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1

Quantum noise minimization in transistor amplifiers  

E-print Network

General quantum restrictions on the noise performance of linear transistor amplifiers are used to identify the region in parameter space where the quantum-limited performance is achievable and to construct a practical procedure for approaching it experimentally using only the knowledge of directly measurable quantities: the gain, (differential) conductance and the output noise. A specific example of resonant barrier transistors is discussed.

U. Gavish; B. Yurke; Y. Imry

2005-05-27

2

Stability problems in transistor power amplifiers  

Microsoft Academic Search

For devices to be useful, they must be applied in circuits. Expensive power transistors can be destroyed by undesired oscillations and instabilities. Furthermore, troublesome unwanted spurious frequencies must be avoided. The problem of stability is complicated by the fact that a class C amplifier represents the superposition of a linear class A amplifier and a nonlinear instabilities can occur. This

OTWARD MULLER; WILLIAM G. FIGEL

1967-01-01

3

Simple way of teaching transistor amplifiers Bogdan M. Wilamowski  

E-print Network

Simple way of teaching transistor amplifiers Bogdan M. Wilamowski University of Wyoming Abstract for transistor amplifiers [1][2][3][4]. They do relatively well if a common source (emitter) is used, but they are lost when other configurations are considered. In the paper, a simple way for analysis of transistor

Wilamowski, Bogdan Maciej

4

Characterization of a Common-Gate Amplifier Using Ferroelectric Transistors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In this paper, the empirical data collected through experiments performed using a FeFET in the common-gate amplifier circuit is presented. The FeFET common-gate amplifier was characterized by varying all parameters in the circuit, such as load resistance, biasing of the transistor, and input voltages. Due to the polarization of the ferroelectric layer, the particular behavior of the FeFET common-gate amplifier presents interesting results. Furthermore, the differences between a FeFET common-gate amplifier and a MOSFET common-gate amplifier are examined.

Hunt, Mitchell; Sayyah, Rana; MacLeod, Todd C.; Ho, Fat D.

2011-01-01

5

Triple-Mode Single-Transistor Graphene Amplifier and Its Applications  

E-print Network

Triple-Mode Single-Transistor Graphene Amplifier and Its Applications Xuebei Yang,, Guanxiong Liu University, Houston, Texas 77005, United States. These authors contributed equally to this work. T he single-transistor amplifier, which consists of one transistor and one re- sistor, is one of the most basic and most important

6

18.1 Introduction The traditional approach to the small-signal analysis of transistor amplifiers employs the transistor  

E-print Network

18-1 18.1 Introduction The traditional approach to the small-signal analysis of transistor amplifiers employs the transistor models with dependent sources, illustrated in Figure 18.1, for both the MOS and BJT devices. In this chapter, techniques for the analysis of transistor circuits will be demonstrated

Wilamowski, Bogdan Maciej

7

Cryogenic, low-noise high electron mobility transistor amplifiers for the Deep Space Network  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The rapid advances recently achieved by cryogenically cooled high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) low-noise amplifiers (LNA's) in the 1- to 10-GHz range are making them extremely competitive with maser amplifiers. In order to address future spacecraft navigation, telemetry, radar, and radio science needs, the Deep Space Network is investing both maser and HEMT amplifiers for its Ka-band (32-GHz) downlink capability. This article describes the current state cryogenic HEMT LNA development at Ka-band for the DSN. Noise performance results at S-band (2.3 GHz) and X-band (8.5 GHz) for HEMT's and masers are included for completeness.

Bautista, J. J.

1993-01-01

8

Note: cryogenic low-noise dc-coupled wideband differential amplifier based on SiGe heterojunction bipolar transistors.  

PubMed

Silicon-germanium heterojunction bipolar transistors can be used to construct low-noise cryogenic amplifiers. We present a dc-coupled differential amplifier capable of operating down to 10 K. In this temperature regime it has bandwidth of 15 MHz and noise temperature as low as 1.3 K. When operated at liquid nitrogen temperature of 77 K, the measured noise temperature is lower than 3 K. The amplifier is based on the commercially available transistors NESG3031 and operational amplifier OPA836 and is capable of standalone operation without any additional stages at room temperature. PMID:22755673

Beev, Nikolai; Kiviranta, Mikko

2012-06-01

9

Measurements of the Low Frequency Gain Fluctuations of a 30 GHz High-Electron-Mobility-Transistor Cryogenic Amplifier  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Low frequency gain fluctuations of a 30 GHz cryogenic HEMT amplifier have been measured with the input of the amplifier connected to a 15 K load. Effects of fluctuations of other components of the test set-up were eliminated by use of a power-power correlation technique. Strong correlation between output power fluctuations of the amplifier and drain current fluctuations of the transistors comprising the amplifier are observed. The existence of these correlations introduces the possibility of regressing some of the excess noise from the HEMT amplifier's output using the measured drain currents.

Jarosik, Norman

1994-01-01

10

Imperial College London EEE 1L4 Autumn 2009 E2.2 Analogue Electronics More transistor amplifiers  

E-print Network

Imperial College London ­ EEE 1L4 Autumn 2009 E2.2 Analogue Electronics More transistor amplifiers ­ EEE 2L4 Autumn 2009 E2.2 Analogue Electronics The emitter-degenerated common emitter amplifier · Add London ­ EEE 3L4 Autumn 2009 E2.2 Analogue Electronics The 2nd form of the Miller theorem · consider

Papavassiliou, Christos

11

93-133 GHz Band InP High-Electron-Mobility Transistor Amplifier with Gain-Enhanced Topology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we developed a new type of high-frequency amplifier topology using 75-nm-gate-length InP-based high-electron-mobility transistors (InP HEMTs). To enhance the gain for a wide frequency range, a common-source common-gate hybrid amplifier topology was proposed. A transformer-based balun placed at the input of the amplifier generates differential signals, which are fed to the gate and source terminals of the transistor. The amplified signal is outputted at the drain node. The simulation results show that the hybrid topology exhibits a higher gain from 90 to 140 GHz than that of the conventional common-source or common-gate amplifier. The two-stage amplifier fabricated using the topology exhibits a small signal gain of 12 dB and a 3-dB bandwidth of 40 GHz (93-133 GHz), which is the largest bandwidth and the second highest gain reported among those of published 120-GHz-band amplifiers. In addition, the measured noise figure was 5 dB from 90 to 100 GHz.

Sato, Masaru; Shiba, Shoichi; Matsumura, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Tsuyoshi; Nakasha, Yasuhiro; Suzuki, Toshihide; Hara, Naoki

2013-04-01

12

Computer-Aided Design of Utrawide-Band Transistor Amplifiers Using Decomposition Synthesis Method  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new CAD procedure for linear wideband microwave amplifiers is presented. It relies on the decomposition synthesis method (DSM) and allows the exact synthesis of matching\\/compensation\\/feedback networks directly from a simultaneous set of performance specifications, including the gain, gain flatness, noise figure, input\\/output matching, and stability. Using DSM-based software tools, several linear, low-noise and power ultrawide-band amplifiers have been designed

L. I. Babak; M. V. Cherkashin; M. Yu. Pokrovsky

2002-01-01

13

Monolithic wideband linear power amplifier with 45% power bandwidth using pseudomorphic high-electron-mobility transistors for long-term evolution application  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A fully integrated, monolithic, wideband linear power amplifier using pseudomorphic high-electron-mobility transistor (pHEMT) technology has been developed for long-term evolution (LTE) applications. Implemented through the stacked field-effect transistor (stacked-FET) configuration, the amplifier exhibited a small signal gain of 15 dB and an output power of 25 dBm at 1 dB compression (P1dB) with a power-added efficiency (PAE) of 36% from 1.7 to 2.7 GHz yielding 45% power bandwidth. Moreover, when tested under a 10 MHz LTE-modulated signal, the amplifier achieved a 3% error-vector-magnitude (EVM) at 23 dBm output power over the entire power bandwidth.

Chiang, Che-Yang; Hsu, Heng-Tung; Chang, Edward Y.

2014-11-01

14

A high-performance cryogenic amplifier based on a radio-frequency single electron transistor  

E-print Network

gain of 50 V/ A for a cryogenic 1 M load resistor. The performance of this amplifier is already the past decade due to its high charge sensitivity. This charge sensitivity has already been utilized demonstrate that we can measure the current through a cryogenic 1 M load resistor with a transimped- ance gain

Segall, Ken

15

Mathematical Models of the Common-Source and Common-Gate Amplifiers using a Metal-Ferroelectric-Semiconductor Field effect Transistor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Mathematical models of the common-source and common-gate amplifiers using metal-ferroelectric- semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs) are developed in this paper. The models are compared against data collected with MOSFETs of varying channel lengths and widths, and circuit parameters such as biasing conditions are varied as well. Considerations are made for the capacitance formed by the ferroelectric layer present between the gate and substrate of the transistors. Comparisons between the modeled and measured data are presented in depth as well as differences and advantages as compared to the performance of each circuit using a MOSFET.

Hunt, Mitchell; Sayyah, Rana; Mitchell, Cody; Laws, Crystal; MacLeod, Todd C.; Ho, Fat D.

2013-01-01

16

Extended Characterization of the Common-Source and Common-Gate Amplifiers using a Metal-Ferroelectric-Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Collected data for both common-source and common-gate amplifiers is presented in this paper. Characterizations of the two amplifier circuits using metal-ferroelectric-semiconductor field effect transistors (MFSFETs) are developed with wider input frequency ranges and varying device sizes compared to earlier characterizations. The effects of the ferroelectric layer's capacitance and variation load, quiescent point, or input signal on each circuit are discussed. Comparisons between the MFSFET and MOSFET circuit operation and performance are discussed at length as well as applications and advantages for the MFSFETs.

Hunt, Mitchell; Sayyah, Rana; Mitchell, Cody; Laws, Crystal; MacLeod, Todd C.; Ho, Fat D.

2013-01-01

17

A scalable high-frequency noise model for bipolar transistors with application to optimal transistor sizing for low-noise amplifier design  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fully scalable, analytical HF noise parameter equations for bipolar transistors are presented and experimentally tested on high-speed Si and SiGe technologies. A technique for extracting the complete set of transistor noise parameters from Y parameter measurements only is developed and verified. Finally, the noise equations are coupled with scalable variants of the HICUM and SPICE-Gummel-Poon models and are employed in

Sorin P. Voinigescu; Michael C. Maliepaard; Jonathan L. Showell; Greg E. Babcock; David Marchesan; Michael Schroter; Peter Schvan; David L. Harame

1997-01-01

18

Amplifier Distortion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

By definition, a high fidelity amplifier's instantaneous output voltage is directly proportional to its instantaneous input voltage. While high fidelity is generally valued in the amplification of recorded music, nonlinearity, also known as distortion, is desirable in the amplification of some musical instruments. In particular, guitar amplifiers exploit nonlinearity to increase both the harmonic content and sustain of a guitar's sound. I will discuss how both modifications in sound result from saturation of triode tubes and transistors. Additionally, I will describe the difference in the symmetry of saturation curves for transistors and tubes and the reason why tube guitar amplifiers are generally considered to be superior to solid-state amplifiers. Finally, I will discuss attempts to use solid-state electronics to replicate the sound of tube amplifiers.

Keeports, David

2006-12-01

19

Broadband amplifiers for high data rates using InP/InGaAs double heterojunction bipolar transistors.  

E-print Network

??This work describes the development process of state-of-the-art electrical broadband amplifiers, which are suitable as modulator drivers in electrical time division multiplex (ETDM) systems, operating (more)

Schneider, Karl

2006-01-01

20

Microwave power transistors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of a microwave power amplifier transistor requires a highly advanced technology to achieve the basic parameters which theory predicts will be needed. In addition, very sophisticated microwave techniques must be used in the package design and characterization. Transitions between the active device and external circuitry often dominate performance. Development was started with a 7 mil2, seven-finger transistor with

H. F. Cooke; A. J. Anderson

1965-01-01

21

Cross-differential amplifier  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A cross-differential amplifier is provided. The cross-differential amplifier includes an inductor connected to a direct current power source at a first terminal. A first and second switch, such as transistors, are connected to the inductor at a second terminal. A first and second amplifier are connected at their supply terminals to the first and second switch. The first and second switches are operated to commutate the inductor between the amplifiers so as to provide an amplified signal while limiting the ripple voltage on the inductor and thus limiting the maximum voltage imposed across the amplifiers and switches.

Hajimiri, Seyed-Ali (Inventor); Kee, Scott D. (Inventor); Aoki, Ichiro (Inventor)

2013-01-01

22

Cross-differential amplifier  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A cross-differential amplifier is provided. The cross-differential amplifier includes an inductor connected to a direct current power source at a first terminal. A first and second switch, such as transistors, are connected to the inductor at a second terminal. A first and second amplifier are connected at their supply terminals to the first and second switch. The first and second switches are operated to commutate the inductor between the amplifiers so as to provide an amplified signal while limiting the ripple voltage on the inductor and thus limiting the maximum voltage imposed across the amplifiers and switches.

Hajimiri, Seyed-Ali (Inventor); Kee, Scott D. (Inventor); Aoki, Ichiro (Inventor)

2008-01-01

23

Cross-differential amplifier  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A cross-differential amplifier is provided. The cross-differential amplifier includes an inductor connected to a direct current power source at a first terminal. A first and second switch, such as transistors, are connected to the inductor at a second terminal. A first and second amplifier are connected at their supply terminals to the first and second switch. The first and second switches are operated to commutate the inductor between the amplifiers so as to provide an amplified signal while limiting the ripple voltage on the inductor and thus limiting the maximum voltage imposed across the amplifiers and switches.

Hajimiri, Seyed-Ali (Inventor); Kee, Scott D. (Inventor); Aoki, Ichiro (Inventor)

2010-01-01

24

Cross-differential amplifier  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A cross-differential amplifier is provided. The cross-differential amplifier includes an inductor connected to a direct current power source at a first terminal. A first and second switch, such as transistors, are connected to the inductor at a second terminal. A first and second amplifier are connected at their supply terminals to the first and second switch. The first and second switches are operated to commutate the inductor between the amplifiers so as to provide an amplified signal while limiting the ripple voltage on the inductor and thus limiting the maximum voltage imposed across the amplifiers and switches.

Hajimiri, Seyed-Ali (Inventor); Kee, Scott D. (Inventor); Aoki, Ichiro (Inventor)

2011-01-01

25

Transistor as a Rectifier  

E-print Network

Transistor is a three terminal semiconductor device normally used as an amplifier or as a switch. Here the alternating current (a.c) rectifying property of the transistor is considered. The ordinary silicon diode exhibits a voltage drop of ~0.6V across its terminals. In this article it is shown that the transistor can be used to build a diode or rectify low current a.c (~mA) with a voltage drop of ~0.03V. This voltage is ~20 times smaller than the silicon diode. This article gives the half-wave and full-wave transistor rectifier configurations along with some applications to justify their usefulness.

Raju Baddi

2012-04-09

26

Transistor as a Rectifier  

E-print Network

Transistor is a three terminal semiconductor device normally used as an amplifier or as a switch. Here the alternating current (a.c) rectifying property of the transistor is considered. The ordinary silicon diode exhibits a voltage drop of ~0.6V across its terminals. In this article it is shown that the transistor can be used to build a diode or rectify low current a.c (~mA) with a voltage drop of ~0.03V. This voltage is ~20 times smaller than the silicon diode. This article gives the half-wave and full-wave transistor rectifier configurations along with some applications to justify their usefulness.

Baddi, Raju

2012-01-01

27

Advances in Linear Modeling of Microwave Transistors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Heterojunction field effect transistors (HFET) based on gallium nitride (AlGaN\\/GaN) and metal semiconductor field effect transistors (MESFETs) based on silicon carbide (SiC) are the preferred transistors for high-power amplifier circuit designs rather than MESFETs, high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) and pseudomorphic HEMTs based on gallium arsenide (GaAs) or indium phosphide (InP) semiconductor technology. While AlGaN\\/GaN and SiC are good candidates

Andres Zarate-de Landa; Jos Eleazar Ziga-Jurez; Jos Ral Loo-Yau; J. Reynoso-Hernandez; Maria Maya-Sanchez; Juan Luis del Valle-Padilla

2009-01-01

28

Hybrid thin-film amplifier  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Miniature amplifier for bioelectronic instrumentation consumes only about 100 mW and has frequency response flat to within 0.5 dB from 0.14 to 450 Hz. Device consists of five thin film substrates, which contain eight operational amplifiers and seven field-effect transistor dice.

Cleveland, G.

1977-01-01

29

Field effect transistor-self electrooptic effect device (FET-SEED) differential transimpedance amplifiers for two-dimensional optical data links  

Microsoft Academic Search

A 418 two-dimensional array of GaAs FET-SEED (field effect transistor-self electrooptic effect device) differential transimpedence receivers has been fabricated for application in massively parallel optical data link board-to-board interconnections. Several FET-SEED receiver arrays were tested and displayed a mean response of ~0.7 mV\\/?W, and were capable of >100 Mbps per channel operation. The mean receiver sensitivity for a BER of

Robert A. Novotny; Michael J. Wojcik; Anthony L. Lentine; Leo M. F. Chirovsky; L. A. D'Asaro; M. W. Focht; G. Guth; K. G. Glogovsky; R. Leibenguth; M. T. Asom; J. M. Freund

1995-01-01

30

Cryogenic MMIC Low Noise Amplifiers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Monolithic (MMIC) and discrete transistor (MIC) low noise amplifiers are compared on the basis of performance, cost, and reliability. The need for cryogenic LNA's for future large microwave arrays for radio astronomy is briefly discussed and data is presented on a prototype LNA for the 1 to 10 GZH range along with a very wideband LNA for the 1 to 60 GHz range.

Weinreb, S.; Gaier, T.; Fernandez, J.; Erickson, N.; Wielgus, J.

2000-01-01

31

technologie transistor.  

E-print Network

?léments de technologie Les circuits intégrées c-MOS. L'élément de base est le transistor. Deux types de transistors complémentaires n-MOS et p-MOS. Avantages des c-MOS : #21; très grande intégration des impuretés. - plus récement : bombardement ionique. 2 #12; Transistor n-MOS (Metal

Hivert, Florent

32

Fibre Amplifiers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The chapter gives a detailed treatment of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers (EDFA), Raman amplifiers, and parametric amplifiers. Each section comprises the fundamentals including the basic physics and relevant in-depth theoretical modeling, amplifier characteristics and performance data as a function of specific operation parameters. Typical applications in fiber-optic communication systems and the improvements achievable through the use of fiber amplifiers are illustrated.

Rottwitt, Karsten

33

Electronic amplifiers: A compilation  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Several types of amplifiers and amplifier systems are considered. These include preamplifiers, high power amplifiers, buffer and isolation amplifiers, amplifier circuits, and general purpose amplifiers.

1971-01-01

34

High-Speed, high-power, switching transistor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Silicon transistor rate for 200 angstroms at 400 to 600 volts combines switching speed of transistors with ruggedness, power capacity of thyristor. Transistor introduces unique combination of increased power-handling capability, unusally low saturation and switching losses, and submicrosecond switching speeds. Potential applications include high power switching regulators, linear amplifiers, chopper controls for high frequency electrical vehicle drives, VLF transmitters, RF induction heaters, kitchen cooking ranges, and electronic scalpels for medical surgery.

Carnahan, D.; Ohu, C. K.; Hower, P. L.

1979-01-01

35

EE 321 BJT 1 Fall 2008 Bipolar Junction Transistors, Part I  

E-print Network

EE 321 BJT 1 Fall 2008 EE321 Lab Bipolar Junction Transistors, Part I In this lab we will investigate how a bipolar junction transistor (BJT) can be used to amplify signals. 1. First, use your multimeter to measure the base-emitter and base-collector junctions of your transistor (Figure 1 and 2). When

Wedeward, Kevin

36

Operational Amplifiers.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Addresses the introduction of low cost equipment into high school and college physical science classes. Examines the properties of an "ideal" operational amplifier and discusses how it might be used under saturated and non-saturated conditions. Notes the action of a "real" operational amplifier. (TW)

Foxcroft, G. E.

1986-01-01

37

MMIC DHBT Common-Base Amplifier for 172 GHz  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Figure 1 shows a single-stage monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) power amplifier in which the gain element is a double-heterojunction bipolar transistor (DHBT) connected in common-base configuration. This amplifier, which has been demonstrated to function well at a frequency of 172 GHz, is part of a continuing effort to develop compact, efficient amplifiers for scientific instrumentation, wide-band communication systems, and radar systems that will operate at frequencies up to and beyond 180 GHz. The transistor is fabricated from a layered structure formed by molecular beam epitaxy in the InP/InGaAs material system. A highly doped InGaAs base layer and a collector layer are fabricated from the layered structure in a triple mesa process. The transistor includes two separate emitter fingers, each having dimensions of 0.8 by 12 m. The common-base configuration was chosen for its high maximum stable gain in the frequency band of interest. The input-matching network is designed for high bandwidth. The output of the transistor is matched to a load line for maximum saturated output power under large-signal conditions, rather than being matched for maximum gain under small-signal conditions. In a test at a frequency of 172 GHz, the amplifier was found to generate an output power of 7.5 mW, with approximately 5 dB of large-signal gain (see Figure 2). Moreover, the amplifier exhibited a peak small-signal gain of 7 dB at a frequency of 176 GHz. This performance of this MMIC single-stage amplifier containing only a single transistor represents a significant advance in the state of the art, in that it rivals the 170-GHz performance of a prior MMIC three-stage, four-transistor amplifier. [The prior amplifier was reported in "MMIC HEMT Power Amplifier for 140 to 170 GHz" (NPO-30127), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 27, No. 11 (November 2003), page 49.] This amplifier is the first heterojunction- bipolar-transistor (HBT) amplifier built for medium power operation in this frequency band. The performance of the amplifier as measured in the aforementioned tests suggests that InP/InGaAs HBTs may be superior to high-electron-mobility (HEMT) transistors in that the HBTs may offer more gain per stage and more output power per transistor.

Paidi, Vamsi; Griffith, Zack; Wei, Yun; Dahlstrom, Mttias; Urteaga, Miguel; Rodwell, Mark; Samoska, Lorene; Fung, King Man; Schlecht, Erich

2006-01-01

38

e bipolar junction transistor (BJT) is historically the first solid-state analog amplifier and digital switch, and formed the basis of integrated circuits (IC) in the 1970s. Starting in the early 1980s, the  

E-print Network

, the invention of silicon­germanium base heterojunction bipolar transistor (SiGe HBT) brought the bipolar line communications applications. Today, SiGe HBTs are used to design radio-frequency integrated radar, wireless distribution of cable television, millimeter wave radios, and many more applications

Wilamowski, Bogdan Maciej

39

positions): transistor,  

E-print Network

scientists of the century'' (20 positions): . Technology � 6 (airplane, rocket, TV, transistor, plastic, WWW project: ''The greatest scientists of the century'' (20 positions): . Technology � 6 (airplane, rocket, TV unfriendly! #12; Why is excessive coding so bad for specific tasks? E#ciency is lost, which makes

Artemov, Sergei N.

40

Switching Transistor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Westinghouse Electric Corporation's D60T transistors are used primarily as switching devices for controlling high power in electrical circuits. It enables reduction in the number and size of circuit components and promotes more efficient use of energy. Wide range of application from a popcorn popper to a radio frequency generator for solar cell production.

1981-01-01

41

A High CMRR Instrumentation Amplifier for Biopotential Signal Acquisition  

E-print Network

..................................................................... 57 3-7 Transistor Sizes for Single Ended Opamps in FBFS INA .................................. 58 3-8 Aspect Ratios of Static CMOS Gates ................................................................. 59 3-9 Aspect Ratios.... B. Applications of Instrumentation Amplifiers The characteristics of instrumentation amplifiers mentioned in the previous section make them very suitable for Measurement and Test applications. Besides that they are used in a host of sensor...

Muhammad Abdullah, Reza

2012-07-16

42

Bidirectional amplifier  

DOEpatents

A bilateral circuit is operable for transmitting signals in two directions without generation of ringing due to feedback caused by the insertion of the circuit. The circuit may include gain for each of the signals to provide a bidirectional amplifier. The signals are passed through two separate paths, with a unidirectional amplifier in each path. A controlled sampling device is provided in each path for sampling the two signals. Any feedback loop between the two signals is disrupted by providing a phase displacement between the control signals for the two sampling devices.

Wright, James T. (Cedarcrest, NM)

1986-01-01

43

A Linear, Wideband, Low-Noise Amplifier Stage for Use in Nuclear Pulse Amplifiers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The design evolution of a wideband voltage-sensitive amplifier stage is presented. For the basic stage, including a new driver configuration and overload control circuit, three basic input sections are considered; the first section consists of differentially connected bipolar transistors for use with low generator impedances, the second consists of medium-transconductance FETs to allow larger coupling time constants, and the third

J. K. Millard; T. V. Blalock

1970-01-01

44

Operational Amplifiers  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

All About Circuits is a website that âprovides a series of online textbooks covering electricity and electronics.â Written by Tony R. Kuphaldt, the textbooks available here are wonderful resources for students, teachers, and anyone who is interested in learning more about electronics. This specific section, Operational Amplifiers, is the eighth chapter in Volume III âSemiconductors. A few of the topics covered in this chapter include: The "operational" amplifier; Negative feedback; Voltage-to-current signal conversion; and Differentiator and integrator circuits. Diagrams and detailed descriptions of concepts are included throughout the chapter to provide users with a comprehensive lesson. Visitors to the site are also encouraged to discuss concepts and topics using the All About Circuits discussion forums (registration with the site is required to post materials).

Kuphaldt, Tony R.

2008-07-14

45

PRELIMINARIES ON LOW-POWER ANALOG-TO-DIGITAL CONVERSION FOR SYSTEM-ON-CHIP DESIGN: SIGMA-DELTA MODULATORS WITH A SINGLE AMPLIFIER AND A NOVEL 14TRANSISTOR 1BIT FULL ADDER  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two approaches for low-power analog-to-digital (A\\/D) conversion for biomedical-oriented System-on-Chip (SoC) design are addressed in this paper. The first approach intro- duces the use of a single amplifier to realize switched- capacitor-based 1-bit low-pass A\\/D sigma-delta modula- tors, thus reducing the power consumption of the modu- lator compared to the traditional counterpart (approx. 50% and 25% in 2 nd -

Alexander Mora-Sanchez; Dietmar Schroeder; Wolfgang H. Krautschneider

46

Deeply-scaled GaN high electron mobility transistors for RF applications  

E-print Network

Due to the unique combination of large critical breakdown field and high electron velocity, GaN-based high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) have great potential for next generation high power RF amplifiers. The ...

Lee, Dong Seup

2014-01-01

47

Multiple-input neuron MOS operational amplifier for voltage-mode multivalued full adders  

Microsoft Academic Search

A CMOS operational amplifier employing the multiple-input-terminal transistor called neuron MOSFET (or ?MOS) as pair transistors has been developed. The circuit can perform a variety of analog voltage summation\\/subtraction operations in a very simple circuitry. The self-offset-cancellation capability has been implemented by a clocked ?MOS technique. As a result, high-accuracy voltage-mode signed-digit computation has become possible. The ?MOS operational amplifier

Katsuhisa Ogawa; Tadashi Shibata; Tadahiro Ohmi; Motomu Takatsu; Naoki Yokoyama

1998-01-01

48

The 11th International Symposium on Wireless Personal Multimedia Communications (WPMC 2008) DEVELOPMENT OF THZ TRANSISTORS  

E-print Network

) DEVELOPMENT OF THZ TRANSISTORS AND (300-3000 GHZ) SUB-MM-WAVE INTEGRATED CIRCUITS Mark Rodwell, E. Lobisser, M of 1-3 THz. High bandwidths are obtained by scaling; the critical limits to such scaling maxf and 324 GHz amplifiers have been demonstrated. Transistors with target maxf over 1 THz

Rodwell, Mark J. W.

49

Transistors: The Field Effect  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Transistors are the building blocks of modern electronic devices. Your cell phones, iPods, and computers all depend on them to operate. Thanks to today's microfabrication technology, transistors can be made very tiny and be massively produced. You are probably using billions of them while working with this activity now--as of 2006, a dual-core Intel microprocessor contains 1.7 billion transistors. The field effect transistor is the most common type of transistor. So we will focus on it in this activity.

Consortium, The C.

2011-12-11

50

Analysis and Design of a Gated Envelope Feedback Technique for Automatic Hardware Reconfiguration of RFIC Power Amplifiers, with Full On-Chip Implementation in Gallium Arsenide Heterojunction Bipolar Transistor Technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this doctoral dissertation, the author presents the theoretical foundation, the analysis and design of analog and RF circuits, the chip level implementation, and the experimental validation pertaining to a new radio frequency integrated circuit (RFIC) power amplifier (PA) architecture that is intended for wireless portable transceivers. A method called Gated Envelope Feedback is proposed to allow the automatic hardware reconfiguration of a stand-alone RFIC PA in multiple states for power efficiency improvement purposes. The method uses self-operating and fully integrated circuitry comprising RF power detection, switching and sequential logic, and RF envelope feedback in conjunction with a hardware gating function for triggering and activating current reduction mechanisms as a function of the transmitted RF power level. Because of the critical role that RFIC PA components occupy in modern wireless transceivers, and given the major impact that these components have on the overall RF performances and energy consumption in wireless transceivers, very significant benefits stem from the underlying innovations. The method has been validated through the successful design of a 1.88GHz COMA RFIC PA with automatic hardware reconfiguration capability, using an industry renowned state-of-the-art GaAs HBT semiconductor process developed and owned by Skyworks Solutions, Inc., USA. The circuit techniques that have enabled the successful and full on-chip embodiment of the technique are analyzed in details. The IC implementation is discussed, and experimental results showing significant current reduction upon automatic hardware reconfiguration, gain regulation performances, and compliance with the stringent linearity requirements for COMA transmission demonstrate that the gated envelope feedback method is a viable and promising approach to automatic hardware reconfiguration of RFIC PA's for current reduction purposes. Moreover, in regard to on-chip integration of advanced PA control functions, it is demonstrated that the method is better positioning GaAs HBT technologies, which are known to offer very competitive RF performances but inherently have limited integration capabilities. Finally, an analytical approach for the evaluation of inter-modulation distortion (IMD) in envelope feedback architectures is introduced, and the proposed design equations and methodology for IMD analysis may prove very helpful for theoretical analyses, for simulation tasks, and for experimental work.

Constantin, Nicolas Gerard David

51

Near-field thermal transistor  

E-print Network

Using a block of three separated solid elements, a thermal source and drain together with a gate made of an insulator-metal transition material exchanging near-field thermal radiation, we introduce a nanoscale analog of a field-effect transistor which is able to control the flow of heat exchanged by evanescent thermal photons between two bodies. By changing the gate temperature around its critical value, the heat flux exchanged between the hot body (source) and the cold body (drain) can be reversibly switched, amplified, and modulated by a tiny action on the gate. Such a device could find important applications in the domain of nanoscale thermal management and it opens up new perspectives concerning the development of contactless thermal circuits intended for information processing using the photon current rather than the electric current.

Ben-Abdallah, Philippe

2013-01-01

52

90% write power saving SRAM using sense-amplifying memory cell  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary form only given. A low power write scheme is proposed for an SRAM using seven-transistor sense-amplifying memory cells, which can save 90% of the power in write cycles when 4M SRAM is assumed. By reducing the bit line swing to 1\\/6 VDD and amplifying the voltage swing by a sense-amplifier structure in a memory cell, charging and discharging component

S. Hattori; T. Sakurai

2002-01-01

53

A new simplified high radio frequency power amplifier  

SciTech Connect

In order to simplify a present standard high rf power amplifier of ion cyclotron range of frequency plasma heating system, a new amplifier arrangement composed of a tetrode with a grounded cathode and a field effect transistor (FET) switching circuit providing an input rf power is proposed. The FET switching circuit is so small that it can be installed close to the tetrode in one cubicle. It might be called a single tube high rf power amplifier. A test amplifier composed of the tetrode (8F76R) and the FET (2SK-1310) switching circuit is constructed. The maximum output rf power of 8.5 kW was stably obtained at 70 MHz. The feasibility of the single tube high rf power amplifier was experimentally proved.

Ogawa, Y.; Okutsu, H.; Kobayashi, N.; Hayakawa, A. [Advanced System Design and Engineering Department, Toshiba Corporation, Shinsugita-cho 8, Isogo-ku, Yokohama-shi 235-8523 (Japan)

2004-10-01

54

431 531 Class Notes 5 5 Transistors and Transistor Circuits  

E-print Network

431 531 Class Notes 5 5 Transistors and Transistor Circuits Although I will not follow the text in detail for the discussion of transistors, I will follow the text's philosophy. Unless one gets into device fabrication, it is generally not important to understand the inner workings of transistors

Frey, Raymond E.

55

Single Photon Transistor Brad Martin  

E-print Network

Single Photon Transistor Brad Martin PH 464 #12;Brad Martin Single Photon Transistor 1 Abstract The concept of an optical transistor is not a new one. The difficulty with building optical devices that use in the nanowire. This concept can be extended to create an optical transistor device in which "current"(a flow

La Rosa, Andres H.

56

Hybrid matrix amplifier  

DOEpatents

The present invention comprises a novel matrix amplifier. The matrix amplifier includes an active superconducting power divider (ASPD) having N output ports; N distributed amplifiers each operatively connected to one of the N output ports of the ASPD; and a power combiner having N input ports each operatively connected to one of the N distributed amplifiers. The distributed amplifier can included M stages of amplification by cascading superconducting active devices. The power combiner can include N active elements. The resulting (N[times]M) matrix amplifier can produce signals of high output power, large bandwidth, and low noise. 6 figures.

Martens, J.S.; Hietala, V.M.; Plut, T.A.

1995-01-03

57

Hybrid matrix amplifier  

DOEpatents

The present invention comprises a novel matrix amplifier. The matrix amplifier includes an active superconducting power divider (ASPD) having N output ports; N distributed amplifiers each operatively connected to one of the N output ports of the ASPD; and a power combiner having N input ports each operatively connected to one of the N distributed amplifiers. The distributed amplifier can included M stages of amplification by cascading superconducting active devices. The power combiner can include N active elements. The resulting (N.times.M) matrix amplifier can produce signals of high output power, large bandwidth, and low noise.

Martens, Jon S. (Sunnyvale, CA); Hietala, Vincent M. (Placitas, NM); Plut, Thomas A. (Albuquerque, NM)

1995-01-01

58

Amplified spontaneous emission in Cassegrainian amplifiers  

SciTech Connect

We consider all possible paths for amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) in multipass laser amplifiers using a Cassegrainian telescope geometry. In particular, we study ASE which is reflected back into the medium off the telescope mirrors themselves. These ASE components are unavoidable in this amplifier geometry. We show that there is a component of the ASE which makes approximately double the number of passes through the amplifier as the laser signal makes. We also show that these high order ASE components are also present in amplifiers which are almost Cassegrainian. They cannot be eliminated by changing the ratio of the scraper and hole radii or the separation of the mirrors. It is likely that these ASE components will be more significant in pulsed lasers than cw lasers.

Eimerl, D.

1987-05-01

59

Portable musical instrument amplifier  

DOEpatents

The present invention relates to a musical instrument amplifier which is particularly useful for electric guitars. The amplifier has a rigid body for housing both the electronic system for amplifying and processing signals from the guitar and the system's power supply. An input plug connected to and projecting from the body is electrically coupled to the signal amplifying and processing system. When the plug is inserted into an output jack for an electric guitar, the body is rigidly carried by the guitar, and the guitar is operatively connected to the electrical amplifying and signal processing system without use of a loose interconnection cable. The amplifier is provided with an output jack, into which headphones are plugged to receive amplified signals from the guitar. By eliminating the conventional interconnection cable, the amplifier of the present invention can be used by musicians with increased flexibility and greater freedom of movement.

Christian, David E. (Danbury, CT)

1990-07-24

60

Center Frequency Shift in Transistor Class C Amplifiers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple model is developed to predict the center frequency shift due to nonlinear collector junction capacitance. This model shows reasonable agreement with experiments for peak output levels up to approximately one-half of the collector supply voltage.

Carl Zimmer

1969-01-01

61

Common base amplifier with 7 - dB gain at 176 GHz in InP mesa DHBT technology  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We report a single stage tunded amplifier that exhibits 7 dB small signal gain at 176 GHz. Common Base topology is chosen as it has the best maximum stable gain (MSG) in this frequency band when compared to common emitter and common collector topologies. The amplifiers are designed and fabricated in InP mesa double heterojunction bipolar transistor (DHBT) technology.

Samoska, Lorene; Paidi, V.; Griffith, Z.; Dahlstrom, M.; Wei, Y.; Urteaga, M.; Rodell, M. J. W.; Fung, A.

2004-01-01

62

Printed inorganic transistors  

E-print Network

Forty years of exponential growth of semiconductor technology have been predicated on the miniaturization of the transistors that comprise integrated circuits. While complexity has greatly increased within a given area of ...

Ridley, Brent (Brent Alan), 1974-

2003-01-01

63

The resonant gate transistor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A device is described which permits high-Qfrequency selection to be incorporated into silicon integrated circuits. It is essentially an electrostatically excited tuning fork employing field-effect transistor \\

HARVEY C. NATHANSON; WILLIAM E. NEWELL; ROBERT A. WICKSTROM

1967-01-01

64

Laser amplifier chain  

DOEpatents

A laser amplifier chain has a plurality of laser amplifiers arranged in a chain to sequentially amplify a low-power signal beam to produce a significantly higher-power output beam. Overall efficiency of such a chain is improved if high-gain, low efficiency amplifiers are placed on the upstream side of the chain where only a very small fraction of the total pumped power is received by the chain and low-gain, high-efficiency amplifiers are placed on the downstream side where a majority of pumping energy is received by the chain.

Hackel, Richard P. (Livermore, CA)

1992-01-01

65

120 Watt, 2 GHz, Si LDMOS RF power transistor for PCS base station applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

The structure and performance of a 120 W, 2 GHz, Si RF LDMOS power transistor are described suitable for personal communication systems base station power amplifiers operating in the 1.8-2.2 GHz frequency band. The high gain (10.6 dB at 120 W CW, 2 GHz), and excellent linearity of this transistor, when operated in class-AB, (typically -30 dBc two-tone intermodulation distortion

A. Wood; W. Brakensick; C. Dragon; W. Burger

1998-01-01

66

Shared transistor architecture with diagonally connected pixels for CMOS image sensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have developed a pixel unit for CMOS image sensors (CISs) that has a shared transistor architecture with diagonally connected pixels. This pixel unit is composed of four photodiodes and seven transistors. It has a pixel size of 2.5-?m square. The transistors were designed using 0.18-micron aluminum process technology. Shared diffusion for reading signal electrons occurs between the corners of two photodiodes. The advantages of this layout include a long amplifier gate length and a large photodiode area.

Kudoh, Yoshiharu; Koga, Fumihiko; Abe, Takashi; Taniguchi, Haruyuki; Sato, Maki; Ishiwata, Hiroaki; Ooki, Susumu; Suzuki, Ryoji; Mori, Hiroyuki

2007-02-01

67

Extra-low power consumption amplifier based on HEMT in unsaturated mode for use at subkelvin ambient temperatures  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new approach to deep-cooled amplifier design with microwatt level consumed/dissipated power is presented. The relevant technique is based on exploiting the unsaturated regime of the high electron mobility transistor. The power consumption of several microwatts for 20 dB gain amplifier was obtained at 300 mK ambient temperature. This is at least an order of magnitude better than the figures known up to date for high-frequency (0.1-1 GHz) amplifiers.

Korolev, A. M.; Shulga, V. M.; Tarapov, S. I.

2014-03-01

68

Wireless Josephson Amplifier  

E-print Network

Josephson junction parametric amplifiers are playing a crucial role in the readout chain in superconducting quantum information experiments. However, their integration with current 3D cavity implementations poses the problem of transitioning between waveguide, coax cables and planar circuits. Moreover, Josephson amplifiers require auxiliary microwave components, like directional couplers and/or hybrids, that are sources of spurious losses and impedance mismatches that limit measurement efficiency and amplifier tunability. We have developed a new wireless architecture for these parametric amplifiers that eliminates superfluous microwave components and interconnects. This greatly simplifies their assembly and integration into experiments. We present an experimental realization of such a device operating in the $9-11$ GHz band with about $100$ MHz of amplitude gain-bandwidth product, on par with devices mounted in conventional sample holders. The simpler impedance environment presented to the amplifier also results in increased amplifier tunability.

A. Narla; K. M. Sliwa; M. Hatridge; S. Shankar; L. Frunzio; R. J. Schoelkopf; M. H. Devoret

2014-04-19

69

Wireless Josephson amplifier  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Josephson junction parametric amplifiers are playing a crucial role in the readout chain in superconducting quantum information experiments. However, their integration with current 3D cavity implementations poses the problem of transitioning between waveguide, coax cables, and planar circuits. Moreover, Josephson amplifiers require auxiliary microwave components, like directional couplers and/or hybrids, that are sources of spurious losses and impedance mismatches that limit measurement efficiency and amplifier tunability. We have developed a wireless architecture for these parametric amplifiers that eliminates superfluous microwave components and interconnects. This greatly simplifies their assembly and integration into experiments. We present an experimental realization of such a device operating in the 9-11 GHz band with about 100 MHz of amplitude gain-bandwidth product, on par with devices mounted in conventional sample holders. The simpler impedance environment presented to the amplifier also results in increased amplifier tunability.

Narla, A.; Sliwa, K. M.; Hatridge, M.; Shankar, S.; Frunzio, L.; Schoelkopf, R. J.; Devoret, M. H.

2014-06-01

70

A Six Transistors Full Adder  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new six transistors multiple-valued current mode one bit full adder is presented. Simulations results utilizing standard 0.18 m CMOS technology illustrate a significant improvement in terms of number of transistors, chip area and propagation delay.

K. Navi; V. Foroutan; B. Mazloomnejad; O. Hashemipour; M. Haghparast

2008-01-01

71

Integrated CMOS RF amplifier  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper reports an integrated 2.0 micron CMOS RF amplifier designed for amplification in the 420-450 MHz frequency band. Design techniques are shown for the test amplifier configuration. Problems of decreased amplifier bandwidth, gain element instability, and low Q values for the inductors were encountered. Techniques used to overcome these problems are discussed. Layouts of the various elements are described and a summary of the simulation results are included. Test circuits have been submitted to MOSIS for fabrication.

Charity, C.; Whitaker, S.; Purviance, J.; Canaris, M.

1990-01-01

72

A new bipolar transistor - GAT  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A new bipolar transistor named Gate Associated Transistor (GAT) was proposed and the operating mechanisms were verified. The structure of the GAT has a unique base region consisting of an FET merged into the base of a standard bipolar transistor. The operating mechanisms and characteristics of the GAT were investigated and compared with those of standard power transistors. The most outstanding feature of the GAT was a large area for safe operation.

Kondo, H.; Yukimoto, Y.

1980-02-01

73

ULTRAHIGH-SPEED DIPOLAR TRANSISTORS  

E-print Network

ULTRAHIGH-SPEED DIPOLAR TRANSISTORS Understanding nonequilibrium electron transport in Ill-V compound semiconductors has helped in the development of the fastest bipolar transistors. A. F. J. Levi, R. N. Noltenburg, Y. K. Chen and M. B. Panish The invention of the transistor in the late 1940s has had

Levi, Anthony F. J.

74

A charge-transfer amplifier and an encoded-bus architecture for low-power SRAM's  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes and reports a low-power SRAM using a charge-transfer (CT) pre-sense amplifier and a bus signal encoding scheme. The CT amplifier overcomes the Vth relative difference between the pair MOS transistors, and thus reduces the input offset voltage. The encoded-bus scheme reduces the number of signals being switched to cut the capacitive load. These read-path dynamic circuits have

Shoichiro Kawashima; Toshihiko Mori; Ryuhei Sasagawa; Makoto Hamaminato; Shigetoshi Wakayama; Kazuo Sukegawa; Isao Fukushi

1998-01-01

75

Reversed Double Pole-Zero Cancellation Frequency Compensation Technique for Three-Stage Amplifiers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel frequency compensation technique for three-stage amplifiers is introduced. The proposed solution exploits two Miller capacitors, two resistors and an additional feedforward stage which can be implemented without entailing extra transistors. Design equations using the phase margin as design parameter are carried out. The technique is used to design, with a standard CMOS 0.35-mum process, a 2-V three-stage amplifier

A. D. Grasso; D. Marano; G. Palumbo; S. Pennisi

2006-01-01

76

A high speed, medium voltage pulse amplifier for diode reverse transient measurements  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A dc-coupled nonlinear pulse amplifier circuit is presented. The circuit presented can produce 40 V peak-to-peak pulses with 3 ns rise and fall times. This speed is obtained by using class D transistor amplifier stages. This circuit is shown to be useful for measuring the reverse recovery transients of fast switching diodes such as the 1N4148, and fast recovery power rectifiers.

Chudobiak, Michael J.

1995-11-01

77

Polariton Condensate Transistor Switch  

E-print Network

A polariton condensate transistor switch is realized through optical excitation of a microcavity ridge with two beams. The ballistically ejected polaritons from a condensate formed at the source are gated using the 20 times weaker second beam to switch on and off the flux of polaritons. In the absence of the gate beam the small built-in detuning creates potential landscape in which ejected polaritons are channelled toward the end of the ridge where they condense. The low loss photon-like propagation combined with strong nonlinearities associated with their excitonic component makes polariton based transistors particularly attractive for the implementation of all-optical integrated circuits.

Gao, T; Liew, T C H; Tsintzos, S I; Stavrinidis, G; Deligeorgis, G; Hatzopoulos, Z; Savvidis, P G

2012-01-01

78

Dye laser amplifier  

DOEpatents

An improved dye laser amplifier is disclosed. The efficiency of the dye lr amplifier is increased significantly by increasing the power of a dye beam as it passes from an input window to an output window within the dye chamber, while maintaining the intensity of the dye beam constant.

Moses, Edward I. (Livermore, CA)

1992-01-01

79

Multimode silicon nanowire transistors.  

PubMed

The combined capabilities of both a nonplanar design and nonconventional carrier injection mechanisms are subject to recent scientific investigations to overcome the limitations of silicon metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors. In this Letter, we present a multimode field effect transistors device using silicon nanowires that feature an axial n-type/intrinsic doping junction. A heterostructural device design is achieved by employing a self-aligned nickel-silicide source contact. The polymorph operation of the dual-gate device enabling the configuration of one p- and two n-type transistor modes is demonstrated. Not only the type but also the carrier injection mode can be altered by appropriate biasing of the two gate terminals or by inverting the drain bias. With a combined band-to-band and Schottky tunneling mechanism, in p-type mode a subthreshold swing as low as 143 mV/dec and an ON/OFF ratio of up to 10(4) is found. As the device operates in forward bias, a nonconventional tunneling transistor is realized, enabling an effective suppression of ambipolarity. Depending on the drain bias, two different n-type modes are distinguishable. The carrier injection is dominated by thermionic emission in forward bias with a maximum ON/OFF ratio of up to 10(7) whereas in reverse bias a Schottky tunneling mechanism dominates the carrier transport. PMID:25303290

Glassner, Sebastian; Zeiner, Clemens; Periwal, Priyanka; Baron, Thierry; Bertagnolli, Emmerich; Lugstein, Alois

2014-11-12

80

A Matterwave Transistor Oscillator  

E-print Network

An atomtronic transistor circuit is used to realize a driven matterwave oscillator. The transistor consists of Source and Drain regions separated by a narrow Gate well. Quasi-steady-state behavior is determined from a thermodynamic model, which reveals two oscillation threshold regimes. One is due to the onset of Bose-Einstein condensation in the Gate well, the other is due to the appearance of a negative transresistance regime of the transistor. The thresholds of oscillation are shown to be primarily dependent on the potential energy height difference between Gate-Drain and Gate-Source barriers. The transistor potential is established with a combination of magnetic and optical fields using a compound glass and silicon substrate atom chip. The onset of oscillation and the output matterwave are observed through in-trap imaging. Time-of-flight absorption imaging is used to determine the time dependence of the Source well thermal and chemical energies as well as to estimate the value of the closed-loop ohmic Gate resistance, which is negative and is observed to cause cooling of Source atoms.

Seth C. Caliga; Cameron J. E. Straatsma; Alex A. Zozulya; Dana Z. Anderson

2012-08-15

81

A Matterwave Transistor Oscillator  

E-print Network

A triple-well atomtronic transistor combined with forced RF evaporation is used to realize a driven matterwave oscillator circuit. The transistor is implemented using a metalized compound glass and silicon substrate. On-chip and external currents produce a cigar-shaped magnetic trap, which is divided into transistor source, gate, and drain regions by a pair of blue-detuned optical barriers projected onto the magnetic trap through a chip window. A resonant laser beam illuminating the drain portion of the atomtronic transistor couples atoms emitted by the gate to the vacuum. The circuit operates by loading the source with cold atoms and utilizing forced evaporation as a power supply that produces a positive chemical potential in the source, which subsequently drives oscillation. High-resolution in-trap absorption imagery reveals gate atoms that have tunneled from the source and establishes that the circuit emits a nominally mono-energetic matterwave with a frequency of 23.5(1.0) kHz by tunneling from the gate, ...

Caliga, Seth C; Zozulya, Alex A; Anderson, Dana Z

2012-01-01

82

Broadband linear high-voltage amplifier for radio frequency ion traps.  

PubMed

We developed a linear high-voltage amplifier for small capacitive loads consisting of a high-voltage power supply and a transistor amplifier. With this cost-effective circuit including only standard parts sinusoidal signals with a few volts can be amplified to 1.7 kVpp over a usable frequency range at large-signal response spanning four orders of magnitude from 20 Hz to 100 kHz under a load of 10 pF. For smaller output voltages the maximum frequency shifts up to megahertz. We test different capacitive loads to probe the influence on the performance. The presented amplifier is sustained short-circuit proof on the output side, which is a significant advantage over other amplifier concepts. The amplifier can be used to drive radio frequency ion traps for single charged nano- and microparticles, which will be presented in brief. PMID:25430133

Kuhlicke, Alexander; Palis, Klaus; Benson, Oliver

2014-11-01

83

Development of a low-noise amplifier for neutron detection in harsh environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A fast matching charge amplifier for neutron spectroscopy in harsh environment has been developed and tested at the JET Tokamak. This front-end circuit is capable to operate at a distance up to 100 meters from a sensor without increasing its equivalent noise charge. Further improvements are possible by exploiting the intrinsic performance of silicon-germanium bipolar junction transistors.

Angelone, M.; Cardarelli, R.; Paolozzi, L.; Pillon, M.

2014-10-01

84

Radio frequency analog electronics based on carbon nanotube transistors  

PubMed Central

The potential to exploit single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) in advanced electronics represents a continuing, major source of interest in these materials. However, scalable integration of SWNTs into circuits is challenging because of difficulties in controlling the geometries, spatial positions, and electronic properties of individual tubes. We have implemented solutions to some of these challenges to yield radio frequency (RF) SWNT analog electronic devices, such as narrow band amplifiers operating in the VHF frequency band with power gains as high as 14 dB. As a demonstration, we fabricated nanotube transistor radios, in which SWNT devices provide all of the key functions, including resonant antennas, fixed RF amplifiers, RF mixers, and audio amplifiers. These results represent important first steps to practical implementation of SWNTs in high-speed analog circuits. Comparison studies indicate certain performance advantages over silicon and capabilities that complement those in existing compound semiconductor technologies. PMID:18227509

Kocabas, Coskun; Kim, Hoon-sik; Banks, Tony; Rogers, John A.; Pesetski, Aaron A.; Baumgardner, James E.; Krishnaswamy, S. V.; Zhang, Hong

2008-01-01

85

Fully relayed regenerative amplifier  

DOEpatents

A regenerative laser apparatus and method using the optical relay concept to maintain high fill factors, to suppress diffraction effects, and to minimize phase distortions in a regenerative amplifier.

Glass, Alexander J. (Berkeley, CA)

1981-01-01

86

Raman amplifiers for telecommunications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Raman amplifiers are being deployed in almost every new long-haul and ultralong-haul fiber-optic transmission systems, making them one of the first widely commercialized nonlinear optical devices in telecommunications. This paper reviews some of the technical reasons behind the wide-spread acceptance of Raman technology. Distributed Raman amplifiers improve the noise figure and reduce the nonlinear penalty of fiber systems, allowing for

Mohammed N. Islam

2002-01-01

87

An 8.4-GHz cryogenically cooled HEMT amplifier for DSS 13  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A prototype 8.4 GHz (X-band) high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) amplifier/closed cycle refrigerator system was installed in the Deep Space Station 13 feedcone in August 1987. The amplifier is cryogenically cooled to a physical temperature of 12 K and provides 31 K antenna noise temperature (zenith) and 35 dB of gain at a frequency of 8.2 to 8.6 GHz. Antenna system noise temperature is less than 50 K from 7.2 to 9.4 MHz. The low noise HEMT amplifier system is intended for use as a radio astronomy or space communications receiver front end.

Tanida, L.

1988-01-01

88

NASA satellite communications application research, phase 2 addendum. Efficient high power, solid state amplifier for EHF communications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This document is an addendum to the NASA Satellite Communications Application Research (SCAR) Phase 2 Final Report, 'Efficient High Power, Solid State Amplifier for EHF Communications.' This report describes the work performed from 1 August 1993 to 11 March 1994, under contract number NASW-4513. During this reporting period an array of transistor amplifiers was repaired by replacing all MMIC amplifier chips. The amplifier array was then tested using three different feedhorn configurations. Descriptions, procedures, and results of this testing are presented in this report, and conclusions are drawn based on the test results obtained.

Benet, James

1994-01-01

89

The microtubule transistor  

E-print Network

I point out the similarity between the microtubule experiment reported by Priel et al [Biophys. J. 90, 4639 (2006)] and the ZnO nanowire experiment of Wang et al [Nanolett. 6, 2768 (2006)]. It is quite possible that MTs are similar to a piezoelectric field effect transistor for which the role of the control gate electrode is played by the piezo-induced electric field across the width of the MT walls and their elastic bending features

H. C. Rosu

2007-03-26

90

Laser amplifier and method  

DOEpatents

Laser amplifiers and methods for amplifying a laser beam are disclosed. A representative embodiment of the amplifier comprises first and second curved mirrors, a gain medium, a third mirror, and a mask. The gain medium is situated between the first and second curved mirrors at the focal point of each curved mirror. The first curved mirror directs and focuses a laser beam to pass through the gain medium to the second curved mirror which reflects and recollimates the laser beam. The gain medium amplifies and shapes the laser beam as the laser beam passes therethough. The third mirror reflects the laser beam, reflected from the second curved mirror, so that the laser beam bypasses the gain medium and return to the first curved mirror, thereby completing a cycle of a ring traversed by the laser beam. The mask defines at least one beam-clipping aperture through which the laser beam passes during a cycle. The gain medium is pumped, preferably using a suitable pumping laser. The laser amplifier can be used to increase the energy of continuous-wave or, especially, pulsed laser beams including pulses of femtosecond duration and relatively high pulse rate.

Backus, Sterling (Ann Arbor, MI); Kapteyn, Henry C. (Ann Arbor, MI); Murnane, Margaret M. (Ann Arbor, MI)

1997-01-01

91

High input impedance amplifier  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

High input impedance amplifiers are provided which reduce the input impedance solely to a capacitive reactance, or, in a somewhat more complex design, provide an extremely high essentially infinite, capacitive reactance. In one embodiment, where the input impedance is reduced in essence, to solely a capacitive reactance, an operational amplifier in a follower configuration is driven at its non-inverting input and a resistor with a predetermined magnitude is connected between the inverting and non-inverting inputs. A second embodiment eliminates the capacitance from the input by adding a second stage to the first embodiment. The second stage is a second operational amplifier in a non-inverting gain-stage configuration where the output of the first follower stage drives the non-inverting input of the second stage and the output of the second stage is fed back to the non-inverting input of the first stage through a capacitor of a predetermined magnitude. These amplifiers, while generally useful, are very useful as sensor buffer amplifiers that may eliminate significant sources of error.

Kleinberg, Leonard L.

1995-01-01

92

A Bio-Polymer Transistor: Electrical Amplification by Microtubules  

E-print Network

Microtubules (MTs) are important cytoskeletal structures, engaged in a number of specific cellular activities, including vesicular traffic, cell cyto-architecture and motility, cell division, and information processing within neuronal processes. MTs have also been implicated in higher neuronal functions, including memory, and the emergence of "consciousness". How MTs handle and process electrical information, however, is heretofore unknown. Here we show new electrodynamic properties of MTs. Isolated, taxol-stabilized microtubules behave as bio-molecular transistors capable of amplifying electrical information. Electrical amplification by MTs can lead to the enhancement of dynamic information, and processivity in neurons can be conceptualized as an "ionic-based" transistor, which may impact among other known functions, neuronal computational capabilities.

Avner Priel; Arnolt J. Ramos; Jack A. Tuszynski; Horacio F. Cantiello

2006-06-09

93

Spatial Light Amplifier Modulators  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Spatial light amplifier modulators (SLAM's) are conceptual devices that effect two-dimensional spatial modulation in optical computing and communication systems. Unlike current spatial light modulators, these provide gain. Optical processors incorporating SLAM's designed to operate in reflection or transmission mode. Each element of planar SLAM array is optical amplifier - surface-emitting diode laser. Array addressed electrically with ac modulating signals superimposed on dc bias currents supplied to lasers. SLAM device provides both desired modulation and enough optical gain to enable splitting of output signal into many optical fibers without excessive loss of power.

Eng, Sverre T.; Olsson, N. Anders

1992-01-01

94

Fourier plane image amplifier  

DOEpatents

A solid state laser is frequency tripled to 0.3 {micro}m. A small portion of the laser is split off and generates a Stokes seed in a low power oscillator. The low power output passes through a mask with the appropriate hole pattern. Meanwhile, the bulk of the laser output is focused into a larger stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) amplifier. The low power beam is directed through the same cell in the opposite direction. The majority of the amplification takes place at the focus which is the fourier transform plane of the mask image. The small holes occupy large area at the focus and thus are preferentially amplified. The amplified output is now imaged onto the multichip module where the holes are drilled. Because of the fourier plane amplifier, only about 1/10th the power of a competitive system is needed. This concept allows less expensive masks to be used in the process and requires much less laser power. 1 fig.

Hackel, L.A.; Hermann, M.R.; Dane, C.B.; Tiszauer, D.H.

1995-12-12

95

Fourier plane image amplifier  

DOEpatents

A solid state laser is frequency tripled to 0.3 .mu.m. A small portion of the laser is split off and generates a Stokes seed in a low power oscillator. The low power output passes through a mask with the appropriate hole pattern. Meanwhile, the bulk of the laser output is focused into a larger stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) amplifier. The low power beam is directed through the same cell in the opposite direction. The majority of the amplification takes place at the focus which is the fourier transform plane of the mask image. The small holes occupy large area at the focus and thus are preferentially amplified. The amplified output is now imaged onto the multichip module where the holes are drilled. Because of the fourier plane amplifier, only .about.1/10th the power of a competitive system is needed. This concept allows less expensive masks to be used in the process and requires much less laser power.

Hackel, Lloyd A. (Livermore, CA); Hermann, Mark R. (San Ramon, CA); Dane, C. Brent (Livermore, CA); Tiszauer, Detlev H. (Tracy, CA)

1995-01-01

96

A 1.6 GHz switch mode power amplifier with continuous-time bandpass delta-sigma modulator  

Microsoft Academic Search

A continuous-time bandpass delta-sigma modulator (CT BDSM) is designed and fabricated in a SiGe bipolar transistor technology with a transit frequency of 200 GHz. The modulator can be tuned in its center frequency from 1.55 GHz up to 2.45 GHz for mobile base station applications. To drive a GaN high power amplifier a driver amplifier is presented using a complementary

Manfred Berroth; Martin Schmidt; Stefan Heck; Alexander Braeckle; Markus Groezing

2009-01-01

97

RICE UNIVERSITY Transport in Single Molecule Transistors  

E-print Network

RICE UNIVERSITY Transport in Single Molecule Transistors by Lam H. Yu A Thesis Submitted in Partial Houston, Texas January, 2006 #12;Abstract Transport in Single Molecule Transistors by Lam H. Yu molecule transistors (SMTs), nanometer-scale transistors in which charge transport occurs through

Natelson, Douglas

98

A photonic transistor device based on photons and phonons in a cavity electromechanical system  

E-print Network

We present a scheme for photonic transistors based on photons and phonons in a cavity electromechanical system, which is consisted of a superconducting microwave cavity coupled to a nanomechanical resonator. Control of the propagation of photons is achieved through the interaction of microwave field (photons) and nanomechanical vibrations (phonons). By calculating the transmission spectrum of the signal field, we show that the signal field can be efficiently attenuated or amplified, depending on the power of a second `gating'(pump) field. This scheme may be a promising candidate for single-photon transistors and pave the way for numerous applications in telecommunication and quantum information technologies.

Cheng Jiang; Ka-Di Zhu

2012-09-21

99

A photonic transistor device based on photons and phonons in a cavity electromechanical system  

E-print Network

We present a scheme for photonic transistors based on photons and phonons in a cavity electromechanical system, which is consisted of a superconducting microwave cavity coupled to a nanomechanical resonator. Control of the propagation of photons is achieved through the interaction of microwave field (photons) and nanomechanical vibrations (phonons). By calculating the transmission spectrum of the signal field, we show that the signal field can be efficiently attenuated or amplified, depending on the power of a second `gating'(pump) field. This scheme may be a promising candidate for single-photon transistors and pave the way for numerous applications in telecommunication and quantum information technologies.

Jiang, Cheng

2012-01-01

100

Monolithic dye laser amplifier  

DOEpatents

A fluid dye laser amplifier for amplifying a dye beam by pump beams has a channel structure defining a channel through which a laseable fluid flows and the dye and pump beams pass transversely to one another through a lasing region. The channel structure is formed with two pairs of mutually spaced-apart and mutually confronting glass windows, which are interlocked and make surface-contacts with one another and surround the lasing region. One of the glass window pairs passes the dye beam and the other passes the pump beams therethrough and through the lasing region. Where these glass window pieces make surface-contacts, glue is used to join the pieces together to form a monolithic structure so as to prevent the dye in the fluid passing through the channel from entering the space between the mutually contacting glass window pieces.

Kuklo, Thomas C. (Ripon, CA)

1993-01-01

101

Monolithic dye laser amplifier  

DOEpatents

A fluid dye laser amplifier for amplifying a dye beam by pump beams has a channel structure defining a channel through which a laseable fluid flows and the dye and pump beams pass transversely to one another through a lasing region. The channel structure is formed with two pairs of mutually spaced-apart and mutually confronting glass windows, which are interlocked and make surface-contacts with one another and surround the lasing region. One of the glass window pairs passes the dye beam and the other passes the pump beams therethrough and through the lasing region. Where these glass window pieces make surface-contacts, glue is used to join the pieces together to form a monolithic structure so as to prevent the dye in the fluid passing through the channel from entering the space between the mutually contacting glass window pieces.

Kuklo, T.C.

1993-03-30

102

Helical Fiber Amplifier  

DOEpatents

A multi-mode gain fiber is provided which affords substantial improvements in the maximum pulse energy, peak power handling capabilities, average output power, and/or pumping efficiency of fiber amplifier and laser sources while maintaining good beam quality (comparable to that of a conventional single-mode fiber source). These benefits are realized by coiling the multimode gain fiber to induce significant bend loss for all but the lowest-order mode(s).

Koplow, Jeffrey P. (Washington, DC); Kliner, Dahy (San Ramon, CA); Goldberg, Lew (Fairfax, VA)

2002-12-17

103

Saturated Operational Amplifier  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animated gif illustrates the changing voltages when an operational amplifier (op-amp) becomes saturated. This animation would be useful for visually respresenting Finley's law. Voltages and parts of the circuit of this 3-D animated gif are highlighted with different colors. Current is displayed by green arrows indicating directional flow. The animation requires a Web browser or other video player software capable of displaying gif animations.Other 3-D Circuit Animations can be seen here.

2009-11-27

104

Improved-Bandwidth Transimpedance Amplifier  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The widest available operational amplifier, with the best voltage and current noise characteristics, is considered for transimpedance amplifier (TIA) applications where wide bandwidth is required to handle fast rising input signals (as for time-of-flight measurement cases). The added amplifier inside the TIA feedback loop can be configured to have slightly lower voltage gain than the bandwidth reduction factor.

Chapsky, Jacob

2009-01-01

105

K-Band Si/SiGe HBT MMIC Amplifiers Using Lumped Passive Components with a Micromachined Structure  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Using Si/SiGe heterojunction bipolar transistors with a maximum oscillation frequency of 52 GHz and a novel structure for passive components, a two-stage K-band lumped-element amplifier has been designed and fabricated on high-resistivity Si substrates. The chip size including biasing and RF chokes is 0.92 x 0.67 sq mm.

Lu, Liang-Hung; Rieh, Jae-Sung; Bhattacharya, Pallab; Katechi, Linda P. B.; Croke, E. T.; Ponchak, George E.; Alterovitz, Samuel A.

2000-01-01

106

Chirped pulse Raman amplifier  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

All modern terawatt- and petawatt-class laser systems are based on the principle of chirped-pulse amplification (CPA). In this work, a compact subsystem that shifts a micro-joule portion of the chirped pulse energy to a new wavelength outside its original bandwidth, then amplifies it to millijoule energy without adding pump lasers, and without compromising the output of the fundamental CPA system in any significant way, has been developed and integrated into a standard terawatt-class CPA system. In this chirped pulse Raman amplifier sub-system, a 30 mJ portion of a chirped 800 nm fundamental pulse within the CPA system was split into two unequal portions, each of which impinged on a Raman-active barium nitrate, or Ba(NO3)2, crystal of length 5 cm. The weaker portion created a weak (15 J) first Stokes pulse (873 nm) by Stimulated Raman Scattering (SRS) in the first crystal, which then seeded a non-collinear four-wave-mixing process driven by the stronger portion of the split-off CPA pulse in the second crystal. The latter process amplified the first Stokes seed pulse to several millijoules with excellent beam quality. A study of Raman gain as a function of time delay between pump and Stokes pulse in the second crystal revealed a sharply peaked narrow interval (3 ps FWHM) of high gain and a wider interval (50 ps) of low gain. The amplified, chirped first Stokes pulse was successfully compressed to 100 fs duration using a grating pair of different line density than in the main CPA system, based on a comprehensive dispersion analysis of the optical path of the first Stokes pulse. The possibility of generating higher-order Stokes and anti-Stokes sidebands of the CPA pulse is also demonstrated. Further amplification of the sideband pulse by conventional methods, using an additional pump laser, appears straightforward. The chirped pulse Raman amplifier provides temporally synchronized fundamental and Raman sideband pulses for performing two-color, high-intensity laser experiments, some of which are briefly discussed. It can be integrated into any standard CPA system, and provides significant new versatility for high-intensity laser sources.

Grigsby, Franklin Bhogaraju

107

Adiabatic Quantum Transistors  

E-print Network

We describe a many-body quantum system which can be made to quantum compute by the adiabatic application of a large applied field to the system. Prior to the application of the field quantum information is localized on one boundary of the device, and after the application of the field this information has propagated to the other side of the device with a quantum circuit applied to the information. The applied circuit depends on the many-body Hamiltonian of the material, and the computation takes place in a degenerate ground space with symmetry-protected topological order. Such adiabatic quantum transistors are universal adiabatic quantum computing devices which have the added benefit of being modular. Here we describe this model, provide arguments for why it is an efficient model of quantum computing, and examine these many-body systems in the presence of a noisy environment.

Dave Bacon; Steven T. Flammia; Gregory M. Crosswhite

2012-07-11

108

Adiabatic Quantum Transistors  

We describe a many-body quantum system that can be made to quantum compute by the adiabatic application of a large applied field to the system. Prior to the application of the field, quantum information is localized on one boundary of the device, and after the application of the field, this information propagates to the other side of the device, with a quantum circuit applied to the information. The applied circuit depends on the many-body Hamiltonian of the material, and the computation takes place in a degenerate ground space with symmetry-protected topological order. Such adiabatic quantum transistors are universal adiabatic quantum computing devices that have the added benefit of being modular. Here, we describe this model, provide arguments for why it is an efficient model of quantum computing, and examine these many-body systems in the presence of a noisy environment.

Bacon, Dave; Flammia, Steven T.; Crosswhite, Gregory M.

2013-06-01

109

High transconductance organic electrochemical transistors  

PubMed Central

The development of transistors with high gain is essential for applications ranging from switching elements and drivers to transducers for chemical and biological sensing. Organic transistors have become well-established based on their distinct advantages, including ease of fabrication, synthetic freedom for chemical functionalization, and the ability to take on unique form factors. These devices, however, are largely viewed as belonging to the low-end of the performance spectrum. Here we present organic electrochemical transistors with a transconductance in the mS range, outperforming transistors from both traditional and emerging semiconductors. The transconductance of these devices remains fairly constant from DC up to a frequency of the order of 1?kHz, a value determined by the process of ion transport between the electrolyte and the channel. These devices, which continue to work even after being crumpled, are predicted to be highly relevant as transducers in biosensing applications. PMID:23851620

Khodagholy, Dion; Rivnay, Jonathan; Sessolo, Michele; Gurfinkel, Moshe; Leleux, Pierre; Jimison, Leslie H.; Stavrinidou, Eleni; Herve, Thierry; Sanaur, Sebastien; Owens, Roisin M.; Malliaras, George G.

2013-01-01

110

High transconductance organic electrochemical transistors.  

PubMed

The development of transistors with high gain is essential for applications ranging from switching elements and drivers to transducers for chemical and biological sensing. Organic transistors have become well-established based on their distinct advantages, including ease of fabrication, synthetic freedom for chemical functionalization, and the ability to take on unique form factors. These devices, however, are largely viewed as belonging to the low-end of the performance spectrum. Here we present organic electrochemical transistors with a transconductance in the mS range, outperforming transistors from both traditional and emerging semiconductors. The transconductance of these devices remains fairly constant from DC up to a frequency of the order of 1 kHz, a value determined by the process of ion transport between the electrolyte and the channel. These devices, which continue to work even after being crumpled, are predicted to be highly relevant as transducers in biosensing applications. PMID:23851620

Khodagholy, Dion; Rivnay, Jonathan; Sessolo, Michele; Gurfinkel, Moshe; Leleux, Pierre; Jimison, Leslie H; Stavrinidou, Eleni; Herve, Thierry; Sanaur, Sbastien; Owens, Risn M; Malliaras, George G

2013-01-01

111

Small-signal amplifier based on single-layer MoS2  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this letter we demonstrate the operation of an analog small-signal amplifier based on single-layer MoS2, a semiconducting analogue of graphene. Our device consists of two transistors integrated on the same piece of single-layer MoS2. The high intrinsic band gap of 1.8 eV allows MoS2-based amplifiers to operate with a room temperature gain of 4. The amplifier operation is demonstrated for the frequencies of input signal up to 2 kHz preserving the gain higher than 1. Our work shows that MoS2 can effectively amplify signals and that it could be used for advanced analog circuits based on two-dimensional materials.

Radisavljevic, Branimir; Whitwick, Michael B.; Kis, Andras

2012-07-01

112

Design and implementation of cryogenic semiconductor amplifiers as interface between RSFQ circuits  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Rapid single flux quantum (RSFQ) circuits create high interest in cryogenic amplifiers as interface to commercial room temperature electronics. The requirements for the amplifiers are an extremely high bandwidth (SFQ pulses with t=t=10ps), high voltage gain of about 104 (common RSFQ output voltage level of about 200?V), low power consumption (cryogenic environment at 4 K) and low noise. Hybrid amplifiers, based on commercial available p-HEMT transistors, can solve the problematic high-speed interface. In this paper, we present measurement results of a hybrid four stage coplanar amplifier in combination with a RSFQ Toggle Flip-Flop (RSFQ T-FF) and a Josephson array quantizer (JA-Q).

Wuensch, S.; Ortlepp, T.; Schubert, M.; Crocoll, E.; Wende, G.; Meyer, H.-G.; Uhlmann, F. H.; Siegel, M.

2009-11-01

113

Properties and Applications of Varistor-Transistor Hybrid Devices  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The nonlinear current-voltage characteristics of a varistor device are modified with the help of external agents, resulting in tuned varistor-transistor hybrid devices with multiple applications. The substrate used to produce these hybrid devices belongs to the modified iron titanate family with chemical formula 0.55FeTiO30.45Fe2O3 (IHC45), which is a prominent member of the ilmenite-hematite solid-solution series. It is a wide-bandgap magnetic oxide semiconductor. Electrical resistivity and Seebeck coefficient measurements from room temperature to about 700C confirm that it retains its p-type nature for the entire temperature range. The direct-current (DC) and alternating-current (AC) properties of these hybrid devices are discussed and their applications identified. It is shown here that such varistor embedded ceramic transistors with many interesting properties and applications can be mass produced using incredibly simple structures. The tuned varistors by themselves can be used for current amplification and band-pass filters. The transistors on the other hand could be used to produce sensors, voltage-controlled current sources, current-controlled voltage sources, signal amplifiers, and low-band-pass filters. We believe that these devices could be suitable for a number of applications in consumer and defense electronics, high-temperature and space electronics, bioelectronics, and possibly also for electronics specific to handheld devices.

Pandey, R. K.; Stapleton, William A.; Sutanto, Ivan; Scantlin, Amanda A.; Lin, Sidney

2014-05-01

114

Few-layer molybdenum disulfide transistors and circuits for high-speed flexible electronics.  

PubMed

Two-dimensional layered materials, such as molybdenum disulfide, are emerging as an exciting material system for future electronics due to their unique electronic properties and atomically thin geometry. Here we report a systematic investigation of MoS2 transistors with optimized contact and device geometry, to achieve self-aligned devices with performance including an intrinsic gain over 30, an intrinsic cut-off frequency fT up to 42?GHz and a maximum oscillation frequency fMAX up to 50?GHz, exceeding the reported values for MoS2 transistors to date (fT~0.9?GHz, fMAX~1?GHz). Our results show that logic inverters or radio frequency amplifiers can be formed by integrating multiple MoS2 transistors on quartz or flexible substrates with voltage gain in the gigahertz regime. This study demonstrates the potential of two-dimensional layered semiconductors for high-speed flexible electronics. PMID:25295573

Cheng, Rui; Jiang, Shan; Chen, Yu; Liu, Yuan; Weiss, Nathan; Cheng, Hung-Chieh; Wu, Hao; Huang, Yu; Duan, Xiangfeng

2014-01-01

115

Few-layer molybdenum disulfide transistors and circuits for high-speed flexible electronics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Two-dimensional layered materials, such as molybdenum disulfide, are emerging as an exciting material system for future electronics due to their unique electronic properties and atomically thin geometry. Here we report a systematic investigation of MoS2 transistors with optimized contact and device geometry, to achieve self-aligned devices with performance including an intrinsic gain over 30, an intrinsic cut-off frequency fT up to 42?GHz and a maximum oscillation frequency fMAX up to 50?GHz, exceeding the reported values for MoS2 transistors to date (fT~0.9?GHz, fMAX~1?GHz). Our results show that logic inverters or radio frequency amplifiers can be formed by integrating multiple MoS2 transistors on quartz or flexible substrates with voltage gain in the gigahertz regime. This study demonstrates the potential of two-dimensional layered semiconductors for high-speed flexible electronics.

Cheng, Rui; Jiang, Shan; Chen, Yu; Liu, Yuan; Weiss, Nathan; Cheng, Hung-Chieh; Wu, Hao; Huang, Yu; Duan, Xiangfeng

2014-10-01

116

Amplifying Electrochemical Indicators  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Dendrimeric reporter compounds have been invented for use in sensing and amplifying electrochemical signals from molecular recognition events that involve many chemical and biological entities. These reporter compounds can be formulated to target specific molecules or molecular recognition events. They can also be formulated to be, variously, hydrophilic or amphiphilic so that they are suitable for use at interfaces between (1) aqueous solutions and (2) electrodes connected to external signal-processing electronic circuits. The invention of these reporter compounds is expected to enable the development of highly miniaturized, low-power-consumption, relatively inexpensive, mass-producible sensor units for diverse applications.

Fan, Wenhong; Li, Jun; Han, Jie

2004-01-01

117

Medium power amplifiers covering 90 - 130 GHz for telescope local oscillators  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This paper describes a set of power amplifier (PA) modules containing InP High Electron Mobility Transistor (HEMT) Monolithic Millimeter-wave Integrated Circuit (MMIC) chips. The chips were designed and optimized for local oscillator sources in the 90-130 GHz band for the Atacama Large Millimeter Array telescope. The modules feature 20-45 mW of output power, to date the highest power from solid state HEMT MMIC modules above 110 GHz.

Samoska, Lorene A.; Bryerton, Eric; Pukala, David; Peralta, Alejandro; Hu, Ming; Schmitz, Adele

2005-01-01

118

CMOS RF amplifier and mixer circuits utilizing complementary Characteristics of parallel combined NMOS and PMOS devices  

Microsoft Academic Search

Design and chip fabrication results for complementary RF circuit topologies that utilize the complementary RF characteristics of both NMOS and PMOS field-effect-transistor devices combined in parallel way are reported, which can inherently provide single-ended differential signal-processing capability, requiring neither baluns, nor differential signal generating\\/combining circuits. The proposed complementary CMOS parallel push-pull (CCPP) amplifier gives an order of magnitude improvement in

Ilku Nam; Bonkee Kim; Kwyro Lee

2005-01-01

119

Advances on GaN based switch mode amplifiers for communication applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the design and implementation of a switch mode power amplifier as a building block for a purely digital transmitter chain for communication applications using high-power Gallium Nitride (GaN) monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMICs) with high electronic mobility transistors (HEMTs). For square-wave excitation the measured output power and drain efficiency are 5 W and 64 %, respectively, enabling

Ulf Schmid; Rolf Reber; Sebastien Chartier; Wilfried Grabherr; Ralf Leberer; Martin Oppermann

2011-01-01

120

A Novel Ultra-Low Power (ULP) Low Noise Amplifier using Differential Inductor Feedback  

Microsoft Academic Search

A novel ultra-low power (ULP) low noise amplifier (LNA) is proposed for low-power radio-frequency (RF) wireless radios. Using the differential inductor feedback structure along with the neutralizing capacitor, this configuration doubles the effective gm of the input transistor, while canceling out the feed forward and LO leakage through the gate-drain capacitor. In this design, the input device is biased to

Amin Shameli; Payam Heydari

2006-01-01

121

Operational amplifier with 1-V rail-to-rail multipath-driven output stage  

Microsoft Academic Search

A bipolar operational amplifier (op amp) with a rail-to-rail multipath-driven output stage that operates at supply voltages down to 1 V is presented. The bandwidth of this output stage is as high as possible, viz, equal to that of one of the output transistors, loaded by the output capacitance. The output voltage can reach both supply rails within 100 mV

Jeroen Fonderie; Johan H. Huijsing

1991-01-01

122

A rail-to-rail constant-gm low-voltage CMOS operational transconductance amplifier  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new operational transconductance amplifier working with supply voltages down to 1.3 V has been realized in a standard 0.7-?m CMOS technology. A constant transconductance (within 6% of maximum variation) is ensured for the whole common-mode input range. The input transistors operate in weak inversion. The class AB output stage also has a full voltage swing. The circuit provides a

Giuseppe Ferri; Willy Sansen

1997-01-01

123

A low-noise CMOS instrumentation amplifier for thermoelectric infrared detectors  

Microsoft Academic Search

A low-noise CMOS instrumentation amplifier for low-frequency thermoelectric infrared sensor applications is described which uses a chopper technique to reduce low-frequency noise and offset. The offset reduction efficiency of the band-pass filter, implemented to reduce residual offset due to clock feedthrough, has been analyzed and experimentally verified. The circuit has been integrated in a transistor-only 1-?m single-poly n-well CMOS process.

Christian Menolfi; Qiuting Huang

1997-01-01

124

Prediction of radiation damage effects in transistors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Quantative relationships between radiation dosage to transistors and resultant damage are established. Calculation of these dose levels is based on high energy particle population data and analysis of the shielding effect provided by the enclosures surrounding a given transistor.

1967-01-01

125

The cross-coupled amplifier  

E-print Network

THE CROSS COUPLED AMPLIFIER A Thesis By George Clyde Robinson January 1951 THE CROSS COUPLED AMPLIFIER A Thesis GEORGE CLYDE ROBINSON JANUARY 1951 Approved as to style and content by C airma of Committee THE CROSS-COUPLED AMPLIFIER A... Thesis Submitted to the Faculty of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in Partial Fulfilment of the Requirements for the Degree of Master of Science Ma]or Sub]ect: Electrical Engineering By George Clyde Robinson January X951 TABLE...

Robinson, George Clyde

2012-06-07

126

Paper field effect transistor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper we report the use of a sheet of cellulose fiber-based paper as the dielectric layer used in oxide based semiconductor thin film field-effect transistors (FETs). In this new approach we are using the cellulose fiber-based paper in an "interstrate" structure since the device is build on both sides of the cellulose sheet. Such hybrid FETs present excellent operating characteristics such as high channel saturation mobility (>30 cm2/Vs), drain-source current on/off modulation ratio of approximately 104, near-zero threshold voltage, enhancement n-type operation and sub-threshold gate voltage swing of 0.8 V/decade. The cellulose fiber-based paper FETs characteristics have been measured in air ambient conditions and present good stability. The obtained results outpace those of amorphous Si TFTs and rival with the same oxide based TFTs produced on either glass or crystalline silicon substrates. The compatibility of these devices with large-scale/large-area deposition techniques and low cost substrates as well as their very low operating bias delineates this as a promising approach to attain high-performance disposable electronics like paper displays, smart labels, smart packaging, RFID and point-of-care systems for self analysis in bio-applications, among others.

Fortunato, E.; Correia, Nuno; Barquinha, Pedro; Costa, Cludia; Pereira, Lus; Gonalves, Gonalo; Martins, Rodrigo

2009-02-01

127

Sensor Amplifier for the Venus Ground Ambient  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Previous Venus Landers employed high temperature pressure vessels, with thermally protected electronics, to achieve successful missions, with a maximum surface lifetime of 127 minutes. Extending the operating range of electronic systems to the temperatures (480 C) and pressures (90 bar) of the Venus ground ambient would significantly increase the science return of future missions. Toward that end, the current work describes the innovative design of a sensor preamplifier, capable of working in the Venus ground ambient and designed using commercial components (thermionic vacuum tubes, wide band gap transistors, thick film resistors, advanced high temperature capacitors, and monometallic interfaces) To identify commercial components and electronic packaging materials that are capable of operation within the specified environment, a series of active devices, passive components, and packaging materials were screened for operability at 500C, assuming a 10x increase in the mission lifetime. In addition. component degradation as a function of time at 500(deg)C was evaluated. Based on the results of these preliminary evaluations, two amplifiers were developed.

DelCastillo, Linda Y.; Johnson, Travis W.; Hatake, Toshiro; Mojarradi, Mohammad M.; Kolawa, Elizabeth A.

2006-01-01

128

Optical Amplifier for Space Applications  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We describe an optical amplifier designed to amplify a spatially sampled component of an optical wavefront to kilowatt average power. The goal is means for implementing a strategy of spatially segmenting a large aperture wavefront, amplifying the individual segments, maintaining the phase coherence of the segments by active means, and imaging the resultant amplified coherent field. Applications of interest are the transmission of space solar power over multi-megameter distances, as to distant spacecraft, or to remote sites with no preexisting power grid.

Fork, Richard L.; Cole, Spencer T.; Gamble, Lisa J.; Diffey, William M.; Keys, Andrew S.

1999-01-01

129

Super Matched Bipolar Transistor Pair Sets New  

E-print Network

Super Matched Bipolar Transistor Pair Sets New Standards for Drift and Noise Matched bipolar transistor pairs are a very powerful design tool, yet have received less and less attention over the last few transistor pairs was being limited by statistical fluctuations in the material itself and in the processing

Lanterman, Aaron

130

Heterostructure unipolar spin transistors M. E. Flatta  

E-print Network

Heterostructure unipolar spin transistors M. E. Flattéa Optical Science and Technology Center semiconductor electronics and spin-based unipolar electronics by considering unipolar spin transistors electrons to the collector limits the performance of "homojunction" unipolar spin transistors, in which

Flatte, Michael E.

131

Electronics MOS Field-Effect Transistors  

E-print Network

ECEN 325 Electronics MOS Field-Effect Transistors Dr. Aydin Ilker Kar¸silayan Texas A&M University. Kar¸silayan - MOS Field-Effect Transistors 1 #12;CMOS Physical StructureCMOS Physical Structure Cross 325 Electronics - Aydin I. Kar¸silayan - MOS Field-Effect Transistors 2 #12;TAMU-ELEN-325 J. Silva

Palermo, Sam

132

Single Carbon Nanotube Transistor at GHz Frequency  

E-print Network

Single Carbon Nanotube Transistor at GHz Frequency J. Chaste,, L. Lechner,£ P. Morfin,, G. Fe operation of top-gated single carbon nanotube transistors. From transmission measurements in the 0.1-1.6 GHz effect transistors (CNT-FETs) are very attractive as ultimate, quantum limited devices. In particular

Plaçais, Bernard

133

Photoresponsive nanoscale columnar transistors Xuefeng Guoa,1  

E-print Network

Photoresponsive nanoscale columnar transistors Xuefeng Guoa,1 , Shengxiong Xiaob , Matthew Myersb reports a general methodology for making stable high-performance photosensitive field effect transistors nanostructures with a diameter similar to that of SWNTs and then form nanoscale columnar transistors. To rule out

Hone, James

134

Integration of Cell Membranes and Nanotube Transistors  

E-print Network

Integration of Cell Membranes and Nanotube Transistors Keith Bradley, Alona Davis, Jean. As the nanoelectronic device, we use a nanotube network transistor, which incorporates many individual nanotubes as transistors, and that the two systems interact. Further, we use the interaction to study the charge

Gruner, George

135

The Resonant Body Transistor Dana Weinstein,*,  

E-print Network

The Resonant Body Transistor Dana Weinstein,*, and Sunil A. Bhave Cornell University, 405 Phillips Hall, Ithaca, New York 14853 ABSTRACT This paper introduces the resonant body transistor (RBT), a silicon-based dielectrically transduced nanoelectromechanical (NEM) resonator embedding a sense transistor

Afshari, Ehsan

136

Electroluminescence from a Single-Nanocrystal Transistor  

E-print Network

Electroluminescence from a Single-Nanocrystal Transistor Mark S. Gudiksen, Kristin N. Maher, Lian September 8, 2005 ABSTRACT We report the fabrication and characterization of light-emitting transistors- emitting transistors incorporating individual CdSe nano- crystals. Unlike the two-terminal devices employed

Heller, Eric

137

DECISION DIAGRAMS AND PASS TRANSISTOR LOGIC SYNTHESIS  

E-print Network

DECISION DIAGRAMS AND PASS TRANSISTOR LOGIC SYNTHESIS V. Bertacco S. Minato P. Verplaetse L. Benini by ARPA, under grant No. DABT63-95-C-0049. #12;Decision Diagrams and Pass Transistor Logic Synthesis V transistors and domino logic. The synthesis of these cells is based on BDD and ZBDD representations

De Micheli, Giovanni

138

Circuit Design with Independent Double Gate Transistors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Circuits with transistors using independently controlled gates have been designed to reduce the number of transistors and to increase the logic density per area. This paper proposed a full adder and substractor circuit with novel Vertical Slit Field Effect Transistor and unique independent double gate properties to demonstrate the possible advantages for independent double gate circuits. With the help of

Viranjay M. Srivastava; Nitant Saubagya; G. Singh

2010-01-01

139

Bio-organic field effect transistors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on the use of new DNA-based biopolymers as the semiconducting layer in field effect transistors. Thin-film field effect transistor (FET) structures are fabricated with two different DNA-biopolymers as semiconductor layers, and two different field effect transistor structures are studied. Current voltage characteristics of the FETs show that the devices are operating in depletion mode.

Carrie M. Bartsch; Guru Subramanyam; James G. Grote; Kristi M. Singh; Rajesh R. Naik; Birendra Singh; Niyazi S. Sariciftci

2007-01-01

140

Magnetic vortex based transistor operations.  

PubMed

Transistors constitute the backbone of modern day electronics. Since their advent, researchers have been seeking ways to make smaller and more efficient transistors. Here, we demonstrate a sustained amplification of magnetic vortex core gyration in coupled two and three vortices by controlling their relative core polarities. This amplification is mediated by a cascade of antivortex solitons travelling through the dynamic stray field. We further demonstrated that the amplification can be controlled by switching the polarity of the middle vortex in a three vortex sequence and the gain can be controlled by the input signal amplitude. An attempt to show fan-out operation yielded gain for one of the symmetrically placed branches which can be reversed by switching the core polarity of all the vortices in the network. The above observations promote the magnetic vortices as suitable candidates to work as stable bipolar junction transistors (BJT). PMID:24531235

Kumar, D; Barman, S; Barman, A

2014-01-01

141

Magnetic Vortex Based Transistor Operations  

PubMed Central

Transistors constitute the backbone of modern day electronics. Since their advent, researchers have been seeking ways to make smaller and more efficient transistors. Here, we demonstrate a sustained amplification of magnetic vortex core gyration in coupled two and three vortices by controlling their relative core polarities. This amplification is mediated by a cascade of antivortex solitons travelling through the dynamic stray field. We further demonstrated that the amplification can be controlled by switching the polarity of the middle vortex in a three vortex sequence and the gain can be controlled by the input signal amplitude. An attempt to show fanout operation yielded gain for one of the symmetrically placed branches which can be reversed by switching the core polarity of all the vortices in the network. The above observations promote the magnetic vortices as suitable candidates to work as stable bipolar junction transistors (BJT). PMID:24531235

Kumar, D.; Barman, S.; Barman, A.

2014-01-01

142

Magnetic Vortex Based Transistor Operations  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Transistors constitute the backbone of modern day electronics. Since their advent, researchers have been seeking ways to make smaller and more efficient transistors. Here, we demonstrate a sustained amplification of magnetic vortex core gyration in coupled two and three vortices by controlling their relative core polarities. This amplification is mediated by a cascade of antivortex solitons travelling through the dynamic stray field. We further demonstrated that the amplification can be controlled by switching the polarity of the middle vortex in a three vortex sequence and the gain can be controlled by the input signal amplitude. An attempt to show fan-out operation yielded gain for one of the symmetrically placed branches which can be reversed by switching the core polarity of all the vortices in the network. The above observations promote the magnetic vortices as suitable candidates to work as stable bipolar junction transistors (BJT).

Kumar, D.; Barman, S.; Barman, A.

2014-02-01

143

The Integration and Applications of Organic Thin Film Transistors and Ferroelectric Polymers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organic thin film transistors and ferroelectric polymer (polyvinylidene difluoride) sheet material are integrated to form various sensors for stress/strain, acoustic wave, and Infrared (heat) sensing applications. Different from silicon-based transistors, organic thin film transistors can be fabricated and processed in room-temperature and integrated with a variety of substrates. On the other hand, polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) exhibits ferroelectric properties that are highly useful for sensor applications. The wide frequency bandwidth (0.001 Hz to 10 GHz), vast dynamic range (100n to 10M psi), and high elastic compliance (up to 3 percent) make PVDF a more suitable candidate over ceramic piezoelectric materials for thin and flexible sensor applications. However, the low Curie temperature may have impeded its integration with silicon technology. Organic thin film transistors, however, do not have the limitation of processing temperature, hence can serve as transimpedance amplifiers to convert the charge signal generated by PVDF into current signal that are more measurable and less affected by any downstream parasitics. Piezoelectric sensors are useful for a range of applications, but passive arrays suffer from crosstalk and signal attenuation which have complicated the development of array-based PVDF sensors. We have used organic field effect transistors, which are compatible with the low Curie temperature of a flexible piezoelectric polymer,PVDF, to monolithically fabricate transimpedance amplifiers directly on the sensor surface and convert the piezoelectric charge signal into a current signal which can be detected even in the presence of parasitic capacitances. The device couples the voltage generated by the PVDF film under strain into the gate of the organic thin film transistors (OFET) using an arrangement that allows the full piezoelectric voltage to couple to the channel, while also increasing the charge retention time. A bipolar detector is created by using a UV-Ozone treatment to shift the threshold voltage and increase the current of the transistor under both compressive and tensile strain. An array of strain sensors which maps the strain field on a PVDF film surface is demonstrated in this work. The strain sensor experience inspires a tone analyzer built using distributed resonator architecture on a tensioned piezoelectric PVDF sheet. This sheet is used as both the resonator and detection element. Two architectures are demonstrated; one uses distributed directly addressed elements as a proof of concept, and the other integrates organic thin film transistor-based transimpedance amplifiers monolithically with the PVDF sheet to convert the piezoelectric charge signal into a current signal for future applications such as sound field imaging. The PVDF sheet material is instrumented along its length and the amplitude response at 15 sites is recorded and analyzed as a function of the frequency of excitation. The determination of the dominant frequency component of an incoming sound is demonstrated using linear system decomposition of the time-averaged response of the sheet using no time domain detection. Our design allows for the determination of the spectral composition of a sound using the mechanical signal processing provided by the amplitude response and eliminates the need for time-domain electronic signal processing of the incoming signal. The concepts of the PVDF strain sensor and the tone analyzer trigger the idea of an active matrix microphone through the integration of organic thin film transistors with a freestanding piezoelectric polymer sheet. Localized acoustic pressure detection is enabled by switch transistors and local transimpedance amplification built into the active matrix architecture. The frequency of detection ranges from DC to 15KHz; the bandwidth is extended using an architecture that provides for virtually zero gate/source and gate/drain capacitance at the sensing transistors and low overlap capacitance at the switch transistors. A series of measurements are taken to demonstrate localized

Hsu, Yu-Jen

144

The Microstrip SQUID Amplifier: Searching for the Axion  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The axion detector [1] at LLNL requires a very low noise amplifier in the 1-GHz frequency range. In the first generation detector, the cavity was cooled to 1.5 K and the amplifier was a HEMT (High Electron Mobility Transistor) with a noise temperature TN of 1.7 K. Thus, the system noise temperature Ts was 3.2 K. In an attempt to achieve significantly lower noise temperatures, we fabricated amplifiers based on the dc SQUID [2] (Superconducting QUantum Interference Device). The theory [3] for SQUID amplifiers with a resonant input circuit predicts that an optimized device at sufficiently low temperatures should be quantum limited, that is, TN = hf/k at frequency f. To extend the operating frequency to the gigahertz range, we developed the Microstrip SQUID Amplifier (MSA) in which the input coil forms a microstrip with the SQUID washer [4, 5]. When the length of the coil corresponds to a half-wavelength of the signal, the gain is typically 20 dB. We measured the gain and noise [6] of an MSA in which the resistive shunts of the junctions were coupled to cooling fins to reduce hot electron effects [7]. At 0.62 GHz, we achieved a minimum noise temperature TN = 485mK for a bath temperature of 50 mK and at a frequency below resonance, as predicted. The quantum limit is 30 mK. Since the time for the axion detector to scan a given frequency range scales as Ts2, replacing the HEMT with a SQUID and cooling the cavity to 50 mK potentially reduces the scan time by three orders of magnitude.

Clarke, John

2009-12-01

145

TILBW Bipolar Power Switching Transistor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The work reports the development of TILBW (Two Interdigitation Levels with heavily-doped Base Wells) bipolar power switching transistors, which combine the main advantages of both TIL and GAT devices. The TILBW transistors exhibit the following many-fold advantages in comparison with identical, yet conventional devices of the same class (identical area and case) processed simultaneously: a reduction of the turn-on time by a factor of 20; a two-fold reduction of the fall time tf; an 18-percent increase of VCEO(SUS); an 23-percent increase of VCBO; an enhanced RBSOA.

Silard, Andrei P.; Nani, Gabriel

1989-03-01

146

Suicide Risk: Amplifiers and Attenuators.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Attempts to integrate findings on correlates of suicide and violent risk in terms of a theory called a two-stage model of countervailing forces, which assumes that the strength of aggressive impulses is modified by amplifiers and attenuators. The vectorial interaction of amplifiers and attenuators creates an unstable equilibrium making prediction

Plutchik, Robert; Van Praag, Herman M.

1994-01-01

147

Differential InP HEMT MMIC Amplifiers Embedded in Waveguides  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Monolithic microwave integrated-circuit (MMIC) amplifiers of a type now being developed for operation at frequencies of hundreds of gigahertz contain InP high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs) in a differential configuration. The differential configuration makes it possible to obtain gains greater than those of amplifiers having the single-ended configuration. To reduce losses associated with packaging, the MMIC chips are designed integrally with, and embedded in, waveguide packages, with the additional benefit that the packages are compact enough to fit into phased transmitting and/or receiving antenna arrays. Differential configurations (which are inherently balanced) have been used to extend the upper limits of operating frequencies of complementary metal oxide/semiconductor (CMOS) amplifiers to the microwave range but, until now, have not been applied in millimeter- wave amplifier circuits. Baluns have traditionally been used to transform from single-ended to balanced configurations, but baluns tend to be lossy. Instead of baluns, finlines are used to effect this transformation in the present line of development. Finlines have been used extensively to drive millimeter- wave mixers in balanced configurations. In the present extension of the finline balancing concept, finline transitions are integrated onto the affected MMICs (see figure). The differential configuration creates a virtual ground within each pair of InP HEMT gate fingers, eliminating the need for inductive vias to ground. Elimination of these vias greatly reduces parasitic components of current and the associated losses within an amplifier, thereby enabling more nearly complete utilization of the full performance of each transistor. The differential configuration offers the additional benefit of multiplying (relative to the single-ended configuration) the input and output impedances of each transistor by a factor of four, so that it is possible to use large transistors that would otherwise have prohibitively low impedances. Yet another advantage afforded by the virtual ground of the differential configuration is elimination of the need for a ground plane and, hence, elimination of the need for back-side metallization of the MMIC chip. In turn, elimination of the back-side metallization simplifies fabrication, reduces parasitic capacitances, and enables mounting of the MMIC in the electric-field plane ("E-plane") of a waveguide. E-plane mounting is consistent with (and essential for the utility of) the finline configuration, in which transmission lines lie on a dielectric sheet in the middle of a broad side of the waveguide. E-plane mounting offers a combination of low loss and ease of assembly because no millimeter-wave wire bonds or transition substrates are required. Moreover, because there is no ground plane behind the MMIC, the impedance for the detrimental even (single-ended) mode is high, suppressing coupling to that mode. Still another advantage of E-plane mounting is that the fundamental waveguide mode is inherently differential, eliminating the need for a balun to excite the differential mode.

Kangaslahti, Pekka; Schlecht, Erich; Samoska, Lorene

2009-01-01

148

Bipolar transistor in VESTIC technology  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

VESTIC technology was proposed as an alternative for traditional CMOS technology. It offers a new FET-type twin gate junctionless device called VeSFET. In addition, in the basic VESTIC device structure many different active devices can be made, including bipolar transistors. This allows easy integration of bipolar transistors (called here VeSBJT) with VeSFET transistors. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the expected properties of VeSBJT in order to answer the following questions: are the expected parameters of VeSBJT promising enough to justify further research and fabrication experiments, and will VeSBJTs be technologically compatible with VeSFETs? Our theoretical predictions are based on the concept of effective base width for bipolar transistors with non-plane-parallel emitter and collector junctions. The conclusion is that VeSBJT can be a device with useful characteristics. As a result, VESTIC may have the potential to become a new BiCMOS-type technology.

Ku?micz, Wies?aw; Mierzwi?ski, Piotr

2013-07-01

149

Boosting the voltage gain of graphene FETs through a differential amplifier scheme with positive feedback  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study a possible circuit solution to overcome the problem of low voltage gain of short-channel graphene FETs. The circuit consists of a fully differential amplifier with a load made of a cross-coupled transistor pair. Starting from the device characteristics obtained from self-consistent ballistic quantum transport simulations, we explore the circuit parameter space and evaluate the amplifier performance in terms of dc voltage gain and voltage gain bandwidth. We show that the dc gain can be effectively improved by the negative differential resistance provided by the cross-coupled pair. Contact resistance is the main obstacle to achieving gain bandwidth products in the terahertz range. Limitations of the proposed amplifier are identified with its poor linearity and relatively large Miller capacitance.

Grassi, R.; Gnudi, A.; Di Lecce, V.; Gnani, E.; Reggiani, S.; Baccarani, G.

2014-10-01

150

Power amplifier leads MMIC line  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The first commercial offerings of Texas Instrument GaAs monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMICs) are noted, including three amplifiers in the TGA8000 line. Model TGA8014 is a power amplifier with two large FETs connected by an interstage matching network; it puts out at least 0.4 W of power per chip from 6 to 18 GHz. It achieves this power with 7-dB typical gain. Model TGA8021, a low-noise amplifier based on three 300-micron FETs, exhibits a noise figure of only 2.5 dB and more than 24-dB gain per chip from 9 to 10 GHz. Model TGA8035, a general-purpose driver amplifier, generates 16 mW (+12 dBm) of outer power from 6 to 16 GHz with 12-dB typical gain and 7-dB typical noise figure.

Nelson, Steve; Mitchell, Bill; Halladay, Ralph; Beall, John; Lehmann, Randy

1986-12-01

151

Statistical Mechanics of Amplifying Apparatus  

E-print Network

We implement Feynman's suggestion that the only missing notion needed for the puzzle of Quantum Measurement is the statistical mechanics of amplifying apparatus. We define a thermodynamic limit of quantum amplifiers which is a classically describable system in the sense of Bohr, and define macroscopic pointer variables for the limit system. Then we derive the probabilities of Quantum Measurement from the deterministic Schroedinger equation by the usual techniques of Classical Statistical Mechanics.

Joseph Johnson

2005-02-08

152

Planar MESFET transmission wave amplifier  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors present a quasioptical power combining transmission amplifier for increasing the power level available from solid-state circuits. Receiving and transmitting arrays of patch antennas, input\\/output isolation, MESFETs, bias and matching circuitry are contained on a single substrate, making monolithic millimeter-wave integration possible. The flexibility of selecting input polarization with respect to the output while maintaining amplifier stability is demonstrated.

T. Mader; J. Schoenberg; L. Harmon; Z. B. Popovic

1993-01-01

153

Cryogenic transistor measurement and modeling for engineering applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This article deals with the methodology of an electronic system design at liquid-helium temperatures. This technique includes the active device selection, characterization and simulation. Based on certain engineering criteria one commercial reference of SiGe heterojunction bipolar transistors is selected. Then, the technique of device characterization and measurement is considered. Typical output characteristics are given for this reference. All the tested devices of this reference are classified into three groups according to the presence of different low-temperature phenomena. An accurate and easy-to-use neural network model based on their experimental DC characteristics is proposed. This model is implemented in Agilent ADS Software, and the simulation results are compared with measurements in the course of the cryogenic amplifier design.

Goryachev, Maxim; Galliou, Serge; Abb, Philippe

2010-06-01

154

Surface roughness exacerbated performance degradation in silicon nanowire transistors  

E-print Network

Surface roughness exacerbated performance degradation in silicon nanowire transistors D. Basu,a M over the channel region. Of the alternative devices being researched, silicon nanowire transistors. There- fore, several new devices such as carbon nanotube field- effect transistors, double

Gilbert, Matthew

155

Modeling Advanced Avalanche Effects for Bipolar Transistor Circuit Design  

E-print Network

Modeling Advanced Avalanche Effects for Bipolar Transistor Circuit Design Vladimir Milovanovi operating frequency and high output power of modern bipolar transistor circuits increase, designers are trying to exploit transistor operating regions where they would be able satisfy both conditions, namely

Technische Universiteit Delft

156

Radio-frequency measurement of an asymmetric single electron transistor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since the invention of the radio-frequency single-electron transistor (RF-SET) by Schoelkopf et al.,[1] most measurements have focused on the symmetric single electron transistor. It has been shown, however, that the symmetric SET has a rather low measurement efficiency in its normal working regime.[2][3] Recently, it has been pointed out that an asymmetric SET can be considerably more efficient than a symmetric SET as a quantum amplifier. In this case the measurement efficiency of the asymmetric SET becomes similar to that of the quantum point contact (QPC) detector which can approach the quantum limit. We investigate the asymmetric SET by fabricating Al/AlOx SETs with junction areas 40x40 nm^2 and 40x80nm^2 and total resistance of about 25k?. The results of RF and DC characterization of such asymmetric SETs will be discussed. [1] R. J. Schoelkopf, P. Wahlgren, A. A. Kozhevnikov, P. Delsing, D. E. Prober, Science, 280, 1242 (1998). [2] A. N. Korotkov, Phys. Rev. B, 63, 085312 (2001); 63, 115403 (2001). [3] D. Mozyrsky, I. Martin, and M. B. Hastings, Phys. Rev. Lett., 92, 018303 (2004). [4] S. A. Gurvitz and G. P. Berman, Phys. Rev. B, 72 , 073303(2005).

Ji, Zhongqing; Xue, Weiwei; Rimberg, A. J.

2007-03-01

157

Logic synthesis for pass-transistor design  

Microsoft Academic Search

New logic CMOS families using pass-transistor circuit techniques have recently been proposed with the objective of improving speed and power consumption. The double pass-transistor logic, developed by Hitachi in 1993 has proven that in 0.25 ?m CMOS technology, DPL full adder is as fast as that of CPL. In this work, a method for synthesis of pass-transistor logic has been

V. G. Oklobdzija; B. Duchene

1995-01-01

158

Improving Silicon Carbide Transistor Performance  

E-print Network

the electron mobility at the SiO2 /SiC interfaces. R E F E R E N C E Relationship between 4H-SiC/SiO2 (Auburn University) G O A L To improve electron mobility at the SiO2 /SiC interfaces in high power, high temperature SiC-based metal­oxide­semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET) devices by decreasing

159

Millimeter-wave, cryogenically-coolable amplifiers using AlInAs\\/GaInAs\\/InP HEMTs  

Microsoft Academic Search

The cryogenic performance of AlInAs\\/GaInAs\\/InP 0.1- mu m high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs) is reported. Collapse-free DC operation is observed down to the ambient temperature of 18 K. The application of these devices to Q- and E-band low-noise, cryogenically coolable amplifiers is demonstrated. The measured noise temperature of 15 K (noise figure of 0.2 dB) for a multistage 40-45-GHz amplifier with 33

M. W. Pospieszalski; W. J. Lakatosh; R. Lai; K. L. Tan; D. C. Streit; P. H. Liu; R. M. Dia; J. Velebir

1993-01-01

160

A single-atom transistor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The ability to control matter at the atomic scale and build devices with atomic precision is central to nanotechnology. The scanning tunnelling microscope can manipulate individual atoms and molecules on surfaces, but the manipulation of silicon to make atomic-scale logic circuits has been hampered by the covalent nature of its bonds. Resist-based strategies have allowed the formation of atomic-scale structures on silicon surfaces, but the fabrication of working devices--such as transistors with extremely short gate lengths, spin-based quantum computers and solitary dopant optoelectronic devices--requires the ability to position individual atoms in a silicon crystal with atomic precision. Here, we use a combination of scanning tunnelling microscopy and hydrogen-resist lithography to demonstrate a single-atom transistor in which an individual phosphorus dopant atom has been deterministically placed within an epitaxial silicon device architecture with a spatial accuracy of one lattice site. The transistor operates at liquid helium temperatures, and millikelvin electron transport measurements confirm the presence of discrete quantum levels in the energy spectrum of the phosphorus atom. We find a charging energy that is close to the bulk value, previously only observed by optical spectroscopy.

Fuechsle, Martin; Miwa, Jill A.; Mahapatra, Suddhasatta; Ryu, Hoon; Lee, Sunhee; Warschkow, Oliver; Hollenberg, Lloyd C. L.; Klimeck, Gerhard; Simmons, Michelle Y.

2012-04-01

161

A single-atom transistor.  

PubMed

The ability to control matter at the atomic scale and build devices with atomic precision is central to nanotechnology. The scanning tunnelling microscope can manipulate individual atoms and molecules on surfaces, but the manipulation of silicon to make atomic-scale logic circuits has been hampered by the covalent nature of its bonds. Resist-based strategies have allowed the formation of atomic-scale structures on silicon surfaces, but the fabrication of working devices-such as transistors with extremely short gate lengths, spin-based quantum computers and solitary dopant optoelectronic devices-requires the ability to position individual atoms in a silicon crystal with atomic precision. Here, we use a combination of scanning tunnelling microscopy and hydrogen-resist lithography to demonstrate a single-atom transistor in which an individual phosphorus dopant atom has been deterministically placed within an epitaxial silicon device architecture with a spatial accuracy of one lattice site. The transistor operates at liquid helium temperatures, and millikelvin electron transport measurements confirm the presence of discrete quantum levels in the energy spectrum of the phosphorus atom. We find a charging energy that is close to the bulk value, previously only observed by optical spectroscopy. PMID:22343383

Fuechsle, Martin; Miwa, Jill A; Mahapatra, Suddhasatta; Ryu, Hoon; Lee, Sunhee; Warschkow, Oliver; Hollenberg, Lloyd C L; Klimeck, Gerhard; Simmons, Michelle Y

2012-04-01

162

Amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) in laser oscillators and amplifiers  

SciTech Connect

Dye-laser oscillators and amplifiers are studied theoretically with inclusion of amplified spontaneous emission (ASE). Assuming pencil-like geometry in both cases, laser signal intensity and ASE intensity are described with appropriate photon transport equations. In particular, there exist different boundary conditions for both fluxes in the laser cavity case due to the different feedback behavior of an optical resonator for laser modes and ASE modes. The interaction of laser output and ASE intensity is discussed in detail, including laser output optimization with and without ASE effects. For single and double pass amplifiers, closed-form solutions for gain saturation due to input signal and ASE flux are also given. More complicated gain functions, such as inclusion of reabsorption in dye lasers, are also treated in some detail.

Haag, G.; Marowsky, G.; Munz, M.

1983-06-01

163

A fully integrated CMOS chopper amplifier  

Microsoft Academic Search

A CMOS chopper amplifier that achieves reduced input offset voltage and fast overload recovery time while maintaining bandwidths comparable to conventional operational amplifiers and requiring no external components is presented. The chopper amplifier consists of two folded cascode operational transconductance amplifiers (OTA) connected in a switched feed-forward configuration, and a third OTA that is used to realize a large capacitive

Doug Garrity; Jenkuan Young; Don Thelen

1991-01-01

164

A continuously pumped iodine laser amplifier  

Microsoft Academic Search

The amplification characteristics were studied for a continuously pumped iodine laser amplifier using n-C3F7I as the amplifying medium. A small-signal amplification of 5 was obtained from a 15 cm long amplifier pumped with 1000 AM0 solar radiation by passing the oscillator output through the amplifier three times.

In Heon Hwang; Kwang S. Han

1991-01-01

165

Limit circuit prevents overdriving of operational amplifier  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Cutoff-type high gain amplifier coupled by a diode prevents overdriving of operational amplifier. An amplified feedback signal offsets the excess input signal that tends to cause the amplifier to exceed its preset limit. The output is, therfore, held to the set clamp level.

Openshaw, F. L.

1967-01-01

166

Reliability of SiGe HBTs for Power AmplifiersPart II: Underlying Physics and Damage Modeling  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the underlying physics and modeling of aggressively biased cascode SiGe heterojunction bipolar transistor power amplifier (PA) cores under large-signal operating conditions. The damage characteristics observed during RF operation, particularly the base leakage and collector-base (CB) junction failure, are investigated in detail using dc stress methods. Base leakage was characterized across geometry, voltage, and current conditions, and a

Peng Cheng; Curtis M. Grens; John D. Cressler

2009-01-01

167

A 2.4 GHz CMOS ultra low power low noise amplifier design with 65 nm CMOS technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, design approach of 2.4 GHz CMOS ultra low power Low Noise Amplifier (LNA) using 65 nm CMOS technology is presented. Conventional Inductively degenerated cascode topology where both MOS transistors are biased in sub-threshold region is used. There are many performance factors of LNAs such as signal power gain, noise factor, input referred 1-dB compression point (P-1dBin) and

MinSuk Koo; Hakchul Jung; Ickhyun Song; Hee-Sauk Jhon; Hyungcheol Shin

2008-01-01

168

500-Watt, 10-GHz Solid State Amplifier  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

X-band system amplifies low-duty-cycle pulses. Amplifier chain consists of driver-amplifier section using GaAs FET's with hybrid couplers, and power-amplifier section using IMPATT diodes with circulators for input/output coupling and for isolation between stages. Solid-state X-band amplifier package constitutes reliable, lightweight, compact, RF source. Used for many applications involving low-and variable-duty-cycle operation as well as fixed and high-duty-cycle operation.

Russell, K. J.; Pitzalis, O., Jr.

1983-01-01

169

A wideband CMOS inductorless low noise amplifier employing noise cancellation for digital TV tuner applications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A wideband inductorless low noise amplifier for digital TV tuner applications is presented. The proposed LNA scheme uses a composite NMOS/PMOS cross-coupled transistor pair to provide partial cancellation of noise generated by the input transistors. The chip is implemented in SMIC 0.18 ?m CMOS technology. Measurement shows that the proposed LNA achieves 12.2-15.2 dB voltage gain from 300 to 900 MHz, the noise figure is below 3.1 dB and has a minimum value of 2.3 dB, and the best input-referred 1-dB compression point (IP1dB) is - 17 dBm at 900 MHz. The core consumes 7 mA current with a supply voltage of 1.8 V and occupies an area of 0.5 0.35 mm2.

Jihong, Zhang; Xuefei, Bai; Lu, Huang

2013-09-01

170

Optical amplifiers for coherent lidar  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

We examine application of optical amplification to coherent lidar for the case of a weak return signal (a number of quanta of the return optical field close to unity). We consider the option that has been explored to date, namely, incorporation of an optical amplifier operated in a linear manner located after reception of the signal and immediately prior to heterodyning and photodetection. We also consider alternative strategies where the coherent interaction, the nonlinear processes, and the amplification are not necessarily constrained to occur in the manner investigated to date. We include the complications that occur because of mechanisms that occur at the level of a few, or one, quantum excitation. Two factors combine in the work to date that limit the value of the approach. These are: (1) the weak signal tends to require operation of the amplifier in the linear regime where the important advantages of nonlinear optical processing are not accessed, (2) the linear optical amplifier has a -3dB noise figure (SN(out)/SN(in)) that necessarily degrades the signal. Some improvement is gained because the gain provided by the optical amplifier can be used to overcome losses in the heterodyned process and photodetection. The result, however, is that introduction of an optical amplifier in a well optimized coherent lidar system results in, at best, a modest improvement in signal to noise. Some improvement may also be realized on incorporating more optical components in a coherent lidar system for purely practical reasons. For example, more compact, lighter weight, components, more robust alignment, or more rapid processing may be gained. We further find that there remain a number of potentially valuable, but unexplored options offered both by the rapidly expanding base of optical technology and the recent investigation of novel nonlinear coherent interference phenomena occurring at the single quantum excitation level. Key findings are: (1) insertion of linear optical amplifiers in well optimized conventional lidar systems offers modest improvements, at best, (2) the practical advantages of optical amplifiers, especially fiber amplifiers, such as ease of alignment, compactness, efficiency, lightweight, etc., warrant further investigation for coherent lidar, (3) the possibility of more fully optical lidar systems should be explored, (4) advantages gained by use of coherent interference of optical fields at the level of one, or a few, signal quanta should be explored, (5) amplification without inversion, population trapping, and use of electromagnetic induced transparency warrant investigation in connection with coherent lidar, (6) these new findings are probably more applicable to earth related NASA work, although applications to deep space should not be excluded, and (7) our own work in the Ultrafast Laboratory at UAH along some of the above lines of investigation, may be useful.

Fork, Richard

1996-01-01

171

Substituting transistor for diode improves rectifying means  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Unusual transistor connection that substitutes for a silicon diode and allows significantly higher repetition rates without increasing power loss rectifies an alternating current. Operation speed is improved by a factor of 10 or more when a given diode is replaced by this transistor circuit.

Muller, R. M.

1966-01-01

172

Transparent and Flexible Carbon Nanotube Transistors  

E-print Network

Transparent and Flexible Carbon Nanotube Transistors E. Artukovic, M. Kaempgen, D. S. Hecht, S We report the fabrication of transparent and flexible transistors where both the bottom gate and the conducting channel are carbon nanotube networks of different densities and Parylene N is the gate insulator

Gruner, George

173

Development of RF transistors: a historical prospect  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of RF transistors went almost unnoticed until the early 1980s because, unlike Si VLSI, there were no mass consumer markets for such devices. Most applications for RF transistors had been military oriented. Recently, this has been changed drastically due to the explosive growth of the markets for civil wireless communication systems. This paper covers the evolution and current

Frank Schwierz; Juin J. Liou

2001-01-01

174

A high transconductance accumulation mode electrochemical transistor.  

PubMed

An organic electrochemical transistor operates in accumulation mode with high transconductance. The channel comprises a thiophene-based conjugated polyelectrolyte, which is p-type doped by anions injected from a liquid electrolyte upon the application of a gate voltage. The use of ethylene glycol as a co-solvent dramatically improves the transconductance and the temporal response of the transistors. PMID:25312252

Inal, Sahika; Rivnay, Jonathan; Leleux, Pierre; Ferro, Marc; Ramuz, Marc; Brendel, Johannes C; Schmidt, Martina M; Thelakkat, Mukundan; Malliaras, George G

2014-11-01

175

Erbium-doped fiber amplifiers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Erbium-doped fiber amplifiers (EDFAs) operate in the 1.5 micrometers wavelength telecommunications window and have achieved high gain, high output power, and near ideal noise performance. The feasibility of using semiconductor laser diodes to pump EDFAs insures that EDFAs are practical devices that will have great impact on optical communications as power boosters, optical repeaters, and optical preamplifiers.

John L. Zyskind

1992-01-01

176

The School as an Amplifier.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper attempts to show that adaptation of mathematics to the input-output model of the school can provide powerful assistance in the measurement and analysis of school quality and its determinants. The mathematical relationship described here relates an educational model to the field of electronics. More specifically, the amplifier, a device

Vincent, William S.

1966-01-01

177

Multicore Processor Cluster Based Sleep Transistor Sizing Considering Delay Profile  

E-print Network

Multicore Processor Cluster Based Sleep Transistor Sizing Considering Delay Profile Huang Huang, Jeffrey Fan* Abstract-- This paper proposed a novel method to size the sleep transistor by considering and the total size of sleep transistors can be dramatically reduced. In theory, the size of sleep transistor can

Fan, Jeffrey

178

CMOS Transistor Mismatch Model valid from Weak to Strong Inversion  

E-print Network

CMOS Transistor Mismatch Model valid from Weak to Strong Inversion Teresa Serrano and PMOS transistors for 30 different geometries has been done with this continuos model. The model is able of transistor mismatch is crucial for precision analog design. Using very reduced transistor geometries produces

Barranco, Bernabe Linares

179

Page 1 of 5 Using transistors as switches  

E-print Network

Page 1 of 5 Using transistors as switches by Dan Morris Intro A key aspect of proper hacking is the use of transistors for switching things on and off. A typical example is using a computer's parallel at the silicon level in a transistor. So every time I used a transistor circuit in a project, I would promptly

Salisbury, Kenneth

180

Sleep Transistor Sizing and Control for Resonant Supply  

E-print Network

1 Sleep Transistor Sizing and Control for Resonant Supply Noise Damping Jie Gu, Hanyong Eom@ece.umn.edu www.umn.edu/~chriskim/ #12;2 Outline · Introduction · Conventional Sizing of Sleep Transistors · Sleep Transistor Sizing Considering Resonant Supply Damping · Adaptive Sleep Transistor Circuit · Conclusions #12

Kim, Chris H.

181

Realising high-current gain p-n-p transistors using a novel surface accumulation layer transistor  

E-print Network

Realising high-current gain p-n-p transistors using a novel surface accumulation layer transistor accumulation layer transistor (SALTran) on SOI, which uses the concept of surface accumulation of holes near of the previously published conventional p-n-p lateral bipolar transistor (LBT) structure. From the simulation

Kumar, M. Jagadesh

182

Fabrication of Very High Efficiency 5.8 GHz Power Amplifiers using AlGaN HFETs on SiC Substrates for Wireless Power Transmission  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

For wireless power transmission using microwave energy, very efficient conversion of the DC power into microwave power is extremely important. Class E amplifiers have the attractive feature that they can, in theory, be 100% efficient at converting, DC power to RF power. Aluminum gallium nitride (AlGaN) semiconductor material has many advantageous properties, relative to silicon (Si), gallium arsenide (GaAs), and silicon carbide (SiC), such as a much larger bandgap, and the ability to form AlGaN/GaN heterojunctions. The large bandgap of AlGaN also allows for device operation at higher temperatures than could be tolerated by a smaller bandgap transistor. This could reduce the cooling requirements. While it is unlikely that the AlGaN transistors in a 5.8 GHz class E amplifier can operate efficiently at temperatures in excess of 300 or 400 C, AlGaN based amplifiers could operate at temperatures that are higher than a GaAs or Si based amplifier could tolerate. Under this program, AlGaN microwave power HFETs have been fabricated and characterized. Hybrid class E amplifiers were designed and modeled. Unfortunately, within the time frame of this program, good quality HFETs were not available from either the RSC laboratories or commercially, and so the class E amplifiers were not constructed.

Sullivan, Gerry

2001-01-01

183

Fixed-gain CMOS differential amplifiers with no external feedback for a wide temperature range  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present original CMOS amplifiers designed for the DC to 10 MHz frequency range and operating in the 70-380 K temperature range. Aimed applications concern readout circuitry to be associated with THz bolometric pixels (either high- Tc superconducting or uncooled semiconducting), which require accuracy, low noise and low power consumption. Two designs are described that both exhibit high fixed-gain (40 dB) in a feedback-free architecture, which is based on a new low-transconductance composite transistor for an accurate control of this gain. Both amplifiers have been realized in a regular 0.35 ?m CMOS process and tested in the 4.2-380 K temperature range, exhibiting good agreement between designed and measured characteristics.

Michal, Vratislav; Klisnick, Geoffroy; Sou, Grard; Redon, Michel; Kreisler, Alain J.; Dgardin, Annick F.

2009-11-01

184

2.4 GHz CMOS Power Amplifier with Mode-Locking Structure to Enhance Gain  

PubMed Central

We propose a mode-locking method optimized for the cascode structure of an RF CMOS power amplifier. To maximize the advantage of the typical mode-locking method in the cascode structure, the input of the cross-coupled transistor is modified from that of a typical mode-locking structure. To prove the feasibility of the proposed structure, we designed a 2.4?GHz CMOS power amplifier with a 0.18??m RFCMOS process for polar transmitter applications. The measured power added efficiency is 34.9%, while the saturated output power is 23.32?dBm. The designed chip size is 1.4 0.6?mm2. PMID:25045755

2014-01-01

185

Cryogenic amplifier for shot noise measurement at 20 mK  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We developed a shot noise measurement system for mesoscopic conductors (typical resistance h/2e2 = 12.9 k?) at very low temperature (20 mK). To realize required high-resolution measurement, we made a high-electron-mobility-transistor (HEMT)-based cryogenic amplifier working at a target frequency range (2.5 MHz), whose gain flatness and input voltage noise were carefully tuned. We can suppress the 1/f noise of the amplifier by using two HEMTs in parallel. The performance of the noise measurement system at 20 mK was demonstrated for a quantum point contact with high experimental accuracy below 10-29 A2/Hz.

Arakawa, Tomonori; Nishihara, Yoshitaka; Maeda, Masahiro; Norimoto, Shota; Kobayashi, Kensuke

2013-10-01

186

Contacts shielding in nanowire field effect transistors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Conductive metallic contacts can significantly affect the operation of field effect transistors fabricated starting from semiconductor nanowires deposited on a dielectric substrate. Screening effects can also lead to systematic errors in the estimates of transport parameters obtained on the basis of simple uniform capacitive models. We study the role of contacts in both back- and lateral-gate transistor geometries and provide rules of thumbs to predict screening effects in real devices. Additionally, we show how the contacts influence charge density profiles within the wire, focusing in particular on their evolution when transistors nonlinear properties are addressed.

Pitanti, Alessandro; Roddaro, Stefano; Vitiello, Miriam S.; Tredicucci, Alessandro

2012-03-01

187

Atomic quantum transistor based on swapping operation  

E-print Network

We propose an atomic quantum transistor based on exchange by virtual photons between two atomic systems through the control gate-atom. The quantum transistor is realized in two QED cavities coupled in nano-optical scheme. We have found novel effect in quantum dynamics of coupled three-node atomic system which provides control-SWAP(\\theta) processes in quantum transistor operation. New possibilities of quantum entanglement in an example of bright and dark qubit states have been demonstrated for quantum transport in the atomic chain. Potentialities of the proposed nano-optical design for quantum computing and fundamental issues of multi-atomic physics are also discussed.

Sergey A. Moiseev; Sergey N. Andrianov; Eugene S. Moiseev

2011-08-31

188

Does surface roughness amplify wetting?  

PubMed

Any solid surface is intrinsically rough on the microscopic scale. In this paper, we study the effect of this roughness on the wetting properties of hydrophilic substrates. Macroscopic arguments, such as those leading to the well-known Wenzel's law, predict that surface roughness should amplify the wetting properties of such adsorbents. We use a fundamental measure density functional theory to demonstrate the opposite effect from roughness for microscopically corrugated surfaces, i.e., wetting is hindered. Based on three independent analyses we show that microscopic surface corrugation increases the wetting temperature or even makes the surface hydrophobic. Since for macroscopically corrugated surfaces the solid texture does indeed amplify wetting there must exist a crossover between two length-scale regimes that are distinguished by opposite response on surface roughening. This demonstrates how deceptive can be efforts to extend the thermodynamical laws beyond their macroscopic territory. PMID:25399155

Malijevsk, Alexandr

2014-11-14

189

338-GHz Semiconductor Amplifier Module  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Research findings were reported from an investigation of new gallium nitride (GaN) monolithic millimeter-wave integrated circuit (MMIC) power amplifiers (PAs) targeting the highest output power and the highest efficiency for class-A operation in W-band (75-110 GHz). W-band PAs are a major component of many frequency multiplied submillimeter-wave LO signal sources. For spectrometer arrays, substantial W-band power is required due to the passive lossy frequency multipliers.

Samoska, Lorene A.; Gaier, Todd C.; Soria, Mary M.; Fung, King Man; Rasisic, Vesna; Deal, William; Leong, Kevin; Mei, Xiao Bing; Yoshida, Wayne; Liu, Po-Hsin; Uyeda, Jansen; Lai, Richard

2010-01-01

190

Direct solar-pumped iodine laser amplifier  

Microsoft Academic Search

This semiannual progress report covers the period from April 1, 1985 to Sept. 30, 1985 under NASA grant NAS1-441 entitled direct solar pumped iodine laser amplifier. During this period the parametric studies of the iodine laser oscillator pumped by a Vortek simulator was carried out before the amplifier studies. The amplifier studies are postponed to the extended period following completion

K. S. Han

1985-01-01

191

Remote Acquisition Amplifier For 50-Ohm Cable  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Buffer-amplifier unit designed to drive 50-Ohm cables up to 100 ft. (30 m) long, compensating for attenuation in cables and enabling remote operation of oscilloscopes. Variable resistor provides for adjustment of gain of amplifier, such that overall gain from input terminals of amplifier to output end of cable set to unity.

Amador, Jose J.

1995-01-01

192

Two stage double layer microstrip spatial amplifiers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Several two stage spatial amplifiers are presented. The amplifiers were constructed on double layer back to back microstrip circuits with a shared ground plane. The ground plane provides an effective isolation between the receiving antenna array and the transmitting antenna array. Furthermore, it serves as a heat sink in high-power amplifier design. The coupling between the two stages is accomplished

Toni Ivanov; Arnir Mortazawi

1995-01-01

193

Solid state, S-band, power amplifier  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The final design and specifications for a solid state, S-band, power amplifier is reported. Modifications from a previously proposed design were incorporated to improve efficiency and meet input overdrive and noise floor requirements. Reports on the system design, driver amplifier, power amplifier, and voltage and current limiter are included along with a discussion of the testing program.

Digrindakis, M.

1973-01-01

194

Modeling erbium-doped fiber amplifiers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Erbium-doped fiber amplifiers are modeled using the propagation and rate equations of a homogeneous two-level laser medium. Numerical methods are used to analyze the effects of optical modes and erbium confinement on amplifier performance, and to calculate both the gain and amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) spectra. Fibers with confined erbium doping are completely characterized from easily measured parameters: the ratio

C. Randy Giles; Emmanuel Desurvire

1991-01-01

195

AC instrumentation amplifier for bioimpedance measurements  

Microsoft Academic Search

The input impedance and common-mode rejection ratio requirements for an amplifier for bioimpedance measurements are analyzed, considering the capacitive components of the electrode-skin contact impedance. An AC-coupled instrumentation amplifier that fulfills those requirements, and provides both interference and noise reduction and a zero phase shift over a wide frequency band without using broadband operational amplifiers, is described.

R. Pallas-Areny; J. G. Webster

1993-01-01

196

Design of hysteresis circuits using differential amplifiers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Design equations for hysteresis circuit are based on the following assumptions: amplifier input impedance is larger than source impedance; amplifier output impedance is less than load impedance; and amplifier switches state when differential input voltage is approximately zero. Circuits are designed to any given specifications.

Cooke, W. A.

1971-01-01

197

High power regenerative laser amplifier  

DOEpatents

A regenerative amplifier design capable of operating at high energy per pulse, for instance, from 20-100 Joules, at moderate repetition rates, for instance from 5-20 Hertz is provided. The laser amplifier comprises a gain medium and source of pump energy coupled with the gain medium; a Pockels cell, which rotates an incident beam in response to application of a control signal; an optical relay system defining a first relay plane near the gain medium and a second relay plane near the rotator; and a plurality of reflectors configured to define an optical path through the gain medium, optical relay and Pockels cell, such that each transit of the optical path includes at least one pass through the gain medium and only one pass through the Pockels cell. An input coupler, and an output coupler are provided, implemented by a single polarizer. A control circuit coupled to the Pockels cell generates the control signal in timed relationship with the input pulse so that the input pulse is captured by the input coupler and proceeds through at least one transit of the optical path, and then the control signal is applied to cause rotation of the pulse to a polarization reflected by the polarizer, after which the captured pulse passes through the gain medium at least once more and is reflected out of the optical path by the polarizer before passing through the rotator again to provide an amplified pulse.

Miller, John L. (Livermore, CA); Hackel, Lloyd A. (Livermore, CA); Dane, Clifford B. (Dublin, CA); Zapata, Luis E. (Livermore, CA)

1994-01-01

198

High power regenerative laser amplifier  

DOEpatents

A regenerative amplifier design capable of operating at high energy per pulse, for instance, from 20-100 Joules, at moderate repetition rates, for instance from 5-20 Hertz is provided. The laser amplifier comprises a gain medium and source of pump energy coupled with the gain medium; a Pockels cell, which rotates an incident beam in response to application of a control signal; an optical relay system defining a first relay plane near the gain medium and a second relay plane near the rotator; and a plurality of reflectors configured to define an optical path through the gain medium, optical relay and Pockels cell, such that each transit of the optical path includes at least one pass through the gain medium and only one pass through the Pockels cell. An input coupler, and an output coupler are provided, implemented by a single polarizer. A control circuit coupled to the Pockels cell generates the control signal in timed relationship with the input pulse so that the input pulse is captured by the input coupler and proceeds through at least one transit of the optical path, and then the control signal is applied to cause rotation of the pulse to a polarization reflected by the polarizer, after which the captured pulse passes through the gain medium at least once more and is reflected out of the optical path by the polarizer before passing through the rotator again to provide an amplified pulse. 7 figures.

Miller, J.L.; Hackel, L.A.; Dane, C.B.; Zapata, L.E.

1994-02-08

199

Ultra-stable oscillator with complementary transistors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A high frequency oscillator, having both good short and long term stability, is formed by including a piezoelectric crystal in the base circuit of a first bi-polar transistor circuit, the bi-polar transistor itself operated below its transitional frequency and having its emitter load chosen so that the input impedance, looking into the base thereof, exhibits a negative resistance in parallel with a capacitive reactance. Combined with this basic circuit is an auxiliary, complementary, second bi-polar transistor circuit of the same form with the piezoelectric crystal being common to both circuits. By this configuration small changes in quiescent current are substantially cancelled by opposite variations in the second bi-polar transistor circuit, thereby achieving from the oscillator a signal having its frequency of oscillation stable over long time periods as well as short time periods.

Kleinberg, L. L. (inventor)

1974-01-01

200

Field-Effect Transistor Reactance Circuits.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Efforts to miniaturize the reactance circuits of vacuum-tube technology by using junction transistors have been only partially successful. Large equivalent inductances and capacitances are obtainable, but the effective Q is limited to low values by the lo...

G. D. Clark

1968-01-01

201

Spin effects in single-electron transistors  

E-print Network

Basic electron transport phenomena observed in single-electron transistors (SETs) are introduced, such as Coulomb-blockade diamonds, inelastic cotunneling thresholds, the spin-1/2 Kondo effect, and Fano interference. With ...

Granger, Ghislain

2005-01-01

202

Development of gallium nitride power transistors  

E-print Network

GaN-based high-voltage transistors have outstanding properties for the development of ultra-high efficiency and compact power electronics. This thesis describes a new process technology for the fabrication of GaN power ...

Piedra, Daniel, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2011-01-01

203

RF SMALL SIGNAL AVALANCHE CHARACTERIZATION AND REPERCUSSIONS ON BIPOLAR TRANSISTOR CIRCUIT DESIGN  

E-print Network

RF SMALL SIGNAL AVALANCHE CHARACTERIZATION AND REPERCUSSIONS ON BIPOLAR TRANSISTOR CIRCUIT DESIGN transistor circuits, electronic circuit designers are exploring regimes of transistor operation that meet on some important transistor properties like unilateral and maximum available power gain, as well

Technische Universiteit Delft

204

NIF/LMJ prototype amplifier mechanical design  

SciTech Connect

Amplifier prototypes for the National Ignition Facility and the Laser Megajoule will be tested at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The prototype amplifier, which is an ensemble of modules from LLNL and Centre d`Etudes de Limeil-Valenton, is cassette-based with bottom access for maintenance. A sealed maintenance transfer vehicle which moves optical cassettes between the amplifier and the assembly cleanroom, and a vacuum gripper which holds laser slabs during cassette assembly will also be tested. The prototype amplifier will be used to verify amplifier optical performance, thermal recovery time, and cleanliness of mechanical operations.

Horvath, J.

1996-10-01

205

Log amplifier with pole-zero compensation  

DOEpatents

A logarithmic amplifier circuit provides pole-zero compensation for improved stability and response time over 6-8 decades of input signal frequency. The amplifier circuit includes a first operational amplifier with a first feedback loop which includes a second, inverting operational amplifier in a second feedback loop. The compensated output signal is provided by the second operational amplifier with the log elements, i.e., resistors, and the compensating capacitors in each of the feedback loops having equal values so that each break point or pole is offset by a compensating break point or zero.

Brookshier, William (Downers Grove, IL)

1987-01-01

206

Ballistic transport in high electron mobility transistors  

Microsoft Academic Search

A general ballistic FET model that was previously used for ballistic MOSFETs is applied to ballistic high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs), and the results are compared with experimental data for a sub-50 nm InAlAs-InGaAs HEMT. The results show that nanoscale HEMTs can be modeled as an intrinsic ballistic transistor with extrinsic source\\/drain series resistances. We also examine the \\

Jing Wang; M. Lundstrom

2003-01-01

207

HIGH AVERAGE POWER OPTICAL FEL AMPLIFIERS.  

SciTech Connect

Historically, the first demonstration of the optical FEL was in an amplifier configuration at Stanford University [l]. There were other notable instances of amplifying a seed laser, such as the LLNL PALADIN amplifier [2] and the BNL ATF High-Gain Harmonic Generation FEL [3]. However, for the most part FELs are operated as oscillators or self amplified spontaneous emission devices. Yet, in wavelength regimes where a conventional laser seed can be used, the FEL can be used as an amplifier. One promising application is for very high average power generation, for instance FEL's with average power of 100 kW or more. The high electron beam power, high brightness and high efficiency that can be achieved with photoinjectors and superconducting Energy Recovery Linacs (ERL) combine well with the high-gain FEL amplifier to produce unprecedented average power FELs. This combination has a number of advantages. In particular, we show that for a given FEL power, an FEL amplifier can introduce lower energy spread in the beam as compared to a traditional oscillator. This properly gives the ERL based FEL amplifier a great wall-plug to optical power efficiency advantage. The optics for an amplifier is simple and compact. In addition to the general features of the high average power FEL amplifier, we will look at a 100 kW class FEL amplifier is being designed to operate on the 0.5 ampere Energy Recovery Linac which is under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory's Collider-Accelerator Department.

BEN-ZVI, ILAN, DAYRAN, D.; LITVINENKO, V.

2005-08-21

208

Direct solar-pumped iodine laser amplifier  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This semiannual progress report covers the period from April 1, 1985 to Sept. 30, 1985 under NASA grant NAS1-441 entitled direct solar pumped iodine laser amplifier. During this period the parametric studies of the iodine laser oscillator pumped by a Vortek simulator was carried out before the amplifier studies. The amplifier studies are postponed to the extended period following completion of the parametric studies. In addition, the kinetic modeling of a solar pumped iodine laser amplifier, and the experimental work for a solar pumped dye laser amplifier are in progress. This report contains three parts: (1) the radiation characteristics of solar simulator and the parametric characteristics of photodissociation iodine laser continuously pumped by a Vortek solar simulator; (2) kinetic modeling of a solar pumped iodine laser amplifier; and (3) the study of the dye laser amplifier pumped by a Tamarack solar simulator.

Han, K. S.

1985-01-01

209

High power RF solid state power amplifier system  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A high power, high frequency, solid state power amplifier system includes a plurality of input multiple port splitters for receiving a high-frequency input and for dividing the input into a plurality of outputs and a plurality of solid state amplifier units. Each amplifier unit includes a plurality of amplifiers, and each amplifier is individually connected to one of the outputs of multiport splitters and produces a corresponding amplified output. A plurality of multiport combiners combine the amplified outputs of the amplifiers of each of the amplifier units to a combined output. Automatic level control protection circuitry protects the amplifiers and maintains a substantial constant amplifier power output.

Sims, III, William Herbert (Inventor); Chavers, Donald Gregory (Inventor); Richeson, James J. (Inventor)

2011-01-01

210

A compact 10 kW, 476 MHz solid state radio frequency amplifier for pre-buncher cavity of free electron laser injector linear accelerator  

SciTech Connect

A 10 kW, 476 MHz, 0.1% duty cycle solid state RF amplifier system for driving sub-harmonic, pre-buncher cavity of IR-FEL injector LINAC, has been developed at RRCAT. The 10 kW power is achieved by combining output of eight 1400 W amplifier modules using 8-way planar corporate combiner. The solid state amplifier modules have been developed using 50 V RF LDMOS transistors which although meant for push-pull operation are being used in single ended configuration with matching circuit developed on a thin (25 mils), high dielectric constant (9.7), low loss microwave laminate with an aim to have a compact structure. Ease of fabrication, modularity, small size, and low cost are the important features of this design which could be used as a template for low duty cycle medium to high pulsed power UHF amplifier system.

Mohania, Praveen; Mahawar, Ashish; Shrivastava, Purushottam; Gupta, P. D. [Raja Rammana Centre for Advanced Technology (RRCAT), Indore 452013 (India)] [Raja Rammana Centre for Advanced Technology (RRCAT), Indore 452013 (India)

2013-09-15

211

A compact 10 kW, 476 MHz solid state radio frequency amplifier for pre-buncher cavity of free electron laser injector linear accelerator.  

PubMed

A 10 kW, 476 MHz, 0.1% duty cycle solid state RF amplifier system for driving sub-harmonic, pre-buncher cavity of IR-FEL injector LINAC, has been developed at RRCAT. The 10 kW power is achieved by combining output of eight 1400 W amplifier modules using 8-way planar corporate combiner. The solid state amplifier modules have been developed using 50 V RF LDMOS transistors which although meant for push-pull operation are being used in single ended configuration with matching circuit developed on a thin (25 mils), high dielectric constant (9.7), low loss microwave laminate with an aim to have a compact structure. Ease of fabrication, modularity, small size, and low cost are the important features of this design which could be used as a template for low duty cycle medium to high pulsed power UHF amplifier system. PMID:24089846

Mohania, Praveen; Mahawar, Ashish; Shrivastava, Purushottam; Gupta, P D

2013-09-01

212

Amplification of electrical signals with molecule-based transistors: Power amplification up to a kilohertz frequency and factors limiting higher frequency operation  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Polyaniline- and poly(3-methylthiophene)-based transistors are demonstrated to amplify electrical signals at frequencies exceeding 100 Hz. The amplification of sinusoidal signals to the gate is established by showing the ratio of the average power in the drain circuit to that in the gate circuit exceeds unity. For the devices measured the amplification factor falls to unity between 100 and 1000 Hz. Measurements have been carried out at 298K for the microelectrochemical transistors immersed in aqueous or non-aqueous electrolyte solutions. The transistors consist of a pair of Au (or Pt) microelectrodes (approx. micron long x approx 2 micron wide x approx 0.1 micron high) connected by the redox polymer. The two microelectrodes serve as source and drain and the polymer serves as the channel of the device.

Lofton, Elizabeth P.; Thackeray, James W.; Wrighton, Mark S.

1986-09-01

213

Inverting Amplifier with Current Input  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This animated gif illustrates the changing voltages a conventional inverting amplifier when it receives input from a current source rather than a voltage source. Notice that the input resistor does not offer any impedance. Voltages and parts of the circuit of this 3-D animated gif are highlighted with different colors. Current is displayed by green arrows indicating directional flow. The animation requires a Web browser or other video player software capable of displaying gif animations.Other 3-D Circuit Animations can be seen here.

2009-11-23

214

Charge amplifier with bias compensation  

DOEpatents

An ion beam uniformity monitor for very low beam currents using a high-sensitivity charge amplifier with bias compensation. The ion beam monitor is used to assess the uniformity of a raster-scanned ion beam, such as used in an ion implanter, and utilizes four Faraday cups placed in the geometric corners of the target area. Current from each cup is integrated with respect to time, thus measuring accumulated dose, or charge, in Coulombs. By comparing the dose at each corner, a qualitative assessment of ion beam uniformity is made possible. With knowledge of the relative area of the Faraday cups, the ion flux and areal dose can also be obtained.

Johnson, Gary W. (Livermore, CA)

2002-01-01

215

An ultra low power, low voltage tailless QFG based differential amplifier with High CMRR, rail to rail operation and enhanced slew rate  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a novel tailless ultra low power low voltage high CMRR differential amplifier (D.A.) with rail-to-rail\\u000a input common mode range (ICMR) based on quasi floating gate (QFG) transistors. For low voltage operation, the tail current\\u000a source of the conventional D.A. is removed and the resulted lack of CMRR is highly compensated by means of two simple inverters.\\u000a The

Leila Safari; Seyed Javad Azhari

2011-01-01

216

Ultra low-voltage, rail-to-rail input\\/output stage Operational Transconductance Amplifier (OTA) with high linearity and its application in a GmC filter  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents an ultra low-voltage, rail-to-rail input\\/output stage Operational Transconductance Amplifier (OTA) which uses quasi floating gate input transistors. This OTA works with 0.3v and consumes 57w. It has near zero variation in small\\/large-signal behavior (i.e. transconductance and slew rate) in whole range of the common mode voltage of input signals. Using source degeneration technique for linearity improvement, make

Farzan Rezaei; Seyed Javad Azhari

2010-01-01

217

A 5.8 GHz Linear Power Amplifier in a Standard 90nm CMOS Process using a 1V Power Supply  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fully integrated 5.8 GHz class AB linear power amplifier (PA) in a standard 90 nm CMOS process using thin oxide transistors utilizes a novel on-chip transformer power combining network. The transformer combines the power of four push-pull stages with low insertion loss over the bandwidth of interest and is compatible with standard CMOS process without any additional analog or

Peter Haldi; Debopriyo Chowdhury; Gang Liu; Ali M. Niknejad

2007-01-01

218

JOURNAL DE PHYSIQUE Colloque C6, supplkment au no 8, Tome 39, aolit 1978, page C6-1184 CRYOGENIC GaAs-FET AMPLIFIERS FOR SQUIDS  

E-print Network

As-FET AMPLIFIERS FOR SQUIDS H. Ahola, G.J. Ehnholm, P. Ostman, and B. Rantala Low Temperatme Laboratory, Helsinki cryog6niques pour SQUIDs..Ils utilisent des transistors ?I effet de champ 1 l'arseniure de gallium. La sensibilitd de l'ensemble est limitde par le bruit intrinssque du SQUID et est 5 x J/Hz 1 500 MHz. Nous

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

219

Analyses of Transistor Punchthrough Failures  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The failure of two transistors in the Altitude Switch Assembly for the Solid Rocket Booster followed by two additional failures a year later presented a challenge to failure analysts. These devices had successfully worked for many years on numerous missions. There was no history of failures with this type of device. Extensive checks of the test procedures gave no indication for a source of the cause. The devices were manufactured more than twenty years ago and failure information on this lot date code was not readily available. External visual exam, radiography, PEID, and leak testing were performed with nominal results Electrical testing indicated nearly identical base-emitter and base-collector characteristics (both forward and reverse) with a low resistance short emitter to collector. These characteristics are indicative of a classic failure mechanism called punchthrough. In failure analysis punchthrough refers to an condition where a relatively low voltage pulse causes the device to conduct very hard producing localized areas of thermal runaway or "hot spots". At one or more of these hot spots, the excessive currents melt the silicon. Heavily doped emitter material diffuses through the base region to the collector forming a diffusion pipe shorting the emitter to base to collector. Upon cooling, an alloy junction forms between the pipe and the base region. Generally, the hot spot (punch-through site) is under the bond and no surface artifact is visible. The devices were delidded and the internal structures were examined microscopically. The gold emitter lead was melted on one device, but others had anomalies in the metallization around the in-tact emitter bonds. The SEM examination confirmed some anomalies to be cosmetic defects while other anomalies were artifacts of the punchthrough site. Subsequent to these analyses, the contractor determined that some irregular testing procedures occurred at the time of the failures heretofore unreported. These testing irregularities involved the use of a breakout box and were the likely cause of the failures. There was no evidence to suggest a generic failure mechanism was responsible for the failure of these transistors.

Nicolas, David P.

1999-01-01

220

Technology and market evaluation for semiconductor nanowire transistors  

E-print Network

Information processing systems have been getting more powerful over the course of the past three decades due to the scaling of transistor dimensions. Scaling of transistor dimension causes a plethora of technological ...

Omampuliyur, Rajamouly Swaminathan

2008-01-01

221

Failure rates for accelerated acceptance testing of silicon transistors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Extrapolation tables for the control of silicon transistor product reliability have been compiled. The tables are based on a version of the Arrhenius statistical relation and are intended to be used for low- and medium-power silicon transistors.

Toye, C. R.

1968-01-01

222

Multistaged stokes injected Raman capillary waveguide amplifier  

DOEpatents

A multistaged Stokes injected Raman capillary waveguide amplifier for providing a high gain Stokes output signal. The amplifier uses a plurality of optically coupled capillary waveguide amplifiers and one or more regenerative amplifiers to increase Stokes gain to a level sufficient for power amplification. Power amplification is provided by a multifocused Raman gain cell or a large diameter capillary waveguide. An external source of CO.sub.2 laser radiation can be injected into each of the capillary waveguide amplifier stages to increase Raman gain. Devices for injecting external sources of CO.sub.2 radiation include: dichroic mirrors, prisms, gratings and Ge Brewster plates. Alternatively, the CO.sub.2 input radiation to the first stage can be coupled and amplified between successive stages.

Kurnit, Norman A. (Santa Fe, NM)

1980-01-01

223

The 11th International Symposium on Wireless Personal Multimedia Communications (WPMC 2008) Development of THz TransistorsDevelopment of THz Transistors  

E-print Network

) Development of THz TransistorsDevelopment of THz Transistors & (300-3000 GHz) Sub-mm-Wave ICs Mark Rodwell;UCSB High-Frequency Electronics Group THz InP Bipolar TransistorsTHz InP Bipolar Transistors. III V-200 GHz Silicon ICs mm-waves: MIMO links, arrays, sensor networks fiber optics #12;Multi-THz Transistors

Rodwell, Mark J. W.

224

Graphene nanopore field effect transistors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Graphene holds great promise for replacing conventional Si material in field effect transistors (FETs) due to its high carrier mobility. Previously proposed graphene FETs either suffer from low ON-state current resulting from constrained channel width or require complex fabrication processes for edge-defecting or doping. Here, we propose an alternative graphene FET structure created on intrinsic metallic armchair-edged graphene nanoribbons with uniform width, where the channel region is made semiconducting by drilling a pore in the interior, and the two ends of the nanoribbon act naturally as connecting electrodes. The proposed GNP-FETs have high ON-state currents due to seamless atomic interface between the channel and electrodes and are able to be created with arbitrarily wide ribbons. In addition, the performance of GNP-FETs can be tuned by varying pore size and ribbon width. As a result, their performance and fabrication process are more predictable and controllable in comparison to schemes based on edge-defects and doping. Using first-principle transport calculations, we show that GNP-FETs can achieve competitive leakage current of 70 pA, subthreshold swing of 60 mV/decade, and significantly improved On/Off current ratios on the order of 105 as compared with other forms of graphene FETs.

Qiu, Wanzhi; Skafidas, Efstratios

2014-07-01

225

Ambipolar phosphorene field effect transistor.  

PubMed

In this article, we demonstrate enhanced electron and hole transport in few-layer phosphorene field effect transistors (FETs) using titanium as the source/drain contact electrode and 20 nm SiO2 as the back gate dielectric. The field effect mobility values were extracted to be ?38 cm(2)/Vs for electrons and ?172 cm(2)/Vs for the holes. On the basis of our experimental data, we also comprehensively discuss how the contact resistances arising due to the Schottky barriers at the source and the drain end effect the different regime of the device characteristics and ultimately limit the ON state performance. We also propose and implement a novel technique for extracting the transport gap as well as the Schottky barrier height at the metal-phosphorene contact interface from the ambipolar transfer characteristics of the phosphorene FETs. This robust technique is applicable to any ultrathin body semiconductor which demonstrates symmetric ambipolar conduction. Finally, we demonstrate a high gain, high noise margin, chemical doping free, and fully complementary logic inverter based on ambipolar phosphorene FETs. PMID:25329532

Das, Saptarshi; Demarteau, Marcel; Roelofs, Andreas

2014-11-25

226

Fiber amplifiers for coherent space communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report on the application of double-clad doped fiber amplifiers for coherent space communication systems using a master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) design at 1.06 ?m. The master oscillator is either a single-frequency Nd:YAG solid-state laser or a distributed-feedback fiber laser. The power amplifier is a diode-laser-pumped double-clad Nd doped fiber with polarization control, 20 dB gain, and about 1.3

Etienne Rochat; Ren Dndliker; Karim Haroud; Reinhard H. Czichy; Ulrich Roth; D. Costantini; Reto Holzner

2001-01-01

227

Signal-Conditioning Amplifier Recorders  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Signal-conditioning amplifier recorders (SCAmpRs) have been proposed as a means of simplifying and upgrading the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Ground Measurement System (GMS), which is a versatile data-acquisition system that gathers and records a variety of measurement data before and during the launch of a space shuttle. In the present version of the GMS system, signal conditioning amplifiers digitize and transmit data to a VME chassis that multiplexes up to 416 channels. The data is transmitted via a high-speed data bus to a second VME chassis where it is available for snapshots. The data is passed from the second VME chassis to a high-speed data recorder. This process is duplicated for installations at two launch pads and the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB). Since any failure of equipment in the data path results in loss of data, much of the system is redundant. The architecture of the existing GMS limits expansion or any modification to the system to meet changing requirements because of the cost and time required. A SCAmpR-based system is much more flexible. The basis of the simplification, flexibility, and reliability is the shifting of the recording function to the individual amplifier channels. Each SCAmpR is a self-contained single channel data acquisition system, which in its current implementation, has a data storage capacity of up to 30 minutes when operating at the fastest data sampling rates. The SCAmpR channels are self-configuring and self-calibrating. Multiple SCAmpR channels are ganged on printed circuit boards and mounted in a chassis that provides power, a network hub, and Inter-Range Instrument Group (IRIG) time signals. The SCAmpR channels share nothing except physical mounting on a circuit board. All circuitry is electrically separate for each channel. All that is necessary to complete the data acquisition system is a single master computer tied to the SCAmpR channels by standard network equipment. The size of the data acquisition system dictates the requirements for the specific network equipment.

Medelius, Pedro J.; Taylor, John

2003-01-01

228

Retrodiction for optical attenuators, amplifiers, and detectors  

SciTech Connect

The transformation that an attenuator makes on the state of an optical field is the time reverse of that of an amplifier. Thus predicting the output state for an amplifier is equivalent to retrodicting the input state of an attenuator. We explore the consequences of this equivalence for simple optical quantum communication channels. One counterintuitive consequence is that the mean number of photons sent into an amplifier as retrodicted from a measurement of the number of output photons does not include the contribution of the amplifier noi0008.

Jedrkiewicz, Ottavia; Loudon, Rodney [Department of Electronic Systems Engineering, University of Essex, Wivenhoe Park, Colchester CO4 3SQ (United Kingdom); Jeffers, John [Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, John Anderson Building, 107 Rottenrow, Glasgow G4 0NG (United Kingdom)

2004-09-01

229

Log amplifier with pole-zero compensation  

DOEpatents

A logarithmic amplifier circuit provides pole-zero compensation for improved stability and response time over 6-8 decades of input signal frequency. The amplifer circuit includes a first operational amplifier with a first feedback loop which includes a second, inverting operational amplifier in a second feedstock loop. The compensated output signal is provided by the second operational amplifier with the log elements, i.e., resistors, and the compensating capacitors in each of the feedback loops having equal values so that each break point is offset by a compensating break point or zero.

Brookshier, W.

1985-02-08

230

MoS2 Transistors Operating at Gigahertz Frequencies.  

PubMed

The presence of a direct band gap1-4 and an ultrathin form factor5 has caused a considerable interest in two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors from the transition metal dichalcogenides (TMD) family with molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) being the most studied representative of this family of materials. While diverse electronic elements,6,7 logic circuits,8,9 and optoelectronic devices12,13 have been demonstrated using ultrathin MoS2, very little is known about their performance at high frequencies where commercial devices are expected to function. Here, we report on top-gated MoS2 transistors operating in the gigahertz range of frequencies. Our devices show cutoff frequencies reaching 6 GHz. The presence of a band gap also gives rise to current saturation,10 allowing power and voltage gain, all in the gigahertz range. This shows that MoS2 could be an interesting material for realizing high-speed amplifiers and logic circuits with device scaling expected to result in further improvement of performance. Our work represents the first step in the realization of high-frequency analog and digital circuits based on 2D semiconductors. PMID:25243885

Krasnozhon, Daria; Lembke, Dominik; Nyffeler, Clemens; Leblebici, Yusuf; Kis, Andras

2014-10-01

231

SHOT NOISE BEHAVIOUR OF SUBTHRESHOLD MOS TRANSISTORS J. FELLRATH  

E-print Network

719 SHOT NOISE BEHAVIOUR OF SUBTHRESHOLD MOS TRANSISTORS J. FELLRATH CEH, rue Breguet 2, Neuchâtel. On utilise des transistors à canaux p et n intégrés en technologie CMOS à grille de silicium sur sili- cium. Measurements confirm- ing this theory as well as flicker noise measurements on n and p channel transistors

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

232

Avalanche spin-valve transistor K. J. Russell,a)  

E-print Network

Avalanche spin-valve transistor K. J. Russell,a) Ian Appelbaum,b) Wei Yi, D. J. Monsma, F. Capasso, California 93106 (Received 11 June 2004; accepted 10 September 2004) A spin-valve transistor with a Ga allow fabrication of spin-valve transistors with high gain in a variety of materials. © 2004 American

Russell, Kasey

233

CHARACTERISING MICROWAVE TRANSISTOR DYNAMICS WITH SMALL-SIGNAL MEASUREMENTS  

E-print Network

CHARACTERISING MICROWAVE TRANSISTOR DYNAMICS WITH SMALL-SIGNAL MEASUREMENTS Anthony E. Parker(1, Sydney AUSTRALIA 2006 mailto: jimr@ee.usyd.edu.au ABSTRACT Small-signal microwave transistor extrapolates beyond the measurement space to quantify the very significant impact that transistor dispersion

234

Noise conductance of carbon nanotube transistors J. Chaste,1, 2  

E-print Network

Noise conductance of carbon nanotube transistors J. Chaste,1, 2 E. Pallecchi,1, 2 P. Morfin,1, 2 G nanotube transistors. Gate capacitance Cg, drain conductance gd, transconductance gm and current-noise data are analyzed with a ballistic 1-dimensional nano-transistor model where the nanotube channel is described

Plaçais, Bernard

235

High Performance Lateral Schottky Collector Bipolar Transistors on SOI  

E-print Network

High Performance Lateral Schottky Collector Bipolar Transistors on SOI for VLSI Applications that the thesis entitled "High Performance Lateral Schottky Collector Bipolar Transistors on SOI for VLSI bipolar transistors play a vital role in RF/Microwave applications. But they need to satisfy stringent

Kumar, M. Jagadesh

236

Gate Coupling and Charge Distribution in Nanowire Field Effect Transistors  

E-print Network

Gate Coupling and Charge Distribution in Nanowire Field Effect Transistors D. R. Khanal, and J. Wu charge distributions in back-gate and top-gate nanowire field effect transistors by solving the three in nanowire field effect transistors. In recent years, semiconductor nanowires (NWs) have come under extensive

Wu, Junqiao

237

Radio frequency analog electronics based on carbon nanotube transistors  

E-print Network

Radio frequency analog electronics based on carbon nanotube transistors Coskun Kocabas*, Hoon band with power gains as high as 14 dB. As a demon- stration, we fabricated nanotube transistor radios technologies. The invention of the transistor in 1947 represents the birth of the solid state electronics age

Rogers, John A.

238

Electron Transport in Single Molecule Transistors Jiwoong Park  

E-print Network

Electron Transport in Single Molecule Transistors by Jiwoong Park B.S. (Seoul National University. Paul Alivisatos Fall 2003 #12;Electron Transport in Single Molecule Transistors Copyright © 2003 by Jiwoong Park #12;1 Abstract Electron Transport in Single Molecule Transistors by Jiwoong Park Doctor

McEuen, Paul L.

239

Vibration-Assisted Electron Tunneling in C140 Transistors  

E-print Network

Vibration-Assisted Electron Tunneling in C140 Transistors A. N. Pasupathy, J. Park, C. Chang, A. V Karlsruhe, Germany Received August 25, 2004 ABSTRACT We measure electron tunneling in transistors made from molecules have been measured using scanning tunneling microscopes,2 single- molecule transistors,3

Sethna, James P.

240

Ballistic InAs Nanowire Transistors Steven Chuang,,  

E-print Network

Ballistic InAs Nanowire Transistors Steven Chuang,, Qun Gao, Rehan Kapadia,, Alexandra C. Ford of electrons at room temper- ature in top-gated InAs nanowire (NW) transistors is experimentally observed limit) is demonstrated experimentally for transistors with a channel length of 60 nm, owing to the long

Javey, Ali

241

White Noise in MOS Transistors and Resistors September 10, 1993  

E-print Network

White Noise in MOS Transistors and Resistors September 10, 1993 Shot noise and thermal noise have and experimental results for white noise in the low-power subthreshold region of operation of an MOS transistor transistors has been derived by Enz [6] and Vittoz [7] from considerations that model the channel

Delbruck, Tobi

242

Theory of semiconductor magnetic bipolar transistors M. E. Flattea)  

E-print Network

Theory of semiconductor magnetic bipolar transistors M. E. Flatte´a) and Z. G. Yu Optical Science April 2003 Bipolar transistors with a ferromagnetic base are shown theoretically to have the potential of a ``spin transistor.'' 1 A burst of recent activity demonstrating control- lable fabrication

Flatte, Michael E.

243

Tunable organic transistors that use microfluidic source and drain electrodes  

E-print Network

Tunable organic transistors that use microfluidic source and drain electrodes George Maltezos describes a type of transistor that uses conducting fluidic source and drain electrodes of mercury which designed microchannels changes the width of the transistor channel and, therefore, the electrical

Rogers, John A.

244

Transistor size optimization in the tailor layout system  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a combination transistor sizing\\/layout compaction tool used to synthesize high performance CMOS circuits. This optimization tool is part of a large integrated layout system, called Tailor. Given any CMOS circuit layout, Tailor's transistor size optimizer will simultaneously adjust transistor sizes and compact the layout so that the minimum required area (cell pitch) for a specified upper bound

David Marple

1989-01-01

245

Transistor Size Optimization in the Tailor Layout System  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a combination transistor sizing\\/layout compaction tool used to synthesize high performance CMOS circuits. This optimization tool is part of a large integrated layout system, called Tailor. Given any CMOS circuit layout, Tailor's transistor size optimizer will simultaneously adjust transistor sizes and compact the layout so that the minimum required area (cell pitch) for a specified upper bound

David Marple

1989-01-01

246

Sleep Transistor Sizing and Control for Resonant Supply Noise Damping  

E-print Network

1 Sleep Transistor Sizing and Control for Resonant Supply Noise Damping Jie Gu University that has generally been unnoticed is that sleep transistors for leakage reduction can significantly damp the resonant supply noise due to their series resistance. This paper describes an optimal sleep transistor

Kim, Chris H.

247

Sleep Transistor Sizing Using Timing Criticality and Temporal Currents  

E-print Network

Sleep Transistor Sizing Using Timing Criticality and Temporal Currents Anand Ramalingam, Bin Zhang power operation. One of the challenges in power gating is sizing the sleep transistor which is used currents to size the sleep transistor. The timing criticality information and temporal current estimation

Pan, David Z.

248

Adder circuits with transistors using independently controlled gates  

Microsoft Academic Search

Circuits with transistors using independently controlled gates have been proposed to reduce the number of transistors and to increase the logic density per area. So far only small building blocks have been presented. This paper investigates for the first time the use of independent double gate transistors in 16 bit ripple carry and parallel prefix adders. New adder circuits and

Marcus Weis; Andrzej Pfitzner; Dominik Kasprowicz; Rainer Emling; Wojciech Maly; Doris Schmitt-Landsiedel

2009-01-01

249

AC performance of nanoelectronics: towards a ballistic THz nanotube transistor  

Microsoft Academic Search

We present phenomenological predictions for the cutoff frequency of carbon nanotube transistors. We also present predictions of the effects parasitic capacitances on AC nanotube transistor performance. The influence of quantum capacitance, kinetic inductance, and ballistic transport on the high-frequency properties of nanotube transistors is analyzed. We discuss the challenges of impedance matching for ac nano-electronics in general, and show how

Peter J. Burke

2004-01-01

250

Convex Delay Models for Transistor Sizing Mahesh Ketkar  

E-print Network

Convex Delay Models for Transistor Sizing Mahesh Ketkar Department of ECE, University of Minnesota for developing accurate con- vex delay models to be used for transistor sizing. A new rich class of convex for modern designs. The delay model is incorpo- rated into a transistor sizing algorithm based on TILOS

Sapatnekar, Sachin

251

Chip Space and Transistor Count Estimator Marc Steinhaus  

E-print Network

Chip Space and Transistor Count Estimator Marc Steinhaus Fakultät für Informatik, Universität Karlsruhe, D-76128 Karlsruhe, Germany and RapidSolution Software GmbH, Karlsruhe General The transistor die area and the number of transistors of a simulated processor. To reach this goal, it is necessary

Ungerer, Theo

252

Buffer Minimization in Pass Transistor Logic Advanced Technology Group  

E-print Network

Buffer Minimization in Pass Transistor Logic Hai Zhou Advanced Technology Group Synopsys, Inc With the shrinking feature sizes and increasing transistor counts on chips, the push for higher speed and lower power than static CMOS. Among them, pass transistor logic (PTL) circuits give great promise. Since the delay

Zhou, Hai

253

Combined Transistor Sizing with Bu er Insertion for Timing Optimization  

E-print Network

Combined Transistor Sizing with Bu er Insertion for Timing Optimization Yanbin Jiang y Sachin S are signi - cantly better than the results given by merely using a TILOS-like transistor sizing algorithm alone. 1 Introduction The transistor sizing problem 1, 2, 3 is often formulated as Minimize Area subject

Sapatnekar, Sachin

254

AN EFFICIENT APPROACH TO SIMULTANEOUS TRANSISTOR AND INTERCONNECT SIZING  

E-print Network

AN EFFICIENT APPROACH TO SIMULTANEOUS TRANSISTOR AND INTERCONNECT SIZING Jason Cong and Lei He study the simultaneous transistor and in- terconnect sizing (STIS) problem. We de#12;ne a class of opti-posynomial pro- grams (Theorem 1). We show that the STIS problems un- der a number of transistor delay models

Cong, Jason "Jingsheng"

255

MicroCommentary Looking inside the box: bacterial transistor arrays  

E-print Network

processors. At the heart of the miracle of modern computing are field-effect transistors (FETs) ­ threeMicroCommentary Looking inside the box: bacterial transistor arrays Thomas S. Shimizu1 and Nicolas compares cells to computers, and signalling proteins to transistors. Location and wiring of those molecular

Shimizu, Tom

256

Free randomness can be amplified  

E-print Network

Are there fundamentally random processes in nature? Theoretical predictions, confirmed experimentally, such as the violation of Bell inequalities, point to an affirmative answer. However, these results are based on the assumption that measurement settings can be chosen freely at random, so assume the existence of perfectly free random processes from the outset. Here we consider a scenario in which this assumption is weakened and show that partially free random bits can be amplified to make arbitrarily free ones. More precisely, given a source of random bits whose correlation with other variables is below a certain threshold, we propose a procedure for generating fresh random bits that are virtually uncorrelated with all other variables. We also conjecture that such procedures exist for any non-trivial threshold. Our result is based solely on the no-signalling principle, which is necessary for the existence of free randomness.

Roger Colbeck; Renato Renner

2011-05-16

257

Development of Submillimeter SIS Mixers and Broadband HEMT Amplifiers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This is the final technical report for NASA grant NAG5-9493. entitled "Development of Submillimeter SIS Mixers and Broadband HEMT Amplifiers". The goal of this project was to develop and demonstrate a new generation of superconducting tunnel junction (SIS) receivers with extremely wide instantaneous (intermediate-frequency, or IF) bandwidths. of order 12 GHz. along with the wideband low-noise microwave HEMT (high electron mobility transistor) amplifiers which follow the SIS mixer. These wideband SIS/HEMT receivers would allow rapid submillimeter wavelength spectral line surveys to be carried out, for instance with the NASA airborne observatory SOFIA. and could potentially be useful for future submillimeter space missions such as SAFIR. In addition, there are potential NASA earth science applications. such as the monitoring of the distribution of chemical species in the stratosphere and troposphere using the limb-sounding technique. The overall goals of this project have been achieved: a broadband 200-300 SIS receiver was designed and constructed, and was demonstrated in the field through a test run at the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory on Mauna Kea. HI. The technical details are described in the appendices. which are primarily conference publications. but Appendix A also includes an unpublished summary of the latest results. The work on the SIS mixer design are described in the conference publications (appendices B and C). The "Supermix" software package that was developed at Caltech and used for the SIS design is also described in two conference papers, but has been substantially revised, debugged. and extended as part of the work completed for this grant. The Supermix package is made available to the community at no charge. The electromagnetic design of a radial waveguide probe similar to the one used in this work is described in a journal publication. Details of the novel fabrication procedure used for producing the SIS devices at JPL are also given in an upcoming journal article. Finally, details on the wideband HEMT amplifier design and noise characterization techniques are described in two publications.

Zmuidzinas, J.

2004-01-01

258

A Heteroepitaxial Perovskite Metal-Base Transistor  

SciTech Connect

'More than Moore' captures a concept for overcoming limitations in silicon electronics by incorporating new functionalities in the constituent materials. Perovskite oxides are candidates because of their vast array of physical properties in a common structure. They also enable new electronic devices based on strongly-correlated electrons. The field effect transistor and its derivatives have been the principal oxide devices investigated thus far, but another option is available in a different geometry: if the current is perpendicular to the interface, the strong internal electric fields generated at back-to-back heterojunctions can be used for oxide electronics, analogous to bipolar transistors. Here we demonstrate a perovskite heteroepitaxial metal-base transistor operating at room temperature, enabled by interface dipole engineering. Analysis of many devices quantifies the evolution from hot-electron to permeable-base behaviour. This device provides a platform for incorporating the exotic ground states of perovskite oxides, as well as novel electronic phases at their interfaces.

Yajima, T.; Hikita, Y.; /Tokyo U.; Hwang, H.Y.; /Tokyo U. /JST, PRESTO /SLAC; ,

2011-08-11

259

Thin Film Transistors On Plastic Substrates  

DOEpatents

A process for formation of thin film transistors (TFTs) on plastic substrates replaces standard thin film transistor fabrication techniques, and uses sufficiently lower processing temperatures so that inexpensive plastic substrates may be used in place of standard glass, quartz, and silicon wafer-based substrates. The silicon based thin film transistor produced by the process includes a low temperature substrate incapable of withstanding sustained processing temperatures greater than about 250.degree. C., an insulating layer on the substrate, a layer of silicon on the insulating layer having sections of doped silicon, undoped silicon, and poly-silicon, a gate dielectric layer on the layer of silicon, a layer of gate metal on the dielectric layer, a layer of oxide on sections of the layer of silicon and the layer of gate metal, and metal contacts on sections of the layer of silicon and layer of gate metal defining source, gate, and drain contacts, and interconnects.

Carey, Paul G. (Mountain View, CA); Smith, Patrick M. (San Ramon, CA); Sigmon, Thomas W. (Portola Valley, CA); Aceves, Randy C. (Livermore, CA)

2004-01-20

260

Symmetry-protected adiabatic quantum transistors  

E-print Network

Adiabatic quantum transistors allow quantum logic gates to be performed by applying a large field to a quantum many-body system prepared in its ground state, without the need for local control. The basic operation of such a device can be viewed as driving a spin chain from a symmetry protected phase to a trivial phase, and this perspective offers an avenue to generalise the adiabatic quantum transistor and to design several improvements. The performance of quantum logic gates is shown to depend only on universal symmetry properties of a symmetry-protected phase rather than fine tuned parent Hamiltonians, and it is possible to implement a universal set of logic gates in this way by combining several different types of symmetry protected matter. Such symmetry-protected adiabatic quantum transistors are argued to be robust to a range of relevant noise processes.

Dominic J. Williamson; Stephen D. Bartlett

2014-08-14

261

VHDL simulation with access to transistor models  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Hardware description languages such as VHDL have evolved to aid in the design of systems with large numbers of elements and a wide range of electronic and logical abstractions. For high performance circuits, behavioral models may not be able to efficiently include enough detail to give designers confidence in a simulation's accuracy. One option is to provide a link between the VHDL environment and a transistor level simulation environment. The coupling of the Vantage Analysis Systems VHDL simulator and the NOVA simulator provides the combination of VHDL modeling and transistor modeling.

Gibson, J.

1991-01-01

262

Gigahertz frequency flexible carbon nanotube transistors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We investigate the high frequency performances of flexible field-effect transistors based on carbon nanotubes. A large density of mostly aligned carbon nanotubes deposited on a flexible substrate by dielectrophoresis serves as the channel. The transistors display a constant transconductance up to at least 6GHz and a current gain cutoff frequency (fT) as high as 1GHz at VDS=-700mV. Bending tests show that the devices can withstand a high degree of flexion characterized by a constant transconductance for radius of curvature as small as 3.3mm.

Chimot, N.; Derycke, V.; Goffman, M. F.; Bourgoin, J. P.; Happy, H.; Dambrine, G.

2007-10-01

263

Direct solar-pumped iodine laser amplifier  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order to evaluate the feasibility of the solar pumped dye laser, the parametric study of a dye laser amplifier pumped by a solar simulator and flashlamp was carried out, and the amplifier gains were measured at various pump beam irradiances on the dye cell. Rhodamine 6G was considered as a candidate for the solar pumped laser because of its

Kwang S. Han; K. H. Kim; L. V. Stock

1986-01-01

264

Signal flow graph analysis of feedback amplifiers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A systematic way of transcribing the schematic of an integrated circuit into its signal flow graph (SFG) equivalent is presented. With this SFG, transfer functions, loop gains, and input and output impedances are readily computed. The analysis is valid for multiloop amplifiers and the computation of a three-stage amplifier with nested Miller compensation is presented to illustrate the robustness of

Wing-Hung Ki

2000-01-01

265

PHASE NOISE IN MICROWAVE OSCILLATORS AND AMPLIFIERS  

E-print Network

class AB power amplifier. iv #12;Dedication To my parents for their love and endless support #12 of oscillators and power amplifiers. Next, a design method for voltage controlled oscillators (VCOs) with si- multaneous small size, low phase noise, DC power consumption and thermal drift is presented. Design steps

Popovic, Zoya

266

Two-port directional parametric amplifier  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Parametric amplifiers working at the quantum limit are indispensable for fast, accurate measurements of superconducting qubits and other sensitive mesoscopic systems. Conventional microwave parametric amplifiers usually operate as one-port reflection devices and rely on non-reciprocal components like circulators. Besides affecting the magnetic environment near delicate superconducting devices, circulators are problematic for on-chip integration owing to their relatively bulky size. We will present the results of a theoretical analysis of a minimal-noise directional amplifier based on parametric Josephson devices, which would avoid the need for circulators in quantum-limited measurements. The link between the non-reciprocal operation of this amplifier and the dynamics of the microwave dc SQUID amplifier will be discussed.

Kamal, Archana; Devoret, Michel; Clarke, John

2010-03-01

267

Amplified OTDR systems for multipoint corrosion monitoring.  

PubMed

We present two configurations of an amplified fiber-optic-based corrosion sensor using the optical time domain reflectometry (OTDR) technique as the interrogation method. The sensor system is multipoint, self-referenced, has no moving parts and can measure the corrosion rate several kilometers away from the OTDR equipment. The first OTDR monitoring system employs a remotely pumped in-line EDFA and it is used to evaluate the increase in system reach compared to a non-amplified configuration. The other amplified monitoring system uses an EDFA in booster configuration and we perform corrosion measurements and evaluations of system sensitivity to amplifier gain variations. Our experimental results obtained under controlled laboratory conditions show the advantages of the amplified system in terms of longer system reach with better spatial resolution, and also that the corrosion measurements obtained from our system are not sensitive to 3 dB gain variations. PMID:22737017

Nascimento, Jehan F; Silva, Marcionilo J; Colho, Isnaldo J S; Cipriano, Eliel; Martins-Filho, Joaquim F

2012-01-01

268

Amplified OTDR Systems for Multipoint Corrosion Monitoring  

PubMed Central

We present two configurations of an amplified fiber-optic-based corrosion sensor using the optical time domain reflectometry (OTDR) technique as the interrogation method. The sensor system is multipoint, self-referenced, has no moving parts and can measure the corrosion rate several kilometers away from the OTDR equipment. The first OTDR monitoring system employs a remotely pumped in-line EDFA and it is used to evaluate the increase in system reach compared to a non-amplified configuration. The other amplified monitoring system uses an EDFA in booster configuration and we perform corrosion measurements and evaluations of system sensitivity to amplifier gain variations. Our experimental results obtained under controlled laboratory conditions show the advantages of the amplified system in terms of longer system reach with better spatial resolution, and also that the corrosion measurements obtained from our system are not sensitive to 3 dB gain variations. PMID:22737017

Nascimento, Jehan F.; Silva, Marcionilo J.; Coelho, Isnaldo J. S.; Cipriano, Eliel; Martins-Filho, Joaquim F.

2012-01-01

269

Post pulse shutter for laser amplifier  

DOEpatents

Apparatus and method for quickly closing off the return path for an amplified laser pulse at the output of an amplifier so as to prevent damage to amplifiers and other optical components appearing earlier in the chain by the return of an amplified pulse. The apparatus consists of a fast retropulse or post pulse shutter to suppress target reflection and/or beam return. This is accomplished by either quickly placing a solid across the light transmitting aperture of a component in the chain, such as a spatial filter pinhole, or generating and directing a plasma with sufficiently high density across the aperture, so as to, in effect, close the aperture to the returning amplified energy pulse.

Bradley, Laird P. [Livermore, CA; Carder, Bruce M. [Antioch, CA; Gagnon, William L. [Berkeley, CA

1981-03-17

270

Ultrafast disk lasers and amplifiers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Disk lasers with multi-kW continuous wave (CW) output power are widely used in manufacturing, primarily for cutting and welding applications, notably in the automotive industry. The ytterbium disk technology combines high power (average and/or peak power), excellent beam quality, high efficiency, and high reliability with low investment and operating costs. Fundamental mode picosecond disk lasers are well established in micro machining at high throughput and perfect precision. Following the world's first market introduction of industrial grade 50 W picosecond lasers (TruMicro 5050) at the Photonics West 2008, the second generation of the TruMicro series 5000 now provides twice the average power (100 W at 1030 nm, or 60 W frequency doubled, green output) at a significantly reduced footprint. Mode-locked disk oscillators achieve by far the highest average power of any unamplified lasers, significantly exceeding the 100 W level in laboratory set-ups. With robust long resonators their multi-microjoule pulse energies begin to compete with typical ultrafast amplifiers. In addition, significant interest in disk technology has recently come from the extreme light laser community, aiming for ultra-high peak powers of petawatts and beyond.

Sutter, Dirk H.; Kleinbauer, Jochen; Bauer, Dominik; Wolf, Martin; Tan, Chuong; Gebs, Raphael; Budnicki, Aleksander; Wagenblast, Philipp; Weiler, Sascha

2012-03-01

271

High Performance Electrolyte Gated Carbon Nanotube Transistors  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have fabricated high performance field-effect transistors made from semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). Using chemical vapor deposition to grow the tubes, annealing to improve the contacts, and an electrolyte as a gate, we obtain very high device mobilites and transconductances. These measurements demonstrate that SWNTs are attractive for both electronic applications and for chemical and biological sensing.

Sami Rosenblatt; Yuval Yaish; Jiwoong Park; Jeff Gore; Vera Sazonova; Paul L. McEuen

2002-01-01

272

A million transistor systolic array graphics engine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pixel processing is the most fundamental performance bottleneck in high-end three-dimensional graphics systems. This paper presents the design of a specialized custom VLSI graphics chip that was implemented with one million transistors and is capable of processing pixels at extremely rapid rates close to one nanosecond. This was made possible by utilizing a large number of identical pipelined pixel processors

Nader Gharachorloo; Satish Gupta; Erdem Hokenek; Peruvemba Balasubramanian; William Bogholtz; Christian Mathieu; Christos Zoulas

1989-01-01

273

Transient Thermal Response Measurements of Power Transistors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Differences between the measured thermal impedance of power transistors when determined by the pulsed heating curve and cooling curve techniques are discussed. These differences are shown to result primarily because the power density distributions of these devices change as devicesheat; as a result of these changes the heating curve and the cooling curve are not conjugate. It is shown that

David L. Blackburn; Frank F. Oettinger

1975-01-01

274

Black phosphorus radio-frequency transistors.  

PubMed

Few-layer and thin film forms of layered black phosphorus (BP) have recently emerged as a promising material for applications in high performance nanoelectronics and infrared optoelectronics. Layered BP thin films offer a moderate bandgap of around 0.3 eV and high carrier mobility, which lead to transistors with decent on-off ratios and high on-state current densities. Here, we demonstrate the gigahertz frequency operation of BP field-effect transistors for the first time. The BP transistors demonstrated here show respectable current saturation with an on-off ratio that exceeds 2 10(3). We achieved a current density in excess of 270 mA/mm and DC transconductance above 180 mS/mm for hole conduction. Using standard high frequency characterization techniques, we measured a short-circuit current-gain cutoff frequency fT of 12 GHz and a maximum oscillation frequency fmax of 20 GHz in 300 nm channel length devices. BP devices may offer advantages over graphene transistors for high frequency electronics in terms of voltage and power gain due to the good current saturation properties arising from their finite bandgap, thus can be considered as a promising candidate for the future high performance thin film electronics technology for operation in the multi-GHz frequency range and beyond. PMID:25347787

Wang, Han; Wang, Xiaomu; Xia, Fengnian; Wang, Luhao; Jiang, Hao; Xia, Qiangfei; Chin, Matthew L; Dubey, Madan; Han, Shu-Jen

2014-11-12

275

MOS transistor modeling for RF IC design  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the basis of the modeling of the MOS transistor for circuit simulation at RF. A physical equivalent circuit that can easily be implemented as a Spice subcircuit is first derived. The subcircuit includes a substrate network that accounts for the signal coupling occurring at HF from the drain to the source and the bulk. It is shown

Christian C. Enz; Yuhua Cheng

2000-01-01

276

High Performance Crystalline Organic Transistors and Circuit.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We have examined the best available small molecule crystalline organic semiconductors as active layers in thin-film transistors. We have optimized the field-induced conductance, a figure of merit that will relate directly to circuit speeds. A simple figur...

A. Dodabalapur

2011-01-01

277

Pressure sensitive organic field effect transistor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thin films of organic semiconductor copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) and Al were deposited in sequence by vacuum evaporation on a glass substrate with Ag source and drain electrodes. The effect of pressure on the properties of the fabricated field effect transistor (FET) with metal (aluminum) semiconductor (copper phthalocyanine) Schottky junction was investigated. It was observed that the drainsource resistance of

Kh. S. Karimov; M. Saleem; M. Mahroof-Tahir; T. A. Khan; Adam Khan

2010-01-01

278

High fidelity readout of a transmon qubit using a superconducting low-inductance undulatory galvanometer microwave amplifier  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We report high-fidelity, quantum non-demolition, single-shot readout of a superconducting transmon qubit using a dc-biased superconducting low-inductance undulatory galvanometer (SLUG) amplifier. The SLUG improves the system signal-to-noise ratio by 6.5 dB in a 20 MHz window compared with a bare high electron mobility transistor amplifier. An optimal cavity drive pulse is chosen using a genetic search algorithm, leading to a maximum combined readout and preparation fidelity of 91.9% with a measurement time of {{T}meas}=200 ns. Using post-selection to remove preparation errors caused by heating, we realize a combined preparation and readout fidelity of 94.3%.

Liu, Yanbing; Srinivasan, Srikanth J.; Hover, D.; Zhu, Shaojiang; McDermott, R.; Houck, A. A.

2014-11-01

279

Progress on diamond amplified photo-cathode  

SciTech Connect

Two years ago, we obtained an emission gain of 40 from the Diamond Amplifier Cathode (DAC) in our test system. In our current systematic study of hydrogenation, the highest gain we registered in emission scanning was 178. We proved that our treatments for improving the diamond amplifiers are reproducible. Upcoming tests planned include testing DAC in a RF cavity. Already, we have designed a system for these tests using our 112 MHz superconducting cavity, wherein we will measure DAC parameters, such as the limit, if any, on emission current density, the bunch charge, and the bunch length. The diamond-amplified photocathode, that promises to support a high average current, low emittance, and a highly stable electron beam with a long lifetime, is under development for an electron source. The diamond, functioning as a secondary emitter amplifies the primary current, with a few KeV energy, that comes from the traditional cathode. Earlier, our group recorded a maximum gain of 40 in the secondary electron emission from a diamond amplifier. In this article, we detail our optimization of the hydrogenation process for a diamond amplifier that resulted in a stable emission gain of 140. We proved that these characteristics are reproducible. We now are designing a system to test the diamond amplifier cathode using an 112MHz SRF gun to measure the limits of the emission current's density, and on the bunch charge and bunch length.

Wang, E.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Burrill, A.; Kewisch, J.; Chang, X.; Rao, T.; Smedley, J.; Wu, Q.; Muller, E.; Xin, T.

2011-03-28

280

New concepts for light-emitting transistors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study we report on new concepts to generate light emission in organic thin film transistors. The initial physical understanding of light emission from tetracene based field-effect transistors was proposed to be originated from a strong underetching of the drain and source electrodes. This underetched electrodes in combination with the evaporated tetracene is thereby believed to generate a virtual OLED at the drain electrode. Accumulated holes have to leave the gate oxide interface to reach the drain electrode by crossing the bulk of the organic semiconductor. Light then occurs by injection of electrons in a large electric field in the bulk. Today's transistors do not show the underetching anymore but are still emitting light only at the drain electrode, again supporting the initial interpretation of a defect state at the edge of the drain electrode. In this context the question how electrons can overcome a potential barrier of 2.7 eV is still open. Therefore an investigation of the gold tetracene interface by UPS and XPS techniques has been started and preliminary data indicate the unexpected result that the barrier for electrons is comparable to that for holes. In a further step the generation of an ambipolar transistor by interface doping with calcium was tried and an n-type pentacene transistor could be fabricated but the strategy failed for tetracene. Finally an electrochemical interface doping was performed by the application of Lithium triflate in PEO to a thin interface layer between gate oxide and tetracene. This leads to light emission but unfortunately also to the loss of the gate voltage influence. Based on these results a possible strategy will be presented.

Hepp, Aline; Ahles, Marcus; Heil, Holger; Schmechel, Roland; von Seggern, Heinz; Weiler, Ulrich; Mayer, Thomas; Jaegermann, Wolfram

2004-10-01

281

Techniques for high-efficiency outphasing power amplifiers  

E-print Network

A trade-off between linearity and efficiency exists in conventional power amplifiers (PAs). The outphase amplifying concept overcomes this trade-off by enabling the use of high efficiency, non-linear power amplifiers for ...

Godoy, Philip (Philip Andrew)

2011-01-01

282

21 CFR 882.1835 - Physiological signal amplifier.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

...2010-04-01 false Physiological signal amplifier. 882.1835 Section 882.1835... 882.1835 Physiological signal amplifier. (a) Identification. A physiological signal amplifier is a general purpose device used...

2010-04-01

283

21 CFR 882.1835 - Physiological signal amplifier.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...2012-04-01 false Physiological signal amplifier. 882.1835 Section 882.1835... 882.1835 Physiological signal amplifier. (a) Identification. A physiological signal amplifier is a general purpose device used...

2012-04-01

284

21 CFR 882.1835 - Physiological signal amplifier.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

...2011-04-01 false Physiological signal amplifier. 882.1835 Section 882.1835... 882.1835 Physiological signal amplifier. (a) Identification. A physiological signal amplifier is a general purpose device used...

2011-04-01

285

47 CFR 2.815 - External radio frequency power amplifiers.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

... External radio frequency power amplifiers. 2.815 Section 2.815 ...External radio frequency power amplifiers. (a) As used in this part, an external radio frequency power amplifier is any device which,...

2012-10-01

286

Cavity enhanced rephased amplified spontaneous emission  

E-print Network

Amplified spontaneous emission is usually treated as an incoherent noise process. Recent theoretical and experimental work using rephasing optical pulses has shown that rephased amplified spontaneous emission (RASE) is a potential source of wide bandwidth time-delayed entanglement. Due to poor echo efficiency the plain RASE protocol doesn't in theory achieve perfect entanglement. Experiments done to date show a very small amount of entanglement at best. Here we show that rephased amplified spontaneous emission can, in principle, produce perfect multimode time-delayed two mode squeezing when the active medium is placed inside a Q-switched cavity.

Lewis A Williamson; Jevon J Longdell

2014-03-26

287

Single mode terahertz quantum cascade amplifier  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A terahertz (THz) optical amplifier based on a 2.9 THz quantum cascade laser (QCL) structure has been demonstrated. By depositing an antireflective coating on the QCL facet, the laser mirror losses are enhanced to fully suppress the lasing action, creating a THz quantum cascade (QC) amplifier. Terahertz radiation amplification has been obtained, by coupling a separate multi-mode THz QCL of the same active region design to the QC amplifier. A bare cavity gain is achieved and shows excellent agreement with the lasing spectrum from the original QCL without the antireflective coating. Furthermore, a maximum optical gain of 30 dB with single-mode radiation output is demonstrated.

Ren, Y.; Wallis, R.; Shah, Y. D.; Jessop, D. S.; Degl'Innocenti, R.; Klimont, A.; Kamboj, V.; Beere, H. E.; Ritchie, D. A.

2014-10-01

288

Experimental design of laminar proportional amplifiers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

An experimental program was initiated at Langley Research Center to study the effects of various parameters on the design of laminar proportional beam deflection amplifiers. Matching and staging of amplifiers to obtain high-pressure gain was also studied. Variable parameters were aspect ratio, setback, control length, receiver distance, receiver width, width of center vent, and bias pressure levels. Usable pressure gains from 4 to 19 per stage can now be achieved, and five amplifiers were staged together to yield pressure gains up to 2,000,000.

Hellbaum, R. F.

1976-01-01

289

The 60 GHz solid state power amplifier  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A new amplifier architecture was developed during this contract that is superior to any other solid state approach. The amplifier produced 6 watts with 4 percent efficiency over a 2 GHz band at 61.5 GHz. The unit was 7 x 9 x 3 inches in size, 5.5 pounds in weight, and the conduction cooling through the baseplate is suitable for use in space. The amplifier used high efficiency GaAs IMPATT diodes which were mounted in 1-diode circuits, called modules. Eighteen modules were used in the design, and power combining was accomplished with a proprietary passive component called a combiner plate.

Mcclymonds, J.

1991-01-01

290

Design and assessment of a robust voltage amplifier with 2.5 GHz GBW and >100 kGy total dose tolerance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A differential voltage amplifier with a gain-bandwidth product of 2.5Ghz and using adaptive biasing has been designed in a standard CMOS technology and assessed under radiation and temperature variations. The principle used in this ASIC will be employed in the design of a Gbps TIA with improved tolerance for ?-irradiation and temperature for an optical instrumentation (LIDAR) receiver aiming at operation in harsh environments. The voltage amplifier was tested under gamma radiation and features a gain degradation of merely 4.5% up to a total dose of 100kGy. In order to verify the radiation effects on the IC, the threshold voltage shift of the separate transistors has been investigated. Temperature characterization has shown that the amplifier features a reduction of the voltage gain by only 5.6% for a temperature range of -40 till 130 C.

Verbeeck, J.; Leroux, P.; Steyaert, M.

2011-01-01

291

An Energy-Efficient Micropower Neural Recording Amplifier  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an ultralow-power neural recording amplifier. The amplifier appears to be the lowest power and most energy-efficient neural recording amplifier reported to date. We describe low-noise design techniques that help the neural amplifier achieve input-referred noise that is near the theoretical limit of any amplifier using a differential pair as an input stage. Since neural amplifiers must include

Woradorn Wattanapanitch; Michale Fee; Rahul Sarpeshkar

2007-01-01

292

A novel wideband gyrotron travelling wave amplifier  

E-print Network

We present the design and the experimental results of a novel wideband quasioptical Gyrotron Traveling Wave Tube (gyro-TWT) amplifier and the first Vacuum Electron Device (VED) with a Photonic Band Gap (PBG) structure. The ...

Sirigiri, Jagadishwar R. (Jagadishwar Rao), 1973-

2003-01-01

293

How to characterize the nonlinear amplifier?  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The conception of the amplification of the coherent field is formulated. The definition of the coefficient of the amplification as the relation between the mean value of the field at the output to the value at the input and the definition of the noise as the difference between the number of photons in the output mode and square of the modulus of the mean value of the output amplitude are considered. Using a simple example it is shown that by these definitions the noise of the nonlinear amplifier may be less than the noise of the ideal linear amplifier of the same amplification coefficient. Proposals to search another definition of basic parameters of the nonlinear amplifiers are discussed. This definition should enable us to formulate the universal fundamental lower limit of the noise which should be valid for linear quantum amplifiers as for nonlinear ones.

Kallistratova, Dmitri Kouznetsov; Cotera, Carlos Flores

1994-01-01

294

Hybrid waveguides for optically pumped amplifiers  

E-print Network

A hybrid waveguide based on simultaneous propagation of photonic crystal (PC) and total internal reflection confined optical modes is introduced for a scheme to uniformly pump waveguide optical amplifiers (WOAs). Planar ...

Saini, S.

295

Erbium-doped phosphate fiber amplifiers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, the development of phosphate glass fiber amplifier with a high gain per unit length is reviewed. The performance of compact multimode pumped erbium-doped phosphate fiber amplifiers is presented. A fiber amplifier with a small signal net gain of 41dB at 1535nm and 21dB over the full C-band was demonstrated using a newly developed 8-cm long erbium-doped phosphate fiber excited with a 1-W, 975-nm multimode laser diode. A theoretical model was developed for the multi-mode pumped amplifier based on modified rate equations and effective beam propagation method. Close agreement between experimental and modeling results is observed.

Jiang, Shibin

2003-08-01

296

High bandwidth differential amplifier for shock experiments.  

PubMed

We developed a high bandwidth differential amplifier for gas gun shock experiments of low-resistance metals. The circuit has a bandwidth up to 1 GHz, and is capable of measuring signals of ?1.5 V with a common mode rejection of 250 V. Conductivity measurements of gas gun targets are measured by flowing high currents through the targets. The voltage is measured across the target using a technique similar to a four-point probe. Because of the design of the current source and load, the target voltage is ?250 V relative to ground. Since the expected voltage change in the target is <1 V, the differential amplifier must have a large common mode rejection. Various amplifying designs are shown, although the increased amplification decreases bandwidth. Bench tests show that the amplifier can withstand significant common mode dc voltage and measure 10 ns, and 50 mV signals. PMID:23126892

Ross, P W; Tran, V; Chau, R

2012-10-01

297

Two-stage hybrid microcircuit amplifier  

SciTech Connect

This report documents the design, development, and fabrication of a two-stage amplifier operating at 400 to 600 MHz. Included are characterization data, predictions generated during design, and measured performance.

Pyo, M.L.

1987-04-01

298

Operational Amplifier Experiments for the Chemistry Laboratory.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides details of experiments that deal with the use of operational amplifiers and are part of a course in instrumental analysis. These experiments are performed after the completion of a set of electricity and electronics experiments. (DDR)

Braun, Robert D.

1996-01-01

299

Direct solar-pumped iodine laser amplifier  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

This semiannual progress report covers the period from September 1, 1988 to February 28, 1989 under NASA grant NAG-1-441 entitled, Direct Solar-Pumped Iodine Laser Amplifier. During this period, the research effort was concentrated on the solar pumped master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) system using n-C3F7I. In the experimental work, the amplification measurement was conducted to identify the optimum conditions for amplification of the center's Vortek solar simulator pumped iodine laser amplifier. A modeling effort was also pursued to explain the experimental results in the theoretical work. The amplification measurement of the solar simulator pumped iodine laser amplifier is the first amplification experiment on the continuously pumped amplifier. The small signal amplification of 5 was achieved for the triple pass geometry of the 15 cm long solar simulator pumped amplifier at the n-C3F7I pressure of 20 torr, at the flow velocity of 6 m/sec and at the pumping intensity of 1500 solar constants. The XeCl laser pumped iodine laser oscillator, which was developed in the previous research, was employed as the master oscillator for the amplification measurement. In the theoretical work, the rate equations of the amplifier was established and the small signal amplification was calculated for the solar simulator pumped iodine laser amplifier. The amplification calculated from the kinetic equations with the previously measured rate coefficients reveals very large disagreement with experimental measurement. Moreover, the optimum condition predicted by the kinetic equation is quite discrepant with that measured by experiment. This fact indicates the necessity of study in the measurement of rate coefficients of the continuously pumped iodine laser system.

Han, Kwang S.; Hwang, In Heon; Stock, Larry V.

1989-01-01

300

Direct solar-pumped iodine laser amplifier  

Microsoft Academic Search

This semiannual progress report covers the period from September 1, 1988 to February 28, 1989 under NASA grant NAG-1-441 entitled, Direct Solar-Pumped Iodine Laser Amplifier. During this period, the research effort was concentrated on the solar pumped master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) system using n-C3F7I. In the experimental work, the amplification measurement was conducted to identify the optimum conditions for

Kwang S. Han; In Heon Hwang; Larry V. Stock

1989-01-01

301

A single power supply optoelectronic differential amplifier  

E-print Network

A SINGLE POWER SUPPLY OPTOELECTRONIC DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIER A Thesis by YOUNGiXIIN ALBERT CHOI Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December...A SINGLE POWER SUPPLY OPTOELECTRONIC DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIER A Thesis by YOUNGiXIIN ALBERT CHOI Submitted to the Graduate College of Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE December...

Choi, Youngmin Albert

2012-06-07

302

Ka-band monolithic gain control amplifier  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A monolithic gain control amplifier for Ka-band has been developed based on 0.25 micron-gate-length dual-gate FETs fabricated on ion-implanted material. A single-stage monolithic amplifier gives a gain of 6 dB at 31 GHz including fixture losses with a gain control range of over 20 dB. The device and IC design and fabrication are described.

Geddes, J.; Sokolov, V.; Contolatis, T.

1986-01-01

303

Novel Design Procedure for Class Power Amplifiers  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a novel design procedure for the class-EM amplifier. The numerical design procedure is applied to the design of the class-EM amplifier, which achieves simple and accurate designs for high-order circuits. As a result, no tuning process is necessary in the circuit implementations. In this paper, two types of auxiliary circuits are considered, namely, the zero-voltage switching class-E

Ryosuke Miyahara; Hiroo Sekiya; Marian K. Kazimierczuk

2010-01-01

304

OPASYN: a compiler for CMOS operational amplifiers  

Microsoft Academic Search

A silicon compilation system for CMOS operational amplifiers (OPASYN) is discussed. The synthesis system takes as inputs system-level specifications, fabrication-dependent technology parameters, and geometric layout rules. It produces a design-rule-correct compact layout of an optimized operational amplifier. The synthesis proceeds in three stages: (1) heuristic selection of a suitable circuit topology; (2) parametric circuit optimization based on analytic models; and

Han Young Koh; Carlo H. Squin; Paul R. Gray

1990-01-01

305

Multi-pass light amplifier  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A multiple-pass laser amplifier that uses optical focusing between subsequent passes through a single gain medium so that a reproducibly stable beam size is achieved within the gain region. A resonator or a White Cell cavity is provided, including two or more mirrors (planar or curvilinearly shaped) facing each other along a resonator axis and an optical gain medium positioned on a resonator axis between the mirrors or adjacent to one of the mirrors. In a first embodiment, two curvilinear mirrors, which may include adjacent lenses, are configured so that a light beam passing through the gain medium and incident on the first mirror is reflected by that mirror toward the second mirror in a direction approximately parallel to the resonator axis. A light beam translator, such as an optical flat of transparent material, is positioned to translate this light beam by a controllable amount toward or away from the resonator axis for each pass of the light beam through the translator. A second embodiment uses two curvilinear mirrors and one planar mirror, with a gain medium positioned in the optical path between each curvilinear mirror and the planar mirror. A third embodiment uses two curvilinear mirrors and two planar mirrors, with a gain medium positioned adjacent to a planar mirror. A fourth embodiment uses a curvilinear mirror and three planar mirrors, with a gain medium positioned adjacent to a planar mirror. A fourth embodiment uses four planar mirrors and a focusing lens system, with a gain medium positioned between the four mirrors. A fifth embodiment uses first and second planar mirrors, a focusing lens system and a third mirror that may be planar or curvilinear, with a gain medium positioned adjacent to the third mirror. A sixth embodiment uses two planar mirrors and a curvilinear mirror and a fourth mirror that may be planar or curvilinear, with a gain medium positioned adjacent to the fourth mirror. In a seventh embodiment, first and second mirrors face a third mirror, all curvilinear, in a White Cell configuration, and a gain medium is positioned adjacent to one of the mirrors.

Plaessmann, Henry (Inventor); Grossman, William M. (Inventor); Olson, Todd E. (Inventor)

1996-01-01

306

Three-Stage InP Submillimeter-Wave MMIC Amplifier  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A submillimeter-wave monolithic integrated- circuit (S-MMIC) amplifier has been designed and fabricated using an indium phosphide (InP) 35-nm gate-length high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) device, developed at Northrop Grumman Corporation. The HEMT device employs two fingers each 15 micrometers wide. The HEMT wafers are grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and make use of a pseudomorphic In0.75Ga0.25As channel, a silicon delta-doping layer as the electron supply, an In0.52Al0.48As buffer layer, and an InP substrate. The three-stage design uses coplanar waveguide topology with a very narrow ground-to-ground spacing of 14 micrometers. Quarter-wave matching transmission lines, on-chip metal-insulator-metal shunt capacitors, series thin-film resistors, and matching stubs were used in the design. Series resistors in the shunt branch arm provide the basic circuit stabilization. The S-MMIC amplifier was measured for S-parameters and found to be centered at 320 GHz with 13-15-dB gain from 300-345 GHz. This chip was developed as part of the DARPA Submillimeter Wave Imaging Focal Plane Technology (SWIFT) program (see figure). Submillimeter-wave amplifiers could enable more sensitive receivers for earth science, planetary remote sensing, and astrophysics telescopes, particularly in radio astronomy, both from the ground and in space. A small atmospheric window at 340 GHz exists and could enable ground-based observations. However, the submillimeter-wave regime (above 300 GHz) is best used for space telescopes as Earth s atmosphere attenuates most of the signal through water and oxygen absorption. Future radio telescopes could make use of S-MMIC amplifiers for wideband, low noise, instantaneous frequency coverage, particularly in the case of heterodyne array receivers.

Pukala, David; Samoska, Lorene; Man, King; Gaier, Todd; Deal, William; Lai, Richard; Mei, Gerry; Makishi, Stella

2008-01-01

307

Multiple excitation regenerative amplifier inertial confinement system  

DOEpatents

The invention relates to apparatus and methods for producing high intensity laser radiation generation which is achieved through an optical amplifier-storage ring design. One or two synchronized, counterpropagating laser pulses are injected into a regenerative amplifier cavity and amplified by gain media which are pumped repetitively by electrical or optical means. The gain media excitation pulses are tailored to efficiently amplify the laser pulses during each transit. After the laser pulses have been amplified to the desired intensity level, they are either switched out of the cavity by some switch means, as for example an electro-optical device, for any well known laser end uses, or a target means may be injected into the regenerative amplifier cavity in such a way as to intercept simultaneously the counterpropagating laser pulses. One such well known end uses to which this invention is intended is for production of high density and temperature plasmas suitable for generating neutrons, ions and x-rays and for studying matter heated by high intensity laser radiation.

George, Victor E. [Livermore, CA; Haas, Roger A. [Pleasanton, CA; Krupke, William F. [Pleasanton, CA; Schlitt, Leland G. [Livermore, CA

1980-05-27

308

Multiple excitation regenerative amplifier inertial confinement system  

DOEpatents

The invention relates to apparatus and methods for producing high intensity laser radiation generation which is achieved through an optical amplifier-storage ring design. One or two synchronized, counterpropagating laser pulses are injected into a regenerative amplifier cavity and amplified by gain media which are pumped repetitively by electrical or optical means. The gain media excitation pulses are tailored to efficiently amplify the laser pulses during each transit. After the laser pulses have been amplified to the desired intensity level, they are either switched out of the cavity by some switch means, as for example an electro-optical device, for any well known laser end uses, or a target means may be injected into the regenerative amplifier cavity in such a way as to intercept simultaneously the counterpropagating laser pulses. One such well known end uses to which this invention is intended is for production of high density and temperature plasmas suitable for generating neutrons, ions and x-rays and for studying matter heated by high intensity laser radiation. 11 figs.

George, V.E.; Haas, R.A.; Krupke, W.F.; Schlitt, L.G.

1980-05-27

309

Real Time Calibration Method for Signal Conditioning Amplifiers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A signal conditioning amplifier receives an input signal from an input such as a transducer. The signal is amplified and processed through an analog to digital converter and sent to a processor. The processor estimates the input signal provided by the transducer to the amplifier via a multiplexer. The estimated input signal is provided as a calibration voltage to the amplifier immediately following the receipt of the amplified input signal. The calibration voltage is amplified by the amplifier and provided to the processor as an amplified calibration voltage. The amplified calibration voltage is compared to the amplified input signal, and if a significant error exists, the gain and/or offset of the amplifier may be adjusted as necessary.

Medelius, Pedro J. (Inventor); Mata, Carlos T. (Inventor); Eckhoff, Anthony (Inventor); Perotti, Jose (Inventor); Lucena, Angel (Inventor)

2004-01-01

310

Recent progress in photoactive organic field-effect transistors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent progress in photoactive organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) is reviewed. Photoactive OFETs are divided into light-emitting (LE) and light-receiving (LR) OFETs. In the first part, LE-OFETs are reviewed from the viewpoint of the evolution of device structures. Device performances have improved in the last decade with the evolution of device structures from single-layer unipolar to multi-layer ambipolar transistors. In the second part, various kinds of LR-OFETs are featured. These are categorized according to their functionalities: phototransistors, non-volatile optical memories, and photochromism-based transistors. For both, various device configurations are introduced: thin-film based transistors for practical applications, single-crystalline transistors to investigate fundamental physics, nanowires, multi-layers, and vertical transistors based on new concepts.

Wakayama, Yutaka; Hayakawa, Ryoma; Seo, Hoon-Seok

2014-04-01

311

An ion-gated bipolar amplifier for ion sensing with enhanced signal and improved noise performance  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work presents a proof-of-concept ion-sensitive device operating in electrolytes. The device, i.e., an ion-gated bipolar amplifier (IGBA), consists of a modified ion-sensitive field-effect transistor (ISFET) intimately integrated with a vertical bipolar junction transistor for immediate current amplification without introducing additional noise. With the current non-optimized design, the IGBA is already characterized by a 70-fold internal amplification of the ISFET output signal. This signal amplification is retained when the IGBA is used for monitoring pH variations. The tight integration significantly suppresses the interference of the IGBA signal by external noise, which leads to an improvement in signal-to-noise performance compared to its ISFET reference. The IGBA concept is especially suitable for biochips with millions of electric sensors that are connected to peripheral readout circuitry via extensive metallization which may in turn invite external interferences leading to contamination of the signal before it reaches the first external amplification stage.

Zhang, Da; Gao, Xindong; Chen, Si; Norstrm, Hans; Smith, Ulf; Solomon, Paul; Zhang, Shi-Li; Zhang, Zhen

2014-08-01

312

Photonic bandgap materials: towards an all-optical micro-transistor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We describe all-optical transistor action in photonic bandgap (PBG) materials doped with active atoms and analyse the advantages of this system over other all-optical transistor proposals. In the presence of a PBG material, a coherent laser beam with the frequency slightly detuned from the resonant atomic transition frequency can drive a collection of two-level atoms to an almost totally inverted state, a phenomenon strictly forbidden in ordinary vacuum. By varying the laser field intensity in the neighbourhood of a threshold value, it is possible to drive the atomic system through a transition from states in which the atoms populate preferentially the ground level to almost totally inverted states. In this process, the atomic system switches from a passive medium (highly absorptive) to a active medium (highly amplifying). The large differential gain exhibited by the atomic medium is very robust with respect to nonradiative relaxation and dephasing mechanisms. The switching action in a PBG material is not associated with operation near a narrow cavity resonance with conventional trade-off between switching time and switching threshold intensity. Rather it is associated with an abrupt discontinuity in the engineered broad-band electromagnetic density of states of the PBG material. We demonstrate all-optical transistor action in PBG materials by analysing the absorption spectrum of a second probe laser beam and we show that the probe beam experiences a substantial differential gain by slight intensity modulations in the control laser field. Under certain conditions, the fluctuations in the number of totally inverted atoms that contribute to the amplification process are strongly diminished (the statistics of the excited atoms becomes sub-Poissonian), which, in turn, determines a very low-noise regime of amplification.

John, Sajeev; Florescu, Marian

2001-11-01

313

Toward 300 mm Wafer-Scalable High-Performance Polycrystalline Chemical Vapor Deposited Graphene Transistors.  

PubMed

The largest applications of high-performance graphene will likely be realized when combined with ubiquitous Si very large scale integrated (VLSI) technology, affording a new portfolio of "back end of the line" devices including graphene radio frequency transistors, heat and transparent conductors, interconnects, mechanical actuators, sensors, and optical devices. To this end, we investigate the scalable growth of polycrystalline graphene through chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and its integration with Si VLSI technology. The large-area Raman mapping on CVD polycrystalline graphene on 150 and 300 mm wafers reveals >95% monolayer uniformity with negligible defects. About 26?000 graphene field-effect transistors were realized, and statistical evaluation indicates a device yield of ?74% is achieved, 20% higher than previous reports. About 18% of devices show mobility of >3000 cm(2)/(V s), more than 3 times higher than prior results obtained over the same range from CVD polycrystalline graphene. The peak mobility observed here is ?40% higher than the peak mobility values reported for single-crystalline graphene, a major advancement for polycrystalline graphene that can be readily manufactured. Intrinsic graphene features such as soft current saturation and three-region output characteristics at high field have also been observed on wafer-scale CVD graphene on which frequency doubler and amplifiers are demonstrated as well. Our growth and transport results on scalable CVD graphene have enabled 300 mm synthesis instrumentation that is now commercially available. PMID:25198884

Rahimi, Somayyeh; Tao, Li; Chowdhury, Sk Fahad; Park, Saungeun; Jouvray, Alex; Buttress, Simon; Rupesinghe, Nalin; Teo, Ken; Akinwande, Deji

2014-10-28

314

Flexible polymer transistors with high pressure sensitivity for application in electronic skin and health monitoring.  

PubMed

Flexible pressure sensors are essential parts of an electronic skin to allow future biomedical prostheses and robots to naturally interact with humans and the environment. Mobile biomonitoring in long-term medical diagnostics is another attractive application for these sensors. Here we report the fabrication of flexible pressure-sensitive organic thin film transistors with a maximum sensitivity of 8.4 kPa(-1), a fast response time of <10 ms, high stability over >15,000 cycles and a low power consumption of <1 mW. The combination of a microstructured polydimethylsiloxane dielectric and the high-mobility semiconducting polyisoindigobithiophene-siloxane in a monolithic transistor design enabled us to operate the devices in the subthreshold regime, where the capacitance change upon compression of the dielectric is strongly amplified. We demonstrate that our sensors can be used for non-invasive, high fidelity, continuous radial artery pulse wave monitoring, which may lead to the use of flexible pressure sensors in mobile health monitoring and remote diagnostics in cardiovascular medicine. PMID:23673644

Schwartz, Gregor; Tee, Benjamin C-K; Mei, Jianguo; Appleton, Anthony L; Kim, Do Hwan; Wang, Huiliang; Bao, Zhenan

2013-01-01

315

BJT AC Analysis 1 of 38 The re Transistor model  

E-print Network

BJT AC Analysis 1 of 38 The re Transistor model Remind Q-poiint re = 26mv/IE #12;BJT AC Analysis 2;BJT AC Analysis 3 of 38 Process Replace transistor with small-signal model. Replace capacitors 5.0ms I(C1) -400nA 0A 400nA (4.2708m,-222.757n) (4.2195m,217.707n) Using these values the transistor

Allen, Gale

316

Mthode gnrale de modlisation du transistor effet de champ htrojonction  

E-print Network

151 Méthode générale de modélisation du transistor à effet de champ à hétérojonction P. Godts, D méthode de modélisation du transistor a effet de champ suffisamment simple pour être utilisable sur la méthodologie suivie pour obtenir l'ensemble des caractéristi- ques électriques du transistor en

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

317

Transistorized PWM Inverter-Induction Motor Drive System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The development of a transistorized pulsewidth modulated (PWM) inverter-induction motor traction drive system is described. A vehicle performance analysis was performed to establish the vehicle tractive effort-speed requirements. These requirements were then converted into a set of inverter and motor specifications. The inverter was a transistorized three-phase bridge using General Electric power Darlington transistors. The description of the design and

Steven C. Peak; Allan B. Plunkett

1983-01-01

318

A computational study of ballistic silicon nanowire transistors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using a rigorous 3D quantum simulator, we report a computational study of ballistic silicon nanowire transistors with arbitrary cross sections (i.e., triangular, rectangular or cylindrical). In comparison with the planar double-gate MOSFET, the silicon nanowire transistor shows promise (e.g., better electrostatic scaling for a given Si body thickness) and may provide a manufacturable opportunity to scale silicon transistors down below

J. Wang; E. Polizzi; M. Lundstrom

2003-01-01

319

Application of the Johnson criteria to graphene transistors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

For 60 years, the Johnson criteria have guided the development of materials and the materials choices for field-effect and bipolar transistor technology. Intrinsic graphene is a semi-metal, precluding transistor applications, but only under lateral bias is a gap opened and transistor action possible. This first application of the Johnson criteria to biased graphene suggests that this material will struggle to ever achieve competitive commercial applications.

Kelly, M. J.

2013-12-01

320

History and future perspective of the modern silicon bipolar transistor  

Microsoft Academic Search

A brief historical account of the development of advanced silicon bipolar transistors (SBTs) at IBM Research is described, with a focus on discussing the technical merits of the directions taken. A perspective on the future of silicon bipolar is given, including a discussion on the merits of SiGe-base transistors, and on the scaling limits of both Si-base and SiGe-base transistors.

Tak H. Ning

2001-01-01

321

A Lithographic Process for Integrated Organic Field-Effect Transistors  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports a photolithographic process for fabricating organic field-effect transistors which provides two layers of metal with arbitrary via placement, and optionally allows for subtractive lithographic patterning of the transistor active layer. The demonstrated pentacene transistors have a field-effect mobility of 0.10.05 cm2\\/(Vs). Parylene-C is used both as the gate dielectric and an encapsulation layer which allows for subtractive

Ioannis Kymissis; Akintunde Ibitayo Akinwande; Vladimir Bulovic

2005-01-01

322

TOPICAL REVIEW: Organic field-effect transistors using single crystals  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organic field-effect transistors using small-molecule organic single crystals are developed to investigate fundamental aspects of organic thin-film transistors that have been widely studied for possible future markets for 'plastic electronics'. In reviewing the physics and chemistry of single-crystal organic field-effect transistors (SC-OFETs), the nature of intrinsic charge dynamics is elucidated for the carriers induced at the single crystal surfaces of

Tatsuo Hasegawa; Jun Takeya

2009-01-01

323

Black phosphorus field-effect transistors.  

PubMed

Two-dimensional crystals have emerged as a class of materials that may impact future electronic technologies. Experimentally identifying and characterizing new functional two-dimensional materials is challenging, but also potentially rewarding. Here, we fabricate field-effect transistors based on few-layer black phosphorus crystals with thickness down to a few nanometres. Reliable transistor performance is achieved at room temperature in samples thinner than 7.5 nm, with drain current modulation on the order of 10(5) and well-developed current saturation in the I-V characteristics. The charge-carrier mobility is found to be thickness-dependent, with the highest values up to ? 1,000 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) obtained for a thickness of ? 10 nm. Our results demonstrate the potential of black phosphorus thin crystals as a new two-dimensional material for applications in nanoelectronic devices. PMID:24584274

Li, Likai; Yu, Yijun; Ye, Guo Jun; Ge, Qingqin; Ou, Xuedong; Wu, Hua; Feng, Donglai; Chen, Xian Hui; Zhang, Yuanbo

2014-05-01

324

Driving pockels cells using avalanche transistor pulsers  

SciTech Connect

The purpose of this paper is to describe the current state of avalanche transistor based Pockels cell driver development at LLNL and to provide the reader with a set of useful design guidelines. A general description of the units is followed by a short section on the circuit design of avalanche transistor pulsers. A more detailed design guide is given. Techniques for delivering either {1/4} or {1/2} wave voltages to a Pockels cell are covered. Recently these units have been modified for use at repetition rates up to 10kHz. Operating at high repetition rates represents problems for both the driver and the Pockels Cell. Design solutions for the pulser are presented as well as discussion of Pockels cell acoustic resonance.

Fulkerson, E.S.; Norman, D.C.; Booth, R.

1997-05-28

325

A silicon nanocrystal tunnel field effect transistor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, we demonstrate a silicon nanocrystal Field Effect Transistor (ncFET). Its operation is similar to that of a Tunnelling Field Effect Transistor (TFET) with two barriers in series. The tunnelling barriers are fabricated in very thin silicon dioxide and the channel in intrinsic polycrystalline silicon. The absence of doping eliminates the problem of achieving sharp doping profiles at the junctions, which has proven a challenge for large-scale integration and, in principle, allows scaling down the atomic level. The demonstrated ncFET features a 104 on/off current ratio at room temperature, a low 30 pA/?m leakage current at a 0.5 V bias, an on-state current on a par with typical all-Si TFETs and bipolar operation with high symmetry. Quantum dot transport spectroscopy is used to assess the band structure and energy levels of the silicon island.

Harvey-Collard, Patrick; Drouin, Dominique; Pioro-Ladrire, Michel

2014-05-01

326

Fully overheated single-electron transistor.  

PubMed

We consider the fully overheated single-electron transistor, where the heat balance is determined entirely by electron transfers. We find three distinct transport regimes corresponding to cotunneling, single-electron tunneling, and a competition between the two. We find an anomalous sensitivity to temperature fluctuations at the crossover between the two latter regimes that manifests in an exceptionally large Fano factor of current noise. PMID:20866990

Laakso, M A; Heikkil, T T; Nazarov, Yuli V

2010-05-14

327

Displacement-sensitive organic field effect transistor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thin films of organic semiconductor copper phthalocynanine (CuPc) and Al were deposited in sequence by vacuum evaporation on a glass substrate with Ag source and drain electrodes. The effect of displacement on the properties of the fabricated field effect transistor with metal (aluminium)semiconductor (copper phthalocyanine) Schottky junction was investigated. It was observed that the drainsource resistance of this organic field

Kh. S. Karimov; M. Saleem; M. Mahroof-Tahir; T. A. Qasuria; Adam Khan; T. A. Khan

2012-01-01

328

Displacement-sensitive organic field effect transistor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thin films of organic semiconductor copper phthalocynanine (CuPc) and Al were deposited in sequence by vacuum evaporation on a glass substrate with Ag source and drain electrodes. The effect of displacement on the properties of the fabricated field effect transistor with metal (aluminium)semiconductor (copper phthalocyanine) Schottky junction was investigated. It was observed that the drainsource resistance of this organic field

Kh. S. Karimov; M. Saleem; M. Mahroof-Tahir; T. A. Qasuria; Adam Khan; T. A. Khan

2011-01-01

329

Organic field-effect transistors using perylene  

Microsoft Academic Search

Organic thin-film field-effect transistors using organic semiconductor, perylene are fabricated, and electrical measurements are performed. The field-effect mobility of the device using perylene shows only p-type behavior while the electron and hole mobilities of its single crystal form are 5.5 and 0.5 cm2\\/Vs, respectively. Stacked layers of perlyene (a layer fabricated with low deposition rate followed by another layer with

Seong Hyun Kim; Yong Suk Yang; Jung Hun Lee; Jeong-Ik Lee; Hye Yong Chu; Hyoyoung Lee; Jiyoung Oh; Lee-Mi Do; Taehyoung Zyung

2003-01-01

330

Free electron gas primary thermometer: The bipolar junction transistor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The temperature of a bipolar transistor is extracted probing its carrier energy distribution through its collector current, obtained under appropriate polarization conditions, following a rigorous mathematical method. The obtained temperature is independent of the transistor physical properties as current gain, structure (Homo-junction or hetero-junction), and geometrical parameters, resulting to be a primary thermometer. This proposition has been tested using off the shelf silicon transistors at thermal equilibrium with water at its triple point, the transistor temperature values obtained involve an uncertainty of a few milli-Kelvin. This proposition has been successfully tested in the temperature range of 77-450 K.

Mimila-Arroyo, J.

2013-11-01

331

Enhanced Optical and Electrical Properties of Organic Field Effect Transistor using Metal Nanoparticles.  

E-print Network

??Organic field effect transistors (OFETs) have several advantages over the conventional inorganic field effect transistor such as easy fabrication process, low-cost mass production capability and (more)

Cho, Seongman

2014-01-01

332

Micellar Electrolytes in Organic Electrochemical Transistors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) are promising for applications in sensing and bioelectronics. OECTs consist of a conducting polymer film (transistor channel) in contact with an electrolyte. A gate electrode immersed in the electrolyte controls the doping/dedoping level of the conducting polymer. OECTs can be operated in aqueous electrolytes, making possible the implementation of organic electronic materials at the interface with biology. The inherent signal amplification of OECTs has the potential to yield sensors with low detection limits and high sensitivity. In this talk we will present recent studies on OECTs using ionic surfactants (such as hexadecyl-trimethyl-ammonium bromide) as electrolytes. As the conducting polymer we used PEDOT:PSS, i.e. (Poly,3-4 ethylenedioxythiopene) doped with Poly(styrene sulphonate). Interestingly, ionic surfactant electrolytes result in large transistor current modulation, especially beyond the critical micellar concentration (CMC). Since micelles play a primary role in biological processes and drug-delivery systems, the use for micellar electrolytes opens new exciting opportunities for the use of OECTs in bioelectronics.

Cicoira, Fabio; Giuseppe, Tarabella; Nanda, Gaurav; Iannotta, Salvatore; Santato, Clara

2012-02-01

333

Graphene-Dielectric Integration for Graphene Transistors  

PubMed Central

Graphene is emerging as an interesting electronic material for future electronics due to its exceptionally high carrier mobility and single-atomic thickness. Graphene-dielectric integration is of critical importance for the development of graphene transistors and a new generation of graphene based electronics. Deposition of dielectric materials onto graphene is of significant challenge due to the intrinsic material incompatibility between pristine graphene and dielectric oxide materials. Here we review various strategies being researched for graphene-dielectric integration. Physical vapor deposition (PVD) can be used to directly deposit dielectric materials on graphene, but often introduces significant defects into the monolayer of carbon lattice; Atomic layer deposition (ALD) process has also been explored to to deposit high-? dielectrics on graphene, which however requires functionalization of graphene surface with reactive groups, inevitably leading to a significant degradation in carrier mobilities; Using naturally oxidized thin aluminum or polymer as buffer layer for dielectric deposition can mitigate the damages to graphene lattice and improve the carrier mobility of the resulted top-gated transistors; Lastly, a physical assembly approach has recently been explored to integrate dielectric nanostructures with graphene without introducing any appreciable defects, and enabled top-gated graphene transistors with the highest carrier mobility reported to date. We will conclude with a brief summary and perspective on future opportunities. PMID:21278913

Liao, Lei; Duan, Xiangfeng

2010-01-01

334

Highly transparent and flexible nanopaper transistors.  

PubMed

Renewable and clean "green" electronics based on paper substrates is an emerging field with intensifying research and commercial interests, as the technology combines the unique properties of flexibility, cost efficiency, recyclability, and renewability with the lightweight nature of paper. Because of its excellent optical transmittance and low surface roughness, nanopaper can host many types of electronics that are not possible on regular paper. However, there can be tremendous challenges with integrating devices on nanopaper due to its shape stability during processing. Here we demonstrate for the first time that flexible organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) with high transparency can be fabricated on tailored nanopapers. Useful electrical characteristics and an excellent mechanical flexibility were observed. It is believed that the large binding energy between polymer dielectric and cellulose nanopaper, and the effective stress release from the fibrous substrate promote these beneficial properties. Only a 10% decrease in mobility was observed when the nanopaper transistors were bent and folded. The nanopaper transistor also showed excellent optical transmittance up to 83.5%. The device configuration can transform many semiconductor materials for use in flexible green electronics. PMID:23350951

Huang, Jia; Zhu, Hongli; Chen, Yuchen; Preston, Colin; Rohrbach, Kathleen; Cumings, John; Hu, Liangbing

2013-03-26

335

A 130 nm generation logic technology featuring 70 nm transistors, dual Vt transistors and 6 layers of Cu interconnects  

Microsoft Academic Search

A leading edge 130 nm generation logic technology with 6 layers of dual damascene Cu interconnects is reported. Dual Vt transistors are employed with 1.5 nm thick gate oxide and operating at 1.3 V. High Vt transistors have drive currents of 1.03 mA\\/?m and 0.5 mA\\/?m for NMOS and PMOS respectively, while low Vt transistors have currents of 1.17 mA\\/?m

S. Tyagi; M. Alavi; R. Bigwood; T. Bramblett; J. Brandenburg; W. Chen; B. Crew; M. Hussein; P. Jacob; C. Kenyon; C. Lo; B. McIntyre; Z. Ma; P. Moon; P. Nguyen; L. Rumaner; R. Schweinfurth; S. Sivakumar; M. Stettler; S. Thompson; B. Tufts; J. Xu; S. Yang; M. Bohr

2000-01-01

336

Single-transistor latch-up and large-signal reliability in SOI CMOS RF power transistors  

Microsoft Academic Search

RF power transistors are typically operated at extreme drain voltage and current peaks, which cause severe impact ionization conditions at the channel pinch-off region. On a SOI CMOS technology platform, the resulting large body currents may eventually lead to single transistor latch-up, unless the length of the gate\\/body finger is properly chosen.In this work, the effect of single-transistor latch-up on

F. Carrara; C. D. Presti; A. Scuderi; G. Palmisano

2010-01-01

337

Effect of amplified spontaneous emission on semiconductor optical amplifier based all-optical logic  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The performances of all-optical logic gates XOR, AND, OR, NOR and NAND based on semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) have been simulated including the effects of amplified spontaneous emission (ASE). For the parameters used, all-optical logic gates using SOA are capable of operating at speed of 80 Gb/s.

Kotb, A.; Ma, S.; Chen, Z.; Dutta, N. K.; Said, G.

2011-12-01

338

Injection- Seeded Optoplasmonic Amplifier in the Visible  

PubMed Central

A hybrid optoplasmonic amplifier, injection-seeded by an internally-generated Raman signal and operating in the visible (563675?nm), is proposed and evidence for amplification is presented. Comprising a gain medium tethered to a whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonator with a protein, and a plasmonic surface, the optical system described here selectively amplifies a single (or a few) Raman line(s) produced within the WGM resonator and is well-suited for routing narrowband optical power on-a-chip. Over the past five decades, optical oscillators and amplifiers have typically been based on the buildup of the field from the spontaneous emission background. Doing so limits the temporal coherence of the output, lengthens the time required for the optical field intensity to reach saturation, and often is responsible for complex, multiline spectra. In addition to the spectral control afforded by injection-locking, the effective Q of the amplifier can be specified by the bandwidth of the injected Raman signal. This characteristic contrasts with previous WGM-based lasers and amplifiers for which the Q is determined solely by the WGM resonator. PMID:25156810

Gartia, Manas Ranjan; Seo, Sujin; Kim, Junhwan; Chang, Te-Wei; Bahl, Gaurav; Lu, Meng; Liu, Gang Logan; Eden, J. Gary

2014-01-01

339

Injection- Seeded Optoplasmonic Amplifier in the Visible  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A hybrid optoplasmonic amplifier, injection-seeded by an internally-generated Raman signal and operating in the visible (563-675 nm), is proposed and evidence for amplification is presented. Comprising a gain medium tethered to a whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonator with a protein, and a plasmonic surface, the optical system described here selectively amplifies a single (or a few) Raman line(s) produced within the WGM resonator and is well-suited for routing narrowband optical power on-a-chip. Over the past five decades, optical oscillators and amplifiers have typically been based on the buildup of the field from the spontaneous emission background. Doing so limits the temporal coherence of the output, lengthens the time required for the optical field intensity to reach saturation, and often is responsible for complex, multiline spectra. In addition to the spectral control afforded by injection-locking, the effective Q of the amplifier can be specified by the bandwidth of the injected Raman signal. This characteristic contrasts with previous WGM-based lasers and amplifiers for which the Q is determined solely by the WGM resonator.

Gartia, Manas Ranjan; Seo, Sujin; Kim, Junhwan; Chang, Te-Wei; Bahl, Gaurav; Lu, Meng; Liu, Gang Logan; Eden, J. Gary

2014-08-01

340

Ultra-broadband amplified spontaneous emission source by using heterogeneous optical amplifier  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this work, we propose and experimentally investigate an ultra-broadband amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) light source with 113.8 nm bandwidth (1446.2 to 1560.0 nm) by using a cascaded two-stage optical amplifier, which is consisted of semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA, 1st stage) and erbiumdoped fiber amplifier (EDFA, 2nd stage), when the output intensity is above -35 dBm/0.01 nm. And, the EDFA only uses a 3 m long erbium-doped fiber (EDF) with a 27 mW pumping power and SOA is driven at 200 mA bias current. Moreover, the proposed amplifier also can provide a broadband gain amplification of 114 nm in the wavelengths of 1464.0 and 1578.0 nm with the noise figure distribution of 6.8 to 8.1 dB.

Yeh, C. H.; Chow, C. W.; Chen, J. H.; Lu, S. S.

2012-11-01

341

QED in arbitrary linear media: amplifying media  

E-print Network

Recently, we have developed a unified approach to QED in arbitrary linearly responding media in equilibrium--media that give rise to absorption [Phys. Rev. A \\textbf{75}, (2007) 053813]. In the present paper we show that, under appropriate conditions, the theory can be quite naturally generalized to amplifying media the effect of which is described within the framework of linear response theory. We discuss the limits of validity of the generalized theory and make contact with earlier quantization schemes suggested for the case of linearly and locally responding amplifying dielectric-type media. To illustrate the theory, we present the electromagnetic-field correlation functions that determine the Casimir force in the presence of amplifying media.

Christian Raabe; Dirk-Gunnar Welsch

2007-10-15

342

Cavity enhanced rephased amplified spontaneous emission  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Amplified spontaneous emission is usually treated as an incoherent noise process. Recent theoretical and experimental work using rephasing optical pulses has shown that rephased amplified spontaneous emission (RASE) is a potential source of wide bandwidth time-delayed entanglement. Due to poor echo efficiency the plain RASE protocol does not in theory achieve perfect entanglement. Experiments done to date show a very small amount of entanglement at best. Here we show that RASE can, in principle, produce perfect multimode time-delayed two mode squeezing when the active medium is placed inside a Q-switched cavity.

Williamson, Lewis A.; Longdell, Jevon J.

2014-07-01

343

Optimization of a high efficiency FEL amplifier  

E-print Network

The problem of an efficiency increase of an FEL amplifier is now of great practical importance. Technique of undulator tapering in the post-saturation regime is used at the existing x-ray FELs LCLS and SACLA, and is planned for use at the European XFEL, Swiss FEL, and PAL XFEL. There are also discussions on the future of high peak and average power FELs for scientific and industrial applications. In this paper we perform detailed analysis of the tapering strategies for high power seeded FEL amplifiers. Application of similarity techniques allows us to derive universal law of the undulator tapering.

Schneidmiller, E A

2014-01-01

344

Nondeterministic Amplifier for Two Photon Superpositions  

E-print Network

We examine heralded nondeterministic noiseless amplification based on the quantum scissors device, which has been shown to increase the one-photon amplitude of a state at the expense of the vacuum-state amplitude. Here we propose using the same basic design to perform perfect amplification in a basis set of up to two photons. The device is much more efficient than several one-photon amplifiers working in tandem. When used to amplify coherent states this advantage is shown using either fidelity or in terms of probability of sucessful action, or more strikingly in a combination of the two.

John Jeffers

2010-12-14

345

Noise figure of amplified dispersive Fourier transformation  

SciTech Connect

Amplified dispersive Fourier transformation (ADFT) is a powerful tool for fast real-time spectroscopy as it overcomes the limitations of traditional optical spectrometers. ADFT maps the spectrum of an optical pulse into a temporal waveform using group-velocity dispersion and simultaneously amplifies it in the optical domain. It greatly simplifies spectroscopy by replacing the diffraction grating and detector array in the conventional spectrometer with a dispersive fiber and single-pixel photodetector, enabling ultrafast real-time spectroscopic measurements. Following our earlier work on the theory of ADFT, here we study the effect of noise on ADFT. We derive the noise figure of ADFT and discuss its dependence on various parameters.

Goda, Keisuke; Jalali, Bahram [Electrical Engineering Department, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)

2010-09-15

346

Erbium Fiber Amplifiers in Linear Lightwave Transmission  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a The invention and development of fibers doped with rare-earth element as in-line optical amplifiers [223,224,225,226] were\\u000a a major breakthrough that enabled great enhancement in the capability of fiber optic telecommunication networks. With their\\u000a ubiquitous deployment in digital fiber-optic networks, these fiber amplifiers have met the test of time for their proven values.\\u000a However, their employment in linear lightwave systems, including

Kam Lau

347

Self-amplified CMOS image sensor using a current-mode readout circuit  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The feature size of the CMOS processes decreased during the past few years and problems such as reduced dynamic range have become more significant in voltage-mode pixels, even though the integration of more functionality inside the pixel has become easier. This work makes a contribution on both sides: the possibility of a high signal excursion range using current-mode circuits together with functionality addition by making signal amplification inside the pixel. The classic 3T pixel architecture was rebuild with small modifications to integrate a transconductance amplifier providing a current as an output. The matrix with these new pixels will operate as a whole large transistor outsourcing an amplified current that will be used for signal processing. This current is controlled by the intensity of the light received by the matrix, modulated pixel by pixel. The output current can be controlled by the biasing circuits to achieve a very large range of output signal levels. It can also be controlled with the matrix size and this permits a very high degree of freedom on the signal level, observing the current densities inside the integrated circuit. In addition, the matrix can operate at very small integration times. Its applications would be those in which fast imaging processing, high signal amplification are required and low resolution is not a major problem, such as UV image sensors. Simulation results will be presented to support: operation, control, design, signal excursion levels and linearity for a matrix of pixels that was conceived using this new concept of sensor.

Santos, Patrick M.; de Lima Monteiro, Davies W.; Pittet, Patrick

2014-05-01

348

Development of a cryogenic DC-low noise amplifier for SQuID-based readout electronics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present the preliminary results of the design and test activities for a DC cryogenic low noise amplifier for the SAFARI imaging spectrometer, planned to be onboard the SPICA mission, necessary not only to drive, as usual, the voltage signal produced by the SQuID but also to boost such signals over about 7 meter of path towards the warm feedback electronics. This development has been done in the framework of the mission preparation studies, within the European Consortium for the development of the SAFARI instrument. The actual configuration of the SAFARI focal plane assembly (FPA), indeed, foresees a long distance to the warm back end electronics. It is therefore mandatory to boost the faint electric signal coming from the SQuID device by keeping under control both power dissipation and noise: this is the main role of the designed Cryogenic Low Noise Amplifier (LNA). Working at 136K, it has a differential input gain-stage, and a differential balanced voltage buffer output stage, running at few mW target overall power. At present the design is based on the use of Heterojunction Si:Ge transistors, the required bandwidth is DC-4MHz and the required noise lower than 1 nV/rtHz.

Macculi, C.; Torrioli, G.; Di Giorgio, A.; Spinoglio, L.; Piro, Luigi

2014-07-01

349

Large-scale complementary integrated circuits based on organic transistors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Thin-film transistors based on molecular and polymeric organic materials have been proposed for a number of applications, such as displays and radio-frequency identification tags. The main factors motivating investigations of organic transistors are their lower cost and simpler packaging, relative to conventional inorganic electronics, and their compatibility with flexible substrates. In most digital circuitry, minimal power dissipation and stability of

B. Crone; A. Dodabalapur; Y.-Y. Lin; R. W. Filas; Z. Bao; A. Laduca; R. Sarpeshkar; H. E. Katz; W. Li

2000-01-01

350

Transistor operation and circuit performance in organic electronics  

Microsoft Academic Search

Electronics based on organic transistors is steadily progressing towards higher levels of integration and better performance. In this work we discussed the operation of organic field-effect transistors and the charge transport properties of organic conjugated semiconductors. We also presented a simple analysis of some basic building blocks used in organic digital electronics, focusing on the relation between device and circuit

E. Cantatore; E. J. Meijer

2003-01-01

351

Evaluation of Transistor Densities for Submicronic CMOS Technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

The transistor density is one of the parameters to be considered for an optimal use of CMOS process. Therefore, layout strategies have to be evaluated through metrics considering all the involved parameters. The objective of this paper is to study the real transistor density available for a given technology at the cell and circuit level, from the design rules. This

F. Moraes; L. Torres; M. Robert; D. Auvergne

352

ANALYSIS OF SRAM RELIABILITY UNDER COMBINED EFFECT OF TRANSISTOR AGING,  

E-print Network

ANALYSIS OF SRAM RELIABILITY UNDER COMBINED EFFECT OF TRANSISTOR AGING, PROCESS AND TEMPERATURE #12;Certification of Approval I certify that I have read Analysis of SRAM Reliability under Combined and Computer Engineering #12;ANALYSIS OF SRAM RELIABILITY UNDER COMBINED EFFECT OF TRANSISTOR AGING, PROCESS

Mahmoodi, Hamid

353

Transistor Scaled HPC Application Performance Technical Report BUCSTR2012009  

E-print Network

Transistor Scaled HPC Application Performance Technical Report BUCS­TR­2012­009 Jonathan Appavoo supported in part by National Science Foundation award #1012798. #12; Transistor Scaled HPC Application for HPC systems. To obtain application improvements, HPC application programmers must manually cope

354

Calculation of the emitter efficiency of bipolar transistors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The emitter efficiency of a bipolar transistor is calculated taking heavy doping effects such as impurity band formation and band tailing into account. It is shown that in most cases these effects, rather than the minority carrier lifetime in the emitter are limiting the transistor current gain. This allows us to define an effective emitter impurity profile for use in

ROBERT P. MERTENS; HUGO J. DEMAN; ROGER J. VAN OVERSTRAETEN

1973-01-01

355

Nanometer size field effect transistors for terahertz detectors.  

PubMed

Nanometer size field effect transistors can operate as efficient resonant or broadband terahertz detectors, mixers, phase shifters and frequency multipliers at frequencies far beyond their fundamental cut-off frequency. This work is an overview of some recent results concerning the application of nanometer scale field effect transistors for the detection of terahertz radiation. PMID:23618776

Knap, W; Rumyantsev, S; Vitiello, M S; Coquillat, D; Blin, S; Dyakonova, N; Shur, M; Teppe, F; Tredicucci, A; Nagatsuma, T

2013-05-31

356

Thin film transistors for displays on plastic substrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have successfully made thin film transistors on transparent, flexible polymer substrates. These transistors have electrical properties suitable for driving the pixels in active matrix liquid crystal displays and also for building integrated row driver circuits. The devices are fabricated on polyethylene naphthalate using a low temperature CdSe process at a maximum temperature of 150C, by evaporation and radio frequency

M. J Lee; C. P Judge; S. W Wright

2000-01-01

357

Electrostatic Control of Ions and Molecules in Nanofluidic Transistors  

E-print Network

Electrostatic Control of Ions and Molecules in Nanofluidic Transistors Rohit Karnik,,| Rong Fan report a nanofluidic transistor based on a metal-oxide-solution (MOSol) system that is similar to a metal the ionic conductance. Our results illustrate the efficacy of field-effect control in nanofluidics, which

Yang, Peidong

358

Self-Aligned Ballistic Molecular Transistors and Electrically Parallel  

E-print Network

Self-Aligned Ballistic Molecular Transistors and Electrically Parallel Nanotube Arrays Ali Javey in these miniature transistors is nearly ballistic up to high biases at both room and low temperatures. Atomic localization at 4 K. New fundamental understanding of ballistic transport, optical phonon scattering

Javey, Ali

359

Doped organic transistors operating in the inversion and depletion regime  

PubMed Central

The inversion field-effect transistor is the basic device of modern microelectronics and is nowadays used more than a billion times on every state-of-the-art computer chip. In the future, this rigid technology will be complemented by flexible electronics produced at extremely low cost. Organic field-effect transistors have the potential to be the basic device for flexible electronics, but still need much improvement. In particular, despite more than 20 years of research, organic inversion mode transistors have not been reported so far. Here we discuss the first realization of organic inversion transistors and the optimization of organic depletion transistors by our organic doping technology. We show that the transistor parametersin particular, the threshold voltage and the ON/OFF ratiocan be controlled by the doping concentration and the thickness of the transistor channel. Injection of minority carriers into the doped transistor channel is achieved by doped contacts, which allows forming an inversion layer. PMID:24225722

Lussem, Bjorn; Tietze, Max L.; Kleemann, Hans; Hossbach, Christoph; Bartha, Johann W.; Zakhidov, Alexander; Leo, Karl

2013-01-01

360

Method for double-sided processing of thin film transistors  

DOEpatents

This invention provides methods for fabricating thin film electronic devices with both front- and backside processing capabilities. Using these methods, high temperature processing steps may be carried out during both frontside and backside processing. The methods are well-suited for fabricating back-gate and double-gate field effect transistors, double-sided bipolar transistors and 3D integrated circuits.

Yuan, Hao-Chih (Madison, WI); Wang, Guogong (Madison, WI); Eriksson, Mark A. (Madison, WI); Evans, Paul G. (Madison, WI); Lagally, Max G. (Madison, WI); Ma, Zhenqiang (Middleton, WI)

2008-04-08

361

Charge transport in disordered organic field-effect transistors  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this thesis we study charge transport in organic semiconductors. We do this by focusing on the physical characterization of disordered organic field-effect transistors. It will be made clear that the disorder in the polymer films is crucial for the interpretation of the data. The field-effect transistor geometry allows variation of the charge carrier density in the semiconductor, without the

E. J. Meijer

2003-01-01

362

SEMICONDUCTOR DEVICES: Humidity sensitive organic field effect transistor  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports the experimental results for the humidity dependent properties of an organic field effect transistor. The organic field effect transistor was fabricated on thoroughly cleaned glass substrate, in which the junction between the metal gate and the organic channel plays the role of gate dielectric. Thin films of organic semiconductor copper phthalocynanine (CuPc) and semitransparent Al were deposited

I. Murtaza; Kh S. Karimov; Zubair Ahmad; I. Qazi; M. Mahroof-Tahir; T. A. Khan; T. Amin

2010-01-01

363

A spiking neuron circuit based on a carbon nanotube transistor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A spiking neuron circuit based on a carbon nanotube (CNT) transistor is presented in this paper. The spiking neuron circuit has a crossbar architecture in which the transistor gates are connected to its row electrodes and the transistor sources are connected to its column electrodes. An electrochemical cell is incorporated in the gate of the transistor by sandwiching a hydrogen-doped poly(ethylene glycol)methyl ether (PEG) electrolyte between the CNT channel and the top gate electrode. An input spike applied to the gate triggers a dynamic drift of the hydrogen ions in the PEG electrolyte, resulting in a post-synaptic current (PSC) through the CNT channel. Spikes input into the rows trigger PSCs through multiple CNT transistors, and PSCs cumulate in the columns and integrate into a soma circuit to trigger output spikes based on an integrate-and-fire mechanism. The spiking neuron circuit can potentially emulate biological neuron networks and their intelligent functions.

Chen, C.-L.; Kim, K.; Truong, Q.; Shen, A.; Li, Z.; Chen, Y.

2012-07-01

364

Carbon Nanotube Field Effect Transistor based High Frequency Biosensors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The sensitivity of transistor based biosensors suffers from the electrostatic screening due to mobile ions in solution. Here, we use carbon nanotube field effect transistor based high frequency biosensors for detection in high ionic strength solutions. Carbon nanotube transistors are configured as high frequency mixers and the changes in mixing current provides the sensing mechanism. At high frequencies, the ions are unable to follow the AC field and hence, electrostatic screening is minimized. In addition, the high transconductance of the transistor provides intrinsic gain for high frequency sensing. To prove this concept we demonstrate protein detection in 100mM buffer solution with high sensitivity. The technique will be evaluated against both, low frequency transistor based biosensors and conventional dielectric sensing technique relying on impedance measurement. The result will lead to novel biosensors for point-of-care applications, where electronic sensors functioning directly in physiologically relevant condition are required.

Kulkarni, Girish; Boon Ee, Kai; Zhong, Zhaohui

2010-03-01

365

Pushing the limits of carbon nanotube transistors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Carbon nanotubes are arrangements of carbon atoms in the form of thin, hollow tubes. Their physical and electrical properties have attracted much interest in recent years---carbon nanotubes are among the strongest materials currently known and they can perform both as active and passive components in nanoscale circuits. Their electrical properties are the focus of this thesis. The work presented here shows that carbon nanotube transistors can operate in the gate quantum limit and can be used as high-frequency mixers. In the first experiment, an aqueous electrolyte solution was used as the gate electrode of a carbon nanotube transistor. This approach accomplishes the task of efficiently increasing the electrostatic capacitance between the nanotube and the gate via a thin, high-kappa dielectric (water). The total capacitance is shown to reach the quantum limit where charging is dictated by the energy level spacing in the nanotube. Additionally, the gate coupling is nearly ideal, as found from the subthreshold swing of 80 mV. The coupling results in record transconductances of 7 muS/nm, a result important to applications of carbon nanotubes as chemical and biological sensors. The second experiment measures the high-frequency properties of carbon nanotube transistors by means of frequency mixing. A dc current results from the response of the device to an ac voltage. The amplitude of the current is measured as a function of the frequency of the input, revealing the existence of a cutoff between 1 and 10 GHz. The origin of the cutoff is not completely understood yet, since it is in order-of-magnitude agreement with the cutoff obtained from the contacts while its value does not seem to vary substantially from device to device, suggesting an external limiting factor. Despite the cutoff, the mixing response was measured up to 50 GHz. This is the highest frequency at which the electrical properties of carbon nanotubes have been measured to date.

Rosenblatt, Sami

366

Radiation-hard static induction transistor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The design, fabriction, and characteristics of a 350-V, 100-A buried-gate static induction transistor (SIT) as a power switching device for applications to military and space environments (because of its potential for radiation hardness, high-frequency operation, and the incorporation of on-chip smart power sensor and logic functions) are described. The potential radiation hardness of this class of devices was evaluated by measurement of SIT characteristics after irradiation with 100-Mrad (2-MeV) electrons and up to 10 to the 16th fission neutrons/sq cm. High-temperature operation and the possibility of radiation-damage self-annealing are discussed.

Hanes, M. H.; Bartko, J.; Hwang, J.-M.; Rai-Choudhury, P.; Leslie, S. G.

1988-12-01

367

Terahertz Response of Carbon Nanotube Transistors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present an approach for time-dependent quantum transport based on a self-consistent nonequilibrium Green function formalism. The technique is applied to a ballistic carbon nanotube transistor in the presence of a time-harmonic signal at the gate. In the on state, the dynamic conductance exhibits plasmonic resonant peaks at terahertz frequencies. These vanish in the off state, and the dynamic conductance displays smooth oscillations, a signature of single-particle quantum effects. We show that the nanotube kinetic inductance plays an essential role in the high-frequency behavior.

Kienle, Diego; Lonard, Franois

2009-07-01

368

Terahertz response of carbon nanotube transistors.  

PubMed

We present an approach for time-dependent quantum transport based on a self-consistent nonequilibrium Green function formalism. The technique is applied to a ballistic carbon nanotube transistor in the presence of a time-harmonic signal at the gate. In the on state, the dynamic conductance exhibits plasmonic resonant peaks at terahertz frequencies. These vanish in the off state, and the dynamic conductance displays smooth oscillations, a signature of single-particle quantum effects. We show that the nanotube kinetic inductance plays an essential role in the high-frequency behavior. PMID:19659227

Kienle, Diego; Lonard, Franois

2009-07-10

369

Optical amplifier-powered quantum optical amplification  

E-print Network

I show that an optical amplifier, when combined with photon subtraction, can be used for quantum state amplification, adding noise at a level below the standard minimum. The device could be used to significantly decrease the probability of incorrectly identifying coherent states chosen from a finite set.

John Jeffers

2011-05-16

370

Thermoacoustic Stirling Engine --An acoustic amplifier  

E-print Network

Thermoacoustic Stirling Engine -- An acoustic amplifier: ambient heat exchanger (water) stacked kW sound hot diesel exhaust hot diesel exhaust 34" 24" Thermoacoustic Stirling Engine -- An acoustic@lanl.gov 505-667-7545 A lighter, smaller, faster, cheaper version of free-piston Stirling 500W Lightweight

Lee, Dongwon

371

Research on fluidics, valves, and proportional amplifiers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Research and development being conducted at the Systems and Controls Laboratory is reviewed. Static characteristics (supply, input, transfer, output, and noise characteristics) of laminar proportional amplifiers were investigated. Other topics discussed include velocity profiles for laminar fluidic jets, speed control systems employing a jet pipe valve, and power amplification with a vortex valve.

1974-01-01

372

A novel wideband 140 GHz gyrotron amplifier  

E-print Network

The theory, design and experimental results of a wideband 140 GHz, 1 kW pulsed gyro-traveling wave amplifier are presented. The gyro- TWA operates in the HE(0,6) mode of a novel cylindrical confocal waveguide using a ...

Joye, Colin D., 1980-

2008-01-01

373

EDFA amplified MSK optical transmission system  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper presents the performance and compatibility of optical signal amplification using a high gain, low noise figure, Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifier (EDFA) with linear Minimum Shift Keying (MSK) modulation format for the transmission of DWDM signals in optical communication system.

Arya, Subhash C.; Arya, Shalini S.; Priye, Vishnu

2011-08-01

374

Emitter Follower Amplifier DC Analysis FREQ = 10000  

E-print Network

Emitter Follower Amplifier ­ DC Analysis C3 1n R1 30k Vcc 20Vdc C1 1n RL 500 Re 40k 0 Re1 200 Q2 Q2.97757mA re = 26/ IE = 26.597 (used later in ac analysis) For the emitter follower circuit and neglecting

Allen, Gale

375

Fiber lasers and amplifiers by: Khanh Kieu  

E-print Network

Fiber lasers and amplifiers by: Khanh Kieu (02/28/2014) #12;Outlines · Introduction · History · Active fibers · Laser performances · Cladding pump technology · Fiber laser research at the College · 2005: Hänsch an Hall Nobel Prize in Physics awarded for contribution related to laser #12;Laser market

Kieu, Khanh

376

Fiber lasers and amplifiers by: Khanh Kieu  

E-print Network

Fiber lasers and amplifiers by: Khanh Kieu (02/15/2013) #12;Outlines · Introduction · History · Active fibers · Laser performances · Cladding pump technology · Fiber laser research at the College · 2005: Hänsch an Hall Nobel Prize in Physics awarded for contribution related to laser #12;Laser market

Kieu, Khanh

377

Compression of amplified chirped optical pulses  

Microsoft Academic Search

A system is reported which transposes a short-pulse amplification technique employed in radar to the optical regime and that, in principle, should be capable of producing short (1 pc or less) pulses with energies at the Joule level. The technique involves stretching a chirped optical pulse and then amplifying it before recompression. To date, 2-ps pulses with an energy of

D. Strickland; G. Mourou

1985-01-01

378

Margin measurements in optical amplifier system  

Microsoft Academic Search

The margin, or the difference between the received signal-to-noise (SNR) and the SNR required to maintain a given bit error ratio (BER), is important to the design and operation of optical amplifier transmission systems A new tehnique is described for estimating the SNR at the receiver's decision circuit when the BER is too low to be measured in a reasonable

Neal S. Bergano; F. W. Kerfoot; C. R. Davidsion

1993-01-01

379

Dissolution kinetics of chemically amplified resists  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The dissolution rate characteristics of two typical DUV chemically amplified resists (negative resist A and positive resist B) were investigated, by comparing with an i-line novolac resist (resist C). The negative resist A here was based on crosslinking between phenolic resin and melamine derivatives, and the positive resist B was composed of tert-BOC protected phenolic resin.

Itani, Toshiro; Itoh, Katsuyuki; Kasama, Kunihiko

1993-09-01

380

MODEL SR510 LOCK-IN AMPLIFIER  

E-print Network

33 Measurement Example 33 Understanding the Specifications 34 Shielding and Ground Loops 34 Dynamic Diagram Block Diagram 37 Signal Channel 38 Reference Channel 38 Phase-Sensitive Detector 38 DC Amplifier Parts List, Front Panel 94 Schematic Diagrams 99 #12;1 Safety and Preparation for Use ***CAUTION

Gellman, Andrew J.

381

Defibrillator-embedded rapid recovery electrocardiogram amplifier.  

PubMed

One of the most important performances of the defibrillator-embedded amplifier-monitor-recorder tract, connected to defibrillator electrodes, is its rapid recovery after the application of the shock pulse. Practically near-immediate restoration of the signal trace is mandatory for studies of post-shock effects on the myocardium. Automatic analysis of the electrocardiogram signal in public-access defibrillation, aiming for about 100% correct recognition of shockable and non-shockable rhythms, now requires fast amplifier settling, as the decision time should not exceed 10-20 s. Two circuits of post-shock amplifier transient suppressors were developed with non-linear feedback, resulting in second-order high-pass filtering, with gradual return to normally accepted first-order response. Simulation and testing in real conditions resulted in recovery periods in the range of 1-2 s for an amplifier tract of 1-30 Hz bandwidth, depending on the pulse waveform and electrode type. PMID:12851062

Neycheva, T; Krasteva, V

2003-01-01

382

100 nm gate length high performance\\/low power CMOS transistor structure  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a very high performance 100 nm gate length CMOS transistor structure operating at 1.2-1.5 V. These transistors are incorporated in a 180 nm logic technology generation. Various process enhancements are incorporated to significantly improve transistor current drive capability relative to the results published by Yang et al. (1998). Unique transistor features responsible for achieving high performance are described.

T. Ghani; S. Ahmed; P. Aminzadeh; J. Bielefeld; P. Charvat; C. Chu; M. Harper; P. Jacob; C. Jan; J. Kavalieros; C. Kenyon; R. Nagisetty; P. Packan; J. Sebastian; M. Taylor; J. Tsai; S. Tyagi; S. Yang; M. Bohr

1999-01-01

383

Lab 3: Transistor Circuits and JFETs This Lab is Too Long by 50  

E-print Network

Lab 3: Transistor Circuits and JFETs This Lab is Too Long by 50 3.1 Goals of this Lab Following our introduction to transistors in Lab 2, this time we will study some common transistor circuits. Finally, there is a short introduction to one type of transistor of the FET technology family, the JFET. For convenience

Frey, Raymond E.

384

Thermal shot noise in top-gated single carbon nanotube field effect transistors  

E-print Network

Thermal shot noise in top-gated single carbon nanotube field effect transistors J. Chaste,1 E transistors have been measured and used to investigate hot electron effects in one-dimensional transistors experimentally. Experiment shows that nanotube transistors can be used as fast charge detectors for quantum

Plaçais, Bernard

385

Ann. Phys. (Leipzig) 9 (2000) 1112, 885 894 The single electron transistor and artificial atoms  

E-print Network

Ann. Phys. (Leipzig) 9 (2000) 11­12, 885 ­ 894 The single electron transistor and artificial atoms to tunnel to metallic leads a sin- gle electron transistor (SET) is created. This transistor turns conventional transistors using classical concepts, the SET is quantum mechanical in an essential way. In fact

Wilczek, Frank

386

General Purpose NPN Transistor Array The CA3046 consists of five general purpose silicon NPN  

E-print Network

1 CA3046 General Purpose NPN Transistor Array The CA3046 consists of five general purpose silicon NPN transistors on a common monolithic substrate. Two of the transistors are internally connected to form a differentially connected pair. The transistors of the CA3046 are well suited to a wide variety

Lanterman, Aaron

387

nature photonics | VOL 4 | JANUARY 2010 | www.nature.com/naturephotonics 3 Are optical transistors the  

E-print Network

transistors the logical next step? David A. B. Miller A transistor that operates with photons rather than prove itself to be a viable solution in many different respects. T he idea of an optical transistor transistor useful. If we seriously want logic with light, then our devices must satisfy several qualitative

Miller, David A. B.

388

Lab 2: Diodes and Transistors 2.1 Goals of this Lab  

E-print Network

Lab 2: Diodes and Transistors 2.1 Goals of this Lab Students should become familiar with the basic properties of diodes and transistors. 2.2 Diode V-I Characteristics Figure 1 below indicates: Diode clamping circuit. 2.4 Transistor Junctions Figure 4 indicates standard transistor terminal identi

Frey, Raymond E.

389

Physics 326 Spring 2014 1/15/14 Lab 4: DIODES AND TRANSISTORS  

E-print Network

Physics 326 Spring 2014 1/15/14 1 Lab 4: DIODES AND TRANSISTORS Please read Faissler Chapters 4045. Goals: Study two rectifier circuits and 2 simple transistor circuits. This will be a one week and describe what happens. Fig. 2 the Full wave rectifier. B. Transistors. The transistor is one

Glashausser, Charles

390

3.0 Bipolar Junction Transistors 1 of 18 3.1 Introduction  

E-print Network

3.0 Bipolar Junction Transistors 1 of 18 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Transistor Construction 3.3 Transistor Operation The base region is very thin. Almost all of the emitter base majority carriers go all it and are swept across. #12;3.0 Bipolar Junction Transistors 2 of 18 3.4 Common-Base Configuration Notation

Allen, Gale

391

Run-Time Programming of Analog Circuits Using Floating-Gate Transistors  

E-print Network

Run-Time Programming of Analog Circuits Using Floating-Gate Transistors David W. Graham Lane of floating-gate (FG) transistors provides programmability to analog circuitry and, hence, the ability to recalibrate an analog system. If the FG transistors are programmed indirectly by using a second transistor

Graham, David W.

392

A Study of SingleChip Processor/Cache Organizations for Large Numbers of Transistors  

E-print Network

# # A Study of Single­Chip Processor/Cache Organizations for Large Numbers of Transistors Matthew of transistors, a question that is rapidly increas­ ing in importance as transistor densities continue to climb to compare different configurations, the concept of an Equivalent Cache Transistor is presented. Results

Tyson, Gary

393

General Purpose NPN Transistor Array The CA3046 consists of five general purpose silicon NPN  

E-print Network

1 CA-3046 General Purpose NPN Transistor Array The CA3046 consists of five general purpose silicon NPN transistors on a common monolithic substrate. Two of the transistors are internally connected to form a differentially connected pair. The transistors of the CA3046 are well suited to a wide variety

Ravikumar, B.

394

Dual-Threshold Pass-Transistor Logic Design Lara D. Oliver,  

E-print Network

Dual-Threshold Pass-Transistor Logic Design Lara D. Oliver, Krishnendu Chakrabarty, and Hisham Z,krish,massoud}@ee.duke.edu ABSTRACT This paper introduces pass-transistor logic design with dual- threshold voltages. A set of single-rail, fully restored, pass- transistor gates are presented. Logic transistors are im- plemented with low

Chakrabarty, Krishnendu

395

Signal and noise analysis of a-Si:H radiation detector-amplifier system  

SciTech Connect

Hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) has potential advantages in making radiation detectors for many applications because of its deposition capability on a large-area substrate and its high radiation resistance. Position-sensitive radiation detectors can be made out of a 1d strip or a 2-d pixel array of a Si:H pin diodes. In addition, signal processing electronics can be made by thin-film transistors on the same substrate. The calculated radiation signal, based on a simple charge collection model agreed well with results from various wave length light sources and 1 MeV beta particles on sample diodes. The total noise of the detection system was analyzed into (a) shot noise and (b) 1/f noise from a detector diode, and (c) thermal noise and (d) 1/f noise from the frontend TFT of a charge-sensitive preamplifier. the effective noise charge calculated by convoluting these noise power spectra with the transfer function of a CR-RC shaping amplifier showed a good agreement with the direct measurements of noise charge. The derived equations of signal and noise charge can be used to design an a-Si:H pixel detector amplifier system optimally. Signals from a pixel can be readout using switching TFTs, or diodes. Prototype tests of a double-diode readout scheme showed that the storage time and the readout time are limited by the resistances of the reverse-biased pixel diode and the forward biased switching diodes respectively. A prototype charge-sensitive amplifier was made using poly-Si TFTs to test the feasibility of making pixel-level amplifiers which would be required in small-signal detection. The measured overall gain-bandwidth product was {approximately}400 MHz and the noise charge {approximately}1000 electrons at a 1 {mu}sec shaping time. When the amplifier is connected to a pixel detector of capacitance 0.2 pF, it would give a charge-to-voltage gain of {approximately}0.02 mV/electron with a pulse rise time less than 100 nsec and a dynamic range of 48 dB.

Cho, Gyuseong.

1992-03-01

396

Technology development for GaN\\/AlGaN HEMT hybrid and MMIC amplifiers on semi-insulating SiC substrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The GaN\\/AlGaN-on-SiC HEMT is being pursued as the active element on which to base next-generation high-frequency power amplifiers. Advances in III-nitride growth and processing techniques for commercial production of optoelectronic devices are being applied to advance the state-of-the-art for GaN\\/AlGaN HEMTs. Demonstrations of extremely high power density and total RF power from these unipolar, high-frequency transistors adequately demonstrate their potential

S. T. Sheppard; W. L. Pribble; D. T. Emerson; Z. Ring; R. P. Smith; S. T. Allen; J. W. Milligan; J. W. Palmour

2000-01-01

397

Reduction of fiber-nonlinearity-enhanced amplifier noise by means of phase-sensitive amplifiers.  

PubMed

In optical fiber transmission systems near the zero-dispersion wavelength that use in-line erbium-doped fiber amplifiers (EDFA's), the enhancement of optical amplifier noise caused by four-wave mixing (FWM) in transmission fibers degrades signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) excessively. We theoretically show that the enhancement of amplifier noise by the FWM in transmission fibers can be effectively eliminated by implementing in-line phase-sensitive amplifiers (PSA's). Small-signal analysis of the nonlinear Schrdinger equation shows that the transmission distance limited by the SNR of an in-line PSA system is expanded four times more than that of an in-line EDFA system. PMID:18183093

Imajuku, W; Takada, A

1997-01-01

398

Design and implementation of low power multistage amplifiers and high frequency distributed amplifiers  

E-print Network

DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION OF LOW POWER MULTISTAGE AMPLIFIERS AND HIGH FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTED AMPLIFIERS A Thesis by CHINMAYA MISHRA Submitted to the Office of Graduate Studies of Texas A&M University in partial... A Thesis by CHINMAYA MISHRA Submitted to Texas A&M University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF SCIENCE Approved as to style and content by: Edgar S?nchez-Sinencio (Chair of Committee...

Mishra, Chinmaya

2005-11-01

399

High performance building blocks for wireless receiver: multi-stage amplifiers and low noise amplifiers  

E-print Network

of Committee, Edgar S?nchez-Sinencio Committee Members, C?sar O. Malav? Weiping Shi Jos? Silva-Mart?nez Head of Department, Costas N. Georghiades December 2007 Major Subject: Electrical Engineering iii ABSTRACT High... Performance Building Blocks for Wireless Receiver: Multi-Stage Amplifiers and Low Noise Amplifiers. (December 2007) Xiaohua Fan, B.S., Tsinghua University; M.S., Chinese Academy of Sciences Chair of Advisory Committee: Dr. Edgar S...

Fan, Xiaohua

2009-05-15

400

Outlook and emerging semiconducting materials for ambipolar transistors.  

PubMed

Ambipolar or bipolar transistors are transistors in which both holes and electrons are mobile inside the conducting channel. This device allows switching among several states: the hole-dominated on-state, the off-state, and the electron-dominated on-state. In the past year, it has attracted great interest in exotic semiconductors, such as organic semiconductors, nanostructured materials, and carbon nanotubes. The ability to utilize both holes and electrons inside one device opens new possibilities for the development of more compact complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) circuits, and new kinds of optoelectronic device, namely, ambipolar light-emitting transistors. This progress report highlights the recent progresses in the field of ambipolar transistors, both from the fundamental physics and application viewpoints. Attention is devoted to the challenges that should be faced for the realization of ambipolar transistors with different material systems, beginning with the understanding of the importance of interface modification, which heavily affects injections and trapping of both holes and electrons. The recent development of advanced gating applications, including ionic liquid gating, that open up more possibility to realize ambipolar transport in materials in which one type of charge carrier is highly dominant is highlighted. Between the possible applications of ambipolar field-effect transistors, we focus on ambipolar light-emitting transistors. We put this new device in the framework of its prospective for general lightings, embedded displays, current-driven laser, as well as for photonics-electronics interconnection. PMID:24591008

Bisri, Satria Zulkarnaen; Piliego, Claudia; Gao, Jia; Loi, Maria Antonietta

2014-02-26

401

Gated Conductance of Thin Indium Tin Oxide - The Simplest Transistor  

E-print Network

Transistors are the fundamental building block of modern electronic devices. So far, all transistors are based on various types of semiconductor junctions. The most common bipolar-junction transistors and metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors contain p-n junctions to control the current, depending on applied biases across the junctions. Thin-film transistors need metal-semiconductor junctions for injecting and extracting electrons from their channels. Here, by coating a heavily-doped thin indium-tin-oxide (ITO) film through a shadow mask onto a biopolymer chitosan/ITO/glass substrate, we can have a high-performance junctionless transparent organic-inorganic hybrid thin film transistor. This could be the simplest transistor in the world, to our knowledge, not only in its structure, but also its fabrication process. In addition, the device performance is found to be greatly enhanced using a reinforced chitosan/SiO2 hybrid bilayer dielectric stack. Our results clearly show that this architecture can...

Jiang, Jie; Sun, Jia; Dou, Wei; Zhang, Qing

2012-01-01

402

A 250 GHz photonic band gap gyrotron amplifier  

E-print Network

This thesis reports the theoretical and experimental investigation of a novel gyrotron traveling-wave-tube (TWT) amplifier at 250 GHz. The gyrotron amplifier designed and tested in this thesis has achieved a peak small ...

Nanni, Emilio A. (Emilio Alessandro)

2013-01-01

403

CARM and harmonic gyro-amplifier experiments at 17 GHz.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Cyclotron resonance maser amplifiers are possible sources for applications such as electron cyclotron resonance heating of fusion plasmas and driving high-gradient rf linear accelerators. For accelerator drivers, amplifiers or phase locked-oscillators are...

W. L. Menninger, B. G. Danly, S. Alberti, C. Chen, J. L. Rullier

1993-01-01

404

Improved current and charge amplifiers for driving piezoelectric loads  

E-print Network

Improved current and charge amplifiers for driving piezoelectric loads Andrew J. Fleming and S. O, Callaghan 2308, Australia. ABSTRACT Piezoelectric transducers are known to exhibit less hysterisis when, Piezoelectric, Capacitive, Load, Amplifier, Zero Offset, Compliance, Feedback 1. INTRODUCTION Piezoelectric

Fleming, Andrew J.

405

Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifier Elements for Structural Analysis Sensors.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The use of erbium-doped fiber amplifiers (EDFA's) in optical fiber sensor systems for structural analysis is described. EDFA's were developed for primary applications as periodic regenerator amplifiers in long-distance fiber-based communication systems. T...

P. Hanna-hawver K. D. Kamdar, S. Mehta, S. Nagarajan, M. H. Nasta

1992-01-01

406

A gallium phosphide high-temperature bipolar junction transistor  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Preliminary results are reported on the development of a high temperature (350 C) gallium phosphide bipolar junction transistor (BJT) for geothermal and other energy applications. This four-layer p(+)n(-)pp(+) structure was formed by liquid phase epitaxy using a supercooling technique to insure uniform nucleation of the thin layers. Magnesium was used as the p-type dopant to avoid excessive out-diffusion into the lightly doped base. By appropriate choice of electrodes, the device may also be driven as an n-channel junction field-effect transistor. The initial design suffers from a series resistance problem which limits the transistor's usefulness at high temperatures.

Zipperian, T. E.; Dawson, L. R.; Chaffin, R. J.

1981-01-01

407

A "Single-Photon" Transistor in Circuit Quantum Electrodynamics  

E-print Network

We introduce a circuit quantum electrodynamical setup for a "single-photon" transistor. In our approach photons propagate in two open transmission lines that are coupled via two interacting transmon qubits. The interaction is such that no photons are exchanged between the two transmission lines but a single photon in one line can completely block respectively enable the propagation of photons in the other line. High on-off ratios can be achieved for feasible experimental parameters. Our approach is inherently scalable as all photon pulses can have the same pulse shape and carrier frequency such that output signals of one transistor can be input signals for a consecutive transistor.

Lukas Neumeier; Martin Leib; Michael J. Hartmann

2012-11-30

408

Direct solar-pumped iodine laser amplifier  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

In order to evaluate the feasibility of the solar pumped dye laser, the parametric study of a dye laser amplifier pumped by a solar simulator and flashlamp was carried out, and the amplifier gains were measured at various pump beam irradiances on the dye cell. Rhodamine 6G was considered as a candidate for the solar pumped laser because of its good utilization of the solar spectrum and high quantum efficiency. The measurement shows that a solar concentration of 20,000 is required to reach the threshold of the dye. The work to construct a kinetic model algorithm which predicts the output parameter of laser was progressed. The kinetic model was improved such that there is good agreement between the theoretical model and experimental data for the systems defined previously as flashlamp pumped laser oscillator, and the long path length solar pumped laser.

Han, Kwang S.; Kim, K. H.; Stock, L. V.

1986-01-01

409

Solid state radiographic image amplifiers, part C  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The contrast sensitivity of the radiographic amplifiers, both the storage type and nonstorage type, their absolute sensitivity, and the reproducibility of fabrication were investigated. The required 2-2T quality level was reached with the radiographic storage screen. The sensitivity threshold was 100 to 200 mR with 45 to 100 kV filtered X-rays. The quality level of the radiographic amplifier screen (without storage) was 4-4T; for a 6 mm (0.25 in.) thick aluminum specimen, a 1 mm (0.040 in.) diameter hole in a 0.25 mm (0.010 in.) thick penetrameter was detected. Its sensitivity threshold was 2 to 6 mR/min. The developed radiographic screens are applicable for uses in nondestructive testing.

Szepesi, Z.

1971-01-01

410

Wave optics modelling of amplified spontaneous emission  

SciTech Connect

A laser works by amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) of inverted atomic ions confined in an amplifier of rod-like geometry, such that ASE radiation is directed out of both ends of the rod. The forward and backward ASE waves are coupled through the population-rate equations and cause the saturation of the lasing transition (gain saturation). Diffraction of the waves in the transverse direction is responsible for the radiation pattern (angular distribution) observed on a distant screen and for the degree of spatial coherence of the radiation. Refraction of the light also occurs due to spatial gradients in the electron density. In order to describe this situation a code has been developed which numerically solves paraxial Maxwell's equations in the time and two spatial dimensions. The code uses the Peaceman-Rachford Alternating-Direction-Implicit algorithm and is benchmarked against laboratory DYE-LASER experiments. 4 refs., 1 fig.

Ritchie, B.; Garrison, J.

1990-11-06

411

Cryogenic cooling for high power laser amplifiers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using DPSSL (Diode Pumped Solid State Lasers) as pumping technology, PW-class lasers with enhanced repetition rates are developed. Each of the Yb YAG amplifiers will be diode-pumped at a wavelength of 940 nm. This is a prerequisite for achieving high repetition rates (light amplification duration 1 millisecond and repetition rate 10 Hz). The efficiency of DPSSL is inversely proportional to the temperature, for this reason the slab amplifier have to be cooled at a temperature in the range of 100 K-170 K with a heat flux of 1 MW*m-2. This paper describes the thermo-mechanical analysis for the design of the amplification laser head, presents a preliminary proposal for the required cryogenic cooling system and finally outlines the gain of cryogenic operation for the efficiency of high pulsed laser.

Perin, J. P.; Millet, F.; Divoky, M.; Rus, B.

2013-11-01

412

Magnetic Amplifier for Power Flow Control  

SciTech Connect

GENI Project: ORNL is developing an electromagnet-based, amplifier-like device that will allow for complete control over the flow of power within the electric grid. To date, complete control of power flow within the grid has been prohibitively expensive. ORNLs controller could provide a reliable, cost-effective solution to this problem. The team is combining two types of pre-existing technologies to assist in flow control, culminating in a prototype iron-based magnetic amplifier. Ordinarily, such a device would require expensive superconductive wire, but the magnetic iron core of ORNLs device could serve as a low-cost alternative that is equally adept at regulating power flow.

None

2012-02-24

413

Fiber amplifier based UV laser source  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We demonstrate 30 W of average UV power, at 353 nm, by harmonically converting the output of a seeded cascade of fiber amplifiers operating at 1060 nm. The UV output represents 46% harmonic conversion efficiency from the fundamental beam. The all-fiber-amplifier, MOPA architecture supports variable pulse repetition frequencies and pulse widths. We demonstrate pulse repetition frequencies up to 2 MHz and pulse widths as short as 2 ns. Two bulk LBO crystals, oriented for second and third harmonic conversion, are used to obtain stable UV output power. A turnkey system using this architecture is commercially available. The system is entirely air-cooled and operates from a standard wall plug electric service, facilitating integration into various material processing applications.

Leonardo, Manuel J.; Byer, Mark W.; Keaton, Gregory L.; Richard, Derek J.; Adams, Frank J.; Nightingale, John L.; Arbore, Mark A.; Guzsella, Susi; Smoliar, Laura A.

2009-02-01

414

Radiographic amplifier screens: Fabrication process and characteristics  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The fabrication process and transfer characteristics for solid state radiographic image transducers (radiographic amplifier screens) is described. These screens were developed for use in real time nondestructive evaluation procedures that require large format radiographic images with contrast and resolution capabilities unavailable with conventional fluoroscopic screens. This work was directed toward screens usable for inmotion, on-line radiographic inspection by means of closed circuit television.

Szepesi, Z. P.

1977-01-01

415

Direct solar-pumped iodine laser amplifier  

Microsoft Academic Search

A XeCl laser pumped iodine laser oscillator was developed which will be incorporated into the Master Oscillator Power Amplifier (MOPA) system. The developed XeCl laser produces output energy of about 60 mJ per pulse. The pulse duration was about 10 nsec. The kinetic model for the solar-pumped laser was refined and the algorithm for the calculation of a set of

Kwang S. Han; In Heon Hwang; Khong Hon Kim; Larry V. Stock

1988-01-01

416

Gas amplified ionization detector for gas chromatography  

DOEpatents

A gas-amplified ionization detector for gas chromatrography which possesses increased sensitivity and a very fast response time. Solutes eluding from a gas chromatographic column are ionized by UV photoionization of matter eluting therefrom. The detector is capable of generating easily measured voltage signals by gas amplification/multiplication of electron products resulting from the UV photoionization of at least a portion of each solute passing through the detector.

Huston, Gregg C. (LaBelle, PA)

1992-01-01

417

Novel 140 GHz gyro-TWT amplifier  

SciTech Connect

The authors have designed and are currently building a novel gyro-TWT amplifier at powers up to 100 kW at a frequency of 140 GHz. The electron beam will be provided by an existing MIG electron gun which has been previously used in gyrotron oscillator research at the 100 kW power level at 140 GHz. The gun operates at 65 kV and up to 8A with {nu}{sub {perpendicular}}/{nu}{sub {parallel}} equal to 1.5. The novel wave circuit consists of two facing mirrors with confocal profiles in the transverse direction and flat profiles in the longitudinal direction. The mode is Gaussian-like in the transverse direction. This cavity design effectively reduces the mode competition problem in conventional amplifiers from two dimensions to one dimension. Another advantage of this circuit is the relatively large circuit size, which improves power capacity. Preliminary calculations indicate that the linear gain is about 2.7 dB/cm with an efficiency exceeding 20%. The driver of the Gyro-TWT amplifier is a 95 GHz Varian EIO generator with 100 W peak output power. The amplifier also employs a confocal mode converter which launches a gaussian beam along the axis. The slot size of the cavity is optimized to have minimal operating mode loss while maximizing losses of competing modes. A preliminary experiment using an oscillator configuration has also been designed. The device could easily be scaled to 95 GHz to meet D.O.D. needs at that frequency.

Hu, W.; Kreischer, K.E.; Shapiro, M.; Temkin, R.J. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Fusion Center

1996-12-31

418

Amplified spontaneous emission in quaterthiophene single crystals  

Microsoft Academic Search

The authors demonstrate amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) from quaterthiophene single crystals and study its behavior at low temperature. The room temperature photoluminescence exhibits line narrowing (spectral width down to 10 nm) at 553 nm for excitation fluence larger than 1 mJ cm-2. At low temperature (10 K), ASE is observed from two vibronic transitions at 510 nm (0-1) and 553

Marco Polo; Andrea Camposeo; Silvia Tavazzi; Luisa Raimondo; Peter Spearman; Antonio Papagni; Roberto Cingolani; Dario Pisignano

2008-01-01

419

Integrated SQUID linear amplifier design and simulation  

SciTech Connect

A linear cascade video amplifier capable of working from DC to about one GHz was designed, fabricated, and initially tested. Two asymmetric SQUIDs operating in push-pull are used to achieve linearity and to eliminate output offset. Decoupling of the Josephson oscilliation between the SQUIDs is accomplished by using a special low-pass resonant transformer. Simulation results are presented for three- and ten-junction SQUIDs.

Gershenson, M.

1985-03-01

420

Fiber parametric amplifiers for wavelength band conversion  

Microsoft Academic Search

By using a loop configuration formed by a polarization beam splitter, we experimentally demonstrate that the existing wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) sources in C-band can be wavelength converted to the S-band with low polarization sensitivity and low crosstalk. Using a fiber parametric amplifier as a band converter, we achieve experimentally 4.7-dB conversion efficiency over 30-nm conversion bandwidth in 315 m of

Mohammed N. Islam; O. Boyraz

2002-01-01

421

Advanced Interaction Studies of Travelling Wave Amplifiers  

Microsoft Academic Search

The gain and electron beam-microwave interaction for a periodic rectangular grating slow wave Travelling Wave Tube (TWT) amplifier(J.Joe, L.Louis, J.Scharer, J.Booske, M. Basten, Phys. Plasmas, 1997 (Accepted for Publication).) and initial studies of multitone interaction in a helix TWT are presented. This research focusses on the low-voltage (<=10 kV) interaction in the backward wave regime for Ku-band range of frequencies.

L. J. Louis; J. E. Scharer; J. H. Booske; C. Armstrong

1997-01-01

422

High power fiber amplifiers for kilowatt fiber arrays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Continuous-wave fiber based master-oscillator power-amplifier has demonstrated output powers over 150 W from a robustly single-mode polarization maintaining fiber amplifier. The amplifier is designed for coherent beam combining to generate kilowatt class fiber arrays.

Dennis Hammons; Jesse Anderegg; Stephen Brosnan; Hiroshi Komini; M. Wickham

2003-01-01

423

A simple and fast transimpedance amplifier for microchannel plate detectors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A simple and fast transimpedance amplifier to couple a microchannel plate detector with an oscilloscope with a low impedance input has been developed. The amplifier protects the connected electronic equipment from destructive high voltage bursts. Examples of the detection of electrons are shown. The influence of the amplifier on pulse shape and intensity is discussed.

Schwartze, P.; Baumgrtel, H.; Eisenhardt, C. G.

2001-07-01

424

100 h SQUID AMPLIFIERS FOR THE ULTRACRYOGENIC GRAVITATIONAL WAVE DETECTORS  

E-print Network

100 ?h SQUID AMPLIFIERS FOR THE ULTRACRYOGENIC GRAVITATIONAL WAVE DETECTORS PAOLO FALFERI, MICHELE of the cryogenic resonant de­ tectors is the noise temperature of the dc SQUID amplifier used to detect the signal matching between SQUID amplifier and displacement transducer, this limit can be approached also with finite

425

Photonic bandgap fibre oscillators and amplifiers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In the search for ever higher output power or energy from fibre oscillators or amplifiers a nowadays mature technology relies on enlarging the fibre mode area. Broadening of the core diameter, all other things being equal, inevitably yields a multimode fibre, thereby dramatically limiting the device usefulness. Various strategies have been deployed to design and manufacture single transverse mode fibre oscillators and amplifiers, among which making use of the so-called photonic bandgap effect to restrict the modal population seems promising. Helped by efficient and reliable numerical tools the design of large mode area singlemode photonic bandgap fibres is presented. Two fibres with 20-?m and 40-?m core diameter, both of them heavily doped with Yb 3+ ions, have been fabricated by the widespread modified chemical vapour deposition process and are shown to behave properly when used as the core element of either continuous wave oscillators or femtosecond amplifiers. Good output beam quality (M 2 parameter spanning from 1.12 to 1.5 for the set of fibres studied) and high slope efficiency of 80% in cw oscillation regime are demonstrated. Furthermore the 40-?m core diameter fibre is shown to be resilient to tight bending down to 7.5-cm radius. The stack-and-draw process makes it easy to tailor the outer cladding so that a large numerical aperture can be reached. Subsequently, from this air-clad fibre, 500 fs 47 W pulses at 35 MHz are obtained from a two-stage chirped pulse amplification system.

Fvrier, S.; Gaponov, D.; Devautour, M.; Roy, P.; Daniault, L.; Hanna, M.; Papadopoulos, D. N.; Druon, F.; Georges, P.; Likhachev, M. E.; Salganskii, M. Y.; Yashkov, M. V.

2010-12-01

426

Direct solar-pumped iodine laser amplifier  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A XeCl laser which was developed earlier for an iodine laser oscillator was modified in order to increase the output pulse energy of XeCl laser so that the iodine laser output energy could be increased. The electrical circuit of the XeCl laser was changed from a simple capacitor discharge circuit of the XeCl laser to a Marx system. Because of this improvement the output energy from the XeCl laser was increased from 60 mj to 80 mj. Subsequently, iodine laser output energy was increased from 100 mj to 3 mj. On the other hand, the energy storage capability and amplification characteristics of the Vortek solar simulator-pumped amplifier was calculated expecting the calculated amplification factor is about 2 and the energy extraction efficiency is 26 percent due to the very low input energy density to the amplifier. As a result of an improved kinetic modeling for the iodine solar simulator pumped power amplifier, it is found that the I-2 along the axis of the tube affects seriously the gain profile. For the gas i-C3F7I at the higher pressures, the gain will decrease due to the I-2 as the pumping intensity increases, and at these higher pressures an increase in flow velocity will increase the gain.

Han, Kwang S.; Hwang, In H.; Stock, Larry V.

1988-01-01

427

Stable spatial solitons in semiconductor optical amplifiers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A spatial soliton is a shape invariant self guided beam of light or a self induced waveguide. Spatial solitons appear as a result of the balance of diffraction and nonlinear focusing in a system. They have been observed in many different conservative media in the last couple of years. Solitons are ubiquitous, because of the probability of using their interactions in optical data processing, communications etc. Up to now due to the power required to generate the solitons, and the response times of the soliton supporting media, these special waves of nature could not penetrate the applications arena. Semiconductors, with their resonant nonlinearities, are thought to be ideal candidates for fast switching, low power spatial solitons. In this dissertation it is shown theoretically and experimentally that it is possible to observe stable spatial solitons in a periodically patterned semiconductor optical amplifier (PPSOA). The solitons have unique beam profiles that change only with system parameters, like pumping current, etc. Their coherent and incoherent interactions which could lead to all optical devices have been investigated experimentally and theoretically. The formation of filaments or modulational instability has been studied theoretically and yielded analytical formulae for evaluating the filament gain and the maximum spatial frequencies in PPSOA devices. Furthermore, discrete array amplifiers have been analyzed numerically for discrete solitons, and the prospect of using multi peak discrete solitons as laser amplifiers is discussed.

Ultanir, Erdem

2004-11-01

428

Radiation effects on JFETs (Junction Field-Effect Transistors), MOSFETs, and dipolar transistors, as related to SSC circuit design  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Some results of radiation effects on selected junction field-effect transistors, MOS field-effect transistors, and bipolar junction transistors are presented. The evaluations include dc parameters, as well as capacitive variations and noise evaluations. The tests are made at the low current and voltage levels (in particular, at currents less or equal to 1 mA) that are essential for the low-power regimes required by SSC circuitry. Detailed noise data are presented both before and after 5-Mrad (gamma) total-dose exposure. SPICE radiation models for three high-frequency bipolar processes are compared for a typical charge-sensitive preamplifier.

Kennedy, E. J.; Alley, G. T.; Britton, C. L., Jr.; Skubic, P. L.; Gray, B.; Wu, A.

1990-10-01

429

Active pixel imagers incorporating pixel-level amplifiers based on polycrystalline-silicon thin-film transistors  

SciTech Connect

Active matrix, flat-panel imagers (AMFPIs) employing a 2D matrix of a-Si addressing TFTs have become ubiquitous in many x-ray imaging applications due to their numerous advantages. However, under conditions of low exposures and/or high spatial resolution, their signal-to-noise performance is constrained by the modest system gain relative to the electronic additive noise. In this article, a strategy for overcoming this limitation through the incorporation of in-pixel amplification circuits, referred to as active pixel (AP) architectures, using polycrystalline-silicon (poly-Si) TFTs is reported. Compared to a-Si, poly-Si offers substantially higher mobilities, enabling higher TFT currents and the possibility of sophisticated AP designs based on both n- and p-channel TFTs. Three prototype indirect detection arrays employing poly-Si TFTs and a continuous a-Si photodiode structure were characterized. The prototypes consist of an array (PSI-1) that employs a pixel architecture with a single TFT, as well as two arrays (PSI-2 and PSI-3) that employ AP architectures based on three and five TFTs, respectively. While PSI-1 serves as a reference with a design similar to that of conventional AMFPI arrays, PSI-2 and PSI-3 incorporate additional in-pixel amplification circuitry. Compared to PSI-1, results of x-ray sensitivity demonstrate signal gains of {approx}10.7 and 20.9 for PSI-2 and PSI-3, respectively. These values are in reasonable agreement with design expectations, demonstrating that poly-Si AP circuits can be tailored to provide a desired level of signal gain. PSI-2 exhibits the same high levels of charge trapping as those observed for PSI-1 and other conventional arrays employing a continuous photodiode structure. For PSI-3, charge trapping was found to be significantly lower and largely independent of the bias voltage applied across the photodiode. MTF results indicate that the use of a continuous photodiode structure in PSI-1, PSI-2, and PSI-3 results in optical fill factors that are close to unity. In addition, the greater complexity of PSI-2 and PSI-3 pixel circuits, compared to that of PSI-1, has no observable effect on spatial resolution. Both PSI-2 and PSI-3 exhibit high levels of additive noise, resulting in no net improvement in the signal-to-noise performance of these early prototypes compared to conventional AMFPIs. However, faster readout rates, coupled with implementation of multiple sampling protocols allowed by the nondestructive nature of pixel readout, resulted in a significantly lower noise level of {approx}560 e (rms) for PSI-3.

El-Mohri, Youcef; Antonuk, Larry E.; Koniczek, Martin; Zhao Qihua; Li Yixin; Street, Robert A.; Lu Jengping [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Michigan Medical Center, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States); Palo Alto Research Center (PARC), 3333 Coyote Hill Road, Palo Alto, California 94304 (United States)

2009-07-15

430

A polysaccharide bioprotonic field-effect transistor.  

PubMed

In nature, electrical signalling occurs with ions and protons, rather than electrons. Artificial devices that can control and monitor ionic and protonic currents are thus an ideal means for interfacing with biological systems. Here we report the first demonstration of a biopolymer protonic field-effect transistor with proton-transparent PdH(x) contacts. In maleic-chitosan nanofibres, the flow of protonic current is turned on or off by an electrostatic potential applied to a gate electrode. The protons move along the hydrated maleic-chitosan hydrogen-bond network with a mobility of ~4.910(-3)?cm(2)?V(-1)?s(-1). This study introduces a new class of biocompatible solid-state devices, which can control and monitor the flow of protonic current. This represents a step towards bionanoprotonics. PMID:21934660

Zhong, Chao; Deng, Yingxin; Roudsari, Anita Fadavi; Kapetanovic, Adnan; Anantram, M P; Rolandi, Marco

2011-01-01

431

Insulated-Gate Field-Effect Transistors  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

All About Circuits is a website that âprovides a series of online textbooks covering electricity and electronics.â Written by Tony R. Kuphaldt, the textbooks available here are wonderful resources for students, teachers, and anyone who is interested in learning more about electronics. This specific section, Insulated-Gate Field-Effect Transistors, is the fourth chapter in Volume III âSemiconductors. Many of the topics covered in this chapter are not yet completed, and bear the label âpending.â A few topics that are finished are Depletion-type IGFETs, and IGBTâs. Diagrams and detailed descriptions of concepts are included throughout the chapter to provide users with a comprehensive lesson. Visitors to the site are also encouraged to discuss concepts and topics using the All About Circuits discussion forums (registration with the site is required to post materials).

Kuphaldt, Tony R.

2008-07-14

432

Time-dependent observation of individual cellular binding events to field-effect transistors.  

PubMed

Electrolyte-gate field-effect transistors (EG-FETs) gained continuously more importance in the field of bioelectronics. The reasons for this are the intrinsic properties of these FETs. Binding of analysts or changes in the electrolyte composition are leading to variations of the drain-source current. Furthermore, due to the signal amplification upon voltage-to-current conversion even small extracellular signals can be detected. Here we report about impedance spectroscopy with an FET array to characterize passive components of a cell attached to the transistor gate. We developed a 16-channel readout system, which provides a simultaneous, lock-in based readout. A test signal of known amplitude and phase was applied via the reference electrode. We monitored the electronic transfer function of the FETs with the attached cell. The resulting frequency spectrum was used to investigate the surface adhesion of individual HEK293 cells. We applied different chemical treatments with either the serinpeptidase trypsin or the ionophor amphotericin B (AmpB). Binding studies can be realized by a time-dependent readout of the lock-in amplifier at a constant frequency. We observed cell detachment upon trypsin activity as well as membrane decomposition induced by AmpB. The results were interpreted in terms of an equivalent electrical circuit model of the complete system. The presented method could in future be applied to monitor more relevant biomedical manipulations of individual cells. Due to the utilization of the silicon technology, our method could be easily up-scaled to many output channels for high throughput pharmacological screening. PMID:18692383

Schfer, S; Eick, S; Hofmann, B; Dufaux, T; Stockmann, R; Wrobel, G; Offenhusser, A; Ingebrandt, S

2009-01-01

433

An evaluation of indium antimonide quantum well transistor technology  

E-print Network

Motivated by the super high electron mobility of Indium Antimonide (InSb), researchers have seen great potential to use this new material in high switching speed and low power transistors. In Dec, 2005, Intel and its ...

Liu, Jingwei, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2006-01-01

434

Testing tri-state and pass transistor circuit structures  

E-print Network

effort for tristate and pass transistor structures. We do circuit level modeling to help develop and validate gate level models, which can be used in production ATPG. We study the two primary effects of interest, capacitive coupling and leakage...

Parikh, Shaishav Shailesh

2005-11-01

435

Near room temperature lithographically processed metal-oxide transistors  

E-print Network

A fully lithographic process at near-room-temperature was developed for the purpose of fabricating transistors based on metal-oxide channel materials. The combination of indium tin oxide (ITO) as the source/drain electrodes, ...

Tang, Hui, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2008-01-01

436

A Network Charge-Orineted MOS Transistor Model  

E-print Network

The MOS transistor physical model as described in [3] is presented here as a network model. The goal is to obtain an accurate model, suitable for simulation, free from certain problems reported in the literature [13], and ...

Katzenelson, Jacob

1995-08-01

437

BN/Graphene/BN Transistors for RF Applications  

E-print Network

In this letter, we demonstrate the first BN/graphene/BN field-effect transistor for RF applications. This device structure can preserve the high mobility and the high carrier velocity of graphene, even when it is sandwiched ...

Taychatanapat, Thiti

438

Degradation mechanisms of GaN high electron mobility transistors  

E-print Network

In spite of their extraordinary performance, GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMT) have still limited reliability. In RF power applications, GaN HEMTs operate at high voltage where good reliability is essential. ...

Joh, Jungwoo

2007-01-01

439

Threshold voltage in pentacene field effect transistors with parylene dielectric  

E-print Network

Organic field effect transistors (OFETs) offer a suitable building block for many flexible, large-area applications such as display backplanes, electronic textiles, and robotic skin. Besides the organic semiconductor itself, ...

Wang, Annie I. (Annie I-Jen), 1981-

2004-01-01

440

Organic Nonvolatile Memory Transistors for Flexible Sensor Arrays  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Using organic transistors with a floating gate embedded in hybrid dielectrics that comprise a 2-nanometer-thick molecular self-assembled monolayer and a 4-nanometer-thick plasma-grown metal oxide, we have realized nonvolatile memory arrays on flexible plastic substrates. The small thickness of the dielectrics allows very small program and erase voltages (?6 volts) to produce a large, nonvolatile, reversible threshold-voltage shift. The transistors endure more than 1000 program and erase cycles, which is within two orders of magnitude of silicon-based floating-gate transistors widely employed in flash memory. By integrating a flexible array of organic floating-gate transistors with a pressure-sensitive rubber sheet, we have realized a sensor matrix that detects the spatial distribution of applied mechanical pressure and stores the analog sensor input as a two-dimensional image over long periods of time.

Sekitani, Tsuyoshi; Yokota, Tomoyuki; Zschieschang, Ute; Klauk, Hagen; Bauer, Siegfried; Takeuchi, Ken; Takamiya, Makoto; Sakurai, Takayasu; Someya, Takao

2009-12-01

441

High performance organic transistors on cheap, commercial substrates  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present here our latest results on high quality gate insulators for organic electronics. Ultra-thin films of n-octadecyltrichlorosilane-treated, anodized aluminium (Al) grown onto flexible, Al-sputtered polyester substrates combine low cost and manufacture under ambient conditions with excellent performance characteristics (negligible leakage and hysteresis, 400 nF cm-2 capacitance). With pentacene as organic semiconductor, we present organic transistors with inverse subthreshold slope of approximately 200 mV dec-1, threshold of the order of -2 V and >105 on/off ratio. The subthreshold behaviour is significantly better than for transistors with pentacene deposited onto a gate insulator optimized for high mobility. Above the threshold, the higher capacitance compensates for the somewhat lower mobility. Crucially, the cheap, sputtered Al-on-polyester films resulted in transistors that were as good as transistors fabricated on the same substrate with evaporated Al.

Majewski, L. A.; Schroeder, R.; Voigt, M.; Grell, M.

2004-12-01

442

Choosing a gate dielectric for graphene based transistors  

E-print Network

Much attention has recently been focused on graphene as an alternative semiconductor to silicon. Transistors with graphene conduction channels have only recently been fabricated and their performance remains to be optimized. ...

Hsu, Pei-Lan, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

2008-01-01

443

Characterization of organic field effect transistors for OLED displays  

E-print Network

This thesis explores the characterization of OFETs that will aid the circuit design of OLED pixel drivers. The contact resistance, flat band voltage, and mobility are extracted from top contact and bottom contact transistors ...

Ryu, Kyungbum

2005-01-01

444

Dual threshold voltage organic thin-film transistor technology  

E-print Network

A fully photolithographic dual threshold voltage (VT) organic thin-film transistor (OTFT) process suitable for flexible large-area integrated circuits is presented. The nearroom-temperature (<; 95 C) process produces ...

Nausieda, Ivan A.

445

AC performance of nanoelectronics: towards a ballistic THz nanotube transistor  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present phenomenological predictions for the cutoff frequency of carbon nanotube transistors. We also present predictions of the effects parasitic capacitances on AC nanotube transistor performance. The influence of quantum capacitance, kinetic inductance, and ballistic transport on the high-frequency properties of nanotube transistors is analyzed. We discuss the challenges of impedance matching for ac nano-electronics in general, and show how integrated nanosystems can solve this challenge. Our calculations show that carbon nano-electronics may be faster than conventional Si, SiGe, GaAs, or InP semiconductor technologies. We predict a cutoff frequency of 80 GHz/ L, where L is the gate length in microns, opening up the possibility of a ballistic THz nanotube transistor.

Burke, Peter J.

2004-11-01

446

Frequency dependent characterization of transport properties in carbon nanotube transistors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We have experimentally verified that carbon nanotube field-effect transistors do not show any signal degradation when operated at frequencies up to 580 MHz, the limit of our current measurement setup. In order to characterize the high-frequency response of individual single wall carbon nanotubes in a three-terminal transistor configuration, a non-standard measurement approach was employed. By making use of the nonlinearity of nanotube transistor transfer characteristics, the response of a tube to a combined ac/dc signal was studied. This technique enables easy access to the high-frequency performance of nanoscale devices in general even for the rather low current levels typically observed for individual carbon nanotube field-effect transistors.

Appenzeller, J.; Frank, D. J.

2004-03-01

447

A nanoscale piezoelectric transformer for low-voltage transistors.  

PubMed

A novel piezoelectric voltage transformer for low-voltage transistors is proposed. Placing a piezoelectric transformer on the gate of a field-effect transistor results in the piezoelectric transformer field-effect transistor that can switch at significantly lower voltages than a conventional transistor. The piezoelectric transformer operates by using one piezoelectric to squeeze another piezoelectric to generate a higher output voltage than the input voltage. Multiple piezoelectrics can be used to squeeze a single piezoelectric layer to generate an even higher voltage amplification. Coupled electrical and mechanical modeling in COMSOL predicts a 12.5 voltage amplification for a six-layer piezoelectric transformer. This would lead to more than a 150 reduction in the power needed for communications. PMID:25343519

Agarwal, Sapan; Yablonovitch, Eli

2014-11-12

448

Characteristics, Theory and Modeling of the Transistor Laser.  

E-print Network

??The transistor laser possesses advantageous characteristics of fast base spontaneous carrier lifetime, high differential optical gain, and unique three-terminal electrical-optical characteristics for direct ???read-out??? of (more)

Then, Han Wui

2010-01-01

449

Delay Analysis of Graphene Field-Effect Transistors  

E-print Network

In this letter, we analyze the carrier transit delay in graphene field-effect transistors (GFETs).The extraction of the intrinsic delay provides a new way to directly estimate carrier velocity from the experimental data, ...

Wang, Han

450

Contact electrification field-effect transistor.  

PubMed

Utilizing the coupled metal oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor and triboelectric nanogenerator, we demonstrate an external force triggered/controlled contact electrification field-effect transistor (CE-FET), in which an electrostatic potential across the gate and source is created by a vertical contact electrification between the gate material and a foreign object, and the carrier transport between drain and source can be tuned/controlled by the contact-induced electrostatic potential instead of the traditional gate voltage. With the two contacted frictional layers vertically separated by 80 ?m, the drain current is decreased from 13.4 to 1.9 ?A in depletion mode and increased from 2.4 to 12.1 ?A in enhancement mode at a drain voltage of 5 V. Compared with the piezotronic devices that are controlled by the strain-induced piezoelectric polarization charged at an interface/junction, the CE-FET has greatly expanded the sensing range and choices of materials in conjunction with semiconductors. The CE-FET is likely to have important applications in sensors, humansilicon technology interfacing, MEMS, nanorobotics, and active flexible electronics. Based on the basic principle of the CE-FET, a field of tribotronics is proposed for devices fabricated using the electrostatic potential created by triboelectrification as a gate voltage to tune/control charge carrier transport in conventional semiconductor devices. By the three-way coupling among triboelectricity, semiconductor, and photoexcitation, plenty of potentially important research fields are expected to be explored in the near future. PMID:25119657

Zhang, Chi; Tang, Wei; Zhang, Limin; Han, Changbao; Wang, Zhong Lin

2014-08-26

451

The design of a frequency modulated transistor oscillator  

E-print Network

THE DESIGN OF A. FREQUENCY MODULATED TRANSISTOR OSCILLATOR A Thesis PHIL DEWEY FISHER Submitted to the Graduate School of the Agricultural and Mechanical College of Texas in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER... of the Transistor. Bias Design. High Frequenoy Design. Numerical Analysis. Test and Results. ~ ~ - 5 , 1O Simplified Design of the Colpitts Oscillator. . Some Mechanical Aspects. Test and Results. TEMPERATURE COMPENSATION. Probable Causes of Frequenoy...

Fisher, Phil Dewey

2012-06-07

452

High-speed, low-power InSb transistors  

Microsoft Academic Search

High-speed, low-power consumption field-effect transistors fabricated from InSb\\/In1-xAlxSb are demonstrated. A 0.7 ?m gate-length enhancement-mode device shows an fT, of 74 GHz, and an fmax of 89 GHz, at a drain voltage below 0.5 V. This is the fastest reported transistor for its gate length, as far as is known

T. Ashley; A. B. Dean; C. T. Elliott; R. Jefferies; F. Khaleque; T. J. Phillips

1997-01-01

453

Low Frequency Noise in Strained Si Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The low frequency noise performance of strained Si heterojunction bipolar transistors (sSi HBTs) is presented for the first time. Conventional SiGe HBTs and Si bipolar junction transistors (BJTs), processed with strained Si devices, were also measured as a reference. It is found that a lower noise level is obtained in sSi HBTs for a given collector current, which is im-

M. Fjer; S. Persson; E. Escobedo-Cousin; A. G. O'Neill

2011-01-01

454

Organic Nonvolatile Memory Transistors for Flexible Sensor Arrays  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using organic transistors with a floating gate embedded in hybrid dielectrics that comprise a 2-nanometer-thick molecular self-assembled monolayer and a 4-nanometer-thick plasma-grown metal oxide, we have realized nonvolatile memory arrays on flexible plastic substrates. The small thickness of the dielectrics allows very small program and erase voltages (<=6 volts) to produce a large, nonvolatile, reversible threshold-voltage shift. The transistors endure

Tsuyoshi Sekitani; Tomoyuki Yokota; Ute Zschieschang; Hagen Klauk; Siegfried Bauer; Ken Takeuchi; Makoto Takamiya; Takayasu Sakurai; Takao Someya

2009-01-01

455

Electrostatic Control of Ions and Molecules in Nanofluidic Transistors  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a nanofluidic transistor based on a metal-oxide-solution (MOSol) system that is similar to a metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistor (MOSFET). Using a combination of fluorescence and electrical measurements, we demonstrate that gate voltage modulates the concentration of ions and molecules in the channel and controls the ionic conductance. Our results illustrate the efficacy of field-effect control in nanofluidics, which could

Rohit Karnik; Rong Fan; Min Yue; Deyu Li; Peidong Yang; Arun Majumdar

2005-01-01

456

Low-frequency noise in polysilicon emitter bipolar transistors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The low-frequency noise in polysilicon emitter bipolar transistors is investigated. Transistors with various geometries and various properties of the oxide layer at the monosilicon polysilicon interface are studied. The main 1\\/f noise source proved to be located in the oxide layer. This source causes both 1\\/f noise in the base current SIb and 1\\/f noise in the emitter series resistance

H. A. W. Markus; T. G. M. Kleinpenning

1995-01-01

457

Performance projections for ballistic carbon nanotube field-effect transistors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The performance limits of carbon nanotube field-effect transistors (CNTFETs) are examined theoretically by extending a one-dimensional treatment used for silicon metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs). Compared to ballistic MOSFETs, ballistic CNTFETs show similar I-V characteristics but the channel conductance is quantized. For low-voltage, digital applications, the CNTFET with a planar gate geometry provides an on-current that is comparable to that expected

Jing Guo; Mark Lundstrom; Supriyo Datta

2002-01-01

458

Amorphous silicon thin film transistor as nonvolatile device.  

E-print Network

for n+ Si film deposited at different PH3 gas phase concentration... 82 1 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1.1. Amorphous Silicon Thin Film Transistor (a-Si:H TFT) TFT is a type of field effect devices in which... for n+ Si film deposited at different PH3 gas phase concentration... 82 1 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1.1. Amorphous Silicon Thin Film Transistor (a-Si:H TFT) TFT is a type of field effect devices in which...

Nominanda, Helinda

2008-10-10

459

Mobility in graphene double gate field effect transistors  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this work, double-gated field effect transistors manufactured from monolayer graphene are investigated. Conventional topdown CMOS-compatible processes are applied except for graphene deposition by manual exfoliation. Carrier mobilities in single- and double-gated graphene field effect transistors are compared. Even in double-gated graphene FETs, the carrier mobility exceeds the universal mobility of silicon over nearly the entire measured range. At comparable

M. C. Lemme; T. J. Echtermeyer; M. Baus; B. N. Szafranek; J. Bolten; M. Schmidt; T. Wahlbrink; H. Kurz

2008-01-01

460

TOPICAL REVIEW: Organic semiconductors for organic field-effect transistors  

Microsoft Academic Search

The advantages of organic field-effect transistors (OFETs), such as low cost, flexibility and large-area fabrication, have recently attracted much attention due to their electronic applications. Practical transistors require high mobility, large on\\/off ratio, low threshold voltage and high stability. Development of new organic semiconductors is key to achieving these parameters. Recently, organic semiconductors have been synthesized showing comparable mobilities to

Yoshiro Yamashita

2009-01-01

461

Progresses in organic field-effect transistors and molecular electronics  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past years, organic semiconductors have been extensively investigated as electronic materials for organic field-effect\\u000a transistors (OFETs). In this review, we briefly summarize the current status of organic field-effect transistors including\\u000a materials design, device physics, molecular electronics and the applications of carbon nanotubes in molecular electronics.\\u000a Future prospects and investigations required to improve the OFET performance are also involved.

Weiping Wu; Wei Xu; Wenping Hu; Yunqi Liu; Daoben Zhu

2006-01-01

462

A bright future for organic field-effect transistors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Field-effect transistors are emerging as useful device structures for efficient light generation from a variety of materials, including inorganic semiconductors, carbon nanotubes and organic thin films. In particular, organic light-emitting field-effect transistors are a new class of electro-optical devices that could provide a novel architecture to address open questions concerning charge-carrier recombination and light emission in organic materials. These devices

Michele Muccini

2006-01-01

463

Organic field-effect transistors with ultrathin gate insulator  

Microsoft Academic Search

We have used a commercially available Mylar film coated with a thin (?60nm) layer of aluminium and an ultrathin (?3.5nm) SiO2 layer as flexible substrate for the manufacture of bottom-gate organic field-effect transistors (OFETs). We show that the SiO2 layer has insulating properties with a breakdown voltage of 1.6V and a capacitance of ?1?F\\/cm2. We have manufactured organic field-effect transistors

L. A Majewski; R Schroeder; M Grell

2004-01-01

464

A low noise single-transistor transimpedance preamplifier for Fourier-transform mass spectrometry using a T feedback network  

PubMed Central

A novel single-transistor transimpedance preamplifier has been introduced for improving performance in Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometry. A low noise junction field-effect transistor (JFET), BF862, is used as the main amplification stage of this trans-impedance preamplifier, and a T-shaped feedback network is introduced as both the feedback and the gate biasing solutions. The T feedback network has been studied using an operational amplifier (Op Amp), AD8099. Such a feedback system allows ?100-fold less feedback resistance at a given transimpedance, hence preserving bandwidth, which is beneficial to applications demanding high gain. The single-transistor preamplifier yields a tested transimpedance of ?104 ? (80 dB?) in the frequency range between 1 kHz and 1 MHz (mass-to-charge ratio, m/z, of around 180-180k for a 12-T FT-ICR system), with a low power consumption of ?6 mW, which implies that this preamplifier is well suited to a 12-T FT-ICR mass spectrometer. In trading noise performance for higher trans-impedance, an alternative preamplifier design, an AD8099 preamplifier with the T feedback network, has also been studied with a capability of ?106 ? (120 dB?) transimpedance in the same frequency range. The resistive components in the T feedback network reported here can be replaced by complex impedances, which allows adaptation of this feedback system to other frequency, transimpedance, and noise characteristics for applications not only in other mass spectrometers, such as Orbitrap, time-of-flight (TOF), and ion trap systems, but also in other charge/current detecting systems such as spectroscopy systems, microscopy systems, optical communication systems, or charge-coupled devices (CCDs). PMID:23020394

Lin, Tzu-Yung; Green, Roger J.; O'Connor, Peter B.

2012-01-01

465

47 CFR 15.204 - External radio frequency power amplifiers and antenna modifications.  

Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

...false External radio frequency power amplifiers and antenna modifications. 15.204...204 External radio frequency power amplifiers and antenna modifications. ...any external radio frequency power amplifier or amplifier kit intended for use...

2012-10-01

466

Development of 3 kW at 325 MHz solid-state RF power amplifier using four power amplifier modules  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A high power solid-state RF power amplifier of 3 kW at 325 MHz has been developed using only four RF power amplifier modules of 850 W power output each. The design and characterization of RF power modules have been presented. A four way Wilkinson power combiner adds the output of four power amplifier modules with a total transmission loss of less than 6%. The combined power amplifier has a power gain of 20.2 dB at 1-dB compression point, and the corresponding output power is 2.8 kW at 325 MHz. The drain efficiency of the power amplifier is 65.3% at 3 kW. All the harmonics of this amplifier are below -40 dBc. The amplifier has better characteristics like fewer numbers of active devices per kilo watt, high efficiency, high gain, and ruggedness etc for RF accelerator applications.

Ramarao, B. V.; Sonal, S.; Mishra, J. K.; Pande, M.; Singh, P.; Kumar, G.; Mukherjee, J.

2014-01-01

467

A analysis of the cathode coupled amplifier  

E-print Network

AN ANALySIS 0 TH CATHODE COOFL D ~iPLIPIER A Thesis by FORREST JACKS RETLING-. . R Approved as to style and content by: Chairman of Committee 'Head of Department August, 1951 AN ANALYSIS OF THE CATHODE COUPLED. AMPLIFIER by FORHEST JAMES.... The Cathode-Coupled Amplif 1er Circuit 2. The Cathode-Coupled Amplif ier Circuit shnwing a. c. components only 3. The Approximate A. C. Fquivalent, Circuit Page 17 4 ~ Aoproximate Equivalent C1rcu its f' or Calculating Output Impedances 22 5...

Hetlinger, Forrest James

2012-06-07

468

Chemically amplified photoresist: Materials and processes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Advances in microfabrication technology to construct smaller and faster integrated circuits depend on improving resolution capabilities of patterning thin films of photoresist materials by photolithographic imaging. Positive-tone, chemically amplified photoresists represent one of the most important classes of photoresist materials. These materials function by the generation of a photoacid catalyst from the decomposition of a photoacid generator with exposure that catalyzes chemical reactions that alter the development rate of the exposed resist. Chemical amplification is derived from the fact that a single molecule of photogenerated catalyst may participate in numerous reactions. Photoacid catalyzes the cleavage of acid-labile protecting groups from the backbone of the resin polymer, increasing the dissolution rate of the resist in aqueous base. A pattern is formed in the photoresist film from the difference between dissolution rates of the exposed and unexposed material. The continual improvement of the resolution of chemically amplified resists depends on understanding, controlling, and optimizing the chemical processes that govern pattern formation, namely photoacid generation, resin deprotection, and resist dissolution. To elucidate how the formulation of the resist affects these processes, a systematic methodology was designed, validated and implemented to analyze the materials and processing of chemically amplified photoresist systems. The efficiency of photoacid generation and the concentration of photoacid produced upon exposure were determined for a wide range of resist formulations, processing conditions, and exposure technologies. The chemical structure of photoacid generators and base quenchers were found to affect the processes of acid-base neutralization, resin deprotection, and resist development. The reaction-diffusion process of photoacid to deprotect the resin was identified to depend on the concentration of the photoacid generator. A much greater concentration of photoacid was required to render development for ultra-thin films of chemically amplified photoresist less than 150nm thick than for thicker resist films. These investigations identified that the action of photoacid within the resist film is more complex than previously thought, and provided insight for the design and optimization of photoresist materials and processes.

Pawloski, Adam Richard

2002-01-01

469

Design of a High Performance Operational Amplifier  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The paper presents a design of low power operational amplifier for better frequency response using the nested Miller compensation scheme (NMCS). It shows better performance in terms of D.C. gain, slew rate, phase margin, settling time with drastic improvement in gain bandwidth product. The proposed circuit have full output swing and is better suited for low voltage, low power design. All simulations have been carried out on Tanner tool 0.35 ?m (TSMC) CMOS process with a supply voltage of 2v.

Bhardwaj, Monika; Singh, B. P.; Soni, Priyanka

2010-11-01

470

Dispersive Readout of a Superconducting Qubit Using a SLUG Amplifier  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Developing a fast, high-fidelity readout of superconducting quantum bits (qubits) makes significant demands of the cryogenic amplification chain, where the first stage amplifier must have sufficient sensitivity to resolve the state of the qubit and enough gain to overcome the noise of subsequent stages of amplification. Additionally, the architecture of a scalable quantum computer requires an amplifier with a large enough bandwidth and dynamic range to simultaneously measure multiple qubits without sacrificing performance. In this thesis, we describe a novel low-noise phase-insensitive linear amplifier at microwave frequencies based on the Superconducting Low-Inductance Undulatory Galvanometer (SLUG), an amplifier capable of meeting the demands of the superconducting qubit community. We discuss the numerical optimization of the SLUG amplifier and calculate the expected amplifier gain and noise temperature. We walk through the amplifier design and fabrication process before discussing how to fully characterize the fabricated device. We report on amplifiers with measured gain of 10 to 15 dB, bandwidths from 50 to 100 MHz, and added system noise below 2 quanta. Next, we describe the qubit- cavity system and the limits of a dispersive quantum measurement using circuit quantum electrodynamics. Finally, we report on experiments where a SLUG amplifier is used to measure the state of a superconducting qubit, demonstrating improved measurement signal-to-noise ratios of 10 dB and a dynamic range that is an order of magnitude better than any available amplifier currently being developed.

Hover, David James

471

Direct solar-pumped iodine laser amplifier  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The optimum conditions of a solar pumped iodine laser are found in this research for the case of a continuous wave operation and a pulsed operation. The optimum product of the pressure(p) inside the laser tube and the tube diameter(d) was pd=40 approx. 50 torr-cm on the contrary to the case of a high intensity flashlamp pumped iodine laser where the optimum value of the product is known to be pd=150 torr-cm. The pressure-diameter product is less than 1/3 of that of the high power iodine laser. During the research period, various laser materials were also studied for solar pumping. Among the laser materials, Nd:YAG is found to have the lowest laser threshold pumping intensity of about 200 solar constant. The Rhodamine 6G was also tested as the solar pumped laser material. The threshold pumping power was measured to be about 20,000 solar constant. The amplification experiment for a continuously pumped iodine laser amplifier was performed using Vortek solar simulator and the amplification factors were measured for single pass amplification and triple pass amplification of the 15 cm long amplifier tube. The amplification of 5 was obtained for the triple pass amplification.

Han, Kwang S.; Hwang, In Heon

1990-01-01

472

Hot prospect for new gene amplifier  

SciTech Connect

Molecular biologist Francis Barany is investigating one of the hottest areas in biotechnology: a gene-amplification technique called ligase chain reaction, or LCR. Already scientists have used LCR to detect the tiny mutation that causes sickle cell anemia and have adapted it to screen for a handful of other genetic diseases simultaneously - in a single test-tube. Some experts, in fact, are predicting that LCR will supplement the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and in some cases even supplant it. LCR could revolutionize DNA diagnostics just as PCR transformed basic molecular biology following its introduction 6 years ago. With its ease of automation and ability to produce useful quantitative results, LCR could become a major player in the rapidly growing market for DNA diagnostics. LCR, like PCR, uses snippets of nucleic acid, or oligonucleotides, that anneal to a specific, complementary sequence on the target DNA to be amplified. But where PCR uses oligos that bracket the stretch to be amplified, LCR uses pairs of oligos that completely cover the target sequence.

Not Available

1991-11-29

473

Mechanical Amplifier for a Piezoelectric Transducer  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

A mechanical amplifier has been devised to multiply the stroke of a piezoelectric transducer (PZT) intended for use at liquid helium temperatures. Interferometry holds the key to high angular resolution imaging and astrometry in space. Future space missions that will detect planets around other solar systems and perform detailed studies of the evolution of stars and galaxies will use new interferometers that observe at mid- and far-infrared wavelengths. Phase-measurement interferometry is key to many aspects of astronomical interferometry, and PZTs are ideal modulators for most methods of phase measurement, but primarily at visible wavelengths. At far infrared wavelengths of 150 to 300 m, background noise is a severe problem and all optics must be cooled to about 4 K. Under these conditions, piezos are ill-suited as modulators, because their throw is reduced by as much as a factor of 2, and even a wavelength or two of modulation is beyond their capability. The largest commercially available piezo stacks are about 5 in. (12.7 cm) long and have a throw of about 180 m at room temperature and only 90 m at 4 K. It would seem difficult or impossible to use PZTs for phase measurements in the far infrared were it not for the new mechanical amplifier that was designed and built.

Moore, James; Swain, Mark; Lawson, Peter; Calvet, Robert

2003-01-01

474

Ultrastable low-noise current amplifier  

E-print Network

An ultrastable low-noise current amplifier (ULCA) is presented. The ULCA is a non-cryogenic instrument based on specially designed operational amplifiers and resistor networks. It involves two stages, the first providing a 1000-fold current gain and the second performing a current-to-voltage conversion via an internal 1 MOhm reference resistor or, optionally, an external standard resistor. The ULCA's transfer coefficient is extremely stable versus time, temperature and current amplitude within the full dynamic range of +/-5 nA. A low noise level of 2.4 fA/sqrt(Hz) helps to keep averaging times low at small input currents. A cryogenic current comparator is used to calibrate both input current gain and output transresistance, providing traceability to the quantum Hall effect. Typically, within one day after calibration, the uncertainty contribution from short-term fluctuations of the transresistance is below one part in 10^7. The long-term stability is expected to be better than one part in 10^5 over a year. A ...

Drung, Dietmar; Becker, Ulrich; Scherer, Hansjrg; Ahlers, Franz Josef

2014-01-01

475

Advanced Interaction Studies of Travelling Wave Amplifiers  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The gain and electron beam-microwave interaction for a periodic rectangular grating slow wave Travelling Wave Tube (TWT) amplifier(J.Joe, L.Louis, J.Scharer, J.Booske, M. Basten, Phys. Plasmas, 1997 (Accepted for Publication).) and initial studies of multitone interaction in a helix TWT are presented. This research focusses on the low-voltage (<=10 kV) interaction in the backward wave regime for Ku-band range of frequencies. The grating has a shallow groove depth to period ratio of 0.446 to reduce skin effect losses. Simultaneous beam velocity spread and gain measurements are carried out in the new facility. Single and multiple pass gain measurements are presented and compared with theoretical predictions. Initial studies of the nonlinear physics of multitone interaction for an ultra-wide-band helix TWTA is studied. The characteristics of the harmonic and intermodulation products are examined. Preliminary results of analyses and realization of an experimental facility for examining the multitone amplifier helix TWTA interaction are presented.

Louis, L. J.; Scharer, J. E.; Booske, J. H.; Armstrong, C.

1997-11-01

476

Single electron transistor in pure silicon  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As promising candidates for spin qubits, semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) have attracted tremendous research efforts. Currently most advanced progress is from GaAs QDs. Compared to GaAs, lateral QDs in 28silicon are expected to have a spin coherence time orders of magnitude longer, because 28Si has zero nuclear spin, and there is no hyperfine interaction between electron spins and nuclear spins. We have developed enhancement mode metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) single electron transistors (SETs) using pure silicon wafers with a bi-layer gated configuration. In an MOS-SET, the top gate is used to induce a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG), just as in an MOS field effect transistor. The side gates deplete the 2DEG into a QD and two point contact channels; one connects the QD to the source reservoir, and the other connects the QD to the drain reservoir. We have systematically investigated the MOS-SETs at 4.2 K, and separately in a dilution refrigerator with a base temperature of 10 mK. The data show that there is an intrinsic QD in each point contact channel due to the local potential fluctuations in these SETs. However, after scaling down the SETs, we have found that the intrinsic QDs can be removed and the electrostatically defined dots dominate the device behavior, but these devices currently only work in the many-electron regime. In order to realize single electron confinement, it is necessary to continue scaling down the device and improving the interface quality. To explore the spin dynamics in silicon, we have investigated a single intrinsic QD by applying a magnetic field perpendicular to the sample surface. The magnetic field dependence of the ground-state and excited-state energy levels of the QD mostly can be explained by the Zeeman effect, with no obvious orbital effect up to 9 T. The two-electron singlet-triplet (ST) transition is first time directly observed in a silicon QD by excitation spectroscopy. In this ST transition, electron-electron Coulomb interaction plays a significant role. The observed amplitude spectrum suggests the spin blockade effect. When the two-electron system forms a singlet state in the dot at low fields, and the injection current from the lead becomes spin-down polarized, the tunneling conductance is reduced by a factor of 8. At higher magnetic fields, due to the ST transition, the spin blockade effect is lifted and the conductance is fully recovered.

Hu, Binhui

477

A test structure for the measurement and characterization of layout-induced transistor variation  

E-print Network

Transistor scaling has enabled us to design circuits with higher performance, lower cost, and higher density; billions of transistors can now be integrated onto a single die. However, this trend also magnifies the significance ...

Chang, Albert Hsu Ting

2009-01-01

478

Graphene-on-Insulator Transistors Made Using C on Ni Chemical-Vapor Deposition  

E-print Network

Graphene transistors are made by transferring a thin graphene film grown on Ni onto an insulating SiO[subscript 2] substrate. The properties and integration of these graphene-on-insulator transistors are presented and ...

Keast, Craig L.

479

Investigation of the tunneling emitter bipolar transistor as spin-injector into silicon  

E-print Network

In this thesis is discussed the tunneling emitter bipolar transistor as a possible spin-injector into silicon. The transistor has a metallic emitter which as a spin-injector will be a ferromagnet. Spin-polarized electrons ...

Van Veenhuizen, Marc Julien

2010-01-01

480

Characterization of Schottky barrier carbon nanotube transistors and their applications to digital circuit design  

E-print Network

The difficulty in shrinking silicon transistors past a certain feature size has been acknowledged for years. Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) offer a technology with an exciting solution to the scaling issues of transistors and ...

Cline, Julia Van Meter, 1979-

2004-01-01

481

Optimization of Integrated Transistors for Very High Frequency DC-DC Converters  

E-print Network

This paper presents a method to optimize integrated lateral double-diffused MOSFET transistors for use in very high frequency (VHF, 30-300 MHz) dc-dc converters. A transistor model valid at VHF switching frequencies is ...

Sagneri, Anthony D.

482

Optimization of transistors for very high frequency dc-dc converters  

E-print Network

This document presents a method to optimize integrated LDMOS transistors for use in very high frequency (VHF, 30-300 MHz) dc-dc converters. A transistor model valid at VHF switching frequencies is developed. Device parameters ...

Perreault, David J.

483

Intermodulation characteristics of X-band IMPATT amplifiers.  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Measurement of the intermodulation products produced when two equal amplitude signals are applied to the input of an X-band IMPATT diode amplifier. A Si p(+)nn(+) IMPATT diode was operated in a double-slug-tuned reflection amplifier circuit that was tuned to provide 20 dB of small-signal gain at 9.340 GHz. The intermodulation tests consist of measurements of the magnitudes and frequencies of the amplifier output signals as a function of the input signal drive levels and frequency separations. The gain and single-frequency characteristics of the amplifier were also measured and are used along with the theoretical device and circuit admittance characteristics as a basis for explanation of the intermodulation results. A low-frequency dominance mechanism is found to exist in which the low-frequency signals are amplified more than the high-frequency signals. This mechanism becomes more significant as the amplifier drive level is increased.

Trew, R. J.; Masnari, N. A.; Haddad, G. I.

1972-01-01

484

Combination ring cavity and backward Raman waveguide amplifier  

DOEpatents

A combination regenerative ring and backward Raman waveguide amplifier and a combination regenerative ring oscillator and backward Raman waveguide amplifier which produce Raman amplification, pulse compression, and efficient energy extraction from the CO.sub.2 laser pump signal for conversion into a Stokes radiation signal. The ring cavity configuration allows the CO.sub.2 laser pump signal and Stokes signal to copropagate through the Raman waveguide amplifier. The backward Raman waveguide amplifier configuration extracts a major portion of the remaining energy from the CO.sub.2 laser pump signal for conversion to Stokes radiation. Additionally, the backward Raman amplifier configuration produces a Stokes radiation signal which has a high intensity and a short duration. Adjustment of the position of overlap of the Stokes signal and the CO.sub.2 laser pump signal in the backward Raman waveguide amplifiers alters the amount of pulse compression which can be achieved.

Kurnit, Norman A. (Santa Fe, NM)

1983-01-01

485

Characteristics of Raman amplifiers in fiber optic communication systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recently Raman amplifiers have started to attract much attention because the noise figure is smaller and it is less expensive than the EDFA. This paper simulated the characteristics of Raman amplifier by solving the coupled Raman amplifiers equations using the Runge Kutta method. The result of these simulation will be analyzed in terms of gain characteristics. The changing of the input pump power, the input signal power, and the length of Raman fiber amplifier are observed to have high influence to the gain amplifier. This paper also analyzed the noise figure as a result of light scattering in Raman amplifier. The resulting analysis are recommendations for maximum amplifications. In terms of fiber length, maximum gain, effective pump power, and noise figure.

Istianing, Dian Kusuma; Heryana, Amri; Syahriar, Ary

2012-06-01

486

Diffusion Driven Selectivity in Organic Electrochemical Transistors  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Organic Electrochemical transistors (OECTs) present unique features for their strategic combination with biomedical interfaces, simple and low voltage operation regime and sensing ability in aqueous environment, but they still lack selectivity, so that a significant effort in research is devoted to overcome this limitation. Here, we focus on the diffusion properties of molecular species in the electrolyte, which opportunely analyzed, modeled and compared to experimental data, serve as a simple and direct key factor in the recognition of species during OECT sensing. Specifically, we model the transient behavior of an OECT considering the effect of diffusion of the target species in the electrolyte. In doing so, we develop a general method that can be used to differentiate and distinguish different molecules from a complex mixture, on the basis of their diffusivity and thus mass. More importantly, the model can be realistically used to determine the physical characteristics of the transported species in a solution from a simple fitting procedure. On the basis of the obtained results, we discuss the contribution that our study could bring to OECT architecture to realize a new generation of devices with improved sensitivity, selectivity and reliability.

Copped, Nicola; Villani, Marco; Gentile, Francesco

2014-03-01

487

Transistor application of alkyl-substituted picene  

PubMed Central

Field-effect transistors (FETs) were fabricated with a thin film of 3,10-ditetradecylpicene, picene-(C14H29)2, formed using either a thermal deposition or a deposition from solution (solution process). All FETs showed p-channel normally-off characteristics. The field-effect mobility, ?, in a picene-(C14H29)2 thin-film FET with PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3 (PZT) gate dielectric reached ~21?cm2 V?1 s?1, which is the highest ? value recorded for organic thin-film FETs; the average ? value () evaluated from twelve FET devices was 14(4)?cm2 V?1 s?1. The values for picene-(C14H29)2 thin-film FETs with other gate dielectrics such as SiO2, Ta2O5, ZrO2 and HfO2 were greater than 5?cm2 V?1 s?1, and the lowest absolute threshold voltage, |Vth|, (5.2?V) was recorded with a PZT gate dielectric; the average |Vth| for PZT gate dielectric is 7(1)?V. The solution-processed picene-(C14H29)2 FET was also fabricated with an SiO2 gate dielectric, yielding ? = 3.4 10?2?cm2 V?1 s?1. These results verify the effectiveness of picene-(C14H29)2 for electronics applications. PMID:24854436

Okamoto, Hideki; Hamao, Shino; Goto, Hidenori; Sakai, Yusuke; Izumi, Masanari; Gohda, Shin; Kubozono, Yoshihiro; Eguchi, Ritsuko

2014-01-01

488

Transistor application of alkyl-substituted picene  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Field-effect transistors (FETs) were fabricated with a thin film of 3,10-ditetradecylpicene, picene-(C14H29)2, formed using either a thermal deposition or a deposition from solution (solution process). All FETs showed p-channel normally-off characteristics. The field-effect mobility, ?, in a picene-(C14H29)2 thin-film FET with PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3 (PZT) gate dielectric reached ~21 cm2 V-1 s-1, which is the highest ? value recorded for organic thin-film FETs; the average ? value () evaluated from twelve FET devices was 14(4) cm2 V-1 s-1. The values for picene-(C14H29)2 thin-film FETs with other gate dielectrics such as SiO2, Ta2O5, ZrO2 and HfO2 were greater than 5 cm2 V-1 s-1, and the lowest absolute threshold voltage, |Vth|, (5.2 V) was recorded with a PZT gate dielectric; the average |Vth| for PZT gate dielectric is 7(1) V. The solution-processed picene-(C14H29)2 FET was also fabricated with an SiO2 gate dielectric, yielding ? = 3.4 10-2 cm2 V-1 s-1. These results verify the effectiveness of picene-(C14H29)2 for electronics applications.

Okamoto, Hideki; Hamao, Shino; Goto, Hidenori; Sakai, Yusuke; Izumi, Masanari; Gohda, Shin; Kubozono, Yoshihiro; Eguchi, Ritsuko

2014-05-01

489

Contact effects in graphene nanoribbon transistors.  

PubMed

The effects of the various contact types and shapes on the performance of Schottky barrier graphene nanoribbon field-effect-transistors (GNRFETs) have been investigated using a real-space quantum transport simulator based on the NEGF approach self-consistently coupled to a three-dimensional Poisson solver for treating the electrostatics. The device channel considered is a double gate semiconducting armchair nanoribbon. The types of contacts considered are (a) a semi-infinite normal metal, (b) a semi-infinite graphene sheet, (c) finite size rectangular shape armchair graphene contacts, (d) finite size wedge shape graphene contacts, and (e) zigzag graphene nanoribbon contacts. Among these different contact types, the semi-infinite graphene sheet contacts show the worst performance because of their very low density of states around the Dirac point resulting in low transmission possibility through the Schottky barrier, both at ON and OFF states. Although all other types of contacts can have significant enhancement in I ON to I OFF ratio, the zigzag GNR contacts show promising and size invariant performance due to the metallic properties. PMID:18558785

Liang, Gengchiau; Neophytou, Neophytos; Lundstrom, Mark S; Nikonov, Dmitri E

2008-07-01

490

Advanced insulated gate bipolar transistor gate drive  

DOEpatents

A gate drive for an insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) includes a control and protection module coupled to a collector terminal of the IGBT, an optical communications module coupled to the control and protection module, a power supply module coupled to the control and protection module and an output power stage module with inputs coupled to the power supply module and the control and protection module, and outputs coupled to a gate terminal and an emitter terminal of the IGBT. The optical communications module is configured to send control signals to the control and protection module. The power supply module is configured to distribute inputted power to the control and protection module. The control and protection module outputs on/off, soft turn-off and/or soft turn-on signals to the output power stage module, which, in turn, supplies a current based on the signal(s) from the control and protection module for charging or discharging an input capacitance of the IGBT.

Short, James Evans (Monongahela, PA); West, Shawn Michael (West Mifflin, PA); Fabean, Robert J. (Donora, PA)

2009-08-04

491

High power two-stage single frequency PM fiber amplifier  

Microsoft Academic Search

We demonstrate a two-stage single frequency polarization maintaining Yb-doped fiber Amplifier at 1064 nm. The gain is 7 dB and 17.6 dB for the first and the second fiber amplifier. The output power is 17.3 W with 62.8% slope efficiency for second fiber amplifier and the polarization extinction ratio is better than 24.3 dB.

Liu Chi; Qi Yunfeng; Zhou Jun; Du Songtao; He Bing; Dong Jingxing; Wei Shirong; Lou Qihong; Wang Zhijiang

2009-01-01

492

Semiclassical particle-like description of optical amplifier noise  

Microsoft Academic Search

A semiclassical model of optical amplifier noise in terms of photon-particle description and simple calculations is developed. The active-medium amplifier is modelled as a stochastic photon multiplier, whose statistical properties are derived from well-known results about branching processes. The effects on amplifier output noise caused by random amplification of input photons and by spontaneous emission are treated separately, and it

G. Giuliani

1999-01-01

493

Pump interactions in a 100-nm bandwidth Raman amplifier  

Microsoft Academic Search

A design for a 100-nm bandwidth Raman amplifier is presented. The amplifier is pumped with eight, 130-mW lasers with wavelengths ranging from 1416 to 1502 nm. The peak-to-peak gain ripple is 1.1 dB. A new model was developed for this design that includes pump-to-pump and signal-to-signal interactions in addition to double Rayleigh scattering and amplified spontaneous emission. An understanding of

Howard Kidorf; Karsten Rottwitt; Morten Nissov; Matthew Ma; Eric Rabarijaona

1999-01-01

494

Amplification de puissance en rgime non linaire et en hautes frquences transistor MOS  

E-print Network

321 Amplification de puissance en régime non linéaire et en hautes fréquences à transistor MOS S. 2014 Un modèle mathématique du transistor V.MOS prenant en compte les effets de canal court et les non puissance (bande V.H.F.) à transistors MOS. Abstract. 2014 A mathematical model of V.MOS transistor, taking

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

495

Design and performance of SOI pass transistors for 1 Gbit DRAMs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Both partially and fully depleted NMOS pass transistors were designed and fabricated on SIMOX substrates. Using a p+ gate design, V th=1 V and Ioff<1 fA\\/?m was achieved on ultra thin film SOI pass transistors. With less than 1 fA\\/?m off-state leakage, the SOI pass transistor provides excellent DRAM cell retention time and low stand-by power. The pass transistor's junction

Yin Hu; C. W. Teng; T. W. Houston; K. Joyner; T. J. Aton

1996-01-01

496

Self-heating in high performance bipolar transistors fabricated on SOI substrates  

Microsoft Academic Search

The effects of self-heating on the characteristics of bipolar transistors fabricated on silicon-on-insulator (SOI) substrates are discussed through measurements and simulations. It is shown that the SOI substrate's buried oxide affects the thermal characteristics of the transistor. A three fold increase in thermal resistivity is observed on transistors fabricated on SOI substrates over identical transistors fabricated on regular silicon substrates.

P. R. Ganci; J.-J. J. Hajjar; T. Clark; P. Humphries; J. Lapham; D. Buss

1992-01-01

497

Temperature Tolerant Evolvable Systems Utilizing FPGA Boards and Bias-Controlled Amplifiers  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

Space missions often require radiation and extreme-temperature hardened electronics to survive the harsh environments beyond Earth's atmosphere. Traditional approaches to preserve electronics incorporate shielding, insulation and redundancy at the expense of power and weight. However, a novel way of bypassing these problems is the concept of evolutionary hardware. A reconfigurable device, consisting of several switches interconnected with analog/digital parts, is controlled by an evolutionary processor (EP). When the EP detects degradation in the circuit it sends signals to reconfigure the switches, thus forming a new circuit with the desired output. This concept has been developed since the mid-l990s, but one problem remains-the EP cannot degrade substantially. For this reason, extensive testing at extreme temperatures (-180 to 120 C) has been done on devices found on FPGA boards (taking the role of the EP), such as the Analog to Digital and the Digital to Analog Converter. The EP is used in conjunction with a bias-controlled amplifier and a new prototype relay board, which is interconnected with 6 G4-FETs, a tri-input transistor-like element developed at JPL. The greatest improvements to be made lie in the reconfigurable device, so future design and testing of the G4-FET chip is required.

Kumar, Nikhil R.

2005-01-01

498

A C-Band Internally-Matched High Efficiency GaN Power Amplifier  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a design and realization of a high efficiency C-Band (5.2 GHz5.8 GHz) internally-matched gallium nitride (GaN) power amplifier (PA). To reduce power dissipation and to achieve high efficiency, both input and output matching networks, along with 2nd-harmonic modulation circuits, are designed accurately according to the source and load optimum impedances extracted by source-pull and load-pull measurements. The PA realizes an excellent rf performance under a pulsed condition, demonstrating a maximum output power of 52.2dBm (164 W) with at least 13.5dB gain in the frequency range from 5.2 GHz to 5.8 GHz (10% relative bandwidth). At the same time, a power-added efficiency (PAE) of 69.4% is observed at 5.6 GHz and over 65.0% throughout the whole bandwidth. The PAE is the state-of-art performance for C-band GaN high-electron-mobility transistor PA with such high output power, to the best of our knowledge.

Ma, Xiao-Hua; Wei, Jia-Xing; Cao, Meng-Yi; Lu, Yang; Zhao, Bo-Chao; Dong, Liang; Wang, Yi; Hao, Yue

2014-10-01

499

Ring cavity for a Raman capillary waveguide amplifier  

DOEpatents

Disclosed is a regenerative ring amplifier and regenerative ring oscillator which function to feed back a portion of the Stokes signal to complete the ring cavity. The ring cavity configuration allows the CO[sub 2] laser pump signal and Stokes signal to copropagate through the Raman capillary waveguide amplifier. A Raman capillary waveguide amplifier is also provided in the return leg of the ring cavity to increase gain without increasing the round trip time. Additionally, the ring cavity can be designed such that the amplifier Stokes signal is synchronous with the mode-locked spikes of the incoming CO[sub 2] laser pump signal. 6 figs.

Kurnit, N.A.

1983-07-19

500

Ring cavity for a raman capillary waveguide amplifier  

DOEpatents

A regenerative ring amplifier and regenerative ring oscillator which function to feed back a portion of the Stokes signal to complete the ring cavity. The ring cavity configuration allows the CO.sub.2 laser pump signal and Stokes signal to copropagate through the Raman capillary waveguide amplifier. A Raman capillary waveguide amplifier is also provided in the return leg of the ring cavity to increase gain without increasing the round trip time. Additionally, the ring cavity can be designed such that the amplifier Stokes signal is synchronous with the mode-locked spikes of the incoming CO.sub.2 laser pump signal.

Kurnit, Norman A. (Santa Fe, NM)

1983-07-19