Sample records for transistor amplifiers

  1. Receiver Video Transistor Amplifiers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. G. Salaman

    1958-01-01

    The development of the transistor has progressed to the point where practical video amplifiers of quality comparable to those of vacuum tubes can be designed. Limitations such as collector-emitter voltage, power, and alpha cut-off frequency continue to pose problems in designing a one stage video amplifier.

  2. Transistorized Distributed Amplifier

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles W. McMullen

    1959-01-01

    Some analytical and experimental results are given for a transistorized distributed amplifier using the common emitter configuration. The characteristic impedances of the base and collector transmission lines are both 43.4?. A 4-section amplifier stage yields a mid-frequency gain of 5.1 db and an upper half-power frequency of 290 Mc. The low-frequency response is reasonably constant down to 10 cps.

  3. Transistorized Distributed Amplifier

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Charles W. McMullen

    1959-01-01

    Some analytical and experimental results are given for a transistorized ; distributed amplifier using the common emitter configuration. The characteristic ; impedances of the base and collector transmission lines are both 43.4 OMEGA . A ; 4-section amplifier stage yields a mid-frequency gain of 5.1 db and an upper half-; power frequency of 290 Mc. The low-frequency response is reasonably

  4. Transistor 70Mc IF amplifier

    Microsoft Academic Search

    V. Saari

    1958-01-01

    A 70-Mc IF amplifier using seven diffused-base germanium transistors is described. The insertion gain is 90 db, with bandwidth greater than 15 mc, flat to within ±0.3 db. The +12-dbm output is stabilized against change in input level or temperature by 35 db of AGC and the noise figure is 5 db. A digital computer was used as a tool

  5. The Transistor A New Semiconductor Amplifier

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. A. Becker; Aiee; J. N. Shive

    1999-01-01

    This article describes the construction, characteristics, and behavior of the newly discovered device, the transistor. Used as a semiconductor amplifier, it works on an entirely different principle and is capable of performing the same tasks now done by the vacuum tube triode. “Transistor” is the name which has been given to the semiconductor amplifier triode recently developed at the Bell

  6. Common-Emitter Transistor Video Amplifiers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Georg Bruun

    1956-01-01

    A design procedure and theory are given for the common-emitter transistor video amplifier with and without a feedback resistor in the emitter lead. In the analysis a junction transistor of the alloy type is represented by the Johnson-Giacoletto hybrid-pi equivalent circuit for the common-emitter transistor. The design theory accounts for the most significant part of the bilateralness of the transistor

  7. Simple, Stable and Reliable Transistorized DC Amplifiers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. C. Hale; J. S. Nisbet; C. K. Wilk

    1965-01-01

    A transistor dc feedback voltage amplifier using a differential input stage followed by a single common emitter stage is analyzed to obtain the gain and drift rate dependence on temperature. It is found that under typical restraints on allowable input terminal current, the open loop gain of such an amplifier is restricted to a value only somewhat greater than twenty

  8. Fully differential cryogenic transistor amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beev, Nikolai; Kiviranta, Mikko

    2013-10-01

    We have constructed a dc-coupled differential amplifier capable of operating in the 4.2 K-300 K temperature range. The amplifier can be operated at high-bias setting, where it dissipates 5 mW, has noise temperature TN ? 0.7 K at RS ? 5 k? and >40 MHz bandwidth at 4.2 K bath temperature. The bias setting can be adjusted: at our lowest tested setting the amplifier dissipates <100 ?W, has noise temperature TN ? 2 K at RS ? 25 k? and >2 MHz bandwidth. The 1/f noise corner frequency is a few times 10 kHz. We foresee the amplifier to have an application in the readout of Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices (SQUIDs), Superconducting Tunnel Junction Detectors (STJs) and Transition Edge Sensors (TESes). We have verified the practical use of the amplifier by reading out a 4.2 K 480-SQUID array with 40 MHz bandwidth and <8 × 10-8 ?0/Hz1/2 flux noise.

  9. TRANSISTORIZED PULSE AMPLIFIERS. 3. A TRANSISTOR AMPLIFIER FOR USE WITH METHANE PROPORTIONAL COUNTERS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Waugh; J. B. S

    1959-01-01

    A transistor pulse amplifier for use with methane proportional counters ; is described. The counter operation and the characteristics of the electrical ; output signals are described. Voltage and current pulse waveforms are related, ; and the use of the short duration current pulse to obtaia a smaller resolving ; time amplifier is pointed out. The practical amplifler uses low

  10. An Ultra-Low-Distortion Transistorized Power Amplifier

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. M. Kleinman; C. F. Wheatley

    1961-01-01

    The development of a new type of power transistor has made possible the construction of ultra-high-performance audio-frequency amplifiers which can equal the performance of the finest vacuum-tube amplifiers available. The design, construction, and performance characteristics of such an amplifier, using RCA drift-field power transistors, is discussed. The amplifier is capable of providing a power output of 50 watts at less

  11. IF Amplifier using C\\/SUB c\\/ compensated transistors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JOHN A. MATAYA; G. W. Haines; S. B. Marshall

    1968-01-01

    An integrated bridge network of four transistors is used as a self-neutralized active element in tuned RLC amplifier designs. The bridge network compensates for the transistor collector-base junction capacitance (C\\/SUB c\\/), yielding a 95-percent reduction in the common-emitter reverse transmission admittance. IF amplifier stages that achieve the maximum unilateral power gain of a common-emitter transistor while maintaining excellent alignability are

  12. Characterization of a Common-Source Amplifier Using Ferroelectric Transistors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, Mitchell; Sayyah, Rana; MacLeond, Todd C.; Ho, Pat D.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents empirical data that was collected through experiments using a FeFET in the established common-source amplifier circuit. The unique behavior of the FeFET lends itself to interesting and useful operation in this widely used common-source amplifier. The paper examines the effect of using a ferroelectric transistor for the amplifier. It also examines the effects of varying load resistance, biasing, and input voltages on the output signal and gives several examples of the output of the amplifier for a given input. The difference between a commonsource amplifier using a ferroelectric transistor and that using a MOSFET is addressed.

  13. Investigations of Noise in Audio Frequency Amplifiers Using Junction Transistors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. M. Bargellini; M. B. Herscher

    1955-01-01

    An investigation of noise from modem junction transistors in audio frequency amplifiers is presented. Different circuit configurations are examined and the effects on noise factor of the input termination and operating point are discussed. At least three distinct sources of noise corresponding to different physical phenomena contributing to total noise are identified. In modem junction transistors shot noise and thermal

  14. Asynchronous Computing in Sense Amplifier-Based Pass Transistor Logic

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tsung-Te Liu; Louis P. Alarcón; Matthew D. Pierson; Jan M. Rabaey

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the design and implementation of a low energy asynchronous logic architecture using sense amplifier-based pass transistor logic (SAPTL). The SAPTL structure can realize very low energy computation by using low leakage pass transistors and low supply voltage. The introduction of asynchronous operation in SAPTL further improves energy-delay performance and reliability without increasing hardware complexity. We show two

  15. Characterization of a Common-Gate Amplifier Using Ferroelectric Transistors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, Mitchell; Sayyah, Rana; MacLeod, Todd C.; Ho, Fat D.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the empirical data collected through experiments performed using a FeFET in the common-gate amplifier circuit is presented. The FeFET common-gate amplifier was characterized by varying all parameters in the circuit, such as load resistance, biasing of the transistor, and input voltages. Due to the polarization of the ferroelectric layer, the particular behavior of the FeFET common-gate amplifier presents interesting results. Furthermore, the differences between a FeFET common-gate amplifier and a MOSFET common-gate amplifier are examined.

  16. Ferroelectric Field-Effect Transistor Differential Amplifier Circuit Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Thomas A.; MacLeod, Todd C.; Ho, Fat D.

    2008-01-01

    There has been considerable research investigating the Ferroelectric Field-Effect Transistor (FeFET) in memory circuits. However, very little research has been performed in applying the FeFET to analog circuits. This paper investigates the use of FeFETs in a common analog circuit, the differential amplifier. The two input Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (MOS) transistors in a general MOS differential amplifier circuit are replaced with FeFETs. Resistors are used in place of the other three MOS transistors. The FeFET model used in the analysis has been previously reported and was based on experimental device data. Because of the FeFET hysteresis, the FeFET differential amplifier has four different operating modes depending on whether the FeFETs are positively or negatively polarized. The FeFET differential amplifier operation in the different modes was analyzed by calculating the amplifier voltage transfer and gain characteristics shown in figures 2 through 5. Comparisons were made between the FeFET differential amplifier and the standard MOS differential amplifier. Possible applications and benefits of the FeFET differential amplifier are discussed.

  17. Tubes and transistors in audio amplifiers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    O. M. Reshetnikov; R. K. Khestanov; Y. V. Chernykh

    1985-01-01

    The alleged differences between tube and transistor high-fidelity sound reproduction channels, in terms of subjective versus objective evaluation of reception quality was studied. For testing the preamplifier stage behind the phonograph pickup was singled out, the Audio Research SP-6C tube preamplifier being compared with a specially built RIAA transistor preamplifier-corrector, so as to separate interaction of this stage from interaction

  18. High Current Analog Bipolar Junction Transistor Amplifier Integrated Circuit Development

    E-print Network

    Texas at Arlington, University of

    (considering push-pull, class AB, common emitter and emitter follower designs) A. Comparison of circuit, common emitter and emitter follower designs C. Circuits - procedures for and determination of practicalHigh Current Analog Bipolar Junction Transistor Amplifier Integrated Circuit Development Statement

  19. Simple Introduction to Transistor (BJT) Amplifier

    E-print Network

    Fowler, Mark

    Transistor Collector Emitter Base Current Meter Variable R · Base Current deflects current meter · Meter Current Spins Small Turbine (Turbines: no friction & no momentum) Must exceed Diode "drop" before base current flows Large Turbine spins @ same rate as small one... BUT larger size causes more water to flow

  20. Cross-modulation figure of merit for transistor amplifier stages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Lieberman

    1970-01-01

    This article concerns itself with comparison of transistor amplifier configurations in relation to their cross-modulation distortion characteristics. Only the base-emitter junction nonlinearity is considered, since this nonlinearity is considered to be the most significant contributor to cross-modulation distortion. For this case investigations have shown that since cross modulation occurs because of a third-order nonlinearity, the cross-modulation distortion is therefore proportional

  1. A high-performance cryogenic amplifier based on a radio-frequency single electron transistor

    E-print Network

    Segall, Ken

    amplifier based on a radio-frequency single-electron- transistor rf-SET . The high charge sensitivity impedance sources. In this letter we present a demonstration of a high- performance amplifier based on a rfA high-performance cryogenic amplifier based on a radio-frequency single electron transistor K

  2. 'Soft' amplifier circuits based on field-effect ionic transistors.

    PubMed

    Boon, Niels; Olvera de la Cruz, Monica

    2015-06-28

    Soft materials can be used as the building blocks for electronic devices with extraordinary properties. We introduce a theoretical model for a field-effect transistor in which ions are the gated species instead of electrons. Our model incorporates readily-available soft materials, such as conductive porous membranes and polymer-electrolytes to represent a device that regulates ion currents and can be integrated as a component in larger circuits. By means of Nernst-Planck numerical simulations as well as an analytical description of the steady-state current we find that the responses of the system to various input voltages can be categorized into ohmic, sub-threshold, and active modes. This is fully analogous to what is known for the electronic field-effect transistor (FET). Pivotal FET properties such as the threshold voltage and the transconductance crucially depend on the half-cell redox potentials of the source and drain electrodes as well as on the polyelectrolyte charge density and the gate material work function. We confirm the analogy with the electronic FETs through numerical simulations of elementary amplifier circuits in which we successfully substitute the electronic transistor by an ionic transistor. PMID:25990873

  3. A new linearization technique for MOSFET RF amplifier using multiple gated transistors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bonkee Kim; Jin-Su Ko; Kwyro Lee

    2000-01-01

    A simple linearization technique using multiple gated common source transistors is proposed where gate width and gate drive (Vgs -Vth) of each transistor are chosen to compensate for the nonlinear characteristics of the main transistor. To demonstrate the feasibility of this approach, a prototype double-gated RF amplifier using two MOSFETs is implemented and its RF characteristics are compared with those

  4. The origin of 1\\/f PM and AM noise in bipolar junction transistor amplifiers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. L. Walls; E. S. Ferre-Pikal; S. R. Jefferts

    1995-01-01

    In this paper we report the results of extensive research on phase modulation (PM) and amplitude modulation (AM) noise in linear bipolar junction transistor (BJT) amplifiers. BJT amplifiers exhibit 1\\/f PM and AM noise about a carrier signal that is much larger than the amplifier's thermal noise at those frequencies in the absence of the carrier signal. Our work shows

  5. Origin of 1\\/f PM and AM noise in bipolar junction transistor amplifiers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. L. Walls; E. S. Ferre-Pikal; S. R. Jefferts

    1997-01-01

    In this paper we report the results of extensive research on phase modulation (PM) and amplitude modulation (AM) noise in linear bipolar junction transistor (BJT) amplifiers. BJT amplifiers exhibit 1\\/f PM and AM noise about a carrier signal that is much larger than the amplifiers thermal noise at those frequencies in the absence of the carrier signal. Our work shows

  6. Experimental studies of frequency response and related properties of small-signal bipolar junction transistor amplifiers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Motayed; T. E. Browne; A. I. Onuorah; S. N. Mohammad

    2001-01-01

    Small-signal bipolar junction transistor (BJT) amplifiers, including common-emitter (C-E), common-base, and common-collector amplifiers, are the basic building blocks of many analog integrated circuits. An experimental investigation of the physical analysis of the frequency response and related parameters of these amplifiers have been performed in some details. The analysis uncovers fundamental reasons underlying the frequency response of the amplifiers. It indicates

  7. A wide-band low noise L-band balanced transistor amplifier

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. S. Engelbrecht; K. Kurokawa

    1965-01-01

    The design principles, construction details, and experimental results of a balanced transistor amplifier suitable for precise wide-band applications in the low microwave frequency range are described. Each amplifier stage consists of a pair of electrically similar transistors whose input and output signals are combined by 3-dB directional couplers. This eliminates the need for tuning adjustments. For a wide frequency range,

  8. E-Learning System for Design and Construction of Amplifier Using Transistors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takemura, Atsushi

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel e-Learning system for the comprehensive understanding of electronic circuits with transistors. The proposed e-Learning system allows users to learn a wide range of topics, encompassing circuit theories, design, construction, and measurement. Given the fact that the amplifiers with transistors are an integral part of…

  9. A New SubMillimeter Wave Power Amplifier Topology Using Large Transistors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. R. Deal; X. B. Mei; V. Radisic; B. Bayuk; A. Fung; W. Yoshida; P. H. Liu; J. Uyeda; L. Samoska; T. Gaier; R. Lai

    2008-01-01

    In this letter, a new power amplifier topology is demonstrated which allows the use of large (120 mum\\/transistors) at extremely high frequency. This is accomplished by using compact matching networks consisting of coplanar waveguide transmission lines and metal-insulator-metal capacitors to match each of the three amplifier stages. The resulting amplifier achieves a peak gain of 16.5 dB at 260 GHz.

  10. Origin of 1/f PM and AM noise in bipolar junction transistor amplifiers.

    PubMed

    Walls, F L; Ferre-Pikal, E S; Jefferts, S R

    1997-01-01

    In this paper we report the results of extensive research on phase modulation (PM) and amplitude modulation (AM) noise in linear bipolar junction transistor (BJT) amplifiers. BJT amplifiers exhibit 1/f PM and AM noise about a carrier signal that is much larger than the amplifiers thermal noise at those frequencies in the absence of the carrier signal. Our work shows that the 1/f PM noise of a BJT based amplifier is accompanied by 1/f AM noise which can be higher, lower, or nearly equal, depending on the circuit implementation. The 1/f AM and PM noise in BJTs is primarily the result of 1/f fluctuations in transistor current, transistor capacitance, circuit supply voltages, circuit impedances, and circuit configuration. We discuss the theory and present experimental data in reference to common emitter amplifiers, but the analysis can be applied to other configurations as well. This study provides the functional dependence of 1/f AM and PM noise on transistor parameters, circuit parameters, and signal frequency, thereby laying the groundwork for a comprehensive theory of 1/f AM and PM noise in BJT amplifiers. We show that in many cases the 1/f PM and AM noise can be reduced below the thermal noise of the amplifier. PMID:18244130

  11. New Trends for the Nonlinear Measurement and Modeling of High-Power RF Transistors and Amplifiers With Memory Effects

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrick Roblin; David E. Root; Jan Verspecht; Youngseo Ko; Jean Pierre Teyssier

    2012-01-01

    Power amplifier (PA) behavior is inextricably linked to the characteristics of the transistors underlying the PA design. All transistors exhibit some degree of memory effects, which must therefore be taken into account in the modeling and design of these PAs. In this paper, we will present new trends for the characterization, device modeling, and behavioral modeling of power transistors and

  12. Highly linear CMOS RF MMIC amplifier using multiple gated transistors and its Volterra series analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Bonkee Kim; Jin-Su Ko; Kwyro Lee

    2001-01-01

    CMOS RF MMIC amplifiers are fabricated with linearization technique using multiple gated transistors. At 900 MHz, double and triple gated amplifiers show 2.5-4.5 dB larger figure of merit (linearity-DC power consumption), which means that only 1\\/2~1\\/3 of DC power is needed to obtain the same OIP3 value. Using Volterra series analysis and harmonic balance simulation, it is shown that the

  13. Highly linear RF CMOS amplifier and mixer adopting MOSFET transconductance linearization by multiple gated transistors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Tae Wook Kim; Bonkee Kim; Kywro Lee

    2003-01-01

    A highly linear CMOS RF amplifier and mixer circuits adopting MOSFET transconductance linearization by linearly superposing several common-source FET transistors in parallel, combined with some additional circuit techniques such as cascode for amplifier and harmonic tuning for mixer, are reported. Experimental result designed using above techniques shows IP3 improvements at given power consumption by as large as 10 dB for

  14. Modeling a Common-Source Amplifier Using a Ferroelectric Transistor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sayyah, Rana; Hunt, Mitchell; MacLeond, Todd C.; Ho, Fat D.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a mathematical model characterizing the behavior of a common-source amplifier using a FeFET. The model is based on empirical data and incorporates several variables that affect the output, including frequency, load resistance, and gate-to-source voltage. Since the common-source amplifier is the most widely used amplifier in MOS technology, understanding and modeling the behavior of the FeFET-based common-source amplifier will help in the integration of FeFETs into many circuits.

  15. Graphic design of matching and interstage lossy networks for microwave transistor amplifier

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. C. Villar; F. Perez

    1985-01-01

    A graphical design method for lossless and lossy gain-compensating networks is presented, and the advantages of the use of this technique in the construction of microwave-transistor amplifiers are discussed. The method is based on the use of a set of constant circles plotted on the Smith Chart, and is easily automated on a personal computer. Two applications are presented: a

  16. Wide-band matched amplifier design using dual loop feedback and two common emitter transistor stages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    THOMAS J. APRILLE

    1976-01-01

    This paper gives practical synthesis procedures for the design of shaped gain, wide-band, matched, dual loop feedback amplifiers that use a cascade of two common emitter transistor stages. These procedures are unique in that loading effects of the feedback networks are fully taken into account. A comparison example is constructed that shows this technique to be more than a viable

  17. 6.301 Solid State Circuits Recitation 3: AC Coupling, and Single-Transistor Amplifiers

    E-print Network

    Goldwasser, Shafi

    -amps: As a warm-up, the familiar Common Emitter Stage: RI vi R0 avvi RI RIvi vi R0 R0 avvi avvi "Interstage from the emitter: RIN = r + rb +1 Summary of common base stage: High gain, low input impedance, high-Transistor Amplifiers Prof. Joel L. Dawson Page 7 Emitter Follower Sta

  18. NPN RF Transistor This device is designed for use in low noise UHF/VHF amplifiers

    E-print Network

    Berns, Hans-Gerd

    currents in the 100 µA to 30 mA range in common emitter or common base mode of operation, and in lowNPN RF Transistor This device is designed for use in low noise UHF/VHF amplifiers with collector pulsed or low duty cycle operations. Symbol Parameter Value Units VCEO Collector-Emitter Voltage 12 V

  19. THz electronics projects at DARPA: Transistors, TMICs, and amplifiers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    John D. Albrecht; Mark J. Rosker; H. Bruce Wallace; Tsu-Hsi Chang

    2010-01-01

    Revolutionary THz transmitter and receiver demonstrations are the ongoing focus of a portfolio of programs within the DARPA. Through the sponsorship of the Terahertz Electronics and related programs, a technology base is being established to effectively generate, detect, process, and radiate sub-MMW frequencies to exploit this practically inaccessible frequency domain for imaging, radar, spectroscopy, and communications applications. Transistors, integration technologies,

  20. THz Electronics projects at DARPA: Transistors, TMICs, and amplifiers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. D. Albrecht; M. J. Rosker; H. B. Wallace; T. Chang

    2010-01-01

    Revolutionary THz transmitter and receiver demonstrations are the ongoing focus of a portfolio of programs within the DARPA. Through the sponsorship of the Terahertz Electronics and related programs, a technology base is being established to effectively generate, detect, process, and radiate sub-MMW frequencies to exploit this practically inaccessible frequency domain for imaging, radar, spectroscopy, and communications applications. Transistors, integration technologies,

  1. Cryogenic, low-noise high electron mobility transistor amplifiers for the Deep Space Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bautista, J. J.

    1993-01-01

    The rapid advances recently achieved by cryogenically cooled high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) low-noise amplifiers (LNA's) in the 1- to 10-GHz range are making them extremely competitive with maser amplifiers. In order to address future spacecraft navigation, telemetry, radar, and radio science needs, the Deep Space Network is investing both maser and HEMT amplifiers for its Ka-band (32-GHz) downlink capability. This article describes the current state cryogenic HEMT LNA development at Ka-band for the DSN. Noise performance results at S-band (2.3 GHz) and X-band (8.5 GHz) for HEMT's and masers are included for completeness.

  2. Residual phase noise modeling of amplifiers using silicon bipolar transistors.

    PubMed

    Theodoropoulos, Konstantinos; Everard, Jeremy

    2010-03-01

    In this paper, we describe the modeling of residual 1/f phase noise for Si bipolar amplifiers operating in the linear region. We propose that for Si bipolar amplifiers, the 1/f phase noise is largely caused by the base emitter recombination flicker noise. The up-conversion mechanism is described through linear approximation of the phase variation of the amplifier phase response by the variation of the device parameters (C(b)c, C(be), g(m), r(e)) caused by the recombination 1/f noise. The amplifier phase response describes the device over the whole frequency range of operation for which the influence of the poles and zeros is investigated. It is found that for a common emitter amplifier it is sufficient to only incorporate the effect of the device poles to describe the phase noise behavior over most of its operational frequency range. Simulations predict the measurements of others, including the flattening of the PM noise at frequencies beyond f(3dB), not predicted by previous models. PMID:20211771

  3. Field Effect Transistor /FET/ circuit for variable gin amplifiers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spaid, G. H.

    1969-01-01

    Amplifier circuit using two FETs combines improved input and output impedances with relatively large signal handling capability and an immunity from adverse effects of automatic gain control. Circuit has sources and drains in parallel plus a resistive divider for signal and bias to either of the gate terminals.

  4. Note: cryogenic low-noise dc-coupled wideband differential amplifier based on SiGe heterojunction bipolar transistors.

    PubMed

    Beev, Nikolai; Kiviranta, Mikko

    2012-06-01

    Silicon-germanium heterojunction bipolar transistors can be used to construct low-noise cryogenic amplifiers. We present a dc-coupled differential amplifier capable of operating down to 10 K. In this temperature regime it has bandwidth of 15 MHz and noise temperature as low as 1.3 K. When operated at liquid nitrogen temperature of 77 K, the measured noise temperature is lower than 3 K. The amplifier is based on the commercially available transistors NESG3031 and operational amplifier OPA836 and is capable of standalone operation without any additional stages at room temperature. PMID:22755673

  5. Note: Cryogenic low-noise dc-coupled wideband differential amplifier based on SiGe heterojunction bipolar transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beev, Nikolai; Kiviranta, Mikko

    2012-06-01

    Silicon-germanium heterojunction bipolar transistors can be used to construct low-noise cryogenic amplifiers. We present a dc-coupled differential amplifier capable of operating down to 10 K. In this temperature regime it has bandwidth of 15 MHz and noise temperature as low as 1.3 K. When operated at liquid nitrogen temperature of 77 K, the measured noise temperature is lower than 3 K. The amplifier is based on the commercially available transistors NESG3031 and operational amplifier OPA836 and is capable of standalone operation without any additional stages at room temperature.

  6. Ku-band planar transmit-array module with transistor amplifiers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Marek E. Bialkowski; Hyok J. Song

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents the design, development and testing of a Ku-band planar transmit-array module of transistor amplifiers excited by either a pyramidal horn or a patch array. Investigations are performed into the power combining efficiency of these structures. After establishing optimal distances between the active transmit-array and the illuminating antenna, either the patch array or horn, the entire structure is

  7. Transimpedance amplifiers for optical fiber systems based on common-base transistors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jaime Martinez-Castillo; Josd Silva-Martinez

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, the performances of common-emitter and common-base transimpedance amplifiers are compared. Frequency response, noise level, power consumption, and silicon area are the main parameters studied. It is shown that transimpedance preamplifiers based on common-base transistors present less peaking effects because the poles of the transimpedance gain are real in most practical cases. The noise figures for both common-emitter

  8. Cryogenic, low-noise, balanced amplifiers for the 300–1200 MHz band using heterostructure field-effect transistors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. F. Bradley

    1999-01-01

    A brief history of the Heterostructure Field-Effect Transistor (HFET) is presented. Several interesting physical properties of the HFET are discussed and its inherently low-noise microwave characteristics are explained. The designs of the five new NRAO HFET balanced amplifiers, covering the 300–1200 MHz band, are described and the measured noise performance presented. These amplifiers have noise temperatures ranging from 1.5–4 K

  9. Transistors

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Mr. Blackburn

    2004-07-05

    How does a transistor work ? History of semi-conductors Visit the museum of how the transistor was developed. Transistor history The Transistor Museum How stuff works Visit this site and follow through a short course on how a semi-conductor works. How stuff works PBS site Visit the PBS site of transistors and semi-conductors. Watch shorth videos on the development of the transistor. Timeline pbs ...

  10. Comparative study of phase and amplitude noise of CE, CE-CB and CC-CB bipolar transistor amplifiers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. I. Boldyreva

    1998-01-01

    Results of development of an algorithm for theoretical calculations both wideband and 1\\/f PM and AM noise in common emitter (CE), common emitter-common base (CE-CB) and common collector-common base (CC-CB) amplifiers are presented. The algorithm is based on using hybrid pi model of a bipolar junction transistor (BJT). An influence of wideband noise sources is calculated basing on well known

  11. Design of an auto-zeroed differential organic thin film field-effect transistor amplifier for sensor applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binkley, David M.; Verma, Nikhil; Crawford, Robert L.; Brandon, Erik J.; Jackson, Thomas N.

    2004-10-01

    Organic strain gauge and other sensors require high-gain, precision dc amplification to process their low-level output signals. Ideally, amplifiers would be fabricated using organic thin-film field-effect transistors (OTFT's) adjacent to the sensors. However, OTFT amplifiers exhibit low gain and high input-referred dc offsets that must be effectively managed. This paper presents a four-stage, cascaded differential OTFT amplifier utilizing switched capacitor auto-zeroing. Each stage provides a nominal voltage gain of four through a differential pair driving low-impedance active loads, which provide common-mode output voltage control. p-type pentacene OTFT's are used for the amplifier devices and auto-zero switches. Simulations indicate the amplifier provides a nominal voltage gain of 280 V/V and effectively amplifies a 1 mV dc signal in the presence of 500 mV amplifier input-referred dc offset voltages. Future work could include the addition of digital gain calibration and offset correction of residual offsets associated with charge injection imbalance in the differential circuits.

  12. A Mathematical Model of a Simple Amplifier Using a Ferroelectric Transistor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sayyah, Rana; Hunt, Mitchell; MacLeod, Todd C.; Ho, Fat D.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a mathematical model characterizing the behavior of a simple amplifier using a FeFET. The model is based on empirical data and incorporates several variables that affect the output, including frequency, load resistance, and gate-to-source voltage. Since the amplifier is the basis of many circuit configurations, a mathematical model that describes the behavior of a FeFET-based amplifier will help in the integration of FeFETs into many other circuits.

  13. Multiple, high-gain, common-emitter operational amplifiers using super-ß lateral transistors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Frederiksen; W. Davis; D. Zobel

    1971-01-01

    Six independent, internally-compensated high-performance op-amps have been built on a single monolithic chip. They were designed for industrial control and automotive electronic systems which require low-cost single-supply amplifiers.

  14. A transistorized decade amplifier for low-level audio-frequency applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Bereskin

    1957-01-01

    The amplifier descrbied in this paper has an input resistance of approximately 400,000 ohms in the audio-frequency range. The output noise level is equivalent to 5 µv at the input terminals with a response that is down 3 db at 5 cycles and at 100 kc. The amplifier has been designed in a self-contained package, the size of a frozen

  15. Third-order distortion and cross modulation in a grounded emitter transistor amplifier

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Lotsch

    1961-01-01

    The nonlinear modulation characteristic of a transistor is approached by the first terms of a Taylor-series formula and the output voltage is calculated for a suitably-chosen ac-input voltage. For higher frequencies and different working points, the influence of the diffusion capacity and the emitter admittance are illustrated by experimental results. It is shown that--as in electronic tubes-the third-order distortions (harmonic

  16. Extending the bandwidth performance of heterojunction bipolar transistor-based distributed amplifiers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin W. Kobayashi; Liem T. Tran; John C. Cowles; T. R. Block; A. K. Oki; D. C. Streit

    1996-01-01

    An InAlAs-InGaAs-InP HBT CPW distributed amplifier (DA) with a 2-30 GHz 1-dB bandwidth has been demonstrated which benchmarks the widest bandwidth reported for an HBT DA. The DA combines a 100 GHz fmax and 60 GHz fT HBT technology with a cascode coplanar waveguide DA topology to achieve this record bandwidth. The cascode gain cell offers 5-7 dB more available

  17. On the applicability of the transimpedance amplifier concept for 40 Gb\\/s optoelectronic receivers based on InAlAs\\/InGaAs heterostructure field effect transistors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. M. Bertenburg; G. Janssen; S. Van Waasen; R. Reuter; F.-J. Tegude

    1995-01-01

    We examine the design considerations and include a general discussion of the applicability of the transimpedance amplifier concept for optoelectronic receivers at extremely high bit rates up to 40 Gb\\/s. The receiver design is based on a low gate-leakage InAlAs-InGaAs-InP heterostructure field effect transistor (HFET). The noise modeling of these devices is done using an extended temperature noise model in

  18. Q-Band Monolithic GaAs PHEMT Low Noise Amplifiers: Comparative Study of Depletion and Enhancement Mode Transistors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Aja; J. P. Pascual; M. Cryan; E. Artal

    Two Q-band monolithic low noise amplifiers have been designed and characterized. A study about depletion and enhancement mode HEMTs with the same technology has been performed in order to apply these results to the design of the low noise amplifiers. These circuits have been developed for being used in the Back End module of the radiometers in the European Scientific

  19. Wideband Envelope Elimination and Restoration Power Amplifier with High Efficiency Wideband Envelope Amplifier for WLAN

    E-print Network

    Asbeck, Peter M.

    is the product of the envelope amplifier efficiency and RF transistor drain efficiency, i.e: transistorWideband Envelope Elimination and Restoration Power Amplifier with High Efficiency Wideband Envelope Amplifier for WLAN 802.11g Applications Feipeng Wang, Donald Kimball, Jeremy Popp*, Annie Yang

  20. Emitter bypassing in transistor circuits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Murray

    1957-01-01

    The emitter bypass capacitor has probably become as commonplace in transistor circuitry as its vacuum tube counterpart, the cathode bypass capacitor. An equivalent circuit analysis of the common-emitter amplifier yields a simple relation that may be used for the determination of the approximate value of the capacitor in terms of the required low-frequency response and the circuit and transistor parameters.

  1. A stereophonic transistor preamplifier

    Microsoft Academic Search

    W. Steiger

    1961-01-01

    Designed to drive two transistor-power amplifiers previously described, this preamplifier contains all the controls necessary for stereophonic and monophonic programs. The first two of the three stages form a complementary circuit readily adaptable for the various input sources, which provides the necessary gain and equalization for low-level phonograph and tape inputs, guard voltages to reduce the capacitive effects of the

  2. High stability amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, W. A.; Reinhardt, V. S. (inventors)

    1983-01-01

    An electrical RF signal amplifier for providing high temperature stability and RF isolation and comprised of an integrated circuit voltage regulator, a single transistor, and an integrated circuit operational amplifier mounted on a circuit board such that passive circuit elements are located on side of the circuit board while the active circuit elements are located on the other side is described. The active circuit elements are embedded in a common heat sink so that a common temperature reference is provided for changes in ambient temperature. The single transistor and operational amplifier are connected together to form a feedback amplifier powered from the voltage regulator with transistor implementing primarily the desired signal gain while the operational amplifier implements signal isolation. Further RF isolation is provided by the voltage regulator which inhibits cross-talk from other like amplifiers powered from a common power supply. Input and output terminals consisting of coaxial connectors are located on the sides of a housing in which all the circuit components and heat sink are located.

  3. Simulating Hybrid Circuits of Single-Electron Transistors and Field-Effect Transistors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Günther Lientschnig; Irek Weymann; Peter Hadley

    2003-01-01

    An exact model for a single-electron transistor was developed within the circuit simulation package SPICE. This model uses the orthodox theory of single-electron tunneling and determines the average current through the transistor as a function of the bias voltage, the gate voltage, and the temperature. Circuits including single-electron transistors, field-effect transistors (FETs), and operational amplifiers were then simulated. In these

  4. Novel WSi/Au T-shaped gate GaAs metal-semiconductor field-effect-transistor fabrication process for super low-noise microwave monolithic integrated circuit amplifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Takano, H.; Hosogi, K.; Kato, T. [Mitsubishi Electric Corp., Itami (Japan)] [and others] [Mitsubishi Electric Corp., Itami (Japan); and others

    1995-05-01

    A fully ion-implanted self-aligned T-shaped gate Ga As metal-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MESFET) with high frequency and extremely low-noise performance has been successfully fabricated for super low-noise microwave monolithic integrated circuit (MMIC) amplifiers. A subhalf-micrometer gate structure composed of WSi/Ti/Mo/Au is employed to reduce gate resistance effectively. This multilayer gate structure is formed by newly developed dummy SiON self-alignment technology and a photoresist planarization process. At an operating frequency of 12 GHz, a minimum noise figure of 0.87 dB with an associated gain of 10.62 dB has been obtained. Based on the novel FET process, a low-noise single-stage MMIC amplifier with an excellent low-noise figure of 1.2 dB with an associated gain of 8 dB in the 14 GHz band has been realized. This is the lowest noise figure ever reported at this frequency for low-noise MMICs based on ion-implanted self-aligned gate MESFET technology. 14 refs., 9 figs.

  5. Tiny biomedical amplifier combines high performance, low power drain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deboo, G. J.

    1965-01-01

    Transistorized, portable, high performance amplifier with low power drain facilitates biomedical studies on mobile subjects. This device, which utilizes a differential input to obtain a common-mode rejection, is used for amplifying electrocardiogram and electromyogram signals.

  6. Current Mode Image Sensor With Two Transistors per Pixel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Viktor Gruev; Zheng Yang; Jan Van der Spiegel; Ralph Etienne-Cummings

    2010-01-01

    A linear current mode active pixel sensor for low fixed-pattern noise imaging is presented. The photo pixel is composed of a photodiode, a reset transistor, and a transconductance amplifier transistor. The address switch transistor is placed outside the pixel. The increased linearity of the pixel current coupled with current mode difference double sampling greatly reduces spatial variations across the image

  7. EE 321 BJT 2 Fall 2008 Bipolar Junction Transistors, Part II

    E-print Network

    Wedeward, Kevin

    will investigate two bipolar junction transistor (BJT) amplifiers. The Common Emitter Amplifier The amplifier. Vin OV 2N3904 RE Q2 VEE = -15V VCC = +15V 3.3K 270 RS Figure 2. The Emitter Follower Amplifier 4. When the input signal is applied to the base and the output is taken at the emitter (Figure 2) the amplifier

  8. Ion bipolar junction transistors

    PubMed Central

    Tybrandt, Klas; Larsson, Karin C.; Richter-Dahlfors, Agneta; Berggren, Magnus

    2010-01-01

    Dynamic control of chemical microenvironments is essential for continued development in numerous fields of life sciences. Such control could be achieved with active chemical circuits for delivery of ions and biomolecules. As the basis for such circuitry, we report a solid-state ion bipolar junction transistor (IBJT) based on conducting polymers and thin films of anion- and cation-selective membranes. The IBJT is the ionic analogue to the conventional semiconductor BJT and is manufactured using standard microfabrication techniques. Transistor characteristics along with a model describing the principle of operation, in which an anionic base current amplifies a cationic collector current, are presented. By employing the IBJT as a bioelectronic circuit element for delivery of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, its efficacy in modulating neuronal cell signaling is demonstrated. PMID:20479274

  9. A novel darlington amplifier optimized for wideband

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Oleg V. Stukach

    2008-01-01

    A new design topology and performance for the ultra wideband Darlington amplifier is described. The amplifier configuration consists of a common-emitter transistor pair with low-pass filter. The normalized gain characteristic for the amplifier provides 1.36 multiple expansion of frequency band without degradation of the dynamic range, at VSWR and matching of input-output retaining. Expression for the optimum transfer factor was

  10. PM and AM noise in common base amplifier

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. I. Boldyreva; V. N. Kuleshov

    1999-01-01

    Theoretical analysis of PM and AM noise introduced by common base (CB) bipolar transistor amplifier and comparison of CB and common emitter (CE) amplifiers are presented. The analysis is based on the approach and the models developed and used in the papers (1997, 1998). Power spectral densities (PSD) of PM and AM noises of CB amplifier (both wideband and 1\\/f

  11. e bipolar junction transistor (BJT) is historically the first solid-state analog amplifier and digital switch, and formed the basis of integrated circuits (IC) in the 1970s. Starting in the early 1980s, the

    E-print Network

    Wilamowski, Bogdan Maciej

    transistor back into high-volume commercial production, mainly for the now widespread wire- less and wire spaced PN junctions connected back to back sharing the same p-type region, as shown in Figure 9.1a. e...........................................................................9-12 Thermal Sensitivity · Second Order Effects · SPICE Model of the Bipolar Transistor 9.8 Si

  12. Transferred substrate heterojunction bipolar transistors for submillimeter wave applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fung, A.; Samoska, L.; Siegel, P.; Rodwell, M.; Urteaga, M.; Paidi, V.

    2003-01-01

    We present ongoing work towards the development of submillimeter wave transistors with goals of realizing advanced high frequency amplifiers, voltage controlled oscillators, active multipliers, and traditional high-speed digital circuits.

  13. Matched wideband low-noise amplifiers for radio astronomy.

    PubMed

    Weinreb, S; Bardin, J; Mani, H; Jones, G

    2009-04-01

    Two packaged low noise amplifiers for the 0.3-4 GHz frequency range are described. The amplifiers can be operated at temperatures of 300-4 K and achieve noise temperatures in the 5 K range (<0.1 dB noise figure) at 15 K physical temperature. One amplifier utilizes commercially available, plastic-packaged SiGe transistors for first and second stages; the second amplifier is identical except it utilizes an experimental chip transistor as the first stage. Both amplifiers use resistive feedback to provide input reflection coefficient S11<-10 dB over a decade bandwidth with gain over 30 dB. The amplifiers can be used as rf amplifiers in very low noise radio astronomy systems or as i.f. amplifiers following superconducting mixers operating in the millimeter and submillimeter frequency range. PMID:19405681

  14. A 28 GHz, 100 mW FET amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, B.; Bradley, J.; Pelletier, M.

    1989-05-01

    The solid state FET (field effect transistor) amplifier developed to drive a traveling wave tube amplifier in an earth station application is described. Two-stage amplifier modules were developed using small signal FETs on 10 mil Duroid substrate and optimized for output power. An output power of 100 mW with 16 dB gain was achieved over the 28.0 to 28.7 GHz frequency band by combining the outputs of two paralleled amplifiers.

  15. AM Cross Modulation in Transistor RF Amplifiers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Walt Doesschate

    1966-01-01

    Cross modulation rejection vs bias variations in semiconductors is not a smooth function as it is with vacuum tubes. The reason for these large variations with bias point change has never been adequately explained. It is the purpose of this paper to introduce into the cross modulation analysis a component not previously considered as having an active part. This component

  16. Some properties and circuit applications of super–alpha composite transistors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. R. Pearlman

    1955-01-01

    A three-terminal amplifying device having the characteristics of a super-alpha Junction transistor can be constructed by making suitable interconnections between ordinary medium-alpha Junction transistors. It is shown that the circuit properties of such a device are very similar to those of a vacuum tube for many applications. Voltage-follower and voltage-amplifier circuits using composite transistors are described. Characteristics of two-stage and

  17. Superconducting single-electron pushpull amplifier stage C. P. Heij and P. Hadleya)

    E-print Network

    - ing single-electron transistors SET's . Like most single- electron circuits, this amplifier has a high nominally identical single-electron transistors in series that share a common in- put electrode, VinSuperconducting single-electron push­pull amplifier stage C. P. Heij and P. Hadleya) Applied

  18. Robust Sense Amplifier Design under Random Dopant Fluctuations in Nano-Scale CMOS Technologies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joyce Yeung; Hamid Mahmoodi

    2008-01-01

    Variation in transistor characteristics and particularly threshold voltage (Vt) has emerged as a major challenge for circuit design in scaled technologies. Process variations result in increased mismatch among neighboring transistors which can affect the correct functionality of circuits such as sense amplifiers. In this paper, we will analyze the impact of process variations on sense amplifier circuits in detail. We

  19. Robust Sense Amplifier Design under Random Dopant Fluctuations in Nano-Scale CMOS Technologies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joyce Yeung; Hamid Mahmoodi

    2006-01-01

    Variation in transistor characteristics and particularly threshold voltage (Vt) has emerged as a major challenge for circuit design in scaled technologies. Process variations result in increased mismatch among neighboring transistors which can affect the correct functionality of circuits such as sense amplifiers. In this paper, we will analyze the impact of process variations on sense amplifier circuits in detail. We

  20. Wavelet-Based Transistor Parameter Estimation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sudipta Majumdar; Harish Parthasarathy

    2010-01-01

    In this paper a wavelet-based parameter estimation method has been proposed for the common emitter transistor amplifier circuit\\u000a and compared with the least squares method. As the maximal precision of simulation requires the modeling of electronic circuits\\u000a in terms of device parameters and circuit components, the Volterra model of the common emitter amplifier circuit derived using\\u000a the Ebers–Moll model and

  1. Switching Transistor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Westinghouse Electric Corporation's D60T transistors are used primarily as switching devices for controlling high power in electrical circuits. It enables reduction in the number and size of circuit components and promotes more efficient use of energy. Wide range of application from a popcorn popper to a radio frequency generator for solar cell production.

  2. MMIC DHBT Common-Base Amplifier for 172 GHz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paidi, Vamsi; Griffith, Zack; Wei, Yun; Dahlstrom, Mttias; Urteaga, Miguel; Rodwell, Mark; Samoska, Lorene; Fung, King Man; Schlecht, Erich

    2006-01-01

    Figure 1 shows a single-stage monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) power amplifier in which the gain element is a double-heterojunction bipolar transistor (DHBT) connected in common-base configuration. This amplifier, which has been demonstrated to function well at a frequency of 172 GHz, is part of a continuing effort to develop compact, efficient amplifiers for scientific instrumentation, wide-band communication systems, and radar systems that will operate at frequencies up to and beyond 180 GHz. The transistor is fabricated from a layered structure formed by molecular beam epitaxy in the InP/InGaAs material system. A highly doped InGaAs base layer and a collector layer are fabricated from the layered structure in a triple mesa process. The transistor includes two separate emitter fingers, each having dimensions of 0.8 by 12 m. The common-base configuration was chosen for its high maximum stable gain in the frequency band of interest. The input-matching network is designed for high bandwidth. The output of the transistor is matched to a load line for maximum saturated output power under large-signal conditions, rather than being matched for maximum gain under small-signal conditions. In a test at a frequency of 172 GHz, the amplifier was found to generate an output power of 7.5 mW, with approximately 5 dB of large-signal gain (see Figure 2). Moreover, the amplifier exhibited a peak small-signal gain of 7 dB at a frequency of 176 GHz. This performance of this MMIC single-stage amplifier containing only a single transistor represents a significant advance in the state of the art, in that it rivals the 170-GHz performance of a prior MMIC three-stage, four-transistor amplifier. [The prior amplifier was reported in "MMIC HEMT Power Amplifier for 140 to 170 GHz" (NPO-30127), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 27, No. 11 (November 2003), page 49.] This amplifier is the first heterojunction- bipolar-transistor (HBT) amplifier built for medium power operation in this frequency band. The performance of the amplifier as measured in the aforementioned tests suggests that InP/InGaAs HBTs may be superior to high-electron-mobility (HEMT) transistors in that the HBTs may offer more gain per stage and more output power per transistor.

  3. A Process Variation Tolerant Self-Compensation Sense Amplifier Design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Aarti Choudhary

    2008-01-01

    As we move under the aegis of the Moore's law, we have to deal with its darker side with problems like leakage and short channel effects. Once we go beyond 45nm regime process variations also have emerged as a significant design concern.Embedded memories uses sense amplifier for fast sensing and typically, sense amplifiers uses pair of matched transistors in a

  4. High-Efficiency Microwave Power Amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sims, Williams H.

    2005-01-01

    A high-efficiency power amplifier that operates in the S band (frequencies of the order of a few gigahertz) utilizes transistors operating under class-D bias and excitation conditions. Class-D operation has been utilized at lower frequencies, but, until now, has not been exploited in the S band. Nominally, in class D operation, a transistor is switched rapidly between "on" and "off" states so that at any given instant, it sustains either high current or high voltage, but not both at the same time. In the ideal case of zero "on" resistance, infinite "off" resistance, zero inductance and capacitance, and perfect switching, the output signal would be a perfect square wave. Relative to the traditional classes A, B, and C of amplifier operation, class D offers the potential to achieve greater power efficiency. In addition, relative to class-A amplifiers, class-D amplifiers are less likely to go into oscillation. In order to design this amplifier, it was necessary to derive mathematical models of microwave power transistors for incorporation into a larger mathematical model for computational simulation of the operation of a class-D microwave amplifier. The design incorporates state-of-the-art switching techniques applicable only in the microwave frequency range. Another major novel feature is a transmission-line power splitter/combiner designed with the help of phasing techniques to enable an approximation of a square-wave signal (which is inherently a wideband signal) to propagate through what would, if designed in a more traditional manner, behave as a more severely band-limited device (see figure). The amplifier includes an input, a driver, and a final stage. Each stage contains a pair of GaAs-based field-effect transistors biased in class D. The input signal can range from -10 to +10 dBm into a 50-ohm load. The table summarizes the performances of the three stages

  5. 12 W monolithic X-band HBT power amplifier

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. A. Khatibzadeh; B. Bayraktarogluf; T. Kim

    1992-01-01

    Monolithic, two-stage X-band power amplifiers were designed and fabricated using AlGaAs\\/GaAs heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBTs). Output power levels of up to 12.5 W continuous wave (CW) were demonstrated at 9.2 GHz from single-chip HBT amplifiers measuring 3.8 mm×4.7 mm in size. Two amplifier designs were fabricated using optimized 300-?m common-emitter unit cells. Device and circuit design aspects of this work

  6. A low level amplifier with a 700 MHz bandwidth

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. H. Olson; F. D. Waldhauer

    1971-01-01

    A beam-lead sealed-junction silicon air-isolated-monolithic (AIM) low level amplifier has been developed with a closed loop gain of 13 dB terminated by 50 ohm input and output impedances. The low frequency and high frequency 3 dB points are below 20 KHz and above 700 MHz, respectively. The amplifier is a three-stage transistor feedback amplifier with diode bootstrapping. A common emitter

  7. Performance Improvement in Larger RF LDMOSFET Power Amplifiers Choshu Ito1

    E-print Network

    Dutton, Robert W.

    Performance Improvement in Larger RF LDMOSFET Power Amplifiers Choshu Ito1 , Toru Fujioka2 , Isao-isao}@sic.hitachi.co.jp Abstract While larger transistors are used to deliver more power in RF transmitter power amplifiers, it has, a major cause of this performance degradation in RF LDMOSFET power amplifiers is identified as the mutual

  8. SIMPLE PCB BASED S-PARAMETER EXTRACTION METHOD FOR RF AMPLIFIER CIRCUITS

    E-print Network

    Hwang, Sung Woo

    1 SIMPLE PCB BASED S-PARAMETER EXTRACTION METHOD FOR RF AMPLIFIER CIRCUITS S. C. Choi, J. E. Youm-parameters, de-embedding, printed circuit board (PCB), RF amplifier Abstract A new, simple S-parameter extraction method of RF transistor and amplifier is proposed and demonstrated. The method is based on one

  9. 4 W, 7-12 GHz, compact CB HBT MMIC power amplifier

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nan-Lei Wang; Wu-Jing Ho; J. A. Higgins

    1992-01-01

    Extremely compact, broadband, heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT) power amplifiers (PAs) were demonstrated with excellent performance. Common base (CB) HBTs were used in three single-stage broadband power amplifier designs, 1 W, 2 W, and 4 W, covering 7 to 11 GHz. In addition, a 1-W common emitter (CE) HBT linear amplifier was studied for its intermodulation property for communication application. The

  10. PM and AM noise of BJT amplifiers with quartz crystal resonator in emitter circuit

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. I. Boldyreva

    1999-01-01

    An algorithm of bipolar junction transistor (BJT) amplifier PM and AM noise calculation, described in (1998), is applied to BJT amplifiers, having common emitter (CE) and common emitter-common base (CE-CB) circuit configurations with quartz crystal resonator (QR) inserted in emitter circuits. Power spectral densities (PSD) of PM and AM noise introduced by these amplifiers when signal frequency is close to

  11. A high-speed clamped bit-line current-mode sense amplifier

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Travis N. Blalock; Richard C. Jaeger

    1991-01-01

    A clamped bit-line current-mode sense amplifier that maintains a low-impedance fixed potential on the bit lines is introduced. Using a general model for active-drive memory cells that include the two-transistor (2T) and three-transistor (3T) dynamic cells and the four-transistor\\/two-resistor (4T-2R) and six-transistor (6T) static cells, the new sense amplifier is shown to have a response speed that is insensitive to

  12. EDITORIAL: Reigniting innovation in the transistor Reigniting innovation in the transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demming, Anna

    2012-09-01

    Today the transistor is integral to the electronic circuitry that wires our lives. When Bardeen and Brattain first observed an amplified signal by connecting electrodes to a germanium crystal they saw that their 'semiconductor triode' could prove a useful alternative to the more cumbersome vacuum tubes used at the time [1]. But it was perhaps William Schottky who recognized the extent of the transistor's potential. A basic transistor has three or more terminals and current across one pair of terminals can switch or amplify current through another pair. Bardeen, Brattain and Schottky were jointly awarded a Nobel Prize in 1956 'for their researches on semiconductors and their discovery of the transistor effect' [2]. Since then many new forms of the transistor have been developed and understanding of the underlying properties is constantly advancing. In this issue Chen and Shih and colleagues at Taiwan National University and Drexel University report a pyroelectrics transistor. They show how a novel optothermal gating mechanism can modulate the current, allowing a range of developments in nanoscale optoelectronics and wireless devices [3]. The explosion of interest in nanoscale devices in the 1990s inspired electronics researchers to look for new systems that can act as transistors, such as carbon nanotube [4] and silicon nanowire [5] transistors. Generally these transistors function by raising and lowering an energy barrier of kBT -1, but researchers in the US and Canada have demonstrated that the quantum interference between two electronic pathways through aromatic molecules can also modulate the current flow [6]. The device has advantages for further miniaturization where energy dissipation in conventional systems may eventually cause complications. Interest in transistor technology has also led to advances in fabrication techniques for achieving high production quantities, such as printing [7]. Researchers in Florida in the US demonstrated field effect transistor behaviour in devices fabricated from chemically reduced graphene oxide. The work provided an important step forward for graphene electronics, which has been hampered by difficulties in scaling up the mechanical exfoliation techniques required to produce the high-quality graphene often needed for functioning devices [8]. In Sweden, researchers have developed a transistor design that they fabricate using standard III-V parallel processing, which also has great promise for scaling up production. Their transistor is based on a vertical array of InAs nanowires, which provide high electron mobility and the possibility of high-speed and low-power operation [9]. Different fabrication techniques and design parameters can influence the properties of transistors. Researchers in Belgium used a new method based on high-vacuum scanning spreading resistance microscopy to study the effect of diameter on carrier profile in nanowire transistors [10]. They then used experimental data and simulations to gain a better understanding of how this influenced the transistor performance. In Japan, Y Ohno and colleagues at Nagoya University have reported how atomic layer deposition of an insulating layer of HfO2 on carbon nanotube field effect transistors can change the carrier from p-type to n-type [11]. Carrier type switching—'ambipolar behaviour'—and hysteresis of carbon nanotube network transistors can make achieving reliable device performance challenging. However studies have also suggested that the hysteretic properties may be exploited in non-volatile memory applications. A collaboration of researchers in Italy and the US demonstrated transistor and memory cell behaviour in a system based on a carbon nanotube network [13]. Their device had relatively fast programming, good endurance and the charge retention was successfully enhanced by limiting exposure to air. Progress in understanding transistor behaviour has inspired other innovations in device applications. Nanowires are notoriously sensitive to gases such as CO, opening opportunities for applications in sensing using one-

  13. The design of a regulated variable power supply for transistor circuits 

    E-print Network

    Graham, Oscar David

    1959-01-01

    Instruments 2N251 p-n-p germanium power transistor was used for the series regulator with a Tl 2N291 p-n-p germanium tran- sistor used in compound-connection with it. It would. be desirable to use a transistor with a higher breakdown voltage instead... assumed that its magnitude was quite low. The transistor used for the d-c amplifier was a Motorola 2N652 p-n-p germanium transistor. The main criterisn for selecting this par- ticular transistor was its breakdown voltage, The breakdown voltage wss...

  14. Deeply-scaled GaN high electron mobility transistors for RF applications

    E-print Network

    Lee, Dong Seup

    2014-01-01

    Due to the unique combination of large critical breakdown field and high electron velocity, GaN-based high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) have great potential for next generation high power RF amplifiers. The ...

  15. SiGe optoelectronic metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor

    E-print Network

    Miller, David A. B.

    photocurrent is amplified at the drain terminal. Experimental current gain of up to 1000 is demonstrated-effect transistor (OE-MOSFET) for such high-performance applications. The device scales with technology and can

  16. Bidirectional amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Wright, James T. (Cedarcrest, NM)

    1986-01-01

    A bilateral circuit is operable for transmitting signals in two directions without generation of ringing due to feedback caused by the insertion of the circuit. The circuit may include gain for each of the signals to provide a bidirectional amplifier. The signals are passed through two separate paths, with a unidirectional amplifier in each path. A controlled sampling device is provided in each path for sampling the two signals. Any feedback loop between the two signals is disrupted by providing a phase displacement between the control signals for the two sampling devices.

  17. Low noise fast bipolar transistors for detector preamplifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Morii, M.M.; Taniguchi, T.; Fuhushima, Y.

    1989-02-01

    The noise parameters of several species of microwave bipolar transistors were measured using a common base amplifier. The base spread resistance r/sub bb'/ of the transistors were determined from the measured noise parameters. Some species were found to have r/sub bb'/ of less than 30..cap omega... For the low noise preamplifier applications in high energy physics, the series noise contribution from these values of r/sub bb'/ is negligibly small compared with that due to the emitter resistance r/sub e/. A simple relation between the structure of transistors and their r/sub bb'/ was found.

  18. The 11th International Symposium on Wireless Personal Multimedia Communications (WPMC 2008) DEVELOPMENT OF THZ TRANSISTORS

    E-print Network

    Rodwell, Mark J. W.

    ) DEVELOPMENT OF THZ TRANSISTORS AND (300-3000 GHZ) SUB-MM-WAVE INTEGRATED CIRCUITS Mark Rodwell, E. Lobisser, M of 1-3 THz. High bandwidths are obtained by scaling; the critical limits to such scaling maxf and 324 GHz amplifiers have been demonstrated. Transistors with target maxf over 1 THz

  19. A novel circuit technology with surrounding gate transistors (SGT's) for ultra high density DRAM's

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shigeyoshi Watanabe; Kenji Tsuchida; Daisaburo Takashima; Yukihito Oowaki; Akihiro Nitayama; Katsuhiko Hieda; Hirishi Takato; Kazumasa Sunouchi; Fumio Horiguchi; Kazunori Ohuchi; Fujio Masuoka; Hisashi Hara

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes a novel circuit technology with Surrounding Gate Transistors (SGT's) For ultra high density DRAM's. In order to reduce the chip size drastically, an SGT is employed to all the transistors within a chip. SGT's connected in series and a common source SGT have been newly developed for the core circuit, such as a sense amplifier designed by

  20. PRELIMINARIES ON LOW-POWER ANALOG-TO-DIGITAL CONVERSION FOR SYSTEM-ON-CHIP DESIGN: SIGMA-DELTA MODULATORS WITH A SINGLE AMPLIFIER AND A NOVEL 14TRANSISTOR 1BIT FULL ADDER

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Alexander Mora-Sanchez; Dietmar Schroeder; Wolfgang H. Krautschneider

    Two approaches for low-power analog-to-digital (A\\/D) conversion for biomedical-oriented System-on-Chip (SoC) design are addressed in this paper. The first approach intro- duces the use of a single amplifier to realize switched- capacitor-based 1-bit low-pass A\\/D sigma-delta modula- tors, thus reducing the power consumption of the modu- lator compared to the traditional counterpart (approx. 50% and 25% in 2 nd -

  1. RF Amplifier Design with Large-Signal S-Parameters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    WILLIAM H. LEIGHTON; ROGER J. CHAFFIN; JOHN G. WEBB

    1973-01-01

    High-power UHF transistors have been characterized through the use of large-signal S-parameters. These S-parameters have been used successfully to design UHF power amplifiers. Waveform measurements show that due to the Q of the package parasitic, most class C operated UHF power transistors have nearly sinusoidal waveforms at their package terminals. Experimental evidence presented shows that the large-signal S-parameters are relatively

  2. Common-mode rejection of monolithic operational amplifiers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. Erdi

    1970-01-01

    A simple expression is derived for the common-mode rejection ratio (CMRR) of monolithic operational amplifiers in terms of transistor processing parameters. The tradeoffs between transistor current gain and CMRR are investigated. The feasibility of 120-dB CMRR is demonstrated with a common-emitter differential pair. The addition of eight active devices can further improve CMRR, although at the expense of other parameters.

  3. Amplified Policymaking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prince, Katherine; Woempner, Carolyn

    2010-01-01

    This brief examines the policy implications of two drivers of change presented in the "2020 Forecast: Creating the Future of Learning"-- Pattern Recognition and Amplified Organization. These drivers point toward a series of cultural shifts and illuminate how we are developing new ways of organizing, constructing, and managing knowledge.…

  4. A Broadband Low-Noise-Amplifier Luca Daniel and Manolis Terrovitis

    E-print Network

    Daniel, Luca

    figure and reduced input VSWR. The minimum noise figure of a GaAs MESFET is shown to increase to 9 GHz, using GaAs MESFETs with an ft of 20 GHz. The passive components were implemented. Such an amplifier employing a GaAs MESFET transistor is shown in Fig. 1, where a simplified small-signal transistor

  5. Unseen emitter-base breakdown in RF power amplifiers- a possible hazard

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. O. Sokal

    1977-01-01

    RF power amplifier circuits other than Class A have a previously unreported operating characteristic which can cause emitter-base reverse breakdown once each RF cycle. The breakdown is not necessarily observable at the external terminals of the transistor; it can be deduced from the observed emitter-base terminal voltage and base current and the transistor internal lead inductances and junction capacitances. Certain

  6. Wavelet Based Transistor Parameter Estimation Using Second Order Volterra Model

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sudipta Majumdar; Harish Parthasarathy

    In this paper, we present a wavelet based parameter estimation technique to estimate the transistor parameter in a common\\u000a emitter amplifier circuit. The method uses the closed form expression of the second order Volterra model of a common emitter\\u000a amplifier circuit derived using perturbation technique and the Ebers–Moll model. Simulations show that the proposed method\\u000a gives more accurate parameter estimation

  7. A model for phase noise generation in amplifiers.

    PubMed

    Tomlin, T D; Fynn, K; Cantoni, A

    2001-11-01

    In this paper, a model is presented for predicting the phase modulation (PM) and amplitude modulation (AM) noise in bipolar junction transistor (BJT) amplifiers. The model correctly predicts the dependence of phase noise on the signal frequency (at a particular carrier offset frequency), explains the noise shaping of the phase noise about the signal frequency, and shows the functional dependence on the transistor parameters and the circuit parameters. Experimental studies on common emitter (CE) amplifiers have been used to validate the PM noise model at carrier frequencies between 10 and 100 MHz. PMID:11800117

  8. Chicago Amplified

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    From the Chicago Public Library to the Lyric Opera, the Chicago Amplified program based at Chicago Public Radio brings the best and the brightest from the Chicago region to anyone with an Internet connection. The program was started in 2006, and visitors can browse past programs all the way back to that year. Clicking on each program will allow users to read a description of the show's content and listen to audio online.

  9. A 100-element HBT grid amplifier

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Moonil Kim; Emilio A. Sovero; Jonathan B. Hacker; Michael P. De Lisio; Jung-Chih Chiao; Shi-Jie Li; David R. Gagnon; James J. Rosenberg; David B. Rutledge

    1993-01-01

    A 100-element 10-GHz grid amplifier has been developed. The active devices in the grid are chips with heterojunction-bipolar-transistor (HBT) differential pairs. The metal grid pattern was empirically designed to provide effective coupling between the HBTs and free space. Two independent measurements, one with focusing lenses and the other without, were used to characterize the grid. In each case, the peak

  10. Transistors: The Field Effect

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    The Concord Consortium

    2011-12-11

    Transistors are the building blocks of modern electronic devices. Your cell phones, iPods, and computers all depend on them to operate. Thanks to today's microfabrication technology, transistors can be made very tiny and be massively produced. You are probably using billions of them while working with this activity now--as of 2006, a dual-core Intel microprocessor contains 1.7 billion transistors. The field effect transistor is the most common type of transistor. So we will focus on it in this activity.

  11. Decoded-source sense amplifier for high-density DRAMs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    JUN-ICHI OKAMURA; YOSHIO OKADA; MASARU KOYANAGI; YOSHIAKI TAKEUCHI; MINORU YAMADA; KIYOFUMI SAKURAI; SADAO IMADA; SHOZO SAITO

    1990-01-01

    The decoded-source sense amplifier (DSSA) for high-speed, high-density DRAMs is discussed. To prevent clamping of the common-source node of the sense amplifier caused by bit-line discharge current, the DSSA has an additional latching transistor with a gate controlled by a column decoder. The DSSA has been successfully installed in a 4-Mb DRAM and provided a RAS access time of 60

  12. A high-swing CMOS telescopic operational amplifier

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kush Gulati; Hae-Seung Lee

    1998-01-01

    A high-swing, high-performance CMOS telescopic operational amplifier is described. The high swing of the op-amp is achieved by employing the tail and current source transistors in the deep linear region. The resulting degradation in differential gain, common-mode rejection ratio (CMRR), and other amplifier characteristics are compensated by applying regulated-cascode differential gain enhancement and a replica-tail feedback technique. A prototype of

  13. A high-efficiency HBT MMIC power amplifier

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Ramachandran; M. Nijjar; A. Podell; E. Stonehatn; S. Mitchell; N. L. Wang; W. J. Ho; M. F. Chang; G. J. Sullivan; J. A. Higgins; P. M. Asbeck

    1990-01-01

    An AlGaAs\\/GaAs heterojunction bipolar transistor monolithic microwave IC (HBT MMIC) power amplifier is developed that demonstrates very high power-added efficiency, high gain, and broad bandwidth. It uses a cascode structure with four 200-?m common-emitter HBT cells driving four common-base cells of the same size. This amplifier achieves over 14-dB gain from 6 to 10 GHz, with a peak power-added efficiency

  14. Crystal oscillators using negative voltage gain, single pole response amplifiers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleinberg, Leonard L. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    A simple and inexpensive crystal oscillator is provided which employs negative voltage gain, single pole response amplifiers. The amplifiers may include such configurations as gate inverters, operational amplifiers and conventional bipolar transistor amplifiers, all of which operate at a frequency which is on the roll-off portion of their gain versus frequency curve. Several amplifier feedback circuit variations are employed to set desired bias levels and to allow the oscillator to operate at the crystal's fundamental frequency or at an overtone of the fundamental frequency. The oscillator is made less expensive than comparable oscillators by employing relatively low frequency amplifiers and operating them at roll-off, at frequencies beyond which they are customarily used. Simplicity is provided because operation at roll-off eliminates components ordinarily required in similar circuits to provide sufficient phase-shift in the feedback circuitry for oscillation to occur.

  15. Near-Field Thermal Transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Abdallah, Philippe; Biehs, Svend-Age

    2014-01-01

    Using a block of three separated solid elements, a thermal source and drain together with a gate made of an insulator-metal transition material exchanging near-field thermal radiation, we introduce a nanoscale analog of a field-effect transistor that is able to control the flow of heat exchanged by evanescent thermal photons between two bodies. By changing the gate temperature around its critical value, the heat flux exchanged between the hot body (source) and the cold body (drain) can be reversibly switched, amplified, and modulated by a tiny action on the gate. Such a device could find important applications in the domain of nanoscale thermal management and it opens up new perspectives concerning the development of contactless thermal circuits intended for information processing using the photon current rather than the electric current.

  16. Theoretical Analysis and Characterization of the Tunable Matching Networks in Low Noise Amplifiers

    E-print Network

    of the common emitter transistor in a cascode topology. This series capacitor can provide a tunable band betweenTheoretical Analysis and Characterization of the Tunable Matching Networks in Low Noise Amplifiers noise amplifiers achieved by employing a - network where the series matching capacitor is assumed

  17. Designing a low cost, low noise programmable gain instrumentation amplifier

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Di Ciano; R. Tangorra; C. Marzocca

    1996-01-01

    The capabilities of a very low cost technology, fully compatible with a standard n-well CMOS process, have been exploited in the design of a programmable gain instrumentation amplifier. Suitable low noise and compact layout characteristics have been achieved by using lateral pnp transistors in the input differential stage of the opamp which constitutes the basic building block of the circuit.

  18. Future developments and technology options in cellular phone power amplifiers: from power amplifier to integrated RF front-end module

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. Jos

    2000-01-01

    Millions of cellular phone power amplifiers (PA) are produced every day worldwide using a great diversity of technologies. This is true both for the active devices, where various silicon as well as GaAs transistors are being used, and for the PA design, in which MMIC, module and discrete solutions compete. This paper gives an overview of the various options for

  19. High-Efficiency Amplifiers Using AlGaN\\/GaN HEMTs on SiC

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Scott Sheppard; Bill Pribble; R. Peter Smith; Adam Saxler; Scott Allen; Jim Milligan; Ray Pengelly

    2006-01-01

    GaN HEMTs on SiC are applied to high-efficiency power amplifier designs. Several class-E hybrid power amplifiers based on the GaN HEMT cell were designed and tested. Around 2 GHz, the first amplifier provides 10 watts CW with associated PAE of 85% and gain of 12 dB. Other higher frequency designs with the same transistor cell provide 10 watts and 80%

  20. A 2.3-GHz cryogenically cooled HEMT amplifier for DSS 13

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanida, L.

    1987-01-01

    A prototype 2.3 GHz (S band) high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) amplifier/closed cycle refrigerator (CCR) system was installed in the DDS-13 feedcone, replacing the 2.3 GHz maser. The amplifier is cryogenically cooled to a physical temperature of 12 K and provides 31.5 K antenna system noise temperature and 29 dB of gain. The HEMT device used in the amplifier is a prototype.

  1. H-band MMIC amplifiers in 250 nm InP DHBT

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Klas Eriksson; Vessen Vassilev; Herbert Zirath

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, single-stage and multistage amplifiers of two different topologies, common-base with resistive feedback and common-emitter, operating at up to 290 GHz are presented and demonstrated. The amplifiers use an indium-phosphide (InP) double-heterojunction bipolar transistor (DHBT) process. The multistage common-emitter amplifier demonstrates a gain above 10 dB from 220 to 280 GHz with a peak gain of 15 dB

  2. X-Band, 17-Watt Solid-State Power Amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mittskus, Anthony; Stone, Ernest; Boger, William; Burgess, David; Honda, Richard; Nuckolls, Carl

    2005-01-01

    An advanced solid-state power amplifier that can generate an output power of as much as 17 W at a design operating frequency of 8.4 GHz has been designed and constructed as a smaller, lighter, less expensive alternative to traveling-wave-tube X-band amplifiers and to prior solid-state X-band power amplifiers of equivalent output power. This amplifier comprises a monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) amplifier module and a power-converter module integrated into a compact package (see Figure 1). The amplifier module contains an input variable-gain amplifier (VGA), an intermediate driver stage, a final power stage, and input and output power monitors (see Figure 2). The VGA and the driver amplifier are 0.5-m GaAs-based metal semiconductor field-effect transistors (MESFETs). The final power stage contains four parallel high-efficiency, GaAs-based pseudomorphic high-electron-mobility transistors (PHEMTs). The gain of the VGA is voltage-variable over a range of 10 to 24 dB. To provide for temperature compensation of the overall amplifier gain, the gain-control voltage is generated by an operational-amplifier circuit that includes a resistor/thermistor temperature-sensing network. The driver amplifier provides a gain of 14 dB to an output power of 27 dBm to drive the four parallel output PHEMTs, each of which is nominally capable of putting out as much as 5 W. The driver output is sent to the input terminals of the four parallel PHEMTs through microstrip power dividers; the outputs of these PHEMTs are combined by microstrip power combiners (which are similar to the microstrip power dividers) to obtain the final output power of 17 W.

  3. Guidelines for designing BJT amplifiers with low 1/f AM and PM noise.

    PubMed

    Ferre-Pikal, E S; Walls, F L; Nelson, C W

    1997-01-01

    In this paper we discuss guidelines for designing linear bipolar junction transistor amplifiers with low 1/f amplitude modulation (AM) and phase modulation (PM) noise. These guidelines are derived from a new theory that relates AM and PM noise to transconductance fluctuations, junction capacitance fluctuations, and circuit architecture. We analyze the noise equations of each process for a common emitter (CE) amplifier and use the results to suggest amplifier designs that minimize the 1/f noise while providing other required attributes such as high gain. Although we use a CE amplifier as an example, the procedure applies to other configurations as well. Experimental noise results for several amplifier configurations are presented. PMID:18244131

  4. Linear CMOS power amplifiers employing a novel layout configuration for improved stability and long-term reliability

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kazuhide Abe; Tadahiro Sasaki; Atsuko Iida; Kazuhiko Itaya; Koji Horie; Minoru Nagata; Tadashi Terada

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a design and characterization of linear CMOS power amplifiers employing a new layout configuration of transistors, assuming that both unstable operation known as memory effects and degradation of power transistors are caused by hot carrier effects through thermal energy accumulation and magnified impact ionization at the pinch-off channels by acoustic phonon. The new layout concept of the

  5. Intermodulation distortion of a bipolar common-emitter amplifier with arbitrary emitter impedance and input matching network

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. A. M. Hurkx; Edwin van der Heijden

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, concise formulas for the intermodulation distortion of a bipolar common-emitter amplifier stage with arbitrary emitter impedance and input matching network are presented. These expressions provide quantitative insight in the influence of transistor properties, emitter degeneration and input power matching on distortion. Only a small set of measurable transistor parameters is needed. As examples, IIP3 is calculated for

  6. A Baseband Ultra-Low Noise SiGe:C BiCMOS 0.25 m Amplifier And Its Application For

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    A Baseband Ultra-Low Noise SiGe:C BiCMOS 0.25 µm Amplifier And Its Application For An On-Chip Phase of an ultra-low noise operational amplifier is presented. Its applications are integrated low-frequency noise-stage operational amplifier uses parallel bipolar transistor connection as input differential pair for low noise

  7. Flexible transistor matrix (FTM)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    King C. Ho; Sarma Sastry

    1991-01-01

    This paper describes a new layout style called the Flexible Transistor Matrix (FTM) for large scale CMOS module generation. FTM uses two layers of metal. Compared to Gate Matrix, FTM can generate significantly better results. In addition, the algorithm can control the aspect ratio, 1\\/0 pin positions and different transistor sizes.

  8. A new simplified high radio frequency power amplifier

    SciTech Connect

    Ogawa, Y.; Okutsu, H.; Kobayashi, N.; Hayakawa, A. [Advanced System Design and Engineering Department, Toshiba Corporation, Shinsugita-cho 8, Isogo-ku, Yokohama-shi 235-8523 (Japan)

    2004-10-01

    In order to simplify a present standard high rf power amplifier of ion cyclotron range of frequency plasma heating system, a new amplifier arrangement composed of a tetrode with a grounded cathode and a field effect transistor (FET) switching circuit providing an input rf power is proposed. The FET switching circuit is so small that it can be installed close to the tetrode in one cubicle. It might be called a single tube high rf power amplifier. A test amplifier composed of the tetrode (8F76R) and the FET (2SK-1310) switching circuit is constructed. The maximum output rf power of 8.5 kW was stably obtained at 70 MHz. The feasibility of the single tube high rf power amplifier was experimentally proved.

  9. MMIC HEMT Power Amplifier for 140 to 170 GHz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samoska, Lorene; Radisic, Vesna; Ngo, Catherine; Janke, Paul; Hu, Ming; Micovic, Miro

    2003-01-01

    A three-stage monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) power amplifier that features high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs) as gain elements is reviewed. This amplifier is designed to operate in the frequency range of 140 to 170 GHz, which contains spectral lines of several atmospheric molecular species plus subharmonics of other such spectral lines. Hence, this amplifier could serve as a prototype of amplifiers to be incorporated into heterodyne radiometers used in atmospheric science. The original intended purpose served by this amplifier is to boost the signal generated by a previously developed 164-GHz MMIC HEMT doubler and drive a 164-to-328-GHz doubler to provide a few milliwatts of power at 328 GHz.

  10. Design of Cryogenic SiGe Low-Noise Amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinreb, Sander; Bardin, Joseph C.; Mani, Hamdi

    2007-11-01

    This paper describes a method for designing cryogenic silicon-germanium (SiGe) transistor low-noise amplifiers and reports record microwave noise temperature, i.e., 2 K, measured at the module connector interface with a 50-Omega generator. A theory for the relevant noise sources in the transistor is derived from first principles to give the minimum possible noise temperature and optimum generator impedance in terms of dc measured current gain and transconductance. These measured dc quantities are then reported for an IBM SiGe BiCMOS-8HP transistor at temperatures from 295 to 15 K. The measured and modeled noise and gain for both a single-and two-transistor cascode amplifier in the 0.2-3-GHz range are then presented. The noise model is then combined with the transistor equivalent-circuit elements in a circuit simulator and the noise in the frequency range up to 20 GHz is compared with that of a typical InP HEMT.

  11. Circuit-level simulation of transistor lasers and its application to modelling of microwave photonic links

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iezekiel, Stavros; Christou, Andreas

    2015-03-01

    Equivalent circuit models of a transistor laser are used to investigate the suitability of this relatively new device for analog microwave photonic links. The three-terminal nature of the device enables transistor-based circuit design techniques to be applied to optoelectronic transmitter design. To this end, we investigate the application of balanced microwave amplifier topologies in order to enable low-noise links to be realized with reduced intermodulation distortion and improved RF impedance matching compared to conventional microwave photonic links.

  12. An x-band peeled HEMT amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Young, Paul G.; Romanofsky, Robert R.; Alterovitz, Samuel A.; Smith, Edwyn D.

    1993-01-01

    A discrete peeled high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) device was integrated into a 10 GHz amplifier. The discrete HEMT device interconnects were made using photo patterned metal, stepping from the 10 mil alumina host substrate onto the 1.3 microns thick peeled GaAs HEMT layer, eliminating the need for bond wires and creating a fully integrated circuit. Testing of devices indicate that the peeled device is not degraded by the peel off step but rather there is an improvement in the quantum well carrier confinement. Circuit testing resulted in a maximum gain of 8.5 dB and a return loss minimum of -12 dB.

  13. A single power supply optoelectronic differential amplifier 

    E-print Network

    Choi, Youngmin Albert

    1987-01-01

    and soldering iron tips should also be grounded. The laser diode should be mounted on a heat sink before soldering it, and soldering time must be less than 10 seconds with applied heat below 260'C(20'. The HLP 1400 GaA1As laser diodes are provided with non... Coinmittee: Henry F. Taylor This thesis presents an approach to optoelectronic differential amplifier (ODA) design in which two avalanche photodiodes and two laser diodes are used instead of a rriatched pair of transistors. The approach is demonstrated...

  14. The Transistor Game

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    In this game, your job working at a Transistor Recycling Centre is to ensure that only items containing transistors are sent to the recycling machine. Goods enter the recycling machine via a conveyer belt, and you must remove all the items that do not contain transistors. You are awarded one point for each item that you correctly remove from the belt. If you mistakenly remove an item with a transistor, two points will be deducted from your total score. The game has an infinite number of levels, and you will be evaluated at the end of each level. When you have completed one level you can move onto the next, in which the belt moves faster and there will be new items to sort. If you're really skilled you could become this month's super recycler!

  15. Printed inorganic transistors

    E-print Network

    Ridley, Brent (Brent Alan), 1974-

    2003-01-01

    Forty years of exponential growth of semiconductor technology have been predicated on the miniaturization of the transistors that comprise integrated circuits. While complexity has greatly increased within a given area of ...

  16. Spin Hall effect transistor.

    PubMed

    Wunderlich, Jörg; Park, Byong-Guk; Irvine, Andrew C; Zârbo, Liviu P; Rozkotová, Eva; Nemec, Petr; Novák, Vít; Sinova, Jairo; Jungwirth, Tomás

    2010-12-24

    The field of semiconductor spintronics explores spin-related quantum relativistic phenomena in solid-state systems. Spin transistors and spin Hall effects have been two separate leading directions of research in this field. We have combined the two directions by realizing an all-semiconductor spin Hall effect transistor. The device uses diffusive transport and operates without electrical current in the active part of the transistor. We demonstrate a spin AND logic function in a semiconductor channel with two gates. Our study shows the utility of the spin Hall effect in a microelectronic device geometry, realizes the spin transistor with electrical detection directly along the gated semiconductor channel, and provides an experimental tool for exploring spin Hall and spin precession phenomena in an electrically tunable semiconductor layer. PMID:21205664

  17. The resonant gate transistor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    HARVEY C. NATHANSON; WILLIAM E. NEWELL; ROBERT A. WICKSTROM

    1967-01-01

    A device is described which permits high-Qfrequency selection to be incorporated into silicon integrated circuits. It is essentially an electrostatically excited tuning fork employing field-effect transistor \\

  18. Common base amplifier with 7 - dB gain at 176 GHz in InP mesa DHBT technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samoska, Lorene; Paidi, V.; Griffith, Z.; Dahlstrom, M.; Wei, Y.; Urteaga, M.; Rodell, M. J. W.; Fung, A.

    2004-01-01

    We report a single stage tunded amplifier that exhibits 7 dB small signal gain at 176 GHz. Common Base topology is chosen as it has the best maximum stable gain (MSG) in this frequency band when compared to common emitter and common collector topologies. The amplifiers are designed and fabricated in InP mesa double heterojunction bipolar transistor (DHBT) technology.

  19. High Electron Mobility Transistors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Vassil Palankovski; Rüdiger Quay

    \\u000a High Electron Mobility Transistors(HEMTs) [340] are an advanced modification of the simple bulk FET, such as the MEtal Semiconductors\\u000a Field Effect Transistor (MESFET). Typically, a semiconductor material (barrier) with a comparably wider bandgap is grown on\\u000a top of a semiconductor material with a higher mobility and comparably lower bandgap. If the bandgap alignment of the two materials\\u000a is appropriately chosen,

  20. Black Phosphorus RF Transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Han; Wang, Xiaomu; Xia, Fengnian; Wang, Luhao; Jiang, Hao; Xia, Qiangfei; Chin, Mattew L.; Dubey, Madan; Han, Shu-Jen

    2015-03-01

    Few-layer and thin film form of layered black phosphorus (BP) has recently emerged as a promising material for applications in high performance thin film electronics and infrared optoelectronics. Layered BP offers a ~ 0.3eV bandgap and high mobility, leading to transistor devices with decent on/off ratio and high on-state current density. Here, we demonstrate the GHz frequency operation of black phosphorus field-effect transistor for the first time. BP transistors demonstrated here show excellent current saturation with an on-off ratio exceeding 2 × 103. The S-parameter characterization is performed for the first time on black phosphorus transistors, giving a 12 GHz short-circuit current-gain cut-off frequency and 20 GHz maximum oscillation frequency in 300 nm channel length devices. A current density in excess of 270 mA/mm and DC transconductance above 180 mS/mm are achieved for hole conductions. The results reveal the promising potential of black phosphorus transistors for enabling the next generation thin film transistor technology that can operate in the multi-GHz frequency range and beyond.

  1. Suspended-gate thin film transistor as highly sensitive humidity sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salaun, A.-C.; Kotb, H. M.; Mohammed-Brahim, T.; Le Bihan, F.; Lhermite, H.; Bendriaa, F.

    2005-07-01

    The paper deals with a very high sensitive integrated humidity sensor compatible with CMOS technology. This sensor is a polysilicon Suspended Gate Thin Film Transistor (SGTFT), fabricated using a low temperature surface micromachining process. Microtechnology technics using sacrificial layer are used to fabricate polysilicon bridge which acts as the transistor gate. Transistors are characterized at various humidity rates and transfer characteristics show highly sensitive dependence with humidity. The small air-gap (0.5 ?m) between the gate and the channel explains the amplifying effect of the sensitivity: threshold voltage shift is more than 17V when the humidity ratio varies from 20 to 70%.

  2. A 20 dBm Linear RF Power Amplifier Using Stacked SilicononSapphire MOSFETs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jinho Jeong; Sataporn Pornpromlikit; Peter M. Asbeck; Dylan Kelly

    2006-01-01

    In this letter, a fully integrated 20-dBm RF power amplifier (PA) is presented using 0.25-mum-gate silicon-on-sapphire metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs). To overcome the low breakdown voltage limit of MOSFETs, a stacked FET structure is employed, where transistors are connected in series so that each output voltage swing is added in phase. By using triple-stacked FETs, the optimum load impedance for

  3. Reduction of time lag in broadband cascode amplifiers of common-emitter common-base type

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. N. Gonchar-Bysh; D. I. Gritsak; B. I. Prots

    1977-01-01

    A theoretical analysis is presented along with experimental results on the reduction of time lag in a direct-current broadband transistorized cascode amplifier of common-emitter - common-base type. The time lag is caused by disruption of thermal balance due to changes in the scattering power of the voltage-fed transistor. A method of minimum-time-lag design is presented.

  4. Intrinsic noise characteristics of gallium nitride high electron mobility transistors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sungjae Lee

    2004-01-01

    Wide bandgap gallium nitride high electron mobility transistors (GaN HEMTs) have recently been developed for microwave sources and amplifiers. An experimental and numerical modeling effort is presented to study noise mechanisms within GaN HEMTs. This allows an equivalent-circuit model to be established, facilitating the extraction of intrinsic noise and also microwave circuit design. ^ Intrinsic noise sources in GaN HEMTs

  5. 35-GHz monolithic GaAs FET power amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, T.; Phelleps, F.; Hegazi, G.; Pande, K.; Huang, H.; Rice, P.; Pages, P.

    A state-of-the-art 35-GHz monolithic GaAs power amplifier, based on metal semiconductor field-effect transistor (MESFET) technology, is developed for millimeter-wave communications and seeker applications. Both single-ended and balanced amplifier configurations, with on-chip dc-block and bias networks, are designed and evaluated. A cascaded four-stage amplifier exhibited 14.6 dB of linear gain and 300 mW of saturated output power at 35 GHz. These MMIC chips are very flexible and can easily be combined/cascaded to achieve even higher gains and greater output power using low-loss off-chip power combiner/dividers. These amplifiers are suitable for future military millimeter-wave systems applications.

  6. Power Amplifier Linearization Techniques

    E-print Network

    Dawson, Joel

    Power Amplifier Linearization Techniques: An Overview Workshop on RF Circuits for 2.5G and 3G(x))) is a linear function of the input variable x. x (Power amplifier) #12;Technique II estimation. · Depends on having a good power amplifier model. · Complexity: incurs power overhead of a DSP

  7. High-frequency graphene voltage amplifier.

    PubMed

    Han, Shu-Jen; Jenkins, Keith A; Valdes Garcia, Alberto; Franklin, Aaron D; Bol, Ageeth A; Haensch, Wilfried

    2011-09-14

    While graphene transistors have proven capable of delivering gigahertz-range cutoff frequencies, applying the devices to RF circuits has been largely hindered by the lack of current saturation in the zero band gap graphene. Herein, the first high-frequency voltage amplifier is demonstrated using large-area chemical vapor deposition grown graphene. The graphene field-effect transistor (GFET) has a 6-finger gate design with gate length of 500 nm. The graphene common-source amplifier exhibits ?5 dB low frequency gain with the 3 dB bandwidth greater than 6 GHz. This first AC voltage gain demonstration of a GFET is attributed to the clear current saturation in the device, which is enabled by an ultrathin gate dielectric (4 nm HfO(2)) of the embedded gate structures. The device also shows extrinsic transconductance of 1.2 mS/?m at 1 V drain bias, the highest for graphene FETs using large-scale graphene reported to date. PMID:21805988

  8. Linear RF power amplifier design for CDMA signals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qiang Wu; Martina Testa; R. Larkin

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, we analyze the nonlinear effect of an RF power amplifier on CDMA signals and then derive the design formulas which provide the direct relation between the power transistor's traditional nonlinearity parameter, the 3rd order intercept point (IP3) and the out-of-band emission levels for CDMA signals. This result will be very useful to system and component engineers in

  9. A charge-transfer amplifier and an encoded-bus architecture for low-power SRAM's

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shoichiro Kawashima; Toshihiko Mori; Ryuhei Sasagawa; Makoto Hamaminato; Shigetoshi Wakayama; Kazuo Sukegawa; Isao Fukushi

    1998-01-01

    This paper proposes and reports a low-power SRAM using a charge-transfer (CT) pre-sense amplifier and a bus signal encoding scheme. The CT amplifier overcomes the Vth relative difference between the pair MOS transistors, and thus reduces the input offset voltage. The encoded-bus scheme reduces the number of signals being switched to cut the capacitive load. These read-path dynamic circuits have

  10. 2-6 GHz GaN MMIC Power Amplifiers for Electronic Warfare Applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Angeles Gonzalez-Garrido; Jesus Grajal; Pablo Cubilla; Antonio Cetronio; Claudio Lanzieri; Mike Uren

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents two MMIC broadband high power amplifiers of 4 mm of periphery at the output stage in the frequency band 2-6 GHz. The amplifiers are based on Al-GaN\\/GaN high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) technology on SiC substrate. They have been fabricated in two different european foundries: SELEX Sistemi Integrati and QINETIQ. SELEX has a gate process technology of

  11. The DARPA FLARE Program: Recent Advances in Ultra High Linearity RF Amplifiers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sanjay Raman; Tsu-Hsi Chang; Richard C. Eden; Steve Pappert

    2008-01-01

    The DARPA Feedback Linearized Amplifier for RF Electronics (FLARE) Program has demonstrated the world's first microwave operational amplifier with record linearity through the use of strong negative feedback made possible by the large available gain-bandwidth product in state-of-the-art Indium Phosphide (InP) transistor technologies. The output third-order intercept point (OIP3) near 2 GHz is measured to be +51.4 dBm while consuming

  12. Design of Chopper-Stabilized Amplifiers With Reduced Offset for Sensor Applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. K. Chan; J. Cui

    2008-01-01

    Offset error mechanisms in a single-ended chopper-stabilized amplifier are investigated. The error models and their prediction equations are given. This work also presents a new analytical approach for estimating the switch error in a four-transistor chopping network. A new resistance balancing circuit technique is also introduced, which permits further reduction of DC offsets in conventional chopping operational amplifier (op-amp) or

  13. SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES Effect of collector bias current on the linearity of common-emitter BJT amplifiers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Li Kun; Teng Jianfu; Xuan Xiuwei

    2010-01-01

    Using a Volterra series, an explicit formula is derived for the connection between input 3rd-order intercept point and collector bias current (ICQ) in a common-emitter bipolar junction transistor amplifier. The analysis indicates that the larger ICQ is, the more linear the amplifier is. Furthermore, this has been verified by experiment. This study also integrates a method called dynamic bias current

  14. A 44GHz high IP3 InP-HBT amplifier with practical current reuse biasing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kevin W. Kobayashi; Matt Nishimoto; Liem T. Tran; John C. Cowles; T. R. Block; J. H. Elliott; B. R. Allen; A. K. Oki; D. C. Streit

    1998-01-01

    This paper will discuss the practical design of an InP-based heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT) Q-band high IP3 monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) amplifier. The amplifier features a novel “double-balanced” design approach that incorporates a practical “current reuse” biasing scheme. The current reuse biasing results in a 40% reduction in current consumption through a standard 5-V supply and simplifies the MMIC's

  15. Radio frequency analog electronics based on carbon nanotube transistors.

    PubMed

    Kocabas, Coskun; Kim, Hoon-Sik; Banks, Tony; Rogers, John A; Pesetski, Aaron A; Baumgardner, James E; Krishnaswamy, S V; Zhang, Hong

    2008-02-01

    The potential to exploit single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) in advanced electronics represents a continuing, major source of interest in these materials. However, scalable integration of SWNTs into circuits is challenging because of difficulties in controlling the geometries, spatial positions, and electronic properties of individual tubes. We have implemented solutions to some of these challenges to yield radio frequency (RF) SWNT analog electronic devices, such as narrow band amplifiers operating in the VHF frequency band with power gains as high as 14 dB. As a demonstration, we fabricated nanotube transistor radios, in which SWNT devices provide all of the key functions, including resonant antennas, fixed RF amplifiers, RF mixers, and audio amplifiers. These results represent important first steps to practical implementation of SWNTs in high-speed analog circuits. Comparison studies indicate certain performance advantages over silicon and capabilities that complement those in existing compound semiconductor technologies. PMID:18227509

  16. Transistorized communications receiver

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Schwartz

    1956-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to use silicon transistors in place of vacuum tubes in all sections following the mixer stage of a military type communication receiver. The hybrid receiver built, while keeping the desirable characteristics of the vacuum tube receiver also provided for an increase of audio power and a reduction of battery power drain.

  17. Reconfigurable silicon nanowire transistors.

    PubMed

    Heinzig, André; Slesazeck, Stefan; Kreupl, Franz; Mikolajick, Thomas; Weber, Walter M

    2012-01-11

    Over the past 30 years electronic applications have been dominated by complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) devices. These combine p- and n-type field effect transistors (FETs) to reduce static power consumption. However, CMOS transistors are limited to static electrical functions, i.e., electrical characteristics that cannot be changed. Here we present the concept and a demonstrator of a universal transistor that can be reversely configured as p-FET or n-FET simply by the application of an electric signal. This concept is enabled by employing an axial nanowire heterostructure (metal/intrinsic-silicon/metal) with independent gating of the Schottky junctions. In contrast to conventional FETs, charge carrier polarity and concentration are determined by selective and sensitive control of charge carrier injections at each Schottky junction, explicitly avoiding the use of dopants as shown by measurements and calculations. Besides the additional functionality, the fabricated nanoscale devices exhibit enhanced electrical characteristics, e.g., record on/off ratio of up to 1 × 10(9) for Schottky transistors. This novel nanotransistor technology makes way for a simple and compact hardware platform that can be flexibly reconfigured during operation to perform different logic computations yielding unprecedented circuit design flexibility. PMID:22111808

  18. Paper field effect transistor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. Fortunato; Nuno Correia; Pedro Barquinha; Cláudia Costa; Luís Pereira; Gonçalo Gonçalves; Rodrigo Martins

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we report the use of a sheet of cellulose fiber-based paper as the dielectric layer used in oxide based semiconductor thin film field-effect transistors (FETs). In this new approach we are using the cellulose fiber-based paper in an \\

  19. A Matterwave Transistor Oscillator

    E-print Network

    Caliga, Seth C; Zozulya, Alex A; Anderson, Dana Z

    2012-01-01

    A triple-well atomtronic transistor combined with forced RF evaporation is used to realize a driven matterwave oscillator circuit. The transistor is implemented using a metalized compound glass and silicon substrate. On-chip and external currents produce a cigar-shaped magnetic trap, which is divided into transistor source, gate, and drain regions by a pair of blue-detuned optical barriers projected onto the magnetic trap through a chip window. A resonant laser beam illuminating the drain portion of the atomtronic transistor couples atoms emitted by the gate to the vacuum. The circuit operates by loading the source with cold atoms and utilizing forced evaporation as a power supply that produces a positive chemical potential in the source, which subsequently drives oscillation. High-resolution in-trap absorption imagery reveals gate atoms that have tunneled from the source and establishes that the circuit emits a nominally mono-energetic matterwave with a frequency of 23.5(1.0) kHz by tunneling from the gate, ...

  20. An extremely low noise photodetector based on the single electron transistor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. N. Cleland; D. Esteve; C. Urbina; M. H. Devoret

    1993-01-01

    We have demonstrated the use of the single electron transistor (SET) as an amplifier for a photodetector operated at 20 mK. The unparalleled low input noise of the SET permits the detection of very small numbers of charge carriers generated in a bulk p-type Si substrate. We present data showing the response of the detector when it is illuminated by

  1. Current gain collapse in microwave multifinger heterojunction bipolar transistors operated at very high power densities

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William Liu; Steve Nelson; Darrell G. Hill; Ali Khatibzadeh

    1993-01-01

    The rapid development of heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT) technologies has led to the demonstration of high power single-chip microwave amplifiers. Because HBTs are operated at high power densities, the ultimate limits on the performance of HBTs are imposed by thermal considerations. The authors address a thermal phenomenon observed when a multifinger power HBT is operating at high power densities. This

  2. Wireless Josephson Amplifier

    E-print Network

    A. Narla; K. M. Sliwa; M. Hatridge; S. Shankar; L. Frunzio; R. J. Schoelkopf; M. H. Devoret

    2014-07-21

    Josephson junction parametric amplifiers are playing a crucial role in the readout chain in superconducting quantum information experiments. However, their integration with current 3D cavity implementations poses the problem of transitioning between waveguide, coax cables and planar circuits. Moreover, Josephson amplifiers require auxiliary microwave components, like directional couplers and/or hybrids, that are sources of spurious losses and impedance mismatches that limit measurement efficiency and amplifier tunability. We have developed a new wireless architecture for these parametric amplifiers that eliminates superfluous microwave components and interconnects. This greatly simplifies their assembly and integration into experiments. We present an experimental realization of such a device operating in the $9-11$ GHz band with about $100$ MHz of amplitude gain-bandwidth product, on par with devices mounted in conventional sample holders. The simpler impedance environment presented to the amplifier also results in increased amplifier tunability.

  3. Integrated CMOS RF amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charity, C.; Whitaker, S.; Purviance, J.; Canaris, M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports an integrated 2.0 micron CMOS RF amplifier designed for amplification in the 420-450 MHz frequency band. Design techniques are shown for the test amplifier configuration. Problems of decreased amplifier bandwidth, gain element instability, and low Q values for the inductors were encountered. Techniques used to overcome these problems are discussed. Layouts of the various elements are described and a summary of the simulation results are included. Test circuits have been submitted to MOSIS for fabrication.

  4. Double conjugate laser amplifier

    SciTech Connect

    Chandra, S.; Daunt, G.H.

    1991-01-29

    This paper describes a double conjugate laser amplifier system for producing a stable output laser beam in line with a laser oscillator input beam. It comprises: a laser oscillator which produces a low energy oscillator laser beam therefrom directly along a laser beam axis of the system; an amplification means comprised of double conjugate laser amplifiers further comprised of a first and a second singly phase conjugate amplifiers laterally opposite each other about the laser beam axis; polarizers with one of the polarizers positioned between each of the first and second singly phase conjugate amplifiers on the laser beam axis; Pockels cells with on of the Pockels cells positioned on the laser beam axis immediately prior to one of the polarizers; and a means for selectively switching the amplifier means comprised of applying a half-wave voltage at each of the Pockels cells to provide a polarization rotation of the input beam through 90{degrees} for routing of the oscillator laser beam directly through or reflected off the polarizes as an input beam to the amplification means wherein the amplification means amplifies the input beam twice in each of the first and second singly phase conjugate amplifiers and reflects the amplified laser beam off the polarizers as an amplified laser output beam in exactly the same direction as the input laser beam.

  5. Analysis of low-offset CTIA amplifier for small-size-pixel infrared focal plane array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xue; Huang, Zhangcheng; Shao, Xiumei

    2014-11-01

    The design of input stage amplifier becomes more and more difficult as the expansion of format arrays and reduction of pixel size. A design method of low-offset amplifier based on 0.18-?m process used in small-size pixel is analyzed in order to decrease the dark signal of extended wavelength InGaAs infrared focal plane arrays (IRFPA). Based on an example of a cascode operational amplifier (op-amp), the relationship between input offset voltage and size of each transistor is discussed through theoretical analysis and Monte Carlo simulation. The results indicate that input transistors and load transistors have great influence on the input offset voltage while common-gate transistors are negligible. Furthermore, the offset voltage begins to increase slightly when the width and length of transistors decrease along with the diminution of pixel size, and raises rapidly when the size is smaller than a proximate threshold value. The offset voltage of preamplifiers with differential architecture and single-shared architecture in small pitch pixel are studied. After optimization under same conditions, simulation results show that single-shared architecture has smaller offset voltage than differential architecture.

  6. Low-Noise MMIC Amplifiers for 120 to 180 GHz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pukala, David; Samoska, Lorene; Peralta, Alejandro; Bayuk, Brian; Grundbacher, Ron; Oliver, Patricia; Cavus, Abdullah; Liu, Po-Hsin

    2009-01-01

    Three-stage monolithic millimeter-wave integrated-circuit (MMIC) amplifiers capable of providing useful amounts of gain over the frequency range from 120 to 180 GHz have been developed as prototype low-noise amplifiers (LNAs) to be incorporated into instruments for sensing cosmic microwave background radiation. There are also potential uses for such LNAs in electronic test equipment, passive millimeter- wave imaging systems, radar receivers, communication receivers, and systems for detecting hidden weapons. The main advantage afforded by these MMIC LNAs, relative to prior MMIC LNAs, is that their coverage of the 120-to-180-GHz frequency band makes them suitable for reuse in a wider variety of applications without need to redesign them. Each of these MMIC amplifiers includes InP transistors and coplanar waveguide circuitry on a 50- mthick chip (see Figure 1). Coplanar waveguide transmission lines are used for both applying DC bias and matching of input and output impedances of each transistor stage. Via holes are incorporated between top and bottom ground planes to suppress propagation of electromagnetic modes in the substrate. On the basis of computational simulations, each of these amplifiers was expected to operate with a small-signal gain of 14 dB and a noise figure of 4.3 dB. At the time of writing this article, measurements of noise figures had not been reported, but on-chip measurements had shown gains approaching their simulated values (see Figure 2).

  7. Pseudo 2-transistor active pixel sensor using an n-well/gate-tied p-channel metal oxide semiconductor field eeffect transistor-type photodetector with built-in transfer gate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Sang-Ho; Seo, Min-Woong; Kong, Jae-Sung; Shin, Jang-Kyoo; Choi, Pyung

    2008-11-01

    In this paper, a pseudo 2-transistor active pixel sensor (APS) has been designed and fabricated by using an n-well/gate-tied p-channel metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor (PMOSFET)-type photodetector with built-in transfer gate. The proposed sensor has been fabricated using a 0.35 ?m 2-poly 4-metal standard complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) logic process. The pseudo 2-transistor APS consists of two NMOSFETs and one photodetector which can amplify the generated photocurrent. The area of the pseudo 2-transistor APS is 7.1 × 6.2 ?m2. The sensitivity of the proposed pixel is 49 lux/(V·s). By using this pixel, a smaller pixel area and a higher level of sensitivity can be realized when compared with a conventional 3-transistor APS which uses a pn junction photodiode.

  8. Calculating the Minimum Number of Iterative Stages in a Wide-Band Amplifier

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Comer; J. Griffith

    1968-01-01

    This correspondence reports a method of calculating the minimum number of iterative stages required to satisfy a given gain and bandwidth specification. The method can be applied to transistor or vacuum tube video amplifiers so long as the individual stage gain-bandwidth product is constant.

  9. AN EXPERIMENTAL AND NUMERICAL STUDY ON HEAT SPREADING ENHANCEMENT IN HIGH POWER AMPLIFIER HEAT SINKS

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. MAGUIRE; M. BEHNIA; G. MORRISON

    A comprehensive study has been undertaken to better understand the thermal conditions within high power, signal amplifiers. The majority of the heat is generated by four high power transistors, which have been shown to approach their maximum rated junction temperature of 200oC (1) under normal operating conditions. Numerical and experimental methods have been used to assess the incorporation of high

  10. Guidelines for designing BJT amplifiers with low 1\\/f AM and PM noise

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. S. Ferre-Pikal; F. L. Walls; C. W. Nelson

    1997-01-01

    In this paper we discuss guidelines for designing linear bipolar junction transistor amplifiers with low 1\\/f amplitude modulation (AM) and phase modulation (PM) noise. These guidelines are derived from a new theory that relates AM and PM noise to transconductance fluctuations, junction capacitance fluctuations, and circuit architecture. We analyze the noise equations of each process for a common emitter (CE)

  11. New low-level a-c amplifier provides adjustable noise cancellation and automatic temperature compensation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. R., Jr.

    1964-01-01

    Circuit utilizing a transistorized differential amplifier is developed for biomedical use. This low voltage operating circuit provides adjustable cancellation at the input for unbalanced noise signals, and automatic temperature compensation is accomplished by a single active element across the input-output ends.

  12. CMOS distributed amplifiers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Juan C. Ranuárez; Yogesh K. Ramadass; M. Jamal Deen

    2004-01-01

    This paper reviews the characteristics of broadband distributed amplifiers (DA) and traveling wave amplifiers (TWA) implemented in CMOS technology. The basic equations that govern the performance and design of DAs in terms of gain, bandwidth, matching and noise are summarized, as well as the implications of the use of transmission lines to replace on-chip inductors. The difficulties that arise for

  13. Linearly polarized fiber amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Kliner, Dahv A.; Koplow, Jeffery P.

    2004-11-30

    Optically pumped rare-earth-doped polarizing fibers exhibit significantly higher gain for one linear polarization state than for the orthogonal state. Such a fiber can be used to construct a single-polarization fiber laser, amplifier, or amplified-spontaneous-emission (ASE) source without the need for additional optical components to obtain stable, linearly polarized operation.

  14. Optoelectronic Microwave Power Amplifiers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert O'Connell; Chih-Jung Huang; Armin Karabegovic; William Nunnally

    2007-01-01

    The power amplifiers used in the transmit\\/receive (TR) modules of future X-band radar systems will be required to be more efficient and compact than currently used circuits. This paper describes a simulation study of optoelectronic (OE) Class AB and Class E microwave power amplifiers based on a novel photoconductive semiconductor switch (PCSS). The simulations show that as the width of

  15. Improved chopper circuit uses parallel transistors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Parallel transistor chopper circuit operates with one transistor in the forward mode and the other in the inverse mode. By using this method, it acts as a single, symmetrical, bidirectional transistor, and reduces and stabilizes the offset voltage.

  16. A SOI LDMOS technology compatible with CMOS, BJT, and passive components for fully-integrated RF power amplifiers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yue Tan; Mahender Kumar; Jun Cai; Johnny K. O. Sin

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) lateral double-diffused MOS transistor (LDMOS) technology, which is compatible with complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS), lateral bipolar junction transistor (BJT), and passive components for the implementation of radio frequency (RF) fully-integrated power amplifiers (IPAs) used in wireless communications. This technology allows complete integration of the low-cost and low-power front-end circuits with the baseband circuits

  17. A 3.5 GHz CMOS Doherty power amplifier with integrated diode linearizer targeted for WiMax applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Xian Cui; Patrick Roblin; Jongsoo Lee; Wan Rone Liou; Young Gi Kim

    2007-01-01

    In this work, a novel integrated Doherty power amplifier in 0.18 mum CMOS process is presented for potential WiMax applications at 3.5 GHz. Doherty configuration with cascode transistors is adopted to achieve high efficiency and output power. The integrated diode linearizer is first demonstrated to use on the cascode transistor to improve the linearity of Doherty PA. The proposed power

  18. High voltage power transistor development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hower, P. L.

    1981-01-01

    Design considerations, fabrication procedures, and methods of evaluation for high-voltage power-transistor development are discussed. Technique improvements such as controlling the electric field at the surface and perserving lifetimes in the collector region which have advanced the state of the art in high-voltage transistors are discussed. These improvements can be applied directly to the development of 1200 volt, 200 ampere transistors.

  19. Bipolar Junction Transistors

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Kuphaldt, Tony R.

    All About Circuits is a website that â??provides a series of online textbooks covering electricity and electronics.â? Written by Tony R. Kuphaldt, the textbooks available here are wonderful resources for students, teachers, and anyone who is interested in learning more about electronics. This specific section, Bipolar Junction Transistors, is the fourth chapter in Volume III â??Semiconductors. A few of the topics covered in this chapter include: The Transistor as a Switch, Active Mode Operation, and Input and Output Coupling. Diagrams and detailed descriptions of concepts are included throughout the chapter to provide users with a comprehensive lesson. Visitors to the site are also encouraged to discuss concepts and topics using the All About Circuits discussion forums (registration with the site is required to post materials).

  20. NASA satellite communications application research, phase 2 addendum. Efficient high power, solid state amplifier for EHF communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benet, James

    1994-03-01

    This document is an addendum to the NASA Satellite Communications Application Research (SCAR) Phase 2 Final Report, 'Efficient High Power, Solid State Amplifier for EHF Communications.' This report describes the work performed from 1 August 1993 to 11 March 1994, under contract number NASW-4513. During this reporting period an array of transistor amplifiers was repaired by replacing all MMIC amplifier chips. The amplifier array was then tested using three different feedhorn configurations. Descriptions, procedures, and results of this testing are presented in this report, and conclusions are drawn based on the test results obtained.

  1. An 8.4-GHz cryogenically cooled HEMT amplifier for DSS 13

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanida, L.

    1988-01-01

    A prototype 8.4 GHz (X-band) high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) amplifier/closed cycle refrigerator system was installed in the Deep Space Station 13 feedcone in August 1987. The amplifier is cryogenically cooled to a physical temperature of 12 K and provides 31 K antenna noise temperature (zenith) and 35 dB of gain at a frequency of 8.2 to 8.6 GHz. Antenna system noise temperature is less than 50 K from 7.2 to 9.4 MHz. The low noise HEMT amplifier system is intended for use as a radio astronomy or space communications receiver front end.

  2. Carbon Nanotube Transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datta, Supriyo

    2003-03-01

    Carbon nanotube transistors (CNTFETs) with performance greatly exceeding silicon MOSFETs have recently been demonstrated. In order to explore potential applications of CNT technologies in future nanoelectronic systems, it is important to understand the device physics and evaluate the upper limit for the performance of CNTFETs. We will present a theoretical evaluation of ballistic CNTFET's using both (1) a detailed atomistic model and (2) a simple, phenomenological model. CNTFETs present the possibility of achieving both the ballistic and quantum capacitance limits, leading to several interesting effects. For example, the transconductance, gm, is identical to the channel conductance, GD, and quantized in units of 4e^2/h. An analysis of recent experiments indicates that present-day CNTFET's still operate well below their performance limit due to parasitic resistance and scattering. Possible approaches for improving the performance will be discussed. References: [1] Jing Guo, Supriyo Datta, and Mark Lundstrom, Markus Brink and Paul McEuen, Ali Javey, Hongjie Dai, Hyoungsub Kim, and Paul McIntyre,"Assessment of Silicon MOS and Carbon Nanotube FET Performance LimitsUsing a General Theory of Ballistic Transistors", to appear in IEDM Proceedings, 2002. [2] Jing Guo, Sebastien Goasguen, Mark Lundstrom, and Supriyo Datta, "Metal-insulator-semiconductor electrostatics of carbon nanotubes" Appl. Phys. Lett., 81, 1486 (2002). [3] Jing Guo, Mark Lundstrom, and Supriyo Datta, "Performance Projections for Ballistic Carbon Nanotube Field-Effect Transistors", Appl. Phys. Lett., 80, 3192 (2002).

  3. On 32-GHz cryogenically cooled HEMT low-noise amplifiers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bautista, J. J.; Ortiz, G. G.; Duh, K. H. G.; Kopp, W. F.; Ho, P.; Chao, P. C.; Kao, M. Y.; Smith, P. M.; Ballingall, J. M.

    1988-01-01

    The cryogenic noise temperature performance of a two-stage and a three-stage 32 GHz High Electron Mobility Transistor (HEMT) amplifier was evaluated. The amplifiers employ 0.25 micrometer conventional AlGaAs/GaAs HEMT devices, hybrid matching input and output microstrip circuits, and a cryogenically stable dc biasing network. The noise temperature measurements were performed in the frequency range of 31 to 33 GHz over a physical temperature range of 300 K down to 12 K. Across the measurement band, the amplifiers displayed a broadband response, and the noise temperature was observed to decrease by a factor of 10 in cooling from 300 K to 15 K. The lowest noise temperature measured for the two-stage amplifier at 32 GHz was 35 K with an associated gain of 16.5 dB, while the three-stage amplifier measured 39 K with an associated gain of 26 dB. It was further observed that both amplifiers were insensitive to light.

  4. Cryogenically Cooled GaAs FET Amplifier with a Noise Temperature Under 70 K at 5.0 GHz (Short Papers)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Pierro

    1976-01-01

    A 4.5-5.0-GHz gallium arsenide field-effect transistor (GaAs FET) amplifier cryogenically cooled to approximately 70 K is described. A noise temperature of under 70 K is achieved over the hand. Power gain for the two-stage amplifier is 20 dB. A noise analysis is performed to predict noise-temperature dependence on the temperature of the amplifier.

  5. Amplified spontaneous Raman scattering in fiber Raman amplifiers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kiyofumi Mochizuki; Noboru Edagawa; Yoshinao Iwamoto

    1986-01-01

    Amplified spontaneous Raman scattered light power in forward and backward Raman amplifiers is theoretically and experimentally studied under the assumption of the constant Raman gain coefficient in the bandwidth of an optical filter. On the basis of the results, the power ratio of the amplified signal to amplified spontaneous scattering is discussed. As a result, it is clarified that the

  6. Amplified spontaneous emission in pulse-pumped Raman amplifiers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jake Bromage; P. J. Winzer; L. E. Nelson; M. D. Mermelstein; C. Horn; C. H. Headley

    2003-01-01

    We discuss amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) generated in Raman amplifiers that are counter-pumped with trains of pulses. Our experimental and theoretical results show that if the peak power of the pump pulses is too high, the ASE output from the amplifier can be significantly higher than that from a continuous-wave pumped amplifier providing the same gain. This effect places a

  7. Superconducting Field-Effect Transistors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhasin, Kul; Romanofsky, Robert R.; Tabib-Azar, Massood

    1995-01-01

    Devices offer switching speeds greater than semiconducting counterparts. High-Tc superconducting field-effect transistors (SUPEFETs) investigated for use as electronic switches in delay-line-type microwave phase shifters. Resemble semiconductor field-effect transistors in some respects, but their operation based on different principle; namely, electric-field control of transition between superconductivity and normal conductivity.

  8. Semiconductor laser amplifier optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Gillner, L.; Goobar, E.; Thylen, L.; Gustavsson, M.

    1989-08-01

    Long-wavelength semiconductor laser amplifiers are investigated with respect to spectral gain properties such as peak gain wavelength shift and width of gain curve, employing different structural parameters such as thickness of the active layer and amplifier length. The model used takes into account Auger recombination, thermal effects, and spontaneous emission. It is shown that there exists an optimum thickness of the active layer with respect to current density for a given gain and that increased length of the amplifier allows higher gains and reduced variation of peak gain wavelength with respect to variation of peak gain at the expense of increased saturation by amplified spontaneous emission and increased excess noise. Finally, an experimental verification of the theoretical model is made.

  9. Amplified DNA Biosensors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Itamar Willner; Bella Shlyahovsky; Bilha Willner; Maya Zayats

    2009-01-01

    \\u000a Amplified detection of DNA is a central research topic in modern bioanalytical science. Electronic or optical transduction\\u000a of DNA recognition events provides readout signals for DNA biosensors. Amplification of the DNA analysis is accomplished by\\u000a the coupling of nucleic acid-functionalized enzymes or nucleic acid-functionalized nanoparticles (NP) as labels for the DNA\\u000a duplex formation. This chapter discusses the amplified amperometric analysis

  10. Superfunctions for amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouznetsov, Dmitrii

    2013-07-01

    An amplifier is characterized by its transfer function T, which expresses the dependence of the output signal on the input signal. This signal may be related to power, intensity, energy of a pulse, or its fluence, or any similar physical quantity. The internal structure of the amplified signal (e.g., its spectral content, polarization, temporal behavior, and spatial distribution) is not taken into account. The amplifier is considered to be spatially homogeneous and uniformly pumped. The transfer function is supposed to be known (measured in an experiment). The problem of reconstruction of the behavior of the signal inside the amplifier is formulated. For a given transfer function T, the evolution of the signal inside is interpreted as the superfunction F, satisfying the transfer equation F( z + 1) T(F(z)), where z is of coordinate along the propagation direction, while the length of the amplifier is used as a unit of measurement. (For simplicity, distances are measured in units of the length of the amplifier.) Two examples of realistic transfer function T are considered; they correspond to amplification of continuous wave and to amplification of pulses. In these examples, the transfer function and the distribution of the signal along the amplifier can be expressed in terms of special functions. The iterative procedure is suggested as a general method of reconstructing the signal along the amplifier, if neither the transfer function T, nor the superfunction F can be expressed with a simple combination of special functions. The examples show that the iterations converge to a physically meaningful solution. This method is expected to be useful for the characterization of laser materials from the measurement of the transfer function of a bulk sample.

  11. A grid amplifier

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Kim; J. J. Rosenberg; R. P. Smith; J. B. Hacker; M. P. DeLisio; D. B. Rutledge

    1991-01-01

    A 50-MESFET grid amplifier is reported that has a gain of 11 dB at 3.3 GHz. The grid isolates the input from the output by using vertical polarization for the input beam and horizontal polarization for the transmitted output beam. The grid unit cell is a two-MESFET differential amplifier. A simple calibration procedure allows the gain to be calculated from

  12. Raman amplifiers for telecommunications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mohammed N. Islam

    2002-01-01

    Raman amplifiers are being deployed in almost every new long-haul and ultralong-haul fiber-optic transmission systems, making them one of the first widely commercialized nonlinear optical devices in telecommunications. This paper reviews some of the technical reasons behind the wide-spread acceptance of Raman technology. Distributed Raman amplifiers improve the noise figure and reduce the nonlinear penalty of fiber systems, allowing for

  13. Power transistor switching characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackburn, D. L.

    1981-01-01

    The switching properties of power transistors are investigated. The devices studied were housed in IO-3 cases and were of an n(+)-p-n(-)-n(+) vertical dopant structure. The effects of the magnitude of the reverse-base current and temperature on the reverse-bias second breakdown characteristics are discussed. Brief discussions of device degradation due to second breakdown and of a constant voltage turn-off circuit are included. A description of a vacuum tube voltage clamp circuit which reduces clamped collector voltage overshoot is given.

  14. Cryogenically Cooled Field Effect Transistors for Low-Noise Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wollack, Edward J.

    2002-01-01

    Recent tends in the design, fabrication and use of High-Electron-Mobility-Transistors (HEMT) in low noise amplifiers are reviewed. Systems employing these devices have achieved the lowest system noise for wavelengths greater than three millimeters with relatively modest cryogenic cooling requirements in a variety of ground and space based applications. System requirements which arise in employing such devices in imaging applications are contrasted with other leading coherent detector candidates at microwave wavelengths. Fundamental and practical limitations which arise in the context of microwave application of field effect devices at cryogenic temperatures will be discussed from a component and systems point of view.

  15. Cryogenetically Cooled Field Effect Transistors for Low-Noise Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wollack, Edward J.; Rabin, Douglas M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Recent tends in the design, fabrication and use of High-Electron-Mobility-Transistors (HEMT) in low noise amplifiers are reviewed. Systems employing these devices have achieved the lowest system noise for wavelengths greater than three millimeters with relatively modest cryogenic cooling requirements in a variety of ground and space based applications. System requirements which arise in employing such devices in imaging applications are contrasted with other leading coherent detector candidates at microwave wavelengths. Fundamental and practical limitations which arise in the context of microwave application of field effect devices at cryogenic temperatures will be discussed from a component and systems point of view.

  16. SiGe bipolar junction transistors for microwave power applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregory N. Henderson; Matthew F. O'Keefe; Timothy E. Boles; P. Noonan; J. M. Sledziewski; B. M. Brown

    1997-01-01

    High-efficiency silicon germanium (SiGe) bipolar junction transistors have been developed for 5-10 V, 1.88 GHz power amplifier applications. Class A-B biased common base parts have demonstrated a power gain Gp=16 dB, one-dB compression point P1dB=25 dBm and power-added-efficiency PAE(P1dB)=53% at Vc=5 V and >1 W output power with >15 dB gain and >50% PAE at Vc=10 V. Common-emitter measurements (Vc=7

  17. Dose rate and total dose 1/f noise performance of GaAs heterojunction bipolar transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Hiemstra, D.M. [SPAR Environmental Systems, Brampton, Ontario (Canada)] [SPAR Environmental Systems, Brampton, Ontario (Canada)

    1996-12-01

    In this paper, for the first time to the authors` knowledge, dose rate and total dose 1/f noise performance of GaAs heterojunction bipolar transistors is presented. These devices are being investigated for use in amplifiers for sensor readout in an experimental fusion reactor. Here, GaAs heterojunction bipolar transistor 1/f noise performance is demonstrated to be unaffected by dose rate and total dose. This is believed to be due to shielding provided by the N{sup +} collector from the GaAs substrate.

  18. A photonic transistor device based on photons and phonons in a cavity electromechanical system

    E-print Network

    Jiang, Cheng

    2012-01-01

    We present a scheme for photonic transistors based on photons and phonons in a cavity electromechanical system, which is consisted of a superconducting microwave cavity coupled to a nanomechanical resonator. Control of the propagation of photons is achieved through the interaction of microwave field (photons) and nanomechanical vibrations (phonons). By calculating the transmission spectrum of the signal field, we show that the signal field can be efficiently attenuated or amplified, depending on the power of a second `gating'(pump) field. This scheme may be a promising candidate for single-photon transistors and pave the way for numerous applications in telecommunication and quantum information technologies.

  19. Nanoscale Transistors: Device Physics, Modeling and Simulation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark Lundstrom; Jing Guo

    2006-01-01

    The continuous scaling of transistors in the last half of century has been the driving force for electronics. The channel length of the transistors in production today is below 100nm. A wide variety of devices are also being explored to complement or even replace silicon transistors at molecular scales. Similarities between nanoscale and micronscale transistors exist, but nanotransistors also behave

  20. Monolithic metal oxide transistors.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yongsuk; Park, Won-Yeong; Kang, Moon Sung; Yi, Gi-Ra; Lee, Jun-Young; Kim, Yong-Hoon; Cho, Jeong Ho

    2015-04-28

    We devised a simple transparent metal oxide thin film transistor architecture composed of only two component materials, an amorphous metal oxide and ion gel gate dielectric, which could be entirely assembled using room-temperature processes on a plastic substrate. The geometry cleverly takes advantage of the unique characteristics of the two components. An oxide layer is metallized upon exposure to plasma, leading to the formation of a monolithic source-channel-drain oxide layer, and the ion gel gate dielectric is used to gate the transistor channel effectively at low voltages through a coplanar gate. We confirmed that the method is generally applicable to a variety of sol-gel-processed amorphous metal oxides, including indium oxide, indium zinc oxide, and indium gallium zinc oxide. An inverter NOT logic device was assembled using the resulting devices as a proof of concept demonstration of the applicability of the devices to logic circuits. The favorable characteristics of these devices, including (i) the simplicity of the device structure with only two components, (ii) the benign fabrication processes at room temperature, (iii) the low-voltage operation under 2 V, and (iv) the excellent and stable electrical performances, together support the application of these devices to low-cost portable gadgets, i.e., cheap electronics. PMID:25777338

  1. V-band monolithic two stage HEMT amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aust, M.; Yonaki, J.; Nakano, K.; Berenz, J.; Dow, G.

    Two different types of HEMT (high-electron-mobility transistor) monolithic low-noise amplifiers (LNAs) using AlGaAs/GaAs and pseudomorphic InGaAs/GaAs materials have been developed and have demonstrated excellent performance at 60 GHz. These monolithic LNAs have achieved noise figures of 5 dB, as well as associated gains of 11 dB. These two-stage circuits both utilize 0.2- x 60-micron HEMT devices for both bandpass and low-pass circuit topologies. Noise figures as low as 4.5 dB have been observed for single-stage MMIC- (monolithic-microwave-integrated-circuit) implemented LNAs, and gains in excess of 20 dB have been observed for three-stage versions of this amplifier with a 5-dB noise figure in the V band. This result represents the state-of-the art monolithic HEMT amplifier performance for AlGaAs and pseudomorphic InGaAs materials. This MMIC amplifier can occupy about less than one-third the size of existing MIC hybrid V-band LNAs. This represents a significant size reduction and cost saving due to repeatable circuit performance with monolithic technology. The chip sizes are both 1.6 x 2.7 mm for these two-stage amplifiers.

  2. TUDE ET RALISATION D'AMPLIFICATEUR A TRANSISTOR A EFFET DE CHAMP A L'AsGa REFROIDI

    E-print Network

    Boyer, Edmond

    un facteur de bruit 0,25 dB. Abstract. 2014 Minimum noise figure and optimum source impedance of GaAs to the physical changes of the material. Amplifiers using GaAs field-effect transistors (NE 244 and Gat 1) were field-effect tran- sistors cooled at cryogenic temperatures are computed. Noise characteristics

  3. Voltage spectrum design formulas of modified fully differential amplitude, frequency or phase transmitter from the transistor level

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kittipong Tripetch

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the realistic modulation analysis at the transistor level from schematic such as Modified Gilbert Multiplier and fully differential microwave power amplifier based on common-emitter connection. Output signal from the output node of the Gilbert Multiplier can be plotted in time domain from more realistic equation compared with ideal modulation theory from textbook. The spectrum of the output

  4. Performance of SiGe-HBTs and its amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senapati, B.; Maiti, C. K.

    2001-11-01

    Wireless communication systems require radiofrequency integrated circuit implementation of high performance front-end receiver at a low cost. In this paper, suitability of silicon-germanium heterojunction bipolar transistors (SiGe-HBTs) is examined. DC characterization both at room and low temperature have been performed. A single-stage SiGe-HBT amplifier has been designed and fabricated on Duroid board. A linear gain of 13.2 dB at a center frequency of 1.5 GHz has been obtained.

  5. Ultrasensitive biomolecular assays with amplifying nanowire FET biosensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chui, Chi On; Shin, Kyeong-Sik; Mao, Yufei

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, we review our recent development and validation of the ultrasensitive electronic biomolecular assays enabled by our novel amplifying nanowire field-effect transistor (nwFET) biosensors. Our semiconductor nwFET biosensor platform technology performs extreme proximity signal amplification in the electrical domain that requires neither labeling nor enzymes nor optics. We have designed and fabricated the biomolecular assay prototypes and developed the corresponding analytical procedures. We have also confirmed their analytical performance in quantitating key protein biomarker in human serum, demonstrating an ultralow limit of detection and concurrently high output current level for the first time.

  6. A grid amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Moonil; Weikle, Robert M., II; Hacker, Jonathan B.; Delisio, Michael P.; Rutledge, David B.; Rosenberg, James J.; Smith, R. P.

    1991-01-01

    A 50-MESFET grid amplifier is reported that has a gain of 11 dB at 3.3 GHz. The grid isolates the input from the output by using vertical polarization for the input beam and horizontal polarization for the transmitted output beam. The grid unit cell is a two-MESFET differential amplifier. A simple calibration procedure allows the gain to be calculated from a relative power measurement. This grid is a hybrid circuit, but the structure is suitable for fabrication as a monolithic wafer-scale integrated circuit, particularly at millimeter wavelengths.

  7. Spatial Light Amplifier Modulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eng, Sverre T.; Olsson, N. Anders

    1992-01-01

    Spatial light amplifier modulators (SLAM's) are conceptual devices that effect two-dimensional spatial modulation in optical computing and communication systems. Unlike current spatial light modulators, these provide gain. Optical processors incorporating SLAM's designed to operate in reflection or transmission mode. Each element of planar SLAM array is optical amplifier - surface-emitting diode laser. Array addressed electrically with ac modulating signals superimposed on dc bias currents supplied to lasers. SLAM device provides both desired modulation and enough optical gain to enable splitting of output signal into many optical fibers without excessive loss of power.

  8. Universal signal conditioning amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, William E.; Hallberg, Carl; Medelius, Pedro J.

    1994-01-01

    Engineers at NASA's Kennedy Space Center have designed a signal conditioning amplifier which automatically matches itself to almost any kind of transducer. The product, called Universal Signal Conditioning Amplifier (USCA), uses state-of-the-art technologies to deliver high accuracy measurements. USCA's features which can be either programmable or automated include: voltage, current, or pulsed excitation, unlimited resolution gain, digital filtering and both analog and digital output. USCA will be used at Kennedy Space Center's launch pads for environmental measurements such as vibrations, strains, temperatures and overpressures. USCA is presently being commercialized through a co-funded agreement between NASA, the State of Florida, and Loral Test and Information Systems, Inc.

  9. Adiabatic Quantum Transistors

    E-print Network

    Dave Bacon; Steven T. Flammia; Gregory M. Crosswhite

    2013-06-18

    We describe a many-body quantum system which can be made to quantum compute by the adiabatic application of a large applied field to the system. Prior to the application of the field quantum information is localized on one boundary of the device, and after the application of the field this information has propagated to the other side of the device with a quantum circuit applied to the information. The applied circuit depends on the many-body Hamiltonian of the material, and the computation takes place in a degenerate ground space with symmetry-protected topological order. Such adiabatic quantum transistors are universal adiabatic quantum computing devices which have the added benefit of being modular. Here we describe this model, provide arguments for why it is an efficient model of quantum computing, and examine these many-body systems in the presence of a noisy environment.

  10. Transistor sizing in CMOS circuits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mehmet A. Cirit

    1987-01-01

    The problem of optimally sizing transistors in a VLSI CMOS circuit is considered. Models and algorithms for performing optimization on a single path using RC-tree approximation are presented. The results of an automatic optimization procedure are discussed.

  11. Cryogenic amplifier for fast real-time detection of single-electron tunneling I. T. Vink,a

    E-print Network

    to the operation of the rf single- electron transistor.15 In theory such a "rf-QPC" allows for single-shot chargeCryogenic amplifier for fast real-time detection of single-electron tunneling I. T. Vink,a T. The authors use this setup to monitor single-electron tunneling to and from an adjacent quantum dot

  12. High-Power, High-Frequency Si-Based (SiGe) Transistors Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponchak, George E.

    2002-01-01

    Future NASA, DOD, and commercial products will require electronic circuits that have greater functionality and versatility but occupy less space and cost less money to build and integrate than current products. System on a Chip (SOAC), a single semiconductor substrate containing circuits that perform many functions or containing an entire system, is widely recognized as the best technology for achieving low-cost, small-sized systems. Thus, a circuit technology is required that can gather, process, store, and transmit data or communications. Since silicon-integrated circuits are already used for data processing and storage and the infrastructure that supports silicon circuit fabrication is very large, it is sensible to develop communication circuits on silicon so that all the system functions can be integrated onto a single wafer. Until recently, silicon integrated circuits did not function well at the frequencies required for wireless or microwave communications, but with the introduction of small amounts of germanium into the silicon to make silicon-germanium (SiGe) transistors, silicon-based communication circuits are possible. Although microwavefrequency SiGe circuits have been demonstrated, there has been difficulty in obtaining the high power from their transistors that is required for the amplifiers of a transmitter, and many researchers have thought that this could not be done. The NASA Glenn Research Center and collaborators at the University of Michigan have developed SiGe transistors and amplifiers with state-of-the-art output power at microwave frequencies from 8 to 20 GHz. These transistors are fabricated using standard silicon processing and may be integrated with CMOS integrated circuits on a single chip. A scanning electron microscope image of a typical SiGe heterojunction bipolar transistor is shown in the preceding photomicrograph. This transistor achieved a record output power of 550 mW and an associated power-added efficiency of 33 percent at 8.4 GHz, as shown. Record performance was also demonstrated at 12.6 and 18 GHz. Developers have combined these state-of-the-art transistors with transmission lines and micromachined passive circuit components, such as inductors and capacitors, to build multistage amplifiers. Currently, a 1-W, 8.4-GHz power amplifier is being built for NASA deep space communication architectures.

  13. Properties and Applications of Varistor-Transistor Hybrid Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, R. K.; Stapleton, William A.; Sutanto, Ivan; Scantlin, Amanda A.; Lin, Sidney

    2014-05-01

    The nonlinear current-voltage characteristics of a varistor device are modified with the help of external agents, resulting in tuned varistor-transistor hybrid devices with multiple applications. The substrate used to produce these hybrid devices belongs to the modified iron titanate family with chemical formula 0.55FeTiO3·0.45Fe2O3 (IHC45), which is a prominent member of the ilmenite-hematite solid-solution series. It is a wide-bandgap magnetic oxide semiconductor. Electrical resistivity and Seebeck coefficient measurements from room temperature to about 700°C confirm that it retains its p-type nature for the entire temperature range. The direct-current (DC) and alternating-current (AC) properties of these hybrid devices are discussed and their applications identified. It is shown here that such varistor embedded ceramic transistors with many interesting properties and applications can be mass produced using incredibly simple structures. The tuned varistors by themselves can be used for current amplification and band-pass filters. The transistors on the other hand could be used to produce sensors, voltage-controlled current sources, current-controlled voltage sources, signal amplifiers, and low-band-pass filters. We believe that these devices could be suitable for a number of applications in consumer and defense electronics, high-temperature and space electronics, bioelectronics, and possibly also for electronics specific to handheld devices.

  14. Few-layer molybdenum disulfide transistors and circuits for high-speed flexible electronics.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Rui; Jiang, Shan; Chen, Yu; Liu, Yuan; Weiss, Nathan; Cheng, Hung-Chieh; Wu, Hao; Huang, Yu; Duan, Xiangfeng

    2014-01-01

    Two-dimensional layered materials, such as molybdenum disulfide, are emerging as an exciting material system for future electronics due to their unique electronic properties and atomically thin geometry. Here we report a systematic investigation of MoS2 transistors with optimized contact and device geometry, to achieve self-aligned devices with performance including an intrinsic gain over 30, an intrinsic cut-off frequency fT up to 42?GHz and a maximum oscillation frequency fMAX up to 50?GHz, exceeding the reported values for MoS2 transistors to date (fT~0.9?GHz, fMAX~1?GHz). Our results show that logic inverters or radio frequency amplifiers can be formed by integrating multiple MoS2 transistors on quartz or flexible substrates with voltage gain in the gigahertz regime. This study demonstrates the potential of two-dimensional layered semiconductors for high-speed flexible electronics. PMID:25295573

  15. Multipass amplifiers of POLARIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keppler, S.; Wandt, C.; Hornung, M.; Bödefeld, R.; Kessler, A.; Sävert, A.; Hellwing, M.; Schorcht, F.; Hein, J.; Kaluza, M. C.

    2013-05-01

    Advanced high intensity laser matter interaction experiments always call for optimized laser performance. In order to further enhance the POLARIS laser system, operational at the University of Jena and the Helmholtz-Institute Jena, in particular its energy, bandwidth and focusability, new amplifier technologies have been developed and are reported here. Additionally, existing sections were considerably improved. A new multi-pass amplification stage, which is able to replace two currently used ones, was developed in close collaboration with the MPQ (Garching). The new basic elements of this amplifier are well homogenized pump modules and the application of a successive imaging principle. By operating the amplifier under vacuum conditions a top hat beam profile with an output energy of up to 1.5 J per pulse is foreseen. The already implemented POLARIS amplifier A4 was further improved by adapting an advanced method for the homogenization of the multi-spot composed pump profile. The new method comprises a computer-based evolutionary algorithm which optimizes the position of the different spots regarding its individual size, shape and intensity. The latter allowed a better homogenization of the POLARIS near field profile.

  16. Magnetodynamic Mode Ferrite Amplifier

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Roy W. Roberts; Bert A. Auld; Robert R. Schell

    1962-01-01

    A longitudinally pumped ferrite amplifier has been operated using two magnetodynamic modes for the signal and idler resonant circuits. This is in contrast to the more usual electromagnetic cavity-type resonance or the ferrite magnetostatic modes. These magnetodynamic modes result from the coupling of a cavity-type resonance with a magnetostatic resonance. The coupling or mixing is strongest when the two unperturbed

  17. A 1-V 5 ?W CMOS-opamp with bulk-driven input transistors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Lasanen; E. Raisanen-Ruotsalainen; J. Kostamovaara

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, a low-power CMOS operational amplifier for biomedical instrumentation operating with a 1-V supply is described. Large input common-mode range (CMR) is achieved utilizing bulk-driven PMOS-transistors as an input differential pair of the opamp. The opamp was fabricated in a 0.35 ?m n-well double-poly CMOS process with threshold voltages of 0.5 V and 0.65 V. The open-loop gain

  18. Hardness Assurance Guidelines for Moderate Neutron Environment Effects in Bipolar Transistors and Integrated Circuits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert A. Berger; Joseph L. Azarewicz; Harvey Eisen

    1978-01-01

    This paper sets forth procedures which provide effective means of obtaining semiconductor devices whose neutron-induced response is within known, acceptable limits. These Hardness Assurance (HA) procedures can be applied to bipolar transistors, TTL (54\\/74 series) digital integrated circuits, and operational amplifiers (such as the 741). HA is implemented by imposing two control levels on the supplier and\\/or two quality levels

  19. Analysis of SSB Power Amplifiers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    FRED ASSADOURIAN

    1959-01-01

    It is well known that one of the critical items in a single sideband (SSB) transmitter is the power amplifier with which are associated the basic problems of distortion, output power and plate dissipation. Tubes are available which may be used either as quasi-linear RF amplifiers operated class AB or B or as gridmodulated amplifiers operated class C. In the

  20. The properties of amplified spontaneous emission noise in saturated fiber Raman amplifiers operating with CW signals

    E-print Network

    Eisenstein, Gadi

    The properties of amplified spontaneous emission noise in saturated fiber Raman amplifiers emission (ASE) noise in forward and backward pumped saturated Raman amplifiers operating with CW signals: Fiber Raman amplifier; Amplified spontaneous emission noise; Saturation 1. Introduction The noise

  1. A W-band InAs\\/AlSb low-noise\\/low-power amplifier

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William R. Deal; R. Tsai; M. D. Lange; J. B. Boos; B. R. Bennett; A. Gutierrez

    2005-01-01

    The first W-band antimonide based compound semiconductor low-noise amplifier has been demonstrated. The compact 1.4-mm2 three-stage co-planar waveguide amplifier with 0.1-?m InAs\\/AlSb high electron mobility transistor devices is fabricated on a 100-?m GaAs substrate. Minimum noise-figure of 5.4dB with an associated gain of 11.1 dB is demonstrated at a total chip dissipation of 1.8 mW at 94 GHz. Biased for

  2. Beyond G-band : a 235 GHz InP MMIC amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawson, Douglas; Samoska, Lorene; Fung, A. K.; Lee, Karen; Lai, Richard; Grundbacher, Ronald; Liu, Po-Hsin; Raja, Rohit

    2005-01-01

    We present results on an InP monolithic millimeter- wave integrated circuit (MMIC) amplifier having 10-dB gain at 235 GHz. We designed this circuit and fabricated the chip in Northrop Grumman Space Technology's (NGST) 0.07- m InP high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) process. Using a WR3 (220-325 GHz) waveguide vector network analyzer system interfaced to waveguide wafer probes, we measured this chip on-wafer for -parameters. To our knowledge, this is the first time a WR3 waveguide on-wafer measurement system has been used to measure gain in a MMIC amplifier above 230 GHz.

  3. Monolithic dye laser amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Kuklo, T.C.

    1993-03-30

    A fluid dye laser amplifier for amplifying a dye beam by pump beams has a channel structure defining a channel through which a laseable fluid flows and the dye and pump beams pass transversely to one another through a lasing region. The channel structure is formed with two pairs of mutually spaced-apart and mutually confronting glass windows, which are interlocked and make surface-contacts with one another and surround the lasing region. One of the glass window pairs passes the dye beam and the other passes the pump beams therethrough and through the lasing region. Where these glass window pieces make surface-contacts, glue is used to join the pieces together to form a monolithic structure so as to prevent the dye in the fluid passing through the channel from entering the space between the mutually contacting glass window pieces.

  4. Monolithic dye laser amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Kuklo, Thomas C. (Ripon, CA)

    1993-01-01

    A fluid dye laser amplifier for amplifying a dye beam by pump beams has a channel structure defining a channel through which a laseable fluid flows and the dye and pump beams pass transversely to one another through a lasing region. The channel structure is formed with two pairs of mutually spaced-apart and mutually confronting glass windows, which are interlocked and make surface-contacts with one another and surround the lasing region. One of the glass window pairs passes the dye beam and the other passes the pump beams therethrough and through the lasing region. Where these glass window pieces make surface-contacts, glue is used to join the pieces together to form a monolithic structure so as to prevent the dye in the fluid passing through the channel from entering the space between the mutually contacting glass window pieces.

  5. Man-Amplifying Exoskeleton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosheim, Mark E.

    1990-03-01

    This paper describes a design for a man-amplifying exoskeleton, an electrically powered, articulated frame worn by an operator. The design features modular construction and employ anthropomorphic pitch-yaw joints for arms and legs. These singularity-free designs offer a significant advancement over simple pivot-type joints used in older designs. Twenty-six degrees-of-freedom excluding the hands gives the Man-Amplifier its unique dexterity. A five hundred-pound load capacity is engineered for a diverse range of tasks. Potential applications in emergency rescue work, restoring functionality to the handicapped, and military applications ranging from material handling to an elite fighting core are discussed. A bibliography concludes this paper.

  6. Sensing with electrochemical transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cicoira, Fabio; Malliaras, George G.

    2010-03-01

    Organic electrochemical transistors are particularly promising for applications in chemical and biological sensing and are expected to play a primary role in the emerging field of organic bioelectronics [1]. These devices can be operated in aqueous electrolytes as ion-to-electron converters, thus providing an interface between the worlds of biology and electronics. OECTs sensors are currently able to detect micromolar analyte concentrations. Besides their application in sensing, OECT can help understanding the distribution of ions at the interface between conducting polymers and electrolytes.Of particular interest is the ratio between ions that accumulate at the surface vs. ions that enter in the polymer film, as this ratio ultimately determines the ease with which a conducting polymer can be de-doped (hence, it controls the maximum detectable analyte concentration). We addressed this issue by using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy to study the change in chemical composition of the conducting polymers PEDOT:PSS upon application of a gate bias in presence of several electrolytes. [1] F. Cicoira, M. Sessolo, O. Yaghmazadeh, J. A. DeFranco, S. Y. Yang, G. G. Malliaras, Adv. Mater. 2009, 21 (in press).

  7. Paper field effect transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortunato, E.; Correia, Nuno; Barquinha, Pedro; Costa, Cláudia; Pereira, Luís; Gonçalves, Gonçalo; Martins, Rodrigo

    2009-02-01

    In this paper we report the use of a sheet of cellulose fiber-based paper as the dielectric layer used in oxide based semiconductor thin film field-effect transistors (FETs). In this new approach we are using the cellulose fiber-based paper in an "interstrate" structure since the device is build on both sides of the cellulose sheet. Such hybrid FETs present excellent operating characteristics such as high channel saturation mobility (>30 cm2/Vs), drain-source current on/off modulation ratio of approximately 104, near-zero threshold voltage, enhancement n-type operation and sub-threshold gate voltage swing of 0.8 V/decade. The cellulose fiber-based paper FETs characteristics have been measured in air ambient conditions and present good stability. The obtained results outpace those of amorphous Si TFTs and rival with the same oxide based TFTs produced on either glass or crystalline silicon substrates. The compatibility of these devices with large-scale/large-area deposition techniques and low cost substrates as well as their very low operating bias delineates this as a promising approach to attain high-performance disposable electronics like paper displays, smart labels, smart packaging, RFID and point-of-care systems for self analysis in bio-applications, among others.

  8. Quantum Point Contact Transistor and Ballistic Field-Effect Transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grémion, E.; Niepce, D.; Cavanna, A.; Gennser, U.; Jin, Y.

    2012-12-01

    We report the experimental results and theoretical understanding of the Quantum Point Contact Transistor - a fully ballistic one-dimensional (1D) Field-Effect Transistor (FET). Experimentally obtained voltage gain greater than 1 in our Quantum-Point-Contact transistors at 4.2 K can be explained with the help of an analytical modeling based on the Landauer-Büttiker approach in mesosopic physics: the lowest 1D subband and the band gap play the key role in increasing its transconductance, especially by reducing its output conductance, and thus achieving a voltage gain higher than 1. This work provides a general basis for devising future ballistic FETs and the quantum limits found in this work may be used to estimate normalized transconductance and channel resistance in future two-dimensional (2D) ballistic FETs.

  9. Behavior of microfluidic amplifiers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rogério Furlan; Jay N. Zemel

    1995-01-01

    Two types of microfluidic amplifiers (wall-attachment and jet-deflection) have been implemented in silicon using standard micromachining methods and anodic sealing with a glass cap. The devices have areas of approximately 1 mm×0.5 mm and the complete structures with interconnection channels have areas of 12 or 18 mm×6 mm. Flow control and flow gain are demonstrated with supply pressures ranging up

  10. Saturated Operational Amplifier

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This animated gif illustrates the changing voltages when an operational amplifier (op-amp) becomes saturated. This animation would be useful for visually respresenting Finley's law. Voltages and parts of the circuit of this 3-D animated gif are highlighted with different colors. Current is displayed by green arrows indicating directional flow. The animation requires a Web browser or other video player software capable of displaying gif animations.Other 3-D Circuit Animations can be seen here.

  11. IF Amplifier Section in 90 nm CMOS Technology for SoC Microwave Radiometers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    F. Alimenti; S. Leone; G. Tasselli; V. Palazzari; L. Roselli; D. Zito

    2009-01-01

    In this letter a novel design solution in 90 nm CMOS technology is proposed for the IF amplifier, low-pass filter and square-law power detector of a system-on-chip (SoC) microwave radiometer. To minimize the number of off-chip components (just a single capacitor) the IF filter is based on an active gmC configuration, whereas the power detector exploits the MOS transistor non-linearity,

  12. L-band LDMOS power amplifiers based on an inverse class-F architecture

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fabien Lépine; Andreas Ådahl; Herbert Zirath

    2005-01-01

    Two inverse class-F power amplifiers (PAs) working at 1 and 1.8 GHz, respectively, have been developed. The PAs use an LDMOS transistor as an active element in order to generated high efficiency with high output power. The 1-GHz PA achieved a drain efficiency of 77.8% with 12.4 W of output power and the 1.8-GHz PA a drain efficiency of 60%

  13. A LDMOS technology compatible with CMOS and passive components for integrated RF power amplifiers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yue Tan; Mahender Kumar; Johnny K. O. Sin; Jun Cai; Jack Lau

    2000-01-01

    The authors describe a bulk silicon LDMOS technology, which is compatible with CMOS and passive components, for the implementation of RF integrated power amplifiers (IPA's) used in portable wireless communication applications. This technology allows complete integration of the low cost and low power front-end circuits with the baseband circuits for single-chip wireless communication systems. The LDMOS transistor (0.35 ?m channel

  14. CMOS RF amplifier and mixer circuits utilizing complementary Characteristics of parallel combined NMOS and PMOS devices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ilku Nam; Bonkee Kim; Kwyro Lee

    2005-01-01

    Design and chip fabrication results for complementary RF circuit topologies that utilize the complementary RF characteristics of both NMOS and PMOS field-effect-transistor devices combined in parallel way are reported, which can inherently provide single-ended differential signal-processing capability, requiring neither baluns, nor differential signal generating\\/combining circuits. The proposed complementary CMOS parallel push-pull (CCPP) amplifier gives an order of magnitude improvement in

  15. Cryogenic indium-phosphide HEMT low-noise amplifiers at V-band

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. M. Tanskanen; P. Kangaslahti; H. Ahtola; P. Jukkala; T. Karttaavi; M. Lahdes; J. Varis; J. Tuovinen

    2000-01-01

    Indium-phosphide (InP) high electron-mobility transistors potentially have the lowest noise at frequencies below 100 GHz, especially when cryogenically cooled. We have designed monolithically integrated InP millimeter-wave low-noise amplifiers (LNAs) for the European Space Agency (ESA) science Planck mission. The Planck LNA's design goal for noise temperature is 35 K at the ambient temperature of 20 K. The operation bandwidth is

  16. A low-noise CMOS instrumentation amplifier for thermoelectric infrared detectors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian Menolfi; Qiuting Huang

    1997-01-01

    A low-noise CMOS instrumentation amplifier for low-frequency thermoelectric infrared sensor applications is described which uses a chopper technique to reduce low-frequency noise and offset. The offset reduction efficiency of the band-pass filter, implemented to reduce residual offset due to clock feedthrough, has been analyzed and experimentally verified. The circuit has been integrated in a transistor-only 1-?m single-poly n-well CMOS process.

  17. Submillimeter-Wave InP MMIC Amplifiers From 300–345 GHz

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Pukala; L. Samoska; T. Gaier; A. Fung; X. B. Mei; W. Yoshida; J. Lee; J. Uyeda; P. H. Liu; W. R. Deal; V. Radisic; R. Lai

    2008-01-01

    In this letter, we describe the design, fabrication, simulation, and measured performance of a single-stage and three-stage 320 GHz amplifier using Northrop Grumman Corporation's (NGC) 35-nm InP high electron mobility transistor submillimeter-wave monolithic integrated circuit (S-MMIC) process. On-wafer S-parameter measurements using an extended waveguide band WR3 vector network analyzer system were performed from 210-345 GHz. We measured 5 dB of

  18. Medium power amplifiers covering 90 - 130 GHz for telescope local oscillators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samoska, Lorene A.; Bryerton, Eric; Pukala, David; Peralta, Alejandro; Hu, Ming; Schmitz, Adele

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a set of power amplifier (PA) modules containing InP High Electron Mobility Transistor (HEMT) Monolithic Millimeter-wave Integrated Circuit (MMIC) chips. The chips were designed and optimized for local oscillator sources in the 90-130 GHz band for the Atacama Large Millimeter Array telescope. The modules feature 20-45 mW of output power, to date the highest power from solid state HEMT MMIC modules above 110 GHz.

  19. Wideband AlGaN\\/GaN HEMT MMIC low noise amplifier

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Grant A. Ellis; Jeong-Sun Moon; D. Wong; M. Micovic; A. Kurdoghlian; P. Hashimoto; Ming Hu

    2004-01-01

    A 3-18 GHz AlGaN\\/GaN high electron mobility transistor low noise amplifier on silicon carbide is reported. The measured gain (S21) is 20 dB +\\/- 2.5 dB between 3-18 GHz. The minimum measured noise figure is 2.4 dB. To the authors knowledge, this is the highest gain reported over multiple octaves up to 18 GHz using GaN technology.

  20. Analysis of third-order intermodulation distortion in common-emitter BJT and HBT amplifiers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Joel Vuolevi; Timo Rahkonen

    2003-01-01

    This transactions brief presents an electro-thermal Volterra model for calculating third-order intermodulation distortion (IM3) in common emitter (CE) bipolar junction transistor (BJT) RF amplifiers. The model includes nonlinearities caused by input-output cross products, which previous studies have tended to overlook, in spite of their significance for RF devices. The nonlinear I-V and Q-V sources of the model are presented also

  1. Kondo Effect in a Single Electron Transistor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    David Goldhaber-Gordon

    1998-01-01

    When a field-effect transistor is made very small, and electrons in the channel are separated from those in the leads by tunnel junctions, the transistor turns on and off every time an extra electron is added to the channel. The droplet of electrons confined in the channel of such a single-electron transistor (SET) interacts with electrons in the leads. This

  2. Update: Researchers pencil in graphene transistors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Neil Savage

    2008-01-01

    Graphene, found in pencil marks, is a candidate material for making future transistors. It's extracted from graphite crystals using sticky tape. Graphene's weird electrical properties allow for smallest transistor yet. Silicon's remarkable run as ruler of the chip world may be nearing an end as engineers eventually lose the ability to make faster silicon transistors by making them smaller. In

  3. A fiber-optically triggered avalanche transistor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. J. Baker; G. T. Perryman; P. W. Watts

    1991-01-01

    A silicon bipolar transistor operating in the avalanche region was optically triggered into secondary breakdown. This transistor has been given the name fiber-optically triggered avalanche transistor (FOTAT). The FOTAT acts as an optical power discriminator. That is, secondary breakdown occurs when the triggering optical power exceeds the triggering threshold of the FOTAT. This secondary breakdown is seen as a negative

  4. High Performance Silicon Nanowire Field Effect Transistors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yi Cui; Zhaohui Zhong; Deli Wang; Wayne U. Wang; Charles M. Lieber

    2003-01-01

    Silicon nanowires can be prepared with single-crystal structures, diameters as small as several nanometers and controllable hole and electron doping, and thus represent powerful building blocks for nanoelectronics devices such as field effect transistors. To explore the potential limits of silicon nanowire transistors, we have examined the influence of source-drain contact thermal annealing and surface passivation on key transistor properties.

  5. Magnetic Vortex Based Transistor Operations

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, D.; Barman, S.; Barman, A.

    2014-01-01

    Transistors constitute the backbone of modern day electronics. Since their advent, researchers have been seeking ways to make smaller and more efficient transistors. Here, we demonstrate a sustained amplification of magnetic vortex core gyration in coupled two and three vortices by controlling their relative core polarities. This amplification is mediated by a cascade of antivortex solitons travelling through the dynamic stray field. We further demonstrated that the amplification can be controlled by switching the polarity of the middle vortex in a three vortex sequence and the gain can be controlled by the input signal amplitude. An attempt to show fan–out operation yielded gain for one of the symmetrically placed branches which can be reversed by switching the core polarity of all the vortices in the network. The above observations promote the magnetic vortices as suitable candidates to work as stable bipolar junction transistors (BJT). PMID:24531235

  6. Optimization of Vertical Double-Diffused Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (VDMOS) Power Transistor Structure for Use in High Frequencies and Medical Devices.

    PubMed

    Farhadi, Rozita; Farhadi, Bita

    2014-01-01

    Power transistors, such as the vertical, double-diffused, metal-oxide semiconductor (VDMOS), are used extensively in the amplifier circuits of medical devices. The aim of this research was to construct a VDMOS power transistor with an optimized structure to enhance the operation of medical devices. First, boron was implanted in silicon by implanting unclamped inductive switching (UIS) and a Faraday shield. The Faraday shield was implanted in order to replace the gate-field parasitic capacitor on the entry part of the device. Also, implanting the UIS was used in order to decrease the effect of parasitic bipolar junction transistor (BJT) of the VDMOS power transistor. The research tool used in this study was Silvaco software. By decreasing the transistor entry resistance in the optimized VDMOS structure, power losses and noise at the entry of the transistor were decreased, and, by increasing the breakdown voltage, the lifetime of the VDMOS transistor lifetime was increased, which resulted in increasing drain flow and decreasing Ron. This consequently resulted in enhancing the operation of high-frequency medical devices that use transistors, such as Radio Frequency (RF) and electrocardiograph machines. PMID:25763152

  7. Optimization of Vertical Double-Diffused Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (VDMOS) Power Transistor Structure for Use in High Frequencies and Medical Devices

    PubMed Central

    Farhadi, Rozita; Farhadi, Bita

    2014-01-01

    Power transistors, such as the vertical, double-diffused, metal-oxide semiconductor (VDMOS), are used extensively in the amplifier circuits of medical devices. The aim of this research was to construct a VDMOS power transistor with an optimized structure to enhance the operation of medical devices. First, boron was implanted in silicon by implanting unclamped inductive switching (UIS) and a Faraday shield. The Faraday shield was implanted in order to replace the gate-field parasitic capacitor on the entry part of the device. Also, implanting the UIS was used in order to decrease the effect of parasitic bipolar junction transistor (BJT) of the VDMOS power transistor. The research tool used in this study was Silvaco software. By decreasing the transistor entry resistance in the optimized VDMOS structure, power losses and noise at the entry of the transistor were decreased, and, by increasing the breakdown voltage, the lifetime of the VDMOS transistor lifetime was increased, which resulted in increasing drain flow and decreasing Ron. This consequently resulted in enhancing the operation of high-frequency medical devices that use transistors, such as Radio Frequency (RF) and electrocardiograph machines. PMID:25763152

  8. A novel high-performance and robust sense amplifier using independent gate control in sub-50-nm double-gate MOSFET

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Saibal Mukhopadhyay; Hamid Mahmoodi-meimand; Kaushik Roy

    2006-01-01

    Double-gate (DG) transistor has emerged as one of the most promising devices for nano-scale circuit design. In this paper, we propose a high-performance and robust sense-amplifier design using independent gate control in symmetric and asymmetric DG devices for sub-50-nm technologies. The proposed sense amplifier has better performance (30%-35% less sensing delay) and robustness (60%-80% less minimum input bit-differential for correct

  9. Amplifying Electrochemical Indicators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fan, Wenhong; Li, Jun; Han, Jie

    2004-01-01

    Dendrimeric reporter compounds have been invented for use in sensing and amplifying electrochemical signals from molecular recognition events that involve many chemical and biological entities. These reporter compounds can be formulated to target specific molecules or molecular recognition events. They can also be formulated to be, variously, hydrophilic or amphiphilic so that they are suitable for use at interfaces between (1) aqueous solutions and (2) electrodes connected to external signal-processing electronic circuits. The invention of these reporter compounds is expected to enable the development of highly miniaturized, low-power-consumption, relatively inexpensive, mass-producible sensor units for diverse applications.

  10. Terahertz generation in optical amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donkor, Eric

    2010-04-01

    We describe a fiber-optics based system for the generation of optical frequency comb using amplified spontaneous emissions from a semiconductor optical amplifier as signal source. The continuous wave spectrum from the semiconductor optical amplifier range from 1480nm to 1680nm. A Solc-Sagnac birefringent interferometer filtered the continuous wave into a comb of descrete spectral lines with line spacing of 600GHz, producing comb signals than span 182 to 230 terahertz.

  11. The cross-coupled amplifier 

    E-print Network

    Robinson, George Clyde

    1951-01-01

    . . . . . . . . ~ ~ ~ ~ 51 Bibliography Appendix ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ 54 THE CROSS COUPLED AMPLIFIER IHTRODUCTION In recent years electronic devices have found an increasing number of applications in many fields. Eost electronic devices make use of a vacuum-tube amplifier... as to be of practically no use to the designer. However, a few pertinent obser- vations regarding frequency response have been made. Reference to the schematic diagram of the cross- coupled amplifier reveals that the imput tubes Vl and V4 are connected as cathode...

  12. Sensor Amplifier for the Venus Ground Ambient

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DelCastillo, Linda Y.; Johnson, Travis W.; Hatake, Toshiro; Mojarradi, Mohammad M.; Kolawa, Elizabeth A.

    2006-01-01

    Previous Venus Landers employed high temperature pressure vessels, with thermally protected electronics, to achieve successful missions, with a maximum surface lifetime of 127 minutes. Extending the operating range of electronic systems to the temperatures (480 C) and pressures (90 bar) of the Venus ground ambient would significantly increase the science return of future missions. Toward that end, the current work describes the innovative design of a sensor preamplifier, capable of working in the Venus ground ambient and designed using commercial components (thermionic vacuum tubes, wide band gap transistors, thick film resistors, advanced high temperature capacitors, and monometallic interfaces) To identify commercial components and electronic packaging materials that are capable of operation within the specified environment, a series of active devices, passive components, and packaging materials were screened for operability at 500C, assuming a 10x increase in the mission lifetime. In addition. component degradation as a function of time at 500(deg)C was evaluated. Based on the results of these preliminary evaluations, two amplifiers were developed.

  13. The four-gate transistor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mojarradi, M. M.; Cristoveanu, S.; Allibert, F.; France, G.; Blalock, B.; Durfrene, B.

    2002-01-01

    The four-gate transistor or G4-FET combines MOSFET and JFET principles in a single SOI device. Experimental results reveal that each gate can modulate the drain current. Numerical simulations are presented to clarify the mechanisms of operation. The new device shows enhanced functionality, due to the combinatorial action of the four gates, and opens rather revolutionary applications.

  14. Tunable Graphene Single Electron Transistor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Stampfer; E. Schurtenberger; F. Molitor; J. Güttinger; T. Ihn; K. Ensslin

    2008-01-01

    We report electronic transport experiments on a graphene single electron transistor. The device consists of a graphene island connected to source and drain electrodes via two narrow graphene constrictions. It is electrostatically tunable by three lateral graphene gates and an additional back gate. The tunneling coupling is a strongly nonmonotonic function of gate voltage indicating the presence of localized states

  15. Matching properties of MOS transistors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MARCEL J. M. PELGROM; AAD C. J. DUINMAIJER; P. G. WELBERS

    1989-01-01

    The matching properties of the threshold voltage, substrate factor, aud current factor of MOS transistors have been analyzed and measrrred. Improvements to the existing theory are giveu, as well as extensions for Iong-dktance matching and rotation of devices. Matching parameters of several processes are compared. The matching results have been verified by measurements and calculations on several basic circuits.

  16. \\\\Proc. IEEE 2004 Int. Conference on MicroelectronicTest Structures, Vol 17, March 2004. 127 A New Test Circuit for the Matching Characterization of npn Bipolar Transistors

    E-print Network

    McNeill, John A.

    the forcelsense method a common emitter line is wiring all bipolar transistor pairs in series. Collector and base for the statistical analysis. Matching parameters are given for collector current, current gain, and base-emitter. An example is the offset voltage of an operational amplifier. The offset voltage is partially caused

  17. Universal Signal Conditioning Amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinney, Frank

    1997-01-01

    The Technological Research and Development Authority (TRDA) and NASA-KSC entered into a cooperative agreement in March of 1994 to achieve the utilization and commercialization of a technology development for benefiting both the Space Program and U.S. industry on a "dual-use basis". The technology involved in this transfer is a new, unique Universal Conditioning Amplifier (USCA) used in connection with various types of transducers. The project was initiated in partnership with I-Net Corporation, Lockheed Martin Telemetry & Instrumentation (formerly Loral Test and Information Systems) and Brevard Community College. The project consists of designing, miniaturizing, manufacturing, and testing an existing prototype of USCA that was developed for NASA-KSC by the I-Net Corporation. The USCA is a rugged and field-installable self (or remotely)- programmable amplifier that works in combination with a tag random access memory (RAM) attached to various types of transducers. This summary report comprises performance evaluations, TRDA partnership tasks, a project summary, project milestones and results.

  18. Reflex ring laser amplifier system

    DOEpatents

    Summers, Mark A. (Livermore, CA)

    1985-01-01

    A laser pulse is injected into an unstable ring resonator-amplifier structure. Inside this resonator the laser pulse is amplified, spatially filtered and magnified. The laser pulse is recirculated in the resonator, being amplified, filtered and magnified on each pass. The magnification is chosen so that the beam passes through the amplifier in concentric non-overlapping regions similar to a single pass MOPA. After a number of passes around the ring resonator the laser pulse is spatially large enough to exit the ring resonator system by passing around an output mirror.

  19. Gigahertz flexible graphene transistors for microwave integrated circuits.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Chao-Hui; Lain, Yi-Wei; Chiu, Yu-Chiao; Liao, Chen-Hung; Moyano, David Ricardo; Hsu, Shawn S H; Chiu, Po-Wen

    2014-08-26

    Flexible integrated circuits with complex functionalities are the missing link for the active development of wearable electronic devices. Here, we report a scalable approach to fabricate self-aligned graphene microwave transistors for the implementation of flexible low-noise amplifiers and frequency mixers, two fundamental building blocks of a wireless communication receiver. A devised AlOx T-gate structure is used to achieve an appreciable increase of device transconductance and a commensurate reduction of the associated parasitic resistance, thus yielding a remarkable extrinsic cutoff frequency of 32 GHz and a maximum oscillation frequency of 20 GHz; in both cases the operation frequency is an order of magnitude higher than previously reported. The two frequencies work at 22 and 13 GHz even when subjected to a strain of 2.5%. The gigahertz microwave integrated circuits demonstrated here pave the way for applications which require high flexibility and radio frequency operations. PMID:25062282

  20. Intrinsic noise in aggressively scaled field-effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albareda, G.; Jiménez, D.; Oriols, X.

    2009-01-01

    According to roadmap projections, nanoscale field-effect transistors (FETs) with channel lengths below 30 nm and several gates (for improving their gate control over the source-drain conductance) will come to the market in the next few years. However, few studies deal with the noise performance of these aggressively scaled FETs. In this work, a study of the effect of the intrinsic (thermal and shot) noise of such FETs on the performance of an analog amplifier and a digital inverter is carried out by means of numerical simulations with a powerful Monte Carlo (quantum) simulator. The numerical data indicate important drawbacks in the noise performance of aggressively scaled FETs that could invalidate roadmap projections as regards analog and digital applications.

  1. Digital linearizer for RF amplifiers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sante Andreoli; Howard G. McClure; Paolo Banelli; Saverio Cacopardi

    1997-01-01

    Broadcast technology is at the beginning of a new era. It is characterized by the intensive use of the most advanced digital modulation formats (8VSB, QAM, OFDM) in combination with high power RF amplifiers. To date the linearity required for these digital formats has only been accomplished in cumbersome low efficiency class A amplifier or even more cumbersome feed-forward systems.

  2. Broadband fiber optical parametric amplifiers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. E. Marhic; N. Kagi; T.-K. Chiang; L. G. Kazovsky

    1996-01-01

    The bandwidth of a single-pump fiber optical parametric amplifier is governed by the even orders of f iber dispersion at the pump wavelength. The amplifier can exhibit gain over a wide wavelength range when operated near the fiber's zero-dispersion wavelength. It can also be used for broadband wavelength conversion, with gain. We have experimentally obtained gain of 10 - 18

  3. Brightness Amplifiers In Optical Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zemskov, Konstantin I.; Kazarjan, Mishik A.; Petrash, Gueorgii G.

    1989-06-01

    Brief review of the last results on laser brightness amplifiers for different optical systems is given. Nonlinear properties of these systems and some new effects connected with the saturation of active medium of amplifiers are discussed. Some possible applica-tions (processing of microobjects, projection on large screen, TV-projection ...) are described.

  4. An Amplifier Concept for Spintronics

    SciTech Connect

    Acremann, Y.; Yu, X.W.; Tulapurkar, A.A.; Scherz, A.; Chembrolu, V.; Katine, J.A.; Carey, M.J.; Siegmann, H.C.; Stohr, J.

    2009-05-11

    Typical spin-dependent devices proposed for information processing lack one of the most important features provided by charge based logic: they do not provide gain. In this letter we show the basic concept of a spin amplifier and propose ways to amplify a spin current at room temperature.

  5. Laser amplifier developments at Mercury

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, E.A.; Brucker, J.P.; Honig, E.M.; McCown, A.W.; Romero, V.O.; York, G.W.

    1993-09-01

    Electron-beam pumped laser amplifiers have been modified to address the mission of krypton-fluoride excimer laser technology development. Methods are described for improving the performance and reliability of two pre-existing amplifiers at minimal cost and time. Preliminary performance data are presented to support the credibility of the approach.

  6. Thermal properties of high-power transistors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. H. Winkler

    1967-01-01

    The temperature of a transistor can be determined from the emitter-base voltage versus collector-current characteristic. This characteristic was used for studying the stability of parallel pairs of high-frequency high-power transistors. The thermal effect may cause the incremental emitter-base resistance to assume a negative value. This, in turn, will cause the current flow in a pair of transistors to be asymmetrical.

  7. A Study of Transistor Circuits for Television

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. C. Sziklai; R. D. Lohman; G. B. Herzog

    1953-01-01

    This paper describes a general study of transistors in television receivers. For this purpose the development of a completely transistorized television receiver was undertaken. An experimental model using 37 developmental transistors and a five-inch kinescope housed in a cabinet 13??12??7 inches was constructed. This portable receiver operates on a single channel using a self-contained loop, and has a total battery-power

  8. D-MOS transistor for microwave applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    HANS J. SIGG; GEORGE D. VENDELIN; THOMAS P. CAUGE; JOSEPH KOCSIS

    1972-01-01

    A new n-channel silicon MOS transistor is described that can be fabricated with channel lengths of less than 1 µ by using a double-diffusion process similar to that used in bipolar transistor fabrication. The dimensional tolerances are not tighter than those used in the processing of conventional MOS transistors. This device (called D-MOST) shows gain in the GHz range and

  9. Single-transistor-clocked flip-flop

    DOEpatents

    Zhao, Peiyi; Darwish, Tarek; Bayoumi, Magdy

    2005-08-30

    The invention provides a low power, high performance flip-flop. The flip-flop uses only one clocked transistor. The single clocked transistor is shared by the first and second branches of the device. A pulse generator produces a clock pulse to trigger the flip-flop. In one preferred embodiment the device can be made as a static explicit pulsed flip-flop which employs only two clocked transistors.

  10. Coaxial inverted geometry transistor having buried emitter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hruby, R. J.; Cress, S. B.; Dunn, W. R. (inventors)

    1973-01-01

    The invention relates to an inverted geometry transistor wherein the emitter is buried within the substrate. The transistor can be fabricated as a part of a monolithic integrated circuit and is particularly suited for use in applications where it is desired to employ low actuating voltages. The transistor may employ the same doping levels in the collector and emitter, so these connections can be reversed.

  11. Large-Signal Behavior of Junction Transistors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. J. Ebers; J. L. Moll

    1954-01-01

    In the consideration of the junction transistor as a switch there are three characteristics of primary interest, the open impedance, the closed impedance, and the switching-time. A generalized two-terminal-pair theory of junction transistors is presented which is applicable, on a dc basis, in all regions of operation. Using this theory, the open and closed impedances of the transistor switch are

  12. Cryogenic preamplification of a single-electron-transistor using a silicon-germanium heterojunction-bipolar-transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curry, M. J.; England, T. D.; Bishop, N. C.; Ten-Eyck, G.; Wendt, J. R.; Pluym, T.; Lilly, M. P.; Carr, S. M.; Carroll, M. S.

    2015-05-01

    We examine a silicon-germanium heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT) for cryogenic pre-amplification of a single electron transistor (SET). The SET current modulates the base current of the HBT directly. The HBT-SET circuit is immersed in liquid helium, and its frequency response from low frequency to several MHz is measured. The current gain and the noise spectrum with the HBT result in a signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) that is a factor of 10-100 larger than without the HBT at lower frequencies. The transition frequency defined by SNR = 1 has been extended by as much as a factor of 10 compared to without the HBT amplification. The power dissipated by the HBT cryogenic pre-amplifier is approximately 5 nW to 5 ?W for the investigated range of operation. The circuit is also operated in a single electron charge read-out configuration in the time-domain as a proof-of-principle demonstration of the amplification approach for single spin read-out.

  13. Organic field-effect transistors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. J. Ma?achowski; J. ?mija

    2010-01-01

    The paper reviews the recent year publications concerning organic field-effect transistors (OFETs). A lot of works have been\\u000a performed to help understanding the structural and electrical properties of materials used to construct OFETs. It has been\\u000a established that in partially ordered systems, the charge transport mechanism is thermally activated and field-assisted hopping\\u000a transport and the hopping transport between disorder-induced localized

  14. Polymer Electrolyte Gated Inorganic Transistors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Anoop Singh Dhoot; Casey Israel; Xavier Moya; Stuart Wimbush; Tim Benseman; Judith MacManus-Driscoll; John Cooper; Neil Mathur; Richard Friend

    2009-01-01

    Electric field-induced charge at the interface between gate dielectric and semiconductor is the basis of current semiconductor technology. We report that it is possible to use polymer electrolyte to gate inorganic materials, and to achieve field-induced `doping' equivalent to a full surface coverage of charged ions per unit cell area. Very high field-induced carrier densities, ˜10^15 cm-2, in the transistor

  15. An approximate HSPICE model for orbit low noise analog bipolar NPN transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, T.

    1991-07-01

    Vertical bipolar NPN transistors can be fabricated cheaply through MOSIS by using the Orbit 2 um Low Noise Analog CMOS process. The collector is formed from an N-well, the base from a p-base diffusion, and the emitter from an N-diffusion. However, since this is a CMOS process there is no buried layer in the collector. Therefore the collector resistance is quite large. Also, the minimum emitter size is 8 um {times} 8 um, which is substantially larger than many fast bipolar processes. For certain applications, though, such as common base or emitter follower amplifiers, the performance of this transistor may be quite acceptable. However, no AC SPICE model is published for this device. This paper describes a simple approximate measurement method that was used at Fermilab to formulate an HSPICE model for these transistor. This method requires only a fast pulse generator and a good digitizing oscilloscope with an active FET probe for the AC measurements. Model parameters for two transistors of different size are then given. 1 ref., 1 fig.

  16. Teaching the common emitter amplifier

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mark D Ellse

    1984-01-01

    If one wishes to teach some device electronics in schools it will have to be very limited. It is not productive to measure all the common emitter and common base characteristics of the bipolar transistor as required by at least one A-level syllabus. To do so wastes pupil time and leads to considerable confusion. Nor should the study be extended

  17. Design of low-noise output amplifiers for P-channel charge-coupled devices fabricated on high-resistivity silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haque, S.; Dion, F.; Frost, R.; Groulx, R.; Holland, S. E.; Karcher, A.; Kolbe, W. F.; Roe, N. A.; Wang, G.; Yu, Y.

    2012-03-01

    We describe the design and optimization of low-noise, single-stage output amplifiers for p-channel charge-coupled devices (CCDs) used for scientific applications in astronomy and other fields. The CCDs are fabricated on highresistivity, 4000-5000 ?-cm, n-type silicon substrates. Single-stage amplifiers with different output structure designs and technologies have been characterized. The standard output amplifier is designed with an n+ polysilicon gate that has a metal connection to the sense node. In an effort to lower the output amplifier readout noise by minimizing the capacitance seen at the sense node, buried-contact technology has been investigated. In this case, the output transistor has a p+ polysilicon gate that connects directly to the p+ sense node. Output structures with buried-contact areas as small as 2 ?m × 2 ?m are characterized. In addition, the geometry of the source-follower transistor was varied, and we report test results on the conversion gain and noise of the various amplifier structures. By use of buried-contact technology, better amplifier geometry, optimization of the amplifier biases and improvements in the test electronics design, we obtain a 45% reduction in noise, corresponding to 1.7 e- rms at 70 kpixels/sec.

  18. Millimeter-wave, cryogenically-coolable amplifiers using AlInAs\\/GaInAs\\/InP HEMTs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. W. Pospieszalski; W. J. Lakatosh; R. Lai; K. L. Tan; D. C. Streit; P. H. Liu; R. M. Dia; J. Velebir

    1993-01-01

    The cryogenic performance of AlInAs\\/GaInAs\\/InP 0.1- mu m high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs) is reported. Collapse-free DC operation is observed down to the ambient temperature of 18 K. The application of these devices to Q- and E-band low-noise, cryogenically coolable amplifiers is demonstrated. The measured noise temperature of 15 K (noise figure of 0.2 dB) for a multistage 40-45-GHz amplifier with 33

  19. Photoconductivity measurements of single-walled carbon nanotube field effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murai, T.; Yasukochi, S.; Moritsubo, S.; Shimada, T.; Chiashi, S.; Murakami, Y.; Maruyama, S.; Kato, Y. K.

    2011-03-01

    Photoconductivity measurements are performed on carbon nanotube field effect transistors. Carbon nanotubes are grown on Si O2 /Si substrate by patterned chemical vapor deposition using ethanol as carbon source. Next, electron beam lithography, metal deposition, and liftoff processes are performed to form source and drain electrodes. The Si substrate is used as a back-gate in these devices. Wavelength tunable Ti:sapphire laser is focused onto the sample with an objective lens, and the laser spot is scanned with a steering mirror. A lock-in amplifier is used to detect the photoconductivity signal of carbon nanotube field effect transistors. This work is supported by Research Foundation for Opto-Science and Technology, NSG Foundation, SCAT, SCOPE, and Photon Frontier Network Program of MEXT, Japan.

  20. A hybrid nanomemristor/transistor logic circuit capable of self-programming.

    PubMed

    Borghetti, Julien; Li, Zhiyong; Straznicky, Joseph; Li, Xuema; Ohlberg, Douglas A A; Wu, Wei; Stewart, Duncan R; Williams, R Stanley

    2009-02-10

    Memristor crossbars were fabricated at 40 nm half-pitch, using nanoimprint lithography on the same substrate with Si metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor (MOS FET) arrays to form fully integrated hybrid memory resistor (memristor)/transistor circuits. The digitally configured memristor crossbars were used to perform logic functions, to serve as a routing fabric for interconnecting the FETs and as the target for storing information. As an illustrative demonstration, the compound Boolean logic operation (A AND B) OR (C AND D) was performed with kilohertz frequency inputs, using resistor-based logic in a memristor crossbar with FET inverter/amplifier outputs. By routing the output signal of a logic operation back onto a target memristor inside the array, the crossbar was conditionally configured by setting the state of a nonvolatile switch. Such conditional programming illuminates the way for a variety of self-programmed logic arrays, and for electronic synaptic computing. PMID:19171903

  1. All-optical transistor using a photonic-crystal cavity with an active Raman gain medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arkhipkin, V. G.; Myslivets, S. A.

    2013-09-01

    We propose a design of an all-optical transistor based on a one-dimensional photonic-crystal cavity doped with a four-level N-type active Raman gain medium. The calculated results show that in a photonic-crystal cavity of this kind transmission and reflection of the probe (Raman) beam are strongly dependent on the optical switching power. Transmission and reflection of the probe beam can be greatly amplified or attenuated. Therefore the optical switching field can serve as a gate field of the transistor to effectively control propagation of the weak probe field. It is shown that the group velocity of the probe pulse can be controlled in the range from subluminal (slow light) to superluminal (fast light).

  2. Characterization of SLUG microwave amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoi, I.-C.; Zhu, S.; Thorbeck, T.; McDermott, R.; Mutus, J.; Jeffrey, E.; Barends, R.; Chen, Y.; Roushan, P.; Fowler, A.; Sank, D.; White, T.; Campbell, B.; Chen, Z.; Chiaro, B.; Dunsworth, A.; Kelly, J.; Megrant, A.; Neill, C.; O'Malley, P. J. J.; Quintana, C.; Vainsencher, A.; Wenner, J.; Martinis, J. M.

    2015-03-01

    With the rapid growth of superconducting circuits quantum technology, a near quantum-limited amplifier at GHz frequency is needed to enable high fidelity measurements. We describe such an amplifier, the SQUID based, superconducting low inductance undulatory galvanometer (SLUG) amplifier. We measure the full scattering matrix of the SLUG. In particular, we measure both forward and reverse gain, as well as reflection. We see 15dB forward gain with added noise from one quanta to several quanta. The -1 dB compression point is around -95 dBm, about two orders of magnitude higher than that of typical Josephson parametric amplifiers. With these properties, SLUG is well suited for the high fidelity, simultaneous multiplexed readout of superconducting qubits.

  3. Cryogenic evaluation of a 30–50 GHz 0.15-?m MHEMT low noise amplifier for radio astronomy applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Shou-Hsien Weng; Hong-Yeh Chang; Chau-Ching Chiong; Ming-Tang Chen

    2011-01-01

    Cryogenic evaluation of a 30–50 GHz 0.15-?m InGaAs metamorphic high electron mobility transistor (MHEMT) low noise amplifier (LNA) for radio astronomy applications is presented in this paper. For the on-wafer measurement, the LNA exhibits a bandwidth of 23 GHz with a small signal gain of 20.4 dB. For the cryogenic measurement, the LNA is further assembled in a packaged module.

  4. Transimpedance amplifier-based full low-frequency noise characterization setup for Si\\/SiGe HBTs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laurent Bary; Mattia Borgarino; Robert Plana; Thierry Parra; Stephen J. Kovacic; Hugues Lafontaine; Jacques Graffeuil

    2001-01-01

    An experimental setup, based on current\\/voltage conversion through transimpedance amplifiers (TAs), has been implemented for the direct full low-frequency noise (LFN) characterization of Si\\/SiGe heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBTs) in terms of base and collector short-circuit current noise sources. This setup performs a full characterization, as it measures simultaneously the two noise current sources and their correlation, thanks to an original

  5. A micropower gate-bulk driven differential difference amplifier with folded telescopic cascode topology for sensor applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    G. T. Ong; P. K. Chan

    2010-01-01

    A micropower high-gain, low-noise differential difference amplifier (DDA) is presented in this paper. The new circuit incorporates the gate-bulk driven transistor pairs for input stage transconductance enhancement; the very high gain folded telescopic cascode structure that permits small headroom operation; and the replica tracking bias that sustains the circuit performance against variations of process, supply voltage and temperature. The DDA

  6. AlGaN\\/GaN HFET power amplifier integrated with microstrip antenna for RF front-end applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Younkyu Chung; Cynthia Y. Hang; Shujun Cai; Yongxi Qian; Cheng P. Wen; Kang L. Wang; Tatsuo Itoh

    2003-01-01

    A high-efficiency and compact AlGaN\\/GaN heterojunction field-effect transistor (HFET) power amplifier integrated with a microstrip antenna at 7.25 GHz is presented for RF front-end circuit applications. A microstrip circular sector antenna is employed as both a radiator and frequency-dependent output load. Higher order harmonics from the HFET in nonlinear operation are reactively terminated because of the harmonic termination characteristic of

  7. A 1-V BiCMOS rail-to-rail amplifier with n-channel depletion mode input stage

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Richard Griffith; Robert L. Vyne; Robert N. Dotson; Tom Petty

    1997-01-01

    A BiCMOS rail-to-rail operational amplifier capable of operating from supply voltages as low as 1 V is presented. The folded cascode input stage uses an nMOS depletion mode differential pair to provide rail-to-rail common mode voltage range while typically requiring only 40 fA of input bias current. The bipolar transistor differential-to-single-ended conversion network employs a low-voltage base current cancellation technique

  8. New Insights into Fully-Depleted SOI Transistor Response During Total-Dose Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    BURNS,J.A.; DODD,PAUL E.; KEAST,C.L.; SCHWANK,JAMES R.; SHANEYFELT,MARTY R.; WYATT,P.W.

    1999-09-14

    Previous work showed the possible existence of a total-dose latch effect in fully-depleted SOI transistors that could severely limit the radiation hardness of SOI devices. Other work showed that worst-case bias configuration during irradiation was the transmission gate bias configuration. In this work we further explore the effects of total-dose ionizing irradiation on fully-depleted SOI transistors. Closed-geometry and standard transistors fabricated in two fully-depleted processes were irradiated with 10-keV x rays. Our results show no evidence for a total-dose latch effect as proposed by others. Instead, in absence of parasitic trench sidewall leakage, our data suggests that the increase in radiation-induced leakage current is caused by positive charge trapping in the buried oxide inverting the back-channel interface. At moderate levels of trapped charge, the back-channel interface is slightly inverted causing a small leakage current to flow. This leakage current is amplified to considerably higher levels by impact ionization. Because the back-channel interface is in weak inversion, the top-gate bias can modulate the back-channel interface and turn the leakage current off at large, negative voltage levels. At high levels of trapped charge, the back-channel interface is fully inverted and the gate bias has little effect on leakage current. However, it is likely that this current also is amplified by impact ionization. For these transistors, the worst-case bias configuration was determined to be the ''ON'' bias configuration. These results have important implication on hardness assurance.

  9. The Resistance-Coupled Amplifier

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Laurence G. Cowles

    1945-01-01

    The routine problems of resistance-coupled amplifier design have been simplified and reduced to a set of graphs and convenient conversion charts. In the first section it is shown that the coupling circuit (Figure 1) can be replaced by a pair of equivalent resistance-capacitance circuits (Figure 3) so that it is easy to calculate an amplifier's phase and amplitude-frequency characteristics. The

  10. Parametric amplifier with thermoelectric refrigeration

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Uenohara; R. Wolfe

    1961-01-01

    The noise figure of a variable-capacitance parametric amplifier can be greatly improved by refrigerating the diode. A thermoelectric refrigerator can be used for this purpose without losing the advantage of system simplicity. A two-stage thermoelectric refrigerator has been built into a 6-Gc parametric amplifier. With no load this refrigerator has produced a temperature difference of 101°C below room temperature. In

  11. Detecting DNA by field effect transistor arrays

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ulrich Bockelmann

    2006-01-01

    We present electronics approach for the detection of unlabeled DNA. The biopolymers are immobilized on an array of field effect transistors integrated in silicon. Local immobilization to part of the array is achieved by direct deposition with a microspotting device and specific hybridization between complementary DNA oligonucleotides. The current voltage characteristic of the transistors is measured with the sample surface

  12. Silicon Vertically Integrated Nanowire Field Effect Transistors

    E-print Network

    Yang, Peidong

    Silicon Vertically Integrated Nanowire Field Effect Transistors Josh Goldberger, Allon I. Hochbaum Manuscript Received February 24, 2006 ABSTRACT Silicon nanowires have received considerable attention, alternative transistor geometries need to be considered.1 Silicon nanowire based devices2,3 and horizontal

  13. Pass transistor implementations of multivalued logic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maki, G.; Whitaker, S.

    1990-01-01

    A simple straight-forward Karnaugh map logic design procedure for realization of multiple-valued logic circuits is presented in this paper. Pass transistor logic gates are used to realize multiple-valued networks. This work is an extension of pass transistor implementations for binary-valued logic.

  14. Driving Pockels cells using avalanche transistor pulsers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. S. Fulkerson; D. C. Norman; R. Booth

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the current state of avalanche transistor-based Pockels cell driver development at LLNL and to provide the reader with a set of useful design guidelines. A general description of the units is followed by a short section on the circuit design of avalanche transistor pulsers. Techniques for delivering either ¼ or ½ wave

  15. Aesop: a tool for automated transistor sizing

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Kye S. Hedlund

    1987-01-01

    This work addresses the problem of automating the electrical optimization of combinatorial MOS circuits. Improvements to a circuit's speed, area and power consumption are sought through modifications to the transistor sizes in the circuit; no changes in the circuit structure, number of gates or clocking are introduced. Linear algorithms are presented for computing optimal transistor sizes to minimize delay, area

  16. LAB 4: OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER CIRCUITS Introduction

    E-print Network

    Kozick, Richard J.

    . Figure 2 Inverting amplifier circuit (taken from [1]). 1. Derive the input-output relation: vo = f(vs,Rs,Rf = 1 V and Rg = 1 k. Design a noninverting amplifier (choose values of Rs and Rf) with an outputELEC 225 Fall 2011 1 LAB 4: OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER CIRCUITS Introduction Operational amplifiers (OAs

  17. LAB 4: OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER CIRCUITS Introduction

    E-print Network

    Kozick, Richard J.

    . Figure 2 Inverting amplifier circuit (taken from [1]). 1. Derive the input-output relation: vo = f(vs,Rs,Rf = 1 V and Rg = 1 k. Design a noninverting amplifier (choose values of Rs and Rf) with an outputELEC 225 Fall 2012 1 LAB 4: OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIER CIRCUITS Introduction Operational amplifiers (OAs

  18. Performance characteristics of an MSDC IOT amplifier

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. McCune; C. Yates; Yanxia Li

    2000-01-01

    CPI EIMAC has provided inductive output tube (IOT) amplifier systems for the television broadcast market since 1988. The key performance advantage IOT amplifiers achieve over other high power UHF amplifier technologies are superior DC to RF power conversion efficiency. Efforts continue to further improve the power conversion efficiency of IOT amplifiers by employing multi-staged depressed collector (MSDC) technology. EIMAC has

  19. Transistorized Ion Source Power Supply

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Frank M. Propst; Harry Tomaschke; Dominic Skaperdas

    1963-01-01

    A d-c power supply is designed for regulating the trap current in an ; electron bombardment ion source. The power supply is based on an ion gage supply ; and incorporates a chopper amplifier for d-c isolation from the filament current ; supply. The operation and performance of the power supply are described. ; (D.L.C.);

  20. Ambipolar MoTe2 transistors and their applications in logic circuits.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yen-Fu; Xu, Yong; Wang, Sheng-Tsung; Li, Song-Lin; Yamamoto, Mahito; Aparecido-Ferreira, Alex; Li, Wenwu; Sun, Huabin; Nakaharai, Shu; Jian, Wen-Bin; Ueno, Keiji; Tsukagoshi, Kazuhito

    2014-05-28

    We report ambipolar charge transport in ?-molybdenum ditelluride (MoTe2 ) flakes, whereby the temperature dependence of the electrical characteristics was systematically analyzed. The ambipolarity of the charge transport originated from the formation of Schottky barriers at the metal/MoTe2 contacts. The Schottky barrier heights as well as the current on/off ratio could be modified by modulating the electrostatic fields of the back-gate voltage (Vbg) and drain-source voltage (Vds). Using these ambipolar MoTe2 transistors we fabricated complementary inverters and amplifiers, demonstrating their feasibility for future digital and analog circuit applications. PMID:24692079

  1. Sleep Transistor Sizing and Control for Resonant Supply

    E-print Network

    Kim, Chris H.

    1 Sleep Transistor Sizing and Control for Resonant Supply Noise Damping Jie Gu, Hanyong Eom@ece.umn.edu www.umn.edu/~chriskim/ #12;2 Outline · Introduction · Conventional Sizing of Sleep Transistors · Sleep Transistor Sizing Considering Resonant Supply Damping · Adaptive Sleep Transistor Circuit · Conclusions #12

  2. 500-Watt, 10-GHz Solid State Amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, K. J.; Pitzalis, O., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    X-band system amplifies low-duty-cycle pulses. Amplifier chain consists of driver-amplifier section using GaAs FET's with hybrid couplers, and power-amplifier section using IMPATT diodes with circulators for input/output coupling and for isolation between stages. Solid-state X-band amplifier package constitutes reliable, lightweight, compact, RF source. Used for many applications involving low-and variable-duty-cycle operation as well as fixed and high-duty-cycle operation.

  3. Reflex ring laser amplifier system

    DOEpatents

    Summers, M.A.

    1983-08-31

    The invention is a method and apparatus for providing a reflex ring laser system for amplifying an input laser pulse. The invention is particularly useful in laser fusion experiments where efficient production of high-energy and high power laser pulses is required. The invention comprises a large aperture laser amplifier in an unstable ring resonator which includes a combination spatial filter and beam expander having a magnification greater than unity. An input pulse is injected into the resonator, e.g., through an aperture in an input mirror. The injected pulse passes through the amplifier and spatial filter/expander components on each pass around the ring. The unstable resonator is designed to permit only a predetermined number of passes before the amplified pulse exits the resonator. On the first pass through the amplifier, the beam fills only a small central region of the gain medium. On each successive pass, the beam has been expanded to fill the next concentric non-overlapping region of the gain medium.

  4. Electrostatically Reversible Polarity of Ambipolar ?-MoTe2 Transistors.

    PubMed

    Nakaharai, Shu; Yamamoto, Mahito; Ueno, Keiji; Lin, Yen-Fu; Li, Song-Lin; Tsukagoshi, Kazuhito

    2015-06-23

    A doping-free transistor made of ambipolar ?-phase molybdenum ditelluride (?-MoTe2) is proposed in which the transistor polarity (p-type and n-type) is electrostatically controlled by dual top gates. The voltage signal in one of the gates determines the transistor polarity, while the other gate modulates the drain current. We demonstrate the transistor operation experimentally, with electrostatically controlled polarity of both p- and n-type in a single transistor. PMID:25988597

  5. Electrical coupling between cells and graphene transistors.

    PubMed

    Hess, Lucas H; Becker-Freyseng, Christoph; Wismer, Michael S; Blaschke, Benno M; Lottner, Martin; Rolf, Felix; Seifert, Max; Garrido, Jose A

    2015-04-01

    In this work, both experimental data and a model are presented on the coupling between living cells and graphene solution-gated field-effect transistors. Modified HEK 293 cells are successfully cultured on graphene transistor arrays and electrically accessed by the patch clamp method. Transistor recordings are presented, showing the opening and closing of voltage-gated potassium ion channels in the cell membrane. The experimental data is compared with the broadly used standard point-contact model. The ion dynamics in the cell-transistor cleft are analyzed to account for the differences between the model and the experimental data revealing a significant increase in the total ionic strength in the cleft. In order to describe the influence of the ion concentration resulting from the cell activity, the ion-sensitivity of graphene solution-gated field-effect transistors is investigated experimentally and modelled by considering the screening effect of the ions on the surface potential at the graphene/electrolyte interface. Finally, the model of the cell-transistor coupling is extended to include the effect of ion accumulation and ion sensitivity. The experimental data shows a very good agreement with this extended model, emphasizing the importance of considering the ion concentration in the cleft to properly understand the cell-transistor coupling. PMID:25408432

  6. Ultrafast characterization of in-plane-gate field-effect transistors: parasitics in laterally gated transistors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Ogawa; J. Allam; N. De B. Baynes; J. R. A. Cleaver; T. Mishima; I. Ohbu

    1996-01-01

    In-plane-gate field-effect transistors are probed by femtosecond electrooptic sampling. Ultrafast response of the transistors is dominated by a displacement current induced by parasitic gate-drain capacitance. Intrinsic and parasitic gate-drain capacitances of various transistor structures are obtained from displacement-current characteristics and are in quantitative agreement with the calculation of planar capacitances. Intrinsic gate-drain capacitances are in the order of 100 aF,

  7. W-band InGaAs HEMT low noise amplifiers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. H. G. Duh; P. C. Chao; P. Ho; A. Tessmer; S. M. J. Liu; M. Y. Kao; P. M. Smith; J. M. Ballingall

    1990-01-01

    The authors report 0.15-?m gate length GaAs-based and InP-based InGaAs channel high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs) that have exhibited state-of-the-art noise and gain performance well up to 100 GHz. 94-GHz noise figures of 2.4 and 1.4 dB with gains of 5.4 and 6.5 dB have been measured from GaAs- and InP-based HEMTs, respectively. High-performance W-band multistage amplifiers have been built using these

  8. Three MMIC Amplifiers for the 120-to-200 GHz Frequency Band

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samoska, Lorene; Schmitz, Adele

    2009-01-01

    Closely following the development reported in the immediately preceding article, three new monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) amplifiers that would operate in the 120-to-200-GHz frequency band have been designed and are under construction at this writing. The active devices in these amplifiers are InP high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs). These amplifiers (see figure) are denoted the LSLNA150, the LSA200, and the LSA185, respectively. Like the amplifiers reported in the immediately preceding article, the LSLNA150 (1) is intended to be a prototype of low-noise amplifiers (LNAs) to be incorporated into spaceborne instruments for sensing cosmic microwave background radiation and (2) has potential for terrestrial use in electronic test equipment, passive millimeter-wave imaging systems, radar receivers, communication receivers, and systems for detecting hidden weapons. The HEMTs in this amplifier were fabricated according to 0.08- m design rules of a commercial product line of InP HEMT MMICs at HRL Laboratories, LLC, with a gate geometry of 2 fingers, each 15 m wide. On the basis of computational simulations, this amplifier is designed to afford at least 15 dB of gain, with a noise figure of no more than about 6 dB, at frequencies from 120 to 160 GHz. The measured results of the amplifier are shown next to the chip photo, with a gain of 16 dB at 150 GHz. Noise figure work is ongoing. The LSA200 and the LSA185 are intended to be prototypes of transmitting power amplifiers for use at frequencies between about 180 and about 200 GHz. These amplifiers have also been fabricated according to rules of the aforesaid commercial product line of InP HEMT MMICs, except that the HEMTs in these amplifiers are characterized by a gate geometry of 4 fingers, each 37 m wide. The measured peak performance of the LSA200 is characterized by a gain of about 1.4 dB at a frequency of 190 GHz; the measured peak performance of the LSA185 is characterized by a gain of about 2.7 dB at a frequency of 181 GHz. The measured gain results of each chip are shown next to their respective photos.

  9. Amplifier-Discriminator-Multiplexor card

    SciTech Connect

    Graupman, D.

    1986-02-01

    The Amplifier-Discriminator-Multiplexor (ADM) card described was designed for the External Muon Identifier at the 15 ft Bubble Chamber. The general scheme of the data readout of the External Muon Identifier is based on the use of a master clock. The ADM card serves to amplify the signals from the proportional tubes, discriminate them, latch the signals in parallel into a shift register. The data are then shifted out serially to the Time Digitizing System, using the master clock. The shift registers are loaded, and the latches are reset every sixteen cycles of the master clock. (LEW)

  10. Optical amplifiers for coherent lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fork, Richard

    1996-01-01

    We examine application of optical amplification to coherent lidar for the case of a weak return signal (a number of quanta of the return optical field close to unity). We consider the option that has been explored to date, namely, incorporation of an optical amplifier operated in a linear manner located after reception of the signal and immediately prior to heterodyning and photodetection. We also consider alternative strategies where the coherent interaction, the nonlinear processes, and the amplification are not necessarily constrained to occur in the manner investigated to date. We include the complications that occur because of mechanisms that occur at the level of a few, or one, quantum excitation. Two factors combine in the work to date that limit the value of the approach. These are: (1) the weak signal tends to require operation of the amplifier in the linear regime where the important advantages of nonlinear optical processing are not accessed, (2) the linear optical amplifier has a -3dB noise figure (SN(out)/SN(in)) that necessarily degrades the signal. Some improvement is gained because the gain provided by the optical amplifier can be used to overcome losses in the heterodyned process and photodetection. The result, however, is that introduction of an optical amplifier in a well optimized coherent lidar system results in, at best, a modest improvement in signal to noise. Some improvement may also be realized on incorporating more optical components in a coherent lidar system for purely practical reasons. For example, more compact, lighter weight, components, more robust alignment, or more rapid processing may be gained. We further find that there remain a number of potentially valuable, but unexplored options offered both by the rapidly expanding base of optical technology and the recent investigation of novel nonlinear coherent interference phenomena occurring at the single quantum excitation level. Key findings are: (1) insertion of linear optical amplifiers in well optimized conventional lidar systems offers modest improvements, at best, (2) the practical advantages of optical amplifiers, especially fiber amplifiers, such as ease of alignment, compactness, efficiency, lightweight, etc., warrant further investigation for coherent lidar, (3) the possibility of more fully optical lidar systems should be explored, (4) advantages gained by use of coherent interference of optical fields at the level of one, or a few, signal quanta should be explored, (5) amplification without inversion, population trapping, and use of electromagnetic induced transparency warrant investigation in connection with coherent lidar, (6) these new findings are probably more applicable to earth related NASA work, although applications to deep space should not be excluded, and (7) our own work in the Ultrafast Laboratory at UAH along some of the above lines of investigation, may be useful.

  11. Optical systems with brightness amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrash, G. G.

    Papers included in this volume discuss principles involved in the operation of optical systems which use active media of pulsed metal-vapor lasers to amplify the brightness of images. Special attention is given to the problem of transformation of complex spatial intensity distributions in a light beam passing through a saturated active medium. A theoretical analysis is developed for the transformation of an image through a nonlinearly amplifying medium. Consideration is also given to a copper-vapor laser with a nonsteady resonator, and to applications of active optical systems in biology and medicine.

  12. Reactanceless synthesized impedance bandpass amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleinberg, L. L. (inventor)

    1985-01-01

    An active R bandpass filter network is formed by four operational amplifier stages interconnected by discrete resistances. One pair of stages synthesize an equivalent input impedance of an inductance (L sub eq) in parallel with a discrete resistance (R sub o) while the second pair of stages synthesizes an equivalent input impedance of a capacitance (C sub eq) serially coupled to another discrete resistance (R sub i) coupled in parallel with the first two stages. The equivalent input impedances aggregately define a tuned resonant bandpass filter in the roll-off regions of the operational amplifiers.

  13. Amplified spontaneous Raman scattering and gain in fiber Raman amplifiers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MARK L. DAKSS; Paul Melman

    1985-01-01

    The spectrum of amplified spontaneous Raman scattering and gain in a fiber Raman amplifer has been calculated analytically as a function of distance and pump power. The model used makes no assumptions on the magnitude of the gain and considers the pump nondepletion region. From the results, the on\\/off ratio has been calculated and is found to have a variation

  14. A correlated nickelate synaptic transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Jian; Ha, Sieu D.; Zhou, You; Schoofs, Frank; Ramanathan, Shriram

    2013-10-01

    Inspired by biological neural systems, neuromorphic devices may open up new computing paradigms to explore cognition, learning and limits of parallel computation. Here we report the demonstration of a synaptic transistor with SmNiO3, a correlated electron system with insulator-metal transition temperature at 130°C in bulk form. Non-volatile resistance and synaptic multilevel analogue states are demonstrated by control over composition in ionic liquid-gated devices on silicon platforms. The extent of the resistance modulation can be dramatically controlled by the film microstructure. By simulating the time difference between postneuron and preneuron spikes as the input parameter of a gate bias voltage pulse, synaptic spike-timing-dependent plasticity learning behaviour is realized. The extreme sensitivity of electrical properties to defects in correlated oxides may make them a particularly suitable class of materials to realize artificial biological circuits that can be operated at and above room temperature and seamlessly integrated into conventional electronic circuits.

  15. Molecular Transistors Based On Quantum Interference

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Cardamone, David M.

    This article from SPIE discusses how harnessing quantum interference enables single aromatic annulene molecules to function as transistors. The article includes several illustrations which help to demonstrate the concept.

  16. Development of gallium nitride power transistors

    E-print Network

    Piedra, Daniel, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2011-01-01

    GaN-based high-voltage transistors have outstanding properties for the development of ultra-high efficiency and compact power electronics. This thesis describes a new process technology for the fabrication of GaN power ...

  17. Ultra-stable oscillator with complementary transistors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleinberg, L. L. (inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A high frequency oscillator, having both good short and long term stability, is formed by including a piezoelectric crystal in the base circuit of a first bi-polar transistor circuit, the bi-polar transistor itself operated below its transitional frequency and having its emitter load chosen so that the input impedance, looking into the base thereof, exhibits a negative resistance in parallel with a capacitive reactance. Combined with this basic circuit is an auxiliary, complementary, second bi-polar transistor circuit of the same form with the piezoelectric crystal being common to both circuits. By this configuration small changes in quiescent current are substantially cancelled by opposite variations in the second bi-polar transistor circuit, thereby achieving from the oscillator a signal having its frequency of oscillation stable over long time periods as well as short time periods.

  18. Spin effects in single-electron transistors

    E-print Network

    Granger, Ghislain

    2005-01-01

    Basic electron transport phenomena observed in single-electron transistors (SETs) are introduced, such as Coulomb-blockade diamonds, inelastic cotunneling thresholds, the spin-1/2 Kondo effect, and Fano interference. With ...

  19. 2.4 GHz CMOS power amplifier with mode-locking structure to enhance gain.

    PubMed

    Lee, Changhyun; Park, Changkun

    2014-01-01

    We propose a mode-locking method optimized for the cascode structure of an RF CMOS power amplifier. To maximize the advantage of the typical mode-locking method in the cascode structure, the input of the cross-coupled transistor is modified from that of a typical mode-locking structure. To prove the feasibility of the proposed structure, we designed a 2.4 GHz CMOS power amplifier with a 0.18 ?m RFCMOS process for polar transmitter applications. The measured power added efficiency is 34.9%, while the saturated output power is 23.32 dBm. The designed chip size is 1.4 × 0.6 mm(2). PMID:25045755

  20. 2.4 GHz CMOS Power Amplifier with Mode-Locking Structure to Enhance Gain

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    We propose a mode-locking method optimized for the cascode structure of an RF CMOS power amplifier. To maximize the advantage of the typical mode-locking method in the cascode structure, the input of the cross-coupled transistor is modified from that of a typical mode-locking structure. To prove the feasibility of the proposed structure, we designed a 2.4?GHz CMOS power amplifier with a 0.18??m RFCMOS process for polar transmitter applications. The measured power added efficiency is 34.9%, while the saturated output power is 23.32?dBm. The designed chip size is 1.4 × 0.6?mm2. PMID:25045755

  1. Image relaying through saturated amplifiers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ernst E. Fill

    1984-01-01

    The transverse profile of a laser beam, determined by diffraction, is altered if the beam propagates through a medium with nonlinearity. Specifically, when a saturated amplifier is in the beam path of an image-relaying system, significant changes of the imaging properties occur. In this paper results of an experimental and theoretical study of this phenomenon are reported. It is shown

  2. Operation of Graphene Transistors at Gigahertz Frequencies

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yu-Ming Lin; Keith A. Jenkins; Alberto Valdes-Garcia; Joshua P. Small; Damon B. Farmer; Phaedon Avouris

    2009-01-01

    Top-gated graphene transistors operating at high frequencies (GHz) have been fabricated and their characteristics analyzed. The measured intrinsic current gain shows an ideal 1\\/f frequency dependence, indicating an FET-like behavior for graphene transistors. The cutoff frequency fT is found to be proportional to the dc transconductance gm of the device. The peak fT increases with a reduced gate length, and

  3. Fast organic thin-film transistor circuits

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hagen Klauk; David J. Gundlach; Thomas N. Jackson

    1999-01-01

    We have fabricated organic thin-film transistors and integrated circuits using pentacene as the active material. Devices were fabricated on glass substrates using low-temperature ion-beam sputtered silicon dioxide as the gate dielectric and a double-layer photoresist process to isolate devices. These transistors have carrier mobility near 0.5 cm2\\/V-s and on\\/off current ratio larger than 107. Using a level-shifting design that allows

  4. The noise performance of microwave transistors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Fukui

    1966-01-01

    Expressions for the noise parameters of microwave transistors are derived. The theory is based on a small-signal common-emitter equivalent circuit which includes a new basic noise equivalent circuit and the dominanting header parasitics. The theory is verified experimentally in the L-band (1 to 2 Gc\\/s) frequency range using Ge and Si microwave transistors. It is found that the header parasitics

  5. Ballistic carbon nanotube field-effect transistors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ali Javey; Jing Guo; Qian Wang; Mark Lundstrom; Hongjie Dai

    2003-01-01

    A common feature of the single-walled carbon-nanotube field-effect transistors fabricated to date has been the presence of a Schottky barrier at the nanotube-metal junctions. These energy barriers severely limit transistor conductance in the `ON' state, and reduce the current delivery capability-a key determinant of device performance. Here we show that contacting semiconducting single-walled nanotubes by palladium, a noble metal with

  6. Ballistic transport in high electron mobility transistors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jing Wang; M. Lundstrom

    2003-01-01

    A general ballistic FET model that was previously used for ballistic MOSFETs is applied to ballistic high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs), and the results are compared with experimental data for a sub-50 nm InAlAs-InGaAs HEMT. The results show that nanoscale HEMTs can be modeled as an intrinsic ballistic transistor with extrinsic source\\/drain series resistances. We also examine the \\

  7. White noise in MOS transistors and resistors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rahul Sarpeshkar; T. Delbruck; Carver A. Mead

    1993-01-01

    The theoretical and experimental results for white noise in the low-power subthreshold region of operation of an MOS transistor are discussed. It is shown that the measurements are consistent with the theoretical predictions. Measurements of noise in photoreceptors-circuits containing a photodiode and an MOS transistor-that are consistent with theory are reported. The photoreceptor noise measurements illustrate the intimate connection of

  8. An Ultra-Sensitive Electrometer based on the Cavity-Embedded Cooper-Pair Transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Juliang; Miller, Marco; Rimberg, Alex

    2015-03-01

    We discuss use of a cavity-embedded Cooper-pair transistor (cCPT) as a potentially quantum-limited electrometer. The cCPT consists of a Cooper pair transistor placed at the voltage antinode of a 5.7 GHz shorted quarter-wave resonator so that the CPT provides a galvanic connection between the cavity's central conductor and ground plane. The quantum inductance of the CPT, which appears in parallel with the effective inductance of the cavity resonance, can be modulated by application of either a gate voltage to the CPT island or a flux bias to the CPT/cavity loop. Changes in the CPT inductance shift the cavity resonant frequency, and therefore the phase of a microwave signal reflected from the cavity. The reflected wave is amplified by both SLUG and HEMT amplifiers before its phase is measured. Results of recent measurements on the cCPT electrometer will be compared with theoretical predictions. This work was supported by the NSF under Grant No. DMR-1104821, by the ARO under Contract No, W911NF-13-1-0377 and by AFOSR/DARPA under Agreement No. FA8750-12-2-0339.

  9. Blocking and desensitization in RF amplifiers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Robert G. Meyer; Alvin K. Wong

    1995-01-01

    Blocking and desensitization in RF amplifiers is analyzed and related to second and third order intermodulation performance. Methods of predicting blocking behavior are described and used to improve the performance of an existing amplifier. Measurements are compared with theoretical predictions

  10. Fundamental noise limits in broadband Raman amplifiers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. R. S. Fludger; V. Handerek; R. J. Mears

    2001-01-01

    We show that broadband discrete Raman amplifiers based on silica-germania will have a noise figure significantly greater than the quantum limit. We also present temperature measurements on a broadband distributed Raman amplifier using asymmetrically-spaced pumps.

  11. Phase correlation in a Raman amplifier

    SciTech Connect

    Lombardi, G.G.; Injeyan, H.

    1986-10-01

    The effects of pump-beam temporal structure in a Raman amplifier were studied by using a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser. The experiment demonstrated that the Stokes wave becomes correlated with the pump as it is amplified. This leads to the result that, in general, the amplified Stokes wave is not coherent with the incident Stokes wave. The implications of this result for multiple-beam Raman amplifiers are discussed.

  12. A compact 10 kW, 476 MHz solid state radio frequency amplifier for pre-buncher cavity of free electron laser injector linear accelerator.

    PubMed

    Mohania, Praveen; Mahawar, Ashish; Shrivastava, Purushottam; Gupta, P D

    2013-09-01

    A 10 kW, 476 MHz, 0.1% duty cycle solid state RF amplifier system for driving sub-harmonic, pre-buncher cavity of IR-FEL injector LINAC, has been developed at RRCAT. The 10 kW power is achieved by combining output of eight 1400 W amplifier modules using 8-way planar corporate combiner. The solid state amplifier modules have been developed using 50 V RF LDMOS transistors which although meant for push-pull operation are being used in single ended configuration with matching circuit developed on a thin (25 mils), high dielectric constant (9.7), low loss microwave laminate with an aim to have a compact structure. Ease of fabrication, modularity, small size, and low cost are the important features of this design which could be used as a template for low duty cycle medium to high pulsed power UHF amplifier system. PMID:24089846

  13. Current path optimized structure for high drain current density and high gate-turn-on voltage enhancement mode heterostructure field effect transistors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Naoki Hara; Yasuhiro Nakasha; Masaki Nagahara; Kazukiyo Joshin; Yuu Watanabe; M. Takikawa

    1998-01-01

    We developed a new type of enhancement-mode (E-mode) heterostructure field effect transistors (FETs) which provide single-voltage operation of power amplifiers in portable phone handsets. Gate leakage current paths were optimized, and a high gate-turn-on voltage and a high drain current density were obtained at the same time. This allows a 50% increase of the drain current by shortening the gate-to-source

  14. A fluidic\\/pneumatic interface amplifier

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. E. Limbert; T. M. Kegel

    1982-01-01

    The development of a low cost, reliable, linear pressure amplifier to interface Laminar Proportional Amplifiers (LPA) to pneumatic controllers is presented. The amplifier consists of an LPA input stage and an output stage consisting of a venturi in series with a bellows nozzle valve. The LPA output drives the bellows nozzle valve thereby altering the flowrate through the venturi. The

  15. A Fluidic\\/Pneumatic Interface Amplifier

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. M. Kegel; D. E. Limbert

    1982-01-01

    The development of a low cost, reliable, linear pressure amplifier to interface Laminar Proportional Amplifiers (LPA) to pneumatic controllers is presented. The amplifier consists of an LPA input stage and an output stage consisting of a venturi in series with a bellows nozzle valve. The LPA output drives the bellows nozzle valve thereby altering the flowrate through the venturi. The

  16. Design of hysteresis circuits using differential amplifiers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooke, W. A.

    1971-01-01

    Design equations for hysteresis circuit are based on the following assumptions: amplifier input impedance is larger than source impedance; amplifier output impedance is less than load impedance; and amplifier switches state when differential input voltage is approximately zero. Circuits are designed to any given specifications.

  17. Solid state ku-band power amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowers, H. C.; Lockyear, W. H.

    1972-01-01

    The design, fabrication, and testing of two types of IMPATT diode reflection amplifiers and a transmission amplifier are given. The Ku-band IMPATT diode development is discussed. Circuitry and electrical performance of the final version of the Ku-band amplifier is described. Construction details and an outline and mounting drawing are presented.

  18. High-Performance Solid-State W-Band Power Amplifiers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaier, Todd; Samoska, Lorene; Wells, Mary; Ferber, Robert; Pearson, John; Campbell, April; Peralta, Alejandro; Swift, Gerald; Yocum, Paul; Chung, Yun

    2003-01-01

    The figure shows one of four solid-state power amplifiers, each capable of generating an output power greater than or equal to 240 mW over one of four overlapping frequency bands from 71 to 106 GHz. (The bands are 71 to 84, 80 to 92, 88 to 99, and 89 to 106 GHz.) The amplifiers are designed for optimum performance at a temperature of 130 K. These amplifiers were developed specifically for incorporation into frequency-multiplier chains in local oscillators in a low-noise, far-infrared receiving instrument to be launched into outer space to make astrophysical observations. The designs of these amplifiers may also be of interest to designers and manufacturers of terrestrial W-band communication and radar systems. Each amplifier includes a set of six high-electron-mobility transistor (HEMT) GaAs monolithic microwave integrated-circuit (MMIC) chips, microstrip cavities, and other components packaged in a housing made from A-40 silicon-aluminum alloy. This alloy was chosen because, for the original intended spacecraft application, it offers an acceptable compromise among the partially competing requirements for high thermal conductivity, low mass, and low thermal expansion. Problems that were solved in designing the amplifiers included designing connectors and packages to fit the available space; designing microstrip signal-power splitters and combiners; matching of impedances across the frequency bands; matching of the electrical characteristics of those chips installed in parallel power-combining arms; control and levelling of output power across the bands; and designing the MMICs, microstrips, and microstrip cavities to suppress tendencies toward oscillation in several modes, both inside and outside the desired frequency bands.

  19. Log amplifier with pole-zero compensation

    DOEpatents

    Brookshier, William (Downers Grove, IL)

    1987-01-01

    A logarithmic amplifier circuit provides pole-zero compensation for improved stability and response time over 6-8 decades of input signal frequency. The amplifier circuit includes a first operational amplifier with a first feedback loop which includes a second, inverting operational amplifier in a second feedback loop. The compensated output signal is provided by the second operational amplifier with the log elements, i.e., resistors, and the compensating capacitors in each of the feedback loops having equal values so that each break point or pole is offset by a compensating break point or zero.

  20. High power gas laser amplifier

    SciTech Connect

    Leland, W.T.; Stratton, T.F.

    1981-04-28

    A high power output CO/sub 2/ gas laser amplifier is described that has a number of sections, each comprising a plurality of annular pumping chambers spaced around the circumference of a vacuum chamber containing a cold cathode, gridded electron gun. The electron beam from the electron gun ionizes the gas lasing medium in the sections. An input laser beam is split into a plurality of annular beams, each passing through the sections comprising one pumping chamber.

  1. 64-channel ultrasound transducer amplifier

    Microsoft Academic Search

    James Morizio; S. Guhados; J. Castellucci; O. von Ramm

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we present a 64-channel ultrasound preamplifier device that is used to amplify and filter pulsed echo transducer signals sourced from a real time three dimensional (RT3DU) non-invasive ultrasound system. Schematics, simulation data, and layout for each of the broadband sub-circuit macros are described which include a high gain preamplifier, a linear output buffer, and bias circuits. This

  2. High power gas laser amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Leland, Wallace T. (Los Alamos, NM); Stratton, Thomas F. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1981-01-01

    A high power output CO.sub.2 gas laser amplifier having a number of sections, each comprising a plurality of annular pumping chambers spaced around the circumference of a vacuum chamber containing a cold cathode, gridded electron gun. The electron beam from the electron gun ionizes the gas lasing medium in the sections. An input laser beam is split into a plurality of annular beams, each passing through the sections comprising one pumping chamber.

  3. Current gain in sub-10 nm base GaN tunneling hot electron transistors with AlN emitter barrier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Zhichao; Zhang, Yuewei; Nath, Digbijoy N.; Khurgin, Jacob B.; Rajan, Siddharth

    2015-01-01

    We report on Gallium Nitride-based tunneling hot electron transistor amplifier with common-emitter current gain greater than 1. Small signal current gain up to 5 and dc current gain of 1.3 were attained in common-emitter configuration with collector current density in excess of 50 kA/cm2. The use of a combination of 1 nm GaN/3 nm AlN layers as an emitter tunneling barrier was found to improve the energy collimation of the injected electrons. These results represent demonstration of unipolar vertical transistors in the III-nitride system that can potentially lead to higher frequency and power microwave devices.

  4. High power regenerative laser amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Miller, John L. (Livermore, CA); Hackel, Lloyd A. (Livermore, CA); Dane, Clifford B. (Dublin, CA); Zapata, Luis E. (Livermore, CA)

    1994-01-01

    A regenerative amplifier design capable of operating at high energy per pulse, for instance, from 20-100 Joules, at moderate repetition rates, for instance from 5-20 Hertz is provided. The laser amplifier comprises a gain medium and source of pump energy coupled with the gain medium; a Pockels cell, which rotates an incident beam in response to application of a control signal; an optical relay system defining a first relay plane near the gain medium and a second relay plane near the rotator; and a plurality of reflectors configured to define an optical path through the gain medium, optical relay and Pockels cell, such that each transit of the optical path includes at least one pass through the gain medium and only one pass through the Pockels cell. An input coupler, and an output coupler are provided, implemented by a single polarizer. A control circuit coupled to the Pockels cell generates the control signal in timed relationship with the input pulse so that the input pulse is captured by the input coupler and proceeds through at least one transit of the optical path, and then the control signal is applied to cause rotation of the pulse to a polarization reflected by the polarizer, after which the captured pulse passes through the gain medium at least once more and is reflected out of the optical path by the polarizer before passing through the rotator again to provide an amplified pulse.

  5. High power regenerative laser amplifier

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.L.; Hackel, L.A.; Dane, C.B.; Zapata, L.E.

    1994-02-08

    A regenerative amplifier design capable of operating at high energy per pulse, for instance, from 20-100 Joules, at moderate repetition rates, for instance from 5-20 Hertz is provided. The laser amplifier comprises a gain medium and source of pump energy coupled with the gain medium; a Pockels cell, which rotates an incident beam in response to application of a control signal; an optical relay system defining a first relay plane near the gain medium and a second relay plane near the rotator; and a plurality of reflectors configured to define an optical path through the gain medium, optical relay and Pockels cell, such that each transit of the optical path includes at least one pass through the gain medium and only one pass through the Pockels cell. An input coupler, and an output coupler are provided, implemented by a single polarizer. A control circuit coupled to the Pockels cell generates the control signal in timed relationship with the input pulse so that the input pulse is captured by the input coupler and proceeds through at least one transit of the optical path, and then the control signal is applied to cause rotation of the pulse to a polarization reflected by the polarizer, after which the captured pulse passes through the gain medium at least once more and is reflected out of the optical path by the polarizer before passing through the rotator again to provide an amplified pulse. 7 figures.

  6. Failure rates for accelerated acceptance testing of silicon transistors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toye, C. R.

    1968-01-01

    Extrapolation tables for the control of silicon transistor product reliability have been compiled. The tables are based on a version of the Arrhenius statistical relation and are intended to be used for low- and medium-power silicon transistors.

  7. Indium foil with beryllia washer improves transistor heat dissipation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilliard, J.; John, J. E. A.

    1964-01-01

    Indium foil, used as an interface material in transistor mountings, greatly reduces the thermal resistance of beryllia washers. This method improves the heat dissipation of power transistors in a vacuum environment.

  8. HIGH AVERAGE POWER OPTICAL FEL AMPLIFIERS.

    SciTech Connect

    BEN-ZVI, ILAN, DAYRAN, D.; LITVINENKO, V.

    2005-08-21

    Historically, the first demonstration of the optical FEL was in an amplifier configuration at Stanford University [l]. There were other notable instances of amplifying a seed laser, such as the LLNL PALADIN amplifier [2] and the BNL ATF High-Gain Harmonic Generation FEL [3]. However, for the most part FELs are operated as oscillators or self amplified spontaneous emission devices. Yet, in wavelength regimes where a conventional laser seed can be used, the FEL can be used as an amplifier. One promising application is for very high average power generation, for instance FEL's with average power of 100 kW or more. The high electron beam power, high brightness and high efficiency that can be achieved with photoinjectors and superconducting Energy Recovery Linacs (ERL) combine well with the high-gain FEL amplifier to produce unprecedented average power FELs. This combination has a number of advantages. In particular, we show that for a given FEL power, an FEL amplifier can introduce lower energy spread in the beam as compared to a traditional oscillator. This properly gives the ERL based FEL amplifier a great wall-plug to optical power efficiency advantage. The optics for an amplifier is simple and compact. In addition to the general features of the high average power FEL amplifier, we will look at a 100 kW class FEL amplifier is being designed to operate on the 0.5 ampere Energy Recovery Linac which is under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory's Collider-Accelerator Department.

  9. Direct solar-pumped iodine laser amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, K. S.

    1985-01-01

    This semiannual progress report covers the period from April 1, 1985 to Sept. 30, 1985 under NASA grant NAS1-441 entitled direct solar pumped iodine laser amplifier. During this period the parametric studies of the iodine laser oscillator pumped by a Vortek simulator was carried out before the amplifier studies. The amplifier studies are postponed to the extended period following completion of the parametric studies. In addition, the kinetic modeling of a solar pumped iodine laser amplifier, and the experimental work for a solar pumped dye laser amplifier are in progress. This report contains three parts: (1) the radiation characteristics of solar simulator and the parametric characteristics of photodissociation iodine laser continuously pumped by a Vortek solar simulator; (2) kinetic modeling of a solar pumped iodine laser amplifier; and (3) the study of the dye laser amplifier pumped by a Tamarack solar simulator.

  10. Nondegenerate optical parametric chirped pulse amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Jovanovic, Igor; Ebbers, Christopher A.

    2005-03-22

    A system provides an input pump pulse and a signal pulse. A first dichroic beamsplitter is highly reflective for the input signal pulse and highly transmissive for the input pump pulse. A first optical parametric amplifier nonlinear crystal transfers part of the energy from the input pump pulse to the input signal pulse resulting in a first amplified signal pulse and a first depleted pump pulse. A second dichroic beamsplitter is highly reflective for the first amplified signal pulse and highly transmissive for the first depleted pump pulse. A second optical parametric amplifier nonlinear crystal transfers part of the energy from the first depleted pump pulse to the first amplified signal pulse resulting in a second amplified signal pulse and a second depleted pump pulse. A third dichroic beamsplitter receives the second amplified signal pulse and the second depleted pump pulse. The second depleted pump pulse is discarded.

  11. Graphene nanopore field effect transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Qiu, Wanzhi; Skafidas, Efstratios, E-mail: sskaf@unimelb.edu.au [Centre for Neural Engineering, The University of Melbourne, 203 Bouverie Street, Carlton, Victoria 3053 (Australia); Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia)

    2014-07-14

    Graphene holds great promise for replacing conventional Si material in field effect transistors (FETs) due to its high carrier mobility. Previously proposed graphene FETs either suffer from low ON-state current resulting from constrained channel width or require complex fabrication processes for edge-defecting or doping. Here, we propose an alternative graphene FET structure created on intrinsic metallic armchair-edged graphene nanoribbons with uniform width, where the channel region is made semiconducting by drilling a pore in the interior, and the two ends of the nanoribbon act naturally as connecting electrodes. The proposed GNP-FETs have high ON-state currents due to seamless atomic interface between the channel and electrodes and are able to be created with arbitrarily wide ribbons. In addition, the performance of GNP-FETs can be tuned by varying pore size and ribbon width. As a result, their performance and fabrication process are more predictable and controllable in comparison to schemes based on edge-defects and doping. Using first-principle transport calculations, we show that GNP-FETs can achieve competitive leakage current of ?70?pA, subthreshold swing of ?60?mV/decade, and significantly improved On/Off current ratios on the order of 10{sup 5} as compared with other forms of graphene FETs.

  12. MoS2 transistors operating at gigahertz frequencies.

    PubMed

    Krasnozhon, Daria; Lembke, Dominik; Nyffeler, Clemens; Leblebici, Yusuf; Kis, Andras

    2014-10-01

    The presence of a direct band gap and an ultrathin form factor has caused a considerable interest in two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors from the transition metal dichalcogenides (TMD) family with molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) being the most studied representative of this family of materials. While diverse electronic elements, logic circuits, and optoelectronic devices have been demonstrated using ultrathin MoS2, very little is known about their performance at high frequencies where commercial devices are expected to function. Here, we report on top-gated MoS2 transistors operating in the gigahertz range of frequencies. Our devices show cutoff frequencies reaching 6 GHz. The presence of a band gap also gives rise to current saturation, allowing power and voltage gain, all in the gigahertz range. This shows that MoS2 could be an interesting material for realizing high-speed amplifiers and logic circuits with device scaling expected to result in further improvement of performance. Our work represents the first step in the realization of high-frequency analog and digital circuits based on 2D semiconductors. PMID:25243885

  13. Efficiency enhancement and linearity trade-offs for cascode vs. common-emitter SiGe power amplifiers in WiMAX polar transmitters

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yan Li; Jerry Lopez; Donald Y. C. Lie; Kevin Chen; Stanley Wu; Tzu-Yi Yang

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, a monolithic RF cascode SiGe power amplifier (PA) design capable of enhancing its power-added efficiency (PAE) is demonstrated. Four RF switches are adopted at the bases of the common-emitter transistors, which can be turned on\\/off in response to the desired output power. Simulations show that by utilizing device size variation, our cascode PA achieves higher gain and

  14. Multiple-input, multiple-output pass transistor logic

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. SHAMANNA; K. CAMERON; S. R. WHITAKER

    1995-01-01

    Techniques are presented for the design of multiple-input, multiple-output pass transistor circuits. By using shared functions as map-entered variables, dramatic reductions in transistor count can be achieved. Applied to a Viterbi decoder design for NASA, the transistor count of a CMOS integrated circuit was reduced by nearly 100000 transistors over the best previously known techniques. A proof is presented which

  15. Temperature dependent electrical behavior of cellulose based transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Byungwook; Yun, Sungryul; Kim, Jaehwan; Kim, Joo-Hyung

    2011-04-01

    Temperature dependant electrical behaviors of cellulose based flexible paper transistor were studied. Due to the covalently bonded single walled carbon nanotube into cellulose structure (SCBC), the conduction current of SCBC paper transistor shows two different slopes which is related to the measurement temperature and gate bias voltage of transistor. The electron hopping mechanism among the covalently bonded carbon nanotube in the regenerated cellulose is discussed by increasing measurement temperature of SCBC paper transistor.

  16. Polyphosphonium-based ion bipolar junction transistors.

    PubMed

    Gabrielsson, Erik O; Tybrandt, Klas; Berggren, Magnus

    2014-11-01

    Advancements in the field of electronics during the past few decades have inspired the use of transistors in a diversity of research fields, including biology and medicine. However, signals in living organisms are not only carried by electrons but also through fluxes of ions and biomolecules. Thus, in order to implement the transistor functionality to control biological signals, devices that can modulate currents of ions and biomolecules, i.e., ionic transistors and diodes, are needed. One successful approach for modulation of ionic currents is to use oppositely charged ion-selective membranes to form so called ion bipolar junction transistors (IBJTs). Unfortunately, overall IBJT device performance has been hindered due to the typical low mobility of ions, large geometries of the ion bipolar junction materials, and the possibility of electric field enhanced (EFE) water dissociation in the junction. Here, we introduce a novel polyphosphonium-based anion-selective material into npn-type IBJTs. The new material does not show EFE water dissociation and therefore allows for a reduction of junction length down to 2??m, which significantly improves the switching performance of the ion transistor to 2 s. The presented improvement in speed as well the simplified design will be useful for future development of advanced iontronic circuits employing IBJTs, for example, addressable drug-delivery devices. PMID:25553192

  17. Sub-100 nm channel length graphene transistors

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Lei; Bai, Jingwei; Cheng, Rui; Lin, Yungchen; Jiang, Shan; Qu, Yongquan; Huang, Yu; Duan, Xiangfeng

    2010-01-01

    Here we report high performance sub-100 nm channel length grapheme transistors fabricated using a self-aligned approach. The graphene transistors are fabricated using a highly-doped GaN nanowire as the local gate, with the source and drain electrodes defined through a self-aligned process and the channel length defined by the nanowire size. This fabrication approach allows the preservation of the high carrier mobility in graphene, and ensures nearly perfect alignment between source, drain, and gate electrodes. It therefore affords transistor performance not previously possible. Graphene transistors with 45–100 nm channel lengths have been fabricated with the scaled transconductance exceeding 2 mS/µm, comparable to the best performed high electron mobility transistors with similar channel lengths. Analysis of and the device characteristics gives a transit time of 120–220 fs and the projected intrinsic cutoff transit frequency (fT) reaching 700–1400 GHz. This study demonstrates the exciting potential of graphene based electronics in terahertz electronics. PMID:20815334

  18. Page 1 of 5 Using transistors as switches

    E-print Network

    Salisbury, Kenneth

    port to turn some external device on. I used to do this all the time, but I'm not an electrical with this transistor? How do I hook it up? Notation First some notation about transistor types and schematics. Transistors usually appear on schematics like this : To keep emitter notation straight, you can think of a PNP

  19. Fabrication and Test of Ferromagnetic Single-Electron-Transistors

    E-print Network

    Haviland, David

    Fabrication and Test of Ferromagnetic Single-Electron-Transistors Diploma Thesis Katrin Pappert of Nanostructure Physics Diplomarbeit Fabrication and Test of Ferromagnetic Single-Electron-Transistors von Katrin in optimizing the process for the fabrication of ferromagnetic single electron transistors (FM

  20. A Synthesis Algorithm for Reconfigurable Single-Electron Transistor Arrays

    E-print Network

    Yener, Aylin

    5 A Synthesis Algorithm for Reconfigurable Single-Electron Transistor Arrays YUNG-CHIH CHEN, Chung. Among a plethora of low power devices that are being explored, single-electron transistors (SETs Words and Phrases: Automatic synthesis, binary decision diagram, single-electron transistor ACM

  1. Magnetoresistance characterization of nanometer Si metal-oxide-semiconductor transistors

    E-print Network

    Levelut, Claire

    Magnetoresistance characterization of nanometer Si metal-oxide-semiconductor transistors Y. M on the short (down to 75-nm gate length) n-type Si metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors the transport properties in the semiconductor devices. In the metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors

  2. Angular Dependence of SOI Transistor Response to Heavy Ion Irradiation

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mélanie Raine; Marc Gaillardin; Philippe Paillet; Jean-Etienne Sauvestre; Olivier Duhamel; Arnaud Bournel

    2010-01-01

    Experimental results showing angular dependence for charge collection in SOI transistors under heavy ion irradiation are presented. Geant4 and Synopsys Sentaurus simulations are performed to analyze these results in terms of direct ionization effects. The influence of the beam direction in relation to that of the transistor's channel on the transistor's response is underlined. Depending on the considered beam direction,

  3. THz Bipolar Transistor Circuits: Technical Feasibility, Technology Development,

    E-print Network

    Rodwell, Mark J. W.

    THz Bipolar Transistor Circuits: Technical Feasibility, Technology Development, Integrated Circuit Scientific Abstract--We examine the feasibility of developing bipolar transistors with current-gain and power-frequency performance limits of InP-based bipolar transistors, and their potential for operation at low THz frequencies

  4. AC performance of nanoelectronics: towards a ballistic THz nanotube transistor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter J. Burke

    2004-01-01

    We present phenomenological predictions for the cutoff frequency of carbon nanotube transistors. We also present predictions of the effects parasitic capacitances on AC nanotube transistor performance. The influence of quantum capacitance, kinetic inductance, and ballistic transport on the high-frequency properties of nanotube transistors is analyzed. We discuss the challenges of impedance matching for ac nano-electronics in general, and show how

  5. Symmetry-protected adiabatic quantum transistors

    E-print Network

    Dominic J. Williamson; Stephen D. Bartlett

    2015-05-15

    Adiabatic quantum transistors allow quantum logic gates to be performed by applying a large field to a quantum many-body system prepared in its ground state, without the need for local control. The basic operation of such a device can be viewed as driving a spin chain from a symmetry protected phase to a trivial phase, and this perspective offers an avenue to generalise the adiabatic quantum transistor and to design several improvements. The performance of quantum logic gates is shown to depend only on universal symmetry properties of a symmetry-protected phase rather than fine tuned parent Hamiltonians, and it is possible to implement a universal set of logic gates in this way by combining several different types of symmetry protected matter. Such symmetry-protected adiabatic quantum transistors are argued to be robust to a range of relevant noise processes.

  6. Ping-pong auto-zero amplifier with glitch reduction

    DOEpatents

    Larson, Mark R. (Maple Grove, MN)

    2008-01-22

    A ping-pong amplifier with reduced glitching is described. The ping-pong amplifier includes a nulling amplifier coupled to a switching network. The switching network is used to auto-zero a ping amplifier within a ping-pong amplifier. The nulling amplifier drives the output of a ping amplifier to a proper output voltage level during auto-zeroing of the ping amplifier. By being at a proper output voltage level, glitches associated with transitioning between a ping amplifier and a pong amplifier are reduced or eliminated.

  7. Josephson bifurcation amplifier: Amplifying quantum signals using a dynamical bifurcation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijayaraghavan, Rajamani

    Quantum measurements of solid-state systems, such as the readout of superconducting quantum bits challenge conventional low-noise amplification techniques. Ideally, the amplifier for a quantum measurement should minimally perturb the measured system while maintaining sufficient sensitivity to overcome the noise of subsequent elements in the amplification chain. Additionally, the drift of materials properties in solid-state systems mandates a fast acquisition rate to permit measurements in rapid succession. In this thesis, we describe the Josephson Bifurcation Amplifier (JBA) which was developed to meet these requirements. The JBA exploits the sensitivity of a dynamical system - a non-linear oscillator tuned near a bifurcation point. In this new scheme, all available degrees of freedom in the dynamical system participate in information transfer and none contribute to unnecessary dissipation resulting in excess noise. We have used a superconducting tunnel junction, also known as a Josephson junction to construct our non-linear oscillator. The Josephson junction is the only electronic circuit element which remains non-linear and non-dissipative at arbitrarily low temperatures. This thesis will describe the theory and experiments demonstrating bifurcation amplification in the JBA and its application to the measurement of superconducting quantum bits. By describing the JBA as a parametrically driven oscillator, we will demonstrate that the ultimate sensitivity of the JBA is limited only by quantum fluctuations. Using this treatment, we will identify the connection between the four main aspects of working with a dynamical bifurcation: parametric amplification, squeezing, quantum activation and the Dynamical Casimir Effect.

  8. VHDL simulation with access to transistor models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, J.

    1991-01-01

    Hardware description languages such as VHDL have evolved to aid in the design of systems with large numbers of elements and a wide range of electronic and logical abstractions. For high performance circuits, behavioral models may not be able to efficiently include enough detail to give designers confidence in a simulation's accuracy. One option is to provide a link between the VHDL environment and a transistor level simulation environment. The coupling of the Vantage Analysis Systems VHDL simulator and the NOVA simulator provides the combination of VHDL modeling and transistor modeling.

  9. Static Characteristics of the Ferroelectric Transistor Inverter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, Cody; Laws, crystal; MacLeond, Todd C.; Ho, Fat D.

    2010-01-01

    The inverter is one of the most fundamental building blocks of digital logic, and it can be used as the foundation for understanding more complex logic gates and circuits. This paper presents the characteristics of an inverter circuit using a ferroelectric field-effect transistor. The voltage transfer characteristics are analyzed with respect to varying parameters such as supply voltage, input voltage, and load resistance. The effects of the ferroelectric layer between the gate and semiconductor are examined, and comparisons are made between the inverters using ferroelectric transistors and those using traditional MOSFETs.

  10. Switching Characteristics of Ferroelectric Transistor Inverters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laws, Crystal; Mitchell, Coey; MacLeod, Todd C.; Ho, Fat D.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the switching characteristics of an inverter circuit using a ferroelectric field effect transistor, FeFET. The propagation delay time characteristics, phl and plh are presented along with the output voltage rise and fall times, rise and fall. The propagation delay is the time-delay between the V50% transitions of the input and output voltages. The rise and fall times are the times required for the output voltages to transition between the voltage levels V10% and V90%. Comparisons are made between the MOSFET inverter and the ferroelectric transistor inverter.

  11. Charge amplifier with bias compensation

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, Gary W. (Livermore, CA)

    2002-01-01

    An ion beam uniformity monitor for very low beam currents using a high-sensitivity charge amplifier with bias compensation. The ion beam monitor is used to assess the uniformity of a raster-scanned ion beam, such as used in an ion implanter, and utilizes four Faraday cups placed in the geometric corners of the target area. Current from each cup is integrated with respect to time, thus measuring accumulated dose, or charge, in Coulombs. By comparing the dose at each corner, a qualitative assessment of ion beam uniformity is made possible. With knowledge of the relative area of the Faraday cups, the ion flux and areal dose can also be obtained.

  12. Inverting Amplifier with Current Input

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    This animated gif illustrates the changing voltages a conventional inverting amplifier when it receives input from a current source rather than a voltage source. Notice that the input resistor does not offer any impedance. Voltages and parts of the circuit of this 3-D animated gif are highlighted with different colors. Current is displayed by green arrows indicating directional flow. The animation requires a Web browser or other video player software capable of displaying gif animations.Other 3-D Circuit Animations can be seen here.

  13. The high gain 1310nm Raman amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turkiewicz, Jaros?aw Piotr; Czy?ak, Pawe?

    2014-05-01

    Due to the growing demand for transmission capacity, it has become essential to utilize multiple wavelength domains in one transmission system. To take full advantage of parallel 1550/1310 nm transmission, efficient 1310 nm amplification techniques are needed, such as the 1310 nm Raman amplifier. In the paper, we present detailed studies regarding the design of the 1310 nm Raman amplifier. Based on numerical simulations, we propose an efficient 1310 nm Raman amplifier design, utilizing the 1240 nm quantum-dot pumping lasers. The designed Raman amplifier is built and characterized. The achieved gain in a QD-laser pumped 1310 nm Raman amplifier was 19.5 dB. The presented results open the way for enhanced utilization of the 1310 nm Raman amplifier in the opto-telecommunication systems.

  14. Integrated ytterbium-Raman fiber amplifier.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Jiang, Huawei; Cui, Shuzhen; Feng, Yan

    2014-04-01

    An integrated ytterbium-Raman fiber amplifier architecture is proposed for power scaling of a Raman fiber laser. It is an ytterbium (Yb) fiber amplifier seeded with a double or multiple wavelength laser and followed by a passive Raman fiber. The bluest wavelength light gets amplified in the Yb fiber and the power is transferred to redder wavelengths in the following Raman fiber. A proof of principle experiment demonstrates a 300 W all-fiber linearly polarized single mode amplifier at 1120 nm with an optical efficiency of 70%, limited only by available pump power. The amplifier consists of 4 m of Yb-doped fiber and 20 m of germanium-doped fiber, and seeded with a laser emitting at 1070 and 1120 nm. The power evolution of the 1070 and 1120 nm light inside the amplifier is investigated, both numerically and experimentally. The possibility of power scaling to over kilowatt levels is discussed. PMID:24686642

  15. A dc amplifier for nuclear particle measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macnee, A. B.; Masnari, N. A.

    1978-01-01

    A monolithic preamplifier-postamplifier combination has been developed for use with solid state particle detectors. The direct coupled amplifiers employ interdigitated n-channel JFET's, diodes, and diffused resistors. The circuits developed demonstrate the feasibility of matching the performance of existing discrete component designs. The fabrication procedures for the monolithic amplifier fabrication are presented and the results of measurements on a limited number of sample amplifiers are given.

  16. Fiber amplifiers for coherent space communication

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Etienne Rochat; René Dändliker; Karim Haroud; Reinhard H. Czichy; Ulrich Roth; D. Costantini; Reto Holzner

    2001-01-01

    We report on the application of double-clad doped fiber amplifiers for coherent space communication systems using a master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) design at 1.06 ?m. The master oscillator is either a single-frequency Nd:YAG solid-state laser or a distributed-feedback fiber laser. The power amplifier is a diode-laser-pumped double-clad Nd doped fiber with polarization control, 20 dB gain, and about 1.3

  17. Raman amplifier with improved system performance

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. J. Stentz; S. G. Grubb; J. R. Simpson; T. Strasser

    1996-01-01

    Summary form only given. We describe the predominant sources of noise for various amplifier configurations. In addition, we present the results of a successful 2.5 Gbit\\/s systems test of a two-stage Raman amplifier with net small signal gains of 29 dB and output powers exceeding + 15 dBm. Although Raman amplifiers do not suffer from increased noise figure due to

  18. Amplifier based broadband pixel for sub-millimeter wave imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkozy, Stephen; Drewes, Jonathan; Leong, Kevin M. K. H.; Lai, Richard; Mei, X. B. (Gerry); Yoshida, Wayne; Lange, Michael D.; Lee, Jane; Deal, William R.

    2012-09-01

    Broadband sub-millimeter wave technology has received significant attention for potential applications in security, medical, and military imaging. Despite theoretical advantages of reduced size, weight, and power compared to current millimeter wave systems, sub-millimeter wave systems have been hampered by a fundamental lack of amplification with sufficient gain and noise figure properties. We report a broadband pixel operating from 300 to 340 GHz, biased off a single 2 V power supply. Over this frequency range, the amplifiers provide > 40 dB gain and <8 dB noise figure, representing the current state-of-art performance capabilities. This pixel is enabled by revolutionary enhancements to indium phosphide (InP) high electron mobility transistor technology, based on a sub-50 nm gate and indium arsenide composite channel with a projected maximum oscillation frequency fmax>1.0 THz. The first sub-millimeter wave-based images using active amplification are demonstrated as part of the Joint Improvised Explosive Device Defeat Organization Longe Range Personnel Imager Program. This development and demonstration may bring to life future sub-millimeter-wave and THz applications such as solutions to brownout problems, ultra-high bandwidth satellite communication cross-links, and future planetary exploration missions.

  19. Coulomb blockade memory using integrated single-electron transistor\\/metal-oxide-semiconductor transistor gain cells

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Zahid Ali Khan Durrani; A. C. Lnine; Haroon Ahmed

    2000-01-01

    A 3×3-bit Coulomb blockade memory cell array has been fabricated in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) material. In each cell, the Coulomb blockade effect in a single-electron transistor is used to define two charge states. The charge is stored on a memory node of area 1 ?m×1 ?m or 1 ?m×70 nm and is sensed with gain by a metal-oxide-semiconductor transistor. The write\\/read

  20. Field-effect transistor self-electrooptic effect device: integrated photodiode, quantum well modulator and transistor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. A. B. Miller; M. D. Feuer; T. Y. Chang; S. C. Shunk; J. E. Henry; D. J. Burrows; D. S. Chemla

    1989-01-01

    The authors propose and demonstrate the integration of a photodiode, a quantum-confined Stark-effect quantum-well optical modulator, and a metal-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MESFET) to make a field-effect transistor self-electrooptic effect device. This integration allows optical inputs and outputs on the surface of a GaAs-integrated circuit chip, compatible with standard MESFET processing. To provide an illustration of feasibility, the authors demonstrate signal

  1. Log amplifier with pole-zero compensation

    DOEpatents

    Brookshier, W.

    1985-02-08

    A logarithmic amplifier circuit provides pole-zero compensation for improved stability and response time over 6-8 decades of input signal frequency. The amplifer circuit includes a first operational amplifier with a first feedback loop which includes a second, inverting operational amplifier in a second feedstock loop. The compensated output signal is provided by the second operational amplifier with the log elements, i.e., resistors, and the compensating capacitors in each of the feedback loops having equal values so that each break point is offset by a compensating break point or zero.

  2. Development of Submillimeter SIS Mixers and Broadband HEMT Amplifiers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zmuidzinas, J.

    2004-01-01

    This is the final technical report for NASA grant NAG5-9493. entitled "Development of Submillimeter SIS Mixers and Broadband HEMT Amplifiers". The goal of this project was to develop and demonstrate a new generation of superconducting tunnel junction (SIS) receivers with extremely wide instantaneous (intermediate-frequency, or IF) bandwidths. of order 12 GHz. along with the wideband low-noise microwave HEMT (high electron mobility transistor) amplifiers which follow the SIS mixer. These wideband SIS/HEMT receivers would allow rapid submillimeter wavelength spectral line surveys to be carried out, for instance with the NASA airborne observatory SOFIA. and could potentially be useful for future submillimeter space missions such as SAFIR. In addition, there are potential NASA earth science applications. such as the monitoring of the distribution of chemical species in the stratosphere and troposphere using the limb-sounding technique. The overall goals of this project have been achieved: a broadband 200-300 SIS receiver was designed and constructed, and was demonstrated in the field through a test run at the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory on Mauna Kea. HI. The technical details are described in the appendices. which are primarily conference publications. but Appendix A also includes an unpublished summary of the latest results. The work on the SIS mixer design are described in the conference publications (appendices B and C). The "Supermix" software package that was developed at Caltech and used for the SIS design is also described in two conference papers, but has been substantially revised, debugged. and extended as part of the work completed for this grant. The Supermix package is made available to the community at no charge. The electromagnetic design of a radial waveguide probe similar to the one used in this work is described in a journal publication. Details of the novel fabrication procedure used for producing the SIS devices at JPL are also given in an upcoming journal article. Finally, details on the wideband HEMT amplifier design and noise characterization techniques are described in two publications.

  3. Thermal properties of very fast transistors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    R. C. Joy; E. S. Schlig

    1970-01-01

    Recent predictions that thermal effects will limit future transistor speed improvement motivated an interest in predicting and measuring these effects. A mathematical model of the three-dimensional transient heat flow problem is presented which takes into account the physical structure of the device and the actual region of power dissipation. At any point within the device, the model predicts the time-dependent

  4. COOPER PAIR TRANSISTOR IN A TUNABLE ENVIRONMENT

    E-print Network

    Haviland, David

    COOPER PAIR TRANSISTOR IN A TUNABLE ENVIRONMENT S. Corlevi, W. Guichard, and D. B. Haviland* 1 measurements of the CPT, which are performed in a low impedance environment, the charging effects are observed as gate voltage modulation of the critical current. However, in a high impedance environment, a Coulomb

  5. Single electron transistor in aqueous media.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chichao; Lee, Seung-Woo; Ong, Jason; Moore, David; Saraf, Ravi F

    2013-06-11

    A gold nanoparticle necklace array spanning a ?30-micrometer-wide channel shows a robust coulomb blockade effect at room temperature with a threshold of 1V in air. When this device is operated in the aqueous solution, a gain of ?130 fold in conductance is obtained in electrochemical gating, significantly higher than other nanomaterial-based electrochemical transistors. PMID:23653239

  6. Gallium nitride junction field-effect transistor

    DOEpatents

    Zolper, J.C.; Shul, R.J.

    1999-02-02

    An ion implanted gallium-nitride (GaN) junction field-effect transistor (JFET) and method of making the same are disclosed. Also disclosed are various ion implants, both n- and p-type, together with or without phosphorus co-implantation, in selected III-V semiconductor materials. 19 figs.

  7. Neurons from rat brain coupled to transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vassanelli, S.; Fromherz, P.

    Field-effect transistors form spontaneously capacitive junctions with cultured nerve cells from rat brains. The transfer of ac signals from neurons to silicon is studied and used to parametrize an equivalent circuit. The coupling is distinctly weaker than in junctions assembled with leech nerve cells. The implications with respect to the recording and stimulation of neuronal activity by silicon devices are considered.

  8. Charge Noise in Graphene Transistors Iddo Heller,,

    E-print Network

    Dekker, Cees

    of the noise is well described by a charge-noise model, whereas Hooge's empirical relation fails to describe Graphene, liquid gate, transistor, 1/f noise, Hooge, charge noise I nherent noise limits the performance Hooge rela- tion,10 whereas bilayer graphene (BLG) exhibits a suppres- sion of the noise. No report has

  9. Gallium nitride junction field-effect transistor

    DOEpatents

    Zolper, John C. (Albuquerque, NM); Shul, Randy J. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1999-01-01

    An all-ion implanted gallium-nitride (GaN) junction field-effect transistor (JFET) and method of making the same. Also disclosed are various ion implants, both n- and p-type, together with or without phosphorous co-implantation, in selected III-V semiconductor materials.

  10. Thermal simulation techniques for nanoscale transistors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jeremy A. Rowlette; Eric Pop; Sanjiv Sinha; Mathew Panzer; Kenneth E. Goodson

    2005-01-01

    Thermal simulations are important for advanced electronic sys- tems at multiple length scales. A major challenge involves electro- thermal phenomena within nanoscale transistors, which exhibit nearly ballistic transport both for electrons and phonons. The ther- mal device behavior can influence both the mobility and the leakage currents. We discuss recent advances in modeling coupled electron- phonon transport in future nanoscale

  11. MOS transistor modeling for RF IC design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian C. Enz; Yuhua Cheng

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents the basis of the modeling of the MOS transistor for circuit simulation at RF. A physical equivalent circuit that can easily be implemented as a Spice subcircuit is first derived. The subcircuit includes a substrate network that accounts for the signal coupling occurring at HF from the drain to the source and the bulk. It is shown

  12. Water-gel for gating graphene transistors.

    PubMed

    Kim, Beom Joon; Um, Soong Ho; Song, Woo Chul; Kim, Yong Ho; Kang, Moon Sung; Cho, Jeong Ho

    2014-05-14

    Water, the primary electrolyte in biology, attracts significant interest as an electrolyte-type dielectric material for transistors compatible with biological systems. Unfortunately, the fluidic nature and low ionic conductivity of water prevents its practical usage in such applications. Here, we describe the development of a solid state, megahertz-operating, water-based gate dielectric system for operating graphene transistors. The new electrolyte systems were prepared by dissolving metal-substituted DNA polyelectrolytes into water. The addition of these biocompatible polyelectrolytes induced hydrogelation to provide solid-state integrity to the system. They also enhanced the ionic conductivities of the electrolytes, which in turn led to the quick formation of an electric double layer at the graphene/electrolyte interface that is beneficial for modulating currents in graphene transistors at high frequencies. At the optimized conditions, the Na-DNA water-gel-gated flexible transistors and inverters were operated at frequencies above 1 MHz and 100 kHz, respectively. PMID:24773325

  13. Materials physics and device development for improved efficiency of GaN HEMT high power amplifiers.

    SciTech Connect

    Kurtz, Steven Ross; Follstaedt, David Martin; Wright, Alan Francis; Baca, Albert G.; Briggs, Ronald D.; Provencio, Paula Polyak; Missert, Nancy A.; Allerman, Andrew Alan; Marsh, Phil F.; Koleske, Daniel David; Lee, Stephen Roger; Shul, Randy John; Seager, Carleton Hoover; Tigges, Christopher P.

    2005-12-01

    GaN-based microwave power amplifiers have been identified as critical components in Sandia's next generation micro-Synthetic-Aperture-Radar (SAR) operating at X-band and Ku-band (10-18 GHz). To miniaturize SAR, GaN-based amplifiers are necessary to replace bulky traveling wave tubes. Specifically, for micro-SAR development, highly reliable GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs), which have delivered a factor of 10 times improvement in power performance compared to GaAs, need to be developed. Despite the great promise of GaN HEMTs, problems associated with nitride materials growth currently limit gain, linearity, power-added-efficiency, reproducibility, and reliability. These material quality issues are primarily due to heteroepitaxial growth of GaN on lattice mismatched substrates. Because SiC provides the best lattice match and thermal conductivity, SiC is currently the substrate of choice for GaN-based microwave amplifiers. Obviously for GaN-based HEMTs to fully realize their tremendous promise, several challenges related to GaN heteroepitaxy on SiC must be solved. For this LDRD, we conducted a concerted effort to resolve materials issues through in-depth research on GaN/AlGaN growth on SiC. Repeatable growth processes were developed which enabled basic studies of these device layers as well as full fabrication of microwave amplifiers. Detailed studies of the GaN and AlGaN growth of SiC were conducted and techniques to measure the structural and electrical properties of the layers were developed. Problems that limit device performance were investigated, including electron traps, dislocations, the quality of semi-insulating GaN, the GaN/AlGaN interface roughness, and surface pinning of the AlGaN gate. Surface charge was reduced by developing silicon nitride passivation. Constant feedback between material properties, physical understanding, and device performance enabled rapid progress which eventually led to the successful fabrication of state of the art HEMT transistors and amplifiers.

  14. DESIGN OF DIGITAL STEREO AMPLIFIER FOR MOBILE IT DEVICE

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Young-Gyu Choi

    It is well known that digital amplifier is better than analog amplifier from the viewpoint of efficiency. Efficiency of analog amplifier is low and it has disadvantage that do not attach cooling fan by noise of inside. And also, external form size of analog amplifier can¡t but be big because of heat sink. Therefore, analog amplifier is not suitable to

  15. Transverse pumped laser amplifier architecture

    DOEpatents

    Bayramian, Andrew James; Manes, Kenneth; Deri, Robert; Erlandson, Al; Caird, John; Spaeth, Mary

    2013-07-09

    An optical gain architecture includes a pump source and a pump aperture. The architecture also includes a gain region including a gain element operable to amplify light at a laser wavelength. The gain region is characterized by a first side intersecting an optical path, a second side opposing the first side, a third side adjacent the first and second sides, and a fourth side opposing the third side. The architecture further includes a dichroic section disposed between the pump aperture and the first side of the gain region. The dichroic section is characterized by low reflectance at a pump wavelength and high reflectance at the laser wavelength. The architecture additionally includes a first cladding section proximate to the third side of the gain region and a second cladding section proximate to the fourth side of the gain region.

  16. Free randomness can be amplified

    E-print Network

    Roger Colbeck; Renato Renner

    2013-06-18

    Are there fundamentally random processes in nature? Theoretical predictions, confirmed experimentally, such as the violation of Bell inequalities, point to an affirmative answer. However, these results are based on the assumption that measurement settings can be chosen freely at random, so assume the existence of perfectly free random processes from the outset. Here we consider a scenario in which this assumption is weakened and show that partially free random bits can be amplified to make arbitrarily free ones. More precisely, given a source of random bits whose correlation with other variables is below a certain threshold, we propose a procedure for generating fresh random bits that are virtually uncorrelated with all other variables. We also conjecture that such procedures exist for any non-trivial threshold. Our result is based solely on the no-signalling principle, which is necessary for the existence of free randomness.

  17. Hydraulically amplified PZT mems actuator

    DOEpatents

    Miles, Robin R.

    2004-11-02

    A hydraulically amplified microelectromechanical systems actuator. A piece of piezoelectric material or stacked piezo bimorph is bonded or deposited as a thin film. The piece is operatively connected to a primary membrane. A reservoir is operatively connected to the primary membrane. The reservoir contains a fluid. A membrane is operatively connected to the reservoir. In operation, energizing the piezoelectric material causing the piezoelectric material to bow. Bowing of the piezoelectric material causes movement of the primary membrane. Movement of the primary membrane results in a force in being transmitted to the liquid in the reservoir. The force in the liquid causes movement of the membrane. Movement of the membrane results in an operating actuator.

  18. Resonant isolator for maser amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clauss, R. C.; Quinn, R. B. (inventors)

    1983-01-01

    An isolator is described for use in a low noise maser amplifier, which provides low loss across a wide bandwidth and which can be constructed at moderate cost. The isolator includes a train of garnet or ferrite elements extending along the length of a microwave channel parallel to the slow wave structure, with the elements being of staggered height, so that the thin elements which are resonant to the microwaves are separated by much thicker elements. The thick garnet or ferrite elements reduce the magnetic flux passing through the thin elements to permit altering of the shape of the thin elements so as to facilitate their fabrication and to provide better isolation with reduced loss, by increasing the thickness of the thin elements and decreasing their length and width.

  19. Noise in IMPATT Diode Amplifiers and Oscillators

    Microsoft Academic Search

    HANS-JORG THALER; GERHARD ULRICH; GERHARD WEIDMANN

    1971-01-01

    The results of experimental and theoretical investigations of the noise characteristics of lMPATT diode amplifiers and oscillators are presented. The oscillator noise is shown to consist of three different contributions: modulation noise, selectively amplified primary noise, and conversion noise. The influence of the active device nonlinearity and load circuit parameters is discussed in detail. The experimental results are in good

  20. Phase Noise in RF and Microwave Amplifiers

    E-print Network

    Boudot, Rodolphe

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the amplifier phase noise is a critical issue in numerous fields of engineering and physics, like oscillators, frequency synthesis, telecommunications, radars, spectroscopy, in the emerging domain of microwave photonics, and in more exotic domains like radio astronomy, particle accelerators, etc. This article analyzes the two main types of phase noise in amplifiers, white and flicker. White phase noise results from adding white noise to the RF spectrum around the carrier. For a given amount of RF noise added, noise is proportional to the inverse of the carrier power. By contrast, the 1/f coefficient is a constant parameter of the amplifier, in a wide range of carrier power. This fact has amazing consequences on different amplifier topologies. Connecting m equal amplifiers in parallel, flicker is 1/m times that of one device. Cascading m equal amplifiers, flicker is m times that of one amplifier. Recirculating the signal in an amplifier so that the gain increases by a power of m (a factor of m in...

  1. Design of a 250 GHz gyrotron amplifier

    E-print Network

    Nanni, Emilio A. (Emilio Alessandro)

    2010-01-01

    A design is presented of a 250 GHz, 1 kW gyrotron traveling wave tube (gyro-TWT) amplifier with gain exceeding 50 dB. Calculations show that the amplifier will operate at 32 kV, 1 A with a saturated gain of 60 dB, an output ...

  2. Push-pull audio amplifier theory

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Melehy

    1957-01-01

    Assuming nonlinear tube characteristics, this paper presents: 1) a single mathematical analysis of instantaneous relations applicable to all classes of operation of push-pull audio vacuum tube amplifiers; 2) a mathematical derivation, applicable to all classes of operation, of the composite load line equation and a study of the amplifier frequency response both at medium and low frequencies, with third and

  3. Uniplanar microwave balanced mixers and amplifiers 

    E-print Network

    Hsu, Pang-Cheng

    1995-01-01

    are also developed. The first amplifier is designed in the unconditionally stable frequency range with the gain between 3.5 and 5 dB. The measured output 1-dB compression point (P1dB) is 14 dBm at 6 GHz and 19 dBm at 10 GHz. The other amplifier is designed...

  4. High-speed high-voltage amplifier

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. N. Dyachko; V. N. Ilyushenko; V. I. Tuyev

    1986-01-01

    A high speed amplifier of high voltage pulse signals coming from remote sources over long transmission lines is now available, specifically designed for increasing the sensitivity of 6 LOR-02 oscillographs. It includes a line attenuation compensator, besides the amplifier stage with a main output and an output for oscillograph synchronization. Each component can be used independently for any particular other

  5. Method for reducing snap in magnetic amplifiers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, R. L. E.; Word, J. L.

    1968-01-01

    Method of reducing snap in magnetic amplifiers uses a degenerative feedback circuit consisting of a resistor and a separate winding on a magnetic core. The feedback circuit extends amplifier range by allowing it to be used at lower values of output current.

  6. Theoretical proposal for a unidirectional optical amplifier

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Minoru Yamada

    1999-01-01

    The possibility of achieving a unidirectional optical amplifier is theoretically predicted with a model in the vacuum environment. The operation of this amplifier is based on the transfer of the kinetic energy of an electron beam to an optical one where both are propagating in the same direction. The optical beam propagates in a dielectric waveguide where it partly penetrates

  7. Electron beam semiconductor S-band amplifier

    Microsoft Academic Search

    L. A. Roberts

    1976-01-01

    This report discusses results of an investigation leading to the development of a pulsed 1 kilowatt peak power (EBS) RF amplifier operating at 3.2 GHz. The feasibility of building pulsed power (EBS) amplifiers in the 3 GHz frequency range was demonstrated. Techniques have been worked out for designing and constructing semiconductor diodes capable of maintaining their electrical characteristics under high

  8. Parametric amplifiers driven by two pump waves

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. J. McKinstrie; S. Radic; A. R. Chraplyvy

    2002-01-01

    The theory of parametric amplifiers driven by two pump waves is developed. By choosing the pump wavelengths judiciously, one can design an amplifier that produces uniform exponential gain over a range of wavelengths that extends at least 30 nm on either side of the average pump wavelength

  9. Design and assessment of a robust voltage amplifier with 2.5 GHz GBW and >100 kGy total dose tolerance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verbeeck, J.; Leroux, P.; Steyaert, M.

    2011-01-01

    A differential voltage amplifier with a gain-bandwidth product of 2.5Ghz and using adaptive biasing has been designed in a standard CMOS technology and assessed under radiation and temperature variations. The principle used in this ASIC will be employed in the design of a Gbps TIA with improved tolerance for ?-irradiation and temperature for an optical instrumentation (LIDAR) receiver aiming at operation in harsh environments. The voltage amplifier was tested under gamma radiation and features a gain degradation of merely 4.5% up to a total dose of 100kGy. In order to verify the radiation effects on the IC, the threshold voltage shift of the separate transistors has been investigated. Temperature characterization has shown that the amplifier features a reduction of the voltage gain by only 5.6% for a temperature range of -40 till 130 °C.

  10. Direct solar-pumped iodine laser amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, K. S.

    1986-01-01

    During this period the parametric studies of the iodine laser oscillator pumped by a Vortek simulator were carried out before amplifier studies. The amplifier studies are postponed to the extended period after completing the parametric studies. In addition, the kinetic modeling of a solar-pumped iodine laser amplifier, and the experimental work for a solar pumped dye laser amplifier are in progress. This report contains three parts: (1) a 10 W CW iodine laser pumped by a Vortek solar simulator; (2) kinetic modeling to predict the time to lasing threshold, lasing time, and energy output of solar-pumped iodine laser; and (3) the study of the dye laser amplifier pumped by a Tamarack solar simulator.

  11. Design and implementation of low power multistage amplifiers and high frequency distributed amplifiers 

    E-print Network

    Mishra, Chinmaya

    2005-11-01

    The advancement in integrated circuit (IC) technology has resulted in scaling down of device sizes and supply voltages without proportionally scaling down the threshold voltage of the MOS transistor. This, coupled with the increasing demand for low...

  12. Ion-selective electrolyte-gated field-effect transistors: prerequisites for proper functioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kofler, Johannes; Schmoltner, Kerstin; List-Kratochvil, Emil J. W.

    2014-10-01

    Electrolyte-gated organic field-effect transistors (EGOFETs) used as transducers and amplifiers in potentiometric sensors have recently attracted a significant amount of scientific interest. For that reason, the fundamental prerequisites to achieve a proper potentiometric signal amplification and transduction are examined. First, polarizable as well as non-polarizable semiconductor- and gate-electrolyte- interface combinations are investigated by normal pulse voltammetry. The results of these measurements are correlated with the corresponding transistor characteristics, clarifying the functional principle of EGOFETs and the requirements for high signal amplification. In addition to a good electrical performance, the EGOFET-transducers should also be compatible with the targeted sensing application. Accordingly, the influence of different gate materials and electrolytes on the sensing abilities, are discussed. Even though all physical requirements are met, EGOFETs typically exhibit irreversible degradation, if the gate potential exceeds a certain level. For that reason, EGOFETs have to be operated using a constant source-drain operation mode which is presented by means of an H+ (pH) sensitive ion-sensor.

  13. Flexible polymer transistors with high pressure sensitivity for application in electronic skin and health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, Gregor; Tee, Benjamin C.-K.; Mei, Jianguo; Appleton, Anthony L.; Kim, Do Hwan; Wang, Huiliang; Bao, Zhenan

    2013-05-01

    Flexible pressure sensors are essential parts of an electronic skin to allow future biomedical prostheses and robots to naturally interact with humans and the environment. Mobile biomonitoring in long-term medical diagnostics is another attractive application for these sensors. Here we report the fabrication of flexible pressure-sensitive organic thin film transistors with a maximum sensitivity of 8.4?kPa-1, a fast response time of <10?ms, high stability over >15,000 cycles and a low power consumption of <1?mW. The combination of a microstructured polydimethylsiloxane dielectric and the high-mobility semiconducting polyisoindigobithiophene-siloxane in a monolithic transistor design enabled us to operate the devices in the subthreshold regime, where the capacitance change upon compression of the dielectric is strongly amplified. We demonstrate that our sensors can be used for non-invasive, high fidelity, continuous radial artery pulse wave monitoring, which may lead to the use of flexible pressure sensors in mobile health monitoring and remote diagnostics in cardiovascular medicine.

  14. Toward 300 mm wafer-scalable high-performance polycrystalline chemical vapor deposited graphene transistors.

    PubMed

    Rahimi, Somayyeh; Tao, Li; Chowdhury, Sk Fahad; Park, Saungeun; Jouvray, Alex; Buttress, Simon; Rupesinghe, Nalin; Teo, Ken; Akinwande, Deji

    2014-10-28

    The largest applications of high-performance graphene will likely be realized when combined with ubiquitous Si very large scale integrated (VLSI) technology, affording a new portfolio of "back end of the line" devices including graphene radio frequency transistors, heat and transparent conductors, interconnects, mechanical actuators, sensors, and optical devices. To this end, we investigate the scalable growth of polycrystalline graphene through chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and its integration with Si VLSI technology. The large-area Raman mapping on CVD polycrystalline graphene on 150 and 300 mm wafers reveals >95% monolayer uniformity with negligible defects. About 26,000 graphene field-effect transistors were realized, and statistical evaluation indicates a device yield of ? 74% is achieved, 20% higher than previous reports. About 18% of devices show mobility of >3000 cm(2)/(V s), more than 3 times higher than prior results obtained over the same range from CVD polycrystalline graphene. The peak mobility observed here is ? 40% higher than the peak mobility values reported for single-crystalline graphene, a major advancement for polycrystalline graphene that can be readily manufactured. Intrinsic graphene features such as soft current saturation and three-region output characteristics at high field have also been observed on wafer-scale CVD graphene on which frequency doubler and amplifiers are demonstrated as well. Our growth and transport results on scalable CVD graphene have enabled 300 mm synthesis instrumentation that is now commercially available. PMID:25198884

  15. Polarization Independent Raman-Assisted Fiber Optical Parametric Amplifiers

    E-print Network

    Wai, Ping-kong Alexander

    Polarization Independent Raman-Assisted Fiber Optical Parametric Amplifiers S. H. Wang1 , Dawei, Raman scattering, optical parametric amplifiers. Abstract We propose and demonstrate a polarization independent Raman-assisted fiber optical parametric amplifier using depolarized Raman and parametric pumps

  16. POWER FLOW ANALYSIS OF ELECTROSTRICTIVE ACTUATORS DRIVEN BYSWITCHMODE AMPLIFIERS

    E-print Network

    Lindner, Douglas K.

    POWER FLOW ANALYSIS OF ELECTROSTRICTIVE ACTUATORS DRIVEN BYSWITCHMODE AMPLIFIERS Gregory A. Zvonar: smart structures, smart skin, switchmode amplifiers, power flow analysis, electrostrictive actuators is within the bandwidth of the amplifier. This analysis also reveals that the electrical power flow through

  17. RF drivers for the Bevalac injector final stage RF amplifiers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. Howard; J. Calvert; M. Hui; A. Lindner; N. Kellogg; W. Ridgeway; K. Woolfe

    1991-01-01

    A 200-MHz intermediate power amplifier system, comprising of four separate chassis or cavity amplifiers is being developed as a driver stage for the Bevalac injector final RF amplifiers. The initial stage is a 200-W, solid-state, RF amplifier with 44 dB of gain. The two succeeding stages are cavity amplifiers that incorporate vacuum tubes. The first of the tube-type amplifiers is

  18. Phase properties of multicomponent superposition states in various amplifiers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Kang-Soo; Kim, M. S.

    1994-01-01

    There have been theoretical studies for generation of optical coherent superposition states. Once the superposition state is generated it is natural to ask if it is possible to amplify it without losing the nonclassical properties of the field state. We consider amplification of the superposition state in various amplifiers such as a sub-Poissonian amplifier, a phase-sensitive amplifier and a classical amplifier. We show the evolution of phase probability distribution functions in the amplifier.

  19. 100GHz Transistors from Wafer-Scale Epitaxial Graphene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Y.-M. Lin; C. Dimitrakopoulos; K. A. Jenkins; D. B. Farmer; H.-Y. Chiu; A. Grill; Ph. Avouris

    2010-01-01

    The high carrier mobility of graphene has been exploited in field-effect transistors that operate at high frequencies. Transistors were fabricated on epitaxial graphene synthesized on the silicon face of a silicon carbide wafer, achieving a cutoff frequency of 100 gigahertz for a gate length of 240 nanometers. The high-frequency performance of these epitaxial graphene transistors exceeds that of state-of-the-art silicon

  20. The design of a frequency modulated transistor oscillator 

    E-print Network

    Fisher, Phil Dewey

    1959-01-01

    -Capacity Characteristics of the Silicon Diode. Figure 15. Results of the Mode-Thermistor Compensation. . . . 37 Figure 16. Thermistor-Diode Compensator with Provisions for Frequenoy Modulation. . 38 Figure 17. Germanium Transistor Compensation Circuit. . . . . . . 40... germanium device, even though the rate change of ICRO is approximately the same in both transistors. In general, the silicon transistor is more expensive than its germanium counterpart, but it is more reliable and has greater uniformity of parameters...

  1. Uniformity of fully gravure printed organic field-effect transistors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    M. Hambsch; K. Reuter; M. Stanel; G. Schmidt; H. Kempa; U. Fügmann; U. Hahn; A. C. Hübler

    2010-01-01

    Fully mass-printed organic field-effect transistors were made completely by means of gravure printing. Therefore a special printing layout was developed in order to avoid register problems in print direction. Upon using this layout, contact pads for source–drain electrodes of the transistors are printed together with the gate electrodes in one and the same printing run. More than 50,000 transistors have

  2. A 209 k-transistor ECL gate array with RAM

    Microsoft Academic Search

    H. Satoh; T. Nishimura; M. Tatsuki; A. Ohba; S. Hine; K. Sakaue; Y. Kuramitsu

    1989-01-01

    The authors describe a gate array with an ECL (emitter-coupled-logic) cell structure for implementing a high-density configurable RAM. A unit based on a variable size cell is modified to achieve such a RAM. Every unit has an extra transistor buried under the power bus to eliminate area penalty. One memory bit is constructed using one buried transistor plus three transistors

  3. A computational study of ballistic silicon nanowire transistors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. Wang; E. Polizzi; M. Lundstrom

    2003-01-01

    Using a rigorous 3D quantum simulator, we report a computational study of ballistic silicon nanowire transistors with arbitrary cross sections (i.e., triangular, rectangular or cylindrical). In comparison with the planar double-gate MOSFET, the silicon nanowire transistor shows promise (e.g., better electrostatic scaling for a given Si body thickness) and may provide a manufacturable opportunity to scale silicon transistors down below

  4. Transistorized PWM Inverter-Induction Motor Drive System

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steven C. Peak; Allan B. Plunkett

    1983-01-01

    The development of a transistorized pulsewidth modulated (PWM) inverter-induction motor traction drive system is described. A vehicle performance analysis was performed to establish the vehicle tractive effort-speed requirements. These requirements were then converted into a set of inverter and motor specifications. The inverter was a transistorized three-phase bridge using General Electric power Darlington transistors. The description of the design and

  5. Radiation effects on power transistor performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frasca, Albert J.

    1987-01-01

    The D60T, D62T, and D75T transistors in the nuclear reactor were irradiated with bias voltage and high current I sub c vs. V sub ec curves were obtained to evaluate gain degradation at high power levels. Pre- and post-irradiation high current switching tests were performed to evaluate the response. The gamma ray damage work done at Sandia was correlated with the neutron work done at the O.S.U. reactor with the above specified transistors. Theoretical analyses of damage and electrical performance were conducted in terms of semiconductor physics. The experimental high current pulser was improved in order to measure switching time changes which are less than one microsecond at currents of 100 to 200 amperes for in-situ testing.

  6. A silicon nanocrystal tunnel field effect transistor

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey-Collard, Patrick, E-mail: P.Collard@USherbrooke.ca [Département de Physique, Université de Sherbrooke, 2500 Boulevard de l'Université, Sherbrooke, Quebec J1K 2R1 (Canada); Institut Interdisciplinaire d'Innovation Technologique (3IT), Université de Sherbrooke, 3000 Boulevard de l'Université, Sherbrooke, Quebec J1K 0A5 (Canada); Laboratoire Nanotechnologies Nanosystèmes (LN2)–CNRS UMI-3463, Université de Sherbrooke, 3000 Boulevard de l'Université, Sherbrooke, Quebec J1K 0A5 (Canada); Drouin, Dominique [Institut Interdisciplinaire d'Innovation Technologique (3IT), Université de Sherbrooke, 3000 Boulevard de l'Université, Sherbrooke, Quebec J1K 0A5 (Canada); Laboratoire Nanotechnologies Nanosystèmes (LN2)–CNRS UMI-3463, Université de Sherbrooke, 3000 Boulevard de l'Université, Sherbrooke, Quebec J1K 0A5 (Canada); Pioro-Ladrière, Michel [Département de Physique, Université de Sherbrooke, 2500 Boulevard de l'Université, Sherbrooke, Quebec J1K 2R1 (Canada); CIFAR Program in Quantum Information Science, Canadian Institute for Advanced Research (CIFAR), Toronto, Ontario M5G 1Z8 (Canada)

    2014-05-12

    In this work, we demonstrate a silicon nanocrystal Field Effect Transistor (ncFET). Its operation is similar to that of a Tunnelling Field Effect Transistor (TFET) with two barriers in series. The tunnelling barriers are fabricated in very thin silicon dioxide and the channel in intrinsic polycrystalline silicon. The absence of doping eliminates the problem of achieving sharp doping profiles at the junctions, which has proven a challenge for large-scale integration and, in principle, allows scaling down the atomic level. The demonstrated ncFET features a 10{sup 4} on/off current ratio at room temperature, a low 30?pA/?m leakage current at a 0.5?V bias, an on-state current on a par with typical all-Si TFETs and bipolar operation with high symmetry. Quantum dot transport spectroscopy is used to assess the band structure and energy levels of the silicon island.

  7. Transistor device techniques aid circuit designers, too

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sujan, C. S.

    1984-10-01

    The present investigation is concerned with some practical examples which demonstrate an approach to the design of a microwave packaged transistor, giving particular attention to aspects of the microwave design. A similar design procedure can be used for a hybrid or integrated circuit configuration on alumina, epsilam-10, RT/Duroid 6010, or any other suitable substrate. Both the Smith chart and computer-aided design (CAD) facilitate design realization, taking into account the treatment of matching sections as either transmission lines or reactive elements. The first step in the considered design process involves the determination of the chip impedance and the plotting of impedance on a Smith chart. A considered example is concerned with an analysis of a typical transistor package metallization.

  8. Driving pockels cells using avalanche transistor pulsers

    SciTech Connect

    Fulkerson, E.S.; Norman, D.C.; Booth, R.

    1997-05-28

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the current state of avalanche transistor based Pockels cell driver development at LLNL and to provide the reader with a set of useful design guidelines. A general description of the units is followed by a short section on the circuit design of avalanche transistor pulsers. A more detailed design guide is given. Techniques for delivering either {1/4} or {1/2} wave voltages to a Pockels cell are covered. Recently these units have been modified for use at repetition rates up to 10kHz. Operating at high repetition rates represents problems for both the driver and the Pockels Cell. Design solutions for the pulser are presented as well as discussion of Pockels cell acoustic resonance.

  9. Photo Organic Field Effect Transistor's Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karimov, Khasan S.; Qazi, Ibrahim; Mahroof Tahir, M.; Khan, Tauseef Ahmed; Shafique, Umar

    2008-01-01

    A thin organic films of p-type semiconducting copper phthalocynanine (CuPc) film and semitransparent Al film were deposited in sequence by vacuum evaporation on glass substrate with Ag source and drain electrodes, fabricating an organic field effect transistor with metal (aluminum)-semiconductor (copper phthalocyanine) Schottky junction. The transistor was investigated for effect of illumination on its characteristics. It was found that the gate-source (Al-Ag) and gate-drain (also Al-Ag) dark current-voltage characteristics show rectification behavior. Under non-modulated filament-lamp illumination, photo-potential is developed between gate-source and gate-drain terminals. Drain current of this organic phototransistor (OPT) increased with illumination. An energy band diagram of the Al-CuPc junction and the equivalent circuit diagram of the OPT were produced.

  10. Progress on diamond amplified photo-cathode

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, E.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Burrill, A.; Kewisch, J.; Chang, X.; Rao, T.; Smedley, J.; Wu, Q.; Muller, E.; Xin, T.

    2011-03-28

    Two years ago, we obtained an emission gain of 40 from the Diamond Amplifier Cathode (DAC) in our test system. In our current systematic study of hydrogenation, the highest gain we registered in emission scanning was 178. We proved that our treatments for improving the diamond amplifiers are reproducible. Upcoming tests planned include testing DAC in a RF cavity. Already, we have designed a system for these tests using our 112 MHz superconducting cavity, wherein we will measure DAC parameters, such as the limit, if any, on emission current density, the bunch charge, and the bunch length. The diamond-amplified photocathode, that promises to support a high average current, low emittance, and a highly stable electron beam with a long lifetime, is under development for an electron source. The diamond, functioning as a secondary emitter amplifies the primary current, with a few KeV energy, that comes from the traditional cathode. Earlier, our group recorded a maximum gain of 40 in the secondary electron emission from a diamond amplifier. In this article, we detail our optimization of the hydrogenation process for a diamond amplifier that resulted in a stable emission gain of 140. We proved that these characteristics are reproducible. We now are designing a system to test the diamond amplifier cathode using an 112MHz SRF gun to measure the limits of the emission current's density, and on the bunch charge and bunch length.

  11. Label free biosensing with carbon nanotube transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leyden, Matthew R.

    2011-12-01

    As electronics reach nanometer size scales, new avenues of integrating biology and electronics become available. For example, nanoscale field-effect transistors have been integrated with single neurons to detect neural activity. Researchers have also used nanoscale materials to build electronic ears and noses. Another exciting development is the use of nanoscale biosensors for the point-of-care detection of disease biomarkers. This thesis addresses many issues that are relevant for electrical sensing applications in biological environments. As an experimental platform we have used carbon nanotube field-effect transistors for the detection of biological proteins. Using this experimental platform we have probed many of properties that control sensor function, such as surface potentials, the response of field effect transistors to absorbed material, and the mass transport of proteins. Field effect transistor biosensors are a topic of active research, and were first demonstrated in 1962. Despite decades of research, the mass transport of proteins onto a sensor surface has not been quantified experimentally, and theoretical modeling has not been reconciled with some notable experiments. Protein transport is an important issue because signals from low analyte concentrations can take hours to develop. Guided by mass transport modeling we modified our sensors to demonstrate a 2.5 fold improvement in sensor response time. It is easy to imagine a 25 fold improvement in sensor response time using more advanced existing fabrication techniques. This improvement would allow for the detection of low concentrations of analyte on the order of minutes instead of hours, and will open the door point-of-care biosensors.

  12. Thin film transistor-addressed display device

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. P. Brody; F. C. Luo; D. H. Davies

    1977-01-01

    This is the final report on Contract DAAB07-72-C-0061; the objective of which was an examination of the feasibility of fabricating a multielement dot-matrix display using electroluminescent output and an integrated thin film transistor addressing array. The concepts have been validated, good quality functional displays were made and delivered to the US Army. Three formats were examined: 6 in. x 6

  13. Transistor device techniques aid circuit designers, too

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. S. Sujan

    1984-01-01

    The present investigation is concerned with some practical examples which demonstrate an approach to the design of a microwave packaged transistor, giving particular attention to aspects of the microwave design. A similar design procedure can be used for a hybrid or integrated circuit configuration on alumina, epsilam-10, RT\\/Duroid 6010, or any other suitable substrate. Both the Smith chart and computer-aided

  14. Electronics MOS Field-Effect Transistors

    E-print Network

    Palermo, Sam

    VovVDS - V2 DS 2 · Active (saturation) region: VDS > Vov ID = kn 2 W L V2 ov ECEN 325 Electronics 2 (VGS2 - Vtn)2 Since VGS1 = VGS2 ID1 ID2 = W L 1 W L 2 ECEN 325 Electronics - AydinECEN 325 Electronics MOS Field-Effect Transistors Dr. Aydin Ilker Kar¸silayan Texas A&M University

  15. Dipole heterostructure field-effect transistor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. Akinwande; J. Zou; M. S. Shur; A. Gopinath

    1990-01-01

    It is proposed to reduce the gate current by using a dipole created by two doped planes, n++ and p++, in charge control layer, dipole heterostructure field-effect transistors (dipole HFETs) fabricated in AlGaAs\\/GaAs use doped p++ and n ++ planes in the charge control AlGaAs layer to form a dipole that provides a considerably larger barrier between the channel and

  16. ?-heterostructure field effect transistors for VLSI applications

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Lee; M. Shur

    1990-01-01

    A quantum-well heterostructure field effect transistor (HFET) with a p+ gate and fairly heavily doped p-type buffer is described. This device is called a ?-HFET, meaning p-type insulated gate HFET. The effective barrier height in a ?-HFET is considerably larger than in other compound semiconductor FETs, and the gate current at maximum gate voltage swing can be made negligible, even

  17. Avalanche injection and second breakdown in transistors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. L. Hower; V. G. Krishna Reddi

    1970-01-01

    A rapid type of second breakdown observed in silicon n+-p-n-n+transistors is shown to be due to avalanche injection at the collector n-n+junction. Localized thermal effects, which are usually associated With second breakdown, are shown to play a minor role in the initiation of the transition to the low voltage state. A useful tool in the analysis of avalanche injection is

  18. Single-electron transistors in heterostructure nanowires

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. Thelander; T. Rtensson; M. T. Björk; B. J. Ohlsson; M. W. Larsson; L. R. Wallenberg; L. Samuelson

    2003-01-01

    Semiconductor-based single-electron transistors have been fabricated using heterostructure nanowire growth, by introducing a double barrier of InP into InAs nanowires. From electrical measurements, we observe a charging energy of 4 meV for the approximately 55 nm diameter and 100 nm long InAs islands between the InP barriers. The Coulomb blockade can be periodically lifted as a function of gate voltage

  19. A three-million-transistor microprocessor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Fuad Abu-nofal; R. Avra; K. Bhabuthmal; R. Bhamidipaty; G. Blanck; A. Charnas; P. DelVecchio; J. Grass; J. Grinberg; N. Hayes; G. Haber; J. Hunt; G. Kizhepat; A. Malamy; A. Marston; K. Mehta; S. Nanda; H. Van Nguyen; R. Patel; A. Ray; J. Reaves; A. Rogers; S. Rusu; T. Shay; I. Sidharta; T. Tham; P. Tong; R. Trauben; A. Wong; D. Yee; N. Maan; D. Steiss; L. Youngs

    1992-01-01

    Describes a RISC (reduced-instruction-set computer) BiCMOS superscalar microprocessor containing 3.1 M transistors which executes up to three instructions per clock cycle. Clock frequency is 40 MHz with 8 mW dissipation. The chip includes a 32-b integer pipeline (IU), a memory management unit (MMU), a 20-kB instruction cache (I cache), a 16-kB data cache (D cache), an IEEE-compatible double-precision floating-point unit

  20. Laser wire bonding in power transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostrubiec, Franciszek; Pawlak, Ryszard

    2000-11-01

    Attempts at increasing the reliability of assembly of power transistors the authors have proposed a new method for thick wire bonding. Bonding produced in this technology has the form of weld made by the pulsed laser beam. The results of some investigations into the proposed method are presented. The results of studies on semiconductor test structures bring the hope for the positive solution to the problem of increasing the reliability of assembly of such structures.

  1. Free electron gas primary thermometer: The bipolar junction transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mimila-Arroyo, J.

    2013-11-01

    The temperature of a bipolar transistor is extracted probing its carrier energy distribution through its collector current, obtained under appropriate polarization conditions, following a rigorous mathematical method. The obtained temperature is independent of the transistor physical properties as current gain, structure (Homo-junction or hetero-junction), and geometrical parameters, resulting to be a primary thermometer. This proposition has been tested using off the shelf silicon transistors at thermal equilibrium with water at its triple point, the transistor temperature values obtained involve an uncertainty of a few milli-Kelvin. This proposition has been successfully tested in the temperature range of 77-450 K.

  2. A PWM transistor inverter for an ac electric vehicle drive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slicker, J. M.

    1981-01-01

    A prototype system consisting of closely integrated motor, inverter, and transaxle has been built in order to demonstrate the feasibility of a three-phase ac transistorized inverter for electric vehicle applications. The microprocessor-controlled inverter employs monolithic power transistors to drive an oil-cooled, three-phase induction traction motor at a peak output power of 30 kW from a 144 V battery pack. Transistor safe switching requirements are discussed, and a circuit is presented for recovering trapped snubber inductor energy at transistor turn-off.

  3. A PWM transistor inverter for an ac electric vehicle drive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slicker, J. M.

    1981-10-01

    A prototype system consisting of closely integrated motor, inverter, and transaxle has been built in order to demonstrate the feasibility of a three-phase ac transistorized inverter for electric vehicle applications. The microprocessor-controlled inverter employs monolithic power transistors to drive an oil-cooled, three-phase induction traction motor at a peak output power of 30 kW from a 144 V battery pack. Transistor safe switching requirements are discussed, and a circuit is presented for recovering trapped snubber inductor energy at transistor turn-off.

  4. Micellar Electrolytes in Organic Electrochemical Transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cicoira, Fabio; Giuseppe, Tarabella; Nanda, Gaurav; Iannotta, Salvatore; Santato, Clara

    2012-02-01

    Organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) are promising for applications in sensing and bioelectronics. OECTs consist of a conducting polymer film (transistor channel) in contact with an electrolyte. A gate electrode immersed in the electrolyte controls the doping/dedoping level of the conducting polymer. OECTs can be operated in aqueous electrolytes, making possible the implementation of organic electronic materials at the interface with biology. The inherent signal amplification of OECTs has the potential to yield sensors with low detection limits and high sensitivity. In this talk we will present recent studies on OECTs using ionic surfactants (such as hexadecyl-trimethyl-ammonium bromide) as electrolytes. As the conducting polymer we used PEDOT:PSS, i.e. (Poly,3-4 ethylenedioxythiopene) doped with Poly(styrene sulphonate). Interestingly, ionic surfactant electrolytes result in large transistor current modulation, especially beyond the critical micellar concentration (CMC). Since micelles play a primary role in biological processes and drug-delivery systems, the use for micellar electrolytes opens new exciting opportunities for the use of OECTs in bioelectronics.

  5. Graphene-Dielectric Integration for Graphene Transistors

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Lei; Duan, Xiangfeng

    2010-01-01

    Graphene is emerging as an interesting electronic material for future electronics due to its exceptionally high carrier mobility and single-atomic thickness. Graphene-dielectric integration is of critical importance for the development of graphene transistors and a new generation of graphene based electronics. Deposition of dielectric materials onto graphene is of significant challenge due to the intrinsic material incompatibility between pristine graphene and dielectric oxide materials. Here we review various strategies being researched for graphene-dielectric integration. Physical vapor deposition (PVD) can be used to directly deposit dielectric materials on graphene, but often introduces significant defects into the monolayer of carbon lattice; Atomic layer deposition (ALD) process has also been explored to to deposit high-? dielectrics on graphene, which however requires functionalization of graphene surface with reactive groups, inevitably leading to a significant degradation in carrier mobilities; Using naturally oxidized thin aluminum or polymer as buffer layer for dielectric deposition can mitigate the damages to graphene lattice and improve the carrier mobility of the resulted top-gated transistors; Lastly, a physical assembly approach has recently been explored to integrate dielectric nanostructures with graphene without introducing any appreciable defects, and enabled top-gated graphene transistors with the highest carrier mobility reported to date. We will conclude with a brief summary and perspective on future opportunities. PMID:21278913

  6. The 60 GHz solid state power amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcclymonds, J.

    1991-01-01

    A new amplifier architecture was developed during this contract that is superior to any other solid state approach. The amplifier produced 6 watts with 4 percent efficiency over a 2 GHz band at 61.5 GHz. The unit was 7 x 9 x 3 inches in size, 5.5 pounds in weight, and the conduction cooling through the baseplate is suitable for use in space. The amplifier used high efficiency GaAs IMPATT diodes which were mounted in 1-diode circuits, called modules. Eighteen modules were used in the design, and power combining was accomplished with a proprietary passive component called a combiner plate.

  7. Phase noise in RF and microwave amplifiers.

    PubMed

    Boudot, Rodolphe; Rubiola, Enrico

    2012-12-01

    Understanding amplifier phase noise is a critical issue in many fields of engineering and physics, such as oscillators, frequency synthesis, telecommunication, radar, and spectroscopy; in the emerging domain of microwave photonics; and in exotic fields, such as radio astronomy, particle accelerators, etc. Focusing on the two main types of base noise in amplifiers, white and flicker, the power spectral density of the random phase ?(t) is S?(f) = b(0) + b(-1)/f. White phase noise results from adding white noise to the RF spectrum in the carrier region. For a given RF noise level, b(0) is proportional to the reciprocal of the carrier power P(0). By contrast, flicker results from a near-dc 1/f noise-present in all electronic devices-which modulates the carrier through some parametric effect in the semiconductor. Thus, b(-1) is a parameter of the amplifier, constant in a wide range of P(0). The consequences are the following: Connecting m equal amplifiers in parallel, b(-1) is 1/m times that of one device. Cascading m equal amplifiers, b(-1) is m times that of one amplifier. Recirculating the signal in an amplifier so that the gain increases by a power of m (a factor of m in decibels) as a result of positive feedback (regeneration), we find that b(-1) is m(2) times that of the amplifier alone. The feedforward amplifier exhibits extremely low b(-1) because the carrier is ideally nulled at the input of its internal error amplifier. Starting with an extensive review of the literature, this article introduces a system-oriented model which describes the phase flickering. Several amplifier architectures (cascaded, parallel, etc.) are analyzed systematically, deriving the phase noise from the general model. There follow numerous measurements of amplifiers using different technologies, including some old samples, and in a wide frequency range (HF to microwaves), which validate the theory. In turn, theory and results provide design guidelines and give suggestions for CAD and simulation. To conclude, this article is intended as a tutorial, a review, and a systematic treatise on the subject, supported by extensive experiments. PMID:23221210

  8. Diode amplifier of modulated optical beam power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'yachkov, N. V.; Bogatov, A. P.; Gushchik, T. I.; Drakin, A. E.

    2014-11-01

    Analytical relations are obtained between characteristics of modulated light at the output and input of an optical diode power amplifier operating in the highly saturated gain regime. It is shown that a diode amplifier may act as an amplitude-to-phase modulation converter with a rather large bandwidth (~10 GHz). The low sensitivity of the output power of the amplifier to the input beam power and its high energy efficiency allow it to be used as a building block of a high-power multielement laser system with coherent summation of a large number of optical beams.

  9. Single mode terahertz quantum cascade amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Y.; Wallis, R.; Shah, Y. D.; Jessop, D. S.; Degl'Innocenti, R.; Klimont, A.; Kamboj, V.; Beere, H. E.; Ritchie, D. A.

    2014-10-01

    A terahertz (THz) optical amplifier based on a 2.9 THz quantum cascade laser (QCL) structure has been demonstrated. By depositing an antireflective coating on the QCL facet, the laser mirror losses are enhanced to fully suppress the lasing action, creating a THz quantum cascade (QC) amplifier. Terahertz radiation amplification has been obtained, by coupling a separate multi-mode THz QCL of the same active region design to the QC amplifier. A bare cavity gain is achieved and shows excellent agreement with the lasing spectrum from the original QCL without the antireflective coating. Furthermore, a maximum optical gain of ˜30 dB with single-mode radiation output is demonstrated.

  10. Real Time Calibration Method for Signal Conditioning Amplifiers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Medelius, Pedro J. (Inventor); Mata, Carlos T. (Inventor); Eckhoff, Anthony (Inventor); Perotti, Jose (Inventor); Lucena, Angel (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A signal conditioning amplifier receives an input signal from an input such as a transducer. The signal is amplified and processed through an analog to digital converter and sent to a processor. The processor estimates the input signal provided by the transducer to the amplifier via a multiplexer. The estimated input signal is provided as a calibration voltage to the amplifier immediately following the receipt of the amplified input signal. The calibration voltage is amplified by the amplifier and provided to the processor as an amplified calibration voltage. The amplified calibration voltage is compared to the amplified input signal, and if a significant error exists, the gain and/or offset of the amplifier may be adjusted as necessary.

  11. Progress Towards High-Sensitivity Arrays of Detectors of Sub-mm Radiation Using Superconducting Tunnel Junctions with Integrated Radio Frequency Single-Electron Transistors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevenson, T. R.; Hsieh, W.-T.; Li, M. J.; Prober, D. E.; Rhee, K. W.; Schoelkopf, R. J.; Stahle, C. M.; Teufel, J.; Wollack, E. J.

    2004-01-01

    For high resolution imaging and spectroscopy in the FIR and submillimeter, space observatories will demand sensitive, fast, compact, low-power detector arrays with 104 pixels and sensitivity less than 10(exp -20) W/Hz(sup 0.5). Antenna-coupled superconducting tunnel junctions with integrated rf single-electron transistor readout amplifiers have the potential for achieving this high level of sensitivity, and can take advantage of an rf multiplexing technique. The device consists of an antenna to couple radiation into a small superconducting volume and cause quasiparticle excitations, and a single-electron transistor to measure current through junctions contacting the absorber. We describe optimization of device parameters, and results on fabrication techniques for producing devices with high yield for detector arrays. We also present modeling of expected saturation power levels, antenna coupling, and rf multiplexing schemes.

  12. Increasing dynamic range in microwave parametric amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutus, J.; Barends, R.; Bochmann, J.; Campbell, B.; Chen, Y.; Chiaro, B.; Jeffrey, E.; Kelly, J.; Mariantoni, M.; Megrant, A.; Neill, C.; O'Malley, P.; Ohya, S.; Roushan, P.; Sank, D.; Vainsencher, A.; Wenner, J.; White, T.; Cleland, A. N.; Martinis, J. M.

    2013-03-01

    Parametric amplifiers have long been of interest in quantum information due to their high gain and near quantum limited performance. In collaboration with UC Berkeley, we are improving upon their proven parametric amplifier design, which consists of a lumped element LC resonator, with a SQUID providing a tunable nonlinear inductance. In order to improve the dynamic range of these amplifiers, multiple SQUIDs are used in series in order to distribute the non-linearity across many junctions. We report on the design of a single-ended amplifier using our 7-layer fabrication process, combining photo and electron beam lithography. We explore the experimental optimization of such a design, specifically the impact of adding additional SQUIDs on overall device performance.

  13. A novel wideband gyrotron travelling wave amplifier

    E-print Network

    Sirigiri, Jagadishwar R. (Jagadishwar Rao), 1973-

    2003-01-01

    We present the design and the experimental results of a novel wideband quasioptical Gyrotron Traveling Wave Tube (gyro-TWT) amplifier and the first Vacuum Electron Device (VED) with a Photonic Band Gap (PBG) structure. The ...

  14. Microwave diode amplifiers with low intermodulation distortion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, H. W.; Cohn, M.; Buck, D. C.

    1975-01-01

    Distortions can be greatly reduced in narrow-band applications by using the second harmonic. The ac behavior of simplified diode amplifier has negative resistance depending on slope of equivalent I-V curve.

  15. Sensor/amplifier for weak light sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desmet, D. J.; Jason, A. J.; Parr, A. C.

    1980-01-01

    Light sensor/amplifier circuit detects weak light converts it into strong electrical signal in electrically noisy environment. Circuit is relatively simple and uses inexpensive, readily available components. Device is useful in such applications as fire detection and photographic processing.

  16. How to characterize the nonlinear amplifier?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kallistratova, Dmitri Kouznetsov; Cotera, Carlos Flores

    1994-01-01

    The conception of the amplification of the coherent field is formulated. The definition of the coefficient of the amplification as the relation between the mean value of the field at the output to the value at the input and the definition of the noise as the difference between the number of photons in the output mode and square of the modulus of the mean value of the output amplitude are considered. Using a simple example it is shown that by these definitions the noise of the nonlinear amplifier may be less than the noise of the ideal linear amplifier of the same amplification coefficient. Proposals to search another definition of basic parameters of the nonlinear amplifiers are discussed. This definition should enable us to formulate the universal fundamental lower limit of the noise which should be valid for linear quantum amplifiers as for nonlinear ones.

  17. High Bandwidth Differential Amplifier for Shock Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, P., Tran, V., Chau, R.

    2012-10-01

    We developed a high bandwidth differential amplifier for gas gun shock experiments. The circuit has a bandwidth up to 1 GHz, and is capable of measuring signals of ?1.5 V with a common mode rejection of 250 V. Conductivity measurements of gas gun targets are measured by flowing high currents through the targets. The voltage is measured across the target using a technique similar to a four-point probe. Because of the design of the current source and load, the target voltage is approximately 250 V relative to ground. Since the expected voltage change in the target is < 1 V, the differential amplifier must have a large common mode rejection. Various amplifying designs are shown, although the increased amplification decreases bandwidth. Bench tests show that the amplifier can withstand significant common mode DC voltage and measure 10 ns, and 50 mV signals.

  18. DSP Modulated Class D Audio Amplifier

    E-print Network

    Klein, Andrew G.

    by: Professor Andrew Klein #12;ii Abstract The goal of this project was to create an 80W, 95-state digital modulator, an H-bridge amplifier, and a passive filter and was capable of accepting both digital

  19. New class of continuous wave parametric amplifiers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Radic; C. J. McKinstrie; A. R. Chraplyvy; G. Raybon; J. C. Centanni; C. G. Jorgensen; K. Brar; C. Headley

    2002-01-01

    A new class of optical fiber parametric amplifier is demonstrated. Modulational instability coupling between optical pumps operating in the anomalous and normal dispersion regimes is used to achieve broad, flat CW parametric gain in excess of 40 dB.

  20. A Si bipolar monolithic RF bandpass amplifier

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. M. Nguyen; R. G. Meyer

    1992-01-01

    The application of monolithic inductors to the realization of Si bipolar monolithic RF amplifiers is investigated. As a test vehicle, a bipolar monolithic bandpass amplifier was fabricated and characterized. A 4-nH silicon integrated inductor was used to achieve a peak S 21 gain of 8 dB, a simulated noise figure of 6.4 dB, and a matched input impedance of 50

  1. Thulium-doped tellurite fiber amplifier

    Microsoft Academic Search

    E. R. M. Taylor; L. N. Ng; J. Nilsson; R. Caponi; A. Pagano; M. Potenza; B. Sordo

    2004-01-01

    Gain in the S-band is demonstrated in a thulium-doped tellurite fiber amplifier using dual pump and bidirectional pumping schemes. Two pump schemes were employed: 795\\/1064 and 1047\\/1550 nm. The gain profile is broader than achieved in a fluoride fiber and overlaps with the C-band of the erbium-doped fiber amplifier. We reach a fiber-to-fiber gain of 11 dB and an internal

  2. Direct solar-pumped iodine laser amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, Kwang S.; Hwang, In Heon; Stock, Larry V.

    1989-01-01

    This semiannual progress report covers the period from September 1, 1988 to February 28, 1989 under NASA grant NAG-1-441 entitled, Direct Solar-Pumped Iodine Laser Amplifier. During this period, the research effort was concentrated on the solar pumped master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) system using n-C3F7I. In the experimental work, the amplification measurement was conducted to identify the optimum conditions for amplification of the center's Vortek solar simulator pumped iodine laser amplifier. A modeling effort was also pursued to explain the experimental results in the theoretical work. The amplification measurement of the solar simulator pumped iodine laser amplifier is the first amplification experiment on the continuously pumped amplifier. The small signal amplification of 5 was achieved for the triple pass geometry of the 15 cm long solar simulator pumped amplifier at the n-C3F7I pressure of 20 torr, at the flow velocity of 6 m/sec and at the pumping intensity of 1500 solar constants. The XeCl laser pumped iodine laser oscillator, which was developed in the previous research, was employed as the master oscillator for the amplification measurement. In the theoretical work, the rate equations of the amplifier was established and the small signal amplification was calculated for the solar simulator pumped iodine laser amplifier. The amplification calculated from the kinetic equations with the previously measured rate coefficients reveals very large disagreement with experimental measurement. Moreover, the optimum condition predicted by the kinetic equation is quite discrepant with that measured by experiment. This fact indicates the necessity of study in the measurement of rate coefficients of the continuously pumped iodine laser system.

  3. A strain amplifying piezoelectric MEMS actuator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicholas J. Conway; Zachary J. Traina; Sang-Gook Kim

    2007-01-01

    A micro-scale, high-force, large displacement and low-voltage piezoelectric actuator has been developed using a compact strain amplifying flextensional mechanism. The device is fabricated using an SU-8 beam structure as an external amplifying mechanism for a thin-film PZT strip (area 11.4 × 10-4 cm2, thickness 0.4 µm) sandwiched between Pt top and bottom electrodes. Each actuator 'cell' can be arrayed in

  4. A strain amplifying piezoelectric MEMS actuator

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicholas J Conway; Zachary J Traina; Sang-Gook Kim

    2007-01-01

    A micro-scale, high-force, large displacement and low-voltage piezoelectric actuator has been developed using a compact strain amplifying flextensional mechanism. The device is fabricated using an SU-8 beam structure as an external amplifying mechanism for a thin-film PZT strip (area 11.4 × 10?4 cm2, thickness 0.4 µm) sandwiched between Pt top and bottom electrodes. Each actuator ‘cell’ can be arrayed in

  5. Optoelectronic Class AB Microwave Power Amplifier

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Chih-Jung Huang; R. M. O'Connell

    2006-01-01

    Recent power amplifiers for transmit\\/receive (TR) modules have been configured in the Class AB or push-pull mode with a theoretical efficiency of 78.5% and an operational efficiency of only 20% at X-band (8-12.5 GHz) frequencies. In this paper, we present results of a simulation study of a new scheme of power amplifier, in particular, an optoelectronic (OE) Class AB push-pull

  6. Iterated Solid-State Microwave Power Amplifier

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. F. Paik

    1972-01-01

    A theoretical analysis is presented of a solid-state power amplifier consisting of a unidirectional transmission line loaded by a series of negative-resistance diodes. Numerical calculations of the large-signal amplifier characteristics are carried out assuming a cubic nonlinear relationship between the diode current and the RF voltage. Diode parameters used in these calculations are chosen to approximate those of available IMPATT

  7. Two-pump fiber parametric amplifiers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. Radic; C. J. McKinstrie

    2003-01-01

    The operational features of a two-pump fiber parametric amplifier cannot be matched by a conventional, single-pump device. New degrees of design freedom can be used to construct a gain-equalized amplifier operating over a broad spectral range. The two-pump device is characterized by four parametric bands that can be used for flexible, unimpaired signal conversion. Orthogonal-pump multiplexing in birefringent highly nonlinear fiber is shown to

  8. Multiple excitation regenerative amplifier inertial confinement system

    DOEpatents

    George, Victor E. [Livermore, CA; Haas, Roger A. [Pleasanton, CA; Krupke, William F. [Pleasanton, CA; Schlitt, Leland G. [Livermore, CA

    1980-05-27

    The invention relates to apparatus and methods for producing high intensity laser radiation generation which is achieved through an optical amplifier-storage ring design. One or two synchronized, counterpropagating laser pulses are injected into a regenerative amplifier cavity and amplified by gain media which are pumped repetitively by electrical or optical means. The gain media excitation pulses are tailored to efficiently amplify the laser pulses during each transit. After the laser pulses have been amplified to the desired intensity level, they are either switched out of the cavity by some switch means, as for example an electro-optical device, for any well known laser end uses, or a target means may be injected into the regenerative amplifier cavity in such a way as to intercept simultaneously the counterpropagating laser pulses. One such well known end uses to which this invention is intended is for production of high density and temperature plasmas suitable for generating neutrons, ions and x-rays and for studying matter heated by high intensity laser radiation.

  9. Multiple excitation regenerative amplifier inertial confinement system

    DOEpatents

    George, V.E.; Haas, R.A.; Krupke, W.F.; Schlitt, L.G.

    1980-05-27

    The invention relates to apparatus and methods for producing high intensity laser radiation generation which is achieved through an optical amplifier-storage ring design. One or two synchronized, counterpropagating laser pulses are injected into a regenerative amplifier cavity and amplified by gain media which are pumped repetitively by electrical or optical means. The gain media excitation pulses are tailored to efficiently amplify the laser pulses during each transit. After the laser pulses have been amplified to the desired intensity level, they are either switched out of the cavity by some switch means, as for example an electro-optical device, for any well known laser end uses, or a target means may be injected into the regenerative amplifier cavity in such a way as to intercept simultaneously the counterpropagating laser pulses. One such well known end uses to which this invention is intended is for production of high density and temperature plasmas suitable for generating neutrons, ions and x-rays and for studying matter heated by high intensity laser radiation. 11 figs.

  10. Radio frequency analog electronics based on carbon nanotube transistors

    E-print Network

    Rogers, John A.

    Radio frequency analog electronics based on carbon nanotube transistors Coskun Kocabas*, Hoon that provide power gain in the radio frequency (RF) range. Here, we describe some progress in the area of SWNT frequency band. These results, together with integration of this technology in transistor radios that use

  11. Transistor Scaled HPC Application Performance Technical Report BUCSTR2012009

    E-print Network

    Transistor Scaled HPC Application Performance Technical Report BUCS­TR­2012­009 Jonathan Appavoo supported in part by National Science Foundation award #1012798. #12; Transistor Scaled HPC Application for HPC systems. To obtain application improvements, HPC application programmers must manually cope

  12. Effects of Radiation on the Noise Performance of Transistors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter O. Lauritzen

    1972-01-01

    The predominant transistor noise sources are surveyed and related to both surface and bulk permanent damage radiation effects. The medium and high frequency noise performance of FET and bipolar transistors is not strongly affected by radiation until the devices themselves begin to fail. Low frequency 1\\/f noise is affected by relatively light radiation doses, but only with the junction FET

  13. Hydrogenation of transistors fabricated in polycrystalline-silicon films

    Microsoft Academic Search

    T. I. Kamins; P. J. Marcoux

    1980-01-01

    Transistors have been fabricated with their active channels in thin films of polycrystalline silicon. A subsequent hydrogen plasma treatment has been used to improve the transistor properties significantly by reducing the number of electrically active grain-boundary defects. Plasma conditions to maximize the hydrogenation effect have been briefly investigated.

  14. MOS transistor modeling for RF integrated circuit design

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian Enz

    2000-01-01

    The design of radio-frequency (RF) integrated circuits in deep-submicron CMOS processes requires accurate and scalable compact models of the MOS transistor that are valid in the GHz frequency range and even beyond. Unfortunately, the currently available compact models give inaccurate results if they are not modified adequately. This paper presents the basis of the modeling of the MOS transistor for

  15. Avalanche spin-valve transistor K. J. Russell,a)

    E-print Network

    Russell, Kasey

    Avalanche spin-valve transistor K. J. Russell,a) Ian Appelbaum,b) Wei Yi, D. J. Monsma, F. CapassoAs/AlGaAs avalanche-multiplying collector is demonstrated with 1000% magnetocurrent variation and 35 amplification-valve transistor that utilizes an avalanche- multiplying collector, without significant decrease

  16. Thin-Film Transistors and Circuits Based on Carbon Nanotubes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Didier Pribat; P. Bondavalli

    2012-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes are actively studied for thin-film transistor and electronics applications. Although these nanomaterials were first considered as potential candidates for the replacement of Si MOS type transistors in VLSI circuits, their main field of application is shifting towards large area electronics on flexible, plastic-type substrates, a domain which is at present, less demanding in terms of device dimensions and

  17. Capacitive Ionic Current Measurement in a Polymer-Electrolyte Transistor

    E-print Network

    Stevens, Ken

    -electrolyte transistor (PET) consists of a three-source acid/base reaction system, where a polymer gel separates. The ability to directly measure the ionic current in the polymer of a PET reaction system without interfering of the signals of interest must take a different approach. The polymer- electrolyte transistor (PET) is one

  18. Programmable Resistive-Switch Nanowire Transistor Logic Circuits Wooyoung Shim,,,

    E-print Network

    Lieber, Charles M.

    Programmable Resistive-Switch Nanowire Transistor Logic Circuits Wooyoung Shim,,, Jun Yao that incorporates resistive switch gate structures on a semiconductor nanowire and show that multiple elements can be modulated by the memory state of the resistive switch to yield programmable active (transistor) or inactive

  19. A Nanodamascene Process for Advanced Single-Electron Transistor Fabrication

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christian Dubuc; Jacques Beauvais; Dominique Drouin

    2008-01-01

    A process design based on a nanowire structure is demonstrated with the fabrication of metallic single-electron transistors. The method is capable of subattofarad resolution resulting in transistors that exhibited Coulomb blockade up to approximately 430 K. An analysis showed that these devices have sufficient operational margin to sustain process fluctuations and still operate within the temperature limits of conventional silicon

  20. A programmable ferroelectric single electron transistor Vijay Narayanan,2

    E-print Network

    Yener, Aylin

    #12;A programmable ferroelectric single electron transistor Lu Liu,1 Vijay Narayanan,2 and Suman as a suitable candidate for implementing logic with these single electron transistors (SETs).2 Due online 6 February 2013) We experimentally demonstrate a programmable ferroelectric single electron

  1. Vertical scaling in heterojunction bipolar transistors with nonequilibrium base transport

    E-print Network

    Levi, Anthony F. J.

    -p-n heterojunction bipolar transistors. It is empirically established that extreme nonequilibrium electron transport electron transport. In a classical n-p-n homojunction (and graded-juno tion) bipolar transistor, electrons that this behavior is re- lated to nondiffusive electron transport in the base. Single crystal, Ab.4,1no.szAs/Ina53G

  2. Single-event burnout of epitaxial bipolar transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Kuboyama, S.; Sugimoto, K.; Shugyo, S.; Matsuda, S. [National Space Development Agency of Japan, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)] [National Space Development Agency of Japan, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Hirao, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan)] [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan)

    1998-12-01

    Single-Event Burnout (SEB) of bipolar junction transistors (BJTs) has been observed nondestructively. It was revealed that all the NPN BJTs, including small signal transistors, with thinner epitaxial layers were inherently susceptible to the SEB phenomenon. It was demonstrated that several design parameters of BJTs were responsible for SEB susceptibility. Additionally, destructive and nondestructive modes of SEB were identified.

  3. Scaling of SiGe Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors

    E-print Network

    Rieh, Jae-Sung

    Scaling of SiGe Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors JAE-SUNG RIEH, SENIOR MEMBER, IEEE, DAVID-century. This paper inves- tigates the impacts of scaling on SiGe heterojunction bipolar tran- sistors (HBTs), which and operation current density. Bipolar transistor scaling rules are reviewed and compared with accumulated

  4. Molecular rectifiers and transistors based on ?-conjugated materials

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Siegmar Roth; Steffi Blumentritt; Marko Burghard; Erika Cammi; David Carroll; Seamus Curran; Georg Düsberg; Kun Liu; Jörg Muster; Günther Philipp; Thomas Rabenau

    1998-01-01

    Concepts and experimental results related to molecular rectifiers and transistors are reviewed. ‘Devices’ based on donor-? bridge-acceptor molecules, conjugated zwitterionic molecules, macrocyclic molecules, metal clusters, fullerenes and carbon nanotubes are discussed. Current-voltage characteristics showing rectifier properties are presented, as well as experiments in which the current-voltage characteristics are modulated by a gate voltage (transistor effect).

  5. Large-scale complementary integrated circuits based on organic transistors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Crone; A. Dodabalapur; Y.-Y. Lin; R. W. Filas; Z. Bao; A. Laduca; R. Sarpeshkar; H. E. Katz; W. Li

    2000-01-01

    Thin-film transistors based on molecular and polymeric organic materials have been proposed for a number of applications, such as displays and radio-frequency identification tags. The main factors motivating investigations of organic transistors are their lower cost and simpler packaging, relative to conventional inorganic electronics, and their compatibility with flexible substrates. In most digital circuitry, minimal power dissipation and stability of

  6. TESTING AND VERIFICATION OF A RF POWER AMPLIFIER CONTROL CIRCUIT

    E-print Network

    Trajkovic, Ljiljana

    TESTING AND VERIFICATION OF A RF POWER AMPLIFIER CONTROL CIRCUIT by David Ciampi A thesis submitted and Verification of a RF Power Amplifier Control Circuit Dr. John Jones Director School of Engineering Science, SFU and verification of a digital power amplifier controller (PAC). The power amplifier controller is an instantaneous

  7. Broadband RF feedback amplifier design with simple feedback network

    Microsoft Academic Search

    A. Marzuki; T. Zainal; A. Zulkifli; N. M. Noh; Z. A. A. Aziz

    2004-01-01

    The paper presents a simple and fast design technique for an RF feedback amplifier. The amplifier uses a series resistor and capacitor as the feedback element. An overview of the amplifier impedance analysis and the noise theory of the amplifier is presented. A high frequency passive component model is also presented. With a current consumption of 6 mA, the simulated

  8. Method to amplify variable sequences without imposing primer sequences

    DOEpatents

    Bradbury, Andrew M.; Zeytun, Ahmet

    2006-11-14

    The present invention provides methods of amplifying target sequences without including regions flanking the target sequence in the amplified product or imposing amplification primer sequences on the amplified product. Also provided are methods of preparing a library from such amplified target sequences.

  9. Self-imaging silicon Raman amplifier Varun Raghunathan1

    E-print Network

    Jalali. Bahram

    Self-imaging silicon Raman amplifier Varun Raghunathan1 , Hagen Renner2 , Robert R. Rice3 of Raman amplifiers and oscillators I. Oscillators," Appl. Phys. Lett. 6, 210-212 (1965). 7. P. Lallemand and N. Bloembergen, "Multimode effects in the gain of Raman amplifiers and oscillators II. Amplifiers

  10. Flip chip mountable optical waveguide amplifier for optical backplane systems

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Steffen Uhlig; Mats Robertsson

    2005-01-01

    A concept study of a planar optical waveguide amplifier is presented, where the amplifier is to be used in optical backplane or motherboard systems with planar polymer optical waveguides. The amplification device can be flip chip mounted on the backplane to pre-amplify an incoming signal, compensate optical losses due to signal routing, or post amplify an output signal. The hybrid

  11. Hybrid High Power Amplifiers for L-Band Space Application

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Corrado Florian; Francesco Scappaviva; R. P. Paganelli; I. Melczarsky; R. Cignani; M. Pirazzini; R. Giordani; M. Feudale; G. Vannini; F. Filicori

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the design and implementation of 2 hybrid high power amplifiers at L band for a space application. Indeed, the amplifiers represent prototype test vehicles for a larger hybrid amplifier to be used as the final power stage in the transmitting chain of a T\\/R module of an L-band SAR antenna for earth observation. The amplifiers described in

  12. Improved Grid-Array Millimeter-Wave Amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenberg, James J.; Rutledge, David B.; Smith, R. Peter; Weikle, Robert

    1993-01-01

    Improved grid-array amplifiers operating at millimeter and submillimeter wavelengths developed for use in communications and radar. Feedback suppressed by making input polarizations orthogonal to output polarizations. Amplifier made to oscillate by introducing some feedback. Several grid-array amplifiers concatenated to form high-gain beam-amplifying unit.

  13. Abstract-Newly fabricated junction field effect transistors (JFETs) and high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) based

    E-print Network

    Chapman, Patrick

    Abstract- Newly fabricated junction field effect transistors (JFETs) and high electron mobility]. Fourth, GaN can be made in heterostructures in combination with AlN to form various stoichiometries of AlGaN. Heterostructures are expected to exhibit very low on-state resistance compared to unmodulated conduction channels

  14. A comparison between bipolar transistor and nanowire field effect transistor biosensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zafar, Sufi; Khater, Marwan; Jain, Vibhor; Ning, Tak

    2015-02-01

    Important performance metrics, such as sensitivity and signal to noise ratio (SNR) of bipolar transistor based biosensors, are compared to those for nanowire field effect transistor (FET) sensors. The sensor consists of a heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT) with silicon germanium base connected to a sensing surface in contact with the solution. The measured sensitivity is ?2 times and SNR is >20 times higher in comparison to those for nanowire FET sensors. More importantly, the HBT biosensor sensitivity is constant over the sensing range of ˜5 decades and depends only on the temperature. In comparison, the nanowire FET sensor sensitivity varies in a complex manner over the sensing range and exhibits significant fabrication induced sensor to sensor variations. Consequently, HBT sensors would require minimal calibration for quantitative sensing studies. Furthermore, the bipolar transistor SNR is not only significantly higher but is also constant over the sensing range. In comparison, the nanowire FET sensor SNR varies with the peak value confined over a narrow sensing range. Hence, HBT sensor has <20 times lower detection limit that remains constant over the sensing range. In summary, HBT sensors are demonstrated to have superior performance metrics and are better suited for quantitative studies. Lastly, these HBT sensors also provide simultaneous temperature measurement.

  15. Organic transistors manufactured using inkjet technology with subfemtoliter accuracy

    PubMed Central

    Sekitani, Tsuyoshi; Noguchi, Yoshiaki; Zschieschang, Ute; Klauk, Hagen; Someya, Takao

    2008-01-01

    A major obstacle to the development of organic transistors for large-area sensor, display, and circuit applications is the fundamental compromise between manufacturing efficiency, transistor performance, and power consumption. In the past, improving the manufacturing efficiency through the use of printing techniques has inevitably resulted in significantly lower performance and increased power consumption, while attempts to improve performance or reduce power have led to higher process temperatures and increased manufacturing cost. Here, we lift this fundamental limitation by demonstrating subfemtoliter inkjet printing to define metal contacts with single-micrometer resolution on the surface of high-mobility organic semiconductors to create high-performance p-channel and n-channel transistors and low-power complementary circuits. The transistors employ an ultrathin low-temperature gate dielectric based on a self-assembled monolayer that allows transistors and circuits on rigid and flexible substrates to operate with very low voltages. PMID:18362348

  16. I-V Characteristics of a Ferroelectric Field Effect Transistor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacLeod, Todd C.; Ho, Fat Duen

    1999-01-01

    There are many possible uses for ferroelectric field effect transistors.To understand their application, a fundamental knowledge of their basic characteristics must first be found. In this research, the current and voltage characteristics of a field effect transistor are described. The effective gate capacitance and charge are derived from experimental data on an actual FFET. The general equation for a MOSFET is used to derive the internal characteristics of the transistor: This equation is modified slightly to describe the FFET characteristics. Experimental data derived from a Radiant Technologies FFET is used to calculate the internal transistor characteristics using fundamental MOSFET equations. The drain current was measured under several different gate and drain voltages and with different initial polarizations on the ferroelectric material in the transistor. Two different polarization conditions were used. One with the gate ferroelectric material polarized with a +9.0 volt write pulse and one with a -9.0 volt pulse.

  17. Carbon Nanotube Field Effect Transistor based High Frequency Biosensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, Girish; Boon Ee, Kai; Zhong, Zhaohui

    2010-03-01

    The sensitivity of transistor based biosensors suffers from the electrostatic screening due to mobile ions in solution. Here, we use carbon nanotube field effect transistor based high frequency biosensors for detection in high ionic strength solutions. Carbon nanotube transistors are configured as high frequency mixers and the changes in mixing current provides the sensing mechanism. At high frequencies, the ions are unable to follow the AC field and hence, electrostatic screening is minimized. In addition, the high transconductance of the transistor provides intrinsic gain for high frequency sensing. To prove this concept we demonstrate protein detection in ˜100mM buffer solution with high sensitivity. The technique will be evaluated against both, low frequency transistor based biosensors and conventional dielectric sensing technique relying on impedance measurement. The result will lead to novel biosensors for point-of-care applications, where electronic sensors functioning directly in physiologically relevant condition are required.

  18. Relationship Between Latchup And Transistor Current Gain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edmonds, Larry D.

    1989-01-01

    Theoretical study takes new look at current-vs.-voltage behavior of silicon controlled rectifiers (SCR's), four-layer complementary metal oxide/semiconductor (CMOS) devices, and similar devices susceptible to latchup. For purposes of analysis, "latchup" denotes transition of such device from lower-current-conducting steady state to distinct higher-current-conducting steady state. Focuses upon conventional two-couple-transistor model of one-dimensional SCR. Although model gives oversimplified view of latchup in CMOS circuits, useful for qualitative predictions of electrical characteristics.

  19. Transistor screening evaluation SJ6708H

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barton, J. L.

    1978-01-01

    A manufacturer was contracted to screen 125 transistors capable of withstanding the high level inductive voltages obtained when switching inductive loads. Planned differences included a change in die bonding to comply with NASA's desire for hard solder die attachment which further necessitated a change in package to conform to the required die mounting system. Evaluation of the electrical performance and recommended changes were made during the preliminary build phase of the program. The following sections are outlined: (1) narrative outline; (2) customer data summary and X-ray reports; (3) device specification; (4) failure analysis reports; (5) test facilities list; and (6) test measurement data.

  20. Fully-integrated CMOS RF amplifiers

    Microsoft Academic Search

    B. Baliweber; R. Gupta; D. J. Allstot

    1999-01-01

    Parasitics associated with transistors and on-chip passive components, such as inductors and capacitors, as well as the package, limit the performance of RF integrated circuits. Modifications to the IC fabrication process, special packaging techniques, and the use of off-chip components improve RFIC performance at the expense of cost and size of the final product. Design of fully-monolithic RFICs, however, requires