Sample records for transient neurological symptoms

  1. [Neurological symptoms in poisoning].

    PubMed

    Neu, I

    1980-10-01

    Acute and chronic intoxications become manifest in primary neurological symptoms. After a definition of poisoning the autonomic, neurological and psychological disturbances are briefly discussed and the therapeutic measures presented in a table. Later, the neurological symptoms are described with reference to oberservations of cases of lead, thallium, E 605 (parathion), carbon monoxide, mercury, amphetamine and botulin poisoning. Four table and 9 figures supplement the text. PMID:6775212

  2. Patent foramen ovale and recurrent transient neurological symptoms: a case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Anamnart, Chumpol; Poungvarin, Niphon

    2011-02-01

    Stroke is a common cause of morbidity and mortality in adults worldwide. Because patent foramen ovale (PFO) is commonly found in normal population, we need to identify a subset of cryptogenic stroke patients who are likely to have experienced paradoxical embolization. Various factors need to be considered such as atrial anatomic variation (PFO size, atrial septal aneurysm, eustachian valve anatomy), hemodynamic parameters, presence of venous thrombosis and presence ofhypercoagulable state. The presence of any of these findings increase the chance of PFO contributing to stroke. We describe a 54-year-old patient with a history of well controlled hypertension and dyslipidemia who presented with 3 attacks of expressive aphasia lasting 5 minutes each. General medical and neurological examinations were normal. Transesophageal echocardiography with agitated saline injection revealed presence of PFO flap. Transcranial Doppler ultrasonography with three agitated saline injections showed multiple unilateral microembolism signals in the M1 of left middle cerebral artery. Aspirin was given as well as percutaneous endovascular PFO closure was performed with no immediate complication. Patient has had no further attack of stroke after 6 months follow-up. PMID:21721458

  3. Functional symptoms in neurology: mimics and chameleons.

    PubMed

    Stone, Jon; Reuber, Markus; Carson, Alan

    2013-04-01

    The mimics and chameleons of functional symptoms in neurology could be a whole textbook of neurology. Nevertheless, there are some recurring themes when things go wrong, notably diagnostic bias introduced by the presence or absence of psychiatric comorbidity or life events, neurological diseases that look 'weird' and lack of appreciation of the more unusual features of functional symptoms themselves. PMID:23468561

  4. NEUROLOGIC MANIFESTATIONS AS THE PRESENTING SYMPTOMS IN LUNG CANCER

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Ghaffarpour; B. Mansoorian

    This case series reports 100 patients with lung cancer and their presenting neurologic symptoms and signs. 78% of patients were male and 22% were female. Mean age was 62± 1.04 years with a peak age between 65 and 75 years. Most patients presented with pulmonary problems (58%) and neurologic deficits as the presenting manifestations were found to be 30% along

  5. Functional symptoms in neurology: questions and answers

    PubMed Central

    Reuber, M; Mitchell, A; Howlett, S; Crimlisk, H; Grunewald, R

    2005-01-01

    Between 10 and 30% of patients seen by neurologists have symptoms for which there is no current pathophysiological explanation. The objective of this review is to answer questions many neurologists have about disorders characterised by unexplained symptoms (functional disorders) by conducting a multidisciplinary review based on published reports and clinical experience. Current concepts explain functional symptoms as resulting from auto-suggestion, innate coping styles, disorders of volition or attention. Predisposing, precipitating, and perpetuating aetiological factors can be identified and contribute to a therapeutic formulation. The sympathetic communication of the diagnosis by the neurologist is important and all patients should be screened for psychiatric or psychological symptoms because up to two thirds have symptomatic psychiatric comorbidity. Treatment programmes are likely to be most successful if there is close collaboration between neurologists, (liaison) psychiatrists, psychologists, and general practitioners. Long term, symptoms persist in over 50% of patients and many patients remain dependent on financial help from the government. Neurologists can acquire the skills needed to engage patients in psychological treatment but would benefit from closer working relationships with liaison psychiatry or psychology. PMID:15716517

  6. [Neurological symptoms due to Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection in nine children].

    PubMed

    Roussel, P; Poulat, A-L; Romaszko, J-P; Labbé, A; Sarret, C

    2015-07-01

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection is common in children. Extrapulmonary symptoms usually reveal as neurological symptoms, mainly as encephalitis with significant morbidity and mortality. Various other neurological presentations have also been reported. We describe a cohort of nine children with neurological manifestations due to M. pneumoniae infection, including five cases of encephalitis, one of polyradiculoneuritis, one of ophthalmoplegia, one of optic neuritis, and one of myositis. Progression was variable from ad integrum recovery to severe brain damage. Diagnosis is usually confirmed by PCR and/or serological follow-up, but the latter is still insufficiently used in practice to systematically affirm the diagnosis. Therapeutic management is not clearly defined and long-term progression can be uncertain despite early antibiotic and/or anti-inflammatory treatments. PMID:26047743

  7. Autism spectrum symptoms in children with neurological disorders

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The aims of the present study were to assess symptoms associated with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in children with neurological disorders as reported by parents and teachers on the Autism Spectrum Screening Questionnaire (ASSQ), as well as the level of agreement between informants for each child. Methods The ASSQ was completed by parents and teachers of the 5781 children (11–13 years) who participated in the second wave of the Bergen Child Study (BCS), an on-going longitudinal population-based study. Out of these children, 496 were reported to have a chronic illness, including 99 whom had a neurological disorder. The neurological disorder group included children both with and without intellectual disabilities. Results Children with neurological disorders obtained significantly higher parent and teacher reported ASSQ scores than did non-chronically ill children and those with other chronic illnesses (p<.01; ES = .50-1.01), and 14.1% were screened above the positive cutoff score for ASD according to their combined parent and teacher ASSQ scores. Parent/teacher agreement over ASSQ scores for children with neurological disorders was moderate to high for the total score and for three sub scores generated from a factor analysis, and low to moderate for single items. Conclusions The ASSQ identifies a high rate of ASD symptoms in children with neurological disorders, and a large number of children screened in the positive range for ASD. Although a firm conclusion awaits further clinical studies, the present results suggest that health care professionals should be aware of potential ASD related problems in children with neurological disorders, and should consider inclusion of the ASSQ or similar screening instruments as part of their routine assessment of this group of children. PMID:23146284

  8. A Clinical Investigation of Contralateral Neurological Symptom after Transforaminal Lumbar Interbody Fusion (TLIF)

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Jiayue; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Xin; Sun, Yapeng; Ding, Wenyuan; Shen, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to analyze treatment outcomes and morbidity of contralateral neurological symptom in patients after TLIF surgery and to explore its possible causes. Material/Methods A retrospective study was conducted involving a total of 476 patients who underwent TILF from 2009 to 2012 in our hospital. These cases were divided into a symptomatic group (Group S) and a non-symptomatic group. The differences in contralateral foramen area and disc-height index(DHI) before and after surgery were compared between Group S and a random sample of 40 cases of non-symptomatic group patients (group N). In addition, according to whether the patient underwent second surgery, Group S patients were further divided into a transient neurologic symptoms group (Group T) and an operations exploration group (Group O). The time of symptom appearance, duration, and symptomatic severity (JOA VAS score) were compared between Group T and O. Results Among the 476 patients, 18 had postoperative contralateral neurological symptoms; thus, the morbidity was 3.7815%. The indicators in Group S were lower than in Group N in the differences in contralateral foramen area and disc-height index(DHI) before and after surgery (p<0.05). Five patients (Group O) in Group S had second surgery because of invalid conservative treatment. The surgical exploration rate was 1.0504%. Compared with Group T, the symptoms of Group O patients appeared earlier, persisted longer, and were more serious (p<0.05). Conclusions Contralateral neurological symptom is a potential complication after TLIF, and its causes are diverse. Surgical explorations should be conducted early for those patients with the complication who present with obvious nerve damage. PMID:26109143

  9. Neurological signs and late-life depressive symptoms in a community population: the ESPRIT Study

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    1 Neurological signs and late-life depressive symptoms in a community population: the ESPRIT Study: Neurological signs, Late-life Depression, Depressive symptoms, Old age, Neurodegenerative theory Key points-level depression but were more likely to be present in those with a lifetime history of neurological disorder

  10. Atypical Craniosynostosis with Torticollis and Neurological Symptoms: A Rhombencephalosynapsis Sequence

    PubMed Central

    Koljonen, Virve; Leikola, Junnu; Valanne, Leena; Hukki, Jyri

    2009-01-01

    Purpose. We describe a case of 3-year-old girl with rhombencephalosynapsis, a rare cerebellar anomaly. Patient. A 3-year-old girl was admitted to our hospital due to congenital torticollis and asymmetry of face, skull and trunk. Craniosynostosis was suspected due to abnormal head shape. 3D-CT revealed closure of the sagittal suture without scaphocephalic skull. Due to atypical craniosynostosis with neurological symptoms, brain-MRI was performed revealing rhombencephalosynapsis. Results. Our patient presented with atypical craniosynostosis and balance problems, not typical for scaphocephaly. Operative treatment for craniosynotosis was not carried out because the cause of the problems was the cerebellum instead of the brain. Conclusions. Therefore, we conclude that patients with atypical craniosynostosis should be examined with brain-MRI to exclude the intracranial malformations, which 3D-CT does not reveal. Without brain-MRI, decision (not) to perform surgery could have been different. PMID:20029674

  11. [Contribution of arterial spin labeling to the diagnosis of sudden and transient neurological deficit].

    PubMed

    Yger, M; Villain, N; Belkacem, S; Bertrand, A; Rosso, C; Crozier, S; Samson, Y; Dormont, D

    2015-02-01

    MRI is the gold standard exploration for sudden transient neurological events. If diffusion MRI is negative, there may be a diagnostic doubt between transient ischemic attack and other causes of transient neurological deficit. We illustrate how sequence arterial spin labeling (ASL), which evaluates cerebral perfusion, contributes to the exploration of transient neurological events. An ASL sequence was performed in seven patients with a normal diffusion MRI explored for a transient deficit. Cortical hyperperfusion not systematized to an arterial territory was found in three and hypoperfusion systematized to an arterial territory in four. ASL helped guide early management of these patients. PMID:25555846

  12. A Patient with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Complicated by Neurological Symptoms of Toluene Poisoning

    PubMed Central

    Takeuchi, Tohru; Makino, Shigeki; Hanafusa, Toshiaki

    2013-01-01

    We report a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus complicated by toluene poisoning. She had erythema, alopecia, arthralgia, and various neurological symptoms. Laboratory findings showed leukocytopenia, low levels of complements, and anti-dsDNA antibody. However, normal interleukin-6 level and IgG index of cerebrospinal fluid and brain magnetic resonance imaging and single photon emission computed tomography findings suggested that her neurological symptoms were caused by metabolic disorder but not neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus. Erythema, alopecia, and arthralgia improved rapidly after administration of prednisolone and tacrolimus, whereas neurological symptoms improved only gradually. Because of a history of exposure to toluene, her neurological symptoms were considered to be due to toluene poisoning. The differentiation of toluene poisoning from neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus based on symptoms is difficult because both induce various neuropsychiatric disorders. Laboratory findings of cerebrospinal fluid, radiological findings, and medical interview were useful for differentiation of toluene poisoning from neuropsychiatric systemic lupus erythematosus. PMID:23956915

  13. Differentiating cerebral ischemia from functional neurological symptom disorder: a psychosomatic perspective

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The differential diagnosis of pseudo-neurological symptoms often represents a clinical challenge. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, DSM-5, made an attempt to improve diagnostic criteria of conversion disorder (functional neurological symptom disorder). Incongruences of the neurological examination, i.e. positive neurological signs, indicate a new approach - whereas psychological factors are not necessary anymore. As the DSM-5 will influence the International Classification of Diseases, ICD-11, this is of importance. In the case presented, a history of psychological distress and adverse childhood experiences coexisted with a true neurological disorder. We discuss the relevance of an interdisciplinary assessment and of operationalized diagnostic criteria. Case presentation A 32-year-old man presented twice with neurological symptoms without obvious pathological organic findings. A conversion disorder was considered early on at the second admission by the neurology team. Sticking to ICD-10, this diagnosis was not supported by a specialist for psychosomatic medicine, due to missing hints of concurrent psychological distress in temporal association with neurological symptoms. Further investigations then revealed a deep vein thrombosis (though D-dimers had been negative), which had probably resulted in a crossed embolus. Conclusion The absence of a clear proof of biological dysfunction underlying neurological symptoms should not lead automatically to the diagnosis of a conversion disorder. In contrast, at least in more complex patients, the work-up should include repeated psychological and neurological assessments in close collaboration. According to ICD-10 positive signs of concurrent psychological distress are required, while DSM-5 emphasizes an incongruity between neurological symptoms and neurophysiological patterns of dysfunction. In the case presented, an extensive medical work-up was initially negative, and neither positive psychological nor positive neurological criteria could be identified. We conclude, that, even in times of more sophisticated operationalization of diagnostic criteria, the interdisciplinary assessment has to be based on an individual evaluation of all neurological and psychosocial findings. Prospective studies of inter-rater reliability and validity of psychological factors and positive neurological signs are needed, as evidence for both is limited. With respect to ICD-11, we suggest that positive neurological as well as psychological signs for functional neurological symptom disorder should be considered to increase diagnostic certainty. PMID:24885264

  14. Onco-neural antibodies and tumour type determine survival and neurological symptoms in paraneoplastic neurological syndromes with Hu or CV2/CRMP5

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    Onco-neural antibodies and tumour type determine survival and neurological symptoms in paraneoplastic neurological syndromes with Hu or CV2/CRMP5 antibodies Honnorat J r meé ô 1 2 * , Cartalat of Psychiatry7 Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio,US Service of Neurology8 Universitat de Barcelona, Institut

  15. Transient isolated brainstem symptoms preceding posterior circulation stroke: a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Nicola LM; Simoni, Michela; Rothwell, Peter M

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background Transient isolated brainstem symptoms (eg, isolated vertigo, dysarthria, diplopia) are not consistently classified as transient ischaemic attacks (TIAs) and data for prognosis are limited. If some of these transient neurological attacks (TNAs) are due to vertebrobasilar ischaemia, then they should be common during the days and weeks preceding posterior circulation strokes. We aimed to assess the frequency of TNAs before vertebrobasilar ischaemic stroke. Methods We studied all potential ischaemic events during the 90 days preceding an ischaemic stroke in patients ascertained within a prospective, population-based incidence study in Oxfordshire, UK (Oxford Vascular Study; 2002–2010) and compared rates of TNA preceding vertebrobasilar stroke versus carotid stroke. We classified the brainstem symptoms isolated vertigo, vertigo with non-focal symptoms, isolated double vision, transient generalised weakness, and binocular visual disturbance as TNAs in the vertebrobasilar territory; atypical amaurosis fugax and limb-shaking as TNAs in the carotid territory; and isolated slurred speech, migraine variants, transient confusion, and hemisensory tingling symptoms as TNAs in uncertain territory. Findings Of the 1141 patients with ischaemic stroke, vascular territory was categorisable in 1034 (91%) cases, with 275 vertebrobasilar strokes and 759 carotid strokes. Isolated brainstem TNAs were more frequent before a vertebrobasilar stroke (45 of 275 events) than before a carotid stroke (10 of 759; OR 14·7, 95% CI 7·3–29·5, p<0·0001), particularly during the preceding 2 days (22 of 252 before a vertebrobasilar stroke vs two of 751 before a carotid stroke, OR 35·8, 8·4–153·5, p<0·0001). Of all 59 TNAs preceding (median 4 days, IQR 1–30) vertebrobasilar stroke, only five (8%) fulfilled the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) criteria for TIA. The other 54 cases were isolated vertigo (n=23), non-NINDS binocular visual disturbance (n=9), vertigo with other non-focal symptoms (n=10), isolated slurred speech, hemisensory tingling, or diplopia (n=8), and non-focal events (n=4). Only 10 (22%) of the 45 patients with isolated brainstem TNAs sought medical attention before the stroke and a vascular cause was suspected by their physician in only one of these cases. Interpretation In patients with definite vertebrobasilar stroke, preceding transient isolated brainstem symptoms are common, but most symptoms do not satisfy traditional definitions of TIA. More studies of the prognosis of transient isolated brainstem symptoms are required. Funding Wellcome Trust, UK Medical Research Council, Dunhill Medical Trust, Stroke Association, National Institute for Health Research (NIHR), Thames Valley Primary Care Research Partnership, and the NIHR Biomedical Research Centre, Oxford. PMID:23206553

  16. Early onset of neurological symptoms in fragile X premutation carriers exposed to neurotoxins.

    PubMed

    Paul, Ripon; Pessah, Isaac N; Gane, Louise; Ono, Michele; Hagerman, Paul J; Brunberg, James A; Tassone, Flora; Bourgeois, James A; Adams, Patrick E; Nguyen, Danh V; Hagerman, Randi

    2010-08-01

    We present four cases of fragile X premutation carriers with early neurological symptoms, including symptoms consistent with multiple sclerosis (MS) and fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS). Each patient had significant exposure to one or more environmental neurotoxicants that have documented neurotoxicity (i.e. hexachlorocyclopentadiene or C56, Agent Orange, and 2,4- or 2,6-toluene diisocyanate and dichlormate). We hypothesize that premutation carriers are a vulnerable group to neurotoxins because elevated mRNA in the premutation can lead to early cell death and brain disease, leading to neuropsychiatric and neurological symptoms consistent with FXTAS. PMID:20466021

  17. Early onset of neurological symptoms in fragile X premutation carriers exposed to neurotoxins

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Ripon; Pessah, Isaac N.; Gane, Louise; Ono, Michele; Hagerman, Paul J.; Brunberg, James A.; Tassone, Flora; Bourgeois, James A.; Adams, Patrick E.; Nguyen, Danh V.; Hagerman, Randi

    2014-01-01

    We present four cases of fragile X premutation carriers with early neurological symptoms, including symptoms consistent with multiple sclerosis (MS) and fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS). Each patient had significant exposure to one or more environmental neurotoxicants that have documented neurotoxicity (i.e. hexachlorocyclopentadiene or C56, Agent Orange, and 2,4- or 2,6-toluene diisocyanate and dichlormate). We hypothesize that premutation carriers are a vulnerable group to neurotoxins because elevated mRNA in the premutation can lead to early cell death and brain disease, leading to neuropsychiatric and neurological symptoms consistent with FXTAS. PMID:20466021

  18. Various Neurological Symptoms by Neurolymphomatosis as the Initial Presentation of Primary Testicular Lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Sunami, Yoshitaka; Gotoh, Akihiko; Hamano, Yasuharu; Yahata, Yuriko; Sakurai, Hiroko; Shirane, Shuichi; Edahiro, Yoko; Komatsu, Norio

    2015-01-01

    Neurological symptoms induced by the infiltration of malignant lymphoma into the nervous systems are subsumed under the term neurolymphomatosis (NL). Here, we report the case of a 30-year-old Japanese man with primary testicular lymphoma complicated, as seen in various neurological findings, by secondary NL prior to testicular swelling. Painless right scrotal enlargement was noticed more than 1 month after the appearance of neurological complications such as right upper extremity numbness, dysarthria, facial palsy, and diplopia. Proactive investigation and biopsies of extranodal sites at high risk of central nervous system infiltration of malignant lymphoma, such as the testes, should be considered when secondary NL is suspected based on imaging findings.

  19. The Still Enigmatic Syndrome of Transient Global Amnesia: Interactions Between Neurological and Psychopathological Factors.

    PubMed

    Noël, Audrey; Quinette, Peggy; Hainselin, Mathieu; Dayan, Jacques; Viader, Fausto; Desgranges, Béatrice; Eustache, Francis

    2015-06-01

    Transient global amnesia (TGA) is a neurological syndrome that usually occurs in middle-aged or older people. It is characterized by the abrupt onset of profound anterograde amnesia, associated with more variable retrograde amnesia and repetitive questioning. The whole episode lasts no more than 24 h. Almost 60 years after its first descriptions, the etiology of TGA remains unknown. Until now, TGA has been described exclusively as a memory disorder, but there is a growing body of evidence to show that emotional and psychological factors (as anxious and depressive symptoms) are present at different times of TGA. Their role therefore needs to be clarified. First, these factors seem to play a part in triggering TGA, at least for a subgroup of patients, suggesting the existence of an emotional TGA subtype. Second, recent research shows that almost all the TGA patients displayed modifications of their emotional state during the episode, possibly linked to sudden memory loss. The level of depressive and anxious symptoms could even reach a pathological threshold in patients with the so-called "emotional TGA subtype". Third, the persistence of these depressive and anxious symptoms after the end of the episode could account for lasting memory disorders in some patients. Finally, the analysis of these emotional syndrome and emotional factors and the recent data in neuroimaging could allow us to gain a better understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms behind TGA. The aim of this review was thus to discuss whether the anxious and depressive symptoms are causative, resultant or coincidental of TGA. PMID:25868986

  20. Delayed, transient neurological deterioration after mild head injury--case report.

    PubMed

    Urasaki, E; Yasukouchi, H; Yokota, A; Aragaki, Y

    2001-06-01

    A 16-year-old boy presented with delayed, transient neurological deterioration 18 days after mild head injury. Left hemiparesis and left homonymous hemianopsia appeared after right frontal contusional and mild subdural hematomas subsided. Neuroimaging examinations including cerebral angiography, magnetic resonance imaging, and single photon emission computed tomography showed vasodilation and hyperemia in the right cerebral hemisphere. The present case is not typical of acute "juvenile head trauma syndrome," but may represent a possible pathophysiology of the delayed type of transient neurological deterioration after mild head injury. PMID:11458743

  1. PRISM: A Novel Research Tool to Assess the Prevalence of Pseudobulbar Affect Symptoms across Neurological Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, Benjamin Rix; Crumpacker, David; Fellus, Jonathan; Kantor, Daniel; Kaye, Randall E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Pseudobulbar affect (PBA) is a neurological condition characterized by involuntary, sudden, and frequent episodes of laughing and/or crying, which can be socially disabling. Although PBA occurs secondary to many neurological conditions, with an estimated United States (US) prevalence of up to 2 million persons, it is thought to be under-recognized and undertreated. The PBA Registry Series (PRISM) was established to provide additional PBA symptom prevalence data in a large, representative US sample of patients with neurological conditions known to be associated with PBA. Methods Participating clinicians were asked to enroll ?20 consenting patients with any of 6 conditions: Alzheimer’s disease (AD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), multiple sclerosis (MS), Parkinson’s disease (PD), stroke, or traumatic brain injury (TBI). Patients (or their caregivers) completed the Center for Neurologic Study?Lability Scale (CNS-LS) and an 11-point scale measuring impact of the neurological condition on the patient’s quality of life (QOL). Presence of PBA symptoms was defined as a CNS?LS score ?13. Demographic data and current use of antidepressant or antipsychotic medications were also recorded. Results PRISM enrolled 5290 patients. More than one third of patients (n?=?1944; 36.7%) had a CNS-LS score ?13, suggesting PBA symptoms. The mean (SD) score measuring impact of neurological condition on QOL was significantly higher (worse) in patients with CNS-LS ?13 vs <13 (6.7 [2.5] vs. 4.7 [3.1], respectively; P<0.0001 two-sample t-test). A greater percentage of patients with CNS?LS ?13 versus <13 were using antidepressant/antipsychotic medications (53.0% vs 35.4%, respectively; P<0.0001, chi-square test). Conclusions Data from PRISM, the largest clinic-based study to assess PBA symptom prevalence, showed that PBA symptoms were common among patients with diverse neurological conditions. Higher CNS?LS scores were associated with impaired QOL and greater use of antipsychotic/antidepressant medications. These data underscore a need for greater awareness, recognition, and diagnosis of PBA. PMID:23991068

  2. A rare case of complete C2–C3 dislocation with mild neurological symptoms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Theofilos G. Machinis; Kostas N. Fountas; E. Z. Kapsalaki; I. Kapsalakis; A. A. Grigorian

    2006-01-01

    The authors report a rare case of complete C2–C3 dislocation with unexpectedly mild neurological symptoms in a 57 year old\\u000a man involved in a motor vehicle accident, who had previously undergone posterior laminectomy from C3 through C7. A retrospective\\u000a chart analysis and a thorough radiographic review were performed. X-rays and CT of the cervical spine demonstrated a complete\\u000a dislocation at the

  3. A neuropsychological comparison of siblings with neurological versus hepatic symptoms of Wilson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Arguedas, Deborah; Stewart, Jeanette; Hodgkinson, Suzanne; Batchelor, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Wilson's Disease (WD) (also known as hepatolenticular degeneration) is a rare inherited autosomal recessive disorder of abnormal copper metabolism, with an estimated prevalence of approximately 1 in 30,000. The clinical features associated with WD are highly varied. However, subtypes generally reflect neurological, hepatic, and psychiatric symptoms. The present case study reports two brothers with a recent diagnosis of WD. Neurological symptoms and cognitive deficits were exhibited in one brother (BL) in the form of extrapyramidal features, while the other brother (AL) only exhibited hepatic symptoms. Extensive neuropsychological testing was conducted on both siblings to compare cognitive profiles. Results for BL indicated significantly impaired motor functioning and information processing speed, which impacted him significantly at school. Aspects of executive dysfunction were also apparent in addition to reduced visual and verbal memory, working memory, and attention. Results for AL revealed evidence of verbal memory difficulties and aspects of executive dysfunction. Comparison is made of the distinct and common cognitive characteristics of the cases presented in terms of implications for early intervention and management of cognitive difficulties. PMID:24499483

  4. Organophosphate intermediate syndrome with neurological complications of extrapyramidal symptoms in clinical practice

    PubMed Central

    Detweiler, Mark B.

    2014-01-01

    Organophosphates (OPs) are ubiquitous in the world as domestic and industrial agricultural insecticides. Intentional poisoning as suicides attempts are clinical phenomena seen in emergency departments and clinics in agricultural areas. Intermediate syndrome with the neurological complication of extra pyramidal symptoms following acute OP ingestion may occur in pediatric and adult cases. While death is the most serious consequence of toxic OP doses, low levels of exposure and nonfatal doses may disrupt the neurobehavioral development of fetuses and children in addition to bring linked to testicular cancer and male and female infertility. These are disturbing. Chronic and acute toxicity from OPs are barriers to the health of our present and future generations. Symptoms and treatment of acute and chronic OP exposure are briefly referenced with inclusion of the intermediate syndrome. Suggestions for local and systemic reduction of the acute and long term consequences of OP ingestion are opined. PMID:25002781

  5. Do medically unexplained symptoms matter? A prospective cohort study of 300 new referrals to neurology outpatient clinics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan J Carson; Brigitte Ringbauer; Jon Stone; Lesley McKenzie; Charles Warlow; Michael Sharpe

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine (a) the proportion of patients referred to general neurology outpatient clinics whose symptoms are medically unexplained; (b) why they were referred; (c) health status and emotional disorder in this group compared with patients whose symptoms are explained by \\

  6. Association of Low PON1 Type Q (Type A) Arylesterase Activity with Neurologic Symptom Complexes in Gulf War Veterans

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert W. Haley; Scott Billecke; Bert N. La Du

    1999-01-01

    Previously Haley et al. described six possible syndromes identified by factor analysis of symptoms in Gulf War veterans and demonstrated that veterans with these symptom complexes were more neurologically impaired than age–sex–education-matched well controls. They also uncovered strong associations (relative risks 4–8) suggesting that these symptom complexes were related to wartime exposure to combinations of organophosphate pesticides, chemical nerve agents,

  7. A woman with treated breast cancer, recent neurological symptoms and xanthoderma.

    PubMed

    Santos, Vitorino Modesto dos; Camilo, Anna Gabriela Oliveira; Souza, Leonardo Aquino de; Souza, Diogo Wagner da Silva de; Marinho, Christiane Silveira; Monteiro, Lucas Maciel Rodrigues

    2013-01-01

    We describe a 69-year-old-woman with antecedent of breast cancer and recent transitory neurological symptoms. Physical examination showed yellow to orange skin pigmentation, more conspicuous on her palms and soles, while discoloration changes were absent in the eye and oral mucous membranes. Routine laboratory findings were not indicative of hemolytic anemia, liver or bile disorders, nephrotic syndrome, hypothyroidism or diabetes mellitus. We emphasize the role of her excessive ingestion of papaw and tomato. These foods are rich in carotenoids (?-carotene and lycopene), which are associated with pigmentation disorders. The skin discoloration improved in about two months after correction of the inadequate diet. Major concerns about differential diagnosis of yellow skin pigmentation are also highlighted. PMID:23605606

  8. Neurological Symptoms of Sarcoidosis-induced Small Fiber Neuropathy Effectively Relieved with High-dose Steroid Pulse Therapy.

    PubMed

    Saito, Hiroaki; Yamaguchi, Tetsuo; Adachi, Yuta; Yamashita, Takaaki; Wakai, Yoko; Saito, Kazuhito; Shinohara, Yoko; Suzuki, Keiko; Yagihashi, Soroku; Terada, Jiro; Tatsumi, Koichiro

    2015-01-01

    A 59-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital for an evaluation of a 10-day history of progressive pain and hypoesthesia of the right lower back associated with fever and constipation. Sarcoidosis was confirmed on mediastinal lymph node and skin biopsies. Although the neurological symptoms were suspected due to sarcoidosis-induced nerve dysfunction, nerve conduction studies and other routine examinations did not show any abnormalities. The intraepidermal nerve fiber density assessed on a skin biopsy was significantly reduced, suggesting small-fiber neuropathy (SFN). The patient was finally diagnosed with sarcoidosis-induced SFN, and her neurological symptoms were effectively relieved with high-dose steroid therapy. PMID:25986271

  9. Neurological symptoms associated with acute multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy: treatment dilemma and diagnostic issues.

    PubMed

    Oleszczuk, Justyna D; Saeed, Muhammad Usman

    2015-05-01

    Acute multifocal placoid pigment epitheliopathy (AMPPE) is thought to be caused by vasculitis of the choroid. Central nervous system involvement is rare. We report a case of a 28-year-old male who developed blurred vision (6/12 OD, 6/24 OS). Past medical history involved non-specific viral meningitis treated with intravenous antibiotics and antivirals. Subsequently, the patient complained of recurrent headaches. Based on typical clinical findings and fluorescein angiogram, he was diagnosed with AMPPE. Visual disturbance resolved without any systemic treatment. Six months later, visual symptoms recurred and resolved spontaneously, but his headache continued. A few months later, the patient developed acute progressive neurological signs and symptoms necessitating inpatient admission. Lacunar infarcts in the CNS were found, which had not been noted in previous neuro-imaging studies. Cerebral vasculitis associated with AMPPE was diagnosed and treated with systemic steroids and immune suppression. Currently, the patient remains asymptomatic under joined care of an ophthalmologist and a neurologist. PMID:24175642

  10. Symptom Progression or Fluctuation in Transient Ischemic Attack Patients Predicts Subsequent Stroke

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Makoto Nakajima; Teruyuki Hirano; Hiroaki Naritomi; Kazuo Minematsu

    2010-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to investigate whether progression or fluctuation of transient ischemic attack (TIA) symptoms is a predictor of subsequent stroke. Methods: We prospectively analyzed 113 consecutive patients admitted with a diagnosis of classical TIA with symptom duration of less than 24 h. We assessed the background characteristics, TIA symptoms, attack characteristics, results of in-hospital examinations,

  11. Course of neurological soft signs in first-episode schizophrenia: Relationship with negative symptoms and cognitive performances.

    PubMed

    Chan, Raymond C K; Geng, Fu-Lei; Lui, Simon S Y; Wang, Ya; Ho, Karen K Y; Hung, Karen S Y; Gur, Raquel E; Gur, Ruben C; Cheung, Eric F C

    2015-01-01

    This prospective study examined the course of neurological soft signs (NSS) in patients with first-episode schizophrenia and its relationship with negative symptoms and cognitive functions. One hundred and forty-five patients with first-episode schizophrenia were recruited, 29 were classified as having prominent negative symptoms. NSS and neuropsychological measures were administered to all patients and 62 healthy controls at baseline. Patients were then followed-up prospectively at six-month intervals for up to a year. Patients with prominent negative symptoms exhibited significantly more motor coordination signs and total NSS than patients without prominent negative symptoms. Patients with prominent negative symptoms performed worse than patients without negative symptoms in working memory functions but not other fronto-parietal or fronto-temporal functions. Linear growth model for binary data showed that the prominent negative symptoms were stable over time. Despite general improvement in NSS and neuropsychological functions, the prominent negative symptoms group still exhibited poorer motor coordination and higher levels of NSS, as well as poorer working memory than patients without prominent negative symptoms. Two distinct subtypes of first-episode patients could be distinguished by NSS and prominent negative symptoms. PMID:26053141

  12. Course of neurological soft signs in first-episode schizophrenia: Relationship with negative symptoms and cognitive performances

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Raymond C. K.; Geng, Fu-lei; Lui, Simon S. Y.; Wang, Ya; Ho, Karen K. Y.; Hung, Karen S. Y.; Gur, Raquel E.; Gur, Ruben C.; Cheung, Eric F. C.

    2015-01-01

    This prospective study examined the course of neurological soft signs (NSS) in patients with first-episode schizophrenia and its relationship with negative symptoms and cognitive functions. One hundred and forty-five patients with first-episode schizophrenia were recruited, 29 were classified as having prominent negative symptoms. NSS and neuropsychological measures were administered to all patients and 62 healthy controls at baseline. Patients were then followed-up prospectively at six-month intervals for up to a year. Patients with prominent negative symptoms exhibited significantly more motor coordination signs and total NSS than patients without prominent negative symptoms. Patients with prominent negative symptoms performed worse than patients without negative symptoms in working memory functions but not other fronto-parietal or fronto-temporal functions. Linear growth model for binary data showed that the prominent negative symptoms were stable over time. Despite general improvement in NSS and neuropsychological functions, the prominent negative symptoms group still exhibited poorer motor coordination and higher levels of NSS, as well as poorer working memory than patients without prominent negative symptoms. Two distinct subtypes of first-episode patients could be distinguished by NSS and prominent negative symptoms. PMID:26053141

  13. Screening for primary creatine deficiencies in French patients with unexplained neurological symptoms

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    A population of patients with unexplained neurological symptoms from six major French university hospitals was screened over a 28-month period for primary creatine disorder (PCD). Urine guanidinoacetate (GAA) and creatine:creatinine ratios were measured in a cohort of 6,353 subjects to identify PCD patients and compile their clinical, 1H-MRS, biochemical and molecular data. Six GAMT [N-guanidinoacetatemethyltransferase (EC 2.1.1.2)] and 10 X-linked creatine transporter (SLC6A8) but no AGAT (GATM) [L-arginine/glycine amidinotransferase (EC 2.1.4.1)] deficient patients were identified in this manner. Three additional affected sibs were further identified after familial inquiry (1 brother with GAMT deficiency and 2 brothers with SLC6A8 deficiency in two different families). The prevalence of PCD in this population was 0.25% (0.09% and 0.16% for GAMT and SLC6A8 deficiencies, respectively). Seven new PCD-causing mutations were discovered (2 nonsense [c.577C?>?T and c.289C?>?T] and 1 splicing [c.391?+?15G?>?T] mutations for the GAMT gene and, 2 missense [c.1208C?>?A and c.926C?>?A], 1 frameshift [c.930delG] and 1 splicing [c.1393-1G?>?A] mutations for the SLC6A8 gene). No hot spot mutations were observed in these genes, as all the mutations were distributed throughout the entire gene sequences and were essentially patient/family specific. Approximately one fifth of the mutations of SLC6A8, but not GAMT, were attributed to neo-mutation, germinal or somatic mosaicism events. The only SLC6A8-deficient female patient in our series presented with the severe phenotype usually characterizing affected male patients, an observation in agreement with recent evidence that is in support of the fact that this X-linked disorder might be more frequent than expected in the female population with intellectual disability. PMID:23234264

  14. Sentomist: Unveiling Transient Sensor Network Bugs via Symptom Mining

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yangfan Zhou; Xinyu Chen; Michael R. Lyu; Jiangchuan Liu

    2010-01-01

    Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) applications are typi- cally event-driven. While the source codes of these ap- plications may look simple, they are in fact executed with a complicated concurrency model, which frequently intro- duces software bugs, in particular, transient bugs. Such buggy logics may only be triggered by some occasionally in- terleaved events that bear implicit dependency, but can lead

  15. 'Smoke in the air': a rare cerebrovascular cause of neurological signs and symptoms in a young adult.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Imtiaz; Al-Khafaji, Khalid; Mutyala, Monica; Aggarwal, Saurabh; Al-Khafaji, Nawfal; Kovacs, Daniela; Khosla, Sandeep; Arora, Rohit

    2015-01-01

    Moyamoya disease is a rare neurological condition that affects children and adults of all ages. It is characterized by chronic, progressive stenosis of the circle of Willis that ultimately leads to the development of extensive collateral vessels. Presenting symptoms are usually due to cerebral ischemia or hemorrhage. The Japanese term moyamoya (meaning puffy or obscure) was coined to describe the characteristic 'smoke in the air' appearance of these vessels on cerebral angiography. Moyamoya has the highest recorded incidence in Japan (0.28 per 100,000). In the west it is an extremely rare condition with an overall incidence of (0.086 per 100,000) in the Western United States. Etiology for the most part is unknown; however, genetic susceptibility related to RNF213 gene on chromosome 17q25.3 has been suggested. Moyamoya is being diagnosed more frequently in all races with varying clinical manifestations. Moyamoya disease is a rare progressive neurologic condition characterized by occlusion of the cerebral circulation with extensive collaterals recruitment in children and adults. Distinguished radiological findings confirm the diagnosis. Early recognition and swift institution of therapy is vital in order to minimize neurological deficits. We present the case of a 19-year-old African American female who presented with left-sided parastheia, weakness, and headache for 2 days duration. PMID:26091661

  16. ‘Smoke in the air’: a rare cerebrovascular cause of neurological signs and symptoms in a young adult

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, Imtiaz; Al-Khafaji, Khalid; Mutyala, Monica; Aggarwal, Saurabh; Al-Khafaji, Nawfal; Kovacs, Daniela; Khosla, Sandeep; Arora, Rohit

    2015-01-01

    Moyamoya disease is a rare neurological condition that affects children and adults of all ages. It is characterized by chronic, progressive stenosis of the circle of Willis that ultimately leads to the development of extensive collateral vessels. Presenting symptoms are usually due to cerebral ischemia or hemorrhage. The Japanese term moyamoya (meaning puffy or obscure) was coined to describe the characteristic ‘smoke in the air’ appearance of these vessels on cerebral angiography. Moyamoya has the highest recorded incidence in Japan (0.28 per 100,000). In the west it is an extremely rare condition with an overall incidence of (0.086 per 100,000) in the Western United States. Etiology for the most part is unknown; however, genetic susceptibility related to RNF213 gene on chromosome 17q25.3 has been suggested. Moyamoya is being diagnosed more frequently in all races with varying clinical manifestations. Moyamoya disease is a rare progressive neurologic condition characterized by occlusion of the cerebral circulation with extensive collaterals recruitment in children and adults. Distinguished radiological findings confirm the diagnosis. Early recognition and swift institution of therapy is vital in order to minimize neurological deficits. We present the case of a 19-year-old African American female who presented with left-sided parastheia, weakness, and headache for 2 days duration. PMID:26091661

  17. Role of anticardiolipin antibodies in young persons with migraine and transient focal neurologic events: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Tietjen, G E; Day, M; Norris, L; Aurora, S; Halvorsen, A; Schultz, L R; Levine, S R

    1998-05-01

    Anticardiolipin antibodies (aCL) are a risk factor for cerebral ischemia. In migraine, the association is controversial, with widely varying results in different small series. The controversy in part may be due to the inherent difficulty in distinguishing the transient focal neurologic events (TFNE) of migraine from TIA. To assess the frequency of aCL in migraine, we prospectively evaluated consecutive adults under 60 years of age with migraine without aura and with recent TFNE (<24-hour duration) clinically suggestive of either migraine with aura or TIA. We concomitantly enrolled persons with no CNS disease. Each person was interviewed and had blood drawn for solid-phase ELISA with IgG and IgM aCL isotyping. Neuroradiologic studies were reviewed. Patients with TFNE were followed every 6 months for the duration of the 3-year study. The frequency of aCL positivity (IgG >20, IgG >40, IgM >7.5) for the 645 patients with TFNE (8.8, 3.1, 4.2%), the 518 persons in the TFNE subgroup with migraine with aura (8.9, 3.3, 4.1%), the 497 persons with migraine without aura (7.0, 2.0, 3.6%), and the 366 control subjects (9.3, 3.6, 3.9%) did not differ significantly between groups. In TFNE patients with elevated aCL titer, the association was positive with diabetes mellitus, TFNE duration <15 minutes, and diplopia and was negative with hemiparesis, tinnitus, and family history of stroke. Findings on imaging consistent with cerebral ischemia were more frequent in aCL-positive persons. The short-term risk of stroke was uniformly low. In young persons, aCL is not associated with migraine or with TFNE, although diabetes mellitus, negative family history of stroke, and brief duration of symptoms (including diplopia) may predict immunoreactivity. Imaging studies suggest an ischemic etiology of TFNE in this cohort. PMID:9596001

  18. Stage Progression and Neurological Symptoms in Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense Sleeping Sickness: Role

    E-print Network

    Schnaufer, Achim

    of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, United Kingdom Abstract Background: Human African trypanosomiasis progresses from symptoms, but this concept requires evaluation in African trypanosomiasis patients, where correct diagnosis exist. * E-mail: j.sternberg@abdn.ac.uk Introduction Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), also known

  19. HEALTH EFFECTS OF CHRONIC EXPOSURE TO ARSENIC VIA DRINKING WATER IN INNER MONGOLIA. III. NEUROLOGICAL SYMPTOMS AND PIN-PRICK MEASURES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Health Effects of Chronic Exposure to Arsenic via Drinking Water in Inner Mongolia: III. Neurological Symptoms and Pin-prick Measures Yanhong Li, M.D.,Yajuan.Xia, M.D., Kegong Wu, M.D., Inner Mongolia Center For Endemic Disease Control and Research, Ling Ling He, B.S., Zhi...

  20. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry . Author manuscript Neurological signs and late-life depressive symptoms in a community

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Int J Geriatr Psychiatry . Author manuscript Page /1 8 Neurological signs and late-life depressive associations between neurological signs as markers of underlying brain dysfunction and caseness for depression in an elderly community sample, controlling for physical health and comorbid/past neurological disorders. Method

  1. Gabapentin enacarbil, a gabapentin prodrug for the treatment of the neurological symptoms associated with disorders such as restless legs syndrome.

    PubMed

    Merlino, Giovanni; Serafini, Anna; Young, Jeong Jin; Robiony, Francesca; Gigli, Gian Luigi; Valente, Mariarosaria

    2009-01-01

    Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS) is a sleep-related movement disorder characterized by an urge to move the legs accompanied by unpleasant symptoms. Dopaminergic agents currently represent the first-line therapy for RLS. However, some patients are unable to continue with this pharmacological approach in the long term because of augmentation or other adverse events. Limited studies with the anticonvulsant/analgesic agent gabapentin have demonstrated that this drug might be useful in the treatment of primary and uremic RLS. Unfortunately, gabapentin has an unfavorable pharmacokinetic profile characterized by a dose-dependent bioavailability. Gabapentin enacarbil, a prodrug of gabapentin, is currently being developed by XenoPort Inc/Astellas Pharma Inc/GlaxoSmithKline plc in order to overcome this limitation. In vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated that gabapentin enacarbil provides a dose-proportional exposure to gabapentin when orally administered. Gabapentin enacarbil has proved to be beneficial in treating RLS symptoms in several phase II and III clinical trials. In addition, these trials have demonstrated that gabapentin enacarbil is safe and well tolerated, causing transient and mild or moderate adverse events. Gabapentin enacarbil is an interesting compound, which is potentially useful in treating RLS patients who report severe adverse events under dopaminergic agents. The author concludes that additional studies are required in order to better assess the efficacy and safety of gabapentin enacarbil on RLS. PMID:19127491

  2. Episodic neurological dysfunction in hereditary peripheral neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, Girish Baburao; Mailankody, Pooja; Isnwara, Pawanraj Palu; Prasad, Chandrajit; Mustare, Veerendrakumar

    2015-01-01

    Episodic transient neurological symptoms are an important set of problems presenting to a neurologist in his routine practice. Occasionally, detailed clinical history including past and family history supplemented with focused examination can bring out a rare cause for such symptoms. We describe in this report in a young male presenting with episodic focal neurological dysfunction, with family history of similar episodes in mother and brother. Examination showed features of pes cavus and peripheral neuropathy for which patient was asymptomatic. Mother and brother were established cases of hereditary neuropathy. Imaging on multiple occasions showed reversible white matter abnormalities. Clinical suspicion of X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1 (CMT1X) was confirmed with detection of mutation in Gap Junction B1 (GJB1) gene, which codes for connexin 32 protein (c.425G>A; p.R142Q hemizygous mutation). Though this mutation has been already reported in CMTX patients, it has not been associated with transient neurological dysfunctions. This is probably the first reported case of CMTX patient with transient neurological dysfunction from India, whose family members had similar episodes. PMID:25745327

  3. Neurological syndromes of brucellosis.

    PubMed Central

    Bahemuka, M; Shemena, A R; Panayiotopoulos, C P; al-Aska, A K; Obeid, T; Daif, A K

    1988-01-01

    Eleven patients with brucellosis presented with neurological features closely simulating transient ischaemic attacks, cerebral infarction, acute confusional state, motor neuron disease, progressive multisystem degeneration, polyradiculoneuropathy, neuralgic amyotrophy, sciatica and cauda equina syndrome. Most patients improved quickly after adequate antibiotic treatment but chronic cases responded poorly. These protean neurological manifestations of brucellosis indicate that the underlying pathological mechanisms are diverse. PMID:3145961

  4. Association of Carotid Intraplaque Hemorrhage and Territorial Acute Infarction in Patients with Acute Neurological Symptoms Using Carotid Magnetization-Prepared Rapid Acquisition with Gradient-Echo

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jung Soo; Lee, Jong Myong; Koh, Eun Jeong; Chung, Gyung Ho; Hwang, Seung Bae

    2015-01-01

    Objective The purpose of our study was to assess prevalence of carotid intraplaque hemorrhage (IPH) and associations between territorial acute infarction and IPH on magnetization-prepared rapid acquisition with gradient-echo (MPRAGE) in patients with acute neurologic symptoms. Methods 83 patients with suspected acute neurologic symptoms were evaluated with both brain diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) and carotid MPRAGE sequences. Carotid plaque with high signal intensity on MPRAGE of >200% that of adjacent muscle was categorized as IPH. We analyzed the prevalence of IPH and its correlation with territorial acute infarction. Results Of 166 arteries, 39 had a carotid artery plaque. Of these arteries, 26 had carotid artery stenosis less than 50%. In all carotid arteries, MR-depicted IPH was found in 7.2% (12/166). High-signal intensity on DWI was found in 17.5% (29/166). Combined lesion with ipsilateral high-signal intensity on DWI and IPH on carotid MPRAGE sequence was found in 6 lesions (6/166, 3.6%). Of patients with carotid artery plaque, MR-predicted IPH was found in 30.8% (12/39) and match lesions with high-signal intensity on DWI and MPRAGE was found in 15.4% (6/39). MR-predicted IPH was significantly higher prevalence in high-grade stenosis group (p=0.010). Relative risk between carotid MPRAGE-positive signal and ipsilateral high-signal intensity on DWI in arteries with carotid artery plaques was 6.8 (p=0.010). Conclusion Carotid MPRAGE-positive signal in patients was associated with an increased risk of territorial acute infarction as detected objectively by brain DWI. The relative risk of stroke was increased in high-grade stenosis categories. PMID:25733989

  5. Neurologic Complications of Anthrax

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Andrew Meyer

    review of the literature suggests that the major neurologic symptom complex of in- fection by Bacillus anthracis is a fulminant and rapidly fatal hemorrhagic meningo- encephalitis and that the reported initial mode of entry can be via the cutaneous or inhalation route. For febrile patients with acute neurologic deterioration with asso- ciated findings of dark necrotic pustules on the extremities,

  6. Vitamin E Dietary Supplementation Improves Neurological Symptoms and Decreases c-Abl/p73 Activation in Niemann-Pick C Mice

    PubMed Central

    Marín, Tamara; Contreras, Pablo; Castro, Juan Francisco; Chamorro, David; Balboa, Elisa; Bosch-Morató, Mònica; Muñoz, Francisco J.; Alvarez, Alejandra R.; Zanlungo, Silvana

    2014-01-01

    Niemann-Pick C (NPC) disease is a fatal neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the accumulation of free cholesterol in lysosomes. We have previously reported that oxidative stress is the main upstream stimulus activating the proapoptotic c-Abl/p73 pathway in NPC neurons. We have also observed accumulation of vitamin E in NPC lysosomes, which could lead to a potential decrease of its bioavailability. Our aim was to determine if dietary vitamin E supplementation could improve NPC disease in mice. NPC mice received an alpha-tocopherol (?-TOH) supplemented diet and neurological symptoms, survival, Purkinje cell loss, ?-TOH and nitrotyrosine levels, astrogliosis, and the c-Abl/p73 pathway functions were evaluated. In addition, the effect of ?-TOH on the c-Abl/p73 pathway was evaluated in an in vitro NPC neuron model. The ?-TOH rich diet delayed loss of weight, improved coordination and locomotor function and increased the survival of NPC mice. We found increased Purkinje neurons and ?-TOH levels and reduced astrogliosis, nitrotyrosine and phosphorylated p73 in cerebellum. A decrease of c-Abl/p73 activation was also observed in the in vitro NPC neurons treated with ?-TOH. In conclusion, our results show that vitamin E can delay neurodegeneration in NPC mice and suggest that its supplementation in the diet could be useful for the treatment of NPC patients. PMID:25079853

  7. [Effects of 3-hydroxypyridine and succinic acid derivates on the dynamics of vertebral/neurologic symptoms after the surgical treatment of disk herniations].

    PubMed

    Volchegorski?, I A; Mester, K M

    2010-01-01

    A study of 3-hydroxypiridine and succinic acid derivates (emoxipin, reamberin and mexidol) effects on the 14 week dynamics of vertebral/neurologic symptoms was performed in 136 patients after the surgical treatment of disk herniations. Data obtained demonstrated the reduction of severity of neurodystrophic and radicular syndromes without significant changes in dorsalgia, psychological maladaptation (PM) and disability scores (DS) during 3.5 months in patients treated with emoxipin (150 mg i.v., daily) for two weeks after the microdiscectomy. The two-week administration of reamberin (400 mg i.v., daily) led to the early attenuation of neuropathic pain. The reduction of sings of radicular compression and DS measured with the Roland-Morris questionnaire were delayed for 3 months. Mexidol (300 mg i.v., once a day during two weeks) demonstrated the highest efficacy. This drug attenuated radicular and neurodystrophic syndromes, nociceptive and neuropathic pain, reduced PM and DS measured with both the Roland-Morris and the Oswestry questionnaires during 14 weeks after the surgery. PMID:20517221

  8. Chapter 38: American neurology.

    PubMed

    Freemon, Frank R

    2010-01-01

    The great formative event in the history of North America, the Civil War of 1861 to 1865, was the stimulus for the development of clinical neurology and the neurosciences. The first neurological research center on the continent was the US Army hospital at Turner's Lane, Philadelphia, PA. Silas Weir Mitchell and his colleagues described causalgia (reflex sympathetic dystrophy), phantom limb sensation, and Horner's syndrome (before Horner). The medical leader of the Northern army was William Hammond. After the conclusion of hostilities, he began a huge clinical practice in New York City. In the United States, clinical neurology began in private practice, unlike Europe, where neurology began in institutions. Hammond's textbook, which first used the term athetosis, was used by a generation of physicians who encountered patients with neurological signs and symptoms. Early in the 20th century, neurological institutions were formed around universities; probably the most famous was the Montreal Neurological Institute founded by Wilder Penfield. The US federal government sponsored extensive research into the function and dysfunction of the nervous system through the Neurological Institute of Neurological Diseases and Blindness, later called the National Institute of Neurological Diseases and Stroke. The government officially classified the final 10 years of the 20th century as the Decade of the Brain and provided an even greater level of research funding. PMID:19892141

  9. [Skin symptoms in neurological diseases].

    PubMed

    Burg, G; Burg, D

    1995-04-01

    The considerable variety of diseases involving both the skin and the peripheral or central nervous system is due to the developmental relationship between skin and nervous system. Diseases of the nervous system resulting in skin changes comprise disorders of nails, hair, sweat and sebaceous glands as well as neuropathic ulcers in various manifestations. Neurocutaneous syndromes (phacomatoses) are nevoid systemic diseases comprising neurofibromatoses, tuberose sclerosis, ataxia telangiectasia, nevoid angiomatoses and other neurocutaneous disorders. Polytopic disorders of the skin and nervous system may be due to infectious diseases, diseases of the connective tissue, fat, inflammatory vascular and granulomatous disorders. PMID:7754467

  10. Emergency department CT screening of patients with nontraumatic neurological symptoms referred to the posterior fossa: comparison of thin versus thick slice images.

    PubMed

    Kamalian, Shervin; Atkinson, Wendy L; Florin, Lauren A; Pomerantz, Stuart R; Lev, Michael H; Romero, Javier M

    2014-06-01

    Evaluation of the posterior fossa (PF) on 5-mm-thick helical CT images (current default) has improved diagnostic accuracy compared to 5-mm sequential CT images; however, 5-mm-thick images may not be ideal for PF pathology due to volume averaging of rapid changes in anatomy in the Z-direction. Therefore, we sought to determine if routine review of 1.25-mm-thin helical CT images has superior accuracy in screening for nontraumatic PF pathology. MRI proof of diagnosis was obtained within 6 h of helical CT acquisition for 90 consecutive ED patients with, and 88 without, posterior fossa lesions. Helical CT images were post-processed at 1.25 and 5-mm-axial slice thickness. Two neuroradiologists blinded to the clinical/MRI findings reviewed both image sets. Interobserver agreement and accuracy were rated using Kappa statistics and ROC analysis, respectively. Of the 90/178 (51 %) who were MR positive, 60/90 (66 %) had stroke and 30/90 (33 %) had other etiologies. There was excellent interobserver agreement (? > 0.97) for both thick and thin slice assessments. The accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity for 1.25-mm images were 65, 44, and 84 %, respectively, and for 5-mm images were 67, 45, and 85 %, respectively. The diagnostic accuracy was not significantly different (p > 0.5). In this cohort of patients with nontraumatic neurological symptoms referred to the posterior fossa, 1.25-mm-thin slice CT reformatted images do not have superior accuracy compared to 5-mm-thick images. This information has implications on optimizing resource utilizations and efficiency in a busy emergency room. Review of 1.25-mm-thin images may help diagnostic accuracy only when review of 5-mm-thick images as current default is inconclusive. PMID:24469596

  11. Unusual Neurologic Manifestations of a Patient with Cyanotic Congenital Heart Disease after Phlebotomy

    PubMed Central

    Salimipour, Hooman; Mehdizadeh, Somayeh; Nemati, Reza; Pourbehi, Mohamad Reza; Pourbehi, Gholam Reza

    2015-01-01

    Secondary erythrocytosis in cyanotic congenital heart disease (CCHD) is a compensatory response to chronic hypoxia which should be managed with caution. CCHD patients, who have compensated erythrocytosis but do not manifest significant neurologic symptoms, may experience secondary life-threatening complications such as stroke in case of inappropriate phlebotomy. This study reports a young man with CCHD who developed frequently repeated transient neurologic deficits with various presentations after one session of phlebotomy. The symptoms resolved a few days after the hematocrit (Hct) level returned to the prephlebotomy level. PMID:25922773

  12. Unusual neurologic manifestations of a patient with cyanotic congenital heart disease after phlebotomy.

    PubMed

    Salimipour, Hooman; Mehdizadeh, Somayeh; Nemati, Reza; Pourbehi, Mohamad Reza; Pourbehi, Gholam Reza; Assadi, Majid

    2015-01-01

    Secondary erythrocytosis in cyanotic congenital heart disease (CCHD) is a compensatory response to chronic hypoxia which should be managed with caution. CCHD patients, who have compensated erythrocytosis but do not manifest significant neurologic symptoms, may experience secondary life-threatening complications such as stroke in case of inappropriate phlebotomy. This study reports a young man with CCHD who developed frequently repeated transient neurologic deficits with various presentations after one session of phlebotomy. The symptoms resolved a few days after the hematocrit (Hct) level returned to the prephlebotomy level. PMID:25922773

  13. Neurology Residency Department of Neurology &

    E-print Network

    Shoubridge, Eric

    Neurology Residency Program Department of Neurology & Neurosurgery Postal address: Montreal Neurological Institute 3801 University Street Montreal, PQ, Canada H3A 2B4 Tel.: (514) 398-1904 Fax: (514) 398-4621 Adult Neurology Residency Training Program McGill University Objectives of Training and Training

  14. Neurology Residency Department of Neurology &

    E-print Network

    Shoubridge, Eric

    Neurology Residency Program Department of Neurology & Neurosurgery Postal address: Montreal Neurological Institute 3801 University Street Montreal, PQ, Canada H3A 2B4 Tel.: (514) 398-1904 Fax: (514) 398-4621 Adult Neurology Residency Training Program McGill University Rotation Specific Objectives EEG

  15. Neurology Residency Department of Neurology &

    E-print Network

    Shoubridge, Eric

    1 Neurology Residency Program Department of Neurology & Neurosurgery Postal address: Montreal Neurological Institute 3801 University Street Montreal, PQ, Canada H3A 2B4 Tel.: (514) 398-1904 Fax: (514) 398-4621 Adult Neurology Residency Training Program McGill University Roster of core rotations and electives Core

  16. Neurology Residency Department of Neurology &

    E-print Network

    Shoubridge, Eric

    Neurology Residency Program Department of Neurology & Neurosurgery Postal address: Montreal Neurological Institute 3801 University Street Montreal, PQ, Canada H3A 2B4 Tel.: (514) 398-1904 Fax: (514) 398-4621 Adult Neurology Residency Training Program McGill University Rotation Outline and Goals and Objectives

  17. Enhanced Neurogenesis Following Neurological Disease

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Philippe Taupin

    Neurological diseases are disorders of the nervous system that have biological origins, and impair one’s ability to live a\\u000a normal life. Neurological diseases originate from neurochemical alterations or the loss of specific cell populations of the\\u000a nervous system. The causes for these disorders remain poorly understood. Their symptoms span from psychiatric to neurological\\u000a to physical impairments. For decades, finding a

  18. Occupational exposure of healthcare and research staff to static magnetic stray fields from 1.5–7 Tesla MRI scanners is associated with reporting of transient symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Schaap, Kristel; Christopher-de Vries, Yvette; Mason, Catherine K; de Vocht, Frank; Portengen, Lützen; Kromhout, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Limited data is available about incidence of acute transient symptoms associated with occupational exposure to static magnetic stray fields from MRI scanners. We aimed to assess the incidence of these symptoms among healthcare and research staff working with MRI scanners, and their association with static magnetic field exposure. Methods We performed an observational study among 361 employees of 14 clinical and research MRI facilities in The Netherlands. Each participant completed a diary during one or more work shifts inside and/or outside the MRI facility, reporting work activities and symptoms (from a list of potentially MRI-related symptoms, complemented with unrelated symptoms) experienced during a working day. We analysed 633 diaries. Exposure categories were defined by strength and type of MRI scanner, using non-MRI shifts as the reference category for statistical analysis. Non-MRI shifts originated from MRI staff who also participated on MRI days, as well as CT radiographers who never worked with MRI. Results Varying per exposure category, symptoms were reported during 16–39% of the MRI work shifts. We observed a positive association between scanner strength and reported symptoms among healthcare and research staff working with closed-bore MRI scanners of 1.5 Tesla (T) and higher (1.5?T OR=1.88; 3.0?T OR=2.14; 7.0?T OR=4.17). This finding was mainly driven by reporting of vertigo and metallic taste. Conclusions The results suggest an exposure-response association between exposure to strong static magnetic fields (and associated motion-induced time-varying magnetic fields) and reporting of transient symptoms on the same day of exposure. Trial registration number 11-032/C PMID:24714654

  19. Neurologic Melioidosis

    PubMed Central

    Deuble, Martin; Aquilina, Chloe; Norton, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Melioidosis is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in northern Australia and Southeast Asia. Diagnosis is best made by isolation of Burkholderia pseudomallei from clinical specimens. A variety of clinical presentations are described, including neurologic disease. The aim of this study was to review admissions with confirmed neurologic melioidosis to a regional hospital in a region to which melioidosis is endemic during 1995–2011. There were 12 culture-confirmed cases of neurologic melioidosis, of which two were detected by analysis of cerebrospinal fluid. Four of these cases were in children. Significant clinical features were fever, headache, and ataxia. Common changes on magnetic resonance imaging T2-weighted scans included ring-enhancing lesions and leptomeningeal enhancement. There were four deaths and an additional four patients had significant long-term neurologic sequelae. When considering the etiology of undifferentiated neurologic disease, an awareness of the possibility of neurologic melioidosis is important in disease-endemic regions. PMID:23836574

  20. Neurologic running injuries.

    PubMed

    McKean, Kelly A

    2009-02-01

    Neurologic running injuries account for a small number of running injuries. This may be caused by misdiagnosis or underdiagnosis. Nerve injuries that have been reported in runners include injuries to the interdigital nerves and the tibial, peroneal, and sural nerves. In this article, the etiology, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of these injuries are reviewed. Differences between nerve injury and more common musculoskeletal injury have been presented to aid in differential diagnosis. PMID:19084775

  1. Neurologic running injuries.

    PubMed

    McKean, Kelly A

    2008-02-01

    Neurologic running injuries account for a small number of running injuries. This may be caused by misdiagnosis or underdiagnosis. Nerve injuries that have been reported in runners include injuries to the interdigital nerves and the tibial, peroneal, and sural nerves. In this article, the etiology, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment of these injuries are reviewed. Differences between nerve injury and more common musculoskeletal injury have been presented to aid in differential diagnosis. PMID:18295096

  2. A longitudinal study of differences in late- and early-onset geriatric depression: Depressive symptoms and psychosocial, cognitive, and neurological functioning

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Natalie Sachs-Ericsson; Elizabeth Corsentino; Jerad Moxley; Jennifer L. Hames; Nicole C. Rushing; Kathryn Sawyer; Thomas Joiner; Edward A. Selby; Steven Zarit; Ian H. Gotlib; David C. Steffens

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Studies suggest early-onset depression (EOD) is associated with a more severe course of the depressive disorder, while late-onset depression (LOD) is associated with more cognitive and neuroimaging changes. This study examined if older adults with EOD, compared with those with LOD, would exhibit more severe symptoms of depression and, consistent with the glucocorticoid cascade hypothesis, have more hippocampal volume

  3. Anxiety disorders in neurologic illness

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert D. Davies; Sherri L. Gabbert; Paula D. Riggs

    2001-01-01

    Opinion statement  \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a \\u000a – \\u000a \\u000a Anxiety disorders frequently occur in individuals with neurologic illness. Anxiety may be a symptom of or a reaction to the\\u000a neurologic disorder, a medication side effect, or a comorbid condition. The most common anxiety disorders seen in neurologic\\u000a patients are panic disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Very often,\\u000a these conditions go unrecognized

  4. Transient neurological deficit after therapeutic embolization of the arteries supplying the medial wall of the hemisphere, including the supplementary motor area.

    PubMed

    Schell, G; Hodge, C J; Cacayorin, E

    1986-03-01

    A 27-year-old, right-handed woman underwent intraoperative embolization for a left parasagittal arteriovenous malformation as part of a two stage plan that included subsequent surgical resection of the arteriovenous malformation. This report describes the neurological syndrome that developed after the first procedure. The relation of these deficits to localization of function within the supplementary motor area are correlated with recent advances in our understanding of this region. PMID:3703196

  5. Upregulation of Shiga toxin receptor CD77/Gb3 and interleukin-1? expression in the brain of EHEC patients with hemolytic uremic syndrome and neurologic symptoms.

    PubMed

    Hagel, Christian; Krasemann, Susanne; Löffler, Judith; Püschel, Klaus; Magnus, Tim; Glatzel, Markus

    2015-03-01

    In 2011, a large outbreak of Shiga toxin-producing enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) infections occurred in northern Germany, which mainly affected adults. Out of 3842 patients, 104 experienced a complicated course comprising hemolytic uremic syndrome and neurological complications, including cognitive impairment, aphasia, seizures and coma. T2 hyperintensities on magnet resonance imaging (MRI) bilateral in the thalami and in the dorsal pons were found suggestive of a metabolic toxic effect. Five of the 104 patients died because of toxic heart failure. In the present study, the post-mortem neuropathological findings of the five EHEC patients are described. Histological investigation of 13 brain regions (frontal, temporal, occipital cortex, corpora mammillaria, thalamus, frontal operculum, corona radiata, gyrus angularis, pons, medulla oblongata, cerebellar vermis and cerebellar hemisphere) showed no thrombosis, ischemic changes or fresh infarctions. Further, no changes were found in electron microscopy. In comparison with five age-matched controls, slightly increased activation of microglia and a higher neuronal expression of interleukin-1? and of Shiga toxin receptor CD77/globotriaosylceramide 3 was observed. The findings were confirmed by Western blot analyses. It is suggested that CD77/globotriaosylceramide upregulation may be a consequence to Shiga toxin exposure, whereas increased interleukin-1? expression may point to activation of inflammatory cascades. PMID:24989888

  6. The use of Cincinnati prehospital stroke scale during telephone dispatch interview increases the accuracy in identifying stroke and transient ischemic attack symptoms

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Timely and appropriate hospital treatment of acute cerebrovascular diseases (stroke and Transient Ischemic Attacks - TIA) improves patient outcomes. Emergency Medical Service (EMS) dispatchers who can identify cerebrovascular disease symptoms during telephone requests for emergency service also contribute to these improved outcomes. The Italian Ministry of Health issued guidelines on the management of AC patients in pre-hospital emergency service, including Cincinnati Prehospital Stroke Scale (CPSS) use. We measured the sensitivity and Positive Predictive Value (PPV) of EMS dispatchers’ ability to recognize stroke/TIA symptoms and evaluated whether the CPSS improves accuracy. Methods A cross-sectional multicentre study was conducted to collect data from 38 Italian emergency operative centres on all cases identified with stroke/TIA symptoms at the time of dispatch and all cases with stroke/TIA symptoms identified on the scene by the ambulance personnel from November 2010 to May 2011. Results The study included 21760 cases: 18231 with stroke/TIA symptoms at dispatch and 9791 with symptoms confirmed on the scene. The PPV of the dispatch stroke/TIA symptoms identification was 34.3% (95% CI 33.7-35.0; 6262/18231) and the sensitivity was 64.0% (95% CI 63.0-64.9; 6262/9791). Centres using CPSS more often (>10% of cases) had both higher PPV (56%; CI 95% 57–60 vs 18%; CI 95% 17–19) and higher sensitivity (71%; CI 95% 87–89 vs 52%; CI 95% 51–54). In the multivariate regression a centre’s CPSS use was associated with PPV (beta 0.48 p?=?0.014) and negatively associated with sensitivity (beta -0.36; p?=?0.063); centre sensitivity was associated with CPSS (beta 0.32; p?=?0.002), adjusting for PPV. Conclusions Centres that use CPSS more frequently during phone dispatch showed greater agreement with on-the-scene prehospital assessments, both in correctly identifying more cases with stroke/TIA symptoms and in giving fewer false positives for non-stroke/TIA cases. Our study shows an extreme variability in the performance among OCs, highlighting that form many centres there is room for improvement in both sensitivity and positive predictive value of the dispatch. Our results should be used for benchmarking proposals in the effort to identify best practices across the country. PMID:24330761

  7. Irreversible neurologic complications of metrizamide myelography.

    PubMed

    Meador, K; Hamilton, W J; El Gammal, T A; Demetropoulos, K C; Nichols, F T

    1984-06-01

    Metrizamide, a major contrast agent for myelographic procedures, has rarely been reported to cause irreversible neurologic complications. The major transient neurologic alterations include neuropsychological reactions, generalized tonic-clonic seizures, and headaches. Two cases of irreversible spinal neurologic deficits resulting from metrizamide myelography are reported, and the factors that may increase the risks of complications in metrizamide myelographic studies are discussed, including preexisting dehydration, patient positioning, and the concentration of contrast agent. PMID:6539448

  8. Key sleep neurologic disorders

    PubMed Central

    St. Louis, Erik K.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Sleep disorders are frequent comorbidities in neurologic patients. This review focuses on clinical aspects and prognosis of 3 neurologic sleep disorders: narcolepsy, restless legs syndrome/Willis-Ekbom disease (RLS/WED), and REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD). Narcolepsy causes pervasive, enduring excessive daytime sleepiness, adversely affecting patients' daily functioning. RLS/WED is characterized by an uncomfortable urge to move the legs before sleep, often evolving toward augmentation and resulting in daylong bothersome symptoms. RBD causes potentially injurious dream enactment behaviors that often signify future evolution of overt synucleinopathy neurodegeneration in as many as 81% of patients. Timely recognition, referral for polysomnography, and longitudinal follow-up of narcolepsy, RLS/WED, and RBD patients are imperatives for neurologists in providing quality comprehensive patient care. PMID:24605270

  9. Endocrine disorders and the neurologic manifestations

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The nervous system and the endocrine system are closely interrelated and both involved intimately in maintaining homeostasis. Endocrine dysfunctions may lead to various neurologic manifestations such as headache, myopathy, and acute encephalopathy including coma. It is important to recognize the neurologic signs and symptoms caused by the endocrine disorders while managing endocrine disorders. This article provides an overview of the neurologic manifestations found in various endocrine disorders that affect pediatric patients. It is valuable to think about 'endocrine disorder' as a cause of the neurologic manifestations. Early diagnosis and treatment of hormonal imbalance can rapidly relieve the neurologic symptoms. Better understanding of the interaction between the endocrine system and the nervous system, combined with the knowledge about the pathophysiology of the neurologic manifestations presented in the endocrine disorders might allow earlier diagnosis and better treatment of the endocrine disorders. PMID:25654063

  10. Neurological diseases and pain

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Chronic pain is a frequent component of many neurological disorders, affecting 20–40% of patients for many primary neurological diseases. These diseases result from a wide range of pathophysiologies including traumatic injury to the central nervous system, neurodegeneration and neuroinflammation, and exploring the aetiology of pain in these disorders is an opportunity to achieve new insight into pain processing. Whether pain originates in the central or peripheral nervous system, it frequently becomes centralized through maladaptive responses within the central nervous system that can profoundly alter brain systems and thereby behaviour (e.g. depression). Chronic pain should thus be considered a brain disease in which alterations in neural networks affect multiple aspects of brain function, structure and chemistry. The study and treatment of this disease is greatly complicated by the lack of objective measures for either the symptoms or the underlying mechanisms of chronic pain. In pain associated with neurological disease, it is sometimes difficult to obtain even a subjective evaluation of pain, as is the case for patients in a vegetative state or end-stage Alzheimer's disease. It is critical that neurologists become more involved in chronic pain treatment and research (already significant in the fields of migraine and peripheral neuropathies). To achieve this goal, greater efforts are needed to enhance training for neurologists in pain treatment and promote greater interest in the field. This review describes examples of pain in different neurological diseases including primary neurological pain conditions, discusses the therapeutic potential of brain-targeted therapies and highlights the need for objective measures of pain. PMID:22067541

  11. [Sleep disorders in neurological diseases].

    PubMed

    Kotterba, S

    2015-06-01

    Sleep disorders can be diagnosed in approximately 15?% of the population and have been shown to increase with age. The relationship between sleep disorders and neurological disorders, however, is still insufficiently considered in the clinical practice. Sleep disorders can be an early symptom of the disease, such as the presence of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behavior disorder (RBD) as an early indicator of neurodegeneration. Sleep disorders have also been shown to be a main symptom of various neurological syndromes, such as in restless legs syndrome (RLS), periodic limb movement disorder (PLMD) and narcolepsy. The international classification of sleep disorders 2nd edition (ICSD 2) describes the main diagnoses, insomnia, circadian rhythm sleep disorders, sleep-related breathing disorders and hypersomnia but all of these can also appear as symptoms in various neurological diseases. Parasomnias are largely considered a differential diagnosis to nocturnal epilepsy. In this review, the main sleep disorders are described with a particular focus on how they relate to neurological diseases; in particular, how they influence disease-related symptoms and how they affect the course of the disease. PMID:26062945

  12. Update on Paraneoplastic Neurologic Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Rosenfeld, Myrna R.

    2010-01-01

    When patients with cancer develop neurologic symptoms, common causes include metastasis, infections, coagulopathy, metabolic or nutritional disturbances, and neurotoxicity from treatments. A thorough clinical history, temporal association with cancer therapies, and results of ancillary tests usually reveal one of these mechanisms as the etiology. When no etiology is identified, the diagnosis considered is often that of a paraneoplastic neurologic disorder (PND). With the recognition that PNDs are more frequent than previously thought, the availability of diagnostic tests, and the fact that, for some PNDs, treatment helps, PNDs should no longer be considered diagnostic zebras, and when appropriate should be included in the differential diagnosis early in the evaluation. PMID:20479279

  13. [Neurological symptoms of cytomegalovirus infection in children].

    PubMed

    Burdzenidze, E; Chundzadze, M; Zhvania, M; Chikovani, M

    2005-05-01

    Cytomegalovirus is considered as one of the most common causes of congenital infections. Clinical signs of infection are present in newborns whose mothers were infected during pregnancy. Disease is most severe if mother were infected during the first trimester. Congenital cytomegalovirus infection causes damage of CNS (central nervous system) and the liver, atrophy of optical nerve and hearing retardation up to complete loss. The most severe and frequent damage is of CNS. Under our observation were 20 children of different ages, among them 8 newborns. Verification of cytomegalovirus infection was done by ELISA. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) was also used for diagnostic reasons. Examination of CNS was performed by neurosonography, electroencephalography and computed tomography. Four from eight newborns died at the age of 6-8 weeks (in these cases the generalized form of infection with severe damage of CNS was present). In the rest patients treatment with specific anticytomegalovirus immunoglobulin together with syndrome therapy yielded positive effect. Lately moderate retardation of phychomotor development became apparent in all cases. 12 patients, who come to our clinic in the period from 2 months to 1.5 years of age, psychomotor retardation, micro or hydrocephaly, hyperkinesias, absentia (epileptica), convulsive syndrome and malignant hypertension were present. On tomograms intracranial calcificats and cysts, also atrophy of cerebrum and encephalomalacia was visible. Sensory hearing loss was apparent in two patients. The study showed the presence of severe and in most cases irreversible CNS damages in the cases of congenital cytomegalovirus infection. PMID:15988082

  14. Duration of Symptom and ABCD2 Score as Predictors of Risk of Early Recurrent Events after Transient Ischemic Attack: A Hospital-Based Case Series Study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qiang; Zhu, Xiaolong; Feng, Chao; Fang, Min; Liu, Xueyuan

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to refine clinical risk factor stratification and make an optimal intervention plan to prevent ischemic stroke. Material/Methods Clinical data, including diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) findings, were collected in a cohort of hospitalized transient ischemic attack (TIA) patients from January 2010 to December 2011. Recurrent cerebrovascular events after TIA, including recurrent TIA, minor stroke, and major stroke, were identified by face-to-face follow-up. A multivariate, ordinal, logistic regression model was used to determine significant predictors of recurrent events. Results Of 106 TIA patients, 24 (22.6%) had recurrent TIA and 20 (18.9%) had a stroke within 7 days. Hypertension, dyslipidemia, a history of ischemic stroke or TIA, and ABCD2 score were significantly associated with the recurrent events after TIA (P<0.001, P=0.02, P<0.001, P=0.02). Hypertension (RR=9.21; 95% CI, 3.07–27.61, P<0.001) and duration of symptom (RR=1.10; 95% CI, 1.02–1.17, P=0.01) as an item of ABCD2 score were highly predictive of the severity of recurrent events, whereas ABCD2 score as a whole (P=0.18) proved to be less strongly predictive. Conclusions A history of hypertension and long duration of symptom independently and significantly predict severe recurrent events after TIA within 7 days, but a high ABCD2 score was less strongly predictive of severe recurrent events. PMID:25604068

  15. Paraneoplastic Neurological Syndrome in Fallopian Tube Cancer.

    PubMed

    Maas, E; Skoberne, T; Werner, A; Braun, S; Jackisch, C

    2014-10-01

    We report on a rare case of paraneoplastic syndrome (PS) that was discovered on completion of diagnostic work-up to be an undifferentiated fallopian tube carcinoma. A 49-year-old Caucasian woman was admitted to neurology with vertigo, gait ataxia and dysarthria, transient ischaemic attack (TIA) and stroke were quickly excluded. Indicative for the further diagnosis of a paraneoplastic syndrome was the identification of onconeuronal antibodies the detection of which can be associated with certain tumour entities. The strongly positive anti-Yo antibody that is formed above all by breast and lung cancers as well as ovarian cancer led to a corresponding staging. The tumour markers CEA, CA 125 and CA 15-3 were in the normal ranges. Mammography and thorax CT were also unremarkable; on transvaginal sonography the internal genitals were inconspicuous except for a follicular cyst on the left. On abdominal CT the only conspicuous finding was a 1.5?cm ovarian cyst. After consensual agreement a bilateral laparoscopic adenexectomy was performed but with unremarkable abdominal findings. The histological examination confirmed a right-sided undifferentiated tubal carcinoma with the provisional classification FIGO IIA. After a stage-related staging operation, the final classification was found to be the FIGO-IIIC stage on account of positive retroperitoneal lymph nodes. Thus adjuvant chemotherapy with 6 cycles of carboplatin and paclitaxel was performed. By means of a timely, guideline-conform therapy for tubal carcinoma, the neurological symptoms and, above all, the dysarthria could be improved after 10 months. PMID:25364036

  16. DMS Neurology Overall goal

    E-print Network

    Myers, Lawrence C.

    DMS Neurology Clerkship #12;Overall goal · This required clinical clerkship aims to provide students with basic knowledge and skills in clinical neurology, building upon previous neurological exam School. #12;DMS Neurology Clerkship · 4 week block assigned in lottery · 3rd or 4th year, usually 4th #12

  17. Sports neurology topics in neurologic practice

    PubMed Central

    Conidi, Francis X.; Drogan, Oksana; Giza, Christopher C.; Kutcher, Jeffery S.; Alessi, Anthony G.; Crutchfield, Kevin E.

    2014-01-01

    Summary We sought to assess neurologists' interest in sports neurology and learn about their experience in treating sports-related neurologic conditions. A survey was sent to a random sample of American Academy of Neurology members. A majority of members (77%) see at least some patients with sports-related neurologic issues. Concussion is the most common sports-related condition neurologists treat. More than half of survey participants (63%) did not receive any formal or informal training in sports neurology. At least two-thirds of respondents think it is very important to address the following issues: developing evidence-based return-to-play guidelines, identifying risk factors for long-term cognitive-behavioral sequelae, and developing objective diagnostic criteria for concussion. Our findings provide an up-to-date view of the subspecialty of sports neurology and identify areas for future research. PMID:24790800

  18. Transient global amnesia in legal proceedings.

    PubMed

    Griebe, Martin; Bäzner, Hansjörg; Kablau, Micha; Hennerici, Michael G; Szabo, Kristina

    2015-01-01

    Transient global amnesia (TGA) is a neurological disorder characterized by an acute onset of severe anterograde amnesia. While retrograde amnesia may be present-although to a lesser extent-patients have no further cognitive disturbances or neurological signs. These symptoms resolve fully within several hours leaving a permanent memory gap for the duration of the episode and do not lead to long-term neurological deficits. In addition to well-defined clinical diagnostic criteria, in up to 80 % of patients, small, point-shaped lesions in the hippocampus are detected 24-48 h after symptom onset on diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance images. Despite several etiological hypotheses, to date, there is no scientific proof for the etiology of TGA or the small hippocampal lesions. Interestingly, in a large number of cases, an emotionally or physically straining event precipitates the onset of TGA, suggesting a stress-related mechanism. We report two cases of TGA occurring in legally relevant settings: affecting the victim of brutal burglary and the key witness in a murder trial. In the context of forensic medicine, the knowledge of this disorder and recognition of its typical features are essential. PMID:24961536

  19. Transient ischaemic attacks: mimics and chameleons

    PubMed Central

    Nadarajan, V; Perry, R J; Johnson, J; Werring, D J

    2014-01-01

    Suspected transient ischaemic attack (TIA) is a common diagnostic challenge for physicians in neurology, stroke, general medicine and primary care. It is essential to identify TIAs promptly because of the very high early risk of ischaemic stroke, requiring urgent investigation and preventive treatment. On the other hand, it is also important to identify TIA ‘mimics’, to avoid unnecessary and expensive investigations, incorrect diagnostic labelling and inappropriate long-term prevention treatment. Although the pathophysiology of ischaemic stroke and TIA is identical, and both require rapid and accurate diagnosis, the differential diagnosis differs for TIA owing to the transience of symptoms. For TIA the diagnostic challenge is greater, and the ‘mimic’ rate higher (and more varied), because there is no definitive diagnostic test. TIA heralds a high risk of early ischaemic stroke, and in many cases the stroke can be prevented if the cause is identified, hence the widespread dissemination of guidelines including rapid assessment and risk tools like the ABCD2 score. However, these guidelines do not emphasise the substantial challenges in making the correct diagnosis in patients with transient neurological symptoms. In this article we will mainly consider the common TIA mimics, but also briefly mention the rather less common situations where TIAs can look like something else (‘chameleons’). PMID:24453269

  20. The Neurologic Manifestations of Mitochondrial Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parikh, Sumit

    2010-01-01

    The nervous system contains some of the body's most metabolically demanding cells that are highly dependent on ATP produced via mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. Thus, the neurological system is consistently involved in patients with mitochondrial disease. Symptoms differ depending on the part of the nervous system affected. Although almost…

  1. Neurological disease, emotional disorder, and disability: they are related: a study of 300 consecutive new referrals to a neurology outpatient department

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alan J Carson; Brigitte Ringbauer; Lesley MacKenzie; Charles Warlow; Michael Sharpe

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVESTo determine the prevalence of anxiety and depressive disorders in patients referred to general neurology outpatient clinics, to compare disability and number of somatic symptoms in patients with and without emotional disorder, the relation to neurological disease, and assess the need for psychiatric treatment as perceived by patients and doctors.METHODSA prospective cohort study set in a regional neurology service in

  2. Neurological complications of Schistosoma infection.

    PubMed

    Carod-Artal, Francisco Javier

    2008-02-01

    Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease caused by blood flukes of the genus Schistosoma. Currently more than 200 million people worldwide are affected. Neuroschistosomiasis constitutes a severe presentation of the disease. Neurological symptoms result from the inflammatory response of the host to egg deposition in the brain and spinal cord. Neurological complications of cerebral schistosomiasis include delirium, loss of consciousness, seizures, dysphasia, visual field impairment, focal motor deficits and ataxia. Cerebral and cerebellar tumour-like neuroschistosomiasis can present with increased intracranial pressure, headache, nausea and vomiting, and seizures. Myelopathy (acute transverse myelitis and subacute myeloradiculopathy) is the most common neurological complication of Schistosoma mansoni infection. Schistosomal myelopathy tends to occur early after infection and is more likely to be symptomatic than cerebral schistosomiasis. The conus medullaris and cauda equina are the most common sites of involvement. Severe schistosomal myelopathy can provoke a complete flaccid paraplegia with areflexia, sphincter dysfunction and sensory disturbances. Schistosomicidal drugs, steroids and surgery are the currently available treatments for neuroschistosomiasis. Rehabilitation and multidisciplinary team care are needed in severely disabled patients. PMID:17905371

  3. [Three patients with the same diagnosis but very different symptoms].

    PubMed

    Knechtle, Beat; Rüst, Christoph A; Rosemann, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    We present three cases of patients with a thoracic disc herniation with misinterpretation of the initial symptoms. In a first case, pulmonary symptoms were prominent; in a second case, the patient complained of cardiac symptoms; and in a third case, the patient reported neurological symptoms. Ineffective investigation of thoracic symptoms should raise the suspicion of a thoracic disc herniation. PMID:25552446

  4. The Preoperative Neurological Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Probasco, John; Sahin, Bogachan; Tran, Tung; Chung, Tae Hwan; Rosenthal, Liana Shapiro; Mari, Zoltan; Levy, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Neurological diseases are prevalent in the general population, and the neurohospitalist has an important role to play in the preoperative planning for patients with and at risk for developing neurological disease. The neurohospitalist can provide patients and their families as well as anesthesiologists, surgeons, hospitalists, and other providers guidance in particular to the patient’s neurological disease and those he or she is at risk for. Here we present considerations and guidance for the neurohospitalist providing preoperative consultation for the neurological patient with or at risk of disturbances of consciousness, cerebrovascular and carotid disease, epilepsy, neuromuscular disease, and Parkinson disease. PMID:24198903

  5. A Fuzzy Expert System to Diagnose Diseases with Neurological Signs in Domestic Animal

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mahdi Jampour; Mohsen Jampour; Maryam Ashourzadeh; Mahdi Yaghoobi

    2011-01-01

    One of the important subjects regarding to human health is animal health and domestic products health undoubtedly are the most basic health factors, although, there are complete and correct information in the disease of animal with neurological involvement, however, generally defined neurological diseases only on the basis of clinical symptoms is not so simple as so proximity neurological signs and

  6. Denis Melanon Neuroradiology Conference Montreal Neurological Institute and Hospital, McGill University

    E-print Network

    Shoubridge, Eric

    Denis Melançon Neuroradiology Conference Montreal Neurological Institute and Hospital, Mc Neurological Institute and Hospital, McGill University 9:10 ­ 9:25 Infratentorial White Matter Involvement in a Patient with Slowly-Progressive Neurological Symptoms: an Atypical Form of Alexander Disease? Julia Segal

  7. Neurology and orthopaedics

    PubMed Central

    Houlden, Henry; Charlton, Paul; Singh, Dishan

    2007-01-01

    Neurology encompasses all aspects of medicine and surgery, but is closer to orthopaedic surgery than many other specialities. Both neurological deficits and bone disorders lead to locomotor system abnormalities, joint complications and limb problems. The main neurological conditions that require the attention of an orthopaedic surgeon are disorders that affect the lower motor neurones. The most common disorders in this group include neuromuscular disorders and traumatic peripheral nerve lesions. Upper motor neurone disorders such as cerebral palsy and stroke are also frequently seen and discussed, as are chronic conditions such as poliomyelitis. The management of these neurological problems is often coordinated in the neurology clinic, and this group, probably more than any other, requires a multidisciplinary team approach. PMID:17308288

  8. Amalgam exposure and neurological function.

    PubMed

    Kingman, Albert; Albers, James W; Arezzo, Joseph C; Garabrant, David H; Michalek, Joel E

    2005-03-01

    Concerns regarding the safety of silver-mercury amalgam fillings continue to be raised in the absence of any direct evidence of harm. The widespread population exposure to amalgam mandated that a thorough investigation be conducted of its potential effects on the nervous system. The National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research and U.S. Air Force investigators collaborated in the ongoing Air Force Health Study (AFHS) of Vietnam era veterans. The primary study question involved adverse health effects associated with exposure to herbicides or dioxin. An assessment of exposure to dental amalgam fillings was added to the 1997-1998 health examination to investigate possible associations between amalgam exposure and neurological abnormalities. Our study population consisted of 1663 dentate AFHS participants, comprised of 986 AFHS controls and 677 Ranch Hand veterans who were exposed to dioxin in Vietnam. Two hundred and fifty-two of the participants had confirmed diabetes mellitus. Study outcomes included clinical neurological signs, vibrotactile thresholds, and summary variables for different levels of peripheral neuropathy. A limitation of our study is that our database did not include more sensitive continuous measures such as nerve conduction studies. No significant associations were found between amalgam exposure and clinical neurological signs of abnormal tremor, coordination, station or gait, strength, sensation, or muscle stretch reflexes or for any level of peripheral neuropathy among our study participants. A statistically significant association was detected between amalgam exposure and the continuous vibrotactile sensation response for the combined non-diabetic participants and separately for non-diabetic AFHS controls. No significant association in this measure was detectable for non-diabetic Ranch Hand veterans or among the combined diabetic participants. The association is a sub-clinical finding that was not associated with symptoms, clinically evident signs of neuropathy, or any functional impairment. Overall, we found no association between amalgam exposure and neurological signs or clinically evident peripheral neuropathy. Our findings do not support the hypothesis that exposure to amalgam produces adverse, clinically evident neurological effects. PMID:15713345

  9. Ocular complications of neurological therapy.

    PubMed

    Hadjikoutis, S; Morgan, J E; Wild, J M; Smith, P E M

    2005-07-01

    Treatments used for several neurological conditions may adversely affect the eye. Vigabatrin-related retinal toxicity leads to a visual field defect. Optic neuropathy may result from ethambutol and isoniazid, and from radiation therapy. Posterior subcapsular cataract is associated with systemic corticosteroids. Transient refractive error changes may follow treatment with acetazolamide or topiramate, and corneal deposits and keratitis with amandatine. Intraocular pressure can be elevated in susceptible individuals by anticholinergic drugs, including oxybutynin, tolterodine, benzhexol, propantheline, atropine and amitriptyline, and also by systemic corticosteroids and by topiramate. Nystagmus, diplopia and extraocular muscle palsies can occur with antiepileptic drugs, particularly phenytoin and carbamazepine. Ocular neuromyotonia can follow parasellar radiation. Congenital ocular malformations can result from in utero exposure to maternally prescribed sodium valproate, phenytoin and carbamazepine. Neurologists must be aware of potential ocular toxicity of these drugs, and appropriately monitor for potential adverse events. PMID:15958088

  10. Neurological disorders and inflammatory bowel diseases

    PubMed Central

    Casella, Giovanni; Tontini, Gian Eugenio; Bassotti, Gabrio; Pastorelli, Luca; Villanacci, Vincenzo; Spina, Luisa; Baldini, Vittorio; Vecchi, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    Extraintestinal manifestations occur in about one-third of patients living with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and may precede the onset of gastrointestinal symptoms by many years. Neurologic disorders associated with IBD are not frequent, being reported in 3% of patients, but they often represent an important cause of morbidity and a relevant diagnostic issue. In addition, the increasing use of immunosuppressant and biological therapies for IBD may also play a pivotal role in the development of neurological disorders of different type and pathogenesis. Hence, we provide a complete and profound review of the main features of neurological complications associated with IBD, with particular reference to those related to drugs and with a specific focus on their clinical presentation and possible pathophysiological mechanisms. PMID:25083051

  11. Astrocytes: The missing link in neurological disease?

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chia-Ching John; Deneen, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    The central nervous system (CNS) is comprised of numerous cell types that work in concert to facilitate proper function and homeostasis. Disruption of these carefully orchestrated networks results in neuronal dysfunction, manifesting itself in a variety of neurological disorders. While neuronal dysregulation is causative of symptoms manifest in the clinic, the etiology of these disorders is often more complex than simply a loss of neurons or intrinsic dysregulation of their function. In the adult brain, astrocytes comprise the most abundant cell type and play key roles in CNS physiology, therefore it stands to reason that dysregulation of normal astrocyte function contributes to the etiology and progression of varied neurological disorders. We review here some neurological disorders associated with an astrocyte factor and discuss how the related astrocyte dysfunction contributes to the etiology and/or progression of these disorders. PMID:24365571

  12. Immunotherapies in neurologic disorders.

    PubMed

    Graves, Donna; Vernino, Steven

    2012-05-01

    Therapy for autoimmune demyelinating disorders has evolved rapidly over the past 10 years to include traditional immunosuppressants as well as novel biologicals. Antibody-mediated neuromuscular disorders are treated with therapies that acutely modulate pathogenic antibodies or chronically inhibit the humoral immune response. In other inflammatory autoimmune disorders of the peripheral and central nervous system, corticosteroids, often combined with conventional immunosuppression, and immunomodulatory treatments are used. Because autoimmune neurologic disorders are so diverse, evidence from randomized controlled trials is limited for most of the immunotherapies used in neurology. This review provides an overview of the immunotherapies currently used for neurologic disorders. PMID:22703853

  13. Current thinking: return to play and transient quadriplegia.

    PubMed

    Cantu, Robert V; Cantu, Robert C

    2005-02-01

    Athletes that participate in contact and collision sports assume risk of serious injury each time they take the field. For those athletes that have sustained an episode of transient quadriplegia, the decision of whether to return to competition can be a difficult one. Some athletes, realizing how close they may have come to permanent injury, may decide that further participation is not in their best interest. Others may be somewhat undecided, and some may want to return at all costs. As the treating physician, the goal is to identify those athletes who after a single episode of transient quadriplegia are at increased risk for further injury and consequently should discontinue participation in contact sports. Factors that may contribute to that determination include mechanism of injury, prior history of neurologic symptoms or injury, and anatomic features that may predispose to further injury such as disc herniation, fracture, or cervical stenosis. PMID:15659276

  14. Are aluminium potroom workers at increased risk of neurological disorders?

    PubMed Central

    Sim, M; Dick, R; Russo, J; Bernard, B; Grubb, P; Krieg, E; Mueller, C; McCammon, C

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether long term potroom workers in an aluminium smelter are at increased risk of neurological disorders. METHODS: Cross sectional study of 63 current and former aluminium potroom workers first employed before 1970 and with at least 10 years of service. A group of 37 cast house and carbon plant workers with similar durations of employment and starting dates in the same smelter were used as controls. The prevalence of neurological symptoms was ascertained by questionnaire. Objective tests of tremor in both upper and lower limbs, postural stability, reaction time, and vocabulary were conducted. All subjects were examined by a neurologist. RESULTS: No significant differences in age, race, or education were found between the two groups. Although the potroom group had higher prevalences for all but one of the neurological symptoms, only three odds ratios (ORs) were significantly increased; for incoordination (OR 10.6), difficulty buttoning (OR 6.2), and depression (OR 6.2). Tests of arm or hand and leg tremor in both the visible and non-visible frequencies did not show any significant differences between the two groups. Testing of postural stability showed no definitive pattern of neurologically meaningful differences between the groups. There were no significant differences between the two groups in reaction time, vocabulary score, or clinical neurological assessment. CONCLUSIONS: The objective measures of neurological function provided little support for the finding of increased neurological symptom prevalences in the potroom workers, although increased symptoms may be an indicator of early, subtle neurological changes. The results provide no firm basis for concluding that neurological effects among long term potroom workers are related to the working environment, in particular aluminium exposure, in potrooms. These findings should be treated with caution due to the low participation of former workers and the possibility of information bias in the potroom group. PMID:9166127

  15. [Diagnosis and care of Wilson disease with neurological revelation].

    PubMed

    Wagner, S; Brunet, A-S; Bost, M; Lachaux, A; Broussolle, E; Des Portes, V; Lion-François, L

    2012-03-01

    Wilson disease is an autosomal recessive disease that produces a copper accumulation in many organs, initially in the liver, progressing to liver cirrhosis, and in the brain, with different neurologic symptoms. Diagnosis is based on clinical, biochemical, and genetic tests. Different treatments based on chelating agents may help reduce the disease's spontaneous morbidity and mortality. We describe three patients who presented Wilson disease before 18 years of age, with initial neurologic symptoms between 1998 and 2010. After comparison with literature reports, their clinical symptoms, progression, and care allowed us to propose a treatment algorithm. Neurologic symptoms are present in 35% of the patients with Wilson disease such as dystonia, extrapyramidal syndrome, dysarthria, dysphagia, and psychiatric symptoms. The time to diagnosis remains too long and may account for the increased severity of the illness encountered and problems treating these patients. The first treatment choice must be triethylenetetramine, which causes fewer side effects of initial worsening of symptoms compared to D-penicillamine. Zinc therapy is the first treatment for asymptomatic patients or those on maintenance treatment. Finally, liver transplantation is a potential treatment even if the patient presents severe neurological disability because it may improve clinical symptoms. However, further research is warranted on this matter. PMID:22261259

  16. Literary neurologic syndromes. Alice in Wonderland.

    PubMed

    Rolak, L A

    1991-06-01

    Many neurologic syndromes are named for literary characters. For example, the "Alice in Wonderland" syndrome of altered body perceptions, usually caused by migrainous ischemia, is so called because of the resemblance of its symptoms to the fluctuations in size and shape that plague the main character in Lewis Carroll's 1865 novel Alice in Wonderland. The medical symptoms of distorted body images match the literary description so precisely that illustrations from the original book depict them very accurately. Because Lewis Carroll suffered from classic migraine headaches, scholars have speculated that he may have experienced this syndrome himself. PMID:2039389

  17. Haematology and neurology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven Austin; Hannah Cohen; Nick Losseff

    2007-01-01

    This review aims to update the reader on advances in the understanding of haematological conditions that may arise in neurological practice. Thrombophilia, antiphospholipid antibody syndrome, thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura, sickle cell and clonal disorders associated with neuropathy are discussed.

  18. Hereditary Channelopathies in Neurology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Karin Jurkat-Rott; Holger Lerche; Yvonne Weber; Frank Lehmann-Horn

    \\u000a Ion channelopathies are caused by malfunction or altered regulation of ion channel proteins due to hereditary or acquired\\u000a protein changes. In neurology, main phenotypes include certain forms of epilepsy, ataxia, migraine, neuropathic pain, myotonia,\\u000a and muscle weakness including myasthenia and periodic paralyses. The total prevalence of monogenic channelopathies in neurology\\u000a is about 35:100,000. Susceptibility-related mutations further increase the relevance of

  19. Neurologic Complications of Sarcoma

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Santosh Kesari; Lara J. Kunschner

    Sarcomas are a heterogeneous group of tumors that rarely involve the nervous system. Neurologic effects of sarcoma are more\\u000a often due to tumors outside of the central nervous system. However, as long-term survival rates in childhood sarcoma improves,\\u000a reports of late neurologic complications have increased. With recent advances in treating local sarcomas with targeted molecular\\u000a therapies, the incidence of late

  20. Rare Neurological Manifestation of Celiac Disease

    PubMed Central

    Rani, Uzma; Imdad, Aamer; Beg, Mirza

    2015-01-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is an immune-mediated disease characterized by permanent gastrointestinal tract sensitivity to gluten in genetically predisposed individuals. It has varied clinical manifestations, ranging from gastrointestinal to extraintestinal, including neurological, skin, reproductive and psychiatric symptoms, which makes its diagnosis difficult and challenging. Known neurological manifestations of CD include epilepsy with or without occipital calcification, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and ataxia, headache, neuropathies and behavior disorders. We present the case of a 14-year-old female with headaches and blurred vision for 1 year; she was noted to have papilledema on ophthalmic examination with increased cerebrospinal fluid opening pressure on lumber puncture and was diagnosed as a case of pseudotumor cerebri (PTC). Meanwhile her workup for chronic constipation revealed elevated tissue transglutaminase IgA and antiendomysial IgA antibodies. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy with duodenal biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of CD. The patient was started on a gluten-free diet, leading to resolution of not only gastrointestinal symptoms but also to almost complete resolution of symptoms of PTC. This report describes the correlation of CD and PTC as its neurological manifestation. PMID:26120302

  1. Rare Neurological Manifestation of Celiac Disease.

    PubMed

    Rani, Uzma; Imdad, Aamer; Beg, Mirza

    2015-01-01

    Celiac disease (CD) is an immune-mediated disease characterized by permanent gastrointestinal tract sensitivity to gluten in genetically predisposed individuals. It has varied clinical manifestations, ranging from gastrointestinal to extraintestinal, including neurological, skin, reproductive and psychiatric symptoms, which makes its diagnosis difficult and challenging. Known neurological manifestations of CD include epilepsy with or without occipital calcification, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and ataxia, headache, neuropathies and behavior disorders. We present the case of a 14-year-old female with headaches and blurred vision for 1 year; she was noted to have papilledema on ophthalmic examination with increased cerebrospinal fluid opening pressure on lumber puncture and was diagnosed as a case of pseudotumor cerebri (PTC). Meanwhile her workup for chronic constipation revealed elevated tissue transglutaminase IgA and antiendomysial IgA antibodies. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy with duodenal biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of CD. The patient was started on a gluten-free diet, leading to resolution of not only gastrointestinal symptoms but also to almost complete resolution of symptoms of PTC. This report describes the correlation of CD and PTC as its neurological manifestation. PMID:26120302

  2. Neurology in Asia.

    PubMed

    Tan, Chong-Tin

    2015-02-10

    Asia is important as it accounts for more than half of the world population. The majority of Asian countries fall into the middle income category. As for cultural traditions, Asia is highly varied, with many languages spoken. The pattern of neurologic diseases in Asia is largely similar to the West, with some disease features being specific to Asia. Whereas Asia constitutes 60% of the world's population, it contains only 20% of the world's neurologists. This disparity is particularly evident in South and South East Asia. As for neurologic care, it is highly variable depending on whether it is an urban or rural setting, the level of economic development, and the system of health care financing. To help remedy the shortage of neurologists, most counties with larger populations have established training programs in neurology. These programs are diverse, with many areas of concern. There are regional organizations serving as a vehicle for networking in neurology and various subspecialties, as well as an official journal (Neurology Asia). The Asian Epilepsy Academy, with its emphasis on workshops in various locations, EEG certification examination, and fellowships, may provide a template of effective regional networking for improving neurology care in the region. PMID:25666629

  3. Wikipedia and neurological disorders.

    PubMed

    Brigo, Francesco; Igwe, Stanley C; Nardone, Raffaele; Lochner, Piergiorgio; Tezzon, Frediano; Otte, Willem M

    2015-07-01

    Our aim was to evaluate Wikipedia page visits in relation to the most common neurological disorders by determining which factors are related to peaks in Wikipedia searches for these conditions. Millions of people worldwide use the internet daily as a source of health information. Wikipedia is a popular free online encyclopedia used by patients and physicians to search for health-related information. The following Wikipedia articles were considered: Alzheimer's disease; Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; Dementia; Epilepsy; Epileptic seizure; Migraine; Multiple sclerosis; Parkinson's disease; Stroke; Traumatic brain injury. We analyzed information regarding the total article views for 90 days and the rank of these articles among all those available in Wikipedia. We determined the highest search volume peaks to identify possible relation with online news headlines. No relation between incidence or prevalence of neurological disorders and the search volume for the related articles was found. Seven out of 10 neurological conditions showed relations in search volume peaks and news headlines. Six out of these seven peaks were related to news about famous people suffering from neurological disorders, especially those from showbusiness. Identification of discrepancies between disease burden and health seeking behavior on Wikipedia is useful in the planning of public health campaigns. Celebrities who publicly announce their neurological diagnosis might effectively promote awareness programs, increase public knowledge and reduce stigma related to diagnoses of neurological disorders. PMID:25890773

  4. Neurological and psychological findings in patients with Cohen syndrome: a study of 18 patients aged 11 months to 57 years.

    PubMed

    Kivitie-Kallio, S; Larsen, A; Kajasto, K; Norio, R

    1999-08-01

    Our purpose was to perform the first systematic neurological, neurophysiological and psychological study of 18 patients with Cohen syndrome (MIM no 216550), aged 11 months to 57 years (median 27 years). All the patients had the essential features of this syndrome, i.e., typical facial and structural findings, mental retardation, microcephaly, ophthalmologic symptoms, granulocytopenia and a cheerful psychic disposition. Children with the syndrome were considered normal at birth, but upwards of 6 to 12 months, psychomotor retardation became obvious. The first symptoms were microcephaly, which manifested itself by the age of 6 months to 1 year, as well as hypotonia and delayed developmental milestones. Cohen children learned to walk at 2 to 5 years of age. Language development varied markedly. Neurological symptoms did not progress. All patients had normal EMGs. The three youngest (aged 11 months, 3 and 5 years) had normal EEGs, whereas the remainder had low-voltage EEGs. No irritative spikes or epileptoformic foci were found. Nine patients had quick beta transients. Of the 18 patients examined, 4 were profoundly, 11 severely, 1 moderately and 2 mildly retarded. On the AADM scale, Cohen patients had high scores in the positive domains, viz., self-direction, responsibility and socialisation. Maladaptive behaviour, on the other hand, was almost completely absent, except for stereotyped behaviours and odd mannerisms. Withdrawal, sexually aberrant behaviour, untrustworthy and rebellious behaviour as well as antisocial behaviour were rare. These findings are consistent with the cheerful and sociable disposition characteristic of those with Cohen syndrome. PMID:10569209

  5. Symptom Management

    MedlinePLUS

    Symptom Management A brain injury can affect a person physically and psychologically, and sometimes the symptoms don't appear ... Diagnosis and Assessment Treatment and Recovery Caregiving Symptom Management Life After TBI Defense and Veterans Brain Injury ...

  6. COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY DEPARTMENT OF NEUROLOGY

    E-print Network

    Pullman, Seth L.

    COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY DEPARTMENT OF NEUROLOGY RESEARCH RESOURCES GUIDE Prepared by Minu Chaudhuri, Ph in neurology. According to the Residency Review Committee in Neurology, "Graduate medical education must take and elsewhere. While the information is primarily intended to be of use to residents in Neurology, fellows

  7. Neurology Research Henry Ford Hospital

    E-print Network

    Berdichevsky, Victor

    Neurology Research Henry Ford Hospital presented by Zhenggang Zhang, MD. Ph.D. Senior Scientist, Department of Neurology #12;Neurology Research Directed by Michael Chopp Ph.D NIH grants: 1 PO1 and 10 RO1 of neurological outcome in these patients. #12;Restorative Therapies for Stroke #12;Model of Middle Cerebral

  8. Grand Rounds Department of Neurology

    E-print Network

    Brody, James P.

    Grand Rounds Department of Neurology Neurology Lecture Series Targeting neural plasticity to treat neurological disease Mike Kilgard, PhD Margaret Fonde Jonsson Professor School of Behavioral and Brain Sciences on the latest clin- ical information in neurology. Accreditation Statement: The University of California, Irvine

  9. Thermography in Neurologic Practice

    PubMed Central

    Neves, Eduardo Borba; Vilaça-Alves, José; Rosa, Claudio; Reis, Victor Machado

    2015-01-01

    One kind of medical images that has been developed in the last decades is thermal images. These images are assessed by infrared cameras and have shown an exponential development in recent years. In this sense, the aim of this study was to describe possibilities of thermography usage in the neurologic practice. It was performed a systematic review in Web of Knowledge (Thompson Reuters), set in all databases which used two combination of keywords as “topic”: “thermography” and “neurology”; and “thermography” and “neurologic”. The chronological period was defined from 2000 to 2014 (the least 15 years). Among the studies included in this review, only seven were with experimental design. It is few to bring thermography as a daily tool in clinical practice. However, these studies have suggested good results. The studies of review and an analyzed patent showed that the authors consider the thermography as a diagnostic tool and they recommend its usage. It can be concluded that thermography is already used as a diagnostic and monitoring tool of patients with neuropathies, particularly in complex regional pain syndrome, and stroke. And yet, this tool has great potential for future research about its application in diagnosis of other diseases of neurological origin.

  10. Neurology in Holy Scripture.

    PubMed

    Budrys, V

    2007-07-01

    This paper discusses possible neurological disorders in one of the oldest and most important monuments of human literature--'The Holy Scriptures'. These include epilepsy, neuromuscular disorders, speech disorders, psychogenic disorders, head trauma, and subarachnoid hemorrhage. The approach to and the 'miraculous' healing of these ailments is discussed. PMID:17594303

  11. Neurology of ciguatera

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J Pearn

    2001-01-01

    Ciguatera is a widespread ichthyosarcotoxaemia with dramatic and clinically important neurological features. This severe form of fish poisoning may present with either acute or chronic intoxication syndromes and constitutes a global health problem. Ciguatera poisoning is little known in temperate countries as a potentially global problem associated with human ingestion of large carnivorous fish that harbour the bioaccumulated ciguatoxins of

  12. Neurological Impress Method plus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flood, James; Lapp, Diane; Fisher, Douglas

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of these two studies was to redirect interest to the Neurological Impress Method, a multisensory approach to reading instruction that occurs between a teacher and a student, which has been largely forgotten in mainstream and special education circles over the past decades. In addition to its emphasis on oral reading, we included a…

  13. Endovascular Treatment of Supra-Aortic Extracranial Stenoses in Patients with Vertebrobasilar Insufficiency Symptoms

    SciTech Connect

    Zaytsev, A.Y., E-mail: cir-auz@mail.ru; Stoyda, A.Y.; Smirnov, V.E. [I.M. Setchenov Moscow Medical Academy, Department of Angiography and Interventional Radiology (Russian Federation); Scherbyuk, A.N. [I.M. Setchenov Moscow Medical Academy, Department of Vascular Surgery (Russian Federation); Kondrashin, S.A [I.M. Setchenov Moscow Medical Academy, Department of Angiography and Interventional Radiology (Russian Federation); Artukchina, E.G. [I.M. Setchenov Moscow Medical Academy, Department of Vascular Surgery (Russian Federation); Kikevitch, V.A. [N.N. Burdenko Interventional Radiology Center, Department of Angiography and Interventional Radiology (Russian Federation)

    2006-10-15

    Purpose. Stenoses and thromboses of vessels feeding the vertebrobasilar territory can evoke serious disturbances including ischemic stroke. We present our experience of endovascular interventions for patients with signs of vertebrobasilar insufficiency (VBI) resulted from subclavian, vertebral and brachiocephalic arterial stenoses. Methods. Twenty-one patients (10 men) aged from 35 to 84 years (mean 64.3 years) with symptoms compatible with VBI underwent balloon angioplasty and stenting of subclavian (SA), innominate (IA) and vertebral (VA) arteries. Procedures were done by radiologists experienced in systematic stenting of the lesions. VBI was manifested by persistent signs in 15 patients, and by transitory ischemic attacks in the posterior circulatory territory in 4 (19%). Two patients (10%) experienced ischemic strokes (in the vertebrobasilar circulation in both cases). In 3 patients (14%) VBI was accompanied by upper limb vascular insufficiency symptoms. All cases were resistant to medical treatment. A neurologist assessed complaints, initial VBI signs and their alteration after intervention in all patients. Outcomes were measured with the 5-point scale suggested by Malek et al.: (1) excellent result (asymptomatic, no neurologic deficits and no symptoms of vertebrobasilar ischemia); (2) good (no neurologic deficits, at most one transient episode of vertebrobasilar ischemia over a period of 3 months after treatment); (3) fair (minimal neurologic deficit and at most one transient episode per month of vertebrobasilar ischemia); (4) poor (no improvement compared with neurologic status before treatment and/or persistent symptoms of vertebrobasilar ischemia); (5) death (regardless of cause). Endovascular treatment was performed for SA stenosis in 15 patients, for SA occlusion in 2, for IA stenosis in 2, and for VA stenosis in 2. There were 15 cases of atherosclerosis, 2 of aortoarteritis, 4 of proximal SA kinking. SA and IA stenoses ranged from 60% to 100% (mean 74.5%), VA stenoses were 90% in both cases. Results. Initial technical success was achieved in 96% of cases. There were no postprocedural complications or deaths. During 6-36 months (mean 21.3 months) of follow-up all patients showed improvement in VBI symptoms or upper limb ischemia. Within 36 months after the procedure outcomes were estimated as excellent and good in 13 patients (76%) and poor in 2 (12%), the last being attributed to atherosclerosis progression in other vascular areas. Restenosis in the stented area has developed in 1 patient (6%). Conclusions. Balloon angioplasty and stenting of extracranial vertebrobasilar arterial stenoses appeared to be effective in endovascular treatment of medically resistant VBI. Further investigations are required to clarify the role of subclavian artery kinking in VBI development and indications for various methods of its correction.

  14. Stroke Awareness in Luxemburg: Deficit Concerning Symptoms and Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Droste, Dirk W; Safo, Jacqueline; Metz, René J; Osada, Nani

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Awareness of stroke risk factors is important for stroke prevention. Knowledge of stroke symptoms and awareness regarding the necessity of seeking urgent stroke treatment are vital to provide rapid admission to a stroke unit. Data on this specific knowledge in Luxemburg are lacking. METHODS We investigated 420 patients from the Department of Neurology and their relatives using a questionnaire. There were 44% men and 56% women; 25% were immigrants and 75% Luxemburgish nationals; 13% already had had a stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA); and the mean age was 55 years ranging from 18 to 87 years. RESULTS A total of 88% of participants knew that a stroke occurs in the head/brain. In all, 10% of participants did not know any symptom of a stroke. The most frequently quoted symptoms (>15%) were paralysis/weakness (36%), speech disorders (32%), cranial nerve deficit (16%), vertigo (15%), and visual disorders (15%). Sensory deficits were mentioned by only 4% of patients. Known risk factors (>15%) were smoking (40%), hypertension (32%), alcohol (32%), poor nutrition (28%), high cholesterol (26%), stress (23%), and lack of exercise (19%). Age (4%), diabetes (6%), carotid stenosis (2%), and heart disease (1%) were less frequently known. In all, 11% of participants did not know any risk factor of a stroke. A total of 89% of participants would correctly call the 112 (emergency phone number). The following groups were better informed: Luxemburgish nationals, younger people, and participants with higher education level. Stroke/TIA patients were better informed concerning stroke symptoms, but unfortunately not concerning how to react in the case of a stroke. There was no relevant gender difference. DISCUSSION Although most of the participants knew what to do in the case of a stroke, they did not know the relevant stroke symptoms and risk factors. Future campaigns should therefore focus on risk factors and symptoms, and should address immigrants, elderly persons, less-educated persons, and patients who had already suffered a stroke/TIA. PMID:25452703

  15. The neurological disease ontology

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background We are developing the Neurological Disease Ontology (ND) to provide a framework to enable representation of aspects of neurological diseases that are relevant to their treatment and study. ND is a representational tool that addresses the need for unambiguous annotation, storage, and retrieval of data associated with the treatment and study of neurological diseases. ND is being developed in compliance with the Open Biomedical Ontology Foundry principles and builds upon the paradigm established by the Ontology for General Medical Science (OGMS) for the representation of entities in the domain of disease and medical practice. Initial applications of ND will include the annotation and analysis of large data sets and patient records for Alzheimer’s disease, multiple sclerosis, and stroke. Description ND is implemented in OWL 2 and currently has more than 450 terms that refer to and describe various aspects of neurological diseases. ND directly imports the development version of OGMS, which uses BFO 2. Term development in ND has primarily extended the OGMS terms ‘disease’, ‘diagnosis’, ‘disease course’, and ‘disorder’. We have imported and utilize over 700 classes from related ontology efforts including the Foundational Model of Anatomy, Ontology for Biomedical Investigations, and Protein Ontology. ND terms are annotated with ontology metadata such as a label (term name), term editors, textual definition, definition source, curation status, and alternative terms (synonyms). Many terms have logical definitions in addition to these annotations. Current development has focused on the establishment of the upper-level structure of the ND hierarchy, as well as on the representation of Alzheimer’s disease, multiple sclerosis, and stroke. The ontology is available as a version-controlled file at http://code.google.com/p/neurological-disease-ontology along with a discussion list and an issue tracker. Conclusion ND seeks to provide a formal foundation for the representation of clinical and research data pertaining to neurological diseases. ND will enable its users to connect data in a robust way with related data that is annotated using other terminologies and ontologies in the biomedical domain. PMID:24314207

  16. College of Medicine NEU Neurology

    E-print Network

    MacAdam, Keith

    College of Medicine NEU Neurology KEY: # = new course * = course changed = course dropped University of Kentucky 2013-2014 Undergraduate Bulletin 1 NEU 815 FIRST-YEAR ELECTIVE, NEUROLOGY. (1 offered by the Department of Neurology. The intent is to provide the student an opportunity

  17. Pediatric Neurological Emergencies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. W. J. McCann; E. Phelan

    Acute encephalopathy in childhood may vary in its presentation, aetiology and imaging compared with the adult population.\\u000a Emergent neuroimaging, while often performed in order to exclude infection or neoplasia as a cause of acute neurological deterioration,\\u000a may reveal imaging findings peculiar to a number of specific conditions. The radiologist may be the first to recognise and\\u000a suggest conditions such as

  18. Neurologic Parasitic Infections in Immigrants and Travelers

    PubMed Central

    Thakur, Kiran; Zunt, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Infectious diseases are increasingly common in modern clinical practice and the contemporary neurologist must be aware of the clinical manifestations, potential complications, and management of common travel-related infections. The authors provide an approach to patients who present with neurologic symptoms, with a history of travel to or residence in tropical and developing countries. Although many other infections are important in this demographic, they focus on three parasitic infections that neurologists may encounter: cerebral malaria, neuroschistosomiasis, and neurocysticercosis. The epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, diagnostic evaluation, and treatment are discussed for each infection. PMID:21964842

  19. Neurologic parasitic infections in immigrants and travelers.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Kiran; Zunt, Joseph

    2011-07-01

    Infectious diseases are increasingly common in modern clinical practice and the contemporary neurologist must be aware of the clinical manifestations, potential complications, and management of common travel-related infections. The authors provide an approach to patients who present with neurologic symptoms, with a history of travel to or residence in tropical and developing countries. Although many other infections are important in this demographic, they focus on three parasitic infections that neurologists may encounter: cerebral malaria, neuroschistosomiasis, and neurocysticercosis. The epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, diagnostic evaluation, and treatment are discussed for each infection. PMID:21964842

  20. [Neurological outcome associated with influenza viral infection].

    PubMed

    Kamimura, N; Matsuzaka, T; Tsuji, Y

    1997-04-01

    Several neurological complications associated with Influenza virus infection are known as a febrile convulsion, polyneuritis, meningitis, encephalomyelitis and encephalopathy. Influenza encephalopathy is the most severe complication associated with Influenza. It may be classified into several subtypes according to the clinical symptoms and laboratory data. In this review, Reye's syndrome, acute necrotizing encephalopathy and hemorrhagic shock and encephalopathy syndrome (HSE) are described in detail. The 1995 influenza pandemia in Nagasaki prefecture was markedly neurovirulent and lethal. Twelve cases developed influenza encephalopathy, and the mortality rate between them was 50%. Almost all of them had never be inoculated of influenza vaccine before. PMID:9103888

  1. BRAINA JOURNAL OF NEUROLOGY The neurophysiological correlates of motor tics

    E-print Network

    Bar-Gad, Izhar

    BRAINA JOURNAL OF NEUROLOGY The neurophysiological correlates of motor tics following focal disorders. Brief repetitive muscle contractions known as motor tics are a common symptom in several basal to the sensorimotor putamen of behaving primates to induce stereotyped tics similar to those observed in human

  2. Insomnia in Neurological Diseases and Disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Federica Provini; Carolina Lombardi; Elio Lugaresi

    \\u000a Insomnia is the most common sleep complaint. Insomnia is not a disease but a symptom arising from multiple environmental,\\u000a medical, and mental disorders. Insomnia can be transient, short-term, or chronic in its presentation. Degenerative and vascular\\u000a diseases involving the central nervous system (CNS) may impair sleep either as a result of the brain lesion or because of\\u000a illness-related personal discomfort.

  3. Clinical features of malignant syndrome in Parkinson's disease and related neurological disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Toshihide Harada; Kyoko Mitsuoka; Rumi Kumagai; Yoshio Murata; Yumiko Kaseda; Hidekazu Kamei; Fumiko Ishizaki; Shigenobu Nakamura

    2003-01-01

    Introduction. We elucidated the cause and clinical characteristics of malignant syndrome (MS) in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), early-onset parkinsonism (EOP), and other neurological disorders.Materials and methods. Subjects were 260 patients with PD or EOP, and three patients with other neurological disorders associated with MS. We studied clinical symptoms before and after the onset of MS, and evaluated autonomic function

  4. Genetic Risk Factors Associated With Thrombosis in Children With Congenital Neurologic Disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Meropi Tzoufi; Stella Giotopoulou; Photeini Papadimitriou; Eleni Dokou; Nikolaos I. Kolaitis; Antigoni Siamopoulou; George Vartholomatos

    2005-01-01

    Thromboembolic events during the perinatal period are responsible for irreversible brain damage owing to cerebral hypoxia and neuronal necrosis. We investigated the presence of thrombophilia risk factors in children with congenital neurologic disorders. Nineteen children (9 males and 10 females), aged 1 to 14 years (median 4.5 years), who had presented with symptoms and signs of congenital neurologic disorders were

  5. Bridging neuroanatomy, neuroradiology and neurology: three-dimensional interactive atlas of neurological disorders.

    PubMed

    Nowinski, W L; Chua, B C

    2013-06-01

    Understanding brain pathology along with the underlying neuroanatomy and the resulting neurological deficits is of vital importance in medical education and clinical practice. To facilitate and expedite this understanding, we created a three-dimensional (3D) interactive atlas of neurological disorders providing the correspondence between a brain lesion and the resulting disorder(s). The atlas contains a 3D highly parcellated atlas of normal neuroanatomy along with a brain pathology database. Normal neuroanatomy is divided into about 2,300 components, including the cerebrum, cerebellum, brainstem, spinal cord, arteries, veins, dural sinuses, tracts, cranial nerves (CN), white matter, deep gray nuclei, ventricles, visual system, muscles, glands and cervical vertebrae (C1-C5). The brain pathology database contains 144 focal and distributed synthesized lesions (70 vascular, 36 CN-related, and 38 regional anatomy-related), each lesion labeled with the resulting disorder and associated signs, symptoms, and/or syndromes compiled from materials reported in the literature. The initial view of each lesion was preset in terms of its location and size, surrounding surface and sectional (magnetic resonance) neuroanatomy, and labeling of lesion and neuroanatomy. In addition, a glossary of neurological disorders was compiled and for each disorder materials from textbooks were included to provide neurological description. This atlas of neurological disorders is potentially useful to a wide variety of users ranging from medical students, residents and nurses to general practitioners, neuroanatomists, neuroradiologists and neurologists, as it contains both normal (surface and sectional) brain anatomy and pathology correlated with neurological disorders presented in a visual and interactive way. PMID:23859280

  6. Neurologic injury in snowmobiling

    PubMed Central

    Plog, Benjamin A.; Pierre, Clifford A.; Srinivasan, Vasisht; Srinivasan, Kaushik; Petraglia, Anthony L.; Huang, Jason H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Snowmobiles are increasingly popular recreational, all-terrain utility vehicles that require skill and physical strength to operate given their inherent maneuverability, acceleration, and top speed capabilities. These same characteristics increase the risk of injury with the operation of these vehicles, particularly neurological injury. We characterize our series of 107 patients involved in snowmobiling accidents. Methods: From January 2004 to January 2012, all snowmobiling-related injuries referred to our regional trauma center were reviewed. Information had been recorded in the hospital's trauma registry and medical records were retrospectively reviewed for data pertaining to the injuries, with particular emphasis on neurological injuries and any associated details. Results: A total of 107 patients were identified. Ninety percent of injured riders were male. The mean age was 34.4 years (range 10-70), with 7% younger than age 16. The mean Injury Severity Score was 12.0 ± 0.69 (range 1-34). Although not documented in all patients, alcohol use was found in 7.5% of the patients and drug use found in one patient. Documentation of helmet use was available for only 31 of the patients; of which 13% were not helmeted. Causes included being thrown, flipped, or roll-over (33%), striking a stationary object (27%), being struck by a snowmobile (9%), striking another snowmobile (5.5%) or a car, train, or truck (5.5%), being injured by the machine itself (9%), other (2%) or unspecified (18%). Head injuries occurred in 35% patients, including concussion, subarachnoid hemorrhage, subdural hematoma, contusion, and facial/skull fracture. Spinal fractures occurred in 21% of the patients. Fractures to the thoracic spine were the most common (50%), followed by the cervical (41%) and lumbar (36%) spine. There were also three brachial plexus injuries, one tibial nerve injury, and one internal carotid artery dissection. Average length of stay was 4.98 ± 0.56 days. Disposition was home (78%), home with services (12%), rehabilitation placement (9%), and one death. Details regarding other systemic injuries will also be reviewed. Conclusions: Snowmobiles are a significant source of multi-trauma, particularly neurological injury. Neurosurgeons can play key roles in advocating for neurological safety in snowmobiling. PMID:25024887

  7. [Advanced OSCE in neurology].

    PubMed

    Yoshii, Fumihito

    2007-11-01

    Advanced OSCE evaluates (1) the ability to elicit a relevant history based on the clinical complaints, (2) the application and successful completion of appropriate physical examination maneuvers, given the chief complaint, and (3) the knowledge and ability to provide appropriate tests and treatments with respect to the diagnosis. It is now widely employed as a test after clinical clerkship rotations. Students perform clinical tasks in a series of clinical test stations while interacting with a trained lay-person, called a standardized patient (SP). Time for one station is 15-25 minutes. Evaluations are usually performed by two physician examiners and the SP, who score students' performance according to checklists developed by OSCE Test Committees. Because of the advantages of this tool, advanced OSCE will be adopted not only in undergraduate, but also in postgraduate medical settings in the future. For the successful spread of advanced OSCE in the field of neurology, it will be important to (1) develop high-quality scenarios, (2) teach students how to make precise neurological examinations, (3) demonstrate the reliability and reproducibility of OSCE scores amongst different observers, (4) organize workshops for faculty development, and (5) establish facilities for training students and SPs. PMID:18210829

  8. Manganese exposure: Neuropsychological and neurological symptoms and effects in welders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rosemarie M. Bowler; Sabine Gysens; Emily Diamond; Sanae Nakagawa; Marija Drezgic; Harry A. Roels

    2006-01-01

    Manganese exposure reportedly may have an adverse effect on CNS function and mood. Sixty-two welders with clinical histories of exposure to manganese were compared to 46 matched regional controls chosen at random from a telephone directory. The following tests were given: Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-III), Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS-III), Boston Naming, WRAT-3, Cancellation H, Trail Making Tests A and

  9. History of neurologic examination books.

    PubMed

    Boes, Christopher J

    2015-04-01

    The objective of this study was to create an annotated list of textbooks dedicated to teaching the neurologic examination. Monographs focused primarily on the complete neurologic examination published prior to 1960 were reviewed. This analysis was limited to books with the word "examination" in the title, with exceptions for the texts of Robert Wartenberg and Gordon Holmes. Ten manuals met the criteria. Works dedicated primarily to the neurologic examination without a major emphasis on disease description or treatment first appeared in the early 1900s. Georg Monrad-Krohn's "Blue Book of Neurology" ("Blue Bible") was the earliest success. These treatises served the important purpose of educating trainees on proper neurologic examination technique. They could make a reputation and be profitable for the author (Monrad-Krohn), highlight how neurology was practiced at individual institutions (McKendree, Denny-Brown, Holmes, DeJong, Mayo Clinic authors), and honor retiring mentors (Mayo Clinic authors). PMID:25829645

  10. Child Neurology Services in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Wilmshurst, Jo M.; Badoe, Eben; Wammanda, Robinson D.; Mallewa, Macpherson; Kakooza-Mwesige, Angelina; Venter, Andre; Newton, Charles R.

    2013-01-01

    The first African Child Neurology Association meeting identified key challenges that the continent faces to improve the health of children with neurology disorders. The capacity to diagnose common neurologic conditions and rare disorders is lacking. The burden of neurologic disease on the continent is not known, and this lack of knowledge limits the ability to lobby for better health care provision. Inability to practice in resource-limited settings has led to the migration of skilled professionals away from Africa. Referral systems from primary to tertiary are often unpredictable and chaotic. There is a lack of access to reliable supplies of basic neurology treatments such as antiepileptic drugs. Few countries have nationally accepted guidelines either for the management of epilepsy or status epilepticus. There is a great need to develop better training capacity across Africa in the recognition and management of neurologic conditions in children, from primary health care to the subspecialist level. PMID:22019842

  11. Neurological complications after cadaveric and living donor liver transplantation.

    PubMed

    Saner, Fuat; Gu, Yanli; Minouchehr, Shahin; Ilker, Kavuk; Fruhauf, Nils R; Paul, Andreas; Radtke, Arnold; Dammann, Marc; Katsarava, Zaza; Koeppen, Susanne; Malagó, Massimo; Broelsch, Christoph E

    2006-05-01

    Problems related to the central nervous system have a major impact on survival and quality of life. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the incidence of neurological complications after liver transplantation (LT), including both cadaveric and living donor liver transplantation. Between April 2001 and March 2004 174 patients (120 cadaveric liver transplantations, 54 living donor transplantations) were admitted to our intensive care after liver transplantation. Of the transplanted patients 24.7% developed neurological complications. These patients' stay in the intensive care (14.2 +/- 17.2 days) was much longer than that of all admitted patients (8.4 +/- 10.5 days, p < 0.05). The most common neurological complications were encephalopathy (72.1%) and seizures (11.6 %). The incidence of neurological complications in living donor liver transplanted patients was significantly lower than in cadaveric transplantation patients (20.4% vs 26.7 %). The cold ischemia time in living donor transplanted patients was significantly shorter in comparison with cadaveric transplanted patients (215 +/- 119.3 vs. 383.7 +/- 214.7). The survival rate after liver transplantation of patients with neurological complications was lower than that of patients without, but not significantly different (79.1 % vs. 82.4%, p > 0.05). The incidence of neurological symptoms was found to be similar between the patients treated with cyclosporine (25%) and tacrolimus (23.8 %) in this study. In conclusion, there was a high incidence of neurological complications after LT, prolonging the patients' stay in intensive care significantly. The major neurological manifestation in our patients was encephalopathy followed by seizures. Living donor liver transplantation was associated with a significantly lower incidence of neurological complications compared with patients who had received a cadaveric graft. This might be due to the good quality of the organ and the much shorter cold ischemia time of the graft when the donor was alive. PMID:16511638

  12. HIV Symptoms

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Submit Home > HIV/AIDS > What is HIV/AIDS? HIV/AIDS This information in Spanish ( en español ) HIV symptoms Photo courtesy of AIDS.gov Facing AIDS ... and brain Return to top More information on HIV symptoms Explore other publications and websites Basic Information ...

  13. Neurological Effects of Pesticide Use among Farmers in China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yifan; Zhang, Chao; Yin, Yanhong; Cui, Fang; Cai, Jinyang; Chen, Zhaohui; Jin, Yanhong; Robson, Mark G.; Li, Mao; Ren, Yuting; Huang, Xusheng; Hu, Ruifa

    2014-01-01

    The intensive use of pesticides has attracted great attention from the Chinese government. However, current regulations have had limited influence on their safe use. Although the acute neurologic effects of pesticides have been well documented, little is known about their cumulative effects. Knowledge of the impact of pesticides on health may convince farmers to minimize their use. We conducted a cross-sectional study in three provinces of China to evaluate the relationship between pesticide exposure and neurological dysfunction. Crop farmers were divided into two groups depending on their level of pesticide exposure. A total of 236 participants were assessed by questionnaire and neurological examination for symptoms and signs of neuropathy. Characteristics of neurologic dysfunction following cumulative low-level exposure were assessed with logistic regression analysis. Farmers exposed to high-level pesticide use had greater risk of developing sensations of numbness or prickling (odds ratio (OR) 2.62, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.08–6.36). After adjusting for recent exposure, the risk of numbness or prickling symptoms (OR 2.55, 95% CI: 1.04–6.25) remained statistically significant. Loss of muscle strength and decreased deep tendon reflexes had OR > 2, however, this did not reach statistical significance. These findings suggest that overuse of pesticides increased risk of neurologic dysfunction among farmers, with somatosensory small fibers most likely affected. Measures that are more efficient should be taken to curb excessive use of pesticides. PMID:24736684

  14. Acute mountain sickness in athletes with neurological impairments.

    PubMed

    Kamaraj, Deepan C; Dicianno, Brad E; Cooper, Rory A; Hunter, John; Tang, Jennifer L

    2013-01-01

    Acute mountain sickness (AMS) is a symptom complex noticed commonly among high altitude travelers. The occurrence of AMS depends on multiple factors that have been studied extensively. However, AMS in individuals with neurological impairments has not been considered in detail. A total of 168 subjects, including active controls, inactive controls, and those with spinal cord injury (SCI), multiple sclerosis, and traumatic brain injury (TBI), were studied at the National Veterans Winter Sports Clinic in Snowmass, Colorado, from 2007 to 2009 for the occurrence of AMS. Lake Louise Score was used to quantify symptoms. A higher than anticipated occurrence of AMS (42.85%) among the study population was noted, with significantly higher Lake Louis Scores among athletes with neurological impairments. Disability group, prior history of AMS, and prior occurrence of headache at high altitude could be used as predictors for the development of AMS symptoms. More research is warranted specifically targeting the interaction between factors affecting AMS and the pathophysiology of neurological impairments like SCI and TBI to further our understanding about prophylactic medications and treatments for AMS, especially because many military personnel with neurological impairments continue on Active Duty. PMID:23761006

  15. Consciousness: a neurological perspective.

    PubMed

    Cavanna, Andrea E; Shah, Sachin; Eddy, Clare M; Williams, Adrian; Rickards, Hugh

    2011-01-01

    Consciousness is a state so essentially entwined with human experience, yet so difficult to conceptually define and measure. In this article, we explore how a bidimensional model of consciousness involving both level of arousal and subjective awareness of the contents of consciousness can be used to differentiate a range of healthy and altered conscious states. These include the different sleep stages of healthy individuals and the altered states of consciousness associated with neurological conditions such as epilepsy, vegetative state and coma. In particular, we discuss how arousal and awareness are positively correlated in normal physiological states with the exception of REM sleep, while a disturbance in this relationship is characteristic of vegetative state, minimally conscious state, complex partial seizures and sleepwalking. PMID:21447904

  16. Neurology and diving.

    PubMed

    Massey, E Wayne; Moon, Richard E

    2014-01-01

    Diving exposes a person to the combined effects of increased ambient pressure and immersion. The reduction in pressure when surfacing can precipitate decompression sickness (DCS), caused by bubble formation within tissues due to inert gas supersaturation. Arterial gas embolism (AGE) can also occur due to pulmonary barotrauma as a result of breath holding during ascent or gas trapping due to disease, causing lung hyperexpansion, rupture and direct entry of alveolar gas into the blood. Bubble disease due to either DCS or AGE is collectively known as decompression illness. Tissue and intravascular bubbles can induce a cascade of events resulting in CNS injury. Manifestations of decompression illness can vary in severity, from mild (paresthesias, joint pains, fatigue) to severe (vertigo, hearing loss, paraplegia, quadriplegia). Particularly as these conditions are uncommon, early recognition is essential to provide appropriate management, consisting of first aid oxygen, targeted fluid resuscitation and hyperbaric oxygen, which is the definitive treatment. Less common neurologic conditions that do not require hyperbaric oxygen include rupture of a labyrinthine window due to inadequate equalization of middle ear pressure during descent, which can precipitate vertigo and hearing loss. Sinus and middle ear overpressurization during ascent can compress the trigeminal and facial nerves respectively, causing temporary facial hypesthesia and lower motor neuron facial weakness. Some conditions preclude safe diving, such as seizure disorders, since a convulsion underwater is likely to be fatal. Preventive measures to reduce neurologic complications of diving include exclusion of individuals with specific medical conditions and safe diving procedures, particularly related to descent and ascent. PMID:24365363

  17. Neurological outcome of patients with ornithine carbamoyltransferase deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Nicolaides, P; Liebsch, D; Dale, N; Leonard, J; Surtees, R

    2002-01-01

    Background: Ornithine carbamoyltransferase (OCT) deficiency is the commonest of the inherited urea cycle disorders. Aims: To determine the long term neurological and cognitive outcome of continuously treated surviving patients. Methods: Twenty eight surviving children (five boys) with OCT deficiency who had been treated continuously with a low protein diet and alternative pathway therapy were identified. Those aged 5–16 years had a detailed neurological examination and psychometric testing. Results: Four presented in the neonatal period and four were treated prospectively following antenatal diagnosis. Median (range) age at diagnosis for the later onset group was 19 (2–144) months; median time between onset of symptoms and diagnosis was 10 (2–48) months. Nine children had had less than three episodes of hyperammonaemic encephalopathy, the others more. Seven had focal abnormalities on neurological examination; 14 had global cognitive impairment; four had a normal IQ but specific learning difficulties. Sixteen underwent neuroimaging which was normal in three, showed focal abnormalities of the cerebral hemispheres in six, and global cerebral atrophy in seven. Conclusion: Eighteen of 28 surviving children with OCT deficiency had disabling neurological complications. Plasma ammonia at diagnosis was the only factor that predicted this outcome. While most neurological complications could be attributed to hyperammonaemic encephalopathy, other mechanisms may also contribute to the neurological abnormalities. PMID:11806886

  18. Salmonellosis Symptoms

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Funding About NIAID News & Events NIAID > Health & Research Topics > Salmonellosis Salmonellosis Cause Transmission Symptoms Diagnosis Treatment Prevention Complications Research Skip Website Tools Website Tools Print this page Get email updates Order publications Related Links Foodborne ...

  19. Norovirus Symptoms

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Norovirus Infection, National Institutes of Health NoroCORE Food Virology Symptoms Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Prevent ... Norovirus Infection, National Institutes of Health NoroCORE Food Virology File Formats Help: How do I view different ...

  20. Neurological manifestations of HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Udgirkar, Vardhaman S; Tullu, Milind S; Bavdekar, Sandeep B; Shaharao, Vijayalaxmi B; Kamat, Jaishree R; Hira, Priya R

    2003-03-01

    Case records of HIV infected patients were analyzed for identifying neurological manifestations. Eight patients (7 males) were identified to have probable HIV encephalopathy (in a period of 24 months) as per the CDC revised classification system. Their ages ranged from one year to ten years. The neurological manifestations noted included-developmental delay (2 cases), seizures (6 cases), acute onset alteration of sensorium (4 cases), aphasia (2 cases), loss of vision (2 cases), focal neurological deficits (6 cases), brisk deep tendon reflexes (7 cases), extensor plantar responses (5 cases) and signs of cerebellar dysfunction (2 cases). Other clinical features included growth failure, microcephaly, fever, lymphadenopathy, hepatomegaly, splenomegaly, pneumonia, otorrhea and oral candidiasis. Cerebrospinal fluid studies were normal. The neuroimaging features included cerebral atrophy and ventricular dilatation, cerebral infarction, basal ganglia calcification and cerebellar atrophy. Childhood HIV infection may have a variety of neurological abnormalities. HIV infection should be suspected in children presenting with unexplained neurological manifestations and growth failure. PMID:12657756

  1. Suicidal Behavior and Neurological Illnesses

    PubMed Central

    Coughlin, Steven S; Sher, Leo

    2013-01-01

    Objective Suicidal ideation and behavior have been associated with a variety of neurological illnesses. Studies are ongoing in combat veterans and other groups to examine possible mechanisms and pathways that account for such associations. Method This article provides a review of the literature on suicide ideation and suicidal behavior in patients with neurological illnesses including publications on veteran’s health and military medicine. Studies of suicide attempts and deaths in people with neurological illnesses are also reviewed. Results The studies summarized in this review indicate that there are important linkages between suicidal ideation and behavior and neurological conditions, including epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Conclusion Additional studies are needed to further clarify why suicide ideation and suicidal behavior are associated with neurological diseases, in order to improve quality of life, alleviate patient distress, and prevent nonfatal and fatal suicide attempts in veteran and non-veteran populations. PMID:24501694

  2. DEPARTMENT OF NEUROLOGY UNIVERSITY OF ROCHESTER

    E-print Network

    Goldman, Steven A.

    DEPARTMENT OF NEUROLOGY UNIVERSITY OF ROCHESTER SCHOOL OF MEDICINE AND DENTISTRY VASCULAR NEUROLOGY FELLOWSHIP HANDBOOK 2009 - 2010 DEPARTMENT OF NEUROLOGY Copyright © 2009, by Department of Neurology, University of Rochester #12;ii FOREWORD This Vascular Neurology Fellow Handbook is intended as a handy

  3. [Neurological interpretation of dreams] .

    PubMed

    Pareja, J A; Gil-Nagel, A

    2000-10-01

    Cerebral cortical activity is constant throughout the entire human life, but substantially changes during the different phases of the sleep-wake cycle (wakefulness, non-REM sleep and REM sleep), as well as in relation to available information. In particular, perception of the environment is closely linked to the wake-state, while during sleep perception turns to the internal domain or endogenous cerebral activity. External and internal information are mutually exclusive. During wakefulness a neuronal mechanism allows attention to focus on the environment whereas endogenous cortical activity is ignored. The opposite process is provided during sleep. The function external attention-internal attention is coupled with the two modes of brain function during wakefulness and during sleep, providing two possible cortical status: thinking and dreaming. Several neurological processes may influence the declaration of the three states of being or may modify their orderly oscillation through the sleep-wake cycle. In addition, endogenous information and its perception (dreams) may be modified. Disturbances of dreaming may configurate in different general clinical scenarios: lack of dreaming, excess of dreaming (epic dreaming), paroxysmal dreaming (epileptic), nightmares, violent dreaming, daytime-dreaming (hallucinations), and lucid dreaming. Sensorial deprivation, as well as the emergence of internal perception may be the underlying mechanism of hallucinations. The probable isomorphism between hallucinations and dreaming is postulated, analyzed and discussed. PMID:11143502

  4. Treating Psychotic Symptoms in Elderly Patients

    PubMed Central

    Targum, Steven D.

    2001-01-01

    Research has shown that elderly patients are especially at risk for the development of psychotic symptoms. A combination of factors contributes to the increased risk for psychosis in this patient population. Various DSM-IV diagnostic categories including delirium, schizophrenia, delusional disorder, mood disorders, dementia, substance abuse, and medical-neurologic conditions can be associated with psychotic symptoms. In general, medications are prescribed for specific target symptoms, started at low doses, and titrated gradually. Although buspirone, trazodone, valproic acid, and carbamazepine have been used with some success, antipsychotic medications have been the primary treatment of psychosis in the elderly. Because the atypical antipsychotics offer effective management of psychotic symptoms combined with low liability of extrapyramidal symptoms, these agents may be the current treatment of choice for psychotic symptoms in the elderly when used cautiously. PMID:15014599

  5. Neurological complications of cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    McDonagh, David L; Berger, Miles; Mathew, Joseph P; Graffagnino, Carmelo; Milano, Carmelo A; Newman, Mark F

    2014-05-01

    As increasing numbers of elderly people undergo cardiac surgery, neurologists are frequently called upon to assess patients with neurological complications from the procedure. Some complications mandate acute intervention, whereas others need longer term observation and management. A large amount of published literature exists about these complications and guidance on best practice is constantly changing. Similarly, despite technological advances in surgical intervention and modifications in surgical technique to make cardiac procedures safer, these advances often create new avenues for neurological injury. Accordingly, rapid and precise neurological assessment and therapeutic intervention rests on a solid understanding of the evidence base and procedural variables. PMID:24703207

  6. POLG mutations associated with remitting/relapsing neurological events.

    PubMed

    Degos, Bertrand; Laforêt, Pascal; Jardel, Claude; Sedel, Frédéric; Jossay-Winter, Murielle; Romero, Norma B; Lyon-Caen, Olivier; Tourbah, Ayman

    2014-01-01

    Recent experimental data underline the relationship between mitochondria and immune function. Clinical reports of patients presenting with mitochondrial dysfunction associated with dysimmune responses in the central nervous system reinforce this new concept. We describe the first case of a woman presenting with symptoms related to a novel compound heterozygous mutation of the mitochondrial polymerase ? (POLG) gene, associated with neurological events suggestive of a demyelinating process. Clinical examination revealed bilateral ptosis, progressive external ophthalmoplegia and axonal sensitive polyneuropathy suggestive of a mitochondrial disease. In line with this, muscle biopsy showed ragged red fibers, and sequencing of POLG revealed two heterozygous mutations. In addition, the patient exhibited relapsing neurological symptoms, and cerebral and spinal MRI mimicking multiple sclerosis. This patient stresses the relationship between mitochondrial dysfunction and inflammation. Recent studies suggest that targeting mitochondrial dysfunction could provide benefits in treating some inflammatory diseases. PMID:23830586

  7. Transient global amnesia as a revealing sign of giant transtentorial meningioma: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Dinca, Eduard B; Carron, Romain; Gay, Emmanuel

    2011-06-01

    Since 1974, only 14 papers in MEDLINE-indexed journals have linked transient global amnesia (TGA) to a brain tumor. Among these, two described the entity of transient epileptic amnesia (TEA), whereas most reports lacked the functional investigations that might differentiate the two conditions. Only six cases have linked TGA or TEA to a meningioma, and none of them were transtentorial. We report the case of a 75-year-old woman who presented with one episode of TGA as a sole symptom of a giant transtentorial meningioma in the right hemisphere. A sudden attack of TGA with a rather typical clinical presentation--anterograde amnesia with selective retrograde features that lasted for a few hours, with stereotypic questions, no associated symptoms or neurological impairment, and no recurrence--occurred while she was at home; this was witnessed by her husband. The neurological examination was unremarkable, with the exception of a slight left homonymous superior quadrantonopia. Brain imaging (computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging) showed a huge meningioma originating from the right tentorium, extending from the cerebellar hemisphere to the midst of the temporal lobe. An electroencephalogram did not reveal temporal spikes. The tumor was completely excised, and she has remained asymptomatic for 6 months. Although TGA is generally a functional entity, without an organic substrate to prompt surgical sanction, a full investigation may be warranted to rule out the possibility of a silent intracranial tumor. PMID:21629022

  8. Peripheral Neurological Disturbances, Autonomic Dysfunction, and Antineuronal Antibodies in Adult Celiac Disease Before and After a Gluten-Free Diet

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Antonio Tursi; Gian Marco Giorgetti; Cesare Iani; Flavio Arciprete; Giovanni Brandimarte; Ambrogio Capria; Luigi Fontana

    2006-01-01

    Thirty-two consecutive adult celiac disease (CD) patients (pts), complaining of peripheral neuropathy (12 pts), autonomic\\u000a dysfunction (17 pts), or both (3 pts), were evaluated to assess the presence of neurological damage (by clinical neurological\\u000a evaluation and electrophysiological study) and antineuronal antibodies and to assess the effect of a gluten-free diet (GFD)\\u000a on the course of the neurological symptoms and on

  9. Methcathinone "Kitchen Chemistry" and Permanent Neurological Damage.

    PubMed

    Sikk, Katrin; Taba, Pille

    2015-01-01

    Methcathinone abuse is a significant cause of parkinsonism among young patients in the Eastern European countries. The drug is synthesized from over-the-counter cold remedies containing ephedrine or pseudoephedrine. The final mixture contains a high concentration of manganese if potassium permanganate is used as the oxidant agent. Though manganese is an essential trace element and its homeostasis is well maintained, exposure to a high level of manganese is neurotoxic. The use of manganese-contaminated methcathinone may cause permanent neurological damage and severe disability. Drug users develop a distinctive extrapyramidal syndrome that resembles classic manganese intoxication. Methcathinone could have additive neurotoxic effect to the progression of parkinsonism. The most prevalent symptoms are symmetrical bradykinesia, dystonias, and early postural, gait, and speech impairment. After cessation of exposure, the syndrome is generally irreversible and can even progress. PMID:26070761

  10. Neurologic complications of sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Venkataraman, Akila; Adams, Robert J

    2014-01-01

    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a group of genetic blood disorders that vary in severity, but the most severe forms, primarily homozygous sickle cell anemia, are associated with neurologic complications. Over the last 90 years it has become established that some patients will develop severe arterial disease of the intracranial brain arteries and suffer brain infarction. Smaller infarctions and brain atrophy may also be seen and over time there appear to be negative cognitive effects in some patients, with or without abnormal brain imaging. Focal mononeuropathies and pneumococcal meningitis are also more common in these patients. Brain infarction in children can largely be prevented screening children beginning at age 2 years and instituting regular blood transfusion when the Doppler indicates high stroke risk (>200cm/sec). Iron overload and the uncertain duration of transfusion are disadvantages but overall this approach, tested in a randomized clinical trial, reduced first stroke by over 90%. Secondary stroke prevention has not been subjected to a randomized controlled trial except for one recently stopped comparison of regular transfusions compared to hydroxuyrea (results favored transfusion). The usual stroke prevention agents (such as aspirin or warfarin) have not been rigorously tested. Magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography give evidence of subtle and sometimes overt brain injury due to stroke in many adults, but a preventive strategy for adults with SCD has not been developed. Bone marrow transplantation is the only cure, but some non-neurologic symptoms can be controlled in adults with hydroxuyrea. PMID:24365368

  11. Neurologic Complications in Infective Endocarditis

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Nicholas A.; Matiello, Marcelo; Samuels, Martin A.

    2014-01-01

    Neurologic complications of infective endocarditis (IE) are common and frequently life threatening. Neurologic events are not always obvious. The prediction and management of neurologic complications of IE are not easily approached algorithmically, and the impact they have on timing and ability to surgically repair or replace the affected valve often requires a painstaking evaluation and joint effort across multiple medical disciplines in order to achieve the best possible outcome. Although specific recommendations are always tailored to the individual patient, there are some guiding principles that can be used to help direct the decision-making process. Herein, we review the pathophysiology, epidemiology, manifestations, and diagnosis of neurological complications of IE and further consider the impact they have on clinical decision making. PMID:25360207

  12. Neurological Complications of Lyme Disease

    MedlinePLUS

    ... the National Institutes of Health (NIH), also support research on Lyme disease. NIH Patient Recruitment for Neurological Complications of Lyme Disease Clinical Trials At NIH Clinical Center Throughout the U.S. ...

  13. [Neurologic manifestations in rheumatic diseases].

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Atsushi

    2013-01-01

    Among varying organ involvements, neurologic as well as musculoskeletal involvement are important toward the quality of life and prognosis in the patients of rheumatic diseases. In general, these occur as the increment of disease activity and influence the choice of therapeutic regime. In this review, neurologic and musculoskeletal involvements, especially the former, found in systemic lupus erythematosus, dermatomyositis/polymyositis, Sjögren's syndrome, Behçet's disease and vasculitis syndrome are discussed. PMID:23892960

  14. Hippocrates: the forefather of neurology.

    PubMed

    Breitenfeld, T; Jurasic, M J; Breitenfeld, D

    2014-09-01

    Hippocrates is one of the most influential medical doctors of all times. He started observing and experimenting in times of mysticism and magic. He carried a holistic and humanitarian approach to the patient with examination as the principal approach-inspection, palpation and auscultation are still the most important tools in diagnosing algorithms of today. He had immense experience with the human body most likely due to numerous wound treatments he had performed; some even believe he performed autopsies despite the negative trend at the time. Hippocrates identified the brain as the analyst of the outside world, the interpreter of consciousness and the center of intelligence and willpower. Interestingly, Hippocrates was aware of many valid concepts in neurology; his treatise On the Sacred Disease was the most important for understanding neurology and epilepsy. His other ideas pioneered modern day neurology mentioning neurological diseases like apoplexy, spondylitis, hemiplegia, and paraplegia. Today, 10 % of neurological Pubmed and 7 % of neuroscience Scopus reviews mention Corpus Hippocraticum as one of the sources. Therefore, Hippocrates may be considered as the forefather of neurology. PMID:25027011

  15. Neurological status of Australian veterans of the 1991 Gulf War and the effect of medical and chemical exposures

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Helen Kelsall; Richard Macdonell; Malcolm Sim; Andrew Forbes; Dean McKenzie; Deborah Glass; Jillian Ikin; Peter Ittak

    2005-01-01

    Results Veterans have a higher prevalence of neurological type symptoms (ratio of means 1.4, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2-1.5). Although the odds ratio (OR) of lower limb neurological type symptoms and signs in veterans compared with the comparison group was increased (OR = 1.6, 95% CI 1.0-2.7), it was of borderline significance, and there was no difference between groups according

  16. The effect of early ambulation on the incidence of neurological complication after spinal anesthesia with lidocaine

    PubMed Central

    Talakoub, Reihanak; Golparvar, Mohammad; Arshi, Rezvan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Transient neurological symptoms (TNS), was described in patients recovering from spinal anesthesia with lidocaine but its etiology remains unknown this study was evaluated the influence of ambulation time on the occurrence of TNSs after spinal anesthesia with lidocaine 5%. Materials and Methods: This randomized clinical trial was conducted on 60 patients with American Society of Anesthesiologists Grades I and II, who were candidates for lower abdominal surgery in supine or lithotomy positions. Patients were randomly divided into early ambulation group (Group A) who were asked to start walking as soon as the anesthesia was diminished or to the late ambulation group (Group B) who walked after at least 12 h bedridden. Participants were contacted 2 days after spinal anesthesia to assess any type of pain at surgical or anesthesia injection site, muscle weakness, fatigue, vertigo, nausea, vomiting, headache, and difficult urination or defecation. Results: Four subjects (13.3%) in Group A and two patients (6.7%) in Group B had pain at anesthesia injection site (P = 0.019). Fourteen patients in Group A (46.7%) and six patients in Group B (20%) had post-dural puncture headache (P = 0.014). Participants in Group B reported difficult urination more than Group A (P = 0.002). there were not statistically significant differences between two groups regarding frequency of fatigue, muscle weakness, vertigo, nausea, vomiting, difficult defecation, paresthesia, and the mean of visual analogue scale at the surgical site. Conclusion: Early ambulation after spinal anesthesia with lidocaine did not increase the risk of neurologic complication.

  17. Cerebellar symptoms heralding bilirubin encephalopathy in Crigler-Najjar syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tabarki, Brahim; Khalifa, Monia; Yacoub, Moncef; Tlili, Kalthoum; Essoussi, Ahmed S

    2002-09-01

    Children with Crigler-Najjar syndrome type I are at increased risk for neurologic deficits. Cerebellar symptoms are not prominent and appear in adolescent or adult patients with this syndrome. We report a 2-year-old female with Crigler-Najjar syndrome type I who presented severe cerebellar symptoms revealing bilirubin encephalopathy. The patient improved slowly with the duration of phototherapy. Cerebellar symptoms can be the initial manifestation of kernicterus in children with Crigler-Najjar syndrome type I. PMID:12393137

  18. Cerebellar symptoms heralding bilirubin encephalopathy in crigler-najjar syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brahim Tabarki; Monia Khalifa; Moncef Yacoub; Kalthoum Tlili; Ahmed S Essoussi

    2002-01-01

    Children with Crigler-Najjar syndrome type I are at increased risk for neurologic deficits. Cerebellar symptoms are not prominent and appear in adolescent or adult patients with this syndrome. We report a 2-year-old female with Crigler-Najjar syndrome type I who presented severe cerebellar symptoms revealing bilirubin encephalopathy. The patient improved slowly with the duration of phototherapy. Cerebellar symptoms can be the

  19. A comparison of autistic syndromes with and without associated neurological problems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Garreau; C. Barthelemy; D. Sauvage; I. Leddet; G. LeLord

    1984-01-01

    Conclusions  The findings show that autistic syndromes with and without associated neurological deficits are remarkably similar in terms\\u000a of severity and type of autistic symptoms, IQ, and sex distribution. Children with an associated neurological disorder tended\\u000a to have had autistic features from birth, but this may have been an artifact resulting from the closer clinical observation\\u000a that many would have received

  20. Neurologic Complications in Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy

    PubMed Central

    Basiri, Abbas; Soltani, Mohammad Hossein; Kamranmanesh, Mohammadreza; Tabibi, Ali; Mohsen Ziaee, Seyed Amir; Nouralizadeh, Akbar; Sharifiaghdas, Farzaneh; Poorzamani, Mahtab; Gharaei, Babak; Ozhand, Ardalan; Lashay, Alireza; Ahanian, Ali; Aminsharifi, Alireza; Sichani, Mehrdad Mohammadi; Asl-Zare, Mohammad; Ali Beigi, Faramarz Mohammad; Najjaran, Vahid; Abedinzadeh, Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) has been the preferred procedure for the removal of large renal stones in Iran since 1990. Recently, we encountered a series of devastating neurologic complications during PCNL, including paraplegia and hemiplegia. There are several reports of neurologic complications following PCNL owing to paradoxical air emboli, but there are no reports of paraplegia following PCNL. Materials and Methods We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients who had undergone PCNL in 13 different endourologic centers and retrieved data related to neurologic complications after PCNL, including coma, paraplegia, hemiplegia, and quadriplegia. Results The total number of PCNL procedures in these 13 centers was 30,666. Among these procedures, 11 cases were complicated by neurologic events, and four of these cases experienced paraplegia. All events happened with the patient in the prone position with the use of general anesthesia and in the presence of air injection. There were no reports of neurologic complications in PCNL procedures performed with the patient under general anesthesia and in the prone position and with contrast injection. Conclusions It can be assumed that using room air to opacify the collecting system played a major role in the occurrence of these complications. Likewise, the prone position and general anesthesia may predispose to these events in the presence of air injection. PMID:23526482

  1. VPA Alleviates Neurological Deficits and Restores Gene Expression in a Mouse Model of Rett Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Otsuka I., Maky; Irie, Koichiro; Igarashi, Katsuhide; Nakashima, Kinichi; Zhao, Xinyu

    2014-01-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is a devastating neurodevelopmental disorder that occurs once in every 10,000–15,000 live female births. Despite intensive research, no effective cure is yet available. Valproic acid (VPA) has been used widely to treat mood disorder, epilepsy, and a growing number of other disorders. In limited clinical studies, VPA has also been used to control seizure in RTT patients with promising albeit somewhat unclear efficacy. In this study we tested the effect of VPA on the neurological symptoms of RTT and discovered that short-term VPA treatment during the symptomatic period could reduce neurological symptoms in RTT mice. We found that VPA restores the expression of a subset of genes in RTT mouse brains, and these genes clustered in neurological disease and developmental disorder networks. Our data suggest that VPA could be used as a drug to alleviate RTT symptoms. PMID:24968028

  2. VPA alleviates neurological deficits and restores gene expression in a mouse model of Rett syndrome.

    PubMed

    Guo, Weixiang; Tsujimura, Keita; Otsuka I, Maky; Irie, Koichiro; Igarashi, Katsuhide; Nakashima, Kinichi; Zhao, Xinyu

    2014-01-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is a devastating neurodevelopmental disorder that occurs once in every 10,000-15,000 live female births. Despite intensive research, no effective cure is yet available. Valproic acid (VPA) has been used widely to treat mood disorder, epilepsy, and a growing number of other disorders. In limited clinical studies, VPA has also been used to control seizure in RTT patients with promising albeit somewhat unclear efficacy. In this study we tested the effect of VPA on the neurological symptoms of RTT and discovered that short-term VPA treatment during the symptomatic period could reduce neurological symptoms in RTT mice. We found that VPA restores the expression of a subset of genes in RTT mouse brains, and these genes clustered in neurological disease and developmental disorder networks. Our data suggest that VPA could be used as a drug to alleviate RTT symptoms. PMID:24968028

  3. [Wilson's disease with severe neurological manifestations: response to trientine plus zinc therapy].

    PubMed

    Serra, B; Primo, J; García, M; Amorós, I; Aragó, M; Merino, C

    2004-05-01

    In patients with Wilson's disease and neurological manifestations, treatment with D-penicillamine can cause worsening of neurological symptoms, usually in the first few weeks of treatment. Because the neurological damage can be severe and irreversible, the use of D-penicillamine is controversial, and several authors believe that it should be avoided. Studies of the use of ammonium tetrathiomolybdate as an alternative chelating agent for the initial treatment of neurologic Wilson's disease are still in the experimental phase. Published experience on the simultaneous use of trientine, another chelating agent, and zinc, which blocks intestinal absorption of copper, is promising but limited. We present the case of a 17 year-old boy with severe neurologic Wilson's disease that had first presented six years previously. The patient showed a complete recovery after six months of treatment with a combination of trientine and zinc acetate. PMID:15117609

  4. Neurology of endemic skeletal fluorosis.

    PubMed

    Reddy, D Raja

    2009-01-01

    Endemic skeletal fluorosis is widely prevalent in India and is a major public health problem. The first ever report of endemic skeletal fluorosis and neurological manifestation was from Prakasam district in Andhra Pradesh in the year 1937. Epidemiological and experimental studies in the endemic areas suggest the role of temperate climate, hard physical labor, nutritional status, presence of abnormal concentrations of trace elements like strontium, uranium, silica in water supplies, high fluoride levels in foods and presence of kidney disease in the development of skeletal fluorosis. Neurological complications of endemic skeletal fluorosis, namely radiculopathy, myelopathy or both are mechanical in nature and till date the evidence for direct neurotoxicity of fluoride is lacking. Prevention of the disease should be the aim, knowing the pathogenesis of fluorosis. Surgery has a limited role in alleviating the neurological disability and should be tailored to the individual based on the imaging findings. PMID:19305069

  5. Acute Lyme Neuroborreliosis With Transient Hemiparesis and Aphasia.

    PubMed

    Sokolov, Arseny A; Lienhard, Reto; Du Pasquier, Renaud; Erard, Véronique

    2015-07-01

    Nervous system involvement in Lyme disease often mimics other conditions and thus represents a diagnostic challenge, especially in an emergency department setting. We report a case of a female teenager presenting with sudden-onset aphasia and transient right-sided faciobrachial hemiplegia, along with headache and agitation. Ischemia, vasculitis, or another structural lesion was excluded by brain imaging. Toxicologic evaluation results were negative. Cerebral perfusion computed tomography and electroencephalography showed left parietotemporal brain dysfunction. Lumbar puncture result, although atypical, suggested bacterial infection and intravenous ceftriaxone was initiated. Finally, microbiological cerebrospinal fluid analysis revealed Lyme neuroborreliosis, showing specific intrathecal antibody production and high level of C-X-C motif chemokine 13. The patient rapidly recovered. To our knowledge, this report for the first time illustrates that acute-onset language and motor symptoms may be directly related to Lyme neuroborreliosis. Neuroborreliosis may mimic other acute neurologic events such as stroke and should be taken into diagnostic consideration even in the absence of classic symptoms and evolution. PMID:25728308

  6. [Neurological complication of influenza infections].

    PubMed

    Brydak, Lidia B

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to present neurological complications of influenza infections. Infections caused by influenza viruses can be very serious and may lead even to death resulted from the post-infectious complications. The most often occurring complications are pneumonia, bronchitis, bronchiolitis, myocarditis and otitis media. The other group is neurological post-influenza complications, including dementia, epileptic disorders, cerebrovascular disease, febrile convulsions, toxic encephalopathy, encephalitis, meningitis, subarachnoid hemorrhages, lethargic encephalitis, psychosis or increase in the number of cases of Parkinson's disease. The first way of prevention of influenza is vaccination that results in healthy, social and economic benefits. PMID:12194226

  7. Edgar Allan Poe and neurology.

    PubMed

    Teive, Hélio Afonso Ghizoni; Paola, Luciano de; Munhoz, Renato Puppi

    2014-06-01

    Edgar Allan Poe was one of the most celebrated writers of all time. He published several masterpieces, some of which include references to neurological diseases. Poe suffered from recurrent depression, suggesting a bipolar disorder, as well as alcohol and drug abuse, which in fact led to his death from complications related to alcoholism. Various hypotheses were put forward, including Wernicke's encephalopathy. PMID:24964115

  8. A Program for Neurological Organization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowers, Louis

    A program for neurological organization is explained and its purposes are stated. Hints are given for working with both child and parents; and form for evaluating measures of neuromotor fitness is included. Also provided is a checklist for rating motor exploration, including movements performed lying on the back, on the knees, or standing or on…

  9. Neurological Aspects of Reading Disability.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Louis R.

    The author, a neurologist, looks at the nature of reading disabilities. He suggests that many reading disabilities are the result of normal constitutional differences and that the term "minimal brain dysfunction" is rarely appropriate and does not help the remediation process. Noted are various theories which relate neurology and reading ability.…

  10. Education Research: Neurology training reassessed

    PubMed Central

    Maas, Matthew B.; Coleman, Mary; Jozefowicz, Ralph; Engstrom, John

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To assess the strengths and weaknesses of neurology resident education using survey methodology. Methods: A 27-question survey was sent to all neurology residents completing residency training in the United States in 2011. Results: Of eligible respondents, 49.8% of residents returned the survey. Most residents believed previously instituted duty hour restrictions had a positive impact on resident quality of life without impacting patient care. Most residents rated their faculty and clinical didactics favorably. However, many residents reported suboptimal preparation in basic neuroscience and practice management issues. Most residents (71%) noted that the Residency In-service Training Examination (RITE) assisted in self-study. A minority of residents (14%) reported that the RITE scores were used for reasons other than self-study. The vast majority (86%) of residents will enter fellowship training following residency and were satisfied with the fellowship offers they received. Conclusions: Graduating residents had largely favorable neurology training experiences. Several common deficiencies include education in basic neuroscience and clinical practice management. Importantly, prior changes to duty hours did not negatively affect the resident perception of neurology residency training. PMID:23091077

  11. HEW and the neurologically handicapped

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huber, W. V.

    1974-01-01

    Some of the neurological disorders and therapeutic devices are considered with which the Department of Health, Education, and Welfare (HEW) is most concerned. The organization of the Department, because it is a rather complex one with many different agencies involved, is also described.

  12. Influenza vaccination and treatment in children with neurologic disorders

    PubMed Central

    Fry, Alicia; Peacock, Georgina; Finelli, Lyn

    2014-01-01

    Influenza viruses cause substantial morbidity in children each year, especially among children with specific chronic conditions. In particular, neurologic disorders have emerged as a strong risk factor for influenza-related complications. Children with these disorders may be vulnerable due to diminished respiratory muscle strength, decreased muscle tone or impaired mobility, which can compromise pulmonary function and the ability to handle secretions. Although they represent a small fraction of the general pediatric population, children with neurologic disorders make up a disproportionately high number of those children who are hospitalized and die as a result of influenza-associated complications. Annual vaccination is the most effective way to prevent influenza and its complications, and is recommended for all children 6 months through 18 years of age, including children with neurologic disorders. Family members and those who work with these children in institutional, educational and daycare settings should also be vaccinated against influenza annually. However, there have been few studies of influenza vaccination specifically in this population. In addition, vaccine effectiveness may vary from year to year and vaccination will not prevent all infections. Early empiric antiviral treatment should be started promptly in these children if they present to healthcare providers with symptoms suspicious for influenza. This article reviews influenza epidemiology in children with neurologic disorders and what is known about vaccines and other methods of protecting this vulnerable population from influenza-related complications. PMID:24982759

  13. Schizophrenia and gastroesophageal reflux symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Kasap, Elmas; Ayer, Ahmet; Bozo?lan, Hümeyra; Ozen, Cigdem; Eslek, Ilhan; Yüceyar, Hakan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Psychological factors and psychiatric disorders play a role in a variety of gastrointestinal illnesses, including esophageal diseases. Aim: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the frequency of gastroesophageal reflux disease symptoms in patients with schizophrenia in Turkey. Patients and Methods: Ninety-eight patients with schizophrenia and one hundred control individuals were enrolled in the study, which was undertaken at the Manisa State Hospital for Mental Health and Neurological Disorders and Celal Bayar University Gastroenterology Department. Case and control subjects alike underwent 30–45 min oral interviews conducted by a designated study coordinator (E.K.). The coordinator gathered information about demographic characteristics, social habits, and a large variety of symptoms suggestive of reflux disease or other gastrointestinal conditions. Results: In terms of reflux symptoms, cough was the only significant association in schizophrenic patients than controls. Heartburn and regurgitation were more frequent in schizophrenic patients who smoked than in controls who were smokers. However, the prevalence of reflux symptoms in cigarette smokers versus nonsmoker patients with schizophrenia was similar. Heartburn and/or regurgitation occurred more frequently in patients with schizophrenic than controls with alcohol use. Conclusions: Psychiatric disorders might indirectly affect esophageal physiology through increased consumption of alcohol and nicotine. PMID:25657460

  14. Recurrent aortic dissection presenting with repeated transient ischemic attacks: a novel pathophysiology and successful endovascular treatment.

    PubMed

    Elshikh, S; Schumacher, M; Dohmen, A; Weber, J

    2013-12-01

    Aortic dissection is the most common and the most lethal event that can involve the aorta. Typically, aortic dissection presents with sharp, tearing, or ripping pain. Alternatively, the patients may suffer from possible extension of the dissecting aneurysm into the supra-aortic vessels resulting in syncope in 9.4 % of patients cerebrovascular accidents in 4.7 %. We present a case of recurrent aortic dissection, which presented with recurrent transient ischemic attacks (TIAs). The etiology of the neurological symptoms was attributed to a steal phenomenon. The right subclavian artery was supplied by retrograde flow from the right internal carotid artery through the false lumen of the dissection. To prevent further hemodynamic TIAs, we successfully occluded the proximal part of the false lumen of the dissection responsible for the steal phenomenon. PMID:23307261

  15. Symptoms of Acoustic Neuroma

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Search ANAUSA.org Connect with us! Symptoms of Acoustic Neuroma Early symptoms are easily overlooked, thus making ... are symptoms, however, indicating the possibility of an acoustic neuroma . The first symptom in 90% of those ...

  16. Neurologic complications of influenza A(H1N1)pdm09

    PubMed Central

    Khandaker, Gulam; Zurynski, Yvonne; Buttery, Jim; Marshall, Helen; Richmond, Peter C.; Dale, Russell C.; Royle, Jenny; Gold, Michael; Snelling, Tom; Whitehead, Bruce; Jones, Cheryl; Heron, Leon; McCaskill, Mary; Macartney, Kristine; Elliott, Elizabeth J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: We sought to determine the range and extent of neurologic complications due to pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 infection (pH1N1?09) in children hospitalized with influenza. Methods: Active hospital-based surveillance in 6 Australian tertiary pediatric referral centers between June 1 and September 30, 2009, for children aged <15 years with laboratory-confirmed pH1N1?09. Results: A total of 506 children with pH1N1?09 were hospitalized, of whom 49 (9.7%) had neurologic complications; median age 4.8 years (range 0.5–12.6 years) compared with 3.7 years (0.01–14.9 years) in those without complications. Approximately one-half (55.1%) of the children with neurologic complications had preexisting medical conditions, and 42.8% had preexisting neurologic conditions. On presentation, only 36.7% had the triad of cough, fever, and coryza/runny nose, whereas 38.7% had only 1 or no respiratory symptoms. Seizure was the most common neurologic complication (7.5%). Others included encephalitis/encephalopathy (1.4%), confusion/disorientation (1.0%), loss of consciousness (1.0%), and paralysis/Guillain-Barré syndrome (0.4%). A total of 30.6% needed intensive care unit (ICU) admission, 24.5% required mechanical ventilation, and 2 (4.1%) died. The mean length of stay in hospital was 6.5 days (median 3 days) and mean ICU stay was 4.4 days (median 1.5 days). Conclusions: Neurologic complications are relatively common among children admitted with influenza, and can be life-threatening. The lack of specific treatment for influenza-related neurologic complications underlines the importance of early diagnosis, use of antivirals, and universal influenza vaccination in children. Clinicians should consider influenza in children with neurologic symptoms even with a paucity of respiratory symptoms. PMID:22993280

  17. Neurological morbidity and mortality associated with the endovascular treatment of cerebral arteriovenous malformations before and during the Onyx era.

    PubMed

    Crowley, R Webster; Ducruet, Andrew F; Kalani, M Yashar S; Kim, Louis J; Albuquerque, Felipe C; McDougall, Cameron G

    2015-06-01

    OBJECT The widespread implementation of the embolic agent Onyx has changed the endovascular management of cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Recent data suggest that outcomes following embolization and resection may have worsened in the Onyx era. It has been hypothesized that there may be increased complications with Onyx embolization and increased surgical aggressiveness in patients treated with Onyx. In this study the authors analyzed their institutional experience with the endovascular treatment of cerebral AVMs prior to and after the introduction of Onyx to determine factors associated with periprocedural neurological morbidity and mortality. METHODS A retrospective review was performed of all patients with cerebral AVMs undergoing embolization at the Barrow Neurological Institute from 1995 to 2012. RESULTS Endovascular treatment of 342 cerebral AVMs was performed over 446 treatment sessions (mean age 37.8 years, range 1-83 years). Clinical presentation included hemorrhage in 47.6%, seizures in 21.9%, headaches in 11.1%, and no symptoms in 10% of cases. The endovascular pretreatment strategy was preoperative in 78.9%, preradiosurgery in 9.1%, palliative in 5.3%, targeted in 4.4%, and curative in 2.3%. The median Spetzler-Martin grade was III. The mean number of arteries embolized was 3.5 (range 0-13 arteries), and the mean number of treatment sessions was 1.3 (range 1-4 sessions). Onyx was used in 105 AVMs (30.7%), and N-butyl cyanoacrylate (NBCA) without Onyx was used in 229 AVMs (67%). AVMs treated with Onyx had a higher mean number of arterial pedicles embolized than did NBCA cases (4.3 ± 2.7 vs 3.2 ± 2.4, respectively; p < 0.001) and a greater number of sessions (1.5 ± 0.7 vs 1.2 ± 0.5, respectively; p < 0.05). Unexpected immediate postprocedural permanent neurological deficits were present in 9.6% of AVMs, while transient deficits were present in 1.8%. There was 1 death (0.3%). Spetzler-Martin grade was not associated with differences in outcome, as permanent neurological deficits were observed in 12%, 9%, 13%, 11%, and 13% of AVMs for Spetzler-Martin Grades I-V, respectively (p = 0.91). The use of Onyx compared with NBCA was not associated with differences in periprocedural morbidity (p = 0.23). This lack of a difference persisted even when controlling for number of arteries and sessions (p = 0.14). Sex was not associated with differences in outcome. CONCLUSIONS Permanent and transient postprocedural neurological deficits were noted in 9.6% and 1.8% of all cases, respectively. AVM grade was not associated with endovascular outcome. Despite the greater number of sessions required and arteries embolized for Onyx cases, there was no statistically significant difference in the risk of neurological deficits following cerebral AVM embolization with Onyx and NBCA. PMID:25816081

  18. Quantum transients

    E-print Network

    A. del Campo; G. Garcia-Calderon; J. G. Muga

    2009-05-16

    Quantum transients are temporary features of matter waves before they reach a stationary regime. Transients may arise after the preparation of an unstable initial state or due to a sudden interaction or a change in the boundary conditions. Examples are diffraction in time, buildup processes, decay, trapping, forerunners or pulse formation, as well as other phenomena recently discovered, such as the simultaneous arrival of a wave peak at arbitrarily distant observers. The interest on these transients is nowadays enhanced by new technological possibilities to control, manipulate and measure matter waves.

  19. Neurological complications in obstetric regional anaesthesia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. C. Loo; G. Dahlgren; L. Irestedt

    2000-01-01

    Neurological complications after obstetric central neural blocks are rare events. Although central neural blockade does cause neurological complications, there must be awareness that neurological deficits may either develop spontaneously (e.g. epidural abscess\\/haematoma) or as a result of the labour and delivery process (maternal obstetric palsies). We have attempted to review as completely as possible the published survey and case reports

  20. Paraoxonase 1 in neurological disorders.

    PubMed

    Menini, Teresita; Gugliucci, Alejandro

    2014-03-01

    Paroxonase 1 displays multiple physiological activities that position it as a putative player in the pathogenesis of neurological disorders. Here we reviewed the literature focusing on the role of paraoxonase 1 (PON1) as a factor in the risk of stroke and the major neurodegenerative diseases. PON1 activity is reduced in stroke patients, which significantly correlates inversely with carotid and cerebral atherosclerosis. The presence of the R allele of the Q192R PON1 polymorphism seems to potentiate this risk for stroke. PON1 exerts peroxidase activities that may be important in neurodegenerative disorders associated with oxidative stress. PON1 is also a key detoxifier of organophosphates and organophosphate exposure has been linked to the development of neurological disorders in which acetylcholine plays a significant role. In Parkinson's disease most of the studies suggest no participation of either L55M or the Q192R polymorphisms in its pathogenesis. However, many studies suggest that the MM55 PON1 genotype is associated with a higher risk for Parkinson's disease in individuals exposed to organophosphates. In Alzheimer's disease most studies have failed to find any association between PON1 polymorphisms and the development of the disease. Some studies show that PON1 activity is decreased in patients with Alzheimer's disease or other dementias, suggesting a possible protective role of PON1. No links between PON1 polymorphisms or activity have been found in other neurodegenerative diseases such as multiple sclerosis and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. PON1 is a potential player in the pathogenesis of several neurological disorders. More research is warranted to ascertain the precise pathogenic links and the prognostic value of its measurement in neurological patients. PMID:24225313

  1. Airway management in neurological emergencies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lynn P. Roppolo; Karina Walters

    2004-01-01

    Several neurological conditions may present to the emergency department (ED) with airway compromise or respiratory failure.\\u000a The severity of respiratory involvement in these patients may not always be obvious. Proper pulmonary management can significantly\\u000a reduce the respiratory complications associated with the morbidity and mortality of these patients. Rapid sequence intubation\\u000a (RSI) is the method of choice for definitive airway management

  2. Neurological soft signs in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: Their relationship to executive function and parental neurological soft signs.

    PubMed

    Gong, Jingbo; Xie, Jingtao; Chen, Gui; Zhang, Yajie; Wang, Suhong

    2015-07-30

    The correlations between neurological soft signs (NSS) in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and their executive function, symptoms of inattention, and hyperactivity-impulsivity and the NSS of their parents remain unclear. This study aimed to examine: (1) the prevalence of NSS in children with ADHD and their parents; (2) the correlation between the NSS of children with ADHD and the NSS of their parents; and (3) the correlation between the NSS of children with ADHD and their executive function and symptoms. NSS were assessed with the Cambridge Neurological Inventory (CNI) in 57 children with ADHD (and 80 parents) and 60 healthy children (and 75 parents). Executive function was measured with the Behavioral Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF). Children with ADHD and their parents had significantly higher NSS than normal children and their parents, respectively, and the NSS of children with ADHD were correlated more strongly with the NSS of their fathers than their mothers. No correlation was found between NSS and BRIEF executive function, but Disinhibition in children with ADHD was significantly correlated with hyperactivity-impulsivity symptoms. Paternal and maternal NSS provided different predictions for child NSS. It may be that NSS are more likely to be genetically transmitted by fathers. PMID:25943836

  3. Thal fundoplication in neurologically impaired children.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, V; Ashcraft, K W; Sharp, R J; Murphy, P J; Snyder, C L; Gittes, G K; Bickler, S W

    1996-06-01

    Children with neurological impairment (NI) frequently require feeding gastrostomy, and this often aggravates or produces gastroesophageal reflux (GER). From 1976 to 1994, 141 children with severe NI underwent Thal fundoplication and gastrostomy (GT). GER was evident in 80%; in the rest, fundoplication was an adjunct to GT. Ph results were positive in 38 cases, and 57 children had reflux according to the barium studies. There were no major intraoperative complications. Disruption of the repair and/or recurrent GER was noted in 14 cases (10%); 8 were redone as Thals, and 6 were converted to Nissen procedures. Pyloroplasty was done later in 9 children (6%). Bowel obstruction was seen in 4 patients (3%). Clinical follow-up (mean, 54 months) showed improvement in 96%; only 5 of the 141 (3.2%) have residual symptoms. Of the patients with an intact Thal, 67% could burp or vomit. The ability to vomit may protect the Thal fundoplication and avoid disruption of the repair. PMID:8783112

  4. Neurologic complications of polycythemia and their impact on therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Newton, L.K. (MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (USA))

    1990-03-01

    Polycythemia vera, a clonal stem cell disorder, produces neurologic problems in 50-80% of patients. Some symptoms, such as headache and dizziness, are related to hyperviscosity, and respond immediately to reduction of cell counts. Others seem to result from an associated coagulopathy. Patients with polycythemia tend to develop both arterial and venous thrombosis and are prone to hemorrhages. Treatments for polycythemia include phlebotomy, chlorambucil supplemented with phlebotomy, and {sup 32}P plus phlebotomy. Whatever treatment is chosen, the aim of therapy should be to reduce the hematocrit to approximately 40-45%.37 references.

  5. ACADEMIC NEUROPATHOLOGIST MONTREAL NEUROLOGICAL HOSPITAL/ INSTITUTE AND MCGILL UNIVERSITY

    E-print Network

    Shoubridge, Eric

    ACADEMIC NEUROPATHOLOGIST MONTREAL NEUROLOGICAL HOSPITAL/ INSTITUTE AND MCGILL UNIVERSITY The Division of Neuropathology at the Montreal Neurological Institute and Hospital and the Department of Neurology and Neurosurgery, McGill University. The Montreal Neurological Hospital is part of the Mc

  6. EducationatURMCProgramFeatures Program: Neurology Residency Program

    E-print Network

    Goldman, Steven A.

    EducationatURMC­ProgramFeatures Program: Neurology Residency Program Program Director: Ralph F of Rochester Neurology Residency Training Program emphasizes excellence in clinical neurology and has produced academic neurologists, practitioners of neurology, researchers, and teachers. The residency training

  7. Differential diagnosis of episodic symptoms.

    PubMed

    Pedley, T A

    1983-01-01

    Because nonepileptic disorders may cause episodic and paroxysmal symptoms that resemble epilepsy, these conditions and syndromes must be considered in the differential diagnosis or when antiepileptic drugs are ineffective. Gastroesophageal reflux usually presents as recurrent vomiting in infants and young children. A small subgroup of infants develop apnea and cyanosis accompanied by posturing of the limbs, deviation of the eyes, or opisthotonos, which leads to the incorrect diagnosis of epilepsy. Breathholding spells and pallid infantile syncope, common in infants and young children, may also be mistaken for epileptic attacks. The parasomnias, including pavor nocturnus and somnambulism, are frequently mistaken for epilepsy, since these nocturnal episodes are paroxysmal in nature, may be associated with automatic behavioral mannerisms, and tend to be recurrent. Migraine is especially difficult to differentiate from epilepsy because its manifestations, particularly in children, are so diverse. Other disorders that may superficially mimic epilepsy include transient ischemic attacks, syncope, and transient global amnesia. PMID:6617595

  8. Emerging and Reemerging Neurologic Infections

    PubMed Central

    Glaser, Carol A.

    2014-01-01

    The list of emerging and reemerging pathogens that cause neurologic disease is expanding. Various factors, including population growth and a rise in international travel, have contributed to the spread of pathogens to previously nonendemic regions. Recent advances in diagnostic methods have led to the identification of novel pathogens responsible for infections of the central nervous system. Furthermore, new issues have arisen surrounding established infections, particularly in an increasingly immunocompromised population due to advances in the treatment of rheumatologic disease and in transplant medicine. PMID:25360203

  9. Symptoms of Pneumocystis pneumonia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... gov . Fungal Diseases Share Compartir Symptoms of Pneumocystis pneumonia The symptoms of PCP are fever, dry cough, ... Diagnosis & Testing Treatment & Outcomes Statistics Additional Information Pneumocystis pneumonia Definition Symptoms People at Risk & Prevention Sources Diagnosis & ...

  10. Atlantic Conjunctures in Anglo-American Neurology:

    PubMed Central

    Casper, Stephen T.

    2008-01-01

    Summary The emergence of neurology at Johns Hopkins presents a case study for reconsidering the international and institutional contexts of neurology generally. Using a variety of sources, Hopkins's interwar plans for neurology are presented and contextualized in the international environment of neurology, medical research, and philanthropy. During this period, neurology across the world, especially in Britain, was undergoing vast institutional changes. In order for Hopkins to remain at the forefront of excellence in both medicine and medical education, a program in neurology was deemed essential, and this would seem now to have been an unproblematic advance. Spearheading the project for the establishment of neurology at Hopkins was the dean of the medical school, Lewis H. Weed. Weed attempted from 1919 until 1942 to establish a department of neurology but had only limited success. The fact that finding support proved challenging for Weed and Johns Hopkins casts a provocative light on the broader historiography of neurology and illustrates the important role of the international context in defining neurology professionally. PMID:18791299

  11. Neurologic complications after liver transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Živkovi?, Saša A

    2013-01-01

    Neurologic complications are relatively common after solid organ transplantation and affect 15%-30% of liver transplant recipients. Etiology is often related to immunosuppressant neurotoxicity and opportunistic infections. Most common complications include seizures and encephalopathy, and occurrence of central pontine myelinolysis is relatively specific for liver transplant recipients. Delayed allograft function may precipitate hepatic encephalopathy and neurotoxicity of calcineurin inhibitors typically manifests with tremor, headaches and encephalopathy. Reduction of neurotoxic immunosuppressants or conversion to an alternative medication usually result in clinical improvement. Standard preventive and diagnostic protocols have helped to reduce the prevalence of opportunistic central nervous system (CNS) infections, but viral and fungal CNS infections still affect 1% of liver transplant recipients, and the morbidity and mortality in the affected patients remain fairly high. Critical illness myopathy may also affect up to 7% of liver transplant recipients. Liver insufficiency is also associated with various neurologic disorders which may improve or resolve after successful liver transplantation. Accurate diagnosis and timely intervention are essential to improve outcomes, while advances in clinical management and extended post-transplant survival are increasingly shifting the focus to chronic post-transplant complications which are often encountered in a community hospital and an outpatient setting. PMID:24023979

  12. [Neurological manifestations indicative of brucellosis].

    PubMed

    Gouider, R; Samet, S; Triki, C; Fredj, M; Gargouri, A; el Bahri, F; Ben Ghorbel, I; Kasraoui, A; Mhiri, C; Mrabet, A

    1999-03-01

    Eight patients presented neurological signs secondary to Brucella infection. The clinical presentation was a meningoencephalitis in three cases, a meningoencephalomyelitis in one case, an epiduritis with spinal cord compression in one case, an acute polyradiculoneuritis in two cases and a chronic polyradiculoneuritis in one case. Acoustic nerve was impaired in seven cases. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis revealed a lymphocytic meningitis and a high protein concentration in all cases. The agglutination test titers were elevated in the serum and in the CSF of seven patients (> or = 1/80) and two patients respectively. Brucella melitensis culture was disclosed in the blood of one patient and in the CSF of two patients. Three patients were treated by the association cycline and rifampicin whereas a tritherapy including cycline, rifampicin and TMP-SMZ was used in the other cases. Outcome was favorable in seven cases. This study outlines the polymorphism of neurological manifestations due to brucellosis, even in familial cases and this diagnostic must be especially done in Middle East and South Mediterranean countries. PMID:10339791

  13. Neurological Complications of VZV Reactivation

    PubMed Central

    Nagel, Maria A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of the review Varicella zoster virus (VZV) reactivation results in zoster, which may be complicated by postherpetic neuralgia, myelitis, meningoencephalitis and VZV vasculopathy. This review highlights the clinical features, laboratory abnormalities, imaging changes and optimal treatment of each of those conditions. Because all of these neurological disorders produced by VZV reactivation can occur in the absence of rash, the virological tests proving that VZV caused disease are discussed. Recent findings After primary infection, VZV becomes latent in ganglionic neurons along the entire neuraxis. With a decline in VZV-specific cell-mediated immunity, VZV reactivates from ganglia and travels anterograde to the skin to cause zoster, which is often complicated by postherpetic neuralgia. VZV can also travel retrograde to produce meningoencephaltis, myelitis and stroke. When these complications occur without rash, VZV-induced disease can be diagnosed by detection of VZV DNA or anti-VZV antibody in CSF and treated with intravenous acyclovir. Summary Awareness of the expanding spectrum of neurological complications caused by VZV reactivation with and without rash will improve diagnosis and treatment. PMID:24792344

  14. Neurological effects of acute uranium exposure with and without stress.

    PubMed

    Barber, D S; Hancock, S K; McNally, A M; Hinckley, J; Binder, E; Zimmerman, K; Ehrich, M F; Jortner, B S

    2007-11-01

    Circulating uranium rapidly enters the brain and may cause adverse effects on the nervous system that are potentially modulated by stress. In this study, the neurological effects of a single intramuscular injection of 0, 0.1, 0.3, or 1 mg uranium/kg (as uranyl acetate, UA) in rats were examined in the presence and absence of stress. Treatment with UA produced time and dose-dependent increases in serum and regional brain uranium levels. While serum levels returned to control levels by day 30, brain levels remained elevated. Application of stress did not affect the distribution or retention of uranium. Exposure to 1 mg U/kg significantly decreased ambulatory activity, weight gain, forelimb grip strength and transiently impaired working memory. Effects on grip strength and memory were prevented by application of stress prior to uranium exposure. Striatal dopamine content was reduced by 30% 3 days after treatment with 1mg/kg (59+/-6 nmol/mg tissue versus 41+/-5 nmol/mg tissue), but levels returned to control 7 days after uranium exposure. The effect on dopamine was ameliorated by prior application of stress. Exposure to UA did not alter 3,4 dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) levels or numbers of D2 receptors in the striatum. No effect of uranium or stress was observed on levels of GABA, serotonin, norepinephrine, or glutathione (GSH) in the striatum, hippocampus, cerebellum, or cortex. These results indicate that single intramuscular exposures to uranium produce sustained elevation of brain uranium levels and at doses above 0.3 mg/kg can have adverse neurological effects. Application of stress prior to uranium administration modulates neurological effects, but the mechanism is not due to effects on uranium distribution. Uranium exposure also produced renal toxicity which must be considered to accurately assess the effects of uranium on neurological function. PMID:17669499

  15. Computerised axial tomography and acute neurological problems of childhood.

    PubMed Central

    Day, R E; Thomson, J L; Schutt, W H

    1978-01-01

    The results of computerised axial tomography (CAT) in 80 children with neurological symptoms and/or signs of less than 3 months' duration are discussed in relation firstly to intracranial pathology and secondly to clinical presentation. 26 children had intracranial space-occupying lesions (tumour, abscess, haemorrhage, infarct). CAT was abnormal in 25 of these and diagnostic in 18. A further 20 children had meningitis or encephalitis, and CAT was abnormal in 12. In contrast with this high rate of scans showing pathology, CAT was abnormal in only 4 of the remaining 34 children who had less definite or no intracranial disease. Analysis of clinical presentation showed that 42 of 69 children presented with persisting neurological signs and of these, 25 had an intracranial space-occupying lesion and 29 had abnormal CAT. Only 5 of 27 children who had symptoms alone or signs lasting less than 24 hours had abnormal CAT, and no intracranial lesion requiring specific treatment was missed. CAT is useful for demonstrating the site, size, and nature of many lesions. The scan may not initially be abnormal in brain stem gliomas and in small subdural collections of fluid. Images Fig. 1 Fig 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:626514

  16. [Neurologic Complications in HPV Vaccination].

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Shu-Ichi

    2015-07-01

    A relatively high incidence of chronic limb pain, frequently complicated by violent, tremulous involuntary movements, has been noted in Japanese girls following human papillomavirus vaccination. The average incubation period after the first dose of the vaccine was 5.47 ± 5.00 months. Frequent manifestations included headaches, general fatigue, coldness of the feet, limb pain, and weakness. The skin temperature of the girls with limb symptoms was slightly lower in the fingers and moderately lower in the toes. Digital plethysmograms revealed a reduced peak of the waves, especially in the toes. Limb symptoms of the affected girls were compatible with the diagnostic criteria for complex regional pain syndrome. The Schellong test identified a significant number of patients with orthostatic hypotension and a few with postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome. Electron-microscopic examinations of the intradermal nerves showed an abnormal pathology in the unmyelinated fibers in two of the three girls examined. The symptoms observed in this study can be explained by abnormal peripheral sympathetic responses. The most common previous diagnosis in the patients was psychosomatic disease. Recently, delayed manifestation of cognitive dysfunction in the post-vaccinated girls has attracted attention. The symptoms include memory loss and difficulty in reading textbooks and/or calculation. PMID:26160812

  17. Delayed transient post-traumatic quadriplegia.

    PubMed

    Al-Shaaibi, Khaloud; Kariyattil, Rajeev

    2015-03-01

    Transient neurological deficit following cervical trauma have been reported following sports injuries, and has been referred to as cervical cord neurapraxia. The so-called "whiplash injuries" following minor motor vehicle collisions usually do not produce any neurological deficit. Here we report the case of a whiplash type of injury presenting with a delayed onset neurological deficit, which was followed by rapid and complete recovery. The patient, an otherwise healthy 34-year-old male, attended the emergency department of Sultan Qaboos University Hospital following a rear-end motor vehicle collision. We present images showing degenerative disc disease causing spinal canal narrowing and mild cord compression in the patient, but no spinal instability. Differential diagnoses are also discussed. PMID:25960840

  18. Neurologic decompression sickness following cabin pressure fluctuations at high altitude.

    PubMed

    Auten, Jonathan D; Kuhne, Michael A; Walker, Harlan M; Porter, Henry O

    2010-04-01

    Decompression sickness (DCS) occurs in diving, altitude chamber exposures, and unpressurized or depressurized high-altitude flights. Because DCS takes many forms, in-flight cases may be misinterpreted as hypoxia, hyperventilation, or viral illness, with resulting failure to respond appropriately. In this case, a 28-yr-old male pilot of a single-seat, tactical aircraft experienced 12 rapid pressure fluctuations while flying at 43,000 ft above sea level. He had no symptoms and decided to complete the flight, which required an additional 2 h in the air. Approximately 1 h later he began to experience fatigue, lightheadedness, and confusion, which he interpreted as onset of a viral illness. However, symptoms progressed to visual, cognitive, motor, and sensory degradations and it was with some difficulty that he landed safely at his destination. Neurologic DCS was suspected on initial evaluation by flight line medical personnel because of the delayed onset and symptom progression. He was transferred to a local Emergency Department and noted to have altered mental status, asymmetric motor deficits, and non-dermatomal paresthesias of the upper and lower extremities. Approximately 3.5 h after the incident and 2.5 h after the onset of symptoms he began hyperbaric oxygen therapy. He received partial relief at 30 min of the Navy DiveTable 6 and full resolution at 90 min; there were no recurrent symptoms at a 1-yr follow-up. This case highlights the importance of early recognition of in-flight DCS symptoms and landing as soon as possible rather than as soon as practical in all likely scenarios. PMID:20377149

  19. Neurological abnormalities in young adults born preterm

    PubMed Central

    Allin, M; Rooney, M; Griffiths, T; Cuddy, M; Wyatt, J; Rifkin, L; Murray, R

    2006-01-01

    Objective Individuals born before 33?weeks' gestation (very preterm, VPT) have an increased likelihood of neurological abnormality, impaired cognitive function, and reduced academic performance in childhood. It is currently not known whether neurological signs detected in VPT children persist into adulthood or become attenuated by maturation of the CNS. Method We assessed 153 VPT individuals and 71 term?born controls at 17–18?years old, using a comprehensive neurological examination. This examination divides neurological signs into primary and integrative domains, the former representing the localising signs of classical neurology, and the latter representing signs requiring integration between different neural networks or systems. Integrative signs are sub?divided into three groups: sensory integration, motor confusion, and sequencing. The VPT individuals have been followed up since birth, and neonatal information is available on them, along with the results of neurological assessment at 4 and 8?years of age and neuropsychological assessment at 18?years of age. Results The total neurology score and primary and integrative scores were significantly increased in VPT young adults compared to term?born controls. Within the integrative domain, sensory integration and motor confusion scores were significantly increased in the VPT group, but sequencing was not significantly different between the VPT and term groups. Integrative neurological abnormalities at 18 were strongly associated with reduced IQ but primary abnormalities were not. Conclusions Neurological signs are increased in VPT adults compared to term?born controls, and are strongly associated with reduced neuropsychological function. PMID:16543529

  20. Videourodynamics Identifies the Causes of Young Men with Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms and Low Uroflow

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chung Cheng Wang; Stephen Shei Dei Yang; Yung-Tai Chen; Jui-Hsiang Hsieh

    2003-01-01

    Objectives: Using videourodynamics (VUDS) we prospectively investigated the etiologies of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and low uroflow in young men and correlated the results with clinical symptoms and noninvasive exams.Methods: From 1999 to 2001, 90 men 18–50 years old with LUTS and low uroflow were enrolled. Patients with active urinary tract infection, congenital urogenital diseases, neurological diseases, diabetes mellitus

  1. Presentation, diagnosis, pathophysiology and treatment of the neurologic features of Sturge-Weber Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Comi, Anne M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Sturge-Weber syndrome (SWS) is a neurovascular disorder with a capillary malformation of the face (port-wine birthmark), a capillary-venous malformation in the eye, and a capillary-venous malformation in the brain (leptomeningeal angioma). Although SWS is a congenital disorder usually presenting in infancy, occasionally neurologic symptoms first present in adulthood and most affected individuals do survive into adulthood with varying degrees of neurologic impairment including epilepsy, hemiparesis, visual field deficits and cognitive impairments ranging from mild learning disabilities to severe deficits. SWS is a multi-system disorder that requires the neurologist to be aware of the possible endocrine, psychiatric, ophthalmologic, and other medical issues that can arise and impact the neurologic status of these patients. Some of these clinical features have only recently been described. Review Summary This review summarizes the neurologic manifestations of SWS, discusses issues related to the diagnosis of brain involvement, relates major neuroimaging findings, briefly describes the current understanding of pathogenesis, and provides an overview of neurologic treatment strategies. Conclusion Recent clinical research has highlighted several novel and lesser known aspects of this clinical syndrome including endocrine disorders. Functional imaging studies and clinical experience suggests that neurologic progression results primarily from impaired blood flow and that prolonged seizures may contribute to this process. Treatment is largely symptomatic although aggressive efforts to prevent seizures and strokes, in young children especially, may impact outcome. PMID:21712663

  2. Neurologic Manifestations of Pediatric Chikungunya Infection

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stéphanie Robin; Duksha Ramful; Florence Le Seach; Marie-Christine Jaffar-Bandjee; Gérald Rigou; Jean-Luc Alessandri

    2008-01-01

    Chikungunya virus, a mosquito-borne arbovirus, was responsible for a massive epidemic in La Réunion Island during 2005 to 2006. The disease is usually benign, but neurologic involvement, with sometimes fatal outcome, has been described. We report a retrospective hospital-based pediatric series of 30 children (23 boys and 7 girls) who presented neurologic manifestations of chikungunya such as encephalitis (n =

  3. SCHOOL OF MEDICINE DEPARTMENT OF NEUROLOGICAL SURGERY

    E-print Network

    Leistikow, Bruce N.

    SCHOOL OF MEDICINE DEPARTMENT OF NEUROLOGICAL SURGERY The University of California, Davis, Department of Neurological Surgery is seeking applicants for three open positions in our faculty://recruit.ucdavis.edu/apply/jpf00122 Peripheral Nerve - Neurosurgery: Requires expertise in spinal surgery and Fellowship training

  4. Sex and relationship dysfunction in neurological disability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B J Chandler; S Brown

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES(1) to ascertain how many people with neurological disability experience sexual or relationship problems; (2) to examine the interplay of neurological disability and sexual function within the context of the dyadic relationship; (3) to consider the implications of the results for service provision.METHODSA survey of outpatients attending Hunters Moor Regional Rehabilitation Centre, Newcastle upon Tyne over a 6 month period.

  5. Approach to Neurometabolic Diseases from a Pediatric Neurological Point of View

    PubMed Central

    KARIMZADEH, Parvaneh

    2015-01-01

    Objective Neurometabolic disorders are an important group of diseases that mostly are presented in newborns and infants. Neurological manifestations are the prominent signs and symptoms in this group of diseases. Seizures are a common sign and are often refractory to antiepileptic drugs in untreated neurometabolic patients. The onset of symptoms for neurometabolic disorders appears after an interval of normal or near normal growth and development.Additionally, affected children may fare well until a catabolic crisis occurs. Patients with neurometabolic disorders during metabolic decompensation have severe clinical presentation, which include poor feeding, vomiting, lethargy, seizures, and loss of consciousness. This symptom is often fatal but severe neurological insult and regression in neurodevelopmental milestones can result as a prominent sign in patients who survived. Acute symptoms should be immediately treated regardless of the cause. A number of patients with neurometabolic disorders respond favorably and, in some instances, dramatically respond to treatment. Early detection and early intervention is invaluable in some patients to prevent catabolism and normal or near normal neurodevelopmental milestones. This paper discusses neurometabolic disorders, approaches to this group of diseases (from the view of a pediatric neurologist), clinical and neurological manifestations, neuroimaging and electroencephalography findings, early detection, and early treatment. PMID:25767534

  6. Transcranial magnetic stimulation in neurology

    PubMed Central

    Eldaief, Mark C.; Press, Daniel Z.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a neurophysiologic technique to noninvasively induce a controlled current pulse in a prespecified cortical target. This can be used to transiently disrupt the function of the targeted cortical region and explore causal relations to behavior, assess cortical reactivity, and map out functionally relevant brain regions, for example during presurgical assessments. Particularly when applied repetitively, TMS can modify cortical excitability and the effects can propagate trans-synaptically to interconnected cortical, subcortical, and spinal cord regions. As such, TMS can be used to assess the functional integrity of neural circuits and to modulate brain activity with potential therapeutic intent. PMID:24353923

  7. Indapamide-induced transient myopia with supraciliary effusion: case report

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Ingestion of sulphonamide-derived drugs has been reported to possibly have ocular side-effects. Authors aimed to present a rare case of indapamide-induced transient myopia with ciliary body edema and supraciliary effusion. Case presentation A 39 years old caucasian female patient presented at the Department of Neurology with headache and sudden bilateral loss of distant vision. Neurological assessment and cranial CT scans were unremarkable. For her hypertension, twice a day bisoprolol 2.5 mg and once a day indapamide 1.5 mg tablets were prescribed several days before. At her presenting, ophthalmic findings were as follows: visual acuity 0.08-7.25Dsph?=?1.0 and 0.06-7.25Dsph?=?1.0; IOP 25 mmHg and 24 mmHg, anterior chamber depth (ACD) 2.32 mm and 2.49 mm, lens thickness (L) 4.02 mm and 4.09 mm in the right and the left eye, respectively. By means of ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM), thickened (720 / 700 micron) and detached ciliary body, its forward movement (ciliary body-cornea angle 108? / 114?) and forward rotated ciliary processes were seen. Angle opening distance (AOD500) were 300 / 314 microns. By the following days, the myopia gradually diminished, and a week after her first symptoms, her uncorrected visual acuity was 1.0 in both eyes, IOP 13 mmHg and 17 mmHg, ACD 3.68 mm and 3.66 mm, L 3.78 mm and 3.81 mm in the right and the left eye, respectively. Ciliary body edema and detachment disappeared (ciliary body thickness 225 / 230 micron), both of the ciliary body-cornea angle 134? / 140? and the AOD500 (650 / 640 microns) increased. At this point, the patient admitted that she had stopped taking indapamide two days before. Conclusions Our case report is the third one in the literature to present indapamide-induced transient myopia, and the first to employ UBM for describing the characteristics of this rare condition. According to the findings, authors suggest that both ciliary muscle contraction and ciliary body edema may play role in the pathomechanism. UBM seems to be a useful tool in the differential diagnosis of acute myopia. Further, authors wish to draw attention to one of the potential adverse effects of this drug which was not listed by its package insert. PMID:24138779

  8. 3.3.2Transient Transient .

    E-print Network

    100 3.3.2Transient Transient . : Vsrc, Vexp, Vpulse, Vpwl, Vsffm, Vsin. . ) 2.2 ( Transient Bias . ).out( ) 3.7(, , . "" Time. Spice. ) ABM.( , . " Maximum Step Size . Transient BJT. : Q2N2222Bipolar Vcc DC,Vin Vpulse : V1-5 V2--1, . TD­20

  9. Neuro-ophthalmological disorders in HIV infected subjects with neurological manifestations

    PubMed Central

    Mwanza, J-C; Nyamabo, L K; Tylleskär, T; Plant, G T

    2004-01-01

    Aims: To determine the frequency and features of neuro-ophthalmological manifestations in neurologically symptomatic HIV infected patients and to assess whether or not the visual evoked potential (VEP) features in these patients differ from those of neurologically asymptomatic HIV infected patients. Methods: Neuro-ophthalmological evaluation was performed in 166 neurologically symptomatic confirmed HIV positive patients, of whom 75 with normal ophthalmological examination were further studied by means of VEPs. The VEPs values were compared to those obtained from 53 other confirmed HIV positive subjects with neither ophthalmological nor neurological manifestations, who served as a comparison group and to the references values of our laboratory. Results: An abnormal neuro-ophthalmological examination was noted in 99/166 patients (60%). Eye movement disorders were present in 99 patients (51%). Visual field defects were detected in 39% of the patients. Optic neuropathy was noted in 31%, papilloedema in 27% and ocular motor nerve palsies in 26% of the patients. Toxoplasmosis and cryptococcosis were the most frequent associated pathologies, though in some patients the HIV itself was the presumed cause. VEPs were abnormal in 57% and 42% of patients with and without neurological manifestations, respectively. Compared to asymptomatic patients, symptomatic patients had a significantly increased mean latency; however, both groups had significant increase in mean latency compared to reference values. Conclusion: Neuro-ophthalmological manifestations are common in neurologically symptomatic HIV infected patients. Subclinical dysfunction in the visual pathways is a common phenomenon in both HIV infected patients with and without neurological symptoms, but neurologically symptomatic patients seem to have more damage in their visual pathways. PMID:15489493

  10. Linking genes to neurological clinical practice: the genomic basis for neurorehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, Allon; Curtis, Catherine L; Kleim, Jeffrey A

    2015-01-01

    Large-scale genomics projects such as the Human Genome Project and the International HapMap Project promise significant advances in the ability to diagnose and treat many conditions, including those with a neurological basis. A major focus of research has emerged in the neurological sciences to elucidate the molecular and genetic basis of various neurological diseases. Indeed, genetic factors are implicated in susceptibility for many neurological disorders, with family history studies providing strong evidence of familial risk for conditions such as stroke, Parkinson's, Alzheimer's, and Huntington's diseases. Heritability studies also suggest a strong genetic contribution to the risk for neurological diseases. Genome-wide association studies are also uncovering novel genetic variants associated with neurological disorders. Whole-genome and exome sequencing are likely to provide novel insights into the genetic basis of neurological disorders. Genetic factors are similarly associated with clinical phenotypes such as symptom severity and progression as well as response to treatment. Specifically, disease progression and functional restoration depend, in part, on the capacity for neural plasticity within residual neural tissues. Furthermore, such plasticity may be influenced in part by the presence of polymorphisms in several genes known to orchestrate neural plasticity including brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and Apolipoprotein E. (APOE). It is important for neurorehabilitation therapist practicing in the "genomic era" to be aware of the potential influence of genetic factors during clinical encounters, as advances in molecular sciences are revealing information of critical relevance to the clinical rehabilitation management of individuals with neurological conditions. Video Abstract available (See Video, Supplemental Digital Content 1, http://links.lww.com/JNPT/A88) for more insights from the authors. PMID:25415554

  11. Eculizumab in Typical Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome (HUS) With Neurological Involvement.

    PubMed

    Pape, Lars; Hartmann, Hans; Bange, Franz Christoph; Suerbaum, Sebastian; Bueltmann, Eva; Ahlenstiel-Grunow, Thurid

    2015-06-01

    In typical hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) approximately 25% of patients show central nervous system (CNS) involvement often leading to serious long-term disabilities. We used the C5-complement inhibitor Eculizumab as rescue therapy.From 2011 to 2014, 11 children (median age 22 months, range 11-175) with enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli-positive HUS requiring dialysis who had seizures (11/11) and/or were in a stupor or coma (10/11) were treated with Eculizumab. Two patients enrolled on the Safety and Efficacy Study of Eculizumab in Shiga-Toxin Producing E coli Hemolytic-Uremic Syndrome (STEC-HUS) each received 6 doses of Eculizumab, 3 patients 2 doses, and 6 patients 1 dose. Laboratory diagnostics of blood samples and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were performed as per center practice. Data were analyzed retrospectively.Cranial MRI was abnormal in 8 of 10 patients with findings in the basal ganglia and/or white matter. A 2-year-old boy with severe cardiac involvement and status epilepticus needed repeated cardio-pulmonary resuscitation and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. He died 8 days after start of Eculizumab treatment. Two patients with hemorrhagic colitis and repeated seizures required artificial ventilation for 6 and 16 days, respectively. At the time of discharge, 1 patient showed severe neurological impairment and 1 mild neurological impairment. The 8 surviving patients experienced no further seizures after the first dose of Eculizumab. Three patients showed mild neurological impairment at discharge, whilst the remaining 5 showed no impairment. The platelets normalized 4 days (median) after the first dose of Eculizumab (range 0-20 days). The mean duration of dialysis after the first dose of Eculizumab was 14.1?±?6.1 days.In children with typical HUS and CNS involvement early use of Eculizumab appears to improve neurological outcome. In severe HUS cases which progress rapidly with multiple organ involvement, late treatment with Eculizumab seems to show less benefit. We speculate that prophylactic Eculizumab therapy before development of neurological symptoms could be advantageous. PMID:26091445

  12. Ion channel genes and human neurological disease: Recent progress, prospects, and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Edward C.; Jan, Lily Yeh

    1999-01-01

    What do epilepsy, migraine headache, deafness, episodic ataxia, periodic paralysis, malignant hyperthermia, and generalized myotonia have in common? These human neurological disorders can be caused by mutations in genes for ion channels. Many of the channel diseases are “paroxysmal disorders” whose principal symptoms occur intermittently in individuals who otherwise may be healthy and active. Some of the ion channels that cause human neurological disease are old acquaintances previously cloned and extensively studied by channel specialists. In other cases, however, disease-gene hunts have led the way to the identification of new channel genes. Progress in the study of ion channels has made it possible to analyze the effects of human neurological disease-causing channel mutations at the level of the single channel, the subcellular domain, the neuronal network, and the behaving organism. PMID:10220366

  13. Chapter 44: history of neurology in Italy.

    PubMed

    Bentivoglio, Marina; Mazzarello, Paolo

    2010-01-01

    The chapter starts from the Renaissance (although the origins of Italian neurology can be traced back to the Middle Ages), when treatises of nervous system physiopathology still followed Hippocratic and Galenic "humoral" theories. In Italy, as elsewhere in Europe, the concepts of humoral pathology were abandoned in the 18th century, when neurology was influenced by novel trends. Neurology acquired the status of clinical discipline (as "clinic of mental diseases") after national reunification (declared in 1861 but completed much later). At the end of the 19th and first decades of the 20th century, eminent Italian "neuropsychiatrists" (including, among many others, Ugo Cerletti, who introduced electroconvulsive shock therapy in 1938) stimulated novel knowledge and approaches, "centers of excellence" flourished, and "Neurological Institutes" were founded. In the first half of the 20th century, the history of Italian neurology was dominated by World Wars I and II (which stimulated studies on the wounded) and the fascist regime in-between the Wars (when the flow of information was instead very limited). Italy became a republic in 1946, and modern neurology and its distinction from psychiatry were finally promoted. The chapter also provides detailed accounts of scientific societies and journals dedicated to the neurological sciences in Italy. PMID:19892147

  14. Bedbugs: Signs and Symptoms

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Diseases and treatments A - D Bedbugs Signs, symptoms Bedbugs: Signs and symptoms Bedbug bites : The bites often ... hiding place. Serious and life-threatening reactions to bedbug bites Although less common, it is possible to ...

  15. FIRST EINSTEIN RESIDENT IN NEUROLOGY ELECTROPHYSIOLOGIST, COGNITIVE NEUROSCIENTIST

    E-print Network

    Brown, Lucy L.

    FIRST EINSTEIN RESIDENT IN NEUROLOGY ELECTROPHYSIOLOGIST, COGNITIVE NEUROSCIENTIST DIRECTOR enough to experience Saul's arrival as Chairman of the newly established Division of Neurology area of Clinical Neurology and to Saul's unique role in the emerging area of Multidisciplinary

  16. Name: Geert Jan Biessels Neurology: cerebrovascular diseases and cognition

    E-print Network

    Utrecht, Universiteit

    Name: Geert Jan Biessels Profile Teaching commitment Neurology: cerebrovascular diseases and cognition Faculty Medicine Department Neurology&Neurosurgery, Rudolf Magnus Institute of Neuroscience Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD). · From 2007: member of the board of the Behavioural Neurology

  17. Neurological status predicts response to alpha-blockers in men with voiding dysfunction and Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Cristiano M; Sammour, Zein M; de Bessa Junior, Jose; Barbosa, Egberto R; Lopes, Roberto I; Sallem, Flávio S; Trigo-Rocha, Flavio E; Bruschini, Homero; Nitti, Victor W; Srougi, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate predictors of the response to doxazosin, a selective alpha-adrenoceptor antagonist, when used for the treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms in men with Parkinson's disease. METHODS: In a prospective study, 33 consecutive men (mean age 59.2±7.0 years) with Parkinson's disease and lower urinary tract symptoms were evaluated. Neurological dysfunction was assessed with the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale. Urological assessment was performed at baseline and after 12 weeks of treatment with 4 mg/day of extended-release doxazosin, including symptom evaluation with the International Continence Society male short-form questionnaire, an assessment of the impact of lower urinary tract symptoms on quality of life and urodynamics. Clinical and urodynamic predictors of response were specifically evaluated. RESULTS: Compared with the score at baseline, the total International Continence Society male short-form score was reduced after doxazosin administration, from 17.4±7.5 to 11.1±6.9 (p<0.001). The impact of lower urinary tract symptoms on quality of life was also significantly reduced, from 1.8±1.1 to 1.0±1.0 (p<0.001) and the maximum urinary flow varied from 9.3±4.4 to 11.2±4.6 ml/s (p?=?0.025). The severity of neurological impairment was the only predictor of the clinical response. Additionally, patients with a Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale score lower than 70 had a significantly higher chance of clinical improvement with doxazosin treatment than those with higher Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale scores did (RR?=?3.10, 95% CI?=?[1.15 to 5.37], p?=?0.011). CONCLUSIONS: Doxazosin resulted in the improvement of lower urinary tract symptoms and the maximum flow rate and was well tolerated in men with Parkinson's disease. The response to treatment is dependent on the severity of neurological disability. PMID:25627993

  18. Therapeutic Effects of Bee Venom on Immunological and Neurological Diseases.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Deok-Sang; Kim, Sun Kwang; Bae, Hyunsu

    2015-01-01

    Bee Venom (BV) has long been used in Korea to relieve pain symptoms and to treat inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis. The underlying mechanisms of the anti-inflammatory and analgesic actions of BV have been proved to some extent. Additionally, recent clinical and experimental studies have demonstrated that BV and BV-derived active components are applicable to a wide range of immunological and neurodegenerative diseases, including autoimmune diseases and Parkinson's disease. These effects of BV are known to be mediated by modulating immune cells in the periphery, and glial cells and neurons in the central nervous system. This review will introduce the scientific evidence of the therapeutic effects of BV and its components on several immunological and neurological diseases, and describe their detailed mechanisms involved in regulating various immune responses and pathological changes in glia and neurons. PMID:26131770

  19. [Goodpasture's syndrome with neurologic involvement and negative ANCA].

    PubMed

    Pérez-Suárez, G; Marrero, D; Rodríguez, R; Delgado, P; Cobo, M; González-Posada, J M; Hernández, D

    2010-01-01

    Goodpasture's syndrome is a rare autoimmune disorder characterized by rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis (RPGN) and alveolar hemorrhage in the presence of antiglomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM) antibodies. Central nervous system involvement is highly unusual in the absence of anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies. We report the case of a 20-year-old man with RPGN accompanied by bloody sputum, tonic-clonic seizure and high titers of anti-GBM antibody. After treatment with immunosuppressants and plasmapheresis, the patient showed reduced anti-GBM antibody titers and improved neurologic and respiratory symptoms, but renal failure persisted, requiring hemodialysis. Twenty months later, with the disease in remission, he underwent deceased-donor renal transplantation. PMID:20613848

  20. Psychiatric signs and symptoms in treatable inborn errors of metabolism.

    PubMed

    Nia, S

    2014-09-01

    Possible underlying organic causes of psychiatric symptoms can be overlooked in the clinical setting. It is important to increase awareness amongst psychiatric and neurological professionals with regard to certain inborn errors of metabolism as, in some cases, disease-specific therapies are available that can, for instance, treat underlying metabolic causes. The following article describes the basic pathophysiology, clinical and neurological features, and available diagnostic procedures of six treatable metabolic diseases that are associated with neuropsychiatric symptoms: Wilson's disease, cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis, porphyrias, homocysteinemia, urea cycle disorders, and Niemann-Pick disease type C (NP-C). NP-C is taken as a particularly relevant example because, while it is traditionally considered to be a condition that presents with severe neurological and systemic manifestations in children, an increasing number of patients are being detected who have the adolescent- or adult-onset form, which is frequently associated with neuropsychiatric signs. A notable proportion of adult-onset cases have been reported where NP-C has mistakenly been diagnosed and treated as a psychiatric condition, usually based on patients' initial presentation with psychotic or schizophrenia-like symptoms. Underlying organic causes of psychiatric disorders such as psychosis should be considered among patients with atypical symptoms and/or resistance to standard therapy. Alongside improved frameworks for additional multidisciplinary diagnostic work in patients with suspected organic disease, the development of convenient and affordable biochemical screening and/or diagnostic methods has enabled new ways to narrow down differential diagnoses. PMID:25145892

  1. Persistence of neurological damage induced by dietary vitamin B12 deficiency in infancy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ursula von Schenck; Christine Bender-Götze; Berthold Koletzko

    1997-01-01

    A case is reported of a 14 month old boy with severe dietary vitamin B-12 deficiency caused by his mother’s vegan diet. Cinical, electroencephalography (EEG), and haematological findings are described. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed severe frontal and frontoparietal cranial atrophy. Vitamin B-12 supplements led to a rapid improvement of haematological and neurological symptoms. Serum vitamin B-12 and urinary

  2. An Overview of Multiple Sclerosis: Medical, Psychosocial, and Vocational Aspects of a Chronic and Unpredictable Neurological Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rumrill, Phillip D., Jr.; Roessler, Richard T.

    2015-01-01

    This article presents an overview of multiple sclerosis (MS), one of the most common neurological disorders in the western hemisphere. Medical and psychosocial aspects of the disease such as causes and risk factors, diagnosis, incidence and prevalence, symptoms, courses, and treatment are described. Existing research regarding the employment…

  3. Abstract --Cerebral palsy is a non-progressive neurological disorder caused by disturbances to the developing brain.

    E-print Network

    Abstract -- Cerebral palsy is a non-progressive neurological disorder caused by disturbances forms of therapy for children with cerebral palsy are effective in minimizing symptoms, many children Cerebral palsy describes a group of permanent physical disorders caused by disturbances to the fetal

  4. Neurological features of epilepsy, ataxia, sensorineural deafness, tubulopathy syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Cross, J Helen; Arora, Ruchi; Heckemann, Rolf A; Gunny, Roxana; Chong, Kling; Carr, Lucinda; Baldeweg, Torsten; Differ, Ann-Marie; Lench, Nicholas; Varadkar, Sophie; Sirimanna, Tony; Wassmer, Evangeline; Hulton, Sally A; Ognjanovic, Milos; Ramesh, Venkateswaran; Feather, Sally; Kleta, Robert; Hammers, Alexander; Bockenhauer, Detlef

    2013-01-01

    AIM Recently, we reported a previously unrecognized symptom constellation comprising epilepsy, ataxia, sensorineural deafness, and tubulopathy (EAST syndrome) associated with recessive mutations in the KCNJ10 gene. Here, we provide a detailed characterization of the clinical features of the syndrome to aid patient management with respect to diagnosis, prognostic counselling, and identification of best treatment modalities. METHOD We conducted a retrospective review of the detailed neurological and neuroradiological features of nine children (four females, five males; age range at last examination 6–20y) with genetically proven EAST syndrome. RESULTS All children presented with tonic–clonic seizures in infancy. Later, non-progressive, cerebellar ataxia and hearing loss were noted. Whilst seizures mostly responded well to treatment, ataxia proved to be the most debilitating feature, with three patients non-ambulant. All available magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed subtle symmetrical signal changes in the cerebellar dentate nuclei. Moreover, four patients had a small corpus callosum and brainstem hypoplasia, and three had a small spinal cord. Regional quantitative volumetric analysis of the images confirmed the corpus callosum and brainstem hypoplasia and showed further patterns of variation from the norm. INTERPRETATION The neurological features of EAST syndrome appear to be non-progressive, which is important for prognostic counselling. The spectrum of EAST syndrome includes consistent abnormalities on brain MRI, which may aid diagnosis. Further longitudinal documentation is required to determine the true natural history of the disorder. PMID:23924083

  5. Male sexual dysfunction and infertility associated with neurological disorders

    PubMed Central

    Fode, Mikkel; Krogh-Jespersen, Sheila; Brackett, Nancy L; Ohl, Dana A; Lynne, Charles M; Sønksen, Jens

    2012-01-01

    Normal sexual and reproductive functions depend largely on neurological mechanisms. Neurological defects in men can cause infertility through erectile dysfunction, ejaculatory dysfunction and semen abnormalities. Among the major conditions contributing to these symptoms are pelvic and retroperitoneal surgery, diabetes, congenital spinal abnormalities, multiple sclerosis and spinal cord injury. Erectile dysfunction can be managed by an increasingly invasive range of treatments including medications, injection therapy and the surgical insertion of a penile implant. Retrograde ejaculation is managed by medications to reverse the condition in mild cases and in bladder harvest of semen after ejaculation in more severe cases. Anejaculation might also be managed by medication in mild cases while assisted ejaculatory techniques including penile vibratory stimulation and electroejaculation are used in more severe cases. If these measures fail, surgical sperm retrieval can be attempted. Ejaculation with penile vibratory stimulation can be done by some spinal cord injured men and their partners at home, followed by in-home insemination if circumstances and sperm quality are adequate. The other options always require assisted reproductive techniques including intrauterine insemination or in vitro fertilization with or without intracytoplasmic sperm injection. The method of choice depends largely on the number of motile sperm in the ejaculate. PMID:22138899

  6. 14 CFR 67.109 - Neurologic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...following: (1) Epilepsy; (2) A disturbance of consciousness without satisfactory medical explanation of the cause...cause. (b) No other seizure disorder, disturbance of consciousness, or neurologic condition that the Federal Air...

  7. American Academy of Neurological and Orthopaedic Surgeons

    MedlinePLUS

    ... specialty fields. This has been accomplished through setting high standards for training, credentialing and continuous surgical education... Click here for more American Academy of Neurological & Orthopaedic Surgeons 1516 North Lake Shore Drive - Chicago, Illinois 60610 (Phone) 312-787- ...

  8. Monoclonal antibody therapies and neurologic disorders.

    PubMed

    Novak, John C; Lovett-Racke, Amy E; Racke, Michael K

    2008-09-01

    The role of monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapies in treating medical conditions has expanded tremendously since its inception in the 1970s, and their use in neurologic conditions has increased in just the past few years. Currently, mAb treatments are being tested in conditions ranging from neuromuscular disorders to demyelinating diseases. What is now considered experimental therapy may soon become common. In addition, neurologic adverse effects have been reported during the use of mAb therapy in nonneurologic conditions that neurologists should be able to recognize. Because of the rapid increase in the use of mAb treatments, this review highlights their use in neurologic conditions and their neurologic adverse effects. PMID:18779418

  9. Hors d'oeuvres for neurology.

    PubMed

    Pascuzzi, R M

    1999-01-01

    From time to time, in the setting of lectures, rounds, or casual conversation, there is a need for hors d'oeuvres; small pieces, spices, and artifacts that generate a bit of thought and interest with a neurological twist. A potpourri of neurological trivia is herein presented for the purpose of stimulating the reader and serving as a brief reserve of questions and topics for use on rounds. PMID:10718544

  10. Neurological manifestations of the oculodentodigital dysplasia syndrome

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tobias Loddenkemper; Kerstin Grote; Stefan Evers; Michael Oelerich; Florian Stögbauer

    2002-01-01

    Oculodentodigital dysplasia (ODDD) (MIM 164200) is a rare autosomal dominant inherited disorder affecting the development\\u000a of the face, eyes, limbs and dentition. Neurological complications are thought to be occasional manifestations of the disorder.\\u000a This report illustrates the neurological manifestations by a pedigree of two ODDD patients with spastic paraparesis, cerebral\\u000a white matter hyperintensity and basal ganglia hypointensity. A systematic review

  11. Neurological abnormalities in young adults born preterm

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M Allin; M Rooney; T Griffiths; M Cuddy; J Wyatt; L Rifkin; R Murray

    2006-01-01

    Objective: Individuals born before 33 weeks’ gestation (very preterm, VPT) have an increased likelihood of neurological abnormality, impaired cognitive function, and reduced academic performance in childhood. It is currently not known whether neurological signs detected in VPT children persist into adulthood or become attenuated by maturation of the CNS.Method: We assessed 153 VPT individuals and 71 term-born controls at 17–18

  12. Transient Ischemic Attack

    MedlinePLUS

    NINDS Transient Ischemic Attack Information Page Synonym(s): Mini Stroke Table of Contents (click to jump to sections) What is ... Trials Organizations Additional resources from MedlinePlus What is Transient Ischemic Attack? A transient ischemic attack (TIA) is ...

  13. Neurological Adverse Effects in Patients of Advanced Colorectal Carcinoma Treated with Different Schedules of FOLFOX

    PubMed Central

    Najam, Rahila; Mateen, Ahmed

    2013-01-01

    The study is designed to assess the frequency and severity of few dose limiting neurological adverse effects of four different schedules of FOLFOX. Patients with histologically confirmed advanced colorectal carcinoma (CRC) were included in the study. Toxicity was graded according to CTC v 2.0. The frequency of grade 3 and 4 adverse effects was comparatively assessed in each treatment arm. The difference in the pattern of toxicity between the treatment schedule was evaluated. The most frequent adverse symptom of neurological adverse effect was grade 1 paresthesia in the patients treated with FOLFOX4 schedule. Grade 4 peripheral neuropathy was reported in few patients of FOLFOX7 treatment arm. Frequency and onset of neurological adverse effects like paresthesia, dizziness, and hypoesthesia were significantly different (P < 0.05), whereas frequency and onset of peripheral neuropathy were highly significant (P < 0.01) in each treatment arm of FOLFOX. Peripheral neuropathy was associated with electrolyte imbalance and diabetes in few patients. Frequency of symptoms, for example, paresthesia, is associated with increased number of recurrent exposure to oxaliplatin (increased number of cycles) even at low doses (85?mg/m2), whereas severity of symptoms, for example, peripheral neuropathy, is associated with higher dose (130?mg/m2) after few treatment cycles. PMID:24187619

  14. Enterovirus 71-induced neurological disorders in young gerbils, Meriones unguiculatus: development and application of a neurological disease model.

    PubMed

    Yao, Ping-Ping; Qian, Lei; Xia, Yong; Xu, Fang; Yang, Zhang-Nv; Xie, Rong-Hui; Li, Xiao; Liang, Wei-Feng; Huang, Xiao-Xiao; Zhu, Zhi-Yong; Zhu, Han-Ping

    2012-01-01

    A reliable disease model mimicking Enterovirus 71 (EV71) infection in humans is essential for understanding pathogenesis and for developing a safe and effective vaccine. Commonly used rodent models including mouse or rat models are not suitable for vaccine evaluation because the rodents are resistant to EV71 infection after they reach the age of 6 days. In this study, 21-day-old gerbils inoculated intraperitoneally (IP) with a non mouse-adapted EV71 strain developed neurological lesion-related signs including hind limb paralysis, slowness, ataxia and lethargy similar to those of central nervous system (CNS) infection of EV71 in humans. The infected gerbils eventually died of the neurological lesions and EV71 could be isolated from lung, liver, spleen, kidney, heart, spinal cord, brain cortex, brainstem and skeletal muscle. Significantly high virus replication was detected in spinal cord, brainstem and skeletal muscle by cellular analysis, real-time quantitative PCR (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemical staining. Histopathologic changes such as neuronal degeneration, neuronal loss and neuronophagia were observed in spinal cord, brain cortex, brainstem, and skeletal muscle along with necrotizing myositis and splenic atrophy. Gerbils that received two doses of inactive whole-virus vaccine showed no EV71-specific symptoms after challenged with EV71. In contrast, gerbils that received mock vaccination died of EV71-induced neuropathology after challenged with EV71. The result indicates that gerbils can serve as a reliable disease model for evaluating safety and efficacy of EV71 vaccine. PMID:23284845

  15. Transient based protection using current transients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xia Mingchao; Huang Yizhuang

    2008-01-01

    A transient based protection criterion using the wavelet transform results of current transients from the two ends or three ends (T-type line) of high voltage power transmission line is presented. According to the attenuation effects of high voltage transmission line and busbar capacitance to high-frequency current transients, differences of current transients at each end of the transmission line when in-zone

  16. JAMA Patient Page: Vaginal Symptoms

    MedlinePLUS

    ... of the American Medical Association JAMA PATIENT PAGE Vaginal Symptoms V aginal symptoms are one of the ... includes an article about diagnosing vaginal symptoms. DIAGNOSING VAGINAL SYMPTOMS FOR MORE INFORMATION • American College of Obstetricians ...

  17. Systematic review of teleneurology: neurohospitalist neurology.

    PubMed

    Rubin, Mark N; Wellik, Kay E; Channer, Dwight D; Demaerschalk, Bart M

    2013-07-01

    The use of 2-way audiovisual telemedicine technology for the delivery of acute stroke care is well established in the literature and is a growing practice. The use of such technology for neurologic consultation outside the cerebrovascular specialty has been reported to a variable extent across most disciplines within the field of neurology, including that of the neurohospitalist medicine. A systematic review of these reports is lacking. Hence, the main purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the literature on teleneurologic consultation in hospital neurology. The databases Ovid MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsychINFO, CINAHL, and Cochrane were used as data sources and were searched with key words "teleneurology" and its numerous synonyms and cognates. These key words were cross-referenced with subspecialties of neurology. The studies were included for further review only if the title or the abstract indicated that the study made use of 2-way audiovisual communication to address a neurologic indication. This search yielded 6625 abstracts. By consensus between the 2 investigators, 688 publications met the criteria for inclusion and further review. Four of those citations directly pertained to the inpatient hospital neurologic consultation. Each of the 4 relevant articles was scored with a novel rubric scoring functionality, application, technology, and evaluation phase. A subspecialty category score was calculated by averaging those scores. The use of 2-way audiovisual technology for general neurologic consultation of hospital inpatients, beyond stroke-related care, is promising, but the evidence supporting its routine use is weak. Further studies on reliability, validity, safety, efficacy, and cost-effectiveness are encouraged. PMID:24167644

  18. The Center for Peripheral Neuropathy Department of Neurology

    E-print Network

    Sherman, S. Murray

    #12;The Center for Peripheral Neuropathy Department of Neurology The University of Chicago 5841://PeripheralNeuropathyCenter.uchicago.edu Faculty and Administration Brian Popko, Ph.D. Jack Miller Professor in Neurological Diseases and Associate Chair for Research, Department of Neurology Raymond P. Roos, M.D. Professor, Department of Neurology

  19. The neurology of sign language.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Neil

    2004-04-01

    Forms of sign language have developed in a number of countries. American Sign Language, which originated from French signing, has been most extensively researched. As sign language is based on gestures executed in space and perceived visually it might be thought that it would mainly be a function of the right cerebral hemisphere when this is the non-dominant one. A number of studies are reviewed showing that sign language is a language in its own right and therefore, as with spoken language, its primary site of organization is in the dominant hemisphere. This does not mean that there is not a significant contribution from the other hemisphere with an interplay between the two. Each research project usually contributes some facet of knowledge apart from the main conclusions. These included the importance of distinguishing signs from gestures, the localization of different types of signing within the left dominant cerebral hemisphere, the fact that lesions of the right non-dominant hemisphere, although not causing a loss of signing will result in dyspraxia, and that aphasic symptoms of signing and speech are not modality dependant but reflected a disruption of language processes common to all languages. Examples are given of discoveries made by the use of the newer neuroradiological techniques such as functional magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography, and no doubt these will lead to further advances in knowledge. The use of sign language in the treatment of patients with verbal aphasia is considered, especially of children with the Landau-Kleffner syndrome, but therapy of this kind can be used in children with delayed language development, and in other types of acquired aphasia at any age. Other methods of treatment than signing, such as cochlear implants may be increasingly used in the future, but it seems likely that sign language will continue to be a dominant feature in the deaf culture. PMID:15030901

  20. Transient global amnesia mimics: Transient epileptic amnesia

    PubMed Central

    Nicastro, Nicolas; Picard, Fabienne; Assal, Frederic

    2014-01-01

    We describe the case of a 79-year-old patient referred for suspected transient global amnesia, after an episode of anterograde amnesia which lasted 90 min. An EEG, performed after the episode, showed bilateral temporal electrographic seizures, orienting the diagnosis toward a transient epileptic amnesia. Transient epileptic amnesia is defined by temporal lobe epilepsy characterized by recurrent transient amnestic episodes of 30–90 min in duration, sometimes associated with olfactory hallucinations or oral automatisms. Response to antiepileptic drugs is excellent. We would like to raise awareness toward this epileptic amnesia when facing atypical or recurrent transient amnestic episodes. PMID:25667881

  1. The symptom index

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Swarnjit Singh; Joel E. Richter; Laurence A. Bradley; Julie M. Haile

    1993-01-01

    The symptom index is a quantitative measure developed for assessing the relationship between gastroesophageal reflux and symptoms. Controversy exists, however, over its accuracy and the appropriate threshold for defining acid-related symptoms of heartburn and chest pain. Therefore, a retrospective review was done of 153 consecutive patients referred to our esophageal laboratory. Three groups were identified: patients with normal 24-hr pH

  2. Neurology in the United Kingdom. I: Historical development.

    PubMed Central

    Langton Hewer, R; Wood, V A

    1992-01-01

    International comparisons suggest that British neurological services are underdeveloped. Historical factors which have contributed to the current state of neurological services in the United Kingdom are described. Key issues include the dominance of London and the concept of specialised hospitals in the early history of neurology; the subsequent recognition of the needs of other parts of the United Kingdom, of district general hospitals, and of patients with chronic neurological disabilities not necessarily included within the traditional bounds of neurology; and the relationship between neurology and general medicine. The paper concludes with some suggestions as to how neurology services might develop in the future. PMID:1564501

  3. Prostate Cancer Symptoms

    MedlinePLUS

    ... My Bridge 4 Life Clinical Trials Guides Newsletters Nutrition & Wellness PCF Spotlight Glossary African American Men Understanding Prostate Cancer Prostate Cancer Symptoms English | Español Not everyone experiences ...

  4. Psychiatric symptoms in glioma patients: from diagnosis to management

    PubMed Central

    Boele, Florien W; Rooney, Alasdair G; Grant, Robin; Klein, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Patients with primary intrinsic brain tumors can experience neurological, cognitive, and psychiatric symptoms that greatly affect daily life. In this review, we focus on changes in personality and behavior, mood issues, hallucinations, and psychosis, because these are either difficult to recognize, to treat, or are understudied in scientific literature. Neurobehavioral symptoms are common, often multiple, and causation can be multifactorial. Although different symptoms sometimes require a different treatment approach, we advise a comprehensive treatment approach, including pharmacological treatment and/or psychotherapy where appropriate. Further research is needed to obtain a better estimate of the prevalence of psychiatric symptoms in glioma patients, and the extent to which these affect everyday functioning and family life.

  5. Abnormalities on neurological examination among sheep farmers exposed to organophosphorous pesticides.

    PubMed Central

    Beach, J R; Spurgeon, A; Stephens, R; Heafield, T; Calvert, I A; Levy, L S; Harrington, J M

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Organophosphates are effective pesticides which are frequently used in several agricultural settings. Although their acute effects are well characterised, it remains unclear whether long term exposure can damage the human nervous system. This study sought to investigate their long term effects by comparing abnormalities on neurological examination between groups of workers exposed to organophosphates and an unexposed group. METHODS: 146 exposed sheep farmers and 143 unexposed quarry workers were recruited into a cross sectional study of symptoms and neuropsychological effects of long term exposure to organophosphates in sheep dip. From a symptom questionnaire given immediately after dipping the 10 most symptomatic and 10 least symptomatic farmers were selected. Several months later each of these, along with 10 of the unexposed quarry workers, underwent a standardised neurological examination similar to that which might be used in clinical practice, at at time as remote as possible from recent exposure to organophosphates so as to exclude any acute effects. RESULTS: All 30 selected subjects agreed to participate. The components of the examination which showed a significant difference were two point discrimination on the dorsum of the hand (symptomatic farmers 22 mm; asymptomatic farmers 13 mm; quarry workers 8 mm) and the dorsum of the foot (symptomatic farmers 34 mm; asymptomatic farmers 10 mm; quarry workers 11 mm), and mean calf circumference (symptomatic farmers 35.0 cm; asymptomatic farmers 36.3 cm; quarry workers 38.6 cm). Overall the prevalence of neurological abnormalities was low. CONCLUSIONS: The differences in neurological examination detected between groups were subtle and their clinical significance was unclear. However, they do suggest evidence of an adverse neurological effect from exposure to organophosphates. Further, larger scale studies will be required before it is possible to confirm or refute the differences detected. PMID:8983462

  6. 77 FR 24971 - National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-26

    ...Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to...Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke Initial Review Group; Neurological Sciences...Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke Initial Review Group; Neurological...

  7. 75 FR 51279 - National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-19

    ...Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to...Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke Initial Review Group, Neurological Sciences...Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke Initial Review Group, Neurological...

  8. 78 FR 59041 - National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-25

    ...Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to...Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke Initial Review, Group Neurological Sciences...Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke Initial Review, Group Neurological...

  9. 77 FR 59939 - National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-01

    ...Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to...Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke Initial Review Group; Neurological Sciences...Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke Initial Review Group; Neurological...

  10. 75 FR 5093 - National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-01

    ...Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to...Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke Initial Review Group, Neurological Sciences...Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke Initial Review, Group Neurological...

  11. 75 FR 26268 - National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-11

    ...Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to...Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke Initial Review Group, Neurological Sciences...Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke Initial Review Group, Neurological...

  12. Clinical Symptoms and Risk Factors in Cerebral Microangiopathy Patients

    PubMed Central

    Okroglic, Sandra; Widmann, Catherine N.; Urbach, Horst; Scheltens, Philip; Heneka, Michael T.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Although the clinical manifestation and risk factors of cerebral microangiopathy (CM) remain unclear, the number of diagnoses is increasing. Hence, patterns of association among lesion topography and severity, clinical symptoms and demographic and disease risk factors were investigated retrospectively in a cohort of CM patients. Methods Patients treated at the Department of Neurology, University of Bonn for CM (n?=?223; 98m, 125f; aged 77.32±9.09) from 2005 to 2010 were retrospectively enrolled. Clinical symptoms, blood chemistry, potential risk factors, demographic data and ratings of vascular pathology in the brain based on the Wahlund scale were analyzed using Pearson's chi square test and one-way ANOVA. Results Progressive cognitive decline (38.1%), gait apraxia (27.8%), stroke-related symptoms and seizures (24.2%), TIA-symptoms (22%) and vertigo (17%) were frequent symptoms within the study population. Frontal lobe WMLs/lacunar infarcts led to more frequent presentation of progressive cognitive decline, seizures, gait apraxia, stroke-related symptoms, TIA, vertigo and incontinence. Parietooccipital WMLs/lacunar infarcts were related to higher frequencies of TIA, seizures and incontinence. Basal ganglia WMLs/lacunar infarcts were seen in patients with more complaints of gait apraxia, vertigo and incontinence. Age (p?=?.012), arterial hypertension (p<.000), obesity (p<.000) and cerebral macroangiopathy (p?=?.018) were positively related to cerebral lesion load. For increased glucose level, homocysteine, CRP and D-Dimers there was no association. Conclusion This underlines the association of CM with neurological symptoms upon admission in a topographical manner. Seizures and vertigo are symptoms of CM which may have been missed in previous studies. In addition to confirming known risk factors such as aging and arterial hypertension, obesity appears to increase the risk as well. Since the incidence of CM is increasing, future studies should focus on the importance of prevention of vascular risk factors on its pathogenesis. PMID:23393549

  13. Nonlocal neurology: beyond localization to holonomy.

    PubMed

    Globus, G G; O'Carroll, C P

    2010-11-01

    The concept of local pathology has long served neurology admirably. Relevant models include self-organizing nonlinear brain dynamics, global workspace and dynamic core theories. However such models are inconsistent with certain clinical phenomena found in Charles Bonnet syndrome, disjunctive agnosia and schizophrenia, where there is disunity of content within the unity of consciousness. This is contrasted with the split-brain case where there is disunity of content and disunity of consciousnesses. The development of quantum brain theory with it nonlocal mechanisms under the law of the whole ("holonomy") offers new possibilities for explaining disintegration within unity. Dissipative quantum brain dynamics and its approach to the binding problem, memory and consciousness are presented. A nonlocal neurology armed with a holonomic understanding might see more deeply into what clinical neurology has always aspired to: the patient as a whole. PMID:20418020

  14. [Nutrition and dietary supplements in neurological diseases].

    PubMed

    Erbguth, F; Himmerich, H

    2014-12-01

    "Healthy" diets and supplements are widely used for prevention and disease modification in vascular, inflammatory and degenerative neurological diseases. Apart from a large number of cross-sectional and prospective cohort studies, there are only few interventional studies on individual dietary measures. A recent study confirmed the stroke preventive effect of a Mediterranean diet rich in olive oil and nuts; a ketogenic diet reduces seizure frequency in epilepsy. Supplementation of riboflavin, magnesium and coenzyme Q10 are probably effective in migraine prophylaxis. Creatine can improve muscle strength in muscular dystrophy and myositis. There is insufficient evidence to recommend any of the many dietary supplements, such as vitamins, omega-3 fatty acids and other substances for the prevention or improvement of all other neurological diseases. This review critically evaluates the present data on the role of nutrition and dietary supplements in neurological diseases. PMID:25403288

  15. The history of reimbursements in neurology.

    PubMed

    Lakhan, Shaheen E; Ebied, Amr M; Tepper, Deborah; Nguyen, Truc

    2013-01-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) addresses consumer protection, employer-provided insurance coverage, as well as the government's role in providing health care access to the most vulnerable populations. Within the practice of neurology, the PPACA has the challenging goal of reconciling the needs of the growing elderly population with the financial barriers to costly yet available health care services. To bridge that gap, all health care professionals working in the field of neurology must reflect on the effect previous Medicare reimbursement policies have had on the current practice of neurology, and utilize lessons learned in recent years. The test of time will tell whether the PPACA will achieve the goal of decreasing in health care spending while ensuring quality universal healthcare services. PMID:24223566

  16. Cotard syndrome in neurological and psychiatric patients.

    PubMed

    Ramirez-Bermudez, Jesus; Aguilar-Venegas, Luis C; Crail-Melendez, Daniel; Espinola-Nadurille, Mariana; Nente, Francisco; Mendez, Mario F

    2010-01-01

    The authors describe the frequency and characteristics of Cotard syndrome among neurological and psychiatric inpatients at a tertiary referral center. All inpatients from the National Institute of Neurology of Mexico (March 2007-May 2009) requiring neuropsychiatric consultation were reviewed. Among 1,321 inpatient consultations, 63.7% had neurological disease and one (0.11%) had viral encephalitis and Cotard syndrome. Of inpatients, 36.2% had pure psychiatric disorders and three (0.62%) had Cotard syndrome, associated with psychotic depression, depersonalization, and penile retraction (koro syndrome). This review discusses potential mechanisms for Cotard syndrome, including the role of a perceptual-emotional dissociation in self-misattribution in the deliré des negations. PMID:21037126

  17. Redox neurology: visions of an emerging subspecialty.

    PubMed

    Schipper, Hyman M

    2004-03-01

    Recent years have witnessed a dramatic increase in publications implicating free radicals and oxidative stress in virtually every aspect of biology and medicine. Redox Neurology may be defined as the study of the roles of free radicals, transition metals, oxidative stress, and antioxidant defenses in diseases of the nervous system. In this position paper, an argument is presented for recognition of this field as an emerging subspecialty within medical neurology. A program for postresidency fellowship training in Redox Neurology that integrates laboratory experience with specialized clinical practice is proposed. Opportunities for research and teaching careers in the redox neurosciences are outlined. The paper concludes with a forecast of several research themes likely to preoccupy this nascent discipline in the days ahead. PMID:15105277

  18. Prenatal Antecedents of Newborn Neurological Maturation

    PubMed Central

    DiPietro, Janet A.; Kivlighan, Katie T.; Costigan, Kathleen A.; Rubin, Suzanne E.; Shiffler, Dorothy E.; Henderson, Janice L.; Pillion, Joseph P.

    2009-01-01

    Fetal neurobehavioral development was modeled longitudinally using data collected at weekly intervals from 24- to -38 weeks gestation in a sample of 112 healthy pregnancies. Predictive associations between 3 measures of fetal neurobehavioral functioning and their developmental trajectories to neurological maturation in the 1st weeks after birth were examined. Prenatal measures included fetal heart rate variability, fetal movement, and coupling between fetal motor activity and heart rate patterning; neonatal outcomes include a standard neurologic examination (n = 97) and brainstem auditory evoked potential (BAEP; n = 47). Optimality in newborn motor activity and reflexes was predicted by fetal motor activity; fetal heart rate variability and somatic-cardiac coupling predicted BAEP parameters. Maternal pregnancy-specific psychological stress was associated with accelerated neurologic maturation. PMID:20331657

  19. Neurological complications of beta-thalassemia.

    PubMed

    Nemtsas, P; Arnaoutoglou, M; Perifanis, V; Koutsouraki, E; Orologas, A

    2015-08-01

    The thalassemias are the most common single gene disorder in the world. Over the last years, several reports have demonstrated neurological complications in beta-thalassemia patients. In most cases, these complications remained subclinical and were detected only during neuropsychological, neurophysiological, or neuroimaging evaluation. Cognitive impairment, abnormal findings on evoked potentials, complications due to extramedullary hematopoiesis, cerebrovascular disease, and peripheral neuropathy comprise the broad spectrum of neurological involvement. Chronic hypoxia, iron overload, desferrioxamine neurotoxicity, and bone marrow expansion are implicated, but sufficient explanatory evidence is lacking and development of biomarkers is needed. This review summarizes current knowledge of the neurological complications. As life expectancy for beta-thalassemia patients increases, we support the use of neurophysiological, neuropsychological, or neuroimaging monitoring, enabling the evaluation of neural pathway impairment, to achieve appropriate management and as a result a better quality of life for this patient group. PMID:25903043

  20. Neurologic complications following pediatric renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Partha S; Kwon, Charles; Klein, Melanie; Corder, Julie; Ghosh, Debabrata

    2014-06-01

    We reviewed neurologic complications after renal transplantation in children over a 20-year period. Neurologic complications were classified as early (within 3 months) and delayed (beyond 3 months). Of 115 children, 10 (8.7%) had complications. Early complications were found in 4.35% of patients: seizures in 4 (posterior reversible leukoencephalopathy syndrome due to immunosuppressant toxicity, sepsis/presumed meningitis, and indeterminate) and headaches in 1. One patient with seizures received levetiracetam for 6 months and 1 with headaches received amitriptyline prophylaxis. Late complications were noted in 4.35% of patients: seizures in 3 (posterior reversible leukoencephalopathy syndrome due to hypertension, hypertensive encephalopathy), headaches in 2, and tremors in 1. Two patients with seizures were treated with anti-epilepsy medications; 1 with migraine received cyproheptadine prophylaxis. Neurologic complications develop in children after renal transplantation. Seizures due to posterior reversible leukoencephalopathy syndrome were the commonest complication. Early detection and appropriate management of these complications is important. PMID:23752071

  1. Neurologic dysfunction in patients treated for small cell carcinoma of the lung: a clinical and radiological study

    SciTech Connect

    Chak, L.Y.; Zatz, L.M.; Wasserstein, P.; Cox, R.S.; Kushlan, P.D.; Porzig, K.J.; Sikic, B.I.

    1986-03-01

    The neurologic dysfunction in 7 patients treated for small cell carcinoma (SCC) of the lung by combination chemotherapy and prophylactic brain irradiation was evaluated. The disease appeared to be a diffuse encephalopathy frequently affecting the higher cortical functions. Five out of seven patients had progressive dysfunction leading to death in 1 to 26 months; one patient had stabilization of symptoms followed by death in 21 months, probably from the neurologic disease as well as SCC; one patient's symptoms improved. The clinical course of the neurologic disorder seemed different from the known reactions to brain irradiation and from the other neurologic syndromes associated with lung cancer. The relative contributions of cranial irradiation and treatment with chemotherapeutic agents in producing the neurotoxicity are not known. Computed tomographic (CT) brain scans done after the onset of symptoms did not show any focal signs or necrosis. However, there was a suggestion of progressive increase in intracranial fluid volume on the scans. The incidence of the disorder, 10.2% among a group of 49 patients, suggests the need for prospective studies to evaluate the problem.

  2. Modern network science of neurological disorders.

    PubMed

    Stam, Cornelis J

    2014-10-01

    Modern network science has revealed fundamental aspects of normal brain-network organization, such as small-world and scale-free patterns, hierarchical modularity, hubs and rich clubs. The next challenge is to use this knowledge to gain a better understanding of brain disease. Recent developments in the application of network science to conditions such as Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis, traumatic brain injury and epilepsy have challenged the classical concept of neurological disorders being either 'local' or 'global', and have pointed to the overload and failure of hubs as a possible final common pathway in neurological disorders. PMID:25186238

  3. Depression in Parkinson’s disease: Symptom Improvement and Residual Symptoms Following Acute Pharmacological Management

    PubMed Central

    Dobkin, Roseanne DeFronzo; Menza, Matthew; Bienfait, Karina L.; Gara, Michael; Marin, Humberto; Mark, Margery H.; Dicke, Allison; Friedman, Jill

    2010-01-01

    Objective Parkinson’s disease is frequently complicated by depression (dPD) and there is a paucity of controlled research that can inform the management of this disabling non-motor complaint. A randomized controlled trial of nortriptyline, paroxetine, and placebo for the treatment of dPD was recently completed. The purpose of this paper is to describe the baseline pattern of depressive symptom presentation in PD, the specific symptoms of dPD that improve with pharmacotherapy, and the residual symptoms which remain in patients who meet a priori criteria for response or remission after acute treatment (8-weeks). Setting The Departments of Psychiatry and Neurology at Robert Wood Johnson Medical School. Participants Fifty-two depressed patients (Major Depression or Dysthymia based on DSM-IV criteria) with Parkinson's disease (by research criteria). Design/Intervention A randomized controlled trial of nortriptyline, paroxetine, and placebo. Measurement The four subscales (core mood, anxiety, insomnia, somatic) and individual items from the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D-17) were the focus of the current study. These measures were assessed at baseline and week 8. Results Baseline depressive symptoms were unrelated to motor functioning. Treatment response was associated with significant improvements in the core mood, anxiety, insomnia, and somatic symptoms seen in dPD. Residual symptoms, like sadness and loss of interest, persisted in treatment responders in a milder form than was initially present. Conclusions Antidepressants may influence all symptoms of dPD, including those which share great overlap with the physical disease process. Additional research regarding adjunctive interventions is needed to help optimize the management of dPD. PMID:20808132

  4. Intraspinal neuroblastoma: Treatment options and neurological outcome of spinal cord compression

    PubMed Central

    FAWZY, MOHAMED; EL-BELTAGY, MOHAMED; SHAFEI, MAGED EL; ZAGHLOUL, MOHAMED SAAD; KINAAI, NAGLAA AL; REFAAT, AMAL; AZMY, SARAH

    2015-01-01

    Malignant spinal cord compression (MSCC) is a common complication of cancer. Paraspinal neuroblastoma (NB) in the thoracic, abdominal and pelvic regions may extend into the neural foramina causing compression of nerve roots and even the spinal cord. The prompt initiation of specific treatment can improve the neurological outcome. The aim of the present study was to review the clinical features, the management received and the factors that may affect the outcome of patients with MSCC caused by paraspinal NB. During a period between July 2007 and December 2012, a total of 576 NB patients were treated at the Children’s Cancer Hospital (Cairo, Egypt). Intraspinal disease extension was present in 51 patients (9%). The children with intraspinal disease extension were reviewed for disease pattern, neurological manifestations and treatment outcome. Children with intraspinal disease extension had an equal male to female ratio (1:1), and approximately two-thirds of patients (34/51) had a clinically manifested cord compression. The duration of neurological manifestations was >4 weeks in 58.8% (20/34) of symptomatic patients and ?4 weeks in 41.2% (14/34). Subsequent to starting treatment, neurological manifestations showed a complete recovery in 16 patients (47.1%), partial in 11 (32.4%), and stationary course was found in 7 (20.6%). Manifestations of ?4 weeks in duration carried an improved outcome compared with longer time compression, with a complete recovery in 78.6%, versus 25% for patients with a longer symptom duration (P=0.008). The upfront treatment, patient age and site of the primary tumor did not significantly affect the neurological outcome. Spinal cord compression in NB can be effectively managed with upfront chemotherapy. Initial surgical decompression should be reserved for benign variants only, including ganglioneuroma. Neurological manifestations of <4 weeks duration upon presentation are usually reversible. PMID:25624912

  5. Severe neurologic manifestations in acute intermittent porphyria developed after spine surgery under general anesthesia: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Park, Eun Young; Kim, Yi Seul; Lim, Kyung-Jee; Lee, Hye Kyoung; Lee, Soo Kyung; Choi, Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Porphyrias are inherited metabolic disorders resulting from a specific enzyme defect in the heme biosynthetic pathway. Porphyrias are induced by various precipitants. Clinical features include abdominal pain, neurologic manifestations, autonomic neuropathy, and mental disturbance. Diagnosis may be delayed because of variable symptoms that mimic other diseases and because of the rarity of of porphyrias. Although most patients with known porphyria can complete anesthesia and surgery safely, undiagnosed porphyric patients are in danger of porphyric crisis due to inadvertent exposure to precipitating drugs and environment. We report a case of a patient who experienced delayed emergence with neurological disturbance after general anesthesia, ultimately diagnosed as acute intermittent porphyria. PMID:25302100

  6. Severe neurologic manifestations in acute intermittent porphyria developed after spine surgery under general anesthesia: a case report.

    PubMed

    Park, Eun Young; Kim, Yi Seul; Lim, Kyung-Jee; Lee, Hye Kyoung; Lee, Soo Kyung; Choi, Hyun; Kang, Mae-Hwa

    2014-09-01

    Porphyrias are inherited metabolic disorders resulting from a specific enzyme defect in the heme biosynthetic pathway. Porphyrias are induced by various precipitants. Clinical features include abdominal pain, neurologic manifestations, autonomic neuropathy, and mental disturbance. Diagnosis may be delayed because of variable symptoms that mimic other diseases and because of the rarity of of porphyrias. Although most patients with known porphyria can complete anesthesia and surgery safely, undiagnosed porphyric patients are in danger of porphyric crisis due to inadvertent exposure to precipitating drugs and environment. We report a case of a patient who experienced delayed emergence with neurological disturbance after general anesthesia, ultimately diagnosed as acute intermittent porphyria. PMID:25302100

  7. Obsessive-compulsive symptoms in primary focal dystonia: a controlled study.

    PubMed

    Barahona-Corrêa, Bernardo; Bugalho, Paulo; Guimarães, João; Xavier, Miguel

    2011-10-01

    Primary focal dystonia is an idiopathic neurological disorder causing involuntary muscle contraction. Its pathophysiology probably involves the basal ganglia and cortical-basal pathways. Primary dystonia appears to be associated with significant obsessive-compulsive symptoms, but evidence remains scarce and contradictory. We addressed the following research questions: (1) Do primary dystonia patients have high obsessive-compulsive symptom scores? (2) Are these symptoms more severe in dystonia than in controls with equivalent peripheral neurological disorders? and (3) Is psychopathology different in botulinum toxin-treated and -untreated dystonia patients? This work was a cross-sectional, descriptive, controlled study comprising 45 consecutive patients with primary focal dystonia (i.e., blepharospasm, spasmodic torticollis, or writer's cramp) 46 consecutive patients with hemifacial spasm, cervical spondylarthropathy, or carpal tunnel syndrome, and 30 healthy volunteers. Assessment included the DSM-IV based psychiatric interview, Symptom Checklist 90R, Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale and Checklist, and the Unified Dystonia Rating Scale. Dystonia patients had higher Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Symptom scores than both control groups. Dystonia patients with obsessive-compulsive symptom scores above cut-off for clinical significance predominantly developed hygiene-related symptoms. Major depression and generalized anxiety disorder were the most frequent psychiatric diagnoses in primary focal dystonia. Obsessive-compulsive disorder frequency was 6.7%. Primary focal dystonia patients have higher obsessive-compulsive symptom scores than individuals with similar functional disabilities resulting from other neurological disorders, suggesting that obsessive-compulsive symptoms in dystonia are not reactive to chronic disability. Dystonic muscle contractions and obsessive-compulsive symptoms may share a common neurobiological basis related to cortical-basal dysfunction. Psychopathology, especially obsessive-compulsive symptoms, should be actively explored and treated in primary focal dystonia. PMID:21830232

  8. Neurology and the new health care policies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Rosati

    1996-01-01

    The Author discusses some aspects of the Health Care systems in developed countries, and analyzes the reasons for the failure of recent reform programs to provide good quality service at a reasonable price. While not condemning business-style management completely, the Author points out how, in the neurological field too, under the control of physicians, biomedical research and innovation with inter-departmental

  9. Implication of Cannabinoids in Neurological Diseases

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Angela Alsasua del Valle

    2006-01-01

    SUMMARY  1. Preparations from Cannabis sativa (marijuana) have been used for many centuries both medicinally and recreationally.2. Recent advances in the knowledge of its pharmacological and chemical properties in the organism, mainly due to ?9-tetrahydrocannabinol, and the physiological roles played by the endocannabinoids have opened up new strategies in the treatment of neurological and psychiatric diseases.3. Potential therapeutic uses of cannabinoid

  10. Topical Review: Neurologic Complications of Immunization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James F. Bale

    2004-01-01

    In the United States and many other developed countries, active immunization of children has virtually eliminated poliomyelitis, measles, rubella, tetanus, and other diseases, such as disease due to Haemophilus influenzae type b. Individual vaccines can produce systemic or neurologic reactions ranging from minor events, such as pain and erythema at the injection site, to major complications, such as seizures, shock,

  11. Neurologic status, cough, secretions and extubation outcomes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Adil Salam; Lisa Tilluckdharry; Yaw Amoateng-Adjepong; Constantine A. Manthous

    2004-01-01

    Objective To determine the degree to which neurologic function, cough peak flows and quantity of endotracheal secretions affected the extubation outcomes of patients who had passed a trial of spontaneous breathing (SBT). Design Prospective observational study. Setting The medical intensive care unit of a 325-bed teaching hospital. Measurements and main results Cough peak flow (CPF), endotracheal secretions and ability to

  12. A critical review of computational neurological models

    E-print Network

    Bejerano, Gill

    A critical review of computational neurological models Samantha Zarate ­ slzarate experimental methods. The objective of this paper is to provide a critical review of computational models review three types of approaches for understanding the inner workings of the human brain. The first

  13. Integrating cognitive psychology, neurology and neuroimaging

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lawrence M. Parsons

    2001-01-01

    In the last decade, there has been a dramatic increase in research effectively integrating cognitive psychology, functional neuroimaging, and behavioral neurology. This new work is typically conducting basic research into aspects of the human mind and brain. The present review features as examples of such integrations two series of studies by the author and his colleagues. One series, employing object

  14. Thal fundoplication in neurologically impaired children

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Ramachandran; Keith W. Ashcraft; Ronald J. Sharp; Patrick J. Murphy; Charles L. Snyder; George K. Gittes; Stephen W. Bickler

    1996-01-01

    Children with neurological impairment (NI) frequently require feeding gastrostomy, and this often aggravates or produces gastroesophageal reflux (GER). From 1976 to 1994, 141 children with severe NI underwent Thal fundoplication and gastrostomy (GT). GER was evident in 80%; in the rest, fundoplication was an adjunct to GT. Ph results were positive in 38 cases, and 57 children had reflux according

  15. Deep brain stimulation: from neurology to psychiatry?

    E-print Network

    been revitalized, starting with treatment of Parkinson's disease, in which deep brain stimulation (DBSDeep brain stimulation: from neurology to psychiatry? Paul Krack1,2 , Marwan I. Hariz3­compulsive disorder, depression and addiction. In this review, we discuss the concept that dysfunction of motor

  16. The Transformation: Monarch Institute for Neurological Differences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reclaiming Children and Youth, 2013

    2013-01-01

    Those utilizing the Monarch Institute and its powerful website include educational and mental health professionals looking for training, or employers seeking qualified workers who happen to have neurological differences. Most are students and their parents who are worried and in pain because they have a problem. The young person is not progressing…

  17. Neurological update: emerging issues in gait disorders.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Simon J G

    2015-06-01

    Gait disorders represent a common and diverse challenge in Neurological practice. The literature on this field is expanding and is seeking to address mainstream clinical issues as well as a greater understanding of pathophysiological mechanisms. This update will introduce a range of these concepts. PMID:25736555

  18. Anaerobic Infections in Children with Neurological Impairments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brook, Itzhak

    1995-01-01

    Children with neurological impairments are prone to develop serious infection with anaerobic bacteria. The most common anaerobic infections are decubitus ulcers; gastrostomy site wound infections; pulmonary infections (aspiration pneumonia, lung abscesses, and tracheitis); and chronic suppurative otitis media. The unique microbiology of each of…

  19. Neurological Vision Rehabilitation: Description and Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kingston, John; Katsaros, Jennifer; Vu, Yurika; Goodrich, Gregory L.

    2010-01-01

    The wars in Afghanistan and Iraq have been notable for the high rates of traumatic brain injury (TBI) that have been incurred by the troops. Visual impairments often occur following TBI and present new challenges for rehabilitation. We describe a neurological vision rehabilitation therapy that addresses the unique needs of patients with vision…

  20. BRAINA JOURNAL OF NEUROLOGY REVIEW ARTICLE

    E-print Network

    Sur, Mriganka

    BRAINA JOURNAL OF NEUROLOGY REVIEW ARTICLE Harnessing neuroplasticity for clinical applications Resources, Bethesda, MD, 20892, USA 15 National Institute on Drug Abuse, Rockville, MD 20852, USA 16 Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Bethesda, MD, 20892, USA 22 Berenson-Allen Centre for Non

  1. Dissociative symptoms and epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Medford, Nick

    2014-01-01

    This article considers the relationship between various types of dissociative symptoms, including symptoms of depersonalization, derealization, and conversion disorders, and epilepsy. After introductory remarks concerning dissociation, this relationship is discussed through two main themes: firstly, the phenomenology and mechanisms of so-called 'dreamy states' in epilepsy and their closest analogs in psychiatric disorders, and secondly, the similarities and differences between epileptic seizures and psychogenic nonepileptic attacks. Although epileptic and dissociative symptoms may appear similar to observers, they arise through different mechanisms and have different experiential qualities. PMID:24196397

  2. Hypoglycemia with focal neurological signs as stroke mimic: Clinical and neuroradiological characteristics.

    PubMed

    Ohshita, Tomohiko; Imamura, Eiji; Nomura, Eiichi; Wakabayashi, Shinichi; Kajikawa, Hiroshi; Matsumoto, Masayasu

    2015-06-15

    Our aim was to investigate the clinical and radiological features of patients with hypoglycemia with focal neurological signs (HFNS). Among 80 consecutive hypoglycemic patients (blood glucose levels less than 50mg/dL), who had been admitted between October 2008 and May 2012, we selected 11 patients (6 men and 5 women; mean age, 73.2±12years) with focal neurological signs. The mean initial blood glucose level was 27.9mg/dL (range, 13-39mg/dL). The most frequent symptom was unilateral motor weakness (n=9), which was usually accompanied with mild or moderate alteration of consciousness. All patients had improved initial neurological signs within 1h of glucose injection. The initial DWI demonstrated a hyperintense lesion in the contralateral internal capsule with decreased values on the ADC (apparent diffusion coefficient) map in 2 of the patients (18%). The DWI performed one day later shows only faint lesion. The initial DWI in patients with HFNS may display a hyperintense lesion, which was difficult to distinguish from acute cerebral infarction. Hypoglycemia should be considered in cases with DWI showing a disproportionally small lesion in contrast to neurological signs. PMID:25912175

  3. Commonalities and challenges in the development of clinical trial measures in neurology.

    PubMed

    Cedarbaum, Jesse M; Stephenson, Diane; Rudick, Richard; Carrillo, Maria C; Stebbins, Glenn; Kerr, Douglas; Heemskerk, Jill; Galpern, Wendy R; Kaufmann, Petra; Cella, David; Isaac, Maria; Walton, Marc K

    2015-01-01

    As neurologists and neuroscientists, we are trained to evaluate disorders of the nervous system by thinking systematically. Clinically, we think in terms of cognition, behavior, motor function, sensation, balance and co-ordination, and autonomic system function. But when we assess symptoms of neurological disorders for the purpose of drug development, we tend to create disease-specific outcome measures, often using a variety of methods to assess the same types of dysfunction in overlapping, related disorders. To begin to explore the potential to simplify and harmonize the assessment of dysfunction across neurological disorders, a symposium, entitled, "Commonalities in the Development of Outcome Measures in Neurology" was held at the 16th annual meeting of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics (ASENT), in February 2014. This paper summarizes the presentations at the symposium. The authors hope that readers will begin to view Clinical Outcome Assessment (COA) development in a new light. We hope that in presenting this material, we will stimulate discussions and collaborations across disease areas to develop common concepts of neurological COA development and construction. PMID:25384682

  4. Application of Array-Based Comparative Genomic Hybridization to Pediatric Neurologic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Byeon, Jung Hye; Shin, Eunsim; Kim, Gun-Ha; Lee, Kyungok; Hong, Young Sook; Lee, Joo Won

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Array comparative genomic hybridization (array-CGH) is a technique used to analyze quantitative increase or decrease of chromosomes by competitive DNA hybridization of patients and controls. This study aimed to evaluate the benefits and yield of array-CGH in comparison with conventional karyotyping in pediatric neurology patients. Materials and Methods We included 87 patients from the pediatric neurology clinic with at least one of the following features: developmental delay, mental retardation, dysmorphic face, or epilepsy. DNA extracted from patients and controls was hybridized on the Roche NimbleGen 135K oligonucleotide array and compared with G-band karyotyping. The results were analyzed with findings reported in recent publications and internet databases. Results Chromosome imbalances, including 9 cases detected also by G-band karyotyping, were found in 28 patients (32.2%), and at least 19 of them seemed to be causally related to the abnormal phenotypes. Regarding each clinical symptom, 26.2% of 42 developmental delay patients, 44.4% of 18 mental retardation patients, 42.9% of 28 dysmorphic face patients, and 34.6% of 26 epilepsy patients showed abnormal array results. Conclusion Although there were relatively small number of tests in patients with pediatric neurologic disease, this study demonstrated that array-CGH is a very useful tool for clinical diagnosis of unknown genome abnormalities performed in pediatric neurology clinics. PMID:24339284

  5. Characteristics of persons with overactive bladder of presumed neurologic origin: Results from the Boston Area Community Health (BACH) Survey

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Susan A.; Curto, Teresa M.; Onyenwenyi, Ahunna; Lemack, Gary E.; Tennstedt, Sharon L.; Link, Carol L.; McKinlay, John B.

    2012-01-01

    Aims To compare the descriptive epidemiology of overactive bladder (OAB) of presumed neurologic origin (NOAB) to OAB of non-neurologic origin (N-NOAB). Methods 5,503 community-dwelling persons aged 30-79 were interviewed regarding urologic symptoms (2002-2005). NOAB was defined as symptoms of urgency and/or urgency incontinence among those with a self-reported history of health care provider diagnosed stroke (N=98), multiple sclerosis (N=21), or Parkinson’s disease (N=7). N-NOAB was defined identically but occurring among those not reporting neurologic disease (ND). Prevalence estimates were weighted to reflect sampling design; chi-square, Fisher’s exact, or t-tests were used to test differences. Urologic symptom interference was assessed using the Epstein scale, while the impact of urinary incontinence (UI) on health-related quality-of-life (HRQOL) was measured using a modification of the Incontinence Impact Questionnaire-7. Results 45 (31.0%) of 125 persons with ND and 994 (16.7%) of 5378 persons without ND reported OAB symptoms. The overall prevalence of NOAB and N-NOAB was 0.6% and 16.4%, respectively. Persons with NOAB had higher (worse) mean American Urologic Association Symptom Index scores (13.0 vs. 10.0, p=0.09) compared to those with N-NOAB, and were significantly more likely to have diabetes, high blood pressure, cardiac disease and fair/poor self-reported health (all p<0.05). Mean symptom interference and UI HRQOL scores were significantly higher (worse) in the NOAB group compared to persons with N-NOAB (all p<0.05). Conclusions Persons with NOAB appeared to have a greater burden of urologic illness with respect to symptom interference and HRQOL compared to persons with N-NOAB. PMID:22674347

  6. Epigenetic mechanisms in neurological and neurodegenerative diseases

    PubMed Central

    Landgrave-Gómez, Jorge; Mercado-Gómez, Octavio; Guevara-Guzmán, Rosalinda

    2015-01-01

    The role of epigenetic mechanisms in the function and homeostasis of the central nervous system (CNS) and its regulation in diseases is one of the most interesting processes of contemporary neuroscience. In the last decade, a growing body of literature suggests that long-term changes in gene transcription associated with CNS’s regulation and neurological disorders are mediated via modulation of chromatin structure. “Epigenetics”, introduced for the first time by Waddington in the early 1940s, has been traditionally referred to a variety of mechanisms that allow heritable changes in gene expression even in the absence of DNA mutation. However, new definitions acknowledge that many of these mechanisms used to perpetuate epigenetic traits in dividing cells are used by neurons to control a variety of functions dependent on gene expression. Indeed, in the recent years these mechanisms have shown their importance in the maintenance of a healthy CNS. Moreover, environmental inputs that have shown effects in CNS diseases, such as nutrition, that can modulate the concentration of a variety of metabolites such as acetyl-coenzyme A (acetyl-coA), nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) and beta hydroxybutyrate (?-HB), regulates some of these epigenetic modifications, linking in a precise way environment with gene expression. This manuscript will portray what is currently understood about the role of epigenetic mechanisms in the function and homeostasis of the CNS and their participation in a variety of neurological disorders. We will discuss how the machinery that controls these modifications plays an important role in processes involved in neurological disorders such as neurogenesis and cell growth. Moreover, we will discuss how environmental inputs modulate these modifications producing metabolic and physiological alterations that could exert beneficial effects on neurological diseases. Finally, we will highlight possible future directions in the field of epigenetics and neurological disorders. PMID:25774124

  7. [An unusual leading symptom].

    PubMed

    von Felten, Claudia; Eberhard, Stephan

    2014-08-01

    We report the case of a 81-year-old male with a long standing history of progressive dyspnea and depression. In spite of extensive cardiological, pneumological and neurological investigations the reason for his complaints remained unclear. Known for a parasellar meningioma MRI scans were repeated, but were shown to be stable. Finally endocrine investigations revealed the presence of a panhypopituitarism explaining the unusual clinical picture. PMID:25097165

  8. Symptoms of Ovarian Cancer

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Home What Are the Symptoms of Ovarian Cancer? Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... Should I Know About Screening? Â Stay Informed Language: English Español (Spanish) File Formats Help: How do I ...

  9. Brain Tumor Symptoms

    MedlinePLUS

    ... Financials Board of Directors Scientific Advisory Council & Reviewers Leadership News Careers Brain Tumor Information Brain Anatomy Brain Tumor Symptoms Diagnosis Types of Tumors Tumor Grade Risk Factors Brain Tumor ...

  10. Contemporary Teaching of Neurology. Teaching Neurological Behavior to General Practitioners: A Fresh Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derouesne, C.; Salamon, R.

    1977-01-01

    Ways in which teaching neurology can be simplified for the nonspecialist practitioner are addressed in this assessment of the state-of-the-art in France. The hypothesis implies simplifying both the diagnoses and symptomatology. (LBH)

  11. Contact Dermatitis: Signs and Symptoms

    MedlinePLUS

    ... treatments A - D Contact dermatitis Signs and symptoms Contact dermatitis: Signs and symptoms Allergic contact dermatitis : Testing ... these symptoms, you need immediate medical care. Allergic contact dermatitis This skin condition occurs when you have ...

  12. [Neurological soft signs in schizophrenia: correlations with age, sex, educational status and psychopathology].

    PubMed

    Panagiotidis, P; Kaprinis, G; Iacovides, A; Fountoulakis, K

    2013-01-01

    Though the pathobiology of schizophrenia can be examined in multiple levels, the organic notion of brain disease suggests that neurological features will be present. One straightforward, inexpensive method of investigating brain dysfunction in schizophrenia is thought the bedside assessment of neurological abnormalities with a standard neurological examination. Neurological abnormalities are traditionally classified as "hard signs" (impairments in basic motor, sensory, and reflex behaviors, which do not appear to be affected in schizophrenia) and "soft signs", which refer to more complex phenomena such as abnormalities in motor control, integrative sensory function, sensorimotor integration, and cerebral laterality. Additionally, neurological soft signs (NSS) are minor motor and sensory abnormalities that are considered to be normal in the course of early development but abnormal when elicited in later life or persist beyond childhood. Soft signs also, have no definitive localizing significance but are indicative of subtle brain dysfunction. Most authors believe that they are a reflection not only of deficient integration between the sensory and motor systems, but also of dysfunctional neuronal circuits linking subcortical brain structures such as the basal ganglia, the brain stem, and the limbic system. Throughout the last four decades, studies have consistently shown that NSS are more frequently present in patients with schizophrenia than in normal subjects and non-psychotic psychiatric patients. However, the functional relevance of NSS remains unclear and their specificity has often been challenged, even though there is indication for a relative specificity with regard to diagnosis, or symptomatology. Many studies have considered soft signs as categorical variables thus hampering the evaluation of fluctuation with symptomatology and/or treatment, whereas other studies included insufficient number of assessed signs, or lacked a comprehensive assessment of extrapyramidal symptomatology. Factors such as sex, age or family history of schizophrenia, are said to influence the performance of neurological examination, whereas relative few studies have provided longitudinal follow-up data on neurological soft signs in a sufficient number of patients, in order to address a possible deterioration of neurological functions. Finally, one additional difficulty when analyzing the NSS literature lies in the diversity of symptoms that are evaluated in the studies and/or non-standardized procedures or scoring. We will review some basic issues concerning recurrent difficulties in the measurement and definition of soft signs, as well as controversies on the significance of these signs with respect to clinical subtyping of schizophrenia, and social and demographic variables. PMID:24486976

  13. Transient cerebral arteriopathy in infancy associated with enteroviral infection.

    PubMed

    Ribai, Pascale; Liesnard, Corinne; Rodesch, Georges; Giurgea, Sanda; Verheulpen, Denis; David, Philippe; Van Bogaert, Patrick

    2003-01-01

    We report the case of an 18-month-old boy who presented aphasia and right hemiplegia of acute onset. The neurological deficit completely resolved after a few hours, but identical transient neurological deficits and seizures occurred during the following days. Imaging showed proximal stenosis of the medial cerebral artery and deep ischaemic lesions in the territory of this artery. Analysis of the cerebrospinal fluid showed pleocytosis and an active enteroviral infection with positive RNA detection. The evolution was consistent with transient cerebral arteriopathy of childhood as magnetic resonance angiography showed normalization of the arterial lesions. This is the first report of an enteroviral infection associated with this entity. We want to stress the importance of performing a cerebrospinal fluid analysis when an ischaemic stroke of unclear aetiology occurs in a child. PMID:12697430

  14. Transient tachypnea - newborn

    MedlinePLUS

    TTN; Wet lungs - newborns; Retained fetal lung fluid; Transient RDS; Prolonged transition ... Transient tachypnea is a respiratory disorder seen shortly after delivery in full-term or late preterm babies. ...

  15. TIA (Transient Ischemic Attack)

    MedlinePLUS

    TIA (Transient Ischemic Attack) Updated:Jul 1,2015 Excerpted from “ Why Rush? ”, Stroke Connection January/February 2009 (Science update October 2012) While transient ischemic attack (TIA) is often labeled “mini-stroke,” ...

  16. Transient familial hyperbilirubinemia

    MedlinePLUS

    Transient familial hyperbilirubinemia is a metabolic disorder that is passed down through families. Babies with this disorder ... Transient familial hyperbilirubinemia is an inherited disorder. It occurs when the body does not properly break down ( ...

  17. Transient ischemic attack

    MedlinePLUS

    A transient ischemic attack (TIA) occurs when blood flow to a part of the brain stops for a brief ... prevention of stroke in patients with stroke or transient ischemic attack: a guideline for healthcare professionals from ...

  18. 14 CFR 67.109 - Neurologic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...disturbance of consciousness without satisfactory medical explanation of the cause; or (3) A transient loss of control of nervous system function(s) without satisfactory medical explanation of the cause. (b) No other seizure disorder,...

  19. 14 CFR 67.209 - Neurologic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...disturbance of consciousness without satisfactory medical explanation of the cause; or (3) A transient loss of control of nervous system function(s) without satisfactory medical explanation of the cause; (b) No other seizure disorder,...

  20. 14 CFR 67.109 - Neurologic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...disturbance of consciousness without satisfactory medical explanation of the cause; or (3) A transient loss of control of nervous system function(s) without satisfactory medical explanation of the cause. (b) No other seizure disorder,...

  1. 14 CFR 67.209 - Neurologic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...disturbance of consciousness without satisfactory medical explanation of the cause; or (3) A transient loss of control of nervous system function(s) without satisfactory medical explanation of the cause; (b) No other seizure disorder,...

  2. 14 CFR 67.309 - Neurologic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...disturbance of consciousness without satisfactory medical explanation of the cause; or (3) A transient loss of control of nervous system function(s) without satisfactory medical explanation of the cause. (b) No other seizure disorder,...

  3. 14 CFR 67.209 - Neurologic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...disturbance of consciousness without satisfactory medical explanation of the cause; or (3) A transient loss of control of nervous system function(s) without satisfactory medical explanation of the cause; (b) No other seizure disorder,...

  4. 14 CFR 67.309 - Neurologic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...disturbance of consciousness without satisfactory medical explanation of the cause; or (3) A transient loss of control of nervous system function(s) without satisfactory medical explanation of the cause. (b) No other seizure disorder,...

  5. 14 CFR 67.309 - Neurologic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...airman medical certificate are: (a) No established medical history or clinical diagnosis of any of the following: (1) Epilepsy; (2) A disturbance of consciousness without satisfactory medical explanation of the cause; or (3) A transient...

  6. 14 CFR 67.109 - Neurologic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...airman medical certificate are: (a) No established medical history or clinical diagnosis of any of the following: (1) Epilepsy; (2) A disturbance of consciousness without satisfactory medical explanation of the cause; or (3) A transient...

  7. 14 CFR 67.209 - Neurologic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...airman medical certificate are: (a) No established medical history or clinical diagnosis of any of the following: (1) Epilepsy; (2) A disturbance of consciousness without satisfactory medical explanation of the cause; or (3) A transient...

  8. Current perspectives on deep brain stimulation for severe neurological and psychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    Kocabicak, Ersoy; Temel, Yasin; Höllig, Anke; Falkenburger, Björn; Tan, Sonny KH

    2015-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has become a well-accepted therapy to treat movement disorders, including Parkinson’s disease, essential tremor, and dystonia. Long-term follow-up studies have demonstrated sustained improvement in motor symptoms and quality of life. DBS offers the opportunity to selectively modulate the targeted brain regions and related networks. Moreover, stimulation can be adjusted according to individual patients’ demands, and stimulation is reversible. This has led to the introduction of DBS as a treatment for further neurological and psychiatric disorders and many clinical studies investigating the efficacy of stimulating various brain regions in order to alleviate severe neurological or psychiatric disorders including epilepsy, major depression, and obsessive–compulsive disorder. In this review, we provide an overview of accepted and experimental indications for DBS therapy and the corresponding anatomical targets. PMID:25914538

  9. [Chronic neurological syndrome resulting from intoxication with metallic uranium (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Goasguen, J; Lapresle, J; Ribot, C; Rocquet, G

    1982-01-16

    In 1972, a male patient, then 44-year-old, developed foot cramps and leg pain together with increasing gait disorders and a tendency to fall backwards. In 1976, an extrapyramidal syndrome with ataxia, nystagmus and peripheral neuropathy was discovered on neurological examination. The symptoms persisted and remained of obscure origin until 1979, when a detailed aetiological enquiry disclosed that during at least the first three years of his illness the patient had had on his desk a bar of metallic uranium which he frequently handled. Stool analysis showed significant uranium levels. In the absence of any other cause, it would appear that the neurological syndrome was due to intoxication with uranium. Although this had not been previously described in man, there are occasional reports of uranium toxicity in laboratory animals. PMID:6276859

  10. Intraspinal, extradural stab injury of the spine without neurological deficit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Harmit; V. Singhal; V. P. Bansal

    1985-01-01

    There are many reports of stab wounds of the spinal cord with neurological deficit, but here we report an intraspinal, extradural stab injury of the spine with no neurological injury. The broken blade was removed eight months later.

  11. Special Section: Neuroethics Cosmetic Neurology and Cosmetic Surgery

    E-print Network

    Chatterjee, Anjan

    Special Section: Neuroethics Cosmetic Neurology and Cosmetic Surgery: Parallels, Predictions, cosmetic surgery. Cos- metic surgery also enhances healthy people and, despite many critics? Will bioethicists influence the shape of cosmetic neurology? But first, how did cosmetic surgery become common

  12. 78 FR 24221 - National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-24

    ...National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke Pursuant to section...L. Porter, Ph.D., Health Science Policy Advisor, Officer of the...National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, NIH, 31 Center...

  13. BRAINA JOURNAL OF NEUROLOGY Atypical activation during the Embedded Figures

    E-print Network

    Cambridge, University of

    BRAINA JOURNAL OF NEUROLOGY Atypical activation during the Embedded Figures Task as a functional Neurological Institute doi:10.1093/brain/aws229 Brain 2012: 0; 1­12 | 1 Received February 16, 2012. Revised

  14. BRAINA JOURNAL OF NEUROLOGY Alterations in functional connectivity for language

    E-print Network

    BRAINA JOURNAL OF NEUROLOGY Alterations in functional connectivity for language in prematurely born Department of Neurology, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, CT, USA Correspondence to: Dr Robin J

  15. BRAINA JOURNAL OF NEUROLOGY Reading therapy strengthens topdown

    E-print Network

    Guillas, Serge

    BRAINA JOURNAL OF NEUROLOGY Reading therapy strengthens top­down connectivity in patients with pure, London, WC1N 3AR, UK 5 Department of Brain Repair and Rehabilitation, Institute of Neurology, University

  16. [Nutritional and metabolic aspects of neurological diseases].

    PubMed

    Planas Vilà, Mercè

    2014-01-01

    The central nervous system regulates food intake, homoeostasis of glucose and electrolytes, and starts the sensations of hunger and satiety. Different nutritional factors are involved in the pathogenesis of several neurological diseases. Patients with acute neurological diseases (traumatic brain injury, cerebral vascular accident hemorrhagic or ischemic, spinal cord injuries, and cancer) and chronic neurological diseases (Alzheimer's Disease and other dementias, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Parkinson's Disease) increase the risk of malnutrition by multiple factors related to nutrient ingestion, abnormalities in the energy expenditure, changes in eating behavior, gastrointestinal changes, and by side effects of drugs administered. Patients with acute neurological diseases have in common the presence of hyper metabolism and hyper catabolism both associated to a period of prolonged fasting mainly for the frequent gastrointestinal complications, many times as a side effect of drugs administered. During the acute phase, spinal cord injuries presented a reduction in the energy expenditure but an increase in the nitrogen elimination. In order to correct the negative nitrogen balance increase intakes is performed with the result of a hyper alimentation that should be avoided due to the complications resulting. In patients with chronic neurological diseases and in the acute phase of cerebrovascular accident, dysphagia could be present which also affects intakes. Several chronic neurological diseases have also dementia, which lead to alterations in the eating behavior. The presence of malnutrition complicates the clinical evolution, increases muscular atrophy with higher incidence of respiratory failure and less capacity to disphagia recuperation, alters the immune response with higher rate of infections, increases the likelihood of fractures and of pressure ulcers, increases the incapacity degree and is an independent factor to increase mortality. The periodic nutritional evaluation due to the evolutionary changes should be part of the treatment. At the same time to know the metabolic and nutritional characteristics is important to be able to prevent and treat early the possible side effects. If nutritional support is indicated, the enteral route is the route of choice although some times, mainly in critical patients, parentral nutrition is necessary to ensure the administration of the required nutrients. PMID:25077336

  17. A mouse Mecp2-null mutation causes neurological symptoms that mimic Rett syndrome 

    E-print Network

    Guy, Jacky; Hendrich, Brian; Holmes, Megan; Martin, Joanne E; Bird, Adrian P

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is an inherited neurodevelopmental disorder of females that occurs once in 10,000–15,000 births1,2. Affected females develop normally for 6–18 months, but then lose voluntary movements, including ...

  18. Recognition and treatment of neurologic Wilson's disease.

    PubMed

    Lorincz, Matthew T

    2012-11-01

    As Wilson's disease is both preventable and treatable, the diagnosis must not be missed. Despite this, it is usually misdiagnosed. Misdiagnosis and delay in treatment are clinically relevant because if left untreated, Wilson's disease progresses to hepatic failure or severe neurologic disability, and death. Those adequately treated have a normal life span. Wilson's disease is an autosomal recessive disease caused by mutations in the ATP7B gene. Mutations in ATP7B result in abnormal copper metabolism and subsequent toxic accumulation of copper. The clinical manifestations of neurologic Wilson's disease include variable combinations of dysarthria, dystonia, tremor, parkinsonism, ataxia, and choreoathetosis. Once the possibility of Wilson's disease is considered, diagnosis is straight forward. Currently available treatments, including zinc acetate and trientine, are generally well tolerated and effective. PMID:23677665

  19. Visuocortical bilirubin-induced neurological dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Good, William V; Hou, Chuan

    2015-02-01

    This review addresses the question whether elevated levels of total serum/plasma bilirubin (TB) cause measurable neurological effects, specifically to visuocortical functioning. Past research in the area of vision and its relation to jaundice has taken advantage of flash visual-evoked potentials (VEPs). Using a steady state VEP, we developed preliminary data suggesting that children who had jaundice with TB levels between 10 and 25mg/dL, but who did not have kernicterus, have measurable changes in visual function, when compared to control infants who did not have jaundice. This non-invasive test offers information about vision thresholds, signal amplitudes, and suprathreshold changes after brain exposure to bilirubin. Here, we review this novel tool, the steady state VEP, and data suggesting that neurological changes occur in infants with moderately elevated TB levels. PMID:25577655

  20. [Neurological complications of inflammatory bowel disease].

    PubMed

    Bermejo, Pedro Emilio; Burgos, Aurora

    2008-05-10

    Although ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease have traditionally been considered to be inflammatory diseases limited to the gastrointestinal tract, it has been shown that both pathologies are frequently accompanied by various extraintestinal disorders. There is an increasing evidence that they may also manifest in the nervous system, including the peripheral and the central parts. Although some of these neurological complications have been known for a long time, such as cerebrovascular disease, vasculitis and autoinmune processes including neuropathies and cerebral demyelination, others have been recently described. With the exception of some of this complications such as the thromboembolism, evidence for a casual relationship relies merely on single case reports or case series. In this article, we try to review the existing evidence on neurological manifestations of both variants of inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:18501131

  1. Chapter 39 An historical overview of British neurology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Clifford Rose

    2009-01-01

    In the UK, neurology stemmed from general (internal) medicine rather than psychiatry. In 1886 the Neurological Society of London was founded, with Hughlings Jackson as its first President. After World War I, Kinnier Wilson was made Physician in Charge of the first independent department of neurology, which was at Westminster Hospital in London.Although before the 17th century there were British

  2. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS)

    E-print Network

    Rogers, John A.

    National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) National Institute of Biomedical for a range of devices with applications in epilepsy, spinal cord injuries and other neurological disorders," said Walter Koroshetz, M.D., deputy director of the National Institute of Neurological Disorders

  3. Studies of Neurological Transmission Analysis Hierarchical Bayesian Mixture Models

    E-print Network

    West, Mike

    Studies of Neurological Transmission Analysis using Hierarchical Bayesian Mixture Models MIKE WEST Mixture Models in Neurological Transmission Analysis. The author is the recipient of the 1997 Mitchell in this paper. #12; Neurological Transmission Analysis October 8, 1997 1 SCIENTIFIC CONTEXT AND BACKGROUND

  4. Experimental Neurology -Rapid Communication Panuccio et al. Rapid communication

    E-print Network

    Pineau, Joelle

    Experimental Neurology - Rapid Communication Panuccio et al. 1 Rapid communication ADAPTIVE CONTROL* , Robert Vincentc , Massimo Avolia and Joelle Pineauc,** a Montreal Neurological Institute and Department of Neurology & Neurosurgery, McGill University, 3801 University Street, Montreal, QC, H3A 2B4, Canada; b Gatsby

  5. NeuroLOG: a community-driven middleware design

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    NeuroLOG: a community-driven middleware design Johan MONTAGNAT a,1, Alban GAIGNARD a, Diane laboratory, 930 route des Colles, 06903 Sophia Antipolis, France. Abstract. The NeuroLOG project designs the integration of heteroge- neous site data schemas and the definition of a site-centric policy. The NeuroLOG

  6. Studies of Neurological Transmission Analysis Hierarchical Bayesian Mixture Models

    E-print Network

    West, Mike

    Studies of Neurological Transmission Analysis using Hierarchical Bayesian Mixture Models MIKE WEST Mixture Models in Neurological Transmission Analysis. The author is the recipient of the 1997 Mitchell in this paper. #12;Neurological Transmission Analysis October 8, 1997 1 SCIENTIFIC CONTEXT AND BACKGROUND

  7. Neuroprotective and Neurological Properties of Melissa officinalis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Víctor López; Sara Martín; Maria Pilar Gómez-Serranillos; Maria Emilia Carretero; Anna K. Jäger; Maria Isabel Calvo

    2009-01-01

    Melissa officinalis has traditionally been used due to its effects on nervous system. Both methanolic and aqueous extracts were tested for protective\\u000a effects on the PC12 cell line, free radical scavenging properties and neurological activities (inhibition of MAO-A and acetylcholinesterase\\u000a enzymes and affinity to the GABAA-benzodiazepine receptor). The results suggest that the plant has a significant (P < 0.05) protective effect on

  8. Understanding recruitment and retention in neurological research.

    PubMed

    Newberry, Alyssa; Sherwood, Paula; Hricik, Allison; Bradley, Sarah; Kuo, Jean; Crago, Elizabeth; Hoffman, Leslie A; Given, Barbara A

    2010-02-01

    Cognitive deficits in participants and the abrupt and traumatic way in which many neurological conditions present are two examples of the unique challenges in recruiting and retaining participants with neurological injury for research studies. The purpose of this investigation was to identify obstacles to recruitment and retention in three ongoing research studies. These studies involve persons with neurological disorders across the continuum of care, from those newly diagnosed and with emergent presentation to those with more established chronic neurological conditions. For this analysis, we evaluated the effectiveness of the strategies employed to improve participation rates. The first study was a project funded by the National Institutes of Health designed to identify biomarkers of vasospasm in persons (n = 496) with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage who presented to the neurovascular intensive care unit (National Institute of Nursing Research, R01 NR004339). The purpose of the second study was to examine biobehavioral interactions in family caregivers (n = 59) of persons with a primary malignant brain tumor recruited in the community setting. The third project involved recruiting persons (n = 1,019) within an outpatient neurosurgical center to participate in a research registry. To determine differential effectiveness of strategies, consent and attrition rates were calculated at serial points over time in three studies, and recruitment and retention strategies were compared. Sentinel time points in participants' disease trajectories played a key role in determining whether those who were approached to participate gave consent and were retained, particularly in the studies involving persons with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (consent = 85%; retention = 89%) and persons with primary malignant brain tumors and their caregivers (consent = 68%; retention = 83%). In addition, several specific recruiter and interviewer training techniques were associated with higher recruitment and retention. Targeted strategies to improve participation rates are vital for neuroscience nurses involved in any aspect of clinical research, including those who conduct studies, assist with data collection, and recruit potential participants. PMID:20187349

  9. Minor Neurological Dysfunction in Children with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Punt, Marja; de Jong, Marianne; de Groot, Erik; Hadders-Algra, Mijna

    2010-01-01

    Aim: To improve understanding of brain function in children with severe dyslexia in terms of minor neurological dysfunctions (MNDs). Method: One hundred and four children (81 males, 23 females; age range 7-12y; mean age 9y 7mo, SD 1y 2mo;) with severe dyslexia (the presence of a Full-scale IQ score of greater than or equal to 85, retardation in…

  10. Neural Principles of Neurological and Psychiatric Disorders

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank I. Tarazi; Marc J. Kaufman

    Recent progress in understanding the neurobiology and pharmacology of brain neurotransmitters and their neural circuits and\\u000a pathways has been remarkable and serves as the foundation for in-depth preclinical research on neurological and psychiatric\\u000a disorders. Most of the neurotransmitter receptors have been cloned and their anatomical localization and distribution have\\u000a been clarified using advanced neurochemical methods. Novel discoveries have greatly stimulated

  11. Neurological disorders presenting mainly in adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Macleod, S; Appleton, R E

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this review is to discuss some of the neurological diseases that present mainly in the adolescent period. The article focuses on the usual presentation and course of the more common, and some uncommon, epilepsies, neuromuscular disorders, neurodegenerative disorders, inflammatory disorders of the central nervous system and some other, miscellaneous conditions. The article ends with a very brief and general discussion about management issues in this age group. PMID:17264287

  12. Neurologic uses of botulinum neurotoxin type A

    PubMed Central

    Ney, John P; Joseph, Kevin R

    2007-01-01

    This article reviews the current and most neurologic uses of botulinum neurotoxin type A (BoNT-A), beginning with relevant historical data, neurochemical mechanism at the neuromuscular junction. Current commercial preparations of BoNT-A are reviewed, as are immunologic issues relating to secondary failure of BoNT-A therapy. Clinical uses are summarized with an emphasis on controlled clinical trials (as appropriate), including facial movement disorders, focal neck and limb dystonias, spasticity, hypersecretory syndromes, and pain. PMID:19300614

  13. Guided self-help for functional (psychogenic) symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Walker, J.; Williams, C.; Stone, J.; Cavanagh, J.; Murray, G.; Butcher, I.; Duncan, R.; Smith, S.; Carson, A.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Functional (psychogenic or somatoform) symptoms are common in neurology clinics. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) can be an effective treatment, but there are major obstacles to its provision in practice. We tested the hypothesis that adding CBT-based guided self-help (GSH) to the usual care (UC) received by patients improves outcomes. Methods: We conducted a randomized trial in 2 neurology services in the United Kingdom. Outpatients with functional symptoms (rated by the neurologist as “not at all” or only “somewhat” explained by organic disease) were randomly allocated to UC or UC plus GSH. GSH comprised a self-help manual and 4 half-hour guidance sessions. The primary outcome was self-rated health on a 5-point clinical global improvement scale (CGI) at 3 months. Secondary outcomes were measured at 3 and 6 months. Results: In this trial, 127 participants were enrolled, and primary outcome data were collected for 125. Participants allocated to GSH reported greater improvement on the primary outcome (adjusted common odds ratio on the CGI 2.36 [95% confidence interval 1.17–4.74; p = 0.016]). The absolute difference in proportion “better” or “much better” was 13% (number needed to treat was 8). At 6 months the treatment effect was no longer statistically significant on the CGI but was apparent in symptom improvement and in physical functioning. Conclusions: CBT-based GSH is feasible to implement and efficacious. Further evaluation is indicated. Classification of evidence: This study provides Class III evidence that CBT-based GSH therapy improves self-reported general health, as measured by the CGI, in patients with functional neurologic symptoms. PMID:21795652

  14. Sparring and neurological function in professional boxers.

    PubMed

    Stiller, John W; Yu, Steven S; Brenner, Lisa A; Langenberg, Patricia; Scrofani, Phillip; Pannella, Patrick; Hsu, Edbert B; Roberts, Darryl W; Monsell, Ray M T; Binks, Sidney W; Guzman, Alvaro; Postolache, Teodor T

    2014-01-01

    Despite increased interest regarding the potentially long-term negative impact of chronic traumatic brain injury, limited research has been conducted regarding such injuries and neurological outcomes in real world settings. To increase understanding regarding the relationship between sparring (e.g., training under the tutelage of an experienced boxing coach for the purpose of improving skills and/or fitness) and neurological functioning, professional boxers (n?=?237) who competed in Maryland between 2003 and 2008 completed measures regarding sparring exposure (Cumulative Sparring Index, CSI) and performance on tests of cognition (Symbol Digit Modalities Test, SDMT) and balance (Sharpened Romberg Test, SRT). Measures were completed prior to boxing matches. Higher scores on the CSI (increased sparring exposure) were associated with poorer performance on both tests of cognition (SDMT) and balance (SRT). A threshold effect was noted regarding performance on the SDMT, with those reporting CSI values greater than about 150 experiencing a decline in cognition. A history of frequent and/or intense sparring may pose a significant risk for developing boxing associated neurological sequelae. Implementing administration of clinically meaningful tests before bouts, such as the CSI, SDMT, and/or the SRT, as well as documentation of results into the boxer's physicals or medical profiles may be an important step for improving boxing safety. PMID:25101253

  15. Neurologic injuries in skiers and snowboarders.

    PubMed

    Levy, A S; Smith, R H

    2000-01-01

    Neurologic injures are the leading cause of death and disability in skiing and snowboarding accidents, despite accounting for only a small fraction of injuries overall. Head injuries make up 3 to 15% of all skiing and snowboarding related injuries, spinal injuries account for 1 to 13%, and peripheral nerve injuries constitute less than 1% of reported injuries. Improvements in equipment and technology, especially advances in binding technology, have resulted in decreased injury rates on the slopes overall, but neurologic injury rates have not decreased, and in fact appear to be increasing as a percentage of overall injuries and in absolute numbers. With advances in technology and slope maintenance, skiers and boarders progress to higher skill levels and faster speeds more rapidly than ever before. Great efforts have been focused on reducing extremity injuries in skiers and snowboarders, but until recently very little attention has been given to neurologic injury prevention on the slopes. Hopefully with increased awareness and the growing popularity of ski/snowboard helmets, we will begin to see head injury rates (and maybe even spine injury rates) decrease among skiers and snowboarders. PMID:10946744

  16. Delayed neurological deterioration with an unknown cause subsequent to surgery for intraspinal meningiomas

    PubMed Central

    YANG, TAO; WU, LIANG; DENG, XIAOFENG; YANG, CHENLONG; ZHANG, YAN; ZHANG, DONG; XU, YULUN

    2015-01-01

    Delayed neurological deterioration in the absence of direct cord insult following surgical decompression is rare, but severe post-operative complication occurs in chronically compressive spinal disorders. In the present study, the clinical medical records and radiological findings of 10 patients who underwent surgical removal of intraspinal meningiomas and then experienced delayed post-operative neurological deterioration were reviewed. The cases are presented with consideration of the possible underlying mechanisms. There were five male and five female patients, with a mean age of 46.8 years. The mean duration of illness from the onset of symptoms to diagnosis was 42.8 months. Seven tumors were located in the thoracic region and three in the cervical region of the spine. The tumors compressed the cord severely and gross total removal was achieved in all cases. Immediately subsequent to the surgery, all patients were able to move all extremities, but the onset of the neurological deterioration occurred at post-operative hours 3–8 in all cases (mean, 5 h post-surgery). In four cases, radiological examination revealed an area of high signal changes intrinsic to the cord on T2-weighted images, but without residual compression. The mean follow-up period was 49.6 months. Nine patients reported a marked recovery in status compared with the pre-operative presentation during the several weeks to months following surgery. The surgical removal of intraspinal meningiomas may lead to delayed and severe neurological deterioration in the post-operative period in the absence of direct mechanical cord insult. Ischemia-reperfusion injury may be one potential etiology of this deterioration. Recognition of the neurological deficit following surgical excision of intraspinal meningiomas may improve pre-operative patient counseling and merits further study for the determination of the precise pathophysiology.

  17. The birth of American neurology and highlights from the first 100 years of the Philadelphia Neurological Society, 1884-1984.

    PubMed

    McHenry, L C

    1985-09-01

    The Philadelphia Neurological Society was founded 100 years ago by Charles K. Mills, together with Wharton Sinkler, J.T. Eskridge, and Francis X. Dercum. S. Weir Mitchell was the first president and served for 5 additional years. American neurology was born in Philadelphia at the Orthopedic Hospital and the Infirmary for Nervous Diseases. The growth in neurology in this country is reflected in the activities of the Philadelphia Neurological Society. PMID:3895035

  18. Dynamic diseases in neurology and psychiatry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milton, John; Black, Deborah

    1995-03-01

    Thirty-two (32) periodic diseases of the nervous system are identified in which symptoms and/or signs recur. In 10/32, the recurrence of a symptom complex is one of the defining features of the illness, whereas in 22/32 oscillatory signs occur in the setting of an ongoing nervous system disorder. We discuss the possibility that these disorders may be dynamic diseases.

  19. Dopaminergic symptoms in migraine.

    PubMed

    Barbanti, Piero; Fofi, L; Aurilia, C; Egeo, G

    2013-05-01

    Migraine pain is often preceded, accompanied and followed by dopaminergic symptoms (premonitory yawning and somnolence, accompanying nausea and vomiting, postdromal somnolence, euphoria and polyuria). After reviewing evidence from pharmacological, biochemical, genetic and animal experimental studies on the relationship between dopamine and migraine, and matching these data with patients' clinical features, we postulate that migraine attacks could be characterized by an ictal dopamine release in a subject with dopamine receptor hypersensitivity due to a chronic dopaminergic deficit synergistic to serotoninergic impairment. Our review suggests that when the attack begins, a low dopamine plasma concentration stimulates hypersensitive central presynaptic dopamine receptors thus causing prodromal symptoms such as yawning and somnolence. Increasing dopamine levels, though still insufficient to stop trigeminovascular activation, stimulate postsynaptic dopamine receptors thus inducing nausea, vomiting and hypotension. Finally, dopamine levels slowly return to baseline, giving rise to somnolence and fatigue, but, in some cases, continue to rise triggering postdromal symptoms such as euphoria and polyuria. PMID:23695049

  20. Late diagnosed Wilson disease with hepatic and neurological manifestations.

    PubMed

    Honma, Yuichi; Harada, Masaru; Sato, Miyuki; Katsuki, Yuka; Hiura, Masaaki; Shibata, Michihiko; Narita, Ryoichi; Harada, Riko; Abe, Shintaro; Tabaru, Akinari; Tajiri, Nobuyoshi; Shimajiri, Shohei

    2011-03-01

    A 50-year-old woman was referred to our hospital due to liver dysfunction and progressive neurological symptoms. She had previously been diagnosed with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) had effectively normalized her serum aminotransferase levels, however, she presented with loss of balance, dysarthria and difficulty in handwriting. Autoantibodies and hepatitis virus markers were negative. Serum ceruloplasmin and copper levels were noted to be 9?mg/dL and 32?µg/dL, respectively. The 24-h urinary copper excretion was 331.8?µg/day. Kayser-Fleischer ring was demonstrated. Histological examination of the liver revealed inflammatory infiltrate and fibrosis, and the hepatic copper concentration was 444.4?µg/g dry weight. We diagnosed her as having Wilson disease and started treatment with trientine. Immuohistochemistry for keratin 8 and p62 demonstrated Mallory-Denk bodies. Many of the p62-expressing cells were positive for 4-Hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE). Few Ki-67-positive hepatocytes were present in the liver. Wilson disease is one of the causes of NASH and UDCA may be a supportive therapeutic agent for Wilson disease. Cell proliferation is suppressed under copper-loaded conditions and this phenomenon may be associated with the clinical course of Wilson disease. PMID:21338455

  1. [Neurological signs due to isolated vitamin B12 deficiency].

    PubMed

    Martinez Estrada, K M; Cadabal Rodriguez, T; Miguens Blanco, I; García Méndez, L

    2013-01-01

    Isolated vitamin B12 deficiency is a common condition in elderly patients but uncommon in patients younger than 30 years, with an average age of onset between 60 and 70 years. This is because the dietary cobalamin, which is normally split by enzymes in meat in the presence of hydrochloric acid and pepsin in the stomach, is not released in the stomachs of elderly patients, usually due to achlorhydria. Although the body may be unable to release cobalamin it does retain the ability to absorb vitamin B12 in its crystalline form, which is present in multivitamin preparations. Other causes are due to drugs that suppress gastric acid production. Neurological signs of vitamin B12 deficiency can occur in patients with a normal haematocrit and red cell indices. They include paresthesia, loss of sensation and strength in the limbs, and ataxia. Reflexes may be slowed down or increased. Romberg and Babinsky signs may be positive, and vibration and position sensitivity often decreases. Behavoural disorders range from irritability and memory loss to severe dementia. The symptoms often do not fully respond to treatment. A case is presented of an isolated vitamin B12 deficiency in 27 year-old female patient who was seen in primary health care. During anamnesis she mentioned low back pain, to which she attributed the loss of strength and tenderness in the right side of the body, as well as the slow and progressive onset of accompanied headache for the previous 4 days. PMID:23834987

  2. [Delirium in patients with neurological diseases: diagnosis, management and prognosis].

    PubMed

    Hüfner, K; Sperner-Unterweger, B

    2014-04-01

    Delirium is a common acute neuropsychiatric syndrome. It is characterized by concurrent disturbances of consciousness and attention, perception, reasoning, memory, emotionality, the sleep-wake cycle as well as psychomotor symptoms. Delirium caused by alcohol or medication withdrawal is not the subject of the current review. Specific predisposing and precipitating factors have been identified in delirium which converge in a common final pathway of global brain dysfunction. The major predisposing factors are older age, cognitive impairment or dementia, sensory deficits, multimorbidity and polypharmacy. Delirium is always caused by one or more underlying pathologies which need to be identified. In neurology both primary triggers of delirium, such as stroke or epileptic seizures and also secondary triggers, such as metabolic factors or medication side effects play a major role. Nonpharmacological interventions are important in the prevention of delirium and lead to an improvement in prognosis. Delirium is associated with increased mortality and in the long term the development of cognitive deficits and functional impairment. PMID:24668399

  3. zentrum Neurologische medizin ABTEIlUNG NEUROlOGIE centre for Neurological medicine DEPARTMENT OF NEUROlOGy

    E-print Network

    Gollisch, Tim

    zentrum Neurologische medizin ABTEIlUNG NEUROlOGIE centre for Neurological medicine DEPARTMENT OF NEUROlOGy Abteilungsdirektor/in | Head of Department Prof. Dr. med. Mathias Bähr W2-Professur für Ageing Bacterial Central Nervous System Infections Clinical Studies on Neurological Intensive Care Human

  4. Asthma Outcomes: Asthma Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Jerry A.; Lemanske, Robert F.; Canino, Glorisa J.; Elward, Kurtis S.; Kattan, Meyer; Matsui, Elizabeth C.; Mitchell, Herman; Sutherland, E. Rand; Minnicozzi, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Background Respiratory symptoms are commonly used to assess the impact of patient-centered interventions. Objective At the request of National Institutes of Health (NIH) institutes and other federal agencies, an expert group was convened to propose which measurements of asthma symptoms should be used as a standardized measure in future clinical research studies. Methods Asthma symptom instruments were classified as daily diaries (prospectively recording symptoms between research visits) or retrospective questionnaires (completed at research visits). We conducted a systematic search in PubMed and a search for articles that cited key studies describing development of instruments. We classified outcome instruments as either core (required in future studies), supplemental (used according to study aims and standardized), or emerging (requiring validation and standardization). This work was discussed at an NIH-organized workshop in March 2010 and finalized in September 2011. Results Four instruments (3 daily diaries, 1 for adults and 2 for children; and 1 retrospective questionnaire for adults) were identified. Minimal clinically important differences have not been established for these instruments, and validation studies were only conducted in a limited number of patient populations. Validity of existing instruments may not be generalizable across racial-ethnic or other subgroups. Conclusions An evaluation of symptoms should be a core asthma outcome measure in clinical research. However, available instruments have limitations that preclude selection of a core instrument. The working group participants propose validation studies in diverse populations, comparisons of diaries versus retrospective questionnaires, and evaluations of symptom assessment alone versus composite scores of asthma control. PMID:22386505

  5. Hearing impairment and neurological dysfunction associated with a mutation in the mitochondrial tRNASer(UCN) gene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kristien Verhoeven; Robbert JH Ensink; Valeria Tiranti; Patrick LM Huygen; David F Johnson; Isabelle Schatteman; Lut Van Laer; Margriet Verstreken; Paul Van de Heyning; Nathan Fischel-Ghodsian; Massimo Zeviani; Cor WRJ Cremers; Patrick J Willems; Guy Van Camp

    1999-01-01

    We studied a large Dutch family with maternally inherited, progressive, sensorineural hearing loss in 27 patients. Only in a single family member was the hearing loss accompanied by neurological symptoms including ataxia and dysarthria. DNA analysis of the mitochondrial genome revealed the insertion of a C at nucleotide position 7472 in the tRNASer(UCN) gene (7472insC mutation). We determined the percentage

  6. Practice parameter: Anticonvulsant prophylaxis in patients with newly diagnosed brain tumors Report of the Quality Standards Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. Glantz; B. F. Cole; P. A. Forsyth; L. D. Recht; P. Y. Wen; M. C. Chamberlain; S. A. Grossman; J. G. Cairncross

    Overview. The Quality Standards Subcommittee seeks to develop scientifically sound, clinically relevant practice parameters for the practice of neurology. Practice parameters are strategies for patient management that assist physicians in clinical decision making. A practice parameter is one or more specific recommendations based on analysis of evidence on a specific clinical problem. These might include diagnosis, symptoms, treatment, or procedure

  7. 77 FR 27783 - National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-11

    ...Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to...Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke Special Emphasis Panel, Center Core Grants...Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke Initial Review Group, Neurological...

  8. 75 FR 64316 - National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-19

    ...Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to...Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke Initial Review Group, Neurological Sciences...Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke Initial Review Group, NST-2...

  9. 77 FR 33470 - National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-06

    ...Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to...Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke Initial Review Group; Neurological Sciences...Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke Special Emphasis Panel; Exploratory...

  10. 77 FR 2740 - National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-19

    ...Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section...Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke Initial Review Group; Neurological Sciences...Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, NIH, NSC, 6001 Executive...

  11. 75 FR 22818 - National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-30

    ...Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to...Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke Initial Review Group, Neurological Sciences...Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke Initial Review Group, NST-1...

  12. 77 FR 65005 - National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-24

    ...Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to...Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke Initial Review Group; Neurological Sciences...Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke Special Emphasis Panel; Phase III...

  13. 77 FR 6570 - National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-08

    ...Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to...Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke Initial Review Group; Neurological Sciences...Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, NIH, NSC, 6001 Executive...

  14. 78 FR 13359 - National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-27

    ...Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to...Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke Initial Review Group Neurological Sciences...Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke Special Emphasis Panel; Udall...

  15. Initial Symptoms of ALS

    MedlinePLUS

    ... variable from one person to another. Although the mean survival time with ALS is three to five years, many people live five, 10 or more years. Symptoms can begin in the muscles that control speech and swallowing or in the hands, arms, ...

  16. Tetanus: Symptoms and Complications

    MedlinePLUS

    ... materials (aspiration pneumonia) Breathing difficulty, possibly leading to death (10-20% of cases are fatal) Â Top of Page Related Page Symptoms/Complications for Clinicians Related Links Tetanus Vaccination Maternal and Neonatal Tetanus Elimination File Formats Help: How do I ...

  17. E. coli Symptoms

    MedlinePLUS

    ... 5 days after eating contaminated food or drinking contaminated liquids. Symptoms may last for 8 days, and most people recover completely from the disease. Last Updated November 16, 2011 Stay Connected: Home | Contact Us | Help | Site Map | Accessibility | Privacy Policy | Disclaimer | Website Links & Policies | ...

  18. Bullying and PTSD Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Idsoe, Thormod; Dyregrov, Atle; Idsoe, Ella Cosmovici

    2012-01-01

    PTSD symptoms related to school bullying have rarely been investigated, and never in national samples. We used data from a national survey to investigate this among students from grades 8 and 9 (n = 963). The prevalence estimates of exposure to bullying were within the range of earlier research findings. Multinomial logistic regression showed that…

  19. Gene Therapy for Neurologic Manifestations of Mucopolysaccharidoses

    PubMed Central

    Wolf, Daniel A.; Banerjee, Sharbani; Hackett, Perry B.; Whitley, Chester B.; McIvor, R. Scott; Low, Walter C.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Mucopolysaccharidoses are a family of lysosomal disorders caused by mutations in genes that encode enzymes involved in the catabolism of glycoaminoglycans. These mutations affect multiple organ systems and can be particularly deleterious to the nervous system. At the present time, enzyme replacement therapy and hematopoietic stem-cell therapy are used to treat patients with different forms of these disorders. However, to a great extent the nervous system is not adequately responsive to current therapeutic approaches. Areas Covered Recent advances in gene therapy show great promise for treating mucopolysaccharidoses. This article reviews the current state of the art for routes of delivery in developing genetic therapies for treating the neurologic manifestations of mucopolysaccharidoses. Expert Opinion Gene therapy for treating neurological manifestations of mucopolysaccharidoses can be achieved by intraventricular, intrathecal, intranasal, and systemic administration. The intraventricular route of administration appears to provide the most wide-spread distribution of gene therapy vectors to the brain. The intrathecal route of delivery results in predominant distribution to the caudal areas of the brain while the intranasal route of delivery results in good distribution to the rostral areas of brain. The systemic route of delivery via intravenous delivery can also achieve wide spread delivery to the CNS, however, the distribution to the brain is greatly dependent on the vector system. Intravenous delivery using lentiviral vectors appear to be less effective than adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors. Moreover, some subtypes of AAV vectors are more effective than others in crossing the blood-brain-barrier. In summary, the recent advances in gene vector technology and routes of delivery to the CNS will facilitate the clinical translation of gene therapy for the treatment of the neurological manifestations of mucopolysaccharidoses. PMID:25510418

  20. [Development of neurology in Germany after 1960].

    PubMed

    Dichgans, J

    2013-12-01

    The still continuing accelerated development of neurology in Germany is described in this article by a contemporary witness who was active in this field from 1965 to 2005. The personal experiences of the author are obviously only reflected over these 40 years so that the glorious antecedents in the period up to 1933, the era in which our predecessors were the world leaders in neurology, is not sufficiently covered. This dominance was lost by the anti-Semitism during the era of National Socialism and the sequelae of World War II. As a result of the war, German neurologists became effectively isolated and their participation in international congresses was forbidden so that a gradual reestablishment of alignment only became possible after 1960. In this brief description no attempt at completeness has been made and only subjectivity and brevity have been considered. An attempt is made to retrospectively convey what essentially happened. An exact dating of advances over the period was sometimes difficult. The readership will have the opportunity to share the surprise of the author on how meagre the neurological knowledge and diagnostic methods were 50 years ago, how rapidly the subsequent development happened, how rapidly things became obvious which 20 years ago nobody was aware of and despite the progress how pleased we were to find ourselves at the most recent state of error and probably still find ourselves nowadays. In particular, how powerless and untested the therapeutic efforts were at that time. The progress can only be measured by a comparison between then, 50 years ago and the present. A projection of the future based on these experiences is not attempted but it seems to be certain that many conceptions, diagnostic advances and therapy options are still undiscovered and that further exciting times can be expected. PMID:24253482

  1. Cognitive impairment in patients with carotid artery occlusion and ipsilateral transient ischemic attacks

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Floor C. Bakker; Catharina J. M. Klijn; Aagje Jennekens-Schinkel; Ingeborg van der Tweel; Cornelis A. F. Tulleken; L. Jaap Kappelle

    2003-01-01

    Although transient ischemic attacks (TIAs) by definition do not cause lasting neurological deficits, cognitive impairment has been suggested in patients with carotid artery disease who have suffered from a TIA. The purpose of our study was to assess whether patients with carotid artery disease and TIAs are cognitively impaired, to describe the frequency, nature and severity of this impairment, and

  2. Genome-wide association studies in neurology

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Meng-Shan; Jiang, Teng

    2014-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are a powerful tool for understanding the genetic underpinnings of human disease. In this article, we briefly review the role and findings of GWAS in common neurological diseases, including Stroke, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, migraine, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, frontotemporal lobar degeneration, restless legs syndrome, intracranial aneurysm, human prion diseases and moyamoya disease. We then discuss the present and future implications of these findings with regards to disease prediction, uncovering basic biology, and the development of potential therapeutic agents. PMID:25568877

  3. Somatic Mutation, Genomic Variation, and Neurological Disease

    PubMed Central

    Poduri, Annapurna; Evrony, Gilad D.; Cai, Xuyu; Walsh, Christopher A.

    2014-01-01

    Genetic mutations causing human disease are conventionally thought to be inherited through the germ line from one’s parents and present in all somatic (body) cells, except for most cancer mutations, which arise somatically. Increasingly, somatic mutations are being identified in diseases other than cancer, including neurodevelopmental diseases. Somatic mutations can arise during the course of prenatal brain development and cause neurological disease—even when present at low levels of mosaicism, for example—resulting in brain malformations associated with epilepsy and intellectual disability. Novel, highly sensitive technologies will allow more accurate evaluation of somatic mutations in neurodevelopmental disorders and during normal brain development. PMID:23828942

  4. Central Nervous System Involvement as Relapse in Undiagnosed Whipple’s Disease with Atypical Symptoms at Onset

    PubMed Central

    Zalonis, Ioannis; Christidi, Foteini; Potagas, Constantin; Rentzos, Michalis; Evdokimidis, Ioannis; Kararizou, Evangelia

    2015-01-01

    Whipple’s disease (WD) is a rare systemic disease caused by the gram-positive bacillus Tropheryma Whipplei and mostly characterized by arthralgias, chronic diarrhea, weight loss, fever and abdominal pain. Central Nervous System involvement is not uncommon and it may precede other disease manifestations, appear after treatment and improvement of gastrointestinal signs or rarely be the only WD symptom. We report a case in a middle-aged male with unexplained neurological signs and symptoms which were presented as relapse of previously undiagnosed WD with atypical symptoms at onset. After diagnosis confirmation, the patient was appropriately treated which resulted in improvement of major symptoms.

  5. Subliminal unconscious conflict alpha power inhibits supraliminal conscious symptom experience.

    PubMed

    Shevrin, Howard; Snodgrass, Michael; Brakel, Linda A W; Kushwaha, Ramesh; Kalaida, Natalia L; Bazan, Ariane

    2013-01-01

    Our approach is based on a tri-partite method of integrating psychodynamic hypotheses, cognitive subliminal processes, and psychophysiological alpha power measures. We present ten social phobic subjects with three individually selected groups of words representing unconscious conflict, conscious symptom experience, and Osgood Semantic negative valence words used as a control word group. The unconscious conflict and conscious symptom words, presented subliminally and supraliminally, act as primes preceding the conscious symptom and control words presented as supraliminal targets. With alpha power as a marker of inhibitory brain activity, we show that unconscious conflict primes, only when presented subliminally, have a unique inhibitory effect on conscious symptom targets. This effect is absent when the unconscious conflict primes are presented supraliminally, or when the target is the control words. Unconscious conflict prime effects were found to correlate with a measure of repressiveness in a similar previous study (Shevrin et al., 1992, 1996). Conscious symptom primes have no inhibitory effect when presented subliminally. Inhibitory effects with conscious symptom primes are present, but only when the primes are supraliminal, and they did not correlate with repressiveness in a previous study (Shevrin et al., 1992, 1996). We conclude that while the inhibition following supraliminal conscious symptom primes is due to conscious threat bias, the inhibition following subliminal unconscious conflict primes provides a neurological blueprint for dynamic repression: it is only activated subliminally by an individual's unconscious conflict and has an inhibitory effect specific only to the conscious symptom. These novel findings constitute neuroscientific evidence for the psychoanalytic concepts of unconscious conflict and repression, while extending neuroscience theory and methods into the realm of personal, psychological meaning. PMID:24046743

  6. Stem cell transplantation in neurological diseases: improving effectiveness in animal models

    PubMed Central

    Adami, Raffaella; Scesa, Giuseppe; Bottai, Daniele

    2014-01-01

    Neurological diseases afflict a growing proportion of the human population. There are two reasons for this: first, the average age of the population (especially in the industrialized world) is increasing, and second, the diagnostic tools to detect these pathologies are now more sophisticated and can be used on a higher percentage of the population. In many cases, neurological disease has a pharmacological treatment which, as in the case of Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Epilepsy, and Multiple Sclerosis can reduce the symptoms and slow down the course of the disease but cannot reverse its effects or heal the patient. In the last two decades the transplantation approach, by means of stem cells of different origin, has been suggested for the treatment of neurological diseases. The choice of slightly different animal models and the differences in methods of stem cell preparation make it difficult to compare the results of transplantation experiments. Moreover, the translation of these results into clinical trials with human subjects is difficult and has so far met with little success. This review seeks to discuss the reasons for these difficulties by considering the differences between human and animal cells (including isolation, handling and transplantation) and between the human disease model and the animal disease model. PMID:25364724

  7. Paroxysmal sympathetic hyperactivity in neurological critical care

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Rajesh; Giri, Prithvi; Rizvi, Imran

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Paroxysmal sympathetic hyperactivity (PSH) is a clinical disorder mainly caused by traumatic brain injury, stroke, encephalitis and other types of brain injury. The clinical features are episodes of hypertension, tachycardia, tachypnea, fever and dystonic postures. In this study, we described clinical profile and outcome of six patients of PSH admitted in neurocritical care unit. Materials and Methods: This was a prospective observational study conducted at neurology critical care unit of a tertiary care center. All patients admitted at neurology critical unit during 6-month period from August 2013 to January 2014 were screened for the occurrence of PSH. The clinical details and outcome was documented. Results: PSH was observed in 6 patients. Male to female ratio was 5:1. Mean age ± SD was 36.67 ± 15.19 years. The leading causes were traumatic brain injury (two patients), stroke (two patients) and Japanese encephalitis (JE) (one patient) and tuberculous meningitis (one patient). Conclusion: PSH is an unusual complication in neurocritical care. It prolonged the hospitalization and hampers recovery. The other life-threatening conditions that mimic PSH should be excluded. The association with JE and tuberculous meningitis was not previously described in literature. PMID:25624648

  8. Clinical applications of intravenous immunoglobulins in neurology

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, R A C; Dalakas, M C; Cornblath, D R; Latov, N; Weksler, M E; Relkin, N

    2009-01-01

    Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) is used increasingly in the management of patients with neurological conditions. The efficacy and safety of IVIg treatment in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) and Guillain–Barré syndrome (GBS) have been established clearly in randomized controlled trials and summarized in Cochrane systematic reviews. However, questions remain regarding the dose, timing and duration of IVIg treatment in both disorders. Reports about successful IVIg treatment in other neurological conditions exist, but its use remains investigational. IVIg has been shown to be efficacious as second-line therapy in patients with dermatomyositis and suggested to be of benefit in some patients with polymyositis. In patients with inclusion body myositis, IVIg was not shown to be effective. IVIg is also a treatment option in exacerbations of myasthenia gravis. Studies with IVIg in patients with Alzheimer's disease have reported increased plasma anti-A? antibody titres associated with decreased A? peptide levels in the cerebrospinal fluid following IVIg treatment. These changes at the molecular level were accompanied by improved cognitive function, and large-scale randomized trials are under way. PMID:19883422

  9. Wilson's disease and other neurological copper disorders.

    PubMed

    Bandmann, Oliver; Weiss, Karl Heinz; Kaler, Stephen G

    2015-01-01

    The copper metabolism disorder Wilson's disease was first defined in 1912. Wilson's disease can present with hepatic and neurological deficits, including dystonia and parkinsonism. Early-onset presentations in infancy and late-onset manifestations in adults older than 70 years of age are now well recognised. Direct genetic testing for ATP7B mutations are increasingly available to confirm the clinical diagnosis of Wilson's disease, and results from biochemical and genetic prevalence studies suggest that Wilson's disease might be much more common than previously estimated. Early diagnosis of Wilson's disease is crucial to ensure that patients can be started on adequate treatment, but uncertainty remains about the best possible choice of medication. Furthermore, Wilson's disease needs to be differentiated from other conditions that also present clinically with hepatolenticular degeneration or share biochemical abnormalities with Wilson's disease, such as reduced serum ceruloplasmin concentrations. Disordered copper metabolism is also associated with other neurological conditions, including a subtype of axonal neuropathy due to ATP7A mutations and the late-onset neurodegenerative disorders Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease. PMID:25496901

  10. [Extreme lateral lumbar intervertebral disk displacement. Incidence, symptoms and therapy].

    PubMed

    Ebeling, U; Mattle, H; Reulen, H J

    1990-04-01

    Upper lumbar nerve root compression or a femoralgia is often caused by extreme lateral lumbar disc herniation. This type of lumbar disc herniation compresses the nerve root inside or laterally to the intervertebral canal, while mediolateral disc herniations squeeze it in the lateral recess. Pain radiating obliquely over the thigh is the dominant clinical symptom. Bending the body to the ipsilateral side usually increases the pain. When neurologic signs are present, motor deficits tend to be more prominent than sensory and the deficits never affect more than one nerve root. Most frequently a weakness of knee extension occurs. PMID:2191229

  11. The beginnings of the Southern Child/Pediatric Neurology Society.

    PubMed

    Dyken, Paul Richard; Bodensteiner, John B

    2015-04-01

    The founding and early development of the Southern Pediatric Neurology Society was in many ways parallel to that of the Child Neurology Society. The organization started out as the Southern Child Neurology Society but the name was changed at the time of incorporation so as to avoid confusion of identity and purpose with the larger Child Neurology Society. Although there are archives of early days and the later development of the Southern Pediatric Neurology Society, the details have never been set down in a narrative explaining the events that led to the development of the organization. In this paper, we try to produce a written record of the history of the founding and early development of the Southern Pediatric Neurology Society. PMID:24646505

  12. Effect of craniosacral therapy on lower urinary tract signs and symptoms in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Raviv, Gil; Shefi, Shai; Nizani, Dalia; Achiron, Anat

    2009-05-01

    To examine whether craniosacral therapy improves lower urinary tract symptoms of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. A prospective cohort study. Out-patient clinic of multiple sclerosis center in a referral medical center. Hands on craniosacral therapy (CST). Change in lower urinary tract symptoms, post voiding residual volume and quality of life. Patients from our multiple sclerosis clinic were assessed before and after craniosacral therapy. Evaluation included neurological examination, disability status determination, ultrasonographic post voiding residual volume estimation and questionnaires regarding lower urinary tract symptoms and quality of life. Twenty eight patients met eligibility criteria and were included in this study. Comparison of post voiding residual volume, lower urinary tract symptoms and quality of life before and after craniosacral therapy revealed a significant improvement (0.001>p>0.0001). CST was found to be an effective means for treating lower urinary tract symptoms and improving quality of life in MS patients. PMID:19341983

  13. Neurologic outcomes of toxic oil syndrome patients 18 years after the epidemic.

    PubMed Central

    de la Paz, Manuel Posada; Philen, Rossanne M; Gerr, Fredric; Letz, Richard; Ferrari Arroyo, Maria José; Vela, Lydia; Izquierdo, Maravillas; Arribas, Concepción Martín; Borda, Ignacio Abaitua; Ramos, Alejandro; Mora, Cristina; Matesanz, Gloria; Roldán, Maria Teresa; Pareja, Juan

    2003-01-01

    Toxic oil syndrome (TOS) resulted from consumption of rapeseed oil denatured with 2% aniline and affected more than 20,000 persons. Eighteen years after the epidemic, many patients continue to report neurologic symptoms that are difficult to evaluate using conventional techniques. We conducted an epidemiologic study to determine whether an exposure to toxic oil 18 years ago was associated with current adverse neurobehavioral effects. We studied a case group of 80 adults exposed to toxic oil 18 years ago and a referent group of 79 adult age- and sex-frequency-matched unexposed subjects. We interviewed subjects for demographics, health status, exposures to neurotoxicants, and responses to the Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test (K-BIT), Programa Integrado de Exploracion Neuropsicologica (PIEN), and Goldberg depression questionnaires and administered quantitative neurobehavioral and neurophysiologic tests by computer or trained nurses. The groups did not differ with respect to educational background or other critical variables. We examined associations between case and referent groups and the neurobehavioral and neurophysiologic outcomes of interest. Decreased distal strength of the dominant and nondominant hands and increased vibrotactile thresholds of the fingers and toes were significantly associated with exposure to toxic oil. Finger tapping, simple reaction time latency, sequence B latency, symbol digit latency, and auditory digit span were also significantly associated with exposure. Case subjects also had statistically significantly more neuropsychologic symptoms compared with referents. Using quantitative neurologic tests, we found significant adverse central and peripheral neurologic effects in a group of TOS patients 18 years after exposure to toxic oil when compared with a nonexposed referent group. These effects were not documented by standard clinical examination and were found more frequently in women. PMID:12896854

  14. Symptoms of Lewy Body Dementia

    MedlinePLUS

    ... dementia occurs before or within 1 year of Parkinson's symptoms are diagnosed with DLB. People who have an ... include sound, taste, smell, and touch. Parkinsonism or Parkinson's Disease symptoms, take the form of changes in gait; the ...

  15. Computation of electromagnetic transients

    Microsoft Academic Search

    HERMANN W. DOMMEL; W. SCOTT MEYER

    1974-01-01

    Switching operations, faults, and other disturbances produce surges on transmission lines and oscillations in transformer and generator windings. Such electromagnetic transients have primarily been studied with transient network analyzers since the late 1930's. In recent years, digital computer programs have been de-. veloped which make simulation by digital computer competitive. The solution techniques of such programs are described, and their

  16. Electrical Burn Causing a Unique Pattern of Neurological Injury

    PubMed Central

    Schaefer, Nathan R.; Yaxley, Julian P.; O’Donohue, Peter; Lisec, Carl; Jeyarajan, Eshwarshanker

    2015-01-01

    Summary: Neurological involvement is not uncommon in patients who sustain electrical injury. The exact mechanism of nervous system damage following electrical trauma is not fully understood. The gamut of possible neurologic manifestations following electrical injury is diverse. This case report describes a young man with a unique pattern of neurological injury following an electrical burn. The combination of brachial plexopathy, partial Horner’s syndrome, and phrenic nerve palsy secondary to electrical injury has not been previously described in the literature. PMID:25973356

  17. Narcosuggestion in chronic conversion symptoms using combined intravenous amobarbital and methylphenidate.

    PubMed

    Hurwitz, T A

    1988-03-01

    Five patients with chronic conversion symptoms were treated with narcoanalysis and narcosuggestion using combined methylphenidate and amobarbital. The combination of methylphenidate and amobarbital proved useful because methylphenidate antagonized sedation and allowed optimal patient cooperation. In four cases recovery of neurological function was obtained in the first or second interview and subsequently improved with practice and positive feedback. In each instance recovery of neurological function during a narcoanalytic interview confirmed the diagnosis of a conversion reaction. The narcoanalytic interview also confirmed or uncovered important psychopathology and psychodynamics which permitted more accurate treatment of the underlying psychiatric disorders. PMID:3365640

  18. [Neurological involvements with transient gait disturbance in subacute phase of Kawasaki disease; a case report].

    PubMed

    Hoshino, K; Morooka, K; Imai, H; Takagi, K; Arimoto, K; Saji, T

    1995-07-01

    A 1-year-and-9-months old boy with gait disturbance during the 3rd week of Kawasaki disease (KD) was described. He had been previously healthy, and developed high fever and rash. The diagnosis of KD was based on 5 of 6 major criteria on the 3rd clinical day. He was initially treated with intravenous gamma-globulin 400 mg/kg/day for five days. On the 17th clinical day, the patient developed gait disturbance after most clinical signs disappeared. His gait was wide- based and unstable. Generalized hypotonia with poor traction response was also seen. Pyramidal tract signs including exaggerated patellar and Achilles tendon reflexes and positive bilateral Mendel-Bechterew reflex were presented. Cerebrospinal fluid was normal. Brain CT, MRI, and 123I-IMP SPECT images were normal without broad hemorrhage or infarction of the cerebral parenchyma. Gait disturbance recovered spontaneously within one month without any sequelae. PMID:7612294

  19. Neurological Disease Rises from Ocean to Bring Model for Human Epilepsy to Life

    PubMed Central

    Ramsdell, John S.

    2010-01-01

    Domoic acid of macroalgal origin was used for traditional and medicinal purposes in Japan and largely forgotten until its rediscovery in diatoms that poisoned 107 people after consumption of contaminated mussels. The more severely poisoned victims had seizures and/or amnesia and four died; however, one survivor unexpectedly developed temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) a year after the event. Nearly a decade later, several thousand sea lions have stranded on California beaches with neurological symptoms. Analysis of the animals stranded over an eight year period indicated five clusters of acute neurological poisoning; however, nearly a quarter have stranded individually outside these events with clinical signs of a chronic neurological syndrome similar to TLE. These poisonings are not limited to sea lions, which serve as readily observed sentinels for other marine animals that strand during domoic acid poisoning events, including several species of dolphin and whales. Acute domoic acid poisoning is five-times more prominent in adult female sea lions as a result of the proximity of their year-round breeding grounds to major domoic acid bloom events. The chronic neurological syndrome, on the other hand, is more prevalent in young animals, with many potentially poisoned in utero. The sea lion rookeries of the Channel Islands are at the crossroads of domoic acid producing harmful algal blooms and a huge industrial discharge site for dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDTs). Studies in experimental animals suggest that chronic poisoning observed in immature sea lions may result from a spatial and temporal coincidence of DDTs and domoic acid during early life stages. Emergence of an epilepsy syndrome from the ocean brings a human epilepsy model to life and provides unexpected insights into interaction with legacy contaminants and expression of disease at different life stages. PMID:22069654

  20. Neurological manifestations of oculodentodigital dysplasia: a Cx43 channelopathy of the central nervous system?

    PubMed Central

    De Bock, Marijke; Kerrebrouck, Marianne; Wang, Nan; Leybaert, Luc

    2013-01-01

    The coordination of tissue function is mediated by gap junctions (GJs) that enable direct cell–cell transfer of metabolic and electric signals. GJs are formed by connexins of which Cx43 is most widespread in the human body. In the brain, Cx43 GJs are mostly found in astroglia where they coordinate the propagation of Ca2+ waves, spatial K+ buffering, and distribution of glucose. Beyond its role in direct intercellular communication, Cx43 also forms unapposed, non-junctional hemichannels in the plasma membrane of glial cells. These allow the passage of several neuro- and gliotransmitters that may, combined with downstream paracrine signaling, complement direct GJ communication among glial cells and sustain glial-neuronal signaling. Mutations in the GJA1 gene encoding Cx43 have been identified in a rare, mostly autosomal dominant syndrome called oculodentodigital dysplasia (ODDD). ODDD patients display a pleiotropic phenotype reflected by eye, hand, teeth, and foot abnormalities, as well as craniofacial and bone malformations. Remarkably, neurological symptoms such as dysarthria, neurogenic bladder (manifested as urinary incontinence), spasticity or muscle weakness, ataxia, and epilepsy are other prominent features observed in ODDD patients. Over 10 mutations detected in patients diagnosed with neurological disorders are associated with altered functionality of Cx43 GJs/hemichannels, but the link between ODDD-related abnormal channel activities and neurologic phenotype is still elusive. Here, we present an overview on the nature of the mutants conveying structural and functional changes of Cx43 channels and discuss available evidence for aberrant Cx43 GJ and hemichannel function. In a final step, we examine the possibilities of how channel dysfunction may lead to some of the neurological manifestations of ODDD. PMID:24133447

  1. [Neurological diseases and nutrition -- what can we do?].

    PubMed

    Tamási, Péter

    2014-12-21

    Neurological diseases and nutrition are in complex relationship. In the first part of this review the nutritional consequences of acute neurological diseases is presented, with special emphasis on traumatic injuries of the nervous system and stroke. Nutritional therapy of these patients is described in detail. In addition, chronic, degenerative neurological pathological conditions are also discussed, including nutritional consequences and possibilities of therapy. Some ethical and legal issues are also considered. The second part of this review article describes neurological consequences of nutritional problems, both deficits of macro- and micronutrients and toxic effects. PMID:25497154

  2. Neurology and rehabilitation in the United Kingdom: a view.

    PubMed Central

    Greenwood, R

    1992-01-01

    The relationship between neurology and rehabilitation medicine is discussed. The question "Does rehabilitation work?" is not useful. Rather, it should be asked when and how specific rehabilitation techniques should be applied? A satisfactory solution to these questions will not be found without informed neurological involvement. It is argued that the management of most neurological diseases would be improved if neurologists were more familiar with the principles of rehabilitation medicine. Two possible avenues for future development would be the appointment of neurologists with a specific commitment to rehabilitation, and the establishment of academic centres for restorative neurology. PMID:1564507

  3. [An effect of antioxidant drugs on symptoms of sensomotor polyneuropathy and affective disorders in patients with diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Volchegorski?, I A; Moskvicheva, M G; Chashchina, E N

    2005-01-01

    An effect of 3-oxypiridine and succinic acid derivates--emoxipine, reamberin and mexidole--on severity of clinical symptoms of distal sensomotor polyneuropathy, anxiety and depression was studied in 120 patients with diabetes mellitus with syndrome of diabetic foot. These medications were used in addition to basic antidiabetic therapy. After 14 days of the treatment an equally pronounced decrease of integral index of "negative" neurological symptoms and reduction of anxiety-depressive disorders were detected. PMID:15792141

  4. Neurology of microgravity and space travel.

    PubMed

    Fujii, M D; Patten, B M

    1992-11-01

    Exposure to microgravity and space travel produce several neurologic changes, including SAS, ataxia, postural disturbances, perceptual illusions, neuromuscular weakness, and fatigue. Inflight SAS, perceptual illusions, and ocular changes are of more importance. After landing, however, ataxia, perceptual illusions, neuromuscular weakness, and fatigue play greater roles in astronaut health and readaptation to a terrestrial environment. Cardiovascular adjustments to microgravity, bone demineralization, and possible decompression sickness and excessive radiation exposure contribute further to medical problems of astronauts in space. A better understanding of the mechanisms by which microgravity adversely affects the nervous system and more effective treatments will provide healthier, happier, and longer stays in space on the space station Freedom and during the mission to Mars. PMID:1435667

  5. The neurology of solid organ transplantation.

    PubMed

    Avila, J David; Živkovi?, Saša

    2015-07-01

    Transplantation is the rescue treatment for end-stage organ failure with more than 110,000 solid organs transplantations performed worldwide annually. Recent advances in transplantation procedures and posttransplantation management have improved long-term survival and quality of life of transplant recipients, shifting the focus from acute perioperative critical care needs toward long-term chronic medical problems. Neurologic complications affect up to 30-60 % of solid organ transplant recipients. Common etiologies include opportunistic infections and toxicities of antirejection medications, and wide spectrum of toxic and metabolic disturbances. Most complications are common to all allograft types, but some are relatively specific for individual allograft types (e.g., central pontine myelinolysis in liver transplant recipients). Close collaboration between neurologists and other transplant team members is essential for effective management. Early recognition of complications and accurate diagnosis leading to timely treatment is essential to reduce the morbidity and improve the overall transplant outcome. PMID:26008808

  6. Automatisms: bridging clinical neurology with criminal law.

    PubMed

    Rolnick, Joshua; Parvizi, Josef

    2011-03-01

    The law, like neurology, grapples with the relationship between disease states and behavior. Sometimes, the two disciplines share the same terminology, such as automatism. In law, the "automatism defense" is a claim that action was involuntary or performed while unconscious. Someone charged with a serious crime can acknowledge committing the act and yet may go free if, relying on the expert testimony of clinicians, the court determines that the act of crime was committed in a state of automatism. In this review, we explore the relationship between the use of automatism in the legal and clinical literature. We close by addressing several issues raised by the automatism defense: semantic ambiguity surrounding the term automatism, the presence or absence of consciousness during automatisms, and the methodological obstacles that have hindered the study of cognition during automatisms. PMID:21145287

  7. Neurologic Complications of Chronic Kidney Disease.

    PubMed

    Vellanki, Kavitha; Bansal, Vinod K

    2015-08-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is an increasing problem worldwide and is now being recognized as a global health burden particularly for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events. The incidence of stroke increases in the presence of CKD with a 3-fold increased rate reported in ESRD. Atrial fibrillation (AF) increases the risk of stroke in CKD. There is conflicting observational evidence regarding benefit of anticoagulation in CKD for prevention of stroke in AF as risk of bleeding is high. Overall, anticoagulant in CKD may be beneficial in appropriate patients with meticulous monitoring of international normalized ratio (INR). Neurological manifestations related to electrolyte disorders, drug toxicity, and uremia are common in CKD. Appropriate drug dosing, awareness of potential side effects of medications, prompt diagnosis, and treatment are essential in preventing long-term morbidity and mortality. PMID:26081561

  8. Neurology of microgravity and space travel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fujii, M. D.; Patten, B. M.

    1992-01-01

    Exposure to microgravity and space travel produce several neurologic changes, including SAS, ataxia, postural disturbances, perceptual illusions, neuromuscular weakness, and fatigue. Inflight SAS, perceptual illusions, and ocular changes are of more importance. After landing, however, ataxia, perceptual illusions, neuromuscular weakness, and fatigue play greater roles in astronaut health and readaptation to a terrestrial environment. Cardiovascular adjustments to microgravity, bone demineralization, and possible decompression sickness and excessive radiation exposure contribute further to medical problems of astronauts in space. A better understanding of the mechanisms by which microgravity adversely affects the nervous system and more effective treatments will provide healthier, happier, and longer stays in space on the space station Freedom and during the mission to Mars.

  9. Translational Research in Neurology and Neuroscience 2010

    PubMed Central

    Stüve, Olaf; Kieseier, Bernd C.; Hemmer, Bernhard; Hartung, Hans-Peter; Awad, Amer; Frohman, Elliot M.; Greenberg, Benjamin M.; Racke, Michael K.; Zamvil, Scott S.; Phillips, J. Theodore; Gold, Ralf; Chan, Andrew; Zettl, Uwe; Milo, Ron; Marder, Ellen; Khan, Omar; Eagar, Todd N.

    2013-01-01

    Over the past 2 decades, enormous progress has been made with regard to pharmacotherapies for patients with multiple sclerosis. There is perhaps no other subspecialty in neurology in which more agents have been approved that substantially alter the clinical course of a disabling disorder. Many of the pharmaceuticals that are currently approved, in clinical trials, or in preclinical development were initially evaluated in an animal model of multiple sclerosis, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. Two Food and Drug Administration–approved agents (glatiramer acetate and natalizumab) were developed using the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis model. This model has served clinician-scientists for many decades to enable understanding the inflammatory cascade that underlies clinical disease activity and disease surrogate markers detected in patients. PMID:20625066

  10. Neurologic aspects of adenylosuccinate lyase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Ciardo, F; Salerno, C; Curatolo, P

    2001-05-01

    Adenylosuccinate lyase deficiency is an autosomal-recessive disorder of the purine de novo synthesis pathway, diagnosed up to now in approximately 40 patients. The clinical presentation is characterized by severe neurologic involvement including seizures, developmental delay, hypotonia, and autistic features. Neonatal seizures and a severe infantile epileptic encephalopathy are often the first manifestations of this disorder. The existence of genetic heterogeneity for the adenylosuccinate lyase defect could account for variability of the clinical presentation. Deficiency of purine nucleotides, impairment of energy metabolism, and toxic effects are potential mechanisms of cerebral damage. Laboratory investigations show the presence in urine and cerebrospinal fluid of succinylpurines, which are normally undetectable. Currently, no effective treatment is available for adenylosuccinate lyase deficiency. A search for this disorder should be included in the screening program of children with unexplained neonatal seizures or severe infantile epileptic encephalopathy. PMID:11392513

  11. Neurological Aspects of Human Glycosylation Disorders.

    PubMed

    Freeze, Hudson H; Eklund, Erik A; Ng, Bobby G; Patterson, Marc C

    2015-07-01

    This review presents principles of glycosylation, describes the relevant glycosylation pathways and their related disorders, and highlights some of the neurological aspects and issues that continue to challenge researchers. More than 100 rare human genetic disorders that result from deficiencies in the different glycosylation pathways are known today. Most of these disorders impact the central and/or peripheral nervous systems. Patients typically have developmental delays/intellectual disabilities, hypotonia, seizures, neuropathy, and metabolic abnormalities in multiple organ systems. Among these disorders there is great clinical diversity because all cell types differentially glycosylate proteins and lipids. The patients have hundreds of misglycosylated products, which afflict a myriad of processes, including cell signaling, cell-cell interaction, and cell migration. This vast complexity in glycan composition and function, along with the limited availability of analytic tools, has impeded the identification of key glycosylated molecules that cause pathologies. To date, few critical target proteins have been pinpointed. PMID:25840006

  12. Neurological biomarkers in the perioperative period.

    PubMed

    Cata, J P; Abdelmalak, B; Farag, E

    2011-12-01

    The rapid detection and evaluation of patients presenting with perioperative neurological dysfunction is of great clinical relevance. Biomarkers have been defined as biological molecules that can be used as an indicator of new onset or progression of a biological process or effect of treatment. Biomarkers have become increasingly important in this setting to supplement other modalities of diagnosis such as EEG, sensory- or motor-evoked potential, transcranial Doppler, near-infrared spectroscopy, or imaging methods. A number of neuro-proteins have been identified and are currently under investigation for potential to provide insights into injury severity, outcome, and the ability to monitor cellular damage and molecular events that occur during neurological injury. S100B is a protein released by glial cells and is considered a marker of blood-brain barrier dysfunction. Clinical studies in patients undergoing cardiac and non-cardiac surgery indicate that serum levels of S100B are increased intraoperatively and after operation. The neurone-specific enolase has also been extensively investigated as a potential marker of neuronal injury in the context of cardiac and non-cardiac surgery. A third biomarker of interest is the Tau protein, which has been linked to neurodegenerative disorders. Tau appears to be more specific than the previous two biomarkers since it is only found in the central nervous system. The metalloproteinase and ubiquitin C terminal hydroxylase-L1 (UCH-L1) are the most recently researched markers; however, their usefulness is still unclear. This review presents a comprehensive overview of S100B, neuronal-specific enolase, metalloproteinases, and UCH-L1 in the perioperative period. PMID:22065690

  13. Dysfunctional HCN ion channels in neurological diseases

    PubMed Central

    DiFrancesco, Jacopo C.; DiFrancesco, Dario

    2015-01-01

    Hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels are expressed as four different isoforms (HCN1-4) in the heart and in the central and peripheral nervous systems. HCN channels are activated by membrane hyperpolarization at voltages close to resting membrane potentials and carry the hyperpolarization-activated current, dubbed If (funny current) in heart and Ih in neurons. HCN channels contribute in several ways to neuronal activity and are responsible for many important cellular functions, including cellular excitability, generation, and modulation of rhythmic activity, dendritic integration, transmission of synaptic potentials, and plasticity phenomena. Because of their role, defective HCN channels are natural candidates in the search for potential causes of neurological disorders in humans. Several data, including growing evidence that some forms of epilepsy are associated with HCN mutations, support the notion of an involvement of dysfunctional HCN channels in different experimental models of the disease. Additionally, some anti-epileptic drugs are known to modify the activity of the Ih current. HCN channels are widely expressed in the peripheral nervous system and recent evidence has highlighted the importance of the HCN2 isoform in the transmission of pain. HCN channels are also present in the midbrain system, where they finely regulate the activity of dopaminergic neurons, and a potential role of these channels in the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease has recently emerged. The function of HCN channels is regulated by specific accessory proteins, which control the correct expression and modulation of the neuronal Ih current. Alteration of these proteins can severely interfere with the physiological channel function, potentially predisposing to pathological conditions. In this review we address the present knowledge of the association between HCN dysfunctions and neurological diseases, including clinical, genetic, and physiopathological aspects. PMID:25805968

  14. Signs and symptoms of dementia.

    PubMed

    Sandilyan, Malarvizhi Babu; Dening, Tom

    2015-06-10

    The clinical features of dementia are usually considered in two groups: cognitive and non-cognitive symptoms. Among cognitive symptoms, problems with memory are typical of most forms of dementia, but problems with language and executive functioning are also prevalent. Non-cognitive symptoms is a somewhat unsatisfactory general term for a group of problems that include mood disorders, psychotic symptoms and various other changes in behaviour. In assessment and management, it is important to look for underlying causes of symptoms and try to understand the perspective of the individual with dementia, because their behaviour may be communicating an important message. PMID:26058652

  15. Left atrial myxoma with versus without cerebral embolism: length of symptoms, morphologic characteristics, and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Zhi; Guo, Guojun; Xu, Li; Lei, Lei; Wei, Xiang; Pan, Youmin

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the embolic sequelae of left atrial myxomas and their influence on diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis. Seventy-eight patients were retrospectively investigated. According to their symptoms and neurologic-imaging findings, these patients were classified into 2 groups: embolism (15 patients, 19%) and nonembolism (63 patients, 81%). The time from the first onset of symptoms to diagnosis (that is, the duration of symptoms) was significantly longer in the embolism group than in the nonembolism group (105 ± 190 vs 23 ± 18 d; P <0.01). The myxomas were divided into 2 types on the basis of clinicopathologic findings: type 1, with an irregular or villous surface and a soft consistency, and type 2, with a smooth surface and a compact consistency. There were 42 patients with type 1 myxoma and 36 with type 2. Type 1 myxoma was more frequently found in the embolism group (12 patients, 29%) than was type 2 myxoma (3 patients, 8%). The difference was significant (P=0.04). There were 2 perioperative deaths in the nonembolism group. No recurrence of cardiac myxoma or death was recorded in either group during follow-up. In the embolism group, neurologic symptoms were relieved by surgery, and no subsequent neurologic event was reported. Because surgical resection is highly effective in left atrial myxoma, we should strive for early diagnosis in order to shorten the duration of symptoms and to avoid worse neurologic damage in patients in whom an embolic event is the initial manifestation. PMID:25593521

  16. Neuropsychiatric symptoms in Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Aarsland, D.; Marsh, L.; Schrag, A.

    2009-01-01

    Neuropsychiatric symptoms are common in Parkinson's disease, even at the earliest stages, and have important consequences for quality of life and daily functioning, are associated with increased carer burden and increased risk for nursing home admission. In addition to cognitive impairment, a wide range of neuropsychiatric symptoms have been reported. In this paper, the epidemiology, clinical course, diagnosis, and management of some of the most common neuropsychiatric symptoms in PD are discussed: depression, anxiety, apathy, fatigue and psychotic symptoms. Although much is known regarding the prevalence and course of these symptoms, the empirical evidence for how to manage these symptoms is limited at best. There is thus an urgent need for systematic studies for the pharmacological and non-pharmacological management of these symptoms. PMID:19768724

  17. Is the Charcot and Bernard case (1883) of loss of visual imagery really based on neurological impairment?

    PubMed

    Zago, Stefano; Allegri, Nicola; Cristoffanini, Marta; Ferrucci, Roberta; Porta, Mauro; Priori, Alberto

    2011-11-01

    INTRODUCTION. The Charcot and Bernard case of visual imagery, Monsieur X, is a classic case in the history of neuropsychology. Published in 1883, it has been considered the first case of visual imagery loss due to brain injury. Also in recent times a neurological valence has been given to it. However, the presence of analogous cases of loss of visual imagery in the psychiatric field have led us to hypothesise functional origins rather than organic. METHODS. In order to assess the validity of such an inference, we have compared the symptomatology of Monsieur X with that found in cases of loss of visual mental images, both psychiatric and neurological, presented in literature. RESULTS. The clinical findings show strong assonances of the Monsieur X case with the symptoms manifested over time by the patients with functionally based loss of visual imagery. CONCLUSION. Although Monsieur X's damage was initially interpreted as neurological, reports of similar symptoms in the psychiatric field lead us to postulate a functional cause for his impairment as well. PMID:21607884

  18. Transient nucleation in glasses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelton, K. F.

    1991-01-01

    Nucleation rates in condensed systems are frequently not at their steady state values. Such time dependent (or transient) nucleation is most clearly observed in devitrification studies of metallic and silicate glasses. The origin of transient nucleation and its role in the formation and stability of desired phases and microstructures are discussed. Numerical models of nucleation in isothermal and nonisothermal situations, based on the coupled differential equations describing cluster evolution within the classical theory, are presented. The importance of transient nucleation in glass formation and crystallization is discussed.

  19. Neurological soft signs in schizophrenia: Assessment and correlates

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Mohr; W. Hubmann; W. Bender; S. Hönicke; Ch. Wahlheim; R. Cohen; C. Haslacher; R. Schlenker; P. Werther

    1996-01-01

    A German version of the Neurological Evaluation Scale (NES) was administered to 143 schizophrenic patients, 45 of them being severly chronic and disabled. Seventy-eight alcohol-dependent inpatients and 57 healthy volunteers were tested as control groups. Neurological soft signs (NSS) were rated with convincing agreement. Schizophrenic patients are more impaired on all scales than healthy controls. The chronic, severly disabled schizophrenic

  20. Neurological disorders in sheep during signal grass (Brachiaria decumbens) toxicity.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, A S; Noordin, M M; Rajion, M A

    1989-04-01

    Severe neurological dysfunction was observed in sheep 4 weeks after grazing on Signal grass (Brachiaria decumbens). These neurological disorders included the stamping of forelegs, star-gazing, incoordination, head-pressing against the fence and circling movements. Histologically, numerous vacuolations of various sizes were observed in the white matter of the brain giving rise to a spongy appearance. PMID:2929118

  1. The Dubowitz Neurological Examination of the Full-Term Newborn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubowitz, Lilly; Ricciw, Daniela; Mercuri, Eugenio

    2005-01-01

    In an ideal world, each neonate should have a comprehensive neurological examination but in practice this is often difficult. In this review we will describe what a routine neurological evaluation in the full-term neonate should consist of and how the Dubowitz examination is performed. The examination has been used for over 20 years and can be…

  2. Shuni Virus as Cause of Neurologic Disease in Horses

    PubMed Central

    van Eeden, Charmaine; Williams, June H.; Gerdes, Truuske G.H.; van Wilpe, Erna; Viljoen, Adrianne; Swanepoel, Robert

    2012-01-01

    To determine which agents cause neurologic disease in horses, we conducted reverse transcription PCR on isolates from of a horse with encephalitis and 111 other horses with acute disease. Shuni virus was found in 7 horses, 5 of which had neurologic signs. Testing for lesser known viruses should be considered for horses with unexplained illness. PMID:22305525

  3. Neurological Assessment of the Learning-Disabled Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Robert B.

    1982-01-01

    Basic neurological facts pertinent to learning disabilities are reviewed, and the nature, significance, and limitations of the neurological assessment presently utilized in clinical practice are addressed. A brief review is presented of some of the classification attempts that highlight difficulties arising from the heterogeneity of learning…

  4. Neuroimaging in European academic neurology: present status and future organization

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J.-C. Baron

    1998-01-01

    Thanks to an ever increasing array of sophisticated techniques, neuroimaging has become an integral part of clinical neurology and a major tool in the neurosciences. Because, undoubtedly, the role of neuroimaging will grow even further, a Task-force on Neuroimaging was created by the EFNS in June 1996 to assess how academic neurology in Europe should adapt to such rapid changes.

  5. PSEUDO-TRANSIENT CONTINUATION FOR NONLINEAR TRANSIENT ELASTICITY

    E-print Network

    Kelley, C. T. "Tim"

    PSEUDO-TRANSIENT CONTINUATION FOR NONLINEAR TRANSIENT ELASTICITY MICHAEL W. GEE, C. T. KELLEY, AND R. B. LEHOUCQ Abstract. We show how the method of pseudo-transient continuation can be applied to improve the robustness of the Newton iteration within a nonlinear transient elasticity simulation. Pseudo

  6. Neurologically presenting Wilson's disease: epidemiology, pathophysiology and treatment.

    PubMed

    Brewer, George J

    2005-01-01

    Wilson's disease is a rare autosomal recessive disease of copper accumulation and copper toxicity, due to mutations in the ATP7B gene, which leads to a failure of copper excretion in the bile. It presents clinically primarily as liver disease, psychiatric disease, neurological disease, or a combination of these. The neurological disease is a movement disorder, with abnormalities of speech, tremor, incoordination and dystonia being common features. Diagnosis of neurologically presenting patients is usually straightforward, with Kayser-Fleischer rings and a urine copper over 100 microg/day almost invariably present. In the treatment of neurologically presenting patients, penicillamine should always be avoided, because of the high risk of permanent, drug-induced, additional neurological deterioration. A new drug we have developed, tetrathiomolybdate, given for 8-16 weeks, in combination with zinc, is our first choice for treating these patients. In the absence of availability of tetrathiomolybdate, zinc or trientine are the next best choices. PMID:15740174

  7. The LOFAR Transients Pipeline

    E-print Network

    Swinbank, John D; Molenaar, Gijs J; Rol, Evert; Rowlinson, Antonia; Scheers, Bart; Spreeuw, Hanno; Bell, Martin E; Broderick, Jess W; Carbone, Dario; van der Horst, Alexander J; Law, Casey J; Wise, Michael; Breton, Rene P; Cendes, Yvette; Corbel, Stéphane; Eislöffel, Jochen; Falcke, Heino; Fender, Rob; Greißmeier, Jean-Mathias; Hessels, Jason W T; Stappers, Benjamin W; Stewart, Adam J; Wijers, Ralph A M J; Wijnands, Rudy; Zarka, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Current and future astronomical survey facilities provide a remarkably rich opportunity for transient astronomy, combining unprecedented fields of view with high sensitivity and the ability to access previously unexplored wavelength regimes. This is particularly true of LOFAR, a recently-commissioned, low-frequency radio interferometer, based in the Netherlands and with stations across Europe. The identification of and response to transients is one of LOFAR's key science goals. However, the large data volumes which LOFAR produces, combined with the scientific requirement for rapid response, make automation essential. To support this, we have developed the LOFAR Transients Pipeline, or TraP. The TraP ingests multi-frequency image data from LOFAR or other instruments and searches it for transients and variables, providing automatic alerts of significant detections and populating a lightcurve database for further analysis by astronomers. Here, we discuss the scientific goals of the TraP and how it has been desig...

  8. High energy transients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woosley, S. E.

    1984-01-01

    A meeting was convened on the campus of the University of California at Santa Cruz during the two-week interval July 11 through July 22, 1983. Roughly 100 participants were chosen so as to give broad representation to all aspects of high energy transients. Ten morning review sessions were held in which invited speakers discussed the current status of observations and theory of the above subjects. Afternoon workshops were also held, usually more than one per day, to informally review various technical aspects of transients, confront shortcomings in theoretical models, and to propose productive courses for future research. Special attention was also given to the instrumentation used to study high energy transient and the characteristics and goals of a dedicated space mission to study transients in the next decade were determined. A listing of articles written by various members of the workshop is included.

  9. Femtosecond Transient Imaging

    E-print Network

    Kirmani, Ahmed (Ghulam Ahmed)

    2010-01-01

    This thesis proposes a novel framework called transient imaging for image formation and scene understanding through impulse illumination and time images. Using time-of-flight cameras and multi-path analysis of global light ...

  10. Psychiatric Disorders in HTLV-1-Infected Individuals with Bladder Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Orge, Glória O.; Dellavechia, Thais R.; Carneiro-Neto, José Abraão; Araújo-de-Freitas, Lucas; Daltro, Carla H. C.; Santos, Carlos T.; Quarantini, Lucas C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Previous studies have reported high rates of depression and anxiety in HTLV-1 infected individuals with the neurological disease and in the asymptomatic phase. No study has investigated the rates in individuals that already show bladder symptoms without severe neurological changes; that is, during the oligosymptomatic phase. The present study investigated patients in this intermediate form on the spectrum of the infection. Methodology/Principal Findings Participants answered a sociodemographic questionnaire, the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview Brazilian Version 5.0.0 (MINI PLUS) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Data analysis was performed in STATA statistical software (version 12.0). Depressive disorder was the most frequent comorbidity. Current depressive disorder was higher in the group of overactive bladder subjects (11.9%), and lifelong depression was more frequent in the HAM/TSP group (35%). The three groups had similar frequencies of anxiety disorders. Increased frequency and severity of anxiety and depression symptoms were observed in the overactive bladder group. Conclusion/Significance The results suggest that individuals with overactive bladders need a more thorough assessment from the mental health perspective. These patients remain an understudied group regarding psychiatric comorbidities. PMID:26018525

  11. Transients in Frequency Modulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Salinger

    1942-01-01

    In a frequency-modulation system, a sudden jump in carrier frequency corresponding to a Heaviside unit signal will result in a transient depending on the receiving-filter bandwidth. If this bandwith exceeds twice the maximum frequency swing, the shape and duration of the transient is shown to be about the same as in an amplitude-modulation system with the same bandwidth; for narrower

  12. The Assessment of Minor Neurological Dysfunction in Infancy Using the Touwen Infant Neurological Examination: Strengths and Limitations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadders-Algra, Mijna; Heineman, Kirsten R.; Bos, Arend F.; Middelburg, Karin J.

    2010-01-01

    Aim: Little is known of minor neurological dysfunction (MND) in infancy. This study aimed to evaluate the inter-assessor reliability of the assessment of MND with the Touwen Infant Neurological Examination (TINE) and the construct and predictive validity of MND in infancy. Method: Inter-assessor agreement was determined in a sample of 40 infants…

  13. Ketogenic diets, mitochondria, and neurological diseases.

    PubMed

    Gano, Lindsey B; Patel, Manisha; Rho, Jong M

    2014-11-01

    The ketogenic diet (KD) is a broad-spectrum therapy for medically intractable epilepsy and is receiving growing attention as a potential treatment for neurological disorders arising in part from bioenergetic dysregulation. The high-fat/low-carbohydrate "classic KD", as well as dietary variations such as the medium-chain triglyceride diet, the modified Atkins diet, the low-glycemic index treatment, and caloric restriction, enhance cellular metabolic and mitochondrial function. Hence, the broad neuroprotective properties of such therapies may stem from improved cellular metabolism. Data from clinical and preclinical studies indicate that these diets restrict glycolysis and increase fatty acid oxidation, actions which result in ketosis, replenishment of the TCA cycle (i.e., anaplerosis), restoration of neurotransmitter and ion channel function, and enhanced mitochondrial respiration. Further, there is mounting evidence that the KD and its variants can impact key signaling pathways that evolved to sense the energetic state of the cell, and that help maintain cellular homeostasis. These pathways, which include PPARs, AMP-activated kinase, mammalian target of rapamycin, and the sirtuins, have all been recently implicated in the neuroprotective effects of the KD. Further research in this area may lead to future therapeutic strategies aimed at mimicking the pleiotropic neuroprotective effects of the KD. PMID:24847102

  14. Neurofilament dynamics and involvement in neurological disorders.

    PubMed

    Gentil, Benoit J; Tibshirani, Michael; Durham, Heather D

    2015-06-01

    Neurons are extremely polarised cells in which the cytoskeleton, composed of microtubules, microfilaments and neurofilaments, plays a crucial role in maintaining structure and function. Neurofilaments, the 10-nm intermediate filaments of neurons, provide structure and mechanoresistance but also provide a scaffolding for the organization of the nucleus and organelles such as mitochondria and ER. Disruption of neurofilament organization and expression or metabolism of neurofilament proteins is characteristic of certain neurological syndromes including Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, Charcot-Marie-Tooth sensorimotor neuropathies and Giant Axonal Neuropathy. Microfluorometric live imaging techniques have been instrumental in revealing the dynamics of neurofilament assembly and transport and their functions in organizing intracellular organelle networks. The insolubility of neurofilament proteins has limited identifying interactors by conventional biochemical techniques but yeast two-hybrid experiments have revealed new roles for oligomeric, nonfilamentous structures including vesicular trafficking. Although having long half-lives, new evidence points to degradation of subunits by the ubiquitin-proteasome system as a mechanism of normal turnover. Although certain E3-ligases ubiquitinating neurofilament proteins have been identified, the overall process of neurofilament degradation is not well understood. We review these mechanisms of neurofilament homeostasis and abnormalities in motor neuron and peripheral nerve disorders. Much remains to discover about the disruption of processes that leads to their pathological aggregation and accumulation and the relevance to pathogenesis. Understanding these mechanisms is crucial for identifying novel therapeutic strategies. PMID:25567110

  15. Hyperhomocysteinemia and Neurologic Disorders: a Review

    PubMed Central

    Ansari, Ramin; Mallack, Eric; Luo, Jin Jun

    2014-01-01

    Homocysteine (Hcy) is a sulfur-containing amino acid that is generated during methionine metabolism. It has a physiologic role in DNA metabolism via methylation, a process governed by the presentation of folate, and vitamins B6 and B12. Physiologic Hcy levels are determined primarily by dietary intake and vitamin status. Elevated plasma levels of Hcy (eHcy) can be caused by deficiency of either vitamin B12 or folate, or a combination thereof. Certain genetic factors also cause eHcy, such as C667T substitution of the gene encoding methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase. eHcy has been observed in several medical conditions, such as cardiovascular disorders, atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, stroke, minimal cognitive impairment, dementia, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, epilepsy, and eclampsia. There is evidence from laboratory and clinical studies that Hcy, and especially eHcy, exerts direct toxic effects on both the vascular and nervous systems. This article provides a review of the current literature on the possible roles of eHcy relevant to various neurologic disorders. PMID:25324876

  16. Control of Abnormal Synchronization in Neurological Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Popovych, Oleksandr V.; Tass, Peter A.

    2014-01-01

    In the nervous system, synchronization processes play an important role, e.g., in the context of information processing and motor control. However, pathological, excessive synchronization may strongly impair brain function and is a hallmark of several neurological disorders. This focused review addresses the question of how an abnormal neuronal synchronization can specifically be counteracted by invasive and non-invasive brain stimulation as, for instance, by deep brain stimulation for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease, or by acoustic stimulation for the treatment of tinnitus. On the example of coordinated reset (CR) neuromodulation, we illustrate how insights into the dynamics of complex systems contribute to successful model-based approaches, which use methods from synergetics, non-linear dynamics, and statistical physics, for the development of novel therapies for normalization of brain function and synaptic connectivity. Based on the intrinsic multistability of the neuronal populations induced by spike timing-dependent plasticity (STDP), CR neuromodulation utilizes the mutual interdependence between synaptic connectivity and dynamics of the neuronal networks in order to restore more physiological patterns of connectivity via desynchronization of neuronal activity. The very goal is to shift the neuronal population by stimulation from an abnormally coupled and synchronized state to a desynchronized regime with normalized synaptic connectivity, which significantly outlasts the stimulation cessation, so that long-lasting therapeutic effects can be achieved. PMID:25566174

  17. Speech and neurology-chemical impairment correlates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayre, Harb S.

    2002-05-01

    Speech correlates of alcohol/drug impairment and its neurological basis is presented with suggestion for further research in impairment from poly drug/medicine/inhalent/chew use/abuse, and prediagnosis of many neuro- and endocrin-related disorders. Nerve cells all over the body detect chemical entry by smoking, injection, drinking, chewing, or skin absorption, and transmit neurosignals to their corresponding cerebral subsystems, which in turn affect speech centers-Broca's and Wernick's area, and motor cortex. For instance, gustatory cells in the mouth, cranial and spinal nerve cells in the skin, and cilia/olfactory neurons in the nose are the intake sensing nerve cells. Alcohol depression, and brain cell damage were detected from telephone speech using IMPAIRLYZER-TM, and the results of these studies were presented at 1996 ASA meeting in Indianapolis, and 2001 German Acoustical Society-DEGA conference in Hamburg, Germany respectively. Speech based chemical Impairment measure results were presented at the 2001 meeting of ASA in Chicago. New data on neurotolerance based chemical impairment for alcohol, drugs, and medicine shall be presented, and shown not to fully support NIDA-SAMSHA drug and alcohol threshold used in drug testing domain.

  18. Atypical inheritance: new horizons for neurology.

    PubMed

    Wilson, G N

    1994-11-01

    Rediscovery of Mendel's laws produced an enthusiastic new discipline at the turn of this century. The eugenics movement had many disciples in the United States, and it should be noted that the term "final solution" was first used by the National Association of Charities and Corrections in the 1920s. American advocates of eugenics accomplished mass sterilization of retarded individuals and the prohibition of Jewish immigration from Germany during World War II. It is interesting that the close of this century has produced a similar revolution in genetics. These newer genetic mechanisms expose the major fallacy of eugenics: traits may be genetic without showing obvious familial transmission. Sanctions against reproduction or immigration thus will have little effect on the gene pool. The clinical implications of atypical inheritance are enormous. Almost every medical disorder must be reinvestigated for evidence of subtle chromosome changes, for worsening in progressive generations, and for influence of parental origin. The classical Mendelian model taught that extreme and rare phenotypes shed light on more frequent ones, hence the definition of genes responsible for hypercholesterolemia, for Alzheimer disease, and for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Atypical inheritance mechanisms further enhance this approach, bringing all of neurology under the light of genetic technology. The lure for the practitioner, then, is not the hyperbole of molecular biology; it is the need for a seasoned hand so emphasized by Huntington's disease and the duty to protect the next century from disasters of the current one. PMID:7845336

  19. Children in Chronic Pain: Promoting Pediatric Patients’ Symptom Accounts in Tertiary Care

    PubMed Central

    Clemente, Ignasi; Lee, Seung-Hee; Heritage, John

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines how clinicians promote pediatric patients’ symptom accounts at the beginning of visits in three pediatric tertiary care clinics at a university hospital in the US: pain, gastroenterology and neurology. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected for 69 patient-parent pairs, including videotaped intake visits. Two forms of child account promotion, together with their corresponding distribution across clinics, were identified: (1) Epistemic prefaces were used to upgrade the patient’s epistemic status and to establish the child as primary informant; and, (2) non-focused questioning was used to permit children latitude in the formulation of symptoms and experiences. In general, epistemic prefaces were characteristic of the gastroenterology and neurology visits, while non-focused questioning was found overwhelmingly in the pain encounters. PMID:18272275

  20. Indoor environmental exposures and symptoms.

    PubMed Central

    Hodgson, Michael

    2002-01-01

    The label "sick building syndrome" is often used to imply the absence of a physiologic basis for symptoms in the built environment. Although building-related illness is widely recognized but considered rare, several well-studied mechanisms may be responsible for many symptoms in buildings. These mechanisms do not explain why some individuals perceive disability. Until researchers distinguish physiologic mechanisms from other aspects of disease and study them systematically, poorly defined symptoms will remain poorly understood. The disability associated with such symptoms and syndromes, not the physiology, is the primary interest and generates controversy. PMID:12194903

  1. Persistent Neurological Deficit from Iodinated Contrast Encephalopathy Following Intracranial Aneurysm Coiling

    PubMed Central

    Leong, S.; Fanning, N.F.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Neurotoxicity from iodinated contrast agents is a known but rare complication of angiography and neurovascular intervention. Neurotoxicity results from contrast penetrating the blood-brain barrier with resultant cerebral oedema and altered neuronal excitability. Clinical effects include encephalopathy, seizures, cortical blindness and focal neurological deficits. Contrast induced encephalopathy is extensively reported as a transient and reversible phenomenon. We describe a patient with a persistent motor deficit due to an encephalopathy from iodinated contrast media administered during cerebral aneurysm coiling. This observation and a review of the literature highlights that contrast-induced encephalopathy may not always have a benign outcome and can cause permanent deficits. This potential harmful effect should be recognised by the angiographer and the interventionalist. PMID:22440599

  2. Transient Oculomotor Palsy after Influenza Vaccination: Short Report

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida, Diogo Fraxino; Teodoro, Adilson Teixeira; Radaeli, Rafael de Figueiredo

    2011-01-01

    Several neurological complications have been described after influenza vaccination. Oculomotor palsy has not been yet related with influenza vaccine. We report a 79-year-old man who developed an acute transient right oculomotor palsy two days after a routine influenza vaccination, for which no other cause was identified. There was no evidence of diabetes, glucose intolerance, high blood pressure, hipercholesterolemia, smoking, obesity, systemic vasculitis, or other risk factor for ischemic neuropathy. The cerebrospinal fluid was normal as well as the MRI and MRA scans. The differential diagnosis and the possible relationship between the vaccine and the oculomotor palsy are discussed. PMID:22389831

  3. 77 FR 24727 - National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-25

    ...Health National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke; Notice of Closed Meeting...privacy. Name of Committee: Neurological Sciences Training Initial Review Group; NST-1...Clinical Research Related to Neurological Disorders; 93.854, Biological Basis...

  4. 76 FR 20691 - National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-13

    ...National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke; Notice of Closed Meetings...National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke Initial Review Group; Neurological Sciences and Disorders C. Date: June 9-10, 2011....

  5. 76 FR 10038 - National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-23

    ...National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke; Notice of Closed Meeting...National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke Initial Review Group, Neurological Sciences and Disorders K. Date: March 10-11, 2011....

  6. 77 FR 49000 - National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-15

    ...Health National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke; Notice of Closed Meeting...privacy. Name of Committee: Neurological Sciences Training Initial Review Group; NST-1...Clinical Research Related to Neurological Disorders; 93.854, Biological Basis...

  7. 75 FR 2146 - National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-14

    ...Health National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke; Notice of Closed Meeting...privacy. Name of Committee: Neurological Sciences Training Initial Review Group, NST-1...Clinical Research Related to Neurological Disorders; 93.854, Biological Basis...

  8. 78 FR 59945 - National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-30

    ...Health National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke; Notice of Closed Meeting...privacy. Name of Committee: Neurological Sciences Training Initial Review Group; NST-2...Clinical Research Related to Neurological Disorders; 93.854, Biological Basis...

  9. 75 FR 57971 - National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-23

    ...National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke; Notice of Closed Meeting...National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke Initial, Review Group, Neurological Sciences and Disorders A. Date: November 3, 2010....

  10. 75 FR 30409 - National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-01

    ...National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke; Notice of Closed Meetings...National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke Initial Review Group, Neurological Sciences and Disorders K. Date: June 21, 2010....

  11. 75 FR 4577 - National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-28

    ...National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke; Notice of Closed Meeting...National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, Initial Review Group Neurological Sciences and Disorders C. Dates: February 18-19,...

  12. 75 FR 992 - National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-07

    ...Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section...National Advisory Neurological Disorders and Stroke Council. The meeting will be open to...National Advisory Neurological Disorders and Stroke Council. Date: February 4-5,...

  13. 76 FR 59414 - National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-26

    ...Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to...National Advisory Neurological Disorders and Stroke. The meeting will be closed to the public...Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, including consideration of...

  14. 77 FR 15112 - National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-14

    ...Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to...Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke Special Emphasis Panel, Neurosurgeon...Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke Special Emphasis Panel, Udall...

  15. 77 FR 72362 - National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-05

    ...Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to...Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke Special Emphasis Panel; Review of Career...Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke Special Emphasis Panel; Ancillary...

  16. 76 FR 34716 - National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-14

    ...Institutes of Health National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the...Committee: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke Initial Review Group, Neurological Sciences and Disorders...

  17. 76 FR 20695 - National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-13

    ...Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to...Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke Initial Review Group; NST-1 Subcommittee...Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke Initial Review Group; NST-2...

  18. 77 FR 27239 - National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-09

    ...Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to...Advisory Neurological Disorders and Stroke. The meeting will be closed to the public...Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, including consideration of...

  19. 78 FR 22273 - National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-15

    ...Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to...National Advisory Neurological Disorders and Stroke. The meeting will be closed to the public...Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, including consideration of...

  20. 77 FR 8268 - National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-14

    ...Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to...Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke Special Emphasis Panel; Clinical Trial...Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke Special Emphasis Panel; K99R00...

  1. 75 FR 2149 - National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-14

    ...Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section...National Advisory Neurological Disorders and Stroke Council. The meeting will be open to...National Advisory Neurological Disorders and Stroke Council, Clinical Trials...

  2. 77 FR 1702 - National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-11

    ...Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section...National Advisory Neurological Disorders and Stroke Council. The meeting will be open to...National Advisory Neurological Disorders and Stroke Council. Date: February 16-17,...

  3. 76 FR 66732 - National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-27

    ...Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to...Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke Special Emphasis Panel; NST-2 Conflicts...Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke Special Emphasis Panel; T-32...

  4. 78 FR 68856 - National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-15

    ...Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to...National Advisory Neurological Disorders and Stroke. The meeting will be closed to the public...Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, including consideration of...

  5. 75 FR 3475 - National Institute Of Neurological Disorders and Stroke; Notice of Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-21

    ...Institute Of Neurological Disorders and Stroke; Notice of Meetings Pursuant to section...National Advisory Neurological Disorders and Stroke Council. The meetings will be open to...National Advisory Neurological Disorders and Stroke Council; Training, Career...

  6. 75 FR 56550 - National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-16

    ...Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to...National Advisory Neurological Disorders and Stroke Council. The meeting will be closed to...Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, including consideration of...

  7. 76 FR 57062 - National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-15

    ...Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to...Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke Initial Review Group, NST-1 Subcommittee...Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke Initial Review Group, NST-2...

  8. 76 FR 25702 - National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-05

    ...Institutes of Health National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section 10(d) of the...Committee: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke Initial Review Group, Neurological Sciences and Disorders...

  9. 76 FR 2129 - National Institute of Neurological Disorders And Stroke; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-12

    ...Institute of Neurological Disorders And Stroke; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section...National Advisory Neurological Disorders and Stroke Council. The meeting will be open to...National Advisory Neurological Disorders and Stroke Council Clinical Trials...

  10. 75 FR 80510 - National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-22

    ...Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section...National Advisory Neurological Disorders and Stroke Council. Date: February 3-4, 2011...Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, NIH, 6001 Executive Blvd.,...

  11. 77 FR 24725 - National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-25

    ...Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section...National Advisory Neurological Disorders and Stroke Council. The meeting will be open to...National Advisory Neurological Disorders and Stroke Council. Date: May 24-25,...

  12. 75 FR 53319 - National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke; Notice of Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-31

    ...Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke; Notice of Meetings Pursuant to section...National Advisory Neurological Disorders and Stroke Council. The meetings will be open to...National Advisory Neurological Disorders and Stroke Council Training, Career...

  13. 75 FR 52010 - National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke; Notice of Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-24

    ...Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke; Notice of Meetings Pursuant to section...National Advisory Neurological Disorders and Stroke Council. The meeting will be open to...National Advisory Neurological Disorders and Stroke Council; Clinical Trials...

  14. 77 FR 37421 - National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-21

    ...Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to...Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke Special Emphasis Panel, NINDS Center...Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke Special Emphasis Panel, PD...

  15. 77 FR 72872 - National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-06

    ...Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section...National Advisory Neurological Disorders and Stroke Council. The meeting will be open to...National Advisory Neurological Disorders and Stroke Council. Date: January...

  16. 77 FR 2075 - National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-13

    ...Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to section...Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke Initial Review Group NST-1 Subcommittee...Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, NIH, NSC, 6001 Executive...

  17. 78 FR 22274 - National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-15

    ...Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section...National Advisory Neurological Disorders and Stroke Council. The meeting will be open to...National Advisory Neurological Disorders and Stroke Council. Date: May 23-24,...

  18. 78 FR 5190 - National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-24

    ...Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to...National Advisory Neurological Disorders and Stroke. The meeting will be closed to the public...Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, including consideration of...

  19. 78 FR 45932 - National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-30

    ...Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section...National Advisory Neurological Disorders and Stroke Council. The meeting will be open to...National Advisory Neurological Disorders and Stroke Council. Date: September 12-13,...

  20. 78 FR 76633 - National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-18

    ...Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section...National Advisory Neurological Disorders and Stroke Council. The meeting will be open to...National Advisory Neurological Disorders and Stroke Council. Date: January 30-31,...

  1. 75 FR 16153 - National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-31

    ...Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to...Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. The meeting will be closed to the public...Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, including consideration of...

  2. 75 FR 21643 - National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-26

    ...Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section...National Advisory Neurological Disorders and Stroke Council. Date: May 27, 2010. Closed...Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, NIH, 6001 Executive Blvd.,...

  3. 76 FR 51043 - National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-17

    ...Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section...National Advisory Neurological Disorders and Stroke Council. The meeting will be open to...National Advisory Neurological Disorders and Stroke Council. Date: September 15-16,...

  4. 75 FR 51278 - National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-19

    ...Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section...National Advisory Neurological Disorders and Stroke Council. Date: September 23, 2010...Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, NIH, 6001 Executive Blvd.,...

  5. 76 FR 20691 - National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-13

    ...Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section...National Advisory Neurological Disorders and Stroke Council. The meeting will be open to...National Advisory Neurological Disorders and Stroke Council. Date: May 26-27,...

  6. 78 FR 70310 - National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-25

    ...Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to...Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke Special Emphasis Panel; NINDS T32 Review...Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke Special Emphasis Panel;...

  7. 76 FR 81951 - National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke; Notice of Closed Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-29

    ...Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke; Notice of Closed Meeting Pursuant to...National Advisory Neurological Disorders and Stroke. The meeting will be closed to the public...Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, including consideration of...

  8. 77 FR 48999 - National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-15

    ...Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke; Notice of Meeting Pursuant to section...National Advisory Neurological Disorders and Stroke Council. The meeting will be open to...National Advisory Neurological Disorders and Stroke Council. Date: September 20-21,...

  9. 77 FR 65896 - National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-31

    ...Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to...Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke Special Emphasis Panel; Joint T32. Date...Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke Special Emphasis Panel; Summer...

  10. 78 FR 29144 - National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke; Notice of Closed Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-17

    ...Institutes of Health National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke; Notice of Closed Meetings Pursuant to section 10(d) of...Committee: National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke Initial Review Group; Neurological Sciences and Disorders...

  11. 75 FR 44172 - Neurological and Physical Medicine Devices; Designation of Special Controls for Certain Class II...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-28

    ...0910-ZA37 Neurological and Physical Medicine Devices; Designation of Special Controls...amend certain neurological and physical medicine device regulations to establish special...certain neurological device and physical medicine device regulations to establish...

  12. 75 FR 44267 - Draft Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff; Medical Devices; Neurological...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-28

    ...Medical Devices; Neurological and Physical Medicine Device Guidance Document; Reopening...documents for 11 neurological and physical medicine devices. FDA is reopening the comment...documents for 11 neurological and physical medicine devices. Interested persons were...

  13. Chapter 39: an historical overview of British neurology.

    PubMed

    Rose, F Clifford

    2010-01-01

    In the UK, neurology stemmed from general (internal) medicine rather than psychiatry. In 1886 the Neurological Society of London was founded, with Hughlings Jackson as its first President. After World War I, Kinnier Wilson was made Physician in Charge of the first independent department of neurology, which was at Westminster Hospital in London. Although before the 17th century there were British doctors who took an interest in diseases of the nervous system, e.g. Gilbertus Anglicus (c. 1230), who distinguished epilepsy from apoplexy, and Bartholomeus Anglicus, whose encyclopedia (c. 1260) provided the first picture of a dissection printed in English, John of Gaddesden (1280-1361) was the first in Britain to produce a manuscript on neurological disorders. Thomas Willis (1621-1675) was the founder of Neurology, being the first to use the term, and was also the leader of the first multidisciplinary team in neurological science, helping to shift attention from the chambers of the brain to the brain substance itself. He wrote seven books, all but the last in Latin, and his second one, Cerebri anatome (1664) was the first on the nervous system to include the brain, spinal cord and peripheral nerves, introducing such new terms as lentiform body, corpus striatum, optic thalamus, inferior olives and peduncles. Most of his neurology was in his fifth book, De anima brutorum (1672). Before Willis the brain was a mystery, but his work laid the foundations for neurological advances. After the 17th century of William Harvey and Thomas Sydenham and the 18th century of William Heberden and Robert Whytt there followed the 19th century of James Parkinson (1755-1824), John Cooke (1756-1838), Sir Charles Bell (1774-1842), Marshall Hall (1790-1856) and Bentley Todd (1809-1860). Besides its "Father," Hughlings Jackson, the giants who established the unique superiority of British neurology were Sir William Gowers, Sir David Ferrier, Kinnier Wilson, Sir Gordon Holmes and Sir Charles Sherrington. PMID:19892142

  14. Analysis of photo-pattern sensitivity in patients with Pokemon-related symptoms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Makoto Funatsuka; Michinari Fujita; Seigo Shirakawa; Hirokazu Oguni; Makiko Osawa

    2003-01-01

    This study was designed to analyze photo-pattern sensitivity in patients who developed acute neurologic symptoms associated with watching an animated television program, “Pokemon.” The 18 patients (13 females and five males) underwent electroencephalograms and photo-pattern stimulation testing, including special stimulation test batteries (strobe-pattern test and cathode ray tube-pattern test). Photo-pattern sensitivity was confirmed in 16 patients with and without seizure

  15. The role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ?, and effects of its agonist, rosiglitazone, on transient cerebral ischemic damage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Choong Hyun Lee; Ok Kyu Park; Ki-Yeon Yoo; Kyunghee Byun; Bonghee Lee; Jung Hoon Choi; In Koo Hwang; Young-Myeong Kim; Moo-Ho Won

    2011-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) is expressed in neurons and glia, and its synthetic agonist, rosiglitazone (RSG), regulates inflammatory process and has neuroprotective effects against neurological disorders. In the present study, we examined the role of PPAR? in the hippocampal CA1 region (CA1) after transient cerebral ischemia and the neuroprotective effects of RSG on ischemic damage. RSG attenuated neuronal damage

  16. The burden of stroke and transient ischemic attack in Pakistan: a community-based prevalence study

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The burden of cerebrovascular disease in developing countries is rising sharply. The prevalence of established risk factors of stroke is exceptionally high in Pakistan. However, there is limited data on the burden of stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA) in South Asia. We report the first such study conducted in an urban slum of Karachi, Pakistan. Methods Individuals 35 years of age or older were invited for participation in this investigation through simple random sampling. A structured face-to-face interview was conducted using a pre-tested stroke symptom questionnaire in each participant to screen for past stroke or TIA followed by neurological examination of suspected cases. Anthropometric measurements and random blood glucose levels were recorded. Multivariable logistic regression was used to determine the association of vascular risk factors with prevalence of stroke. Results Five hundred and forty five individuals (49.4% females) participated in the study with a response rate of 90.8%. One hundred and four individuals (19.1%) were observed to have a prior stroke while TIA was found in 53 individuals (9.7%). Overall, 119 individuals (21.8% with 66.4% females) had stroke and/or TIA. Female gender, old age, raised random blood glucose level and use of chewable tobacco were significantly associated with the prevalence of cerebrovascular disease. Conclusion This is the first study demonstrating an alarmingly high life-time prevalence of cerebrovascular disease in Pakistan. Individual and public health interventions in Pakistan to increase awareness about stroke, its prevention and therapy are warranted. PMID:19948076

  17. Neurological presentation of intravascular lymphoma: report of two cases and discussion of diagnostic challenges.

    PubMed

    Lozsadi, D A; Wieshmann, U; Enevoldson, T P

    2005-09-01

    About a third of patients with intravascular lymphoma (IVL) present to the neurologist with symptoms mimicking thromboembolic events. Diagnosis is difficult, and often made postmortem. As remission may be induced in almost half of patients with combination chemotherapy, early diagnosis of this rare disease is essential. We report two cases of IVL. A 62-year-old male presented with hyperacute myelopathy followed by cortical ischaemic events. The diagnosis was reached with frontal cortical and meningeal biopsy. A 56-year-old female had symptoms of transient ischaemic events, subacute dementia, weight loss and fever. As the disease progressed, she developed nephrotic syndrome and thrombocytopenia. Diagnosis was made postmortem. Our cases illustrate that IVL should be considered in the differential diagnosis of cerebral and systemic vasculitis and subacute bacterial endocarditis. Literature suggests IVL can also mimic Creutzfeld-Jakob disease and paraneoplastic encephalomyelitis. PMID:16128873

  18. Nonmydriatic retinal photography in the evaluation of acute neurologic conditions

    PubMed Central

    Bidot, Samuel; Bruce, Beau B.; Newman, Nancy J.; Biousse, Valérie

    2013-01-01

    Summary Ocular fundus examination is a fundamental component of the neurologic examination. Finding papilledema in headache patients or retinal arterial emboli in stroke patients can be extremely useful. Although examination of the ocular fundus with a direct ophthalmoscope is an important skill for all neurologists, it is rarely and unreliably performed. Nonmydriatic ocular fundus photography, which allows direct visualization of high-quality photographs of the ocular fundus, has been recently proposed for screening neurologic patients in urgent care settings such as emergency departments. This new technology has many potential applications in neurology, including e-transmission of images for remote interpretation. PMID:24353924

  19. The LOFAR Transients Pipeline

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swinbank, John D.; Staley, Tim D.; Molenaar, Gijs J.; Rol, Evert; Rowlinson, Antonia; Scheers, Bart; Spreeuw, Hanno; Bell, Martin E.; Broderick, Jess W.; Carbone, Dario; Garsden, Hugh; van der Horst, Alexander J.; Law, Casey J.; Wise, Michael; Breton, Rene P.; Cendes, Yvette; Corbel, Stéphane; Eislöffel, Jochen; Falcke, Heino; Fender, Rob; Grießmeier, Jean-Mathias; Hessels, Jason W. T.; Stappers, Benjamin W.; Stewart, Adam J.; Wijers, Ralph A. M. J.; Wijnands, Rudy; Zarka, Philippe

    2015-06-01

    Current and future astronomical survey facilities provide a remarkably rich opportunity for transient astronomy, combining unprecedented fields of view with high sensitivity and the ability to access previously unexplored wavelength regimes. This is particularly true of LOFAR, a recently-commissioned, low-frequency radio interferometer, based in the Netherlands and with stations across Europe. The identification of and response to transients is one of LOFAR's key science goals. However, the large data volumes which LOFAR produces, combined with the scientific requirement for rapid response, make automation essential. To support this, we have developed the LOFAR Transients Pipeline, or TraP. The TraP ingests multi-frequency image data from LOFAR or other instruments and searches it for transients and variables, providing automatic alerts of significant detections and populating a lightcurve database for further analysis by astronomers. Here, we discuss the scientific goals of the TraP and how it has been designed to meet them. We describe its implementation, including both the algorithms adopted to maximize performance as well as the development methodology used to ensure it is robust and reliable, particularly in the presence of artefacts typical of radio astronomy imaging. Finally, we report on a series of tests of the pipeline carried out using simulated LOFAR observations with a known population of transients.

  20. [Multivariate analysis on subjective symptoms in forestry workers using chain saw].

    PubMed

    Nagase, H; Nakamura, H; Nakamura, H; Nohara, S; Miura, K; Ohnishi, T

    1991-09-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the relationship between the prevalence of subjective symptoms in workers using vibrating tools and the duration of chain saw operation and to examine whether the symptoms were relevant to factors other than the usage of vibrating tools. The statistical model of multivariate analysis was adapted to analyze individual data on the subjective symptoms of 317 chain saw operators. The obtained results were as follows: 1. In analysis of covariance, age-adjusted operating year in workers with peripheral circulatory, peripheral neurological and musculoskeletal disturbances was significantly longer than that without such disturbances. For these disturbances, partial regression coefficients of operating year were significantly high in multiple regression analysis. These results show that these disturbances and age-adjusted operating year are mutually closely related. 2. Multiple regression analysis showed that the partial regression coefficients of both operating year and age were low for nine symptoms, i.e. dulling sense of touch, joint pain, headache, dizziness and/or tinnitus, profuse sweating, discomfort of stomach, palpitation and/or dyspnea, hearing disturbance and lumbago. These results suggest that such symptoms were not related to either age or chain saw operation. 3. The results of principal component analysis were visualized in three-dimensional space in order to evaluate the relationships among the symptoms. The analysis showed that peripheral circulatory and neurological disturbances appeared independently and that general symptoms such as easy fatigability, headache, forgetfulness, vertigo and/or tinnitus, easy irritability, sleep disorder, profuse sweating, discomfort of stomach, palpitation and/or dyspnea, shoulder stiffness, hearing disturbance and lumbago consisted of four independent groups. Each group has no relationship with duration of chain saw operation. This suggests other harmful factors of the groups play a role in the prevalence of the symptoms. PMID:1753444

  1. Symptoms in VDU operators.

    PubMed

    Dain, S J; McCarthy, A K; Chan-Ling, T

    1988-03-01

    The investigation of the role of visual and ocular characteristics of visual display unit (VDU) operators in the causation of subjective visual fatigue has not been reported previously. A retrospective study in which the visual and ocular characteristics of symptomatic and asymptomatic VDU operators was carried out in order to determine whether such a relation could be demonstrated. Three groups totaling 1013 VDU operators from two semigovernment organizations were assessed using either a full eye examination or a modified clinical screening technique. Before examination, the operators completed a short questionnaire on the symptoms they experienced when using VDU's. Significant differences between the symptomatic and asymptomatic operators in some groups were found for over-refraction (spherical equivalent and cylindrical) and near horizontal heterophoria. Despite the existence of this relation, no basis for valid visual standards could be established. In particular, no basis was found for the automatic prescribing of low plus corrections and, in the absence of clearly definable visual standards, the involvement of clinical judgment in the assessment of operators was found to be necessary. PMID:3364524

  2. Neurologic manifestations of Henoch-Schönlein purpura.

    PubMed

    Bérubé, Maxime D; Blais, Normand; Lanthier, Sylvain

    2014-01-01

    Henoch-Shönlein purpura (HSP) is a systemic small vessel vasculitis. Most patients present during childhood. The characteristic association of purpura, arthralgia, abdominal pain, and nephritis reflects the predominant distribution of vasculitis. Headaches and mild behavioral changes suggest CNS involvement in one-third of HSP patients. Salient central nervous system (CNS) manifestations are rarer and mostly reported in adults and patients with a severe disease course. Diagnosis of CNS vasculitis is rarely confirmed by histopathology and generally relies on "suggestive" imaging showing brain hemorrhages, infarcts and edema, predominantly located in the parieto-occipital regions. Vessel wall friability and thrombogenicity of active vasculitis, antiphospholipid antibody synthesis, and other hemostatic disturbances may contribute to hemorrhagic and thrombotic complications of HSP. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome and hypertensive encephalopathy occur in HSP and can be difficult to differentiate from CNS vasculitis. Some 53% of patients with neurologic complications experience seizures. Cerebral venous thrombosis, subdural hematoma, subarachnoidal hemorrhage, neuro-ophthalmologic complications, myelopathy, and diverse neuromuscular manifestations are also reported. In contrast with other systemic small vessel vasculitides, peripheral nervous system involvement is infrequent in HSP. Systemic involvement of HSP and homeostatic disorders such as hypertension, uremia, and electrolyte disturbances, as well as superimposed infections can affect the nervous system secondarily. Identification of nervous system complications of HSP is often challenging due to prominent systemic manifestations. HSP is usually a self-limiting disease that requires only supportive care. Patients with CNS vasculitis are commonly treated with corticosteroids. One-fifth of patients with CNS involvement remain with sequelae. PMID:24365374

  3. Implementing routine screening for distress, the sixth vital sign, for patients with head and neck and neurologic cancers.

    PubMed

    Bultz, Barry D; Waller, Amy; Cullum, Jodi; Jones, Paula; Halland, Johan; Groff, Shannon L; Leckie, Catriona; Shirt, Lisa; Blanchard, Scott; Lau, Harold; Easaw, Jacob; Fassbender, Konrad; Carlson, Linda E

    2013-10-01

    This study examined the benefits of incorporating screening for distress as a routine part of care for patients with head and neck and neurologic cancers in a tertiary cancer center. Using a comparative 2-cohort pre-post implementation sequential design, consecutive outpatients with head and neck and neurologic cancers were recruited into 2 separate cohorts. Cohort 1 included patients attending clinics during April 2010, before the implementation of the screening program. The program was then implemented and patients completed the Screening for Distress Minimum Dataset (the Edmonton Symptom Assessment System [ESAS] and the Canadian Problem Checklist [CPC]) at each clinic visit. Cohort 2 included patients attending clinics during March 2011. Consenting patients completed screening and outcome measures (ESAS, CPC, and either the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Brain or the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Head and Neck). A total of 146 patients (78 head and neck and 68 neurologic) provided data for Cohort 1, and 143 (81 head and neck and 62 neurologic) provided data for Cohort 2. Compared with Cohort 1, patients with neurologic cancers in Cohort 2 reported significantly higher scores on the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy: General total and emotional quality of life subscale; fewer high scores (? 4) on the ESAS breathlessness item; and fewer problems with fears/worries, frustration/anger, finding meaning in life, and worry about friends/family. Head and neck patients in Cohort 2 reported significantly higher emotional quality of life and fewer problems with eating and weight than those in Cohort 1. Although no definitive causal attributions can be made, patients exposed to routine screening for distress reported better well-being and fewer emotional, physical, and practical problems than historical controls. PMID:24142826

  4. Focal neurological injury caused by West Nile virus infection may occur independent of patient age and premorbid health

    PubMed Central

    Bhangoo, Sandeep; Chua, Rowena; Hammond, Chris; Kimmel, Zebadiah; Semenov, Irene; Videnovic, Aleksandar; Kessler, John; Borsody, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Limited evidence suggests that focal neurological injury (e.g., acute flaccid paralysis) caused by infection with the West Nile virus (WNV) is more common in older patients. We re-evaluate this association in a series of patients who were infected with the WNV during the 2002 epidemic. Methods We performed a retrospective chart review of 34 patients who were hospitalized for treatment of serologically confirmed WNV infection. Measurements included the patient’s demographic characteristics, baseline medical diagnoses, the occurrence of symptoms and exam findings, the results of various diagnostic tests, and the patient’s clinical outcome. Results Patients infected with the WNV who developed focal neurological injury were found to be comparable to patients who did not develop focal neurological injury both in terms of patient age and the number of medical conditions the patient had prior to infection. This is in contrast to WNV-infected patients who developed an encephalitis-like clinical course, or who died or were institutionalized after their hospitalization; such patients tended to be older and–in cases with a poor outcome–have more medical conditions prior to WNV infection. Conclusions In our patient group, focal neurological injury caused by WNV infection was not related to advanced patient age or to the number of medical conditions the patient had prior to infection. Our findings bring into question commonly held views about the development of focal neurological injury caused by WNV infection, and they raise concerns about the management of future WNV epidemics and the testing and use of potential antiviral treatments against this infection. PMID:15958267

  5. Quantitative MR Markers and Psychiatric Symptoms in a Patient with Fahr Disease

    PubMed Central

    Buono, Viviana Lo; Corallo, Francesco; Costa, Antonio; Bramanti, Placido; Marino, Silvia

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Female, 43 Final Diagnosis: Fahr disease Symptoms: Movement disorder • chorea and tremors • cognitive deficit • behavioral aggressiveness and restlessness • visual hallucination Medication: Haloperidolo • levomepromazine • sodium valproate Clinical Procedure: Neurology examination • neuropsychological examination • MRI Specialty: Neurology Objective: Rare disease Background: Fahr’s disease (FD), or primitive idiopathic calcification of the basal ganglia, is a rare neurodegenerative syndrome characterized by the presence of idiopathic bilateral and symmetrical cerebral calcifications. Case Report: We describe the case of 43-year-old woman presenting with psychiatric symptoms, disorganized behavior, and migraine. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examination showed basal ganglia calcifications. In addition, we analyzed the cortical brain volume and noted cortical atrophy. Extensive etiological clinico-biological assessment allowed us to exclude known causes of brain calcifications and to diagnose Fahr disease (FD). Neurological symptoms associated with psychiatric manifestations are not uncommon in FD. Conclusions: Purely psychiatric presentations are possible, as demonstrated by the present case, although there have been very few cases reported. To date, no studies related to the brain atrophy in FD have been reported. PMID:26094250

  6. Know the symptoms. Take action.

    E-print Network

    Bandettini, Peter A.

    1 " " Know the symptoms. Take action. heart attack c a l l Don't Take a Chance With a Heart Attack: Know the Facts and Act Fast More than 1 million people in the United States have heart attacks each attack happens, delay in treatment can be deadly. Learn the warning symptoms of a heart attack, and know

  7. Know the symptoms. Take action.

    E-print Network

    Bandettini, Peter A.

    heart attack Know the symptoms. Take action. c a l l Important Information Fill out the next two:____________________________ Home phone:_______________________ Work phone: ________________________ December 2011 #12;Heart Attack might be having heart attack symptoms or a heart attack, call 9­1­1 immediately. Don't ignore your pain

  8. The significance of mild traumatic brain injury to cognition and self-reported symptoms in long-term recovery from injury.

    PubMed

    Ettenhofer, Mark L; Abeles, Norman

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate neurocognition and self-reported symptoms in long-term recovery from mild traumatic brain injury (mild TBI). Participants' time since injury ranged from 3 to 72 (M = 36.75) months. Relative to orthopedic injury controls (n = 63), mild TBI participants (n = 63) did not demonstrate cognitive impairment in any domains examined, or differences in self-report of postconcussive or psychiatric symptoms. However, postconcussive and psychiatric symptoms were strongly related (r = .50, p < .05). Results provide additional evidence that neurological injury in single-incident mild TBI is of little clinical significance to long-term cognitive and symptom outcome. PMID:18618356

  9. Neurological, psychiatric, ophthalmological, and endocrine complications in giant male prolactinomas: An observational study in Algerian population

    PubMed Central

    Chentli, Farida; Azzoug, Said; Daffeur, Katia; Akkache, Lina; Zellagui, Hadjer; Haddad, Meriem; Kalafate, Nadia

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Prolactinomas are less frequent, but more invasive in males. Giant ones (?4 cm) are extremely rare in literature. Their neurological, psychiatric and endocrine complications are life threatening. Our aim was to report the largest mono center series in order to analyze their frequency, their characteristics, and their complications. Subjects and Methods: All patients had clinical examination, hormonal, ophthalmological, and radiological assessment based on computed tomography scan and cerebral magnetic resonance imaging. Positive diagnosis was based on clinical symptoms, high prolactin ± immunohistochemy study. Mixed adenomas were excluded by hormonal exploration and immunohistochemy. For those who received medical treatment only, a reduction in tumor size was considered a supplementary positive point for the diagnosis. Results: Among 154 male prolactinomas seen between 1987 and 2013, we observed 44 giant tumors (28.5%). Median age = 36 years, and 38.3% were under 30. Median tumor height = 53.95 mm (40–130) and median prolactin = 15,715 ng/ml (n < 20). Solid and cystic aspect ± calcifications was observed in 25%. 42 had cavernous sinuses invasion. Other invasions were: Posterior= 65.9%, anterior= 63.6%, temporal= 15.9% and frontal = 9%. For endocrine complications: Hypogonadism = 98.4%, thyrotroph and corticotroph deficits were seen in respectively 34%, and 32%. Posterior pituitary insufficiency was observed in one case. For ophthalmological complications: Optic atrophy = 46%, Ptosis = 6.8%, diplopia/strabismus = 4.5%. Neurological complications were: Memory loss and/or unconsciousness = 18.2%, epilepsy = 15.9%, frontal syndrome = 9% and obstructive hydrocephalus = 6.8%. Conclusion: Giant prolactinomas account for 28% in our population. Severe neurological complications are frequent. But, obstructive hydrocephalus is rare, which argues for a slow progression. PMID:25932390

  10. Prevalence of fatigue in Guillain-Barre syndrome in neurological rehabilitation setting

    PubMed Central

    Ranjani, Prajna; Khanna, Meeka; Gupta, Anupam; Nagappa, Madhu; Taly, Arun B; Haldar, Partha

    2014-01-01

    Background: Fatigue contributes significantly to the morbidity and affects the quality of life adversely in Guillain-Barre Syndrome (GBS). Objective: To determine the prevalence of fatigue in GBS in neurological rehabilitation setting and to study its clinical correlates. Materials and Methods: We performed secondary analysis of data of patients with GBS admitted in neurological rehabilitation ward of a tertiary care centre, recorded at both admission and discharge. Assessment of fatigue was done by Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS), disability-status by Hughe's Disability Scale (HDS), functional-status by Barthel Index, anxiety/depression by Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale, sleep disturbances by Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and muscle weakness by Medical Research Council sum scores. Results: A total of 90 patients (62 men) with mean age 34 years (95% CI 32.2, 37.7) were included. Median duration of, stay at neurological rehabilitation ward was 30 days, while that of symptoms was 18.5 days. Presence of fatigue at admission (FSS ? 4 in 39% patients) was associated with ventilator requirement (P = 0.021) and neuropathic pain (P = 0.03). Presence of fatigue at discharge (FSS ? 4 in 12% patients) was associated with disability- HDS (?3) (P = 0.008), presence of anxiety (P = 0.042) and duration of stay at rehabilitation ward (P = 0.02). Fatigue did not correlate with age, gender, antecedent illness, muscle weakness, depression and sleep disturbances. Conclusion: Fatigue is prevalent in GBS during early recovery phase of illness. Despite motor recovery fatigue may persist. Knowledge about fatigue as burden of disease in these patients will improve patient care. PMID:25221406

  11. [Disorders of consciousness as a manifestation of neurologic disease].

    PubMed

    Brinar, V; Matijevi?, V

    1995-06-01

    Seventy-nine patients admitted in the neurological Intensive care unit because of severe disturbances of consciousness has been evaluated. Protocol based on previous experiences in evaluation of unconsciousness patients was used. Forty-four patients died and thirty-five survived. In 46 patients cause of illness was intracerebral hemorrhage. In 44 of them the cause of hemorrhage was arterial hypertension and in two of them rupture of a-v malformation. The majority of patients actually 41 of them showed hemispheral localization of intracerebral hematoma and five subtentorial. Pontien hemorrhages was found in three and cerebellar in two patients. In majority of 24 patients with hemispheral localization of intracerebral hematoma who showed progressive deterioration of consciousness the signs of descendent transtentorial herniation were found. The symptoms of uncal herniation were rare. In three patients with subtentorial localization of intracerebral hematoma who died signs of upward transtentorial herniation were observed. In 16 patients with ischemic cerebrovascular accident who showed disturbances of the consciousness at the admittance or soon after, nine patients died and seven survived. The cause of their condition were great hemispheral, smaller brain stem ischemic lesion, or deterioration of consciousness was related to the somatic illness. Patients with great ischemic lesions showed similar course of consciousness deterioration as it was observed in patients with hemispherical intracerebral hematomas with difference that biphasic course of illness characterized with temporary stagnation or even slight improvement of patients condition and than secondary progression of deterioration was seen only in patients with intracerebral hematoma, probably because of secondary ischemic complications. Ten patients were admitted because of subarachnoidal and two of them because of intraventricular hemorrhage. Six of them died and four survived. These patients has rupture of great sacular aneurysm with fast development of high intracranial pressure. In two of them the cause of death was rerupture of aneurysm. Stuporous patient with hemispheral neoplasm showed development of descendent transtentorial herniation which was stopped by anti oedematous and corticosteroid therapy. Comatose patient with brisk response on oculocephalic stimulation and normal papillary light reflexes was suspected on intoxication rather than structural brain lesion. He recovered by diuretics and forced rehydratation. After becoming conscious barbiturate intoxication was confirmed. Three patients were admitted in coma because of poisoning with CO, two patients died. Two patients admitted in epileptic status showed late diencephalic state of coma and they survived after anti epileptics and antioedematous treatment. PMID:8649154

  12. [Psychiatric, psychological, and neurological characteristics of patients with chronic low back pain].

    PubMed

    Aleksandrovski?, Iu A; Iakhno, N N; Avedisova, A S; Chakhava, K O; Ershova, E M; Protasenko, T V; Alekseev, V V; Podchufarova, E V

    2003-01-01

    We examined 143 patients, aged 18-65 years, with chronic low back pain, in 78 of patients diagnosed as chronic somatoform pain disorder (CSPD)--ICD-10 F45.4--and in 65 as chronic pain syndrome (CPS) caused by spine pathology (M48.0, M51.1, M54.4). Depressive symptoms predominated in CSPD patients, who exhibited more pronounced psychopathological disturbances and two-fold higher frequency of personality disorders, comparing to those with CPS. In CSPD patients pain severity and reaction to pain syndrome were significantly higher than in CPS patients. Psychodiagnostic study revealed higher expressed anxiety and depression as well as socio-psychological maladaptation in CSPD patients as compared to CPS ones. After neurological examination, significant between-group differences were found in the frequency of muscular-tonic myofacial, syndrome and iliosacral joint dysfunction. PMID:12800548

  13. Medical therapy of a left-sided native valve endocarditis with neurologic sequela

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Choon S.; Mohamad, Shawal; Maskon, Oteh

    2015-01-01

    Infective endocarditis could present with a plethora of signs and symptoms. Among the rarity of its presentation is acute confusion associated with neurological deficits, mimicking stroke especially in the young population. We report a case of a 33-year-old young man with acute right-sided hemiparesis and confusion 2 weeks after tooth extraction. The brain CT and MRI was consistent with new infarction on the left middle and anterior cerebral arteries’ territory. Echocardiography unveiled the existence of posterior mitral valve leaflet vegetation. Blood culture grew Group B beta-haemolytic Streptococcus, sensitive to penicillin. Two weeks of intravenous gentamicin with 6 weeks of intravenous benzylpenicillin were administered. In this case report, we highlight the importance of recognition of infective endocarditis in a young patient presenting with cerebrovascular accident following tooth extraction. PMID:25987119

  14. Persistence of neurological damage induced by dietary vitamin B-12 deficiency in infancy.

    PubMed

    von Schenck, U; Bender-Götze, C; Koletzko, B

    1997-08-01

    A case is reported of a 14 month old boy with severe dietary vitamin B-12 deficiency caused by his mother's vegan diet. Clinical, electroencephalography (EEG), and haematological findings are described. Cranial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed severe frontal and frontoparietal cranial atrophy. Vitamin B-12 supplements led to a rapid improvement of haematological and neurological symptoms. Serum vitamin B-12 and urinary methylmalonate excretion were normal 10 days after treatment began. After six weeks, EEG was normal and cranial MRI after 10 weeks showed complete disappearance of all structural abnormalities. Cognitive and language development, however, remained seriously retarded at the age of 2 years. It is concluded that infantile vitamin B-12 deficiency induced by maternal vegan diets may cause lasting neurodisability even though vitamin B-12 supplementation leads to rapid resolution of cerebral atrophy and electroencephalographic abnormality. PMID:9301352

  15. Treatment of fragile X-associated tremor ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) and related neurological problems

    PubMed Central

    Hagerman, Randi J; Hall, Deborah A; Coffey, Sarah; Leehey, Maureen; Bourgeois, James; Gould, John; Zhang, Lin; Seritan, Andreea; Berry-Kravis, Elizabeth; Olichney, John; Miller, Joshua W; Fong, Amy L; Carpenter, Randall; Bodine, Cathy; Gane, Louise W; Rainin, Edgar; Hagerman, Hillary; Hagerman, Paul J

    2008-01-01

    Fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) is a progressive neurological disorder that affects older adult carriers, predominantly males, of premutation alleles (55 to 200 CGG repeats) of the fragile X (FMR1) gene. Principal features of FXTAS are intention tremor, ataxia, parkinsonism, cognitive decline, and peripheral neuropathy; ancillary features include, autonomic dysfunction, and psychiatric symptoms of anxiety, depression, and disinhibition. Although controlled trials have not been carried out in individuals with FXTAS, there is a significant amount of anecdotal information regarding various treatment modalities. Moreover, there exists a great deal of evidence regarding the efficacy of various medications for treatment of other disorders (eg, Alzheimer disease) that have substantial phenotypic overlap with FXTAS. The current review summarizes what is currently known regarding the symptomatic treatment, or potential for treatment, of FXTAS. PMID:18686748

  16. Application of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells from human adipose tissue for compensation of neurological deficiency induced by 3-nitropropionic acid in rats

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. V. Kulikov; M. S. Stepanova; S. L. Stvolinsky; R. M. Hudoerkov; D. N. Voronkov; A. A. Rzhaninova; D. V. Goldstein; A. A. Boldyrev

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated possible therapeutic effect of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells from human adipose tissue differentiated\\u000a to neuronal phenotype with retinoic acid on Wistar rats subjected to toxic effect of 3-nitropropionic acid. Transplantation\\u000a of mesenchymal stromal cells from human adipose tissue considerably decreased neurological symptoms, normalized exploratory\\u000a activity (open field test) and long-term memory (Morris test), which correlated with normalization of

  17. Chronic hepatitis C virus infection and neurological and psychiatric disorders: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Adinolfi, Luigi Elio; Nevola, Riccardo; Lus, Giacomo; Restivo, Luciano; Guerrera, Barbara; Romano, Ciro; Zampino, Rosa; Rinaldi, Luca; Sellitto, Ausilia; Giordano, Mauro; Marrone, Aldo

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is considered a systemic disease because of involvement of other organs and tissues concomitantly with liver disease. Among the extrahepatic manifestations, neuropsychiatric disorders have been reported in up to 50% of chronic HCV infected patients. Both the central and peripheral nervous system may be involved with a wide variety of clinical manifestations. Main HCV-associated neurological conditions include cerebrovascular events, encephalopathy, myelitis, encephalomyelitis, and cognitive impairment, whereas “brain fog”, depression, anxiety, and fatigue are at the top of the list of psychiatric disorders. Moreover, HCV infection is known to cause both motor and sensory peripheral neuropathy in the context of mixed cryoglobulinemia, and has also been recently recognized as an independent risk factor for stroke. These extrahepatic manifestations are independent of severity of the underlying chronic liver disease and hepatic encephalopathy. The brain is a suitable site for HCV replication, where the virus may directly exert neurotoxicity; other mechanisms proposed to explain the pathogenesis of neuropsychiatric disorders in chronic HCV infection include derangement of metabolic pathways of infected cells, alterations in neurotransmitter circuits, autoimmune disorders, and cerebral or systemic inflammation. A pathogenic role for HCV is also suggested by improvement of neurological and psychiatric symptoms in patients achieving a sustained virologic response following interferon treatment; however, further ad hoc trials are needed to fully assess the impact of HCV infection and specific antiviral treatments on associated neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:25741133

  18. Neurological and Psychiatric Diseases and Their Unique Cognitive Profiles: Implications for Nursing Practice and Research

    PubMed Central

    Vance, David E.; Dodson, Joan E.; Watkins, Jason; Kennedy, Bridgett H.; Keltner, Norman L.

    2013-01-01

    To successfully negotiate and interact with one’s environment, optimal cognitive functioning is needed. Unfortunately, many neurological and psychiatric diseases impede certain cognitive abilities such as executive functioning or speed of processing; this can produce a poor fit between the patient and the cognitive demands of his or her environment. Such non-dementia diseases include bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, post-traumatic stress syndrome, depression, and anxiety disorders, just to name a few. Each of these diseases negatively affects particular areas of the brain, resulting in distinct cognitive profiles (e.g., deficits in executive functioning but normal speed of processing as seen in schizophrenia). In fact, it is from these cognitive deficits in which such behavioral and emotional symptoms may manifest (e.g., delusions, paranoia). This article highlights the distinct cognitive profiles of such common neurological and psychiatric diseases. An understanding of such disease-specific cognitive profiles can assist nurses in providing care to patients by knowing what cognitive deficits are associated with each disease and how these cognitive deficits impact everyday functioning and social interactions. Implications for nursing practice and research are posited within the framework of cognitive reserve and neuroplasticity. PMID:23422693

  19. Zinc in Gut-Brain Interaction in Autism and Neurological Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Vela, Guillermo; Stark, Peter; Socha, Michael; Sauer, Ann Katrin; Hagmeyer, Simone; Grabrucker, Andreas M.

    2015-01-01

    A growing amount of research indicates that abnormalities in the gastrointestinal (GI) system during development might be a common factor in multiple neurological disorders and might be responsible for some of the shared comorbidities seen among these diseases. For example, many patients with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) have symptoms associated with GI disorders. Maternal zinc status may be an important factor given the multifaceted effect of zinc on gut development and morphology in the offspring. Zinc status influences and is influenced by multiple factors and an interdependence of prenatal and early life stress, immune system abnormalities, impaired GI functions, and zinc deficiency can be hypothesized. In line with this, systemic inflammatory events and prenatal stress have been reported to increase the risk for ASD. Thus, here, we will review the current literature on the role of zinc in gut formation, a possible link between gut and brain development in ASD and other neurological disorders with shared comorbidities, and tie in possible effects on the immune system. Based on these data, we present a novel model outlining how alterations in the maternal zinc status might pathologically impact the offspring leading to impairments in brain functions later in life. PMID:25878905

  20. Chronic hepatitis C virus infection and neurological and psychiatric disorders: an overview.

    PubMed

    Adinolfi, Luigi Elio; Nevola, Riccardo; Lus, Giacomo; Restivo, Luciano; Guerrera, Barbara; Romano, Ciro; Zampino, Rosa; Rinaldi, Luca; Sellitto, Ausilia; Giordano, Mauro; Marrone, Aldo

    2015-02-28

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is considered a systemic disease because of involvement of other organs and tissues concomitantly with liver disease. Among the extrahepatic manifestations, neuropsychiatric disorders have been reported in up to 50% of chronic HCV infected patients. Both the central and peripheral nervous system may be involved with a wide variety of clinical manifestations. Main HCV-associated neurological conditions include cerebrovascular events, encephalopathy, myelitis, encephalomyelitis, and cognitive impairment, whereas "brain fog", depression, anxiety, and fatigue are at the top of the list of psychiatric disorders. Moreover, HCV infection is known to cause both motor and sensory peripheral neuropathy in the context of mixed cryoglobulinemia, and has also been recently recognized as an independent risk factor for stroke. These extrahepatic manifestations are independent of severity of the underlying chronic liver disease and hepatic encephalopathy. The brain is a suitable site for HCV replication, where the virus may directly exert neurotoxicity; other mechanisms proposed to explain the pathogenesis of neuropsychiatric disorders in chronic HCV infection include derangement of metabolic pathways of infected cells, alterations in neurotransmitter circuits, autoimmune disorders, and cerebral or systemic inflammation. A pathogenic role for HCV is also suggested by improvement of neurological and psychiatric symptoms in patients achieving a sustained virologic response following interferon treatment; however, further ad hoc trials are needed to fully assess the impact of HCV infection and specific antiviral treatments on associated neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:25741133