Science.gov

Sample records for transistor amplifiers

  1. Metatronic transistor amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chettiar, Uday K.; Engheta, Nader

    2015-10-01

    Utilizing the notion of metamaterials, in recent years the concept of a circuit and lumped circuit elements have been extended to the optical domains, providing the paradigm of optical metatronics, i.e., metamaterial-inspired optical nanocircuitry, as a powerful tool for design and study of more complex systems at the nanoscale. In this paper we present a design for a new metatronic element, namely, a metatronic transistor that functions as an amplifier. As shown by our analytical and numerical paper here, this metatronic transistor provides gain as well as isolation between the input and output ports of such two-port device. The cascadability and fan-out aspects of this element are also explored.

  2. Quantum noise minimization in transistor amplifiers

    E-print Network

    U. Gavish; B. Yurke; Y. Imry

    2006-04-10

    General quantum restrictions on the noise performance of linear transistor amplifiers are used to identify the region in parameter space where the quantum-limited performance is achievable and to construct a practical procedure for approaching it experimentally using only the knowledge of directly measurable quantities: the gain, (differential) conductance and the output noise. A specific example of resonant barrier transistors is discussed.

  3. Simple way of teaching transistor amplifiers Bogdan M. Wilamowski

    E-print Network

    Wilamowski, Bogdan Maciej

    Simple way of teaching transistor amplifiers Bogdan M. Wilamowski University of Wyoming Abstract for transistor amplifiers [1][2][3][4]. They do relatively well if a common source (emitter) is used, but they are lost when other configurations are considered. In the paper, a simple way for analysis of transistor

  4. Characterization of a Common-Source Amplifier Using Ferroelectric Transistors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, Mitchell; Sayyah, Rana; MacLeond, Todd C.; Ho, Pat D.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents empirical data that was collected through experiments using a FeFET in the established common-source amplifier circuit. The unique behavior of the FeFET lends itself to interesting and useful operation in this widely used common-source amplifier. The paper examines the effect of using a ferroelectric transistor for the amplifier. It also examines the effects of varying load resistance, biasing, and input voltages on the output signal and gives several examples of the output of the amplifier for a given input. The difference between a commonsource amplifier using a ferroelectric transistor and that using a MOSFET is addressed.

  5. InP Heterojunction Bipolar Transistor Amplifiers to 255 GHz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radisic, Vesna; Sawdai, Donald; Scott, Dennis; Deal, William; Dang, Linh; Li, Danny; Cavus, Abdullah; To, Richard; Lai, Richard

    2009-01-01

    Two single-stage InP heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT) amplifiers operate at 184 and 255 GHz, using Northrop Grumman Corporation s InP HBT MMIC (monolithic microwave integrated circuit) technology. At the time of this reporting, these are reported to be the highest HBT amplifiers ever created. The purpose of the amplifier design is to evaluate the technology capability for high-frequency designs and verify the model for future development work.

  6. Characterization of a Common-Gate Amplifier Using Ferroelectric Transistors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, Mitchell; Sayyah, Rana; MacLeod, Todd C.; Ho, Fat D.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the empirical data collected through experiments performed using a FeFET in the common-gate amplifier circuit is presented. The FeFET common-gate amplifier was characterized by varying all parameters in the circuit, such as load resistance, biasing of the transistor, and input voltages. Due to the polarization of the ferroelectric layer, the particular behavior of the FeFET common-gate amplifier presents interesting results. Furthermore, the differences between a FeFET common-gate amplifier and a MOSFET common-gate amplifier are examined.

  7. Ferroelectric Field-Effect Transistor Differential Amplifier Circuit Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Thomas A.; MacLeod, Todd C.; Ho, Fat D.

    2008-01-01

    There has been considerable research investigating the Ferroelectric Field-Effect Transistor (FeFET) in memory circuits. However, very little research has been performed in applying the FeFET to analog circuits. This paper investigates the use of FeFETs in a common analog circuit, the differential amplifier. The two input Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor (MOS) transistors in a general MOS differential amplifier circuit are replaced with FeFETs. Resistors are used in place of the other three MOS transistors. The FeFET model used in the analysis has been previously reported and was based on experimental device data. Because of the FeFET hysteresis, the FeFET differential amplifier has four different operating modes depending on whether the FeFETs are positively or negatively polarized. The FeFET differential amplifier operation in the different modes was analyzed by calculating the amplifier voltage transfer and gain characteristics shown in figures 2 through 5. Comparisons were made between the FeFET differential amplifier and the standard MOS differential amplifier. Possible applications and benefits of the FeFET differential amplifier are discussed.

  8. Triple-Mode Single-Transistor Graphene Amplifier and Its Applications

    E-print Network

    Triple-Mode Single-Transistor Graphene Amplifier and Its Applications Xuebei Yang,, Guanxiong Liu University, Houston, Texas 77005, United States. These authors contributed equally to this work. T he single-transistor amplifier, which consists of one transistor and one re- sistor, is one of the most basic and most important

  9. 18.1 Introduction The traditional approach to the small-signal analysis of transistor amplifiers employs the transistor

    E-print Network

    Wilamowski, Bogdan Maciej

    18-1 18.1 Introduction The traditional approach to the small-signal analysis of transistor amplifiers employs the transistor models with dependent sources, illustrated in Figure 18.1, for both the MOS and BJT devices. In this chapter, techniques for the analysis of transistor circuits will be demonstrated

  10. Triple-mode single-transistor graphene amplifier and its applications.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xuebei; Liu, Guanxiong; Balandin, Alexander A; Mohanram, Kartik

    2010-10-26

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a triple-mode single-transistor graphene amplifier utilizing a three-terminal back-gated single-layer graphene transistor. The ambipolar nature of electronic transport in graphene transistors leads to increased amplifier functionality as compared to amplifiers built with unipolar semiconductor devices. The ambipolar graphene transistors can be configured as n-type, p-type, or hybrid-type by changing the gate bias. As a result, the single-transistor graphene amplifier can operate in the common-source, common-drain, or frequency multiplication mode, respectively. This in-field controllability of the single-transistor graphene amplifier can be used to realize the modulation necessary for phase shift keying and frequency shift keying, which are widely used in wireless applications. It also offers new opportunities for designing analog circuits with simpler structure and higher integration densities for communications applications. PMID:20939515

  11. Imperial College London EEE 1L4 Autumn 2009 E2.2 Analogue Electronics More transistor amplifiers

    E-print Network

    Papavassiliou, Christos

    Imperial College London ­ EEE 1L4 Autumn 2009 E2.2 Analogue Electronics More transistor amplifiers Aims: · Study the following single transistor amplifiers: ­ Emitter degenerated Common Emitter ­ Common Base ­ Common Collector · Study the single transistor MOSFET amplifiers #12;Imperial College London

  12. E-Learning System for Design and Construction of Amplifier Using Transistors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takemura, Atsushi

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel e-Learning system for the comprehensive understanding of electronic circuits with transistors. The proposed e-Learning system allows users to learn a wide range of topics, encompassing circuit theories, design, construction, and measurement. Given the fact that the amplifiers with transistors are an integral part of…

  13. A high-performance cryogenic amplifier based on a radio-frequency single electron transistor

    E-print Network

    A high-performance cryogenic amplifier based on a radio-frequency single electron transistor K, Sweden Received 23 May 2002; accepted 24 October 2002 We demonstrate a high-performance cryogenic-chip integrability, make it a good candidate for a general-purpose cryogenic amplifier for high impedance sources. We

  14. Modeling a Common-Source Amplifier Using a Ferroelectric Transistor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sayyah, Rana; Hunt, Mitchell; MacLeond, Todd C.; Ho, Fat D.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a mathematical model characterizing the behavior of a common-source amplifier using a FeFET. The model is based on empirical data and incorporates several variables that affect the output, including frequency, load resistance, and gate-to-source voltage. Since the common-source amplifier is the most widely used amplifier in MOS technology, understanding and modeling the behavior of the FeFET-based common-source amplifier will help in the integration of FeFETs into many circuits.

  15. Cryogenic, low-noise high electron mobility transistor amplifiers for the Deep Space Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bautista, J. J.

    1993-01-01

    The rapid advances recently achieved by cryogenically cooled high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) low-noise amplifiers (LNA's) in the 1- to 10-GHz range are making them extremely competitive with maser amplifiers. In order to address future spacecraft navigation, telemetry, radar, and radio science needs, the Deep Space Network is investing both maser and HEMT amplifiers for its Ka-band (32-GHz) downlink capability. This article describes the current state cryogenic HEMT LNA development at Ka-band for the DSN. Noise performance results at S-band (2.3 GHz) and X-band (8.5 GHz) for HEMT's and masers are included for completeness.

  16. Field Effect Transistor /FET/ circuit for variable gin amplifiers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spaid, G. H.

    1969-01-01

    Amplifier circuit using two FETs combines improved input and output impedances with relatively large signal handling capability and an immunity from adverse effects of automatic gain control. Circuit has sources and drains in parallel plus a resistive divider for signal and bias to either of the gate terminals.

  17. Measurements of the Low Frequency Gain Fluctuations of a 30 GHz High-Electron-Mobility-Transistor Cryogenic Amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jarosik, Norman

    1994-01-01

    Low frequency gain fluctuations of a 30 GHz cryogenic HEMT amplifier have been measured with the input of the amplifier connected to a 15 K load. Effects of fluctuations of other components of the test set-up were eliminated by use of a power-power correlation technique. Strong correlation between output power fluctuations of the amplifier and drain current fluctuations of the transistors comprising the amplifier are observed. The existence of these correlations introduces the possibility of regressing some of the excess noise from the HEMT amplifier's output using the measured drain currents.

  18. Graphene Distributed Amplifiers: Generating Desirable Gain for Graphene Field-Effect Transistors

    PubMed Central

    Lyu, Hongming; Lu, Qi; Huang, Yilin; Ma, Teng; Zhang, Jinyu; Wu, Xiaoming; Yu, Zhiping; Ren, Wencai; Cheng, Hui-Ming; Wu, Huaqiang; Qian, He

    2015-01-01

    Ever since its discovery, graphene bears great expectations in high frequency electronics due to its irreplaceably high carrier mobility. However, it has long been blamed for the weakness in generating gains, which seriously limits its pace of development. Distributed amplification, on the other hand, has successfully been used in conventional semiconductors to increase the amplifiers’ gain-bandwidth product. In this paper, distributed amplification is first applied to graphene. Transmission lines phase-synchronize paralleled graphene field-effect transistors (GFETs), combining the gain of each stage in an additive manner. Simulations were based on fabricated GFETs whose fT ranged from 8.5?GHz to 10.5?GHz and fmax from 12?GHz to 14?GHz. A simulated four-stage graphene distributed amplifier achieved up to 4?dB gain and 3.5?GHz bandwidth, which could be realized with future IC processes. A PCB level graphene distributed amplifier was fabricated as a proof of circuit concept. PMID:26634442

  19. Graphene Distributed Amplifiers: Generating Desirable Gain for Graphene Field-Effect Transistors.

    PubMed

    Lyu, Hongming; Lu, Qi; Huang, Yilin; Ma, Teng; Zhang, Jinyu; Wu, Xiaoming; Yu, Zhiping; Ren, Wencai; Cheng, Hui-Ming; Wu, Huaqiang; Qian, He

    2015-01-01

    Ever since its discovery, graphene bears great expectations in high frequency electronics due to its irreplaceably high carrier mobility. However, it has long been blamed for the weakness in generating gains, which seriously limits its pace of development. Distributed amplification, on the other hand, has successfully been used in conventional semiconductors to increase the amplifiers' gain-bandwidth product. In this paper, distributed amplification is first applied to graphene. Transmission lines phase-synchronize paralleled graphene field-effect transistors (GFETs), combining the gain of each stage in an additive manner. Simulations were based on fabricated GFETs whose fT ranged from 8.5?GHz to 10.5?GHz and fmax from 12?GHz to 14?GHz. A simulated four-stage graphene distributed amplifier achieved up to 4?dB gain and 3.5?GHz bandwidth, which could be realized with future IC processes. A PCB level graphene distributed amplifier was fabricated as a proof of circuit concept. PMID:26634442

  20. A Short Study on the Validity of Miller's Theorem Applied to Transistor Amplifier High-Frequency Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schubert, T. F., Jr.; Kim, E. M.

    2009-01-01

    The use of Miller's Theorem in the determination of the high-frequency cutoff frequency of transistor amplifiers was recently challenged by a paper published in this TRANSACTIONS. Unfortunately, that paper provided no simulation or experimental results to bring credence to the challenge or to validate the alternate method of determination…

  1. C-band superconductor/semiconductor hybrid field-effect transistor amplifier on a LaAlO3 substrate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nahra, J. J.; Bhasin, K. B.; Toncich, S. S.; Subramanyam, G.; Kapoor, V. J.

    1992-01-01

    A single-stage C-band superconductor/semiconductor hybrid field-effect transistor amplifier was designed, fabricated, and tested at 77 K. The large area (1 inch x 0.5 inches) high temperature superconducting Tl-Ba-Ca-Cu-O (TBCCO) thin film was rf magnetron sputtered onto a LaAlO3 substrate. The film had a transition temperature of about 92 K after it was patterned and etched. The amplifier showed a gain of 6 dB and a 3 dB bandwidth of 100 MHz centered at 7.9 GHz. An identical gold amplifier circuit was tested at 77 K, and these results are compared with those from the hybrid amplifier.

  2. Design of an Auto-zeroed, Differential, Organic Thin-film Field-effect Transistor Amplifier for Sensor Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Binkley, David M.; Verma, Nikhil; Crawford, Robert L.; Brandon, Erik; Jackson, Thomas N.

    2004-01-01

    Organic strain gauge and other sensors require high-gain, precision dc amplification to process their low-level output signals. Ideally, amplifiers would be fabricated using organic thin-film field-effect transistors (OTFT's) adjacent to the sensors. However, OTFT amplifiers exhibit low gain and high input-referred dc offsets that must be effectively managed. This paper presents a four-stage, cascaded differential OTFT amplifier utilizing switched capacitor auto-zeroing. Each stage provides a nominal voltage gain of four through a differential pair driving low-impedance active loads, which provide common-mode output voltage control. p-type pentacence OTFT's are used for the amplifier devices and auto-zero switches. Simulations indicate the amplifier provides a nominal voltage gain of 280 V/V and effectively amplifies a 1-mV dc signal in the presence of 500-mV amplifier input-referred dc offset voltages. Future work could include the addition of digital gain calibration and offset correction of residual offsets associated with charge injection imbalance in the differential circuits.

  3. A self-amplified transistor immunosensor under dual gate operation: highly sensitive detection of hepatitis B surface antigen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, I.-K.; Jeun, M.; Jang, H.-J.; Cho, W.-J.; Lee, K. H.

    2015-10-01

    Ion-sensitive field-effect transistors (ISFETs), although they have attracted considerable attention as effective immunosensors, have still not been adopted for practical applications owing to several problems: (1) the poor sensitivity caused by the short Debye screening length in media with high ion concentration, (2) time-consuming preconditioning processes for achieving the highly-diluted media, and (3) the low durability caused by undesirable ions such as sodium chloride in the media. Here, we propose a highly sensitive immunosensor based on a self-amplified transistor under dual gate operation (immuno-DG ISFET) for the detection of hepatitis B surface antigen. To address the challenges in current ISFET-based immunosensors, we have enhanced the sensitivity of an immunosensor by precisely tailoring the nanostructure of the transistor. In the pH sensing test, the immuno-DG ISFET showed superior sensitivity (2085.53 mV per pH) to both standard ISFET under single gate operation (58.88 mV per pH) and DG ISFET with a non-tailored transistor (381.14 mV per pH). Moreover, concerning the detection of hepatitis B surface antigens (HBsAg) using the immuno-DG ISFET, we have successfully detected trace amounts of HBsAg (22.5 fg mL-1) in a non-diluted 1× PBS medium with a high sensitivity of 690 mV. Our results demonstrate that the proposed immuno-DG ISFET can be a biosensor platform for practical use in the diagnosis of various diseases.Ion-sensitive field-effect transistors (ISFETs), although they have attracted considerable attention as effective immunosensors, have still not been adopted for practical applications owing to several problems: (1) the poor sensitivity caused by the short Debye screening length in media with high ion concentration, (2) time-consuming preconditioning processes for achieving the highly-diluted media, and (3) the low durability caused by undesirable ions such as sodium chloride in the media. Here, we propose a highly sensitive immunosensor based on a self-amplified transistor under dual gate operation (immuno-DG ISFET) for the detection of hepatitis B surface antigen. To address the challenges in current ISFET-based immunosensors, we have enhanced the sensitivity of an immunosensor by precisely tailoring the nanostructure of the transistor. In the pH sensing test, the immuno-DG ISFET showed superior sensitivity (2085.53 mV per pH) to both standard ISFET under single gate operation (58.88 mV per pH) and DG ISFET with a non-tailored transistor (381.14 mV per pH). Moreover, concerning the detection of hepatitis B surface antigens (HBsAg) using the immuno-DG ISFET, we have successfully detected trace amounts of HBsAg (22.5 fg mL-1) in a non-diluted 1× PBS medium with a high sensitivity of 690 mV. Our results demonstrate that the proposed immuno-DG ISFET can be a biosensor platform for practical use in the diagnosis of various diseases. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Material preparation, surface functionalization and anti-HBsAg immobilization. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr03146j

  4. A Mathematical Model of a Simple Amplifier Using a Ferroelectric Transistor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sayyah, Rana; Hunt, Mitchell; MacLeod, Todd C.; Ho, Fat D.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a mathematical model characterizing the behavior of a simple amplifier using a FeFET. The model is based on empirical data and incorporates several variables that affect the output, including frequency, load resistance, and gate-to-source voltage. Since the amplifier is the basis of many circuit configurations, a mathematical model that describes the behavior of a FeFET-based amplifier will help in the integration of FeFETs into many other circuits.

  5. RF Single Electron Transistor Readout Amplifiers for Superconducting Astronomical Detectors for X-Ray to Sub-mm Wavelengths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevenson, Thomas; Aassime, Abdelhanin; Delsing, Per; Frunzio, Luigi; Li, Li-Qun; Prober, Daniel; Schoelkopf, Robert; Segall, Ken; Wilson, Chris; Stahle, Carl

    2000-01-01

    We report progress on using a new type of amplifier, the Radio-Frequency Single-Electron Transistor (RF-SET), to develop multi-channel sensor readout systems for fast and sensitive readout of high impedance cryogenic photodetectors such as Superconducting Tunnel Junctions and Single Quasiparticle Photon Counters. Although cryogenic, these detectors are desirable because of capabilities not other-wise attainable. However, high impedances and low output levels make low-noise, high-speed readouts challenging, and large format arrays would be facilitated by compact, low-power, on-chip integrated amplifiers. Well-suited for this application are RF-SETs, very high performance electrometers which use an rf readout technique to provide 100 MHz bandwidth. Small size, low power, and cryogenic operation allow direct integration with detectors, and using multiple rf carrier frequencies permits simultaneous readout of 20-50 amplifiers with a common electrical connection. We describe both the first 2-channel demonstration of this wavelength division multiplexing technique for RF-SETs, and Charge-Locked-Loop operation with 100 kHz of closed-loop bandwidth.

  6. Mathematical Models of the Common-Source and Common-Gate Amplifiers using a Metal-Ferroelectric-Semiconductor Field effect Transistor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, Mitchell; Sayyah, Rana; Mitchell, Cody; Laws, Crystal; MacLeod, Todd C.; Ho, Fat D.

    2013-01-01

    Mathematical models of the common-source and common-gate amplifiers using metal-ferroelectric- semiconductor field effect transistors (MOSFETs) are developed in this paper. The models are compared against data collected with MOSFETs of varying channel lengths and widths, and circuit parameters such as biasing conditions are varied as well. Considerations are made for the capacitance formed by the ferroelectric layer present between the gate and substrate of the transistors. Comparisons between the modeled and measured data are presented in depth as well as differences and advantages as compared to the performance of each circuit using a MOSFET.

  7. Extended Characterization of the Common-Source and Common-Gate Amplifiers using a Metal-Ferroelectric-Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, Mitchell; Sayyah, Rana; Mitchell, Cody; Laws, Crystal; MacLeod, Todd C.; Ho, Fat D.

    2013-01-01

    Collected data for both common-source and common-gate amplifiers is presented in this paper. Characterizations of the two amplifier circuits using metal-ferroelectric-semiconductor field effect transistors (MFSFETs) are developed with wider input frequency ranges and varying device sizes compared to earlier characterizations. The effects of the ferroelectric layer's capacitance and variation load, quiescent point, or input signal on each circuit are discussed. Comparisons between the MFSFET and MOSFET circuit operation and performance are discussed at length as well as applications and advantages for the MFSFETs.

  8. Amplifier Distortion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keeports, David

    2006-12-01

    By definition, a high fidelity amplifier's instantaneous output voltage is directly proportional to its instantaneous input voltage. While high fidelity is generally valued in the amplification of recorded music, nonlinearity, also known as distortion, is desirable in the amplification of some musical instruments. In particular, guitar amplifiers exploit nonlinearity to increase both the harmonic content and sustain of a guitar's sound. I will discuss how both modifications in sound result from saturation of triode tubes and transistors. Additionally, I will describe the difference in the symmetry of saturation curves for transistors and tubes and the reason why tube guitar amplifiers are generally considered to be superior to solid-state amplifiers. Finally, I will discuss attempts to use solid-state electronics to replicate the sound of tube amplifiers.

  9. Amplify Interest in STS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chiappetta, Eugene L; Mays, John D.

    1992-01-01

    Presents activities in which students construct simple crystal radio sets and amplifiers out of diodes, transistors, and integrated circuits. Provides conceptual background, materials needed, instructions, diagrams, and classroom applications. (MDH)

  10. Gyrator employing field effect transistors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hochmair, E. S. (inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A gyrator circuit of the conventional configuration of two amplifiers in a circular loop, one producing zero phase shift and the other producing 180 deg phase reversal is examined. All active elements are MOS field effect transistors. Each amplifier comprises a differential amplifier configuration with current limiting transistor, followed by an output transistor in cascode configuration, and two load transistors of opposite conductivity type from the other transistors. A voltage divider control circuit comprises a series string of transistors with a central voltage input to provide control, with locations on the amplifiers receiving reference voltages by connection to appropriate points on the divider. The circuit produces excellent response and is well suited for fabrication by integrated circuits.

  11. High Power SiGe X-Band (8-10 GHz) Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors and Amplifiers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ma, Zhenqiang; Jiang, Ningyue; Ponchak, George E.; Alterovitz, Samuel A.

    2005-01-01

    Limited by increased parasitics and thermal effects as the device size becomes large, current commercial SiGe power HBTs are difficult to operate at X-band (8-12 GHz) with adequate power added efficiencies at high power levels. We found that, by changing the heterostructure and doping profile of SiGe HBTs, their power gain can be significantly improved without resorting to substantial lateral scaling. Furthermore, employing a common-base configuration with proper doping profile instead of a common-emitter configuration improves the power gain characteristics of SiGe HBTs, which thus permits these devices to be efficiently operated at X-band. In this paper, we report the results of SiGe power HBTs and MMIC power amplifiers operating at 8-10 GHz. At 10 GHz, 22.5 dBm (178 mW) RF output power with concurrent gain of 7.32 dB is measured at the peak power-added efficiency of 20.0% and the maximum RF output power of 24.0 dBm (250 mW) is achieved from a 20 emitter finger SiGe power HBT. Demonstration of single-stage X-band medium-power linear MMIC power amplifier is also realized at 8 GHz. Employing a 10-emitter finger SiGe HBT and on-chip input and output matching passive components, a linear gain of 9.7 dB, a maximum output power of 23.4 dBm and peak power added efficiency of 16% is achieved from the power amplifier. The MMIC exhibits very low distortion with third order intermodulation (IM) suppression C/I of -13 dBc at output power of 21.2 dBm and over 20dBm third order output intercept point (OIP3).

  12. Cross-differential amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hajimiri, Seyed-Ali (Inventor); Kee, Scott D. (Inventor); Aoki, Ichiro (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A cross-differential amplifier is provided. The cross-differential amplifier includes an inductor connected to a direct current power source at a first terminal. A first and second switch, such as transistors, are connected to the inductor at a second terminal. A first and second amplifier are connected at their supply terminals to the first and second switch. The first and second switches are operated to commutate the inductor between the amplifiers so as to provide an amplified signal while limiting the ripple voltage on the inductor and thus limiting the maximum voltage imposed across the amplifiers and switches.

  13. Cross-differential amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hajimiri, Seyed-Ali (Inventor); Kee, Scott D. (Inventor); Aoki, Ichiro (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A cross-differential amplifier is provided. The cross-differential amplifier includes an inductor connected to a direct current power source at a first terminal. A first and second switch, such as transistors, are connected to the inductor at a second terminal. A first and second amplifier are connected at their supply terminals to the first and second switch. The first and second switches are operated to commutate the inductor between the amplifiers so as to provide an amplified signal while limiting the ripple voltage on the inductor and thus limiting the maximum voltage imposed across the amplifiers and switches.

  14. Cross-differential amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hajimiri, Seyed-Ali (Inventor); Kee, Scott D. (Inventor); Aoki, Ichiro (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A cross-differential amplifier is provided. The cross-differential amplifier includes an inductor connected to a direct current power source at a first terminal. A first and second switch, such as transistors, are connected to the inductor at a second terminal. A first and second amplifier are connected at their supply terminals to the first and second switch. The first and second switches are operated to commutate the inductor between the amplifiers so as to provide an amplified signal while limiting the ripple voltage on the inductor and thus limiting the maximum voltage imposed across the amplifiers and switches.

  15. Cross-differential amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hajimiri, Seyed-Ali (Inventor); Kee, Scott D. (Inventor); Aoki, Ichiro (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A cross-differential amplifier is provided. The cross-differential amplifier includes an inductor connected to a direct current power source at a first terminal. A first and second switch, such as transistors, are connected to the inductor at a second terminal. A first and second amplifier are connected at their supply terminals to the first and second switch. The first and second switches are operated to commutate the inductor between the amplifiers so as to provide an amplified signal while limiting the ripple voltage on the inductor and thus limiting the maximum voltage imposed across the amplifiers and switches.

  16. Transistor as a Rectifier

    E-print Network

    Raju Baddi

    2013-04-20

    Transistor is a three terminal semiconductor device normally used as an amplifier or as a switch. Here the alternating current (a.c) rectifying property of the transistor is considered. The ordinary silicon diode exhibits a voltage drop of ~0.6V across its terminals. In this article it is shown that the transistor can be used to build a diode or rectify low current a.c (~mA) with a voltage drop of ~0.03V. This voltage is ~20 times smaller than the silicon diode. This article gives the half-wave and full-wave transistor rectifier configurations along with some applications to justify their usefulness.

  17. High stability amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, W. A.; Reinhardt, V. S. (inventors)

    1983-01-01

    An electrical RF signal amplifier for providing high temperature stability and RF isolation and comprised of an integrated circuit voltage regulator, a single transistor, and an integrated circuit operational amplifier mounted on a circuit board such that passive circuit elements are located on side of the circuit board while the active circuit elements are located on the other side is described. The active circuit elements are embedded in a common heat sink so that a common temperature reference is provided for changes in ambient temperature. The single transistor and operational amplifier are connected together to form a feedback amplifier powered from the voltage regulator with transistor implementing primarily the desired signal gain while the operational amplifier implements signal isolation. Further RF isolation is provided by the voltage regulator which inhibits cross-talk from other like amplifiers powered from a common power supply. Input and output terminals consisting of coaxial connectors are located on the sides of a housing in which all the circuit components and heat sink are located.

  18. John Bardeen and transistor physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huff, Howard R.

    2001-01-01

    John Bardeen and Walter Brattain invented the point-contact semiconductor amplifier (transistor action) in polycrystalline germanium (also observed in polycrystalline silicon) on Dec. 15, 1947, for which they received a patent on Oct. 3, 1950. Bill Shockley was not a co-patent holder on Bardeen and Brattain's point-contact semiconductor amplifier patent since Julius Lilienfeld had already received a patent in 1930 for what would have been Shockley's contribution; namely, the field-effect methodology. Shockley received patents for both his minority-carrier injection concept and junction transistor theory, however, and deservedly shared the Nobel prize with Bardeen and Brattain for his seminal contributions of injection, p-n junction theory and junction transistor theory. We will review the events leading up to the invention of Bardeen and Brattain's point-contact semiconductor amplifier during the magic month of November 17-December 16, 1947 and the invention of Shockley's junction semiconductor amplifier during his magic month of December 24, 1947-January 23, 1948. It was during the course of Bardeen and Brattain's research in November, 1947 that Bardeen also patented the essence of the MOS transistor, wherein the induced minority carriers were confined to the inversion layer enroute to the collector. C. T. Sah has described this device as a sourceless MOS transistor. Indeed, John Bardeen, co-inventor of the point-contact semiconductor amplifier and inventor of the MOS transistor, may rightly be called the father of modern electronics.

  19. High temperature current mirror amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Patterson, III, Raymond B. (Melbourne, FL)

    1984-05-22

    A high temperature current mirror amplifier having biasing means in the transdiode connection of the input transistor for producing a voltage to maintain the base-collector junction reversed-biased and a current means for maintaining a current through the biasing means at high temperatures so that the base-collector junction of the input transistor remained reversed-biased. For accuracy, a second current mirror is provided with a biasing means and current means on the input leg.

  20. RF breakdown effects in microwave power amplifiers

    E-print Network

    Arumilli, Gautham Venkat

    2007-01-01

    Electrical stresses in the transistors of high-efficiency switching power amplifiers can lead to hot-electron-induced "breakdown" in these devices. This thesis explores issues related to breakdown in the Transcom TC2571 ...

  1. technologie transistor.

    E-print Network

    Hivert, Florent

    Éléments de technologie Les circuits intégrées c-MOS. L'élément de base est le transistor. Deux types de transistors complémentaires n-MOS et p-MOS. Avantages des c-MOS : #21; très grande intégration des impuretés. - plus récement : bombardement ionique. 2 #12; Transistor n-MOS (Metal

  2. Cryogenic MMIC Low Noise Amplifiers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinreb, S.; Gaier, T.; Fernandez, J.; Erickson, N.; Wielgus, J.

    2000-01-01

    Monolithic (MMIC) and discrete transistor (MIC) low noise amplifiers are compared on the basis of performance, cost, and reliability. The need for cryogenic LNA's for future large microwave arrays for radio astronomy is briefly discussed and data is presented on a prototype LNA for the 1 to 10 GZH range along with a very wideband LNA for the 1 to 60 GHz range.

  3. Design and Test of a Low Noise Amplifier

    E-print Network

    Hebbeker, Thomas

    Design and Test of a Low Noise Amplifier for the Auger Radio Detector von Eug`ene Antoine Maurice Preamplifier Theory 35 5.1 Bipolar Transistor in an Emitter Circuit as Amplifier . . . . . . . . . 35 5.2 Linear and Non-Linear Amplifiers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 5.3 Transmission Line Theory

  4. Ion bipolar junction transistors

    PubMed Central

    Tybrandt, Klas; Larsson, Karin C.; Richter-Dahlfors, Agneta; Berggren, Magnus

    2010-01-01

    Dynamic control of chemical microenvironments is essential for continued development in numerous fields of life sciences. Such control could be achieved with active chemical circuits for delivery of ions and biomolecules. As the basis for such circuitry, we report a solid-state ion bipolar junction transistor (IBJT) based on conducting polymers and thin films of anion- and cation-selective membranes. The IBJT is the ionic analogue to the conventional semiconductor BJT and is manufactured using standard microfabrication techniques. Transistor characteristics along with a model describing the principle of operation, in which an anionic base current amplifies a cationic collector current, are presented. By employing the IBJT as a bioelectronic circuit element for delivery of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, its efficacy in modulating neuronal cell signaling is demonstrated. PMID:20479274

  5. High temperature current mirror amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Patterson, R.B. III.

    1984-05-22

    Disclosed is a high temperature current mirror amplifier having biasing means in the transdiode connection of the input transistor for producing a voltage to maintain the base-collector junction reversed-biased and a current means for maintaining a current through the biasing means at high temperatures so that the base-collector junction of the input transistor remained reversed-biased. For accuracy, a second current mirror is provided with a biasing means and current means on the input leg. 2 figs.

  6. Imperial College London EEE 1L6 Autumn 2009 E2.2 Analogue Electronics Multiple stage amplifiers

    E-print Network

    Papavassiliou, Christos

    Imperial College London ­ EEE 1L6 Autumn 2009 E2.2 Analogue Electronics Multiple stage amplifiers Aims: · Examine a few common 2-transistor amplifiers: -- Differential amplifiers -- Cascode amplifiers amplifiers #12;Imperial College London ­ EEE 2L6 Autumn 2009 E2.2 Analogue Electronics Two stage BJT

  7. Transferred substrate heterojunction bipolar transistors for submillimeter wave applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fung, A.; Samoska, L.; Siegel, P.; Rodwell, M.; Urteaga, M.; Paidi, V.

    2003-01-01

    We present ongoing work towards the development of submillimeter wave transistors with goals of realizing advanced high frequency amplifiers, voltage controlled oscillators, active multipliers, and traditional high-speed digital circuits.

  8. Development and Experimental Evaluation of an Automated Multi-Media Course on Transistors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitted, J.H., Jr.; And Others

    A completely automated multi-media self-study program for teaching a portion of electronic solid-state fundamentals was developed. The subject matter areas included were fundamental theory of transistors, transistor amplifier fundamentals, and simple mathematical analysis of transistors including equivalent circuits, parameters, and characteristic…

  9. Transistor Effect in Improperly Connected Transistors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luzader, Stephen; Sanchez-Velasco, Eduardo

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the differences between the standard representation and a realistic representation of a transistor. Presents an experiment that helps clarify the explanation of the transistor effect and shows why transistors should be connected properly. (JRH)

  10. Operational Amplifiers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foxcroft, G. E.

    1986-01-01

    Addresses the introduction of low cost equipment into high school and college physical science classes. Examines the properties of an "ideal" operational amplifier and discusses how it might be used under saturated and non-saturated conditions. Notes the action of a "real" operational amplifier. (TW)

  11. High-efficiency solid state power amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallis, Robert E. (Inventor); Cheng, Sheng (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    A high-efficiency solid state power amplifier (SSPA) for specific use in a spacecraft is provided. The SSPA has a mass of less than 850 g and includes two different X-band power amplifier sections, i.e., a lumped power amplifier with a single 11-W output and a distributed power amplifier with eight 2.75-W outputs. These two amplifier sections provide output power that is scalable from 11 to 15 watts without major design changes. Five different hybrid microcircuits, including high-efficiency Heterostructure Field Effect Transistor (HFET) amplifiers and Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit (MMIC) phase shifters have been developed for use within the SSPA. A highly efficient packaging approach enables the integration of a large number of hybrid circuits into the SSPA.

  12. Wide-Temperature-Range Integrated Operational Amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mojarradi, Mohammad; Levanas, Greg; Chen, Yuan; Kolawa, Elizabeth; Cozy, Raymond; Blalock, Benjamin; Greenwell, Robert; Terry, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    A document discusses a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) complementary metal oxide/semiconductor (CMOS) integrated- circuit operational amplifier to be replicated and incorporated into sensor and actuator systems of Mars-explorer robots. This amplifier is designed to function at a supply potential less than or equal to 5.5 V, at any temperature from -180 to +120 C. The design is implemented on a commercial radiation-hard SOI CMOS process rated for a supply potential of less than or equal to 3.6 V and temperatures from -55 to +110 C. The design incorporates several innovations to achieve this, the main ones being the following: NMOS transistor channel lengths below 1 m are generally not used because research showed that this change could reduce the adverse effect of hot carrier injection on the lifetimes of transistors at low temperatures. To enable the amplifier to withstand the 5.5-V supply potential, a circuit topology including cascade devices, clamping devices, and dynamic voltage biasing was adopted so that no individual transistor would be exposed to more than 3.6 V. To minimize undesired variations in performance over the temperature range, the transistors in the amplifier are biased by circuitry that maintains a constant inversion coefficient over the temperature range.

  13. High-Efficiency Microwave Power Amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sims, Williams H.

    2005-01-01

    A high-efficiency power amplifier that operates in the S band (frequencies of the order of a few gigahertz) utilizes transistors operating under class-D bias and excitation conditions. Class-D operation has been utilized at lower frequencies, but, until now, has not been exploited in the S band. Nominally, in class D operation, a transistor is switched rapidly between "on" and "off" states so that at any given instant, it sustains either high current or high voltage, but not both at the same time. In the ideal case of zero "on" resistance, infinite "off" resistance, zero inductance and capacitance, and perfect switching, the output signal would be a perfect square wave. Relative to the traditional classes A, B, and C of amplifier operation, class D offers the potential to achieve greater power efficiency. In addition, relative to class-A amplifiers, class-D amplifiers are less likely to go into oscillation. In order to design this amplifier, it was necessary to derive mathematical models of microwave power transistors for incorporation into a larger mathematical model for computational simulation of the operation of a class-D microwave amplifier. The design incorporates state-of-the-art switching techniques applicable only in the microwave frequency range. Another major novel feature is a transmission-line power splitter/combiner designed with the help of phasing techniques to enable an approximation of a square-wave signal (which is inherently a wideband signal) to propagate through what would, if designed in a more traditional manner, behave as a more severely band-limited device (see figure). The amplifier includes an input, a driver, and a final stage. Each stage contains a pair of GaAs-based field-effect transistors biased in class D. The input signal can range from -10 to +10 dBm into a 50-ohm load. The table summarizes the performances of the three stages

  14. Matched wideband low-noise amplifiers for radio astronomy S. Weinreb, J. Bardin, H. Mani, and G. Jones

    E-print Network

    Weinreb, Sander

    Matched wideband low-noise amplifiers for radio astronomy S. Weinreb, J. Bardin, H. Mani, and G low noise amplifiers for the 0.3­4 GHz frequency range are described. The amplifiers can be operated temperature. One amplifier utilizes commercially available, plastic-packaged SiGe transistors for first

  15. Bidirectional amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Wright, J.T.

    1984-02-02

    A bilateral circuit is operable for transmitting signals in two directions without generation of ringing due to feedback caused by the insertion of the circuit. The circuit may include gain for each of the signals to provide a bidirectional amplifier. The signals are passed through two separate paths, with a unidirectional amplifier in each path. A controlled sampling device is provided in each path for sampling the two signals. Any feedback loop between the two signals is disrupted by providing a phase displacement between the control signals for the two sampling devices.

  16. EDITORIAL: Reigniting innovation in the transistor Reigniting innovation in the transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demming, Anna

    2012-09-01

    Today the transistor is integral to the electronic circuitry that wires our lives. When Bardeen and Brattain first observed an amplified signal by connecting electrodes to a germanium crystal they saw that their 'semiconductor triode' could prove a useful alternative to the more cumbersome vacuum tubes used at the time [1]. But it was perhaps William Schottky who recognized the extent of the transistor's potential. A basic transistor has three or more terminals and current across one pair of terminals can switch or amplify current through another pair. Bardeen, Brattain and Schottky were jointly awarded a Nobel Prize in 1956 'for their researches on semiconductors and their discovery of the transistor effect' [2]. Since then many new forms of the transistor have been developed and understanding of the underlying properties is constantly advancing. In this issue Chen and Shih and colleagues at Taiwan National University and Drexel University report a pyroelectrics transistor. They show how a novel optothermal gating mechanism can modulate the current, allowing a range of developments in nanoscale optoelectronics and wireless devices [3]. The explosion of interest in nanoscale devices in the 1990s inspired electronics researchers to look for new systems that can act as transistors, such as carbon nanotube [4] and silicon nanowire [5] transistors. Generally these transistors function by raising and lowering an energy barrier of kBT -1, but researchers in the US and Canada have demonstrated that the quantum interference between two electronic pathways through aromatic molecules can also modulate the current flow [6]. The device has advantages for further miniaturization where energy dissipation in conventional systems may eventually cause complications. Interest in transistor technology has also led to advances in fabrication techniques for achieving high production quantities, such as printing [7]. Researchers in Florida in the US demonstrated field effect transistor behaviour in devices fabricated from chemically reduced graphene oxide. The work provided an important step forward for graphene electronics, which has been hampered by difficulties in scaling up the mechanical exfoliation techniques required to produce the high-quality graphene often needed for functioning devices [8]. In Sweden, researchers have developed a transistor design that they fabricate using standard III-V parallel processing, which also has great promise for scaling up production. Their transistor is based on a vertical array of InAs nanowires, which provide high electron mobility and the possibility of high-speed and low-power operation [9]. Different fabrication techniques and design parameters can influence the properties of transistors. Researchers in Belgium used a new method based on high-vacuum scanning spreading resistance microscopy to study the effect of diameter on carrier profile in nanowire transistors [10]. They then used experimental data and simulations to gain a better understanding of how this influenced the transistor performance. In Japan, Y Ohno and colleagues at Nagoya University have reported how atomic layer deposition of an insulating layer of HfO2 on carbon nanotube field effect transistors can change the carrier from p-type to n-type [11]. Carrier type switching—'ambipolar behaviour'—and hysteresis of carbon nanotube network transistors can make achieving reliable device performance challenging. However studies have also suggested that the hysteretic properties may be exploited in non-volatile memory applications. A collaboration of researchers in Italy and the US demonstrated transistor and memory cell behaviour in a system based on a carbon nanotube network [13]. Their device had relatively fast programming, good endurance and the charge retention was successfully enhanced by limiting exposure to air. Progress in understanding transistor behaviour has inspired other innovations in device applications. Nanowires are notoriously sensitive to gases such as CO, opening opportunities for applications in sensing using one-

  17. Time-reversal duality of high-efficiency RF power amplifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Reveyrand, T; Ramos, I; Popovic, Z

    2012-12-06

    The similarity between RF power amplifiers and rectifiers is discussed. It is shown that the same high-efficiency harmonically-terminated power amplifier can be operated in a dual rectifier mode. Nonlinear simulations with a GaN HEMT transistor model show the time-reversal intrinsic voltage and current waveform relationship between a class-F amplifier and rectifier. Measurements on a class-F-1 amplifier and rectifier at 2.14 GHz demonstrate over 80% efficiency in both cases.

  18. Deeply-scaled GaN high electron mobility transistors for RF applications

    E-print Network

    Lee, Dong Seup

    2014-01-01

    Due to the unique combination of large critical breakdown field and high electron velocity, GaN-based high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) have great potential for next generation high power RF amplifiers. The ...

  19. Cryogenic Amplifier Based Receivers at Submillimeter Wavelengths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chattopadhyay, Goutam; Reck, Theodore and; Schlecht, Erich; Lin, Robert; Deal, William

    2012-01-01

    The operating frequency of InP high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) based amplifiers has moved well in the submillimeter-wave frequencies over the last couple of years. Working amplifiers with usable gain in waveguide packages has been reported beyond 700 GHz. When cooled cryogenically, they have shown substantial improvement in their noise temperature. This has opened up the real possibility of cryogenic amplifier based heterodyne receivers at submillimeter wavelengths for ground-based, air-borne, and space-based instruments for astrophysics, planetary, and Earth science applications. This paper provides an overview of the science applications at submillimeter wavelengths that will benefit from this technology. It also describes the current state of the InP HEMT based cryogenic amplifier receivers at submillimeter wavelengths.

  20. Power-Amplifier Module for 145 to 165 GHz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samoska, Lorene; Peralta, Alejandro

    2007-01-01

    A power-amplifier module that operates in the frequency range of 145 to 165 GHz has been designed and constructed as a combination of (1) a previously developed monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) power amplifier and (2) a waveguide module. The amplifier chip was needed for driving a high-electron-mobility-transistor (HEMT) frequency doubler. While it was feasible to connect the amplifier and frequency-doubler chips by use of wire bonds, it was found to be much more convenient to test the amplifier and doubler chips separately. To facilitate separate testing, it was decided to package the amplifier and doubler chips in separate waveguide modules. Figure 1 shows the resulting amplifier module. The amplifier chip was described in "MMIC HEMT Power Amplifier for 140 to 170 GHz" (NPO-30127), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 27, No. 11, (November 2003), page 49. To recapitulate: This is a three-stage MMIC power amplifier that utilizes HEMTs as gain elements. The amplifier was originally designed to operate in the frequency range of 140 to 170 GHz. The waveguide module is based on a previously developed lower frequency module, redesigned to support operation in the frequency range of 140 to 220 GHz. Figure 2 presents results of one of several tests of the amplifier module - measurements of output power and gain as functions of input power at an output frequency of 150 GHz. Such an amplifier module has many applications to test equipment for power sources above 100 GHz.

  1. Precision absolute-value amplifier for a precision voltmeter

    DOEpatents

    Hearn, W.E.; Rondeau, D.J.

    1982-10-19

    Bipolar inputs are afforded by the plus inputs of first and second differential input amplifiers. A first gain determining resistor is connected between the minus inputs of the differential amplifiers. First and second diodes are connected between the respective minus inputs and the respective outputs of the differential amplifiers. First and second FETs have their gates connected to the outputs of the amplifiers, while their respective source and drain circuits are connected between the respective minus inputs and an output lead extending to a load resistor. The output current through the load resistor is proportional to the absolute value of the input voltage difference between the bipolar input terminals. A third differential amplifier has its plus input terminal connected to the load resistor. A second gain determining resistor is connected between the minus input of the third differential amplifier and a voltage source. A third FET has its gate connected to the output of the third amplifier. The source and drain circuit of the third transistor is connected between the minus input of the third amplifier and a voltage-frequency converter, constituting an output device. A polarity detector is also provided, comprising a pair of transistors having their inputs connected to the outputs of the first and second differential amplifiers. The outputs of the polarity detector are connected to gates which switch the output of the voltage-frequency converter between up and down counting outputs.

  2. Precision absolute value amplifier for a precision voltmeter

    DOEpatents

    Hearn, William E. (Berkeley, CA); Rondeau, Donald J. (El Sobrante, CA)

    1985-01-01

    Bipolar inputs are afforded by the plus inputs of first and second differential input amplifiers. A first gain determining resister is connected between the minus inputs of the differential amplifiers. First and second diodes are connected between the respective minus inputs and the respective outputs of the differential amplifiers. First and second FETs have their gates connected to the outputs of the amplifiers, while their respective source and drain circuits are connected between the respective minus inputs and an output lead extending to a load resister. The output current through the load resister is proportional to the absolute value of the input voltage difference between the bipolar input terminals. A third differential amplifier has its plus input terminal connected to the load resister. A second gain determining resister is connected between the minus input of the third differential amplifier and a voltage source. A third FET has its gate connected to the output of the third amplifier. The source and drain circuit of the third transistor is connected between the minus input of the third amplifier and a voltage-frequency converter, constituting an output device. A polarity detector is also provided, comprising a pair of transistors having their inputs connected to the outputs of the first and second differential amplifiers. The outputs of the polarity detector are connected to gates which switch the output of the voltage-frequency converter between up and down counting outputs.

  3. PUBLISHED ONLINE: 8 JULY 2012 | DOI: 10.1038/NPHYS2356 A wideband, low-noise superconducting amplifier

    E-print Network

    Loss, Daniel

    -noise superconducting amplifier with high dynamic range Byeong Ho Eom1 , Peter K. Day2 *, Henry G. LeDuc2 and Jonas Zmuidzinas1,2 An ideal amplifier has very low noise, operates over a broad frequency range, and has large. For example, modern transistor amplifiers offer multi-octave bandwidths and excellent dynamic range

  4. PHY327 Lab 4 --Diodes and Transistors Transistor

    E-print Network

    Gustafsson, Torgny

    PHY327 Lab 4 -- Diodes and Transistors Diode: Transistor: #12;Silicon: the most important material exponential decay of a RC circuit. #12;Transistor ­ one of the greatest inventions A transistor (3-terminal. The transistor is the fundamental building block of modern electronic devices, and is ubiquitous in modern

  5. Low cost instrumentation amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sturman, J. C.

    1974-01-01

    Amplifier can be used for many applications requiring high input impedance and common mode rejection, low drift, and gain accuracy on order of one percent. Performance of inexpensive amplifier approaches that of some commercial instrumentation amplifiers in many specifications.

  6. Fluctuation dynamo amplified

    E-print Network

    Fluctuation dynamo amplified by intermittent shear bursts J. Pratt The Fluctuation Dynamo Boussinesq MHD Convection Simulations Shear Bursts: Amplified Energy Production Magnetic Helicity Fluctuation dynamo amplified by intermittent shear bursts J. Pratt Thanks to my collaborators: A. Busse (U. Glasgow

  7. MMIC Amplifier Produces Gain of 10 dB at 235 GHz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawson, Douglas; Fung, King Man; Lee, Karen; Samoska, Lorene; Wells, Mary; Gaier, Todd; Kangaslahti, Pekka; Grundbacher, Ronald; Lai, Richard; Raja, Rohit; Liu, Po-Hsin

    2007-01-01

    The first solid-state amplifier capable of producing gain at a frequency >215 GHz has been demonstrated. This amplifier was fabricated as a monolithic microwave integrated-circuit (MMIC) chip containing InP high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs) of 0.07 micron gate length on a 50- m-thick InP substrate.

  8. Compact, Single-Stage MMIC InP HEMT Amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pukala, David; Samoska, Lorene; Fung, King Man; Gaier, Todd; Deal, W. R.; Mei, Gerry; Radisic, Vesna; Lai, Richard

    2008-01-01

    A monolithic micro - wave integrated-circuit (MMIC) singlestage amplifier containing an InP-based high-electron-mobility transistor (HEMT) plus coplanar-waveguide (CPW) transmission lines for impedance matching and input and output coupling, all in a highly miniaturized layout as needed for high performance at operating frequencies of hundreds of gigahertz is described.

  9. Near-field thermal transistor

    E-print Network

    Ben-Abdallah, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Using a block of three separated solid elements, a thermal source and drain together with a gate made of an insulator-metal transition material exchanging near-field thermal radiation, we introduce a nanoscale analog of a field-effect transistor which is able to control the flow of heat exchanged by evanescent thermal photons between two bodies. By changing the gate temperature around its critical value, the heat flux exchanged between the hot body (source) and the cold body (drain) can be reversibly switched, amplified, and modulated by a tiny action on the gate. Such a device could find important applications in the domain of nanoscale thermal management and it opens up new perspectives concerning the development of contactless thermal circuits intended for information processing using the photon current rather than the electric current.

  10. X-Band, 17-Watt Solid-State Power Amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mittskus, Anthony; Stone, Ernest; Boger, William; Burgess, David; Honda, Richard; Nuckolls, Carl

    2005-01-01

    An advanced solid-state power amplifier that can generate an output power of as much as 17 W at a design operating frequency of 8.4 GHz has been designed and constructed as a smaller, lighter, less expensive alternative to traveling-wave-tube X-band amplifiers and to prior solid-state X-band power amplifiers of equivalent output power. This amplifier comprises a monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) amplifier module and a power-converter module integrated into a compact package (see Figure 1). The amplifier module contains an input variable-gain amplifier (VGA), an intermediate driver stage, a final power stage, and input and output power monitors (see Figure 2). The VGA and the driver amplifier are 0.5-m GaAs-based metal semiconductor field-effect transistors (MESFETs). The final power stage contains four parallel high-efficiency, GaAs-based pseudomorphic high-electron-mobility transistors (PHEMTs). The gain of the VGA is voltage-variable over a range of 10 to 24 dB. To provide for temperature compensation of the overall amplifier gain, the gain-control voltage is generated by an operational-amplifier circuit that includes a resistor/thermistor temperature-sensing network. The driver amplifier provides a gain of 14 dB to an output power of 27 dBm to drive the four parallel output PHEMTs, each of which is nominally capable of putting out as much as 5 W. The driver output is sent to the input terminals of the four parallel PHEMTs through microstrip power dividers; the outputs of these PHEMTs are combined by microstrip power combiners (which are similar to the microstrip power dividers) to obtain the final output power of 17 W.

  11. MMIC HEMT Power Amplifier for 140 to 170 GHz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samoska, Lorene; Radisic, Vesna; Ngo, Catherine; Janke, Paul; Hu, Ming; Micovic, Miro

    2003-01-01

    A three-stage monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) power amplifier that features high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs) as gain elements is reviewed. This amplifier is designed to operate in the frequency range of 140 to 170 GHz, which contains spectral lines of several atmospheric molecular species plus subharmonics of other such spectral lines. Hence, this amplifier could serve as a prototype of amplifiers to be incorporated into heterodyne radiometers used in atmospheric science. The original intended purpose served by this amplifier is to boost the signal generated by a previously developed 164-GHz MMIC HEMT doubler and drive a 164-to-328-GHz doubler to provide a few milliwatts of power at 328 GHz.

  12. Hybrid matrix amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Martens, Jon S. (Sunnyvale, CA); Hietala, Vincent M. (Placitas, NM); Plut, Thomas A. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1995-01-01

    The present invention comprises a novel matrix amplifier. The matrix amplifier includes an active superconducting power divider (ASPD) having N output ports; N distributed amplifiers each operatively connected to one of the N output ports of the ASPD; and a power combiner having N input ports each operatively connected to one of the N distributed amplifiers. The distributed amplifier can included M stages of amplification by cascading superconducting active devices. The power combiner can include N active elements. The resulting (N.times.M) matrix amplifier can produce signals of high output power, large bandwidth, and low noise.

  13. Hybrid matrix amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Martens, J.S.; Hietala, V.M.; Plut, T.A.

    1995-01-03

    The present invention comprises a novel matrix amplifier. The matrix amplifier includes an active superconducting power divider (ASPD) having N output ports; N distributed amplifiers each operatively connected to one of the N output ports of the ASPD; and a power combiner having N input ports each operatively connected to one of the N distributed amplifiers. The distributed amplifier can included M stages of amplification by cascading superconducting active devices. The power combiner can include N active elements. The resulting (N[times]M) matrix amplifier can produce signals of high output power, large bandwidth, and low noise. 6 figures.

  14. Electronics Operational Amplifiers

    E-print Network

    Palermo, Sam

    ECEN 325 Electronics Operational Amplifiers Dr. Aydin Ilker Kar¸silayan Texas A&M University Electronics - Aydin I. Kar¸silayan - Operational Amplifiers 1 #12;Equivalent CircuitEquivalent Circuit i=0 i=0 Electronics - Aydin I. Kar¸silayan - Operational Amplifiers 2 #12;vo vs. vdvo vs. vd Slope = A SAT vd vp vn

  15. Laser amplifier chain

    DOEpatents

    Hackel, R.P.

    1992-10-20

    A laser amplifier chain has a plurality of laser amplifiers arranged in a chain to sequentially amplify a low-power signal beam to produce a significantly higher-power output beam. Overall efficiency of such a chain is improved if high-gain, low efficiency amplifiers are placed on the upstream side of the chain where only a very small fraction of the total pumped power is received by the chain and low-gain, high-efficiency amplifiers are placed on the downstream side where a majority of pumping energy is received by the chain. 6 figs.

  16. Laser amplifier chain

    DOEpatents

    Hackel, Richard P. (Livermore, CA)

    1992-01-01

    A laser amplifier chain has a plurality of laser amplifiers arranged in a chain to sequentially amplify a low-power signal beam to produce a significantly higher-power output beam. Overall efficiency of such a chain is improved if high-gain, low efficiency amplifiers are placed on the upstream side of the chain where only a very small fraction of the total pumped power is received by the chain and low-gain, high-efficiency amplifiers are placed on the downstream side where a majority of pumping energy is received by the chain.

  17. From The Lab to The Fab: Transistors to Integrated Circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huff, Howard R.

    2003-09-01

    Transistor action was experimentally observed by John Bardeen and Walter Brattain in n-type polycrystalline germanium on December 16, 1947 (and subsequently polycrystalline silicon) as a result of the judicious placement of gold-plated probe tips in nearby single crystal grains of the polycrystalline material (i.e., the point-contact semiconductor amplifier, often referred to as the point-contact transistor).The device configuration exploited the inversion layer as the channel through which most of the emitted (minority) carriers were transported from the emitter to the collector. The point-contact transistor was manufactured for ten years starting in 1951 by the Western Electric Division of AT&T. The a priori tuning of the point-contact transistor parameters, however, was not simple inasmuch as the device was dependent on the detailed surface structure and, therefore, very sensitive to humidity and temperature as well as exhibiting high noise levels. Accordingly, the devices differed significantly in their characteristics and electrical instabilities leading to "burnout" were not uncommon. With the implementation of crystalline semiconductor materials in the early 1950s, however, p-n junction (bulk) transistors began replacing the point-contact transistor, silicon began replacing germanium and the transfer of transistor technology from the lab to the lab accelerated. We shall review the historical route by which single crystalline materials were developed and the accompanying methodologies of transistor fabrication, leading to the onset of the Integrated Circuit (IC) era. Finally, highlights of the early years of the IC era will be reviewed from the 256 bit through the 4M DRAM. Elements of IC scaling and the role of Moore's Law in setting the parameters by which the IC industry's growth was monitored will be discussed.

  18. Vertical organic transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lüssem, Björn; Günther, Alrun; Fischer, Axel; Kasemann, Daniel; Leo, Karl

    2015-11-01

    Organic switching devices such as field effect transistors (OFETs) are a key element of future flexible electronic devices. So far, however, a commercial breakthrough has not been achieved because these devices usually lack in switching speed (e.g. for logic applications) and current density (e.g. for display pixel driving). The limited performance is caused by a combination of comparatively low charge carrier mobilities and the large channel length caused by the need for low-cost structuring. Vertical Organic Transistors are a novel technology that has the potential to overcome these limitations of OFETs. Vertical Organic Transistors allow to scale the channel length of organic transistors into the 100?nm regime without cost intensive structuring techniques. Several different approaches have been proposed in literature, which show high output currents, low operation voltages, and comparatively high speed even without sub-?m structuring technologies. In this review, these different approaches are compared and recent progress is highlighted.

  19. Vertical organic transistors.

    PubMed

    Lüssem, Björn; Günther, Alrun; Fischer, Axel; Kasemann, Daniel; Leo, Karl

    2015-11-11

    Organic switching devices such as field effect transistors (OFETs) are a key element of future flexible electronic devices. So far, however, a commercial breakthrough has not been achieved because these devices usually lack in switching speed (e.g. for logic applications) and current density (e.g. for display pixel driving). The limited performance is caused by a combination of comparatively low charge carrier mobilities and the large channel length caused by the need for low-cost structuring. Vertical Organic Transistors are a novel technology that has the potential to overcome these limitations of OFETs. Vertical Organic Transistors allow to scale the channel length of organic transistors into the 100?nm regime without cost intensive structuring techniques. Several different approaches have been proposed in literature, which show high output currents, low operation voltages, and comparatively high speed even without sub-?m structuring technologies. In this review, these different approaches are compared and recent progress is highlighted. PMID:26466388

  20. Printed inorganic transistors

    E-print Network

    Ridley, Brent (Brent Alan), 1974-

    2003-01-01

    Forty years of exponential growth of semiconductor technology have been predicated on the miniaturization of the transistors that comprise integrated circuits. While complexity has greatly increased within a given area of ...

  1. Organic transistors for electrophysiology (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivnay, Jonathan

    2015-10-01

    Efficient local transduction of biological signals is of critical importance for mapping brain activity and diagnosing pathological conditions. Traditional devices used to record electrophysiological signals are passive electrodes that require (pre)amplification with downstream electronics. Organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) that utilize conducting polymer films as the channel have shown considerable promise as amplifying transducers due to their stability in aqueous conditions and high transconductance (>3 mS). The materials properties and physics of such transistors, however, remains largely unexplored thus limiting their potential. Here we show that the uptake of ionic charge from an electrolyte into a poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) doped with polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) OECT channel leads to a dependence of the effective capacitance on the entire volume of the film. Subsequently, device transconductance and time response vary with channel thickness, a defining characteristic that differentiates OECTs from field effect transistors, and provides a new degree of freedom for device engineering. Using this understanding we tailor OECTs for a variety of low (1-100 Hz) and high (1-10 kHz) frequency applications, including human electroencephalography, where high transconductance devices impart richer signal content without the need for additional amplification circuitry. We also show that the materials figure of merit OECTs is the product of hole mobility and volumetric capacitance of the channel, leading to design rules for novel high performance materials.

  2. Black Phosphorus RF Transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Han; Wang, Xiaomu; Xia, Fengnian; Wang, Luhao; Jiang, Hao; Xia, Qiangfei; Chin, Mattew L.; Dubey, Madan; Han, Shu-Jen

    2015-03-01

    Few-layer and thin film form of layered black phosphorus (BP) has recently emerged as a promising material for applications in high performance thin film electronics and infrared optoelectronics. Layered BP offers a ~ 0.3eV bandgap and high mobility, leading to transistor devices with decent on/off ratio and high on-state current density. Here, we demonstrate the GHz frequency operation of black phosphorus field-effect transistor for the first time. BP transistors demonstrated here show excellent current saturation with an on-off ratio exceeding 2 × 103. The S-parameter characterization is performed for the first time on black phosphorus transistors, giving a 12 GHz short-circuit current-gain cut-off frequency and 20 GHz maximum oscillation frequency in 300 nm channel length devices. A current density in excess of 270 mA/mm and DC transconductance above 180 mS/mm are achieved for hole conductions. The results reveal the promising potential of black phosphorus transistors for enabling the next generation thin film transistor technology that can operate in the multi-GHz frequency range and beyond.

  3. Update on Waveguide-Embedded Differential MMIC Amplifiers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kangaslahti, Pekka; Schleht, Erich

    2010-01-01

    There is an update on the subject matter of Differential InP HEMT MMIC Amplifiers Embedded in Waveguides (NPO-42857) NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 33, No. 9 (September 2009), page 35. To recapitulate: Monolithic microwave integrated-circuit (MMIC) amplifiers of a type now being developed for operation at frequencies of hundreds of gigahertz contain InP high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs) in a differential configuration. The MMICs are designed integrally with, and embedded in, waveguide packages. The instant work does not mention InP HEMTs but otherwise reiterates part of the subject matter of the cited prior article, with emphasis on the following salient points: An MMIC is mounted in the electric-field plane ("E-plane") of a waveguide and includes a finline transition to each differential-amplifier stage. The differential configuration creates a virtual ground within each pair of transistor-gate fingers, eliminating the need for external radio-frequency grounding. This work concludes by describing a single-stage differential submillimeter-wave amplifier packaged in a rectangular waveguide and summarizing results of tests of this amplifier at frequencies of 220 and 305 GHz.

  4. Transistor-based interface circuitry

    DOEpatents

    Taubman, Matthew S. (Richland, WA)

    2007-02-13

    Among the embodiments of the present invention is an apparatus that includes a transistor, a servo device, and a current source. The servo device is operable to provide a common base mode of operation of the transistor by maintaining an approximately constant voltage level at the transistor base. The current source is operable to provide a bias current to the transistor. A first device provides an input signal to an electrical node positioned between the emitter of the transistor and the current source. A second device receives an output signal from the collector of the transistor.

  5. Transistor-based interface circuitry

    DOEpatents

    Taubman, Matthew S. (Richland, WA)

    2004-02-24

    Among the embodiments of the present invention is an apparatus that includes a transistor, a servo device, and a current source. The servo device is operable to provide a common base mode of operation of the transistor by maintaining an approximately constant voltage level at the transistor base. The current source is operable to provide a bias current to the transistor. A first device provides an input signal to an electrical node positioned between the emitter of the transistor and the current source. A second device receives an output signal from the collector of the transistor.

  6. Preventing Simultaneous Conduction In Switching Transistors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclyman, William T.

    1990-01-01

    High voltage spikes and electromagnetic interference suppressed. Power-supply circuit including two switching transistors easily modified to prevent simultaneous conduction by both transistors during switching intervals. Diode connected between collector of each transistor and driving circuit for opposite transistor suppresses driving signal to transistor being turned on until transistor being turned off ceases to carry current.

  7. Flexible black phosphorus ambipolar transistors, circuits and AM demodulator.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Weinan; Yogeesh, Maruthi N; Yang, Shixuan; Aldave, Sandra H; Kim, Joon-Seok; Sonde, Sushant; Tao, Li; Lu, Nanshu; Akinwande, Deji

    2015-03-11

    High-mobility two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors are desirable for high-performance mechanically flexible nanoelectronics. In this work, we report the first flexible black phosphorus (BP) field-effect transistors (FETs) with electron and hole mobilities superior to what has been previously achieved with other more studied flexible layered semiconducting transistors such as MoS2 and WSe2. Encapsulated bottom-gated BP ambipolar FETs on flexible polyimide afforded maximum carrier mobility of about 310 cm(2)/V·s with field-effect current modulation exceeding 3 orders of magnitude. The device ambipolar functionality and high-mobility were employed to realize essential circuits of electronic systems for flexible technology including ambipolar digital inverter, frequency doubler, and analog amplifiers featuring voltage gain higher than other reported layered semiconductor flexible amplifiers. In addition, we demonstrate the first flexible BP amplitude-modulated (AM) demodulator, an active stage useful for radio receivers, based on a single ambipolar BP transistor, which results in audible signals when connected to a loudspeaker or earphone. Moreover, the BP transistors feature mechanical robustness up to 2% uniaxial tensile strain and up to 5000 bending cycles. PMID:25715122

  8. Wireless Josephson amplifier

    SciTech Connect

    Narla, A.; Sliwa, K. M.; Hatridge, M.; Shankar, S.; Frunzio, L.; Schoelkopf, R. J.; Devoret, M. H.

    2014-06-09

    Josephson junction parametric amplifiers are playing a crucial role in the readout chain in superconducting quantum information experiments. However, their integration with current 3D cavity implementations poses the problem of transitioning between waveguide, coax cables, and planar circuits. Moreover, Josephson amplifiers require auxiliary microwave components, like directional couplers and/or hybrids, that are sources of spurious losses and impedance mismatches that limit measurement efficiency and amplifier tunability. We have developed a wireless architecture for these parametric amplifiers that eliminates superfluous microwave components and interconnects. This greatly simplifies their assembly and integration into experiments. We present an experimental realization of such a device operating in the 9–11?GHz band with about 100?MHz of amplitude gain-bandwidth product, on par with devices mounted in conventional sample holders. The simpler impedance environment presented to the amplifier also results in increased amplifier tunability.

  9. Teaching the Common Emitter Amplifier.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellse, Mark D.

    1984-01-01

    Describes experiments in which a bipolar transistor is used to examine the behavior of a simple circuit. Also addresses problems in teaching the related concepts. (The experiments can be modified to incorporate devices other than bipolar transistors.) (JN)

  10. Tanh cascode cell amplifier an arbitrary transfer characteristics amplifier

    E-print Network

    Tanh cascode cell amplifier ­ an arbitrary transfer characteristics amplifier M. Ding and K.G. Gard An arbitrary transfer characteristic (TC) amplifier, called the tanh cascode cell (TCC) amplifier, is reported. This novel amplifier is capable of synthesising an arbitrary TC including the ideal rectifier transfer

  11. LABORATORY 4 Amplifier Design Using Operational Amplifiers (OP-AMPs)

    E-print Network

    Kozick, Richard J.

    ELEC 225 LABORATORY 4 Amplifier Design Using Operational Amplifiers (OP-AMPs) In ELEC 120, you designed circuits using the LM35 temperature sensor, DC fan, 741 operational amplifier, OPA 551 operational amplifier, and Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs). In this lab, we will focus on the design of an amplifier

  12. Dye laser amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Moses, E.I.

    1992-12-01

    An improved dye laser amplifier is disclosed. The efficiency of the dye laser amplifier is increased significantly by increasing the power of a dye beam as it passes from an input window to an output window within the dye chamber, while maintaining the intensity of the dye beam constant. 3 figs.

  13. Linearly polarized fiber amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Kliner, Dahv A.; Koplow, Jeffery P.

    2004-11-30

    Optically pumped rare-earth-doped polarizing fibers exhibit significantly higher gain for one linear polarization state than for the orthogonal state. Such a fiber can be used to construct a single-polarization fiber laser, amplifier, or amplified-spontaneous-emission (ASE) source without the need for additional optical components to obtain stable, linearly polarized operation.

  14. Low-Noise MMIC Amplifiers for 120 to 180 GHz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pukala, David; Samoska, Lorene; Peralta, Alejandro; Bayuk, Brian; Grundbacher, Ron; Oliver, Patricia; Cavus, Abdullah; Liu, Po-Hsin

    2009-01-01

    Three-stage monolithic millimeter-wave integrated-circuit (MMIC) amplifiers capable of providing useful amounts of gain over the frequency range from 120 to 180 GHz have been developed as prototype low-noise amplifiers (LNAs) to be incorporated into instruments for sensing cosmic microwave background radiation. There are also potential uses for such LNAs in electronic test equipment, passive millimeter- wave imaging systems, radar receivers, communication receivers, and systems for detecting hidden weapons. The main advantage afforded by these MMIC LNAs, relative to prior MMIC LNAs, is that their coverage of the 120-to-180-GHz frequency band makes them suitable for reuse in a wider variety of applications without need to redesign them. Each of these MMIC amplifiers includes InP transistors and coplanar waveguide circuitry on a 50- mthick chip (see Figure 1). Coplanar waveguide transmission lines are used for both applying DC bias and matching of input and output impedances of each transistor stage. Via holes are incorporated between top and bottom ground planes to suppress propagation of electromagnetic modes in the substrate. On the basis of computational simulations, each of these amplifiers was expected to operate with a small-signal gain of 14 dB and a noise figure of 4.3 dB. At the time of writing this article, measurements of noise figures had not been reported, but on-chip measurements had shown gains approaching their simulated values (see Figure 2).

  15. Radio frequency analog electronics based on carbon nanotube transistors

    PubMed Central

    Kocabas, Coskun; Kim, Hoon-sik; Banks, Tony; Rogers, John A.; Pesetski, Aaron A.; Baumgardner, James E.; Krishnaswamy, S. V.; Zhang, Hong

    2008-01-01

    The potential to exploit single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) in advanced electronics represents a continuing, major source of interest in these materials. However, scalable integration of SWNTs into circuits is challenging because of difficulties in controlling the geometries, spatial positions, and electronic properties of individual tubes. We have implemented solutions to some of these challenges to yield radio frequency (RF) SWNT analog electronic devices, such as narrow band amplifiers operating in the VHF frequency band with power gains as high as 14 dB. As a demonstration, we fabricated nanotube transistor radios, in which SWNT devices provide all of the key functions, including resonant antennas, fixed RF amplifiers, RF mixers, and audio amplifiers. These results represent important first steps to practical implementation of SWNTs in high-speed analog circuits. Comparison studies indicate certain performance advantages over silicon and capabilities that complement those in existing compound semiconductor technologies. PMID:18227509

  16. Some characteristic features of the construction of the amplifying channel for working with semiconductor detectors in the charged particle energy spectrometer. [noise minimization at preamplifier input

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuzyuta, E. I.

    1974-01-01

    A transistorized spectrometric amplifier with a shaper is reported that selects the shape of the frequency characteristic of the amplifying channel for which the primary frequency spectrum of the signal will pass, but where the noise spectrum is limited to the maximum. A procedure is presented for selecting the shaping circuits and their inclusion principles.

  17. HEMT Amplifiers and Equipment for their On-Wafer Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fung, King man; Gaier, Todd; Samoska, Lorene; Deal, William; Radisic, Vesna; Mei, Xiaobing; Lai, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Power amplifiers comprising InP-based high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs) in coplanar-waveguide (CPW) circuits designed for operation at frequencies of hundreds of gigahertz, and a test set for onwafer measurement of their power levels have been developed. These amplifiers utilize an advanced 35-nm HEMT monolithic microwave integrated-circuit (MMIC) technology and have potential utility as local-oscillator drivers and power sources in future submillimeter-wavelength heterodyne receivers and imaging systems. The test set can reduce development time by enabling rapid output power characterization, not only of these and similar amplifiers, but also of other coplanar-waveguide power circuits, without the necessity of packaging the circuits.

  18. Broadband Characterization of a 100 to 180 GHz Amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kangaslahti, Pekka; Deal, W. R.; Mei, X. B.; Lai, R.

    2007-01-01

    Atmospheric science and weather forecasting require measurements of the temperature and humidity vs. altitude. These sounding measurements are obtained at frequencies close to the resonance frequencies of oxygen (118 GHz) and water (183 GHz) molecules. We have characterized a broadband amplifier that will increase the sensitivity of sounding and other instruments at these frequencies. This study demonstrated for the first t1me continuous low noise amplification from 100 to 180 GHz. The measured InP monolithic millimeter-wave Integrated circuit (MMIC) amplifier had more than 18 dB of gain from 100 to 180 GHz and 15 dB of gain up to 220 GHz. This is the widest bandwidth low noise amplifier result at these frequencies to date. The circuit was fabricated in Northrop Grumman Corporation 35 nm InP high electron mobility transistor (HEMT).

  19. New low-level a-c amplifier provides adjustable noise cancellation and automatic temperature compensation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. R., Jr.

    1964-01-01

    Circuit utilizing a transistorized differential amplifier is developed for biomedical use. This low voltage operating circuit provides adjustable cancellation at the input for unbalanced noise signals, and automatic temperature compensation is accomplished by a single active element across the input-output ends.

  20. Photosensitive graphene transistors.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinhua; Niu, Liyong; Zheng, Zijian; Yan, Feng

    2014-08-20

    High performance photodetectors play important roles in the development of innovative technologies in many fields, including medicine, display and imaging, military, optical communication, environment monitoring, security check, scientific research and industrial processing control. Graphene, the most fascinating two-dimensional material, has demonstrated promising applications in various types of photodetectors from terahertz to ultraviolet, due to its ultrahigh carrier mobility and light absorption in broad wavelength range. Graphene field effect transistors are recognized as a type of excellent transducers for photodetection thanks to the inherent amplification function of the transistors, the feasibility of miniaturization and the unique properties of graphene. In this review, we will introduce the applications of graphene transistors as photodetectors in different wavelength ranges including terahertz, infrared, visible, and ultraviolet, focusing on the device design, physics and photosensitive performance. Since the device properties are closely related to the quality of graphene, the devices based on graphene prepared with different methods will be addressed separately with a view to demonstrating more clearly their advantages and shortcomings in practical applications. It is expected that highly sensitive photodetectors based on graphene transistors will find important applications in many emerging areas especially flexible, wearable, printable or transparent electronics and high frequency communications. PMID:24715703

  1. A Matterwave Transistor Oscillator

    E-print Network

    Seth C. Caliga; Cameron J. E. Straatsma; Alex A. Zozulya; Dana Z. Anderson

    2013-09-13

    An atomtronic transistor circuit is used to realize a driven matterwave oscillator. The transistor consists of Source and Drain regions separated by a narrow Gate well. Quasi-steady-state behavior is determined from a thermodynamic model, which reveals two oscillation threshold regimes. One is due to the onset of Bose-Einstein condensation in the Gate well, the other is due to the appearance of a negative transresistance regime of the transistor. The thresholds of oscillation are shown to be primarily dependent on the potential energy height difference between Gate-Drain and Gate-Source barriers. The transistor potential is established with a combination of magnetic and optical fields using a compound glass and silicon substrate atom chip. The onset of oscillation and the output matterwave are observed through in-trap imaging. Time-of-flight absorption imaging is used to determine the time dependence of the Source well thermal and chemical energies as well as to estimate the value of the closed-loop ohmic Gate resistance, which is negative and is observed to cause cooling of Source atoms.

  2. Multimode Silicon Nanowire Transistors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The combined capabilities of both a nonplanar design and nonconventional carrier injection mechanisms are subject to recent scientific investigations to overcome the limitations of silicon metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistors. In this Letter, we present a multimode field effect transistors device using silicon nanowires that feature an axial n-type/intrinsic doping junction. A heterostructural device design is achieved by employing a self-aligned nickel-silicide source contact. The polymorph operation of the dual-gate device enabling the configuration of one p- and two n-type transistor modes is demonstrated. Not only the type but also the carrier injection mode can be altered by appropriate biasing of the two gate terminals or by inverting the drain bias. With a combined band-to-band and Schottky tunneling mechanism, in p-type mode a subthreshold swing as low as 143 mV/dec and an ON/OFF ratio of up to 104 is found. As the device operates in forward bias, a nonconventional tunneling transistor is realized, enabling an effective suppression of ambipolarity. Depending on the drain bias, two different n-type modes are distinguishable. The carrier injection is dominated by thermionic emission in forward bias with a maximum ON/OFF ratio of up to 107 whereas in reverse bias a Schottky tunneling mechanism dominates the carrier transport. PMID:25303290

  3. Radiation-hardened transistor and integrated circuit

    DOEpatents

    Ma, Kwok K. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2007-11-20

    A composite transistor is disclosed for use in radiation hardening a CMOS IC formed on an SOI or bulk semiconductor substrate. The composite transistor has a circuit transistor and a blocking transistor connected in series with a common gate connection. A body terminal of the blocking transistor is connected only to a source terminal thereof, and to no other connection point. The blocking transistor acts to prevent a single-event transient (SET) occurring in the circuit transistor from being coupled outside the composite transistor. Similarly, when a SET occurs in the blocking transistor, the circuit transistor prevents the SET from being coupled outside the composite transistor. N-type and P-type composite transistors can be used for each and every transistor in the CMOS IC to radiation harden the IC, and can be used to form inverters and transmission gates which are the building blocks of CMOS ICs.

  4. Universal signal conditioning amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Medelius, Pedro J.; Hallberg, Carl; Cecil, Jim

    1994-01-01

    A state-of-the-art instrumentation amplifier capable of being used with most types of transducers has been developed at the Kennedy Space Center. This Universal Signal Conditioning Amplifier (USCA) can eliminate costly measurement setup item and troubleshooting, improve system reliability and provide more accurate data than conventional amplifiers. The USCA can configure itself for maximum resolution and accuracy based on information read from a RAM chip attached to each transducer. Excitation voltages or current are also automatically configured. The amplifier uses both analog and digital state-of-the-art technology with analog-to-digital conversion performed in the early stages in order to minimize errors introduced by offset and gain drifts in the analog components. A dynamic temperature compensation scheme has been designed to achieve and maintain 12-bit accuracy of the amplifier from 0 to 70 C. The digital signal processing section allows the implementation of digital filters up to 511th order. The amplifier can also perform real-time linearizations up to fourth order while processing data at a rate of 23.438 kS/s. Both digital and analog outputs are available from the amplifier.

  5. Transistor Basics II PHYS 309 Name

    E-print Network

    Herman, Rhett

    Transistor Basics II PHYS 309 Name: A. Introduction The two basic types of transistors have specific functions related to the transistor's ability to regulate the current that flow through so you can immediately tell the type of the transistor. A typical transistor circuit is shown

  6. High Efficiency Microwave Power Amplifier: From the Lab to Industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sims, William Herbert, III; Bell, Joseph L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Since the beginnings of space travel, various microwave power amplifier designs have been employed. These included Class-A, -B, and -C bias arrangements. However, shared limitation of these topologies is the inherent high total consumption of input power associated with the generation of radio frequency (RF)/microwave power. The power amplifier has always been the largest drain for the limited available power on the spacecraft. Typically, the conversion efficiency of a microwave power amplifier is 10 to 20%. For a typical microwave power amplifier of 20 watts, input DC power of at least 100 watts is required. Such a large demand for input power suggests that a better method of RF/microwave power generation is required. The price paid for using a linear amplifier where high linearity is unnecessary includes higher initial and operating costs, lower DC-to-RF conversion efficiency, high power consumption, higher power dissipation and the accompanying need for higher capacity heat removal means, and an amplifier that is more prone to parasitic oscillation. The first use of a higher efficiency mode of power generation was described by Baxandall in 1959. This higher efficiency mode, Class-D, is achieved through distinct switching techniques to reduce the power losses associated with switching, conduction, and gate drive losses of a given transistor.

  7. NASA satellite communications application research, phase 2 addendum. Efficient high power, solid state amplifier for EHF communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benet, James

    1994-01-01

    This document is an addendum to the NASA Satellite Communications Application Research (SCAR) Phase 2 Final Report, 'Efficient High Power, Solid State Amplifier for EHF Communications.' This report describes the work performed from 1 August 1993 to 11 March 1994, under contract number NASW-4513. During this reporting period an array of transistor amplifiers was repaired by replacing all MMIC amplifier chips. The amplifier array was then tested using three different feedhorn configurations. Descriptions, procedures, and results of this testing are presented in this report, and conclusions are drawn based on the test results obtained.

  8. Fully relayed regenerative amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Glass, Alexander J. (Berkeley, CA)

    1981-01-01

    A regenerative laser apparatus and method using the optical relay concept to maintain high fill factors, to suppress diffraction effects, and to minimize phase distortions in a regenerative amplifier.

  9. EE 321 Amplifiers Fall 2008 Amplifiers, Biasing, and AC Coupling

    E-print Network

    Wedeward, Kevin

    EE 321 Amplifiers Fall 2008 EE321 Lab Amplifiers, Biasing, and AC Coupling The purpose of this lab is to measure the characteristics of an amplifier, and to use the characteristics to add a bias circuit at the input. An amplifier can be represented in many different ways. Figure 1 shows a model for a voltage

  10. Measuring bi-directional current through a field-effect transistor by virtue of drain-to-source voltage measurement

    DOEpatents

    Turner, Steven Richard

    2006-12-26

    A method and apparatus for measuring current, and particularly bi-directional current, in a field-effect transistor (FET) using drain-to-source voltage measurements. The drain-to-source voltage of the FET is measured and amplified. This signal is then compensated for variations in the temperature of the FET, which affects the impedance of the FET when it is switched on. The output is a signal representative of the direction of the flow of current through the field-effect transistor and the level of the current through the field-effect transistor. Preferably, the measurement only occurs when the FET is switched on.

  11. Improved chopper circuit uses parallel transistors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Parallel transistor chopper circuit operates with one transistor in the forward mode and the other in the inverse mode. By using this method, it acts as a single, symmetrical, bidirectional transistor, and reduces and stabilizes the offset voltage.

  12. Analogy of transistor function with modulating photonic band gap in electromagnetically induced grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhiguo; Ullah, Zakir; Gao, Mengqin; Zhang, Dan; Zhang, Yiqi; Gao, Hong; Zhang, Yanpeng

    2015-09-01

    Optical transistor is a device used to amplify and switch optical signals. Many researchers focus on replacing current computer components with optical equivalents, resulting in an optical digital computer system processing binary data. Electronic transistor is the fundamental building block of modern electronic devices. To replace electronic components with optical ones, an equivalent optical transistor is required. Here we compare the behavior of an optical transistor with the reflection from a photonic band gap structure in an electromagnetically induced transparency medium. A control signal is used to modulate the photonic band gap structure. Power variation of the control signal is used to provide an analogy between the reflection behavior caused by modulating the photonic band gap structure and the shifting of Q-point (Operation point) as well as amplification function of optical transistor. By means of the control signal, the switching function of optical transistor has also been realized. Such experimental schemes could have potential applications in making optical diode and optical transistor used in quantum information processing.

  13. Analogy of transistor function with modulating photonic band gap in electromagnetically induced grating

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhiguo; Ullah, Zakir; Gao, Mengqin; Zhang, Dan; Zhang, Yiqi; Gao, Hong; Zhang, Yanpeng

    2015-01-01

    Optical transistor is a device used to amplify and switch optical signals. Many researchers focus on replacing current computer components with optical equivalents, resulting in an optical digital computer system processing binary data. Electronic transistor is the fundamental building block of modern electronic devices. To replace electronic components with optical ones, an equivalent optical transistor is required. Here we compare the behavior of an optical transistor with the reflection from a photonic band gap structure in an electromagnetically induced transparency medium. A control signal is used to modulate the photonic band gap structure. Power variation of the control signal is used to provide an analogy between the reflection behavior caused by modulating the photonic band gap structure and the shifting of Q-point (Operation point) as well as amplification function of optical transistor. By means of the control signal, the switching function of optical transistor has also been realized. Such experimental schemes could have potential applications in making optical diode and optical transistor used in quantum information processing. PMID:26349444

  14. A steep-slope transistor based on abrupt electronic phase transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shukla, Nikhil; Thathachary, Arun V.; Agrawal, Ashish; Paik, Hanjong; Aziz, Ahmedullah; Schlom, Darrell G.; Gupta, Sumeet Kumar; Engel-Herbert, Roman; Datta, Suman

    2015-08-01

    Collective interactions in functional materials can enable novel macroscopic properties like insulator-to-metal transitions. While implementing such materials into field-effect-transistor technology can potentially augment current state-of-the-art devices by providing unique routes to overcome their conventional limits, attempts to harness the insulator-to-metal transition for high-performance transistors have experienced little success. Here, we demonstrate a pathway for harnessing the abrupt resistivity transformation across the insulator-to-metal transition in vanadium dioxide (VO2), to design a hybrid-phase-transition field-effect transistor that exhibits gate controlled steep (`sub-kT/q') and reversible switching at room temperature. The transistor design, wherein VO2 is implemented in series with the field-effect transistor's source rather than into the channel, exploits negative differential resistance induced across the VO2 to create an internal amplifier that facilitates enhanced performance over a conventional field-effect transistor. Our approach enables low-voltage complementary n-type and p-type transistor operation as demonstrated here, and is applicable to other insulator-to-metal transition materials, offering tantalizing possibilities for energy-efficient logic and memory applications.

  15. Submillimeter-Wave Amplifier Module with Integrated Waveguide Transitions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samoska, Lorene; Chattopadhyay, Goutam; Pukala, David; Gaier, Todd; Soria, Mary; ManFung, King; Deal, William; Mei, Gerry; Radisic, Vesna; Lai, Richard

    2009-01-01

    To increase the usefulness of monolithic millimeter-wave integrated circuit (MMIC) components at submillimeter-wave frequencies, a chip has been designed that incorporates two integrated, radial E-plane probes with an MMIC amplifier in between, thus creating a fully integrated waveguide module. The integrated amplifier chip has been fabricated in 35-nm gate length InP high-electron-mobility-transistor (HEMT) technology. The radial probes were mated to grounded coplanar waveguide input and output lines in the internal amplifier. The total length of the internal HEMT amplifier is 550 m, while the total integrated chip length is 1,085 m. The chip thickness is 50 m with the chip width being 320 m. The internal MMIC amplifier is biased through wire-bond connections to the gates and drains of the chip. The chip has 3 stages, employing 35-nm gate length transistors in each stage. Wire bonds from the DC drain and gate pads are connected to off-chip shunt 51-pF capacitors, and additional off-chip capacitors and resistors are added to the gate and drain bias lines for low-frequency stability of the amplifier. Additionally, bond wires to the grounded coplanar waveguide pads at the RF input and output of the internal amplifier are added to ensure good ground connections to the waveguide package. The S-parameters of the module, not corrected for input or output waveguide loss, are measured at the waveguide flange edges. The amplifier module has over 10 dB of gain from 290 to 330 GHz, with a peak gain of over 14 dB at 307 GHz. The WR2.2 waveguide cutoff is again observed at 268 GHz. The module is biased at a drain current of 27 mA, a drain voltage of 1.24 V, and a gate voltage of +0.21 V. Return loss of the module is very good between 5 to 25 dB. This result illustrates the usefulness of the integrated radial probe transition, and the wide (over 10-percent) bandwidth that one can expect for amplifier modules with integrated radial probes in the submillimeter-regime (>300 GHz).

  16. The microtubule transistor

    E-print Network

    H. C. Rosu

    2007-03-26

    I point out the similarity between the microtubule experiment reported by Priel et al [Biophys. J. 90, 4639 (2006)] and the ZnO nanowire experiment of Wang et al [Nanolett. 6, 2768 (2006)]. It is quite possible that MTs are similar to a piezoelectric field effect transistor for which the role of the control gate electrode is played by the piezo-induced electric field across the width of the MT walls and their elastic bending features

  17. Silicene transistors— A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quhe, Ru-Ge; Wang, Yang-Yang; Lü, Jing

    2015-08-01

    Free standing silicene is a two-dimensional silicon monolayer with a buckled honeycomb lattice and a Dirac band structure. Ever since its first successful synthesis in the laboratory, silicene has been considered as an option for post-silicon electronics, as an alternative to graphene and other two-dimensional materials. Despite its theoretical high carrier mobility, the zero band gap characteristic makes pure silicene impossible to use directly as a field effect transistor (FET) operating at room temperature. Here, we first review the theoretical approaches to open a band gap in silicene without diminishing its excellent electronic properties and the corresponding simulations of silicene transistors based on an opened band gap. An all-metallic silicene FET without an opened band gap is also introduced. The two chief obstacles for realization of a silicene transistor are silicene’s strong interaction with a metal template and its instability in air. In the final part, we briefly describe a recent experimental advance in fabrication of a proof-of-concept silicene device with Dirac ambipolar charge transport resembling a graphene FET, fabricated via a growth-transfer technique. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11274016, 11474012, and 1207141) and the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant Nos. 2013CB932604 and 2012CB619304).

  18. Laser amplifier and method

    DOEpatents

    Backus, S.; Kapteyn, H.C.; Murnane, M.M.

    1997-07-01

    Laser amplifiers and methods for amplifying a laser beam are disclosed. A representative embodiment of the amplifier comprises first and second curved mirrors, a gain medium, a third mirror, and a mask. The gain medium is situated between the first and second curved mirrors at the focal point of each curved mirror. The first curved mirror directs and focuses a laser beam to pass through the gain medium to the second curved mirror which reflects and recollimates the laser beam. The gain medium amplifies and shapes the laser beam as the laser beam passes therethrough. The third mirror reflects the laser beam, reflected from the second curved mirror, so that the laser beam bypasses the gain medium and return to the first curved mirror, thereby completing a cycle of a ring traversed by the laser beam. The mask defines at least one beam-clipping aperture through which the laser beam passes during a cycle. The gain medium is pumped, preferably using a suitable pumping laser. The laser amplifier can be used to increase the energy of continuous-wave or, especially, pulsed laser beams including pulses of femtosecond duration and relatively high pulse rate. 7 figs.

  19. Laser amplifier and method

    DOEpatents

    Backus, Sterling (Ann Arbor, MI); Kapteyn, Henry C. (Ann Arbor, MI); Murnane, Margaret M. (Ann Arbor, MI)

    1997-01-01

    Laser amplifiers and methods for amplifying a laser beam are disclosed. A representative embodiment of the amplifier comprises first and second curved mirrors, a gain medium, a third mirror, and a mask. The gain medium is situated between the first and second curved mirrors at the focal point of each curved mirror. The first curved mirror directs and focuses a laser beam to pass through the gain medium to the second curved mirror which reflects and recollimates the laser beam. The gain medium amplifies and shapes the laser beam as the laser beam passes therethough. The third mirror reflects the laser beam, reflected from the second curved mirror, so that the laser beam bypasses the gain medium and return to the first curved mirror, thereby completing a cycle of a ring traversed by the laser beam. The mask defines at least one beam-clipping aperture through which the laser beam passes during a cycle. The gain medium is pumped, preferably using a suitable pumping laser. The laser amplifier can be used to increase the energy of continuous-wave or, especially, pulsed laser beams including pulses of femtosecond duration and relatively high pulse rate.

  20. Electrospun Amplified Fiber Optics

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    All-optical signal processing is the focus of much research aiming to obtain effective alternatives to existing data transmission platforms. Amplification of light in fiber optics, such as in Erbium-doped fiber amplifiers, is especially important for efficient signal transmission. However, the complex fabrication methods involving high-temperature processes performed in a highly pure environment slow the fabrication process and make amplified components expensive with respect to an ideal, high-throughput, room temperature production. Here, we report on near-infrared polymer fiber amplifiers working over a band of ?20 nm. The fibers are cheap, spun with a process entirely carried out at room temperature, and shown to have amplified spontaneous emission with good gain coefficients and low levels of optical losses (a few cm–1). The amplification process is favored by high fiber quality and low self-absorption. The found performance metrics appear to be suitable for short-distance operations, and the large variety of commercially available doping dyes might allow for effective multiwavelength operations by electrospun amplified fiber optics. PMID:25710188

  1. A Bio-Polymer Transistor: Electrical Amplification by Microtubules

    E-print Network

    Avner Priel; Arnolt J. Ramos; Jack A. Tuszynski; Horacio F. Cantiello

    2006-06-09

    Microtubules (MTs) are important cytoskeletal structures, engaged in a number of specific cellular activities, including vesicular traffic, cell cyto-architecture and motility, cell division, and information processing within neuronal processes. MTs have also been implicated in higher neuronal functions, including memory, and the emergence of "consciousness". How MTs handle and process electrical information, however, is heretofore unknown. Here we show new electrodynamic properties of MTs. Isolated, taxol-stabilized microtubules behave as bio-molecular transistors capable of amplifying electrical information. Electrical amplification by MTs can lead to the enhancement of dynamic information, and processivity in neurons can be conceptualized as an "ionic-based" transistor, which may impact among other known functions, neuronal computational capabilities.

  2. SLUG Microwave Amplifier: Theory

    E-print Network

    Ribeill, G J; Chen, Y -F; Zhu, S; McDermott, R

    2011-01-01

    We describe a novel scheme for low-noise phase-insensitive linear amplification at microwave frequencies based on the Superconducting Low-inductance Undulatory Galvanometer (SLUG). Direct integration of the junction equations of motion provides access to the full scattering matrix of the SLUG. We discuss the optimization of SLUG amplifiers and calculate amplifier gain and noise temperature in both the thermal and quantum regimes. Loading of the SLUG element by the finite input admittance is taken into account, and strategies for decoupling the SLUG from the higher-order modes of the input circuit are discussed. The microwave SLUG amplifier is expected to achieve noise performance approaching the standard quantum limit in the frequency range from 5-10 GHz, with gain around 15 dB for a single-stage device and instantaneous bandwidths of order 1 GHz.

  3. SLUG Microwave Amplifier: Theory

    E-print Network

    G. J. Ribeill; D. Hover; Y. -F. Chen; S. Zhu; R. McDermott

    2011-06-30

    We describe a novel scheme for low-noise phase-insensitive linear amplification at microwave frequencies based on the Superconducting Low-inductance Undulatory Galvanometer (SLUG). Direct integration of the junction equations of motion provides access to the full scattering matrix of the SLUG. We discuss the optimization of SLUG amplifiers and calculate amplifier gain and noise temperature in both the thermal and quantum regimes. Loading of the SLUG element by the finite input admittance is taken into account, and strategies for decoupling the SLUG from the higher-order modes of the input circuit are discussed. The microwave SLUG amplifier is expected to achieve noise performance approaching the standard quantum limit in the frequency range from 5-10 GHz, with gain around 15 dB for a single-stage device and instantaneous bandwidths of order 1 GHz.

  4. A grid amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Moonil; Weikle, Robert M., II; Hacker, Jonathan B.; Delisio, Michael P.; Rutledge, David B.; Rosenberg, James J.; Smith, R. P.

    1991-01-01

    A 50-MESFET grid amplifier is reported that has a gain of 11 dB at 3.3 GHz. The grid isolates the input from the output by using vertical polarization for the input beam and horizontal polarization for the transmitted output beam. The grid unit cell is a two-MESFET differential amplifier. A simple calibration procedure allows the gain to be calculated from a relative power measurement. This grid is a hybrid circuit, but the structure is suitable for fabrication as a monolithic wafer-scale integrated circuit, particularly at millimeter wavelengths.

  5. CARBON NANOTUBE TRANSISTORS: AN EVALUATION

    E-print Network

    Pulfrey, David L.

    -effect transistors. It is shown that, by appropriate work function engineering of the source, drain and gate contacts transistors and interconnects.1 Such circuits would be of a different form from that of today's silicon by atomic force microscopy,12 but recent reports of covalent chemical functionalization could make this task

  6. Superconducting Field-Effect Transistors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhasin, Kul; Romanofsky, Robert R.; Tabib-Azar, Massood

    1995-01-01

    Devices offer switching speeds greater than semiconducting counterparts. High-Tc superconducting field-effect transistors (SUPEFETs) investigated for use as electronic switches in delay-line-type microwave phase shifters. Resemble semiconductor field-effect transistors in some respects, but their operation based on different principle; namely, electric-field control of transition between superconductivity and normal conductivity.

  7. Cryogenetically Cooled Field Effect Transistors for Low-Noise Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wollack, Edward J.; Rabin, Douglas M. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Recent tends in the design, fabrication and use of High-Electron-Mobility-Transistors (HEMT) in low noise amplifiers are reviewed. Systems employing these devices have achieved the lowest system noise for wavelengths greater than three millimeters with relatively modest cryogenic cooling requirements in a variety of ground and space based applications. System requirements which arise in employing such devices in imaging applications are contrasted with other leading coherent detector candidates at microwave wavelengths. Fundamental and practical limitations which arise in the context of microwave application of field effect devices at cryogenic temperatures will be discussed from a component and systems point of view.

  8. Cryogenically Cooled Field Effect Transistors for Low-Noise Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wollack, Edward J.

    2002-01-01

    Recent tends in the design, fabrication and use of High-Electron-Mobility-Transistors (HEMT) in low noise amplifiers are reviewed. Systems employing these devices have achieved the lowest system noise for wavelengths greater than three millimeters with relatively modest cryogenic cooling requirements in a variety of ground and space based applications. System requirements which arise in employing such devices in imaging applications are contrasted with other leading coherent detector candidates at microwave wavelengths. Fundamental and practical limitations which arise in the context of microwave application of field effect devices at cryogenic temperatures will be discussed from a component and systems point of view.

  9. A photonic transistor device based on photons and phonons in a cavity electromechanical system

    E-print Network

    Cheng Jiang; Ka-Di Zhu

    2012-09-21

    We present a scheme for photonic transistors based on photons and phonons in a cavity electromechanical system, which is consisted of a superconducting microwave cavity coupled to a nanomechanical resonator. Control of the propagation of photons is achieved through the interaction of microwave field (photons) and nanomechanical vibrations (phonons). By calculating the transmission spectrum of the signal field, we show that the signal field can be efficiently attenuated or amplified, depending on the power of a second `gating'(pump) field. This scheme may be a promising candidate for single-photon transistors and pave the way for numerous applications in telecommunication and quantum information technologies.

  10. Power transistor switching characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackburn, D. L.

    1981-01-01

    The switching properties of power transistors are investigated. The devices studied were housed in IO-3 cases and were of an n(+)-p-n(-)-n(+) vertical dopant structure. The effects of the magnitude of the reverse-base current and temperature on the reverse-bias second breakdown characteristics are discussed. Brief discussions of device degradation due to second breakdown and of a constant voltage turn-off circuit are included. A description of a vacuum tube voltage clamp circuit which reduces clamped collector voltage overshoot is given.

  11. Performance of SiGe-HBTs and its amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senapati, B.; Maiti, C. K.

    2001-11-01

    Wireless communication systems require radiofrequency integrated circuit implementation of high performance front-end receiver at a low cost. In this paper, suitability of silicon-germanium heterojunction bipolar transistors (SiGe-HBTs) is examined. DC characterization both at room and low temperature have been performed. A single-stage SiGe-HBT amplifier has been designed and fabricated on Duroid board. A linear gain of 13.2 dB at a center frequency of 1.5 GHz has been obtained.

  12. Fourier plane image amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Hackel, L.A.; Hermann, M.R.; Dane, C.B.; Tiszauer, D.H.

    1995-12-12

    A solid state laser is frequency tripled to 0.3 {micro}m. A small portion of the laser is split off and generates a Stokes seed in a low power oscillator. The low power output passes through a mask with the appropriate hole pattern. Meanwhile, the bulk of the laser output is focused into a larger stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) amplifier. The low power beam is directed through the same cell in the opposite direction. The majority of the amplification takes place at the focus which is the fourier transform plane of the mask image. The small holes occupy large area at the focus and thus are preferentially amplified. The amplified output is now imaged onto the multichip module where the holes are drilled. Because of the fourier plane amplifier, only about 1/10th the power of a competitive system is needed. This concept allows less expensive masks to be used in the process and requires much less laser power. 1 fig.

  13. Fourier plane image amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Hackel, Lloyd A. (Livermore, CA); Hermann, Mark R. (San Ramon, CA); Dane, C. Brent (Livermore, CA); Tiszauer, Detlev H. (Tracy, CA)

    1995-01-01

    A solid state laser is frequency tripled to 0.3 .mu.m. A small portion of the laser is split off and generates a Stokes seed in a low power oscillator. The low power output passes through a mask with the appropriate hole pattern. Meanwhile, the bulk of the laser output is focused into a larger stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) amplifier. The low power beam is directed through the same cell in the opposite direction. The majority of the amplification takes place at the focus which is the fourier transform plane of the mask image. The small holes occupy large area at the focus and thus are preferentially amplified. The amplified output is now imaged onto the multichip module where the holes are drilled. Because of the fourier plane amplifier, only .about.1/10th the power of a competitive system is needed. This concept allows less expensive masks to be used in the process and requires much less laser power.

  14. Nanovolt Amplifier User's Guide

    E-print Network

    Burns, Michael J.

    . · Two 12 volt batteries. These may be lantern batteries, car batteries or lead-acid gel-packs such as the type that dataloggers use. The amplifier should have its own pair of 12 volt batteries without any as in the winder in areas that see snow or severe cold. STEP 1: Battery check The first step is to check

  15. PASOTRON amplifier experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponti, Elmira S.; Goebel, Dan M.; Feicht, Jon R.; Santoru, Joseph; Eisenhart, Robert L.

    1995-09-01

    Preliminary experimental studies are reported of an L-band amplifier based on Hughes' plasma-assisted, slow-wave oscillator (PASOTRON) technology. The amplifier system utilizes a hollow-cathode-plasma electron-gun, and a plasma-filled slow-wave structure (SWS) to produce >= 100 microsecond(s) ec-long, 50 to 75 kV, 30 to 100-A electron beam pulses that propagate in a plasma channel without the use of any externally applied axial magnetic field. The electron-beam pulse coincides with a 100-microsecond(s) ec-long RF drive signal provided by a 2.6-kW TWT, which is coupled into the amplifier upstream of the SWS. The SWS consists of a ring-bar design which is novel to the PASOTRON family of devices and is used for its short length compared to a helix. Simulations of HP's high frequency structure simulator were used to optimize the ring-bar SWS. Preliminary data are reported showing the new L-band amplifier's gain, power, efficiency, and bandwidth. Methods of eliminating a backward wave oscillation, which was found to limit the performance of the tube, are also presented.

  16. Multipass amplifiers of POLARIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keppler, S.; Wandt, C.; Hornung, M.; Bödefeld, R.; Kessler, A.; Sävert, A.; Hellwing, M.; Schorcht, F.; Hein, J.; Kaluza, M. C.

    2013-05-01

    Advanced high intensity laser matter interaction experiments always call for optimized laser performance. In order to further enhance the POLARIS laser system, operational at the University of Jena and the Helmholtz-Institute Jena, in particular its energy, bandwidth and focusability, new amplifier technologies have been developed and are reported here. Additionally, existing sections were considerably improved. A new multi-pass amplification stage, which is able to replace two currently used ones, was developed in close collaboration with the MPQ (Garching). The new basic elements of this amplifier are well homogenized pump modules and the application of a successive imaging principle. By operating the amplifier under vacuum conditions a top hat beam profile with an output energy of up to 1.5 J per pulse is foreseen. The already implemented POLARIS amplifier A4 was further improved by adapting an advanced method for the homogenization of the multi-spot composed pump profile. The new method comprises a computer-based evolutionary algorithm which optimizes the position of the different spots regarding its individual size, shape and intensity. The latter allowed a better homogenization of the POLARIS near field profile.

  17. Characterizing the Switching Thresholds of Magnetophoretic Transistors.

    PubMed

    Abedini-Nassab, Roozbeh; Joh, Daniel Y; Van Heest, Melissa A; Yi, John S; Baker, Cody; Taherifard, Zohreh; Margolis, David M; Garcia, J Victor; Chilkoti, Ashutosh; Murdoch, David M; Yellen, Benjamin B

    2015-10-01

    The switching thresholds of magnetophoretic transistors for sorting cells in microfluidic environments are characterized. The transistor operating conditions require short 20-30 mA pulses of electrical current. By demonstrating both attractive and repulsive transistor modes, a single transistor architecture is used to implement the full write cycle for importing and exporting single cells in specified array sites. PMID:26349853

  18. Transistor Basics I PHYS 309 Name

    E-print Network

    Herman, Rhett

    Transistor Basics I PHYS 309 Name: A. Introduction Transistors are the heart of all of our modern.6 quantum mechanical "cost" they impose. Transistors that sandwich two p-type semiconductor layers around one layer of n-type are called "pnp transistors." Conversely, two n-type semiconductors sandwiched

  19. Ballistic deflection transistors and their application to THz amplification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margala, M.; Wu, H.; Sobolewski, Roman

    2015-10-01

    We present implementation of recently proposed ballistic deflection transistors (BDTs) as THz amplifiers. BDT is a planar device based on InGaAs/InAlAs/InP heterostructure with quasi-ballistic transport obtained in the two-dimensional electron gas layer that facilitates ultra-short transit time and high performance needed for THz-range circuitry. The BDT performance is optimized through its structural modification and the use of high-k dielectrics. Our time-domain, electrical transient measurements demonstrate sub-THz switching performance of a BDT with a ?1-?m-wide channel. Independently, circuit simulations using experimental parameters of BDTs with a channel width of 430 nm and with the BDTs themselves connected as a multi-stage travelling-wave amplifier, designed for 6-dB gain, predict a 2.7- THz bandwidth with a gain flatness of ±0.3 dB.

  20. A Matterwave Transistor Oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caliga, Seth; Straatsma, Cameron; Anderson, Dana

    2013-05-01

    We perform experiments with an Rb87 Bose-condensed gas in a magnetic trap separated into three regions by a pair of blue-detuned optical barriers, forming a transistor-like structure having large ``source'' and ``drain'' regions separated by a narrow ``gate'' region. A condensate is produced in the source by forced RF evaporative cooling. While atom number and chemical potential of the source atoms are determined by traditional time of flight methods, we observe the flux and energy of the drain atoms emerging from the gate-drain barrier with a high resolution (NA = 0.6) in-trap absorption imaging system. Asymmetric cooling of the trap causes a thermo-mechanically induced superfluid current to flow from the source to the gate over the source-gate barrier. Feedback through superfluid coupling between the source and the gate maintains near equality of the source and gate chemical potentials while superfluid flow continues to cause atoms to emerge from the gate into the drain. A resonant ``terminator'' beam illuminating the drain region effectively couples emerging gate atoms to the vacuum. By turning off the terminator beam shortly before snapping an absorption image we determine both the atom flux and the atom energy. With an appropriate choice of cooling schedule, barrier heights, and separations, the gate emits a monoenergetic beam of atoms. We establish that this system is a superfluid analog of an antenna-coupled transistor-oscillator circuit in which the dual of the electromagnetic wave is a matterwave.

  1. Cryogenic amplifier for fast real-time detection of single-electron tunneling I. T. Vink,a

    E-print Network

    Cryogenic amplifier for fast real-time detection of single-electron tunneling I. T. Vink,a T August 2007; published online 20 September 2007 The authors employ a cryogenic high electron mobility a high electron mobility transistor HEMT operated in dc as a cryogenic preamplifier.17 Com- pared to a RT

  2. Special Component Designs for Differential-Amplifier MMICs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kangaslahti, Pekka

    2010-01-01

    Special designs of two types of electronic components transistors and transmission lines have been conceived to optimize the performances of these components as parts of waveguide-embedded differential-amplifier monolithic microwave integrated circuits (MMICs) of the type described in the immediately preceding article. These designs address the following two issues, the combination of which is unique to these particular MMICs: Each MMIC includes a differential double-strip transmission line that typically has an impedance between 60 and 100 W. However, for purposes of matching of impedances, transmission lines having lower impedances are also needed. The transistors in each MMIC are, more specifically, one or more pair(s) of InP-based high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs). Heretofore, it has been common practice to fabricate each such pair as a single device configured in the side-to-side electrode sequence source/gate/drain/gate/source. This configuration enables low-inductance source grounding from the sides of the device. However, this configuration is not suitable for differential operation, in which it is necessary to drive the gates differentially and to feed the output from the drain electrodes differentially. The special transmission-line design provides for three conductors, instead of two, in places where lower impedance is needed. The third conductor is a metal strip placed underneath the differential double-strip transmission line. The third conductor increases the capacitance per unit length of the transmission line by such an amount as to reduce the impedance to between 5 and 15 W. In the special HEMT-pair design, the side-to-side electrode sequence is changed to drain/gate/source/gate/ drain. In addition, the size of the source is reduced significantly, relative to corresponding sizes in prior designs. This reduction is justified by the fact that, by virtue of the differential configuration, the device has an internal virtual ground, and therefore there is no need for a low-resistance contact between the source and the radio-frequency circuitry. The source contact is needed only for DC biasing. These designs were implemented in a single-stage-amplifier MMIC. In a test at a frequency of 305 GHz, the amplifier embedded in a waveguide exhibited a gain of 0 dB; after correcting for the loss in the waveguide, the amplifier was found to afford a gain of 0.9 dB. In a test at 220 GHz, the overall gain of the amplifier- and-waveguide assembly was found to be 3.5 dB.

  3. Superfunctions for Amplifiers Dmitrii KOUZNETSOV

    E-print Network

    Kouznetsov, Dmitrii

    Superfunctions for Amplifiers Dmitrii KOUZNETSOV Ã? Institute of Laser Science, University) An amplifier is characterized by its transfer function T, which expresses the dependence of the output signal similar physical quantity. The internal structure of the amplified signal (e.g., its spectral content

  4. Differential Amplifier for use with

    E-print Network

    Sprott, Julien Clinton

    Differential Amplifier for use with Attenuated Probes Clint Sprott December 17, 1964 University of Wisconsin Thermonuclear Plasma Studies PLP 43 Copy No. 3, #12;Introduction: Differential Amplifier for use a factor of ten. Using the probe shown in Fig. 1 and the cathode follower amplifier circuit shown in Fig. 3

  5. Current vs. Voltage Feedback Amplifiers

    E-print Network

    Papavassiliou, Christos

    Current vs. Voltage Feedback Amplifiers One question continuously troubles the analog design engi- neer: 'Which amplifier topology is better for my application, current feedback or voltage feedback) are not apparent. Today's CFB and VFB amplifiers have comparable performance, but there are cer- tain unique

  6. Improved-Bandwidth Transimpedance Amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapsky, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    The widest available operational amplifier, with the best voltage and current noise characteristics, is considered for transimpedance amplifier (TIA) applications where wide bandwidth is required to handle fast rising input signals (as for time-of-flight measurement cases). The added amplifier inside the TIA feedback loop can be configured to have slightly lower voltage gain than the bandwidth reduction factor.

  7. Monolithic dye laser amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Kuklo, Thomas C. (Ripon, CA)

    1993-01-01

    A fluid dye laser amplifier for amplifying a dye beam by pump beams has a channel structure defining a channel through which a laseable fluid flows and the dye and pump beams pass transversely to one another through a lasing region. The channel structure is formed with two pairs of mutually spaced-apart and mutually confronting glass windows, which are interlocked and make surface-contacts with one another and surround the lasing region. One of the glass window pairs passes the dye beam and the other passes the pump beams therethrough and through the lasing region. Where these glass window pieces make surface-contacts, glue is used to join the pieces together to form a monolithic structure so as to prevent the dye in the fluid passing through the channel from entering the space between the mutually contacting glass window pieces.

  8. Monolithic dye laser amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Kuklo, T.C.

    1993-03-30

    A fluid dye laser amplifier for amplifying a dye beam by pump beams has a channel structure defining a channel through which a laseable fluid flows and the dye and pump beams pass transversely to one another through a lasing region. The channel structure is formed with two pairs of mutually spaced-apart and mutually confronting glass windows, which are interlocked and make surface-contacts with one another and surround the lasing region. One of the glass window pairs passes the dye beam and the other passes the pump beams therethrough and through the lasing region. Where these glass window pieces make surface-contacts, glue is used to join the pieces together to form a monolithic structure so as to prevent the dye in the fluid passing through the channel from entering the space between the mutually contacting glass window pieces.

  9. Helical Fiber Amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Koplow, Jeffrey P. (Washington, DC); Kliner, Dahy (San Ramon, CA); Goldberg, Lew (Fairfax, VA)

    2002-12-17

    A multi-mode gain fiber is provided which affords substantial improvements in the maximum pulse energy, peak power handling capabilities, average output power, and/or pumping efficiency of fiber amplifier and laser sources while maintaining good beam quality (comparable to that of a conventional single-mode fiber source). These benefits are realized by coiling the multimode gain fiber to induce significant bend loss for all but the lowest-order mode(s).

  10. High voltage electrical amplifier having a short rise time

    DOEpatents

    Christie, David J. (Pleasanton, CA); Dallum, Gregory E. (Livermore, CA)

    1991-01-01

    A circuit, comprising an amplifier and a transformer is disclosed that produces a high power pulse having a fast response time, and that responds to a digital control signal applied through a digital-to-analog converter. The present invention is suitable for driving a component such as an electro-optic modulator with a voltage in the kilovolt range. The circuit is stable at high frequencies and during pulse transients, and its impedance matching circuit matches the load impedance with the output impedance. The preferred embodiment comprises an input stage compatible with high-speed semiconductor components for amplifying the voltage of the input control signal, a buffer for isolating the input stage from the output stage; and a plurality of current amplifiers connected to the buffer. Each current amplifier is connected to a field effect transistor (FET), which switches a high voltage power supply to a transformer which then provides an output terminal for driving a load. The transformer comprises a plurality of transmission lines connected to the FETs and the load. The transformer changes the impedance and voltage of the output. The preferred embodiment also comprises a low voltage power supply for biasing the FETs at or near an operational voltage.

  11. Near-Quantum-Limited SQUID Amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clarke, John

    2009-03-01

    The SET (Single-Electron Transistor), which detects charge, is the dual of the SQUID (Superconducting QUantum Interference Device), which detects flux. In 1998, Schoelkopf and co-workers introduced the RFSET, which uses a resonance circuit to increase the frequency response to the 100-MHz range. The same year saw the introduction of the Microstrip SQUID Amplifier^1 (MSA) in which the input coil forms a microstrip with the SQUID washer, thereby extending the operating frequency to the gigahertz range. I briefly describe the theory of SQUID amplifiers involving a tuned input circuit with resonant frequency f. For an optimized SQUID at temperature T, the power gain and noise temperature are approximately G = fp/?f and TN = 20T(f/fp), respectively; fp is the plasma frequency of one of the Josephson junctions. Because the SQUID voltage and current noise are correlated, however, the optimum noise temperature is at a frequency below resonance. For a phase-preserving amplifier, TN = (.5ex1-.1em/ -.15em.25ex2 + A)hf/kB, where Caves' added noise number A = .5ex1-.1em/ -.15em.25ex2 at the quantum limit. Simulations based on the quantum Langevin equation (QLE) suggest that the SQUID amplifier should attain A = .5ex1-.1em/ -.15em.25ex2 . We have measured the gain and noise of an MSA in which the resistive shunts of the junctions are coupled to cooling fins to reduce hot electron effects. The minimum value A = 1.1 ± 0.2 occurs at a frequency below resonance. On resonance, the value A = 1.5 ± 0.3 is close to the predictions of the QLE, suggesting that this model may fail to predict the cross-correlated noise term correctly. Indeed, recent work suggests that a fully quantum mechanical theory is required to account properly for this term^2. This work is in collaboration with D. Kinion and supported by DOE BES. ^1M. Mueck, et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 72, 2885 (1998). ^2A. Clerk, et al., http://arxiv.org/abs/0810.4729.

  12. High transconductance organic electrochemical transistors

    PubMed Central

    Khodagholy, Dion; Rivnay, Jonathan; Sessolo, Michele; Gurfinkel, Moshe; Leleux, Pierre; Jimison, Leslie H.; Stavrinidou, Eleni; Herve, Thierry; Sanaur, Sébastien; Owens, Róisín M.; Malliaras, George G.

    2013-01-01

    The development of transistors with high gain is essential for applications ranging from switching elements and drivers to transducers for chemical and biological sensing. Organic transistors have become well-established based on their distinct advantages, including ease of fabrication, synthetic freedom for chemical functionalization, and the ability to take on unique form factors. These devices, however, are largely viewed as belonging to the low-end of the performance spectrum. Here we present organic electrochemical transistors with a transconductance in the mS range, outperforming transistors from both traditional and emerging semiconductors. The transconductance of these devices remains fairly constant from DC up to a frequency of the order of 1?kHz, a value determined by the process of ion transport between the electrolyte and the channel. These devices, which continue to work even after being crumpled, are predicted to be highly relevant as transducers in biosensing applications. PMID:23851620

  13. High-Power, High-Frequency Si-Based (SiGe) Transistors Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponchak, George E.

    2002-01-01

    Future NASA, DOD, and commercial products will require electronic circuits that have greater functionality and versatility but occupy less space and cost less money to build and integrate than current products. System on a Chip (SOAC), a single semiconductor substrate containing circuits that perform many functions or containing an entire system, is widely recognized as the best technology for achieving low-cost, small-sized systems. Thus, a circuit technology is required that can gather, process, store, and transmit data or communications. Since silicon-integrated circuits are already used for data processing and storage and the infrastructure that supports silicon circuit fabrication is very large, it is sensible to develop communication circuits on silicon so that all the system functions can be integrated onto a single wafer. Until recently, silicon integrated circuits did not function well at the frequencies required for wireless or microwave communications, but with the introduction of small amounts of germanium into the silicon to make silicon-germanium (SiGe) transistors, silicon-based communication circuits are possible. Although microwavefrequency SiGe circuits have been demonstrated, there has been difficulty in obtaining the high power from their transistors that is required for the amplifiers of a transmitter, and many researchers have thought that this could not be done. The NASA Glenn Research Center and collaborators at the University of Michigan have developed SiGe transistors and amplifiers with state-of-the-art output power at microwave frequencies from 8 to 20 GHz. These transistors are fabricated using standard silicon processing and may be integrated with CMOS integrated circuits on a single chip. A scanning electron microscope image of a typical SiGe heterojunction bipolar transistor is shown in the preceding photomicrograph. This transistor achieved a record output power of 550 mW and an associated power-added efficiency of 33 percent at 8.4 GHz, as shown. Record performance was also demonstrated at 12.6 and 18 GHz. Developers have combined these state-of-the-art transistors with transmission lines and micromachined passive circuit components, such as inductors and capacitors, to build multistage amplifiers. Currently, a 1-W, 8.4-GHz power amplifier is being built for NASA deep space communication architectures.

  14. High-Efficiency Harmonically Terminated Diode and Transistor Rectifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Roberg, M; Reveyrand, T; Ramos, I; Falkenstein, EA; Popovic, Z

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents a theoretical analysis of harmonically terminated high-efficiency power rectifiers and experimental validation on a class-C single Schottky-diode rectifier and a class-F-1 GaN transistor rectifier. The theory is based on a Fourier analysis of current and voltage waveforms, which arise across the rectifying element when different harmonic terminations are presented at its terminals. An analogy to harmonically terminated power amplifier (PA) theory is discussed. From the analysis, one can obtain an optimal value for the dc load given the RF circuit design. An upper limit on rectifier efficiency is derived for each case as a function of the device on-resistance. Measured results from fundamental frequency source-pull measurement of a Schottky diode rectifier with short-circuit terminations at the second and third harmonics are presented. A maximal device rectification efficiency of 72.8% at 2.45 GHz matches the theoretical prediction. A 2.14-GHz GaN HEMT rectifier is designed based on a class-F-1 PA. The gate of the transistor is terminated in an optimal impedance for self-synchronous rectification. Measurements of conversion efficiency and output dc voltage for varying gate RF impedance, dc load, and gate bias are shown with varying input RF power at the drain. The rectifier demonstrates an efficiency of 85% for a 10-W input RF power at the transistor drain with a dc voltage of 30 V across a 98-Omega resistor.

  15. Properties and Applications of Varistor-Transistor Hybrid Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandey, R. K.; Stapleton, William A.; Sutanto, Ivan; Scantlin, Amanda A.; Lin, Sidney

    2014-05-01

    The nonlinear current-voltage characteristics of a varistor device are modified with the help of external agents, resulting in tuned varistor-transistor hybrid devices with multiple applications. The substrate used to produce these hybrid devices belongs to the modified iron titanate family with chemical formula 0.55FeTiO3·0.45Fe2O3 (IHC45), which is a prominent member of the ilmenite-hematite solid-solution series. It is a wide-bandgap magnetic oxide semiconductor. Electrical resistivity and Seebeck coefficient measurements from room temperature to about 700°C confirm that it retains its p-type nature for the entire temperature range. The direct-current (DC) and alternating-current (AC) properties of these hybrid devices are discussed and their applications identified. It is shown here that such varistor embedded ceramic transistors with many interesting properties and applications can be mass produced using incredibly simple structures. The tuned varistors by themselves can be used for current amplification and band-pass filters. The transistors on the other hand could be used to produce sensors, voltage-controlled current sources, current-controlled voltage sources, signal amplifiers, and low-band-pass filters. We believe that these devices could be suitable for a number of applications in consumer and defense electronics, high-temperature and space electronics, bioelectronics, and possibly also for electronics specific to handheld devices.

  16. Solder Bonding for Power Transistors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snytsheuvel, H. A.; Mandel, H.

    1985-01-01

    Indium solder boosts power rating and facilitates circuit changes. Efficient heat conduction from power transistor to heat sink provided by layer of indium solder. Low melting point of indium solder (141 degrees C) allows power transistor to be removed, if circuit must be reworked, without disturbing other components mounted with ordinary solder that melts at 181 degrees C. Solder allows devices operated at higher power levels than does conventional attachment by screws.

  17. Few-layer molybdenum disulfide transistors and circuits for high-speed flexible electronics

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Rui; Jiang, Shan; Chen, Yu; Liu, Yuan; Weiss, Nathan; Cheng, Hung-Chieh; Wu, Hao; Huang, Yu; Duan, Xiangfeng

    2014-01-01

    Two-dimensional layered materials, such as molybdenum disulfide, are emerging as an exciting material system for future electronics due to their unique electronic properties and atomically thin geometry. Here we report a systematic investigation of MoS2 transistors with optimized contact and device geometry, to achieve self-aligned devices with performance including an intrinsic gain over 30, an intrinsic cut-off frequency fT up to 42 GHz and a maximum oscillation frequency fMAX up to 50 GHz, exceeding the reported values for MoS2 transistors to date (fT ~ 0.9 GHz, fMAX ~ 1 GHz). Our results show that logic inverters or radio frequency amplifiers can be formed by integrating multiple MoS2 transistors on quartz or flexible substrates with voltage gain in the gigahertz regime. This study demonstrates the potential of two-dimensional layered semiconductors for high-speed flexible electronics. PMID:25295573

  18. A pH sensor with a double-gate silicon nanowire field-effect transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Jae-Hyuk; Kim, Jee-Yeon; Seol, Myeong-Lok; Baek, David J.; Guo, Zheng; Kim, Chang-Hoon; Choi, Sung-Jin; Choi, Yang-Kyu

    2013-02-01

    A pH sensor composed of a double-gate silicon nanowire field-effect transistor (DG Si-NW FET) is demonstrated. The proposed DG Si-NW FET allows the independent addressing of the gate voltage and hence improves the sensing capability through an application of asymmetric gate voltage between the two gates. One gate is a driving gate which controls the current flow, and the other is a supporting gate which amplifies the shift of the threshold voltage, which is a sensing metric, and which arises from changes in the pH. The pH signal is also amplified through modulation of the gate oxide thickness.

  19. PHEMT as a circuit element for high impedance nanopower amplifiers for ultra-low temperatures application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korolev, A. M.; Shulga, V. M.; Gritsenko, I. A.; Sheshin, G. A.

    2015-04-01

    In this work, high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) was studied as a circuit element for amplifiers operating at temperatures of the order of 10-100 mK. To characterize the HEMT, the relative parameters are proposed to be used. HEMT characteristics were measured at a temperature of 50 mK for the first time. It follows from the reported studies that the power consumption of high-impedance HEMT-based amplifiers can be reduced down to hundreds of nanowatt or even lower.

  20. The Use of a Solid State Analog Television Transmitter as a Superconducting Electron Gun Power Amplifier

    SciTech Connect

    J.G. Kulpin, K.J. Kleman, R.A. Legg

    2012-07-01

    A solid state analog television transmitter designed for 200 MHz operation is being commissioned as a radio frequency power amplifier on the Wisconsin superconducting electron gun cavity. The amplifier consists of three separate radio frequency power combiner cabinets and one monitor and control cabinet. The transmitter employs rugged field effect transistors built into one kilowatt drawers that are individually hot swappable at maximum continuous power output. The total combined power of the transmitter system is 33 kW at 200 MHz, output through a standard coaxial transmission line. A low level radio frequency system is employed to digitally synthesize the 200 MHz signal and precisely control amplitude and phase.

  1. Evolvable circuit with transistor-level reconfigurability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoica, Adrian (Inventor); Salazar-Lazaro, Carlos Harold (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    An evolvable circuit includes a plurality of reconfigurable switches, a plurality of transistors within a region of the circuit, the plurality of transistors having terminals, the plurality of transistors being coupled between a power source terminal and a power sink terminal so as to be capable of admitting power between the power source terminal and the power sink terminal, the plurality of transistors being coupled so that every transistor terminal to transistor terminal coupling within the region of the circuit comprises a reconfigurable switch.

  2. Quantum entanglement degrees amplifier

    E-print Network

    Wu, Xiang-Yao; Liu, Xiao-Jing; Liang, Yu; Meng, Xiang-Dong; Li, Hong; Zhang, Si-Qi

    2015-01-01

    The quantum entangled degrees of entangled states become smaller with the transmission distance increasing, how to keep the purity of quantum entangled states is the puzzle in quantum communication. In the paper, we have designed a new type entanglement degrees amplifier by one-dimensional photonic crystal, which is similar as the relay station of classical electromagnetic communication. We find when the entangled states of two-photon and three-photon pass through photonic crystal, their entanglement degrees can be magnified, which make the entanglement states can be long range propagation and the quantum communication can be really realized.

  3. Amplifying Electrochemical Indicators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fan, Wenhong; Li, Jun; Han, Jie

    2004-01-01

    Dendrimeric reporter compounds have been invented for use in sensing and amplifying electrochemical signals from molecular recognition events that involve many chemical and biological entities. These reporter compounds can be formulated to target specific molecules or molecular recognition events. They can also be formulated to be, variously, hydrophilic or amphiphilic so that they are suitable for use at interfaces between (1) aqueous solutions and (2) electrodes connected to external signal-processing electronic circuits. The invention of these reporter compounds is expected to enable the development of highly miniaturized, low-power-consumption, relatively inexpensive, mass-producible sensor units for diverse applications.

  4. Universal Signal Conditioning Amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinney, Frank

    1997-01-01

    The Technological Research and Development Authority (TRDA) and NASA-KSC entered into a cooperative agreement in March of 1994 to achieve the utilization and commercialization of a technology development for benefiting both the Space Program and U.S. industry on a "dual-use basis". The technology involved in this transfer is a new, unique Universal Conditioning Amplifier (USCA) used in connection with various types of transducers. The project was initiated in partnership with I-Net Corporation, Lockheed Martin Telemetry & Instrumentation (formerly Loral Test and Information Systems) and Brevard Community College. The project consists of designing, miniaturizing, manufacturing, and testing an existing prototype of USCA that was developed for NASA-KSC by the I-Net Corporation. The USCA is a rugged and field-installable self (or remotely)- programmable amplifier that works in combination with a tag random access memory (RAM) attached to various types of transducers. This summary report comprises performance evaluations, TRDA partnership tasks, a project summary, project milestones and results.

  5. DIAMOND AMPLIFIED PHOTOCATHODES.

    SciTech Connect

    SMEDLEY,J.; BEN-ZVI, I.; BOHON, J.; CHANG, X.; GROVER, R.; ISAKOVIC, A.; RAO, T.; WU, Q.

    2007-11-26

    High-average-current linear electron accelerators require photoinjectors capable of delivering tens to hundreds of mA average current, with peak currents of hundreds of amps. Standard photocathodes face significant challenges in meeting these requirements, and often have short operational lifetimes in an accelerator environment. We report on recent progress toward development of secondary emission amplifiers for photocathodes, which are intended to increase the achievable average current while protecting the cathode from the accelerator. The amplifier is a thin diamond wafer which converts energetic (few keV) primary electrons into hundreds of electron-hole pairs via secondary electron emission. The electrons drift through the diamond under an external bias and are emitted into vacuum via a hydrogen-terminated surface with negative electron affinity (NEA). Secondary emission gain of over 200 has been achieved. Two methods of patterning diamond, laser ablation and reactive-ion etching (RIE), are being developed to produce the required geometry. A variety of diagnostic techniques, including FTIR, SEM and AFM, have been used to characterize the diamonds.

  6. How to teach a billion transistor

    E-print Network

    Kienhuis, Bart

    Heterogeneous Architecture Multi CPUs Distributed Memory Blocks Programmable Logic (IP cores) Commercially processors Write "VHDL" programs for the IP cores and interconnection network "C" programs and "VHDL billion transistor FPGAs, but cannot program efficiently FPGA Billion Transistors Applications (C / Matlab

  7. Reflex ring laser amplifier system

    SciTech Connect

    Summers, Mark A.

    1985-01-01

    A laser pulse is injected into an unstable ring resonator-amplifier structure. Inside this resonator the laser pulse is amplified, spatially filtered and magnified. The laser pulse is recirculated in the resonator, being amplified, filtered and magnified on each pass. The magnification is chosen so that the beam passes through the amplifier in concentric non-overlapping regions similar to a single pass MOPA. After a number of passes around the ring resonator the laser pulse is spatially large enough to exit the ring resonator system by passing around an output mirror.

  8. Reflex ring laser amplifier system

    SciTech Connect

    Summers, M.A.

    1985-10-22

    A laser pulse is injected into an unstable ring resonator-amplifier structure. Inside this resonator the laser pulse is amplified, spatially filtered and magnified. The laser pulse is recirculated in the resonator, being amplified, filtered and magnified on each pass. The magnification is chosen so that the beam passes through the amplifier in concentric non-overlapping regions similar to a single pass MOPA. After a number of passes around the ring resonator the laser pulse is spatially large enough to exit the ring resonator system by passing around an output mirror.

  9. Optical Amplifier for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fork, Richard L.; Cole, Spencer T.; Gamble, Lisa J.; Diffey, William M.; Keys, Andrew S.

    1999-01-01

    We describe an optical amplifier designed to amplify a spatially sampled component of an optical wavefront to kilowatt average power. The goal is means for implementing a strategy of spatially segmenting a large aperture wavefront, amplifying the individual segments, maintaining the phase coherence of the segments by active means, and imaging the resultant amplified coherent field. Applications of interest are the transmission of space solar power over multi-megameter distances, as to distant spacecraft, or to remote sites with no preexisting power grid.

  10. Sensor Amplifier for the Venus Ground Ambient

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DelCastillo, Linda Y.; Johnson, Travis W.; Hatake, Toshiro; Mojarradi, Mohammad M.; Kolawa, Elizabeth A.

    2006-01-01

    Previous Venus Landers employed high temperature pressure vessels, with thermally protected electronics, to achieve successful missions, with a maximum surface lifetime of 127 minutes. Extending the operating range of electronic systems to the temperatures (480 C) and pressures (90 bar) of the Venus ground ambient would significantly increase the science return of future missions. Toward that end, the current work describes the innovative design of a sensor preamplifier, capable of working in the Venus ground ambient and designed using commercial components (thermionic vacuum tubes, wide band gap transistors, thick film resistors, advanced high temperature capacitors, and monometallic interfaces) To identify commercial components and electronic packaging materials that are capable of operation within the specified environment, a series of active devices, passive components, and packaging materials were screened for operability at 500C, assuming a 10x increase in the mission lifetime. In addition. component degradation as a function of time at 500(deg)C was evaluated. Based on the results of these preliminary evaluations, two amplifiers were developed.

  11. Single Carbon Nanotube Transistor at GHz Frequency

    E-print Network

    Plaçais, Bernard

    Single Carbon Nanotube Transistor at GHz Frequency J. Chaste,, L. Lechner,£ P. Morfin,, G. Fe operation of top-gated single carbon nanotube transistors. From transmission measurements in the 0.1-1.6 GHz effect transistors (CNT-FETs) are very attractive as ultimate, quantum limited devices. In particular

  12. 2-Transistor Oscillator PHYS 309 Name

    E-print Network

    Herman, Rhett

    2-Transistor Oscillator PHYS 309 Name: A. Introduction--the circuit · One-week check: Build of your oscilloscope to investigate what's going on at the base and collector of each transistor (base and collector of the transistors). Writeup: · I will email you the 5Spice file for this circuit

  13. DECISION DIAGRAMS AND PASS TRANSISTOR LOGIC SYNTHESIS

    E-print Network

    De Micheli, Giovanni

    DECISION DIAGRAMS AND PASS TRANSISTOR LOGIC SYNTHESIS V. Bertacco S. Minato P. Verplaetse L. Benini by ARPA, under grant No. DABT63-95-C-0049. #12;Decision Diagrams and Pass Transistor Logic Synthesis V transistors and domino logic. The synthesis of these cells is based on BDD and ZBDD representations

  14. Electroluminescence from a Single-Nanocrystal Transistor

    E-print Network

    Walsworth, Ronald L.

    Electroluminescence from a Single-Nanocrystal Transistor Mark S. Gudiksen, Kristin N. Maher, Lian September 8, 2005 ABSTRACT We report the fabrication and characterization of light-emitting transistors- emitting transistors incorporating individual CdSe nano- crystals. Unlike the two-terminal devices employed

  15. Super Matched Bipolar Transistor Pair Sets New

    E-print Network

    Lanterman, Aaron

    Super Matched Bipolar Transistor Pair Sets New Standards for Drift and Noise Matched bipolar transistor pairs are a very powerful design tool, yet have received less and less attention over the last few transistor pairs was being limited by statistical fluctuations in the material itself and in the processing

  16. The Resonant Body Transistor Dana Weinstein,*,

    E-print Network

    Afshari, Ehsan

    The Resonant Body Transistor Dana Weinstein,*, and Sunil A. Bhave Cornell University, 405 Phillips Hall, Ithaca, New York 14853 ABSTRACT This paper introduces the resonant body transistor (RBT), a silicon-based dielectrically transduced nanoelectromechanical (NEM) resonator embedding a sense transistor

  17. Deflection amplifier for image dissectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salomon, P. M.

    1977-01-01

    Balanced symmetrical y-axis amplifier uses zener-diode level shifting to interface operational amplifiers to high voltage bipolar output stages. Nominal voltage transfer characteristic is 40 differential output volts per input volt; bandwidth, between -3-dB points, is approximately 8 kHz; loop gain is nominally 89 dB with closed loop gain of 26 dB.

  18. Laser amplifier developments at Mercury

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, E.A.; Brucker, J.P.; Honig, E.M.; McCown, A.W.; Romero, V.O.; York, G.W.

    1993-09-01

    Electron-beam pumped laser amplifiers have been modified to address the mission of krypton-fluoride excimer laser technology development. Methods are described for improving the performance and reliability of two pre-existing amplifiers at minimal cost and time. Preliminary performance data are presented to support the credibility of the approach.

  19. An Amplifier Concept for Spintronics

    SciTech Connect

    Acremann, Y.; Yu, X.W.; Tulapurkar, A.A.; Scherz, A.; Chembrolu, V.; Katine, J.A.; Carey, M.J.; Siegmann, H.C.; Stohr, J.

    2009-05-11

    Typical spin-dependent devices proposed for information processing lack one of the most important features provided by charge based logic: they do not provide gain. In this letter we show the basic concept of a spin amplifier and propose ways to amplify a spin current at room temperature.

  20. Suicide Risk: Amplifiers and Attenuators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plutchik, Robert; Van Praag, Herman M.

    1994-01-01

    Attempts to integrate findings on correlates of suicide and violent risk in terms of a theory called a two-stage model of countervailing forces, which assumes that the strength of aggressive impulses is modified by amplifiers and attenuators. The vectorial interaction of amplifiers and attenuators creates an unstable equilibrium making prediction…

  1. 2014 Amplifier -1 FREQUENCY RESPONSE OF

    E-print Network

    Gustafsson, Torgny

    2014 Amplifier - 1 FREQUENCY RESPONSE OF AN AUDIO AMPLIFIER The objectives of this experiment are amplifier · To thoroughly bore you APPARATUS: Audio Amplifier (Circuit Chip), Computer with FFTScope software, Speaker, Power supply, Interconnecting Cables good high fidelity amplifier will have frequency

  2. Programmable, automated transistor test system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truong, L. V.; Sundburg, G. R.

    1986-01-01

    A programmable, automated transistor test system was built to supply experimental data on new and advanced power semiconductors. The data will be used for analytical models and by engineers in designing space and aircraft electric power systems. A pulsed power technique was used at low duty cycles in a nondestructive test to examine the dynamic switching characteristic curves of power transistors in the 500 to 1000 V, 10 to 100 A range. Data collection, manipulation, storage, and output are operator interactive but are guided and controlled by the system software.

  3. Differential InP HEMT MMIC Amplifiers Embedded in Waveguides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kangaslahti, Pekka; Schlecht, Erich; Samoska, Lorene

    2009-01-01

    Monolithic microwave integrated-circuit (MMIC) amplifiers of a type now being developed for operation at frequencies of hundreds of gigahertz contain InP high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs) in a differential configuration. The differential configuration makes it possible to obtain gains greater than those of amplifiers having the single-ended configuration. To reduce losses associated with packaging, the MMIC chips are designed integrally with, and embedded in, waveguide packages, with the additional benefit that the packages are compact enough to fit into phased transmitting and/or receiving antenna arrays. Differential configurations (which are inherently balanced) have been used to extend the upper limits of operating frequencies of complementary metal oxide/semiconductor (CMOS) amplifiers to the microwave range but, until now, have not been applied in millimeter- wave amplifier circuits. Baluns have traditionally been used to transform from single-ended to balanced configurations, but baluns tend to be lossy. Instead of baluns, finlines are used to effect this transformation in the present line of development. Finlines have been used extensively to drive millimeter- wave mixers in balanced configurations. In the present extension of the finline balancing concept, finline transitions are integrated onto the affected MMICs (see figure). The differential configuration creates a virtual ground within each pair of InP HEMT gate fingers, eliminating the need for inductive vias to ground. Elimination of these vias greatly reduces parasitic components of current and the associated losses within an amplifier, thereby enabling more nearly complete utilization of the full performance of each transistor. The differential configuration offers the additional benefit of multiplying (relative to the single-ended configuration) the input and output impedances of each transistor by a factor of four, so that it is possible to use large transistors that would otherwise have prohibitively low impedances. Yet another advantage afforded by the virtual ground of the differential configuration is elimination of the need for a ground plane and, hence, elimination of the need for back-side metallization of the MMIC chip. In turn, elimination of the back-side metallization simplifies fabrication, reduces parasitic capacitances, and enables mounting of the MMIC in the electric-field plane ("E-plane") of a waveguide. E-plane mounting is consistent with (and essential for the utility of) the finline configuration, in which transmission lines lie on a dielectric sheet in the middle of a broad side of the waveguide. E-plane mounting offers a combination of low loss and ease of assembly because no millimeter-wave wire bonds or transition substrates are required. Moreover, because there is no ground plane behind the MMIC, the impedance for the detrimental even (single-ended) mode is high, suppressing coupling to that mode. Still another advantage of E-plane mounting is that the fundamental waveguide mode is inherently differential, eliminating the need for a balun to excite the differential mode.

  4. Silicon on insulator self-aligned transistors

    DOEpatents

    McCarthy, Anthony M.

    2003-11-18

    A method for fabricating thin-film single-crystal silicon-on-insulator (SOI) self-aligned transistors. Standard processing of silicon substrates is used to fabricate the transistors. Physical spaces, between the source and gate, and the drain and gate, introduced by etching the polysilicon gate material, are used to provide connecting implants (bridges) which allow the transistor to perform normally. After completion of the silicon substrate processing, the silicon wafer is bonded to an insulator (glass) substrate, and the silicon substrate is removed leaving the transistors on the insulator (glass) substrate. Transistors fabricated by this method may be utilized, for example, in flat panel displays, etc.

  5. Analysing organic transistors based on interface approximation

    SciTech Connect

    Akiyama, Yuto; Mori, Takehiko; ACT-C, JST, Honcho, Kawaguchi, Saitama 332-0012

    2014-01-15

    Temperature-dependent characteristics of organic transistors are analysed thoroughly using interface approximation. In contrast to amorphous silicon transistors, it is characteristic of organic transistors that the accumulation layer is concentrated on the first monolayer, and it is appropriate to consider interface charge rather than band bending. On the basis of this model, observed characteristics of hexamethylenetetrathiafulvalene (HMTTF) and dibenzotetrathiafulvalene (DBTTF) transistors with various surface treatments are analysed, and the trap distribution is extracted. In turn, starting from a simple exponential distribution, we can reproduce the temperature-dependent transistor characteristics as well as the gate voltage dependence of the activation energy, so we can investigate various aspects of organic transistors self-consistently under the interface approximation. Small deviation from such an ideal transistor operation is discussed assuming the presence of an energetically discrete trap level, which leads to a hump in the transfer characteristics. The contact resistance is estimated by measuring the transfer characteristics up to the linear region.

  6. Outphase power amplifiers in OFDM systems

    E-print Network

    Ph?m, Anh D., 1974-

    2006-01-01

    A trade-off between linearity and efficiency exists in conventional power amplifiers. The outphase amplifying concept overcomes this trade-off by enabling the use of high efficiency, non-linear power amplifiers for linear ...

  7. Design and Analysis on a Cryogenic Current Amplifier with a Superconducting Microwave Resonator

    E-print Network

    Okazaki, Yuma

    2015-01-01

    We propose a new type of cryogenic current amplifiers, in which low-frequency power spectrum of current can be measured through a measurement of microwave response of a superconducting resonant circuit shunted by a series array of Josephson junctions. From numerical analysis on the equivalent circuit, the numerical value of the input-referred current noise of the proposed amplifier is found to be two orders of magnitude lower than the noise floor measured with the conventional cryogenic current amplifiers based on high-electron-mobility transistors or superconducting quantum interference devices. Our proposal can open new avenues for investigating low-temperature solid-state devices that require lower noise and wider bandwidth power spectrum measurements of current.

  8. INTERBAND TUNNEL TRANSISTORS A Dissertation

    E-print Network

    -to-drain tunneling, and self-consistent channel electrostatics. Graphene nanoribbons have a width-tunable bandgap by simulation that the GNR tunnel transistors at the long channel limit can operate at 0.1 V with an ultra channel length due to direct source-to-drain tunneling. Smaller ribbon widths (down to a certain limit

  9. The four-gate transistor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mojarradi, M. M.; Cristoveanu, S.; Allibert, F.; France, G.; Blalock, B.; Durfrene, B.

    2002-01-01

    The four-gate transistor or G4-FET combines MOSFET and JFET principles in a single SOI device. Experimental results reveal that each gate can modulate the drain current. Numerical simulations are presented to clarify the mechanisms of operation. The new device shows enhanced functionality, due to the combinatorial action of the four gates, and opens rather revolutionary applications.

  10. Quantum limits on probabilistic amplifiers

    E-print Network

    Shashank Pandey; Zhang Jiang; Joshua Combes; Carlton M. Caves

    2013-10-02

    An ideal phase-preserving linear amplifier is a deterministic device that adds to an input signal the minimal amount of noise consistent with the constraints imposed by quantum mechanics. A noiseless linear amplifier takes an input coherent state to an amplified coherent state, but only works part of the time. Such a device is actually better than noiseless, since the output has less noise than the amplified noise of the input coherent state; for this reason we refer to such devices as {\\em immaculate}. Here we bound the working probabilities of probabilistic and approximate immaculate amplifiers and construct theoretical models that achieve some of these bounds. Our chief conclusions are the following: (i) the working probability of any phase-insensitive immaculate amplifier is very small in the phase-plane region where the device works with high fidelity; (ii) phase-sensitive immaculate amplifiers that work only on coherent states sparsely distributed on a phase-plane circle centered at the origin can have a reasonably high working probability.

  11. DIAMOND AMPLIFIER FOR PHOTOCATHODES.

    SciTech Connect

    RAO,T.; BEN-ZVI,I.; BURRILL,A.; CHANG,X.; HULBERT,S.; JOHNSON,P.D.; KEWISCH,J.

    2004-06-21

    We report a new approach to the generation of high-current, high-brightness electron beams. Primary electrons are produced by a photocathode (or other means) and are accelerated to a few thousand electron-volts, then strike a specially prepared diamond window. The large Secondary Electron Yield (SEY) provides a multiplication of the number of electrons by about two orders of magnitude. The secondary electrons drift through the diamond under an electric field and emerge into the accelerating proper of the ''gun'' through a Negative Electron Affinity surface of the diamond. The advantages of the new approach include the following: (1) Reduction of the number of primary electrons by the large SEY, i.e. a very low laser power in a photocathode producing the primaries. (2) Low thermal emittance due to the NEA surface and the rapid thermalization of the electrons. (3) Protection of the cathode from possible contamination from the gun, allowing the use of large quantum efficiency but sensitive cathodes. (4) Protection of the gun from possible contamination by the cathode, allowing the use of superconducting gun cavities. (5) Production of high average currents, up to ampere class. (6) Encapsulated design, making the ''load-lock'' systems unnecessary. This paper presents the criteria that need to be taken into account in designing the amplifier.

  12. Highly linear low noise amplifier 

    E-print Network

    Ganesan, Sivakumar

    2007-09-17

    , the Low Noise Amplifier (LNA) is expected to provide high linearity, thus preventing the intermodulation tones created by the interference signal from corrupting the carrier signal. The research focuses on designing a novel LNA which achieves high...

  13. Characterization of SLUG microwave amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoi, I.-C.; Zhu, S.; Thorbeck, T.; McDermott, R.; Mutus, J.; Jeffrey, E.; Barends, R.; Chen, Y.; Roushan, P.; Fowler, A.; Sank, D.; White, T.; Campbell, B.; Chen, Z.; Chiaro, B.; Dunsworth, A.; Kelly, J.; Megrant, A.; Neill, C.; O'Malley, P. J. J.; Quintana, C.; Vainsencher, A.; Wenner, J.; Martinis, J. M.

    2015-03-01

    With the rapid growth of superconducting circuits quantum technology, a near quantum-limited amplifier at GHz frequency is needed to enable high fidelity measurements. We describe such an amplifier, the SQUID based, superconducting low inductance undulatory galvanometer (SLUG) amplifier. We measure the full scattering matrix of the SLUG. In particular, we measure both forward and reverse gain, as well as reflection. We see 15dB forward gain with added noise from one quanta to several quanta. The -1 dB compression point is around -95 dBm, about two orders of magnitude higher than that of typical Josephson parametric amplifiers. With these properties, SLUG is well suited for the high fidelity, simultaneous multiplexed readout of superconducting qubits.

  14. New Packaging for Amplifier Slabs

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, M.; Thorsness, C.; Suratwala, T.; Steele, R.; Rogowski, G.

    2015-03-18

    The following memo provides a discussion and detailed procedure for a new finished amplifier slab shipping and storage container. The new package is designed to maintain an environment of <5% RH to minimize weathering.

  15. Enhanced performance CCD output amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Dunham, Mark E. (Los Alamos, NM); Morley, David W. (Santa Fe, NM)

    1996-01-01

    A low-noise FET amplifier is connected to amplify output charge from a che coupled device (CCD). The FET has its gate connected to the CCD in common source configuration for receiving the output charge signal from the CCD and output an intermediate signal at a drain of the FET. An intermediate amplifier is connected to the drain of the FET for receiving the intermediate signal and outputting a low-noise signal functionally related to the output charge signal from the CCD. The amplifier is preferably connected as a virtual ground to the FET drain. The inherent shunt capacitance of the FET is selected to be at least equal to the sum of the remaining capacitances.

  16. 1 ?m-thickness ultra-flexible and high electrode-density surface electromyogram measurement sheet with 2 V organic transistors for prosthetic hand control.

    PubMed

    Fuketa, Hiroshi; Yoshioka, Kazuaki; Shinozuka, Yasuhiro; Ishida, Koichi; Yokota, Tomoyuki; Matsuhisa, Naoji; Inoue, Yusuke; Sekino, Masaki; Sekitani, Tsuyoshi; Takamiya, Makoto; Someya, Takao; Sakurai, Takayasu

    2014-12-01

    A 64-channel surface electromyogram (EMG) measurement sheet (SEMS) with 2 V organic transistors on a 1 ?m-thick ultra-flexible polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) film is developed for prosthetic hand control. The surface EMG electrodes must satisfy the following three requirements; high mechanical flexibility, high electrode density and high signal integrity. To achieve high electrode density and high signal integrity, a distributed and shared amplifier (DSA) architecture is proposed, which enables an in-situ amplification of the myoelectric signal with a fourfold increase in EMG electrode density. In addition, a post-fabrication select-and-connect (SAC) method is proposed to cope with the large mismatch of organic transistors. The proposed SAC method reduces the area and the power overhead by 96% and 98.2%, respectively, compared with the use of conventional parallel transistors to reduce the transistor mismatch by a factor of 10. PMID:24951707

  17. Cryogenic Low Noise Amplifier with GaAs JFETs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiwara, Mikio; Nagata, Hirohisa; Hibi, Yasunori; Matsuo, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Masahide

    2009-12-01

    A SONY n-type GaAs junction field effect transistor (JFET) can operate at deep cryogenic temperatures without exhibiting kink phenomena or hysteresis in its I-V characteristics. Further the GaAs JFET has small gate leakage currents(<4.6×10-19A) and a minute input capacitance (0.037 pF). Moreover, even though the gate terminal of a JFET is surrounded by high-impedance materials, the noise level does not increase and a low noise level of ˜500 nV/Hz1/2 at 1 Hz with low power dissipation (<1 ?W) was achieved. We are currently developing operational amplifiers (Op-Amps) and digital modules for cryogenically cooled high-sensitivity photodetection systems. The GaAs Op-Amp with an open loop gain of 2000 at a power dissipation of 6.5 ?W has been developed.

  18. Radio astronomy ultra-low-noise amplifier for operation at 91 cm wavelength in high RFI environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korolev, A. M.; Zakharenko, V. V.; Ulyanov, O. M.

    2015-10-01

    An ultra-low-noise input amplifier intended for a use in a radio telescope operating at 91 cm wavelength is presented. The amplifier noise temperatures are 12.8 ± 1.5 and 10.0 ± 1.5 K at ambient temperatures of 293 and 263 K respectively. The amplifier does not require cryogenic cooling. It can be quickly put in operation thus shortening losses in the telescope observation time. High linearity of the amplifier (output power at 1 dB gain compression P1dB ? 22 dBm, output third order intercept point OIP3 ? 37 dBm) enables the telescope operation in highly urbanized and industrialized regions. To obtain low noise characteristics along with high linearity, high-electron-mobility field-effect transistors were used in parallel in the circuit developed. The transistors used in the amplifier are cost-effective and commercially available. The circuit solution is recommended for similar devices working in ultra-high frequency band.

  19. Design of Low-Noise Output Amplifiers for P-channel Charge-Coupled Devices Fabricated on High-Resistivity Silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Haque, S.; Frost, F. Dion R.; Groulx, R.; Holland, S.E.; Karcher, A.; Kolbe, W.F.; Roe, N. A.; Wang, G.; Yu, Y.

    2011-12-22

    We describe the design and optimization of low-noise, single-stage output amplifiers for p-channel charge-coupled devices (CCDs) used for scientific applications in astronomy and other fields. The CCDs are fabricated on high-resistivity, 4000–5000 -cm, n-type silicon substrates. Single-stage amplifiers with different output structure designs and technologies have been characterized. The standard output amplifier is designed with an n{sup +} polysilicon gate that has a metal connection to the sense node. In an effort to lower the output amplifier readout noise by minimizing the capacitance seen at the sense node, buried-contact technology has been investigated. In this case, the output transistor has a p{sup +} polysilicon gate that connects directly to the p{sup +} sense node. Output structures with buried-contact areas as small as 2 ?m × 2 ?m are characterized. In addition, the geometry of the source-follower transistor was varied, and we report test results on the conversion gain and noise of the various amplifier structures. By use of buried-contact technology, better amplifier geometry, optimization of the amplifier biases and improvements in the test electronics design, we obtain a 45% reduction in noise, corresponding to 1.7 e{sup ?} rms at 70 kpixels/sec.

  20. Cryogenic ultra-low noise HEMT amplifiers board

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de la Broïse, Xavier; Bounab, Ayoub

    2015-07-01

    High Electron Mobility Transistors (HEMTs), optimized by CNRS/LPN laboratory for ultra-low noise at a very low temperature, have demonstrated their capacity to be used in place of Si JFETs, when very high input impedance and working temperatures below 100 K are required. We have developed and tested simple amplifiers based only on this transistor technology, in order to work at a temperature as low as 1 K or less. They demonstrate at 4.2 K a typical noise of 1.6 nV/?{ Hz } at 100 Hz, 0.42 nV/?{ Hz } at 1 kHz and 0.32 nV/?{ Hz } at 10 kHz, with a gain of 50 and a power consumption of 1.4 mW per channel. Two boards have been designed for two different research applications: one for the readout of GMR magnetometers for medical and space applications, the other for search of weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) in Edelweiss experiment (HARD project).

  1. Polythiophene Transistors as Gas Sensors for Electronic Nose Applications

    E-print Network

    Liao, Frank

    2009-01-01

    stress effect in pentacene thin-film transistors,” Applied Physicsstress reversal in polyfluorene thin-film transistors,” Journal of Applied Physics ,stress in organic thin- film transistors and logic gates,” Applied Physics

  2. Cryogenic preamplification of a single-electron-transistor using a silicon-germanium heterojunction-bipolar-transistor

    SciTech Connect

    Curry, M. J.; England, T. D.; Bishop, N. C.; Ten-Eyck, G.; Wendt, J. R.; Pluym, T.; Lilly, M. P.; Carroll, M. S.; Carr, S. M.

    2015-05-18

    We examine a silicon-germanium heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT) for cryogenic pre-amplification of a single electron transistor (SET). The SET current modulates the base current of the HBT directly. The HBT-SET circuit is immersed in liquid helium, and its frequency response from low frequency to several MHz is measured. The current gain and the noise spectrum with the HBT result in a signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) that is a factor of 10–100 larger than without the HBT at lower frequencies. The transition frequency defined by SNR?=?1 has been extended by as much as a factor of 10 compared to without the HBT amplification. The power dissipated by the HBT cryogenic pre-amplifier is approximately 5 nW to 5??W for the investigated range of operation. The circuit is also operated in a single electron charge read-out configuration in the time-domain as a proof-of-principle demonstration of the amplification approach for single spin read-out.

  3. Cryogenic preamplification of a single-electron-transistor using a silicon-germanium heterojunction-bipolar-transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curry, M. J.; England, T. D.; Bishop, N. C.; Ten-Eyck, G.; Wendt, J. R.; Pluym, T.; Lilly, M. P.; Carr, S. M.; Carroll, M. S.

    2015-05-01

    We examine a silicon-germanium heterojunction bipolar transistor (HBT) for cryogenic pre-amplification of a single electron transistor (SET). The SET current modulates the base current of the HBT directly. The HBT-SET circuit is immersed in liquid helium, and its frequency response from low frequency to several MHz is measured. The current gain and the noise spectrum with the HBT result in a signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) that is a factor of 10-100 larger than without the HBT at lower frequencies. The transition frequency defined by SNR = 1 has been extended by as much as a factor of 10 compared to without the HBT amplification. The power dissipated by the HBT cryogenic pre-amplifier is approximately 5 nW to 5 ?W for the investigated range of operation. The circuit is also operated in a single electron charge read-out configuration in the time-domain as a proof-of-principle demonstration of the amplification approach for single spin read-out.

  4. Coaxial inverted geometry transistor having buried emitter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hruby, R. J.; Cress, S. B.; Dunn, W. R. (inventors)

    1973-01-01

    The invention relates to an inverted geometry transistor wherein the emitter is buried within the substrate. The transistor can be fabricated as a part of a monolithic integrated circuit and is particularly suited for use in applications where it is desired to employ low actuating voltages. The transistor may employ the same doping levels in the collector and emitter, so these connections can be reversed.

  5. Single-transistor-clocked flip-flop

    DOEpatents

    Zhao, Peiyi; Darwish, Tarek; Bayoumi, Magdy

    2005-08-30

    The invention provides a low power, high performance flip-flop. The flip-flop uses only one clocked transistor. The single clocked transistor is shared by the first and second branches of the device. A pulse generator produces a clock pulse to trigger the flip-flop. In one preferred embodiment the device can be made as a static explicit pulsed flip-flop which employs only two clocked transistors.

  6. Handout 3 for EE-203 Differential Amplifiers

    E-print Network

    Iqbal, Sheikh Sharif

    Handout 3 for EE-203 Differential Amplifiers Sheikh Sharif Iqbal (Ref: Text book and KFUPM Online and applications associated with differential amplifiers. - Differential amplifier pair is a fundamental subcircuit used in the input stage of every operational amplifiers and many other linear integrated circuits

  7. Principles of an atomtronic transistor

    E-print Network

    Caliga, Seth C; Zozulya, Alex A; Anderson, Dana Z

    2015-01-01

    A semiclassical formalism is used to investigate the transistor-like behavior of ultracold atoms in a triple-well potential. Atom current flows from the source well, held at fixed chemical potential and temperature, into an empty drain well. In steady-state, the gate well located between the source and drain is shown to acquire a well-defined chemical potential and temperature, which are controlled by the relative height of the barriers separating the three wells. It is shown that the gate chemical potential can exceed that of the source and have a lower temperature. In electronics terminology, the source-gate junction can be reverse-biased. As a result, the device exhibits regimes of negative resistance and transresistance, indicating the presence of gain. Given an external current input to the gate, transistor-like behavior is characterized both in terms of the current gain, which can be greater than unity, and the power output of the device.

  8. Principles of an atomtronic transistor

    E-print Network

    Seth C. Caliga; Cameron J. E. Straatsma; Alex A. Zozulya; Dana Z. Anderson

    2015-12-14

    A semiclassical formalism is used to investigate the transistor-like behavior of ultracold atoms in a triple-well potential. Atom current flows from the source well, held at fixed chemical potential and temperature, into an empty drain well. In steady-state, the gate well located between the source and drain is shown to acquire a well-defined chemical potential and temperature, which are controlled by the relative height of the barriers separating the three wells. It is shown that the gate chemical potential can exceed that of the source and have a lower temperature. In electronics terminology, the source-gate junction can be reverse-biased. As a result, the device exhibits regimes of negative resistance and transresistance, indicating the presence of gain. Given an external current input to the gate, transistor-like behavior is characterized both in terms of the current gain, which can be greater than unity, and the power output of the device.

  9. T-shaped emitter metal heterojunction bipolar transistors for submillimeter wave applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fung, Andy; Samoska, Lorene; Velebir, Jim; Siege, Peter; Rodwell, Mark; Paidi, Vamsi; Griffth, Zach; Urteaga, Miguel; Malik, Roger

    2004-01-01

    We report on the development of submillimeter wave transistors at JPL. The goal of the effort is to produce advance-reliable high frequency and high power amplifiers, voltage controlled oscillators, active multipliers, and high-speed mixed-signal circuits for space borne applications. The technology in development to achieve this is based on the Indium Phosphide (InP) Heterojunction Bipolar Transistor (HBT). The HBT is well suited for high speed, high power and uniform (across wafer) performance, due to the ability to tailor the material structure that electrons traverse through by well-controlled epitaxial growth methods. InP with its compatible lattice matched alloys such as indium gallium arsenide (InGaAs) and indium aluminium arsenide (InAlAs) provides for high electron velocities and high voltage breakdown capabilities. The epitaxial methods for this material system are fairly mature, however the implementation of high performance and reliable transistors are still under development by many laboratories. Our most recently fabricated, second generation mesa HBTs at JPL have extrapolated current gain cutoff frequency (FJ of 142GHz and power gain cutoff frequency (Fm,) of approximately 160GHz. This represents a 13% and 33% improvement of Ft and F, respectively, compared to the first generation mesa HBTs [l]. Analysis based on the University of California, Santa Barbara (UCSB) device model, RF device characteristics can be significantly improved by reducing base contact resistance and base metal contact width. We will describe our effort towards increasing transistor performance and yield.

  10. Complementary junction heterostructure field-effect transistor

    DOEpatents

    Baca, Albert G. (Albuquerque, NM); Drummond, Timothy J. (Albuquerque, NM); Robertson, Perry J. (Albuquerque, NM); Zipperian, Thomas E. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1995-01-01

    A complimentary pair of compound semiconductor junction heterostructure field-effect transistors and a method for their manufacture are disclosed. The p-channel junction heterostructure field-effect transistor uses a strained layer to split the degeneracy of the valence band for a greatly improved hole mobility and speed. The n-channel device is formed by a compatible process after removing the strained layer. In this manner, both types of transistors may be independently optimized. Ion implantation is used to form the transistor active and isolation regions for both types of complimentary devices. The invention has uses for the development of low power, high-speed digital integrated circuits.

  11. Complementary junction heterostructure field-effect transistor

    DOEpatents

    Baca, A.G.; Drummond, T.J.; Robertson, P.J.; Zipperian, T.E.

    1995-12-26

    A complimentary pair of compound semiconductor junction heterostructure field-effect transistors and a method for their manufacture are disclosed. The p-channel junction heterostructure field-effect transistor uses a strained layer to split the degeneracy of the valence band for a greatly improved hole mobility and speed. The n-channel device is formed by a compatible process after removing the strained layer. In this manner, both types of transistors may be independently optimized. Ion implantation is used to form the transistor active and isolation regions for both types of complimentary devices. The invention has uses for the development of low power, high-speed digital integrated circuits. 10 figs.

  12. Reflex ring laser amplifier system

    DOEpatents

    Summers, M.A.

    1983-08-31

    The invention is a method and apparatus for providing a reflex ring laser system for amplifying an input laser pulse. The invention is particularly useful in laser fusion experiments where efficient production of high-energy and high power laser pulses is required. The invention comprises a large aperture laser amplifier in an unstable ring resonator which includes a combination spatial filter and beam expander having a magnification greater than unity. An input pulse is injected into the resonator, e.g., through an aperture in an input mirror. The injected pulse passes through the amplifier and spatial filter/expander components on each pass around the ring. The unstable resonator is designed to permit only a predetermined number of passes before the amplified pulse exits the resonator. On the first pass through the amplifier, the beam fills only a small central region of the gain medium. On each successive pass, the beam has been expanded to fill the next concentric non-overlapping region of the gain medium.

  13. MAPK Cascades as Feedback Amplifiers

    E-print Network

    Herbert M Sauro; Brian Ingalls

    2007-10-26

    Interconvertible enzyme cascades, exemplified by the mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade, are a frequent mechanism in signal transduction pathways. There has been much speculation as to the role of these pathways, and how their structure is related to their function. A common conclusion is that the cascades serve to amplify biochemical signals so that a single bound ligand molecule might produce a multitude of second messengers. Some recent work has focused on a particular feature present in some MAPK pathways -- a negative feedback loop which spans the length of the cascade. This is a feature that is shared by a man-made engineering device, the feedback amplifier. We propose a novel interpretation: that by wrapping a feedback loop around an amplifier, these cascades may be acting as biochemical feedback amplifiers which imparts i) increased robustness with respect to internal perturbations; ii) a linear graded response over an extended operating range; iii) insulation from external perturbation, resulting in functional modularization. We also report on the growing list of experimental evidence which supports a graded response of MAPK with respect to Epidermal Growth Factor. This evidence supports our hypothesis that in these circumstances MAPK cascade, may be acting as a feedback amplifier.

  14. Photoconductivity measurements of single-walled carbon nanotube field effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murai, T.; Yasukochi, S.; Moritsubo, S.; Shimada, T.; Chiashi, S.; Murakami, Y.; Maruyama, S.; Kato, Y. K.

    2011-03-01

    Photoconductivity measurements are performed on carbon nanotube field effect transistors. Carbon nanotubes are grown on Si O2 /Si substrate by patterned chemical vapor deposition using ethanol as carbon source. Next, electron beam lithography, metal deposition, and liftoff processes are performed to form source and drain electrodes. The Si substrate is used as a back-gate in these devices. Wavelength tunable Ti:sapphire laser is focused onto the sample with an objective lens, and the laser spot is scanned with a steering mirror. A lock-in amplifier is used to detect the photoconductivity signal of carbon nanotube field effect transistors. This work is supported by Research Foundation for Opto-Science and Technology, NSG Foundation, SCAT, SCOPE, and Photon Frontier Network Program of MEXT, Japan.

  15. A hybrid nanomemristor/transistor logic circuit capable of self-programming

    PubMed Central

    Borghetti, Julien; Li, Zhiyong; Straznicky, Joseph; Li, Xuema; Ohlberg, Douglas A. A.; Wu, Wei; Stewart, Duncan R.; Williams, R. Stanley

    2009-01-01

    Memristor crossbars were fabricated at 40 nm half-pitch, using nanoimprint lithography on the same substrate with Si metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor (MOS FET) arrays to form fully integrated hybrid memory resistor (memristor)/transistor circuits. The digitally configured memristor crossbars were used to perform logic functions, to serve as a routing fabric for interconnecting the FETs and as the target for storing information. As an illustrative demonstration, the compound Boolean logic operation (A AND B) OR (C AND D) was performed with kilohertz frequency inputs, using resistor-based logic in a memristor crossbar with FET inverter/amplifier outputs. By routing the output signal of a logic operation back onto a target memristor inside the array, the crossbar was conditionally configured by setting the state of a nonvolatile switch. Such conditional programming illuminates the way for a variety of self-programmed logic arrays, and for electronic synaptic computing. PMID:19171903

  16. New Insights into Fully-Depleted SOI Transistor Response During Total-Dose Irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    BURNS,J.A.; DODD,PAUL E.; KEAST,C.L.; SCHWANK,JAMES R.; SHANEYFELT,MARTY R.; WYATT,P.W.

    1999-09-14

    Previous work showed the possible existence of a total-dose latch effect in fully-depleted SOI transistors that could severely limit the radiation hardness of SOI devices. Other work showed that worst-case bias configuration during irradiation was the transmission gate bias configuration. In this work we further explore the effects of total-dose ionizing irradiation on fully-depleted SOI transistors. Closed-geometry and standard transistors fabricated in two fully-depleted processes were irradiated with 10-keV x rays. Our results show no evidence for a total-dose latch effect as proposed by others. Instead, in absence of parasitic trench sidewall leakage, our data suggests that the increase in radiation-induced leakage current is caused by positive charge trapping in the buried oxide inverting the back-channel interface. At moderate levels of trapped charge, the back-channel interface is slightly inverted causing a small leakage current to flow. This leakage current is amplified to considerably higher levels by impact ionization. Because the back-channel interface is in weak inversion, the top-gate bias can modulate the back-channel interface and turn the leakage current off at large, negative voltage levels. At high levels of trapped charge, the back-channel interface is fully inverted and the gate bias has little effect on leakage current. However, it is likely that this current also is amplified by impact ionization. For these transistors, the worst-case bias configuration was determined to be the ''ON'' bias configuration. These results have important implication on hardness assurance.

  17. Casimir force on amplifying bodies

    E-print Network

    Agnes Sambale; Dirk-Gunnar Welsch; Stefan Yoshi Buhmann; Ho Trung Dung

    2009-02-23

    Based on a unified approach to macroscopic QED that allows for the inclusion of amplification in a limited space and frequency range, we study the Casimir force as a Lorentz force on an arbitrary partially amplifying system of linearly locally responding (isotropic) magnetoelectric bodies. We demonstrate that the force on a weakly polarisable/magnetisable amplifying object in the presence of a purely absorbing environment can be expressed as a sum over the Casimir--Polder forces on the excited atoms inside the body. As an example, the resonant force between a plate consisting of a dilute gas of excited atoms and a perfect mirror is calculated.

  18. Laser system using regenerative amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Emmett, John L. [Pleasanton, CA

    1980-03-04

    High energy laser system using a regenerative amplifier, which relaxes all constraints on laser components other than the intrinsic damage level of matter, so as to enable use of available laser system components. This can be accomplished by use of segmented components, spatial filters, at least one amplifier using solid state or gaseous media, and separated reflector members providing a long round trip time through the regenerative cavity, thereby allowing slower switching and adequate time to clear the spatial filters, etc. The laser system simplifies component requirements and reduces component cost while providing high energy output.

  19. Laser system using regenerative amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Emmett, J.L.

    1980-03-04

    High energy laser system is disclosed using a regenerative amplifier, which relaxes all constraints on laser components other than the intrinsic damage level of matter, so as to enable use of available laser system components. This can be accomplished by use of segmented components, spatial filters, at least one amplifier using solid state or gaseous media, and separated reflector members providing a long round trip time through the regenerative cavity, thereby allowing slower switching and adequate time to clear the spatial filters, etc. The laser system simplifies component requirements and reduces component cost while providing high energy output. 10 figs.

  20. Quantum Optical State Comparison Amplifier

    E-print Network

    Electra Eleftheriadou; Stephen M. Barnett; John Jeffers

    2013-11-22

    It is a fundamental principle of quantum theory that an unknown state cannot be copied or, as a consequence, an unknown optical signal cannot be amplified deterministically and perfectly. Here we describe a protocol that provides nondeterministic quantum optical amplification in the coherent state basis with high gain, high fidelity and which does not use quantum resources. The scheme is based on two mature quantum optical technologies, coherent state comparison and photon subtraction. The method compares favourably with all previous nondeterministic amplifiers in terms of fidelity and success probability.

  1. Random Number Generation Using Amplified Spontaneous Emission in a Fiber Amplifier

    E-print Network

    Anlage, Steven

    Random Number Generation Using Amplified Spontaneous Emission in a Fiber Amplifier Julia C. Salevan · Photon counting · Amplified spontaneous emission #12;System Er:Yb EDFA Bandpass Filter (FBG) ( 0 = 1552

  2. Highly Efficient Amplifier for Ka-Band Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    An amplifier developed under a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract will have applications for both satellite and terrestrial communications. This power amplifier uses an innovative series bias arrangement of active devices to achieve over 40-percent efficiency at Ka-band frequencies with an output power of 0.66 W. The amplifier is fabricated on a 2.0- by 3.8-square millimeter chip through the use of Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit (MMIC) technology, and it uses state-of-the-art, Pseudomorphic High-Electron-Mobility Transistor (PHEMT) devices. Although the performance of the MMIC chip depends on these high-performance devices, the real innovations here are a unique series bias scheme, which results in a high-voltage chip supply, and careful design of the on-chip planar output stage combiner. This design concept has ramifications beyond the chip itself because it opens up the possibility of operation directly from a satellite power bus (usually 28 V) without a dc-dc converter. This will dramatically increase the overall system efficiency. Conventional microwave power amplifier designs utilize many devices all connected in parallel from the bias supply. This results in a low-bias voltage, typically 5 V, and a high bias current. With this configuration, substantial I(sup 2) R losses (current squared times resistance) may arise in the system bias-distribution network. By placing the devices in a series bias configuration, the total current is reduced, leading to reduced distribution losses. Careful design of the on-chip planar output stage power combiner is also important in minimizing losses. Using these concepts, a two-stage amplifier was designed for operation at 33 GHz and fabricated in a standard MMIC foundry process with 0.20-m PHEMT devices. Using a 20-V bias supply, the amplifier achieved efficiencies of over 40 percent with an output power of 0.66 W and a 16-dB gain over a 2-GHz bandwidth centered at 33 GHz. With a 28-V bias, a power level of 1.1 W was achieved with a 12-dB gain and a 36-percent efficiency. This represents the best reported combination of power and efficiency at this frequency. In addition to delivering excellent power and gain, this Ka-band MMIC power amplifier has an efficiency that is 10 percent greater than existing designs. The unique design offers an excellent match for spacecraft applications since the amplifier supply voltage is closely matched to the typical value of spacecraft bus voltage. These amplifiers may be used alone in applications of 1 W or less, or several may be combined or used in an array to produce moderate power, Ka-band transmitters with minimal power combining and less thermal stress owing to the combination of excellent efficiency and power output. The higher voltage operation of this design may also save mass and power because the dc-dc power converter is replaced with a simpler voltage regulator.

  3. Universal power transistor base drive control unit

    DOEpatents

    Gale, Allan R. (Allen Park, MI); Gritter, David J. (Racine, WI)

    1988-01-01

    A saturation condition regulator system for a power transistor which achieves the regulation objectives of a Baker clamp but without dumping excess base drive current into the transistor output circuit. The base drive current of the transistor is sensed and used through an active feedback circuit to produce an error signal which modulates the base drive current through a linearly operating FET. The collector base voltage of the power transistor is independently monitored to develop a second error signal which is also used to regulate base drive current. The current-sensitive circuit operates as a limiter. In addition, a fail-safe timing circuit is disclosed which automatically resets to a turn OFF condition in the event the transistor does not turn ON within a predetermined time after the input signal transition.

  4. Universal power transistor base drive control unit

    DOEpatents

    Gale, A.R.; Gritter, D.J.

    1988-06-07

    A saturation condition regulator system for a power transistor is disclosed which achieves the regulation objectives of a Baker clamp but without dumping excess base drive current into the transistor output circuit. The base drive current of the transistor is sensed and used through an active feedback circuit to produce an error signal which modulates the base drive current through a linearly operating FET. The collector base voltage of the power transistor is independently monitored to develop a second error signal which is also used to regulate base drive current. The current-sensitive circuit operates as a limiter. In addition, a fail-safe timing circuit is disclosed which automatically resets to a turn OFF condition in the event the transistor does not turn ON within a predetermined time after the input signal transition. 2 figs.

  5. Fabrication of Very High Efficiency 5.8 GHz Power Amplifiers using AlGaN HFETs on SiC Substrates for Wireless Power Transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sullivan, Gerry

    2001-01-01

    For wireless power transmission using microwave energy, very efficient conversion of the DC power into microwave power is extremely important. Class E amplifiers have the attractive feature that they can, in theory, be 100% efficient at converting, DC power to RF power. Aluminum gallium nitride (AlGaN) semiconductor material has many advantageous properties, relative to silicon (Si), gallium arsenide (GaAs), and silicon carbide (SiC), such as a much larger bandgap, and the ability to form AlGaN/GaN heterojunctions. The large bandgap of AlGaN also allows for device operation at higher temperatures than could be tolerated by a smaller bandgap transistor. This could reduce the cooling requirements. While it is unlikely that the AlGaN transistors in a 5.8 GHz class E amplifier can operate efficiently at temperatures in excess of 300 or 400 C, AlGaN based amplifiers could operate at temperatures that are higher than a GaAs or Si based amplifier could tolerate. Under this program, AlGaN microwave power HFETs have been fabricated and characterized. Hybrid class E amplifiers were designed and modeled. Unfortunately, within the time frame of this program, good quality HFETs were not available from either the RSC laboratories or commercially, and so the class E amplifiers were not constructed.

  6. Optical amplifiers for optical communication systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimada, Sadakuni

    1991-01-01

    Recently, a great deal of progress has been made in the area of optical amplifiers and many experiments using them have been conducted aiming at practical applications to various transmission systems. This paper reviews recent developments in optical amplifiers, focusing on Er-doped fiber amplifiers (EDFAs), and their prospective applications. Included are introductory amplification theory to clarify the features of optical amplifiers, comparison of optical amplifiers focusing on EDFAs and semiconductor laser amplifiers (SLAs), and recent typical system applications using EDFAs, including IM/DD transmission, analog transmission, coherent transmission, FDM transmission and other applications.

  7. Room temperature piezoelectric displacement detection via a silicon field effect transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahboob, I.; Nishiguchi, K.; Fujiwara, A.; Yamaguchi, H.

    2009-12-01

    An electromechanical oscillator embedded with a two dimensional electron gas is capacitively coupled to a silicon field effect transistor (Si-FET). The piezovoltage induced by the mechanical motion modulates the current passing through the Si-FET enabling the electromechanical oscillator's position to be monitored. When the Si-FET is biased at its optimal point, the motion induced piezovoltage can be amplified resulting in a displacement sensitivity of 6×10-12 mHz-1/2 for a 131 kHz GaAs resonator which is among the highest recorded for an all-electrical room temperature detection scheme.

  8. A better understanding of organic electrochemical transistors for biosensing applications (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedlein, Jacob T.; Malliaras, George G.; Shaheen, Sean E.; McLeod, Robert R.

    2015-10-01

    Due to their biocompatibility, high transconductance, and low operating voltages, organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) are promising platforms for biosensing applications. They have been used for measuring enzymes such as glucose and lactate, detecting disruptions of epithelial cell integrity, and amplifying epileptic voltage signals in rat brains. Accelerating the development of OECTs in this diverse range of potential applications, and those unforeseen, requires continued investigation of the device physics and material properties. In this presentation, we will describe our work to better understand OECT behavior, and we will discuss how this understanding can be used to develop more effective biosensors.

  9. Three MMIC Amplifiers for the 120-to-200 GHz Frequency Band

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samoska, Lorene; Schmitz, Adele

    2009-01-01

    Closely following the development reported in the immediately preceding article, three new monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) amplifiers that would operate in the 120-to-200-GHz frequency band have been designed and are under construction at this writing. The active devices in these amplifiers are InP high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs). These amplifiers (see figure) are denoted the LSLNA150, the LSA200, and the LSA185, respectively. Like the amplifiers reported in the immediately preceding article, the LSLNA150 (1) is intended to be a prototype of low-noise amplifiers (LNAs) to be incorporated into spaceborne instruments for sensing cosmic microwave background radiation and (2) has potential for terrestrial use in electronic test equipment, passive millimeter-wave imaging systems, radar receivers, communication receivers, and systems for detecting hidden weapons. The HEMTs in this amplifier were fabricated according to 0.08- m design rules of a commercial product line of InP HEMT MMICs at HRL Laboratories, LLC, with a gate geometry of 2 fingers, each 15 m wide. On the basis of computational simulations, this amplifier is designed to afford at least 15 dB of gain, with a noise figure of no more than about 6 dB, at frequencies from 120 to 160 GHz. The measured results of the amplifier are shown next to the chip photo, with a gain of 16 dB at 150 GHz. Noise figure work is ongoing. The LSA200 and the LSA185 are intended to be prototypes of transmitting power amplifiers for use at frequencies between about 180 and about 200 GHz. These amplifiers have also been fabricated according to rules of the aforesaid commercial product line of InP HEMT MMICs, except that the HEMTs in these amplifiers are characterized by a gate geometry of 4 fingers, each 37 m wide. The measured peak performance of the LSA200 is characterized by a gain of about 1.4 dB at a frequency of 190 GHz; the measured peak performance of the LSA185 is characterized by a gain of about 2.7 dB at a frequency of 181 GHz. The measured gain results of each chip are shown next to their respective photos.

  10. Improved traveling wave maser amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clauss, R. C.

    1968-01-01

    Traveling Wave Maser /TWM/ that operates at S-band frequencies is characterized by a greatly improved gain-bandwidth product with relatively low equivalent-noise temperature. Tests indicate that its performance exceeds that of any other type of S-band amplifier.

  11. PASOTRON{trademark} amplifier experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Ponti, E.S.; Goebel, D.M.; Feicht, J.R.; Santoru, J.; Eisenhart, R.L.

    1995-11-01

    Preliminary experimental studies are reported of an L-Band amplifier based on Hughes` Plasma-Assisted, Slow-Wave Oscillator (PASOTRON) technology. The amplifier system utilizes a hollow-cathode-plasma electron-gun, and a plasma-filled Slow-Wave Structure (SWS) to produce {>=} 100-{micro}sec-long, 50 to 75-kV, 30 to 100-A electron-beam pulses that propagate in a plasma channel without the use of any externally applied axial magnetic field. The electron-beam pulse coincides with a 100-{micro}sec-long RF drive signal provided by a 2.6-kW TWT, which is coupled into the amplifier upstream of the SWS. The SWS consists of a ring-bar design which is novel to the PASOTRON family of devices and is used for its short length compared to a helix. Simulations on HP`s High Frequency Structure Simulator were used to optimize the ring-bar SWS. Preliminary data are reported showing the new L-Band amplifiers gain, power, efficiency, and bandwidth. Methods of eliminating a Backward Wave Oscillation (BWO), which was found to limit the performance of the tube, are also presented.

  12. The School as an Amplifier.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vincent, William S.

    1966-01-01

    This paper attempts to show that adaptation of mathematics to the input-output model of the school can provide powerful assistance in the measurement and analysis of school quality and its determinants. The mathematical relationship described here relates an educational model to the field of electronics. More specifically, the amplifier, a device…

  13. CMOS Transistor Mismatch Model valid from Weak to Strong Inversion

    E-print Network

    Barranco, Bernabe Linares

    CMOS Transistor Mismatch Model valid from Weak to Strong Inversion Teresa Serrano and PMOS transistors for 30 different geometries has been done with this continuos model. The model is able of transistor mismatch is crucial for precision analog design. Using very reduced transistor geometries produces

  14. Realising high-current gain p-n-p transistors using a novel surface accumulation layer transistor

    E-print Network

    Kumar, M. Jagadesh

    Realising high-current gain p-n-p transistors using a novel surface accumulation layer transistor accumulation layer transistor (SALTran) on SOI, which uses the concept of surface accumulation of holes near of the previously published conventional p-n-p lateral bipolar transistor (LBT) structure. From the simulation

  15. Problem Set: Transistors and transistor circuits 1. In terms of Boolean logic, what is ground (Vss) equivalent to?

    E-print Network

    Estrada, Francisco

    Problem Set: Transistors and transistor circuits 1. In terms of Boolean logic, what is ground (Vss) equivalent to? 2. Is the control terminal in the transistor electrically connected to either of the two remaining terminals? 3. If the control terminal is connected to Vdd, is the transistor considered open

  16. New architecture for RF power amplifier linearization

    E-print Network

    Boo, Hyun Ho

    2009-01-01

    Power amplifier linearization has become an important part of the transmitter system as 3G and developing 4G communication standards require higher linearity than ever before. The thesis proposes two power amplifier ...

  17. Low Noise Amplifiers for 140 Ghz Wide-Band Cryogenic Receivers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larkoski, Patricia V.; Kangaslahti, Pekka; Samoska, Lorene; Lai, Richard; Sarkozy, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    We report S-parameter and noise measurements for three different Indium Phosphide 35-nanometer-gate-length High Electron Mobility Transistor (HEMT) Low Noise Amplifier (LNA) designs operating in the frequency range centered on 140 gigahertz. When packaged in a Waveguide Rectangular-6.1 waveguide housing, the LNAs have an average measured noise figure of 3.0 decibels - 3.6 decibels over the 122-170 gigahertz band. One LNA was cooled to 20 degrees Kelvin and a record low noise temperature of 46 Kelvin, or 0.64 decibels noise figure, was measured at 152 gigahertz. These amplifiers can be used to develop receivers for instruments that operate in the 130-170 gigahertz atmospheric window, which is an important frequency band for ground-based astronomy and millimeter-wave imaging applications.

  18. 2.4 GHz CMOS Power Amplifier with Mode-Locking Structure to Enhance Gain

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    We propose a mode-locking method optimized for the cascode structure of an RF CMOS power amplifier. To maximize the advantage of the typical mode-locking method in the cascode structure, the input of the cross-coupled transistor is modified from that of a typical mode-locking structure. To prove the feasibility of the proposed structure, we designed a 2.4?GHz CMOS power amplifier with a 0.18??m RFCMOS process for polar transmitter applications. The measured power added efficiency is 34.9%, while the saturated output power is 23.32?dBm. The designed chip size is 1.4 × 0.6?mm2. PMID:25045755

  19. Voltage regulator for battery power source. [using a bipolar transistor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, J. M. (inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A bipolar transistor in series with the battery as the control element also in series with a zener diode and a resistor is used to maintain a predetermined voltage until the battery voltage decays to very nearly the predetermined voltage. A field effect transistor between the base of the bipolar transistor and a junction between the zener diode and resistor regulates base current of the bipolar transistor, thereby regulating the conductivity of the bipolar transistor for control of the output voltage.

  20. Solid state, S-band, power amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Digrindakis, M.

    1973-01-01

    The final design and specifications for a solid state, S-band, power amplifier is reported. Modifications from a previously proposed design were incorporated to improve efficiency and meet input overdrive and noise floor requirements. Reports on the system design, driver amplifier, power amplifier, and voltage and current limiter are included along with a discussion of the testing program.

  1. NASA developments in solid state power amplifiers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leonard, Regis F.

    1990-01-01

    Over the last ten years, NASA has undertaken an extensive program aimed at development of solid state power amplifiers for space applications. Historically, the program may be divided into three phases. The first efforts were carried out in support of the advanced communications technology satellite (ACTS) program, which is developing an experimental version of a Ka-band commercial communications system. These first amplifiers attempted to use hybrid technology. The second phase was still targeted at ACTS frequencies, but concentrated on monolithic implementations, while the current, third phase, is a monolithic effort that focusses on frequencies appropriate for other NASA programs and stresses amplifier efficiency. The topics covered include: (1) 20 GHz hybrid amplifiers; (2) 20 GHz monolithic MESFET power amplifiers; (3) Texas Instruments' (TI) 20 GHz variable power amplifier; (4) TI 20 GHz high power amplifier; (5) high efficiency monolithic power amplifiers; (6) GHz high efficiency variable power amplifier; (7) TI 32 GHz monolithic power amplifier performance; (8) design goals for Hughes' 32 GHz variable power amplifier; and (9) performance goals for Hughes' pseudomorphic 60 GHz power amplifier.

  2. Solid state ku-band power amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowers, H. C.; Lockyear, W. H.

    1972-01-01

    The design, fabrication, and testing of two types of IMPATT diode reflection amplifiers and a transmission amplifier are given. The Ku-band IMPATT diode development is discussed. Circuitry and electrical performance of the final version of the Ku-band amplifier is described. Construction details and an outline and mounting drawing are presented.

  3. Operational Amplifier Circuits ECE 2100 Circuit Analysis

    E-print Network

    Miller, Damon A.

    1 Operational Amplifier Circuits ECE 2100 Circuit Analysis updated 11 May 2012 Pre voltage source Vin assuming that the operational amplifier is not saturated (thus there is negative of this amplifier circuit? 2. Use your SPICE engine to plot Vout as a function of Vin as Vin is varied from -2V to 2

  4. Operational Amplifier Basics I PHYS 309 Name

    E-print Network

    Herman, Rhett

    Operational Amplifier Basics I PHYS 309 Name: A. Introduction The ubiquitous op amp has the symbol--a voltage follower and an inverting amplifier. The basic images for these are below. The usual practice-inverting input Inverting input Op Amps I-1 #12;Operational Amplifier Basics I PHYS 309 Name: The maximum gain

  5. Operational Amplifier Basics II PHYS 309 Name

    E-print Network

    Herman, Rhett

    Operational Amplifier Basics II PHYS 309 Name: A. Introduction The ubiquitous op amp has the symbol Amplifier Basics II PHYS 309 Name: B. Assignment and writeup: For this lab you are to build two more basic op amp circuits: an inverting amplifier and a voltage summation circuit. These circuits

  6. Raman Amplifier Simulations with Bursty Traffic

    E-print Network

    Cafarella, Michael J.

    1 Raman Amplifier Simulations with Bursty Traffic Mohammed N. Islam Mike Freeman Jaeyoun Kim amplifiers ­ EDFA's operating deep saturation with long upper state lifetime · Improvement expected for Raman amplifiers ­ Relatively low saturation level ­ Virtually instantaneous upper state lifetime (3~6 femtoseconds

  7. Design of hysteresis circuits using differential amplifiers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooke, W. A.

    1971-01-01

    Design equations for hysteresis circuit are based on the following assumptions: amplifier input impedance is larger than source impedance; amplifier output impedance is less than load impedance; and amplifier switches state when differential input voltage is approximately zero. Circuits are designed to any given specifications.

  8. Atomic quantum transistor based on swapping operation

    E-print Network

    Sergey A. Moiseev; Sergey N. Andrianov; Eugene S. Moiseev

    2011-08-31

    We propose an atomic quantum transistor based on exchange by virtual photons between two atomic systems through the control gate-atom. The quantum transistor is realized in two QED cavities coupled in nano-optical scheme. We have found novel effect in quantum dynamics of coupled three-node atomic system which provides control-SWAP(\\theta) processes in quantum transistor operation. New possibilities of quantum entanglement in an example of bright and dark qubit states have been demonstrated for quantum transport in the atomic chain. Potentialities of the proposed nano-optical design for quantum computing and fundamental issues of multi-atomic physics are also discussed.

  9. Pass-transistor very large scale integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maki, Gary K. (Inventor); Bhatia, Prakash R. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    Logic elements are provided that permit reductions in layout size and avoidance of hazards. Such logic elements may be included in libraries of logic cells. A logical function to be implemented by the logic element is decomposed about logical variables to identify factors corresponding to combinations of the logical variables and their complements. A pass transistor network is provided for implementing the pass network function in accordance with this decomposition. The pass transistor network includes ordered arrangements of pass transistors that correspond to the combinations of variables and complements resulting from the logical decomposition. The logic elements may act as selection circuits and be integrated with memory and buffer elements.

  10. Transistors using crystalline silicon devices on glass

    DOEpatents

    McCarthy, Anthony M. (Menlo Park, CA)

    1995-01-01

    A method for fabricating transistors using single-crystal silicon devices on glass. This method overcomes the potential damage that may be caused to the device during high voltage bonding and employs a metal layer which may be incorporated as part of the transistor. This is accomplished such that when the bonding of the silicon wafer or substrate to the glass substrate is performed, the voltage and current pass through areas where transistors will not be fabricated. After removal of the silicon substrate, further metal may be deposited to form electrical contact or add functionality to the devices. By this method both single and gate-all-around devices may be formed.

  11. Random Number Generation Using Amplified Spontaneous Emission in a Fiber Amplifier

    E-print Network

    Anlage, Steven

    Random Number Generation Using Amplified Spontaneous Emission in a Fiber Amplifier Julia C. Salevan methods including photon counting and chaotic systems. · We examine an optical system using the amplified spontaneous emission in a fiber amplifier as our random source. System Conclusions and Future Work Statistical

  12. High power gas laser amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Leland, Wallace T. (Los Alamos, NM); Stratton, Thomas F. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1981-01-01

    A high power output CO.sub.2 gas laser amplifier having a number of sections, each comprising a plurality of annular pumping chambers spaced around the circumference of a vacuum chamber containing a cold cathode, gridded electron gun. The electron beam from the electron gun ionizes the gas lasing medium in the sections. An input laser beam is split into a plurality of annular beams, each passing through the sections comprising one pumping chamber.

  13. 338-GHz Semiconductor Amplifier Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samoska, Lorene A.; Gaier, Todd C.; Soria, Mary M.; Fung, King Man; Rasisic, Vesna; Deal, William; Leong, Kevin; Mei, Xiao Bing; Yoshida, Wayne; Liu, Po-Hsin; Uyeda, Jansen; Lai, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Research findings were reported from an investigation of new gallium nitride (GaN) monolithic millimeter-wave integrated circuit (MMIC) power amplifiers (PAs) targeting the highest output power and the highest efficiency for class-A operation in W-band (75-110 GHz). W-band PAs are a major component of many frequency multiplied submillimeter-wave LO signal sources. For spectrometer arrays, substantial W-band power is required due to the passive lossy frequency multipliers.

  14. Precision Gain = 10 DIFFERENTIAL AMPLIFIER

    E-print Network

    Lozano-Nieto, Albert

    VOLTAGE RTI(5) fB = 0.01Hz to 10Hz 1 µVp-p fO = 10kHz 30 nV/Hz DYNAMIC RESPONSE Small Signal ­3dB 5 MHz differential amplifier consisting of a precision op amp and on-chip metal film resistors. The resistors are laser trimmed for accurate gain and high common-mode rejection. Excellent TCR tracking of the resistors

  15. High power regenerative laser amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Miller, John L. (Livermore, CA); Hackel, Lloyd A. (Livermore, CA); Dane, Clifford B. (Dublin, CA); Zapata, Luis E. (Livermore, CA)

    1994-01-01

    A regenerative amplifier design capable of operating at high energy per pulse, for instance, from 20-100 Joules, at moderate repetition rates, for instance from 5-20 Hertz is provided. The laser amplifier comprises a gain medium and source of pump energy coupled with the gain medium; a Pockels cell, which rotates an incident beam in response to application of a control signal; an optical relay system defining a first relay plane near the gain medium and a second relay plane near the rotator; and a plurality of reflectors configured to define an optical path through the gain medium, optical relay and Pockels cell, such that each transit of the optical path includes at least one pass through the gain medium and only one pass through the Pockels cell. An input coupler, and an output coupler are provided, implemented by a single polarizer. A control circuit coupled to the Pockels cell generates the control signal in timed relationship with the input pulse so that the input pulse is captured by the input coupler and proceeds through at least one transit of the optical path, and then the control signal is applied to cause rotation of the pulse to a polarization reflected by the polarizer, after which the captured pulse passes through the gain medium at least once more and is reflected out of the optical path by the polarizer before passing through the rotator again to provide an amplified pulse.

  16. High power regenerative laser amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Miller, J.L.; Hackel, L.A.; Dane, C.B.; Zapata, L.E.

    1994-02-08

    A regenerative amplifier design capable of operating at high energy per pulse, for instance, from 20-100 Joules, at moderate repetition rates, for instance from 5-20 Hertz is provided. The laser amplifier comprises a gain medium and source of pump energy coupled with the gain medium; a Pockels cell, which rotates an incident beam in response to application of a control signal; an optical relay system defining a first relay plane near the gain medium and a second relay plane near the rotator; and a plurality of reflectors configured to define an optical path through the gain medium, optical relay and Pockels cell, such that each transit of the optical path includes at least one pass through the gain medium and only one pass through the Pockels cell. An input coupler, and an output coupler are provided, implemented by a single polarizer. A control circuit coupled to the Pockels cell generates the control signal in timed relationship with the input pulse so that the input pulse is captured by the input coupler and proceeds through at least one transit of the optical path, and then the control signal is applied to cause rotation of the pulse to a polarization reflected by the polarizer, after which the captured pulse passes through the gain medium at least once more and is reflected out of the optical path by the polarizer before passing through the rotator again to provide an amplified pulse. 7 figures.

  17. A compact 10 kW, 476 MHz solid state radio frequency amplifier for pre-buncher cavity of free electron laser injector linear accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Mohania, Praveen; Mahawar, Ashish; Shrivastava, Purushottam; Gupta, P. D.

    2013-09-15

    A 10 kW, 476 MHz, 0.1% duty cycle solid state RF amplifier system for driving sub-harmonic, pre-buncher cavity of IR-FEL injector LINAC, has been developed at RRCAT. The 10 kW power is achieved by combining output of eight 1400 W amplifier modules using 8-way planar corporate combiner. The solid state amplifier modules have been developed using 50 V RF LDMOS transistors which although meant for push-pull operation are being used in single ended configuration with matching circuit developed on a thin (25 mils), high dielectric constant (9.7), low loss microwave laminate with an aim to have a compact structure. Ease of fabrication, modularity, small size, and low cost are the important features of this design which could be used as a template for low duty cycle medium to high pulsed power UHF amplifier system.

  18. High power RF solid state power amplifier system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sims, III, William Herbert (Inventor); Chavers, Donald Gregory (Inventor); Richeson, James J. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A high power, high frequency, solid state power amplifier system includes a plurality of input multiple port splitters for receiving a high-frequency input and for dividing the input into a plurality of outputs and a plurality of solid state amplifier units. Each amplifier unit includes a plurality of amplifiers, and each amplifier is individually connected to one of the outputs of multiport splitters and produces a corresponding amplified output. A plurality of multiport combiners combine the amplified outputs of the amplifiers of each of the amplifier units to a combined output. Automatic level control protection circuitry protects the amplifiers and maintains a substantial constant amplifier power output.

  19. A correlated nickelate synaptic transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Jian; Ha, Sieu D.; Zhou, You; Schoofs, Frank; Ramanathan, Shriram

    2013-10-01

    Inspired by biological neural systems, neuromorphic devices may open up new computing paradigms to explore cognition, learning and limits of parallel computation. Here we report the demonstration of a synaptic transistor with SmNiO3, a correlated electron system with insulator-metal transition temperature at 130°C in bulk form. Non-volatile resistance and synaptic multilevel analogue states are demonstrated by control over composition in ionic liquid-gated devices on silicon platforms. The extent of the resistance modulation can be dramatically controlled by the film microstructure. By simulating the time difference between postneuron and preneuron spikes as the input parameter of a gate bias voltage pulse, synaptic spike-timing-dependent plasticity learning behaviour is realized. The extreme sensitivity of electrical properties to defects in correlated oxides may make them a particularly suitable class of materials to realize artificial biological circuits that can be operated at and above room temperature and seamlessly integrated into conventional electronic circuits.

  20. HIGH AVERAGE POWER OPTICAL FEL AMPLIFIERS.

    SciTech Connect

    BEN-ZVI, ILAN, DAYRAN, D.; LITVINENKO, V.

    2005-08-21

    Historically, the first demonstration of the optical FEL was in an amplifier configuration at Stanford University [l]. There were other notable instances of amplifying a seed laser, such as the LLNL PALADIN amplifier [2] and the BNL ATF High-Gain Harmonic Generation FEL [3]. However, for the most part FELs are operated as oscillators or self amplified spontaneous emission devices. Yet, in wavelength regimes where a conventional laser seed can be used, the FEL can be used as an amplifier. One promising application is for very high average power generation, for instance FEL's with average power of 100 kW or more. The high electron beam power, high brightness and high efficiency that can be achieved with photoinjectors and superconducting Energy Recovery Linacs (ERL) combine well with the high-gain FEL amplifier to produce unprecedented average power FELs. This combination has a number of advantages. In particular, we show that for a given FEL power, an FEL amplifier can introduce lower energy spread in the beam as compared to a traditional oscillator. This properly gives the ERL based FEL amplifier a great wall-plug to optical power efficiency advantage. The optics for an amplifier is simple and compact. In addition to the general features of the high average power FEL amplifier, we will look at a 100 kW class FEL amplifier is being designed to operate on the 0.5 ampere Energy Recovery Linac which is under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory's Collider-Accelerator Department.

  1. Development of gallium nitride power transistors

    E-print Network

    Piedra, Daniel, M. Eng. Massachusetts Institute of Technology

    2011-01-01

    GaN-based high-voltage transistors have outstanding properties for the development of ultra-high efficiency and compact power electronics. This thesis describes a new process technology for the fabrication of GaN power ...

  2. Resonant body transistors in standard CMOS technology

    E-print Network

    Marathe, Radhika A.

    This work presents Si-based electromechanical resonators fabricated at the transistor level of a standard SOI CMOS technology and realized without the need for any postprocessing or packaging. These so-called Resonant Body ...

  3. Spin effects in single-electron transistors

    E-print Network

    Granger, Ghislain

    2005-01-01

    Basic electron transport phenomena observed in single-electron transistors (SETs) are introduced, such as Coulomb-blockade diamonds, inelastic cotunneling thresholds, the spin-1/2 Kondo effect, and Fano interference. With ...

  4. High temperature charge amplifier for geothermal applications

    DOEpatents

    Lindblom, Scott C.; Maldonado, Frank J.; Henfling, Joseph A.

    2015-12-08

    An amplifier circuit in a multi-chip module includes a charge to voltage converter circuit, a voltage amplifier a low pass filter and a voltage to current converter. The charge to voltage converter receives a signal representing an electrical charge and generates a voltage signal proportional to the input signal. The voltage amplifier receives the voltage signal from the charge to voltage converter, then amplifies the voltage signal by the gain factor to output an amplified voltage signal. The lowpass filter passes low frequency components of the amplified voltage signal and attenuates frequency components greater than a cutoff frequency. The voltage to current converter receives the output signal of the lowpass filter and converts the output signal to a current output signal; wherein an amplifier circuit output is selectable between the output signal of the lowpass filter and the current output signal.

  5. High-Performance Solid-State W-Band Power Amplifiers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaier, Todd; Samoska, Lorene; Wells, Mary; Ferber, Robert; Pearson, John; Campbell, April; Peralta, Alejandro; Swift, Gerald; Yocum, Paul; Chung, Yun

    2003-01-01

    The figure shows one of four solid-state power amplifiers, each capable of generating an output power greater than or equal to 240 mW over one of four overlapping frequency bands from 71 to 106 GHz. (The bands are 71 to 84, 80 to 92, 88 to 99, and 89 to 106 GHz.) The amplifiers are designed for optimum performance at a temperature of 130 K. These amplifiers were developed specifically for incorporation into frequency-multiplier chains in local oscillators in a low-noise, far-infrared receiving instrument to be launched into outer space to make astrophysical observations. The designs of these amplifiers may also be of interest to designers and manufacturers of terrestrial W-band communication and radar systems. Each amplifier includes a set of six high-electron-mobility transistor (HEMT) GaAs monolithic microwave integrated-circuit (MMIC) chips, microstrip cavities, and other components packaged in a housing made from A-40 silicon-aluminum alloy. This alloy was chosen because, for the original intended spacecraft application, it offers an acceptable compromise among the partially competing requirements for high thermal conductivity, low mass, and low thermal expansion. Problems that were solved in designing the amplifiers included designing connectors and packages to fit the available space; designing microstrip signal-power splitters and combiners; matching of impedances across the frequency bands; matching of the electrical characteristics of those chips installed in parallel power-combining arms; control and levelling of output power across the bands; and designing the MMICs, microstrips, and microstrip cavities to suppress tendencies toward oscillation in several modes, both inside and outside the desired frequency bands.

  6. High-performance transistors for bioelectronics through tuning of channel thickness

    PubMed Central

    Rivnay, Jonathan; Leleux, Pierre; Ferro, Marc; Sessolo, Michele; Williamson, Adam; Koutsouras, Dimitrios A.; Khodagholy, Dion; Ramuz, Marc; Strakosas, Xenofon; Owens, Roisin M.; Benar, Christian; Badier, Jean-Michel; Bernard, Christophe; Malliaras, George G.

    2015-01-01

    Despite recent interest in organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs), sparked by their straightforward fabrication and high performance, the fundamental mechanism behind their operation remains largely unexplored. OECTs use an electrolyte in direct contact with a polymer channel as part of their device structure. Hence, they offer facile integration with biological milieux and are currently used as amplifying transducers for bioelectronics. Ion exchange between electrolyte and channel is believed to take place in OECTs, although the extent of this process and its impact on device characteristics are still unknown. We show that the uptake of ions from an electrolyte into a film of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) doped with polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) leads to a purely volumetric capacitance of 39 F/cm3. This results in a dependence of the transconductance on channel thickness, a new degree of freedom that we exploit to demonstrate high-quality recordings of human brain rhythms. Our results bring to the forefront a transistor class in which performance can be tuned independently of device footprint and provide guidelines for the design of materials that will lead to state-of-the-art transistor performance. PMID:26601178

  7. 6H-SiC Transistor Integrated Circuits Demonstrating Prolonged Operation at 500 C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neudeck, Philip G.; Spry, David J.; Chen, Liang-Yu; Chang, Carl W.; Beheim, Glenn M.; Okojie, Robert S.; Evans, Laura J.; Meredith, Roger; Ferrier, Terry; Krasowski, Michael J.; Prokop, Norman F.

    2008-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center is developing very high temperature semiconductor integrated circuits (ICs) for use in the hot sections of aircraft engines and for Venus exploration where ambient temperatures are well above the approximately 300 degrees Centigrade effective limit of silicon-on-insulator IC technology. In order for beneficial technology insertion to occur, such transistor ICs must be capable of prolonged operation in such harsh environments. This paper reports on the fabrication and long-term 500 degrees Centigrade operation of 6H-SiC integrated circuits based on epitaxial 6H-SiC junction field effect transistors (JFETs). Simple analog amplifier and digital logic gate ICs have now demonstrated thousands of hours of continuous 500 degrees Centigrade operation in oxidizing air atmosphere with minimal changes in relevant electrical parameters. Electrical characterization and modeling of transistors and circuits at temperatures from 24 degrees Centigrade to 500 degrees Centigrade is also described. Desired analog and digital IC functionality spanning this temperature range was demonstrated without changing the input signals or power supply voltages.

  8. Shaping Transistor Leads for Better Solder Joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandel, H.; Dillon, J. D.

    1982-01-01

    Special lead-forming tool puts step in leads of microwave power transistors without damaging braze joints that fasten leads to package. Stepped leads are soldered to circuit boards more reliably than straight leads, and stress on brazes is relieved. Lead-forming hand-tool has two parts: a forming die and an actuator. Spring-loaded saddle is adjusted so that when transistor package is placed on it, leads rest on forming rails.

  9. Refined Transistor Model For Simulation Of SEU

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zoutendyk, John A.; Benumof, Reuben

    1988-01-01

    Equivalent base resistance added. Theoretical study develops equations for parameters of Gummel-Poon model of bipolar junction transistor: includes saturation current, amplification factors, charging times, knee currents, capacitances, and resistances. Portion of study concerned with base region goes beyond Gummel-Poon analysis to provide more complete understanding of transistor behavior. Extended theory useful in simulation of single-event upset (SEU) caused in logic circuits by cosmic rays or other ionizing radiation.

  10. TA 7.4: A High-Swing 2V CMOSOperational Amplifier with Gain Enhancement usinga Replica Amplifier

    E-print Network

    Lee, Hae-Seung "Harry"

    TA 7.4: A High-Swing 2V CMOSOperational Amplifier with Gain Enhancement usinga Replica Amplifier output resistance, butby matching main andreplica amplifiers, high effectiveopen-stageamplifiercircuitdemon- strates gain enhancementfor low-voltage applications. Consider a transconductance amplifier

  11. Analog Pre-Distortion Linearizer Using Self Base Bias Controlled Amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinjo, Shintaro; Mori, Kazutomi; Yamada, Keiki; Suematsu, Noriharu; Shimozawa, Mitsuhiro

    An analog pre-distortion linearizer employing a radio frequency (RF) transistor with a self base bias control circuit is proposed. The self base bias control circuit extracts the envelope from the modulated input RF signal of the RF transistor and automatically controls its base current according to the extracted envelope. As a result, the proposed linearizer realizes positive gain deviation at high input power level. By adding a resistor between the RF transistor and the self base bias control circuit, the negative gain deviation can be derived. The design of the proposed lineaizer is described with taking the envelope frequency response of the self base bias control circuit into consideration. The fabricated linearizer achieves the adjacent channel power leakage ratio (ACLR) improvement of 8.1dB for a 2GHz-band, 10W-class GaAs FET high-power amplifier (HPA) with negative gain deviation for W-CDMA base stations. It also achieves the ACLR improvement of 8.3dB for a LDMOS HPA with positive gain deviation for the same application.

  12. Quantum Noise in Amplifiers and Hawking/Dumb-Hole Radiation as Amplifier Noise

    E-print Network

    W. G. Unruh

    2011-07-13

    The quantum noise in a linear amplifier is shown to be thermal noise. The theory of linear amplifiers is applied first to the simplest, single or double oscillator model of an amplifier, and then to linear model of an amplifier with continuous fields and input and outputs. Finally it is shown that the thermal noise emitted by black holes first demonstrated by Hawking, and of dumb holes (sonic and other analogs to black holes), arises from the same analysis as for linear amplifiers. The amplifier noise of black holes acting as amplifiers on the quantum fields living in the spacetime surrounding the black hole is the radiation discovered by Hawking. For any amplifier, that quantum noise is completely characterized by the attributes of the system regarded as a classical amplifier, and arises out of those classical amplification factors and the commutation relations of quantum mechanics.

  13. Charge amplifier with bias compensation

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Gary W. (Livermore, CA)

    2002-01-01

    An ion beam uniformity monitor for very low beam currents using a high-sensitivity charge amplifier with bias compensation. The ion beam monitor is used to assess the uniformity of a raster-scanned ion beam, such as used in an ion implanter, and utilizes four Faraday cups placed in the geometric corners of the target area. Current from each cup is integrated with respect to time, thus measuring accumulated dose, or charge, in Coulombs. By comparing the dose at each corner, a qualitative assessment of ion beam uniformity is made possible. With knowledge of the relative area of the Faraday cups, the ion flux and areal dose can also be obtained.

  14. Ping-pong auto-zero amplifier with glitch reduction

    DOEpatents

    Larson, Mark R. (Maple Grove, MN)

    2008-01-22

    A ping-pong amplifier with reduced glitching is described. The ping-pong amplifier includes a nulling amplifier coupled to a switching network. The switching network is used to auto-zero a ping amplifier within a ping-pong amplifier. The nulling amplifier drives the output of a ping amplifier to a proper output voltage level during auto-zeroing of the ping amplifier. By being at a proper output voltage level, glitches associated with transitioning between a ping amplifier and a pong amplifier are reduced or eliminated.

  15. Analyses of Transistor Punchthrough Failures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicolas, David P.

    1999-01-01

    The failure of two transistors in the Altitude Switch Assembly for the Solid Rocket Booster followed by two additional failures a year later presented a challenge to failure analysts. These devices had successfully worked for many years on numerous missions. There was no history of failures with this type of device. Extensive checks of the test procedures gave no indication for a source of the cause. The devices were manufactured more than twenty years ago and failure information on this lot date code was not readily available. External visual exam, radiography, PEID, and leak testing were performed with nominal results Electrical testing indicated nearly identical base-emitter and base-collector characteristics (both forward and reverse) with a low resistance short emitter to collector. These characteristics are indicative of a classic failure mechanism called punchthrough. In failure analysis punchthrough refers to an condition where a relatively low voltage pulse causes the device to conduct very hard producing localized areas of thermal runaway or "hot spots". At one or more of these hot spots, the excessive currents melt the silicon. Heavily doped emitter material diffuses through the base region to the collector forming a diffusion pipe shorting the emitter to base to collector. Upon cooling, an alloy junction forms between the pipe and the base region. Generally, the hot spot (punch-through site) is under the bond and no surface artifact is visible. The devices were delidded and the internal structures were examined microscopically. The gold emitter lead was melted on one device, but others had anomalies in the metallization around the in-tact emitter bonds. The SEM examination confirmed some anomalies to be cosmetic defects while other anomalies were artifacts of the punchthrough site. Subsequent to these analyses, the contractor determined that some irregular testing procedures occurred at the time of the failures heretofore unreported. These testing irregularities involved the use of a breakout box and were the likely cause of the failures. There was no evidence to suggest a generic failure mechanism was responsible for the failure of these transistors.

  16. Multistaged stokes injected Raman capillary waveguide amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Kurnit, Norman A. (Santa Fe, NM)

    1980-01-01

    A multistaged Stokes injected Raman capillary waveguide amplifier for providing a high gain Stokes output signal. The amplifier uses a plurality of optically coupled capillary waveguide amplifiers and one or more regenerative amplifiers to increase Stokes gain to a level sufficient for power amplification. Power amplification is provided by a multifocused Raman gain cell or a large diameter capillary waveguide. An external source of CO.sub.2 laser radiation can be injected into each of the capillary waveguide amplifier stages to increase Raman gain. Devices for injecting external sources of CO.sub.2 radiation include: dichroic mirrors, prisms, gratings and Ge Brewster plates. Alternatively, the CO.sub.2 input radiation to the first stage can be coupled and amplified between successive stages.

  17. COMMON EMITTER AMPLIFIER 8.1 Overview

    E-print Network

    Ravikumar, B.

    CHAPTER 8 COMMON EMITTER AMPLIFIER 8.1 Overview You will design, simulate, build the circuit, and measure the voltage gain of the amplifier. 8.2 Cadence Simulation 1. The specifications for the common-emitter amplifier are shown below gm=19.2 mS VRE =0.3 V I1 = 40IB VCC = 9V Vin,m = 10 mV 2. Assume that the 2N3904

  18. Technology and market evaluation for semiconductor nanowire transistors

    E-print Network

    Omampuliyur, Rajamouly Swaminathan

    2008-01-01

    Information processing systems have been getting more powerful over the course of the past three decades due to the scaling of transistor dimensions. Scaling of transistor dimension causes a plethora of technological ...

  19. Resonant Body Transistors in IBM's 32nm SOI CMOS technology

    E-print Network

    Marathe, Radhika A.

    This work presents an unreleased CMOS-integrated MEMS resonators fabricated at the transistor level of IBM's 32SOI technology and realized without the need for any post-processing or packaging. These Resonant Body Transistors ...

  20. Organic electrochemical transistors for cell-based impedance sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivnay, Jonathan; Ramuz, Marc; Leleux, Pierre; Hama, Adel; Huerta, Miriam; Owens, Roisin M.

    2015-01-01

    Electrical impedance sensing of biological systems, especially cultured epithelial cell layers, is now a common technique to monitor cell motion, morphology, and cell layer/tissue integrity for high throughput toxicology screening. Existing methods to measure electrical impedance most often rely on a two electrode configuration, where low frequency signals are challenging to obtain for small devices and for tissues with high resistance, due to low current. Organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs) are conducting polymer-based devices, which have been shown to efficiently transduce and amplify low-level ionic fluxes in biological systems into electronic output signals. In this work, we combine OECT-based drain current measurements with simultaneous measurement of more traditional impedance sensing using the gate current to produce complex impedance traces, which show low error at both low and high frequencies. We apply this technique in vitro to a model epithelial tissue layer and show that the data can be fit to an equivalent circuit model yielding trans-epithelial resistance and cell layer capacitance values in agreement with literature. Importantly, the combined measurement allows for low biases across the cell layer, while still maintaining good broadband signal.

  1. Experimental study on tandem pumped fiber amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Hu; Xu, Jiangming; Wu, Wuming; Zhou, Pu; Xu, Xiaojun

    2012-07-01

    We present the experimental results of a 1083 nm fiber amplifier tandem pumped by 1030 nm fiber laser. The output characteristics of the tandem pumped amplifier with cladding-pump and core-pump schemes are both investigated. The 1083 nm signal laser has not been efficiently amplified when cladding-pumped by 1030 nm laser for the weak absorption of the gain fiber. The core-pump scheme works well with the amplifier. The output properties with different gain fiber length are experimentally investigated. The maximum output power is 2.4 W with power conversion efficiency of 60%.

  2. Log amplifier with pole-zero compensation

    DOEpatents

    Brookshier, W.

    1985-02-08

    A logarithmic amplifier circuit provides pole-zero compensation for improved stability and response time over 6-8 decades of input signal frequency. The amplifer circuit includes a first operational amplifier with a first feedback loop which includes a second, inverting operational amplifier in a second feedstock loop. The compensated output signal is provided by the second operational amplifier with the log elements, i.e., resistors, and the compensating capacitors in each of the feedback loops having equal values so that each break point is offset by a compensating break point or zero.

  3. Class E/F switching power amplifiers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hajimiri, Seyed-Ali (Inventor); Aoki, Ichiro (Inventor); Rutledge, David B. (Inventor); Kee, Scott David (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    The present invention discloses a new family of switching amplifier classes called class E/F amplifiers. These amplifiers are generally characterized by their use of the zero-voltage-switching (ZVS) phase correction technique to eliminate of the loss normally associated with the inherent capacitance of the switching device as utilized in class-E amplifiers, together with a load network for improved voltage and current wave-shaping by presenting class-F.sup.-1 impedances at selected overtones and class-E impedances at the remaining overtones. The present invention discloses a several topologies and specific circuit implementations for achieving such performance.

  4. Graphene nanopore field effect transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Qiu, Wanzhi; Skafidas, Efstratios

    2014-07-14

    Graphene holds great promise for replacing conventional Si material in field effect transistors (FETs) due to its high carrier mobility. Previously proposed graphene FETs either suffer from low ON-state current resulting from constrained channel width or require complex fabrication processes for edge-defecting or doping. Here, we propose an alternative graphene FET structure created on intrinsic metallic armchair-edged graphene nanoribbons with uniform width, where the channel region is made semiconducting by drilling a pore in the interior, and the two ends of the nanoribbon act naturally as connecting electrodes. The proposed GNP-FETs have high ON-state currents due to seamless atomic interface between the channel and electrodes and are able to be created with arbitrarily wide ribbons. In addition, the performance of GNP-FETs can be tuned by varying pore size and ribbon width. As a result, their performance and fabrication process are more predictable and controllable in comparison to schemes based on edge-defects and doping. Using first-principle transport calculations, we show that GNP-FETs can achieve competitive leakage current of ?70?pA, subthreshold swing of ?60?mV/decade, and significantly improved On/Off current ratios on the order of 10{sup 5} as compared with other forms of graphene FETs.

  5. A Highly Responsive Silicon Nanowire/Amplifier MOSFET Hybrid Biosensor

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jieun; Jang, Jaeman; Choi, Bongsik; Yoon, Jinsu; Kim, Jee-Yeon; Choi, Yang-Kyu; Myong Kim, Dong; Hwan Kim, Dae; Choi, Sung-Jin

    2015-01-01

    This study demonstrates a hybrid biosensor comprised of a silicon nanowire (SiNW) integrated with an amplifier MOSFET to improve the current response of field-effect-transistor (FET)-based biosensors. The hybrid biosensor is fabricated using conventional CMOS technology, which has the potential advantage of high density and low noise performance. The biosensor shows a current response of 5.74 decades per pH for pH detection, which is 2.5?×?105 times larger than that of a single SiNW sensor. In addition, we demonstrate charged polymer detection using the biosensor, with a high current change of 4.5?×?105 with a 500?nM concentration of poly(allylamine hydrochloride). In addition, we demonstrate a wide dynamic range can be obtained by adjusting the liquid gate voltage. We expect that this biosensor will be advantageous and practical for biosensor applications which requires lower noise, high speed, and high density. PMID:26197105

  6. A Low Noise Amplifier for Neural Spike Recording Interfaces

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Amaya, Jesus; Rodriguez-Perez, Alberto; Delgado-Restituto, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a Low Noise Amplifier (LNA) for neural spike recording applications. The proposed topology, based on a capacitive feedback network using a two-stage OTA, efficiently solves the triple trade-off between power, area and noise. Additionally, this work introduces a novel transistor-level synthesis methodology for LNAs tailored for the minimization of their noise efficiency factor under area and noise constraints. The proposed LNA has been implemented in a 130 nm CMOS technology and occupies 0.053 mm-sq. Experimental results show that the LNA offers a noise efficiency factor of 2.16 and an input referred noise of 3.8 ?Vrms for 1.2 V power supply. It provides a gain of 46 dB over a nominal bandwidth of 192 Hz–7.4 kHz and consumes 1.92 ?W. The performance of the proposed LNA has been validated through in vivo experiments with animal models. PMID:26437411

  7. High performance building blocks for wireless receiver: multi-stage amplifiers and low noise amplifiers 

    E-print Network

    Fan, Xiaohua

    2009-05-15

    normally serves as the primary part of the system, which heavily influences the system performance. This research concentrates on the designs of several important blocks of the receiver; multi-stage amplifier and low noise amplifier. Two novel multi...

  8. High Accuracy Transistor Compact Model Calibrations

    SciTech Connect

    Hembree, Charles E.; Mar, Alan; Robertson, Perry J.

    2015-09-01

    Typically, transistors are modeled by the application of calibrated nominal and range models. These models consists of differing parameter values that describe the location and the upper and lower limits of a distribution of some transistor characteristic such as current capacity. Correspond- ingly, when using this approach, high degrees of accuracy of the transistor models are not expected since the set of models is a surrogate for a statistical description of the devices. The use of these types of models describes expected performances considering the extremes of process or transistor deviations. In contrast, circuits that have very stringent accuracy requirements require modeling techniques with higher accuracy. Since these accurate models have low error in transistor descriptions, these models can be used to describe part to part variations as well as an accurate description of a single circuit instance. Thus, models that meet these stipulations also enable the calculation of quantifi- cation of margins with respect to a functional threshold and uncertainties in these margins. Given this need, new model high accuracy calibration techniques for bipolar junction transis- tors have been developed and are described in this report.

  9. Stretchable transistors with buckled carbon nanotube films as conducting channels

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, Michael S; Xu, Feng

    2015-03-24

    Thin-film transistors comprising buckled films comprising carbon nanotubes as the conductive channel are provided. Also provided are methods of fabricating the transistors. The transistors, which are highly stretchable and bendable, exhibit stable performance even when operated under high tensile strains.

  10. Distributed Sleep Transistor Network for Power Reduction Changbo Long

    E-print Network

    He, Lei

    advantages in area and performance compared to module-based and cluster-based sleep transistor designs [3, 4Distributed Sleep Transistor Network for Power Reduction Changbo Long ECE Department University of Wisconsin, Madison clong@cae.wisc.edu Lei He EE Department UCLA lhe@ee.ucla.edu ABSTRACT Sleep transistors

  11. Transistor Scaled HPC Application Performance Technical Report BUCSTR2012009

    E-print Network

    Transistor Scaled HPC Application Performance Technical Report BUCS­TR­2012­009 Jonathan Appavoo supported in part by National Science Foundation award #1012798. #12; Transistor Scaled HPC Application automatically scales with the transistor count even in the face of component failures. Today high performance

  12. Convex Delay Models for Transistor Sizing Mahesh Ketkar

    E-print Network

    Sapatnekar, Sachin

    Convex Delay Models for Transistor Sizing Mahesh Ketkar Department of ECE, University of Minnesota for developing accurate con- vex delay models to be used for transistor sizing. A new rich class of convex for modern designs. The delay model is incorpo- rated into a transistor sizing algorithm based on TILOS

  13. MicroCommentary Looking inside the box: bacterial transistor arrays

    E-print Network

    Shimizu, Tom

    MicroCommentary Looking inside the box: bacterial transistor arrays Thomas S. Shimizu1 and Nicolas compares cells to computers, and signalling proteins to transistors. Location and wiring of those molecular transistors is paramount in defining the function of the subcellular chips. The bacterial chemo- tactic

  14. CHARACTERISING MICROWAVE TRANSISTOR DYNAMICS WITH SMALL-SIGNAL MEASUREMENTS

    E-print Network

    CHARACTERISING MICROWAVE TRANSISTOR DYNAMICS WITH SMALL-SIGNAL MEASUREMENTS Anthony E. Parker(1, Sydney AUSTRALIA 2006 mailto: jimr@ee.usyd.edu.au ABSTRACT Small-signal microwave transistor extrapolates beyond the measurement space to quantify the very significant impact that transistor dispersion

  15. Chip Space and Transistor Count Estimator Marc Steinhaus

    E-print Network

    Ungerer, Theo

    Chip Space and Transistor Count Estimator Marc Steinhaus Fakultät für Informatik, Universität Karlsruhe, D-76128 Karlsruhe, Germany and RapidSolution Software GmbH, Karlsruhe General The transistor die area and the number of transistors of a simulated processor. To reach this goal, it is necessary

  16. Combined Transistor Sizing with Bu er Insertion for Timing Optimization

    E-print Network

    Sapatnekar, Sachin

    Combined Transistor Sizing with Bu er Insertion for Timing Optimization Yanbin Jiang y Sachin S are signi - cantly better than the results given by merely using a TILOS-like transistor sizing algorithm alone. 1 Introduction The transistor sizing problem 1, 2, 3 is often formulated as Minimize Area subject

  17. Avalanche spin-valve transistor K. J. Russell,a)

    E-print Network

    Russell, Kasey

    Avalanche spin-valve transistor K. J. Russell,a) Ian Appelbaum,b) Wei Yi, D. J. Monsma, F. Capasso, California 93106 (Received 11 June 2004; accepted 10 September 2004) A spin-valve transistor with a Ga allow fabrication of spin-valve transistors with high gain in a variety of materials. © 2004 American

  18. Buffer Minimization in Pass Transistor Logic Advanced Technology Group

    E-print Network

    Zhou, Hai

    Buffer Minimization in Pass Transistor Logic Hai Zhou Advanced Technology Group Synopsys, Inc With the shrinking feature sizes and increasing transistor counts on chips, the push for higher speed and lower power than static CMOS. Among them, pass transistor logic (PTL) circuits give great promise. Since the delay

  19. Nonmagnetic semiconductor spin transistor K. C. Hall,a)

    E-print Network

    Flatte, Michael E.

    Nonmagnetic semiconductor spin transistor K. C. Hall,a) Wayne H. Lau, K. Gu¨ndogdu, Michael E propose a spin transistor using only nonmagnetic materials that exploits the characteristics of bulk tunneling and spin transistor action is realized through control of the electron spin lifetime in an In

  20. Sleep Transistor Sizing Using Timing Criticality and Temporal Currents

    E-print Network

    Pan, David Z.

    Sleep Transistor Sizing Using Timing Criticality and Temporal Currents Anand Ramalingam, Bin Zhang power operation. One of the challenges in power gating is sizing the sleep transistor which is used currents to size the sleep transistor. The timing criticality information and temporal current estimation

  1. Self-protecting transistor oscillator for treating animal tissues

    DOEpatents

    Doss, James D. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1980-01-01

    A transistor oscillator circuit wherein the load current applied to animal tissue treatment electrodes is fed back to the transistor. Removal of load is sensed to automatically remove feedback and stop oscillations. A thermistor on one treatment electrode senses temperature, and by means of a control circuit controls oscillator transistor current.

  2. Optical latches using optical amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wenbo; Hu, Hongyu; Dutta, Niloy K.

    2013-05-01

    Optical latches are important for a wide range of applications including communication systems, optical logic systems, optical random access memory (RAM) and encryption. All optical logic operations using quantum dot (QD) based semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) and Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) have been studied. The building block of an optical latch such as NAND gate has been fabricated and their operation experimentally demonstrated at ~ 80 GHz. A rate equation model has been developed for the QD-SOA-MZI and it has been used to analyze the Boolean logic operation. The model has been used to analyze the Set-Reset (S-R) latch and the D-Flip-Flop (DFF) devices. The DFF is the basic device for building larger logic circuits. The results show that the latches would work to speeds of ~ 250 Gb/s.

  3. Transverse pumped laser amplifier architecture

    DOEpatents

    Bayramian, Andrew James; Manes, Kenneth; Deri, Robert; Erlandson, Al; Caird, John; Spaeth, Mary

    2013-07-09

    An optical gain architecture includes a pump source and a pump aperture. The architecture also includes a gain region including a gain element operable to amplify light at a laser wavelength. The gain region is characterized by a first side intersecting an optical path, a second side opposing the first side, a third side adjacent the first and second sides, and a fourth side opposing the third side. The architecture further includes a dichroic section disposed between the pump aperture and the first side of the gain region. The dichroic section is characterized by low reflectance at a pump wavelength and high reflectance at the laser wavelength. The architecture additionally includes a first cladding section proximate to the third side of the gain region and a second cladding section proximate to the fourth side of the gain region.

  4. Hydraulically amplified PZT mems actuator

    DOEpatents

    Miles, Robin R.

    2004-11-02

    A hydraulically amplified microelectromechanical systems actuator. A piece of piezoelectric material or stacked piezo bimorph is bonded or deposited as a thin film. The piece is operatively connected to a primary membrane. A reservoir is operatively connected to the primary membrane. The reservoir contains a fluid. A membrane is operatively connected to the reservoir. In operation, energizing the piezoelectric material causing the piezoelectric material to bow. Bowing of the piezoelectric material causes movement of the primary membrane. Movement of the primary membrane results in a force in being transmitted to the liquid in the reservoir. The force in the liquid causes movement of the membrane. Movement of the membrane results in an operating actuator.

  5. Transverse pumped laser amplifier architecture

    DOEpatents

    Bayramian, Andrew James; Manes, Kenneth R.; Deri, Robert; Erlandson, Alvin; Caird, John; Spaeth, Mary L.

    2015-05-19

    An optical gain architecture includes a pump source and a pump aperture. The architecture also includes a gain region including a gain element operable to amplify light at a laser wavelength. The gain region is characterized by a first side intersecting an optical path, a second side opposing the first side, a third side adjacent the first and second sides, and a fourth side opposing the third side. The architecture further includes a dichroic section disposed between the pump aperture and the first side of the gain region. The dichroic section is characterized by low reflectance at a pump wavelength and high reflectance at the laser wavelength. The architecture additionally includes a first cladding section proximate to the third side of the gain region and a second cladding section proximate to the fourth side of the gain region.

  6. Free randomness can be amplified

    E-print Network

    Roger Colbeck; Renato Renner

    2013-06-18

    Are there fundamentally random processes in nature? Theoretical predictions, confirmed experimentally, such as the violation of Bell inequalities, point to an affirmative answer. However, these results are based on the assumption that measurement settings can be chosen freely at random, so assume the existence of perfectly free random processes from the outset. Here we consider a scenario in which this assumption is weakened and show that partially free random bits can be amplified to make arbitrarily free ones. More precisely, given a source of random bits whose correlation with other variables is below a certain threshold, we propose a procedure for generating fresh random bits that are virtually uncorrelated with all other variables. We also conjecture that such procedures exist for any non-trivial threshold. Our result is based solely on the no-signalling principle, which is necessary for the existence of free randomness.

  7. Fiber networks amplify active stress

    E-print Network

    Ronceray, Pierre; Lenz, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Large-scale force generation is essential for biological functions such as cell motility, embryonic development, and muscle contraction. In these processes, forces generated at the molecular level by motor proteins are transmitted by disordered fiber networks, resulting in large-scale active stresses. While these fiber networks are well characterized macroscopically, this stress generation by microscopic active units is not well understood. Here we theoretically study force transmission in these networks, and find that local active forces are rectified towards isotropic contraction and strongly amplified as fibers collectively buckle in the vicinity of the active units. This stress amplification is reinforced by the networks' disordered nature, but saturates for high densities of active units. Our predictions are quantitatively consistent with experiments on reconstituted tissues and actomyosin networks, and shed light on the role of the network microstructure in shaping active stresses in cells and tissue.

  8. Fiber networks amplify active stress

    E-print Network

    Pierre Ronceray; Chase Broedersz; Martin Lenz

    2015-07-22

    Large-scale force generation is essential for biological functions such as cell motility, embryonic development, and muscle contraction. In these processes, forces generated at the molecular level by motor proteins are transmitted by disordered fiber networks, resulting in large-scale active stresses. While these fiber networks are well characterized macroscopically, this stress generation by microscopic active units is not well understood. Here we theoretically study force transmission in these networks, and find that local active forces are rectified towards isotropic contraction and strongly amplified as fibers collectively buckle in the vicinity of the active units. This stress amplification is reinforced by the networks' disordered nature, but saturates for high densities of active units. Our predictions are quantitatively consistent with experiments on reconstituted tissues and actomyosin networks, and shed light on the role of the network microstructure in shaping active stresses in cells and tissue.

  9. High Performance Airbrushed Organic Thin Film Transistors

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, C.; Richter, L; Dinardo, B; Jaye, C; Conrad, B; Ro, H; Germack, D; Fischer, D; DeLongchamp, D; Gunlach, D

    2010-01-01

    Spray-deposited poly-3-hexylthiophene (P3HT) transistors were characterized using electrical and structural methods. Thin-film transistors with octyltrichlorosilane treated gate dielectrics and spray-deposited P3HT active layers exhibited a saturation regime mobility as high as 0.1 cm{sup 2} V{sup -1} s{sup -1}, which is comparable to the best mobilities observed in high molecular mass P3HT transistors prepared using other methods. Optical and atomic force microscopy showed the presence of individual droplets with an average diameter of 20 {micro}m and appreciable large-scale film inhomogeneities. Despite these inhomogeneities, near-edge x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy of the device-relevant channel interface indicated excellent orientation of the P3HT.

  10. A Heteroepitaxial Perovskite Metal-Base Transistor

    SciTech Connect

    Yajima, T.; Hikita, Y.; Hwang, H.Y.; ,

    2011-08-11

    'More than Moore' captures a concept for overcoming limitations in silicon electronics by incorporating new functionalities in the constituent materials. Perovskite oxides are candidates because of their vast array of physical properties in a common structure. They also enable new electronic devices based on strongly-correlated electrons. The field effect transistor and its derivatives have been the principal oxide devices investigated thus far, but another option is available in a different geometry: if the current is perpendicular to the interface, the strong internal electric fields generated at back-to-back heterojunctions can be used for oxide electronics, analogous to bipolar transistors. Here we demonstrate a perovskite heteroepitaxial metal-base transistor operating at room temperature, enabled by interface dipole engineering. Analysis of many devices quantifies the evolution from hot-electron to permeable-base behaviour. This device provides a platform for incorporating the exotic ground states of perovskite oxides, as well as novel electronic phases at their interfaces.

  11. Transistors using crystalline silicon devices on glass

    DOEpatents

    McCarthy, A.M.

    1995-05-09

    A method is disclosed for fabricating transistors using single-crystal silicon devices on glass. This method overcomes the potential damage that may be caused to the device during high voltage bonding and employs a metal layer which may be incorporated as part of the transistor. This is accomplished such that when the bonding of the silicon wafer or substrate to the glass substrate is performed, the voltage and current pass through areas where transistors will not be fabricated. After removal of the silicon substrate, further metal may be deposited to form electrical contact or add functionality to the devices. By this method both single and gate-all-around devices may be formed. 13 figs.

  12. Thin Film Transistors On Plastic Substrates

    DOEpatents

    Carey, Paul G. (Mountain View, CA); Smith, Patrick M. (San Ramon, CA); Sigmon, Thomas W. (Portola Valley, CA); Aceves, Randy C. (Livermore, CA)

    2004-01-20

    A process for formation of thin film transistors (TFTs) on plastic substrates replaces standard thin film transistor fabrication techniques, and uses sufficiently lower processing temperatures so that inexpensive plastic substrates may be used in place of standard glass, quartz, and silicon wafer-based substrates. The silicon based thin film transistor produced by the process includes a low temperature substrate incapable of withstanding sustained processing temperatures greater than about 250.degree. C., an insulating layer on the substrate, a layer of silicon on the insulating layer having sections of doped silicon, undoped silicon, and poly-silicon, a gate dielectric layer on the layer of silicon, a layer of gate metal on the dielectric layer, a layer of oxide on sections of the layer of silicon and the layer of gate metal, and metal contacts on sections of the layer of silicon and layer of gate metal defining source, gate, and drain contacts, and interconnects.

  13. Coherence in a cold atom photon transistor

    E-print Network

    Li, Weibin

    2015-01-01

    Recent experiments have realized an all-optical photon transistor using a cold atomic gas. This approach relies on electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in conjunction with the strong interaction among atoms excited to high-lying Rydberg states. The transistor is gated via a so-called Rydberg spinwave, in which a single Rydberg excitation is coherently shared by the whole ensemble. In its absence the incoming photon passes through the atomic ensemble by virtue of EIT while in its presence the photon is scattered rendering the atomic gas opaque. An important current challenge is to preserve the coherence of the Rydberg spinwave during the operation of the transistor, which would enable for example its coherent optical read-out and its further processing in quantum circuits. With a combined field theoretical and quantum jump approach and by employing a simple model description we investigate systematically and comprehensively how the coherence of the Rydberg spinwave is affected by photon scattering. W...

  14. Symmetry-protected adiabatic quantum transistors

    E-print Network

    Dominic J. Williamson; Stephen D. Bartlett

    2015-05-15

    Adiabatic quantum transistors allow quantum logic gates to be performed by applying a large field to a quantum many-body system prepared in its ground state, without the need for local control. The basic operation of such a device can be viewed as driving a spin chain from a symmetry protected phase to a trivial phase, and this perspective offers an avenue to generalise the adiabatic quantum transistor and to design several improvements. The performance of quantum logic gates is shown to depend only on universal symmetry properties of a symmetry-protected phase rather than fine tuned parent Hamiltonians, and it is possible to implement a universal set of logic gates in this way by combining several different types of symmetry protected matter. Such symmetry-protected adiabatic quantum transistors are argued to be robust to a range of relevant noise processes.

  15. Materials physics and device development for improved efficiency of GaN HEMT high power amplifiers.

    SciTech Connect

    Kurtz, Steven Ross; Follstaedt, David Martin; Wright, Alan Francis; Baca, Albert G.; Briggs, Ronald D.; Provencio, Paula Polyak; Missert, Nancy A.; Allerman, Andrew Alan; Marsh, Phil F.; Koleske, Daniel David; Lee, Stephen Roger; Shul, Randy John; Seager, Carleton Hoover; Tigges, Christopher P.

    2005-12-01

    GaN-based microwave power amplifiers have been identified as critical components in Sandia's next generation micro-Synthetic-Aperture-Radar (SAR) operating at X-band and Ku-band (10-18 GHz). To miniaturize SAR, GaN-based amplifiers are necessary to replace bulky traveling wave tubes. Specifically, for micro-SAR development, highly reliable GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs), which have delivered a factor of 10 times improvement in power performance compared to GaAs, need to be developed. Despite the great promise of GaN HEMTs, problems associated with nitride materials growth currently limit gain, linearity, power-added-efficiency, reproducibility, and reliability. These material quality issues are primarily due to heteroepitaxial growth of GaN on lattice mismatched substrates. Because SiC provides the best lattice match and thermal conductivity, SiC is currently the substrate of choice for GaN-based microwave amplifiers. Obviously for GaN-based HEMTs to fully realize their tremendous promise, several challenges related to GaN heteroepitaxy on SiC must be solved. For this LDRD, we conducted a concerted effort to resolve materials issues through in-depth research on GaN/AlGaN growth on SiC. Repeatable growth processes were developed which enabled basic studies of these device layers as well as full fabrication of microwave amplifiers. Detailed studies of the GaN and AlGaN growth of SiC were conducted and techniques to measure the structural and electrical properties of the layers were developed. Problems that limit device performance were investigated, including electron traps, dislocations, the quality of semi-insulating GaN, the GaN/AlGaN interface roughness, and surface pinning of the AlGaN gate. Surface charge was reduced by developing silicon nitride passivation. Constant feedback between material properties, physical understanding, and device performance enabled rapid progress which eventually led to the successful fabrication of state of the art HEMT transistors and amplifiers.

  16. Method for reducing snap in magnetic amplifiers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, R. L. E.; Word, J. L.

    1968-01-01

    Method of reducing snap in magnetic amplifiers uses a degenerative feedback circuit consisting of a resistor and a separate winding on a magnetic core. The feedback circuit extends amplifier range by allowing it to be used at lower values of output current.

  17. Design of a 250 GHz gyrotron amplifier

    E-print Network

    Nanni, Emilio A. (Emilio Alessandro)

    2010-01-01

    A design is presented of a 250 GHz, 1 kW gyrotron traveling wave tube (gyro-TWT) amplifier with gain exceeding 50 dB. Calculations show that the amplifier will operate at 32 kV, 1 A with a saturated gain of 60 dB, an output ...

  18. Using Nondeterminism to Amplify Hardness Alexander Healy

    E-print Network

    Vadhan, Salil

    Using Nondeterminism to Amplify Hardness Alexander Healy Salil Vadhan Division of Engineering revisit the problem of hardness amplification in NP, as recently studied by O'Donnell (JCSS `04). We prove to compute f on a 1/2 - 1/s (n) fraction of inputs. In particular, 1. If s(n) = n(1) , we amplify to hardness

  19. Using Nondeterminism to Amplify Hardness Alexander Healy

    E-print Network

    Vadhan, Salil

    Using Nondeterminism to Amplify Hardness Alexander Healy Salil Vadhan Division of Engineering revisit the problem of hardness amplification in NP, as recently studied by O'Donnell (STOC `02). We prove to compute f on a 1/2 - 1/s (n) fraction of inputs. In particular, 1. If s(n) = n(1) , we amplify to hardness

  20. Going ballistic: Graphene hot electron transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaziri, S.; Smith, A. D.; Östling, M.; Lupina, G.; Dabrowski, J.; Lippert, G.; Mehr, W.; Driussi, F.; Venica, S.; Di Lecce, V.; Gnudi, A.; König, M.; Ruhl, G.; Belete, M.; Lemme, M. C.

    2015-12-01

    This paper reviews the experimental and theoretical state of the art in ballistic hot electron transistors that utilize two-dimensional base contacts made from graphene, i.e. graphene base transistors (GBTs). Early performance predictions that indicated potential for THz operation still hold true today, even with improved models that take non-idealities into account. Experimental results clearly demonstrate the basic functionality, with on/off current switching over several orders of magnitude, but further developments are required to exploit the full potential of the GBT device family. In particular, interfaces between graphene and semiconductors or dielectrics are far from perfect and thus limit experimental device integrity, reliability and performance.

  1. Switching Characteristics of Ferroelectric Transistor Inverters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laws, Crystal; Mitchell, Coey; MacLeod, Todd C.; Ho, Fat D.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the switching characteristics of an inverter circuit using a ferroelectric field effect transistor, FeFET. The propagation delay time characteristics, phl and plh are presented along with the output voltage rise and fall times, rise and fall. The propagation delay is the time-delay between the V50% transitions of the input and output voltages. The rise and fall times are the times required for the output voltages to transition between the voltage levels V10% and V90%. Comparisons are made between the MOSFET inverter and the ferroelectric transistor inverter.

  2. Static Characteristics of the Ferroelectric Transistor Inverter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, Cody; Laws, crystal; MacLeond, Todd C.; Ho, Fat D.

    2010-01-01

    The inverter is one of the most fundamental building blocks of digital logic, and it can be used as the foundation for understanding more complex logic gates and circuits. This paper presents the characteristics of an inverter circuit using a ferroelectric field-effect transistor. The voltage transfer characteristics are analyzed with respect to varying parameters such as supply voltage, input voltage, and load resistance. The effects of the ferroelectric layer between the gate and semiconductor are examined, and comparisons are made between the inverters using ferroelectric transistors and those using traditional MOSFETs.

  3. VHDL simulation with access to transistor models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, J.

    1991-01-01

    Hardware description languages such as VHDL have evolved to aid in the design of systems with large numbers of elements and a wide range of electronic and logical abstractions. For high performance circuits, behavioral models may not be able to efficiently include enough detail to give designers confidence in a simulation's accuracy. One option is to provide a link between the VHDL environment and a transistor level simulation environment. The coupling of the Vantage Analysis Systems VHDL simulator and the NOVA simulator provides the combination of VHDL modeling and transistor modeling.

  4. Dual-range linearized transimpedance amplifier system

    DOEpatents

    Wessendorf, Kurt O. (Albuquerque, NM)

    2010-11-02

    A transimpedance amplifier system is disclosed which simultaneously generates a low-gain output signal and a high-gain output signal from an input current signal using a single transimpedance amplifier having two different feedback loops with different amplification factors to generate two different output voltage signals. One of the feedback loops includes a resistor, and the other feedback loop includes another resistor in series with one or more diodes. The transimpedance amplifier system includes a signal linearizer to linearize one or both of the low- and high-gain output signals by scaling and adding the two output voltage signals from the transimpedance amplifier. The signal linearizer can be formed either as an analog device using one or two summing amplifiers, or alternately can be formed as a digital device using two analog-to-digital converters and a digital signal processor (e.g. a microprocessor or a computer).

  5. Comparison of Fast Amplifiers for Diamond Detectors

    E-print Network

    M. Osipenko; S. Minutoli; P. Musico; M. Ripani; B. Caiffi; A. Balbi; G. Ottonello; S. Argirò; S. Beolè; N. Amapane; M. Masera; G. Mila

    2013-10-03

    The development of Chemical Vapour Deposition (CVD) diamond detectors requests for novel signal amplifiers, capable to match the superb signal-to-noise ratio and timing response of these detectors. Existing amplifiers are still far away from this goal and are the dominant contributors to the overall system noise and the main source of degradation of the energy and timing resolution. We tested a number of commercial amplifiers designed for diamond detector readout to identify the best solution for a particular application. This application required a deposited energy threshold below 100 keV and timing resolution of the order of 200 ps at 200 keV. None of tested amplifiers satisfies these requirements. The best solution to such application found to be the Cividec C6 amplifier, which allows 100 keV minimal threshold, but its coincidence timing resolution at 200 keV is as large as 1.2 ns.

  6. Post pulse shutter for laser amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Bradley, L.P.; Carder, B.M.; Gagnon, W.L.

    1981-03-17

    Disclosed are an apparatus and method for quickly closing off the return path for an amplified laser pulse at the output of an amplifier so as to prevent damage to amplifiers and other optical components appearing earlier in the chain by the return of an amplified pulse. The apparatus consists of a fast retropulse or post pulse shutter to suppress target reflection and/or beam return. This is accomplished by either quickly placing a solid across the light transmitting aperture of a component in the chain, such as a spatial filter pinhole, or generating and directing a plasma with sufficiently high density across the aperture, so as to, in effect, close the aperture to the returning amplified energy pulse. 13 figs.

  7. Post pulse shutter for laser amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Bradley, Laird P. [Livermore, CA; Carder, Bruce M. [Antioch, CA; Gagnon, William L. [Berkeley, CA

    1981-03-17

    Apparatus and method for quickly closing off the return path for an amplified laser pulse at the output of an amplifier so as to prevent damage to amplifiers and other optical components appearing earlier in the chain by the return of an amplified pulse. The apparatus consists of a fast retropulse or post pulse shutter to suppress target reflection and/or beam return. This is accomplished by either quickly placing a solid across the light transmitting aperture of a component in the chain, such as a spatial filter pinhole, or generating and directing a plasma with sufficiently high density across the aperture, so as to, in effect, close the aperture to the returning amplified energy pulse.

  8. Direct solar-pumped iodine laser amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, K. S.

    1986-01-01

    During this period the parametric studies of the iodine laser oscillator pumped by a Vortek simulator were carried out before amplifier studies. The amplifier studies are postponed to the extended period after completing the parametric studies. In addition, the kinetic modeling of a solar-pumped iodine laser amplifier, and the experimental work for a solar pumped dye laser amplifier are in progress. This report contains three parts: (1) a 10 W CW iodine laser pumped by a Vortek solar simulator; (2) kinetic modeling to predict the time to lasing threshold, lasing time, and energy output of solar-pumped iodine laser; and (3) the study of the dye laser amplifier pumped by a Tamarack solar simulator.

  9. Transistor-based particle detection systems and methods

    DOEpatents

    Jain, Ankit; Nair, Pradeep R.; Alam, Muhammad Ashraful

    2015-06-09

    Transistor-based particle detection systems and methods may be configured to detect charged and non-charged particles. Such systems may include a supporting structure contacting a gate of a transistor and separating the gate from a dielectric of the transistor, and the transistor may have a near pull-in bias and a sub-threshold region bias to facilitate particle detection. The transistor may be configured to change current flow through the transistor in response to a change in stiffness of the gate caused by securing of a particle to the gate, and the transistor-based particle detection system may configured to detect the non-charged particle at least from the change in current flow.

  10. High fidelity readout of a transmon qubit using a superconducting low-inductance undulatory galvanometer microwave amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yanbing; Srinivasan, Srikanth J.; Hover, D.; Zhu, Shaojiang; McDermott, R.; Houck, A. A.

    2014-11-01

    We report high-fidelity, quantum non-demolition, single-shot readout of a superconducting transmon qubit using a dc-biased superconducting low-inductance undulatory galvanometer (SLUG) amplifier. The SLUG improves the system signal-to-noise ratio by 6.5 dB in a 20 MHz window compared with a bare high electron mobility transistor amplifier. An optimal cavity drive pulse is chosen using a genetic search algorithm, leading to a maximum combined readout and preparation fidelity of 91.9% with a measurement time of {{T}meas}=200 ns. Using post-selection to remove preparation errors caused by heating, we realize a combined preparation and readout fidelity of 94.3%.

  11. 21 CFR 882.1835 - Physiological signal amplifier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 false Physiological signal amplifier. 882.1835 Section 882.1835... § 882.1835 Physiological signal amplifier. (a) Identification. A physiological signal amplifier is a general purpose device used...

  12. 21 CFR 870.2060 - Transducer signal amplifier and conditioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Transducer signal amplifier and conditioner. 870.2060 Section... § 870.2060 Transducer signal amplifier and conditioner. (a) Identification. A transducer signal amplifier and conditioner is a device...

  13. 21 CFR 882.1835 - Physiological signal amplifier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 false Physiological signal amplifier. 882.1835 Section 882.1835... § 882.1835 Physiological signal amplifier. (a) Identification. A physiological signal amplifier is a general purpose device used...

  14. 21 CFR 870.2050 - Biopotential amplifier and signal conditioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 false Biopotential amplifier and signal conditioner. 870.2050...Devices § 870.2050 Biopotential amplifier and signal conditioner. (a) Identification. A biopotential amplifier and signal conditioner is a...

  15. 47 CFR 2.815 - External radio frequency power amplifiers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... External radio frequency power amplifiers. 2.815 Section 2.815 ...External radio frequency power amplifiers. (a) As used in this part, an external radio frequency power amplifier is any device which,...

  16. 47 CFR 2.815 - External radio frequency power amplifiers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... External radio frequency power amplifiers. 2.815 Section 2.815 ...External radio frequency power amplifiers. (a) As used in this part, an external radio frequency power amplifier is any device which,...

  17. 21 CFR 870.2050 - Biopotential amplifier and signal conditioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 false Biopotential amplifier and signal conditioner. 870.2050...Devices § 870.2050 Biopotential amplifier and signal conditioner. (a) Identification. A biopotential amplifier and signal conditioner is a...

  18. 47 CFR 2.815 - External radio frequency power amplifiers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... External radio frequency power amplifiers. 2.815 Section 2.815 ...External radio frequency power amplifiers. (a) As used in this part, an external radio frequency power amplifier is any device which,...

  19. 21 CFR 870.2060 - Transducer signal amplifier and conditioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Transducer signal amplifier and conditioner. 870.2060 Section... § 870.2060 Transducer signal amplifier and conditioner. (a) Identification. A transducer signal amplifier and conditioner is a device...

  20. 21 CFR 870.2060 - Transducer signal amplifier and conditioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 false Transducer signal amplifier and conditioner. 870.2060 Section... § 870.2060 Transducer signal amplifier and conditioner. (a) Identification. A transducer signal amplifier and conditioner is a device...

  1. 21 CFR 870.2050 - Biopotential amplifier and signal conditioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 false Biopotential amplifier and signal conditioner. 870.2050...Devices § 870.2050 Biopotential amplifier and signal conditioner. (a) Identification. A biopotential amplifier and signal conditioner is a...

  2. 21 CFR 882.1835 - Physiological signal amplifier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Physiological signal amplifier. 882.1835 Section 882.1835... § 882.1835 Physiological signal amplifier. (a) Identification. A physiological signal amplifier is a general purpose device used...

  3. 21 CFR 882.1835 - Physiological signal amplifier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...2012-04-01 false Physiological signal amplifier. 882.1835 Section 882.1835... § 882.1835 Physiological signal amplifier. (a) Identification. A physiological signal amplifier is a general purpose device used...

  4. 21 CFR 870.2050 - Biopotential amplifier and signal conditioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...2011-04-01 false Biopotential amplifier and signal conditioner. 870.2050...Devices § 870.2050 Biopotential amplifier and signal conditioner. (a) Identification. A biopotential amplifier and signal conditioner is a...

  5. 21 CFR 882.1835 - Physiological signal amplifier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Physiological signal amplifier. 882.1835 Section 882.1835... § 882.1835 Physiological signal amplifier. (a) Identification. A physiological signal amplifier is a general purpose device used...

  6. 47 CFR 2.815 - External radio frequency power amplifiers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... External radio frequency power amplifiers. 2.815 Section 2.815 ...External radio frequency power amplifiers. (a) As used in this part, an external radio frequency power amplifier is any device which,...

  7. 21 CFR 870.2060 - Transducer signal amplifier and conditioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...2014-04-01 false Transducer signal amplifier and conditioner. 870.2060 Section... § 870.2060 Transducer signal amplifier and conditioner. (a) Identification. A transducer signal amplifier and conditioner is a device...

  8. 21 CFR 870.2050 - Biopotential amplifier and signal conditioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...2010-04-01 false Biopotential amplifier and signal conditioner. 870.2050...Devices § 870.2050 Biopotential amplifier and signal conditioner. (a) Identification. A biopotential amplifier and signal conditioner is a...

  9. 47 CFR 2.815 - External radio frequency power amplifiers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... External radio frequency power amplifiers. 2.815 Section 2.815 ...External radio frequency power amplifiers. (a) As used in this part, an external radio frequency power amplifier is any device which,...

  10. 21 CFR 870.2060 - Transducer signal amplifier and conditioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...2013-04-01 false Transducer signal amplifier and conditioner. 870.2060 Section... § 870.2060 Transducer signal amplifier and conditioner. (a) Identification. A transducer signal amplifier and conditioner is a device...

  11. Galen Sasaki University of Hawaii 1 Optical Amplifiers

    E-print Network

    Sasaki, Galen H.

    1 Galen Sasaki University of Hawaii 1 Components · Optical Amplifiers ­ Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers (SOAs) · Transmitters ­ Lasers ­ External Cavity Lasers ­ Tunable Lasers ­ Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Lasers ­ LEDs Galen Sasaki University of Hawaii 2 Outline · Optical Amplifiers ­ Semiconductor

  12. INFORMATION CAPACITY AND POWER EFFICIENCY IN OPERATIONAL TRANSCONDUCTANCE AMPLIFIERS

    E-print Network

    Maryland at College Park, University of

    INFORMATION CAPACITY AND POWER EFFICIENCY IN OPERATIONAL TRANSCONDUCTANCE AMPLIFIERS Makeswaran. We have applied our method to an operational transconductance amplifier (OTA) and show that measured for particular applications. Examples of such systems include amplifiers recording signals from sensors

  13. Ph 315 Lab Notes A. La Rosa OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS

    E-print Network

    Ph 315 Lab Notes A. La Rosa OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS ___________________________________________________________ 1. THE ROLE OF OPERATIONAL AMPLIFIERS A typical digital data acquisition system uses a transducer or microcontroller (volts). A conditioning circuit composed of operational amplifiers is then use for that purpose

  14. Integration of Cell Membranes and Nanotube Transistors

    E-print Network

    Gruner, George

    as transistors, and that the two systems interact. Further, we use the interaction to study the charge, while biological systems ranging from lipids7 to living cells2 have been assembled on nanotube Manuscript Received March 23, 2005 ABSTRACT We report the integration of a complex biological system

  15. Black phosphorus radio-frequency transistors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Han; Wang, Xiaomu; Xia, Fengnian; Wang, Luhao; Jiang, Hao; Xia, Qiangfei; Chin, Matthew L; Dubey, Madan; Han, Shu-jen

    2014-11-12

    Few-layer and thin film forms of layered black phosphorus (BP) have recently emerged as a promising material for applications in high performance nanoelectronics and infrared optoelectronics. Layered BP thin films offer a moderate bandgap of around 0.3 eV and high carrier mobility, which lead to transistors with decent on-off ratios and high on-state current densities. Here, we demonstrate the gigahertz frequency operation of BP field-effect transistors for the first time. The BP transistors demonstrated here show respectable current saturation with an on-off ratio that exceeds 2 × 10(3). We achieved a current density in excess of 270 mA/mm and DC transconductance above 180 mS/mm for hole conduction. Using standard high frequency characterization techniques, we measured a short-circuit current-gain cutoff frequency fT of 12 GHz and a maximum oscillation frequency fmax of 20 GHz in 300 nm channel length devices. BP devices may offer advantages over graphene transistors for high frequency electronics in terms of voltage and power gain due to the good current saturation properties arising from their finite bandgap, thus can be considered as a promising candidate for the future high performance thin film electronics technology for operation in the multi-GHz frequency range and beyond. PMID:25347787

  16. Radiation Tolerance of 65nm CMOS Transistors

    E-print Network

    M. Krohn; B. Bentele; J. P. Cumalat; S. R. Wagner; D. C. Christian; G. Deptuch; F. Fahim; J. Hoff; A. Shenai

    2015-11-24

    We report on the effects of ionizing radiation on 65nm CMOS transistors held at approximately -20C during irradiation. The pattern of damage observed after a total dose of 1 Grad is similar to damage reported in room temperature exposures, but we observe less damage than was observed at room temperature.

  17. Gallium nitride junction field-effect transistor

    DOEpatents

    Zolper, John C. (Albuquerque, NM); Shul, Randy J. (Albuquerque, NM)

    1999-01-01

    An all-ion implanted gallium-nitride (GaN) junction field-effect transistor (JFET) and method of making the same. Also disclosed are various ion implants, both n- and p-type, together with or without phosphorous co-implantation, in selected III-V semiconductor materials.

  18. Symmetry-Protected Quantum Adiabatic Transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williamson, Dominic J.; Bartlett, Stephen D.

    2014-03-01

    An essential development in the history of computing was the invention of the transistor as it allowed logic circuits to be implemented in a robust and modular way. The physical characteristics of semiconductor materials were the key to building these devices. We aim to present an analogous development for quantum computing by showing that quantum adiabatic transistors (as defined by Flammia et al.) are built upon the essential qualities of symmetry-protected (SP) quantum ordered phases in one dimension. Flammia et al. and Renes et al. have demonstrated schemes for universal adiabatic quantum computation using quantum adiabatic transistors described by interacting spin chain models with specifically chosen Hamiltonian terms. We show that these models can be understood as specific examples of the generic situation in which all SP phases lead to quantum computation on encoded edge degrees of freedom by adiabatically traversing a symmetric phase transition into a trivial symmetric phase. This point of view is advantageous as it allows us to readily see that the computational properties of a quantum adiabatic transistor arise from a phase of matter rather than due to carefully tuned interactions.

  19. Gallium nitride junction field-effect transistor

    DOEpatents

    Zolper, J.C.; Shul, R.J.

    1999-02-02

    An ion implanted gallium-nitride (GaN) junction field-effect transistor (JFET) and method of making the same are disclosed. Also disclosed are various ion implants, both n- and p-type, together with or without phosphorus co-implantation, in selected III-V semiconductor materials. 19 figs.

  20. Progress on diamond amplified photo-cathode

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, E.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Burrill, A.; Kewisch, J.; Chang, X.; Rao, T.; Smedley, J.; Wu, Q.; Muller, E.; Xin, T.

    2011-03-28

    Two years ago, we obtained an emission gain of 40 from the Diamond Amplifier Cathode (DAC) in our test system. In our current systematic study of hydrogenation, the highest gain we registered in emission scanning was 178. We proved that our treatments for improving the diamond amplifiers are reproducible. Upcoming tests planned include testing DAC in a RF cavity. Already, we have designed a system for these tests using our 112 MHz superconducting cavity, wherein we will measure DAC parameters, such as the limit, if any, on emission current density, the bunch charge, and the bunch length. The diamond-amplified photocathode, that promises to support a high average current, low emittance, and a highly stable electron beam with a long lifetime, is under development for an electron source. The diamond, functioning as a secondary emitter amplifies the primary current, with a few KeV energy, that comes from the traditional cathode. Earlier, our group recorded a maximum gain of 40 in the secondary electron emission from a diamond amplifier. In this article, we detail our optimization of the hydrogenation process for a diamond amplifier that resulted in a stable emission gain of 140. We proved that these characteristics are reproducible. We now are designing a system to test the diamond amplifier cathode using an 112MHz SRF gun to measure the limits of the emission current's density, and on the bunch charge and bunch length.

  1. Ultrafast disk lasers and amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutter, Dirk H.; Kleinbauer, Jochen; Bauer, Dominik; Wolf, Martin; Tan, Chuong; Gebs, Raphael; Budnicki, Aleksander; Wagenblast, Philipp; Weiler, Sascha

    2012-03-01

    Disk lasers with multi-kW continuous wave (CW) output power are widely used in manufacturing, primarily for cutting and welding applications, notably in the automotive industry. The ytterbium disk technology combines high power (average and/or peak power), excellent beam quality, high efficiency, and high reliability with low investment and operating costs. Fundamental mode picosecond disk lasers are well established in micro machining at high throughput and perfect precision. Following the world's first market introduction of industrial grade 50 W picosecond lasers (TruMicro 5050) at the Photonics West 2008, the second generation of the TruMicro series 5000 now provides twice the average power (100 W at 1030 nm, or 60 W frequency doubled, green output) at a significantly reduced footprint. Mode-locked disk oscillators achieve by far the highest average power of any unamplified lasers, significantly exceeding the 100 W level in laboratory set-ups. With robust long resonators their multi-microjoule pulse energies begin to compete with typical ultrafast amplifiers. In addition, significant interest in disk technology has recently come from the extreme light laser community, aiming for ultra-high peak powers of petawatts and beyond.

  2. Multi-pass light amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plaessmann, Henry (Inventor); Grossman, William M. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    A multiple-pass laser amplifier that uses optical focusing between subsequent passes through a single gain medium so that a reproducibly stable beam size is achieved within the gain region. A confocal resonator or White Cell resonator is provided, including two or three curvilinearly shaped mirrors facing each other along a resonator axis and an optical gain medium positioned on the resonator axis between the mirrors (confocal resonator) or adjacent to one of the mirrors (White Cell). In a first embodiment, two mirrors, which may include adjacent lenses, are configured so that a light beam passing through the gain medium and incident on the first mirror is reflected by that mirror toward the second mirror in a direction approximately parallel to the resonator axis. A light beam translator, such as an optical flat of transparent material, is positioned to translate this light beam by a controllable amount toward or away from the resonator axis for each pass of the light beam through the translator. The optical gain medium may be solid-state, liquid or gaseous medium and may be pumped longitudinally or transversely. In a second embodiment, first and second mirrors face a third mirror in a White Cell configuration, and the optical gain medium is positioned at or adjacent to one of the mirrors. Defocusing means and optical gain medium cooling means are optionally provided with either embodiment, to controllably defocus the light beam, to cool the optical gain medium and to suppress thermal lensing in the gain medium.

  3. Phase properties of multicomponent superposition states in various amplifiers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Kang-Soo; Kim, M. S.

    1994-01-01

    There have been theoretical studies for generation of optical coherent superposition states. Once the superposition state is generated it is natural to ask if it is possible to amplify it without losing the nonclassical properties of the field state. We consider amplification of the superposition state in various amplifiers such as a sub-Poissonian amplifier, a phase-sensitive amplifier and a classical amplifier. We show the evolution of phase probability distribution functions in the amplifier.

  4. An ultra-low-power neural recording amplifier and its use in adaptively-biased multi-amplifier arrays

    E-print Network

    Wattanapanitch, Woradorn

    2007-01-01

    The design of a micropower energy-efficient neural recording amplifier is presented. The amplifier appears to be the lowest power and most energy-efficient neural recording amplifier reported to date. I describe low-noise ...

  5. Phase noise in RF and microwave amplifiers.

    PubMed

    Boudot, Rodolphe; Rubiola, Enrico

    2012-12-01

    Understanding amplifier phase noise is a critical issue in many fields of engineering and physics, such as oscillators, frequency synthesis, telecommunication, radar, and spectroscopy; in the emerging domain of microwave photonics; and in exotic fields, such as radio astronomy, particle accelerators, etc. Focusing on the two main types of base noise in amplifiers, white and flicker, the power spectral density of the random phase ?(t) is S?(f) = b(0) + b(-1)/f. White phase noise results from adding white noise to the RF spectrum in the carrier region. For a given RF noise level, b(0) is proportional to the reciprocal of the carrier power P(0). By contrast, flicker results from a near-dc 1/f noise-present in all electronic devices-which modulates the carrier through some parametric effect in the semiconductor. Thus, b(-1) is a parameter of the amplifier, constant in a wide range of P(0). The consequences are the following: Connecting m equal amplifiers in parallel, b(-1) is 1/m times that of one device. Cascading m equal amplifiers, b(-1) is m times that of one amplifier. Recirculating the signal in an amplifier so that the gain increases by a power of m (a factor of m in decibels) as a result of positive feedback (regeneration), we find that b(-1) is m(2) times that of the amplifier alone. The feedforward amplifier exhibits extremely low b(-1) because the carrier is ideally nulled at the input of its internal error amplifier. Starting with an extensive review of the literature, this article introduces a system-oriented model which describes the phase flickering. Several amplifier architectures (cascaded, parallel, etc.) are analyzed systematically, deriving the phase noise from the general model. There follow numerous measurements of amplifiers using different technologies, including some old samples, and in a wide frequency range (HF to microwaves), which validate the theory. In turn, theory and results provide design guidelines and give suggestions for CAD and simulation. To conclude, this article is intended as a tutorial, a review, and a systematic treatise on the subject, supported by extensive experiments. PMID:23221210

  6. Diode amplifier of modulated optical beam power

    SciTech Connect

    D'yachkov, N V; Bogatov, A P; Gushchik, T I; Drakin, A E

    2014-11-30

    Analytical relations are obtained between characteristics of modulated light at the output and input of an optical diode power amplifier operating in the highly saturated gain regime. It is shown that a diode amplifier may act as an amplitude-to-phase modulation converter with a rather large bandwidth (?10 GHz). The low sensitivity of the output power of the amplifier to the input beam power and its high energy efficiency allow it to be used as a building block of a high-power multielement laser system with coherent summation of a large number of optical beams. (lasers)

  7. Single mode terahertz quantum cascade amplifier

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Y. Wallis, R.; Shah, Y. D.; Jessop, D. S.; Degl'Innocenti, R.; Klimont, A.; Kamboj, V.; Beere, H. E.; Ritchie, D. A.

    2014-10-06

    A terahertz (THz) optical amplifier based on a 2.9 THz quantum cascade laser (QCL) structure has been demonstrated. By depositing an antireflective coating on the QCL facet, the laser mirror losses are enhanced to fully suppress the lasing action, creating a THz quantum cascade (QC) amplifier. Terahertz radiation amplification has been obtained, by coupling a separate multi-mode THz QCL of the same active region design to the QC amplifier. A bare cavity gain is achieved and shows excellent agreement with the lasing spectrum from the original QCL without the antireflective coating. Furthermore, a maximum optical gain of ?30?dB with single-mode radiation output is demonstrated.

  8. Gold-coated graphene field-effect transistors for quantitative analysis of protein–antibody interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarasov, Alexey; Tsai, Meng-Yen; Flynn, Erin M.; Joiner, Corey A.; Taylor, Robert C.; Vogel, Eric M.

    2015-12-01

    Field-effect transistors (FETs) based on large-area graphene and other 2D materials can potentially be used as low-cost and flexible potentiometric biological sensors. However, there have been few attempts to use these devices for quantifying molecular interactions and to compare their performance to established sensor technology. Here, gold-coated graphene FETs are used to measure the binding affinity of a specific protein–antibody interaction. Having a gold surface gives access to well-known thiol chemistry for the self-assembly of linker molecules. The results are compared with potentiometric silicon-based extended-gate sensors and a surface plasmon resonance system. The estimated dissociation constants are in excellent agreement for all sensor types as long as the active surfaces are the same (gold). The role of the graphene transducer is to simply amplify surface potential changes caused by adsorption of molecules on the gold surface.

  9. Three-Stage InP Submillimeter-Wave MMIC Amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pukala, David; Samoska, Lorene; Man, King; Gaier, Todd; Deal, William; Lai, Richard; Mei, Gerry; Makishi, Stella

    2008-01-01

    A submillimeter-wave monolithic integrated- circuit (S-MMIC) amplifier has been designed and fabricated using an indium phosphide (InP) 35-nm gate-length high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) device, developed at Northrop Grumman Corporation. The HEMT device employs two fingers each 15 micrometers wide. The HEMT wafers are grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and make use of a pseudomorphic In0.75Ga0.25As channel, a silicon delta-doping layer as the electron supply, an In0.52Al0.48As buffer layer, and an InP substrate. The three-stage design uses coplanar waveguide topology with a very narrow ground-to-ground spacing of 14 micrometers. Quarter-wave matching transmission lines, on-chip metal-insulator-metal shunt capacitors, series thin-film resistors, and matching stubs were used in the design. Series resistors in the shunt branch arm provide the basic circuit stabilization. The S-MMIC amplifier was measured for S-parameters and found to be centered at 320 GHz with 13-15-dB gain from 300-345 GHz. This chip was developed as part of the DARPA Submillimeter Wave Imaging Focal Plane Technology (SWIFT) program (see figure). Submillimeter-wave amplifiers could enable more sensitive receivers for earth science, planetary remote sensing, and astrophysics telescopes, particularly in radio astronomy, both from the ground and in space. A small atmospheric window at 340 GHz exists and could enable ground-based observations. However, the submillimeter-wave regime (above 300 GHz) is best used for space telescopes as Earth s atmosphere attenuates most of the signal through water and oxygen absorption. Future radio telescopes could make use of S-MMIC amplifiers for wideband, low noise, instantaneous frequency coverage, particularly in the case of heterodyne array receivers.

  10. High bandwidth differential amplifier for shock experiments.

    PubMed

    Ross, P W; Tran, V; Chau, R

    2012-10-01

    We developed a high bandwidth differential amplifier for gas gun shock experiments of low-resistance metals. The circuit has a bandwidth up to 1 GHz, and is capable of measuring signals of ?1.5 V with a common mode rejection of 250 V. Conductivity measurements of gas gun targets are measured by flowing high currents through the targets. The voltage is measured across the target using a technique similar to a four-point probe. Because of the design of the current source and load, the target voltage is ?250 V relative to ground. Since the expected voltage change in the target is <1 V, the differential amplifier must have a large common mode rejection. Various amplifying designs are shown, although the increased amplification decreases bandwidth. Bench tests show that the amplifier can withstand significant common mode dc voltage and measure 10 ns, and 50 mV signals. PMID:23126892

  11. Two-stage hybrid microcircuit amplifier

    SciTech Connect

    Pyo, M.L.

    1987-04-01

    This report documents the design, development, and fabrication of a two-stage amplifier operating at 400 to 600 MHz. Included are characterization data, predictions generated during design, and measured performance.

  12. A novel wideband gyrotron travelling wave amplifier

    E-print Network

    Sirigiri, Jagadishwar R. (Jagadishwar Rao), 1973-

    2003-01-01

    We present the design and the experimental results of a novel wideband quasioptical Gyrotron Traveling Wave Tube (gyro-TWT) amplifier and the first Vacuum Electron Device (VED) with a Photonic Band Gap (PBG) structure. The ...

  13. Noise in phase-preserving linear amplifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Pandey, Shashank; Jiang, Zhang; Combes, Joshua; Caves, Carlton M.

    2014-12-04

    The purpose of a phase-preserving linear amplifier is to make a small signal larger, so that it can be perceived by instruments incapable of resolving the original signal, while sacrificing as little as possible in signal-to-noise. Quantum mechanics limits how well this can be done: the noise added by the amplifier, referred to the input, must be at least half a quantum at the operating frequency. This well-known quantum limit only constrains the second moments of the added noise. Here we provide the quantum constraints on the entire distribution of added noise: any phasepreserving linear amplifier is equivalent to a parametric amplifier with a physical state ? for the ancillary mode; ? determines the properties of the added noise.

  14. How to characterize the nonlinear amplifier?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kallistratova, Dmitri Kouznetsov; Cotera, Carlos Flores

    1994-01-01

    The conception of the amplification of the coherent field is formulated. The definition of the coefficient of the amplification as the relation between the mean value of the field at the output to the value at the input and the definition of the noise as the difference between the number of photons in the output mode and square of the modulus of the mean value of the output amplitude are considered. Using a simple example it is shown that by these definitions the noise of the nonlinear amplifier may be less than the noise of the ideal linear amplifier of the same amplification coefficient. Proposals to search another definition of basic parameters of the nonlinear amplifiers are discussed. This definition should enable us to formulate the universal fundamental lower limit of the noise which should be valid for linear quantum amplifiers as for nonlinear ones.

  15. Operational Amplifier Experiments for the Chemistry Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braun, Robert D.

    1996-01-01

    Provides details of experiments that deal with the use of operational amplifiers and are part of a course in instrumental analysis. These experiments are performed after the completion of a set of electricity and electronics experiments. (DDR)

  16. High bandwidth differential amplifier for shock experimentsa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, P. W.; Tran, V.; Chau, R.

    2012-10-01

    We developed a high bandwidth differential amplifier for gas gun shock experiments of low-resistance metals. The circuit has a bandwidth up to 1 GHz, and is capable of measuring signals of ?1.5 V with a common mode rejection of 250 V. Conductivity measurements of gas gun targets are measured by flowing high currents through the targets. The voltage is measured across the target using a technique similar to a four-point probe. Because of the design of the current source and load, the target voltage is ˜250 V relative to ground. Since the expected voltage change in the target is <1 V, the differential amplifier must have a large common mode rejection. Various amplifying designs are shown, although the increased amplification decreases bandwidth. Bench tests show that the amplifier can withstand significant common mode dc voltage and measure 10 ns, and 50 mV signals.

  17. A Novel Application of Fourier Transform Spectroscopy with HEMT Amplifiers at Microwave Frequencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkinson, David T.; Page, Lyman

    1995-01-01

    The goal was to develop cryogenic high-electron-mobility transistor (HEMT) based radiometers and use them to measure the anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background (CMB). In particular, a novel Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) built entirely of waveguide components would be developed. A dual-polarization Ka-band HEMT radiometer and a similar Q-band radiometer were built. In a series of measurements spanning three years made from a ground-based site in Saskatoon, SK, the amplitude, frequency spectrum, and spatial frequency spectrum of the anisotropy were measured. A prototype Ka-band FTS was built and tested, and a simplified version is proposed for the MAP satellite mission. The 1/f characteristics of HEMT amplifiers were quantified using correlation techniques.

  18. First On-Wafer Power Characterization of MMIC Amplifiers at Sub-Millimeter Wave Frequencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fung, A. K.; Gaier, T.; Samoska, L.; Deal, W. R.; Radisic, V.; Mei, X. B.; Yoshida, W.; Liu, P. S.; Uyeda, J.; Barsky, M.; Lai, R.

    2008-01-01

    Recent developments in semiconductor technology have enabled advanced submillimeter wave (300 GHz) transistors and circuits. These new high speed components have required new test methods to be developed for characterizing performance, and to provide data for device modeling to improve designs. Current efforts in progressing high frequency testing have resulted in on-wafer-parameter measurements up to approximately 340 GHz and swept frequency vector network analyzer waveguide measurements to 508 GHz. On-wafer noise figure measurements in the 270-340 GHz band have been demonstrated. In this letter we report on on-wafer power measurements at 330 GHz of a three stage amplifier that resulted in a maximum measured output power of 1.78mW and maximum gain of 7.1 dB. The method utilized demonstrates the extension of traditional power measurement techniques to submillimeter wave frequencies, and is suitable for automated testing without packaging for production screening of submillimeter wave circuits.

  19. Ka-band monolithic gain control amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geddes, J.; Sokolov, V.; Contolatis, T.

    1986-01-01

    A monolithic gain control amplifier for Ka-band has been developed based on 0.25 micron-gate-length dual-gate FETs fabricated on ion-implanted material. A single-stage monolithic amplifier gives a gain of 6 dB at 31 GHz including fixture losses with a gain control range of over 20 dB. The device and IC design and fabrication are described.

  20. MMIC Amplifiers for 90 to 130 GHz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samoska, Lorene; Pukala, David; Peralta, Alejandro; Bryerton, Eric; Morgan, Matt; Boyd, T.; Hu, Ming; Schmitz, Adele

    2007-01-01

    This brief describes two monolithic microwave integrated-circuit (MMIC) amplifier chips optimized to function in the frequency range of 90 to 130 GHz, covering nearly all of F-band (90 - 140 GHz). These amplifiers were designed specifically for local-oscillator units in astronomical radio telescopes such as the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA). They could also be readily adapted for use in electronic test equipment, automotive radar systems, and communications systems that operate between 90 and 130 GHz.

  1. Direct solar-pumped iodine laser amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, Kwang S.; Hwang, In Heon; Stock, Larry V.

    1989-01-01

    This semiannual progress report covers the period from September 1, 1988 to February 28, 1989 under NASA grant NAG-1-441 entitled, Direct Solar-Pumped Iodine Laser Amplifier. During this period, the research effort was concentrated on the solar pumped master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) system using n-C3F7I. In the experimental work, the amplification measurement was conducted to identify the optimum conditions for amplification of the center's Vortek solar simulator pumped iodine laser amplifier. A modeling effort was also pursued to explain the experimental results in the theoretical work. The amplification measurement of the solar simulator pumped iodine laser amplifier is the first amplification experiment on the continuously pumped amplifier. The small signal amplification of 5 was achieved for the triple pass geometry of the 15 cm long solar simulator pumped amplifier at the n-C3F7I pressure of 20 torr, at the flow velocity of 6 m/sec and at the pumping intensity of 1500 solar constants. The XeCl laser pumped iodine laser oscillator, which was developed in the previous research, was employed as the master oscillator for the amplification measurement. In the theoretical work, the rate equations of the amplifier was established and the small signal amplification was calculated for the solar simulator pumped iodine laser amplifier. The amplification calculated from the kinetic equations with the previously measured rate coefficients reveals very large disagreement with experimental measurement. Moreover, the optimum condition predicted by the kinetic equation is quite discrepant with that measured by experiment. This fact indicates the necessity of study in the measurement of rate coefficients of the continuously pumped iodine laser system.

  2. Design and simulation of oxide and doping engineered lateral bipolar junction transistors for high power applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loan, Sajad A.; Bashir, Faisal; Akhoon, M. Saqib; Alamoud, Abdulrahman M.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we propose new structures of lateral bipolar junction transistor (LBJT) on silicon on insulator (SOI) with improved performance. The proposed devices are lateral bipolar transistors with multi doping zone collector drift region and a thick buried oxide under the collector region. Calibrated simulation studies have revealed that the proposed devices have higher breakdown voltage than the conventional device, that too at higher drift doping concentration. This has resulted in improved tradeoff between the on-resistance and the breakdown voltage of the proposed devices. It has been observed that the proposed device with two collector drift doping zones and a buried oxide thick step results in ?190% increase in the breakdown voltage than the conventional device. The further increase in the number of collector drift doping zones from two to three has increased the breakdown voltage by 260% than the conventional one. On comparing the proposed devices with the buried oxide double step devices, it has been found that an increase of ?15-19% in the breakdown voltage is observed in the proposed devices even at higher drift doping concentrations. The use of higher drift doping concentration reduces the on-resistance of the proposed device and thus improves the tradeoff between the breakdown voltage and the on-resistance of the proposed device in comparison to buried oxide double step devices. Further, the use of step doping in the collector drift region has resulted in the reduction of kink effect in the proposed device. Using the mixed mode simulations, the proposed devices have been tested at the circuit level, by designing and simulating inverting amplifiers employing the proposed devices. Both DC and AC analyses of the inverting amplifiers have shown that the proposed devices work well at the circuit level. It has been observed that there is a slight increase in ON delay in the proposed device; however, the OFF delay is more or less same as that of the conventional device.

  3. Multiple excitation regenerative amplifier inertial confinement system

    DOEpatents

    George, V.E.; Haas, R.A.; Krupke, W.F.; Schlitt, L.G.

    1980-05-27

    The invention relates to apparatus and methods for producing high intensity laser radiation generation which is achieved through an optical amplifier-storage ring design. One or two synchronized, counterpropagating laser pulses are injected into a regenerative amplifier cavity and amplified by gain media which are pumped repetitively by electrical or optical means. The gain media excitation pulses are tailored to efficiently amplify the laser pulses during each transit. After the laser pulses have been amplified to the desired intensity level, they are either switched out of the cavity by some switch means, as for example an electro-optical device, for any well known laser end uses, or a target means may be injected into the regenerative amplifier cavity in such a way as to intercept simultaneously the counterpropagating laser pulses. One such well known end uses to which this invention is intended is for production of high density and temperature plasmas suitable for generating neutrons, ions and x-rays and for studying matter heated by high intensity laser radiation. 11 figs.

  4. Multiple excitation regenerative amplifier inertial confinement system

    DOEpatents

    George, Victor E. [Livermore, CA; Haas, Roger A. [Pleasanton, CA; Krupke, William F. [Pleasanton, CA; Schlitt, Leland G. [Livermore, CA

    1980-05-27

    The invention relates to apparatus and methods for producing high intensity laser radiation generation which is achieved through an optical amplifier-storage ring design. One or two synchronized, counterpropagating laser pulses are injected into a regenerative amplifier cavity and amplified by gain media which are pumped repetitively by electrical or optical means. The gain media excitation pulses are tailored to efficiently amplify the laser pulses during each transit. After the laser pulses have been amplified to the desired intensity level, they are either switched out of the cavity by some switch means, as for example an electro-optical device, for any well known laser end uses, or a target means may be injected into the regenerative amplifier cavity in such a way as to intercept simultaneously the counterpropagating laser pulses. One such well known end uses to which this invention is intended is for production of high density and temperature plasmas suitable for generating neutrons, ions and x-rays and for studying matter heated by high intensity laser radiation.

  5. Robust Randomness Amplifiers: Upper and Lower Bounds

    E-print Network

    Matthew Coudron; Thomas Vidick; Henry Yuen

    2013-06-23

    A recent sequence of works, initially motivated by the study of the nonlocal properties of entanglement, demonstrate that a source of information-theoretically certified randomness can be constructed based only on two simple assumptions: the prior existence of a short random seed and the ability to ensure that two black-box devices do not communicate (i.e. are non-signaling). We call protocols achieving such certified amplification of a short random seed randomness amplifiers. We introduce a simple framework in which we initiate the systematic study of the possibilities and limitations of randomness amplifiers. Our main results include a new, improved analysis of a robust randomness amplifier with exponential expansion, as well as the first upper bounds on the maximum expansion achievable by a broad class of randomness amplifiers. In particular, we show that non-adaptive randomness amplifiers that are robust to noise cannot achieve more than doubly exponential expansion. Finally, we show that a wide class of protocols based on the use of the CHSH game can only lead to (singly) exponential expansion if adversarial devices are allowed the full power of non-signaling strategies. Our upper bound results apply to all known non-adaptive randomness amplifier constructions to date.

  6. Flexible polymer transistors with high pressure sensitivity for application in electronic skin and health monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, Gregor; Tee, Benjamin C.-K.; Mei, Jianguo; Appleton, Anthony L.; Kim, Do Hwan; Wang, Huiliang; Bao, Zhenan

    2013-05-01

    Flexible pressure sensors are essential parts of an electronic skin to allow future biomedical prostheses and robots to naturally interact with humans and the environment. Mobile biomonitoring in long-term medical diagnostics is another attractive application for these sensors. Here we report the fabrication of flexible pressure-sensitive organic thin film transistors with a maximum sensitivity of 8.4?kPa-1, a fast response time of <10?ms, high stability over >15,000 cycles and a low power consumption of <1?mW. The combination of a microstructured polydimethylsiloxane dielectric and the high-mobility semiconducting polyisoindigobithiophene-siloxane in a monolithic transistor design enabled us to operate the devices in the subthreshold regime, where the capacitance change upon compression of the dielectric is strongly amplified. We demonstrate that our sensors can be used for non-invasive, high fidelity, continuous radial artery pulse wave monitoring, which may lead to the use of flexible pressure sensors in mobile health monitoring and remote diagnostics in cardiovascular medicine.

  7. Silicon hot-electron bolometers with single-electron transistor readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevenson, Thomas R.; Hsieh, Wen-Ting; Mitchell, Robert R.; Isenberg, Hal D.; Stahle, Carl M.; Cao, Nga T.; Schneider, Gideon; Travers, Douglas E.; Harvey Moseley, S.; Wollack, Edward J.; Henry, Ross M.

    2006-04-01

    With the goal of making high-sensitivity bolometers for low-background measurements in the far-infrared or submillimeter, we have made small silicon thermistors, which act as hot-electron bolometers, with integrated single-electron transistors for readout amplifiers. Semiconductors doped just below a metal-insulator transition can make highly sensitive thermistors that have been used as thermometers in X-ray microcalorimeters and FIR bolometer arrays. In such arrays, thermal isolation is engineered by supporting the absorber and thermometer on a membrane. However, electron-phonon decoupling in doped silicon can be made the dominant thermal isolation by reducing device volume, potentially allowing a smaller thermal conductance and a more sensitive bolometer. A key feature is that, while its DC resistance is very high, the thermistor's surface impedance at terahertz frequencies is conveniently low, making feasible efficient antenna coupling of radiation into the electron system. Radio-frequency single-electron transistors integrated with the thermistors have sufficiently low input capacitance to offer high-speed readout of the high impedance detectors.

  8. Device and Design Optimization for AlGaN/GaN X-Band-Power-Amplifiers with High Efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kühn, Jutta; van Raay, Friedbert; Quay, Rüdiger; Kiefer, Rudolf; Mikulla, Michael; Seelmann-Eggebert, Matthias; Bronner, Wolfgang; Schlechtweg, Michael; Ambacher, Oliver; Thumm, Manfred

    2010-03-01

    The design, realization and characterization of dual-stage X-band high-power and highly-efficient monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) power amplifiers (PAs) with AlGaN/GaN high electronic mobility transistors (HEMTs) is presented. These high power amplifiers (HPAs) are based on a precise investigation of circuit-relevant HEMT behavior using two different field-plate variants and its effects on PA performance as well as optimization of HPA driver stage size which also has a deep impact on the entire HPA. Two broadband (3 GHz) MMICs with different field-plate variants and two narrowband (1 GHz) PAs with different driver- to final-stage gate-width ratio are realized with a maximum output power of 19-23 W, a maximum power-added efficiency (PAE) of ?40%, and an associated power gain of 17 dB at X-band. Furthermore, two 1 mm test transistors of the same technology with the mentioned field-plate variants and a 1 mm test MMIC support VSWR-ratio tests of 6:1 and 4:1, respectively.

  9. Multi-pass light amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plaessmann, Henry (Inventor); Grossman, William M. (Inventor); Olson, Todd E. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    A multiple-pass laser amplifier that uses optical focusing between subsequent passes through a single gain medium so that a reproducibly stable beam size is achieved within the gain region. A resonator or a White Cell cavity is provided, including two or more mirrors (planar or curvilinearly shaped) facing each other along a resonator axis and an optical gain medium positioned on a resonator axis between the mirrors or adjacent to one of the mirrors. In a first embodiment, two curvilinear mirrors, which may include adjacent lenses, are configured so that a light beam passing through the gain medium and incident on the first mirror is reflected by that mirror toward the second mirror in a direction approximately parallel to the resonator axis. A light beam translator, such as an optical flat of transparent material, is positioned to translate this light beam by a controllable amount toward or away from the resonator axis for each pass of the light beam through the translator. A second embodiment uses two curvilinear mirrors and one planar mirror, with a gain medium positioned in the optical path between each curvilinear mirror and the planar mirror. A third embodiment uses two curvilinear mirrors and two planar mirrors, with a gain medium positioned adjacent to a planar mirror. A fourth embodiment uses a curvilinear mirror and three planar mirrors, with a gain medium positioned adjacent to a planar mirror. A fourth embodiment uses four planar mirrors and a focusing lens system, with a gain medium positioned between the four mirrors. A fifth embodiment uses first and second planar mirrors, a focusing lens system and a third mirror that may be planar or curvilinear, with a gain medium positioned adjacent to the third mirror. A sixth embodiment uses two planar mirrors and a curvilinear mirror and a fourth mirror that may be planar or curvilinear, with a gain medium positioned adjacent to the fourth mirror. In a seventh embodiment, first and second mirrors face a third mirror, all curvilinear, in a White Cell configuration, and a gain medium is positioned adjacent to one of the mirrors.

  10. Protection of power transistors in electric vehicle drives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radomski, T. A.

    Presently, transistor choppers are being applied in electric vehicle tractive drives. However, during transistor turn-off, the energy stored in the inductance of battery and cables must be redistributed in order to avoid device overvoltage. In this paper, several transient energy suppression circuits are discussed and a novel, nondissapative, energy catch network is identified. Operating data from an experimental 240V, 400A, transistor chopper is also presented.

  11. BJT AC Analysis 1 of 38 The re Transistor model

    E-print Network

    Allen, Gale

    BJT AC Analysis 1 of 38 The re Transistor model Remind Q-poiint re = 26mv/IE #12;BJT AC Analysis 2;BJT AC Analysis 3 of 38 Process Replace transistor with small-signal model. Replace capacitors 5.0ms I(C1) -400nA 0A 400nA (4.2708m,-222.757n) (4.2195m,217.707n) Using these values the transistor

  12. Bioelectronic light-gated transistors with biologically tunable performance.

    PubMed

    Tunuguntla, Ramya H; Bangar, Mangesh A; Kim, Kyunghoon; Stroeve, Pieter; Grigoropoulos, Costas; Ajo-Franklin, Caroline M; Noy, Aleksandr

    2015-02-01

    Light-activated bioelectronic silicon nanowire transistor devices are made by fusing proteoliposomes containing a bacteriorhodopsin (bR) proton pump onto the nanowire surface. Under green-light illumination, bR pumps protons toward the nanowire, and the pH gradient developed by the pump changes the transistor output. Furthermore, co-assembly of small biomolecules that alter the bilayer permeability to other ions can upregulate and downregulate the response of field-effect transistor devices. PMID:25410490

  13. Method to amplify variable sequences without imposing primer sequences

    DOEpatents

    Bradbury, Andrew M.; Zeytun, Ahmet

    2006-11-14

    The present invention provides methods of amplifying target sequences without including regions flanking the target sequence in the amplified product or imposing amplification primer sequences on the amplified product. Also provided are methods of preparing a library from such amplified target sequences.

  14. COMMON-BASE AMPLIFIER 9.1 Overview

    E-print Network

    Ravikumar, B.

    CHAPTER 9 COMMON-BASE AMPLIFIER 9.1 Overview You will design a common-base amplifier in matlab, simulate it in Cadence, build the circuit, and measure the voltage gain of the amplifier. 9.2 Matlab Calculation 1. The specifications for the common-base amplifier are shown below RS=50 (RS is the internal

  15. PASSIVE CONTROL OF FLUID POWERED HUMAN POWER AMPLIFIERS

    E-print Network

    Li, Perry Y.

    PASSIVE CONTROL OF FLUID POWERED HUMAN POWER AMPLIFIERS Perry Y. Li and Venkat Durbha Center is proposed for the control of fluid powered human power amplifiers. Human power amplifiers are mechanical tools that humans operate directly and the human force is amplified hydraulically or pneumatically

  16. Black phosphorus field-effect transistors.

    PubMed

    Li, Likai; Yu, Yijun; Ye, Guo Jun; Ge, Qingqin; Ou, Xuedong; Wu, Hua; Feng, Donglai; Chen, Xian Hui; Zhang, Yuanbo

    2014-05-01

    Two-dimensional crystals have emerged as a class of materials that may impact future electronic technologies. Experimentally identifying and characterizing new functional two-dimensional materials is challenging, but also potentially rewarding. Here, we fabricate field-effect transistors based on few-layer black phosphorus crystals with thickness down to a few nanometres. Reliable transistor performance is achieved at room temperature in samples thinner than 7.5 nm, with drain current modulation on the order of 10(5) and well-developed current saturation in the I-V characteristics. The charge-carrier mobility is found to be thickness-dependent, with the highest values up to ? 1,000 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1) obtained for a thickness of ? 10 nm. Our results demonstrate the potential of black phosphorus thin crystals as a new two-dimensional material for applications in nanoelectronic devices. PMID:24584274

  17. A silicon nanocrystal tunnel field effect transistor

    SciTech Connect

    Harvey-Collard, Patrick; Drouin, Dominique; Pioro-Ladrière, Michel

    2014-05-12

    In this work, we demonstrate a silicon nanocrystal Field Effect Transistor (ncFET). Its operation is similar to that of a Tunnelling Field Effect Transistor (TFET) with two barriers in series. The tunnelling barriers are fabricated in very thin silicon dioxide and the channel in intrinsic polycrystalline silicon. The absence of doping eliminates the problem of achieving sharp doping profiles at the junctions, which has proven a challenge for large-scale integration and, in principle, allows scaling down the atomic level. The demonstrated ncFET features a 10{sup 4} on/off current ratio at room temperature, a low 30?pA/?m leakage current at a 0.5?V bias, an on-state current on a par with typical all-Si TFETs and bipolar operation with high symmetry. Quantum dot transport spectroscopy is used to assess the band structure and energy levels of the silicon island.

  18. Vertically Integrated Multiple Nanowire Field Effect Transistor.

    PubMed

    Lee, Byung-Hyun; Kang, Min-Ho; Ahn, Dae-Chul; Park, Jun-Young; Bang, Tewook; Jeon, Seung-Bae; Hur, Jae; Lee, Dongil; Choi, Yang-Kyu

    2015-12-01

    A vertically integrated multiple channel-based field-effect transistor (FET) with the highest number of nanowires reported ever is demonstrated on a bulk silicon substrate without use of wet etching. The driving current is increased by 5-fold due to the inherent vertically stacked five-level nanowires, thus showing good feasibility of three-dimensional integration-based high performance transistor. The developed fabrication process, which is simple and reproducible, is used to create multiple stiction-free and uniformly sized nanowires with the aid of the one-route all-dry etching process (ORADEP). Furthermore, the proposed FET is revamped to create nonvolatile memory with the adoption of a charge trapping layer for enhanced practicality. Thus, this research suggests an ultimate design for the end-of-the-roadmap devices to overcome the limits of scaling. PMID:26544156

  19. Hybrid light emitting transistors (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhieddine, Khalid; Ullah, Mujeeb; Namdas, Ebinazar B.; Burn, Paul L.

    2015-10-01

    Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) are well studied and established in current display applications. Light-emitting transistors (LETs) have been developed to further simplify the necessary circuitry for these applications, combining the switching capabilities of a transistor with the light emitting capabilities of an OLED. Such devices have been studied using mono- and bilayer geometries and a variety of polymers [1], small organic molecules [2] and single crystals [3] within the active layers. Current devices can often suffer from low carrier mobilities and most operate in p-type mode due to a lack of suitable n-type organic charge carrier materials. Hybrid light-emitting transistors (HLETs) are a logical step to improve device performance by harnessing the charge carrier capabilities of inorganic semiconductors [4]. We present state of the art, all solution processed hybrid light-emitting transistors using a non-planar contact geometry [1, 5]. We will discuss HLETs comprised of an inorganic electron transport layer prepared from a sol-gel of zinc tin oxide and several organic emissive materials. The mobility of the devices is found between 1-5 cm2/Vs and they had on/off ratios of ~105. Combined with optical brightness and efficiencies of the order of 103 cd/m2 and 10-3-10-1 %, respectively, these devices are moving towards the performance required for application in displays. [1] M. Ullah, K. Tandy, S. D. Yambem, M. Aljada, P. L. Burn, P. Meredith, E. B. Namdas., Adv. Mater. 2013, 25, 53, 6213 [2] R. Capelli, S. Toffanin, G. Generali, H. Usta, A. Facchetti, M. Muccini, Nature Materials 2010, 9, 496 [3] T. Takenobu, S. Z. Bisri, T. Takahashi, M. Yahiro, C. Adachi, Y. Iwasa, Phys. Rev. Lett. 2008, 100, 066601 [4] H. Nakanotani, M. Yahiro, C. Adachi, K. Yano, Appl. Phys. Lett. 2007, 90, 262104 [5] K. Muhieddine, M. Ullah, B. N. Pal, P. Burn E. B. Namdas, Adv. Mater. 2014, 26,37, 6410

  20. Fully overheated single-electron transistor.

    PubMed

    Laakso, M A; Heikkilä, T T; Nazarov, Yuli V

    2010-05-14

    We consider the fully overheated single-electron transistor, where the heat balance is determined entirely by electron transfers. We find three distinct transport regimes corresponding to cotunneling, single-electron tunneling, and a competition between the two. We find an anomalous sensitivity to temperature fluctuations at the crossover between the two latter regimes that manifests in an exceptionally large Fano factor of current noise. PMID:20866990

  1. The use of transistor for measurement of body temperature.

    PubMed

    Grucza, R

    1981-01-01

    The use of transistor for measurement of body temperature. Acta physiol. pol., 1981, 32 (6); 761-764. A plastic chip silicon transistor was used for measurements of skin surface, auditory canal and rectal temperatures in human subjects. The application of a transistor as a temperature sensor was based on a linear relationship between base-emitter voltage and temperature changes. A slightly modified digital multimeter was used to supply the transistor and to obtain temperature readout. Construction of the sensors, electronic circuit and calibration procedure are presented in detail. PMID:7348528

  2. Npn double heterostructure bipolar transistor with ingaasn base region

    DOEpatents

    Chang, Ping-Chih; Baca, Albert G.; Li, Nein-Yi; Hou, Hong Q.; Ashby, Carol I. H.

    2004-07-20

    An NPN double heterostructure bipolar transistor (DHBT) is disclosed with a base region comprising a layer of p-type-doped indium gallium arsenide nitride (InGaAsN) sandwiched between n-type-doped collector and emitter regions. The use of InGaAsN for the base region lowers the transistor turn-on voltage, V.sub.on, thereby reducing power dissipation within the device. The NPN transistor, which has applications for forming low-power electronic circuitry, is formed on a gallium arsenide (GaAs) substrate and can be fabricated at commercial GaAs foundries. Methods for fabricating the NPN transistor are also disclosed.

  3. Two-dimensional materials and their prospects in transistor electronics.

    PubMed

    Schwierz, F; Pezoldt, J; Granzner, R

    2015-05-14

    During the past decade, two-dimensional materials have attracted incredible interest from the electronic device community. The first two-dimensional material studied in detail was graphene and, since 2007, it has intensively been explored as a material for electronic devices, in particular, transistors. While graphene transistors are still on the agenda, researchers have extended their work to two-dimensional materials beyond graphene and the number of two-dimensional materials under examination has literally exploded recently. Meanwhile several hundreds of different two-dimensional materials are known, a substantial part of them is considered useful for transistors, and experimental transistors with channels of different two-dimensional materials have been demonstrated. In spite of the rapid progress in the field, the prospects of two-dimensional transistors still remain vague and optimistic opinions face rather reserved assessments. The intention of the present paper is to shed more light on the merits and drawbacks of two-dimensional materials for transistor electronics and to add a few more facets to the ongoing discussion on the prospects of two-dimensional transistors. To this end, we compose a wish list of properties for a good transistor channel material and examine to what extent the two-dimensional materials fulfill the criteria of the list. The state-of-the-art two-dimensional transistors are reviewed and a balanced view of both the pros and cons of these devices is provided. PMID:25898786

  4. Free electron gas primary thermometer: The bipolar junction transistor

    SciTech Connect

    Mimila-Arroyo, J.

    2013-11-04

    The temperature of a bipolar transistor is extracted probing its carrier energy distribution through its collector current, obtained under appropriate polarization conditions, following a rigorous mathematical method. The obtained temperature is independent of the transistor physical properties as current gain, structure (Homo-junction or hetero-junction), and geometrical parameters, resulting to be a primary thermometer. This proposition has been tested using off the shelf silicon transistors at thermal equilibrium with water at its triple point, the transistor temperature values obtained involve an uncertainty of a few milli-Kelvin. This proposition has been successfully tested in the temperature range of 77–450?K.

  5. A PWM transistor inverter for an ac electric vehicle drive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slicker, J. M.

    1981-01-01

    A prototype system consisting of closely integrated motor, inverter, and transaxle has been built in order to demonstrate the feasibility of a three-phase ac transistorized inverter for electric vehicle applications. The microprocessor-controlled inverter employs monolithic power transistors to drive an oil-cooled, three-phase induction traction motor at a peak output power of 30 kW from a 144 V battery pack. Transistor safe switching requirements are discussed, and a circuit is presented for recovering trapped snubber inductor energy at transistor turn-off.

  6. Coherence in a cold atom photon transistor

    E-print Network

    Weibin Li; Igor Lesanovsky

    2015-10-21

    Recent experiments have realized an all-optical photon transistor using a cold atomic gas. This approach relies on electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in conjunction with the strong interaction among atoms excited to high-lying Rydberg states. The transistor is gated via a so-called Rydberg spinwave, in which a single Rydberg excitation is coherently shared by the whole ensemble. In its absence the incoming photon passes through the atomic ensemble by virtue of EIT while in its presence the photon is scattered rendering the atomic gas opaque. An important current challenge is to preserve the coherence of the Rydberg spinwave during the operation of the transistor, which would enable for example its coherent optical read-out and its further processing in quantum circuits. With a combined field theoretical and quantum jump approach and by employing a simple model description we investigate systematically and comprehensively how the coherence of the Rydberg spinwave is affected by photon scattering. With large-scale numerical calculations we show how coherence becomes increasingly protected with growing interatomic interaction strength. For the strongly interacting limit we derive analytical expressions for the spinwave fidelity as a function of the optical depth and bandwidth of the incoming photon.

  7. Operating precautions for amplifiers RF Amplifiers are designed to be reliable when operated under specified conditions. They find many

    E-print Network

    Operating precautions for amplifiers RF Amplifiers are designed to be reliable when operated under in characteristics such as frequency bandwidth, output power, and noise figure. To do this, amplifiers utilize high overstress). This is particularly the case with multistage connectorized amplifiers, which are used

  8. Wave-optical effects in semiconductor laser amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chow, Weng W.; Depatie, David

    1989-06-01

    A wave-optical model is used to investigate the power scaling of semiconductor laser amplifiers. The configurations investigated are single-pass amplifiers, double-pass amplifiers, phase-conjugate double-pass amplifiers, regenerative amplifiers, and injection-locked lasers. Special attention is given to a comparison of conventional double-heterostructure and quantum-well gain media, the factors affecting optical power extraction, and conditions leading to filamentation in the laser beam.

  9. Design and implementation of low power multistage amplifiers and high frequency distributed amplifiers 

    E-print Network

    Mishra, Chinmaya

    2005-11-01

    capacitive loads serve as error amplifiers in low-voltage low drop out regulators in portable devices. This demands low power, low area, and frequency-compensated multistage amplifiers capable of driving large capacitive loads. The first part of the research...

  10. High power, high beam quality regenerative amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Hackel, Lloyd A. (Livermore, CA); Dane, Clifford B. (Livermore, CA)

    1993-01-01

    A regenerative laser amplifier system generates high peak power and high energy per pulse output beams enabling generation of X-rays used in X-ray lithography for manufacturing integrated circuits. The laser amplifier includes a ring shaped optical path with a limited number of components including a polarizer, a passive 90 degree phase rotator, a plurality of mirrors, a relay telescope, and a gain medium, the components being placed close to the image plane of the relay telescope to reduce diffraction or phase perturbations in order to limit high peak intensity spiking. In the ring, the beam makes two passes through the gain medium for each transit of the optical path to increase the amplifier gain to loss ratio. A beam input into the ring makes two passes around the ring, is diverted into an SBS phase conjugator and proceeds out of the SBS phase conjugator back through the ring in an equal but opposite direction for two passes, further reducing phase perturbations. A master oscillator inputs the beam through an isolation cell (Faraday or Pockels) which transmits the beam into the ring without polarization rotation. The isolation cell rotates polarization only in beams proceeding out of the ring to direct the beams out of the amplifier. The diffraction limited quality of the input beam is preserved in the amplifier so that a high power output beam having nearly the same diffraction limited quality is produced.

  11. High power, high beam quality regenerative amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Hackel, L.A.; Dane, C.B.

    1993-08-24

    A regenerative laser amplifier system generates high peak power and high energy per pulse output beams enabling generation of X-rays used in X-ray lithography for manufacturing integrated circuits. The laser amplifier includes a ring shaped optical path with a limited number of components including a polarizer, a passive 90 degree phase rotator, a plurality of mirrors, a relay telescope, and a gain medium, the components being placed close to the image plane of the relay telescope to reduce diffraction or phase perturbations in order to limit high peak intensity spiking. In the ring, the beam makes two passes through the gain medium for each transit of the optical path to increase the amplifier gain to loss ratio. A beam input into the ring makes two passes around the ring, is diverted into an SBS phase conjugator and proceeds out of the SBS phase conjugator back through the ring in an equal but opposite direction for two passes, further reducing phase perturbations. A master oscillator inputs the beam through an isolation cell (Faraday or Pockels) which transmits the beam into the ring without polarization rotation. The isolation cell rotates polarization only in beams proceeding out of the ring to direct the beams out of the amplifier. The diffraction limited quality of the input beam is preserved in the amplifier so that a high power output beam having nearly the same diffraction limited quality is produced.

  12. New laser amplifier improves laser Doppler interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1986-02-01

    The design of a laser light amplifier developed to improve the ability of a laser Doppler interferometry system to measure the high velocities of explosion-driven objects or targets is described. The amplifier increases the laser light intensity and S/N ratio. A green coumarin dye is utilized as if the lasing medium for an argon-ion laser and a blue dye as the frequency shifter to improve coupling between the light-pump power source and lasing medium. The arrangement of amplifier components and the frequency characteristics of the flash lamps and dyes are examined. The design requirements for eliminating chirping and achieving acoustic isolation are discussed. The control of the thermal gradients which produce lens effect is analyzed. The selection of a proper dye concentration for uniform excitation across the active volume of the amplifier is studied; an excitation absorption length of three diameters of active cross section is utilized. In order to increase the amount of pumping light reaching the laser dye and to reduce the number of unwanted wavelengths a optical frequency shifter is employed. The amplifier produces enough light to observe two or more spots on the target, record data for up to 12 microsec, and have an accuracy of 0.5 pct.

  13. Injection- Seeded Optoplasmonic Amplifier in the Visible

    PubMed Central

    Gartia, Manas Ranjan; Seo, Sujin; Kim, Junhwan; Chang, Te-Wei; Bahl, Gaurav; Lu, Meng; Liu, Gang Logan; Eden, J. Gary

    2014-01-01

    A hybrid optoplasmonic amplifier, injection-seeded by an internally-generated Raman signal and operating in the visible (563–675?nm), is proposed and evidence for amplification is presented. Comprising a gain medium tethered to a whispering gallery mode (WGM) resonator with a protein, and a plasmonic surface, the optical system described here selectively amplifies a single (or a few) Raman line(s) produced within the WGM resonator and is well-suited for routing narrowband optical power on-a-chip. Over the past five decades, optical oscillators and amplifiers have typically been based on the buildup of the field from the spontaneous emission background. Doing so limits the temporal coherence of the output, lengthens the time required for the optical field intensity to reach saturation, and often is responsible for complex, multiline spectra. In addition to the spectral control afforded by injection-locking, the effective Q of the amplifier can be specified by the bandwidth of the injected Raman signal. This characteristic contrasts with previous WGM-based lasers and amplifiers for which the Q is determined solely by the WGM resonator. PMID:25156810

  14. Progress Towards High-Sensitivity Arrays of Detectors of Sub-mm Radiation Using Superconducting Tunnel Junctions with Integrated Radio Frequency Single-Electron Transistors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stevenson, T. R.; Hsieh, W.-T.; Li, M. J.; Prober, D. E.; Rhee, K. W.; Schoelkopf, R. J.; Stahle, C. M.; Teufel, J.; Wollack, E. J.

    2004-01-01

    For high resolution imaging and spectroscopy in the FIR and submillimeter, space observatories will demand sensitive, fast, compact, low-power detector arrays with 104 pixels and sensitivity less than 10(exp -20) W/Hz(sup 0.5). Antenna-coupled superconducting tunnel junctions with integrated rf single-electron transistor readout amplifiers have the potential for achieving this high level of sensitivity, and can take advantage of an rf multiplexing technique. The device consists of an antenna to couple radiation into a small superconducting volume and cause quasiparticle excitations, and a single-electron transistor to measure current through junctions contacting the absorber. We describe optimization of device parameters, and results on fabrication techniques for producing devices with high yield for detector arrays. We also present modeling of expected saturation power levels, antenna coupling, and rf multiplexing schemes.

  15. Long-Term Reliability of High Speed SiGe/Si Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponchak, George E. (Technical Monitor); Bhattacharya, Pallab

    2003-01-01

    Accelerated lifetime tests were performed on double-mesa structure Si/Si0.7Ge0.3/Si npn heterojunction bipolar transistors, grown by molecular beam epitaxy, in the temperature range of 175C-275C. Both single- and multiple finger transistors were tested. The single-finger transistors (with 5x20 micron sq m emitter area) have DC current gains approximately 40-50 and f(sub T) and f(sub MAX) of up to 22 GHz and 25 GHz, respectively. The multiple finger transistors (1.4 micron finger width, 9 emitter fingers with total emitter area of 403 micron sq m) have similar DC current gain but f(sub T) of 50 GHz. It is found that a gradual degradation in these devices is caused by the recombination enhanced impurity diffusion (REID) of boron atoms from the p-type base region and the associated formation of parasitic energy barriers to electron transport from the emitter to collector layers. This REID has been quantitatively modeled and explained, to the first order of approximation, and the agreement with the measured data is good. The mean time to failure (MTTF) of the devices at room temperature is estimated from the extrapolation of the Arrhenius plots of device lifetime versus reciprocal temperature. The results of the reliability tests offer valuable feedback for SiGe heterostructure design in order to improve the long-term reliability of the devices and circuits made with them. Hot electron induced degradation of the base-emitter junction was also observed during the accelerated lifetime testing. In order to improve the HBT reliability endangered by the hot electrons, deuterium sintered techniques have been proposed. The preliminary results from this study show that a deuterium-sintered HBT is, indeed, more resistant to hot-electron induced base-emitter junction degradation. SiGe/Si based amplifier circuits were also subjected to lifetime testing and we extrapolate MTTF is approximately 1.1_10(exp 6) hours at 125iC junction temperature from the circuit lifetime data.

  16. Short pulse free electron laser amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Schlitt, Leland G. (Livermore, CA); Szoke, Abraham (Fremont, CA)

    1985-01-01

    Method and apparatus for amplification of a laser pulse in a free electron laser amplifier where the laser pulse duration may be a small fraction of the electron beam pulse duration used for amplification. An electron beam pulse is passed through a first wiggler magnet and a short laser pulse to be amplified is passed through the same wiggler so that only the energy of the last fraction, f, (f<1) of the electron beam pulse is consumed in amplifying the laser pulse. After suitable delay of the electron beam, the process is repeated in a second wiggler magnet, a third, . . . , where substantially the same fraction f of the remainder of the electron beam pulse is consumed in amplification of the given short laser pulse in each wiggler magnet region until the useful electron beam energy is substantially completely consumed by amplification of the laser pulse.

  17. Ultrashort pulse amplification in cryogenically cooled amplifiers

    DOEpatents

    Backus, Sterling J.; Kapteyn, Henry C.; Murnane, Margaret Mary

    2004-10-12

    A laser amplifier system amplifies pulses in a single "stage" from .about.10.sup.-9 joules to more than 10.sup.-3 joules, with average power of 1-10 watts, and beam quality M.sup.2 <2. The laser medium is cooled substantially below room temperature, as a means to improve the optical and thermal characteristics of the medium. This is done with the medium inside a sealed, evacuated or purged cell to avoid moisture or other materials condensing on the surface. A "seed" pulse from a separate laser is passed through the laser medium, one or more times, in any of a variety of configurations including single-pass, multiple-pass, and regenerative amplifier configurations.

  18. QED in arbitrary linear media: amplifying media

    E-print Network

    Christian Raabe; Dirk-Gunnar Welsch

    2007-10-15

    Recently, we have developed a unified approach to QED in arbitrary linearly responding media in equilibrium--media that give rise to absorption [Phys. Rev. A \\textbf{75}, (2007) 053813]. In the present paper we show that, under appropriate conditions, the theory can be quite naturally generalized to amplifying media the effect of which is described within the framework of linear response theory. We discuss the limits of validity of the generalized theory and make contact with earlier quantization schemes suggested for the case of linearly and locally responding amplifying dielectric-type media. To illustrate the theory, we present the electromagnetic-field correlation functions that determine the Casimir force in the presence of amplifying media.

  19. Phase noise of oscillators with unsaturated amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenig, Eyal; Cross, M. C.; Moehlis, Jeff; Wiesenfeld, Kurt

    2013-12-01

    We study the role of amplifier saturation in eliminating feedback noise in self-sustained oscillators. We extend previous works that use a saturated amplifier to quench fluctuations in the feedback magnitude, while simultaneously tuning the oscillator to an operating point at which the resonator nonlinearity cancels fluctuations in the feedback phase. We consider a generalized model which features an amplitude-dependent amplifier gain function. This allows us to determine the total oscillator phase noise in realistic configurations due to noise in both quadratures of the feedback, and to show that it is not necessary to drive the resonator to large oscillation amplitudes in order to eliminate noise in the phase of the feedback.

  20. High Bandwidth Differential Amplifier for Shock Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, P. W., Tran, V., Chau, R.

    2012-04-30

    We developed a high bandwidth differential amplifier for gas gun shock experiments/applications. The circuit has a bandwidth > 1 GHz, and is capable of measuring signals of ?1.5 V with a common mode rejection of 250 V. Conductivity measurements of gas gun targets are measured by flowing high currents through the targets. The voltage is measured across the target using a technique similar to a four-point probe. Because of the design of the current source and load, the target voltage is approximately 250 V relative to ground. Since the expected voltage change in the target is < 1 V, the differential amplifier must have a large common mode rejection. High pass filters suppress internal ringing of operational amplifiers. Results of bench tests are shown.

  1. Transverse intensity transformation by laser amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litvin, Igor A.; King, Gary; Collett, Oliver J. P.; Strauss, Hencharl J.

    2015-03-01

    Lasers beams with a specific intensity profile such as super-Gaussian, Airy or Dougnut-like are desirable in many applications such as laser materials processing, medicine and communications. We propose a new technique for laser beam shaping by amplifying a beam in an end-pumped bulk amplifier that is pumped with a beam that has a modified intensity profile. Advantages of this method are that it is relatively easy to implement, has the ability to reshape multimode beams and is naturally suited to high power/energy beams. Both three and four level gain materials can be used as amplifier media. However, a big advantage of using three level materials is their ability to attenuate of the seed beam, which enhances the contrast of the shaping. We first developed a numerical method to obtain the required pump intensity for an arbitrary beam transformation. This method was subsequently experimentally verified using a three level system. The output of a 2.07 ?m seed laser was amplified in a Ho:YLF bulk amplifier which was being pumped by a 1.89 ?m Tm:YLF laser which had roughly a TEM10 Hermit Gaussian intensity profile. The seed beam was amplified from 0.3 W to 0.55 W at the full pump power of 35 W. More importantly, the beam profile in one transverse direction was significantly shaped from Gaussian to roughly flat-top, as the model predicted. The concept has therefore been shown to be viable and can be used to optimise the beam profile for a wide range of applications.

  2. Noise figure of amplified dispersive Fourier transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goda, Keisuke; Jalali, Bahram

    2010-09-01

    Amplified dispersive Fourier transformation (ADFT) is a powerful tool for fast real-time spectroscopy as it overcomes the limitations of traditional optical spectrometers. ADFT maps the spectrum of an optical pulse into a temporal waveform using group-velocity dispersion and simultaneously amplifies it in the optical domain. It greatly simplifies spectroscopy by replacing the diffraction grating and detector array in the conventional spectrometer with a dispersive fiber and single-pixel photodetector, enabling ultrafast real-time spectroscopic measurements. Following our earlier work on the theory of ADFT, here we study the effect of noise on ADFT. We derive the noise figure of ADFT and discuss its dependence on various parameters.

  3. Transportable setup for amplifier phase fidelity measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tröbs, M.; Bogan, C.; Barke, S.; Kühn, G.; Reiche, J.; Heinzel, G.; Danzmann, K.

    2015-05-01

    One possible laser source for the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) consists of an Ytterbium-doped fiber amplifier originally developed for inter-satellite communication, seeded by the laser used for the technology demonstrator mission LISA Pathfinder. LISA needs to transmit clock information between its three spacecraft to correct for phase noise between the clocks on the individual spacecraft. For this purpose phase modulation sidebands at GHz frequencies will be imprinted on the laser beams between spacecraft. Differential phase noise between the carrier and a sideband introduced within the optical chain must be very low. We report on a transportable setup to measure the phase fidelity of optical amplifiers.

  4. Master-Oscillator/Power-Amplifier Laser System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Anthony W.; Krainak, Michael A.; Unger, Glenn L.

    1994-01-01

    Master-oscillator/power-amplifier (MOPA) laser system operates in continuous-wave mode or in amplitude-modulation (e.g., pulse) mode by modulation of oscillator current. Power amplifier is laser-diode-pumped neodymium:yttrium lithium fluoride (Nd:YLF) laser; oscillator is laser diode. Offers relatively high efficiency and power. Because drive current to oscillator modulated, external electro-optical modulator not needed. Potential uses include free-space optical communications, coded laser ranging, and generation of high-power, mode-locked pulses.

  5. Nondeterministic Amplifier for Two Photon Superpositions

    E-print Network

    John Jeffers

    2011-01-06

    We examine heralded nondeterministic noiseless amplification based on the quantum scissors device, which has been shown to increase the one-photon amplitude of a state at the expense of the vacuum-state amplitude. Here we propose using the same basic design to perform perfect amplification in a basis set of up to two photons. The device is much more efficient than several one-photon amplifiers working in tandem. When used to amplify coherent states this advantage is shown using either fidelity or in terms of probability of sucessful action, or more strikingly in a combination of the two.

  6. Transient dynamics of linear quantum amplifiers

    E-print Network

    S. Maniscalco; J. Piilo; N. Vitanov; S. Stenholm

    2006-01-13

    The transient dynamics of a quantum linear amplifier during the transition from damping to amplification regime is studied. The master equation for the quantized mode of the field is solved, and the solution is used to describe the statistics of the output field. The conditions under which a nonclassical input field may retain nonclassical features at the output of the amplifier are analyzed and compared to the results of earlier theories. As an application we give a dynamical description of the departure of the system from thermal equilibrium.

  7. Linear Amplifier Model for Optomechanical Systems

    E-print Network

    Thierry Botter; Daniel W. C. Brooks; Nathan Brahms; Sydney Schreppler; Dan M. Stamper-Kurn

    2012-01-19

    We model optomechanical systems as linear optical amplifiers. This provides a unified treatment of diverse optomechanical phenomena. We emphasize, in particular, the relationship between ponderomotive squeezing and optomechanically induced transparency, two foci of current research. We characterize the amplifier response to quantum and deliberately applied fluctuations, both optical and mechanical. Further, we apply these results to establish quantum limits on external force sensing both on and off cavity resonance. We find that the maximum sensitivity attained on resonance constitutes an absolute upper limit, not surpassed when detuning off cavity resonance. The theory can be extended to a two-sided cavity with losses and limited detection efficiency.

  8. Beam shaping with a laser amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litvin, Igor A.; Collett, Oliver J. P.

    2014-03-01

    We propose a new technique for laser beam shaping namely the reshaping of the laser beam into a desirable beam profile by the use of a laser amplifier with a pump beam that has a modified intensity profile. We developed the analytical formula which describes the transformation of the seed beam into the desired beam profile in the amplifiers small signal regime. In the case were high pump power saturated the laser crystal we have shown the method of reshaping of the seed beam into desirable beam by a numerically obtained pump intensity profile. The method can also be extended for shaped seed beams with fixed profile pump.

  9. Multi-pass amplifier architecture for high power laser systems

    SciTech Connect

    Manes, Kenneth R; Spaeth, Mary L; Erlandson, Alvin C

    2014-04-01

    A main amplifier system includes a first reflector operable to receive input light through a first aperture and direct the input light along an optical path. The input light is characterized by a first polarization. The main amplifier system also includes a first polarizer operable to reflect light characterized by the first polarization state. The main amplifier system further includes a first and second set of amplifier modules. Each of the first and second set of amplifier modules includes an entrance window, a quarter wave plate, a plurality of amplifier slablets arrayed substantially parallel to each other, and an exit window. The main amplifier system additionally includes a set of mirrors operable to reflect light exiting the first set of amplifier modules to enter the second set of amplifier modules and a second polarizer operable to reflect light characterized by a second polarization state.

  10. Tunable organic transistors that use microfluidic source and drain electrodes

    E-print Network

    Rogers, John A.

    Tunable organic transistors that use microfluidic source and drain electrodes George Maltezos flow on top of a thin film of the organic semiconductor pentacene. Pumping the mercury through suitably of organic transistor has the potential to be useful in plastic microfluidic devices that require active

  11. Self-Aligned Ballistic Molecular Transistors and Electrically Parallel

    E-print Network

    Self-Aligned Ballistic Molecular Transistors and Electrically Parallel Nanotube Arrays Ali Javey, and potential interfacial scattering mechanisms in nanotubes is obtained. Also, parallel arrays of such molecular transistors are enabled to deliver macroscopic currents-an important milestone for future circuit

  12. Handout 2 for EE-203 Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT)

    E-print Network

    Iqbal, Sheikh Sharif

    that `iC' is independent of VCB , for VCB 0. So collector behaves as an ideal constant current sourceHandout 2 for EE-203 Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT) Sheikh Sharif Iqbal (Ref: Text book in the Syllabus) #12;Chapter 5: Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT) Saturation Cutoff Active Mode Table 5.1: BJT

  13. Method for double-sided processing of thin film transistors

    DOEpatents

    Yuan, Hao-Chih (Madison, WI); Wang, Guogong (Madison, WI); Eriksson, Mark A. (Madison, WI); Evans, Paul G. (Madison, WI); Lagally, Max G. (Madison, WI); Ma, Zhenqiang (Middleton, WI)

    2008-04-08

    This invention provides methods for fabricating thin film electronic devices with both front- and backside processing capabilities. Using these methods, high temperature processing steps may be carried out during both frontside and backside processing. The methods are well-suited for fabricating back-gate and double-gate field effect transistors, double-sided bipolar transistors and 3D integrated circuits.

  14. Graphene microwave transistors on sapphire substrates E. Pallecchi,1

    E-print Network

    Plaçais, Bernard

    Graphene microwave transistors on sapphire substrates E. Pallecchi,1 C. Benz,2,3 A. C. Betz,1 H. v-oxide graphene field-effect transistors (MOGFETs) on sapphire substrates working at microwave frequencies for nanostructures on sapphire, the high stability and high performance of this material at low temperature, our

  15. Sizing and Placement of Charge Recycling Transistors in MTCMOS Circuits

    E-print Network

    Pedram, Massoud

    Sizing and Placement of Charge Recycling Transistors in MTCMOS Circuits Ehsan Pakbaznia Dep transitions between sleep and active modes. Previously, a charge recycling (CR) MTCMOS architecture and placement of charge- recycling transistors is key to achieving the maximum power saving. In this paper, we

  16. Radio frequency analog electronics based on carbon nanotube transistors

    E-print Network

    Rogers, John A.

    Radio frequency analog electronics based on carbon nanotube transistors Coskun Kocabas*, Hoon properties of individ- ual tubes. We have implemented solutions to some of these challenges to yield radio band with power gains as high as 14 dB. As a demon- stration, we fabricated nanotube transistor radios

  17. Surface photovoltage spectroscopy of metamorphic high electron mobility transistor structures

    E-print Network

    Shapira, Yoram

    Surface photovoltage spectroscopy of metamorphic high electron mobility transistor structures S; published 13 October 2004) InAlAs/InGaAs metamorphic high electron mobility transistor (MHEMT) epitaxial American Vacuum Society. [DOI: 10.1116/1.1787518] I. INTRODUCTION Metamorphic high electron mobility

  18. Doped organic transistors operating in the inversion and depletion regime

    PubMed Central

    Lüssem, Björn; Tietze, Max L.; Kleemann, Hans; Hoßbach, Christoph; Bartha, Johann W.; Zakhidov, Alexander; Leo, Karl

    2013-01-01

    The inversion field-effect transistor is the basic device of modern microelectronics and is nowadays used more than a billion times on every state-of-the-art computer chip. In the future, this rigid technology will be complemented by flexible electronics produced at extremely low cost. Organic field-effect transistors have the potential to be the basic device for flexible electronics, but still need much improvement. In particular, despite more than 20 years of research, organic inversion mode transistors have not been reported so far. Here we discuss the first realization of organic inversion transistors and the optimization of organic depletion transistors by our organic doping technology. We show that the transistor parameters—in particular, the threshold voltage and the ON/OFF ratio—can be controlled by the doping concentration and the thickness of the transistor channel. Injection of minority carriers into the doped transistor channel is achieved by doped contacts, which allows forming an inversion layer. PMID:24225722

  19. A spiking neuron circuit based on a carbon nanotube transistor.

    PubMed

    Chen, C-L; Kim, K; Truong, Q; Shen, A; Li, Z; Chen, Y

    2012-07-11

    A spiking neuron circuit based on a carbon nanotube (CNT) transistor is presented in this paper. The spiking neuron circuit has a crossbar architecture in which the transistor gates are connected to its row electrodes and the transistor sources are connected to its column electrodes. An electrochemical cell is incorporated in the gate of the transistor by sandwiching a hydrogen-doped poly(ethylene glycol)methyl ether (PEG) electrolyte between the CNT channel and the top gate electrode. An input spike applied to the gate triggers a dynamic drift of the hydrogen ions in the PEG electrolyte, resulting in a post-synaptic current (PSC) through the CNT channel. Spikes input into the rows trigger PSCs through multiple CNT transistors, and PSCs cumulate in the columns and integrate into a 'soma' circuit to trigger output spikes based on an integrate-and-fire mechanism. The spiking neuron circuit can potentially emulate biological neuron networks and their intelligent functions. PMID:22710137

  20. I-V Characteristics of a Ferroelectric Field Effect Transistor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacLeod, Todd C.; Ho, Fat Duen

    1999-01-01

    There are many possible uses for ferroelectric field effect transistors.To understand their application, a fundamental knowledge of their basic characteristics must first be found. In this research, the current and voltage characteristics of a field effect transistor are described. The effective gate capacitance and charge are derived from experimental data on an actual FFET. The general equation for a MOSFET is used to derive the internal characteristics of the transistor: This equation is modified slightly to describe the FFET characteristics. Experimental data derived from a Radiant Technologies FFET is used to calculate the internal transistor characteristics using fundamental MOSFET equations. The drain current was measured under several different gate and drain voltages and with different initial polarizations on the ferroelectric material in the transistor. Two different polarization conditions were used. One with the gate ferroelectric material polarized with a +9.0 volt write pulse and one with a -9.0 volt pulse.

  1. Signal and noise analysis of a-Si:H radiation detector-amplifier system

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Gyuseong

    1992-03-01

    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) has potential advantages in making radiation detectors for many applications because of its deposition capability on a large-area substrate and its high radiation resistance. Position-sensitive radiation detectors can be made out of a 1d strip or a 2-d pixel array of a Si:H pin diodes. In addition, signal processing electronics can be made by thin-film transistors on the same substrate. The calculated radiation signal, based on a simple charge collection model agreed well with results from various wave length light sources and 1 MeV beta particles on sample diodes. The total noise of the detection system was analyzed into (a) shot noise and (b) 1/f noise from a detector diode, and (c) thermal noise and (d) 1/f noise from the frontend TFT of a charge-sensitive preamplifier. the effective noise charge calculated by convoluting these noise power spectra with the transfer function of a CR-RC shaping amplifier showed a good agreement with the direct measurements of noise charge. The derived equations of signal and noise charge can be used to design an a-Si:H pixel detector amplifier system optimally. Signals from a pixel can be readout using switching TFTs, or diodes. Prototype tests of a double-diode readout scheme showed that the storage time and the readout time are limited by the resistances of the reverse-biased pixel diode and the forward biased switching diodes respectively. A prototype charge-sensitive amplifier was made using poly-Si TFTs to test the feasibility of making pixel-level amplifiers which would be required in small-signal detection. The measured overall gain-bandwidth product was {approximately}400 MHz and the noise charge {approximately}1000 electrons at a 1 {mu}sec shaping time. When the amplifier is connected to a pixel detector of capacitance 0.2 pF, it would give a charge-to-voltage gain of {approximately}0.02 mV/electron with a pulse rise time less than 100 nsec and a dynamic range of 48 dB.

  2. Low phase noise oscillator using two parallel connected amplifiers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleinberg, Leonard L.

    1987-01-01

    A high frequency oscillator is provided by connecting two amplifier circuits in parallel where each amplifier circuit provides the other amplifier circuit with the conditions necessary for oscillation. The inherent noise present in both amplifier circuits causes the quiescent current, and in turn, the generated frequency, to change. The changes in quiescent current cause the transconductance and the load impedance of each amplifier circuit to vary, and this in turn results in opposing changes in the input susceptance of each amplifier circuit. Because the changes in input susceptance oppose each other, the changes in quiescent current also oppose each other. The net result is that frequency stability is enhanced.

  3. Thermoacoustic Stirling Engine --An acoustic amplifier

    E-print Network

    Lee, Dongwon

    kW sound hot diesel exhaust hot diesel exhaust 34" 24" Thermoacoustic Stirling Engine -- An acousticThermoacoustic Stirling Engine -- An acoustic amplifier: ambient heat exchanger (water) stacked/kg 360 W/kg 4 kW Diesel Truck Waste Heat Recovery #12;

  4. AMPLIFIED TELEPHONE AS A TEACHING MEDIUM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    JOLLY, JOAN; MADDEN, CHARLES F.

    A GRANT TOTALING $58,400 FROM THE FUND FOR THE ADVANCEMENT OF EDUCATION ENABLED STEPHENS COLLEGE TO INITIATE AN EXPERIMENTAL EDUCATIONAL PROGRAM BY WHICH AMPLIFIED TELEPHONE COMMUNICATION BROUGHT HIGH-QUALITY INSTRUCTION TO GROUPS OF SMALL LIBERAL ARTS COLLEGES. A "MASTER TEACHER" ORGANIZED AND PRESENTED THE BASIC MATERIALS OF THE COURSE. PERSONS…

  5. Gyrotron: A high-frequency microwave amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kupiszewski, A.

    1979-01-01

    A proposed microwave amplifier mechanism for future generations of millimeter high power uplinks to spacecraft and planetary radar transmitters is introduced. Basic electron-electromagnetic field interaction theory for RF power gain is explained. The starting point for general analytical methods leading to detailed design results is presented.

  6. Sodium channels amplify spine potentials Roberto Araya*

    E-print Network

    Eisenthal, Kenneth B.

    Sodium channels amplify spine potentials Roberto Araya* , Volodymyr Nikolenko* , Kenneth B for review January 25, 2007) Dendritic spines mediate most excitatory synapses in the brain. Past theoretical work and recent experimental evidence have suggested that spines could contain sodium channels. We

  7. A novel wideband 140 GHz gyrotron amplifier

    E-print Network

    Joye, Colin D., 1980-

    2008-01-01

    The theory, design and experimental results of a wideband 140 GHz, 1 kW pulsed gyro-traveling wave amplifier are presented. The gyro- TWA operates in the HE(0,6) mode of a novel cylindrical confocal waveguide using a ...

  8. Optical amplifier-powered quantum optical amplification

    E-print Network

    John Jeffers

    2011-05-16

    I show that an optical amplifier, when combined with photon subtraction, can be used for quantum state amplification, adding noise at a level below the standard minimum. The device could be used to significantly decrease the probability of incorrectly identifying coherent states chosen from a finite set.

  9. Research on fluidics, valves, and proportional amplifiers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Research and development being conducted at the Systems and Controls Laboratory is reviewed. Static characteristics (supply, input, transfer, output, and noise characteristics) of laminar proportional amplifiers were investigated. Other topics discussed include velocity profiles for laminar fluidic jets, speed control systems employing a jet pipe valve, and power amplification with a vortex valve.

  10. Modulation instability in high power laser amplifiers

    E-print Network

    Turitsyn, Sergei K.

    Modulation instability in high power laser amplifiers Alexander M. Rubenchik,1,* Sergey K. Turitsyn in high-power laser systems. The so-called B-integral restriction is commonly used as the criteria for MI,1973, special publication 387,"Self-focusing of very powerful laser beam II," IEEE J. Quant. Electron

  11. Exploratory antimony containing heterojunction bipolar transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikossi-Anastasiou, Kiki

    1992-09-01

    The advantages of using Sb containing III-V compounds in bipolar type devices are discussed with recent experimental results of two different applications of GaAsSb in Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors (HBTs). The performance of a prototype AlGaAs/GaAsSb/GaAs double HBT (DHBT) that exhibits a current gain of five and a maximum collector current density of 5 X 104 A/cm2 and a pnp AlGaAs/GaAs HBT with a superlattice GaAsSb emitter ohmic contact, with specific contact resistivity of 5 +/- 1 X 10-7 (Omega) -cm2 across the sample, are examined.

  12. Transistor screening evaluation SJ6708H

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barton, J. L.

    1978-01-01

    A manufacturer was contracted to screen 125 transistors capable of withstanding the high level inductive voltages obtained when switching inductive loads. Planned differences included a change in die bonding to comply with NASA's desire for hard solder die attachment which further necessitated a change in package to conform to the required die mounting system. Evaluation of the electrical performance and recommended changes were made during the preliminary build phase of the program. The following sections are outlined: (1) narrative outline; (2) customer data summary and X-ray reports; (3) device specification; (4) failure analysis reports; (5) test facilities list; and (6) test measurement data.

  13. Conjugated polyelectrolytes for organic light emitting transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Jung Hwa; Namdas, Ebinazar B.; Gutacker, Andrea; Heeger, Alan J.; Bazan, Guillermo C.

    2010-07-01

    We report on solution-processed light emitting field-effect transistors (LEFETs) that incorporate symmetric high work function (WF) source and drain metal electrodes. A key architectural design is the incorporation of a conjugated polyelectrolyte (CPE) electron injection layer atop the emissive layer. The device structure also comprises a hole-transporting layer underneath the emissive layer. Both holes and electrons are injected from stable, high WF metal though the CPE layer leading to electroluminescence near the electron-injecting electrode. With the benefits of the simplicity in device fabrication, the LEFETs incorporating CPEs are interesting structures for integrated organic optoelectronic devices.

  14. Humidity sensor using a single molecular transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ray, S. J.

    2015-07-01

    Nanoelectronic devices have attracted significant interest for their potential as chemical/gas sensors. In this work, the performance and operation of a novel single molecular transistor based humidity sensor are demonstrated for the first time using density function theory based Ab-initio calculations. The device has a novel design, which can allow real-time detection through the charge stability diagram. It is found that this method can allow large temperature range of operation with extremely high detection sensitivity than the presently available sensors, while the simplistic design can be useful for practical experimental realisation.

  15. Dose Rate Effects in Linear Bipolar Transistors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, Allan; Swimm, Randall; Harris, R. D.; Thorbourn, Dennis

    2011-01-01

    Dose rate effects are examined in linear bipolar transistors at high and low dose rates. At high dose rates, approximately 50% of the damage anneals at room temperature, even though these devices exhibit enhanced damage at low dose rate. The unexpected recovery of a significant fraction of the damage after tests at high dose rate requires changes in existing test standards. Tests at low temperature with a one-second radiation pulse width show that damage continues to increase for more than 3000 seconds afterward, consistent with predictions of the CTRW model for oxides with a thickness of 700 nm.

  16. Introduction to Single-Molecule Transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishijima, Mitsuaki

    Experimental and theoretical studies on the 2-terminal systems, which are related with a (3-terminal) single-molecule transistor, are reviewed. The measured current- bias-voltage (I-V) characteristics for the representative molecules are compared with the ab initio calculations. Molecular-vibration-induced loss of coherence and the change of the electron-transport mechanism are discussed. Mechanisms for rectification, negative differential resistance and switching of the 2-terminal systems are described. Shot-noise and thermopower studies are briefly mentioned.

  17. Carbon Based Transistors and Nanoelectronic Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouhi, Nima

    Carbon based materials (carbon nanotube and graphene) has been extensively researched during the past decade as one of the promising materials to be used in high performance device technology. In long term it is thought that they may replace digital and/or analog electronic devices, due to their size, near-ballistic transport, and high stability. However, a more realistic point of insertion into market may be the printed nanoelectronic circuits and sensors. These applications include printed circuits for flexible electronics and displays, large-scale bendable electrical contacts, bio-membranes and bio sensors, RFID tags, etc. In order to obtain high performance thin film transistors (as the basic building block of electronic circuits) one should be able to manufacture dense arrays of all semiconducting nanotubes. Besides, graphene synthesize and transfer technology is in its infancy and there is plenty of room to improve the current techniques. To realize the performance of nanotube and graphene films in such systems, we need to economically fabricate large-scale devices based on these materials. Following that the performance control over such devices should also be considered for future design variations for broad range of applications. Here we have first investigated carbon nanotube ink as the base material for our devices. The primary ink used consisted of both metallic and semiconducting nanotubes which resulted in networks suitable for moderate-resistivity electrical connections (such as interconnects) and rfmatching circuits. Next, purified all-semiconducting nanotube ink was used to fabricate waferscale, high performance (high mobility, and high on/off ratio) thin film transistors for printed electronic applications. The parameters affecting device performance were studied in detail to establish a roadmap for the future of purified nanotube ink printed thin film transistors. The trade of between mobility and on/off ratio of such devices was studied and the effect of nanotube network density was explained in detail. On the other hand, graphene transfer technology was explored here as well. Annealing techniques were utilized to deposit clean graphene on arbitrary substrates. Raman spectroscopy and Raman data analysis was used to confirm the clean process. Furthermore, suspended graphene membrane was fabricated using single and multi-layer graphene films. This can make a major impact on graphene based transistors and bio-nano sensors technology.

  18. General Purpose NPN Transistor Array The CA3046 consists of five general purpose silicon NPN

    E-print Network

    Lanterman, Aaron

    1 CA3046 General Purpose NPN Transistor Array The CA3046 consists of five general purpose silicon NPN transistors on a common monolithic substrate. Two of the transistors are internally connected to form a differentially connected pair. The transistors of the CA3046 are well suited to a wide variety

  19. A general method in synthesis of pass-transistor circuits D. Markovica,*, B. Nikolicb

    E-print Network

    Zakhor, Avideh

    A general method in synthesis of pass-transistor circuits D. Markovic´a,*, B. Nikolic´b , V in different pass-transistor network topologies is analyzed. Several pass-transistor logic families have been be used to efficiently synthesize pass- transistor logic circuits, which have balanced loads on true

  20. Dual-Threshold Pass-Transistor Logic Design Lara D. Oliver,

    E-print Network

    Chakrabarty, Krishnendu

    Dual-Threshold Pass-Transistor Logic Design Lara D. Oliver, Krishnendu Chakrabarty, and Hisham Z,krish,massoud}@ee.duke.edu ABSTRACT This paper introduces pass-transistor logic design with dual- threshold voltages. A set of single-rail, fully restored, pass- transistor gates are presented. Logic transistors are im- plemented with low

  1. General Purpose NPN Transistor Array The CA3046 consists of five general purpose silicon NPN

    E-print Network

    Ravikumar, B.

    1 CA-3046 General Purpose NPN Transistor Array The CA3046 consists of five general purpose silicon NPN transistors on a common monolithic substrate. Two of the transistors are internally connected to form a differentially connected pair. The transistors of the CA3046 are well suited to a wide variety

  2. Valves Based on Amplified Piezoelectric Actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Letty, R.; Lhermet, N.; Patient, G.; Claeyssen, F.; Lang, M.

    2004-10-01

    Amplified Piezo Actuators have been developed at CEDRAT TECHNOLOGIES for several years and found several applications in space. Their well-known advantages (rapid response and precise positioning) have been used in valve designs to obtain either rapid or fine proportional valves. A first gas valve is using a small amplified piezo actuator and is further driven with a switched amplifier to get a high frequency modulation. A frequency modulation higher than 400 Hz with a stroke of 100 m has been measured. These properties can also be used for gasoline injectors. A second gas valve is also using an amplified piezo actuator, a linear amplifier, and a servo controller to get an accurate proportional valve dedicated to precise gas flow control in the fields of instrumentation and space. A linear and stable flow control has been demonstrated. The low power consumption of the piezoelectric valve in the space applications is an additional advantage. A stable flow of dry Nitrogen ranging from 0.1 sccm to 200 sccm has been measured with an inlet pressure of 1 bar. These valves have been designed with the help of several modelling tools: finite element procedure for the electro-mechanical part, the contact mechanics between the poppet and the seat, the computational fluid dynamics. The valves have been further measured by using several measuring equipment's, including a laser interferometer, a spectrum analyser to measure the gas flow stability, Thermal vacuum and leak tests have also been performed. A special emphasis is realised on the driving and control aspects of this valve for space applications.

  3. DESIGN OF THE TRANSCONDUCTANCE AMPLIFIER FOR FREQUENCY DOMAIN SAMPLING RECEIVER 

    E-print Network

    Chen, XI

    2010-01-16

    In this work, the circuit implementation of the front-end for Frequency Domain (FD) Sampling Receiver is presented. Shooting for two different applications, two transconductance amplifiers are designed. A high linear transconductance amplifier...

  4. Photonic-Band-Gap Traveling-Wave Gyrotron Amplifier

    E-print Network

    Nanni, Emilio Alessandro

    We report the experimental demonstration of a gyrotron traveling-wave-tube amplifier at 250 GHz that uses a photonic band gap (PBG) interaction circuit. The gyrotron amplifier achieved a peak small signal gain of 38 dB and ...

  5. A 250 GHz photonic band gap gyrotron amplifier

    E-print Network

    Nanni, Emilio A. (Emilio Alessandro)

    2013-01-01

    This thesis reports the theoretical and experimental investigation of a novel gyrotron traveling-wave-tube (TWT) amplifier at 250 GHz. The gyrotron amplifier designed and tested in this thesis has achieved a peak small ...

  6. Experimental research of a chain of diode pumped rubidium amplifiers.

    PubMed

    Li, Yunfei; Hua, Weihong; Li, Lei; Wang, Hongyan; Yang, Zining; Xu, Xiaojun

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, we have set up a diode pumped rubidium MOPA system with a chain of two amplifiers. The experimental results show an amplified laser power of 26W with amplification factor of 16.3 and power extraction efficiency of 53% for a single amplifier, and an amplified laser power of 11W with amplification factor of 7.9 and power extraction efficiency of 26% for a chain of two amplifiers. The reason for lower performance of cascade amplification is mainly due to the limited total pump power, which will be not sufficient for efficient pumping when assigned from a single amplifier into two amplifiers. The situation could be well improved by increasing the seed laser power as well as the pump power for each amplifier to realize high efficient saturated amplification. Such MOPA configuration has the potential for scaling high beam quality alkali laser into high powers. PMID:26480105

  7. Method of stabilizing flueric vortex valves and vortex amplifiers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erwin, L. R.; Mc Fall, R. H.

    1970-01-01

    Inducing losses in the vortex chamber of vortex valves and vortex amplifiers resolves the problem of unstable operation caused by a sufficiently large positive feedback. Induced losses also reduce pressure gain and throttling range of vortex pressure amplifier.

  8. Improved compensation circuit for direct-coupled amplifiers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breurer, D. R.

    1968-01-01

    Drift- and offset-control circuit compensates the inherent temperature drift and offset of a closed-loop feedback amplifier. It overcomes the disadvantages of conventional chopping circuits used to minimize drift in low-level, direct-coupled amplifiers.

  9. A high bandwidth, low distortion, fully differential amplifier

    E-print Network

    Signoff, David Michael

    2005-01-01

    An amplifier for use in driving an analog to digital converter in an ultra-wideband test system was designed and simulated. The amplifier has differential inputs and outputs and a bandwidth of greater than 500 MHz. According ...

  10. A 90 GHz Amplifier Assembled Using a Bump-Bonded InP-Based HEMT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinsukanjana, Paul R.; Samoska, Lorene A.; Gaier, Todd C.; Smith, R. Peter; Ksendzov, Alexander; Fitzsimmons, Michael J.; Martin, Suzanne C.

    1998-01-01

    We report on the performance of a novel W-band amplifier fabricated utilizing very compact bump bonds. We bump-bonded a high-speed, low-noise InP high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) onto a separately fabricated passive circuit having a GaAs substrate. The compact bumps and small chip size were used for efficient coupling and maximum circuit design flexibility. This new quasi-monolithic millimeter-wave integrated circuit (Q-MMIC) amplifier exhibits a peak gain of 5.8 dB at approx. 90 GHz and a 3 dB bandwidth of greater than 25%. To our knowledge, this is the highest frequency amplifier assembled using bump-bonded technology. Our bump-bonding technique is a useful alternative to the high cost of monolithic millimeter-wave integrated circuits (MMIC's). Effects of the bumps on the circuit appear to be minimal. We used the simple matching circuit for demonstrating the technology - future circuits would have all of the elements (resistors, via holes, bias lines, etc.) included 'in conventional MMIC's. Our design in different from other investigators' efforts in that the bumps are only 8 microns thick by 15 microns wide. The bump sizes were sufficiently small that the devices, originally designed for W-band hybrid circuits, could be bonded without alteration. Figure 3 shows the measured and simulated magnitude of S-parameters from 85-120 GHz, of the InP HEMT bump-bonded to the low noise amplifier (LNA) passive. The maximum gain is 5.8 dB at approx. 90 GHz, and gain extends to 117 GHz. Measurement of a single device (without matching networks) shows approx. 1 dB of gain at 90 GHz. The measured gain of the amplifier agrees well with the design in the center of the measurement band, and the agreement falls off at the band edges. Since no accommodation for the bump-bonding parasitics was made in the design, the result implies that the parasitic elements associated with the bonding itself do not dominate the performance of the LNA circuit. It should be noted that this amplifier was designed for good noise performance, which is why the input and output return losses are poorer than one would expect for an amplifier simply matched for gain. However, noise performance has not been measured at this time. While the agreement between modeled vs. experimental data is not exact, the data prove that bump-bonded technology can be used for amplifiers at frequencies at least as high as 100 GHz. JPL is pursuing this technology as a way to economically and quickly incorporate the best available HEMTs into a circuit with all of the reliability and circuit design flexibility offered by MMIC technology. We are currently using the technology to fabricate 4-stage, wide-band, W-band LNA's. We have also performed pull and shear tests which show that the bump bonds are sufficiently robust for any anticipated application.

  11. High-gain cryogenic amplifier assembly employing a commercial CMOS operational amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proctor, J. E.; Smith, A. W.; Jung, T. M.; Woods, S. I.

    2015-07-01

    We have developed a cryogenic amplifier for the measurement of small current signals (10 fA-100 nA) from cryogenic optical detectors. Typically operated with gain near 107 V/A, the amplifier performs well from DC to greater than 30 kHz and exhibits noise level near the Johnson limit. Care has been taken in the design and materials to control heat flow and temperatures throughout the entire detector-amplifier assembly. A simple one-board version of the amplifier assembly dissipates 8 mW to our detector cryostat cold stage, and a two-board version can dissipate as little as 17 ?W to the detector cold stage. With current noise baseline of about 10 fA/(Hz)1/2, the cryogenic amplifier is generally useful for cooled infrared detectors, and using blocked impurity band detectors operated at 10 K, the amplifier enables noise power levels of 2.5 fW/(Hz)1/2 for detection of optical wavelengths near 10 ?m.

  12. High-gain cryogenic amplifier assembly employing a commercial CMOS operational amplifier.

    PubMed

    Proctor, J E; Smith, A W; Jung, T M; Woods, S I

    2015-07-01

    We have developed a cryogenic amplifier for the measurement of small current signals (10 fA-100 nA) from cryogenic optical detectors. Typically operated with gain near 10(7) V/A, the amplifier performs well from DC to greater than 30 kHz and exhibits noise level near the Johnson limit. Care has been taken in the design and materials to control heat flow and temperatures throughout the entire detector-amplifier assembly. A simple one-board version of the amplifier assembly dissipates 8 mW to our detector cryostat cold stage, and a two-board version can dissipate as little as 17 ?W to the detector cold stage. With current noise baseline of about 10 fA/(Hz)(1/2), the cryogenic amplifier is generally useful for cooled infrared detectors, and using blocked impurity band detectors operated at 10 K, the amplifier enables noise power levels of 2.5 fW/(Hz)(1/2) for detection of optical wavelengths near 10 ?m. PMID:26233351

  13. Zinc oxide sheet field-effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahiya, A. S.; Opoku, C.; Oshman, C.; Poulin-Vittrant, G.; Cayrel, F.; Tran Huu Hue, L.-P.; Alquier, D.; Camara, N.

    2015-07-01

    The present work investigates charge carrier transport in back-gated field-effect transistors based on ZnO sheets (BG ZS-FETs). The ZSs used in this work have been synthesized via the catalytic-assisted vapor-liquid-solid process inside a horizontal quartz tube furnace at around 950 °C. The BG ZS-FETs were constructed as bottom-gate top-contact structures using suspended and non-suspended ZS as the active channel material. Assessment of key device performance metrics revealed excellent n-channel behavior with low off-state current in the femtoamp range, high on-state current (˜2 ?A/?m), high on-to-off current ratio (>107), a steep sub-threshold swing of around 190 mV/dec, and field-effect carrier mobility of around 60 cm2/Vs. Temperature dependent charge transport studies reveal excessive mobility degradation in the non-suspended device while the same parameter in the suspended case appeared fairly stable. The present work is envisaged to benefit ongoing research towards the development of high performance ZS-based thin-film transistors.

  14. Intrinsic delay of permeable base transistor

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Wenchao; Guo, Jing; So, Franky

    2014-07-28

    Permeable base transistors (PBTs) fabricated by vacuum deposition or solution process have the advantages of easy fabrication and low power operation and are a promising device structure for flexible electronics. Intrinsic delay of PBT, which characterizes the speed of the transistor, is investigated by solving the three-dimensional Poisson equation and drift-diffusion equation self-consistently using finite element method. Decreasing the emitter thickness lowers the intrinsic delay by improving on-current, and a thinner base is also preferred for low intrinsic delay because of fewer carriers in the base region at off-state. The intrinsic delay exponentially decreases as the emitter contact Schottky barrier height decreases, and it linearly depends on the carrier mobility. With an optimized emitter contact barrier height and device geometry, a sub-nano-second intrinsic delay can be achieved with a carrier mobility of ?10?cm{sup 2}/V/s obtainable in solution processed indium gallium zinc oxide, which indicates the potential of solution processed PBTs for GHz operations.

  15. Characterizing the switching thresholds of magnetophoretic transistors

    PubMed Central

    Abedini-Nassab, Roozbeh; Joh, Daniel Y.; Van Heest, Melissa A.; Yi, John S.; Baker, Cody; Taherifard, Zohreh; Margolis, David M.; Garcia-Martinez, Victor; Chilkoti, Ashutosh; Murdoch, David M.; Yellen, Benjamin B.

    2015-01-01

    Here, we quantify for the first time the operating conditions of a 3-terminal magnetophoretic transistor architecture used to switch magnetically labeled single cells and single magnetic beads along different paths in microfluidic environments. The semiconducting transport properties are achieved by engineering a small gap between two magnetic disks. Cell and bead motion across the gap is controlled by the gate currents from nearby microwires, which produce competing magnetic fields to toggle the locations of the magnetic potential energy minima. We demonstrate both attractive and repulsive transistor modes, in which cells transfer towards the microwire (attractive mode) or away from microwire (repulsive mode). This novel two-way switching capability allows cells to be written to, or extracted from, specified storage areas in a multiplexed array. For both attractive and repulsive modes, we find that complete switching is achieved with as little as 10–20 mA gate currents in 0–100 Oe static and dynamic external magnetic fields. When combined with a non-fouling brush grafted to the chip surface to reduce non-specific cell adhesion, this platform opens the door to scalable, biologically relevant applications and multiplexing of large single cell arrays. PMID:26349853

  16. Study of radiation effects on bipolar transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colder, A.; Croitoru, N.; D'Angelo, P.; De Marchi, M.; Fallica, G.; Leonardi, S.; Levalois, M.; Marcolongo, S.; Marie, P.; Modica, R.; Rancoita, P. G.; Seidman, A.

    2001-08-01

    In this paper it was shown that the irradiation with neutrons and carbon ions leads to gain degradation in bipolar transistors due to generation of defects. The density of these generated defects is independent of the type of irradiation (neutrons or carbon ions). Thus, it is possible to evaluate ?(1/ ?), once the expected Frenkel pair density is known. The dependence of the damage constant on collector current is a power law function, with the exception of the lateral pnp transistors, that shows a higher sensitivity to radiation and a different behaviour. Neutrons give a smaller density of Frenkel pairs (CF) than the two sorts of carbon ions of high energy (CHE) and medium energy (CME). It was found that CME causes a higher concentration of CF. The calculated ratio R=CF/ ?, where CF is the Frenkel pair density and ? fluence does not depend on ?, for a given type of radiation. However, it depends on the incoming particle type. Its smallest calculated value was obtained for neutrons ( R=6.1×10), which increases to 1.25×10 3 for CHE and to 1.1×10 4 for CME.

  17. Holevo capacity of attenuation channels assisted by linear amplifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Sohma, Masaki; Hirota, Osamu

    2007-08-15

    We derive a capacity formula for attenuation channels assisted by quantum linear amplifiers when the input signal states are restricted to Gaussian states with the same correlation matrix. A phase insensitive linear amplifier and a phase sensitive linear amplifier are compared by using this formula.

  18. An Information Theoretic Approach to Optimal Amplifier Operation

    E-print Network

    Maryland at College Park, University of

    An Information Theoretic Approach to Optimal Amplifier Operation Nicole M. Nelson and Pamela A Park MD, 20742 USA nmnelson,pabshire@umd.edu Abstract-- Amplifier performance can be severely degraded-range operational transconductance amplifiers (OTAs) using the principles of information theory. Frequency transfer

  19. Characterization of an Ultrafast Optical Parametric Amplifier System

    E-print Network

    Reilly, Anne

    1 Characterization of an Ultrafast Optical Parametric Amplifier System By Hugh Carney and Theory 6 A. Ultrafast Lasers 6 B. Nonlinear Optics 8 C. Optical Parametric Amplifier 14 IV. Experimental Methods 16 A. Set-up 16 B. Autocorrelation 17 C. Optical Parametric Amplifier Tuning 20 V. Results 22 A

  20. A theoretical study on stress sensitive differential amplifier (SSDA)

    E-print Network

    Li, Jingjing

    A theoretical study on stress sensitive differential amplifier (SSDA) Jingjing Li, Ruifeng Yue-sensitive differential amplifier (SSDA) is founded, connecting the stress-induced carrier mobility variation; Piezoresistive effect; Stress-sensitive differential amplifier 1. Introduction Piezoresistive effect of MOSFET

  1. Enzymatically Amplified Surface Plasmon Resonance Imaging Detection of DNA by

    E-print Network

    Enzymatically Amplified Surface Plasmon Resonance Imaging Detection of DNA by Exonuclease III utilizing the enzyme exonuclease III in conjunction with 3-terminated DNA microarrays for the amplifiedIII with double-stranded DNA as well as this new enzymatically amplified SPR imaging process with a 16-mer target

  2. Variability in AC amplifier distortions: Estimation and correction

    E-print Network

    Gorodnitsky, Irina

    Variability in AC amplifier distortions: Estimation and correction C. A. JOYCE,a I. F. GORODNITSKY Department of Psychology, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri, USA Abstract AC amplifiers can.e., estimating the waveform of the original data! after the data have been amplified and recorded rely

  3. Differential transimpedance amplifier circuit for correlated differential amplification

    DOEpatents

    Gresham, Christopher A. (Albuquerque, NM); Denton, M. Bonner (Tucson, AZ); Sperline, Roger P. (Tucson, AZ)

    2008-07-22

    A differential transimpedance amplifier circuit for correlated differential amplification. The amplifier circuit increase electronic signal-to-noise ratios in charge detection circuits designed for the detection of very small quantities of electrical charge and/or very weak electromagnetic waves. A differential, integrating capacitive transimpedance amplifier integrated circuit comprising capacitor feedback loops performs time-correlated subtraction of noise.

  4. Using Nondeterminism to Amplify Hardness # Alexander Healy + Salil Vadhan #

    E-print Network

    Vadhan, Salil

    Using Nondeterminism to Amplify Hardness # Alexander Healy + Salil Vadhan # Division of Engineering revisit the problem of hardness amplification in NP , as recently studied by O'Donnell (STOC `02). We amplify to hardness 1/2 - 1/n #(1) . 2. If s(n) = 2 n# , we amplify to hardness 1/2 - 1/2 n# . 3. If s

  5. Using Nondeterminism to Amplify Hardness # Alexander Healy + Salil Vadhan #

    E-print Network

    Vadhan, Salil

    Using Nondeterminism to Amplify Hardness # Alexander Healy + Salil Vadhan # Division of Engineering revisit the problem of hardness amplification in NP , as recently studied by O'Donnell (JCSS `04). We amplify to hardness 1/2 - 1/n #(1) . 2. If s(n) = 2 n# , we amplify to hardness 1/2 - 1/2 n# . 3. If s

  6. Noise modulation function of a nonlinear amplitron amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dergaus, V. I.

    1982-01-01

    A noise modulation function is derived for a nonlinear microwave amplitron amplifier. The function characterizes the parasitic modulation of signal amplitude and phase and, along with other parameters, determines signal transmission through a nonlinear amplitron amplifier. Coefficients of the function can be used to estimate the modulating noise and to choose optimal parameters for the amplifier.

  7. 21 CFR 882.1835 - Physiological signal amplifier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Physiological signal amplifier. 882.1835 Section 882.1835 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... signal amplifier. (a) Identification. A physiological signal amplifier is a general purpose device...

  8. 21 CFR 870.2060 - Transducer signal amplifier and conditioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Transducer signal amplifier and conditioner. 870.2060 Section 870.2060 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Transducer signal amplifier and conditioner. (a) Identification. A transducer signal amplifier...

  9. Schrodinger's Hat: Electromagnetic, acoustic and quantum amplifiers via transformation optics

    E-print Network

    Uhlmann, Gunther

    Schr¨odinger's Hat: Electromagnetic, acoustic and quantum amplifiers via transformation optics and amplifiers for waves. Schr¨odinger hats exist for any wave phenomenon modeled by either the Helmholtz or Schr for QM hats. A SH seizes a large fraction of an incident wave, holding and amplifying it as a quasmon

  10. 21 CFR 870.2050 - Biopotential amplifier and signal conditioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Biopotential amplifier and signal conditioner. 870.2050 Section 870.2050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Biopotential amplifier and signal conditioner. (a) Identification. A biopotential amplifier and...

  11. 47 CFR 2.815 - External radio frequency power amplifiers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false External radio frequency power amplifiers. 2... External radio frequency power amplifiers. (a) As used in this part, an external radio frequency power amplifier is any device which, (1) when used in conjunction with a radio transmitter as a signal source...

  12. 21 CFR 870.2060 - Transducer signal amplifier and conditioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Transducer signal amplifier and conditioner. 870.2060 Section 870.2060 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Transducer signal amplifier and conditioner. (a) Identification. A transducer signal amplifier...

  13. Characterization of Flux-driven Josephson Parametric Amplifiers

    E-print Network

    Gross, Rudolf

    Characterization of Flux-driven Josephson Parametric Amplifiers Diploma Thesis Alexander Theodor in circuit QED have to be amplified before they can be detected. However, the predominantly used linear, phase- insensitive amplifiers inevitably add noise to the signal that may be much larger than the signal

  14. Title of Thesis: ADVANCED OVERMODED CIRCUITS FOR GYRO-AMPLIFIERS

    E-print Network

    Anlage, Steven

    ABSTRACT Title of Thesis: ADVANCED OVERMODED CIRCUITS FOR GYRO-AMPLIFIERS Degree candidate: Yingyu with cavity-related gyro- amplifiers, a new interaction circuit, containing clustered cavities is considered. In particular, the use of a cluster of cavities in frequency multiplying gyro-amplifiers is described

  15. 21 CFR 870.2060 - Transducer signal amplifier and conditioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Transducer signal amplifier and conditioner. 870.2060 Section 870.2060 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Transducer signal amplifier and conditioner. (a) Identification. A transducer signal amplifier...

  16. 47 CFR 2.815 - External radio frequency power amplifiers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false External radio frequency power amplifiers. 2... External radio frequency power amplifiers. (a) As used in this part, an external radio frequency power amplifier is any device which, (1) when used in conjunction with a radio transmitter as a signal source...

  17. 47 CFR 2.815 - External radio frequency power amplifiers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false External radio frequency power amplifiers. 2... External radio frequency power amplifiers. (a) As used in this part, an external radio frequency power amplifier is any device which, (1) when used in conjunction with a radio transmitter as a signal source...

  18. 21 CFR 870.2050 - Biopotential amplifier and signal conditioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Biopotential amplifier and signal conditioner. 870.2050 Section 870.2050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Biopotential amplifier and signal conditioner. (a) Identification. A biopotential amplifier and...

  19. 21 CFR 870.2060 - Transducer signal amplifier and conditioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Transducer signal amplifier and conditioner. 870.2060 Section 870.2060 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Transducer signal amplifier and conditioner. (a) Identification. A transducer signal amplifier...

  20. 21 CFR 870.2050 - Biopotential amplifier and signal conditioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Biopotential amplifier and signal conditioner. 870.2050 Section 870.2050 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... Biopotential amplifier and signal conditioner. (a) Identification. A biopotential amplifier and...