital of Learning Communities by Using an Ad Hoc Transient Communities Service  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In online learning, communities can help to enhance learning. However, because of the dynamic nature of communities, attaining and sustaining these communities can be difficult. One aspect that has an influence on, and is influenced by these dynamics is the social capital of a community. Features of social capital are the social network structure, the sense of belonging and, the support received and provided. It is hypothesized that these features can be improved by using Ad Hoc Transient Communities (AHTCs). Through an AHTC learners are brought together for a specific, learning-related goal (‘ad hoc’) and for only a limited amount of time (‘transience’). To test whether the use of AHTCs has a positive influence on the social capital, a learner support service which enables the use of AHTCs is proposed. Furthermore, requirements, prerequisites, and future research are discussed.

Fetter, Sibren; Berlanga, Adriana J.; Sloep, Peter

89

Approach to asymptotically diffusive behavior for Brownian particles in periodic potentials: Extracting information from transients  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A Langevin process describing diffusion in a periodic potential landscape has a time-dependent diffusion constant, which means that its average mean-squared displacement (MSD) only becomes linear at late times. The long-time, or effective diffusion, constant can be estimated from the slope of a linear fit of the MSD at late times. Due to the crossover between a short time microscopic diffusion constant, which is independent of the potential, to the effective late-time diffusion constant, a linear fit of the MSD will not in general pass through the origin and will have a nonzero constant term. Here we address how to compute the constant term and provide explicit results for Brownian particles in one dimension in periodic potentials. We show that the constant is always positive and that at low temperatures it depends on the curvature of the minimum of the potential. For comparison we also consider the same question for the simpler problem of a symmetric continuous time random walk in discrete space. Here the constant can be positive or negative and can be used to determine the variance of the hopping time distribution.

Dean, David S.; Oshanin, Gleb

2014-08-01

90

Nitrogen diffusion enhancement in a ferrous alloy by deuterium isotopic effect  

SciTech Connect

Studies of nitrogen implantation in an iron alloy using photoemission electron spectroscopy, sputtered neutral mass spectrometry, and elastic recoil detection analysis, reveal an enhancement of nitrogen diffusion when deuterium replaces hydrogen in the gas. Compared to hydrogen, deuterium reduces NO{sub x} species on the surface (geometric barrier), increasing the nitrogen activity at the surface and consequently nitrogen diffusion into the solid solution.

Figueroa, C. A.; Czerwiec, T.; Driemeier, C.; Baumvol, I. J. R.; Weber, S. [Instituto de Fisica 'Gleb Wataghin', Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Unicamp, 13083-970, Campinas, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Laboratoire de Science et Genie des Surfaces (UMR CNRS 7570), Institut National Polytechnique de Lorraine, Ecole des Mines de Nancy, Parc de Saurupt, 54042 Nancy Cedex (France); Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Rio Grande do Sul, UFRGS, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Laboratoire de Physique des Materiaux (UMR CNRS 7556), Ecole des Mines, Parc de Saurupt, 54042 Nancy Cedex (France)

2007-06-01

91

Evolution Nonlinear Diffusion-Convection PDE Models for Spectrogram Enhancement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In previous works we studied the application of PDE-based image processing techniques applied to the spectrogram of audio signals in order to improve the readability of the signal. In particular we considered the implementation of the nonlinear diffusive model proposed by Álvarez, Lions and Morel [1](ALM) combined with a convective term inspired by the differential reassignment proposed by Chassandre-Mottin, Daubechies, Auger and Flandrin [2]-[3]. In this work we consider the possibility of replacing the diffusive model of ALM by diffusive terms in divergence form. In particular we implement finite element approximations of nonlinear diffusive terms studied by Chen, Levine, Rao [4] and Antontsev, Shmarev [5]-[8] with a convective term.

Dugnol, B.; Fernández, C.; Galiano, G.; Velasco, J.

2008-09-01

92

Temperature-dependent radiation-enhanced diffusion in ion-bombarded solids  

SciTech Connect

Temperature-dependent radiation-enhanced-diffusion rates for Ag in Ni have been found to decrease at elevated temperatures. The observed narrowing of interface interdiffusion regions with increasing temperature depends on both defect concentration and migration processes which occur in ion-bombarded solids. These findings can be interpreted in terms of a general model of radiation-enhanced diffusion that involves long-lived complex defects which can migrate for large distances and which are themselves subject to annealing.

Marton, D.; Fine, J.; Chambers, G.P.

1988-12-05

93

Stability of the SUPG finite element method for transient advection–diffusion problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Implicit time integration coupled with SUPG discretization in space leads to additional terms that provide consistency and improve the phase accuracy for convection dominated flows. Recently, it has been suggested that for small Courant numbers these terms may dominate the streamline diffusion term, ostensibly causing destabilization of the SUPG method. While consistent with a straightforward finite element stability analysis, this

Pavel B. Bochev; Max D. Gunzburger; John N. Shadid

2004-01-01

94

Stability of Streamline Upwind Petrov-Galerkin (SUPG) finite elements for transient advection-diffusion problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

Implicit time integration coupled with SUPG discretization in space leads to additional terms that provide consistency and improve the phase accuracy for convection dominated flows. Recently, it has been suggested that for small Courant numbers these terms may dominate the streamline diffusion term, ostensibly causing destabilization of the SUPG method. While consistent with a straightforward finite element stability analysis, this

John Nicolas Shadid; Pavel Blagoveston Bochev; Max Donald Gunzburger

2003-01-01

95

On the Maxwell-Stefan approach to diffusion: a general resolution in the transient regime for one-dimensional systems.  

PubMed

The diffusion process in a multicomponent system can be formulated in a general form by the generalized Maxwell-Stefan equations. This formulation is able to describe the diffusion process in different systems, such as, for instance, bulk diffusion (in the gas, liquid, and solid phase) and diffusion in microporous materials (membranes, zeolites, nanotubes, etc.). The Maxwell-Stefan equations can be solved analytically (only in special cases) or by numerical approaches. Different numerical strategies have been previously presented, but the number of diffusing species is normally restricted, with only few exceptions, to three in bulk diffusion and to two in microporous systems, unless simplifications of the Maxwell-Stefan equations are considered. In the literature, a large effort has been devoted to the derivation of the analytic expression of the elements of the Fick-like diffusion matrix and therefore to the symbolic inversion of a square matrix with dimensions n x n (n being the number of independent components). This step, which can be easily performed for n = 2 and remains reasonable for n = 3, becomes rapidly very complex in problems with a large number of components. This paper addresses the problem of the numerical resolution of the Maxwell-Stefan equations in the transient regime for a one-dimensional system with a generic number of components, avoiding the definition of the analytic expression of the elements of the Fick-like diffusion matrix. To this aim, two approaches have been implemented in a computational code; the first is the simple finite difference second-order accurate in time Crank-Nicolson scheme for which the full mathematical derivation and the relevant final equations are reported. The second is based on the more accurate backward differentiation formulas, BDF, or Gear's method (Shampine, L. F. ; Gear, C. W. SIAM Rev. 1979, 21, 1.), as implemented in the Livermore solver for ordinary differential equations, LSODE (Hindmarsh, A. C. Serial Fortran Solvers for ODE Initial Value Problems, Technical Report; https://computation.llnl.gov/casc/odepack/odepack_ home.html (2006).). Both methods have been applied to a series of specific problems, such as bulk diffusion of acetone and methanol through stagnant air, uptake of two components on a microporous material in a model system, and permeation across a microporous membrane in model systems, both with the aim to validate the method and to add new information to the comprehension of the peculiar behavior of these systems. The approach is validated by comparison with different published results and with analytic expressions for the steady-state concentration profiles or fluxes in particular systems. The possibility to treat a generic number of components (the limitation being essentially the computational power) is also tested, and results are reported on the permeation of a five component mixture through a membrane in a model system. It is worth noticing that the algorithm here reported can be applied also to the Fick formulation of the diffusion problem with concentration-dependent diffusion coefficients. PMID:20000727

Leonardi, Erminia; Angeli, Celestino

2010-01-14

96

Transient Natural Convection Flow with Cosinusoidally Fluctuating Thermal and Mass Diffusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The problem of a transient natural convection flow of a viscous incompressible fluid past a permeable (porous) flat plate with the temperature and concentration cosinusoidally fluctuating with time is considered. The equations of mass, momentum, and energy conservation that govern the heat and mass transfer problem are solved analytically with the use of the regular perturbation technique. Explicit expressions for the velocity, temperature, and concentration are obtained. Numerical evaluation of the analytical results is performed, and graphical results for the flow characteristics, skin friction, and the rate of heat transfer are presented and discussed.

Sharma, P. K.; Saini, S. K.

2014-11-01

97

Experimental correlations for transient soot measurement in diesel exhaust aerosol with light extinction, electrical mobility and diffusion charger sensor techniques  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A study of soot measurement deviation using a diffusion charger sensor with three dilution ratios was conducted in order to obtain an optimum setting that can be used to obtain accurate measurements in terms of soot mass emitted by a light-duty diesel engine under transient operating conditions. The paper includes three experimental phases: an experimental validation of the measurement settings in steady-state operating conditions; evaluation of the proposed setting under the New European Driving Cycle; and a study of correlations for different measurement techniques. These correlations provide a reliable tool for estimating soot emission from light extinction measurement or from accumulation particle mode concentration. There are several methods and correlations to estimate soot concentration in the literature but most of them were assessed for steady-state operating points. In this case, the correlations are obtained by more than 4000 points measured in transient conditions. The results of the new two correlations, with less than 4% deviation from the reference measurement, are presented in this paper.

Bermúdez, Vicente; Pastor, José V.; López, J. Javier; Campos, Daniel

2014-06-01

98

EFFECTS OF SERIES AND SHUNT FACTS DEVICES IN TRANSIENT STABILITY ENHANCEMENT OF MULTI-MACHINE POWER SYSTEMS  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper a study is performed on Transient Stability enhancement in multi-machine power systems using Unified Power Flow Controller (UPFC). The paper uses the Injection Model of UPFC and series quadrature voltage injection and shunt compensation used for oscillation damping and then the effects of series and shunt compensation separately and together analyzed. Then different locations for UPFC in

S. Javad Sajjadi; M. Hasan Mohseninejad; Saeed Afsharnia

99

Fiber-Driven Resolution Enhancement of Diffusion-Weighted Images  

PubMed Central

Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), while giving rich information about brain circuitry, is often limited by insufficient spatial resolution and low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). This paper describes an algorithm that will increase the resolution of DW images beyond the scan resolution, allowing for a closer investigation of fiber structures and more accurate assessment of brain connectivity. The algorithm is capable of generating a dense vector-valued field, consisting of diffusion data associated with the full set of diffusion-sensitizing gradients. The fundamental premise is that, to best preserve information, interpolation should always be performed along axonal fibers. To achieve this, at each spatial location, we probe neighboring voxels in various directions to gather diffusion information for data interpolation. Based on the fiber orientation distribution function (ODF), directions that are more likely to be traversed by fibers will be given greater weights during interpolation and vice versa. This ensures that data interpolation is only contributed by diffusion data coming from fibers that are aligned with a specific direction. This approach respects local fiber structures and prevents blurring resulting from averaging of data from significantly misaligned fibers. Evaluations suggest that this algorithm yields results with significantly less blocking artifacts, greater smoothness in anatomical structures, and markedly improved structural visibility. PMID:24060317

Yap, Pew-Thian; An, Hongyu; Chen, Yasheng; Shen, Dinggang

2013-01-01

100

Localized Reversible Reduction of Apparent Diffusion Coefficient in Transient Hypoglycemia-Induced Hemiparesis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and Purpose—The pathophysiology of hypoglycemia shares a common mechanism with cerebral ischemia, but so far, little is known regarding MRI of humans with hypoglycemia. Methods—We report a patient with left hemiparesis and dysarthria associated with a blood glucose level of 1.7 mmol\\/L. The patient recovered completely after glucose infusion. Results—The initial diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) showed increased signal intensities and

J. Bottcher; A. Kunze; C. Kurrat; P. Schmidt; G. Hagemann; O. W. Witte; W. A. Kaiser

2005-01-01

101

Transient Evolution of a Planar Diffusion Flame Aft of a Translating Flat Plate  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The high degree of spatial symmetry of a planar diffusion flame affords great simplifications for experimental and modeling studies of gaseous fuel combustion. Particularly, in a microgravity environment, where buoyancy effects are negligible, an effectively strain-rate-free, vigorous flame may be obtained. Such a flame can also provide long residence times and large length scales for practical probing of flame structures and soot processes. This 2-D numerical study explores the feasibility of establishing such a planar diffusion flame in an enclosed container utilizing a realistic test protocol for a microgravity experiment. Fuel and oxygen mixtures, initially segregated into two half-volumes of a squat rectangular container by a thin separator, are ignited as soon as a flammable mixture is formed in the wake of the separator withdrawn in the centerplane. A triple-flame ensues that propagates behind the trailing edge of the separator. The results of calculations show that the mechanically- and thermally-induced convection decays in about two seconds. The establishment of a planar diffusion flame after this period seems feasible in the central region of the container with sufficient quantities of reactants left over for subsequent studies. An analysis of the flame initiation and formation process suggests how the feasibility of creating such a flame can be further improved.

Gokoglu, Suleyman A.

2003-01-01

102

2.5D Fractional Diffusion Analysis of The Electromagnetic Field Generated By A Transient Loop Source In Fractured Mediums  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A 2.5D finite difference (FD) frequency-domain modeling based on the Continuous Time Random Walk theory (CTRW) to the diffusion of electromagnetic fields generated by a transient loop source over a porous geological media is presented. The CTRW theory is demonstrated to be a powerful tool to concisely describe a transport process in fractal mediums with complex structures (Scher and Lax 1973, Metzler and Klafter 2000). In the controlled-source electromagnetic (CSEM) induction setting, the diffusion of Eddy currents in a rough medium is governed by the fractional differential EM equations in a CTRW sense (Everett 2009). We use staggered finite difference (FD) approach to discretize the equations in frequency domain. The biconjugate gradient iterative solver is implemented to solve sparse matrix equations. We compare the FD solutions with analytical solutions to a half space model to verify the accuracy of our code. Then FD solutions are calculated for a model with a 2D block fractured structures included in a homogeneous space. Via displaying the high sensitivity of the spatial variation of Ey fields to the geoelectrical properties and roughness of the block, we are able to show the potential of combination of CTRW theory with CSEM method in detecting unknown fractured targets in subsurface.

Ge, J.; Everett, M. E.; Weiss, C. J.

2011-12-01

103

Transient local resistivity maximum during temperature-dependent oxygen diffusion in YBa 2Cu 3O 7- ? thin films  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have investigated the oxygen diffusion behavior by means of electric resistivity measurements on epitaxial, c-axis-oriented YBa 2Cu 3O 7- ? thin films in the temperature regime up to 800 K. A pronounced transient local resistivity maximum (TRM) was observed at about T=600 K during the first post-deposition heat treatment of the films in 900 mbar pure oxygen atmosphere. In the subsequent heating procedures this distinct maximum was not observed anymore. This temperature- and time-dependent effect appears to be associated with the dissociation of molecular oxygen on the sample surface representing an important step in the in-diffusion of oxygen. Changes in the surface microstructure and roughness during the first post-deposition heat treatment in molecular oxygen atmosphere appear to strongly facilitate the oxygen dissociation and to produce proper catalytic centers for this process. This model is supported by detailed experimental TRM studies investigating the influence of the following parameters: partial pressure of the molecular oxygen, film thickness, microstructure of off-axis pulsed laser deposited and hollow-cathode magnetron sputtered YBa 2Cu 3O 7- ? films, surface roughness, and passivation by means of a Si-C-H-O-N overlay film.

Kittelberger, S.; Bolz, U.; Huebener, R. P.; Holzapfel, B.; Mex, L.; Schwarzer, R. A.

1999-01-01

104

Revisiting Taylor Dispersion: Differential enhancement of rotational and translational diffusion under oscillatory shear  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The idea of Taylor dispersion - enhancement of translational diffusion under shear - has found applications in fields from pharmacology to chemical engineering. Here, in a combination of experiment and simulations, we study the translational and rotational diffusion of colloidal dimers under triangle-wave oscillatory shear. We find that the rotational diffusion is enhanced, in addition to the enhanced translational diffusion. This ``rotational Taylor dispersion'' depends strongly on the strain rate (Peclet number), aspect ratio, and the shear strain, in contradistinction to translational Taylor dispersion in a shear flow, which depends only weakly on strain rate and aspect ratio. This separate tunability of translations and orientations promises important applications in mixing and self-assembly of solutions of anisometric colloids. We discuss the corresponding effect on the structure and rheology of denser suspensions of rod-like particles.

Leahy, Brian; Ong, Desmond; Cheng, Xiang; Cohen, Itai

2013-03-01

105

Boron-enhanced diffusion of boron from ultralow-energy boron implantation  

SciTech Connect

The authors have investigated the diffusion enhancement mechanism of BED (boron enhanced diffusion), wherein the boron diffusivity is enhanced three to four times over the equilibrium diffusivity at 1,050 C in the proximity of a silicon layer containing a high boron concentration. It is shown that BED is associated with the formation of a fine-grain polycrystalline silicon boride phase within an initially amorphous Si layer having a high B concentration. For 0.5 keV B{sup +}, the threshold implantation dose which leads to BED lies between 3 {times} 10{sup 14} and of 1 {times} 10{sup 15}/cm{sup {minus}2}. Formation of the shallowest possible junctions by 0.5 keV B{sup +} requires that the implant dose be kept lower than this threshold.

Agarwal, A.; Eaglesham, D.J.; Gossmann, H.J.; Pelaz, L.; Herner, S.B.; Jacobson, D.C. [Lucent Technologies, Murray Hill, NJ (United States). Bell Labs.; Haynes, T.E. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Solid State Div.; Erokhin, Y.E. [Eaton Corp., Beverly, MA (United States)

1998-05-03

106

Opto-Thermal Transient Emission Radiometry (OTTER) to image diffusion in nails in vivo.  

PubMed

This work describes the first application of Opto-Thermal Transient Emission Radiometry (OTTER), an infrared remote sensing technique, to probe the extent to which solvents permeate the human nail in vivo. Decanol, glycerol and butyl acetate were selected as model solvents. After application of the solvents, individually, to human volunteers, OTTER was used to depth profile the solvents. The permeation rate of the solvents was ranked as glycerol>decanol>butyl acetate. It is possible that some of the butyl acetate may have evaporated during the experiment. The ability of decanol to extract lipids from biological tissue is also considered. These preliminary results demonstrate the potential of OTTER as a tool to identify optimal excipients with which to target drugs to the nail. PMID:21251961

Xiao, P; Zheng, X; Imhof, R E; Hirata, K; McAuley, W J; Mateus, R; Hadgraft, J; Lane, M E

2011-03-15

107

Kinetic Ignition Enhancement of Diffusion Flames by Nonequilibrium Magnetic Gliding Arc Plasma  

E-print Network

Kinetic Ignition Enhancement of Diffusion Flames by Nonequilibrium Magnetic Gliding Arc Plasma Drexel University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 DOI: 10.2514/1.33005 Kinetic ignition enhancement of of ignition temperatures and major species, as well as computations of rates of production and sensitivity

Ju, Yiguang

108

Venturi diffusers as enhancing devices for the dilution process in desalination plant brine discharges  

Microsoft Academic Search

Brine discharges from desalination plants spread out over broad spatial scales, affecting the benthic communities encountered along the way. Because of this, it is essential to develop technology enhancement initiatives for brine discharge processes that are economically feasible and effective for both planned and existing desalination plants. The technical feasibility of using venturi diffusers rather than conventional devices to enhance

E. Portillo; G. Louzara; M. Ruiz de la Rosa; J. Quesada; J. C. Gonzalez; F. Roque; M. Antequera; H. Mendoza

2012-01-01

109

Persistent wind-induced enhancement of diffusive CO2 transport in a mountain forest snowpack  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pressure pumping causes ventilation of trace gases from a seasonal snowpackPressure pumping enhances trace gas transport beyond the rate of molecular diffusionEnhanced transport is 40% higher in the short term but 8%–11% higher over a winter

D. R. Bowling; W. J. Massman

2011-01-01

110

Enhanced Diffusion in Quasi-Two-Dimensional Suspensions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the Brownian motion of quasi-two-dimensional suspensions of micron-sized particles parallel to a single wall. The dynamics of a suspension near a single wall has two characteristics; the self diffusivity is smaller than in unconfined suspensions, and the hydrodynamic interactions between particles decay with inter-particle distance r, as 1/r^3. We track the motion of silica beads that sediment to the sample floor due to their high density. Screened Coulomb interactions between the bottom glass wall and the heavily charged surface of the beads maintain the beads floating a few hundred nanometers above the wall. We follow the change in the self diffusivity and hydrodynamic interactions as a function of particle area fraction in the sedimented monolayer, ?. As expected, the self diffusion decreases as ? increases; however, at large ?, we observed an increase in self diffusivity. We also observe strongly correlated motion between particles separated by a distance much larger than their distance from the wall. This long-range hydrodynamic coupling has non-trivial dependence on particles' density. Some possible explanations for these observations will be discussed.

Sonn, Adar; Diamant, Haim; Roichman, Yael

2013-03-01

111

Performance enhancement of PV solar system by diffused reflection  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various methods are being adopted to enhance the performance of a solar panel. The most common method is to track the sun for performance enhancement. Such method needs complicated control and drive circuits for implementation. Also, the power required for the tracking motor has to be provided by the solar panel and the battery system. Although better performance is achievable

Rizwan ur Rahman; Dewan Ishtiaque Ahmed; Mufrad Ahmed Fahmi; Tithi Tasnuva; M. Fayyaz Khan

2009-01-01

112

Cardiac Amyloidosis: Typical Imaging Findings and Diffuse Myocardial Damage Demonstrated by Delayed Contrast-Enhanced MRI  

SciTech Connect

Amyloidosis is a rare systemic disease. However, involvement of the heart is a common finding and is the most frequent cause of death in amyloidosis. We report the sonographic, scintigraphic, and MRI features of a pathologically proven case of cardiac amyloidosis. Delayed contrast-enhanced MR images, using an inversion recovery prepped gradient-echo sequence, revealed diffuse enhancement in the wall of both left and right ventricles. This enhancement suggested expansion of the extracellular space of the myocardium caused by diffuse myocardial necrosis secondary to deposition of amyloid.

Sueyoshi, Eijun, E-mail: EijunSueyoshi@aol.com; Sakamoto, Ichiro; Okimoto, Tomoaki; Hayashi, Kuniaki [Nagasaki University School of Medicine, Department of Radiology (Japan); Tanaka, Kyouei; Toda, Genji [Nagasaki University School of Medicine, Department of Cardiology (Japan)

2006-08-15

113

A hybrid preprocessing method using geometry based diffusion and elective enhancement filtering for pulmonary nodule detection  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The computer aided diagnostic (CAD) system has been developed to assist radiologist for early detection and analysis of lung nodules. For pulmonary nodule detection, image preprocessing is required to remove the anatomical structure of lung parenchyma and to enhance the visibility of pulmonary nodules. In this paper a hybrid preprocessing technique using geometry based diffusion and selective enhancement filtering have been proposed. This technique provides a unified preprocessing framework for solid nodule as well as ground glass opacity (GGO) nodules. Geometry based diffusion is applied to smooth the images by preserving the boundary. In order to improve the sensitivity of pulmonary nodule detection, selective enhancement filter is used to highlight blob like structure. But selective enhancement filter sometimes enhances the structures like blood vessel and airways other than nodule and results in large number of false positive. In first step, geometry based diffusion (GBD) is applied for reduction of false positive and in second step, selective enhancement filtering is used for further reduction of false negative. Geometry based diffusion and selective enhancement filtering has been used as preprocessing step separately but their combined effect was not investigated earlier. This hybrid preprocessing approach is suitable for accurate calculation of voxel based features. The proposed method has been validated on one public database named Lung Image Database Consortium (LIDC) containing 50 nodules (30 solid and 20 GGO nodule) from 30 subjects and one private database containing 40 nodules (25 solid and 15 GGO nodule) from 30 subjects.

Dhara, Ashis K.; Mukhopadhyay, Sudipta

2012-03-01

114

Cholesterol enhances surface water diffusion of phospholipid bilayers  

SciTech Connect

Elucidating the physical effect of cholesterol (Chol) on biological membranes is necessary towards rationalizing their structural and functional role in cell membranes. One of the debated questions is the role of hydration water in Chol-embedding lipid membranes, for which only little direct experimental data are available. Here, we study the hydration dynamics in a series of Chol-rich and depleted bilayer systems using an approach termed {sup 1}H Overhauser dynamic nuclear polarization (ODNP) NMR relaxometry that enables the sensitive and selective determination of water diffusion within 5–10 Å of a nitroxide-based spin label, positioned off the surface of the polar headgroups or within the nonpolar core of lipid membranes. The Chol-rich membrane systems were prepared from mixtures of Chol, dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine and/or dioctadecyl phosphatidylcholine lipid that are known to form liquid-ordered, raft-like, domains. Our data reveal that the translational diffusion of local water on the surface and within the hydrocarbon volume of the bilayer is significantly altered, but in opposite directions: accelerated on the membrane surface and dramatically slowed in the bilayer interior with increasing Chol content. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) lineshape analysis shows looser packing of lipid headgroups and concurrently tighter packing in the bilayer core with increasing Chol content, with the effects peaking at lipid compositions reported to form lipid rafts. The complementary capability of ODNP and EPR to site-specifically probe the hydration dynamics and lipid ordering in lipid membrane systems extends the current understanding of how Chol may regulate biological processes. One possible role of Chol is the facilitation of interactions between biological constituents and the lipid membrane through the weakening or disruption of strong hydrogen-bond networks of the surface hydration layers that otherwise exert stronger repulsive forces, as reflected in faster surface water diffusivity. Another is the concurrent tightening of lipid packing that reduces passive, possibly unwanted, diffusion of ions and water across the bilayer.

Cheng, Chi-Yuan; Kausik, Ravinath; Han, Songi, E-mail: songi@chem.ucsb.edu [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry and Materials Research Laboratory, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Olijve, Luuk L. C. [Laboratory of Macromolecular and Organic Chemistry and Institute for Complex Molecular Systems, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB, Eindhoven (Netherlands)

2014-12-14

115

Cholesterol enhances surface water diffusion of phospholipid bilayers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Elucidating the physical effect of cholesterol (Chol) on biological membranes is necessary towards rationalizing their structural and functional role in cell membranes. One of the debated questions is the role of hydration water in Chol-embedding lipid membranes, for which only little direct experimental data are available. Here, we study the hydration dynamics in a series of Chol-rich and depleted bilayer systems using an approach termed 1H Overhauser dynamic nuclear polarization (ODNP) NMR relaxometry that enables the sensitive and selective determination of water diffusion within 5-10 Å of a nitroxide-based spin label, positioned off the surface of the polar headgroups or within the nonpolar core of lipid membranes. The Chol-rich membrane systems were prepared from mixtures of Chol, dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine and/or dioctadecyl phosphatidylcholine lipid that are known to form liquid-ordered, raft-like, domains. Our data reveal that the translational diffusion of local water on the surface and within the hydrocarbon volume of the bilayer is significantly altered, but in opposite directions: accelerated on the membrane surface and dramatically slowed in the bilayer interior with increasing Chol content. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) lineshape analysis shows looser packing of lipid headgroups and concurrently tighter packing in the bilayer core with increasing Chol content, with the effects peaking at lipid compositions reported to form lipid rafts. The complementary capability of ODNP and EPR to site-specifically probe the hydration dynamics and lipid ordering in lipid membrane systems extends the current understanding of how Chol may regulate biological processes. One possible role of Chol is the facilitation of interactions between biological constituents and the lipid membrane through the weakening or disruption of strong hydrogen-bond networks of the surface hydration layers that otherwise exert stronger repulsive forces, as reflected in faster surface water diffusivity. Another is the concurrent tightening of lipid packing that reduces passive, possibly unwanted, diffusion of ions and water across the bilayer.

Cheng, Chi-Yuan; Olijve, Luuk L. C.; Kausik, Ravinath; Han, Songi

2014-12-01

116

Cholesterol enhances surface water diffusion of phospholipid bilayers.  

PubMed

Elucidating the physical effect of cholesterol (Chol) on biological membranes is necessary towards rationalizing their structural and functional role in cell membranes. One of the debated questions is the role of hydration water in Chol-embedding lipid membranes, for which only little direct experimental data are available. Here, we study the hydration dynamics in a series of Chol-rich and depleted bilayer systems using an approach termed (1)H Overhauser dynamic nuclear polarization (ODNP) NMR relaxometry that enables the sensitive and selective determination of water diffusion within 5-10 Å of a nitroxide-based spin label, positioned off the surface of the polar headgroups or within the nonpolar core of lipid membranes. The Chol-rich membrane systems were prepared from mixtures of Chol, dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine and/or dioctadecyl phosphatidylcholine lipid that are known to form liquid-ordered, raft-like, domains. Our data reveal that the translational diffusion of local water on the surface and within the hydrocarbon volume of the bilayer is significantly altered, but in opposite directions: accelerated on the membrane surface and dramatically slowed in the bilayer interior with increasing Chol content. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) lineshape analysis shows looser packing of lipid headgroups and concurrently tighter packing in the bilayer core with increasing Chol content, with the effects peaking at lipid compositions reported to form lipid rafts. The complementary capability of ODNP and EPR to site-specifically probe the hydration dynamics and lipid ordering in lipid membrane systems extends the current understanding of how Chol may regulate biological processes. One possible role of Chol is the facilitation of interactions between biological constituents and the lipid membrane through the weakening or disruption of strong hydrogen-bond networks of the surface hydration layers that otherwise exert stronger repulsive forces, as reflected in faster surface water diffusivity. Another is the concurrent tightening of lipid packing that reduces passive, possibly unwanted, diffusion of ions and water across the bilayer. PMID:25494784

Cheng, Chi-Yuan; Olijve, Luuk L C; Kausik, Ravinath; Han, Songi

2014-12-14

117

Stability of Streamline Upwind Petrov-Galerkin (SUPG) finite elements for transient advection-diffusion problems.  

SciTech Connect

Implicit time integration coupled with SUPG discretization in space leads to additional terms that provide consistency and improve the phase accuracy for convection dominated flows. Recently, it has been suggested that for small Courant numbers these terms may dominate the streamline diffusion term, ostensibly causing destabilization of the SUPG method. While consistent with a straightforward finite element stability analysis, this contention is not supported by computational experiments and contradicts earlier Von-Neumann stability analyses of the semidiscrete SUPG equations. This prompts us to re-examine finite element stability of the fully discrete SUPG equations. A careful analysis of the additional terms reveals that, regardless of the time step size, they are always dominated by the consistent mass matrix. Consequently, SUPG cannot be destabilized for small Courant numbers. Numerical results that illustrate our conclusions are reported.

Shadid, John Nicolas; Bochev, Pavel Blagoveston; Gunzburger, Max Donald (Florida State University, Tallahasse, FL)

2003-09-01

118

Enhancement of microhomology-mediated genomic rearrangements by transient loss of mouse Bloom syndrome helicase  

PubMed Central

Bloom syndrome, an autosomal recessive disorder of the BLM gene, confers predisposition to a broad spectrum of early-onset cancers in multiple tissue types. Loss of genomic integrity is a primary hallmark of such human malignancies, but many studies using disease-affected specimens are limited in that they are retrospective and devoid of an appropriate experimental control. To overcome this, we devised an experimental system to recapitulate the early molecular events in genetically engineered mouse embryonic stem cells, in which cells undergoing loss of heterozygosity (LOH) can be enriched after inducible down-regulation of Blm expression, with or without site-directed DNA double-strand break (DSB) induction. Transient loss of BLM increased the rate of LOH, whose breakpoints were distributed along the chromosome. Combined with site-directed DSB induction, loss of BLM synergistically increased the rate of LOH and concentrated the breakpoints around the targeted chromosomal region. We characterized the LOH events using specifically tailored genomic tools, such as high-resolution array comparative genomic hybridization and high-density single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping, revealing that the combination of BLM suppression and DSB induction enhanced genomic rearrangements, including deletions and insertions, whose breakpoints were clustered in genomic inverted repeats and associated with junctional microhomologies. Our experimental approach successfully uncovered the detailed molecular mechanisms of as-yet-uncharacterized loss of heterozygosities and reveals the significant contribution of microhomology-mediated genomic rearrangements, which could be widely applicable to the early steps of cancer formation in general. PMID:23908384

Yamanishi, Ayako; Yusa, Kosuke; Horie, Kyoji; Tokunaga, Masahiro; Kusano, Kohji; Kokubu, Chikara; Takeda, Junji

2013-01-01

119

Canonical Wnt signaling transiently stimulates proliferation and enhances neurogenesis in neonatal neural progenitor cultures  

SciTech Connect

Canonical Wnt signaling triggers the formation of heterodimeric transcription factor complexes consisting of {beta}-catenin and T cell factors, and thereby controls the execution of specific genetic programs. During the expansion and neurogenic phases of embryonic neural development canonical Wnt signaling initially controls proliferation of neural progenitor cells, and later neuronal differentiation. Whether Wnt growth factors affect neural progenitor cells postnatally is not known. Therefore, we have analyzed the impact of Wnt signaling on neural progenitors isolated from cerebral cortices of newborn mice. Expression profiling of pathway components revealed that these cells are fully equipped to respond to Wnt signals. However, Wnt pathway activation affected only a subset of neonatal progenitors and elicited a limited increase in proliferation and neuronal differentiation in distinct subsets of cells. Moreover, Wnt pathway activation only transiently stimulated S-phase entry but did not support long-term proliferation of progenitor cultures. The dampened nature of the Wnt response correlates with the predominant expression of inhibitory pathway components and the rapid actuation of negative feedback mechanisms. Interestingly, in differentiating cell cultures activation of canonical Wnt signaling reduced Hes1 and Hes5 expression suggesting that during postnatal neural development, Wnt/{beta}-catenin signaling enhances neurogenesis from progenitor cells by interfering with Notch pathway activity.

Hirsch, Cordula [Institute of Molecular Medicine and Cell Research, Albert-Ludwigs-University Freiburg Stefan-Meier-Str. 17, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Campano, Louise M. [Institute of Molecular Medicine and Cell Research, Albert-Ludwigs-University Freiburg Stefan-Meier-Str. 17, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Woehrle, Simon [Institute of Molecular Medicine and Cell Research, Albert-Ludwigs-University Freiburg Stefan-Meier-Str. 17, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany); Hecht, Andreas [Institute of Molecular Medicine and Cell Research, Albert-Ludwigs-University Freiburg Stefan-Meier-Str. 17, D-79104 Freiburg (Germany)]. E-mail: andreas.hecht@mol-med.uni-freiburg.de

2007-02-01

120

A Multigroup diffusion solver using pseudo transient continuation for a radiation-hydrodynamic code with patch-based AMR  

SciTech Connect

We present a scheme to solve the nonlinear multigroup radiation diffusion (MGD) equations. The method is incorporated into a massively parallel, multidimensional, Eulerian radiation-hydrodynamic code with adaptive mesh refinement (AMR). The patch-based AMR algorithm refines in both space and time creating a hierarchy of levels, coarsest to finest. The physics modules are time-advanced using operator splitting. On each level, separate 'level-solve' packages advance the modules. Our multigroup level-solve adapts an implicit procedure which leads to a two-step iterative scheme that alternates between elliptic solves for each group with intra-cell group coupling. For robustness, we introduce pseudo transient continuation ({Psi}tc). We analyze the magnitude of the {Psi}tc parameter to ensure positivity of the resulting linear system, diagonal dominance and convergence of the two-step scheme. For AMR, a level defines a subdomain for refinement. For diffusive processes such as MGD, the refined level uses Dirichet boundary data at the coarse-fine interface and the data is derived from the coarse level solution. After advancing on the fine level, an additional procedure, the sync-solve (SS), is required in order to enforce conservation. The MGD SS reduces to an elliptic solve on a combined grid for a system of G equations, where G is the number of groups. We adapt the 'partial temperature' scheme for the SS; hence, we reuse the infrastructure developed for scalar equations. Results are presented. We consider a multigroup test problem with a known analytic solution. We demonstrate utility of {Psi}tc by running with increasingly larger timesteps. Lastly, we simulate the sudden release of energy Y inside an Al sphere (r = 15 cm) suspended in air at STP. For Y = 11 kT, we find that gray radiation diffusion and MGD produce similar results. However, if Y = 1 MT, the two packages yield different results. Our large Y simulation contradicts a long-standing theory and demonstrates the inadequacy of gray diffusion.

Shestakov, A I; Offner, S R

2006-09-21

121

A Multigroup diffusion Solver Using Pseudo Transient Continuation for a Radiaiton-Hydrodynamic Code with Patch-Based AMR  

SciTech Connect

We present a scheme to solve the nonlinear multigroup radiation diffusion (MGD) equations. The method is incorporated into a massively parallel, multidimensional, Eulerian radiation-hydrodynamic code with adaptive mesh refinement (AMR). The patch-based AMR algorithm refines in both space and time creating a hierarchy of levels, coarsest to finest. The physics modules are time-advanced using operator splitting. On each level, separate 'level-solve' packages advance the modules. Our multigroup level-solve adapts an implicit procedure which leads to a two-step iterative scheme that alternates between elliptic solves for each group with intra-cell group coupling. For robustness, we introduce pseudo transient continuation ({Psi}tc). We analyze the magnitude of the {Psi}tc parameter to ensure positivity of the resulting linear system, diagonal dominance and convergence of the two-step scheme. For AMR, a level defines a subdomain for refinement. For diffusive processes such as MGD, the refined level uses Dirichet boundary data at the coarse-fine interface and the data is derived from the coarse level solution. After advancing on the fine level, an additional procedure, the sync-solve (SS), is required in order to enforce conservation. The MGD SS reduces to an elliptic solve on a combined grid for a system of G equations, where G is the number of groups. We adapt the 'partial temperature' scheme for the SS; hence, we reuse the infrastructure developed for scalar equations. Results are presented. We consider a multigroup test problem with a known analytic solution. We demonstrate utility of {Psi}tc by running with increasingly larger timesteps. Lastly, we simulate the sudden release of energy Y inside an Al sphere (r = 15 cm) suspended in air at STP. For Y = 11 kT, we find that gray radiation diffusion and MGD produce similar results. However, if Y = 1 MT, the two packages yield different results. Our large Y simulation contradicts a long-standing theory and demonstrates the inadequacy of gray diffusion.

Shestakov, A I; Offner, S R

2007-03-02

122

Cosolute Paramagnetic Relaxation Enhancements Detect Transient Conformations of Human Uracil DNA Glycosylase (hUNG)  

PubMed Central

The human DNA repair enzyme uracil DNA glycosylase (hUNG) locates and excises rare uracil bases that arise in DNA from cytosine deamination or through dUTP incorporation by DNA polymerases. Previous NMR studies of hUNG have revealed millisecond time scale dynamic transitions in the enzyme-nonspecific DNA complex, but not the free enzyme, that were ascribed to a reversible clamping motion of the enzyme as it scans along short regions of duplex DNA in its search for uracil. Here we further probe the properties of the nonspecific DNA binding surface of {2H12C}{15N}-labeled hUNG using a neutral chelate of a paramagnetic Gd3+ cosolute (Gd(HP-DO3A)). Overall, the measured paramagnetic relaxation enhancements (PREs) on R2 of the backbone amide protons for free hUNG and its DNA complex were in good agreement with those calculated based on their relative exposure observed in the crystal structures of both enzyme forms. However, the calculated PREs systematically underestimated the experimental PREs by large amounts in discrete regions implicated in DNA recognition and catalysis: active site loops involved in DNA recognition (268–274, 246–250), the uracil binding pocket (143–148, 169–170), a transient extrahelical base binding site (214–216), and a remote hinge region (129–132) implicated in dynamic clamping. These reactive hot spots were not correlated with electrostatic, structural or hydrophobic properties that might be common to these regions, leaving the possibility that the effects arise from dynamic sampling of exposed conformations that are distinct from the static structures. Consistent with this suggestion, the above regions have been previously shown to be flexible based on relaxation dispersion measurements and course-grained normal mode analysis. A model is suggested where the intrinsic dynamic properties of these regions allows sampling of transient conformations where the backbone amide groups have greater average exposure to solvent as compared to the static structures. We conclude that PREs derived from the paramagnetic cosolute reveal dynamic hot spots in hUNG and that these regions are highly correlated with substrate binding and recognition. PMID:22077282

Sun, Yan; Friedman, Joshua I.; Stivers, James T.

2011-01-01

123

Diffusive transport enhancement by isolated resonances and distribution tails growth in hadronic beams  

SciTech Connect

The escape rates and evolution of a distribution of particles are considered for a 2-D model of transverse motion of particles in hadronic storage rings, when nonlinear resonances and external diffusion are present. Dynamic enhancement of diffusion inside separatrices can develop under a certain geometry of resonance oscillations and relatively wide resonances, leading to the fast growth of distribution tails and escape rates. The phenomenon is absent in 1-D. 10 refs., 4 figs.

Gerasimov, A.

1990-12-06

124

General treatment of paramagnetic relaxation enhancement associated with translational diffusion.  

PubMed

A theory of nuclear spin relaxation in isotropic liquids for nuclear spins interacting with electron spins, residing in other molecules (the outer-sphere relaxation), is presented. The approach, valid outside of the Redfield limit for electron spin relaxation, is an extension of the Swedish slow motion theory [Benetis et al., Mol. Phys. 48, 329 (1983); Nilsson and Kowalewski, J. Magn. Reson. 146, 345 (2000)] for inner-sphere relaxation. It is demonstrated that the outer-sphere relaxation rate can be expressed as an integral of a product of a translational diffusion correlation function and a function analogous to the inner-sphere spectral density. A numerical implementation of the theory is described and applied to a large number of realistic parameter sets for S = 7/2 and S = 1, which may correspond to Gd(III) and Ni(II) systems. It is shown that the outer-sphere contribution is relevant and should be included into the analysis of nuclear magnetic relaxation dispersion relaxation profiles, especially for slow relative translational diffusion and fast molecular tumbling. PMID:19425766

Kruk, D; Kowalewski, J

2009-05-01

125

Feed-Forward Transient Current Control for Low-Voltage Ride-Through Enhancement of DFIG Wind Turbines  

Microsoft Academic Search

High penetration of wind power requires reliable wind energy generation. A successful low-voltage ride-through (LVRT) scheme is a key requirement to achieve reliable and uninterrupted electrical power generation for wind turbines equipped with doubly fed induction generators (DFIGs). This paper proposes a feed-forward transient current control (FFTCC) scheme for the rotor side converter (RSC) of a DFIG to enhance its

Jiaqi Liang; Wei Qiao; Ronald G. Harley

2010-01-01

126

M3B2 and M5B3 Formation in Diffusion-Affected Zone During Transient Liquid Phase Bonding Single-Crystal Superalloys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Precipitates in the diffusion-affected zone (DAZ) during transient liquid phase bonding (TLP) single-crystal superalloys were observed and investigated. Small size and dendritic-shaped precipitates were identified to be M3B2 borides and intergrowth of M3B2/M5B3 borides. The orientation relationships among M3B2, M5B3, and matrix were determined using transmission electron microscope (TEM). Composition characteristics of these borides were also analyzed by TEM energy-dispersive spectrometer. Because this precipitating phenomenon deviates from the traditional parabolic transient liquid phase bonding model which assumed a precipitates free DAZ during TLP bonding, some correlations between the deviation of the isothermal solidification kinetics and these newly observed precipitating behaviors were discussed and rationalized when bonding the interlayer containing the high diffusivity melting point depressant elements and substrates of low solubility.

Sheng, Naicheng; Hu, Xiaobing; Liu, Jide; Jin, Tao; Sun, Xiaofeng; Hu, Zhuangqi

2015-04-01

127

M3B2 and M5B3 Formation in Diffusion-Affected Zone During Transient Liquid Phase Bonding Single-Crystal Superalloys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Precipitates in the diffusion-affected zone (DAZ) during transient liquid phase bonding (TLP) single-crystal superalloys were observed and investigated. Small size and dendritic-shaped precipitates were identified to be M3B2 borides and intergrowth of M3B2/M5B3 borides. The orientation relationships among M3B2, M5B3, and matrix were determined using transmission electron microscope (TEM). Composition characteristics of these borides were also analyzed by TEM energy-dispersive spectrometer. Because this precipitating phenomenon deviates from the traditional parabolic transient liquid phase bonding model which assumed a precipitates free DAZ during TLP bonding, some correlations between the deviation of the isothermal solidification kinetics and these newly observed precipitating behaviors were discussed and rationalized when bonding the interlayer containing the high diffusivity melting point depressant elements and substrates of low solubility.

Sheng, Naicheng; Hu, Xiaobing; Liu, Jide; Jin, Tao; Sun, Xiaofeng; Hu, Zhuangqi

2015-01-01

128

The role of diffusion in ferritin-induced relaxation enhancement of protons  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The influence of proton diffusion on nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxation was investigated in the presence of horse spleen ferritin at 7 T. Binary mixtures of water and glycerol were used to control diffusion within the range of 0.6-2.0 × 10-9 m2/s, which was confirmed by pulsed gradient techniques. The effect of chemical exchange by hydrolysis between water and glycerol on relaxation was characterized with Carr-Purcell-Meiboom-Gill (CPMG) dispersion experiments. The relaxation rate enhancement of the protons due to ferritin was found to be inversely proportional to the diffusion coefficient. The enhancement increased by a factor of 3.6 over the range of diffusion coefficients, while the hydroxyl proton concentration decreased by a factor of 1.3. This result is in disagreement with the proton exchange dephasing model, which is independent of diffusion but predicts an inverse dependence on the hydroxyl concentration. Our data indicate that the role of diffusion dominates and must be considered when relaxation rates are used to determine iron concentration in vivo.

Boss, Michael A.; Chris Hammel, P.

2012-04-01

129

Wrinkles enhance the diffuse reflection from the dragonfly Rhyothemis resplendens.  

PubMed

The dorsal surfaces of the hindwings of the dragonfly Rhyothemis resplendens (Odonata: Libellulidae) reflect a deep blue from the multilayer structure in its wing membrane. The layers within this structure are not flat, but distinctly 'wrinkled', with a thickness of several hundred nanometres and interwrinkle crest distances of 5 µm and greater. A comparison between the backscattered light from R. resplendens and a similar, but un-'wrinkled' multilayer in the damselfly Matronoides cyaneipennis (Odonata: Calopterygidae) shows that the angle over which incident light is backscattered is increased by the wrinkling in the R. resplendens structure. Whereas the reflection from the flat multilayer of M. cyaneipennis is effectively specular, the reflection from the wrinkled R. resplendens multilayer spans 1.47 steradians (equivalent to ±40° for all azimuthal angles). This property enhances the visibility of the static wing over a broader angle range than is normally associated with a smooth multilayer, thereby markedly increasing its conspicuousness. PMID:25540236

Nixon, M R; Orr, A G; Vukusic, P

2015-02-01

130

Evidence from simultaneous intracellular- and surface-pH transients that carbonic anhydrase IV enhances CO2 fluxes across Xenopus oocyte plasma membranes.  

PubMed

Human carbonic anhydrase IV (CA IV) is GPI-anchored to the outer membrane surface, catalyzing CO2/HCO3 (-) hydration-dehydration. We examined effects of heterologously expressed CA IV on intracellular-pH (pHi) and surface-pH (pHS) transients caused by exposing oocytes to CO2/HCO3 (-)/pH 7.50. CO2 influx causes a sustained pHi fall and a transient pHS rise; CO2 efflux does the opposite. Both during CO2 addition and removal, CA IV increases magnitudes of maximal rate of pHi change (dpHi/dt)max, and maximal pHS change (?pHS) and decreases time constants for pHi changes (?pHi ) and pHS relaxations (?pHS ). Decreases in time constants indicate that CA IV enhances CO2 fluxes. Extracellular acetazolamide blocks all CA IV effects, but not those of injected CA II. Injected acetazolamide partially reduces CA IV effects. Thus, extracellular CA is required for, and the equivalent of cytosol-accessible CA augments, the effects of CA IV. Increasing the concentration of the extracellular non-CO2/HCO3 (-) buffer (i.e., HEPES), in the presence of extracellular CA or at high [CO2], accelerates CO2 influx. Simultaneous measurements with two pHS electrodes, one on the oocyte meridian perpendicular to the axis of flow and one downstream from the direction of extracellular-solution flow, reveal that the downstream electrode has a larger (i.e., slower) ?pHS , indicating [CO2] asymmetry over the oocyte surface. A reaction-diffusion mathematical model (third paper in series) accounts for the above general features, and supports the conclusion that extracellular CA, which replenishes entering CO2 or consumes exiting CO2 at the extracellular surface, enhances the gradient driving CO2 influx across the cell membrane. PMID:24965590

Musa-Aziz, Raif; Occhipinti, Rossana; Boron, Walter F

2014-11-01

131

Enhanced diffusion due to active swimmers at a solid surface Gaston Mi~no1  

E-print Network

Enhanced diffusion due to active swimmers at a solid surface Gast´on Mi~no1 , Thomas E. Mallouk2 of active swimmers moving close to a solid surface, one being a living population of wild-type E. coli motors dispersed in a fluid display emergent properties that differ strongly from passive suspensions

132

Analysis of model equations for stress-enhanced diffusion in coal  

E-print Network

Analysis of model equations for stress-enhanced diffusion in coal layers Andro Mikeli´c Andro coal seams. A typical procedure is the injection of carbon dioxide via deviated wells drilled inside the coal seams. Carbon dioxide displaces the methane adsorbed on the internal surface of the coal

Segatti, Antonio

133

Effects of low-dose Si implantation damage on diffusion of phosphorus and arsenic in Si  

E-print Network

Effects of low-dose Si implantation damage on diffusion of phosphorus and arsenic in Si Heemyong of defects.In the caseof arsenic,previous resultscontradict eachother. Someresearchersshowedini- tial transient enhanced diffusion of arsenic during RTA,13*14while others observedno initial transient,15or only

Florida, University of

134

Enhanced Diffusion of Chlorinated Organic Compounds into Aquitards due to Cracking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Despite great efforts, remediation of sites contaminated with dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) is very challenging because, even at residual saturations, DNAPLs can act as a long-term source for a dissolved phase contaminant plume. Current models consider the possibility of diffusion and storage of these compounds in unfractured low permeability layers. However, there is a need to consider the impact of cracks, whether naturally occurring or induced by the interaction between low permeable layers and DNAPLs. To evaluate the impact on diffusive fluxes, diffusion coefficients were measured in low permeability materials representative of aquitards at steady-state using the time-lag method. The experimental setup comprised silty soil, packed into a retaining ring, sandwiched in between two reservoirs. The analytical solution for the time-lag method requires constant conditions in the upper and lower reservoirs. The lower reservoir contained pure trichloroethylene (TCE), while the upper reservoir was maintained at a concentration of zero by bubbling air through it, sweeping TCE into toluene trap. In order to predict the flux, the experimental effective diffusion coefficients were used to calculate the flux through uncracked matrix whereas bulk diffusion coefficient was used to calculate flux through the cracks. By using the experimentally-obtained diffusion coefficients and experimentally-measured crack intensity factors (the ratio of the area of cracks to the uncracked area), the total flux was estimated over extended time periods. These calculations, based on experimental data, were used to evaluate if diffusive-based fluxes in the presence of cracks were significantly greater than in the case of diffusion into an uncracked matrix. The enhanced diffusive fluxes were evaluated to determine whether there is the potential for significantly greater storage in the low permeable layers in the case of cracks, or whether the possibility of advective fluxes into the cracks needs to be considered as well.

Ayral, D.; Otero, M.; Chung, S.; Goltz, M. N.; Huang, J.; Demond, A. H.

2012-12-01

135

Differentiation of Reactive and Tumor Metastatic Lymph Nodes with Diffusion-weighted and SPIO Enhanced MRI  

PubMed Central

Objectives Determination of lymphatic metastasis is of great importance for both treatment planning and patient prognosis. We aim to distinguish tumor metastatic lymph nodes (TLNs) and reactive lymph nodes (RLNs) with diffusion-weighted and superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Materials and methods Ipsilateral popliteal lymph node metastasis or lymphadenitis model was established by hock injection of either luciferase-expressing 4T1 murine breast cancer cells or Complete Freund Adjuvant (CFA) in male Balb/C mice. At different time points after inoculation, bioluminescence imaging, T2-weighted, diffusion-weighted and SPIO enhanced MRI were performed. Imaging findings were confirmed by histopathological staining. Results Size enlargement was observed in both TLNs and RLNs. At day 28, TLNs showed strong bioluminescence signal and bigger size than RLNs (p < 0.01). At early stages up to day 21, both TLNs and RLNs appeared homogeneous on diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI). At day 28, TLNs showed heterogeneous apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) map with significantly higher average ADC value of 0.41 ± 0.03 × 10?3 mm2/s than that of RLNs (0.34 ± 0.02 10?3 mm2/s, p < 0.05). On SPIO enhanced MRI, both TLNs and RLNs showed distinct T2 signal reduction at day 21 after inoculation. At day 28, TLNs demonstrated partial uptake of the iron oxide particles, which was confirmed by Prussian blue staining. Conclusions Both diffusion-weighted and SPIO enhanced MRI can distinguish tumor metastatic lymph nodes from reactive lymph nodes. However, neither method is able to detect tumor metastasis to the draining lymph nodes at early stages. PMID:22588595

Zhang, Fan; Zhu, Lei; Huang, Xinglu; Niu, Gang; Chen, Siouan

2012-01-01

136

The Range of Diffusion Enhancement of B and P in Si during Thermal Oxidation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The lateral range of oxidation enhanced diffusion (OED) of B and P in Si is investigated using selective oxidation at 1100°C with directly formed Si3N4 films as oxidation resistant masks and FZ Si crystals as substrates. It is found that this OED range of B agrees well with that of P and that the range increases with oxidation time. The value of the range is found to be much larger than previously. The results can be explained using a model in which the range is determined by interstitial diffusion.

Mizuo, Shoichi; Higuchi, Hisayuki

1982-02-01

137

Primary diffuse leptomeningeal gliomatosis with signs of increased intracranial pressure and progressive meningeal enhancement on MRI.  

PubMed

A 21-year-old woman presented with a 5-month history of meningeal signs and evidence of intracranial hypertension and, as shown by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), progressively more extensive meningeal enhancement, particularly within the spinal canal. Autopsy disclosed the presence of primary diffuse leptomeningeal gliomatosis with spinal cord predominance, possibly arising within heterotopic leptomeningeal glial tissue in the cervical region. No parenchymal primary lesion was identified. MRI with gadolinium appears to be the imaging modality of choice for the early detection of primary diffuse leptomeningeal neoplasia. PMID:8903081

Park, J S; van den Noort, S; Kim, R C; Walot, I; Licht, H

1996-10-01

138

Oxidation-enhanced diffusion of ion-implanted boron in silicon in extrinsic conditions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oxidation-enhanced diffusion (OED) of ion-implanted boron has been studied in extrinsic conditions, i.e, in a high boron concentration range by a new isoconcentration method using secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS). In the isoconcentration method, 10B has been used as a tracer and 11B as a base, considering the SIMS measurement sensitivity. For isoconcentration diffusion at 950 and 1000 °C, diffusion coefficients both in N2 ambient and in dry O2 ambient increase with boron concentration in extrinsic conditions. The diffusion coefficient in dry O2 is larger than that in N2, i.e., OED is observed for boron concentration from intrinsic conditions to 1020 cm-3. The increment in the diffusion coefficient due to OED is constant for the boron concentration range of 2×1019-1×1020 cm-3, and is 2-3.5 times larger than that in intrinsic conditions. On the other hand, for boron implantation into intrinsic substrates, i.e., nonisoconcentration diffusion at 950 and 1000 °C, OED decreases with the dose and disappears at a 1015 cm-2 dose which has a peak boron concentration of about 4×1019 cm-3. The OED disappearance at the 1015 cm-2 dose is attributed to the loss of silicon interstitials by the residual damage due to implantation.

Miyake, Masayasu

1985-03-01

139

Diffusion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Diffusion is the net movement of particles from areas of high concentration (number of particles per unit area) to low concentration. In this activity, students use a molecular dynamics model to view the behavior of diffusion in gases and liquids.

2012-07-19

140

Voltage regulation and transient stability enhancement of a radial AC transmission system using UPFC  

Microsoft Academic Search

The unified power flow controller (UPFC) is a typical FACTS (flexible AC transmission systems) device that is capable of the instantaneous control of transmission line parameters. This paper presents the transient model and control system of UPFC. The presented control system enables the UPFC to following the exchanges of line active and reactive power reference values, regulating the DC link

S. H. Hosseini; A. Ajami

2004-01-01

141

Transient stability enhancement of power system using MPC based TCSC controller  

Microsoft Academic Search

Stressed power system is continuously subjected to various types of disturbances and in turn the problem of stability. As transient stability is very crucial issue, the tools mitigating such a sensitive issue have crucial significance. Here model predictive control based FACTS controller is developed for real time emergency control of WAM based power system. As the WAM based system involves

S. K. Bhil; A. K. Kamath; N. M. Singh; S. R. Wagh

2009-01-01

142

NESTLE: Few-group neutron diffusion equation solver utilizing the nodal expansion method for eigenvalue, adjoint, fixed-source steady-state and transient problems  

SciTech Connect

NESTLE is a FORTRAN77 code that solves the few-group neutron diffusion equation utilizing the Nodal Expansion Method (NEM). NESTLE can solve the eigenvalue (criticality); eigenvalue adjoint; external fixed-source steady-state; or external fixed-source. or eigenvalue initiated transient problems. The code name NESTLE originates from the multi-problem solution capability, abbreviating Nodal Eigenvalue, Steady-state, Transient, Le core Evaluator. The eigenvalue problem allows criticality searches to be completed, and the external fixed-source steady-state problem can search to achieve a specified power level. Transient problems model delayed neutrons via precursor groups. Several core properties can be input as time dependent. Two or four energy groups can be utilized, with all energy groups being thermal groups (i.e. upscatter exits) if desired. Core geometries modelled include Cartesian and Hexagonal. Three, two and one dimensional models can be utilized with various symmetries. The non-linear iterative strategy associated with the NEM method is employed. An advantage of the non-linear iterative strategy is that NSTLE can be utilized to solve either the nodal or Finite Difference Method representation of the few-group neutron diffusion equation.

Turinsky, P.J.; Al-Chalabi, R.M.K.; Engrand, P.; Sarsour, H.N.; Faure, F.X.; Guo, W. [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

1994-06-01

143

Lateral extent of oxidation-enhanced diffusion of phosphorus in <100> silicon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The lateral extent of oxidation-enhanced diffusion (OED) of phosphorus in (100) silicon oxidized in dry oxygen has been investigated. OED was observed near the Si/SiO2 interface under an oxidation mask composed of Si3N4/SiO2. It was found that under the mask OED decays nearly exponentially from the edge of the oxidized region. The characteristic decay length increases with square root of oxidation time and is exponentially dependent on temperature with activation energy of 2 eV. It is proposed that the OED observations can be explained on the basis of excess silicon self-interstitials diffusing away from the oxidized regions. Both diffusion and interface capture of self-interstitials play a role in their distribution in the silicon bulk.

Taniguchi, K.; Antoniadis, D. A.

1985-05-01

144

Oxidation-enhanced diffusion of ion-implanted boron in heavily phosphorus-doped silicon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oxidation-enhanced diffusion (OED) of ion-implanted boron in heavily phosphorus-doped silicon is studied by measuring boron depth profiles using secondary ion mass spectroscopy for phosphorus concentration from intrinsic conditions to 1.2×1020 cm-3. OED is observed for the whole phosphorus concentration range investigated in the present work. However, both the diffusion coefficient in N2 ambient DN and that in dry O2 ambient DO decrease with an increase in substrate phosphorus concentration in extrinsic conditions, i.e., for phosphorus concentration larger than the intrinsic carrier concentration. Diffusion coefficient increment due to OED ?D(=DO-DN) decreases with an increase in phosphorus concentration. The decrease in ?D with an increase in phosphorus concentration is attributed to a decrease in excess silicon interstitials due to recombination with acceptor-type vacancies.

Miyake, Masayasu

1985-07-01

145

Concurrent MRI and diffuse optical tomography of breast after indocyanine green enhancement  

PubMed Central

We present quantitative optical images of human breast in vivo. The images were obtained by using near-infrared diffuse optical tomography (DOT) after the administration of indocyanine green (ICG) for contrast enhancement. The optical examination was performed concurrently with a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) exam on patients scheduled for excisional biopsy or surgery so that accurate image coregistration and histopathological information of the suspicious lesions was available. The ICG-enhanced optical images coregistered accurately with Gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance images validating the ability of DOT to image breast tissue. In contrast to simple transillumination, we found that DOT provides for localization and quantification of exogenous tissue chromophore concentrations. Additionally our use of ICG, an albumin bound absorbing dye in plasma, demonstrates the potential to differentiate disease based on the quantified enhancement of suspicious lesions. PMID:10706610

Ntziachristos, Vasilis; Yodh, A. G.; Schnall, Mitchell; Chance, Britton

2000-01-01

146

Diffusive transport enhancement and escape processes in frictionless nonlinear oscillators with noise  

SciTech Connect

The time-dependent escape rates and evolution of a distribution density are considered for a Hamiltonian many-dimensional nonlinear oscillator with external noise. The Hamiltonian dynamics is assumed to be nearly integrable and is described in terms of isolated nonlinear resonances. In case of a small angle between the resonant oscillations and the resonance line, a dynamic enhancement of diffusion occurs inside the separatrix, leading to a strongly enhanced growth of distribution tails and escape rates even when the resonances are relatively narrow. The underlying mechanism of the phenomenon is essentially many-dimensional. 10 refs., 2 figs.

Gerasimov, A. (Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, IL (United States))

1993-08-01

147

Ion beam mixing and radiation enhanced diffusion in metal\\/ceramic interfaces  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ion beam techniques are frequently used to modify the physical properties of materials. It is the aim of this contribution to obtain information on ion beam effects on irradiated metal\\/ceramic interfaces with bilayer geometry. Ion beam mixing and radiation enhanced diffusion have been investigated in CuAl2O3, AuAl2O3 and AuZrO2 samples. Specimen, with thicknesses of the metallic film in the range

K. Neubeck; C.-E. Lefaucheur; H. Hahn; A. G. Balogh; H. Baumann; K. Bethge; D. M. Rück

1995-01-01

148

Focal nodular hyperplasia: characterisation at gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI and diffusion-weighted MRI  

PubMed Central

Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess the enhancement patterns of hepatic focal nodular hyperplasia (FNH) on gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI and diffusion-weighted (DW) MRI. Methods: This retrospective study had institutional review board approval. Gadoxetic acid-enhanced and DW MR images were evaluated in 23 patients with 30 FNHs (26 histologically proven and 4 radiologically diagnosed). The lesion enhancement patterns of the hepatobiliary phase images were classified as heterogeneous or homogeneous signal intensity (SI), and as dominantly high/iso or low SI compared with those of adjacent liver parenchyma. Heterogeneous (any) SI lesions and homogeneous low SI lesions were categorised into the fibrosis group, whereas homogeneous high/iso SI lesions were categorised into the non-fibrosis group. Additionally, lesion SI on T2 weighted images, DW images and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values were compared between the two groups. Results: The lesions showed heterogeneous high/iso SI (n=16), heterogeneous low SI (n=5), homogeneous high/iso SI (n=7) or homogeneous low SI (n=2) at the hepatobiliary phase MR images. The fibrosis group lesions were more likely to show high SI on DW images and T2 weighted images compared with those in the non-fibrosis group (p<0.05). ADC values tended to be lower in the fibrosis group than those in the non-fibrosis group without significance. Conclusion: FNH showed variable enhancement patterns on hepatobiliary phase images during gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI. SI on DW and T2 weighted images differed according to the fibrosis component contained in the lesion. Advances in knowledge: FNH shows a wide spectrum of imaging findings on gadoxetic acid-enhanced MRI and DW MRI. PMID:23873903

An, H S; Kim, Y J; Jung, S I; Jeon, H J

2013-01-01

149

ATC Enhancement Considering Transient Stability by Optimal Power Flow Control Using UPFC  

Microsoft Academic Search

With recent development of power electronics technology, power system stability enhancement and optimal power flow control by using Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS) devices have so far been studied. The FACTS devices to relieve multiple constraints can also make it possible to enhance Available Transfer Capability (ATC) without construction of new transmission lines. In this paper, a new method for

Taisuke Masuta; Hiroaki Motoki; Akihiko Yokoyama

2007-01-01

150

Power Supply Reliability Assessment in UPFC-installed Transmission System for ATC Enhancement Considering Transient Stability  

Microsoft Academic Search

With recent development of power electronics technology, power system stability enhancement and optimal power flow control by using Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS) devices have so far been studied. The FACTS devices to relieve multiple constraints can also make it possible to enhance Available Transfer Capability (ATC) without construction of new transmission lines. The previous research revealed that ATC is

Taisuke Masuta; Akihiko Yokoyama

2008-01-01

151

ATC Enhancement Considering Transient Stability Based on Optimal Power Flow Control by UPFC  

Microsoft Academic Search

With recent development of power electronics technology, power system stability enhancement and optimal power flow control by using flexible AC transmission system (FACTS) devices have so far been studied. The FACTS devices to relieve multiple constraints can also make it possible to enhance Available Transfer Capability (ATC) without construction of new transmission lines. In this paper, a new method for

Taisuke Masuta; Akihiko Yokoyama

2006-01-01

152

Tumor characterization in small animals using magnetic resonance-guided dynamic contrast enhanced diffuse optical tomography.  

PubMed

We present a magnetic resonance (MR)-guided near-infrared dynamic contrast enhanced diffuse optical tomography (DCE-DOT) system for characterization of tumors using an optical contrast agent (ICG) and a MR contrast agent [Gd-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA)] in a rat model. Both ICG and Gd-DTPA are injected and monitored simultaneously using a combined MRI-DOT system, resulting in accurate co-registration between two imaging modalities. Fisher rats bearing R3230 breast tumor are imaged using this hybrid system. For the first time, enhancement kinetics of the exogenous contrast ICG is recovered from the DCE-DOT data using MR anatomical a priori information. As tumors grow, they undergo necrosis and the tissue transforms from viable to necrotic. The results show that the physiological changes between viable and necrotic tissue can be differentiated more accurately based on the ICG enhancement kinetics when MR anatomical information is utilized. PMID:22029362

Lin, Yuting; Thayer, Dave; Nalcioglu, Orhan; Gulsen, Gultekin

2011-10-01

153

Tumor characterization in small animals using magnetic resonance-guided dynamic contrast enhanced diffuse optical tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a magnetic resonance (MR)-guided near-infrared dynamic contrast enhanced diffuse optical tomography (DCE-DOT) system for characterization of tumors using an optical contrast agent (ICG) and a MR contrast agent [Gd-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA)] in a rat model. Both ICG and Gd-DTPA are injected and monitored simultaneously using a combined MRI-DOT system, resulting in accurate co-registration between two imaging modalities. Fisher rats bearing R3230 breast tumor are imaged using this hybrid system. For the first time, enhancement kinetics of the exogenous contrast ICG is recovered from the DCE-DOT data using MR anatomical a priori information. As tumors grow, they undergo necrosis and the tissue transforms from viable to necrotic. The results show that the physiological changes between viable and necrotic tissue can be differentiated more accurately based on the ICG enhancement kinetics when MR anatomical information is utilized.

Lin, Yuting; Thayer, Dave; Nalcioglu, Orhan; Gulsen, Gultekin

2011-10-01

154

Access of energetic particles to storm time ring current through enhanced radial 'diffusion'  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

It is proposed that the transport of particles with energy of at least approximately 40 keV into the geomagnetic storm time ring current can result from enhanced stochastic radial transport driven by fluctuating electric fields during a storm's main phase. The effects of such electric fields are estimated by applying radial diffusion theory, assuming a preexisting trapped-particle population as the initial condition. The feasibility of explaining observed flux increases of particles of at least approximately 40 keV at no more than approximately 4 earth radii by enhanced radial 'diffusion' is then demonstrated. It is estimated that the at least approximately 40-keV portion of the storm time ring current at approximately 3 earth radii consists of about 50 percent preexisting and about 50 percent new particles. The formation of the storm time ring current is found to be perhaps explainable via a combination of direct radial transport at energies no greater than approximately 40 keV and 'diffusive' radial transport at higher energies.

Lyons, L. R.; Schulz, M.

1989-01-01

155

An extended convection diffusion model for red blood cell-enhanced transport of thrombocytes and leukocytes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transport phenomena of platelets and white blood cells (WBCs) are fundamental to the processes of vascular disease and thrombosis. Unfortunately, the dilute volume occupied by these cells is not amenable to fluid-continuum modeling, and yet the cell count is large enough that modeling each individual cell is impractical for most applications. The most feasible option is to treat them as dilute species governed by convection and diffusion; however, this is further complicated by the role of the red blood cell (RBC) phase on the transport of these cells. We therefore propose an extended convection-diffusion (ECD) model based on the diffusive balance of a fictitious field potential, ?, that accounts for the gradients of both the dilute phase and the local hematocrit. The ECD model was applied to the flow of blood in a tube and between parallel plates in which a profile for the RBC concentration field was imposed and the resulting platelet concentration field predicted. Compared to prevailing enhanced-diffusion models that dispersed the platelet concentration field, the ECD model was able to simulate a near-wall platelet excess, as observed experimentally. The extension of the ECD model depends only on the ability to prescribe the hematocrit distribution, and therefore may be applied to a wide variety of geometries to investigate platelet-mediated vascular disease and device-related thrombosis.

Hund, S. J.; Antaki, J. F.

2009-10-01

156

An extended convection diffusion model for red blood cell-enhanced transport of thrombocytes and leukocytes  

PubMed Central

Transport phenomena of platelets and white blood cells (WBCs) are fundamental to the processes of vascular disease and thrombosis. Unfortunately, the dilute volume occupied by these cells is not amenable to fluid-continuum modeling, and yet the cell count is large enough that modeling each individual cell is impractical for most applications. The most feasible option is to treat them as dilute species governed by convection and diffusion; however, this is further complicated by the role of the red blood cell (RBC) phase on the transport of these cells. We therefore propose an extended convection–diffusion (ECD) model based on the diffusive balance of a fictitious field potential, ?, that accounts for the gradients of both the dilute phase and the local hematocrit. The ECD model was applied to the flow of blood in a tube and between parallel plates in which a profile for the RBC concentration field was imposed and the resulting platelet concentration field predicted. Compared to prevailing enhanced-diffusion models that dispersed the platelet concentration field, the ECD model was able to simulate a near-wall platelet excess, as observed experimentally. The extension of the ECD model depends only on the ability to prescribe the hematocrit distribution, and therefore may be applied to a wide variety of geometries to investigate platelet-mediated vascular disease and device-related thrombosis. PMID:19809124

Hund, S J; Antaki, J F

2011-01-01

157

Unprecedented enhancement of transient gene expression from minimal cassettes using a double terminator  

Microsoft Academic Search

The potential of using vector-free minimal gene cassettes (MGCs) with a double terminator for the enhancement and stabilization\\u000a of transgene expression was tested in sugarcane biolistic transformation. The MGC system used consisted of the enhanced yellow\\u000a fluorescent protein (EYFP) reporter gene driven by the maize ubiquitin-1 (Ubi) promoter and a single or double terminator from nopaline synthase (Tnos) or\\/and Cauliflower

Getu Beyene; Marco T. Buenrostro-Nava; Mona B. Damaj; San-Ji Gao; Joe Molina; T. Erik Mirkov

2011-01-01

158

Analysis of Oxidation-Enhanced/Retarded Diffusions of Substitutional Impurities in Silicon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oxidation-enhanced/retarded diffusions of substitutional impurities in Si(OED/ORD) are generally expressed by well-known equations consisting of self-interstitial and vacancy concentrations (I and V). From the asymptotic forms of the formal solutions of those equations, an approximate relation between I and V was obtained in the time range of interest. Identifying this approximate relation with that of local equilibrium between I and V gave a simple method by which to obtain mathematically self-consistent solutions of OED and ORD equations. Consequently, I and V were obtained as functions of the diffusion time. The fractional components of the interstitialcy mechanism for OED of P and ORD of Sb (d1P and d1Sb) were obtained, with the first results being independent of time, i.e., d1P{=}0.93 and d1Sb{=}0.029 at 1100°C.

Okino, Takahisa

1992-04-01

159

Enhanced diffusion, chemotaxis, and pumping by active enzymes: progress toward an organizing principle of molecular machines.  

PubMed

Active enzymes diffuse more rapidly than inactive enzymes. This phenomenon may be due to catalysis-driven conformational changes that result in "swimming" through the aqueous solution. Recent additional work has demonstrated that active enzymes can undergo chemotaxis toward regions of high substrate concentration, whereas inactive enzymes do not, and, further, that active enzymes immobilized at surfaces can directionally pump liquids. In this Perspective, I will discuss these phenomena in light of Purcell's work on directed motion at low Reynold's number and in the context of microscopic reversibility. The conclusions suggest that a deep understanding of catalytically driven enhanced diffusion of enzymes and related phenomena can lead toward a general organizing principle for the design, characterization, and operation of molecular machines. PMID:25533171

Astumian, R Dean

2014-12-23

160

Heat transport in the $XXZ$ spin chain: from ballistic to diffusive regimes and dephasing enhancement  

E-print Network

In this work we study the heat transport in an XXZ spin-1/2 Heisenberg chain with homogeneous magnetic field, incoherently driven out of equilibrium by reservoirs at the boundaries. We focus on the effect of bulk dephasing (energy-dissipative) processes in different parameter regimes of the system. The non-equilibrium steady state of the chain is obtained by simulating its evolution under the corresponding Lindblad master equation, using the time evolving block decimation method. In the absence of dephasing, the heat transport is ballistic for weak interactions, while being diffusive in the strongly-interacting regime, as evidenced by the heat-current scaling with the system size. When bulk dephasing takes place in the system, diffusive transport is induced in the weakly-interacting regime, with the heat current monotonically decreasing with the dephasing rate. In contrast, in the strongly-interacting regime, the heat current can be significantly enhanced by dephasing for systems of small size.

J. J. Mendoza-Arenas; S. Al-Assam; S. R. Clark; D. Jaksch

2013-06-03

161

Entropy-Driven Enhanced Self-Diffusion in Confined Reentrant Supernematics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a molecular dynamics study of reentrant nematic phases using the Gay-Berne-Kihara model of a liquid crystal in nanoconfinement. At densities above those characteristic of smectic A phases, reentrant nematic phases form that are characterized by a large value of the nematic order parameter S?1. Along the nematic director these “supernematic” phases exhibit a remarkably high self-diffusivity, which exceeds that for ordinary, lower-density nematic phases by an order of magnitude. Enhancement of self-diffusivity is attributed to a decrease of rotational configurational entropy in confinement. Recent developments in the pulsed field gradient NMR technique are shown to provide favorable conditions for an experimental confirmation of our simulations.

Mazza, Marco G.; Greschek, Manuel; Valiullin, Rustem; Kärger, Jörg; Schoen, Martin

2010-11-01

162

Lack of transient receptor potential melastatin 8 activation by phthalate esters that enhance contact hypersensitivity in mice.  

PubMed

We studied the involvement of sensory neurons in skin sensitization to allergens using a mouse model in which the T-helper type 2 response is essential. Skin sensitization to fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) has been shown to be enhanced by several phthalate esters, including dibutyl phthalate (DBP). For different types of phthalate esters, we found a correlation between the ability of transient receptor potential (TRP) A1 activation and that of enhancing skin sensitization. A TRPA1-specific antagonist, HC-030031, was shown to suppress skin sensitization in the presence of DBP. However, since phthalate esters also activate TRPV1, phthalate esters could activate other types of TRP channels non-selectively. Furthermore, sensitization to FITC is also enhanced by menthol, which activates TRPA1 and TRPM8. Here we established an in vitro system for measuring TRPM8 activation. The selectivity for TRPM8 was established by the fact that two TRPM8 agonists (menthol and icilin) induced calcium mobilization, whereas agonists of TRPA1 and TRPV1 did not. We demonstrated that phthalate esters do not activate TRPM8. TRPA1-antagonist HC-030031 did not inhibit TRPM8 activation induced by menthol or icilin. These results show that phthalate esters activate TRPA1 and TRPV1 with selectivity. TRPM8 activation is not likely to be involved in the sensitization to FITC. PMID:23296101

Kurohane, Kohta; Sahara, Yurina; Kimura, Ayako; Narukawa, Masataka; Watanabe, Tatsuo; Daimon, Takashi; Imai, Yasuyuki

2013-03-13

163

Multispecies diffusion models: A study of uranyl species diffusion  

SciTech Connect

Rigorous numerical description of multi-species diffusion requires coupling of species, charge, and aqueous and surface complexation reactions that collectively affect diffusive fluxes. The applicability of a fully coupled diffusion model is, however, often constrained by the availability of species self-diffusion coefficients, as well as by computational complication for imposing charge conservation. In this study, several diffusion models with variable complexity in charge and species coupling were formulated and compared to describe reactive multi-species diffusion in groundwater. Diffusion of uranyl [U(VI)] species was used as an example in demonstrating the effectiveness of the models in describing multi-species diffusion. Numerical simulations found that a diffusion model with a single, common diffusion coefficient for all species was sufficient to describe multi-species U(VI) diffusion under steady-state condition of major chemical composition, but not under transient chemical conditions. Simulations revealed that a fully coupled diffusion model can be well approximated by a component-based diffusion model, which considers difference in diffusion coefficients between chemical components, but not between the species within each chemical component. This treatment significantly enhanced computational efficiency at the expense of minor charge conservation. The charge balance in the component-based diffusion model can be rigorously enforced, if necessary, by adding an artificial kinetic reaction term induced by the charge separation. The diffusion models were applied to describe U(VI) diffusive mass transfer in intragranular domains in two sediments collected from US Department of Energy's Hanford 300A where intragrain diffusion is a rate-limiting process controlling U(VI) adsorption and desorption. The grain-scale reactive diffusion model was able to describe U(VI) adsorption/desorption kinetics that has been described using a semi-empirical, multi-rate model. Compared with the multi-rate model, the diffusion models have the advantage to provide spatiotemporal speciation evolution within the diffusion domains.

Liu, Chongxuan; Shang, Jianying; Zachara, John M.

2011-12-14

164

Si-diffused GaN for enhancement-mode GaN mosfet on si applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Si diffusion into GaN was studied as a function of encapsulant type (SiO2 or SiNx) and diffusion temperature. Using a SiO2 encapsulant, the Si diffusion exhibited an activation energy of 0.57 eV with a prefactor of 2.0710?4 cm2 sec?1 in the temperature range 800–1,000C. An enhancement-mode MgO\\/GaN-on-Si metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor\\u000a (MOSFET) was fabricated utilizing Si-diffused regions under the source

Soohwan Jang; F. Ren; S. J. Pearton; B. P. Gila; M. Hlad; C. R. Abernathy; Hyucksoo Yang; C. J. Pan; Jenn-Inn Chyi; P. Bove; H. Lahreche; J. Thuret

2006-01-01

165

New technique for measuring two-dimensional oxidation-enhanced diffusion in silicon at low temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this letter, a new high-resolution technique is presented for determining the lateral extent of oxidation-enhanced diffusion (OED). A periodic grid of lines and spacings is used as an oxidation mask. It will be shown that a simple secondary ion mass spectroscopy measurement permits the extraction of parameters in the lateral direction with a resolution which can be as good as 10 nm. The lateral extent of OED is depth dependent, consistent with a physical model of point-defect recombination at the Si/SiO2 interface.

van Dort, M. J.; Lifka, H.; Zalm, P. C.; de Boer, W. B.; Woerlee, P. H.; Slotboom, J. W.; Cowern, N. E. B.

1994-04-01

166

1,25 (OH)2D3 enhances PTH-induced Ca2+ transients in preosteoblasts by activating L-type Ca2+ channels  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We previously demonstrated electrophysiologically that 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3] shifts the activation threshold of L-type Ca2+ channels in osteoblasts toward the resting potential and prolongs mean open time. Presently, we used single-cell Ca2+ imaging to study the combined effects of 1,25(OH)2D3 and parathyroid hormone (PTH) during generation of Ca2+ transients in fura 2-loaded MC3T3-E1 cells. Pretreatment with 1,25(OH)2D3 concentrations, which alone did not produce Ca2+ transients, consistently enhanced Ca2+ responses to PTH. Enhancement was dose dependent over the range of 1 to 10 nM and was blocked by pretreatment with 5 microM nitrendipine during pretreatment. A 1,25(OH)2D3 analog that activates L-type channels and shifts their activation threshold also enhanced PTH responses. In contrast, an analog devoid of membrane Ca2+ effects did not enhance PTH-induced Ca2+ transients. The PTH-induced Ca2+ transient involved activation of a dihydropyridine-insensitive cation channel that was inhibited by Gd3+. Together, these data suggest that 1,25(OH)2D3 increases osteoblast responsiveness to PTH through rapid modification of L-type Ca2+ channel gating properties, whose activation enhances Ca2+ entry through other channels such as the PTH-responsive, Gd(3+)-sensitive cation channel.

Li, W.; Duncan, R. L.; Karin, N. J.; Farach-Carson, M. C.

1997-01-01

167

Design and application of a fuzzy logic control scheme for transient stability enhancement in power systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fuzzy logic controller is designed to implement variable series capacitor compensation in the transmission network of interconnected power systems. This compensation scheme is one of the most widely accepted as a solution to limitations created by overstretched generation and transmission systems. This is one facet of flexible AC transmission systems (FACTS) employed to enhance the stability of the system.

T. T. Lie; G. B. Shrestha; Arindam Ghosh

1995-01-01

168

Dynamic contrast-enhanced diffuse optical tomography (DCE-DOT): experimental validation with a dynamic phantom  

PubMed Central

Dynamic contrast-enhanced diffuse optical tomography (DCE-DOT) can provide spatially resolved enhancement kinetics of an optical contrast agent. We undertook a systematic phantom study to evaluate the effects of the geometrical parameters such as the depth and size of the inclusion as well as the optical parameters of the background on the recovered enhancement kinetics of the most commonly used optical contrast agent, indocyanine green (ICG). For this purpose a computer-controlled dynamic phantom was constructed. An ICG–intralipid–water mixture was circulated through the inclusions while the DCE-DOT measurements were acquired with a temporal resolution of 16 s. The same dynamic study was repeated using inclusions of different sizes located at different depths. In addition to this, the effect of non-scattering regions was investigated by placing a second inclusion filled with water in the background. The phantom studies confirmed that although the peak enhancement varied substantially for each case, the recovered injection and dilution rates obtained from the percentage enhancement maps agreed within 15% independent of not only the depth and the size of the inclusion but also the presence of a non-scattering region in the background. Although no internal structural information was used in these phantom studies, it may be necessary to use it for small objects buried deep in tissue. However, the different contrast mechanisms of optical and other imaging modalities as well as imperfect co-registration between both modalities may lead to potential errors in the structural a priori. Therefore, the effect of erroneous selection of structural priors was investigated as the final step. Again, the injection and dilution rates obtained from the percentage enhancement maps were also immune to the systematic errors introduced by erroneous selection of the structural priors, e.g. choosing the diameter of the inclusion 20% smaller increased the peak enhancement 60% but changed the injection and dilution rates only less than 10%. PMID:19841515

Unlu, Mehmet Burcin; Lin, Yuting; Gulsen, Gultekin

2010-01-01

169

Enhanced soot formation in flickering CH{sub 4}/air diffusion flames  

SciTech Connect

Optical methods are used to examine soot production in a co-flowing, axisymmetric CH{sub 4}/air diffusion flame in which the fuel flow rate is acoustically forced to create a time-varying flowfield. For a particular forcing condition in which tip clipping occurs (0.75 V loudspeaker excitation), elastic scattering of vertically polarized light from the soot particles increases by nearly an order of magnitude with respect to that observed for a steady flame with the same mean fuel flow rate. Peak soot volume fractions, as measured by time-resolved laser extinction/tomography at 632.8 and 454.5 run and calibrated laser-induced incandescence (LII), show a factor of 4-5 enhancement in this flickering flame. A Mie analysis suggests that most of the enhanced soot production results from the formation of larger particles in the time-varying flowfield.

Shaddix, C.R.; Harrington, J.E.; Smyth, K.C. [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States)

1994-12-31

170

Coronary Plaque Boundary Enhancement in IVUS Image by Using a Modified Perona-Malik Diffusion Filter  

PubMed Central

We propose a modified Perona-Malik diffusion (PMD) filter to enhance a coronary plaque boundary by considering the conditions peculiar to an intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) image. The IVUS image is commonly used for a diagnosis of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). The IVUS image is however very grainy due to heavy speckle noise. When the normal PMD filter is applied for speckle noise reduction in the IVUS image, the coronary plaque boundary becomes vague. For this problem, we propose a modified PMD filter which is designed in special reference to the coronary plaque boundary detection. It can then not only reduce the speckle noise but also enhance clearly the coronary plaque boundary. After applying the modified PMD filter to the IVUS image, the coronary plaque boundaries are successfully detected further by applying the Takagi-Sugeno fuzzy model. The accuracy of the proposed method has been confirmed numerically by the experiments. PMID:25506357

Anam, S.; Uchino, E.; Suetake, N.

2014-01-01

171

Transient regulatory T cell ablation deters oncogene-driven breast cancer and enhances radiotherapy  

PubMed Central

Rational combinatorial therapeutic strategies have proven beneficial for the management of cancer. Recent success of checkpoint blockade in highly immunogenic tumors has renewed interest in immunotherapy. Regulatory T (T reg) cells densely populate solid tumors, which may promote progression through suppressing anti-tumor immune responses. We investigated the role of T reg cells in murine mammary carcinogenesis using an orthotopic, polyoma middle-T antigen-driven model in Foxp3DTR knockin mice. T reg cell ablation resulted in significant determent of primary and metastatic tumor progression. Importantly, short-term ablation of T reg cells in advanced spontaneous tumors led to extensive apoptotic tumor cell death. This anti-tumor activity was dependent on IFN-? and CD4+ T cells but not on NK or CD8+ T cells. Combination of T reg cell ablation with CTLA-4 or PD-1/PD-L1 blockade did not affect tumor growth or improve the therapeutic effect attained by T reg cell ablation alone. However, T reg cell targeting jointly with tumor irradiation significantly reduced tumor burden and improved overall survival. Together, our results demonstrate a major tumor-promoting role of T reg cells in an autochthonous model of tumorigenesis, and they reveal the potential therapeutic value of combining transient T reg cell ablation with radiotherapy for the management of poorly immunogenic, aggressive malignancies. PMID:24127486

Bos, Paula D.; Plitas, George; Rudra, Dipayan; Lee, Sue Y.

2013-01-01

172

Extended gene expression by medium exchange and repeated transient transfection for recombinant protein production enhancement.  

PubMed

Production of recombinant products in mammalian cell cultures can be achieved by stable gene expression (SGE) or transient gene expression (TGE). The former is based on the integration of a plasmid DNA into the host cell genome allowing continuous gene expression. The latter is based on episomal plasmid DNA expression. Conventional TGE is limited to a short production period of usually about 96?h, therefore limiting productivity. A novel gene expression approach termed extended gene expression (EGE) is explored in this study. The aim of EGE is to prolong the production period by the combination of medium exchange and repeated transfection of cell cultures with plasmid DNA to improve overall protein production. The benefit of this methodology was evaluated for the production of three model recombinant products: intracellular GFP, secreted GFP, and a Gag-GFP virus-like particles (VLPs). Productions were carried out in HEK 293 cell suspension cultures grown in animal-derived component free media using polyethylenimine (PEI) as transfection reagent. Transfections were repeated throughout the production process using different plasmid DNA concentrations, intervals of time, and culture feeding conditions in order to identify the best approach to achieve sustained high-level gene expression. Using this novel EGE strategy, the production period was prolonged between 192 and 240?h with a 4-12-fold increase in production levels, depending on the product type considered. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2015;112: 934-946. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25421734

Cervera, Laura; Gutiérrez-Granados, Sonia; Berrow, Nicholas Simon; Segura, Maria Mercedes; Gòdia, Francesc

2015-05-01

173

Multispecies diffusion models: A study of uranyl species diffusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rigorous numerical description of multispecies diffusion requires coupling of species, charge, and aqueous and surface complexation reactions that collectively affect diffusive fluxes. The applicability of a fully coupled diffusion model is, however, often constrained by the availability of species self-diffusion coefficients, as well as by computational complication in imposing charge conservation. In this study, several diffusion models with variable complexity in charge and species coupling were formulated and compared to describe reactive multispecies diffusion in groundwater. Diffusion of uranyl [U(VI)] species was used as an example in demonstrating the effectiveness of the models in describing multispecies diffusion. Numerical simulations found that a diffusion model with a single, common diffusion coefficient for all species was sufficient to describe multispecies U(VI) diffusion under a steady state condition of major chemical composition, but not under transient chemical conditions. Simulations revealed that for multispecies U(VI) diffusion under transient chemical conditions, a fully coupled diffusion model could be well approximated by a component-based diffusion model when the diffusion coefficient for each chemical component was properly selected. The component-based diffusion model considers the difference in diffusion coefficients between chemical components, but not between the species within each chemical component. This treatment significantly enhanced computational efficiency at the expense of minor charge conservation. The charge balance in the component-based diffusion model can be enforced, if necessary, by adding a secondary migration term resulting from model simplification. The effect of ion activity coefficient gradients on multispecies diffusion is also discussed. The diffusion models were applied to describe U(VI) diffusive mass transfer in intragranular domains in two sediments collected from U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford 300A, where intragranular diffusion is a rate-limiting process controlling U(VI) adsorption and desorption. The grain-scale reactive diffusion model was able to describe U(VI) adsorption/desorption kinetics that had been previously described using a semiempirical, multirate model. Compared with the multirate model, the diffusion models have the advantage to provide spatiotemporal speciation evolution within the diffusion domains.

Liu, Chongxuan; Shang, Jianying; Zachara, John M.

2011-12-01

174

Transient Body Fluid Accumulation and Enhanced NKCC2 Expression in Gerbils with Brain Infarction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Enhanced expression of a kidney-specific sodium co-transporter (NKCC2: Na-K-2Cl co-transporter) in the thick ascending limb of Henle has been identified in rat models of congestive heart failure and liver cirrhosis, suggesting that high NKCC2 expression underlies edema formation. An increased abundance of NKCC2, however, has also been noted in rats with the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone;

Yutaka Ejima; Yohsuke Nakamura; Mari Michimata; Ryo Hatano; Itsuro Kazama; Satoru Sanada; Tomohiro Arata; Michiko Suzuki; Noriyuki Miyama; Akira Sato; Susumu Satomi; Shinji Fushiya; Sei Sasaki; Mitsunobu Matsubara

2006-01-01

175

Analysis of Oxidation Enhanced and Retarded Diffusions and Growth of Oxidation Stacking Fault in Silicon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to determine the fractional components of the interstitialcy mechanism for Sb, P and self-diffusions, dISb, dIP and dIsd, and the supersaturation ratios of vacancies and self-interstitials, sV and sI, from the experimental results of the oxidation-enhanced diffusion (OED) of P, oxidation-retarded diffusion (ORD) of Sb and growth of the interstitial-type stacking fault by oxidation (OSF), the equations of OED, ORD and OSF and of the special relation between sV and sI were solved simultaneously. The effect of the stacking fault energy upon growth of the OSF was taken into account in the OSF equation. As the experimental results of OED, ORD and OSF did not satisfy their equations exactly, nine kinds of solutions were obtained and three of them were shown. The errors caused by the lack of exact satisfaction were shown. A dIsd much smaller than 0.5 was obtained.

Yoshida, Masayuki

1988-06-01

176

Enhancer-promoter interaction facilitated by transiently forming G-quadruplexes  

PubMed Central

G-quadruplexes are guanine-rich nucleic acid sequences capable of forming a four-stranded structure through Hoogsteen hydrogen bonding. G-quadruplexes are highly concentrated near promoters and transcription start sites suggesting a role in gene regulation. They are less often found on the template than non-template strand where they either inhibit or enhance transcription, respectively. However, their potential role in enhancers and other distal regulatory elements has not been assessed yet. Here we show that DNAse hypersensitive (DHS) cis-regulatory elements are also enriched in Gs and their G-content correlate with that of their respective promoters. Besides local G4s, the distal cis regions may form G-quadruplexes together with the promoters, each contributing half a G4. This model is supported more for the non-template strand and we hypothesised that the G4 forming capability of the promoter and the enhancer non-template strand could facilitate their binding together and making the DHS regions accessible for the transcription factory. PMID:25772493

Hegyi, Hedi

2015-01-01

177

Stripe width dependence of oxidation-enhanced diffusion in submicron local oxidation of silicon structures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Oxidation enhanced diffusion (OED) of phosphorus under very narrow oxidized region is investigated. The OED effect is found to depend on the oxidized region width for below 4-5 ?m, i.e., the enhancement of phosphorus diffusivity decreases with decreasing the oxidized region width. In order to clarify the mechanism, two dimensional numerical simulations are carried out using various models for silicon self-interstitial generation at the Si/SiO2 interface during thermal oxidation. A series of OED observations is well simulated by using the new model in which the self-interstitial concentration at the oxidized interface is determined by the balance of (a) the interstitial generation due to oxidation reaction at the interface, (b) the kinetics of surface regrowth, and (c) the flux of interstitials into previously formed oxide. Effective surface regrowth rate constants for self-interstitials at the nonoxidized interface are then extracted. It is found that the surface regrowth rate constants in local oxidation of silicon structures are considerably large compared with those extracted from back side oxidation experiments.

Shibata, Yoshiaki; Taniguchi, Kenji; Hamaguchi, Chihiro

1991-11-01

178

1H relaxation enhancement induced by nanoparticles in solutions: influence of magnetic properties and diffusion.  

PubMed

Magnetic nanoparticles that induce nuclear relaxation are the most promising materials to enhance the sensitivity in Magnetic Resonance Imaging. In order to provide a comprehensive understanding of the magnetic field dependence of the relaxation enhancement in solutions, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (1)H spin-lattice relaxation for decalin and toluene solutions of various Fe2O3 nanoparticles was investigated. The relaxation experiments were performed in a frequency range of 10 kHz-20 MHz by applying Field Cycling method, and in the temperature range of 257-298 K, using nanoparticles differing in size and shape: spherical--5 nm diameter, cubic--6.5 nm diameter, and cubic--9 nm diameter. The relaxation dispersion data were interpreted in terms of a theory of nuclear relaxation induced by magnetic crystals in solution. The approach was tested with respect to its applicability depending on the magnetic characteristics of the nanocrystals and the time-scale of translational diffusion of the solvent. The role of Curie relaxation and the contributions to the overall (1)H spin-lattice relaxation associated with the electronic spin-lattice and spin-spin relaxation was thoroughly discussed. It was demonstrated that the approach leads to consistent results providing information on the magnetic (electronic) properties of the nanocrystals, i.e., effective electron spin and relaxation times. In addition, features of the (1)H spin-lattice relaxation resulting from the electronic properties of the crystals and the solvent diffusion were explained. PMID:24811643

Kruk, D; Korpa?a, A; Taheri, S Mehdizadeh; Koz?owski, A; Förster, S; Rössler, E A

2014-05-01

179

{sup 1}H relaxation enhancement induced by nanoparticles in solutions: Influence of magnetic properties and diffusion  

SciTech Connect

Magnetic nanoparticles that induce nuclear relaxation are the most promising materials to enhance the sensitivity in Magnetic Resonance Imaging. In order to provide a comprehensive understanding of the magnetic field dependence of the relaxation enhancement in solutions, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance {sup 1}H spin-lattice relaxation for decalin and toluene solutions of various Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles was investigated. The relaxation experiments were performed in a frequency range of 10 kHz–20 MHz by applying Field Cycling method, and in the temperature range of 257–298 K, using nanoparticles differing in size and shape: spherical – 5 nm diameter, cubic – 6.5 nm diameter, and cubic – 9 nm diameter. The relaxation dispersion data were interpreted in terms of a theory of nuclear relaxation induced by magnetic crystals in solution. The approach was tested with respect to its applicability depending on the magnetic characteristics of the nanocrystals and the time-scale of translational diffusion of the solvent. The role of Curie relaxation and the contributions to the overall {sup 1}H spin-lattice relaxation associated with the electronic spin-lattice and spin-spin relaxation was thoroughly discussed. It was demonstrated that the approach leads to consistent results providing information on the magnetic (electronic) properties of the nanocrystals, i.e., effective electron spin and relaxation times. In addition, features of the {sup 1}H spin-lattice relaxation resulting from the electronic properties of the crystals and the solvent diffusion were explained.

Kruk, D., E-mail: danuta.kruk@matman.uwm.edu.pl [Faculty of Mathematics and Computer Science, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, S?oneczna 54, 10-710 Olsztyn (Poland); Experimentalphysik II, Universität Bayreuth, 95440 Bayreuth (Germany); Korpa?a, A. [Department of Biophysics, Jagiellonian University Medical College, ?azarza 16, 31-530 Kraków (Poland) [Department of Biophysics, Jagiellonian University Medical College, ?azarza 16, 31-530 Kraków (Poland); Institute of Physics, Jagiellonian University, Reymonta 4, 30-059 Kraków (Poland); Taheri, S. Mehdizadeh; Förster, S. [Department of Physical Chemistry I, Universität Bayreuth, 95440 Bayreuth (Germany)] [Department of Physical Chemistry I, Universität Bayreuth, 95440 Bayreuth (Germany); Koz?owski, A. [NU-MED Group Inc., Center of Radiotherapy and Improvements in Elbl?g, Królewiecka 146, 82-300 Elbl?g (Poland)] [NU-MED Group Inc., Center of Radiotherapy and Improvements in Elbl?g, Królewiecka 146, 82-300 Elbl?g (Poland); Rössler, E. A. [Experimentalphysik II, Universität Bayreuth, 95440 Bayreuth (Germany)] [Experimentalphysik II, Universität Bayreuth, 95440 Bayreuth (Germany)

2014-05-07

180

Biogeochemical Processes Responsible for the Enhanced Transport of Plutonium Under transient Unsaturated Ground Water Conditions  

SciTech Connect

To better understand longer-term vadose zone transport in southeastern soils, field lysimeter experiments were conducted at the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, SC, in the 1980s. Each of the three lysimeters analyzed herein contained a filter paper spiked with different Pu solutions, and they were left exposed to natural environmental conditions (including the growth of annual weed grasses) for 11 years. The resulting Pu activity measurements from each lysimeter core showed anomalous activity distributions below the source, with significant migration of Pu above the source. Such results are not explainable by adsorption phenomena alone. A transient variably saturated flow model with root water uptake was developed and coupled to a soil reactive transport model. Somewhat surprisingly, the fully transient analysis showed results nearly identical to those of a much simpler steady flow analysis performed previously. However, all phenomena studied were unable to produce the upward Pu transport observed in the data. This result suggests another transport mechanism such as Pu uptake by roots and upward transport due to transpiration. Thus, the variably saturated flow and reactive transport model was extended to include uptake and transport of Pu within the root xylem, along with computational methodology and results. In the extended model, flow velocity in the soil was driven by precipitation input along with transpiration and drainage. Water uptake by the roots determined the flow velocity in the root xylem, and this along with uptake of Pu in the transpiration stream drove advection and dispersion of the two Pu species in the xylem. During wet periods with high potential evapotranspiration, maximum flow velocities through the xylem would approached 600 cm/hr, orders of magnitude larger that flow velocities in the soil. Values for parameters and the correct conceptual viewpoint for Pu transport in plant xylem was uncertain. This motivated further experiments devoted to Pu uptake by corn roots and xylem transport. Plants were started in wet paper wrapped around each corn seed. When the tap roots were sufficiently long, the seedlings were transplanted to a soil container with the tap root extending out the container bottom. The soil container was then placed over a nutrient solution container, and the solution served as an additional medium for root growth. To conduct an uptake study, a radioactive substance, such as Pu complexed with the bacterial siderophore DFOB, was added to the nutrient solution. After a suitable elapsed time, the corn plant was sacrificed, cut into 10 cm lengths, and the activity distribution measured. Experimental results clarified the basic nature of Pu uptake and transport in corn plants, and resulting simulations suggested that each growing season Pu in the SRS lysimeters would move into the plant shoots and be deposited on the soil surface during the Fall dieback. Subsequent isotope ratio analyses showed that this did happen. OVERALL RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS - (1) Pu transport downward from the source is controlled by advection, dispersion and adsorption, along with surface-mediated REDOX reactions. (2) Hysteresis, extreme root distribution functions, air-content dependent oxidation rate constants, and large evaporation rates from the soil surface were not able to explain the observed upward migration of Pu. (3) Small amounts of Pu uptake by plant roots and translocation in the transpiration stream creates a realistic mechanism for upward Pu migration (4) Realistic xylem cross-sectional areas imply high flow velocities under hot, wet conditions. Such flow velocities produce the correct shape for the observed activity distributions in the top 20 cm of the lysimeter soil. (5) Simulations imply that Pu should have moved into the above-ground grass tissue each year during the duration of the experiments, resulting in an activity residual accumulating on the soil surface. An isotope ratio analysis showed that the observed surface Pu residue was from the buried sources, not atmospheric fallout. (6) The

Fred J. Molz, III

2010-05-28

181

Diffusion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Diffusion is the movement of particles from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration. The molecules move until equilibrium is reached. If a perfume is sprayed on one side of the room, the perfume molecules will eventually spread out all over the room until there are equal concentrations of the molecules throughout the space.

Christopher Thomas (None; )

2006-11-09

182

Impact of weak excitatory synapses on chaotic transients in a diffusively coupled Morris-Lecar neuronal network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Spatiotemporal chaos collapses to either a rest state or a propagating pulse solution in a ring network of diffusively coupled, excitable Morris-Lecar neurons. Weak excitatory synapses can increase the Lyapunov exponent, expedite the collapse, and promote the collapse to the rest state rather than the pulse state. A single traveling pulse solution may no longer be asymptotic for certain combinations of network topology and (weak) coupling strengths, and initiate spatiotemporal chaos. Multiple pulses can cause chaos initiation due to diffusive and synaptic pulse-pulse interaction. In the presence of chaos initiation, intermittent spatiotemporal chaos exists until typically a collapse to the rest state.

Lafranceschina, Jacopo; Wackerbauer, Renate

2015-01-01

183

Impact of weak excitatory synapses on chaotic transients in a diffusively coupled Morris-Lecar neuronal network.  

PubMed

Spatiotemporal chaos collapses to either a rest state or a propagating pulse solution in a ring network of diffusively coupled, excitable Morris-Lecar neurons. Weak excitatory synapses can increase the Lyapunov exponent, expedite the collapse, and promote the collapse to the rest state rather than the pulse state. A single traveling pulse solution may no longer be asymptotic for certain combinations of network topology and (weak) coupling strengths, and initiate spatiotemporal chaos. Multiple pulses can cause chaos initiation due to diffusive and synaptic pulse-pulse interaction. In the presence of chaos initiation, intermittent spatiotemporal chaos exists until typically a collapse to the rest state. PMID:25637930

Lafranceschina, Jacopo; Wackerbauer, Renate

2015-01-01

184

Calcium transient evoked by TRPV1 activators is enhanced by tumor necrosis factor-? in rat pulmonary sensory neurons  

PubMed Central

TNF?, a proinflammatory cytokine known to be involved in the pathogenesis of allergic asthma, has been shown to induce hyperalgesia in somatic tissue via a sensitizing effect on dorsal root ganglion neurons expressing transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 receptor (TRPV1). Because TRPV1-expressing pulmonary sensory neurons play an important role in regulating airway function, this study was carried out to determine whether TNF? alters the sensitivity of these neurons to chemical activators. Responses of isolated nodose and jugular ganglion neurons innervating the rat lungs were determined by measuring the transient increase in intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i). Our results showed the following. 1) A pretreatment with TNF? (50 ng/ml) for ?24 h increased significantly the peak ?[Ca2+]i evoked by capsaicin (Cap) in these neurons. A pretreatment with the same concentration of TNF? for a longer duration (?48 h) did not further increase the response, but pretreatment for a shorter duration (1 h) or with a lower concentration (25 ng/ml, 24 h) failed to enhance the Cap sensitivity. 2) The same TNF? pretreatment also induced similar but less pronounced and less uniform increases in the responses to acid (pH 6.5–5.5), 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2-APB), a common activator of TRPV1, V2, and V3 channels, and allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), a selective activator of TRPA1 channel. 3) In sharp contrast, the responses to ATP, ACh, and KCl were not affected by TNF?. 4) The TNF?-induced hypersensitivity to Cap was not prevented by pretreatment with indomethacin (30 ?M). 5) The immunoreactivity to both TNF receptor types 1 and 2 were detected in rat vagal pulmonary sensory neurons. In conclusion, prolonged treatment with TNF? induces a pronounced potentiating effect on the responses of isolated pulmonary sensory neurons to TRPV1 activators. This action of TNF? may contribute in part to the airway hyperresponsiveness induced by this cytokine. PMID:20639352

Hu, Youmin; Gu, Qihai; Lin, Ruei-Lung; Kryscio, Richard

2010-01-01

185

Enhanced-Transient Expression of Hepatitis C Virus Core Protein in Nicotiana tabacum, a Protein With Potential Clinical Applications  

PubMed Central

Background: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is major cause of liver cirrhosis in humans. HCV capsid (core) protein (HCVcp) is a highly demanded antigen for various diagnostic, immunization and pathogenesis studies. Plants are considered as an expression system for producing safe and inexpensive biopharmaceutical proteins. Although invention of transgenic (stable) tobacco plants expressing HCVcp with proper antigenic properties was recently reported, no data for “transient-expression” that is currently the method of choice for rapid, simple and lower-priced protein expression in plants is available for HCVcp. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to design a highly codon-optimized HCVcp gene for construction of an efficient transient-plant expression system for production of HCVcp with proper antigenic properties in a regional tobacco plant (Iranian Jafarabadi-cultivar) by evaluation of different classes of vectors and suppression of gene-silencing in tobacco. Materials and Methods: A codon-optimized gene encoding the Kozak sequence, 6xHis-tag, HCVcp (1-122) and KDEL peptide in tandem (from N- to C-terminal) was designed and inserted into potato virus-X (PVX) and classic pBI121 binary vectors in separate cloning reactions. The resulted recombinant plasmids were transferred into Agrobacterium tumefaciens and vacuum infiltrated into tobacco leaves. The effect of gene silencing suppressor P19 protein derived from tomato bushy stunt virus on the expression yield of HCVcp by each construct was also evaluated by co-infiltration in separate groups. The expressed HCVcp was evaluated by dot and western blotting and ELISA assays. Results: The codon-optimized gene had an increased adaptation index value (from 0.65 to 0.85) and reduced GC content (from 62.62 to 51.05) in tobacco and removed the possible deleterious effect of “GGTAAG” splice site in native HCVcp. Blotting assays via specific antibodies confirmed the expression of the 15 kDa HCVcp. The expression level of HCVcp was enhanced by 4-5 times in P19 co-agroinfiltrated plants with better outcomes for PVX, compared to pBI121 vector (0.022% versus 0.019% of the total soluble protein). The plant-derived HCVcp (pHCVcp) could properly identify the HCVcp antibody in HCV-infected human sera compared to Escherichia coli-derived HCVcp (eHCVcp), indicating its potential for diagnostic/immunization applications. Conclusions: By employment of gene optimization strategies, use of viral-based vectors and suppression of plant-derived gene silencing effect, efficient transient expression of HCVcp in tobacco with proper antigenic properties could be possible. PMID:25598788

Mohammadzadeh, Sara; Khabiri, Alireza; Roohvand, Farzin; Memarnejadian, Arash; Salmanian, Ali Hatef; Ajdary, Soheila; Ehsani, Parastoo

2014-01-01

186

ccsd-00080651,version1-19Jun2006 Rates of convergence of a transient diffusion in a spectrally negative  

E-print Network

obtained by Kesten-Kozlov-Spitzer (1975) for the random walk in a random environment. Key Words. Diffusion is a drifted Brownian motion, of those previously obtained by Kesten et al. [14] for the discrete model of the random walk in a random environment. However, the results of Kesten et al. hold for a wide class

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

187

Chronic oleoylethanolamide treatment improves spatial cognitive deficits through enhancing hippocampal neurogenesis after transient focal cerebral ischemia.  

PubMed

Oleoylethanolamide (OEA) has been shown to have neuroprotective effects after acute cerebral ischemic injury. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of chronic OEA treatment on ischemia-induced spatial cognitive impairments, electrophysiology behavior and hippocampal neurogenesis. Daily treatments of 30mg/kg OEA significantly ameliorated spatial cognitive deficits and attenuated the inhibition of long-term potentiation (LTP) in the middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) rat model. Moreover, OEA administration improved cognitive function in a manner associated with enhanced neurogenesis in the hippocampus. Further study demonstrated that treatment with OEA markedly increased the expressions of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors ? (PPAR?). Our data suggest that chronic OEA treatment can exert functional recovery of cognitive impairments and neuroprotective effects against cerebral ischemic insult in rats via triggering of neurogenesis in the hippocampus, which supports the therapeutic use of OEA for cerebral ischemia. PMID:25748831

Yang, Li-Chao; Guo, Han; Zhou, Hao; Suo, Da-Qin; Li, Wen-Jun; Zhou, Yu; Zhao, Yun; Yang, Wu-Shuang; Jin, Xin

2015-04-15

188

Diffusion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Since the advent of the internet, a number of artists and related organizations have become interested in utilizing the web to promulgate new forms of artistic creation and their subsequent dissemination. Supported by the Arts Council of England, these Diffusion eBooks are essentially pdf files that readers can download, print out and make into booklets. As the site suggests, "the Diffusion format challenges conventions of interactivity-blending the physical and the virtual and breaking the dominance of mouse and screen as the primary forms of human computer interaction...the format's aim is to take the reader away from the screen and computer and engage them in the process of production." There are a number of creative booklets available here for visitors, complete with instruction on how to assemble them for the desired effect. For anyone with even a remote interest in the possibilities afforded by this rather curious new form of expression, this website is worth a look.

189

Analytical resolution of the reactive diffusion equation for transient electronics including materials whose porosity value changes in terms of their thickness  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transient electronic devices are a new technology development whose main characteristic is that its components can disappear in a programmed and controlled way, which means such devices have a pre-engineered service life. Nowadays, transient electronics have a large application field, involving from the reduction of e-waste in the planet until the development of medical instruments and implants that can be discarded when the patients do not need it anymore, avoiding the trouble of having an extra procedure for them. These devices must be made from biocompatible materials avoiding long-term adverse effects in the environment and patients. It is fundamental to develop an analytical model that allows describing the behavior of these materials considering cases which its porosity may be constant or not, in presence of water or any other biofluid. In order to accomplish this analysis was solve the reactive diffusion equation based on Bromwich's integral and the Residue theorem for two material cases, those whose porosity is constant, and those whose porosity increases linearly in terms of its thickness, where was found a general expression. This allows to the analysis of the relation of the electric resistance (per unit length) and the rate of dissolution of the material.

Vargas Toro, Agustín.

2014-05-01

190

Stabilizing effect of diffusion in enhanced oil recovery and three-layer Hele-Shaw flows with viscosity gradient  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the presence of diffusion, stability of three-layer Hele-Shaw flows which models enhanced oil recovery processes by polymer\\u000a flooding is studied for the case of variable viscosity in the middle layer. This leads to the coupling of the momentum equation\\u000a and the species advection-diffusion equation the hydrodynamic stability study of which is presented in this paper.\\u000a \\u000a Linear stability analysis of

Prabir Daripa; G. Pa?a

2007-01-01

191

Laser imaging of chemistry-flowfield interactions: Enhanced soot formation in time-varying diffusion flames  

SciTech Connect

Models of detailed flame chemistry and soot formation are based upon experimental results obtained in steady, laminar flames. For successful application of these descriptions to turbulent combustion, it is instructive to test predictions against measurements in time-varying flowfields. This paper reports the use of optical methods to examine soot production and oxidation processes in a co-flowing, axisymmetric CH{sub 4}/air diffusion flame in which the fuel flow rate is acoustically forced to create a time-varying flowfield. For a particular forcing condition in which tip clipping occurs (0.75 V loudspeaker excitation), elastic scattering of vertically polarized light from the soot particles increases by nearly an order of magnitude with respect to that observed for a steady flame with the same mean fuel flow rate. The visible flame luminosity and laser-induced fluorescence attributed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are also enhanced. Peak soot volume fractions, as measured by time-resolved laser extinction/tomography at 632.8 and 454.5 nm and calibrated laser-induced incandescence (LII), show a factor of 4--5 enhancement in this flickering flame. The LII method is found to track the soot volume fraction closely and to give better signal-to-noise than the extinction measurements in both the steady and time-varying flowfields. A Mie analysis suggests that most of the enhanced soot production results from the formation of larger particles in the time-varying flowfield.

Harrington, J.E.; Shaddix, C.R.; Smyth, K.C. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States). Building and Fire Research Lab.

1994-12-31

192

Observation of oxidation-enhanced and oxidation-retarded diffusion of antimony in silicon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experiment was carried out to study oxidation-enhanced and oxidation-retarded diffusion (OED and ORD) of Sb in (100) and (111) Si wafers oxidized in dry O2 at 1160 °C. The ORD data of (100) wafers agree well with those of Mizuo and Higuchi and with the prediction of a model assuming that Si self-interstitials and vacancies coexist in Si in thermal equilibrium at high temperatures. A small adjustment to the interstitial supersaturation values is needed to bring the ORD/OED data of (111) wafers to fit with the model satisfactorily. This indicates the existence of a mechanism which injects vacancies into (111) wafers in addition to the normal mechanism of interstitial injection due to SiO2 growth.

Tan, T. Y.; Ginsberg, B. J.

1983-03-01

193

Shape-parameterized diffuse optical tomography holds promise for sensitivity enhancement of fluorescence molecular tomography  

PubMed Central

A fundamental approach to enhancing the sensitivity of the fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT) is to incorporate diffuse optical tomography (DOT) to modify the light propagation modeling. However, the traditional voxel-based DOT has been involving a severely ill-posed inverse problem and cannot retrieve the optical property distributions with the acceptable quantitative accuracy and spatial resolution. Although, with the aid of an anatomical imaging modality, the structural-prior-based DOT method with either the hard- or soft-prior scheme holds promise for in vivo acquiring the optical background of tissues, the low robustness of the hard-prior scheme to the segmentation error and inferior performance of the soft-prior one in the quantitative accuracy limit its further application. We propose in this paper a shape-parameterized DOT method for not only effectively determining the regional optical properties but potentially achieving reasonable structural amelioration, lending itself to FMT for comparably improved recovery of fluorescence distribution. PMID:25360379

Wu, Linhui; Wan, Wenbo; Wang, Xin; Zhou, Zhongxing; Li, Jiao; Zhang, Limin; Zhao, Huijuan; Gao, Feng

2014-01-01

194

In situ synthesis of nano silver/lecithin on wool: enhancing nanoparticles diffusion.  

PubMed

Silver nanoparticles are being used increasingly in various applications because of their antibacterial properties. It is necessary to lower their direct contact with the skin by embedding in a polymer reducing their side effects. In this study, silver nanoparticles were synthesized inside the wool fibers acted as a polyfunctional ligands. Lecithin as a biological lipid was used to enhance the diffusion of silver ions and nanoparticles into the wool fibers reducing cytotoxicity effects of the nano silver loaded wool. The highest loading efficiency and inhibition zone was observed on the wool with the highest lecithin concentration. Presence of lecithin reduced the rate of nano silver release which results in decreasing the specific coefficient of lethality. Also, the extracted solution of the synthesized silver nanoparticles on the wool has not altered the morphology of L929 fibroblast cells. PMID:22178185

Barani, Hossein; Montazer, Majid; Samadi, Nasrin; Toliyat, Tayebeh

2012-04-01

195

Solutions of Simultaneous Equations for Oxidation Enhanced and Retarded Diffusions and Oxidation Stacking Fault in Silicon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Equations for oxidation enhanced and retarded diffusions (OED and ORD) and oxidation stacking faults (OSF) in silicon have been solved simultaneously, using experimental results at 1100°C for 1.0× 104--2.4× 105 s. A simple relation between the concentrations of self-interstitials and vacancies was assumed in order to obtain the solutions. It is concluded that the product of the concentrations of the self-interstitials and vacancies, CICV, is nearly equal to the value for thermal equilibrium, CI0CV0, and that the fractional components of the interstitialcy mechanism for self-, Sb and P diffusions are smaller than 0.5, smaller than 0.5 and larger than 0.5, respectively. This shows that the growth of OSF is caused mainly by the undersaturation of a vacancy, and that the ORD of Sb and the OED of P occur. The time dependences of the supersaturation ratios of the self-interstitials and vacancies were also obtained.

Yoshida, Masayuki; Matsumoto, Satoru; Ishikawa, Yutaka

1986-07-01

196

The application of dynamic programming in a discrete supplementary control for transient stability enhancement of multimachine power systems  

SciTech Connect

This paper considers the use of a discrete supplementary control for transient stability enhancement of multimachine power systems. The principal advantage of the method presented in this paper is that off-line computations are used. This permits the application of the supplementary control of a ''multimachine'' power system. The designation ''multimachine'' is used in this context to denote systems of up to three machines; for practical systems containing more than three machines, appropriate model order reduction is suggested. Supplementary controls differ from primary controls in that they are only used during disturbances rather than continuously. Attention is focused on the insertion of braking resistors and a specially designed dynamic programming algorithm is described for optimal resistor switching. The switching strategy is computed off-line so that the on-line computational requirements are minimal. The contribution of this paper is in the area of multimachine control and, in particular, a power system emergency state control. Topics concerning control models, optimization criteria and characteristics of discrete supplementary controls have been addressed. Control strategies are evaluated through digital and analog simulation involving a ten machine test system.

Lubkeman, D.L.; Heydt, G.T.

1985-09-01

197

Delayed marrow infusion in mice enhances hematopoietic and osteopoietic engraftment by facilitating transient expansion of the osteoblastic niche.  

PubMed

Transplantation of bone marrow cells leads to engraftment of osteopoietic and hematopoietic progenitors. We sought to determine whether the recently described transient expansion of the host osteoblastic niche after marrow radioablation promotes engraftment of both osteopoietic and hematopoietic progenitor cells. Mice infused with marrow cells 24 hours after total body irradiation (TBI) demonstrated significantly greater osteopoietic and hematopoietic progenitor chimerism than did mice infused at 30 minutes or 6 hours. Irradiated mice with a lead shield over 1 hind limb showed greater hematopoietic chimerism in the irradiated limb than in the shielded limb at both the 6- and 24-hour intervals. By contrast, the osteopoietic chimerism was essentially equal in the 2 limbs at each of these intervals, although it significantly increased when cells were infused 24 hours compared with 6 hours after TBI. Similarly, the number of donor phenotypic long-term hematopoietic stem cells was equivalent in the irradiated and shielded limbs after each irradiation-to-infusion interval but was significantly increased at the 24-hour interval. Our findings indicate that a 24-hour delay in marrow cell infusion after TBI facilitates expansion of the endosteal osteoblastic niche, leading to enhanced osteopoietic and hematopoietic engraftment. PMID:23916672

Marino, Roberta; Otsuru, Satoru; Hofmann, Ted J; Olson, Timothy S; Rasini, Valeria; Veronesi, Elena; Boyd, Kelli; Gaber, Mostafa Waleed; Martinez, Caridad; Paolucci, Paolo; Dominici, Massimo; Horwitz, Edwin M

2013-11-01

198

Follicle-stimulating hormone enhances the proliferation of ovarian cancer cells by activating transient receptor potential channel C3  

PubMed Central

Recent studies have suggested that follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) plays an important role in ovarian epithelial carcinogenesis. We demonstrated that FSH stimulates the proliferation and invasion of ovarian cancer cells, inhibits apoptosis, and facilitates neovascularisation. Our previous work has shown that transient receptor potential channel C3 (TRPC3) contributes to the progression of human ovarian cancer. In this study, we further investigated the interaction between FSH and TRPC3. We found that FSH stimulation enhanced the expression of TRPC3 at both the mRNA and protein levels. SiRNA-mediated silencing of TRPC3 expression inhibited the ability of FSH to stimulate proliferation and blocked apoptosis in ovarian cancer cell lines. FSH stimulation was associated with the upregulation of TRPC3, while also facilitating the influx of Ca2+ after treatment with a TRPC-specific agonist. Knockdown of TRPC3 abrogated FSH-stimulated Akt/PKB phosphorylation, leading to decreased expression of downstream effectors including survivin, HIF1? and VEGF. Ovarian cancer specimens were analysed for TRPC3 expression; higher TRPC3 expression levels correlated with early relapse and worse prognosis. Association with poor disease-free survival and overall survival remained after adjusting for clinical stage and grade. In conclusion, TRPC3 plays a significant role in the stimulating activity of FSH and could be a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of ovarian cancer, particularly in postmenopausal women with elevated FSH levels. PMID:23580589

Tao, Xiang; Zhao, Naiqing; Jin, Hongyan; Zhang, Zhenbo; Liu, Yintao; Wu, Jian; Bast, Robert C.; Yu, Yinhua; Feng, Youji

2013-01-01

199

Selective-diffusion regularization for enhancement of microcalcifications in digital breast tomosynthesis reconstruction  

PubMed Central

Purpose: Digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) has been shown to improve mass detection. Detection of microcalcifications is more challenging because of the large breast volume to be searched for subtle signals. The simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique (SART) was found to provide good image quality for DBT, but the image noise is amplified with an increasing number of iterations. In this study, the authors developed a selective-diffusion (SD) method for noise regularization with SART to improve the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of microcalcifications in the DBT slices for human or machine detection. Methods: The SD method regularizes SART reconstruction during updating with each projection view. Potential microcalcifications are differentiated from the noisy background by estimating the local gradient information. Different degrees of regularization are applied to the signal or noise classes, such that the microcalcifications will be enhanced while the noise is suppressed. The new SD method was compared to several current methods, including the quadratic Laplacian (QL) method, the total variation (TV) method, and the nonconvex total p-variation (TpV) method for noise regularization with SART. A GE GEN2 prototype DBT system with a stationary digital detector was used for the acquisition of DBT scans at 21 angles in 3° increments over a ±30° range. The reconstruction image quality without regularization and that with the different regularization methods were compared using the DBT scans of an American College of Radiology phantom and a human subject. The CNR and the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the line profiles of microcalcifications within the in-focus DBT slices were used as image quality measures. Results: For the comparison of large microcalcifications in the DBT data of the subject, the SD method resulted in comparable CNR to the nonconvex TpV method. Both of them performed better than the other two methods. For subtle microcalcifications, the SD method was superior to other methods in terms of CNR. In both the subject and phantom DBT data, for large microcalcifications, the FWHM of the SD method was comparable to that without regularization, which was wider than that of the TV type methods. For subtle microcalcifications, the SD method had comparable FWHM values to the TV type methods. All three regularization methods were superior to the QL method in terms of FWHM. Conclusions: The SART regularized by the selective-diffusion method enhanced the CNR and preserved the sharpness of microcalcifications. In comparison with three existing regularization methods, the selective-diffusion regularization was superior to the other methods for subtle microcalcifications. PMID:21158312

Lu, Yao; Chan, Heang-Ping; Wei, Jun; Hadjiiski, Lubomir M.

2010-01-01

200

Differentiation of recurrent brain tumor versus radiation injury using diffusion tensor imaging in patients with new contrast-enhancing lesions  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background and PurposeThe purpose of this study was to assess the use of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in the evaluation of new contrast-enhancing lesions and perilesional edema in patients previously treated for brain neoplasm in the differentiation of recurrent neoplasm from treatment-related injury.

Pia C. Sundgren; Xiaoying Fan; Patrick Weybright; Robert C. Welsh; Ruth C. Carlos; Myria Petrou; Paul E. McKeever; Thomas L. Chenevert

2006-01-01

201

A stochastic model for induced seismicity based on non-linear pressure diffusion and irreversible permeability enhancement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

During deep reservoir engineering projects, in which permeability is enhanced by high-pressure fluid injection, seismicity is invariably induced, posing nuisance to the local population and a potential hazard for structures. Hazard and risk assessment tools that can operate in real-time during reservoir stimulation depend on the ability to efficiently model induced seismicity. We here propose a novel modelling approach based on a combination of physical considerations and stochastic elements. It can model a large number of synthetic event catalogues, and at the same time is constrained by observations of hydraulic behaviour in the injection well. We model fluid flow using non-linear pressure diffusion equations, in which permeability increases irreversibly above a prescribed pressure threshold. The transient pressure field is used to trigger events at so-called `seed points' that are distributed randomly in space and represent potential earthquake hypocentres. We assign to each seed point a differential stress based on the mean estimates of the in situ stress field and add a normal distributed random value. Assuming a fault orientation with respect to the stress field and a Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion, we evaluate at each time step, if a seed point is triggered through a pressure increase. A negative proportional relationship between differential stress and b values is further assumed as observed from tectonic earthquakes and in laboratory experiments. As soon as an event is triggered, we draw a random magnitude from a power-law distribution with a b value corresponding to the differential stress at the triggered seed point. We thus obtain time-dependent catalogues of seismic events including magnitude. The strategy of modelling flow and seismicity in a decoupled manner ensures efficiency and flexibility of the model. The model parameters are calibrated using observations from the Basel deep geothermal experiment in 2006. We are able to reproduce the hydraulic behaviour, the space-time evolution of the seismicity and its frequency-magnitude distribution. A large number of simulations of the calibrated model are then used to capture the variability of the process, an important input to compute probabilistic seismic hazard. We also use the calibrated model to explore alternative injection scenarios by varying injection volume, pressure as well as depth, and show the possible effect of those parameters on seismic hazard.

Gischig, Valentin S.; Wiemer, Stefan

2013-08-01

202

An asixymmetric diffusion experiment for the determination of diffusion and sorption coefficients of rock samples  

SciTech Connect

Diffusion anisotropy is a critical property in predicting migration of substances in sedimentary formations with very low permeability. The diffusion anisotropy of sedimentary rocks has been evaluated mainly from laboratory diffusion experiments, in which the directional diffusivities are separately estimated by through-diffusion experiments using different rock samples, or concurrently by in-diffusion experiments in which only the tracer profile in a rock block is measured. To estimate the diffusion anisotropy from a single rock sample, this study proposes an axisymmetric diffusion test, in which tracer diffuses between a cylindrical rock sample and a surrounding solution reservoir. The tracer diffusion between the sample and reservoir can be monitored from the reservoir tracer concentrations, and the tracer profile could also be obtained after dismantling the sample. Semi-analytical solutions are derived for tracer concentrations in both the reservoir and sample, accounting for an anisotropic diffusion tensor of rank two as well as the dilution effects from sampling and replacement of reservoir solution. The transient and steady-state analyses were examined experimentally and numerically for different experimental configurations, but without the need for tracer profiling. These experimental configurations are tested for in- and out-diffusion experiments using Koetoi and Wakkanai mudstones and Shirahama sandstone, and are scrutinized by a numerical approach to identify favorable conditions for parameter estimation. The analysis reveals the difficulty in estimating diffusion anisotropy; test configurations are proposed for enhanced identifiability of diffusion anisotropy. Moreover, it is demonstrated that the axisymmetric diffusion test is efficient in obtaining the sorption parameter from both steady-state and transient data, and in determining the effective diffusion coefficient if isotropic diffusion is assumed. Moreover, measuring reservoir concentrations in an axisymmetric diffusion experiment coupled with tracer profiling may be a promising approach to estimate of diffusion anisotropy of sedimentary rocks.

Takeda, M.; Hiratsuka, T.; Ito, K.; Finsterle, S.

2011-02-01

203

An axisymmetric diffusion experiment for the determination of diffusion and sorption coefficients of rock samples.  

PubMed

Diffusion anisotropy is a critical property in predicting migration of substances in sedimentary formations with very low permeability. The diffusion anisotropy of sedimentary rocks has been evaluated mainly from laboratory diffusion experiments, in which the directional diffusivities are separately estimated by through-diffusion experiments using different rock samples, or concurrently by in-diffusion experiments in which only the tracer profile in a rock block is measured. To estimate the diffusion anisotropy from a single rock sample, this study proposes an axisymmetric diffusion test, in which tracer diffuses between a cylindrical rock sample and a surrounding solution reservoir. The tracer diffusion between the sample and reservoir can be monitored from the reservoir tracer concentrations, and the tracer profile could also be obtained after dismantling the sample. Semi-analytical solutions are derived for tracer concentrations in both the reservoir and sample, accounting for an anisotropic diffusion tensor of rank two as well as the dilution effects from sampling and replacement of reservoir solution. The transient and steady-state analyses were examined experimentally and numerically for different experimental configurations, but without the need for tracer profiling. These experimental configurations are tested for in- and out-diffusion experiments using Koetoi and Wakkanai mudstones and Shirahama sandstone, and are scrutinized by a numerical approach to identify favorable conditions for parameter estimation. The analysis reveals the difficulty in estimating diffusion anisotropy; test configurations are proposed for enhanced identifiability of diffusion anisotropy. Moreover, it is demonstrated that the axisymmetric diffusion test is efficient in obtaining the sorption parameter from both steady-state and transient data, and in determining the effective diffusion coefficient if isotropic diffusion is assumed. Moreover, measuring reservoir concentrations in an axisymmetric diffusion experiment coupled with tracer profiling may be a promising approach to estimate of diffusion anisotropy of sedimentary rocks. PMID:21288593

Takeda, M; Hiratsuka, T; Ito, K; Finsterle, S

2011-04-25

204

A finite element simulation on transient large deformation and mass diffusion in electrodes for lithium ion batteries  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Lithium-ion batteries have attracted great deal of attention recently. Silicon is one of the most promising anode materials for high-performance lithium-ion batteries, due to its highest theoretical specific capacity. However, the short lifetime confined by mechanical failure in the silicon anode is now considered to be the biggest challenge in desired applications. High stress induced by the huge volume change due to lithium insertion/extraction is the main reason underlying this problem. Some theoretical models have been developed to address this issue. In order to properly implement these models, we develop a finite element based numerical method using a commercial software package, ABAQUS, as a platform at the continuum level to study fully coupled large deformation and mass diffusion problem. Using this method, large deformation, elasticity-plasticity of the electrodes, various spatial and temporal conditions, arbitrary geometry and dimension could be fulfilled. The interaction between anode and other components of the lithium ion batteries can also be studied as an integrated system. Several specific examples are presented to demonstrate the capability of this numerical platform.

An, Yonghao; Jiang, Hanqing

2013-10-01

205

Pyruvate Induces Transient Tumor Hypoxia by Enhancing Mitochondrial Oxygen Consumption and Potentiates the Anti-Tumor Effect of a Hypoxia-Activated Prodrug TH-302  

PubMed Central

Background TH-302 is a hypoxia-activated prodrug (HAP) of bromo isophosphoramide mustard that is selectively activated within hypoxic regions in solid tumors. Our recent study showed that intravenously administered bolus pyruvate can transiently induce hypoxia in tumors. We investigated the mechanism underlying the induction of transient hypoxia and the combination use of pyruvate to potentiate the anti-tumor effect of TH-302. Methodology/Results The hypoxia-dependent cytotoxicity of TH-302 was evaluated by a viability assay in murine SCCVII and human HT29 cells. Modulation in cellular oxygen consumption and in vivo tumor oxygenation by the pyruvate treatment was monitored by extracellular flux analysis and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) oxygen imaging, respectively. The enhancement of the anti-tumor effect of TH-302 by pyruvate treatment was evaluated by monitoring the growth suppression of the tumor xenografts inoculated subcutaneously in mice. TH-302 preferentially inhibited the growth of both SCCVII and HT29 cells under hypoxic conditions (0.1% O2), with minimal effect under aerobic conditions (21% O2). Basal oxygen consumption rates increased after the pyruvate treatment in SCCVII cells in a concentration-dependent manner, suggesting that pyruvate enhances the mitochondrial respiration to consume excess cellular oxygen. In vivo EPR oxygen imaging showed that the intravenous administration of pyruvate globally induced the transient hypoxia 30 min after the injection in SCCVII and HT29 tumors at the size of 500–1500 mm3. Pretreatment of SCCVII tumor bearing mice with pyruvate 30 min prior to TH-302 administration, initiated with small tumors (?550 mm3), significantly delayed tumor growth. Conclusions/Significance Our in vitro and in vivo studies showed that pyruvate induces transient hypoxia by enhancing mitochondrial oxygen consumption in tumor cells. TH-302 therapy can be potentiated by pyruvate pretreatment if started at the appropriate tumor size and oxygen concentration. PMID:25254649

Takakusagi, Yoichi; Matsumoto, Shingo; Saito, Keita; Matsuo, Masayuki; Kishimoto, Shun; Wojtkowiak, Jonathan W.; DeGraff, William; Kesarwala, Aparna H.; Choudhuri, Rajani; Devasahayam, Nallathamby; Subramanian, Sankaran; Munasinghe, Jeeva P.; Gillies, Robert J.; Mitchell, James B.; Hart, Charles P.; Krishna, Murali C.

2014-01-01

206

Mannitol enhances intracellular calcium diffusion in the rat ileum--a hypothesis.  

PubMed

The addition of 92 or 136 mM mannitol to a modified saline solution that contained 1.25 mM Ca2+ led to a mannitol concentration-dependent increase in the amount of calcium absorbed in 1 h from 8 cm long ileal loops prepared from fasted male Sprague-Dawley rats, with body weights of 190 +/- 10 g. It is argued that this mannitol-enhanced movement of calcium out of the loop cannot have utilized the paracellular pathway, inasmuch as the luminal calcium concentration of the mannitol instillate decreased during the experiment, with a negative calcium gradient between luminal and body fluids. Instead it is proposed that uncomplexed mannitol and the uncharged calcium complex of mannitol entered the ileal cells. The uncomplexed intracellular mannitol would bind additional calcium that had crossed the brush border down its gradient. The increase in total intracellular calcium will raise the effective intracellular gradient and thereby amplify intracellular calcium diffusion. This in turn increases calcium absorption. PMID:10737546

Escoffier, L; Grishina, O; Pansu, D; Bronner, F

2000-01-01

207

Numerical Simulations of Transverse Beam Diffusion Enhancement by the Use of Electron Lens in the Tevatron Collider  

SciTech Connect

Transverse beam diffusion for the Tevatron machine has been calculated using the Lifetrac code. The following effects were included: random noise (representing residual gas scattering, voltage noise in the accelerating cavities) lattice nonlinearities and beam-beam interactions. The time evolution of particle distributions with different initial amplitudes in Hamiltonian action has been simulated for 6 million turns, corresponding to a time of about 2 minutes. For each particle distribution, several cases have been considered: a single beam in storage ring mode, the collider case and the effects of a hollow electron beam collimator. The diffusion coefficient for some representative points in the amplitude space has been calculated by fitting the time evolution of delta-like particle distributions using the diffusion equation, for different machine conditions. The results confirm a strong efficiency of the electron lens as an halo diffusive enhancer, leading to diffusion coefficients which are at least a factor 10K higher than the values obtained for the collision case. This result is confirmed by the Frequency Map Analysis, which shows a clear intensification of resonance lines for particle amplitudes larger than the electron lens inner radius. If compared with past experiments, the simulations successfully reproduce the diffusion coefficients for the beam core, but still present a large discrepancy for halo particles, still under investigation.

Previtali, V.; Stancari, G.; Valishev, A.; /Fermilab; Shatilov, D.N.; /Novosibirsk, IYF

2012-05-01

208

Effect of fluorine on the diffusion of boron in ion implanted Si Daniel F. Downeya)  

E-print Network

Effect of fluorine on the diffusion of boron in ion implanted Si Daniel F. Downeya) and Judy W to investigate the effects of the fluorine in BF2 implants on transient enhanced diffusion TED . By using the chemical effect of the fluorine on the TED of the B in the regrown Si to be studied independent

Florida, University of

209

Schottky Barrier Height Modulation by Ultra-Shallow Low-Dose Dopant Diffusion  

E-print Network

Schottky Barrier Height Modulation by Ultra-Shallow Low-Dose Dopant Diffusion Milos Popadi*, Lis K damage that could lead to transient enhanced diffusion of the dopants. Depending on the substrate type. The back of the wafer was metallized and is a diode terminal. Structures for sheet resistance measurements

Technische Universiteit Delft

210

Enhanced diffusion of uranium and thorium linked to crystal plasticity in zircon.  

PubMed

The effects of crystal-plasticity on the U-Th-Pb system in zircon is studied by quantitative microstructural and microchemical analysis of a large zircon grain collected from pyroxenite of the Lewisian Complex, Scotland. Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) mapping reveals a c.18 degree variation in crystallographic orientation that comprises both a gradual change in orientation and a series of discrete low-angle (<4 degrees) boundaries. These microstructural data are consistent with crystal-plastic deformation of zircon associated with the formation and migration of dislocations. A heterogeneous pattern of dark cathodoluminescence, with the darkest domains coinciding with low-angle boundaries, mimics the deformation microstructure identified by EBSD. Geochemical data collected using the Sensitive High Resolution Ion MicroProbe (SHRIMP) shows a positive correlation between concentrations of the elements U, Th and Pb (ranging from 20-60 ppm, 30-110 ppm, and 14-36 ppm, respectively) and Th/U ratio (1.13-1.8) with the deformation microstructure. The highest measured concentrations and Th/U coincide with low-angle boundaries. This enrichment is interpreted to reflect enhanced bulk diffusion of U and Th due to the formation and migration of high-diffusivity dislocations. 207Pb/206Pb ages for individual analyses show no significant variation across the grain, and define a concordant, combined mean age of 2451 +/- 14 Ma. This indicates that the grain was deformed shortly after initial crystallization, most probably during retrograde Inverian metamorphism at amphibolite facies conditions. The elevated Th over U and consistent 207Pb/206Pb ages indicates that deformation most likely occurred in the presence of a late-stage magmatic fluid that drove an increase in the Th/U during deformation. The relative enrichment of Th over U implies that Th/U ratio may not always be a robust indicator of crystallization environment. This study provides the first evidence of deformation-related modification of the U-Th system in zircon and has fundamental implications for the application and interpretation of zircon trace element data. PMID:17181855

Timms, Nicholas E; Kinny, Peter D; Reddy, Steven M

2006-01-01

211

Enhanced diffusion of Uranium and Thorium linked to crystal plasticity in zircon  

PubMed Central

The effects of crystal-plasticity on the U-Th-Pb system in zircon is studied by quantitative microstructural and microchemical analysis of a large zircon grain collected from pyroxenite of the Lewisian Complex, Scotland. Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) mapping reveals a c.18° variation in crystallographic orientation that comprises both a gradual change in orientation and a series of discrete low-angle (<4°) boundaries. These microstructural data are consistent with crystal-plastic deformation of zircon associated with the formation and migration of dislocations. A heterogeneous pattern of dark cathodoluminescence, with the darkest domains coinciding with low-angle boundaries, mimics the deformation microstructure identified by EBSD. Geochemical data collected using the Sensitive High Resolution Ion MicroProbe (SHRIMP) shows a positive correlation between concentrations of the elements U, Th and Pb (ranging from 20–60 ppm, 30–110 ppm, and 14–36 ppm, respectively) and Th/U ratio (1.13 – 1.8) with the deformation microstructure. The highest measured concentrations and Th/U coincide with low-angle boundaries. This enrichment is interpreted to reflect enhanced bulk diffusion of U and Th due to the formation and migration of high-diffusivity dislocations. 207Pb/206Pb ages for individual analyses show no significant variation across the grain, and define a concordant, combined mean age of 2451 ± 14 Ma. This indicates that the grain was deformed shortly after initial crystallization, most probably during retrograde Inverian metamorphism at amphibolite facies conditions. The elevated Th over U and consistent 207Pb/206Pb ages indicates that deformation most likely occurred in the presence of a late-stage magmatic fluid that drove an increase in the Th/U during deformation. The relative enrichment of Th over U implies that Th/U ratio may not always be a robust indicator of crystallization environment. This study provides the first evidence of deformation-related modification of the U-Th system in zircon and has fundamental implications for the application and interpretation of zircon trace element data. PMID:17181855

Timms, Nicholas E; Kinny, Peter D; Reddy, Steven M

2006-01-01

212

Modeling stress development and hydrogen diffusion in plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition silicon nitride films submitted to thermal cycles  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We conducted isochronal stress hysteresis measurements coupled with thermal desorption spectroscopy on silicon nitride thin films obtained by performing plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition on (001) silicon wafers. Above the deposition temperature, we observed irreversible stress build-up in parallel to substantial hydrogen effusion out of the films. We confirmed that the hydrogen dissociation and stress build-up can be modeled with similar kinetic equations. The hydrogen dissociation and stress development activation energies as well as the hydrogen diffusion coefficients were determined by fitting the experimental data with solutions to the kinetics and Fickian diffusion equations obtained with the finite difference method. A first order correlation was found between the hydrogen diffusion coefficients calculated between 400 and 800 °C and the silicon nitride film density.

Morin, Pierre Francois; Pelletier, Bertrand; Laffosse, Elise; Plantier, Lise

2013-10-01

213

Growth of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on metallic underlayers by diffusion plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition (DPECVD)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Here, we demonstrate the low-temperature (480-612 °C) synthesis of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on different metallic underlayers (i.e., NiV, Ir, Ag, Pt, W, and Ta) using diffusion (dc) plasma-enhanced (~20 W, -600 V) chemical vapour deposition (DPECVD). The catalyst used is bi-layered Fe/Al and the feedstock used is a mixture of C 2H 2 and NH 3 (1:4). The crucial component is the diffusion of radical ions and hydrogen generated such as H 2/H +/H 2+/NH 3+/CH 2+/C 2H 2+ (which are confirmed by in-situ mass spectroscopy) from the nozzle, where it is inserted for most effective plasma diffusion between a substrate and a gas distributor.

Kim, S. M.; Gangloff, L.

2009-10-01

214

The enhanced diffusion of boron in silicon after high-dose implantation and during rapid thermal annealing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we have studied the diffusion of boron in silicon after high-dose implantation (50 keV, 5 × 10 15{ions}/{cm 2}) and during rapid thermal annealing at 1100°C, under nitrogen gas. We confirm that some enhanced as well as "anomalous" diffusion takes place during the early stage of annealing and that this phenomenon must be related to the defects generated by ion implantation. Experiments were performed on companion samples by SIMS, XTEM and resistivity methods. "Damage" calculations were obtained by running the computer code LUPIN to generate the defect profile (displacements) due to the bombardment. For samples which were subjected to increasing annealing periods (1 s, 3 s, 5 s, etc.) the dopant profile can be simulated only when assuming a phenomenological depth-dependent diffusion coefficient which is always many times higher than according to the "classical" theory. The discussion is conducted by comparing the depth variation of the diffusion coefficient with the position and density of the extended defects seen by XTEM. We show that the formation of a dense band of dislocations and loops around the boron projected range (within 1 s at 1100° C) corresponds to the ejection and clustering of Si interstitials due to the activation of boron. For larger annealing times, boron diffusion is dependent on the motion of these interstitials emitted from the extended defects until they dissolve into the bulk. These experiments clearly evidence the role played by Si interstitials and lead us to reject the idea that the "collisional" damage is responsible for the enhanced diffusion of boron in silicon.

Marou, F.; Claverie, A.; Salles, Ph.; Martinez, A.

1991-04-01

215

Diffusion-enhanced Förster resonance energy transfer and the effects of external quenchers and the donor quantum yield.  

PubMed

The structural and dynamic properties of a flexible peptidic chain codetermine its biological activity. These properties are imprinted in intrachain site-to-site distances as well as in diffusion coefficients of mutual site-to-site motion. Both distance distribution and diffusion determine the extent of Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) between two chain sites labeled with a FRET donor and acceptor. Both could be obtained from time-resolved FRET measurements if their individual contributions to the FRET efficiency could be systematically varied. Because the FRET diffusion enhancement (FDE) depends on the donor-fluorescence lifetime, it has been proposed that the FDE can be reduced by shortening the donor lifetime through an external quencher. Benefiting from the high diffusion sensitivity of short-distance FRET, we tested this concept experimentally on a (Gly-Ser)(6) segment labeled with the donor/acceptor pair naphthylalanine/2,3-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-2-ene (NAla/Dbo). Surprisingly, the very effective quencher potassium iodide (KI) had no effect at all on the average donor-acceptor distance, although the donor lifetime was shortened from ca. 36 ns in the absence of KI to ca. 3 ns in the presence of 30 mM KI. We show that the proposed approach had to fail because it is not the experimentally observed but the radiative donor lifetime that controls the FDE. Because of that, any FRET ensemble measurement can easily underestimate diffusion and might be misleading even if it employs the Haas-Steinberg diffusion equation (HSE). An extension of traditional FRET analysis allowed us to evaluate HSE simulations and to corroborate as well as generalize the experimental results. We demonstrate that diffusion-enhanced FRET depends on the radiative donor lifetime as it depends on the diffusion coefficient, a useful symmetry that can directly be applied to distinguish dynamic and structural effects of viscous cosolvents on the polymer chain. We demonstrate that the effective FRET rate and the recovered donor-acceptor distance depend on the quantum yield, most strongly in the absence of diffusion, which has to be accounted for in the interpretation of distance trends monitored by FRET. PMID:23215358

Jacob, Maik H; Dsouza, Roy N; Ghosh, Indrajit; Norouzy, Amir; Schwarzlose, Thomas; Nau, Werner M

2013-01-10

216

Diffusion of innovation: enhancing the dissemination of the Ponseti method in Latin America through virtual forums.  

PubMed

This ethnographic study evaluated the use of low-bandwidth web-conferencing to enhance diffusion of a specific best practice, the Ponseti method to treat clubfoot, in three economically diverse countries in Latin America. A "Ponseti Virtual Forum" (PVF) was organized in Guatemala, Peru and Chile to examine the influences of economic level and telecommunication infrastructure on the effectiveness of tins approach. Across the three countries, a total of 14 different sites participated in the PVFs. Thirty-three Ponseti-trained practitioners were interviewed before and after each PVF, which included interactions with a Spanish-speaking Ponseti method expert. Semi-structured interviews, observations, and IP address data were triangulated and analyzed. The results demonstrated that 100% of the practitioners rated the sessions as very useful and that they would use this approach again. The largest obstacles to using PVFs were financial (7 out of 9 practitioners) in Guatemala; a lack of equipment and network access (6 out of 11) in Peru; and the organization and implementation of the conferences themselves (7 out of 9) in Chile. This study illustrates the usefulness of Ponseti Virtual Forums in Latin America. Health officials in Peru are currently developing a large-scale information session for traumatologists about the Ponseti method, while practitioners in Guatemala and Chile are organizing monthly scholarly meetings for physicians in remote areas. This initial feedback suggests that low-bandwidth web-conferencing can be an important vehicle for the dissemination of best practices, such as the Ponseti method, in developing countries. PMID:22096417

Jayawardena, Asitha; Boardman, Allison; Cook, Thomas; Oprescu, Florin; Morcuende, Jose A

2011-01-01

217

Case of primary diffuse leptomeningeal gliomatosis.  

PubMed

Primary diffuse leptomeningeal gliomatosis (PDLG) is a rare and fatal disease characterized by diffuse infiltration of the leptomeninges by neoplastic glial cells without evidence of tumor in the brain parenchyma or spinal cord. We report a 60-year-old man with PDLG. He suffered transient right hemiparesis and generalized seizures. MRI showed diffuse leptomeningeal thickening and enhancement throughout the brain and spinal cord without any intraaxial involvement. Biopsy resulted in a diagnosis of glioblastoma with methylated MGMT promoter and wild-type IDH1. He underwent craniospinal radiotherapy and temozolomide treatment but despite concomitant adjuvant therapy he died 8 months after initial presentation. PMID:24473978

Yamasaki, Kouji; Yokogami, Kiyotaka; Ohta, Hajime; Yamashita, Shinji; Uehara, Hisao; Sato, Yuichiro; Takeshima, Hideo

2014-07-01

218

Major mouse placental compartments revealed by diffusion-weighted MRI, contrast-enhanced MRI, and fluorescence imaging  

PubMed Central

Mammalian models, and mouse studies in particular, play a central role in our understanding of placental development. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) could be a valuable tool to further these studies, providing both structural and functional information. As fluid dynamics throughout the placenta are driven by a variety of flow and diffusion processes, diffusion-weighted MRI could enhance our understanding of the exchange properties of maternal and fetal blood pools—and thereby of placental function. These studies, however, have so far been hindered by the small sizes, the unavoidable motions, and the challenging air/water/fat heterogeneities, associated with mouse placental environments. The present study demonstrates that emerging methods based on the spatiotemporal encoding (SPEN) of the MRI information can robustly overcome these obstacles. Using SPEN MRI in combination with albumin-based contrast agents, we analyzed the diffusion behavior of developing placentas in a cohort of mice. These studies successfully discriminated the maternal from the fetal blood flows; the two orders of magnitude differences measured in these fluids’ apparent diffusion coefficients suggest a nearly free diffusion behavior for the former and a strong flow-based component for the latter. An intermediate behavior was observed by these methods for a third compartment that, based on maternal albumin endocytosis, was associated with trophoblastic cells in the interphase labyrinth. Structural features associated with these dynamic measurements were consistent with independent intravital and ex vivo fluorescence microscopy studies and are discussed within the context of the anatomy of developing mouse placentas. PMID:24969421

Solomon, Eddy; Avni, Reut; Hadas, Ron; Raz, Tal; Garbow, Joel Richard; Bendel, Peter; Frydman, Lucio; Neeman, Michal

2014-01-01

219

Major mouse placental compartments revealed by diffusion-weighted MRI, contrast-enhanced MRI, and fluorescence imaging.  

PubMed

Mammalian models, and mouse studies in particular, play a central role in our understanding of placental development. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) could be a valuable tool to further these studies, providing both structural and functional information. As fluid dynamics throughout the placenta are driven by a variety of flow and diffusion processes, diffusion-weighted MRI could enhance our understanding of the exchange properties of maternal and fetal blood pools--and thereby of placental function. These studies, however, have so far been hindered by the small sizes, the unavoidable motions, and the challenging air/water/fat heterogeneities, associated with mouse placental environments. The present study demonstrates that emerging methods based on the spatiotemporal encoding (SPEN) of the MRI information can robustly overcome these obstacles. Using SPEN MRI in combination with albumin-based contrast agents, we analyzed the diffusion behavior of developing placentas in a cohort of mice. These studies successfully discriminated the maternal from the fetal blood flows; the two orders of magnitude differences measured in these fluids' apparent diffusion coefficients suggest a nearly free diffusion behavior for the former and a strong flow-based component for the latter. An intermediate behavior was observed by these methods for a third compartment that, based on maternal albumin endocytosis, was associated with trophoblastic cells in the interphase labyrinth. Structural features associated with these dynamic measurements were consistent with independent intravital and ex vivo fluorescence microscopy studies and are discussed within the context of the anatomy of developing mouse placentas. PMID:24969421

Solomon, Eddy; Avni, Reut; Hadas, Ron; Raz, Tal; Garbow, Joel Richard; Bendel, Peter; Frydman, Lucio; Neeman, Michal

2014-07-15

220

[Three patients with transient global amnesia following an increased venous pressure: a study using 3.0 Tesla diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging].  

PubMed

We present 3 patients with transient global amnesia (TGA). Patient 1 was a 67-year-old man who had developed TGA 5 years ago. He showed sudden onset amnesia immediately after he quarreled with his wife loudly during driving. Three-Tesla (3T) diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWI) taken 18 hours after onset revealed a small hyperintense signal area in the right CA1 subfield of the hippocampus. Patient 2 was a 66-year-old woman who showed sudden onset amnesia immediately after she walked for about 20 minutes holding a heavy luggage with her arms. 3T DWI taken 64 hours after onset revealed a small hyperintense signal area in the left CA1 subfield of the hippocampus. Patient 3 was a 68-year-old woman who showed sudden onset amnesia immediately after she hurriedly cleaned up her house with a cleaner. 3T DWI taken 48 hours after onset revealed small hyperintense signal areas in the left CA1 subfield and the right subiculum proper of the hippocampus. She developed TGA recurrence 6 months after the first episode of TGA. All these 3 patients had no cardiovascular diseases. Their amnesia resolved within 5-6 hours. Magnetic resonance venography (MRV) revealed hypoplasia of the left transverse sinus in Patient 1 and Patient 3, and aplasia of the left transverse sinus in Patient 2. Ultrasound studies revealed a retrograde flow component of internal jugular vein during Valsalva maneuver in Patient 2. We speculate that an increased venous pressure might have precipitated cerebral venous ischemia in the hippocampus, which is most vulnerable to ischemic insults. PMID:20681264

Sakai, Toshiyuki; Kondo, Masahide; Tomimoto, Hidekazu

2010-07-01

221

Dietary protein restriction stress and adrenocortical function: evidence for transient and long-term induction of enhanced cellular function.  

PubMed

Previous work has demonstrated that 4-week protein restriction of the domestic fowl (Gallus gallus domesticus) increases both adrenocortical cell sensitivity to ACTH and corticosteroidogenic capacity. In the present study we examined the transience (study 1) and the persistence (study 2) of this effect of protein restriction. In study 1, two strains of domestic fowl were used: a slower-growing White Leghorn strain and a faster-growing Cobb broiler strain. Cockerels (2 weeks old) were fed isocaloric diets containing either low (L; 5% or 8%) or control (C; 20%) levels of soy protein for 2 weeks, and then were either switched to the alternate diet (C-L, L-C) or maintained on the initial diet (C-C, L-L) for an additional 2 weeks. Cockerels were killed at 6 weeks of age. In study 2, White Leghorn cockerels (2 weeks old) were fed either diet for 4 weeks and then switched to or maintained on the control diet for an additional 4 weeks (i.e. C vs. restriction followed by repletion). In this study cockerels were killed at 10 weeks of age. In both studies highly enriched populations of adrenocortical cells were isolated from cockerel adrenal glands, and their steroidogenic properties (basal and maximally induced corticosterone and cAMP production; steroidogenic agent ED50 values) were evaluated in 2-h suspension incubations. In study 1, regardless of strain, the greater the length of the restriction period, the greater the magnitude of maximal cellular corticosterone production induced by ACTH; the average value for 4-week restriction (L-L) was 39.5% greater than that for 2-week restriction (L-C, C-L) and 117.5% greater than that for control (C-C). In addition, the value for restriction from 4-6 weeks of age (C-L) was 34% greater than that for restriction from 2-4 weeks of age (L-C), suggesting that the enhancement of maximal ACTH-induced corticosterone production after a 2-week restriction interval might be transient. Although there were no strain differences in the effect of protein restriction on maximal ACTH-induced corticosterone production, there were strain differences in its effect on cellular sensitivity to ACTH, as indicated by the ACTH ED50 values (the lower the ED50 value, the greater tha cellular sensitivity). With the White Leghorn strain, the greater the duration of protein restriction, the greater the adrenocortical cell sensitivity to ACTH; the sensitivity of L-L cells was 3.0 times the sensitivities of L-C and C-L cells and 4.1 times the sensitivity of C-C cells.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) PMID:2174347

Weber, H; Kocsis, J F; Lauterio, T J; Carsia, R V

1990-12-01

222

Integrated diffusion using an acousto-optic modulator for 3D image enhancement  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An electro-holographic display based on the diffraction specific computation can reduce speckle using electronic diffusion through selective addition of pseudorandom sequence. Intensity fluctuation due to the introduction of pseudorandom noise does not affect 3-D images significantly since spatial windows formed by diffused basis phase sets do not widen noticeably at low spread of the pseudorandom sequence while its features are much smaller than human visual resolution. The result shows crosstalk blur characteristic of substantial variation in the degree of diffusion among basis phase sets. Also, coherent artifacts may be produced by the interference between spatial windows if basis phase sets are sub-optimally designed.

Kim, Donghyun

2004-06-01

223

Investigation of radiation enhanced diffusion of magnesium in substrates flown on the NASA genesis mission.  

SciTech Connect

The thermal diffusion of an Mg implant in Si has been measured with SIMS and compared to RIMS (resonant ionisation mass spectrometry) measurements of Mg implantation and diffusion in Si wafers exposed to solar wind irradiation in the NASA Genesis mission. The Genesis samples show much more surface segregation that the samples annealed in the laboratory, due to diffusion and segregation of the implanted Mg to the heavily damaged near surface regions of the Genesis wafers. This Mg transport has been modeled by solving a set of stiff differential equations and found to agree with RIMS measurements for a Mg interstitial migration energy of 0.7 eV.

King, B. V.; Pellin, M. J.; Burnett, D. S. (Materials Science Division); (Univ. of Newcastle); (California Inst. of Tech.)

2008-12-01

224

Multiphoton microscopy guides neurotrophin modification with poly(ethylene glycol) to enhance interstitial diffusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a promising therapeutic agent for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. However, the limited distribution of this molecule after administration into the brain tissue considerably hampers its efficacy. Here, we show how multiphoton microscopy of fluorescently tagged BDNF in brain-tissue slices provides a useful and rapid screening method for examining the diffusion of large molecules in tissues, and for studying the effects of chemical modifications-for example, conjugating with polyethylene glycol (PEG)-on the diffusion constant. This single variable, obtained by monitoring short-term diffusion in real time, can be effectively used for rational drug design. In this study on fluorescently tagged BDNF and BDNF-PEG, we identify slow diffusion as a major contributing factor to the limited penetration of BDNF, and demonstrate how chemical modification can be used to overcome this barrier.

Stroh, Mark; Zipfel, Warren R.; Williams, Rebecca M.; Ma, Shu Chin; Webb, Watt W.; Saltzman, W. Mark

2004-07-01

225

Point Defect Based Two Dimensional Modeling of Dislocation Loops and Stress Effects on Dopant Diffusion in Silicon  

Microsoft Academic Search

Dopant diffusion in silicon is studied and modeled on the basis of point defect kinetics associated with ion implantation damage. Point defect parameters are extracted from the modeling of transient enhanced dopant diffusion due to oxidation and low dose implant damage without extended defects. The theory of dopant-defect pairing is found to be crucial in modeling the implantation damage effects,

1993-01-01

226

Thaumatin Crystallization Aboard the International Space Station Using Liquid-Liquid Diffusion in the Enhanced Gaseous Nitrogen Dewar (EGN)  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper reports results from the first biological crystal growth experiment on the International Space Station (ISS). Crystals of thaumatin were grown using liquid-liquid diffusion in Tygon tubing transported in the Enhanced Gaseous Nitrogen Dewar (EGN). Different Volume ratios and concentrations of protein and precipitant were used to test different adaptations of the vapor diffusion crystallization recipe to the liquid-liquid diffusion method. The EGN warmed up from -196 C to 0 C in about four days, about the same time it took to warm from 0 C to 20 C. The temperature within the EGN was 20 - 24 C for the majority of the experiment. Air gaps that blocked liquid-liquid diffusion formed in the tubes. Nonetheless, crystals were grown. Synchrotron diffraction data collected from the best space grown crystal extended to 1.28 Angstroms, comparable to previous studies of space-grown thaumatin crystals. The resolution of the best ground control crystal was only 1.47 Angstroms. It is not clear if the difference in diffraction limit is due to factors other than crystal size. Improvements in temperature control and the elimination of air gaps are needed, but the results show that EGN on the ISS can be used to produce space grown crystals that diffract to high resolution.

Kundrot, Craig; Barnes, Cindy L.; Snell, Edward H.; Stinson, Thomas N. (Technical Monitor)

2002-01-01

227

Oxidation-enhanced or retarded diffusion and the growth or shrinkage of oxidation-induced stacking faults in silicon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An analysis of the conditions for obtaining oxidation-enhanced or retarded dopant diffusions (OED or ORD), in accordance with the stacking fault growth/shrinkage phenomena, is carried out for the oxidation of Si by assuming that vacancy and Si self-interstitials coexist at high temperatures and that during oxidation a local equilibrium of point defects is attained. It is shown that the Sb ORD data can be explained quantitatively. Under most oxidation conditions the SiO2-Si interface acts as a source of Si self-interstitials, but at sufficiently high temperatures and long oxidation times the SiO2-Si interface behaves as a sink for Si self-interstitials (or equivalently as a source of vacancies). We suggest a model for this sink behavior in terms of the formation of SiO molecules at the interface and of their subsequent diffusion into the SiO2 film.

Tan, T. Y.; Gösele, U.

1982-04-01

228

GLP-1 and exendin-4 transiently enhance GABAA receptor-mediated synaptic and tonic currents in rat hippocampal CA3 pyramidal neurons.  

PubMed

Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is a hormone that stimulates insulin secretion. Receptors for GLP-1 are also found in the brain, including the hippocampus, the center for memory and learning. Diabetes is a risk factor for decreased memory functions. We studied effects of GLP-1 and exendin-4, a GLP-1 receptor agonist, on ?-aminobutyric acid (GABA) signaling in hippocampal CA3 pyramidal neurons. GABA is the main inhibitory neurotransmitter and decreases neuronal excitability. GLP-1 (0.01-1 nmol/L) transiently enhanced synaptic and tonic currents, and the effects were blocked by exendin (9-39). Ten pmol/L GLP-1 increased both the spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic current (sIPSC) amplitudes and frequency by a factor of ?1.8. In 0.1, 1 nmol/L GLP-1 or 10, 50, or 100 nmol/L exendin-4, only the sIPSC frequency increased. The tonic current was enhanced by 0.01-1 nmol/L GLP-1 and by 0.5-100 nmol/L exendin-4. When action potentials were inhibited by tetrodotoxin (TTX), inhibitory postsynaptic currents decreased and currents were no longer potentiated by GLP-1 or exendin-4. In contrast, although the tonic current decreased in TTX, it was still enhanced by GLP-1 or exendin-4. The results demonstrate GLP-1 receptor regulation of hippocampal function and are consistent with GLP-1 receptor agonists enhancing GABAA signaling by pre- and postsynaptic mechanisms. PMID:25114295

Korol, Sergiy V; Jin, Zhe; Babateen, Omar; Birnir, Bryndis

2015-01-01

229

LED lamp or bulb with remote phosphor and diffuser configuration with enhanced scattering properties  

DOEpatents

An LED lamp or bulb is disclosed that comprises a light source, a heat sink structure and an optical cavity. The optical cavity comprises a phosphor carrier having a conversions material and arranged over an opening to the cavity. The phosphor carrier comprises a thermally conductive transparent material and is thermally coupled to the heat sink structure. An LED based light source is mounted in the optical cavity remote to the phosphor carrier with light from the light source passing through the phosphor carrier. A diffuser dome is included that is mounted over the optical cavity, with light from the optical cavity passing through the diffuser dome. The properties of the diffuser, such as geometry, scattering properties of the scattering layer, surface roughness or smoothness, and spatial distribution of the scattering layer properties may be used to control various lamp properties such as color uniformity and light intensity distribution as a function of viewing angle.

Tong, Tao; Le Toquin, Ronan; Keller, Bernd; Tarsa, Eric; Youmans, Mark; Lowes, Theodore; Medendorp, Jr., Nicholas W; Van De Ven, Antony; Negley, Gerald

2014-11-11

230

Transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 activation enhances hapten sensitization in a T-helper type 2-driven fluorescein isothiocyanate-induced contact hypersensitivity mouse model  

SciTech Connect

Some chemicals contribute to the development of allergies by increasing the immunogenicity of other allergens. We have demonstrated that several phthalate esters, including dibutyl phthalate (DBP), enhance skin sensitization to fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) in a mouse contact hypersensitivity model, in which the T-helper type 2 (Th2) response is essential. On the other hand, some phthalate esters were found to activate transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) cation channels on sensory neurons. We then found a positive correlation between the enhancing effects of several types of phthalate esters on skin sensitization to FITC and their ability to activate TRPA1. Here we examined the involvement of TRPA1 in sensitization to FITC by using TRPA1 agonists other than phthalate esters. During skin sensitization to FITC, the TRPA1 agonists (menthol, carvacrol, cinnamaldehyde and DBP) augmented the ear-swelling response as well as trafficking of FITC-presenting dendritic cells to draining lymph nodes. We confirmed that these TRPA1 agonists induced calcium influx into TRPA1-expressing Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. We also found that TRPA1 antagonist HC-030031 inhibited DBP-induced calcium influx into TRPA1-expressing CHO cells. After pretreatment with this antagonist upon skin sensitization to FITC, the enhancing effect of DBP on sensitization was suppressed. These results suggest that TRPA1 activation will become a useful marker to find chemicals that facilitate sensitization in combination with other immunogenic haptens. -- Highlights: ? Role of TRPA1 activation was revealed in a mouse model of skin sensitization to FITC. ? TRPA1 agonists enhanced skin sensitization as well as dendritic cell trafficking. ? Dibutyl phthalate (DBP) has been shown to enhance skin sensitization to FITC. ? TRPA1 activation by DBP was inhibited by a selective antagonist, HC-030031. ? HC-030031 inhibited the enhancing effect of DBP on skin sensitization to FITC.

Shiba, Takahiro; Tamai, Takuma; Sahara, Yurina; Kurohane, Kohta [Laboratory of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Shizuoka, 52?1 Yada, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka City, Shizuoka 422?8526 (Japan)] [Laboratory of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Shizuoka, 52?1 Yada, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka City, Shizuoka 422?8526 (Japan); Watanabe, Tatsuo [Laboratory of Food Chemistry, School of Food and Nutritional Sciences, University of Shizuoka, 52?1 Yada, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka City, Shizuoka 422?8526 (Japan)] [Laboratory of Food Chemistry, School of Food and Nutritional Sciences, University of Shizuoka, 52?1 Yada, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka City, Shizuoka 422?8526 (Japan); Imai, Yasuyuki, E-mail: imai@u-shizuoka-ken.ac.jp [Laboratory of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Shizuoka, 52?1 Yada, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka City, Shizuoka 422?8526 (Japan)] [Laboratory of Microbiology and Immunology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Shizuoka, 52?1 Yada, Suruga-ku, Shizuoka City, Shizuoka 422?8526 (Japan)

2012-11-01

231

Is 3-Tesla Gd-EOB-DTPA-Enhanced MRI with Diffusion-Weighted Imaging Superior to 64-Slice Contrast-Enhanced CT for the Diagnosis of Hepatocellular Carcinoma?  

PubMed Central

Objectives To compare 64-slice contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) with 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using Gd-EOB-DTPA for the diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and evaluate the utility of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in this setting. Methods 3-phase-liver-CT was performed in fifty patients (42 male, 8 female) with suspected or proven HCC. The patients were subjected to a 3-Tesla-MRI-examination with Gd-EOB-DTPA and diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) at b-values of 0, 50 and 400 s/mm2. The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC)-value was determined for each lesion detected in DWI. The histopathological report after resection or biopsy of a lesion served as the gold standard, and a surrogate of follow-up or complementary imaging techniques in combination with clinical and paraclinical parameters was used in unresected lesions. Diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were evaluated for each technique. Results MRI detected slightly more lesions that were considered suspicious for HCC per patient compared to CT (2.7 versus 2.3, respectively). ADC-measurements in HCC showed notably heterogeneous values with a median of 1.2±0.5×10?3 mm2/s (range from 0.07±0.1 to 3.0±0.1×10?3 mm2/s). MRI showed similar diagnostic accuracy, sensitivity, and positive and negative predictive values compared to CT (AUC 0.837, sensitivity 92%, PPV 80% and NPV 90% for MRI vs. AUC 0.798, sensitivity 85%, PPV 79% and NPV 82% for CT; not significant). Specificity was 75% for both techniques. Conclusions Our study did not show a statistically significant difference in detection in detection of HCC between MRI and CT. Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI tended to detect more lesions per patient compared to contrast-enhanced CT; therefore, we would recommend this modality as the first-choice imaging method for the detection of HCC and therapeutic decisions. However, contrast-enhanced CT was not inferior in our study, so that it can be a useful image modality for follow-up examinations. PMID:25375778

Maiwald, Bettina; Lobsien, Donald; Kahn, Thomas; Stumpp, Patrick

2014-01-01

232

Significant Enhancement of Electronic Thermal Conductivity of Two-Dimensional Zero-Gap Systems by Bipolar-Diffusion Effect  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Electrical conductivity (?), thermopower (S), electronic thermal conductivity (?e), and Lorentz ratio (L = ?e/?T) are examined for two-dimensional (2D) zero-gap systems. The bipolar-diffusion (BD) effect in 2D Dirac cones is discussed for the first time. Semiclassical calculations show that L is enhanced by a factor of 200–400% as compared with the conventional Sommerfeld value L0 = 2.45 × 10?8 W·?·K?2 due to the BD effect. It is, however, shown that this enhancement is not due to the linear dispersion of the Dirac cones but due to the zero band gap and is widely expected to occur in all zero-gap systems under its charge neutrality condition. Calculations taking into account electron–hole puddles revealed that the BD effect is suppressed in pristine graphene devices affected by charged-impurity potentials.

Yoshino, Harukazu; Murata, Keizo

2015-02-01

233

Enhanced Spatial Localization of Neuronal Activation Using Simultaneous Apparent-Diffusion-Coefficient and Blood-Oxygenation  

E-print Network

-Diffusion-Coefficient and Blood-Oxygenation Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Allen W. Song, Marty G. Woldorff, StaceyMRI) can detect blood oxygen- ation level dependent (BOLD) hemodynamic re- sponses secondary to local based on the differences in the mobility of the blood within them, thereby revealing the contributions

234

Diffusion tube  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The diffusion tube was designed to operate below about 0.25 percent of water supersaturation. It is simply a long tube lined on the inside with a damp chamois cloth, and heated isothermally to a few degrees centigrade above the incoming air. The diffusion coefficient for water vapor is slightly larger than that for heat, making it possible to supersaturate the airflow. This is the same principle by which transient supersaturations may occur in parallel plate cloud chambers. Only the diffusion of vapor and heat from the walls into the moving air are considered.

Leaitch, R.; Megaw, W. J.

1981-01-01

235

Improving Surface Geostrophic Current from a GOCE-Derived Mean Dynamic Topography Using Edge-Enhancing Diffusion Filtering  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With increased geoid resolution provided by the gravity and steady-state ocean circulation explorer (GOCE) mission, the ocean's mean dynamic topography (MDT) can be now estimated with an accuracy not available prior to using geodetic methods. However, an altimetric-derived MDT still needs filtering in order to remove short wavelength noise unless integrated methods are used in which the three quantities are determined simultaneously using appropriate covariance functions. We studied nonlinear anisotropic diffusive filtering applied to the ocea?s MDT and a new approach based on edge-enhancing diffusion (EED) filtering is presented. EED filters enable controlling the direction and magnitude of the filtering, with subsequent enhancement of computations of the associated surface geostrophic currents (SGCs). Applying this method to a smooth MDT and to a noisy MDT, both for a region in the Northwestern Pacific Ocean, we found that EED filtering provides similar estimation of the current velocities in both cases, whereas a non-linear isotropic filter (the Perona and Malik filter) returns results influenced by local residual noise when a difficult case is tested. We found that EED filtering preserves all the advantages that the Perona and Malik filter have over the standard linear isotropic Gaussian filters. Moreover, EED is shown to be more stable and less influenced by outliers. This suggests that the EED filtering strategy would be preferred given its capabilities in controlling/preserving the SGCs.

Sánchez-Reales, J. M.; Andersen, O. B.; Vigo, M. I.

2015-02-01

236

The role of non-thermal transient plasma for enhanced flame ignition in C2H4-air  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transient plasma ignition, involving short ignition pulses (typically 10-50 ns), has been shown to effectively reduce ignition delays and improve engine performance for a wide range of combustion-driven engines relative to conventional spark ignition. This methodology is therefore potentially useful for many engine applications; however, at present there is limited understanding of the underlying physics. Evidence is presented here for two distinct phases of the plasma-ignition process: an initial non-equilibrium plasma phase, wherein energetic electrons transfer energy into electronically excited species that accelerate reaction rates, and a spatially distributed thermal phase, that produces exothermic fuel oxidation reactions that result in ignition. It is shown that ignition kernels are formed at the ends of the spatially separated streamer channels, at the cathode and/or anode depending on the local electric field strength, and that the temperature in the streamer channel is close to room temperature up to 100 ns after the discharge.

Singleton, D.; Pendleton, S. J.; Gundersen, M. A.

2011-01-01

237

Experimental Assessment and Enhancement of Planar Laser-Induced Fluorescence Measurements of Nitric Oxide in an Inverse Diffusion Flame  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We have experimentally assessed the quantitative nature of planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) measurements of NO concentration in a unique atmospheric pressure, laminar, axial inverse diffusion flame (IDF). The PLIF measurements were assessed relative to a two-dimensional array of separate laser saturated fluorescence (LSF) measurements. We demonstrated and evaluated several experimentally-based procedures for enhancing the quantitative nature of PLIF concentration images. Because these experimentally-based PLIF correction schemes require only the ability to make PLIF and LSF measurements, they produce a more broadly applicable PLIF diagnostic compared to numerically-based correction schemes. We experimentally assessed the influence of interferences on both narrow-band and broad-band fluorescence measurements at atmospheric and high pressures. Optimum excitation and detection schemes were determined for the LSF and PLIF measurements. Single-input and multiple-input, experimentally-based PLIF enhancement procedures were developed for application in test environments with both negligible and significant quench-dependent error gradients. Each experimentally-based procedure provides an enhancement of approximately 50% in the quantitative nature of the PLIF measurements, and results in concentration images nominally as quantitative as LSF point measurements. These correction procedures can be applied to other species, including radicals, for which no experimental data are available from which to implement numerically-based PLIF enhancement procedures.

Partridge, William P.; Laurendeau, Normand M.

1997-01-01

238

Exposure of nondividing populations of primary human fibroblasts to UV (254 nm) radiation induces a transient enhancement in capacity to repair potentially lethal cellular damage  

SciTech Connect

Nondividing (arrested) populations of primary human fibroblasts from normal individuals exposed to an intial dose (1.5 or 3 Jm/sup -2/) of far-UV (254 nm) radiation and then incubated in medium containing low (0.5%) serum develop enhanced resistance to inactivation of cloning efficiency by a second (challenge) dose of UV. The resistance develops within 2-4 days, after which there is a decline. Resistance develops to a higher degree and more rapidly (1-2 days) in cells derived from patients with the variant form of xeroderma pigmentosum. Excision-deficient cells from xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group A individuals also develop UV resistance after a lower (0.2 Jm/sup -2/) exposure to UV. Enhanced UV resistance does not develop in UV-irradiated cell populations incubated with the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide (5 ..mu..M). These observations are consistent with the interpretation that exposure of human fibroblasts to low doses of UV induces synthesis of a protein involved in a metabolic pathway that transiently enhances the capacity of cells to repair potentially lethal damage resulting from a subsequent dose of UV.

Tyrrell, R.M.

1984-02-01

239

Increases in reactive oxygen species enhance vascular endothelial cell migration through a mechanism dependent on the transient receptor potential melastatin 4 ion channel.  

PubMed

A hallmark of severe inflammation is reactive oxygen species (ROS) overproduction induced by increased inflammatory mediators secretion. During systemic inflammation, inflammation mediators circulating in the bloodstream interact with endothelial cells (ECs) raising intracellular oxidative stress at the endothelial monolayer. Oxidative stress mediates several pathological functions, including an exacerbated EC migration. Because cell migration critically depends on calcium channel-mediated Ca(2+) influx, the molecular identification of the calcium channel involved in oxidative stress-modulated EC migration has been the subject of intense investigation. The transient receptor potential melastatin 4 (TRPM4) protein is a ROS-modulated non-selective cationic channel that performs several cell functions, including regulating intracellular Ca(2+) overload and Ca(2+) oscillation. This channel is expressed in multiple tissues, including ECs, and contributes to the migration of certain immune cells. However, whether the TRPM4 ion channel participates in oxidative stress-mediated EC migration is not known. Herein, we investigate whether oxidative stress initiates or enhances EC migration and study the role played by the ROS-modulated TRPM4 ion channel in oxidative stress-mediated EC migration. We demonstrate that oxidative stress enhances, but does not initiate, EC migration in a dose-dependent manner. Notably, we demonstrate that the TRPM4 ion channel is critical in promoting H2O2-enhanced EC migration. These results show that TRPM4 is a novel pharmacological target for the possible treatment of severe inflammation and other oxidative stress-mediated inflammatory diseases. PMID:24518820

Sarmiento, Daniela; Montorfano, Ignacio; Cerda, Oscar; Cáceres, Mónica; Becerra, Alvaro; Cabello-Verrugio, Claudio; Elorza, Alvaro A; Riedel, Claudia; Tapia, Pablo; Velásquez, Luis A; Varela, Diego; Simon, Felipe

2015-03-01

240

Pharmacological enhancement of disc diffusion and differentiation of healthy, ageing and degenerated discs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Degenerative disc disease (DDD) is still a poorly understood phenomenon because of the lack of availability of precise definition\\u000a of healthy, ageing and degenerated discs. Decreased nutrition is the final common pathway for DDD and the status of the endplate\\u000a (EP) plays a crucial role in controlling the extent of diffusion, which is the only source of nutrition. The vascular

S. Rajasekaran; K. Venkatadass; J. Naresh Babu; K. Ganesh; Ajoy P. Shetty

2008-01-01

241

Flow range enhancement by secondary flow effect in low solidity circular cascade diffusers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

High-pressure ratio and wide operating range are highly required for compressors and blowers. The technical issue of the design is achievement of suppression of flow separation at small flow rate without deteriorating the efficiency at design flow rate. A numerical simulation is very effective in design procedure, however, cost of the numerical simulation is generally high during the practical design process, and it is difficult to confirm the optimal design which is combined with many parameters. A multi-objective optimization technique is the idea that has been proposed for solving the problem in practical design process. In this study, a Low Solidity circular cascade Diffuser (LSD) in a centrifugal blower is successfully designed by means of multi-objective optimization technique. An optimization code with a meta-model assisted evolutionary algorithm is used with a commercial CFD code ANSYS-CFX. The optimization is aiming at improving the static pressure coefficient at design point and at low flow rate condition while constraining the slope of the lift coefficient curve. Moreover, a small tip clearance of the LSD blade was applied in order to activate and to stabilize the secondary flow effect at small flow rate condition. The optimized LSD blade has an extended operating range of 114 % towards smaller flow rate as compared to the baseline design without deteriorating the diffuser pressure recovery at design point. The diffuser pressure rise and operating flow range of the optimized LSD blade are experimentally verified by overall performance test. The detailed flow in the diffuser is also confirmed by means of a Particle Image Velocimeter. Secondary flow is clearly captured by PIV and it spreads to the whole area of LSD blade pitch. It is found that the optimized LSD blade shows good improvement of the blade loading in the whole operating range, while at small flow rate the flow separation on the LSD blade has been successfully suppressed by the secondary flow effect.

Sakaguchi, Daisaku; Tun, Min Thaw; Mizokoshi, Kanata; Kishikawa, Daiki

2014-08-01

242

Enhanced group analysis and conservation laws of variable coefficient reaction–diffusion equations with power nonlinearities  

Microsoft Academic Search

A class of variable coefficient (1+1)-dimensional nonlinear reaction–diffusion equations of the general form f(x)ut=(g(x)unux)x+h(x)um is investigated. Different kinds of equivalence groups are constructed including ones with transformations which are nonlocal with respect to arbitrary elements. For the class under consideration the complete group classification is performed with respect to convenient equivalence groups (generalized extended and conditional ones) and with respect

O. O. Vaneeva; A. G. Johnpillai; R. O. Popovych; C. Sophocleous

2007-01-01

243

Transient photoreceptor deconstruction by CNTF enhances rAAV-mediated cone functional rescue in late stage CNGB3-achromatopsia.  

PubMed

Achromatopsia is a genetic disorder of cones, and one of the most common forms is a channelopathy caused by mutations in the ?-subunit, CNGB3, of the cone cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) channel. Recombinant adeno-associated virus of serotype 5 (rAAV5)-mediated gene transfer of human CNGB3 cDNA to mutant dog cones results in functional and structural rescue in dogs <0.5 years of age, but treatment is minimally effective in dogs >1 year. We now test a new therapeutic concept by combining gene therapy with the administration of ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF). Intravitreal CNTF causes transient dedifferentiation of photoreceptors, a process called deconstruction, whereby visual cells become immature with short outer segments, and decreased retinal function and gene expression that subsequently return to normal. Cone function was successfully rescued in all mutant dogs treated between 14 and 42 months of age with this strategy. CNTF-mediated deconstruction and regeneration of the photoreceptor outer segments prepares the mutant cones optimally for gene augmentation therapy. PMID:23568263

Komáromy, András M; Rowlan, Jessica S; Corr, Amanda T Parton; Reinstein, Shelby L; Boye, Sanford L; Cooper, Ann E; Gonzalez, Amaliris; Levy, Britt; Wen, Rong; Hauswirth, William W; Beltran, William A; Aguirre, Gustavo D

2013-06-01

244

Enhancement in Quality Factor of SRF Niobium Cavities by Material Diffusion  

E-print Network

An increase in the quality factor of superconducting radiofrequency cavities is achieved by minimizing the surface resistance during processing steps. The surface resistance is the sum of temperature independent residual resistance and temperature/material dependent Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) resistance. High temperature heat treatment usually reduces the impurities concentration from the bulk niobium, lowering the residual resistance. The BCS part can be reduced by selectively doping non-magnetic impurities. The increase in quality factor, termed as Q-rise, was observed in cavities when titanium or nitrogen thermally diffused in the inner cavity surface.

Dhakal, Pashupati; Kneisel, Peter; Myneni, Ganapati Rao

2014-01-01

245

ZnO-Coated Carbon Nanotubes: Inter-Diffusion of Carboxyl Groups and Enhanced Photocurrent Generation.  

PubMed

ZnO is a defect-governed oxide and emits light at both visible and UV regimes. This work employs atomic layer deposition to produce oxide particles on oxygenated carbon nanotubes, and the composites only show emission profiles at short wavelengths. The quenching of defect-related emissions at long wavelengths is verified, owing to carboxyl diffusion into oxygen vacancies, and doping is supported by ZnCO3 formation in oxide lattice. Fully coated tubes display an increased photocurrent and the quantum efficiency increases by 22?% relative to the bare nanotubes. PMID:25572260

Hung, Chia-I; Wen, Hua-Chiang; Lai, Yao-Cheng; Chang, Shih-Hsin; Chou, Wu-Ching; Hsu, Wen-Kuang

2015-03-16

246

Dynamic and transient analysis of power distribution systems with fuel Cells-part II: control and stability enhancement  

Microsoft Academic Search

The objective of this paper is to analyze the dynamics of distribution systems that contain fuel cells and to enhance the stability of these systems by controlling the fuel cells. The models used in this second part of the two-part paper are the solid-oxide fuel cell (SOFC) models developed in part one. The fuel-cell control loops through the power conditioning

Kourosh Sedghisigarchi; Ali Feliachi

2004-01-01

247

PCATMIP: Enhancing Signal Intensity in Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging  

PubMed Central

Diffusion-weighted MRI studies generally lose signal intensity to physiological motion which can adversely affect quantification/diagnosis. Averaging over multiple repetitions, often used to improve image quality, does not eliminate the signal loss. In this paper, PCATMIP, a combined principal component analysis (PCA) and temporal maximum intensity projection (TMIP) approach is developed to address this problem. Data is first acquired for a fixed number of repetitions. Assuming that physiological fluctuations of image intensities locally are likely temporally-correlated unlike random noise, a local moving boxcar in the spatial domain is used to reconstruct low-noise images by considering the most relevant principal components in the temporal domain. Subsequently, a temporal maximum intensity projection yields a high signal-intensity image. Numerical and experimental studies were performed for validation and to determine optimal parameters for increasing signal intensity and minimizing noise. Subsequently, PCATMIP was used to analyze diffusion-weighted porcine liver MRI scans. In these scans, the variability of ADC values among repeated measurements was reduced by 59% relative to averaging and there was an increase in the signal intensity with higher intensity differences observed at higher b-values. In summary, PCATMIP is a post-processing approach that corrects for bulk motion-induced signal loss and improves ADC measurement reproducibility. PMID:21590803

Pai, V. M.; Rapacchi, S.; Kellman, P.; Croisille, P.; Wen, H.

2010-01-01

248

Hydroxylamine diffusion can enhance N?O emissions in nitrifying biofilms: a modeling study.  

PubMed

Wastewater treatment plants can be significant sources of nitrous oxide (N2O), a potent greenhouse gas. However, little is known about N2O emissions from biofilm processes. We adapted an existing suspended-growth mathematical model to explore N2O emissions from nitrifying biofilms. The model included N2O formation by ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) via the hydroxylamine and the nitrifier denitrification pathways. Our model suggested that N2O emissions from nitrifying biofilms could be significantly greater than from suspended growth systems under similar conditions. The main cause was the formation and diffusion of hydroxylamine, an AOB nitrification intermediate, from the aerobic to the anoxic regions of the biofilm. In the anoxic regions, hydroxylamine oxidation by AOB provided reducing equivalents used solely for nitrite reduction to N2O, since there was no competition with oxygen. For a continuous system, very high and very low dissolved oxygen (DO) concentrations resulted in lower emissions, while intermediate values led to higher emissions. Higher bulk ammonia concentrations and greater biofilm thicknesses increased emissions. The model effectively predicted N2O emissions from an actual pilot-scale granular sludge reactor for sidestream nitritation, but significantly underestimated the emissions when the NH2OH diffusion coefficient was assumed to be minimal. This numerical study suggests an unexpected and important role of hydroxylamine in N2O emission in biofilms. PMID:25539140

Sabba, Fabrizio; Picioreanu, Cristian; Pérez, Julio; Nerenberg, Robert

2015-02-01

249

Diffuse optical tomography enhanced by clustered sparsity for functional brain imaging.  

PubMed

Diffuse optical tomography (DOT) is a noninvasive technique which measures hemodynamic changes in the tissue with near infrared light, which has been increasingly used to study brain functions. Due to the nature of light propagation in the tissue, the reconstruction problem is severely ill-posed. For linearized DOT problems, sparsity regularization has achieved promising results over conventional Tikhonov regularization in recent experimental research. As extensions to standard sparsity, it is widely known that structured sparsity based methods are often superior in terms of reconstruction accuracy, when the data follows some structures. In this paper, we exploit the structured sparsity of diffuse optical images. Based on the functional specialization of the brain, it is observed that the in vivo absorption changes caused by a specific brain function would be clustered in certain region(s) and not randomly distributed. Thus, a new algorithm is proposed for this clustered sparsity reconstruction (CSR). Results of numerical simulations and phantom experiments have demonstrated the superiority of the proposed method over the state-of-the-art methods. An example from human in vivo measurements further confirmed the advantages of the proposed CSR method. PMID:25055380

Chen, Chen; Tian, Fenghua; Liu, Hanli; Huang, Junzhou

2014-12-01

250

Decay of force transients following active stretch is slower in older than young men: support for a structural mechanism contributing to residual force enhancement in old age.  

PubMed

Following active lengthening of muscle, force reaches an isometric steady state above that which would be achieved for a purely isometric contraction at the same muscle length. This fundamental property of muscle, termed "residual force enhancement (RFE)," cannot be predicted by the force-length relationship, and is unexplained by the cross-bridge theory of muscle contraction. Recently, we showed that older adults experience higher RFE than young for the ankle dorsiflexors primarily owing to a greater reliance on passive force enhancement (PFE) and similar RFE for the knee extensors but a greater contribution of PFE to total RFE. Natural adult aging may prove a useful model in exploring mechanisms of RFE which may reside in the dissipation of force transients following stretch. A post-hoc analysis was conducted on previously described RFE experiments in young (~26 years) and old (~77 years) men for the dorsiflexors and knee extensors to fit the force following stretch with a biexponential decay. In both muscle groups the decay half-life of the first exponential was two times slower in the older compared with young men. There were significant associations between PFE and the decay in force, suggesting a greater "non-active" contribution to total RFE across muscles in older compared with young men. The greater "non-active" component of RFE in older adults could be due to structural age-related changes causing increased muscle stiffness during and following stretch. PMID:25242133

Power, Geoffrey A; Herzog, Walter; Rice, Charles L

2014-10-17

251

Loss of the Tectorial Membrane Protein CEACAM16 Enhances Spontaneous, Stimulus-Frequency, and Transiently Evoked Otoacoustic Emissions  

PubMed Central

?-Tectorin (TECTA), ?-tectorin (TECTB), and carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 16 (CEACAM) are secreted glycoproteins that are present in the tectorial membrane (TM), an extracellular structure overlying the hearing organ of the inner ear, the organ of Corti. Previous studies have shown that TECTA and TECTB are both required for formation of the striated-sheet matrix within which collagen fibrils of the TM are imbedded and that CEACAM16 interacts with TECTA. To learn more about the structural and functional significance of CEACAM16, we created a Ceacam16-null mutant mouse. In the absence of CEACAM16, TECTB levels are reduced, a clearly defined striated-sheet matrix does not develop, and Hensen's stripe, a prominent feature in the basal two-thirds of the TM in WT mice, is absent. CEACAM16 is also shown to interact with TECTB, indicating that it may stabilize interactions between TECTA and TECTB. Although brain-stem evoked responses and distortion product otoacoustic emissions are, for most frequencies, normal in young mice lacking CEACAM16, stimulus-frequency and transiently evoked emissions are larger. We also observed spontaneous otoacoustic emissions (SOAEs) in 70% of the homozygous mice. This incidence is remarkable considering that <3% of WT controls have SOAEs. The predominance of SOAEs >15 kHz correlates with the loss of Hensen's stripe. Results from mice lacking CEACAM16 are consistent with the idea that the organ of Corti evolved to maximize the gain of the cochlear amplifier while preventing large oscillations. Changes in TM structure appear to influence the balance between energy generation and dissipation such that the system becomes unstable. PMID:25080593

Goodyear, Richard J.; Homma, Kazuaki; Legan, P. Kevin; Korchagina, Julia; Naskar, Souvik; Siegel, Jonathan H.; Dallos, Peter; Zheng, Jing

2014-01-01

252

Fabrication and evaluation of enhanced diffusion bonded titanium honeycomb core sandwich panels with titanium aluminide face sheets  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A joining process was developed for fabricating lightweight, high temperature sandwich panels for aerospace applications using Ti-14Al-21Nb face sheets and Ti-3Al-2.5V honeycomb core. The process, termed Enhanced Diffusion Bonding (EDB), relies on the formation of a eutectic liquid through solid-state diffusion at elevated temperatures and isothermal solidification to produce joints in thin-gage titanium and titanium aluminide structural components. A technique employing a maskant on the honeycomb core was developed which permitted electroplating a controlled amount of EDB material only on the edges of the honeycomb core in order to minimize the structural weight and metallurgical interaction effects. Metallurgical analyses were conducted to determine the interaction effects between the EDB materials and the constituents of the sandwich structure following EDB processing. The initial mechanical evaluation was conducted with butt joint specimens tested at temperatures from 1400 - 1700 F. Further mechanical evaluation was conducted with EDB sandwich specimens using flatwise tension tests at temperatures from 70 - 1100 F and edgewise compression tests at ambient temperature.

Hoffmann, E. K.; Bird, R. K.; Bales, T. T.

1989-01-01

253

Evaluation of patients with diffuse unilateral subacute neuroretinitis by spectral domain optical coherence tomography with enhanced depth imaging  

PubMed Central

Background The purpose of this study was to determine the value of spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) in assessing patients with diffuse unilateral subacute neuroretinitis (DUSN). Methods This was an observational case series with clinical imaging correlation performed at the Retina and Vitreous Institute of Londrina and State University of Londrina, Paraná, Brazil. The series comprised ten consecutive patients with a confirmed diagnosis of DUSN, ie, seven patients with late-stage disease and three with early-stage disease, who were assessed by SD-OCT for mean macular, retinal nerve fiber layer, and choroidal thickness using enhanced depth imaging software. Results Comparing the affected eye with the healthy fellow eye, significant diffuse atrophy of the retinal layers with a decrease in mean macular (P=0.004) and retinal nerve fiber layer (P=0.002) thickness was found in all cases. There was no difference in choroidal thickness (P=0.262). Conclusion The correlation of SD-OCT results with central vision and funduscopic findings may explain the profound loss of visual function in patients with DUSN. PMID:24940045

Berbel, Rodrigo F; Casella, Antonio Marcelo B; de Souza, Eduardo C; Farah, Michel E

2014-01-01

254

Dislocation Enhancement of Seismic-Frequency Attenuation: Subgrain Boundary Diffusion and Triggered, Critical Emission of Dislocations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Combined compressional creep and (Young's-modulus) attenuation experiments on polycrystalline ice-I (200 ? T[K] ? 260; 3 ? d[?m] ? 500; ?mean = 1MPa and ?? = 0.16MPa applied in a frequency range 10-4 ? ?[Hz] ? 10-1) demonstrate the attenuation behavior associated with the seismic attenuation band and the "high-temperature background," i.e., a power-law response Q-1 ? ?-m with m ~ 0.33. This response has, in general, been associated with grain boundary sliding rate-limited by atomic diffusion [e.g., 1-3], a mechanism that is very sensitive to grain size. In our experiments, however, with a grain size variation ~102, the attenuation response is independent of grain size, to first order. Scrutiny of the physics suggests that the attenuation is effected primarily by diffusive relaxation of subgrain boundaries [4, 5], the size of which, in materials deforming by a dislocation mechanism (as is the ice in our experiments), is set by the deviatoric stress [6, 7]. Applying the diffusion-effected physics to the subgrain size matches the universal scaling [e.g., 3] for materials that are linear-viscoelastic. Our ice specimens, however, demonstrate modest non-linearity, resulting in greater attenuation than that associated with the diffusion process [cf. 8] and yet retain the power-law form for attenuation, including the same slope m. The result is consistent with "self-organized critical" behavior in dislocation emission [9, 10] and the physics overall can be understood via models of self-similar scaling of crystalline (effective) viscosity [e.g., 11]. The potential application to seismic studies is profound: for example, if the upper mantle of Earth is convecting via a dislocation-creep or dislocation-accommodated grain-boundary-sliding mechanism, then the attenuation response is related not to the grain size, but rather to the subgrain structure associated with the creep of the rock. Thus, seismic attenuation measurements may well be useful for interpreting flow behavior in the mantle. [1] T.T. Gribb and R.F. Cooper, J. Geophys. Res. 103, doi:10.1029/98JB02786 (1998). [2] I. Jackson and U.H. Faul, Phys. Earth Planet. Inter. 183, doi:10.1016/j.pepi.2010.09.005 (2010). [3] C. McCarthy et al., J. Geophys. Res. 116, doi:10.1029/2011JB008384 (2011). [4] D.S. Stone et al., J. Geophys. Res. 109, doi:10.1029/2004JB003064 (2004). [5] Y. Gueguen et al., Phys. Earth Planet. Interior. 55, 254-258 (1989). [6] R.J. Twiss, Pure Appl. Geophys. 115, 227-244 (1977). [7] S.V. Raj and G.M. Pharr, Mater. Sci. Engr. 81, 217-237 (1986). [8] R.J.M. Farla et al., Science 336, 332-335 (2012). [9] T. Richeton et al., Nature Mater. 4, 465-469 (2005). [10] J. Puthoff, M.Sc. Thesis, University of Wisconsin-Madison (2005). [11] D.S. Stone, Acta Metall. Mater. 31, 599-608 (1991).

Cooper, R. F.; McCarthy, C.

2012-12-01

255

Contrast enhanced high-resolution diffuse optical tomography of the human brain using ICG.  

PubMed

Non-invasive diffuse optical tomography (DOT) of the adult brain has recently been shown to improve the spatial resolution for functional brain imaging applications. Here we show that high-resolution (HR) DOT is also advantageous for clinical perfusion imaging using an optical contrast agent. We present the first HR-DOT results with a continuous wave near infrared spectroscopy setup using a dense grid of optical fibers and indocyanine green (ICG) as an exogenic contrast agent. We find an early arrival of the ICG bolus in the intracerebral tissue and a delayed arrival of the bolus in the extracerebral tissue, achieving the separation of both layers. This demonstrates the method's potential for brain perfusion monitoring in neurointensive care patients. PMID:21935232

Habermehl, Christina; Schmitz, Christoph H; Steinbrink, Jens

2011-09-12

256

NONLINEAR DIFFUSION Erkut Erdem  

E-print Network

NONLINEAR DIFFUSION Erkut Erdem Hacettepe University March 9th, 2013 CONTENTS 1 Perona-Malik Type Nonlinear Diffusion 1 2 Total Variation (TV) Regularization 5 3 Edge Enhancing Diffusion 8 References 11 1 PERONA-MALIK TYPE NONLINEAR DIFFUSION The main theory behind nonlinear diffusion models is to use

Erdem, Erkut

257

AS04, an aluminum salt- and TLR4 agonist-based adjuvant system, induces a transient localized innate immune response leading to enhanced adaptive immunity.  

PubMed

Adjuvant System 04 (AS04) combines the TLR4 agonist MPL (3-O-desacyl-4'-monophosphoryl lipid A) and aluminum salt. It is a new generation TLR-based adjuvant licensed for use in human vaccines. One of these vaccines, the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine Cervarix, is used in this study to elucidate the mechanism of action of AS04 in human cells and in mice. The adjuvant activity of AS04 was found to be strictly dependent on AS04 and the HPV Ags being injected at the same i.m. site within 24 h of each other. During this period, AS04 transiently induced local NF-kappaB activity and cytokine production. This led to an increased number of activated Ag-loaded dendritic cells and monocytes in the lymph node draining the injection site, which further increased the activation of Ag-specific T cells. AS04 was also found to directly stimulate those APCs in vitro but not directly stimulate CD4(+) T or B lymphocytes. These AS04-induced innate responses were primarily due to MPL. Aluminum salt appeared not to synergize with or inhibit MPL, but rather it prolonged the cytokine responses to MPL at the injection site. Altogether these results support a model in which the addition of MPL to aluminum salt enhances the vaccine response by rapidly triggering a local cytokine response leading to an optimal activation of APCs. The transient and confined nature of these responses provides further supporting evidence for the favorable safety profile of AS04 adjuvanted vaccines. PMID:19864596

Didierlaurent, Arnaud M; Morel, Sandra; Lockman, Laurence; Giannini, Sandra L; Bisteau, Michel; Carlsen, Harald; Kielland, Anders; Vosters, Olivier; Vanderheyde, Nathalie; Schiavetti, Francesca; Larocque, Daniel; Van Mechelen, Marcelle; Garçon, Nathalie

2009-11-15

258

Enhanced performance of bio-cathode microbial fuel cells with the applying of transient-state operation modes.  

PubMed

To enhance the MFC's denitrification performance, this study investigated three different external circuits/operation modes of the MFC: alternative charging and discharging (ACD), intermittent charging (IC) and constant external resistance (R). Results showed that the ACD and IC modes offered larger output currents as well as higher nitrate and COD removal rates than the steady R mode. The best performance was achieved with the ACD mode. At the initial [COD]=~1200 mg/L and [NO3(-)]=~140 mg/L, the ACD mode delivered an average power density of 0.91 W/m(3), an average nitrate removal rate of 15.5mg/(Ld) and an average COD removal rate of 137 mg/(Ld), 268%, 207% and 168% respectively greater than those by the R mode. The enhancement by the ACD and IC modes was more pronounced at lower nitrate and COD concentrations and/or with the lack of stirring of electrolyte solutions. PMID:23994964

Liang, Peng; Yuan, Lulu; Wu, Wenlong; Yang, Xufei; Huang, Xia

2013-11-01

259

Arctic canopy photosynthetic efficiency enhanced under diffuse light, linked to a reduction in the fraction of the canopy in deep shade.  

PubMed

We investigated how radiation conditions within a tundra canopy were linked to canopy photosynthesis, and how this linkage explained photosynthetic sensitivity to sky conditions, that is total radiation and its diffuse fraction. We measured within canopy radiation at leaf scales and net CO2 exchanges at canopy scales, under varied total irradiance and diffuse fraction, in Alaskan shrub tundra. Normalised mean radiation profiles within canopies showed no significant differences with varied diffuse fractions. However, radiation density distribution was non-normal, being more unimodal under diffuse conditions and distinctly bimodal under direct sunlight. There was a nearly three-fold increase in the proportion of the canopy in deep shade under direct illumination, compared to diffuse conditions. Under diffuse conditions the canopy had higher light-use efficiency (LUE), resulting in up to 17% greater photosynthesis. The enhancement in LUE under diffuse illumination was not related to differences in the mean light profiles, but instead was due to significant shifts in the density distribution of light at leaf scales, in particular a reduced fraction of the canopy in deep shade under diffuse illumination. These results provide unique information for testing radiative transfer schemes in canopy models, and for better understanding canopy structure and trait variation within plant canopies. PMID:24593320

Williams, Mathew; Rastetter, Edward B; Van der Pol, Laura; Shaver, Gaius R

2014-06-01

260

Combining diffusion-weighted MRI with Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI improves the detection of colorectal liver metastases  

PubMed Central

Objectives To compare the diagnostic accuracy of gadolinium-ethoxybenzyl-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA)-enhanced MRI, diffusion-weighted MRI (DW-MRI) and a combination of both techniques for the detection of colorectal hepatic metastases. Methods 72 patients with suspected colorectal liver metastases underwent Gd-EOB-DTPA MRI and DW-MRI. Images were retrospectively reviewed with unenhanced T1 and T2 weighted images as Gd-EOB-DTPA image set, DW-MRI image set and combined image set by two independent radiologists. Each lesion detected was scored for size, location and likelihood of metastasis, and compared with surgery and follow-up imaging. Diagnostic accuracy was compared using receiver operating characteristics and interobserver agreement by kappa statistics. Results 417 lesions (310 metastases, 107 benign) were found in 72 patients. For both readers, diagnostic accuracy using the combined image set was higher [area under the curve (Az) = 0.96, 0.97] than Gd-EOB-DTPA image set (Az = 0.86, 0.89) or DW-MRI image set (Az = 0.93, 0.92). Using combined image set improved identification of liver metastases compared with Gd-EOB-DTPA image set (p<0.001) or DW-MRI image set (p<0.001). There was very good interobserver agreement for lesion classification (? = 0.81–0.88). Conclusions Combining DW-MRI with Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced T1 weighted MRI significantly improved the detection of colorectal liver metastases. PMID:22167501

Koh, D-M; Collins, D J; Wallace, T; Chau, I; Riddell, A M

2012-01-01

261

CXCR4 expression enhances diffuse large B cell lymphoma dissemination and decreases patient survival.  

PubMed

The chemokine receptor CXCR4 has been implicated in the migration and trafficking of malignant B cells in several haematological malignancies. Over-expression of CXCR4 has been identified in haematological tumours, but data concerning the role of this receptor in diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) are lacking. CXCR4 is a marker of poor prognosis in various neoplasms, correlating with metastatic disease and decreased survival of patients. We studied CXCR4 involvement in cell migration in vitro and dissemination in vivo. We also evaluated the prognostic significance of CXCR4 in 94 biopsies of DLBCL patients. We observed that the level of expression of CXCR4 in DLBCL cell lines correlated positively with in vitro migration. Expression of the receptor was also associated with increased engraftment and dissemination, and decreased survival time in NOD/SCID mice. Furthermore, administration of a specific CXCR4 antagonist, AMD3100, decreased dissemination of DLBCL cells in a xenograft mouse model. In addition, we found that CXCR4 expression is an independent prognostic factor for shorter overall survival and progression-free survival in DLBCL patients. These results show that CXCR4 mediates dissemination of DLBCL cells and define for the first time its value as an independent prognostic marker in DLBCL patients. PMID:25231113

Moreno, María José; Bosch, Rosa; Dieguez-Gonzalez, Rebeca; Novelli, Silvana; Mozos, Ana; Gallardo, Alberto; Pavón, Miguel Ángel; Céspedes, María Virtudes; Grañena, Albert; Alcoceba, Miguel; Blanco, Oscar; Gonzalez-Díaz, Marcos; Sierra, Jorge; Mangues, Ramon; Casanova, Isolda

2015-02-01

262

Vaccination with a T-cell-priming Gag peptide of caprine arthritis encephalitis virus enhances virus replication transiently in vivo.  

PubMed

CD4+ T cells are involved in several immune response pathways used to control viral infections. In this study, a group of genetically defined goats was immunized with a synthetic peptide known to encompass an immunodominant helper T-cell epitope of caprine arthritis encephalitis virus (CAEV). Fifty-five days after challenge with the molecularly cloned CAEV strain CO, the vaccinated animals had a higher proviral load than the controls. The measurement of gamma interferon and interleukin-4 gene expression showed that these cytokines were reliable markers of an ongoing immune response but their balance did not account for more or less efficient control of CAEV replication. In contrast, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor appeared to be a key cytokine that might support virus replication in the early phase of infection. The observation of a potential T-cell-mediated enhancement of virus replication supports other recent findings showing that lentivirus-specific T cells can be detrimental to the host, suggesting caution in designing vaccine candidates. PMID:17412991

Nenci, Chiara; Zahno, Marie-Luise; Vogt, Hans-Rudolf; Obexer-Ruff, Gabriela; Doherr, Marcus G; Zanoni, Reto; Peterhans, Ernst; Bertoni, Giuseppe

2007-05-01

263

Role of Diffusion Weighted Imaging and Contrast-Enhanced MRI in the Evaluation of Intrapelvic Recurrence of Gynecological Malignant Tumor  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose To investigate the diagnostic performance of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) and contrast-enhanced imaging in combination with T2-weighted imaging (T2WI) for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) evaluation of intrapelvic recurrence of gynecological malignancies. Materials and Methods Sixty-two patients with suspected intrapelvic recurrence of gynecological malignancies underwent pelvic MRI including T2WI DWI, and contrast-enhanced imaging. Diagnostic performance for detection of local recurrence, pelvic lymph node and bone metastases, and peritoneal lesions was evaluated by consensus reading of two experienced radiologists using a 5-point scoring system, and compared among T2WI with unenhanced T1-weighted imaging (T1WI) (protocol A), a combination of protocol A and DWI (protocol B), and a combination of protocol B and contrast-enhanced imaging (protocol C). Final diagnoses were obtained by histopathological examinations, radiological imaging and clinical follow-up for at least 6 months. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis and McNemar test were employed for statistical analysis. Results Locally recurrent disease, lymph node recurrence, peritoneal dissemination and bone metastases were present in 48.4%, 29.0%, 16.1%, and 6.5% of the patients, respectively. The patient-based sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and area under the ROC curve (AUC) for detection of intrapelvic recurrence were 55.0, 81.8, 64.5% and 0.753 for protocol A, 80.0, 77.3, 79.0% and 0.838 for protocol B, and 80.0, 90.9, 83.9% and 0.862 for protocol C, respectively. The sensitivity, accuracy, and AUC were significantly better for protocols B and C than for protocol A (p<0.001). There was no significant difference between protocols B and C. Conclusion MRI using a combination of DWI and T2WI gives comparatively acceptable results for assessment of intrapelvic recurrence of gynecological malignancies. PMID:25629156

Kitajima, Kazuhiro; Tanaka, Utaru; Ueno, Yoshiko; Maeda, Tetsuo; Suenaga, Yuko; Takahashi, Satoru; Deguchi, Masashi; Miyahara, Yoshiya; Ebina, Yasuhiko; Yamada, Hideto; Tsurusaki, Masakatsu; Tamaki, Yukihisa; Sugimura, Kazuro

2015-01-01

264

Enhancement of thermoelectric effect in diffusive superconducting bilayers with magnetic interfaces  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate that thermoelectric currents in superconducting bilayers with a spin-active interface are controlled by the two competing processes. On one hand, spin-sensitive quasiparticle scattering at such an interface generates an electron-hole imbalance and yields an orders-of-magnitude enhancement of the thermoelectric effect in the system. On the other hand, this electron-hole imbalance gets suppressed in the superconductor bulk due to electron scattering on nonmagnetic impurities. As a result, large thermoelectric currents can only flow in the vicinity of the spin-active interface and decay away from this interface at a distance exceeding the electron elastic mean free path ? . The magnitude of the thermoelectric effect reaches its maximum provided ? becomes of order of the total bilayer thickness.

Kalenkov, Mikhail S.; Zaikin, Andrei D.

2015-02-01

265

Indocyanine green enhanced co-registered diffuse optical tomography and photoacoustic tomography  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To overcome the intensive light scattering in biological tissue, diffuse optical tomography (DOT) in the near-infrared range for breast lesion detection is usually combined with other imaging modalities, such as ultrasound, x-ray, and magnetic resonance imaging, to provide guidance. However, these guiding imaging modalities may depend on different contrast mechanisms compared to the optical contrast in the DOT. As a result, they cannot provide reliable guidance for DOT because some lesions may not be detectable by a nonoptical modality but may have a high optical contrast. An imaging modality that relies on optical contrast to provide guidance is desirable for DOT. We present a system that combines a frequency-domain DOT and real-time photoacoustic tomography (PAT) systems to detect and characterize deeply seated targets embedded in a turbid medium. To further improve the contrast, the exogenous contrast agent, indocyanine green (ICG), is used. Our experimental results show that the combined system can detect a tumor-mimicking phantom, which is immersed in intralipid solution with the concentrations ranging from 100 to 10 ?M and with the dimensions of 0.8 cm×0.8 cm×0.6 cm, up to 2.5 cm in depth. Mice experiments also confirmed that the combined system can detect tumors and monitor the ICG uptake and washout in the tumor region. This method can potentially improve the accuracy to detect small breast lesions as well as lesions that are sensitive to background tissue changes, such as the lesions located just above the chest wall.

Xu, Chen; Kumavor, Patrick D.; Alqasemi, Umar; Li, Hai; Xu, Yan; Zanganeh, Saeid; Zhu, Quing

2013-12-01

266

Indocyanine green enhanced co-registered diffuse optical tomography and photoacoustic tomography.  

PubMed

To overcome the intensive light scattering in biological tissue, diffuse optical tomography (DOT) in the near-infrared range for breast lesion detection is usually combined with other imaging modalities, such as ultrasound, x-ray, and magnetic resonance imaging, to provide guidance. However, these guiding imaging modalities may depend on different contrast mechanisms compared to the optical contrast in the DOT. As a result, they cannot provide reliable guidance for DOT because some lesions may not be detectable by a nonoptical modality but may have a high optical contrast. An imaging modality that relies on optical contrast to provide guidance is desirable for DOT. We present a system that combines a frequency-domain DOT and real-time photoacoustic tomography (PAT) systems to detect and characterize deeply seated targets embedded in a turbid medium. To further improve the contrast, the exogenous contrast agent, indocyanine green (ICG), is used. Our experimental results show that the combined system can detect a tumor-mimicking phantom, which is immersed in intralipid solution with the concentrations ranging from 100 to 10 ?M and with the dimensions of 0.8 cm × 0.8 cm × 0.6 cm, up to 2.5 cm in depth. Mice experiments also confirmed that the combined system can detect tumors and monitor the ICG uptake and washout in the tumor region. This method can potentially improve the accuracy to detect small breast lesions as well as lesions that are sensitive to background tissue changes, such as the lesions located just above the chest wall. PMID:24343437

Xu, Chen; Kumavor, Patrick D; Alqasemi, Umar; Li, Hai; Xu, Yan; Zanganeh, Saeid; Zhu, Quing

2013-12-01

267

Enhancing effects of indirubin on the arsenic disulfide-induced apoptosis of human diffuse large B-cell lymphoma cells  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to investigate the indirubin-enhanced effects of arsenic disulfide (As2S2) on the proliferation and apoptosis of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) cells in order to identify an optimum combination therapy. The human DLBCL cells, LY1 and LY8, were treated with different concentrations of indirubin for 24, 48 and 72 h. Next, the cells were treated with 10 ?M As2S2 or a combination of 10 ?M As2S2 and 20 ?M indirubin for 48 h. Cell proliferation inhibition was detected using cell counting kit-8 and cell apoptosis was determined using flow cytometry. The expression levels of Bcl-2, Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) and caspase-3 were analyzed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and western blotting. The DLBCL cell viability exhibited no significant changes at 24, 48 or 72 h with increasing indirubin concentration. In addition, the apoptotic rates of the LY1 and LY8 cells demonstrated no noticeable effects at 48 h with increasing indirubin concentration. Following treatment with the combination of indirubin and As2S2, the inhibitory and apoptotic rates of the cells were notably increased compared with those of the As2S2-treated group. The qPCR results revealed that indirubin alone had no enhancing effect upon the Bax/Bcl-2 mRNA expression ratio and caspase-3 mRNA expression. Western blot analysis revealed that indirubin alone had an enhancing effect upon the Bax/Bcl-2 protein ratio and procaspase-3 protein expression. In addition, the results demonstrated that the 21-KDa Bax protein was proteolytically cleaved into an 18-KDa Bax in the DLBCL cells treated with the combination of indirubin and As2S2. Indirubin alone did not inhibit proliferation or induce the apoptosis of the LY1 and LY8 cells. However, the combination of indirubin and As2S2 yielded enhancing effects. Therefore, the results of the present study demonstrated that with regard to antitumor activities, As2S2 served as the principal drug, whereas indirubin served as the adjuvant drug. The enhancing effect was due, in part, to the induction of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, which involves the cleavage of Bax. PMID:25789073

WANG, LING; LI, XIANGLU; LIU, XINYU; LU, KANG; CHEN, NA; LI, PEIPEI; LV, XIAO; WANG, XIN

2015-01-01

268

Solvent-enhanced Dye Diffusion in Polymer This-Films for OLED Application F. Pschenitzka, K. Long, and J. C. Sturm  

E-print Network

Solvent-enhanced Dye Diffusion in Polymer This-Films for OLED Application F. Pschenitzka, K. Long in polymer films for organic light-emitting diode (OLED) application is introduced. After an initial dye by 150 °C. OLEDs with 0.4% external quantum efficiency were demonstrated. The materials used

269

Transient shifts in frontal and parietal circuits scale with enhanced visual feedback and changes in force variability and error  

PubMed Central

When subjects perform a learned motor task with increased visual gain, error and variability are reduced. Neuroimaging studies have identified a corresponding increase in activity in parietal cortex, premotor cortex, primary motor cortex, and extrastriate visual cortex. Much less is understood about the neural processes that underlie the immediate transition from low to high visual gain within a trial. This study used 128-channel electroencephalography to measure cortical activity during a visually guided precision grip task, in which the gain of the visual display was changed during the task. Force variability during the transition from low to high visual gain was characterized by an inverted U-shape, whereas force error decreased from low to high gain. Source analysis identified cortical activity in the same structures previously identified using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Source analysis also identified a time-varying shift in the strongest source activity. Superior regions of the motor and parietal cortex had stronger source activity from 300 to 600 ms after the transition, whereas inferior regions of the extrastriate visual cortex had stronger source activity from 500 to 700 ms after the transition. Force variability and electrical activity were linearly related, with a positive relation in the parietal cortex and a negative relation in the frontal cortex. Force error was nonlinearly related to electrical activity in the parietal cortex and frontal cortex by a quadratic function. This is the first evidence that force variability and force error are systematically related to a time-varying shift in cortical activity in frontal and parietal cortex in response to enhanced visual gain. PMID:23365186

Poon, Cynthia; Coombes, Stephen A.; Corcos, Daniel M.; Christou, Evangelos A.

2013-01-01

270

Sensitivity of Climate Change on Diapycnal Diffusion in Global Warming Experiments  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study seeks understanding of the role played by the diapycnal diffusivity in determining the transient climate evolution in a scenario with enhanced atmospheric CO2 concentration. We use an Earth system Model of Intermediate Complexity (EMIC) composed of a 3D Ocean Model with idealized topography and a 2D Atmospheric Model. The model is spun up to equilibrium for three different

F. Dalan; P. H. Stone; A. Sokolov

2002-01-01

271

Enhanced Oxygen Diffusion Within the Internal Oxidation Zone of Alloy 617 in Controlled Impurity Helium Environments from 1023 K to 1123 K (750 °C to 850 °C)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alloy 617 was exposed to He-CO-CO2 environments with P_{{CO}} /P_{{{{CO}}2 }} of either 9 or 1320 at temperatures from 1023 K to 1123 K (750 °C to 850 °C) to determine the oxygen diffusion coefficients within the internal oxidation zone of the alloy. The oxygen diffusion coefficients determined based on both intergranular and transgranular oxidation rates were several orders of magnitude greater than those reported in pure nickel and in nickel-based binary alloys, indicating that the rapid internal aluminum oxidation of Alloy 617 was primarily due to enhanced oxygen diffusion along the incoherent Al2O3-alloy interfaces. The range of activation energy values determined for oxygen diffusion associated with the intergranular aluminum oxidation was from 149.6 to 154.7 kJ/mol, and that associated with the transgranular aluminum oxidation was from 244.7 to 283.5 kJ/mol.

Gulsoy, Gokce; Was, Gary S.

2015-01-01

272

Enhanced Oxygen Diffusion Within the Internal Oxidation Zone of Alloy 617 in Controlled Impurity Helium Environments from 1023 K to 1123 K (750 °C to 850 °C)  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Alloy 617 was exposed to He-CO-CO2 environments with of either 9 or 1320 at temperatures from 1023 K to 1123 K (750 °C to 850 °C) to determine the oxygen diffusion coefficients within the internal oxidation zone of the alloy. The oxygen diffusion coefficients determined based on both intergranular and transgranular oxidation rates were several orders of magnitude greater than those reported in pure nickel and in nickel-based binary alloys, indicating that the rapid internal aluminum oxidation of Alloy 617 was primarily due to enhanced oxygen diffusion along the incoherent Al2O3-alloy interfaces. The range of activation energy values determined for oxygen diffusion associated with the intergranular aluminum oxidation was from 149.6 to 154.7 kJ/mol, and that associated with the transgranular aluminum oxidation was from 244.7 to 283.5 kJ/mol.

Gulsoy, Gokce; Was, Gary S.

2015-04-01

273

Enhanced slow wave sleep and improved sleep maintenance after gaboxadol administration during seven nights of exposure to a traffic noise model of transient insomnia.  

PubMed

Slow wave sleep (SWS) has been reported to correlate with sleep maintenance, but whether pharmacological enhancement of SWS also leads to improved sleep maintenance is not known. Here we evaluate the time-course of the effects of gaboxadol, an extra-synaptic gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) agonist, on SWS, sleep maintenance, and other sleep measures in a traffic noise model of transient insomnia. After a placebo run-in, 101 healthy subjects (20-78?y) were randomized to gaboxadol (n?=?50; 15?mg in subjects <65?y and 10?mg in subjects ?65?y) or placebo (n?=?51) for 7 nights (N1-N7). The model caused some disruption of sleep initiation and maintenance, with greatest effects on N1. Compared with placebo, gaboxadol increased SWS and slow wave activity throughout N1 to N7 (p?enhanced SWS and reduced the disruptive effects of noise on sleep initiation and maintenance. PMID:22002961

Dijk, D-J; Stanley, N; Lundahl, J; Groeger, J A; Legters, A; Trap Huusom, A K; Deacon, S

2012-08-01

274

Bilateral high-frequency stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus on attentional performance: transient deleterious effects and enhanced motivation in both intact and parkinsonian rats  

PubMed Central

It is now well established that subthalamic nucleus high-frequency stimulation (STN HFS) alleviates motor problems in Parkinson's disease. However, its efficacy for cognitive function remains a matter of debate. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of STN HFS in rats performing a visual attentional task. Bilateral STN HFS was applied in intact and in bilaterally dopamine (DA)-depleted rats. In all animals, STN HFS had a transient debilitating effect on all the variables measured in the task. In DA-depleted rats, STN HFS did not alleviate the deficits induced by the DA lesion such as omissions and latency to make correct responses, but induced perseverative approaches to the food magazine, an indicator of enhanced motivation. In sham-operated controls, STN HFS significantly reduced accuracy and induced perseverative behaviour, mimicking partially the effects of bilateral STN lesions in the same task. These results are in line with the hypothesis that STN HFS only partially mimics inactivation of STN produced by lesioning and confirm the motivational exacerbation induced by STN inactivation. PMID:17331214

Baunez, Christelle; Christakou, Anastasia; Chudasama, Yogita; Forni, Claude; Robbins, Trevor W.

2007-01-01

275

Bilateral high-frequency stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus on attentional performance: transient deleterious effects and enhanced motivation in both intact and parkinsonian rats.  

PubMed

It is now well established that subthalamic nucleus high-frequency stimulation (STN HFS) alleviates motor problems in Parkinson's disease. However, its efficacy for cognitive function remains a matter of debate. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of STN HFS in rats performing a visual attentional task. Bilateral STN HFS was applied in intact and in bilaterally dopamine (DA)-depleted rats. In all animals, STN HFS had a transient debilitating effect on all the variables measured in the task. In DA-depleted rats, STN HFS did not alleviate the deficits induced by the DA lesion such as omissions and latency to make correct responses, but induced perseverative approaches to the food magazine, an indicator of enhanced motivation. In sham-operated controls, STN HFS significantly reduced accuracy and induced perseverative behaviour, mimicking partially the effects of bilateral STN lesions in the same task. These results are in line with the hypothesis that STN HFS only partially mimics inactivation of STN produced by lesioning and confirm the motivational exacerbation induced by STN inactivation. PMID:17331214

Baunez, Christelle; Christakou, Anastasia; Chudasama, Yogita; Forni, Claude; Robbins, Trevor W

2007-02-01

276

Sensitive analysis of aminoglycoside antibiotics via hyphenation of transient moving substitution boundary with field-enhanced sample injection in capillary electrophoresis.  

PubMed

A novel field-enhanced sample injection coupled with transient moving substitution boundary method in capillary electrophoresis was developed for aminoglycoside antibiotic (AG) analysis using 18-crown-6-tetracarboxylic acid (18C6H4) as a pseudostationary phase. Results indicated that the stacking mechanism of moving substitution boundary relied on the substitution reaction between 18C6H4-bonded AG complexes and Na(+) at the substitution boundary. The stacking mechanism as well as important parameters governing pre-concentration and separation have been investigated in order to obtain maximum resolution and sensitivity. Under optimized conditions, using a sample prepared in a low-conductivity matrix, the limits of detection for streptomycin, neomycin, and kanamycin were 0.62, 5.9 and 8.6 nM (S/N=3), respectively, and the detection sensitivities were improved 940-, 692-, and 415-fold, respectively. The method also gave accurate and reliable results in the analysis of AGs in river water samples. PMID:23669327

Ge, Shuli; Tang, Wanrong; Han, Ruobing; Zhu, Yan; Wang, Qingjiang; He, Pingang; Fang, Yuzhi

2013-06-21

277

Performance of Enhanced Liver Fibrosis test and comparison with transient elastography in the identification of liver fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B infection  

PubMed Central

Assessment of liver fibrosis is important in determining prognosis, disease progression and need for treatment in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB). Limitations to the use of liver biopsy in assessing fibrosis are well recognized, and noninvasive tests are being increasingly evaluated including transient elastography (TE) and serum markers such as the Enhanced Liver Fibrosis (ELF) test. We assessed performance of ELF and TE in detecting liver fibrosis with reference to liver histology in a cohort of patients with CHB (n = 182), and compared the performance of these modalities. Median age was 46 and mean AST 70 IU/L. Cirrhosis was reported in 20% of liver biopsies. Both modalities performed well in assessing fibrosis at all stages. Area under receiver operator characteristic (AUROC) curves for detecting METAVIR fibrosis stages F ? 1, F ? 2, F ? 3 and F4 were 0.77, 0.82, 0.80 and 0.83 for ELF and 0.86, 0.86, 0.90 and 0.95 for TE. TE performed significantly better in the assessment of severe fibrosis (AUROC 0.80 for ELF and 0.90 for TE, P < 0.01) and cirrhosis (0.83 for ELF and 0.95 for TE, P < 0.01). This study demonstrates that ELF has good performance in detection of liver fibrosis in patients with CHB, and when compared, TE performs better in detection of severe fibrosis/cirrhosis. PMID:24750297

Trembling, P M; Lampertico, P; Parkes, J; Tanwar, S; Viganò, M; Facchetti, F; Colombo, M; Rosenberg, W M

2014-01-01

278

The effect of gadoxetic acid enhancement on lesion detection and characterisation using T2 weighted imaging and diffusion weighted imaging of the liver  

PubMed Central

Objectives To evaluate the effect of gadoxetic acid enhancement on the detection and characterisation of focal hepatic lesions on T2 weighted and diffusion weighted (DW) images. Methods A total of 63 consecutive patients underwent T2 weighted and DW imaging before and after gadoxetic acid enhancement. Two blinded readers independently identified all of the focal lesions using a five-point confidence scale and characterised each lesion using a three-point scale: 1, non-solid; 2, indeterminate; and 3, solid. For both T2 weighted and DW imaging, the accuracies for detecting focal lesions were compared using the free-response receiver operating characteristic analysis; the accuracies for lesion characterisation were compared using the McNemar test between non-enhanced and gadoxetic acid-enhanced image sets. For hepatic lesions ?1 cm, the lesion-to-liver contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) and the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) were compared in the non-enhanced and enhanced image sets using the generalised estimating equations. Results For both T2 weighted and DW images, the accuracies for detecting focal lesions (p?0.52) and those for lesion characterisation (p?0.63) did not differ significantly between the non-enhanced and enhanced image sets. The lesion-to-liver CNR was significantly higher on enhanced DW images than on non-enhanced DW images (p=0.02), although the difference was not significant for T2 weighted imaging (p=0.65). The mean ADC values of lesions did not differ significantly on enhanced and non-enhanced DW imaging (p=0.75). Conclusion The acquisition of T2 weighted and DW images after administration of gadoxetic acid has no significant effect on the detection or characterisation of focal hepatic lesions, although it improves the lesion-to-liver CNR on DW images. PMID:21123305

Choi, S A; Lee, S S; Jung, I-H; Kim, H A; Byun, J H; Lee, M-G

2012-01-01

279

Diagnosis of Breast Masses from Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced and Diffusion-Weighted MR: A Machine Learning Approach  

PubMed Central

Purpose Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) is increasingly used for breast cancer diagnosis as supplementary to conventional imaging techniques. Combining of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) of morphology and kinetic features from DCE-MRI to improve the discrimination power of malignant from benign breast masses is rarely reported. Materials and Methods The study comprised of 234 female patients with 85 benign and 149 malignant lesions. Four distinct groups of features, coupling with pathological tests, were estimated to comprehensively characterize the pictorial properties of each lesion, which was obtained by a semi-automated segmentation method. Classical machine learning scheme including feature subset selection and various classification schemes were employed to build prognostic model, which served as a foundation for evaluating the combined effects of the multi-sided features for predicting of the types of lesions. Various measurements including cross validation and receiver operating characteristics were used to quantify the diagnostic performances of each feature as well as their combination. Results Seven features were all found to be statistically different between the malignant and the benign groups and their combination has achieved the highest classification accuracy. The seven features include one pathological variable of age, one morphological variable of slope, three texture features of entropy, inverse difference and information correlation, one kinetic feature of SER and one DWI feature of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC). Together with the selected diagnostic features, various classical classification schemes were used to test their discrimination power through cross validation scheme. The averaged measurements of sensitivity, specificity, AUC and accuracy are 0.85, 0.89, 90.9% and 0.93, respectively. Conclusion Multi-sided variables which characterize the morphological, kinetic, pathological properties and DWI measurement of ADC can dramatically improve the discriminatory power of breast lesions. PMID:24498092

Chen, Minsheng; Li, Li

2014-01-01

280

Nuclear Overhauser Enhancement Imaging of Glioblastoma at 7 Tesla: Region Specific Correlation with Apparent Diffusion Coefficient and Histology  

PubMed Central

Objective To explore the correlation between Nuclear Overhauser Enhancement (NOE)-mediated signals and tumor cellularity in glioblastoma utilizing the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and cell density from histologic specimens. NOE is one type of chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) that originates from mobile macromolecules such as proteins and might be associated with tumor cellularity via altered protein synthesis in proliferating cells. Patients and Methods For 15 patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma, NOE-mediated CEST-contrast was acquired at 7 Tesla (asymmetric magnetization transfer ratio (MTRasym) at 3.3ppm, B1 = 0.7 ?T). Contrast enhanced T1 (CE-T1), T2 and diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) were acquired at 3 Tesla and coregistered. The T2 edema and the CE-T1 tumor were segmented. ADC and MTRasym values within both regions of interest were correlated voxelwise yielding the correlation coefficient rSpearman (rSp). In three patients who underwent stereotactic biopsy, cell density of 12 specimens per patient was correlated with corresponding MTRasym and ADC values of the biopsy site. Results Eight of 15 patients showed a weak or moderate positive correlation of MTRasym and ADC within the T2 edema (0.16?rSp?0.53, p<0.05). Seven correlations were statistically insignificant (p>0.05, n = 4) or yielded rSp?0 (p<0.05, n = 3). No trend towards a correlation between MTRasym and ADC was found in CE-T1 tumor (-0.310.05, n = 6). The biopsy-analysis within CE-T1 tumor revealed a strong positive correlation between tumor cellularity and MTRasym values in two of the three patients (rSppatient3 = 0.69 and rSppatient15 = 0.87, p<0.05), while the correlation of ADC and cellularity was heterogeneous (rSppatient3 = 0.545 (p = 0.067), rSppatient4 = -0.021 (p = 0.948), rSppatient15 = -0.755 (p = 0.005)). Discussion NOE-imaging is a new contrast promising insight into pathophysiologic processes in glioblastoma regarding cell density and protein content, setting itself apart from DWI. Future studies might be based on the assumption that NOE-mediated CEST visualizes cellularity more accurately than ADC, especially in the CE-T1 tumor region. PMID:25789657

Windschuh, Johannes; Meissner, Jan-Eric; Zaiss, Moritz; Eidel, Oliver; Kickingereder, Philipp; Nowosielski, Martha; Wiestler, Benedikt; Sahm, Felix; Floca, Ralf Omar; Neumann, Jan-Oliver; Wick, Wolfgang; Heiland, Sabine; Bendszus, Martin; Schlemmer, Heinz-Peter; Ladd, Mark Edward; Bachert, Peter; Radbruch, Alexander

2015-01-01

281

A new multicompartmental reaction-diffusion modeling method links transient membrane attachment of E. coli MinE to E-ring formation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many important cellular processes are regulated by reaction-diffusion (RD) of molecules that takes place both in the cytoplasm\\u000a and on the membrane. To model and analyze such multicompartmental processes, we developed a lattice-based Monte Carlo method,\\u000a Spatiocyte that supports RD in volume and surface compartments at single molecule resolution. Stochasticity in RD and the\\u000a excluded volume effect brought by intracellular

Satya Nanda Vel Arjunan; Masaru Tomita

2010-01-01

282

Virtual-source diffusion approximation for enhanced near-field modeling of photon-migration in low-albedo medium.  

PubMed

Most analytical methods for describing light propagation in turbid medium exhibit low effectiveness in the near-field of a collimated source. Motivated by the Charge Simulation Method in electromagnetic theory as well as the established discrete source based modeling, we herein report on an improved explicit model for a semi-infinite geometry, referred to as "Virtual Source" (VS) diffuse approximation (DA), to fit for low-albedo medium and short source-detector separation. In this model, the collimated light in the standard DA is analogously approximated as multiple isotropic point sources (VS) distributed along the incident direction. For performance enhancement, a fitting procedure between the calculated and realistic reflectances is adopted in the near-field to optimize the VS parameters (intensities and locations). To be practically applicable, an explicit 2VS-DA model is established based on close-form derivations of the VS parameters for the typical ranges of the optical parameters. This parameterized scheme is proved to inherit the mathematical simplicity of the DA approximation while considerably extending its validity in modeling the near-field photon migration in low-albedo medium. The superiority of the proposed VS-DA method to the established ones is demonstrated in comparison with Monte-Carlo simulations over wide ranges of the source-detector separation and the medium optical properties. PMID:25835892

Jia, Mengyu; Chen, Xueying; Zhao, Huijuan; Cui, Shanshan; Liu, Ming; Liu, Lingling; Gao, Feng

2015-01-26

283

Characterization of light transport in scattering media at sub-diffusion length scales with Low-coherence Enhanced Backscattering  

PubMed Central

Low-coherence enhanced backscattering (LEBS) is a technique that has recently shown promise for tissue characterization and the detection of early pre-cancer. Although several Monte Carlo models of LEBS have been described, these models have not been accurate enough to predict all of the experimentally observed LEBS features. We present an appropriate Monte Carlo model to simulate LEBS peak properties from polystyrene microsphere suspensions in water. Results show that the choice of the phase function greatly impacts the accuracy of the simulation when the transport mean free path (ls*) is much greater than the spatial coherence length (LSC). When ls* < LSC, a diffusion approximation based model of LEBS is sufficiently accurate. We also use the Monte Carlo model to validate that LEBS can be used to measure the radial scattering probability distribution (radial point spread function), p(r), at small length scales and demonstrate LEBS measurements of p(r) from biological tissue. In particular, we show that pre-cancerous and benign mucosal tissues have different small length scale light transport properties. PMID:21037980

Turzhitsky, Vladimir; Rogers, Jeremy D.; Mutyal, Nikhil N.; Roy, Hemant K.; Backman, Vadim

2009-01-01

284

SUB-ALFVENIC NON-IDEAL MAGNETOHYDRODYNAMIC TURBULENCE SIMULATIONS WITH AMBIPOLAR DIFFUSION. III. IMPLICATIONS FOR OBSERVATIONS AND TURBULENT ENHANCEMENT  

SciTech Connect

Ambipolar diffusion (AD) is believed to be a crucial process for redistributing magnetic flux in the dense molecular gas that occurs in regions of star formation. We carry out numerical simulations of this process in regions of low ionization using the heavy-ion approximation. The simulations are for regions of strong field (plasma {beta} = 0.1) and mildly supersonic turbulence (M=3, corresponding to an Alfven Mach number of 0.67). The velocity power spectrum of the neutral gas changes from an Iroshnikov-Kraichnan spectrum in the case of ideal MHD to a Burgers spectrum in the case of a shock-dominated hydrodynamic system. The magnetic power spectrum shows a similar behavior. We use a one-dimensional radiative transfer code to post-process our simulation results; the simulated emission from the CS J = 2-1 and H{sup 13}CO{sup +} J = 1-0 lines shows that the effects of AD are observable in principle. Linewidths of ions are observed to be less than those of neutrals, and we confirm previous suggestions that this is due to AD. We show that AD is unlikely to affect the Chandrasekhar-Fermi method for inferring field strengths unless the AD is stronger than generally observed. Finally, we present a study of the enhancement of AD by turbulence, finding that AD is accelerated by factor 2-4.5 for non-self-gravitating systems with the level of turbulence we consider.

Li, Pak Shing; Klein, Richard I. [Astronomy Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); McKee, Christopher F., E-mail: psli@astron.berkeley.edu, E-mail: cmckee@astro.berkeley.edu, E-mail: klein@astron.berkeley.edu [Physics Department and Astronomy Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

2012-01-01

285

Sub-picosecond transient grating measurements of the resonant energy transfer in cresyl violet solutions : Evidence for non-diffusive energy transport  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Three exponentials are needed to fit the decrease in scattered light intensity with increasing delay time between pump and probe pulses. The decay time of the fastest component varies between 270 and 120 fs if the grating fringe spacing is reduced from 15.5 to 7.8 ?m at constant dye concentration (4 × 10 -3 M) or if the dye concentration is increased from 2 × 10 -3 to 5 × 10 -3 M at constant fringe spacing (10 ?m). The results are discussed as evidence for non-diffusive energy transport.

Schneider, Siegfried; Bierl, Rudolf; Seischab, Michael

1994-12-01

286

Chemo-nociceptive signalling from the colon is enhanced by mild colitis and blocked by inhibition of transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 channels  

PubMed Central

Background and purpose: Transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) channels are expressed by primary afferent neurones and activated by irritant chemicals including allyl isothiocyanate (AITC). Here we investigated whether intracolonic AITC causes afferent input to the spinal cord and whether this response is modified by mild colitis, morphine or a TRPA1 channel blocker. Experimental approach: One hour after intracolonic administration of AITC to female mice, afferent signalling was visualized by expression of c-Fos in laminae I–IIo of the spinal dorsal horn at sacral segment S1. Mild colitis was induced by dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) added to drinking water for 1 week. Key results: Relative to vehicle, AITC (2%) increased expression of c-Fos in the spinal cord. Following induction of mild colitis by DSS (2%), spinal c-Fos responses to AITC, but not vehicle, were augmented by 41%. Colonic inflammation was present (increased myeloperoxidase content and disease activity score), whereas colonic histology, locomotion, feeding and drinking remained unchanged. Morphine (10 mg·kg?1) or the TRPA1 channel blocker HC-030031 (300 mg·kg?1) inhibited the spinal c-Fos response to AITC, in control and DSS-pretreated animals, whereas the response to intracolonic capsaicin (5%) was blocked by morphine but not HC-030031. Conclusions and implications: Activation of colonic TRPA1 channels is signalled to the spinal cord. Mild colitis enhanced this afferent input that, as it is sensitive to morphine, is most likely of a chemonociceptive nature. As several irritant chemicals can be present in chyme, TRPA1 channels may mediate several gastrointestinal pain conditions. PMID:20590633

Mitrovic, Martina; Shahbazian, Anaid; Bock, Elisabeth; Pabst, Maria A; Holzer, Peter

2010-01-01

287

Sensitivity enhancement in direct coupling of supported liquid membrane extractions to capillary electrophoresis by means of transient isotachophoresis and large electrokinetic injections.  

PubMed

Enhanced sensitivity for determination of basic drugs in body fluids was achieved by in-line coupling of extraction across supported liquid membrane (SLM) to large electrokinetic injection and transient isotachophoresis-capillary zone electrophoresis (tITP-CZE) in commercial CZE instrument. Twelve cm long tITP plug of 300mM ammonium acetate was formed in the separation capillary just before the electrokinetic injection of acceptor solution containing nortriptyline, haloperidol and loperamide extracted across the SLM. The tITP plug ensured efficient stacking and preconcentration of the injected basic drugs due to the tITP action of ammonium and the drugs were then separated by CZE using 5.2M acetic acid as background electrolyte. No interferences were observed from highly-abundant body fluid species (NaCl and human serum albumin) due to the excellent clean-up properties of SLMs and analytical sensitivity increased up to 340 times compared to SLM extractions coupled in-line to CZE with standard hydrodynamic injections. The SLM-tITP-CZE method was characterized by good repeatability (RSDs of peak areas below 7.8%), linearity over two orders of magnitude (r(2) better than 0.994) and limits of detection (defined as 3×S/N) between 3 and 45?g/L. Interfacing of SLM extractions to CZE instrumentation was achieved by low-cost, disposable micro-extraction devices, which can be routinely prepared in every analytical laboratory. These devices eliminated sample carry-over, minimized the need for manual sample handling and ensured fully automated determination (including extraction, injection, preconcentration and separation) of the three basic drugs in 20?L of untreated body fluids. PMID:25747667

Pant??ková, Pavla; Kubá?, Pavel; Bo?ek, Petr

2015-04-10

288

Pre- and Posttreatment With Edaravone Protects CA1 Hippocampus and Enhances Neurogenesis in the Subgranular Zone of Dentate Gyrus After Transient Global Cerebral Ischemia in Rats  

PubMed Central

Edaravone is clinically used for treatment of patients with acute cerebral infarction. However, the effect of double application of edaravone on neurogenesis in the hippocampus following ischemia remains unknown. In the present study, we explored whether pre- and posttreatment of edaravone had any effect on neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) in the subgranular zone of hippocampus in a rat model of transient global cerebral ischemia and elucidated the potential mechanism of its effects. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups: sham-operated (n?=?15), control (n?=?15), and edaravone-treated (n?=?15) groups. Newly generated cells were labeled by 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect neurogenesis. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick-end labeling was used to detect cell apoptosis. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) were detected by 2,7-dichlorofluorescien diacetate assay in NSPCs in vitro. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?) and cleaved caspase-3 proteins were quantified by western blot analysis. Treatment with edaravone significantly increased the number of NSPCs and newly generated neurons in the subgranular zone (p?enhances neurogenesis by protecting NSPCs from apoptosis in the hippocampus, which is probably mediated by decreasing ROS generation and inhibiting protein expressions of HIF-1? and cleaved caspase-3 after cerebral ischemia. PMID:25388889

Lei, Shan; Li, Weisong; Gao, Ming; He, Xijing; Zheng, Juan; Li, Xu; Wang, Xiao; Wang, Ning; Zhang, Junfeng; Qi, Cunfang; Lu, Haixia; Chen, Xinlin; Liu, Yong

2014-01-01

289

Transient analysis of polymer electrolyte fuel cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

A three-dimensional, transient model has been developed to study the transient dynamics of polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC) operation. First, various time constants are estimated for important transient phenomena of electrochemical double-layer discharging, gas transport through the gas diffusion layer (GDL) and membrane hydration. It is found that membrane hydration occurs over a period of 10s, the gas transport of

Yun Wang; Chao-Yang Wang

2005-01-01

290

Evidence from simultaneous intracellular- and surface-pH transients that carbonic anhydrase II enhances CO2 fluxes across Xenopus oocyte plasma membranes.  

PubMed

The ?-carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are zinc-containing enzymes that catalyze the interconversion of CO2 and HCO3 (-). Here, we focus on human CA II (CA II), a ubiquitous cytoplasmic enzyme. In the second paper in this series, we examine CA IV at the extracellular surface. After microinjecting recombinant CA II in a Tris solution (or just Tris) into oocytes, we expose oocytes to 1.5% CO2/10 mM HCO3 (-)/pH 7.50 while using microelectrodes to monitor intracellular pH (pHi) and surface pH (pHS). CO2 influx causes the familiar sustained pHi fall as well as a transient pHS rise; CO2 efflux does the opposite. Both during CO2 addition and removal, CA II increases the magnitudes of the maximal rate of pHi change, (dpHi/dt)max, and the maximal change in pHS, ?pHS. Preincubating oocytes with the inhibitor ethoxzolamide eliminates the effects of CA II. Compared with pHS, pHi begins to change only after a delay of ~9 s and its relaxation has a larger (i.e., slower) time constant (?pHi > ?pHS ). Simultaneous measurements with two pHi electrodes, one superficial and one deep, suggest that impalement depth contributes to pHi delay and higher ?pHi . Using higher CO2/HCO3 (-) levels, i.e., 5%/33 mM HCO3 (-) or 10%/66 mM HCO3 (-), increases (dpHi/dt)max and ?pHS, though not in proportion to the increase in [CO2]. A reaction-diffusion mathematical model (described in the third paper in this series) accounts for the above general features and supports the conclusion that cytosolic CA-consuming entering CO2 or replenishing exiting CO2-increases CO2 fluxes across the cell membrane. PMID:24965587

Musa-Aziz, Raif; Occhipinti, Rossana; Boron, Walter F

2014-11-01

291

Atomistic modeling of intrinsic and radiation-enhanced fission gas (Xe) diffusion in UO2 +/- x: Implications for nuclear fuel performance modeling  

SciTech Connect

Based on density functional theory (DFT) and empirical potential calculations, the diffusivity of fission gas atoms (Xe) in UO2 nuclear fuel has been calculated for a range of non-stoichiometry (i.e. UO2x), under both out-of-pile (no irradiation) and in-pile (irradiation) conditions. This was achieved by first deriving expressions for the activation energy that account for the type of trap site that the fission gas atoms occupy, which includes the corresponding type of mobile cluster, the charge state of these defects and the chemistry acting as boundary condition. In the next step DFT calculations were used to estimate migration barriers and internal energy contributions to the thermodynamic properties and calculations based on empirical potentials were used to estimate defect formation and migration entropies (i.e. pre-exponentials). The diffusivities calculated for out-of-pile conditions as function of the UO2x nonstoichiometrywere used to validate the accuracy of the diffusion models and the DFT calculations against available experimental data. The Xe diffusivity is predicted to depend strongly on the UO2x non-stoichiometry due to a combination of changes in the preferred Xe trap site and in the concentration of uranium vacancies enabling Xe diffusion, which is consistent with experiments. After establishing the validity of the modeling approach, it was used for studying Xe diffusion under in-pile conditions, for which experimental data is very scarce. The radiation-enhanced Xe diffusivity is compared to existing empirical models. Finally, the predicted fission gas diffusion rates were implemented in the BISON fuel performance code and fission gas release from a Risø fuel rod irradiation experiment was simulated. 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights

Giovanni Pastore; Michael R. Tonks; Derek R. Gaston; Richard L. Williamson; David Andrs; Richard Martineau

2014-03-01

292

Quantification of fibrosis in infarcted swine hearts by ex vivo late gadolinium-enhancement and diffusion-weighted MRI methods  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many have speculated that MRI signal characteristics can be used to identify regions of heterogeneous infarct associated with an arrhythmogenic substrate; however, direct evidence of this relationship is limited. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the remodelling characteristics of fibrosis by means of histology and high-resolution MR imaging. For this purpose, we performed whole-mount histology in heart samples (n = 9) collected from five swine at six weeks post-infarction and compared the extent of fibrosis in the infarcted areas delineated in these histological images with that obtained ex vivo by MRI using late gadolinium-enhancement (LGE) and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) methods. All MR images were obtained at a submillimetre resolution (i.e., voxel size of 0.6×0.6×1.2 mm3). Specifically, in the histology images, we differentiated moderate fibrosis (consisting of a mixture of viable and non-viable myocytes, known as border zone, BZ) from severe fibrosis (i.e., the dense scar). Correspondingly, tissue heterogeneities in the MR images were categorized by a Gaussian mixture model into healthy, BZ and scar. Our results showed that (a) both MRI methods were capable of qualitatively distinguishing sharp edges between dense scar and healthy tissue from regions of heterogeneous BZ; (b) the BZ and dense scar areas had intermediate-to-high increased values of signal intensity in the LGE images and of apparent diffusion coefficient in the DWI, respectively. In addition, as demonstrated by the Picrosirius Red and immunohistochemistry stains, the viable bundles in the BZ were clearly separated by thin collagen strands and had reduced expression of Cx43, whereas the core scar was composed of dense fibrosis. A quantitative analysis demonstrated that the comparison between BZ/scar extent in LGE and DWI to the corresponding areas identified in histology yielded very good correlations (i.e., for the scar identified by LGE, R2 was 0.96 compared to R2 = 0.93 for the scar identified in ADC maps, whereas the BZ had R2 = 0.95 for the correlation between LGE and histology compared to R2 = 0.91 obtained for ADC). This novel study represents an intermediate step in translating such research to the in vivo stages, as well as in establishing the best and most accurate MR method to help identify arrhythmia substrate in patients with structural heart disease.

Pop, Mihaela; Ghugre, Nilesh R.; Ramanan, Venkat; Morikawa, Lily; Stanisz, Greg; Dick, Alexander J.; Wright, Graham A.

2013-08-01

293

Diffusion bonding of superplastic aluminum alloys  

SciTech Connect

Ability to diffusion bond aluminum alloys, in particular superplastic aluminum alloys, will complete the technology-base that is strongly needed to enhance the use of superplastic forming (SPF) technology. Concurrent diffusion bonding (DB)-SPF is considered to be an energy-saving manufacturing process since it simplifies the production of complex components. Moreover, because of increased design flexibility, overall manufacturing cost and component weight are significantly reduced. Diffusion bonding is an attractive manufacturing option for applications where the preservation of the base metal microstructure and, in turn, mechanical properties is imperative in the bond area. The process utilizes either the solid state or transient liquid phase (TLP) bonding to produce a bond with microstructure continuity in the joint. In addition, there is no localized thermal gradient present to induce distortion or to create residual stresses in the component, thereby increasing structural integrity.

Sunwoo, A.J.

1993-12-01

294

Ex situ Sn diffusion: a well-suited technique for enhancing the photovoltaic properties of a SnS absorber layer  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Sn atoms were thermally diffused into tin (II) sulfide (SnS) films prepared using chemical spray pyrolysis. This was achieved by depositing a layer of Sn metal over SnS films followed by annealing of the Sn/SnS bilayer films at 100 °C in high vacuum for 30 min. There was no contamination due to the formation of additional phases of Sn compounds up to a very high percentage of Sn diffusion. Contamination due to Sn-O-S phase was removed by Sn diffusion. The samples were optimized to achieve higher photosensitivity and low resistivity. All these enhanced properties were obtained without altering the optimum band gap of the SnS film which is suitable for maximum photovoltaic conversion efficiency.

Sajeesh, T. H.; Sudha Kartha, C.; Sanjeeviraja, C.; Abe, T.; Kashiwaba, Y.; Vijayakumar, K. P.

2010-11-01

295

Modeling the Effect of Intra-Voxel Diffusion of Contrast Agent on the Quantitative Analysis of Dynamic Contrast Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging  

PubMed Central

Quantitative dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) provides estimates of physiologically relevant parameters related to tissue blood flow, vascular permeability, and tissue volume fractions which can then be used for prognostic and diagnostic reasons. However, standard techniques for DCE-MRI analysis ignore intra-voxel diffusion, which may play an important role in contrast agent distribution and voxel signal intensity and, thus, will affect quantification of the aforementioned parameters. To investigate the effect of intra-voxel diffusion on quantitative DCE-MRI, we developed a finite element model of contrast enhancement at the voxel level. For diffusion in the range of that expected for gadolinium chelates in tissue (i.e., 1×10?4 to 4×10?4 mm2/s), parameterization errors range from ?58% to 12% for Ktrans, ?9% to 8% for ve, and ?60% to 213% for vp over the range of Ktrans, ve, vp, and temporal resolutions investigated. Thus the results show that diffusion has a significant effect on parameterization using standard techniques. PMID:25275536

Barnes, Stephanie L.; Quarles, C. Chad; Yankeelov, Thomas E.

2014-01-01

296

Investigation of starting transients in the thermally choked ram accelerator  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental investigation of the starting transients of the thermally choked ram accelerator is presented in this paper. Construction of a highly instrumented tube section and instrumentation inserts provide high resolution experimental pressure, luminosity, and electromagnetic data of the starting transients. Data obtained prior to and following the entrance diaphragm show detailed development of shock systems in both combustible and inert mixtures. With an evacuated launch tube, starting the diffuser is possible at any Mach number above the Kantrowitz Mach number. The detrimental effects and possible solutions of higher launch tube pressures and excessive obturator leakage (blow-by) are discussed. Ignition of a combustible mixture is demonstrated with both perforated and solid obturators. The relative advantages and disadvantages of each are discussed. Data obtained from these starting experiments enhance the understanding of the ram accelerator, as well as assist in the validation of unsteady, chemically reacting CFD codes.

Burnham, E. A.; Hinkey, J. B.; Bruckner, A. P.

1992-01-01

297

Diffusion-Weighted MR Imaging before and after Contrast Enhancement with Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide for Assessment of Hepatic Metastasis  

PubMed Central

Purpose The purpose of our study was to validate diffusion-weighted MRI (DWI) before and after superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) injection for assessment of hepatic metastases. Materials and Methods Eighty-six hepatic metastases (size range, 0.3-4.7 cm; mean, 1.5 cm) verified pathologically or by follow-up imaging studies in 22 consecutive patients (17 men and 5 women; 44-83 years; mean age, 60 years) during a 13-month period were enrolled. Hepatic MRI, including DWI (b-factors=50, 400, 800 s/mm2) with breath-holding technique of single-shot spin-echo echo-planar imaging (TR/TE=1000/69 ms, average=2) before and after SPIO administration, were retrospectively reviewed by two independent radiologists with a 5-point scale confidence score for each hepatic lesion on pre-contrast DWI (pre-DWI), SPIO-enhanced DWI (SPIO-DWI), and SPIO-enhanced T2*-weighted imaging (SPIO-T2*wI). Results For all lesions, SPIO-T2*wI showed significantly higher confidence score in the diagnosis of hepatic metastases than pre-contrast or SPIO-DWI regardless of the size of b-factors (p<0.05) with only one exception; using b-factor=50 s/mm2, the score of SPIO-T2*wI was still higher than SPIO-DWI but there was no statistical significance given by observer 1 (p=0.730). For the subcentimeter lesions (n=37), SPIO-T2*wI showed the highest score, and using b-factor=50 or 400 s/mm2 SPIO-DWI showed similar confidence scores to SPIO-T2*wI by both observers (p>0.05). Pre-DWI using b-factor=50 sec/mm2 was also comparable with SPIO-T2*wI by observer 1 (p=0.060). Conclusion Pre-DWI has a limited value for the assessment of hepatic metastases, however, the repetition of DWI after SPIO injection using small b-factors could complement SPIO-T2*wI, especially for subcentimeter lesions. PMID:22665353

Kim, Hana; Kim, Dae Jung; Chung, Jae-Joon; Kim, Joo Hee; Kim, Ki Whang

2012-01-01

298

Self- and dopant diffusion in extrinsic boron doped isotopically controlled silicon multilayer structures  

SciTech Connect

Isotopically controlled silicon multilayer structures were used to measure the enhancement of self- and dopant diffusion in extrinsic boron doped silicon. {sup 30}Si was used as a tracer through a multilayer structure of alternating natural Si and enriched {sup 28}Si layers. Low energy, high resolution secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) allowed for simultaneous measurement of self- and dopant diffusion profiles of samples annealed at temperatures between 850 C and 1100 C. A specially designed ion- implanted amorphous Si surface layer was used as a dopant source to suppress excess defects in the multilayer structure, thereby eliminating transient enhanced diffusion (TED) behavior. Self- and dopant diffusion coefficients, diffusion mechanisms, and native defect charge states were determined from computer-aided modeling, based on differential equations describing the diffusion processes. We present a quantitative description of B diffusion enhanced self-diffusion in silicon and conclude that the diffusion of both B and Si is mainly mediated by neutral and singly positively charged self-interstitials under p-type doping. No significant contribution of vacancies to either B or Si diffusion is observed.

Sharp, Ian D.; Bracht, Hartmut A.; Silvestri, Hughes H.; Nicols, Samuel P.; Beeman, Jeffrey W.; Hansen, John L.; Nylandsted Larsen, Arne; Haller, Eugene E.

2002-04-01

299

A description of heavy ion induced fission based on diffusion model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this talk a review on our recent work on fission theory from point of view of diffusion process is presented. The transient phenomena of fission rate are revealed and studied carefully. By comparison of the fission rate calculated both at the saddle and seission points, the latter is emphasized for actual calculation. Our investigation related to the enhancement of the neutron emission prior to fission induced by heavy ion reactions is reported. The quantum aspect of the diffusion model is studied, which is very important for low energy fission. Finally, the extension of one dimensional diffusion model to multi-dimensional cases is also discussed.

Xizhen, Wu; Renfa, Feng; Jingdong, Bao; Zemin, Sun; Yizhong, Zhuo

1992-03-01

300

NONLINEAR DIFFUSION PDES Erkut Erdem  

E-print Network

NONLINEAR DIFFUSION PDES Erkut Erdem Hacettepe University March 5th, 2012 CONTENTS 1 Perona-Malik Type Nonlinear Diffusion 1 2 Edge Enhancing Diffusion 5 References 7 1 PERONA-MALIK TYPE NONLINEAR DIFFUSION The main theory behind nonlinear diffusion models is to use nonlinear PDEs to create a scale space

Erdem, Erkut

301

Comparison of dynamic contrast-enhanced and diffusion weighted magnetic resonance image in staging and grading of carcinoma bladder with histopathological correlation  

PubMed Central

Background: Bladder cancer is the second most common neoplasm of the urinary tract worldwide. Dynamic contrast-enhanced and diffusion-weighted MRI has been introduced in clinical MRI protocols of bladder cancer because of its accuracy in staging and grading. Aim: To evaluate and compare accuracy of Dynamic contrast enhanced (DCE) and Diffusion weighted (DW) MRI for preoperative T staging of urinary bladder cancer and find correlation between apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and maximum enhancement with histological grade. Materials and Methods: Sixty patients with bladder cancer were included in study. All patients underwent Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) on a 1.5-T scanner with a phased-array pelvic coil. MR images were evaluated and assigned a stage which was compared with the histolopathological staging. ADC value and maximum enhancement curve were used based on previous studies. Subsequently histological grade was compared with MR characteristics. Results: The extent of agreement between the radiologic staging and histopathological staging was relatively greater with the DW-MRI (?=0.669) than DCE-MRI (?=0.619). The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy are maximum and similar for stage T4 tumors in both DCEMRI (100.0, 96.2 and 96.7) and DW-MRI (100.0, 96.2 and 96.7) while minimum for stage T2 tumors - DCEMRI (83.3, 72.2, and 76.7) and DWI-MRI (91.7, 72.2, and 80). Conclusion: MRI is an effective tool for determining T stage and histological grade of urinary bladder cancers. Stage T2a and T2b can be differentiated only by DCE-MRI. Results were more accurate when both ADC and DCE-MRI were used together and hence a combined approach is suggested. PMID:25835087

Gupta, Neetika; Sureka, Binit; Kumar, Mittal Mahesh; Malik, Amita; Bhushan, Thukral Brij; Mohanty, N. K.

2015-01-01

302

Hydrodynamic enhancement of the diffusion rate in the region between two fluctuating membranes in close opposition: a theoretical and computational study.  

PubMed

Periodic variation of the distance between two weakly adhering bodies gives rise to a huge tangential motions of the sandwiched solvent layer (squeezing flow). Oscillations either can be induced by an external applied field or can spontaneously arise from the coupling with the solvent heat bath. First we calculated by the Navier-Stokes equation the components of the fluid velocity near two oscillating juxtaposed plates. Then we evaluated the influence of plate oscillations on the transport properties of a trace diffusant dissolved at t = 0 in the outer medium for both deterministic and stochastic excitations. By employing both analytical (Fokker-Planck) and coarse-grained molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we proved that the entry and migration rates of the diffusant sharply increases with the oscillation amplitudes. Enhancement was related to relevant parameters like oscillation frequency, fluid layer thickness, fluid viscosity, and temperature. An extension to the case of oscillating multistacked lamellae has been also made. Theoretical and MD results suggest a significant enhancement of the diffusant flux even in the worse situation of thermally excited small amplitude fluctuations. Excitation arising from other sources (e.g., microwave or ultrasound irradiation of solid-fluid layered systems) could have a dramatic effect on the transport phenomena. Possible implications to relevant biological problems have been discussed. PMID:24992344

Pannuzzo, Martina; Grassi, Antonio; Raudino, Antonio

2014-07-24

303

Effects of Lewis Number on Temperatures of Spherical Diffusion Flames  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spherical diffusion flames supported on a porous sphere were studied numerically and experimentally. Experiments were performed in 2.2 s and 5.2 s microgravity facilities. Numerical results were obtained from a Chemkin-based program. The program simulates flow from a porous sphere into a quiescent environment, yields both steady-state and transient results, and accounts for optically thick gas-phase radiation. The low flow velocities and long residence times in these diffusion flames lead to enhanced radiative and diffusive effects. Despite similar adiabatic flame temperatures, the measured and predicted temperatures varied by as much as 700 K. The temperature reduction correlates with flame size but characteristic flow times and, importantly, Lewis number also influence temperature. The numerical results show that the ambient gas Lewis number would have a strong effect on flame temperature if the flames were steady and nonradiating. For example, a 10% decrease in Lewis number would increase the steady-state flame temperature by 200 K. However, for these transient, radiating flames the effect of Lewis number is small. Transient predictions of flame sizes are larger than those observed in microgravity experiments. Close agreement could not be obtained without either increasing the model s thermal and mass diffusion properties by 30% or reducing mass flow rate by 25%.

Santa, K. J.; Sun, Z.; Chao, B. H.; Sunderland, P. B.; Axelbaum, R. I.; Urban, D. L.; Stocker, D. P.

2007-01-01

304

Dense and diffuse gas in dynamically active clouds  

E-print Network

We investigate the chemical and observational implications of repetitive transient dense core formation in molecular clouds. We allow a transient density fluctuation to form and disperse over a period of 1 Myr, tracing its chemical evolution. We then allow the same gas immediately to undergo further such formation and dispersion cycles. The chemistry of the dense gas in subsequent cycles is similar to that of the first, and a limit cycle is reached quickly (2 - 3 cycles). Enhancement of hydrocarbon abundances during a specific period of evolution is the strongest indicator of previous dynamical history. The molecular content of the diffuse background gas in the molecular cloud is expected to be strongly enhanced by the core formation and dispersion process. Such enhancement may remain for as long as 0.5 Myr. The frequency of repetitive core formation should strongly determine the level of background molecular enhancement. We also convolve the emission from a synthesised dark cloud, comprised of ensembles of transient dense cores. We find that the dynamical history of the gas, and therefore the chemical state of the diffuse inter-core medium, may be determined if a sufficient sample of cores is present in an ensemble. Molecular ratios of key hydrocarbons with SO and SO2 are crucial to this distinction. Only surveys with great enough angular resolution to resolve individual cores, or very small groupings, are expected to show evidence of repetitive dynamical processing. The existence of non-equilibrium chemistry in the diffuse background may have implications for the initial conditions used in chemical models. Observed variations in the chemistries of diffuse and translucent regions may be explained by lines of sight which intersect a number of molecular cloud cores in various stages of evolution.

R. T. Garrod; D. A. Williams; J. M. C. Rawlings

2006-10-13

305

Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced and Diffusion-Weighted Magnetic Resonance Imaging Noninvasive Evaluation of Vascular Disrupting Treatment on Rabbit Liver Tumors  

PubMed Central

Evaluation of vascular disrupting treatment (VDT) is generally based on tumor size and enhancement on conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) which, unfortunately, may be limited in providing satisfactory information. The purpose of the study is to evaluate consecutive changes of 20 rabbit VX2 liver tumors after VDT by dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) at a 3.0 T MR unit. Twenty four hours after intravenous injection of Combretastatin A-4-phosphate (CA4P) at 20 mg/kg, DCE-MRI derived Maximum Slope of Increase (MSI) and Positive Enhancement Integral (PEI) decreased sharply due to sudden shutting down of tumor feeding vessels. DWI derived Apparent Diffusion Coefficient (ADC) in tumor periphery decreased because of ischemic cell edema. On day 4, an increase of MSI was probably caused by the recovery of blood supply. A remarkable increase of ADC represented a large scale of necrosis among tumors. On day 8, the blood perfusion further decreased and the extent of necrosis further increased, reflected by lower MSI and PEI values and higher ADC value. On day 12, a second decrease of ADC was noticed because the re-growth of periphery tumor. The experimental data indicate that the therapeutic effects of VDT may be noninvasively monitored with DCE-MRI (reflecting tumor blood perfusion) and DWI (reflecting the changes of histology), which provide powerful measures for assessment of anticancer treatments. PMID:24376560

Shao, Haibo; Ni, Yicheng; Zhang, Jian; Chen, Feng; Dai, Xu; Fan, Guoguang; Sun, Ziping; Xu, Ke

2013-01-01

306

Particle size reduction and enhanced diffusion of Fe and Pt atoms in FePt C granular films by N addition  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

N-doped FePt-C nanocomposite films were fabricated using facing-target sputtering method under different N 2 partial pressures ( PN) at room temperature. Annealing at 650 °C turns the amorphous films into ordered structures. Nitrogen doping not only make the ordering of FePt particles easier than the ordering in FePt-C films, due to the enhanced diffusivity of Fe and Pt atoms, but also effectively limits the growth of the FePt particles during the thermal induced ordering, especially for the annealed films fabricated at PN = 40%, where the average size of well-isolated FePt particles is only ˜8 nm. The particle size reduction and the enhanced diffusion of Fe and Pt atoms can be ascribed to the desorption of doped N atoms and dissociation of Fe sbnd N bonds during annealing. The room-temperature coercivity of the samples decreases with the PN due to the particle size reduction and thus the enhancement of the thermal agitation for small particles during the magnetizing procedure.

Mi, W. B.; Jiang, E. Y.; Bai, H. L.

2006-12-01

307

Direct observation of dopant atom diffusion in a bulk semiconductor crystal enhanced by a large size mismatch.  

PubMed

Diffusion is one of the fundamental processes that govern the structure, processing, and properties of materials and it plays a crucial role in determining device lifetimes. However, direct observations of diffusion processes have been elusive and limited only to the surfaces of materials. Here we use an aberration-corrected electron microscope to locally excite and directly image the diffusion of single Ce and Mn dopants inside bulk wurtzite-type AlN single crystals, identifying correlated vacancy-dopant and interstitial-dopant kick-out mechanisms. Using a 200 kV electron beam to supply energy, we observe a higher frequency of dopant jumps for the larger and heavier Ce atoms than the smaller Mn atoms. These observations confirm density-functional-theory-based predictions of a decrease in diffusion barrier for large substitutional atoms. The results show that combining depth sensitive microscopy with theoretical calculations represents a new methodology to investigate diffusion mechanisms, not restricted to surface phenomena, but within bulk materials. PMID:25375721

Ishikawa, Ryo; Mishra, Rohan; Lupini, Andrew R; Findlay, Scott D; Taniguchi, Takashi; Pantelides, Sokrates T; Pennycook, Stephen J

2014-10-10

308

Power-flow control and transient-stability enhancement of a large-scale wind power generation system using a superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) unit  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a novel scheme using a superconducting magnetic energy-storage (SMES) unit to simultaneously perform both power-flow control and transient stability improvement of a large-scale wind power generation system (WPGS) subject to severe wind fluctuations. A complete system model based on a synchronously rotating reference frame for the studied WPGS combined with the proposed SMES unit is derived and

Shiang-Shong Chen; Li Wang; Zhe Chen; Wei-Jen Lee

2008-01-01

309

Lack of Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid-1 Enhances Th2Biased Immune Response of the Airways in Mice Receiving Intranasal, but Not Intraperitoneal, Sensitization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: Transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) may modulate allergic airway inflammation because it is expressed not only on the nerve endings but also on several cells of the immune system. We wanted to know the characteristics of airway and systemic responses against sensitization and challenge with allergens in TRPV1 receptor gene knockout mice (TRPV1–\\/–). Methods: TRPV1–\\/– and their wild-type counterparts

Tetsuya Mori; Katsuyo Saito; Yasushi Ohki; Hirokazu Arakawa; Makoto Tominaga; Kenichi Tokuyama

2011-01-01

310

Coherent Transient Effects in Mössbauer Spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Coherent transient effects in Mössbauer spectroscopy due to phase modulation of recoilless gamma radiation are considered both theoretically and experimentally. Absolute calibration of the source motion in the angstrom range and separation of the source and absorber contributions to the experimental linewidth were obtained from a single transient Mössbauer spectrum. A new phase-modulation method for generating short enhanced recoilless gamma

P. Helistö; E. Ikonen; T. Katila; K. Riski

1982-01-01

311

Binary and ternary gas mixtures with temperature enhanced diffuse glow discharge characteristics for use in closing switches  

DOEpatents

An improvement to the gas mixture used in diffuse glow discharge closing switches is disclosed which includes binary and ternary gas mixtures which are formulated to exhibit decreasing electron attachment with increasing temperature. This increases the efficiency of the conductance of the glow discharge and further inhibits the formation of an arc.

Christophorou, Loucas G. (Oak Ridge, TN); Hunter, Scott R. (Oak Ridge, TN)

1990-01-01

312

IMAGE SEGMENTATION AND EDGE DETECTION VIA CONSTRAINED DIFFUSION AND ADAPTIVE MORPHOLOGY: A CNN APPROACH TO BUBBLE-DEBRIS IMAGE ENHANCEMENT  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, a cellular neural network (CNN) based locally adaptive scheme is presented for image segmentation and edge detection. It is shown that combining a constrained (linear or nonlinear) diffusion approach with adaptive morphology leads to a robust segmentation algorithm for an important class of image models. These images comprise of simple geometrical objects, each having a homogeneous gray-scale

Csaba Rekeczky; Abraham Schultz; István Szatmári; Tamás Roska; Leon O. Chua

313

Binary and ternary gas mixtures with temperature enhanced diffuse glow discharge characteristics for use in closing switches  

DOEpatents

An improvement to the gas mixture used in diffuse glow discharge closing switches is disclosed which includes binary and ternary gas mixtures which are formulated to exhibit decreasing electron attachment with increasing temperature. This increases the efficiency of the conductance of the glow discharge and further inhibits the formation of an arc. 11 figs.

Christophorou, L.G.; Hunter, S.R.

1990-06-26

314

Diffusion Geometry Diffusion Geometry  

E-print Network

Diffusion Geometry Diffusion Geometry for High Dimensional Data Matthew J. Hirn July 3, 2013 #12;Diffusion Geometry Introduction Embedding of closed curve Figure: Left: A closed, non-self-intersecting curve in 3 dimensions. Right: Its embedding as a circle. #12;Diffusion Geometry Introduction Cartoon

Hirn, Matthew

315

Diffusion simulations of boron implanted at low energy (500 eV) in crystalline silicon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Several models have been proposed for the simulation of boron diffusion during annealing after implantation in silicon. It has been shown that transient enhanced diffusion (TED) tends to disappear at sub-keV implant energies. Under these conditions boron concentration is higher than the boron solubility limit value, precipitation phenomena occur. Extended defects ({3 1 1}, EOR) formation and boron precipitation affect both the redistribution during the annealing and activation of the boron. For these reasons, we have investigated the diffusion of low energy boron implanted in crystalline silicon and tested a complete simulation program which takes into account the effects of type I defects as a sink for self-interstitials and of boron precipitation. Experimental results have been simulated and consistent parameters have been found to fit the data. Boron enhanced diffusion effect has been studied. Model parameter extractions have been discussed.

Ihaddadene-Le Coq, L.; Marcon, J.; Dush-Nicolini, A.; Masmoudi, K.; Ketata, K.

2004-02-01

316

Radiologic-Pathologic Analysis of contrast-enhanced and Diffusion-weighted MR imaging in Patients with HCC after Tace: Diagnostic Accuracy of 3D Quantitative Image Analysis  

PubMed Central

Purpose To evaluate the diagnostic performance of three-dimensional (3D) quantitative enhancement-based and diffusion-weighted volumetric magnetic resonance (MR) imaging assessment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) lesions in determining the extent of pathologic tumor necrosis after transarterial chemoembolization (TACE). Materials and Methods This institutional review board–approved retrospective study included 17 patients with HCC who underwent TACE before surgery. Semiautomatic 3D volumetric segmentation of target lesions was performed at the last MR examination before orthotopic liver transplantation or surgical resection. The amount of necrotic tumor tissue on contrast material–enhanced arterial phase MR images and the amount of diffusion-restricted tumor tissue on apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps were expressed as a percentage of the total tumor volume. Visual assessment of the extent of tumor necrosis and tumor response according to European Association for the Study of the Liver (EASL) criteria was performed. Pathologic tumor necrosis was quantified by using slide-by-slide segmentation. Correlation analysis was performed to evaluate the predictive values of the radiologic techniques. Results At histopathologic examination, the mean percentage of tumor necrosis was 70% (range, 10%–100%). Both 3D quantitative techniques demonstrated a strong correlation with tumor necrosis at pathologic examination (R2 = 0.9657 and R2 = 0.9662 for quantitative EASL and quantitative ADC, respectively) and a strong intermethod agreement (R2 = 0.9585). Both methods showed a significantly lower discrepancy with pathologically measured necrosis (residual standard error [RSE] = 6.38 and 6.33 for quantitative EASL and quantitative ADC, respectively), when compared with non-3D techniques (RSE = 12.18 for visual assessment). Conclusion This radiologic-pathologic correlation study demonstrates the diagnostic accuracy of 3D quantitative MR imaging techniques in identifying pathologically measured tumor necrosis in HCC lesions treated with TACE. PMID:25028783

Chapiro, Julius; Wood, Laura D.; Lin, MingDe; Duran, Rafael; Cornish, Toby; Lesage, David; Charu, Vivek; Schernthaner, Rüdiger; Wang, Zhijun; Tacher, Vania; Savic, Lynn Jeanette; Kamel, Ihab R.; Geschwind, Jean-François

2014-01-01

317

Enhanced diffusive ion scattering in front of the Earth's quasi-parallel bow shock: a case study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In our study we report on observations of energetic ions upstream of the Earth's quasi-parallel bow shock by Cluster at times of large inter-spacecraft separation distance. For the analysis we use the ion data provided by the CIS-HIA in the 10-32 keV energy range and the magnetic data recorded by the FGM instrument. We determine the spatial gradient of partial energetic ion densities at various distances from the bow shock. The gradient in all energy channels decreases exponentially with distance and the e-folding distance of the gradients depends approximately linearly on energy but there is a significant difference in their values obtained at the observed three upstream ion events. We demonstrate for the first time that under specific interplanetary conditions the mechanism of the diffuse ion scattering can change significantly and results in an anomalous diffusive process charactized by an unusually small e-folding distance.

Kis, Arpad; Scholer, Manfred; Klecker, Berndt; Lucek, Elisabeth; Dandouras, Iannis; Lemperger, István; Wesztergom, Viktor; Novák, Attila; Szalai, Sándor

2014-05-01

318

Jc enhancement of high density MgB 2 bulk made by Premix-PICT-Diffusion method  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A high Jc of 1.05 MA/cm 2 at 20 K in self-field was achieved by a MgB 2 bulk synthesized by newly developed “Premix-Powder-In-Closed-Tube-Diffusion” (Premix-PICT-Diffusion) method starting from Mg and powder mixture of B and MgB 2, which were separately packed into Nb tubes. MgB 2 bulks prepared by this method are highly dense without voids and cracks, resulting in two or three times larger effective grain connecting area contributing dramatically high Jc compared with the conventional PICT-processed porous bulks. This method will be easily extended for development of superconducting current leads with large capacities.

Iwayama, I.; Ueda, S.; Yamamoto, A.; Katsura, Y.; Shimoyama, J.; Horii, S.; Kishio, K.

2007-09-01

319

Transient plasma physics and applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The focus of this dissertation is to investigate the physics and technology of transient plasma discharges, wherein the generation of nanosecond pulsed electrical discharges ignite quiescent and flowing fuel/air mixtures. The purpose is to develop a fundamental understanding of the combustion initiated by the transient plasmas and the gas discharge physics (streamer structures and their evolution), and apply the physics to the improvement of ignition in various engine systems. In this study, significant improvements, by factors as great as 10 times, were achieved in the delay to ignition of pulse detonation engines. These improvements lead to the solution of a major problem in the development of the engines. In this work, we endeavor to understand the dynamics of chemistry occurring in engine ignition, related pulsed power, and characteristics of transient plasma generation and evolution. This study included the design and construction of transient plasma generation system based on pulsed power science, measurement of ignition delay for quiescence combustion chamber and air/fuel mixture with various flow rate from 25 to 300 g/s, measurement of OH* emission during transient plasma ignition process, and sub-nanosecond imaging of transient plasma generation and evolution. Knowledge obtained through this comprehensive study is applied to deflagration initiation and the enhancement of deflagration to detonation transitions in pulsed detonation engines, and for improved ignition for applications of these engines.

Wang, Fei

320

Diffusion barrier layers for Al on GaAs native oxide grown by liquid phase chemical-enhanced oxidation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Thin films of TiW, TiN/Ti, Pd, and Mo as the diffusion barriers (DB) interposed between the Al layer and GaAs native oxide are examined. The GaAs native oxides are prepared by liquid phase oxidation. The interdiffusion of the Al/GaAs-oxide and Al/DB/GaAs-oxide (DB = TiW, TiN/Ti, Pd or Mo) multilayer structures are investigated by secondary ion mass spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES). The results indicate that TiW and Mo films can effectively block Al diffusion and maintain their structural integrity up to 500 °C and 400 °C for 30 min, respectively. However, the thermal stability of TiN/Ti and Pd films cannot be maintained at 400 °C for 30 min. Moreover, the failure of TiN/Ti barriers due to oxygen incorporated into the barrier layers is observed and the failure of the Pd as the diffusion barrier in the interdiffusion between Al and GaAs oxide, as demonstrated by AES analyses, is also observed.

Huang, Jian-Jiun; Chou, Dei-Wei; Sze, Po-Wen; Wang, Yeong-Her

2008-02-01

321

Enhanced Ca²+ influx through cardiac L-type Ca²+ channels maintains the systolic Ca²+ transient in early cardiac atrophy induced by mechanical unloading.  

PubMed

Cardiac atrophy as a consequence of mechanical unloading develops following exposure to microgravity or prolonged bed rest. It also plays a central role in the reverse remodelling induced by left ventricular unloading in patients with heart failure. Surprisingly, the intracellular Ca(2+) transients which are pivotal to electromechanical coupling and to cardiac plasticity were repeatedly found to remain unaffected in early cardiac atrophy. To elucidate the mechanisms underlying the preservation of the Ca(2+) transients, we investigated Ca(2+) cycling in cardiomyocytes from mechanically unloaded (heterotopic abdominal heart transplantation) and control (orthotopic) hearts in syngeneic Lewis rats. Following 2 weeks of unloading, sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) content was reduced by ~55 %. Atrophic cardiac myocytes also showed a much lower frequency of spontaneous diastolic Ca(2+) sparks and a diminished systolic Ca(2+) release, even though the expression of ryanodine receptors was increased by ~30 %. In contrast, current clamp recordings revealed prolonged action potentials in endocardial as well as epicardial myocytes which were associated with a two to fourfold higher sarcolemmal Ca(2+) influx under action potential clamp. In addition, Cav1.2 subunits which form the pore of L-type Ca(2+) channels (LTCC) were upregulated in atrophic myocardium. These data suggest that in early cardiac atrophy induced by mechanical unloading, an augmented sarcolemmal Ca(2+) influx through LTCC fully compensates for a reduced systolic SR Ca(2+) release to preserve the Ca(2+) transient. This interplay involves an electrophysiological remodelling as well as changes in the expression of cardiac ion channels. PMID:23842739

Schwoerer, A P; Neef, S; Broichhausen, I; Jacubeit, J; Tiburcy, M; Wagner, M; Biermann, D; Didié, M; Vettel, C; Maier, L S; Zimmermann, W H; Carrier, L; Eschenhagen, T; Volk, T; El-Armouche, A; Ehmke, H

2013-12-01

322

Enhanced localization, energy anomalous diffusion and resonant mode in harmonic chains with correlated mass-spring disorder.  

PubMed

In this work, we study the vibrational modes and energy spreading in a harmonic chain model with diluted second-neighbors couplings and correlated mass-spring disorder. While all nearest neighbor masses are coupled by an elastic spring, second neighbors springs are introduced with a probability pD. The masses are randomly distributed according to the site connectivity [Formula: see text], where ni is the connectivity of the site i and ? is a tunable exponent. We show that maximum localization of the vibrational modes is achieved for ? ? 3/4. The time-evolution of the energy wave-packet is followed after an initial localized excitation. While the participation number remains finite, the energy spread is shown to be sub-diffusive after a displacement and super-diffusive after an impulse excitation. These features are related to the development of a power-law tail in the wave-packet distribution. Further, we unveil that the spring dilution leads to the emergence of a resonant localized state which is signaled by a van Hove singularity in the density of states. PMID:25836635

de Albuquerque, S S; Dos Santos, J L L; de Moura, F A B F; Lyra, M L

2015-05-01

323

Substrate and filter materials to enhance phosphorus removal in constructed wetlands treating diffuse farm runoff: a review  

Microsoft Academic Search

Constructed and restored wetlands have significant potential to reduce nutrient losses in drainage waters from New Zealand farms. While both types of wetland show reasonably good nitrogen (N) removal efficiencies, they are not always so effective at phosphorus (P) removal and their flooded topsoils can be net sources of P. Wetland P-removal efficiency could be enhanced, either by adding a

Deborah J. Ballantine; Chris C. Tanner

2010-01-01

324

Transient Faults in Computer Systems  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A powerful technique particularly appropriate for the detection of errors caused by transient faults in computer systems was developed. The technique can be implemented in either software or hardware; the research conducted thus far primarily considered software implementations. The error detection technique developed has the distinct advantage of having provably complete coverage of all errors caused by transient faults that affect the output produced by the execution of a program. In other words, the technique does not have to be tuned to a particular error model to enhance error coverage. Also, the correctness of the technique can be formally verified. The technique uses time and software redundancy. The foundation for an effective, low-overhead, software-based certification trail approach to real-time error detection resulting from transient fault phenomena was developed.

Masson, Gerald M.

1993-01-01

325

Two-Time Three-Equation Method for Analysis of Oxidation-Enhanced and -Retarded Diffusions and Growth of Oxidation Stacking Faults in Silicon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For analysis of oxidation-enhanced and -retarded diffusion (OED and ORD) and oxidation stacking faults (OSF) in Si, two out of the three equations for OED, ORD and OSF were used. The equation for a local equilibrium between self-interstitials and vacancies was also used. Thus three equations were used. Two time values were taken in these three equations. In the previous paper (Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 27 (1988) 967), the experimental results were modified in order to obtain physically reasonable solutions. But this is not good. In the present work, therefore, the equations were simultaneously solved without modifying experimental results. It was concluded that the equation of OSF should not be used.

Okino, Takahisa; Yoshida, Masayuki

1990-01-01

326

Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced and Diffusion MRI Show Rapid and Dramatic Changes in Tumor Microenvironment in Response to Inhibition of HIF-1? Using PX-4781  

PubMed Central

Abstract PX-478 is a new agent known to inhibit the hypoxia-responsive transcription factor, HIF-1?, in experimental tumors. The current study was undertaken in preparation for clinical trials to determine which noninvasive imaging endpoint(s) is sensitive to this drug's actions. Dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) and diffusion-weighted (DW) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were used to monitor acute effects on tumor hemodynamics and cellularity, respectively. Mice bearing human xenografts were treated either with PX-478 or vehicle, and imaged over time. DW imaging was performed at three b values to generate apparent diffusion coefficient of water (ADCw) maps. For DCE-MRI, a macromolecular contrast reagent, BSA-Gd-DTPA, was used to determine vascular permeability and vascular volume fractions. PX-478 induced a dramatic reduction in tumor blood vessel permeability within 2 hours after treatment, which returned to baseline by 48 hours. The anti-VEGF antibody, Avastin, reduced both the permeability and vascular volume. PX-478 had no effect on the perfusion behavior of a drug-resistant tumor system, A-549. Tumor cellularity, estimated from ADCw, was significantly decreased 24 and 36 hours after treatment. This is the earliest significant response of ADC to therapy yet reported. Based on these preclinical findings, both of these imaging endpoints will be included in the clinical trial of PX-478. PMID:15967100

Jordan, Bénédicte F; Runquist, Matthew; Raghunand, Natarajan; Baker, Amanda; Williams, Ryan; Kirkpatrick, Lynn; Powis, Garth; Gillies, Robert J

2005-01-01

327

Low temperature plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition of thin vanadium nitride layers for copper diffusion barriers  

SciTech Connect

Thin vanadium nitride (VN) layers were grown by atomic layer deposition using tetrakis(ethylmethylamino)vanadium and NH{sub 3} plasma at deposition temperatures between 70 Degree-Sign C and 150 Degree-Sign C on silicon substrates and polymer foil. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed a composition close to stoichiometric VN, while x-ray diffraction showed the {delta}-VN crystal structure. The resistivity was as low as 200 {mu}{Omega} cm for the as deposited films and further reduced to 143 {mu}{Omega} cm and 93 {mu}{Omega} cm by annealing in N{sub 2} and H{sub 2}/He/N{sub 2}, respectively. A 5 nm VN layer proved to be effective as a diffusion barrier for copper up to a temperature of 720 Degree-Sign C.

Rampelberg, Geert; Devloo-Casier, Kilian; Deduytsche, Davy; Detavernier, Christophe [Department of Solid State Sciences, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281/S1, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium)] [Department of Solid State Sciences, Ghent University, Krijgslaan 281/S1, B-9000 Ghent (Belgium); Schaekers, Marc [IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium)] [IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Blasco, Nicolas [Air Liquide Electronics US, L.P., 46401 Landing Parkway, Fremont, California 94538 (United States)] [Air Liquide Electronics US, L.P., 46401 Landing Parkway, Fremont, California 94538 (United States)

2013-03-18

328

Enhanced Group Analysis and Exact Solutions of Variable Coefficient Semilinear Diffusion Equations with a Power Source  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new approach to group classification problems and more general investigations on transformational properties of classes\\u000a of differential equations is proposed. It is based on mappings between classes of differential equations, generated by families\\u000a of point transformations. A class of variable coefficient (1+1)-dimensional semilinear reaction–diffusion equations of the\\u000a general form f(x)u\\u000a \\u000a t\\u000a =(g(x)u\\u000a \\u000a x\\u000a )\\u000a x\\u000a +h(x)u\\u000a \\u000a m\\u000a (m?0,1) is studied

O. O. Vaneeva; R. O. Popovych; C. Sophocleous

2009-01-01

329

Correlative assessment of tumor microcirculation using contrast-enhanced perfusion MRI and intravoxel incoherent motion diffusion-weighted MRI: is there a link between them?  

PubMed

The purpose of this study was to correlate intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) imaging with classical perfusion-weighted MRI metrics in human gliomas. Parametric images for slow diffusion coefficient (D), fast diffusion coefficient (D*), and fractional perfusion-related volume (f) in patients with high-grade gliomas were generated. Maps of Fp (plasma flow), vp (vascular plasma volume), PS (permeability surface-area product), ve (extravascular, extracellular volume), E (extraction ratio), ke (influx ratio into the interstitium), and tc (vascular transit time) from dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) and dynamic susceptibility contrast-enhanced (DSC) MRI were also generated. A region-of-interest analysis on the contralateral healthy white matter and on the tumor areas was performed and the extracted parameter values were tested for any significant differences among tumor grades or any correlations. Only f could be significantly correlated to DSC-derived vp and tc in healthy brain tissue. Concerning the tumor regions, Fp was significantly positively correlated with D* and inversely correlated with f in DSC measurements. The D*, f, and f?×?D* values in the WHO grade III gliomas were non-significantly different from those in the grade IV gliomas. There was a trend to significant negative correlations between f and PS as well as between f?×?D* and ke in DCE experiments. Presumably due to different theoretical background, tracer properties and modeling of the tumor vasculature in the IVIM theory, there is no clearly evident link between D*, f and DSC- and DCE-derived metrics. PMID:25088433

Bisdas, Sotirios; Braun, Christian; Skardelly, Marco; Schittenhelm, Jens; Teo, Tze Hern; Thng, Choon Hua; Klose, Uwe; Koh, Tong San

2014-10-01

330

Transient Dimers of Allergens  

PubMed Central

Background Allergen-mediated cross-linking of IgE antibodies bound to the Fc?RI receptors on the mast cell surface is the key feature of the type I allergy. If an allergen is a homodimer, its allergenicity is enhanced because it would only need one type of antibody, instead of two, for cross-linking. Methodology/Principal Findings An analysis of 55 crystal structures of allergens showed that 80% of them exist in symmetric dimers or oligomers in crystals. The majority are transient dimers that are formed at high protein concentrations that are reached in cells by colocalization. Native mass spectrometric analysis showed that native allergens do indeed form transient dimers in solution, while hypoallergenic variants of them exist almost solely in the monomeric form. We created a monomeric Bos d 5 allergen and show that it has a reduced capability to induce histamine release. Conclusions/Significance The results suggest that dimerization would be a very common and essential feature for allergens. Thus, the preparation of purely monomeric variants of allergens could open up novel possibilities for specific immunotherapy. PMID:20140203

Rouvinen, Juha; Jänis, Janne; Laukkanen, Marja-Leena; Jylhä, Sirpa; Niemi, Merja; Päivinen, Tero; Mäkinen-Kiljunen, Soili; Haahtela, Tari; Söderlund, Hans; Takkinen, Kristiina

2010-01-01

331

Novel transient-fault detection circuit featuring enhanced bulk built-in current sensor with low-power sleep-mode  

E-print Network

with low-power sleep-mode . R. Possamai Bastosa,*1 , F. Sill Torresb , G. Di Natalea , M. Flottesa , B and enhanced with low-power sleep-mode. In addition, a calibration method for bulk built-in current sensors such as the induction and propagation of multiple errors to other clock cycles, stages, or parts of the system. In case

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

332

Reduced boron diffusion under interstitial injection in fluorine implanted silicon  

SciTech Connect

Point defect injection studies are performed to investigate how fluorine implantation influences the diffusion of boron marker layers in both the vacancy-rich and interstitial-rich regions of the fluorine damage profile. A 185 keV, 2.3x10{sup 15} cm{sup -2} F{sup +} implant is made into silicon samples containing multiple boron marker layers and rapid thermal annealing is performed at 1000 deg. C for times of 15-120 s. The boron and fluorine profiles are characterized by secondary ion mass spectroscopy and the defect structures by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Fluorine implanted samples surprisingly show less boron diffusion under interstitial injection than those under inert anneal. This effect is particularly noticeable for boron marker layers located in the interstitial-rich region of the fluorine damage profile and for short anneal times (15 s). TEM images show a band of dislocation loops around the range of the fluorine implant and the density of dislocation loops is lower under interstitial injection than under inert anneal. It is proposed that interstitial injection accelerates the evolution of interstitial defects into dislocation loops, thereby giving transient enhanced boron diffusion over a shorter period of time. The effect of the fluorine implant on boron diffusion is found to be the opposite for boron marker layers in the interstitial-rich and vacancy-rich regions of the fluorine damage profile. For marker layers in the interstitial-rich region of the fluorine damage profile, the boron diffusion coefficient decreases with anneal time, as is typically seen for transient enhanced diffusion. The boron diffusion under interstitial injection is enhanced by the fluorine implant at short anneal times but suppressed at longer anneal times. It is proposed that this behavior is due to trapping of interstitials at the dislocation loops introduced by the fluorine implant. For boron marker layers in the vacancy-rich region of the fluorine damage profile, suppression of boron diffusion is seen for short anneals and then increased diffusion after a critical time, which is longer for inert anneal than interstitial injection. This behavior is explained by the annealing of vacancy-fluorine clusters, which anneal quicker under interstitial injection because the injected interstitials annihilate vacancies in the clusters.

Kham, M. N.; Matko, I.; Chenevier, B.; Ashburn, P. [School of Electronics and Computer Science, University of Southampton, Southampton SO17 1BJ (United Kingdom)

2007-12-01

333

Transient heat flux shielding using thermal metamaterials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a heat shield based on a metamaterial engineering approach to shield a region from transient diffusive heat flow. The shield is designed with a multilayered structure to prescribe the appropriate spatial profile for heat capacity, density, and thermal conductivity of the effective medium. The heat shield was experimentally compared to other isotropic materials.

Narayana, Supradeep; Savo, Salvatore; Sato, Yuki

2013-05-01

334

Transient heat flux shielding using thermal metamaterials  

E-print Network

We have developed a heat shield based on a metamaterial engineering approach to shield a region from transient diffusive heat flow. The shield is designed with a multilayered structure to prescribe the appropriate spatial profile for heat capacity, density, and thermal conductivity of the effective medium. The heat shield was experimentally compared to other isotropic materials.

Narayana, Supradeep; Sato, Yuki

2013-01-01

335

Theory of isotope diffusion in a material with multiple species and its implications for hydrogen-enhanced electrical conductivity in olivine  

E-print Network

Theory of isotope diffusion in a material with multiple species and its implications for hydrogen conductivity Diffusion Isotope Hydrogen Olivine a b s t r a c t The relationship between isotope diffusion species (e.g., hydrogen) is present as various forms with different diffusion coefficients (e.g., two

336

Chronoamperometric transients at the stationary disk microelectrode  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Chronoamperometric transients for diffusion controlled reactions at stationary platinum and gold microelectrodes have been examined. The results are compared with those predicted theoretically for hemispherical electrodes and for disk electrodes. The hemispherical model was found to describe the current-time transients only qualitatively, while excellent agreement was obtained between the theory for a stationary disk and data for the hexacyanoferrate (II)/(III) redox reaction. Equations for mass transport to a stationary disk electrode derived earlier form the basis for graphical methods of analysis of a single current-time transient which permit the simultaneous determination of two of the three parameters electrode radius, diffusion coefficient, and concentration. A plot of I vs 1/sq. rt. t has the advantage of simplicity. A logarithmic analysis (log I-log t) requires data over a greater time range but offers advantages in characterizing electrode geometry. The effects of surface irregularities and electrode sphericity are also discussed.

Hepel, T.; Osteryoung, J.

1981-11-01

337

Magnetic field enhanced convective diffusion of iron oxide nanoparticles in an osmotically disrupted cell culture model of the blood–brain barrier  

PubMed Central

Purpose The present study examines the use of an external magnetic field in combination with the disruption of tight junctions to enhance the permeability of iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) across an in vitro model of the blood–brain barrier (BBB). The feasibility of such an approach, termed magnetic field enhanced convective diffusion (MFECD), along with the effect of IONP surface charge on permeability, was examined. Methods The effect of magnetic field on the permeability of positively (aminosilane-coated [AmS]-IONPs) and negatively (N-(trimethoxysilylpropyl)ethylenediaminetriacetate [EDT]-IONPs) charged IONPs was evaluated in confluent monolayers of mouse brain endothelial cells under normal and osmotically disrupted conditions. Results Neither IONP formulation was permeable across an intact cell monolayer. However, when tight junctions were disrupted using D-mannitol, flux of EDT-IONPs across the bEnd.3 monolayers was 28%, increasing to 44% when a magnetic field was present. In contrast, the permeability of AmS-IONPs after osmotic disruption was less than 5%. The cellular uptake profile of both IONPs was not altered by the presence of mannitol. Conclusions MFECD improved the permeability of EDT-IONPs through the paracellular route. The MFECD approach favors negatively charged IONPs that have low affinity for the brain endothelial cells and high colloidal stability. This suggests that MFECD may improve IONP-based drug delivery to the brain. PMID:25018630

Sun, Zhizhi; Worden, Matthew; Wroczynskyj, Yaroslav; Yathindranath, Vinith; van Lierop, Johan; Hegmann, Torsten; Miller, Donald W

2014-01-01

338

An enhanced International Prognostic Index (NCCN-IPI) for patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma treated in the rituximab era.  

PubMed

The International Prognostic Index (IPI) has been the basis for determining prognosis in patients with aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) for the past 20 years. Using raw clinical data from the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) database collected during the rituximab era, we built an enhanced IPI with the goal of improving risk stratification. Clinical features from 1650 adults with de novo diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) diagnosed from 2000-2010 at 7 NCCN cancer centers were assessed for their prognostic significance, with statistical efforts to further refine the categorization of age and normalized LDH. Five predictors (age, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), sites of involvement, Ann Arbor stage, ECOG performance status) were identified and a maximum of 8 points assigned. Four risk groups were formed: low (0-1), low-intermediate (2-3), high-intermediate (4-5), and high (6-8). Compared with the IPI, the NCCN-IPI better discriminated low- and high-risk subgroups (5-year overall survival [OS]: 96% vs 33%) than the IPI (5 year OS: 90% vs 54%), respectively. When validated using an independent cohort from the British Columbia Cancer Agency (n = 1138), it also demonstrated enhanced discrimination for both low- and high-risk patients. The NCCN-IPI is easy to apply and more powerful than the IPI for predicting survival in the rituximab era. PMID:24264230

Zhou, Zheng; Sehn, Laurie H; Rademaker, Alfred W; Gordon, Leo I; Lacasce, Ann S; Crosby-Thompson, Allison; Vanderplas, Ann; Zelenetz, Andrew D; Abel, Gregory A; Rodriguez, Maria A; Nademanee, Auayporn; Kaminski, Mark S; Czuczman, Myron S; Millenson, Michael; Niland, Joyce; Gascoyne, Randy D; Connors, Joseph M; Friedberg, Jonathan W; Winter, Jane N

2014-02-01

339

Out-diffused silver island films for surface-enhanced Raman scattering protected with TiO2 films using atomic layer deposition  

PubMed Central

We fabricated self-assembled silver nanoisland films using a recently developed technique based on out-diffusion of silver from an ion-exchanged glass substrate in reducing atmosphere. We demonstrate that the position of the surface plasmon resonance of the films depends on the conditions of the film growth. The resonance can be gradually shifted up to 100 nm towards longer wavelengths by using atomic layer deposition of titania, from 3 to 100 nm in thickness, upon the film. Examination of the nanoisland films in surface-enhanced Raman spectrometry showed that, in spite of a drop of the surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) signal after the titania spacer deposition, the Raman signal can be observed with spacers up to 7 nm in thickness. Denser nanoisland films show slower decay of the SERS signal with the increase in spacer thickness. PACS 78.67.Sc (nanoaggregates; nanocomposites); 81.16.Dn (self-assembly); 74.25.nd (Raman and optical spectroscopy) PMID:25170333

2014-01-01

340

Depth-compensated diffuse optical tomography enhanced by general linear model analysis and an anatomical atlas of human head.  

PubMed

One of the main challenges in functional diffuse optical tomography (DOT) is to accurately recover the depth of brain activation, which is even more essential when differentiating true brain signals from task-evoked artifacts in the scalp. Recently, we developed a depth-compensated algorithm (DCA) to minimize the depth localization error in DOT. However, the semi-infinite model that was used in DCA deviated significantly from the realistic human head anatomy. In the present work, we incorporated depth-compensated DOT (DC-DOT) with a standard anatomical atlas of human head. Computer simulations and human measurements of sensorimotor activation were conducted to examine and prove the depth specificity and quantification accuracy of brain atlas-based DC-DOT. In addition, node-wise statistical analysis based on the general linear model (GLM) was also implemented and performed in this study, showing the robustness of DC-DOT that can accurately identify brain activation at the correct depth for functional brain imaging, even when co-existing with superficial artifacts. PMID:23859922

Tian, Fenghua; Liu, Hanli

2014-01-15

341

Metadherin interference inhibits proliferation and enhances chemo-sensitivity to doxorubicin in diffuse large B cell lymphoma  

PubMed Central

Metadherin (MTDH) is highly expressed in many tumors and is involved in the proliferation, metastasis and drug resistance of tumor cells by regulating multiple signaling pathways. Our previous studies demonstrated that MTDH is overexpressed in diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and involved in apoptosis resistance, in part, via Wnt signaling. Here, we investigated the role of MTDH in the chemo-sensitivity of DLBCL. The study was performed in the DLBCL cell line LY8 to investigate the relationship between MTDH expression and doxorubicin (DOX) sensitivity in DLBCL. A MTDH interference model was developed in LY8 cells by transfected with lentivirus which is carrying MTDH interference sequence. Western blot was used to detect the protein expression. A CCK-8 assay was used to evaluate cell proliferation. The results showed that DOX treatment had no effect on the intracellular MTDH expression of LY8 cells. The proliferation of LY8 cells was inhibited after MTDH interference. MTDH interference increased the DOX sensitivity in the LY8 cell lines. The results suggested that MTDH is a potential therapeutic target in DLBCL, and it cooperates with DOX in treatment of DLBCL. PMID:25232390

Li, Pei-Pei; Feng, Li-Li; Chen, Na; Lu, Kang; Meng, Xiao-Hui; Ge, Xue-Ling; Lv, Xiao; Wang, Xin

2014-01-01

342

Melatonin improves presynaptic protein, SNAP-25, expression and dendritic spine density and enhances functional and electrophysiological recovery following transient focal cerebral ischemia in rats.  

PubMed

Synapto-dendritic dysfunction and rearrangement takes place over time at the peri-infarct brain after stroke, and the event plays an important role in post-stroke functional recovery. Here, we evaluated whether melatonin would modulate the synapto-dendritic plasticity after stroke. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with melatonin (5 mg/kg) or vehicle at reperfusion onset after transient occlusion of the right middle cerebral artery (tMCAO) for 90 min. Local cerebral blood perfusion, somatosensory electrophysiological recordings and neurobehavioral tests were serially measured. Animals were sacrificed at 7 days after tMCAO. The brain was processed for Nissl-stained histology, Golgi-Cox-impregnated sections, or Western blotting for presynaptic proteins, synaptosomal-associated protein of 25 kDa (SNAP-25) and synaptophysin (a calcium-binding protein found on presynaptic vesicle membranes). Relative to controls, melatonin-treated animals had significantly reduced infarction volumes (P < 0.05) and improved neurobehavioral outcomes, as accessed by sensorimotor and rota-rod motor performance tests (P < 0.05, respectively). Melatonin also significantly improved the SNAP-25, but not synaptophysin, protein expression in the ischemic brain (P < 0.05). Moreover, melatonin significantly improved the dendritic spine density and the somatosensory electrophysiological field potentials both in the ischemic brain and the contralateral homotopic intact brain (P < 0.05, respectively). Together, melatonin not only effectively attenuated the loss of presynaptic protein, SANP-25, and dendritic spine density in the ischemic territory, but also improved the reductions in the dendritic spine density in the contralateral intact brain. This synapto-dendritic plasticity may partly account for the melatonin-mediated improvements in functional and electrophysiological circuitry after stroke. PMID:19709397

Chen, Hung-Yi; Hung, Yu-Chang; Chen, Tsung-Ying; Huang, Sheng-Yang; Wang, Yi-Hua; Lee, Wei-Ting; Wu, Tian-Shung; Lee, E-Jian

2009-10-01

343

Transient Repetitive Exposure To Low Level Light Therapy Enhances Collateral Blood Vessel Growth In The Ischemic Hindlimb Of The Tight Skin Mouse  

PubMed Central

The tight skin mouse (Tsk?/+) is a model of scleroderma characterized by impaired vasoreactivity, increased oxidative stress, attenuated angiogenic response to VEGF, and production of the angiogenesis inhibitor angiostatin. Low level light therapy (LLLT) stimulates angiogenesis in myocardial infarction and chemotherapy-induced mucositis. We hypothesize repetitive LLLT restores vessel growth in the ischemic hindlimb of Tsk?/+ mice by attenuating angiostatin and enhancing angiomotin effects in vivo. C57Bl/6J and Tsk?/+ mice underwent ligation of the femoral artery. Relative blood flow to the foot was measured using a laser Doppler imager. Tsk?/+ mice received LLLT (670 nm, 50 mW cm2, 30 J/cm2) for 10 min/day for 14 days. Vascular density was determined using lycopersicom lectin staining. Immunofluorescent labeling, western blot analysis, and immunoprecipitation were used to determine angiostatin and angiomotin expression. Recovery of blood flow to the ischemic limb was reduced in Tsk?/+ compared with C57Bl/6 mice two weeks after surgery. LLLT treatment of Tsk?/+ mice restored blood flow to levels observed in C57Bl/6 mice. Vascular density was decreased, angiostatin expression was enhanced and angiomotin depressed in the ischemic hindlimb of Tsk?/+ mice. LLLT treatment reversed these abnormalities. LLLT stimulates angiogenesis by increasing angiomotin and decreasing angiostatin expression in the ischemic hindlimb of Tsk?/+ mice. PMID:23231468

Zaidi, Maria; Krolikowki, John G.; Jones, Deron W.; Pritchard, Kirkwood A.; Struve, Janine; Nandedkar, Sandhya D.; Lohr, Nicole L.; Pagel, Paul S.; Weihrauch, Dorothée

2012-01-01

344

ON THE X-RAY OUTBURSTS OF TRANSIENT ANOMALOUS X-RAY PULSARS AND SOFT GAMMA-RAY REPEATERS  

SciTech Connect

We show that the X-ray outburst light curves of four transient anomalous X-ray pulsars (AXPs) and soft gamma-ray repeaters (SGRs), namely, XTE J1810-197, SGR 0501+4516, SGR 1627-41, and CXOU J164710.2-455216, can be produced by the fallback disk model that was also applied to the outburst light curves of persistent AXPs and SGRs in our earlier work. The model solves the diffusion equation for the relaxation of a disk that has been pushed back by a soft gamma-ray burst. The sets of main disk parameters used for these transient sources are very similar to each other and to those employed in our earlier models of persistent AXPs and SGRs. There is a characteristic difference between the X-ray outburst light curves of transient and persistent sources. This can be explained by the differences in the disk surface density profiles of the transient and persistent sources in quiescence indicated by their quiescent X-ray luminosities. Our results imply that a viscous disk instability operating at a critical temperature in the range of {approx}1300-2800 K is a common property of all fallback disks around AXPs and SGRs. The effect of the instability is more pronounced and starts earlier for the sources with lower quiescent luminosities, which leads to the observable differences in the X-ray enhancement light curves of transient and persistent sources. A single active disk model with the same basic disk parameters can account for the enhancement phases of both transient and persistent AXPs and SGRs. We also present a detailed parameter study to show the effects of disk parameters on the evolution of the X-ray luminosity of AXPs and SGRs in the X-ray enhancement phases.

Cal Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I skan, Sirin; Ertan, Uenal [Sabanc Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I University, Orhanl Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I -Tuzla, Istanbul, 34956 (Turkey)

2012-10-20

345

Response of HT29 Colorectal Xenograft Model to Cediranib Assessed with 18F-FMISO PET, Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced and Diffusion-Weighted MRI  

PubMed Central

Cediranib (AZD2171, AstraZeneca, UK) is a small-molecule pan-VEGFR inhibitor. The tumor response to short-term cediranib treatment was studied using dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) and diffusion-weighted (DW) MRI at 7 T as well as 18F-fluoromisonidazle (18F-FMISO) PET and histological markers. Rats bearing subcutaneous HT29 human colorectal tumors were imaged at baseline, then received three doses of cediranib (3 mg/kg per dose daily) or vehicle (dosed daily), with follow up imaging performed 2 hours after the final cediranib or vehicle dose. Tumors were excised and evaluated for the perfusion marker Hoechst 33342, endothelial cell marker CD31, smooth muscle actin (SMA), intercapillary distance (ICD) and tumor necrosis. DCE-MRI-derived parameters decreased significantly in cediranib-treated tumors relative to pre-treatment values: the muscle-normalized initial area under the gadolinium concentration curve (nIAUC90) by 48% (p = 0.002), the enhancing fraction (EnF) by 43% (p = 0.003) and Ktrans by 57% (p = 0.003), but remained unchanged in controls. No change between pre- and post-treatment tumor apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) in either cediranib- or vehicle-treated group was observed over the course of this study. 18F-FMISO SUVmean decreased by 33% (p = 0.008) in the cediranib group, but showed no significant change in the control group. Histological analysis showed that the number of CD31-positive vessels (59 per mm2), the fraction of SMA-positive vessels (80 to 87%) and ICD (0.17 mm) were similar in cediranib- and vehicle-treated groups. The fraction of perfused blood vessels in cediranib-treated tumors (81±7%) was lower than in vehicle controls (91±3%, p = 0.02). The necrotic fraction was slightly higher in cediranib-treated rats (34±12%) than in controls (26±10%, p = 0.23). These findings suggest that short-term treatment with cediranib causes a decrease of tumor perfusion/permeability across the tumor cross-section, but changes in vascular morphology, vessel density or tumor cellularity do not manifest at this early time point. PMID:22777834

Bokacheva, Louisa; Kotedia, Khushali; Reese, Megan; Ricketts, Sally-Ann; Halliday, Jane; Le, Carl H.; Koutcher, Jason A.; Carlin, Sean

2012-01-01

346

The influence of oxygen mobility in solid catalyst on transient regimes of catalytic reaction  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mathematical modeling of the influence of oxygen mobility in solid catalyst on transient regimes of catalytic reaction has been carried out. The region of Thiele modulus ? in which the diffusion of oxygen in solid catalyst effect on the transient regime of reaction was determined. These values of ? lies in the interval of 0.7–7. The diffusion coefficient corresponding to

N. M. Ostrovskii; S. I. Reshetnikov

2005-01-01

347

Modelisation of boron diffusion from ultra-low-energy implantation in crystalline silicon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have investigated and modeled the boron diffusion in silicon following ultra-low-energy implantation (500 eV). It is well known that reducing implant energies is an effective way to eliminate transient enhanced diffusion due to the excess of interstitials from the implant. However, for sub-keV B implants diffusion remains enhanced. This enhancement is linked to the presence of a silicon boride layer located at the silicon surface which creates interstitials. This phenomenon is named "boron enhanced diffusion" (BED). The BED effect is of obvious interest since it counteracts the advantage obtained by reducing the ion implantation energy. For these reasons, we have investigated the diffusion of low-energy boron implanted in crystalline silicon and tested a complete simulation program, which takes into account the effect of boron precipitation and the effect of the silicon boride layer as a source of self-interstitials. Experimental results have been simulated and consistent parameters have been found to fit the data. BED effect has been studied. Model parameters extractions have been discussed.

Ihaddadene-Le Coq, L.; Marcon, J.; Dush-Nicolini, A.; Masmoudi, K.; Ketata, K.

2003-12-01

348

THERMOPHYSICAL PARAMETERS MEASURED BY CLASSIC AND TRANSIENT METHODS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present contribution analyses experimental data that were obtained by Guarded Hot Plate method for measuring thermal conductivity, DSC for measuring specific heat, Flash method for measuring thermal diffusivity and Pulse Transient method for measuring thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity and specific heat and the published data. Data on homogenous materials (BK7, PMMA and Stainless Steel A310) and heterogeneous materials (composite

V. Boha?; V. Vretenár; G. Neuer; R. Brandt

349

Nonphysical Reverse Currents in Transient Finite-Element Magnetics Simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

We are concerned with the simulation of low-frequency transient magnetic fields and currents in conductors as modeled by the vector diffusion equation. In particular, the key topic of this paper is the diffusion of fields and currents into a conductor due to a rapidly varying magnetic field in the surrounding air. As an example, an explosive magnetic flux compression generator

Daniel White

2009-01-01

350

Transient plasma ignition  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents images of transient plasma applied in varied circumstances to fuel ignition and subsequent combustion. The transient plasma occurs during the formative phase of an arc discharge, and persists for ?50 ns. The results demonstrate that transient plasma ignition initiates combustion efficiently, produces excited species distinct from traditional spark ignition, and that for some applications, including reduced delays

Jianbang Liu; Fei Wang; Guoqiang Li; Andras Kuthi; Ephraim J. Gutmark; Paul D. Ronney; Martin A. Gundersen

2005-01-01

351

Transient protection devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Solid state components in control, communication and avionics equipment are highly susceptible to lightning surges or other forms of electromagnetic disturbances. To protect these components, transient protectors with low breakdown voltage and short response time are needed. This paper examines the operation and the characteristics of gas discharge transient protectors (glow lamps, and gas-filled spark gaps), semiconductor breakdown diode transient

C.-L. Chen

1975-01-01

352

A modified spontaneous emulsification solvent diffusion method for the preparation of curcumin-loaded PLGA nanoparticles with enhanced in vitro anti-tumor activity  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To improve the anti-tumor activity of hydrophobic drug curcumin, we prepared curcumin-loaded PLGA nanoparticles (PLGA-Cur NPs) through a modified spontaneous emulsification solvent diffusion (modified-SESD) method. The influence of main preparation parameters was investigated, such as the volume ratio of binary organic solvents and the concentration of surfactant. Results indicated that the synthesized regular spherical PLGA NPs with the average diameter of 189.7 nm exhibited relatively higher yield (58.9%), drug loading (11.0% (w/w)) and encapsulation efficiency (33.5%), and also a controllable drug release profile. In order to evaluate the in vitro cytotoxicity of the prepared NPs, MTT assay was conducted, and results showed that the NPs could effectively inhibit HL60 and HepG2 cells with lower IC50 values compared with free curcumin. Furthermore, confocal microscopy together with flow cytometry analysis proved the enhanced apoptosis-inducing ability of PLGA-Cur NPs. Polymeric NP formulations are potential to be used for hydrophobic drug delivery systems in cancer therapy.

Chen, Cen; Yang, Wei; Wang, Dan-Tong; Chen, Chao-Long; Zhuang, Qing-Ye; Kong, Xiang-Dong

2014-12-01

353

The Truncate Mutation of Notch2 Enhances Cell Proliferation through Activating the NF-?B Signal Pathway in the Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphomas  

PubMed Central

The Notch2 is a critical membrane receptor for B-cell functions, and also displays various biological roles in lymphoma pathogenesis. In this article, we reported that 3 of 69 (4.3%) diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCLs) exhibited a truncate NOTCH2 mutation at the nucleotide 7605 (G/A) in the cDNA sequence, which led to partial deletion of the C-terminal of PEST (proline-, glutamic acid-, serine- and threonine-rich) domain. The truncate Notch2 activated both the Notch2 and the NF-?B signals and promoted the proliferation of B-cell lymphoma cell lines, including DLBCL and Burkitt's lymphoma cell lines. Moreover, the ectopic proliferation was completely inhibited by ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate (PDTC), an NF-?B inhibitor. Simultaneously, PDTC also reduced the expression level of Notch2. Based on these results, we conclude that the Notch2 receptor with PEST domain truncation enhances cell proliferation which may be associated with the activation of the Notch2 and the NF-?B signaling. Our results are expected to provide a possible target for new DLBCL therapies by suppressing the Notch2 and the NF-?B signaling. PMID:25314575

Zhang, Xinxia; Shi, Yaoyao; Weng, Yuanyuan; Lai, Qian; Luo, Taobo; Zhao, Jing; Ren, Guoping; Li, Wande; Pan, Hongyang; Ke, Yuehai; Zhang, Wei; He, Qiang; Wang, Qingqing; Zhou, Ren

2014-01-01

354

Diffusion-controlled detection of trinitrotoluene: interior nanoporous structure and low highest occupied molecular orbital level of building blocks enhance selectivity and sensitivity.  

PubMed

Development of simple, cost-effective, and sensitive fluorescence-based sensors for explosives implies broad applications in homeland security, military operations, and environmental and industrial safety control. However, the reported fluorescence sensory materials (e.g., polymers) usually respond to a class of analytes (e.g., nitroaromatics), rather than a single specific target. Hence, the selective detection of trace amounts of trinitrotoluene (TNT) still remains a big challenge for fluorescence-based sensors. Here we report the selective detection of TNT vapor using the nanoporous fibers fabricated by self-assembly of carbazole-based macrocyclic molecules. The nanoporosity allows for time-dependent diffusion of TNT molecules inside the material, resulting in further fluorescence quenching of the material after removal from the TNT vapor source. Under the same testing conditions, other common nitroaromatic explosives and oxidizing reagents did not demonstrate this postexposure fluorescence quenching; rather, a recovery of fluorescence was observed. The postexposure fluorescence quenching as well as the sensitivity is further enhanced by lowering the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) level of the nanofiber building blocks. This in turn reduces the affinity for oxygen, thus allocating more interaction sites for TNT. Our results present a simple and novel way to achieve detection selectivity for TNT by creating nanoporosity and tuning molecular electronic structure, which when combined may be applied to other fluorescence sensor materials for selective detection of vapor analytes. PMID:22339204

Che, Yanke; Gross, Dustin E; Huang, Helin; Yang, Dongjiang; Yang, Xiaomei; Discekici, Emre; Xue, Zheng; Zhao, Huijun; Moore, Jeffrey S; Zang, Ling

2012-03-14

355

Transient isotachophoresis focusing of DNA and DNA-protein complexes is essentially enhanced by spontaneously dissolved aerial carbon dioxide in electrolytes.  

PubMed

The formation of a highly adapted high-E zone is critical to isotachophoresis separation and focusing. Recently, we discovered that the high-E zone is present only in a small portion of electrophoresis channel in the presence of EOF (Liu, S. Q. et al. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2013, 135, 4644-4647). Accordingly, a much narrower high-E zone is presumably present in t-ITP. If so, it is hard to achieve efficient t-ITP focusing. Indeed, by online coupling t-ITP with CE-LIF immunoassay, the immunocomplexes of carcinogenic BPDE-dG adducts are not efficiently focused using a freshly prepared background electrolyte. Intriguingly, we observed that 20-day stored background electrolyte displays a 10-fold better focusing efficiency. We hypothesize that the unexpected phenomenon is associated with the dissolution of aerial carbon dioxide, which is mainly converted to ionic HCO3(-) in the weak alkaline background electrolyte. Consequently, HCO3(-) of high electrophoretic mobility will be continuously injected into the capillary along with the background electrolyte and act as an alternative leading ion to improve the focusing. By addition of dry ice (without causing significant pH decrease, ?pH < 0.4) to freshly prepared background electrolytes, we immediately observed the enhanced focusing of immunocomplexes of the DNA adducts. NH4HCO3 and Na2CO3, included in the background electrolyte, also improve the focusing efficiency and reproducibility. All these consistently support our hypothesis. To understand the underlying mechanism, an advanced CE-SMFI was exploited to monitor in real time the motion of single DNA molecules and the E change throughout t-ITP. We uncovered that t-ITP can induce a local high-E zone, but the presence of HCO3(-) in the background electrolyte could greatly increase the E value in the high-E zone, which allows more DNA molecules to rapidly move backward and to be efficiently stacked at LE/TE boundary. This study provides new insight into nonuniform electric field-induced electrophoresis focusing. PMID:25437902

Liu, Shengquan; Zhang, Dapeng; Wang, Hailin

2015-01-01

356

Control of diffusion of implanted boron in preamorphized Si: Elimination of interstitial defects at the amorphous-crystal interface  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transient-enhanced diffusion (TED) during thermal annealing of ion-implanted B in Si is well established and attributed to the ion-induced, excess interstitials. On the other hand, the mechanism to account for TED of B in preamorphized (PA) Si remains unclear. Enhanced diffusion of the B persists in regrown layers even though the ion-induced interstitial defects responsible for TED in B+-only implanted Si are eliminated following regrowth. To test the hypothesis that TED in PA Si results from the "excess" interstitial-type defects below the amorphous-crystalline (a-c) interface, a buried PA layer has been recrystallized from the surface inward to the SiO2 interface of silicon-on-insulator material to eliminate all possible sources of excess interstitials. The effect on B diffusion and the role of the residual interstitial-type defects will be discussed.

Roth, E. G.; Holland, O. W.; Thomas, D. K.

1999-02-01

357

Analysis of coupled bimolecular reaction kinetics and diffusion by two-color fluorescence correlation spectroscopy: enhanced resolution of kinetics by resonance energy transfer.  

PubMed Central

In two-color fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (TCFCS), the fluorescence intensities of two fluorescently-labeled species are cross-correlated over time and can be used to identify static and dynamic interactions. Generally, fluorophore labels are chosen that do not undergo Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET). Here, a general TCFCS theory is presented that accounts for the possibility of FRET between reactants in the reversible bimolecular reaction, [reaction: see text] where k(f) and k(b) are forward and reverse rate constants, respectively (dissociation constant K(d) = k(b)/k(f)). Using this theory, we systematically investigated the influence on the correlation function of FRET, reaction rates, reactant concentrations, diffusion, and component visibility. For reactants of comparable size and an energy-transfer efficiency of approximately 90%, experimentally measurable cross-correlation functions should be sensitive to reaction kinetics for K(d) > 10(-8) M and k(f) >or= approximately 10(7) M(-1)s(-1). Measured auto-correlation functions corresponding to donor and acceptor labels are generally less sensitive to reaction kinetics, although for the acceptor, this sensitivity increases as the visibility of the donor increases relative to the acceptor. In the absence of FRET or a significant hydrodynamic difference between reactant species, there is little effect of reaction kinetics on the shape of auto- and cross-correlation functions. Our results suggest that a subset of biologically relevant association-dissociation kinetics can be measured by TCFCS and that FRET can be advantageous in enhancing these effects. PMID:12080140

Hom, Erik F Y; Verkman, A S

2002-01-01

358

Diffusion /Osmosis  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This project is use to review the concepts of diffusion and osmosis 1. Watch the tutorials on diffusion and osmosis. Take the online quiz at the end of each one. Diffusion Animation Osmosis Animation 2. Do the interactive lab on diffusion. Stop when you get to the calculating water potential section. Diffusion/Osmosis Interactive Demo 3. Play the Quia review games. Quia Games- matching/concetration Quia Jeopardy 4. Check out the Elodea leaf cells. Be able to ...

Jensen

2007-11-26

359

Asymmetric Diffusional Solidification during Transient Liquid Phase Bonding of Dissimilar Materials  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A theoretical analysis of diffusional solidification during transient liquid phase (TLP) bonding of dissimilar materials was performed in conjunction with experimental verification. A fully implicit, two-dimensional, finite element numerical simulation model, without the inherent symmetry assumption, was developed and used for the theoretical calculations, and good correlations between the model predictions and experimental results were observed. The study showed that an asymmetric distribution of residual interlayer liquid during a dissimilar joining of polycrystal and single crystal alloys is attributable to a mismatch between their lattice diffusion coefficients or solute solubility, irrespective of enhanced intergranular diffusion as was assumed previously. Also, notwithstanding increased solute diffusivity with temperature, it was found that an increase in bonding temperature can result in the prolongation of processing time t f that is required to prevent the formation of deleterious eutectic during bonding of dissimilar materials. The occurrence of this seemingly anomalous behavior, however, reduces when a material is coupled with another type that exhibits a higher solute solubility or better capability of accommodating diffusing melting point depressant solute from the liquid interlayer.

Ghoneim, A.; Ojo, O. A.

2012-03-01

360

Portable vapor diffusion coefficient meter  

DOEpatents

An apparatus for measuring the effective vapor diffusion coefficient of a test vapor diffusing through a sample of porous media contained within a test chamber. A chemical sensor measures the time-varying concentration of vapor that has diffused a known distance through the porous media. A data processor contained within the apparatus compares the measured sensor data with analytical predictions of the response curve based on the transient diffusion equation using Fick's Law, iterating on the choice of an effective vapor diffusion coefficient until the difference between the predicted and measured curves is minimized. Optionally, a purge fluid can forced through the porous media, permitting the apparatus to also measure a gas-phase permeability. The apparatus can be made lightweight, self-powered, and portable for use in the field.

Ho, Clifford K. (Albuquerque, NM)

2007-06-12

361

The Zwicky Transient Facility  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Zwicky Transient Facility (ZTF) is a synoptic survey for high-cadence optical time-domain astronomy. Building upon the experience and infrastructure of the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF), ZTF will use a new 45 square degree camera to survey more than an order of magnitude faster than PTF in sky area and volume in order to identify rare, fast-varying sources. Major science programs will include searches for young supernovae, rare fast-declining transients, potentially hazardous asteroids, and gravitational-wave counterparts. I will discuss the scientific motivation for the survey and development efforts to date.

Bellm, E.

362

Transient nucleation in glasses  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Nucleation rates in condensed systems are frequently not at their steady state values. Such time dependent (or transient) nucleation is most clearly observed in devitrification studies of metallic and silicate glasses. The origin of transient nucleation and its role in the formation and stability of desired phases and microstructures are discussed. Numerical models of nucleation in isothermal and nonisothermal situations, based on the coupled differential equations describing cluster evolution within the classical theory, are presented. The importance of transient nucleation in glass formation and crystallization is discussed.

Kelton, K. F.

1991-01-01

363

The LOFAR Transients Pipeline  

E-print Network

Current and future astronomical survey facilities provide a remarkably rich opportunity for transient astronomy, combining unprecedented fields of view with high sensitivity and the ability to access previously unexplored wavelength regimes. This is particularly true of LOFAR, a recently-commissioned, low-frequency radio interferometer, based in the Netherlands and with stations across Europe. The identification of and response to transients is one of LOFAR's key science goals. However, the large data volumes which LOFAR produces, combined with the scientific requirement for rapid response, make automation essential. To support this, we have developed the LOFAR Transients Pipeline, or TraP. The TraP ingests multi-frequency image data from LOFAR or other instruments and searches it for transients and variables, providing automatic alerts of significant detections and populating a lightcurve database for further analysis by astronomers. Here, we discuss the scientific goals of the TraP and how it has been desig...

Swinbank, John D; Molenaar, Gijs J; Rol, Evert; Rowlinson, Antonia; Scheers, Bart; Spreeuw, Hanno; Bell, Martin E; Broderick, Jess W; Carbone, Dario; van der Horst, Alexander J; Law, Casey J; Wise, Michael; Breton, Rene P; Cendes, Yvette; Corbel, Stéphane; Eislöffel, Jochen; Falcke, Heino; Fender, Rob; Greißmeier, Jean-Mathias; Hessels, Jason W T; Stappers, Benjamin W; Stewart, Adam J; Wijers, Ralph A M J; Wijnands, Rudy; Zarka, Philippe

2015-01-01

364

Image Compression with Anisotropic Diffusion  

Microsoft Academic Search

Compression is an important field of digital image processing where well-engineered methods with high performance exist. Partial\\u000a differential equations (PDEs), however, have not much been explored in this context so far. In our paper we introduce a novel\\u000a framework for image compression that makes use of the interpolation qualities of edge-enhancing diffusion. Although this anisotropic\\u000a diffusion equation with a diffusion

Irena Galic; Joachim Weickert; Martin Welk; Andrés Bruhn; Alexander G. Belyaev; Hans-Peter Seidel

2008-01-01

365

Transient infrared emission spectroscopy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Transient infrared emission spectroscopy (TIRES) is a new method that produces analytically useful emission spectra from optically thick, solid samples by greatly reducing self-absorption of emitted radiation. The method reduces self-absorption by creating a thin, short-lived, heated layer at the sample surface and collecting the transient emission from this layer. The technique requires no sample preparation and may be applied

J. F. McClelland

1989-01-01

366

Gamma ray transients  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The discovery of cosmic gamma ray bursts was made with systems designed at Los Alamos Laboratory for the detection of nuclear explosions beyond the atmosphere. HELIOS-2 was the first gamma ray burst instrument launched; its initial results in 1976, seemed to deepen the mystery around gamma ray transients. Interplanetary spacecraft data were reviewed in terms of explaining the behavior and source of the transients.

Cline, Thomas L.

1987-01-01

367

Osmosis and Diffusion  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

OsmoBeaker is a CD-ROM designed to enhance the learning of diffusion and osmosis by presenting interactive experimentation to the student. The software provides several computer simulations that take the student through different scenarios with cells, having different concentrations of solutes in them.

Sack, Jeff

2005-01-01

368

On Asymmetric Diffusional Solidification During Transient Liquid Phase Bonding  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The underlying cause of asymmetric diffusion solidification which alters microstructure during transient liquid phase bonding under low temperature gradient was studied. A new solute-conserving asymmetric numerical model coupled with experimental verification showed that a transition from bi-directional to unidirectional solidification, under a constant temperature gradient, is controlled by competition between liquid and solid-state diffusion at one of the two liquid-solid interfaces. This mechanistic understanding would aid a more effective use of the process.

Ghobadi Bigvand, A.; Ojo, Olanrewaju A.

2014-04-01

369

Prognosis Prediction of Measurable Enhancing Lesion after Completion of Standard Concomitant Chemoradiotherapy and Adjuvant Temozolomide in Glioblastoma Patients: Application of Dynamic Susceptibility Contrast Perfusion and Diffusion-Weighted Imaging  

PubMed Central

Purpose To assess the prognosis predictability of a measurable enhancing lesion using histogram parameters produced by the normalized cerebral blood volume (nCBV) and normalized apparent diffusion coefficient (nADC) after completion of standard concomitant chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) and adjuvant temozolomide (TMZ) medication in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) patients. Materials and Methods This study was approved by the institutional review board (IRB), and the requirement for informed consent was waived. A total of 59 patients with newly diagnosed GBM who received standard CCRT with TMZ and adjuvant TMZ for six cycles underwent perfusion-weighted and diffusion-weighted imaging. Twenty-seven patients had a measurable enhancing lesion and 32 patients lacked a measurable enhancing lesion based on the Response Assessment in Neuro-Oncology (RANO) criteria in the follow-up MRI, which was performed within 3 months after adjuvant TMZ therapy was completed. We measured the nCBV and nADC histogram parameters based on the measurable enhancing lesion. The progression free survival (PFS) was analyzed by the Kaplan-Meier method with the use of the log-rank test. Results The median PFS of patients lacking measurable enhancing lesion was longer than for those with measurable enhancing lesions (17.6 vs 3.3 months, P<.0001). There was a significant, positive correlation between the 99th percentile nCBV value of a measurable enhancing lesion and the PFS (P?=?.044, R2?=?.152). In addition, the median PFS was longer in patients with a 99th percentile nCBV value ?4.5 than it was in those with a value <4.5 (4.4 vs 3.1 months, P?=?.036). Conclusion We found that the nCBV value can be used for the prognosis prediction of a measurable enhancing lesion after the completion of standard treatment for GBM, wherein a high 99th percentile nCBV value (?4.5) suggests a better PFS for GBM patients. PMID:25419975

Kim, Jae Hyun; Choi, Seung Hong; Ryoo, Inseon; Yun, Tae Jin; Kim, Tae Min; Lee, Se-Hoon; Park, Chul-Kee; Kim, Ji-Hoon; Sohn, Chul-Ho; Park, Sung-Hye; Kim, Il Han

2014-01-01

370

Temperature Dependence of Digital Single-Event Transients in Bulk and Fully-Depleted SOI Technologies  

E-print Network

Factors that affect single-event transient pulse widths, such as drift, diffusion, and parasitic bipolar transistor parameters, are also strong functions of operating temperature. In this paper, SET pulse-width measurements ...

Gouker, Pascale M.

371

Inhomogeneous Forcing and Transient Climate Sensitivity  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Understanding climate sensitivity is critical to projecting climate change in response to a given forcing scenario. Recent analyses have suggested that transient climate sensitivity is at the low end of the present model range taking into account the reduced warming rates during the past 10-15 years during which forcing has increased markedly. In contrast, comparisons of modelled feedback processes with observations indicate that the most realistic models have higher sensitivities. Here I analyse results from recent climate modelling intercomparison projects to demonstrate that transient climate sensitivity to historical aerosols and ozone is substantially greater than the transient climate sensitivity to CO2. This enhanced sensitivity is primarily caused by more of the forcing being located at Northern Hemisphere middle to high latitudes where it triggers more rapid land responses and stronger feedbacks. I find that accounting for this enhancement largely reconciles the two sets of results, and I conclude that the lowest end of the range of transient climate response to CO2 in present models and assessments (less than 1.3 C) is very unlikely.

Shindell, Drew T.

2014-01-01

372

Short-term changes in Jupiter's synchrotron radiation at 325 MHz: Enhanced radial diffusion in Jupiter's radiation belt driven by solar UV\\/EUV heating  

Microsoft Academic Search

Evidence of short-term changes in Jupiter's synchrotron radiaion at 325 MHzRadial diffusion rate of 3 × 10?8 L3 \\/s is suitable in Jupiter's radiation beltThe synchrotron emission does not contribute electron loss in the radiation belt

F. Tsuchiya; H. Misawa; K. Imai; A. Morioka

2011-01-01

373

Transient heat flux shielding using thermal metamaterials Supradeep Narayana,a)  

E-print Network

Transient heat flux shielding using thermal metamaterials Supradeep Narayana,a) Salvatore Savo based on a metamaterial engineering approach to shield a region from transient diffusive heat flow compared to other isotropic materials. VC 2013 AIP Publishing LLC. [http://dx.doi.org/10

Sato, Yuki

374

Low Temperature Transient Liquid Phase (LTTLP) Bonding for Au/Cu  

E-print Network

) ) M. M. Hou Low Temperature Transient Liquid Phase (LTTLP) Bonding for Au/Cu and Cu of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 TheLow Temperature TransientLiquidPhase Diffusion Bonding (LTTLP) process has been bonded to copper heatsink.s at temperatures less than 160"C, using /n-Sn eutectic solders. After

Eagar, Thomas W.

375

ANALYSIS OF TRACER AND THERMAL TRANSIENTS DURING REINJECTION  

E-print Network

TO THE DEPARTMENT OF PETROLEUM ENGINEERING AND THE COMMITTEE ON GRADUATE STUDIES OF STANFORD UNIVERSITY IN PARTIAL Abstract This work studied tracer and thermal transients during reinjection in geother- mal reservoirs diffusion(MD) model, and the Avdonin(AD) model, which were developed to study tracer and heat transport

Stanford University

376

Lateral Diffusion in an Archipelago  

PubMed Central

Lateral diffusion of molecules in lipid bilayer membranes can be hindered by the presence of impermeable domains of gel-phase lipid or of proteins. Effective-medium theory and percolation theory are used to evaluate the effective lateral diffusion constant as a function of the area fraction of fluid-phase lipid and the permeability of the obstructions to the diffusing species. Applications include the estimation of the minimum fraction of fluid lipid needed for bacterial growth, and the enhancement of diffusion-controlled reactions by the channeling effect of solid patches of lipid. PMID:7052153

Saxton, Michael J.

1982-01-01

377

The Transient Universe  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

When one looks at the night sky, one usually gets the impression of a static and constant universe. Quite apart from appearances, the sky is teeming with violent, variable, and transient events that shape our universe. These capricious objects are not only penetrating probes into physical conditions too extreme for earthbound laboratories, but they are also useful tools to measure the universe. In this dissertation, I investigate the observational and theoretical properties of three classes of transient/variable objects: thermonuclear supernovae, Cepheid variable stars, and active galactic nuclei.

Shappee, Benjamin John

378

Influence of defects on excess charge carrier kinetics studied by transient PC and transient PA  

SciTech Connect

By comparison of transient photoconductivity (TPC) and transient photoinduced absorption (PA) the influence of the density of states in the bandgap on excess charge carrier kinetics is studied for a-Si:H films deposited at different temperatures and for state of the art a-Si:H films in two different states of light soaking. In both series the rising deep defect density leads to an enhancement of electron trapping rather than recombination via deep defects. The samples deposited at temperatures lower than 250 C additionally show a lower effective electron mobility, i.e., a broader conduction band tail.

Feist, H.; Kunst, M.; Swiatkowski, C.

1997-07-01

379

Anomalous effects of ultradilute impurities on heat diffusion in liquids  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We analyze the applicability of transient thermal lens (TL) z-scan technique as a sensitive tool to measure heat diffusivity of liquids. Suitable dyes at very low concentrations were added to the host liquid to enhance the TL effect through improved optical absorption. We investigate if these dye impurities, besides improving light absorption, have any effect on the thermal properties of the host liquid. We find that even a trace amount of impurity significantly alters the thermal properties of a solvent. Time-evolution of TL showed pronounced asymmetry about laser focus revealing anomalous behavior in thermal blooming of the laser beam. Heat transport was strongly dependent on the rise in sample temperature by light absorption. Important effects of nonlinear heat transport in time-resolved TL z-scan experiments were revealed.

Ambast, Deepak K. S.; Mondal, Richarj; Pati, Palas Baran; Zade, Sanjio S.; Bansal, Bhavtosh; Pal, Bipul

2015-01-01

380

Anticipated transients without scram  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article discusses in various degrees of depth the publications WASH-1270, WASH-1400, and NUREG-0460, and has as its purpose a description of the technical work done by Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) personnel and its contractors on the subject of anticipated transients without scram (ATWS). It demonstrates the close relation between the probability of scram failure derived from historical scram

Lellouche

1980-01-01

381

Quantum diffusion: A simple, exactly solvable model  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We propose a simple quantum mechanical model describing the time dependent diffusion current between two fermion reservoirs that were initially disconnected and characterized by different densities or chemical potentials. The exact, analytical solution of the model yields the transient behavior of the coupled fermion systems evolving to a final steady state, whereas the long-time behavior is determined by a power law rather than by exponential decay. Similar results are obtained for the entropy production which is proportional to the diffusion current.

Magnus, Wim; Nelissen, Kwinten

2015-01-01

382

Hillslope diffusion  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This lab is designed to help students apply hillslope diffusion equations (derived in class prior to the lab) to understand real-world hillslopes. The major goal is a deeper understanding of hillslope processes and the equations used to describe hillslope diffusion by observing the same factors described in the equations on real-world hillslopes.

Jeni McDermott

383

Shock Wave and EUV Transient During a Flare  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A metric type II burst and a 'brow' type enhancement in EUV were observed during the hard X-ray flare of 1997 April 15 from a newly emerging region, AR 8032. The position of the type II burst obtained from the Nancay radioheliograph coincided with the EUV transient. The type II burst and the EUV transient were in the equatorial streamer region to the north of the flaring region. This observation suggests that the EUV transient may be the manifestation of the MHD shock responsible for the type II burst.

Gopalswamy, N.; Kaiser, M. L.; Sato, J.; Pick, Monique

2000-01-01

384

Optimal Network Modularity for Information Diffusion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the impact of community structure on information diffusion with the linear threshold model. Our results demonstrate that modular structure may have counterintuitive effects on information diffusion when social reinforcement is present. We show that strong communities can facilitate global diffusion by enhancing local, intracommunity spreading. Using both analytic approaches and numerical simulations, we demonstrate the existence of an optimal network modularity, where global diffusion requires the minimal number of early adopters.

Nematzadeh, Azadeh; Ferrara, Emilio; Flammini, Alessandro; Ahn, Yong-Yeol

2014-08-01

385

Fokker-Planck . . . Diffusion . . .  

E-print Network

Fokker-Planck . . . Diffusion . . . Diffusion- . . . Application: . . . Summary and . . . First #12;Fokker-Planck . . . Diffusion . . . Diffusion- . . . Application: . . . Summary and . . . Topics: 1. Fokker-Planck transport equation 2. Diffusion approximation 3. Diffusion-convection transport

386

Introduction Diffusion Tensor Imaging  

E-print Network

Introduction Diffusion Tensor Imaging Diffusion Kurtosis Imaging D-Eigenvalues and . . . Further ·Full Screen ·Close ·Quit Diffusion Tensor and Diffusion Kurtosis Tensor in Biomedical Engineering Diffusion Tensor Imaging Diffusion Kurtosis Imaging D-Eigenvalues and . . . Further Discussion Home Page

Zhang, Shuzhong

387

Dynamic characterization of hydrophobic and hydrophilic solutes in oleic-acid enhanced transdermal delivery using two-photon fluorescence microscopy  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this letter, we propose an efficient methodology of investigating dynamic properties of sulforhodamine B and rhodamine B hexyl ester molecules transporting across ex-vivo human stratum corneum with and without oleic acid enhancement. Three-dimensional, time-lapse fluorescence images of the stratum corneum can be obtained using two-photon fluorescence microscopy. Furthermore, temporal quantifications of transport enhancements in diffusion parameters can be achieved with the use of Fick's second law. Dynamic characterization of solutes transporting across the stratum corneum is an effective method for understanding transient phenomena in transdermal delivery of probe molecules, leading to improved delivery strategies of molecular species for therapeutic purposes.

Tseng, Te-Yu; Yang, Chiu-Sheng; Tsai, Tsung-Hua; Chen, Yang-Fang; Dong, Chen-Yuan

2014-10-01

388

Tolerating transient faults in MARS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The concepts of transient fault handling in the MARS architecture are discussed. After an overview of the MARS architecture, the mechanisms for the detection of transient faults are discussed in detail. In addition to extensive checks in the hardware and in the operating system, time-redundant execution of application tasks is proposed for the detection of transient faults. The time difference

H. Kopetz; H. Kantz; G. Grunsteidl; P. Puschner; J. Reisinger

1990-01-01

389

Diffusion in silicon isotope heterostructures  

SciTech Connect

The simultaneous diffusion of Si and the dopants B, P, and As has been studied by the use of a multilayer structure of isotopically enriched Si. This structure, consisting of 5 pairs of 120 nm thick natural Si and {sup 28}Si enriched layers, enables the observation of {sup 30}Si self-diffusion from the natural layers into the {sup 28}Si enriched layers, as well as dopant diffusion from an implanted source in an amorphous Si cap layer, via Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (SIMS). The dopant diffusion created regions of the multilayer structure that were extrinsic at the diffusion temperatures. In these regions, the Fermi level shift due to the extrinsic condition altered the concentration and charge state of the native defects involved in the diffusion process, which affected the dopant and self-diffusion. The simultaneously recorded diffusion profiles enabled the modeling of the coupled dopant and self-diffusion. From the modeling of the simultaneous diffusion, the dopant diffusion mechanisms, the native defect charge states, and the self- and dopant diffusion coefficients can be determined. This information is necessary to enhance the physical modeling of dopant diffusion in Si. It is of particular interest to the modeling of future electronic Si devices, where the nanometer-scale features have created the need for precise physical models of atomic diffusion in Si. The modeling of the experimental profiles of simultaneous diffusion of B and Si under p-type extrinsic conditions revealed that both species are mediated by neutral and singly, positively charged Si self-interstitials. The diffusion of As and Si under extrinsic n-type conditions yielded a model consisting of the interstitialcy and vacancy mechanisms of diffusion via singly negatively charged self-interstitials and neutral vacancies. The simultaneous diffusion of P and Si has been modeled on the basis of neutral and singly negatively charged self-interstitials and neutral and singly positively charged P species. Additionally, the temperature dependence of the diffusion coefficient of Si in Ge was measured over the temperature range of 550 C to 900 C using a buried Si layer in an epitaxially grown Ge layer.

Silvestri, Hughes Howland

2004-05-14

390

Atomic transient recorder  

Microsoft Academic Search

In Bohr's model of the hydrogen atom, the electron takes about 150 attoseconds (1 as = 10-18s) to orbit around the proton, defining the characteristic timescale for dynamics in the electronic shell of atoms. Recording atomic transients in real time requires excitation and probing on this scale. The recent observation of single sub-femtosecond (1fs = 10-15s) extreme ultraviolet (XUV) light

R. Kienberger; E. Goulielmakis; M. Uiberacker; A. Baltuska; V. Yakovlev; F. Bammer; A. Scrinzi; Th. Westerwalbesloh; U. Kleineberg; U. Heinzmann; M. Drescher; F. Krausz

2004-01-01

391

Transient neonatal Behçet's disease  

PubMed Central

A term neonate with a transient form of Behçet's disease (BD) is described. The mother had a 3-year history of BD treated with corticosteroids, which remained in remission during pregnancy. On day 1 of life, the neonate was noted to have papulopustular lesions of the labia and perineum. She remained clinically well and bacterial and viral infection screens were negative. The lesions disappeared within 3?weeks without scarring. No recurrence has been reported. PMID:23391945

Antonelou, Marilina; Braha, Nirit

2013-01-01

392

Using the Transient Surveys  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

(Abstract only) We are starting the era of all-sky surveys. While some, like APASS, have specific goals in mind (sky calibration, exoplanets, asteroids, and so on), others have begun releasing real-time alerts of interesting objects. The easily available surveys with alerts will be discussed, along with the kind of objects they are detecting and some hints about how to make use of the transient information.

Henden, A. A.

2014-06-01

393

ON DETECTING TRANSIENT PHENOMENA  

SciTech Connect

Transient phenomena are interesting and potentially highly revealing of details about the processes under observation and study that could otherwise go unnoticed. It is therefore important to maximize the sensitivity of the method used to identify such events. In this article, we present a general procedure based on the use of the likelihood function for identifying transients which is particularly suited for real-time applications because it requires no grouping or pre-processing of the data. The method makes use of all the information that is available in the data throughout the statistical decision-making process, and is suitable for a wide range of applications. Here we consider those most common in astrophysics, which involve searching for transient sources, events or features in images, time series, energy spectra, and power spectra, and demonstrate the use of the method in the case of a weak X-ray flare in a time series and a short-lived quasi-periodic oscillation in a power spectrum. We derive a fit statistic that is ideal for fitting arbitrarily shaped models to a power density distribution, which is of general interest in all applications involving periodogram analysis.

Belanger, G., E-mail: gbelanger@sciops.esa.int [European Space Astronomy Centre (ESA/ESAC), Science Operations Department, Villanueva de la Canada (Madrid) (Spain)

2013-08-10

394

Comparison of arsenic and phosphorus diffusion behavior in silicongermanium alloys  

E-print Network

Comparison of arsenic and phosphorus diffusion behavior in silicon­germanium alloys S. Eguchia of ion-implanted arsenic and phosphorus in relaxed Si0.8Ge0.2 has been investigated. Under equilibrium is roughly seven for arsenic, and roughly two for phosphorus. Under transient diffusion conditions

395

DIFFUSION MEASUREMENTS DURING PERVAPORATION THROUGH A ZEOLITE MEMBRANE  

EPA Science Inventory

An isotopic-transient technique was used to directly measure diffusion times of H2O, methanol, ethanol, 2-propanol, and acetone in pure and binary mixture feeds transporting through a zeolite membrane under steady-state pervaporation conditions. Diffusivities can be determ...

396

Diffuse radiation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A diffuse celestial radiation which is isotropic at least on a course scale were measured from the soft X-ray region to about 150 MeV, at which energy the intensity falls below that of the galactic emission for most galactic latitudes. The spectral shape, the intensity, and the established degree of isotropy of this diffuse radiation already place severe constraints on the possible explanations for this radiation. Among the extragalactic theories, the more promising explanations of the isotropic diffuse emission appear to be radiation from exceptional galaxies from matter antimatter annihilation at the boundaries of superclusters of galaxies of matter and antimatter in baryon symmetric big bang models. Other possible sources for extragalactic diffuse gamma radiation are discussed and include normal galaxies, clusters of galaxies, primordial cosmic rays interacting with intergalactic matter, primordial black holes, and cosmic ray leakage from galaxies.

1981-01-01

397

Kinesin Motor Transport is Altered by Macromolecular Crowding and Transiently Associated Microtubule-Associated Proteins  

E-print Network

Intracellular transport of vesicular cargos, organelles, and other macromolecules is an essential process to move large items through a crowded, and inhomogeneous cellular environment. In an effort to dissect the fundamental effects of crowding and an increasingly complex cellular environment on the transport of individual motor proteins, we have performed in vitro reconstitution experiments with single kinesin-1 motors walking on microtubules in the presence of crowding agents and transient microtubule-associated proteins that more closely emulate the cellular environment. Macromolecular crowding due to inert polymers caused enhanced run lengths of motors, but displayed an increased tendency for non-specific motor association and diffusion, most likely due to depletion interactions. We found that transiently bound associated proteins slowed forward motion, but did not drastically affect the association times, in opposition to previously reported obstacle properties of stably associated microtubule-associated proteins, such as the neuronal protein tau. Such studies of the transport properties of molecular motors in increasingly complex reconstituted environments are important to illuminate the fundamental biophysical principles underlying the essential process of intracellular cargo transport.

Leslie Conway; Jennifer L. Ross

2014-09-11

398

Magnetic Diffusion in Star Formation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Magnetic diffusion plays a vital role in star formation. We trace its influence from interstellar cloud scales down to star-disk scales. On both scales, we find that magnetic diffusion can be significantly enhanced by the buildup of strong gradients in magnetic field structure. Large scale nonlinear flows can create compressed cloud layers within which ambipolar diffusion occurs rapidly. However, in the flux-freezing limit that may be applicable to photoionized molecular cloud envelopes, supersonic motions can persist for long times if driven by an externally generated magnetic field that corresponds to a subcritical mass-to-flux ratio. In the case of protostellar accretion, rapid magnetic diffusion (through Ohmic dissipation with additional support from ambipolar diffusion) near the protostar causes dramatic magnetic flux loss. By doing so, it also allows the formation of a centrifugal disk, thereby avoiding the magnetic braking catastrophe.

Basu, Shantanu; Dapp, Wolf B.

2011-04-01

399

Diagnostic assessment by dynamic contrast-enhanced and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance in differentiation of breast lesions under different imaging protocols  

PubMed Central

Background The apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) is a highly diagnostic factor in discriminating malignant and benign breast masses in diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI). The combination of ADC and other pictorial characteristics has improved lesion type identification accuracy. The objective of this study was to reassess the findings on an independent patient group by changing the magnetic field from 1.5-Tesla to 3.0-Tesla. Methods This retrospective study consisted of a training group of 234 female patients, including 85 benign and 149 malignant lesions, imaged using 1.5-Tesla MRI, and a test group of 95 female patients, including 19 benign and 85 malignant lesions, imaged using 3.0-Tesla MRI. The lesion of interest was segmented from the raw image and four sets of measurements describing the morphology, kinetics, DW-MRI, and texture of the pictorial properties of each lesion were obtained. Each lesion was characterized by 28 features in total. Three classical machine-learning algorithms were used to build prediction models on the training group, which evaluated the prognostic performance of the multi-sided features in three scenarios. To reduce information redundancy, five highly diagnostic factors were selected to obtain a compact yet informative characterization of the lesion status. Results Three classification models were built on the training of 1.5-Tesla patients and were tested on the independent 3.0-Tesla test group. The following results were found. i) Characterization of breast masses in a multi-sided way dramatically increased prediction performance. The usage of all features gave a higher performance in both sensitivity and specificity than any individual feature groups or their combinations. ii) ADC was a highly effective factor in improving the sensitivity in discriminating malignant from benign masses. iii) Five features, namely ADC, Sum Average, Entropy, Elongation, and Sum Variance, were selected to achieve the highest performance in diagnosis of the 3.0-Tesla patient group. Conclusions The combination of ADC and other multi-sided characteristics can increase the capability of discriminating malignant and benign breast lesions, even under different imaging protocols. The selected compact feature subsets achieved a high diagnostic performance and thus are promising in clinical applications for discriminating lesion type and for personalized treatment planning. PMID:24885156

2014-01-01

400

Finite Volume Scheme for Double Convection-Diffusion Exchange of Solutes in Bicarbonate High-Flux Hollow-Fiber Dialyzer Therapy  

PubMed Central

The efficiency of a high-flux dialyzer in terms of buffering and toxic solute removal largely depends on the ability to use convection-diffusion mechanism inside the membrane. A two-dimensional transient convection-diffusion model coupled with acid-base correction term was developed. A finite volume technique was used to discretize the model and to numerically simulate it using MATLAB software tool. We observed that small solute concentration gradients peaked and were large enough to activate solute diffusion process in the membrane. While CO2 concentration gradients diminished from their maxima and shifted toward the end of the membrane, HCO3 ? concentration gradients peaked at the same position. Also, CO2 concentration decreased rapidly within the first 47 minutes while optimal HCO3 ? concentration was achieved within 30 minutes of the therapy. Abnormally high diffusion fluxes were observed near the blood-membrane interface that increased diffusion driving force and enhanced the overall diffusive process. While convective flux dominated total flux during the dialysis session, there was a continuous interference between convection and diffusion fluxes that call for the need to seek minimal interference between these two mechanisms. This is critical for the effective design and operation of high-flux dialyzers. PMID:23197994

Annan, Kodwo

2012-01-01

401

Benchmark values for the Soret, thermal diffusion and diffusion coefficients of three binary organic liquid mixtures  

Microsoft Academic Search

With the aim of providing reliable benchmark values, we have measured the Soret, diffusion and thermal diffusion coefficients of the three binary mixtures of dodecane, isobutylbenzene and 1,2,3,4 tetrahydronaphthalene for a concentration of 50 wt% at a temperature of 25°C. The experimental techniques applied by the five participating laboratories are transient holographic gratings, annular and parallelepipedic thermogravitational columns, and vertical

J. K. Platten; M. M. Bou-Ali; P. Costesèque; J. F. Dutrieux; W. Köhler; C. Leppla; S. Wiegand; G. Wittko

2003-01-01

402

PARALLEL SOLVERS FOR THE TRANSIENT MULTIGROUP NEUTRON DIFFUSION  

E-print Network

For the safety and the control of a nuclear power plant it is necessary to simulate the constituent processes of concern in the simulation of a nuclear power plant is the reactor core. Since it is the source to describe the nuclear #12;ssion in the reactor core. They form a complicated system of coupled parabolic

Bath, University of

403

Transient and diffusion analysis of HgCdTe  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Solute redistribution during directional solidification of HgCdTe is addressed. Both one-dimensional and two-dimensional models for solute redistribution are treated and model results compared to experiment. The central problem studied is the cause of radial inhomogeneities found in directionally solidified HgCdTe. A large scale gravity-driven interface instability, termed shape instability, is postulated to be the cause of radial inhomogeneities. Recommendations for future work, along with appropriate computer programs, are included.

Clayton, J. C.

1982-01-01

404

Diffusion of Hydrogen in Silica under Transient Conditions  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Development of hydrogen in sealed silica glass ampoules during annealing at elevated temperatures was investigated. The dependence of hydrogen pressure in the ampoules as a function of time, for different temperatures and ampoule parameters was measured. The process was modeled assuming chemical solution of hydrogen according to the reaction: silica + H2 = H- Si= + H-O-Si=. The equilibrium constant of the reaction was determined by fitting the theoretical curves to the experimental data. The Gibbs function for this reaction was estimated at deltaG = -25.8 + 54T.

Palosz, W.

2003-01-01

405

Thermal transient anemometer  

DOEpatents

A thermal transient anemometer having a thermocouple probe which is utilized to measure the change in temperature over a period of time to provide a measure of fluid flow velocity. The thermocouple probe is located in the fluid flow path and pulsed to heat or cool the probe. The cooling of the heated probe or the heating of the cooled probe from the fluid flow over a period of time is measured to determine the fluid flow velocity. The probe is desired to be locally heated near the tip to increase the efficiency of devices incorporating the probe.

Bailey, James L. (829 S. Bruner, Hinsdale, IL 60521); Vresk, Josip (4013 N. Park, Westmont, IL 60559)

1989-01-01

406

Workshop on Radio Transients  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

abstract-type="normal">SummaryWe are entering a new era in the study of variable and transient radio sources. This workshop discussed the instruments and the strategies employed to study those sources, how they are identified and classified, how results from different surveys can be compared, and how radio observations tie in with those at other wavelengths. The emphasis was on learning what common ground there is between the plethora of on-going projects, how methods and code can be shared, and how best practices regarding survey strategy could be adopted. The workshop featured the four topics below. Each topic commenced with a fairly brief introductory talk, which then developed into discussion. By way of preparation, participants had been invited to upload and discuss one slide per topic to a wiki ahead of the workshop. 1. Telescopes, instrumentation and survey strategy. New radio facilities and on-going projects (including upgrades) are both studying the variability of the radio sky, and searching for transients. The discussion first centred on the status of those facilities, and on projects with a time-domain focus, both ongoing and planned, before turning to factors driving choices of instrumentation, such as phased array versus single pixel feeds, the field of view, spatial and time resolution, frequency and bandwidth, depth, area, and cadence of the surveys. 2. Detection, pipelines, and classification. The workshop debated (a) the factors that influence decisions to study variability in the (u,v) plane, in images, or in catalogues, (b) whether, and how much, pipeline code could potentially be shared between one project and another, and which software packages are best for different approaches, (c) how data are stored and later accessed, and (d) how transients and variables are defined and classified. 3. Statistics, interpretation, and synthesis. It then discussed how (i) the choice of facility and strategy and (ii) detection and classification schemes influence what is seen (in terms of types of object and rates) by different surveys, (iii) how results from different surveys could be compared, and (iv) how what we know from existing surveys drives choices (i) and (ii), particularly as regards finding new classes of object. 4. Multiwavelength approaches. The workshop concluded by discussing what information is needed from wavelengths other than radio in order to classify transients and variables adequately and predict their rates as a function of topics (1), (2) and (3). It asked what the constraints are on responding to, and issuing triggers for, follow-up observations, and how that might feed back into considerations for designing our telescopes and surveys.

Croft, Steve; Gaensler, Bryan

2012-04-01

407

Familial Transient Global Amnesia  

PubMed Central

Following an episode of typical transient global amnesia (TGA), a female patient reported similar clinical attacks in 2 maternal aunts. Prior reports of familial TGA are few, and no previous account of affected relatives more distant than siblings or parents was discovered in a literature survey. The aetiology of familial TGA is unknown. A pathophysiological mechanism akin to that in migraine attacks, comorbidity reported in a number of the examples of familial TGA, is one possibility. The study of familial TGA cases might facilitate the understanding of TGA aetiology. PMID:23275787

Davies, R. Rhys; Larner, A.J.

2012-01-01

408

Familial transient global amnesia.  

PubMed

Following an episode of typical transient global amnesia (TGA), a female patient reported similar clinical attacks in 2 maternal aunts. Prior reports of familial TGA are few, and no previous account of affected relatives more distant than siblings or parents was discovered in a literature survey. The aetiology of familial TGA is unknown. A pathophysiological mechanism akin to that in migraine attacks, comorbidity reported in a number of the examples of familial TGA, is one possibility. The study of familial TGA cases might facilitate the understanding of TGA aetiology. PMID:23275787

Davies, R Rhys; Larner, A J

2012-09-01

409

Diffusible signal factor (DSF) quorum sensing signal and structurally related molecules enhance the antimicrobial efficacy of antibiotics against some bacterial pathogens  

PubMed Central

Background Extensive use of antibiotics has fostered the emergence of superbugs that are resistant to multidrugs, which becomes a great healthcare and public concern. Previous studies showed that quorum sensing signal DSF (diffusible signal factor) not only modulates bacterial antibiotic resistance through intraspecies signaling, but also affects bacterial antibiotic tolerance through interspecies communication. These findings motivate us to exploit the possibility of using DSF and its structurally related molecules as adjuvants to influence antibiotic susceptibility of bacterial pathogens. Results In this study, we have demonstrated that DSF signal and its structurally related molecules could be used to induce bacterial antibiotic susceptibility. Exogenous addition of DSF signal (cis-11-methyl-2-dodecenoic acid) and its structural analogues could significantly increase the antibiotic susceptibility of Bacillus cereus, possibly through reducing drug-resistant activity, biofilm formation and bacterial fitness. The synergistic effect of DSF and its structurally related molecules with antibiotics on B. cereus is dosage-dependent. Combination of DSF with gentamicin showed an obviously synergistic effect on B. cereus pathogenicity in an in vitro model. We also found that DSF could increase the antibiotic susceptibility of other bacterial species, including Bacillus thuringiensis, Staphylococcus aureus, Mycobacterium smegmatis, Neisseria subflava and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Conclusion The results indicate a promising potential of using DSF and its structurally related molecules as novel adjuvants to conventional antibiotics for treatment of infectious diseases caused by bacterial pathogens. PMID:24575808

2014-01-01

410

Enhanced performance of polybenzimidazole-based high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell with gas diffusion electrodes prepared by automatic catalyst spraying under irradiation technique  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Gas diffusion electrodes (GDEs) prepared by a novel automatic catalyst spraying under irradiation (ACSUI) technique are investigated for improving the performance of phosphoric acid (PA)-doped polybenzimidazole (PBI) high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). The physical properties of the GDEs are characterized by pore size distribution and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The electrochemical properties of the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) with the GDEs are evaluated and analyzed by polarization curve, cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemistry impedance spectroscopy (EIS). Effects of PTFE binder content, PA impregnation and heat treatment on the GDEs are investigated to determine the optimum performance of the single cell. At ambient pressure and 160 °C, the maximum power density can reach 0.61 W cm-2, and the current density at 0.6 V is up to 0.38 A cm-2, with H2/air and a platinum loading of 0.5 mg cm-2 on both electrodes. The MEA with the GDEs shows good stability for fuel cell operating in a short term durability test.

Su, Huaneng; Pasupathi, Sivakumar; Bladergroen, Bernard Jan; Linkov, Vladimir; Pollet, Bruno G.

2013-11-01

411

The role of external electric fields in enhancing ion mobility, drift velocity, and drift-diffusion rates in aqueous electrolyte solutions  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Molecular simulations have been carried out using the method of molecular dynamics to investigate the role of external electric fields on the ion mobility, drift velocity, and drift-diffusion rate of ions in aqueous electrolyte solutions. These properties are critical for a range of processes including electrodialysis, electro-deionization, electrophoresis, and electroosmosis. Our results show that external electric fields relax the hydrated ion structure at significantly larger time scales (between 300 and 800 ps), than most other relaxation processes in solutions (generally of the order of 1 ps). Previous studies that did not account for the much longer relaxation times did not observe this behavior for ions even with very high electric fields. External electric fields must also overcome several (at least two or more) activation energy barriers to significantly change the structure of hydrated ions. As a result, the dynamic behavior changes almost in bands as a function of electric field strengths, rather than linearly. Finally, the effect of the field is much less dramatic on water than the ions. Thus electric fields will be of more significance in processes that involve the transport of ions (such as electro-deionization) than the transport of water (electroosmosis).

Murad, Sohail

2011-03-01

412

An Upregulation in the Expression of Vanilloid Transient Potential Channels 2 Enhances Hypotonicity-Induced Cytosolic Ca2+ Rise in Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Model of Hutchinson Gillford Progeria  

PubMed Central

Hutchinson-Gillford Progeria Syndrome (HGPS) is a fatal genetic disorder characterized by premature aging in multiple organs including the skin, musculoskeletal and cardiovascular systems. It is believed that an increased mechanosensitivity of HGPS cells is a causative factor for vascular cell death and vascular diseases in HGPS patients. However, the exact mechanism is unknown. Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are cationic channels that can act as cellular sensors for mechanical stimuli. The aim of this present study was to examine the expression and functional role of TRP channels in human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived endothelial cells (iPSC-ECs) from the patients with HGPS. The mRNA and protein expression of TRP channels in HGPS and control (IMR90) iPSC-ECs were examined by semi-quantitative RT-PCRs and immunoblots, respectively. Hypotonicity-induced cytosolic Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) rise in iPSC-ECs was measured by confocal microscopy. RT-PCRs and immunoblots showed higher expressional levels of TRPV2 in iPSC-ECs from HGPS patients than those from normal individuals. In functional studies, hypotonicity induced a transient [Ca2+]i rise in iPSC-ECs from normal individuals but a sustained [Ca2+]i elevation in iPSC-ECs from HGPS patients. A nonselective TRPV inhibitor, ruthenium red (RuR, 20 µM), and a specific TRPV2 channel inhibitor, tranilast (100 µM), abolished the sustained phase of hypotonicity-induced [Ca2+]i rise in iPSC-ECs from HGPS patients, and also markedly attenuated the transient phase of the [Ca2+]i rise in these cells. Importantly, a short 10 min hypotonicity treatment caused a substantial increase in caspase 8 activity in iPSC-ECs from HGPS patients but not in cells from normal individuals. Tranilast could also inhibit the hypotonicity-induced increase in caspase 8 activity. Taken together, our data suggest that an up-regulation in TRPV2 expression causes a sustained [Ca2+]i elevation in HGPS-iPSC-ECs under hypotonicity, consequently resulting in apoptotic cell death. This mechanism may contribute to the pathogenesis of vascular diseases in HGPS patients. PMID:24475260

Ho, Jenny Chung-Yee; Siu, Chung-Wah; Cheung, Sin-Ying; Tang, Nelson L.; Yu, Shan; Tse, Hung-Fat; Yao, Xiaoqiang

2014-01-01

413

Diffuser Test  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Tests begun at Stennis Space Center's E Complex Sept. 13 evaluated a liquid oxygen lead for engine start performance, part of the A-3 Test Facility Subscale Diffuser Risk Mitigation Project at SSC's E-3 Test Facility. Phase 1 of the subscale diffuser project, completed Sept. 24, was a series of 18 hot-fire tests using a 1,000-pound liquid oxygen and gaseous hydrogen thruster to verify maximum duration and repeatability for steam generation supporting the A-3 Test Stand project. The thruster is a stand-in for NASA's developing J-2X engine, to validate a 6 percent scale version of A-3's exhaust diffuser. Testing the J-2X at altitude conditions requires an enormous diffuser. Engineers will generate nearly 4,600 pounds per second of steam to reduce pressure inside A-3's test cell to simulate altitude conditions. A-3's exhaust diffuser has to be able to withstand regulated pressure, temperatures and the safe discharge of the steam produced during those tests. Before the real thing is built, engineers hope to work out any issues on the miniature version. Phase 2 testing is scheduled to begin this month.

2007-01-01

414

Effects of turbulent diffusion on the chemistry of diffuse clouds  

E-print Network

Aims. We probe the effect of turbulent diffusion on the chemistry at the interface between a cold neutral medium (CNM) cloudlet and the warm neutral medium (WNM). Methods. We perform moving grid, multifluid, 1D, hydrodynamical simulations with chemistry including thermal and chemical diffusion. The diffusion coefficients are enhanced to account for turbulent diffusion. We post-process the steady-states of our simulations with a crude model of radiative transfer to compute line profiles. Results. Turbulent diffusion spreads out the transition region between the CNM and the WNM. We find that the CNM slightly expands and heats up: its CH and H$_2$ content decreases due to the lower density. The change of physical conditions and diffusive transport increase the H$^+$ content in the CNM which results in increased OH and H$_2$O. Diffusion transports some CO out of the CNM. It also brings H$_2$ into contact with the warm gas with enhanced production of CH$^+$, H$_3^+$, OH and H$_2$O at the interface. O lines are sensitive to the spread of the thermal profile in the intermediate region between the CNM and the WNM. Enhanced molecular content at the interface of the cloud broadens the molecular line profiles and helps exciting transitions of intermediate energy. The relative molecular yield are found higher for bigger clouds. Conclusions. Turbulent diffusion can be the source of additional molecular production and should be included in chemical models of the interstellar medium (ISM). It also is a good candidate for the interpretation of observational problems such as warm H$_2$, CH$^+$ formation and presence of H$_3^+$.

P. Lesaffre; M. Gerin; P. Hennebelle

2007-04-24

415

Heat diffusion The objective of this laboratory is for you to use measurements of the diffusion of heat in a material to  

E-print Network

Heat diffusion Objective The objective of this laboratory is for you to use measurements of the diffusion of heat in a material to enhance your understanding of solutions of the diffusion equation, is the thermal diffusivity, D=/C. The MKS units of diffusivity are m2 /s. We can get a rough idea of the time

Braun, Paul

416

The Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 2 Cation Channel Is Abundant in Macrophages Accumulating at the Peri-Infarct Zone and May Enhance Their Migration Capacity towards Injured Cardiomyocytes following Myocardial Infarction  

PubMed Central

Purpose A novel family of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels, that may hold a role in calcium homeostasis, has recently been described. By employing a GeneChip array analysis we have demonstrated a clear and specific upregulation of the TRP vanilloid 2 (TRPV2) mRNA in the left ventricles (LV) 3–5 days post-acute myocardial infarction (MI) compared to sham-operated controls, both in rats and in mice. We sought to characterize the cardiac cellular subpopulations in which TRPV2 is overexpressed upon acute MI. Methods Lewis rats underwent an acute MI by ligation of the left anterior descending artery or chest opening only (sham). The animals were terminated at various time points and an immunohistochemical (IHC) and immunofloerescent (IFC) staining of the LV sections as well as a flow cytometry analysis of LV-derived cells were carried out, using anti-TRPV2 and anti-monocyte/macrophage antibodies. Rat alveolar macrophage cells, NR8383, transiently transfected with TRPV2 siRNA were allowed to migrate towards hypoxic conditioned media of the rat cardiac myoblast line H9C2 using a trans-well migration assay. The macrophage cells migrating to the bottom side of the inserts were counted. Results The IHC and IFC staining as well as the flow cytometry data demonstrated a substantial expression of TRPV2 in infiltrating macrophages in the peri-infarct region 3–5 days post-acute MI. The in vitro migration assay data demonstrated that following inhibition of the TRPV2 channel, the number of migrating macrophages towards conditioned medium of hypoxic cardiomyocytes was significantly reduced. Conclusions TRPV2 is highly expressed on the peri-infarct infiltrating macrophages and may play an important role in post-MI phagocytosis. Better characterization of this channel may pave the way for identifying a new target for modulating the dramatic post-MI immune reactions. PMID:25136832

Goryainov, Pavel; Landa, Natalie; Barshack, Iris; Avivi, Camila; Semo, Jonathan; Keren, Gad

2014-01-01

417

The Palomar transient factory  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Astrophysics is transforming from a data-starved to a data-swamped discipline, fundamentally changing the nature of scientific inquiry and discovery. New technologies are enabling the detection, transmission, and storage of data of hitherto unimaginable quantity and quality across the electromagnetic, gravity and particle spectra. The observational data obtained during this decade alone will supersede everything accumulated over the preceding four thousand years of astronomy. Currently there are 4 large-scale photometric and spectroscopic surveys underway, each generating and/or utilizing hundreds of terabytes of data per year. Some will focus on the static universe while others will greatly expand our knowledge of transient phenomena. Maximizing the science from these programs requires integrating the processing pipeline with high-performance computing resources. These are coupled to large astrophysics databases while making use of machine learning algorithms with near real-time turnaround. Here we present an overview of one of these programs, the Palomar Transient Factory (PTF). We will cover the processing and discovery pipeline we developed at LBNL and NERSC for it and several of the great discoveries made during the 4 years of observations with PTF.

Nugent, Peter; Cao, Yi; Kasliwal, Mansi

2015-01-01

418

Applicability of subpicosecond pulse lasers to determining thermal diffusivity of metals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transient reflectivity change due to subpicosecond laser-pulse heating is measured for aluminum sheets and a gold film. While hot electron relaxation and\\/or diffusion seem to control the temperature relaxation in the gold film, the ordinary thermal diffusion seems to be responsible for that in the aluminum sheets. It is possible to determine the characteristic time of the thermal diffusion

T. Nagasaki; H. Ohno; Y. Arita; T. Matsui

2005-01-01

419

Contamination of microgravity liquid diffusivity measurements by void-generated thermocapillary convection  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the effects of thermocapillary convection generated by a void or bubble on the self-diffusion measurement of molten indium in microgravity. The study is based on the thermophysical and geometrical configurations of the self-diffusion in liquid elements (SDLE) microgravity experiment. A transient finite element model of the diffusion capillary is presented. Numerical simulations of the transport processes in

M. Kassemi; S. Barsi; J. I. D. Alexander; M. Banish

2005-01-01

420

Enhanced fluorescence diffuse optical tomography with indocyanine green-encapsulating liposomes targeted to receptors for vascular endothelial growth factor in tumor vasculature.  

PubMed

To develop an indocyanine green (ICG) tracer with slower clearance kinetics, we explored ICG-encapsulating liposomes (Lip) in three different formulations: untargeted (Lip/ICG), targeted to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptors (scVEGF-Lip/ICG) by the receptor-binding moiety single-chain VEGF (scVEGF), or decorated with inactivated scVEGF (inactive-Lip/ICG) that does not bind to VEGF receptors. Experiments were conducted with tumor-bearing mice that were placed in a scattering medium with tumors located at imaging depths of either 1.5 or 2.0 cm. Near-infrared fluorescence diffuse optical tomography that provides depth-resolved spatial distributions of fluorescence in tumor was used for the detection of postinjection fluorescent signals. All liposome-based tracers, as well as free ICG, were injected intravenously into mice in the amounts corresponding to 5 nmol of ICG/mouse, and the kinetics of increase and decrease of fluorescent signals in tumors were monitored. A signal from free ICG reached maximum at 15-min postinjection and then rapidly declined with t1/2 of ~20 min. The signals from untargeted Lip/ICG and inactive-Lip/ICG also reached maximum at 15-min postinjection, however, declined somewhat slower than free ICG with t1/2 of ~30 min. By contrast, a signal from targeted scVEGF-Lip/ICG grew slower than that of all other tracers, reaching maximum at 30-min postinjection and declined much slower than that of other tracers with t1/2 of ~90 min, providing a more extended observation window. Higher scVEGF-Lip/ICG tumor accumulation was further confirmed by the analysis of fluorescence on cryosections of tumors that were harvested from animals at 400 min after injection with different tracers. PMID:24346856

Zanganeh, Saeid; Xu, Yan; Hamby, Carl V; Backer, Marina V; Backer, Joseph M; Zhu, Quing

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