Sample records for transmembrane helix structure

  1. Membrane Interface Composition Drives the Structure and the Tilt of the Single Transmembrane Helix Protein PMP1: MD Studies

    PubMed Central

    Beswick, Veronica; Isvoran, Adriana; Nédellec, Pierre; Sanson, Alain; Jamin, Nadège

    2011-01-01

    PMP1, a regulatory subunit of the yeast plasma membrane H+-ATPase, is a single transmembrane helix protein. Its cytoplasmic C-terminus possesses several positively charged residues and interacts with phosphatidylserine lipids as shown through both 1H- and 2H-NMR experiments. We used all-atom molecular dynamics simulations to obtain atomic-scale data on the effects of membrane interface lipid composition on PMP1 structure and tilt. PMP1 was embedded in two hydrated bilayers, differing in the composition of the interfacial region. The neutral bilayer is composed of POPC (1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-3-glycero-phosphatidylcholine) lipids and the negatively charged bilayer is composed of POPC and anionic POPS (1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-3-glycero-phosphatidylserine) lipids. Our results were consistent with NMR data obtained previously, such as a lipid sn-2 chain lying on the W28 aromatic ring and in the groove formed on one side of the PMP1 helix. In pure POPC, the transmembrane helix is two residues longer than the initial structure and the helix tilt remains constant at 6 ± 3°. By contrast, in mixed POPC-POPS, the initial helical structure of PMP1 is stable throughout the simulation time even though the C-terminal residues interact strongly with POPS headgroups, leading to a significant increase of the helix tilt within the membrane to 20 ± 5°. PMID:21463579

  2. Mapping the Energy Surface of Transmembrane Helix-Helix Interactions

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jaume Torres; Andreas Kukol; Isaiah T. Arkin

    2001-01-01

    Transmembrane helices are no longer believed to be just hydrophobic segments that exist solely to anchor proteins to a lipid bilayer, but rather they appear to have the capacity to specify function and structure. Specific interactions take place between hydrophobic segments within the lipid bilayer whereby subtle mutations that normally would be considered innocuous can result in dramatic structural differences.

  3. Structure of the Integrin ?IIb Transmembrane Segment*S?

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Tong-Lay; Dua, Varun; Ulmer, Tobias S.

    2008-01-01

    Integrin cell-adhesion receptors transduce signals bidirectionally across the plasma membrane via the single-pass transmembrane segments of each ? and ? subunit. While the ?3 transmembrane segment consists of a linear 29-residue ?-helix, the structure of the ?IIb transmembrane segment reveals a linear 24-residue ?-helix (Ile-966 -Lys-989) followed by a backbone reversal that packs Phe-992-Phe-993 against the transmembrane helix. The length of the ?IIb transmembrane helix implies the absence of a significant transmembrane helix tilt in contrast to its partnering ?3 subunit. Sequence alignment shows Gly-991-Phe-993 to be fully conserved among all 18 human integrin ? subunits, suggesting that their unusual structural motif is prototypical for integrin ? subunits. The ?IIb transmembrane structure demonstrates a level of complexity within the membrane that is beyond simple transmembrane helices and forms the structural basis for assessing the extent of structural and topological rearrangements upon ?IIb-?3 association, i.e. integrin transmembrane signaling. PMID:18417472

  4. TMKink: A method to predict transmembrane helix kinks

    PubMed Central

    Meruelo, Alejandro D; Samish, Ilan; Bowie, James U

    2011-01-01

    A hallmark of membrane protein structure is the large number of distorted transmembrane helices. Because of the prevalence of bends, it is important to not only understand how they are generated but also to learn how to predict their occurrence. Here, we find that there are local sequence preferences in kinked helices, most notably a higher abundance of proline, which can be exploited to identify bends from local sequence information. A neural network predictor identifies over two-thirds of all bends (sensitivity 0.70) with high reliability (specificity 0.89). It is likely that more structural data will allow for better helix distortion predictors with increased coverage in the future. The kink predictor, TMKink, is available at http://tmkinkpredictor.mbi.ucla.edu/. PMID:21563225

  5. Functional competition within a membrane: Lipid recognition vs. transmembrane helix oligomerization.

    PubMed

    Stangl, Michael; Schneider, Dirk

    2015-09-01

    Binding of specific lipids to large, polytopic membrane proteins is well described, and it is clear that such lipids are crucial for protein stability and activity. In contrast, binding of defined lipid species to individual transmembrane helices and regulation of transmembrane helix monomer-oligomer equilibria by binding of distinct lipids is a concept, which has emerged only lately. Lipids bind to single-span membrane proteins, both in the juxta-membrane region as well as in the hydrophobic membrane core. While some interactions counteract transmembrane helix oligomerization, in other cases lipid binding appears to enhance oligomerization. As reversible oligomerization is involved in activation of many membrane proteins, binding of defined lipids to single-span transmembrane proteins might be a mechanism to regulate and/or fine-tune the protein activity. But how could lipid binding trigger the activity of a protein? How can binding of a single lipid molecule to a transmembrane helix affect the structure of a transmembrane helix oligomer, and consequently its signaling state? These questions are discussed in the present article based on recent results obtained with simple, single-span transmembrane proteins. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Lipid-protein interactions. PMID:25791349

  6. Active machine learning for transmembrane helix prediction

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hatice U. Osmanbeyoglu; Jessica A. Wehner; Jaime G. Carbonell; Madhavi K Ganapathiraju

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: About 30% of genes code for membrane proteins, which are involved in a wide variety of crucial biological functions. Despite their importance, experimentally determined structures correspond to only about 1.7% of protein structures deposited in the Protein Data Bank due to the difficulty in crystallizing membrane proteins. Algorithms that can identify proteins whose high-resolution structure can aid in predicting

  7. SPONTANEOUS TRANSMEMBRANE HELIX INSERTION THERMODYNAMICALLY MIMICS TRANSLOCON-GUIDED INSERTION

    PubMed Central

    Ulmschneider, Martin B.; Ulmschneider, Jakob P.; Schiller, Nina; Wallace, B. A.; von Heijne, Gunnar; White, Stephen H.

    2014-01-01

    The favorable transfer free energy for a transmembrane (TM) ?-helix between the aqueous phase and lipid bilayer underlies the stability of membrane proteins. However, the connection between the energetics and process of membrane protein assembly by the Sec61/SecY translocon complex in vivo is not clear. Here, we directly determine the partitioning free energies of a family of designed peptides using three independent approaches: an experimental microsomal Sec61 translocon assay, a biophysical (spectroscopic) characterization of peptide insertion into hydrated planar lipid bilayer arrays, and an unbiased atomic-detail equilibrium folding-partitioning molecular dynamics simulation. Remarkably, the measured free energies of insertion are quantitatively similar for all three approaches. The molecular dynamics simulations show that TM helix insertion involves equilibrium with the membrane interface, suggesting that the interface may play a role in translocon-guided insertion. PMID:25204588

  8. Sequence-Specific Dimerization of a Transmembrane Helix in Amphipol A8-35

    PubMed Central

    Stangl, Michael; Unger, Sebastian; Keller, Sandro; Schneider, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    As traditional detergents might destabilize or even denature membrane proteins, amphiphilic polymers have moved into the focus of membrane-protein research in recent years. Thus far, Amphipols are the best studied amphiphilic copolymers, having a hydrophilic backbone with short hydrophobic chains. However, since stabilizing as well as destabilizing effects of the Amphipol belt on the structure of membrane proteins have been described, we systematically analyze the impact of the most commonly used Amphipol A8-35 on the structure and stability of a well-defined transmembrane protein model, the glycophorin A transmembrane helix dimer. Amphipols are not able to directly extract proteins from their native membranes, and detergents are typically replaced by Amphipols only after protein extraction from membranes. As Amphipols form mixed micelles with detergents, a better understanding of Amphipol-detergent interactions is required. Therefore, we analyze the interaction of A8-35 with the anionic detergent sodium dodecyl sulfate and describe the impact of the mixed-micelle-like system on the stability of a transmembrane helix dimer. As A8-35 may highly stabilize and thereby rigidify a transmembrane protein structure, modest destabilization by controlled addition of detergents and formation of mixed micellar systems might be helpful to preserve the function of a membrane protein in Amphipol environments. PMID:25347769

  9. Sequence-specific dimerization of a transmembrane helix in amphipol A8-35.

    PubMed

    Stangl, Michael; Unger, Sebastian; Keller, Sandro; Schneider, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    As traditional detergents might destabilize or even denature membrane proteins, amphiphilic polymers have moved into the focus of membrane-protein research in recent years. Thus far, Amphipols are the best studied amphiphilic copolymers, having a hydrophilic backbone with short hydrophobic chains. However, since stabilizing as well as destabilizing effects of the Amphipol belt on the structure of membrane proteins have been described, we systematically analyze the impact of the most commonly used Amphipol A8-35 on the structure and stability of a well-defined transmembrane protein model, the glycophorin A transmembrane helix dimer. Amphipols are not able to directly extract proteins from their native membranes, and detergents are typically replaced by Amphipols only after protein extraction from membranes. As Amphipols form mixed micelles with detergents, a better understanding of Amphipol-detergent interactions is required. Therefore, we analyze the interaction of A8-35 with the anionic detergent sodium dodecyl sulfate and describe the impact of the mixed-micelle-like system on the stability of a transmembrane helix dimer. As A8-35 may highly stabilize and thereby rigidify a transmembrane protein structure, modest destabilization by controlled addition of detergents and formation of mixed micellar systems might be helpful to preserve the function of a membrane protein in Amphipol environments. PMID:25347769

  10. Integrin ?1 Has a Long Helix, Extending from the Transmembrane Region to the Cytoplasmic Tail in Detergent Micelles

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Chaohua; Liu, Xiaoxi; Tian, Changlin; Wu, Fangming

    2013-01-01

    Integrin proteins are very important adhesion receptors that mediate cell-cell and cell-extracellular matrix interactions. They play essential roles in cell signaling and the regulation of cellular shape, motility, and the cell cycle. Here, the transmembrane and cytoplasmic (TMC) domains of integrin ?1 and ?1 were over-expressed and purified in detergent micelles. The structure and backbone relaxations of ?1-TMC in LDAO micelles were determined and analyzed using solution NMR. A long helix, extending from the transmembrane region to the cytoplasmic tail, was observed in ?1-TMC. Structural comparisons of ?1-TMC with reported ?IIb-TMC domains indicated different conformations in the transmembrane regions and cytoplasmic tails. An NMR titration experiment indicated weak interactions between ?1-TMC and ?1-TMC through several ?1-TMC residues located at its N-terminal juxta-transmembrane region and C-terminal extended helix region. PMID:23646163

  11. De novo design of transmembrane helix-helix interactions and measurement of stability in a biological membrane.

    PubMed

    Nash, Anthony; Notman, Rebecca; Dixon, Ann M

    2015-05-01

    Membrane proteins regulate a large number of cellular functions, and have great potential as tools for manipulation of biological systems. Developing these tools requires a robust and quantitative understanding of membrane protein folding and interactions within the bilayer. With this in mind, we have designed a series of proteins to probe the net thermodynamic contribution of well-known sequence motifs to transmembrane helix-helix association in a biological membrane. The proteins were designed from first principles (de novo) using current knowledge about membrane insertion and stabilizing interaction motifs. A simple poly-Leu "scaffold" was decorated with individual helix interaction motifs (G-XXX-G, polar residues, heptad repeat) to create transmembrane helix-helix interactions of increasing strength. The GALLEX assay, an in vivo assay for measurement of transmembrane helix self-association, was combined with computational methods to characterize the relative strength and mode of interaction for each sequence. In addition, the apparent free energy contribution (??G(app)) of each motif to transmembrane helix self-association was measured in a biological membrane, results that are the first of their kind for these de novo designed sequences, and suggest that the free energy barrier to overcoming weak association is quite small (<1.4kcalmol(-1)) in a natural membrane. By quantifying and rationalizing the contribution of key motifs to transmembrane helix association, our work offers a route to direct the design of novel sequences for use in biotechnology or synthetic biology (e.g. molecular switches) and to predict the effects of sequence modification in known transmembrane domains (for control of cellular processes). PMID:25732028

  12. TMpro web server and web service: transmembrane helix prediction through amino acid property analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Madhavi Ganapathiraju; Christopher Jon Jursa; Hassan A. Karimi; Judith Klein-seetharaman

    2007-01-01

    Summary: TMpro is a transmembrane (TM) helix prediction algorithm that uses language processing methodology for TM segment identification. It is primarily based on the analysis of statistical distributions of properties of amino acids in transmembrane segments. This paper describes the availability of TMpro on the internet via a web interface. The key features of the interface are: (i) Output is

  13. RESEARCH ARTICLE Open Access Hydrophobic pulses predict transmembrane helix

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    helices allowed the definition of the new concept of transmembrane unit (TMU) that groups together to define the transmembrane status of amino acids. Background Integral membrane proteins (IMP) are involved, which create a region that favors non-polar amino acids and rejects polar amino acids. To highlight

  14. Forster resonance energy transfer in liposomes: Measurements of transmembrane helix dimerization in the native

    E-print Network

    Wimley, William C.

    Fo¨rster resonance energy transfer in liposomes: Measurements of transmembrane helix dimerization discuss Fo¨rster resonance energy transfer (FRET) in liposomes as a method to probe the dimerization in liposomes can be measured accurately provided that attention is paid to sample homogeneity and sample

  15. Left-handed dimer of EphA2 transmembrane domain: Helix packing diversity among receptor tyrosine kinases.

    PubMed

    Bocharov, Eduard V; Mayzel, Maxim L; Volynsky, Pavel E; Mineev, Konstantin S; Tkach, Elena N; Ermolyuk, Yaroslav S; Schulga, Alexey A; Efremov, Roman G; Arseniev, Alexander S

    2010-03-01

    The Eph receptor tyrosine kinases and their membrane-bound ephrin ligands control a diverse array of cell-cell interactions in the developing and adult organisms. During signal transduction across plasma membrane, Eph receptors, like other receptor tyrosine kinases, are involved in lateral dimerization and subsequent oligomerization presumably with proper assembly of their single-span transmembrane domains. Spatial structure of dimeric transmembrane domain of EphA2 receptor embedded into lipid bicelle was obtained by solution NMR, showing a left-handed parallel packing of the transmembrane helices (535-559)(2). The helices interact through the extended heptad repeat motif L(535)X(3)G(539)X(2)A(542)X(3)V(546)X(2)L(549) assisted by intermolecular stacking interactions of aromatic rings of (FF(557))(2), whereas the characteristic tandem GG4-like motif A(536)X(3)G(540)X(3)G(544) is not used, enabling another mode of helix-helix association. Importantly, a similar motif AX(3)GX(3)G as was found is responsible for right-handed dimerization of transmembrane domain of the EphA1 receptor. These findings serve as an instructive example of the diversity of transmembrane domain formation within the same family of protein kinases and seem to favor the assumption that the so-called rotation-coupled activation mechanism may take place during the Eph receptor signaling. A possible role of membrane lipid rafts in relation to Eph transmembrane domain oligomerization and Eph signal transduction was also discussed. PMID:20197042

  16. Toll-like receptor 3 transmembrane domain is able to perform various homotypic interactions: an NMR structural study.

    PubMed

    Mineev, Konstantin S; Goncharuk, Sergey A; Arseniev, Alexander S

    2014-11-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) take part in both the innate and adaptive immune systems. The role of the transmembrane domain in TLR signaling is still elusive, while its importance for the TLR activation was clearly demonstrated. In the present study the ability of the TLR3 transmembrane domain to form dimers and trimers in detergent micelles was shown by solution NMR spectroscopy. Spatial structures and free energy magnitudes were determined for the TLR3 transmembrane domain in dimeric and trimeric states, and two possible surfaces that may be used for the helix-helix interaction by the full-length TLR3 were revealed. PMID:25217833

  17. The structure of the integrin ?IIb?3 transmembrane complex explains integrin transmembrane signalling

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Tong-Lay; Kim, Chungho; Ginsberg, Mark H; Ulmer, Tobias S

    2009-01-01

    Heterodimeric integrin adhesion receptors regulate cell migration, survival and differentiation in metazoa by communicating signals bi-directionally across the plasma membrane. Protein engineering and mutagenesis studies have suggested that the dissociation of a complex formed by the single-pass transmembrane (TM) segments of the ? and ? subunits is central to these signalling events. Here, we report the structure of the integrin ?IIb?3 TM complex, structure-based site-directed mutagenesis and lipid embedding estimates to reveal the structural event that underlies the transition from associated to dissociated states, that is, TM signalling. The complex is stabilized by glycine-packing mediated TM helix crossing within the extracellular membrane leaflet, and by unique hydrophobic and electrostatic bridges in the intracellular leaflet that mediate an unusual, asymmetric association of the 24- and 29-residue ?IIb and ?3 TM helices. The structurally unique, highly conserved integrin ?IIb?3 TM complex rationalizes bi-directional signalling and represents the first structure of a heterodimeric TM receptor complex. PMID:19279667

  18. Dimeric structure of transmembrane domain of amyloid precursor protein in micellar environment.

    PubMed

    Nadezhdin, Kirill D; Bocharova, Olga V; Bocharov, Eduard V; Arseniev, Alexander S

    2012-06-12

    Some pathogenic mutations associated with Alzheimer's disease are thought to affect structural-dynamic properties and the lateral dimerization of amyloid precursor protein (APP) in neuron membrane. Dimeric structure of APP transmembrane fragment Gln(686)-Lys(726) was determined in membrane-mimicking dodecylphosphocholine micelles using high-resolution NMR spectroscopy. The APP membrane-spanning ?-helix Lys(699)-Lys(724) self-associates in a left-handed parallel dimer through extended heptad repeat motif I(702)X(3)M(706)X(2)G(709)X(3)A(713)X(2)I(716)X(3)I(720)X(2)I(723), whereas the juxtamembrane region Gln(686)-Val(695) constitutes the nascent helix, also sensing the dimerization. The dimerization mechanism of APP transmembrane domain has been described at atomic resolution for the first time and is important for understanding molecular events of APP sequential proteolytical cleavage resulting in amyloid-? peptide. PMID:22584060

  19. Automated method for modeling seven-helix transmembrane receptors from experimental data.

    PubMed Central

    Herzyk, P; Hubbard, R E

    1995-01-01

    A rule-based automated method is presented for modeling the structures of the seven transmembrane helices of G-protein-coupled receptors. The structures are generated by using a simulated annealing Monte Carlo procedure that positions and orients rigid helices to satisfy structural restraints. The restraints are derived from analysis of experimental information from biophysical studies on native and mutant proteins, from analysis of the sequences of related proteins, and from theoretical considerations of protein structure. Calculations are presented for two systems. The method was validated through calculations using appropriate experimental information for bacteriorhodopsin, which produced a model structure with a root mean square (rms) deviation of 1.87 A from the structure determined by electron microscopy. Calculations are also presented using experimental and theoretical information available for bovine rhodopsin to assign the helices to a projection density map and to produce a model of bovine rhodopsin that can be used as a template for modeling other G-protein-coupled receptors. Images FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 11 PMID:8599649

  20. Cysteine Scanning Mutagenesis of Transmembrane Helix 3 of a Brain Glutamate Transporter Reveals Two Conformationally Sensitive Positions*

    PubMed Central

    Silverstein, Nechama; Crisman, Thomas J.; Forrest, Lucy R.; Kanner, Baruch I.

    2013-01-01

    Glutamate transporters in the brain remove the neurotransmitter from the synapse by cotransport with three sodium ions into the surrounding cells. Recent structural work on an archaeal homolog suggests that, during substrate translocation, the transport domain, including the peripheral transmembrane helix 3 (TM3), moves relative to the trimerization domain in an elevator-like process. Moreover, two TM3 residues have been proposed to form part of a transient Na3? site, and another, Tyr-124, appears close to both Na3? and Na1. To obtain independent evidence for the role of TM3 in glutamate transport, each of its 31 amino acid residues from the glial GLT-1 transporter was individually mutated to cysteine. Except for six mutants, substantial transport activity was detected. Aqueous accessibility of the introduced cysteines was probed with membrane-permeant and membrane-impermeant sulfhydryl reagents under a variety of conditions. Transport of six single cysteine mutants, all located on the intracellular side of TM3, was affected by membrane-permeant sulfhydryl reagents. However, only at two positions could ligands modulate the reactivity. A120C reactivity was diminished under conditions expected to favor the outward-facing conformation of the transporter. Sulfhydryl modification of Y124C by 2-aminoethyl methanethiosulfonate, but not by N-ethylmaleimide, was fully protected in the presence of sodium. Our data are consistent with the idea that TM3 moves during transport. Moreover, computational modeling indicated that electrostatic repulsion between the positive charge introduced at position 124 and the sodium ions bound at Na3? and Na1 underlies the protection by sodium. PMID:23188832

  1. The development of a model of Alpha helix formation for transmembrane peptides 

    E-print Network

    Funk, Geoffrey Alexander

    2013-02-22

    . Peptides, once synthesized, are characterized by MALDI mass spectrometry and HPLC and purified peptides are studied using circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy to determine the a-helicity. Initial results suggest that the transmembrane environment...

  2. Certain Activating Mutations within Helix 6 of the Human Luteinizing Hormone Receptor May Be Explained by Alterations That Allow Transmembrane Regions to Activate Gs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Amy N. Abell; Daniel J. McCormick; Deborah L. Segaloff

    1998-01-01

    Male-limited gonadotropin-independent preco- cious puberty (MPP) is frequently associated with mutations of the human LH\\/CG receptor (hLHR) that result in constitutively active hLHRs. Many such activating mutations have been identified in transmembrane 6 of the hLHR, with the substitu- tion of Asp-578 being the most frequently observed mutation. Mutagenesis of a transmembrane helix of a G protein-coupled receptor can cause

  3. An ESIPT fluorescent probe sensitive to protein ?-helix structures.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Nan; Yang, Chanli; Dong, Xiongwei; Sun, Xianglang; Zhang, Dan; Liu, Changlin

    2014-07-28

    A large majority of membrane proteins have one or more transmembrane regions consisting of ?-helices. Membrane protein levels differ from one type of cell to another, and the expression of membrane proteins also changes from normal to diseased cells. For example, prostate cancer cells have been reported to have downregulated expression of membrane proteins, including zinc transporters, compared with normal prostate cells. These reports inspired us to design a fluorescence probe sensitive to protein ?-helical structures to discriminate individual prostate cancer cells from normal ones. A benzazole derivative ( in this study) was observed to emit strong fluorescence resulting from an excited-state intramolecular proton transfer (ESIPT) in protein ?-helical environments. The intensity of ESIPT fluorescence of was observed to be positively correlated with the ?-helix content of proteins. The molecular docking simulation suggested that it had low energy for the binding of to proteins when the binding sites were localized within the ?-helical regions of protein via H-bonds. Furthermore, was found to be localized in cell membranes through binding to transmembrane ?-helical regions of membrane proteins, and was capable of probing differences in the ?-helix contents of membrane proteins between normal and cancerous prostate cells through changes in the ESIPT emission intensity. These results indicated that could distinguish individual prostate cancer cells from normal ones, as the changes in the ESIPT fluorescence intensity of could reflect the regulation in expression of the membrane proteins including zinc transporters. This recognition strategy of individual prostate cancer cells might contribute to early diagnosis techniques for prostate cancer. PMID:24921681

  4. Transmembrane beta-barrel protein structure prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randall, Arlo; Baldi, Pierre

    Transmembrane ?-barrel (TMB) proteins are embedded in the outer membranes of mitochondria, Gram-negative bacteria, and chloroplasts. These proteins perform critical functions, including active ion-transport and passive nutrient intake. Therefore, there is a need for accurate prediction of secondary and tertiary structures of TMB proteins. A variety of methods have been developed for predicting the secondary structure and these predictions are very useful for constructing a coarse topology of TMB structure; however, they do not provide enough information to construct a low-resolution tertiary structure for a TMB protein. In addition, while the overall structural architecture is well conserved among TMB proteins, the amino acid sequences are highly divergent. Thus, traditional homology modeling methods cannot be applied to many putative TMB proteins. Here, we describe the TMBpro: a pipeline of methods for predicting TMB secondary structure, ?-residue contacts, and finally tertiary structure. The tertiary prediction method relies on the specific construction rules that TMB proteins adhere to and on the predicted ?-residue contacts to dramatically reduce the search space for the model building procedure.

  5. Notch Transmembrane Domain: Secondary Structure and Topology.

    PubMed

    Deatherage, Catherine L; Lu, Zhenwei; Kim, Ji-Hun; Sanders, Charles R

    2015-06-16

    The Notch signaling pathway is critical in development, neuronal maintenance, and hematopoiesis. An obligate step in the activation of this pathway is cleavage of its transmembrane (TM) domain by ?-secretase. While the soluble domains have been extensively studied, little has been done to characterize its TM and flanking juxtamembrane (JM) segments. Here, we present the results of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies of the human Notch1 TM/JM domain. The TM domain is largely ?-helical. While the flanking JM segments do not adopt regular secondary structure, they interact with the membrane surface, suggesting membrane interactions may play a role in modulating its cleavage by ?-secretase and subsequent NOTCH signaling function. PMID:26023825

  6. Translocation of molecules into cells by pH-dependent insertion of a transmembrane helix

    E-print Network

    in the cytoplasm, including peptide nucleic acids, a cyclic peptide (phalloidin), and organic compounds. Because control, or cell regulation. drug delivery peptide nucleic acid delivery tumors membrane transport helix, 2006 We have previously observed the spontaneous, pH-dependent insertion of a water-soluble peptide

  7. Transmembrane helix prediction using amino acid property features and latent semantic analysis

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Madhavi Ganapathiraju; Narayanas Balakrishnan; Raj Reddy; Judith Klein-seetharaman

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Prediction of transmembrane (TM) helices by statistical methods suffers from lack of sufficient training data. Current best methods use hundreds or even thousands of free parameters in their models which are tuned to fit the little data available for training. Further, they are often restricted to the generally accepted topology \\

  8. The C-Terminus of Transmembrane Helix 2 (TM2) of the Escherichia coli Tar Chemorecptor Determines Signal Output and Ligand Sensitivity

    E-print Network

    Adase, Christopher A. 1981-

    2012-11-20

    CheA kinase-stimulating activity and ligand-induced responses are both strongly influenced by residues at the C-terminus of transmembrane helix 2 (TM2). The cytoplasmic aromatic anchor, composed of residues Trp-209 and Tyr-210 in Tar...

  9. A reinterpretation of Na channel gating and permeation in terms of a phase transition between a transmembrane S4 ?-helix and a channel-helix

    Microsoft Academic Search

    K. Benndorf

    1989-01-01

    A functional model for the S4\\/IV a-helix of the action potential sodium channel is described by means of a thermodynamic approach. The model is based on a phase transition between the a-helix and an ion conducting channel-helix which is similar to the well established helix-coil transition in solution. The right hand channel-helix is a peptide chain with an alternating sequence

  10. Structural elucidation of transmembrane transporter protein bilitranslocase: conformational analysis of the second transmembrane region TM2 by molecular dynamics and NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Roy Choudhury, Amrita; Perdih, Andrej; Zuperl, Spela; Sikorska, Emilia; Solmajer, Tom; Jurga, Stefan; Zhukov, Igor; Novi?, Marjana

    2013-11-01

    Membrane proteins represent about a third of the gene products in most organisms, as revealed by the genome sequencing projects. They account for up to two thirds of known drugable targets, which emphasizes their critical pharmaceutical importance. Here we present a study on bilitranslocase (BTL) (TCDB 2.A.65), a membrane protein primarily involved in the transport of bilirubin from blood to liver cells. Bilitranslocase has also been identified as a potential membrane transporter for cellular uptake of several drugs and due to its implication in drug uptake, it is extremely important to advance the knowledge about its 3D structure. However, at present, only a limited knowledge is available beyond the primary structure of BTL. It has been recently confirmed experimentally that one of the four computationally predicted transmembrane segments of bilitranslocase, TM3, has a helical structure with hydrophilic amino acid residues oriented towards one side, which is typical for transmembrane domains of membrane proteins. In this study we confirmed by the use of multidimensional NMR spectroscopy that the second transmembrane segment, TM2, also appears in a form of ?-helix. The stability of this polypeptide chain was verified by molecular dynamics (MD) simulation in dipalmitoyl phosphatidyl choline (DPPC) and in sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micelles. The two ?-helices, TM2 corroborated in this study, and TM3 confirmed in our previous investigation, provide reasonable building blocks of a potential transmembrane channel for transport of bilirubin and small hydrophilic molecules, including pharmaceutically active compounds. PMID:23774522

  11. Transmembrane adapters: structure, biochemistry and biology

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Stefanie Kliche; Jonathan A. Lindquist; Burkhart Schraven

    2004-01-01

    Transmembrane adapter proteins (TRAPs) represent a relatively new and unique group of signalling molecules in hematopoetic cells. They differ from other signalling proteins as they lack any enzymatic or transcriptional activity, instead they possesses multiple tyrosine-based signalling motifs (TBSMs). Triggering of immunoreceptors induces tyrosine phosphorylation of these motifs by members of the Src-, Syk- or Tec-family of protein tyrosine kinases

  12. Lipid Bilayer Topology of the Transmembrane ?-Helix of M13 Major Coat Protein and Bilayer Polarity Profile by Site-Directed Fluorescence Spectroscopy

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Rob B. M. Koehorst; Ruud B. Spruijt; Frank J. Vergeldt; Marcus A. Hemminga

    2004-01-01

    This article presents a new formalism to perform a quantitative fluorescence analysis using the Stokes shift of AEDANS-labeled cysteine mutants of M13 major coat protein incorporated in lipid bilayers. This site-directed fluorescence spectroscopy approach enables us to obtain the topology of the bilayer-embedded transmembrane ?-helix from the orientation and tilt angles, and relative bilayer location. Both in pure dioleoylphosphatidylcholine and

  13. Solution structure of human BCL-w: modulation of ligand binding by the C-terminal helix.

    PubMed

    Denisov, Alexei Yu; Madiraju, Murthy S R; Chen, Gang; Khadir, Abdelkrim; Beauparlant, Pierre; Attardo, Giorgio; Shore, Gordon C; Gehring, Kalle

    2003-06-01

    The structure of human BCL-w, an anti-apoptotic member of the BCL-2 family, was determined by triple-resonance NMR spectroscopy and molecular modeling. Introduction of a single amino acid substitution (P117V) significantly improved the quality of the NMR spectra obtained. The cytosolic domain of BCL-w consists of 8 alpha-helices, which adopt a fold similar to that of BCL-xL, BCL-2, and BAX proteins. Pairwise root meant square deviation values were less than 3 A for backbone atoms of structurally equivalent regions. Interestingly, the C-terminal helix alpha8 of BCL-w folds into the BH3-binding hydrophobic cleft of the protein, in a fashion similar to the C-terminal transmembrane helix of BAX. A peptide corresponding to the BH3 region of the pro-apoptotic protein, BID, could displace helix alpha8 from the BCL-w cleft, resulting in helix unfolding. Deletion of helix alpha8 increased binding affinities of BCL-w for BAK and BID BH3-peptides, indicating that this helix competes for peptide binding to the hydrophobic cleft. These results suggest that although the cytosolic domain of BCL-w exhibits an overall structure similar to that of BCL-xL and BCL-2, the unique organization of its C-terminal helix may modulate BCL-w interactions with pro-apoptotic binding partners. PMID:12651847

  14. Probing the Transmembrane Structure and Dynamics of Microsomal NADPH-cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase by Solid-State NMR

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Rui; Yamamoto, Kazutoshi; Zhang, Meng; Popovych, Nataliya; Hung, Ivan; Im, Sang-Choul; Gan, Zhehong; Waskell, Lucy; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy

    2014-01-01

    NADPH-cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (CYPOR) is an essential redox partner of the cytochrome P450 (cyt P450) superfamily of metabolic enzymes. In the endoplasmic reticulum of liver cells, such enzymes metabolize ?75% of the pharmaceuticals in use today. It is known that the transmembrane domain of CYPOR plays a crucial role in aiding the formation of a complex between CYPOR and cyt P450. Here we present the transmembrane structure, topology, and dynamics of the FMN binding domain of CYPOR in a native membrane-like environment. Our solid-state NMR results reveal that the N-terminal transmembrane domain of CYPOR adopts an ?-helical conformation in the lipid membrane environment. Most notably, we also show that the transmembrane helix is tilted ?13° from the lipid bilayer normal, and exhibits motions on a submillisecond timescale including rotational diffusion of the whole helix and fluctuation of the helical director axis. The approaches and the information reported in this study would enable further investigations on the structure and dynamics of the full-length NADPH-cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase and its interaction with other membrane proteins in a membrane environment. PMID:24853741

  15. De novo design of a transmembrane Zn[superscript 2+]-transporting four-helix bundle

    E-print Network

    Wang, Tuo

    The design of functional membrane proteins from first principles represents a grand challenge in chemistry and structural biology. Here, we report the design of a membrane-spanning, four-helical bundle that transports ...

  16. A helix-turn-helix structure unit in human centromere protein B (CENP-B).

    PubMed Central

    Iwahara, J; Kigawa, T; Kitagawa, K; Masumoto, H; Okazaki, T; Yokoyama, S

    1998-01-01

    CENP-B has been suggested to organize arrays of centromere satellite DNA into a higher order structure which then directs centromere formation and kinetochore assembly in mammalian chromosomes. The N-terminal portion of CENP-B is a 15 kDa DNA binding domain (DBD) consisting of two repeating units, RP1 and RP2. The DBD specifically binds to the CENP-B box sequence (17 bp) in centromere DNA. We determined the solution structure of human CENP-B DBD RP1 by multi-dimensional 1H, 13C and 15N NMR methods. The CENP-B DBD RP1 structure consists of four helices and has a helix-turn-helix structure. The overall folding is similar to those of some other eukaryotic DBDs, although significant sequence homology with these proteins was not found. The DBD of yeast RAP1, a telomere binding protein, is most similar to CENP-B DBD RP1. We studied the interaction between CENP-B DBD RP1 and the CENP-B box by the use of NMR chemical shift perturbation. The results suggest that CENP-B DBD RP1 interacts with one of the essential regions of the CENP-B box DNA, mainly at the N-terminal basic region, the N-terminal portion of helix 2 and helix 3. PMID:9451007

  17. De novo design of a transmembrane Zn2+-transporting four-helix bundle

    PubMed Central

    Joh, Nathan H.; Wang, Tuo; Bhate, Manasi P.; Acharya, Rudresh; Wu, Yibing; Grabe, Michael; Hong, Mei; Grigoryan, Gevorg; DeGrado, William F.

    2015-01-01

    The design of functional membrane proteins from first principles represents a grand challenge in chemistry and structural biology. Here, we report the design of a membrane-spanning, four-helical bundle that transports first-row transition metal ions Zn2+ and Co2+, but not Ca2+, across membranes. The conduction path was designed to contain two di-metal binding sites that bind with negative cooperativity. X-ray crystallography and solid-state and solution nuclear magnetic resonance indicate that the overall helical bundle is formed from two tightly interacting pairs of helices, which form individual domains that interact weakly along a more dynamic interface. Vesicle flux experiments show that as Zn2+ ions diffuse down their concentration gradients, protons are antiported. These experiments illustrate the feasibility of designing membrane proteins with predefined structural and dynamic properties. PMID:25525248

  18. Solution NMR structure of a D,L-alternating oligonorleucine as a model of beta-helix.

    PubMed

    Navarro, E; Tejero, R; Fenude, E; Celda, B

    2001-08-01

    beta-Helix structures are of particular interest due to their capacity to form transmembrane channels with different transport properties. However, the relatively large number of beta-helices configurations does not allow a direct conformational analysis of beta-helical oligopeptides. A synthetic alternating D,L-oligopeptide with twelve norleucines (XIIMe) has been used as a model to get insight in the conformational features of beta-helix structures. The spatial configuration of XIIMe in solution has been determined by NMR. An extensive set of distances (nuclear Overhauser effect) and dihedral (J coupling constants) constraints have been included in molecular dynamics calculations. The NMR experimental data and theoretical calculations clearly indicate that the XIIMe adopts a single beta(4.4)-helix-type conformation in nonpolar solvents. PMID:11373724

  19. Contact-Induced Structure Transformation in Transmembrane Prion Propagation

    E-print Network

    Chen, Chi-Ming

    Contact-Induced Structure Transformation in Transmembrane Prion Propagation D.-M. Ou, C.-C. Chen on recent experimental evidences of the transmission of prion diseases due to a particular transmem- brane prions, we conclude that cooperative dimerization may play an important role in the pathological

  20. Ring Substituents on Substituted Benzamide Ligands Indirectly Mediate Interactions with Position 7.39 of Transmembrane Helix 7 of the D4 Dopamine Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Ericksen, Spencer S.; Cummings, David F.; Teer, Michael E.; Amdani, Shahnawaz

    2012-01-01

    In an effort to delineate how specific molecular interactions of dopamine receptor ligand classes vary between D2-like dopamine receptor subtypes, a conserved threonine in transmembrane (TM) helix 7 (Thr7.39), implicated as a key ligand interaction site with biogenic amine G protein-coupled receptors, was substituted with alanine in D2 and D4 receptors. Interrogation of different ligand chemotypes for sensitivity to this substitution revealed enhanced affinity in the D4, but not the D2 receptor, specifically for substituted benzamides (SBAs) having polar 4- (para) and/or 5- (meta) benzamide ring substituents. D4-T7.39A was fully functional, and the mutation did not alter the sodium-mediated positive and negative allostery observed with SBAs and agonists, respectively. With the exception of the non-SBA ligand (+)-butaclamol, which, in contrast to certain SBAs, had decreased affinity for the D4-T7.39A mutant, the interactions of numerous other ligands were unaffected by this mutation. SBAs were docked into D4 models in the same mode as observed for eticlopride in the D3 crystal structure. In this mode, interactions with TM5 and TM6 residues constrain the SBA ring position that produces distal steric crowding between pyrrolidinyl/diethylamine moieties and D4-Thr7.39. Ligand-residue interaction energy profiles suggest this crowding is mitigated by substitution with a smaller alanine. The profiles indicate sites that contribute to the SBA binding interaction and site-specific energy changes imparted by the D4-T7.39A mutation. Substantial interaction energy changes are observed at only a few positions, some of which are not conserved among the dopamine receptor subtypes and thus seem to account for this D4 subtype-specific structure-activity relationship. PMID:22588261

  1. Loop Diuretic and Ion-binding Residues Revealed by Scanning Mutagenesis of Transmembrane Helix 3 (TM3) of Na-K-Cl Cotransporter (NKCC1)*

    PubMed Central

    Somasekharan, Suma; Tanis, Jessica; Forbush, Biff

    2012-01-01

    The Na-K-Cl cotransporter (NKCC) plays central roles in cellular chloride homeostasis and in epithelial salt transport, but to date little is known about the mechanism by which the transporter moves ions across the membrane. We examined the functional role of transmembrane helix 3 (TM3) in NKCC1 using cysteine- and tryptophan-scanning mutagenesis and analyzed our results in the context of a structural homology model based on an alignment of NKCC1 with other amino acid polyamine organocation superfamily members, AdiC and ApcT. Mutations of residues along one face of TM3 (Tyr-383, Met-382, Ala-379, Asn-376, Ala-375, Phe-372, Gly-369, and Ile-368) had large effects on translocation rate, apparent ion affinities, and loop diuretic affinity, consistent with a proposed role of TM3 in the translocation pathway. The prediction that Met-382 is part of an extracellular gate that closes to form an occluded state is strongly supported by conformational sensitivity of this residue to 2-(trimethylammonium)ethyl methanethiosulfonate, and the bumetanide insensitivity of M382W is consistent with tryptophan blocking entry of bumetanide into the cavity. Substitution effects on residues at the intracellular end of TM3 suggest that this region is also involved in ion coordination and may be part of the translocation pathway in an inward-open conformation. Mutations of predicted pore residues had large effects on binding of bumetanide and furosemide, consistent with the hypothesis that loop diuretic drugs bind within the translocation cavity. The results presented here strongly support predictions of homology models of NKCC1 and demonstrate important roles for TM3 residues in ion translocation and loop diuretic inhibition. PMID:22437837

  2. Probabilistic grammatical model for helix?helix contact site classification

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Hidden Markov Models power many state?of?the?art tools in the field of protein bioinformatics. While excelling in their tasks, these methods of protein analysis do not convey directly information on medium? and long?range residue?residue interactions. This requires an expressive power of at least context?free grammars. However, application of more powerful grammar formalisms to protein analysis has been surprisingly limited. Results In this work, we present a probabilistic grammatical framework for problem?specific protein languages and apply it to classification of transmembrane helix?helix pairs configurations. The core of the model consists of a probabilistic context?free grammar, automatically inferred by a genetic algorithm from only a generic set of expert?based rules and positive training samples. The model was applied to produce sequence based descriptors of four classes of transmembrane helix?helix contact site configurations. The highest performance of the classifiers reached AUCROC of 0.70. The analysis of grammar parse trees revealed the ability of representing structural features of helix?helix contact sites. Conclusions We demonstrated that our probabilistic context?free framework for analysis of protein sequences outperforms the state of the art in the task of helix?helix contact site classification. However, this is achieved without necessarily requiring modeling long range dependencies between interacting residues. A significant feature of our approach is that grammar rules and parse trees are human?readable. Thus they could provide biologically meaningful information for molecular biologists. PMID:24350601

  3. Backbone Structure of the Amantadine-Blocked Trans-Membrane Domain M2 Proton Channel from Influenza A Virus

    E-print Network

    Bertram, Richard

    protein (97 amino-acid residues) is an integral membrane protein with a single trans-membrane (TM) helix. The functional M2 channel is a homotetramer (3) stabilized in part by disulfide bonds linked between the N

  4. Four-alpha-helix bundle with designed anesthetic binding pockets. Part I: structural and dynamical analyses.

    PubMed

    Ma, Dejian; Brandon, Nicole R; Cui, Tanxing; Bondarenko, Vasyl; Canlas, Christian; Johansson, Jonas S; Tang, Pei; Xu, Yan

    2008-06-01

    The four-alpha-helix bundle mimics the transmembrane domain of the Cys-loop receptor family believed to be the protein target for general anesthetics. Using high resolution NMR, we solved the structure (Protein Data Bank ID: 2I7U) of a prototypical dimeric four-alpha-helix bundle, (Aalpha(2)-L1M/L38M)(2,) with designed specific binding pockets for volatile anesthetics. Two monomers of the helix-turn-helix motif form an antiparallel dimer as originally designed, but the high-resolution structure exhibits an asymmetric quaternary arrangement of the four helices. The two helices from the N-terminus to the linker (helices 1 and 1') are associated with each other in the dimer by the side-chain ring stacking of F12 and W15 along the long hydrophobic core and by a nearly perfect stretch of hydrophobic interactions between the complementary pairs of L4, L11, L18, and L25, all of which are located at the heptad e position along the helix-helix dimer interface. In comparison, the axes of the two helices from the linker to the C-terminus (helices 2 and 2') are wider apart from each other, creating a lateral access pathway around K47 from the aqueous phase to the center of the designed hydrophobic core. The site of the L38M mutation, which was previously shown to increase the halothane binding affinity by approximately 3.5-fold, is not part of the hydrophobic core presumably involved in the anesthetic binding but shows an elevated transverse relaxation (R(2)) rate. Qualitative analysis of the protein dynamics by reduced spectral density mapping revealed exchange contributions to the relaxation at many residues in the helices. This observation was confirmed by the quantitative analysis using the Modelfree approach and by the NMR relaxation dispersion measurements. The NMR structures and Autodock analysis suggest that the pocket with the most favorable amphipathic property for anesthetic binding is located between the W15 side chains at the center of the dimeric hydrophobic core, with the possibility of two additional minor binding sites between the F12 and F52 ring stacks of each monomer. The high-resolution structure of the designed anesthetic-binding protein offers unprecedented atomistic details about possible sites for anesthetic-protein interactions that are essential to the understanding of molecular mechanisms of general anesthesia. PMID:18310240

  5. Solution structure of a D,L-alternating oligonorleucine as a model of double-stranded antiparallel beta-helix.

    PubMed

    Navarro, E; Fenude, E; Celda, B

    2002-08-01

    Conformational characteristics of alternating D,L linear peptides are of particular interest because of their capacity to form transmembrane channels with different transport properties, as some natural antibiotics do. Single- and double-stranded beta-helical structures are common for alternating D,L peptides. The stability of the beta-helix depends on several structural factors, such as the backbone peptide length, type and position of side chains, and nature of terminal groups. The NMR and molecular dynamics solution conformation of a synthetic alternating D,L-oligopeptide with 15 norleucines (XVMe) has been used as a model to get insight in to the conformational features of double-stranded beta-helix structures. The NH chemical shift values (delta(NH)) and long-range nuclear Overhauser effects (NOE) cross peaks, in particular interstrand connectivities, clearly point to an antiparallel double-stranded beta-helix for the XVMe major conformation in solution. An extensive set of distances (from NOE cross peaks) and H-bonds (from delta(NH)) has been included in the molecular dynamics calculations. The experimental NMR data and theoretical calculations clearly indicate that the most probable conformation of XVMe in solution is a double-strand antiparallel beta(5.6) increasing decreasing-helix structure. PMID:12115137

  6. Novel Insights into CB1 Cannabinoid Receptor Signaling: A Key Interaction Identified between the Extracellular-3 Loop and Transmembrane Helix 2S?

    PubMed Central

    Marcu, Jahan; Shore, Derek M.; Kapur, Ankur; Trznadel, Megan; Makriyannis, Alexandros; Reggio, Patricia H.

    2013-01-01

    Activation of the cannabinoid CB1 receptor (CB1) is modulated by aspartate residue D2.63176 in transmembrane helix (TMH) 2. Interestingly, D2.63 does not affect the affinity for ligand binding at the CB1 receptor. Studies in class A G protein-coupled receptors have suggested an ionic interaction between residues of TMH2 and 7. In this report, modeling studies identified residue K373 in the extracellular-3 (EC-3) loop in charged interactions with D2.63. We investigated this possibility by performing reciprocal mutations and biochemical studies. D2.63176A, K373A, D2.63176A-K373A, and the reciprocal mutant with the interacting residues juxtaposed D2.63176K-K373D were characterized using radioligand binding and guanosine 5?-3-O-(thio)triphosphate functional assays. None of the mutations resulted in a significant change in the binding affinity of N-(piperidiny-1-yl)-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-(2,4-dichloro-phenyl)-4-methyl-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxamide hydrochloride (SR141716A) or (?)-3cis -[2-hydroxyl-4-(1,1-dimethyl-heptyl)phenyl]-trans-4-[3-hydroxyl-propyl] cyclohexan-1-ol (CP55,940). Modeling studies indicated that binding-site interactions and energies of interaction for CP55,940 were similar between wild-type and mutant receptors. However, the signaling of CP55,940, and (R)-(+)-[2,3-dihydro-5-methyl-3-[(4-morpholinyl)methyl]-pyrrolo[1,2,3-de]-1,4-benzoxazin-6-yl](1-naphthalenyl)-methanone mesylate (WIN55,212-2) was impaired at the D2.63176A-K373A and the single-alanine mutants. In contrast, the reciprocal D2.63176K-K373D mutant regained function for both CP55,940 and WIN55,212-2. Computational results indicate that the D2.63176-K373 ionic interaction strongly influences the conformation(s) of the EC-3 loop, providing a structure-based rationale for the importance of the EC-3 loop to signal transduction in CB1. The putative ionic interaction results in the EC-3 loop pulling over the top (extracellular side) of the receptor; this EC-3 loop conformation may serve protective and mechanistic roles. These results suggest that the ionic interaction between D2.63176 and K373 is important for CB1 signal transduction. PMID:23426954

  7. Structure of single-wall carbon nanotubes: a graphene helix.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae-Kap; Lee, Sohyung; Kim, Jin-Gyu; Min, Bong-Ki; Kim, Yong-Il; Lee, Kyung-Il; An, Kay Hyeok; John, Phillip

    2014-08-27

    Evidence is presented in this paper that certain single-wall carbon nanotubes are not seamless tubes, but rather adopt a graphene helix resulting from the spiral growth of a nano-graphene ribbon. The residual traces of the helices are confirmed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The analysis also shows that the tubular graphene material may exhibit a unique armchair structure and the chirality is not a necessary condition for the growth of carbon nanotubes. The description of the structure of the helical carbon nanomaterials is generalized using the plane indices of hexagonal space groups instead of using chiral vectors. It is also proposed that the growth model, via a graphene helix, results in a ubiquitous structure of single-wall carbon nanotubes. PMID:24838196

  8. Structure-based prediction reveals capping motifs that inhibit beta-helix aggregation

    E-print Network

    Bryan, Allen W.

    The parallel beta-helix is a geometrically regular fold commonly found in the proteomes of bacteria, viruses, fungi, archaea, and some vertebrates. beta-helix structure has been observed in monomeric units of some aggregated ...

  9. Molecular dynamics simulation of human serum paraoxonase 1 in DPPC bilayer reveals a critical role of transmembrane helix H1 for HDL association.

    PubMed

    Patra, Mahesh Chandra; Rath, Surya Narayan; Pradhan, Sukanta Kumar; Maharana, Jitendra; De, Sachinandan

    2014-01-01

    Serum paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is a high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-bound mammalian enzyme exhibiting antiatherosclerotic activity. Despite years of research, an accurate model for the binding interaction between PON1 and HDL has not been established. However, it is reported that anchoring of PON1 to HDL is mainly governed by an N-terminal alpha helix H1 and another short helix H2. Here, we studied the molecular association of full-length human PON1 (huPON1) with a HDL-mimetic dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) bilayer using homology modeling and molecular dynamics simulations. Our results indicate that H1 is the highly dynamic part of huPON1, showing clockwise rotation of up to 30° within the DPPC bilayer. However, without phospholipid molecules, H1 experiences helical distortions, illustrating an incompatible HDL-anchoring conformation. Snorkeling interactions of K3, R18, and R27 together with aromatic locks formed by Y187, Y190, W194, and W202 are highly essential for anchoring of huPON1 to HDL's surface. Molecular mechanics/Poisson-Boltzmann solvent-accessible surface area (MM/PBSA) binding free energy calculation revealed that H1 displays greater binding affinity towards lipid molecules compared with H2 and H3, suggesting that H1 is the most probable HDL-binding domain of PON1. Binding free energy decomposition showed that K3, R18, and R27 interact with polar headgroups of DPPC membrane through electrostatic interaction. Moreover, Y187, Y190, W194, and W202 interact with DPPC lipids mainly through van der Waals interaction. Taken together, these results show that the transmembrane helix H1 along with the interfacial positively charged and aromatic resides were crucial for PON1's association with HDL particle. The current study will be useful towards understanding the antiatherosclerotic and bioscavenging properties of this promiscuous enzyme. PMID:24297451

  10. Helix Bundle Quaternary Structure from [alpha]/[beta]-Peptide Foldamers

    SciTech Connect

    Horne, W. Seth; Price, Joshua L.; Keck, James L.; Gellman, Samuel H. (UW-MED)

    2008-11-18

    The function of a protein generally depends on adoption of a specific folding pattern, which in turn is determined by the side chain sequence along the polypeptide backbone. Here we show that the sequence-encoded structural information in peptides derived from yeast transcriptional activator GCN4 can be used to prepare hybrid {alpha}/{beta}-peptide foldamers that adopt helix bundle quaternary structures. Crystal structures of two hybrid {alpha}/{beta}-peptides are reported along with detailed structural comparison to {alpha}-peptides of analogous side chain sequence. There is considerable homology between {alpha}- and {alpha}/{beta}-peptides at the level of helical secondary structure, with modest but significant differences in the association geometry of helices in the quaternary structure.

  11. Transmembrane and Juxtamembrane Structure of ?L Integrin in Bicelles

    PubMed Central

    Millet, Oscar; Diercks, Tammo; Torres, Jaume

    2013-01-01

    The accepted model for the interaction of ? and ? integrins in the transmembrane (TM) domain is based on the pair ?IIb?3. This involves the so-called outer and inner membrane association clasps (OMC and IMC, respectively). In the ? chain, the OMC involves a GxxxG-like motif, whereas in the IMC a conserved juxtamembrane GFFKR motif experiences a backbone reversal that partially fills the void generated by TM separation towards the cytoplasmic half. However, the GFFKR motif of several ? integrin cytoplasmic tails in non-bicelle environments has been shown to adopt an ?-helical structure that is not membrane-embedded and which was shown to bind a variety of cytoplasmic proteins. Thus it is not known if a membrane-embedded backbone reversal is a conserved structural feature in ? integrins. We have studied the system ?L?2 because of its importance in leukocytes, where integrin deactivation is particularly important. Herein we show that the backbone reversal feature is not only present in ?IIb but also in ?L-TM when reconstituted in bicelles. Additionally, titration with ?2 TM showed eight residues clustering along one side of ?L-TM, forming a plausible interacting face with ?2. The latter orientation is consistent with a previously predicted reported polar interaction between ?L Ser-1071 and ?2 Thr-686. PMID:24069290

  12. Rhodopsin and 9-demethyl-retinal analog: effect of a partial agonist on displacement of transmembrane helix 6 in class A G protein-coupled receptors.

    PubMed

    Knierim, Bernhard; Hofmann, Klaus Peter; Gärtner, Wolfgang; Hubbell, Wayne L; Ernst, Oliver P

    2008-02-22

    Rhodopsin is the visual pigment of rod cells and a prototypical G protein-coupled receptor. It is activated by cis-->trans photoisomerization of the covalently bound chromophore 11-cis-retinal, which acts in the cis configuration as an inverse agonist. Light-induced formation of the full agonist all-trans-retinal in situ triggers conformational changes in the protein moiety. Partial agonists of rhodopsin include a retinal analog lacking the methyl group at C-9, termed 9-demethyl-retinal (9-dm-retinal). Rhodopsin reconstituted with this retinal (9-dm-rhodopsin) activates G protein poorly. Here we investigated the molecular nature of the partial agonism in 9-dm-rhodopsin using site-directed spin labeling. Earlier site-directed spin labeling studies of rhodopsin identified a rigid-body tilt of the cytoplasmic segment of [corrected] transmembrane helix 6 (TM6) by approximately 6A as a central event in rhodopsin activation. Data presented here provide additional evidence for this mechanism. Only a small fraction of photoexcited 9-dm pigments reaches the TM6-tilted conformation. This fraction can be increased by increasing proton concentration or [corrected] by anticipation of the activating protonation step by the mutation E134Q in 9-dm-rhodopsin. These results on protein conformation are in complete accord with previous findings regarding the biological activity of the 9-dm pigments. When the proton concentration is further increased, a new state arises in 9-dm pigments that is linked to direct proton uptake at the retinal Schiff base. This state apparently has a conformation distinguishable from the active state. PMID:18063586

  13. Helix-packing motifs in membrane proteins.

    PubMed

    Walters, R F S; DeGrado, W F

    2006-09-12

    The fold of a helical membrane protein is largely determined by interactions between membrane-imbedded helices. To elucidate recurring helix-helix interaction motifs, we dissected the crystallographic structures of membrane proteins into a library of interacting helical pairs. The pairs were clustered according to their three-dimensional similarity (rmsd structural features can be understood in terms of simple principles of helix-helix packing. Thus, the universe of common transmembrane helix-pairing motifs is relatively simple. The largest cluster, which comprises 29% of the library members, consists of an antiparallel motif with left-handed packing angles, and it is frequently stabilized by packing of small side chains occurring every seven residues in the sequence. Right-handed parallel and antiparallel structures show a similar tendency to segregate small residues to the helix-helix interface but spaced at four-residue intervals. Position-specific sequence propensities were derived for the most populated motifs. These structural and sequential motifs should be quite useful for the design and structural prediction of membrane proteins. PMID:16954199

  14. Structure and Mechanism of Proton Transport Through the Transmembrane Tetrameric M2 Protein Bundle of the Influenza A Virus

    SciTech Connect

    R Acharya; V Carnevale; G Fiorin; B Levine; A Polishchuk; V Balannick; I Samish; R Lamb; L Pinto; et al.

    2011-12-31

    The M2 proton channel from influenza A virus is an essential protein that mediates transport of protons across the viral envelope. This protein has a single transmembrane helix, which tetramerizes into the active channel. At the heart of the conduction mechanism is the exchange of protons between the His37 imidazole moieties of M2 and waters confined to the M2 bundle interior. Protons are conducted as the total charge of the four His37 side chains passes through 2{sup +} and 3{sup +} with a pK{sub a} near 6. A 1.65 {angstrom} resolution X-ray structure of the transmembrane protein (residues 25-46), crystallized at pH 6.5, reveals a pore that is lined by alternating layers of sidechains and well-ordered water clusters, which offer a pathway for proton conduction. The His37 residues form a box-like structure, bounded on either side by water clusters with well-ordered oxygen atoms at close distance. The conformation of the protein, which is intermediate between structures previously solved at higher and lower pH, suggests a mechanism by which conformational changes might facilitate asymmetric diffusion through the channel in the presence of a proton gradient. Moreover, protons diffusing through the channel need not be localized to a single His37 imidazole, but instead may be delocalized over the entire His-box and associated water clusters. Thus, the new crystal structure provides a possible unification of the discrete site versus continuum conduction models.

  15. Helix compactness and stability: Electron structure calculations of conformer dependent thermodynamic functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jákli, Imre; Csizmadia, Imre G.; Fejer, Szilard N.; Farkas, Ödön; Viskolcz, Bela; Knak Jensen, Svend J.; Perczel, Andras

    2013-03-01

    Structure, stability, cooperativity and molecular packing of two major backbone forms: 310-helix and ?-strand are investigated. Long models HCO-(Xxx)n-NH2 Xxx = Gly and (L-)Ala, n ? 34, are studied at two levels of theory including the effect of dispersion forces. Structure and folding preferences are established, the length modulated cooperativity and side-chain determined fold compactness is quantified. By monitoring ?G°??? rather than the electronic energy, ?E???, it appears that Ala is a much better helix forming residue than Gly. The achiral Gly forms a more compact 310-helix than any chiral amino acid residue probed here for L-Ala.

  16. Ser/Thr Motifs in Transmembrane Proteins: Conservation Patterns and Effects on Local Protein Structure and Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    del Val, Coral; White, Stephen H.

    2014-01-01

    We combined systematic bioinformatics analyses and molecular dynamics simulations to assess the conservation patterns of Ser and Thr motifs in membrane proteins, and the effect of such motifs on the structure and dynamics of ?-helical transmembrane (TM) segments. We find that Ser/Thr motifs are often present in ?-barrel TM proteins. At least one Ser/Thr motif is present in almost half of the sequences of ?-helical proteins analyzed here. The extensive bioinformatics analyses and inspection of protein structures led to the identification of molecular transporters with noticeable numbers of Ser/Thr motifs within the TM region. Given the energetic penalty for burying multiple Ser/Thr groups in the membrane hydrophobic core, the observation of transporters with multiple membrane-embedded Ser/Thr is intriguing and raises the question of how the presence of multiple Ser/Thr affects protein local structure and dynamics. Molecular dynamics simulations of four different Ser-containing model TM peptides indicate that backbone hydrogen bonding of membrane-buried Ser/Thr hydroxyl groups can significantly change the local structure and dynamics of the helix. Ser groups located close to the membrane interface can hydrogen bond to solvent water instead of protein backbone, leading to an enhanced local solvation of the peptide. PMID:22836667

  17. Conformational Plasticity of the Influenza A M2 Transmembrane Helix in Lipid Bilayers Under Varying pH, Drug Binding and Membrane Thickness

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Fanghao; Luo, Wenbin; Cady, Sarah D.; Hong, Mei

    2010-01-01

    Membrane proteins change their conformations to respond to environmental cues, thus conformational plasticity is important for function. The influenza A M2 protein forms an acid-activated proton channel important for the virus lifecycle. Here we have used solid-state NMR spectroscopy to examine the conformational plasticity of membrane-bound transmembrane domain of M2 (M2TM). 13C and 15N chemical shifts indicate coupled conformational changes of several pore-facing residues due to changes in bilayer thickness, drug binding and pH. The structural changes are attributed to the formation of a well-defined helical kink at G34 in the drug-bound state and in thick lipid bilayers, non-ideal backbone conformation of the secondary-gate residue V27 in the presence of drug, and non-ideal conformation of the proton-sensing residue H37 at high pH. The chemical shifts constrained the (?, ?) torsion angles for three basis states, the equilibrium among which explains the multiple resonances per site in the NMR spectra under different combinations of bilayer thickness, drug binding and pH conditions. Thus, conformational plasticity is important for the proton conduction and inhibition of M2TM. The study illustrates the utility of NMR chemical shifts for probing the structural plasticity and folding of membrane proteins. PMID:20883664

  18. Predicting Three-Dimensional Structures of Transmembrane Domains of -Barrel Membrane Proteins

    E-print Network

    Dai, Yang

    Predicting Three-Dimensional Structures of Transmembrane Domains of -Barrel Membrane Proteins, mitochondria, and chloroplasts. They are important for pore formation, membrane anchoring, and enzyme activity. These proteins are also often responsible for bacterial virulence. Due to difficulties in experimental structure

  19. proteinsSTRUCTURE O FUNCTION O BIOINFORMATICS Modeling ensembles of transmembrane

    E-print Network

    Gifford, David K.

    , and chloroplasts. Despite their importance, very few nonhomologous TMB structures have been determined by XproteinsSTRUCTURE O FUNCTION O BIOINFORMATICS Modeling ensembles of transmembrane b-barrel proteins found in the outer membrane of Gram-nega- tive bacteria, mitochondria, and chloroplasts. These proteins

  20. Unraveling the Helix Nebula: Its Structure and Knots

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. R. O'Dell; Peter R. McCullough; Margaret Meixner

    2004-01-01

    Through Hubble Space Telescope (HST) imaging of the inner part of the main ring of the Helix Nebula, together with CTIO 4 m images of the fainter outer parts, we have a view of unprecedented quality of the nearest bright planetary nebula. These images have allowed us to determine that the main ring of the nebula is composed of an

  1. Structural aspects of oligomerization taking place between the transmembrane ?-helices of bitopic membrane proteins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Isaiah T. Arkin

    2002-01-01

    Recent advances in biophysical methods have been able to shed more light on the structures of helical bundles formed by the transmembrane segments of bitopic membrane proteins. In this manuscript, I attempt to review the biological importance and diversity of these interactions, the energetics of bundle formation, motifs capable of inducing oligomerization and methods capable of detecting, solving and predicting

  2. Structural Analysis of a Peptide Fragment of Transmembrane Transporter Protein Bilitranslocase

    PubMed Central

    Župerl, Špela; Sikorska, Emilia; Zhukov, Igor; Solmajer, Tom; Novi?, Marjana

    2012-01-01

    Using a combination of genomic and post-genomic approaches is rapidly altering the number of identified human influx carriers. A transmembrane protein bilitranslocase (TCDB 2.A.65) has long attracted attention because of its function as an organic anion carrier. It has also been identified as a potential membrane transporter for cellular uptake of several drugs and due to its implication in drug uptake, it is extremely important to advance the knowledge about its structure. However, at present, only the primary structure of bilitranslocase is known. In our work, transmembrane subunits of bilitranslocase were predicted by a previously developed chemometrics model and the stability of these polypeptide chains were studied by molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. Furthermore, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micelles were used as a model of cell membrane and herein we present a high-resolution 3D structure of an 18 amino acid residues long peptide corresponding to the third transmembrane part of bilitranslocase obtained by use of multidimensional NMR spectroscopy. It has been experimentally confirmed that one of the transmembrane segments of bilitranslocase has alpha helical structure with hydrophilic amino acid residues oriented towards one side, thus capable of forming a channel in the membrane. PMID:22745694

  3. Determinants of Cation Permeation and Drug Sensitivity in Predicted Transmembrane Helix 9 and Adjoining Exofacial Re-entrant Loop 5 of Na+/H+ Exchanger NHE1.

    PubMed

    Jinadasa, Tushare; Josephson, Colin B; Boucher, Annie; Orlowski, John

    2015-07-17

    Mammalian Na(+)/H(+) exchangers (NHEs) regulate numerous physiological processes and are involved in the pathogenesis of several diseases, including tissue ischemia and reperfusion injuries, cardiac hypertrophy and failure, and cancer progression. Hence, NHEs are being targeted for pharmaceutical-based clinical therapies, but pertinent information regarding the structural elements involved in cation translocation and drug binding remains incomplete. Molecular manipulations of the prototypical NHE1 isoform have implicated several predicted membrane-spanning (M) helices, most notably M4, M9, and M11, as important determinants of cation permeation and drug sensitivity. Here, we have used substituted-cysteine accessibility mutagenesis and thiol-modifying methanethiosulfonate (MTS) reagents to further probe the involvement of evolutionarily conserved sites within M9 (residues 342-363) and the adjacent exofacial re-entrant loop 5 between M9 and M10 (EL5; residues 364-415) of a cysteine-less variant of rat NHE1 on its kinetic and pharmacological properties. MTS treatment significantly reduced the activity of mutants containing substitutions within M9 (H353C, S355C, and G356C) and EL5 (G403C and S405C). In the absence of MTS, mutants S355C, G403C, and S405C showed modest to significant decreases in their apparent affinities for Na(+) o and/or H(+) i. In addition, mutations Y370C and E395C within EL5, whereas failing to confer sensitivity to MTS, nevertheless, reduced the affinity for Na(+) o, but not for H(+) i. The Y370C mutant also exhibited higher affinity for ethylisopropylamiloride, a competitive antagonist of Na(+) o transport. Collectively, these results further implicate helix M9 and EL5 of NHE1 as important elements involved in cation transport and inhibitor sensitivity, which may inform rational drug design. PMID:26063808

  4. Translocation of molecules into cells by pH-dependent insertion of a transmembrane helix Yana K. Reshetnyak, Oleg A. Andreev, Ursula Lehnert, and Donald M. Engelman

    E-print Network

    Rhode Island, University of

    be released by reduc- tion in the cytoplasm, including peptide nucleic acids, a cyclic peptide (phalloidin imaging, genetic control, or cell regulation. drug delivery peptide nucleic acid delivery tumors membrane-soluble peptide to form a helix across lipid bilayers [Hunt, J. F., Rath, P., Rothschild, K. J. & Engelman, D. M

  5. The C-Terminus of Transmembrane Helix 2 (TM2) of the Escherichia coli Tar Chemorecptor Determines Signal Output and Ligand Sensitivity 

    E-print Network

    Adase, Christopher A. 1981-

    2012-11-20

    of the transmembrane sensor kinases of two-component systems can be predicted by the nature of their TM2-HAMP connections. It may also be possible to modulate their activity in a controlled way by manipulating the amino acid sequences that comprise those connections....

  6. The close-packed triple helix as a possible new structural motif for collagen

    E-print Network

    Jakob Bohr; Kasper Olsen

    2010-04-11

    The one-dimensional problem of selecting the triple helix with the highest volume fraction is solved and hence the condition for a helix to be close-packed is obtained. The close-packed triple helix is shown to have a pitch angle of $v_{CP} =43.3 ^\\circ$. Contrary to the conventional notion, we suggest that close packing form the underlying principle behind the structure of collagen, and the implications of this suggestion are considered. Further, it is shown that the unique zero-twist structure with no strain-twist coupling is practically identical to the close-packed triple helix. Some of the difficulties for the current understanding of the structure of collagen are reviewed: The ambiguity in assigning crystal structures for collagen-like peptides, and the failure to satisfactorily calculate circular dichroism spectra. Further, the proposed new geometrical structure for collagen is better packed than both the 10/3 and the 7/2 structure. A feature of the suggested collagen structure is the existence of a central channel with negatively charged walls. We find support for this structural feature in some of the early x-ray diffraction data of collagen. The central channel of the structure suggests the possibility of a one-dimensional proton lattice. This geometry can explain the observed magic angle effect seen in NMR studies of collagen. The central channel also offers the possibility of ion transport and may cast new light on various biological and physical phenomena, including biomineralization.

  7. Metapopulation genetic structure and migration pathways in the land snail Helix aspersa: influence of landscape heterogeneity

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jean-François Arnaud

    2003-01-01

    The spatial genetic structuring of the land snail Helix aspersa was investigated for 32 colonies within an intensive agricultural area, the polders of the Bay of Mont-Saint-Michel (France). Given the habitat patchiness and envi- ronmental instability, the setting of H. aspersa colonies meets the broader view of a metapopulation structure. The identification of extrinsic barriers to migration and their impact

  8. Conformational variability of the N-terminal helix in the structure of ribosomal protein S15

    E-print Network

    Ramakrishnan, Venki

    in the core of the 30S subunit [10,11]. S15 is one of seven primary RNA-binding proteins in the small subunitConformational variability of the N-terminal helix in the structure of ribosomal protein S15 Translation of the genetic code occurs on the ribosome, a large composite structure of RNA and protein

  9. The close-packed triple helix as a possible new structural motif for collagen

    E-print Network

    Bohr, Jakob

    2010-01-01

    The one-dimensional problem of selecting the triple helix with the highest volume fraction is solved and hence the condition for a helix to be close-packed is obtained. The close-packed triple helix is shown to have a pitch angle of $v_{CP} =43.3 ^\\circ$. Contrary to the conventional notion, we suggest that close packing form the underlying principle behind the structure of collagen, and the implications of this suggestion are considered. Further, it is shown that the unique zero-twist structure with no strain-twist coupling is practically identical to the close-packed triple helix. Some of the difficulties for the current understanding of the structure of collagen are reviewed: The ambiguity in assigning crystal structures for collagen-like peptides, and the failure to satisfactorily calculate circular dichroism spectra. Further, the proposed new geometrical structure for collagen is better packed than both the 10/3 and the 7/2 structure. A feature of the suggested collagen structure is the existence of a ce...

  10. The discovery of the -helix and -sheet, the principal structural features of proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisenberg, David

    2003-09-01

    PNAS papers by Linus Pauling, Robert Corey, and Herman Branson in the spring of 1951 proposed the -helix and the -sheet, now known to form the backbones of tens of thousands of proteins. They deduced these fundamental building blocks from properties of small molecules, known both from crystal structures and from Pauling's resonance theory of chemical bonding that predicted planar peptide groups. Earlier attempts by others to build models for protein helices had failed both by including nonplanar peptides and by insisting on helices with an integral number of units per turn. In major respects, the Pauling-Corey-Branson models were astoundingly correct, including bond lengths that were not surpassed in accuracy for >40 years. However, they did not consider the hand of the helix or the possibility of bent sheets. They also proposed structures and functions that have not been found, including the -helix.

  11. Transmembrane Topology and Oligomeric Structure of the High-affinity Choline Transporter*

    PubMed Central

    Okuda, Takashi; Osawa, Chieko; Yamada, Haruhiko; Hayashi, Kengo; Nishikawa, Shizue; Ushio, Tomoko; Kubo, Yuji; Satou, Motoyasu; Ogawa, Haruo; Haga, Tatsuya

    2012-01-01

    The high-affinity choline transporter CHT1 mediates choline uptake essential for acetylcholine synthesis in cholinergic nerve terminals. CHT1 belongs to the Na+/glucose cotransporter family (SLC5), which is postulated to have a common 13-transmembrane domain core; however, no direct experimental evidence for CHT1 transmembrane topology has yet been reported. We examined the transmembrane topology of human CHT1 using cysteine-scanning analysis. Single cysteine residues were introduced into the putative extra- and intracellular loops and probed for external accessibility for labeling with a membrane-impermeable, sulfhydryl-specific biotinylating reagent in intact cells expressing these mutants. The results provide experimental evidence for a topological model of a 13-transmembrane domain protein with an extracellular amino terminus and an intracellular carboxyl terminus. We also constructed a three-dimensional homology model of CHT1 based on the crystal structure of the bacterial Na+/galactose cotransporter, which supports our conclusion of CHT1 transmembrane topology. Furthermore, we examined whether CHT1 exists as a monomer or oligomer. Chemical cross-linking induces the formation of a higher molecular weight form of CHT1 on the cell surface in HEK293 cells. Two different epitope-tagged CHT1 proteins expressed in the same cells can be co-immunoprecipitated. Moreover, co-expression of an inactive mutant I89A with the wild type induces a dominant-negative effect on the overall choline uptake activity. These results indicate that CHT1 forms a homo-oligomer on the cell surface in cultured cells. PMID:23132865

  12. Structure of nucleotide-binding domain 1 of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Hal A; Buchanan, Sean G; Burley, Stephen K; Conners, Kris; Dickey, Mark; Dorwart, Michael; Fowler, Richard; Gao, Xia; Guggino, William B; Hendrickson, Wayne A; Hunt, John F; Kearins, Margaret C; Lorimer, Don; Maloney, Peter C; Post, Kai W; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta R; Rutter, Marc E; Sauder, J Michael; Shriver, Stephanie; Thibodeau, Patrick H; Thomas, Philip J; Zhang, Marie; Zhao, Xun; Emtage, Spencer

    2004-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter that functions as a chloride channel. Nucleotide-binding domain 1 (NBD1), one of two ABC domains in CFTR, also contains sites for the predominant CF-causing mutation and, potentially, for regulatory phosphorylation. We have determined crystal structures for mouse NBD1 in unliganded, ADP- and ATP-bound states, with and without phosphorylation. This NBD1 differs from typical ABC domains in having added regulatory segments, a foreshortened subdomain interconnection, and an unusual nucleotide conformation. Moreover, isolated NBD1 has undetectable ATPase activity and its structure is essentially the same independent of ligand state. Phe508, which is commonly deleted in CF, is exposed at a putative NBD1-transmembrane interface. Our results are consistent with a CFTR mechanism, whereby channel gating occurs through ATP binding in an NBD1–NBD2 nucleotide sandwich that forms upon displacement of NBD1 regulatory segments. PMID:14685259

  13. Packing of transmembrane helices in bacteriorhodopsin folding: Structure and thermodynamics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C.-C. Chen; C.-C. Wei; Y.-C. Sun; C.-M. Chen

    2008-01-01

    We propose a coarse-grained (CG) model to study the native structure and physical properties of helical membrane proteins (HMPs) using off-lattice computer simulations. Instead of considering sequence heterogeneity explicitly, we model its effect on the packing of helices by employing a mean packing parameter r0, which is calculated from an all-atom (AA) model. Specifically, this CG model is applied to

  14. Fine structure of the epineural connective tissue sheath of the subesophageal ganglion in Helix aspersa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. C. Rogers

    1969-01-01

    The epineural connective tissue sheath investing the subesophageal ganglion of Helix aspersa consists of a superficial region and a deeper region. The superficial region contains masses of globular cells intermingled with smooth muscle cells and nerve fibers all embedded in a connective tissue matrix. The histochemical and fine structural features of the globular cells show seasonal changes. During autumn to

  15. Transformation between -helix and -sheet structures of one and two polyglutamine peptides in explicit water

    E-print Network

    Transformation between -helix and -sheet structures of one and two polyglutamine peptides-Jung Chen , Hisashi Okumura , Chin-Kun Hu§ April 19, 2014 Abstract Aggregation of polyglutamine peptides. However it is not clear how polyglutamine peptides form the -sheets and aggregate. To understand

  16. Structural dynamics of the myosin relay helix by time-resolved EPR and FRET

    E-print Network

    Thomas, David D.

    Structural dynamics of the myosin relay helix by time-resolved EPR and FRET Roman V. Agafonova electron­electron resonance DEER molecular dynamics simulation recovery stroke disorder-to-order transition,1 , and Yuri E. Nesmelova,1 Departments of aBiochemistry, Molecular Biology, and Biophysics and c

  17. Structural insights into the stabilization of MALAT1 noncoding RNA by a bipartite triple helix

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Jessica A.; Bulkley, David; Wang, Jimin; Valenstein, Max L.; Yario, Therese A.; Steitz, Thomas A.; Steitz, Joan A.

    2014-01-01

    Metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1) is a highly-abundant nuclear long noncoding RNA that promotes malignancy. A 3?-stem-loop structure is predicted to confer stability by engaging a downstream A-rich tract in a triple helix, similar to the expression and nuclear retention element (ENE) from the KSHV polyadenylated nuclear RNA. The 3.1-Å resolution crystal structure of the human MALAT1 ENE and A-rich tract reveals a bipartite triple helix containing stacks of five and four U•A-U triples separated by a C+•G-C triplet and C-G doublet, extended by two A-minor interactions. In vivo decay assays indicate that this blunt-ended triple helix, with the 3? nucleotide in a U•A-U triple, inhibits rapid nuclear RNA decay. Interruption of the triple helix by the C-G doublet induces a “helical reset” that explains why triple-helical stacks longer than six do not occur in nature. PMID:24952594

  18. Structure of the Tetrahymena thermophila telomerase RNA helix II template boundary element

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Telomere addition by telomerase requires an internal templating sequence located in the RNA subunit of telomerase. The correct boundary definition of this template sequence is essential for the proper addition of the nucleotide repeats. Incorporation of incorrect telomeric repeats onto the ends of chromosomes has been shown to induce chromosomal instability in ciliate, yeast and human cells. A 5? template boundary defining element (TBE) has been identified in human, yeast and ciliate telomerase RNAs. Here, we report the solution structure of the TBE element (helix II) from Tetrahymena thermophila telomerase RNA. Our results indicate that helix II and its capping pentaloop form a well-defined structure including unpaired, stacked adenine nucleotides in the stem and an unusual syn adenine nucleotide in the loop. A comparison of the T.thermophila helix II pentaloop with a pentaloop of the same sequence found in the 23S rRNA of the Haloarcula marismortui ribosome suggests possible RNA and/or protein interactions for the helix II loop within the Tetrahymena telomerase holoenzyme. PMID:16452301

  19. Structural investigation of the transmembrane domain of KCNE1 in proteoliposomes.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Indra D; Kroncke, Brett M; Zhang, Rongfu; Dunagan, Megan M; Smith, Hubbell J; Craig, Andrew; McCarrick, Robert M; Sanders, Charles R; Lorigan, Gary A

    2014-10-14

    KCNE1 is a single-transmembrane protein of the KCNE family that modulates the function of voltage-gated potassium channels, including KCNQ1. Hereditary mutations in KCNE1 have been linked to diseases such as long QT syndrome (LQTS), atrial fibrillation, sudden infant death syndrome, and deafness. The transmembrane domain (TMD) of KCNE1 plays a key role in mediating the physical association with KCNQ1 and in subsequent modulation of channel gating kinetics and conductance. However, the mechanisms associated with these roles for the TMD remain poorly understood, highlighting a need for experimental structural studies. A previous solution NMR study of KCNE1 in LMPG micelles revealed a curved transmembrane domain, a structural feature proposed to be critical to KCNE1 function. However, this curvature potentially reflects an artifact of working in detergent micelles. Double electron electron resonance (DEER) measurements were conducted on KCNE1 in LMPG micelles, POPC/POPG proteoliposomes, and POPC/POPG lipodisq nanoparticles to directly compare the structure of the TMD in a variety of different membrane environments. Experimentally derived DEER distances coupled with simulated annealing molecular dynamic simulations were used to probe the bilayer structure of the TMD of KCNE1. The results indicate that the structure is helical in proteoliposomes and is slightly curved, which is consistent with the previously determined solution NMR structure in micelles. The evident resilience of the curvature in the KCNE1 TMD leads us to hypothesize that the curvature is likely to be maintained upon binding of the protein to the KCNQ1 channel. PMID:25234231

  20. Structure of the pore-helix of the hERG K + channel

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Guilhem Pages; Allan M. Torres; Pengchu Ju; Paramjit S. Bansal; Paul F. Alewood; Philip W. Kuchel; Jamie I. Vandenberg

    2009-01-01

    The hERG K+ channel undergoes rapid inactivation that is mediated by ‘collapse’ of the selectivity filter, thereby preventing ion conduction.\\u000a Previous studies have suggested that the pore-helix of hERG may be up to seven residues longer than that predicted by homology\\u000a with channels with known crystal structures. In the present work, we determined structural features of a peptide from the

  1. Structure based aggregation studies reveal the presence of helix-rich intermediate during ?-Synuclein aggregation.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Dhiman; Singh, Pradeep K; Sahay, Shruti; Jha, Narendra Nath; Jacob, Reeba S; Sen, Shamik; Kumar, Ashutosh; Riek, Roland; Maji, Samir K

    2015-01-01

    Mechanistic understanding of nucleation dependent polymerization by ?-synuclein (?-Syn) into toxic oligomers and amyloids is important for the drug development against Parkinson's disease. However the structural and morphological characterization during nucleation and subsequent fibrillation process of ?-Syn is not clearly understood. Using a variety of complementary biophysical techniques monitoring entire pathway of nine different synucleins, we found that transition of unstructured conformation into ?-sheet rich fibril formation involves helix-rich intermediates. These intermediates are common for all aggregating synucleins, contain high solvent-exposed hydrophobic surfaces, are cytotoxic to SHSY-5Y cells and accelerate ?-Syn aggregation efficiently. A multidimensional NMR study characterizing the intermediate accompanied with site-specific fluorescence study suggests that the N-terminal and central portions mainly participate in the helix-rich intermediate formation while the C-terminus remained in an extended conformation. However, significant conformational transitions occur at the middle and at the C-terminus during helix to ?-sheet transition as evident from Trp fluorescence study. Since partial helix-rich intermediates were also observed for other amyloidogenic proteins such as A? and IAPP, we hypothesize that this class of intermediates may be one of the important intermediates for amyloid formation pathway by many natively unstructured protein/peptides and represent a potential target for drug development against amyloid diseases. PMID:25784353

  2. Structure based aggregation studies reveal the presence of helix-rich intermediate during ?-Synuclein aggregation

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Dhiman; Singh, Pradeep K.; Sahay, Shruti; Jha, Narendra Nath; Jacob, Reeba S.; Sen, Shamik; Kumar, Ashutosh; Riek, Roland; Maji, Samir K.

    2015-01-01

    Mechanistic understanding of nucleation dependent polymerization by ?-synuclein (?-Syn) into toxic oligomers and amyloids is important for the drug development against Parkinson's disease. However the structural and morphological characterization during nucleation and subsequent fibrillation process of ?-Syn is not clearly understood. Using a variety of complementary biophysical techniques monitoring entire pathway of nine different synucleins, we found that transition of unstructured conformation into ?-sheet rich fibril formation involves helix-rich intermediates. These intermediates are common for all aggregating synucleins, contain high solvent-exposed hydrophobic surfaces, are cytotoxic to SHSY-5Y cells and accelerate ?-Syn aggregation efficiently. A multidimensional NMR study characterizing the intermediate accompanied with site-specific fluorescence study suggests that the N-terminal and central portions mainly participate in the helix-rich intermediate formation while the C-terminus remained in an extended conformation. However, significant conformational transitions occur at the middle and at the C-terminus during helix to ?-sheet transition as evident from Trp fluorescence study. Since partial helix-rich intermediates were also observed for other amyloidogenic proteins such as A? and IAPP, we hypothesize that this class of intermediates may be one of the important intermediates for amyloid formation pathway by many natively unstructured protein/peptides and represent a potential target for drug development against amyloid diseases. PMID:25784353

  3. Structural organization of FtsB, a transmembrane protein of the bacterial divisome.

    PubMed

    LaPointe, Loren M; Taylor, Keenan C; Subramaniam, Sabareesh; Khadria, Ambalika; Rayment, Ivan; Senes, Alessandro

    2013-04-16

    We report the first structural analysis of an integral membrane protein of the bacterial divisome. FtsB is a single-pass membrane protein with a periplasmic coiled coil. Its heterologous association with its partner FtsL represents an essential event for the recruitment of the late components to the division site. Using a combination of mutagenesis, computational modeling, and X-ray crystallography, we determined that FtsB self-associates, and we investigated its structural organization. We found that the transmembrane domain of FtsB homo-oligomerizes through an evolutionarily conserved interaction interface where a polar residue (Gln 16) plays a critical role through the formation of an interhelical hydrogen bond. The crystal structure of the periplasmic domain, solved as a fusion with Gp7, shows that 30 juxta-membrane amino acids of FtsB form a canonical coiled coil. The presence of conserved Gly residue in the linker region suggests that flexibility between the transmembrane and coiled coil domains is functionally important. We hypothesize that the transmembrane helices of FtsB form a stable dimeric core for its association with FtsL into a higher-order oligomer and that FtsL is required to stabilize the periplasmic domain of FtsB, leading to the formation of a complex that is competent for binding to FtsQ, and to their consequent recruitment to the divisome. The study provides an experimentally validated structural model and identifies point mutations that disrupt association, thereby establishing important groundwork for the functional characterization of FtsB in vivo. PMID:23520975

  4. Structural organization of FtsB, a transmembrane protein of the bacterial divisome

    PubMed Central

    LaPointe, Loren M.; Taylor, Keenan C.; Subramaniam, Sabareesh; Khadria, Ambalika; Rayment, Ivan; Senes, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    We report the first structural analysis of an integral membrane protein of the bacterial divisome. FtsB is a single-pass membrane protein with a periplasmic coiled coil. Its heterologous association with its partner FtsL represents an essential event for the recruitment of the late components to the division site. Using a combination of mutagenesis, computational modeling and X-ray crystallography, we determined that FtsB self-associates and we investigated its structural organization. We found that the transmembrane domain of FtsB homo-oligomerizes through an evolutionarily conserved interaction interface where a polar residue (Gln 16) plays a critical role through the formation of an inter-helical hydrogen bond. The crystal structure of the periplasmic domain, solved as a fusion with Gp7, shows that 30 juxta-membrane amino acids of FtsB form a canonical coiled coil. The presence of conserved Gly residue in the linker region suggests that flexibility between the transmembrane and coiled coil domains is functionally important. We hypothesize that the transmembrane helices of FtsB form a stable dimeric core for its association with FtsL into a higher-order oligomer, and that FtsL is required to stabilize the periplasmic domain of FtsB, leading to the formation of a complex that is competent for binding to FtsQ, and to their consequent recruitment to the divisome. The study provides an experimentally validated structural model and identifies point mutations that disrupt association, thereby establishing important groundwork for the functional characterization of FtsB in vivo. PMID:23520975

  5. Internal structure and visualization of transmembrane domains of the RyR1 calcium release channel by cryo-EM

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Terence Wagenknecht; P D Allen; Montserrat Samsó

    2005-01-01

    RyR1 is an intracellular calcium channel with a central role in muscle contraction. We obtained a three-dimensional reconstruction of the RyR1 in the closed state at a nominal resolution of ?10 Å using cryo-EM. The cytoplasmic assembly consists of a series of interconnected tubular structures that merge into four columns that extend into the transmembrane assembly. The transmembrane assembly, which

  6. Structure determination of the seven-helical transmembrane receptor sensory rhodopsin II by solution NMR spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Gautier, Antoine; Mott, Helen R.; Bostock, Mark J.; Kirkpatrick, John P.; Nietlispach, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Seven-helical membrane proteins represent a challenge for structural biology. Here, we report the first NMR structure determination of a detergent-solubilized seven-helical transmembrane (7TM) protein, the phototaxis receptor sensory rhodopsin II (pSRII) from Natronomonas pharaonis, as a proof of principle. The overall quality of the structure ensemble is extremely good (backbone root mean squared deviation of 0.48 Å) and agrees well with previously determined X-ray structures. Furthermore, measurements in more native-like small phospholipid bicelles indicate that the protein structure is the same as in detergent micelles, suggesting that environment specific effects are minimal when using mild detergents. We use our case study as a platform to discuss the feasibility of similar solution NMR studies for other 7TM proteins including members of the family of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). PMID:20512150

  7. Structure and dynamics of one-dimensional ionic solutions in biological transmembrane channels.

    PubMed Central

    Skerra, A; Brickmann, J

    1987-01-01

    The structure and dynamics of solvated alkali metal cations in transmembrane channels are treated using the molecular dynamics simulation technique. The simulations are based on a modified Fischer-Brickmann model (Fischer, W., and J. Brickmann, 1983, Biophys. Chem., 18:323-337) for gramicidin A-type channels. The trajectories of all particles in the channel as well as two-dimensional pair correlation functions are analyzed. It is found from the analysis of the stationary simulation state that one-dimensional solvation complexes are formed and that the number of water molecules in the channel varies for different alkali metal cations. PMID:2440485

  8. Biochemical characterization of a heterotrimeric Gi-protein activator peptide designed from the junction between the intracellular third loop and sixth transmembrane helix in the m4 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor.

    PubMed

    Terawaki, Shin-Ichi; Matsubayashi, Rina; Hara, Kanako; Onozuka, Tatsuki; Kohno, Toshiyuki; Wakamatsu, Kaori

    2015-07-17

    Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) are G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) that are activated by acetylcholine released from parasympathetic nerves. The mAChR family comprises 5 subtypes, m1-m5, each of which has a different coupling selectivity for heterotrimeric GTP-binding proteins (G-proteins). m4 mAChR specifically activates the Gi/o family by enhancing the guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) reaction with the G? subunit through an interaction that occurs via intracellular segments. Here, we report that the m4 mAChR mimetic peptide m4i3c(14)Gly, comprising 14 residues in the junction between the intracellular third loop (i3c) and transmembrane helix VI (TM-VI) extended with a C-terminal glycine residue, presents GEF activity toward the Gi1 ? subunit (G?i1). The m4i3c(14)Gly forms a stable complex with guanine nucleotide-free G?i1 via three residues in the VTI(L/F) motif, which is conserved within the m2/4 mAChRs. These results suggest that this m4 mAChR mimetic peptide, which comprises the amino acid of the mAChR intracellular segments, is a useful tool for understanding the interaction between GPCRs and G-proteins. PMID:25986737

  9. Microspatial genetic structure in the land snail Helix aspersa (Gastropoda: Helicidae)

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J.-F. ARNAUD; L Madec; A Bellido; A Guiller

    1999-01-01

    The microspatial genetic structure of allele frequencies at seven isozyme loci was examined for 15 populations of the land snail Helix aspersa sampled in a village from Brittany (north-western France). Spatial heterogeneity of allele frequencies was highly significant (P < 0.001). Fixation indices reflected nonrandom mating within neighbourhoods and a slight but consistent differentiation between colonies (FST=0.044; P < 0.01).

  10. Alignment of the Uniform Lying Helix Structure in Cholesteric Liquid Crystals

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Patrick S. Salter; Steve J. Elston; Peter Raynes; Lesley A. Parry-Jones

    2009-01-01

    The uniform lying helix (ULH) configuration in cholesteric liquid crystals, where the helical axis of a chiral nematic is aligned uniformly in the plane of two confining substrates is of interest for both electro-optic and photonic applications. However, the formation of the well-aligned ULH structure required is non-trivial. Since the helical axis tends to align at an angle with respect

  11. Structural Organization of a Full-Length Gp130/LIF-R Cytokine Receptor Transmembrane Complex

    SciTech Connect

    Skiniotis, G.; Lupardus, P.J.; Martick, M.; Walz, T.; Garcia, K.C.

    2009-05-26

    gp130 is a shared receptor for at least nine cytokines, and can signal either as a homodimer, or as a heterodimer with Leukemia Inhibitory Factor Receptor (LIF-R). Here we biophysically and structurally characterize the full-length, transmembrane form of a quaternary cytokine receptor complex consisting of gp130, LIF-R, the cytokine Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor (CNTF), and its alpha receptor (CNTF-R{alpha}). Thermodynamic analysis indicates that, unlike the cooperative assembly of the symmetric gp130/Interleukin-6/IL-6R{alpha} hexameric complex, CNTF/CNTF-R{alpha} heterodimerizes gp130 and LIF-R via non-cooperative energetics to form an asymmetric 1:1:1:1 complex. Single particle electron microscopic (EM) analysis of the full-length gp130/LIF-R/CNTF-R{alpha}/CNTF quaternary complex elucidates an asymmetric structural arrangement, in which the receptor extracellular and transmembrane segments join as a continuous, rigid unit, poised to sensitively transduce ligand engagement to the membrane-proximal intracellular signaling regions. These studies also enumerate the organizing principles for assembly of the 'tall' class of gp130-family cytokine receptor complexes including LIF, IL-27, IL-12, and others.

  12. All-atom 3D structure prediction of transmembrane ?-barrel proteins from sequences

    PubMed Central

    Hayat, Sikander; Sander, Chris; Marks, Debora S.

    2015-01-01

    Transmembrane ?-barrels (TMBs) carry out major functions in substrate transport and protein biogenesis but experimental determination of their 3D structure is challenging. Encouraged by successful de novo 3D structure prediction of globular and ?-helical membrane proteins from sequence alignments alone, we developed an approach to predict the 3D structure of TMBs. The approach combines the maximum-entropy evolutionary coupling method for predicting residue contacts (EVfold) with a machine-learning approach (boctopus2) for predicting ?-strands in the barrel. In a blinded test for 19 TMB proteins of known structure that have a sufficient number of diverse homologous sequences available, this combined method (EVfold_bb) predicts hydrogen-bonded residue pairs between adjacent ?-strands at an accuracy of ?70%. This accuracy is sufficient for the generation of all-atom 3D models. In the transmembrane barrel region, the average 3D structure accuracy [template-modeling (TM) score] of top-ranked models is 0.54 (ranging from 0.36 to 0.85), with a higher (44%) number of residue pairs in correct strand–strand registration than in earlier methods (18%). Although the nonbarrel regions are predicted less accurately overall, the evolutionary couplings identify some highly constrained loop residues and, for FecA protein, the barrel including the structure of a plug domain can be accurately modeled (TM score = 0.68). Lower prediction accuracy tends to be associated with insufficient sequence information and we therefore expect increasing numbers of ?-barrel families to become accessible to accurate 3D structure prediction as the number of available sequences increases. PMID:25858953

  13. Structural studies of E73 from a hyperthermophilic archaeal virus identify the “RH3” domain, an elaborated ribbon-helix-helix motif involved in DNA recognition†

    PubMed Central

    Schlenker, Casey; Goel, Anupam; Tripet, Brian P.; Menon, Smita; Willi, Taylor; Dlaki?, Mensur; Young, Mark J.; Lawrence, C Martin; Copié, Valérie

    2012-01-01

    Hyperthermophilic archaeal viruses including Sulfolobus spindle-shaped viruses (SSVs) such as SSV-1 and SSV-Ragged Hills exhibit remarkable morphology and genetic diversity. However, they remain poorly understood, in part because their genomes exhibit limited or unrecognizable sequence similarity to genes with known function. Here we report structural and functional studies of E73, a 73-residue homodimeric protein encoded within the SSV-Ragged Hills genome. Despite lacking significant sequence similarity, the NMR structure reveals clear similarity to ribbon-helix-helix (RHH) domains present in numerous proteins involved in transcriptional regulation. In vitro dsDNA binding experiments confirm the ability of E73 to bind dsDNA in a non-specific manner with micromolar affinity, and characterization of the K11E variant confirms the location of the predicted DNA binding surface. E73 is distinct, however, from known RHHs. The RHH motif is elaborated upon by the insertion of a third helix that is tightly integrated into the structural domain, giving rise to the “RH3” fold. Within the homodimer, this helix results in the formation of a conserved, symmetric cleft distal to the DNA binding surface, where it may mediate protein-protein interactions, or contribute to the high thermal stability of E73. Analysis of backbone amide dynamics by NMR provides evidence for a rigid core, and fast ps-ns timescale NH bond vector motions for residues located within the antiparallel ?-sheet region of the proposed DNA-binding surface, and slower ?s to ms timescale motions for residues in the ?1-?2 loop. The role of E73 and its SSV homologs in the viral life cycle are discussed. PMID:22409376

  14. Structure of the Membrane Anchor of Pestivirus Glycoprotein Erns, a Long Tilted Amphipathic Helix

    PubMed Central

    Aberle, Daniel; Muhle-Goll, Claudia; Bürck, Jochen; Wolf, Moritz; Reißer, Sabine; Luy, Burkhard; Wenzel, Wolfgang; Ulrich, Anne S.; Meyers, Gregor

    2014-01-01

    Erns is an essential virion glycoprotein with RNase activity that suppresses host cellular innate immune responses upon being partially secreted from the infected cells. Its unusual C-terminus plays multiple roles, as the amphiphilic helix acts as a membrane anchor, as a signal peptidase cleavage site, and as a retention/secretion signal. We analyzed the structure and membrane binding properties of this sequence to gain a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms. CD spectroscopy in different setups, as well as Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics simulations confirmed the helical folding and showed that the helix is accommodated in the amphiphilic region of the lipid bilayer with a slight tilt rather than lying parallel to the surface. This model was confirmed by NMR analyses that also identified a central stretch of 15 residues within the helix that is fully shielded from the aqueous layer, which is C-terminally followed by a putative hairpin structure. These findings explain the strong membrane binding of the protein and provide clues to establishing the Erns membrane contact, processing and secretion. PMID:24586172

  15. Structural dynamics of a single-stranded RNA–helix junction using NMR

    PubMed Central

    Eichhorn, Catherine D.; Al-Hashimi, Hashim M.

    2014-01-01

    Many regulatory RNAs contain long single strands (ssRNA) that adjoin secondary structural elements. Here, we use NMR spectroscopy to study the dynamic properties of a 12-nucleotide (nt) ssRNA tail derived from the prequeuosine riboswitch linked to the 3? end of a 48-nt hairpin. Analysis of chemical shifts, NOE connectivity, 13C spin relaxation, and residual dipolar coupling data suggests that the first two residues (A25 and U26) in the ssRNA tail stack onto the adjacent helix and assume an ordered conformation. The following U26-A27 step marks the beginning of an A6-tract and forms an acute pivot point for substantial motions within the tail, which increase toward the terminal end. Despite substantial internal motions, the ssRNA tail adopts, on average, an A-form helical conformation that is coaxial with the helix. Our results reveal a surprising degree of structural and dynamic complexity at the ssRNA–helix junction, which involves a fine balance between order and disorder that may facilitate efficient pseudoknot formation on ligand recognition. PMID:24742933

  16. A novel slotted helix slow-wave structure for high power Ka-band traveling-wave tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Lu-Wei; Wei, Yan-Yu; Wang, Shao-Meng; Hou, Yan; Yin, Hai-Rong; Zhao, Guo-Qing; Duan, Zhao-Yun; Xu, Jin; Gong, Yu-Bin; Wang, Wen-Xiang; Yang, Ming-Hua

    2013-10-01

    A novel slotted helix slow-wave structure (SWS) is proposed to develop a high power, wide-bandwidth, and high reliability millimeter-wave traveling-wave tube (TWT). This novel structure, which has higher heat capacity than a conventional helix SWS, evolves from conventional helix SWS with three parallel rows of rectangular slots made in the outside of the helix tape. In this paper, the electromagnetic characteristics and the beam-wave interaction of this novel structure operating in the Ka-band are investigated. From our calculations, when the designed beam voltage and beam current are set to be 18.45 kV and 0.2 A, respectively, this novel circuit can produce over 700-W average output power in a frequency range from 27.5 GHz to 32.5 GHz, and the corresponding conversion efficiency values vary from 19% to 21.3%, and the maximum output power is 787 W at 30 GHz.

  17. Structure and dynamics of de novo proteins from a designed superfamily of 4-helix bundles

    PubMed Central

    Go, Abigail; Kim, Seho; Baum, Jean; Hecht, Michael H.

    2008-01-01

    Libraries of de novo proteins provide an opportunity to explore the structural and functional potential of biological molecules that have not been biased by billions of years of evolutionary selection. Given the enormity of sequence space, a rational approach to library design is likely to yield a higher fraction of folded and functional proteins than a stochastic sampling of random sequences. We previously investigated the potential of library design by binary patterning of hydrophobic and hydrophilic amino acids. The structure of the most stable protein from a binary patterned library of de novo 4-helix bundles was solved previously and shown to be consistent with the design. One structure, however, cannot fully assess the potential of the design strategy, nor can it account for differences in the stabilities of individual proteins. To more fully probe the quality of the library, we now report the NMR structure of a second protein, S-836. Protein S-836 proved to be a 4-helix bundle, consistent with design. The similarity between the two solved structures reinforces previous evidence that binary patterning can encode stable, 4-helix bundles. Despite their global similarities, the two proteins have cores that are packed at different degrees of tightness. The relationship between packing and dynamics was probed using the Modelfree approach, which showed that regions containing a high frequency of chemical exchange coincide with less well-packed side chains. These studies show (1) that binary patterning can drive folding into a particular topology without the explicit design of residue-by-residue packing, and (2) that within a superfamily of binary patterned proteins, the structures and dynamics of individual proteins are modulated by the identity and packing of residues in the hydrophobic core. PMID:18436954

  18. Reactive molecular dynamics study of the pH-dependent dynamic structure of ?-helix.

    PubMed

    Golkaram, M; Shin, Y K; van Duin, A C T

    2014-11-26

    We have studied the ?-helix to random coil transition using ReaxFF reactive molecular dynamics as a function of pH. Urea binding to peptides and associated interference with backbone H-bonds and charged side chains interactions, which can both denature the helices, have been studied previously using nonreactive force fields (Topol, I. A. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2001, 123, 6054-6060). This study reveals new proton-transfer mechanisms related to the denaturation of ?-helical structures, which cannot be captured by nonreactive molecular dynamics. In addition, we show that proton transfer between the solution and the peptide can break the ?-helix hydrogen bonds, and consequently, at extreme pHs, a significant amount of helix will unravel. We also compare the effects of temperature in the denaturation mechanism. The ReaxFF findings are in significantly better agreement with ab initio calculations than previous nonreactive force field results, indicating the relevance of the reactive component on helical loss. PMID:25365332

  19. Three-dimensional reconstruction of human cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator chloride channel revealed an ellipsoidal structure with orifices beneath the putative transmembrane domain.

    PubMed

    Mio, Kazuhiro; Ogura, Toshihiko; Mio, Muneyo; Shimizu, Hiroyasu; Hwang, Tzyh-Chang; Sato, Chikara; Sohma, Yoshiro

    2008-10-31

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride channel is a membrane-integral protein that belongs to an ATP-binding cassette superfamily. Mutations in the CFTR gene cause cystic fibrosis in which salt, water, and protein transports are defective in various tissues. Here we expressed wild-type human CFTR as a FLAG-fused protein in HEK293 cells heterologously and purified it in three steps: anti-FLAG and wheat germ agglutinin affinity chromatographies and size exclusion chromatography. The stoichiometry of the protein was analyzed using various biochemical approaches, including chemical cross-linking, blue-native PAGE, size exclusion chromatography, and electron microscopy (EM) observation of antibody-decorated CFTR. All these data support a dimeric assembly of CFTR. Using 5,039 automatically selected particles from negatively stained EM images, the three-dimensional structure of CFTR was reconstructed at 2-nm resolution assuming a 2-fold symmetry. CFTR, presumably in a closed state, was shown to be an ellipsoidal particle with dimensions of 120 x 106 x 162 A. It comprises a small dome-shaped extracellular and membrane-spanning domain and a large cytoplasmic domain with orifices beneath the putative transmembrane domain. EM observation of CFTR.anti-regulatory domain antibody complex confirmed that two regulatory domains are located around the bottom end of the larger oval cytoplasmic domain. PMID:18723516

  20. Crystal structure of AcrB in complex with a single transmembrane subunit reveals another twist.

    PubMed

    Törnroth-Horsefield, Susanna; Gourdon, Pontus; Horsefield, Rob; Brive, Lars; Yamamoto, Natsuko; Mori, Hirotada; Snijder, Arjan; Neutze, Richard

    2007-12-01

    Bacterial drug resistance is a serious concern for human health. Multidrug efflux pumps export a broad variety of substrates out of the cell and thereby convey resistance to the host. In Escherichia coli, the AcrB:AcrA:TolC efflux complex forms a principal transporter for which structures of the individual component proteins have been determined in isolation. Here, we present the X-ray structure of AcrB in complex with a single transmembrane protein, assigned by mass spectrometry as YajC. A specific rotation of the periplasmic porter domain of AcrB is also revealed, consistent with the hypothesized "twist-to-open" mechanism for TolC activation. Growth experiments with yajc-deleted E. coli reveal a modest increase in the organism's susceptibility to beta-lactam antibiotics, but this effect could not conclusively be attributed to the loss of interactions between YajC and AcrB. PMID:18073115

  1. transFold: a web server for predicting the structure and residue contacts of transmembrane beta-barrels

    E-print Network

    Clote, Peter

    transFold: a web server for predicting the structure and residue contacts of transmembrane beta of Gram-negative bacteria, mitochondria and chloroplasts. The cellular location and functional diversity few non-homologous TMB structures have been determined by X-ray diffraction because

  2. Conformational and structural analysis of the equilibrium between single- and double-strand beta-helix of a D,L-alternating oligonorleucine.

    PubMed

    Navarro, E; Fenude, E; Celda, B

    2004-02-01

    Alternating sequences of D and L residues in peptides are directly related to the formation of several kinds of regular helical conformations usually called beta-helices. The major feature of these structures is that they can be associated with the transmembrane ion-conducting channel activity in some natural antibacterial peptides. The study of alternating D,L synthetic peptides is critical to understand how factors such as surrounding media, main chain length, type of side chain and terminal groups, among others, can determine the adoption of a specific kind of beta-helix. Early studies pointed out that the peptides Boc-(D-NLeu-L-NLeu)(6)-D-MeNLe-L-Nl-D-Nl-L-Nl-OMe (Boc: tert-butyloxycarbonyl) and Boc-L-Nle-(D-Nle-L-Nle)(5)-D-MeNle-L-Nle-D-Nle-L-Nle-OMe adopt in chloroform a unique detectable conformation single beta(4.4)- and double beta(5.6) upward arrow downward arrow -helix, respectively. The influence of terminal groups on the final stable conformation of N-formylated peptides has been studied in this work. The initial basic NMR data analysis of a synthetic alternating D,L-oligopeptide with ten norleucines, N-methylated on the residue 7 and having HCO- and -OMe as terminal groups clearly indicates the coexistence of two different conformations in equilibrium. NMR data and molecular dynamics calculations point to a dimeric antiparallel beta-helix structure beta(5.6) upward arrow downward arrow for the main conformation. On the other hand, NMR data suggest a single beta-helix structure beta(4.4) for the second conformation. Finally, a thermodynamic analysis of the equilibrium between both conformations has been carried out by one-dimensional NMR measurements at ten different temperatures. The temperature at which 50% of dimer conformation is dissociated is 319 K. In addition, the dimer-monomer equilibrium curve obtained shows a DeltaG>0 for the whole range of studied temperatures, and its behavior can be considered similar to the thermodynamic denaturation protein processes. PMID:14755580

  3. anthocyanin1 of Petunia Encodes a Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Protein That Directly Activates Transcription of Structural Anthocyanin Genes

    PubMed Central

    Spelt, Cornelis; Quattrocchio, Francesca; Mol, Joseph N. M.; Koes, Ronald

    2000-01-01

    The petunia loci anthocyanin1 (an1), an2, an4, and an11 are required for the transcription of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes in floral organs. The an2 and an11 loci were recently cloned and shown to encode a MYB-domain transcriptional activator and a cytosolic WD40 protein, respectively. Here, we report the isolation of an1 by transposon tagging. an1 encodes a new member of the basic helix-loop-helix family of transcription factors that is functionally and evolutionarily distinct from JAF13, the apparent petunia ortholog of maize RED1 and snapdragon DELILA. We provide genetic evidence that the transcription factors encoded by an1, an2, and an4 operate in an unexpectedly complex regulatory hierarchy. In leaves, ectopic expression of AN2 induces an1 expression, whereas in anthers, an1 expression depends on an4, encoding (or controlling) a MYB protein that is paralogous to AN2. Experiments with transgenic plants expressing a post-translationally controlled AN1–GLUCOCORTICOID RECEPTOR fusion protein indicated that independent of protein synthesis, AN1 directly activates the expression of the dfrA gene encoding the enzyme dihydroflavonol 4-reductase and of Pmyb27 encoding a MYB-domain protein of unknown function. PMID:11006336

  4. Symmetry of helicoidal biopolymers in the frameworks of algebraic geometry: ?-helix and DNA structures.

    PubMed

    Samoylovich, Mikhail; Talis, Alexander

    2014-03-01

    The chain of algebraic geometry and topology constructions is mapped on a structural level that allows one to single out a special class of discrete helicoidal structures. A structure that belongs to this class is locally periodic, topologically stable in three-dimensional Euclidean space and corresponds to the bifurcation domain. Singular points of its bounding minimal surface are related by transformations determined by symmetries of the second coordination sphere of the eight-dimensional crystallographic lattice E8. These points represent cluster vertices, whose helicoid joining determines the topology and structural parameters of linear biopolymers. In particular, structural parameters of the ?-helix are determined by the seven-vertex face-to-face joining of tetrahedra with the E8 non-integer helical axis 40/11 having a rotation angle of 99°, and the development of its surface coincides with the cylindrical development of the ?-helix. Also, packing models have been created which determine the topology of the A, B and Z forms of DNA. PMID:24572320

  5. Membrane-Dependent Effects of a Cytoplasmic Helix on the Structure and Drug Binding of the Influenza Virus M2 Protein

    PubMed Central

    Cady, Sarah; Wang, Tuo; Hong, Mei

    2011-01-01

    The influenza A M2 protein forms a proton channel for virus infection and also mediates virus assembly and budding. The minimum protein length that encodes both functions contains the transmembrane (TM) domain (roughly residues 22 to 46) for the amantadine-sensitive proton-channel activity and an amphipathic cytoplasmic helix (roughly residues 45 to 62) for curvature induction and virus budding. However, structural studies involving the TM domain with or without the amphipathic helix differed on the drug-binding site. Here we use solid-state NMR spectroscopy to determine the amantadine binding site in the cytoplasmic-helix-containing M2(21–61). 13C-2H distance measurements of 13C-labeled protein and 2H-labeled amantadine showed that in DMPC bilayers, the first equivalent of drug bound S31 inside the M2(21–61) pore, similar to the behavior of M2TM in DMPC bilayers. The non-specific surface site of D44 observed in M2TM is disfavored in the longer peptide. Thus, the pharmacologically relevant drug-binding site in the fully functional M2(21–61) is S31 in the TM pore. Interestingly, when M2(21–61) was reconstituted into a virus-mimetic membrane containing 30% cholesterol, no chemical shift perturbation was observed for pore-lining residues, while M2TM in the same membrane exhibited drug-induced chemical shift changes. Reduction of the cholesterol level and the use of unsaturated phospholipids shifted the conformational equilibrium of M2TM fully to the bound state, but did not rescue drug binding to M2(21–61). These results suggest that the amphipathic helix, together with cholesterol, modulates the ability of the TM helices to bind amantadine. Thus, the M2 protein interacts with the lipid membrane and small-molecule inhibitors in a complex fashion, and a careful examination of the environmental dependence of the protein conformation is required to fully understand the structure-function relation of this protein. PMID:21661724

  6. Structure, function and physiological consequences of virally encoded chemokine seven transmembrane receptors

    PubMed Central

    Rosenkilde, M M; Smit, M J; Waldhoer, M

    2008-01-01

    A number of human and animal herpes viruses encode G-protein coupled receptors with seven transmembrane (7TM) segments—most of which are clearly related to human chemokine receptors. It appears, that these receptors are used by the virus for immune evasion, cellular transformation, tissue targeting, and possibly for cell entry. In addition, many virally-encoded chemokine 7TM receptors have been suggested to be causally involved in pathogenic phenotypes like Kaposi sarcoma, atherosclerosis, HIV-infection and tumour development. The role of these receptors during the viral life cycle and in viral pathogenesis is still poorly understood. Here we focus on the current knowledge of structure, function and trafficking patterns of virally encoded chemokine receptors and further address the putative roles of these receptors in virus survival and host -cell and/or -immune system modulation. Finally, we highlight the emerging impact of these receptor on virus-mediated diseases. PMID:18204488

  7. NMR Structure and Dynamics of a Designed Water-soluble Transmembrane Domain of Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Tanxing; Mowrey, David; Bondarenko, Vasyl; Tillman, Tommy; Ma, Dejian; Landrum, Elizabeth; Perez-Aguilar, Jose Manuel; He, Jing; Wang, Wei; Saven, Jeffery G.; Eckenhoff, Roderic G.; Tang, Pei; Xu, Yan

    2011-01-01

    The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) is an important therapeutic target for a wide range of pathophysiological conditions, for which rational drug designs often require receptor structures at atomic resolution. Recent proof-of-concept studies demonstrated a water-solubilization approach to structure determination of membrane proteins by NMR (Slovic et al., PNAS, 101: 1828-1833, 2004; Ma et al., PNAS, 105: 16537-42, 2008). We report here the computational design and experimental characterization of WSA, a water-soluble protein with ?83% sequence identity to the transmembrane (TM) domain of the nAChR ?1 subunit. Although the design was based on a low-resolution structural template, the resulting high-resolution NMR structure agrees remarkably well with the recent crystal structure of the TM domains of the bacterial Gloeobacter violaceus pentameric ligand-gated ion channel (GLIC), demonstrating the robustness and general applicability of the approach. NMR T2 dispersion measurements showed that the TM2 domain of the designed protein was dynamic, undergoing conformational exchange on the NMR timescale. Photoaffinity labeling with isoflurane and propofol photolabels identified a common binding site in the immediate proximity of the anesthetic binding site found in the crystal structure of the anesthetic-GLIC complex. Our results illustrate the usefulness of high-resolution NMR analyses of water-solubilized channel proteins for the discovery of potential drug binding sites. PMID:22155685

  8. PolyprOnline: polyproline helix II and secondary structure assignment database

    PubMed Central

    Chebrek, Romain; Leonard, Sylvain; de Brevern, Alexandre G.; Gelly, Jean-Christophe

    2014-01-01

    The polyproline helix type II (PPII) is a regular protein secondary structure with remarkable features. Many studies have highlighted different crucial biological roles supported by this local conformation, e.g. in the interactions between biological macromolecules. Although PPII is less frequently present than regular secondary structures such as canonical alpha helices and beta strands, it corresponds to 3–10% of residues. Up to now, PPII is not assigned by most popular assignment tools, and therefore, remains insufficiently studied. PolyprOnline database is, therefore, dedicated to PPII structure assignment and analysis to facilitate the study of PPII structure and functional roles. This database is freely accessible from www.dsimb.inserm.fr/dsimb_tools/polyproline. PMID:25380779

  9. Internal structure and visualization of transmembrane domains of the RyR1 calcium release channel by cryo?EM

    PubMed Central

    Samsó, Montserrat; Wagenknecht, Terence; Allen, PD

    2007-01-01

    RyR1 is an intracellular calcium channel with a central role in muscle contraction. We obtained a three?dimensional reconstruction of the RyR1 in the closed state at a nominal resolution of ?10 Å using cryo?EM. The cytoplasmic assembly consists of a series of interconnected tubular structures that merge into four columns that extend into the transmembrane assembly. The transmembrane assembly, which has at least six transmembrane ??helices per monomer, has four tilted rods that can be fitted with the inner helices of a closed K+ channel atomic structure. The rods splay out at the lumenal side and converge into a dense ring at the cytoplasmic side. Another set of four rods emerges from this ring and shapes the inner part of the four columns. The resulting constricted axial structure provides direct continuity between cytoplasmic and transmembrane assemblies, and a possible mechanism for control of channel gating through conformational changes in the cytoplasmic assembly. PMID:15908964

  10. Self-organization of amphiphilic macromolecules with local helix structure in concentrated solutions.

    PubMed

    Glagolev, M K; Vasilevskaya, V V; Khokhlov, A R

    2012-08-28

    Concentrated solutions of amphiphilic macromolecules with local helical structure were studied by means of molecular dynamic simulations. It is shown that in poor solvent the macromolecules are assembled into wire-like aggregates having complex core-shell structure. The core consists of a hydrophobic backbone of the chains which intertwine around each other. It is protected by the shell of hydrophilic side groups. In racemic mixture of right-hand and left-hand helix macromolecules the wire-like complex is a chain of braid bundles of macromolecules with the same chirality stacking at their ends. The average number of macromolecules in the wire cross-section is close to that of separate bundles observed in dilute solutions of such macromolecules. The effects described here could serve as a simple model of self-organization in solutions of macromolecules with local helical structure. PMID:22938259

  11. Helix coupling

    DOEpatents

    Ginell, W.S.

    1989-04-25

    A coupling for connecting helix members in series, which consists of a pair of U-shaped elements, one of which is attached to each helix end with the "U" sections of the elements interlocked. The coupling is particularly beneficial for interconnecting helical Nitinol elements utilized in thermal actuators or engines. Each coupling half is attached to the associated helix at two points, thereby providing axial load while being easily removed from the helix, and reusable.

  12. Helix coupling

    DOEpatents

    Ginell, W.S.

    1982-03-17

    A coupling for connecting helix members in series, which consists of a pair of U-shaped elements, one of which is attached to each helix end with the U sections of the elements interlocked. The coupling is particularly beneficial for interconnecting helical Nitinol elements utilized in thermal actuators or engines. Each coupling half is attached to the associated helix at two points, thereby providing axial load while being easily removed from the helix, and reusable.

  13. Predicting RNA 3D structure using a coarse-grain helix-centered model.

    PubMed

    Kerpedjiev, Peter; Höner Zu Siederdissen, Christian; Hofacker, Ivo L

    2015-06-01

    A 3D model of RNA structure can provide information about its function and regulation that is not possible with just the sequence or secondary structure. Current models suffer from low accuracy and long running times and either neglect or presume knowledge of the long-range interactions which stabilize the tertiary structure. Our coarse-grained, helix-based, tertiary structure model operates with only a few degrees of freedom compared with all-atom models while preserving the ability to sample tertiary structures given a secondary structure. It strikes a balance between the precision of an all-atom tertiary structure model and the simplicity and effectiveness of a secondary structure representation. It provides a simplified tool for exploring global arrangements of helices and loops within RNA structures. We provide an example of a novel energy function relying only on the positions of stems and loops. We show that coupling our model to this energy function produces predictions as good as or better than the current state of the art tools. We propose that given the wide range of conformational space that needs to be explored, a coarse-grain approach can explore more conformations in less iterations than an all-atom model coupled to a fine-grain energy function. Finally, we emphasize the overarching theme of providing an ensemble of predicted structures, something which our tool excels at, rather than providing a handful of the lowest energy structures. PMID:25904133

  14. Predicting RNA 3D structure using a coarse-grain helix-centered model

    PubMed Central

    Kerpedjiev, Peter; Höner zu Siederdissen, Christian; Hofacker, Ivo L.

    2015-01-01

    A 3D model of RNA structure can provide information about its function and regulation that is not possible with just the sequence or secondary structure. Current models suffer from low accuracy and long running times and either neglect or presume knowledge of the long-range interactions which stabilize the tertiary structure. Our coarse-grained, helix-based, tertiary structure model operates with only a few degrees of freedom compared with all-atom models while preserving the ability to sample tertiary structures given a secondary structure. It strikes a balance between the precision of an all-atom tertiary structure model and the simplicity and effectiveness of a secondary structure representation. It provides a simplified tool for exploring global arrangements of helices and loops within RNA structures. We provide an example of a novel energy function relying only on the positions of stems and loops. We show that coupling our model to this energy function produces predictions as good as or better than the current state of the art tools. We propose that given the wide range of conformational space that needs to be explored, a coarse-grain approach can explore more conformations in less iterations than an all-atom model coupled to a fine-grain energy function. Finally, we emphasize the overarching theme of providing an ensemble of predicted structures, something which our tool excels at, rather than providing a handful of the lowest energy structures. PMID:25904133

  15. Structural Consequences of ?-Amino Acid Preorganization in a Self-Assembling ?/?-Peptide: Fundamental Studies of Foldameric Helix Bundles

    PubMed Central

    Price, Joshua L.; Horne, W. Seth; Gellman, Samuel H.

    2010-01-01

    We report high-resolution crystal structures of six new ?/?-peptide foldamers that have a regular ?-residue/?-residue/?-residue (???) backbone repeat pattern. All of these foldamers were crystallized from aqueous solution, and all display four-helix bundle quaternary structure in the crystalline state. These oligomers are based on the well-studied 33-residue ?-peptide GCN4-pLI, which is an engineered derivative of the dimerization domain of GCN4, a yeast transcription factor. GCN4-pLI forms a stable tetramer in solution and crystallizes as a four-helix bundle (Harbury et al. Science 1993, 262, 1401–1407). Previously we described a foldamer (designated 1 here) that was generated from GCN4-pLI by replacing every third ?-amino acid residue with the homologous ?3-amino acid residue; this ??? oligomer retains the side chain sequence of the original ?-peptide, but the backbone contains 11 additional CH2 units, which are evenly distributed (Horne et al. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 2008, 105, 9151–9156). Despite the expanded backbone, 1 was found to retain the ability to form a tetrameric quaternary structure in which the individual molecules adopt an ?-helix-like conformation. Here we compare nine analogues of 1 that have the same ??? backbone but in which one or more of the flexible ?3-amino acid residues is/are replaced with an analogous cyclic ?-residue. The motivation for ?3?cyclic replacements is to enhance conformational stability; however, a crystal structure of the one previously reported example (designated 2 here) revealed a “stammer” distortion of the helix-bundle architecture relative to 1. The results reported here suggest that the stammer is a peculiarity of 2, because all six of the new ?/?-peptides display undistorted four-helix bundle quaternary structures. More broadly, our results indicate that ?3?cyclic replacements are generally well-accommodated in helix-bundle quaternary structure, but that such replacements can be destabilizing in certain instances. PMID:20718422

  16. Crystal structure of the signaling helix coiled-coil domain of the ?1 subunit of the soluble guanylyl cyclase

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) is a heterodimeric enzyme that, upon activation by nitric oxide, stimulates the production of the second messenger cGMP. Each sGC subunit harbor four domains three of which are used for heterodimerization: H-NOXA/H-NOBA domain, coiled-coil domain (CC), and catalytic guanylyl cyclase domain. The CC domain has previously been postulated to be part of a larger CC family termed the signaling helix (S-helix) family. Homodimers of sGC have also been observed but are not functionally active yet are likely transient awaiting their intended heterodimeric partner. Results To investigate the structure of the CC S-helix region, we crystallized and determined the structure of the CC domain of the sGC?1 subunit comprising residues 348-409. The crystal structure was refined to 2.15 Å resolution. Conclusions The CC structure of sGC?1 revealed a tetrameric arrangement comprised of a dimer of CC dimers. Each monomer is comprised of a long a-helix, a turn near residue P399, and a short second a-helix. The CC structure also offers insights as to how sGC homodimers are not as stable as (functionally) active heterodimers via a possible role for inter-helix salt-bridge formation. The structure also yielded insights into the residues involved in dimerization. In addition, the CC region is also known to harbor a number of congenital and man-made mutations in both membrane and soluble guanylyl cyclases and those function-affecting mutations have been mapped onto the CC structure. This mutant analysis indicated an importance for not only certain dimerization residue positions, but also an important role for other faces of the CC dimer which might perhaps interact with adjacent domains. Our results also extend beyond guanylyl cyclases as the CC structure is, to our knowledge, the first S-helix structure and serves as a model for all S-helix containing family members. PMID:20105301

  17. Membrane physical properties influence transmembrane helix formation

    E-print Network

    (lymphoma, leukemia, lung, cervix, and neural cancers) are more fluid than the membranes of normal cells (14HLIP at low pH can be used to target the acidic tissues character- istic of different diseases, such as cancer (state III). The pH-controlled membrane insertion of pHLIP may be useful for cancer diagnosis and therapy

  18. The transmembrane domain sequence affects the structure and function of the Newcastle disease virus fusion protein.

    PubMed

    Gravel, Kathryn A; McGinnes, Lori W; Reitter, Julie; Morrison, Trudy G

    2011-04-01

    The role of specific sequences in the transmembrane (TM) domain of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) fusion (F) protein in the structure and function of this protein was assessed by replacing this domain with the F protein TM domains from two other paramyxoviruses, Sendai virus (SV) and measles virus (MV), or the TM domain of the unrelated glycoprotein (G) of vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV). Mutant proteins with the SV or MV F protein TM domains were expressed, transported to cell surfaces, and proteolytically cleaved at levels comparable to that of the wild-type protein, while mutant proteins with the VSV G protein TM domain were less efficiently expressed on cell surfaces and proteolytically cleaved. All mutant proteins were defective in all steps of membrane fusion, including hemifusion. In contrast to the wild-type protein, the mutant proteins did not form detectable complexes with the NDV hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein. As determined by binding of conformation-sensitive antibodies, the conformations of the ectodomains of the mutant proteins were altered. These results show that the specific sequence of the TM domain of the NDV F protein is important for the conformation of the preactivation form of the ectodomain, the interactions of the protein with HN protein, and fusion activity. PMID:21270151

  19. Structural genomics target selection for the New York consortium on membrane protein structure

    E-print Network

    Hendrickson, Wayne A.

    extract all annotated proteins from our reagent genomes, i.e. the 96 fully sequenced prokaryotic genomes Notations used Reagent genomes List of entirely sequenced organisms from which PSI clones its targets sequence SG Structural genomics TM Transmembrane TMH Transmembrane helix UPF Uncharacterized protein family

  20. Homooligopeptides composed of hydrophobic amino acid residues interact in a specific manner by taking alpha-helix or beta-structure toward lipid bilayers.

    PubMed

    Lee, S; Yoshitomi, H; Morikawa, M; Ando, S; Takiguchi, H; Inoue, T; Sugihara, G

    1995-09-01

    In order to investigate the role of each amino acid residue in determining the secondary structure of the transmembrane segment of membrane proteins in a lipid bilayer, we made a conformational analysis by CD for lipid-soluble homooligopeptides, benzyloxycarbonyl-(Z-)Aaan-OEt (n = 5 - 7), composed of Ala, Leu, Val, and Phe, in three media of trifluoroethanol, sodium dodecyl sulfate micelle, and phospholipid liposomes. The lipid-peptide interaction was also studied through the observation of bilayer phase transition by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The CD studies showed that peptides except for Phe oligomers are present as a mainly random structure in trifluoroethanol, as a mixture of alpha-helix, beta-sheet, beta-turn, and/or random in micelles above the critical micellization concentration and preferably as an extended structure of alpha-helical or beta-structure in dipalmitoyl-D,L-alpha-phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) liposomes of gel state. That the beta-structural content of Val oligomers in lipid bilayers is much higher than that in micelles and the oligopeptides of Leu (n = 7) and Ala (n = 6) can take an alpha-helical structure with one to two turns in lipid bilayers despite their short chain lengths indicates that lipid bilayers can stabilize the extended structures of both alpha-helical and beta-structures of the peptides. The DSC study for bilayer phase transition of DPPC/peptide mixtures showed that the Leu oligomer virtually affects neither the temperature nor the enthalpy of the transition, while Val and Ala oligomers slightly reduce the transition enthalpy without altering the transition temperature.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7669922

  1. Polysaccharide hydrogels with tunable stiffness and provasculogenic properties via ?-helix to ?-sheet switch in secondary structure.

    PubMed

    Forget, Aurelien; Christensen, Jon; Lüdeke, Steffen; Kohler, Esther; Tobias, Simon; Matloubi, Maziar; Thomann, Ralf; Shastri, V Prasad

    2013-08-01

    Mechanical aspects of the cellular environment can influence cell function, and in this context hydrogels can serve as an instructive matrix. Here we report that physicochemical properties of hydrogels derived from polysaccharides (agarose, ?-carrageenan) having an ?-helical backbone can be tailored by inducing a switch in the secondary structure from ?-helix to ?-sheet through carboxylation. This enables the gel modulus to be tuned over four orders of magnitude (G' 6 Pa-3.6 × 10(4) Pa) independently of polymer concentration and molecular weight. Using carboxylated agarose gels as a screening platform, we demonstrate that soft-carboxylated agarose provides a unique environment for the polarization of endothelial cells in the presence of soluble and bound signals, which notably does not occur in fibrin and collagen gels. Furthermore, endothelial cells organize into freestanding lumens over 100 ?m in length. The finding that a biomaterial can modulate soluble and bound signals provides impetus for exploring mechanobiology paradigms in regenerative therapies. PMID:23886665

  2. Stabilization of the ?2-adrenergic Receptor 4-3-5 Helix Interface by Mutagenesis of Glu-1223.41, A Critical Residue in GPCR Structure

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Christopher B.; Hanson, Michael A.; Stevens, Raymond C.

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) instability represents one of the most profound obstacles to the structural study of GPCRs that bind diffusible ligands. The introduction of targeted mutations at non-conserved residues that lie proximal to helix interfaces has the potential to enhance the fold stability of the receptor helix bundle while maintaining wild-type receptor function. To test this hypothesis, we studied the effect of amino acid substitutions at Glu-1223.41 in the well studied ?2-adrenergic receptor (?2AR), which was predicted from sequence conservation to lie at a position equivalent to the tryptophan interface between transmembrane domains (TMs) 3, 4, and 5. The data indicate that the replacement of Glu-1223.41 with bulky hydrophobic residues, such as tryptophan, tyrosine and phenylalanine increase the yield of functionally folded ?2AR by as much as 5-fold. Receptor stability in detergent solution was studied by isothermal denaturation and it was found that the E122W and E122Y mutations enhanced the ?2AR thermal half-life by 9.3- and 6.7-fold, respectively at 37 °C. The ?1AR was also stabilized by the introduction of tryptophan at Glu-1473.41, and the effect on protein behavior was similar to the rescue of the unstable wild-type receptor by the antagonist propranolol. Molecular modeling of the E122W and E122Y mutants using a previously published ?2AR homology model revealed that the tryptophan ring edge and tyrosine hydroxyl are positioned proximal to the helical break in TM5 introduced by the conserved Pro-2115.50, and may stabilize the helix by interacting favorably with the unpaired carbonyl oxygen of Val-2065.45. Conformational flexibility of TM5 is believed to be a general property of rhodopsin-like GPCRs and, therefore, engineering of the TM4-3-5 interface at the 3.41 position may provide a general strategy for the stabilization of other receptors. PMID:18222471

  3. Computational design of a ?–peptide that targets transmembrane helices

    PubMed Central

    Shandler, Scott J.; Korendovych, Ivan V.; Moore, David T.; Smith-Dupont, Kathryn B.; Streu, Craig N.; Litvinov, Rustem I.; Billings, Paul C.; Gai, Feng; Bennett, Joel S.; DeGrado, William F.

    2011-01-01

    The design of ?-peptide foldamers targeting the transmembrane (TM) domains of complex natural membrane proteins has been a formidable challenge. A series of ?-peptides was designed to stably insert in TM orientations in phospholipid bilayers. Their secondary structures and orientation in the phospholipid bilayer was characterized using biophysical methods. Computational methods were then devised to design a ?-peptide that targeted a TM helix of the integrin ?IIb?3. The designed peptide (?-CHAMP) interacts with the isolated target TM domain of the protein, and activates the intact integrin in vitro. PMID:21780757

  4. Computational design of a ?-peptide that targets transmembrane helices.

    PubMed

    Shandler, Scott J; Korendovych, Ivan V; Moore, David T; Smith-Dupont, Kathryn B; Streu, Craig N; Litvinov, Rustem I; Billings, Paul C; Gai, Feng; Bennett, Joel S; DeGrado, William F

    2011-08-17

    The design of ?-peptide foldamers targeting the transmembrane (TM) domains of complex natural membrane proteins has been a formidable challenge. A series of ?-peptides was designed to stably insert in TM orientations in phospholipid bilayers. Their secondary structures and orientation in the phospholipid bilayer was characterized using biophysical methods. Computational methods were then devised to design a ?-peptide that targeted a TM helix of the integrin ?(IIb)?(3). The designed peptide (?-CHAMP) interacts with the isolated target TM domain of the protein and activates the intact integrin in vitro. PMID:21780757

  5. A structural role for the synaptobrevin 2 transmembrane domain in dense-core vesicle fusion pores.

    PubMed

    Chang, Che-Wei; Hui, Enfu; Bai, Jihong; Bruns, Dieter; Chapman, Edwin R; Jackson, Meyer B

    2015-04-01

    Ca(2+)-triggered release of neurotransmitters and hormones depends on soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors (SNAREs) to drive the fusion of the vesicle and plasma membranes. The formation of the SNARE complex by the vesicle SNARE synaptobrevin 2 (syb2) and the two plasma membrane SNAREs syntaxin (syx) and SNAP-25 draws the two membranes together, but the events that follow membrane juxtaposition, and the ways that SNAREs remodel lipid membranes remain poorly understood. The SNAREs syx and syb2 have transmembrane domains (TMDs) that can exert force directly on the lipid bilayers. The TMD of syx influences fusion pore flux in a manner that suggests it lines the nascent fusion pore through the plasma membrane. The TMD of syb2 traverses the vesicle membrane and is the most likely partner to syx in completing a proteinaceous fusion pore through the vesicle membrane, but the role of this vesicle SNARE in fusion pores has yet to be tested. Here amperometry and conductance measurements were performed to probe the function of the syb2 TMD in fusion pores formed during catecholamine exocytosis in mouse chromaffin cells. Fusion pore flux was sensitive to the size and charge of TMD residues near the N terminus; fusion pore conductance was altered by substitutions at these sites. Unlike syx, the syb2 residues that influence fusion pore permeation fell along two ?-helical faces of its TMD, rather than one. These results indicate a role for the syb2 TMD in nascent fusion pores, but in a very different structural arrangement from that of the syx TMD. PMID:25855187

  6. Utilizing the GAAA tetraloop/receptor to facilitate crystal packing and determination of the structure of a CUG RNA helix.

    PubMed

    Coonrod, Leslie A; Lohman, Jeremy R; Berglund, J Andrew

    2012-10-23

    Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is a microsatellite expansion disorder caused by the aberrant expansion of CTG repeats in the 3'-untranslated region of the DMPK gene. When transcribed, the toxic RNA CUG repeats sequester RNA binding proteins, which leads to disease symptoms. The expanded CUG repeats can adopt a double-stranded structure, and targeting this helix is a therapeutic strategy for DM1. To improve our understanding of the 5'CUG/3'GUC motif and how it may interact with proteins and small molecules, we designed a short CUG helix attached to a GAAA tetraloop/receptor to facilitate crystal packing. Here we report the highest-resolution structure (1.95 Å) to date of a GAAA tetraloop/receptor and the CUG helix it was used to crystallize. Within the CUG helix, we identify two different forms of noncanonical U-U pairs and reconfirm that CUG repeats are essentially A-form. An analysis of all noncanonical U-U pairs in the context of CUG repeats revealed six different classes of conformations that the noncanonical U-U pairs are able to adopt. PMID:23025897

  7. Structure modulation of helix 69 from Escherichia coli 23S ribosomal RNA by pseudouridylations

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Jun; Aduri, Raviprasad; Chow, Christine S.; SantaLucia, John

    2014-01-01

    Helix 69 (H69) is a 19-nt stem-loop region from the large subunit ribosomal RNA. Three pseudouridine (?) modifications clustered in H69 are conserved across phylogeny and known to affect ribosome function. To explore the effects of ? on the conformations of Escherichia coli H69 in solution, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to reveal the structural differences between H69 with (???) and without (UUU) ? modifications. Comparison of the two structures shows that H69 ??? has the following unique features: (i) the loop region is closed by a Watson–Crick base pair between ?1911 and A1919, which is potentially reinforced by interactions involving ?1911N1H and (ii) ? modifications at loop residues 1915 and 1917 promote base stacking from ?1915 to A1918. In contrast, the H69 UUU loop region, which lacks ? modifications, is less organized. Structure modulation by ? leads to alteration in conformational behavior of the 5' half of the H69 loop region, observed as broadening of C1914 non-exchangeable base proton resonances in the H69 ??? nuclear magnetic resonance spectra, and plays an important biological role in establishing the ribosomal intersubunit bridge B2a and mediating translational fidelity. PMID:24371282

  8. Structural variation and uniformity among tetraloop-receptor interactions and other loop-helix interactions in RNA crystal structures.

    PubMed

    Wu, Li; Chai, Dinggeng; Fraser, Marie E; Zimmerly, Steven

    2012-01-01

    Tetraloop-receptor interactions are prevalent structural units in RNAs, and include the GAAA/11-nt and GNRA-minor groove interactions. In this study, we have compiled a set of 78 nonredundant loop-helix interactions from X-ray crystal structures, and examined them for the extent of their sequence and structural variation. Of the 78 interactions in the set, only four were classical GAAA/11-nt motifs, while over half (48) were GNRA-minor groove interactions. The GNRA-minor groove interactions were not a homogeneous set, but were divided into five subclasses. The most predominant subclass is characterized by two triple base pair interactions in the minor groove, flanked by two ribose zipper contacts. This geometry may be considered the "standard" GNRA-minor groove interaction, while the other four subclasses are alternative ways to form interfaces between a minor groove and tetraloop. The remaining 26 structures in the set of 78 have loops interacting with mostly idiosyncratic receptors. Among the entire set, a number of sequence-structure correlations can be identified, which may be used as initial hypotheses in predicting three-dimensional structures from primary sequences. Conversely, other sequence patterns are not predictive; for example, GAAA loop sequences and GG/CC receptors bind to each other with three distinct geometries. Finally, we observe an example of structural evolution in group II introns, in which loop-receptor motifs are substituted for each other while maintaining the larger three-dimensional geometry. Overall, the study gives a more complete view of RNA loop-helix interactions that exist in nature. PMID:23152878

  9. Structural characterization of triple transmembrane domain containing fragments of a yeast G protein-coupled receptor in an organic?:?aqueous environment by solution-state NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Fracchiolla, Katrina E; Cohen, Leah S; Arshava, Boris; Poms, Martin; Zerbe, Oliver; Becker, Jeffrey M; Naider, Fred

    2015-03-01

    This report summarizes recent biophysical and protein expression experiments on polypeptides containing the N-terminus, the first, second, and third transmembrane (TM) domains and the contiguous loops of the ?-factor receptor Ste2p, a G protein-coupled receptor. The 131-residue polypeptide Ste2p(G31-R161), TM1-TM3, was investigated by solution NMR in trifluoroethanol/water. TM1-TM3 contains helical TM domains at the predicted locations, supported by continuous sets of medium-range NOEs. In addition, a short helix N-terminal to TM1 was detected, as well as a short helical stretch in the first extracellular loop. Two 161-residue polypeptides, [Ste2p(M1-R161), NT-TM1-TM3], that contain the entire N-terminal sequence, one with a single mutation, were directly expressed and isolated from Escherichia coli in yields as high as 30?mg/L. Based on its increased stability, the L11P mutant will be used in future experiments to determine long-range interactions. The study demonstrated that 3-TM domains of a yeast G protein-coupled receptor can be produced in isotopically labeled form suitable for solution NMR studies. The quality of spectra is superior to data recorded in micelles and allows more rapid data analysis. No tertiary contacts have been determined, and if present, they are likely transient. This observation supports earlier studies by us that secondary structure was retained in smaller fragments, both in organic solvents and in detergent micelles, but that stable tertiary contacts may only be present when the protein is imbedded in lipids. PMID:25645975

  10. Structural and kinetic modeling of an activating helix switch in the rhodopsin-transducin interface.

    PubMed

    Scheerer, Patrick; Heck, Martin; Goede, Andrean; Park, Jung Hee; Choe, Hui-Woog; Ernst, Oliver P; Hofmann, Klaus Peter; Hildebrand, Peter W

    2009-06-30

    Extracellular signals prompt G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) to adopt an active conformation (R*) and catalyze GDP/GTP exchange in the alpha-subunit of intracellular G proteins (Galphabetagamma). Kinetic analysis of transducin (G(t)alphabetagamma) activation shows that an intermediary R*xG(t)alphabetagamma.GDP complex is formed that precedes GDP release and formation of the nucleotide-free R*xG protein complex. Based on this reaction sequence, we explore the dynamic interface between the proteins during formation of these complexes. We start from the R* conformation stabilized by a G(t)alpha C-terminal peptide (GalphaCT) obtained from crystal structures of the GPCR opsin. Molecular modeling allows reconstruction of the fully elongated C-terminal alpha-helix of G(t)alpha (alpha5) and shows how alpha5 can be docked to the open binding site of R*. Two modes of interaction are found. One of them--termed stable or S-interaction--matches the position of the GalphaCT peptide in the crystal structure and reproduces the hydrogen-bonding networks between the C-terminal reverse turn of GalphaCT and conserved E(D)RY and NPxxY(x)(5,6)F regions of the GPCR. The alternative fit--termed intermediary or I-interaction--is distinguished by a tilt (42 degrees ) and rotation (90 degrees ) of alpha5 relative to the S-interaction and shows different alpha5 contacts with the NPxxY(x)(5,6)F region and the second cytoplasmic loop of R*. From the 2 alpha5 interactions, we derive a "helix switch" mechanism for the transition of R*xG(t)alphabetagamma.GDP to the nucleotide-free R*xG protein complex that illustrates how alpha5 might act as a transmission rod to propagate the conformational change from the receptor-G protein interface to the nucleotide binding site. PMID:19541654

  11. Interface connections of a transmembrane voltage sensor

    E-print Network

    White, Stephen

    -sensitive ion channels open and close in response to changes in transmembrane (TM) potential caused the membrane bilayer in response to TM voltage changes. Direct exposure of S4 sensors to lipid is contrary simulation of an isolated TM S4 helix in a lipid bilayer. The simulation reveals a stabilizing hydrogen

  12. Flanking Polyproline Sequences Inhibit [beta]-Sheet Structure in Polyglutamine Segments by Inducing PPII-like Helix Structure

    SciTech Connect

    Darnell, Gregory; Orgel, Joseph P.R.O.; Pahl, Reinhard; Meredith, Stephen C. (IIT); (UC)

    2008-06-24

    Polyglutamine (poly(Q)) expansion is associated with protein aggregation into {beta}-sheet amyloid fibrils and neuronal cytotoxicity. In the mutant poly(Q) protein huntingtin, associated with Huntington's disease, both aggregation and cytotoxicity may be abrogated by a polyproline (poly(P)) domain flanking the C terminus of the poly(Q) region. To understand structural changes that may occur with the addition of the poly(P) sequence, we synthesized poly(Q) peptides with 3-15 glutamine residues and a corresponding set of poly(Q) peptides flanked on the C terminus by 11 proline residues (poly(Q)-poly(P)), as occurs in the huntingtin sequence. The shorter soluble poly(Q) peptides (three or six glutamine residues) showed polyproline type II-like (PPII)-like helix conformation when examined by circular dichroism spectroscopy and were monomers as judged by size-exclusion chromatography (SEC), while the longer poly(Q) peptides (nine or 15 glutamine residues) showed a {beta}-sheet conformation by CD and defined oligomers by SEC. Soluble poly(Q)-poly(P) peptides showed PPII-like content but SEC showed poorly defined, overlapping oligomeric peaks, and as judged by CD these peptides retained significant PPII-like structure with increasing poly(Q) length. More importantly, addition of the poly(P) domain increased the threshold for fibril formation to {approx} 15 glutamine residues. X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, and film CD showed that, while poly(Q) peptides with {ge} 6 glutamine residues formed {beta}-sheet-rich fibrils, only the longest poly(Q)-poly(P) peptide (15 glutamine residues) did so. From these and other observations, we propose that poly(Q) domains exist in a 'tug-of-war' between two conformations, a PPII-like helix and a {beta}-sheet, while the poly(P) domain is conformationally constrained into a proline type II helix (PPII). Addition of poly(P) to the C terminus of a poly(Q) domain induces a PPII-like structure, which opposes the aggregation-prone {beta}-sheet. These structural observations may shed light on the threshold phenomenon of poly(Q) aggregation, and support the hypothesized evolution of 'protective' poly(P) tracts adjacent to poly(Q) aggregation domains.

  13. Structural regularities of helicoidally-like biopolymers in the framework of algebraic topology: II. {alpha}-Helix and DNA structures

    SciTech Connect

    Samoylovich, M. I., E-mail: samoylovich@technomash.ru [Central Research Technological Institute 'Technomash' (Russian Federation); Talis, A. L. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Nesmeyanov Institute of Organoelement Compounds (Russian Federation)] [Russian Academy of Sciences, Nesmeyanov Institute of Organoelement Compounds (Russian Federation)

    2013-09-15

    The developed apparatus of the 'structural application' of algebraic geometry and topology makes it possible to determine topologically stable helicoidally-like packings of polyhedra (clusters). A packing found is limited by a minimal surface with zero instability index; this surface is set by the Weierstrass representation and corresponds to the bifurcation point. The symmetries of the packings under consideration are determined by four-dimensional polyhedra (polytopes) from a closed sequence, which begins with diamondlike polytope (240). One example of these packings is a packing of tetrahedra, which arises as a result of the multiplication of a peculiar starting aggregation of tetrahedra by a fractional 40/11 axis with an angle of helical rotation of 99 Degree-Sign . The arrangement of atoms in particular positions of this starting aggregation allows one to obtain a model of the {alpha}-helix. This apparatus makes it possible to determine a priori the symmetry parameters of DNA double helices.

  14. Membrane Protein Crystallization in Lipidic Mesophases. Hosting lipid affects on the crystallization and structure of a transmembrane peptide

    PubMed Central

    Höfer, Nicole; Aragão, David; Lyons, Joseph A.; Caffrey, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Gramicidin is an apolar pentadecapeptide antibiotic consisting of alternating D-and L-amino acids. It functions, in part, by creating pores in membranes of susceptible cells rendering them leaky to monovalent cations. The peptide should be able to traverse the host membrane either as a double stranded, intertwined double helix (DSDH) or as a head-to-head single stranded helix (HHSH). Current structure models are based on macromolecular X-ray crystallography (MX) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). However, the HHSH form has only been observed by NMR. The shape and size of the different gramicidin conformations differ. We speculated therefore that reconstituting it into a lipidic mesophase with bilayers of different microstructures would preferentially stabilize one form over the other. By using such mesophases for in meso crystallogenesis the expectation was that at least one would generate crystals of gramicidin in the HHSH form for structure determination by MX. This was tested using commercial and in-house synthesised lipids that support in meso crystallogenesis. Lipid acyl chain lengths were varied from 14 to 18 carbons to provide mesophases with a range of bilayer thicknesses. Unexpectedly, all lipids produced high quality, structure-grade crystals with gramicidin only in the DSDH conformation. PMID:22933857

  15. Investigating the context-dependence to apparent helix propensities 

    E-print Network

    Ross, Jennifer Ann

    1999-01-01

    structure propensities. One complication in understanding helix propensities is that the helix propensities dicer quantitatively between alanine-based model reptiles, and proteins or protein based reptiles. The helix propensity scales agree qualitatively...

  16. Structure of Amantadine-Bound M2 Transmembrane Peptide of Influenza A in Lipid Bilayers from Magic-Angle-Spinning Solid-State NMR: the Role of Ser31 in Amantadine Binding

    PubMed Central

    Cady, Sarah D.; Mishanina, Tatiana V.; Hong, Mei

    2014-01-01

    The M2 proton channel of influenza A is the target of the antiviral drugs amantadine and rimantadine, whose effectiveness has been abolished by a single-site mutation of Ser31 to Asn in the transmembrane domain of the protein. Recent high-resolution structures of the M2 transmembrane domain obtained from detergent-solubilized protein in solution and crystal environments gave conflicting drug binding sites. We present magic-angle-spinning solid-state NMR results of Ser31 and a number of other residues in the M2 transmembrane peptide (M2TMP) bound to lipid bilayers. Comparison of the spectra of the membrane-bound apo and complexed M2TMP indicates that Ser31 is the site of the largest chemical shift perturbation by amantadine. The chemical shift constraints lead to a monomer structure with a small kink of the helical axis at Gly34. A tetramer model is then constructed using the helix tilt angle and several interhelical distances previously measured on unoriented bilayer samples. This tetramer model differs from the solution and crystal structures in terms of the openness of the N-terminus of the channel, the constriction at Ser31, and the sidechain conformations of Trp41, a residue important for channel gating. Moreover, the tetramer model suggests that Ser31 may interact with amantadine amine via hydrogen bonding. While the apo and drug-bound M2TMP have similar average structures, the complexed peptide has much narrower linewidths at physiological temperature, indicating drug-induced changes of the protein dynamics in the membrane. Further, at low temperature, several residues show narrower lines in the complexed peptide than the apo peptide, indicating that amantadine binding reduces the conformational heterogeneity of specific residues. The differences of the current solid-state NMR structure of the bilayer-bound M2TMP from the detergent-based M2 structures suggest that the M2 conformation is sensitive to the environment, and care must be taken when interpreting structural findings from non-bilayer samples. PMID:19061899

  17. Fine structure of smooth muscle and neuromuscular junctions in the foot of Helix aspersa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    D. C. Rogers

    1969-01-01

    The smooth muscle cells in the foot of Helix aspersa are arranged in bundles which interweave to form a complex mesh. In the peripheral cytoplasm of the muscle cells there is a system of interconnected obliquely and longitudinally orientated tubules. The full extent of this system has not been determined; its possible function in relation to Ca++ storage and excitation-contraction

  18. The Structure and Function of the Cutaneous Glands in Helix aspersa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    MARY CAMPION

    1961-01-01

    SUMMARY The glands discharging' slime' on to the surface of the mantle collar and foot of Helix aspersa have been investigated histologically and histochemically on chemically fixed and frozen-dried material. All the glands are unicellular; they lie in the connective tissue and discharge by pores passing between the epidermal cells; some are club-shaped, others are poly- gonal with a distinct

  19. Drug Binding to Higher Ordered DNA Structures: Netropsin Complexation With a Nucleic Acid Triple Helix

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Young-Whan Park; Kenneth J. Breslauer

    1992-01-01

    We have used a combination of spectroscopic and calorimetric techniques to characterize how netropsin, a ligand that binds in the minor groove of DNA, influences the properties of a DNA triple helix. Specifically, our data allow us to reach the following conclusions: (i) netropsin binds to the triplex without displacing the major-groove-bound third strand; (ii) netropsin binding to the triplex

  20. Anesthetics target interfacial transmembrane sites in nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Forman, Stuart A; Chiara, David C; Miller, Keith W

    2015-09-01

    General anesthetics are a heterogeneous group of small amphiphilic ligands that interact weakly at multiple allosteric sites on many pentameric ligand gated ion channels (pLGICs), resulting in either inhibition, potentiation of channel activity, or both. Allosteric principles imply that modulator sites must change configuration and ligand affinity during receptor state transitions. Thus, general anesthetics and related compounds are useful both as state-dependent probes of receptor structure and as potentially selective modulators of pLGIC functions. This review focuses on general anesthetic sites in nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, which were among the first anesthetic-sensitive pLGIC experimental models studied, with particular focus on sites formed by transmembrane domain elements. Structural models place many of these sites at interfaces between two or more pLGIC transmembrane helices both within subunits and between adjacent subunits, and between transmembrane helices and either lipids (the lipid-protein interface) or water (i.e. the ion channel). A single general anesthetic may bind at multiple allosteric sites in pLGICs, producing a net effect of either inhibition (e.g. blocking the ion channel) or enhanced channel gating (e.g. inter-subunit sites). Other general anesthetic sites identified by photolabeling or crystallography are tentatively linked to functional effects, including intra-subunit helix bundle sites and the lipid-protein interface. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'The Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor: From Molecular Biology to Cognition'. PMID:25316107

  1. Understanding self-assembled amphiphilic peptide supramolecular structures from primary structure helix propensity.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Martina K; Textor, Marcus; Reimhult, Erik

    2008-08-01

    Small amphiphilic peptides are attractive building blocks to design biocompatible supramolecular structures via self-assembly, with applications in, for example, drug delivery, tissue engineering, and nanotemplating. We address the influence of systematical changes in the amino acid sequence of such peptides on the self-assembled macromolecular structures. For cationic-head surfactant-like eight-residue peptides, the apolar tail amino acids were chosen to systematically vary the propensity to form an alpha-helical secondary structure while conserving the overall hydrophobicity of the sequence. Characterization of the supramolecular structures indicates that for short peptides a beta-sheet secondary structure correlates with ribbonlike assemblies while random-coil and alpha-helical secondary structures correlate with assembly of rods. PMID:18597507

  2. Yummy Gummy Double Helix

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Wellcome Trust Sange Institute

    2013-10-10

    In this activity, learners make their own edible DNA double helix out of candy and find out about the shape of DNA. This activity is a fun and tasty way to learn about the basics of DNA structure and complementary base pairs.

  3. A New LxxxA Motif in the Transmembrane Helix3 of Maize Aquaporins Belonging to the Plasma Membrane Intrinsic Protein PIP2 Group Is Required for Their Trafficking to the Plasma Membrane1[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Chevalier, Adrien S.; Bienert, Gerd Patrick; Chaumont, François

    2014-01-01

    Aquaporins play important roles in maintaining plant water status under challenging environments. The regulation of aquaporin density in cell membranes is essential to control transcellular water flows. This work focuses on the maize (Zea mays) plasma membrane intrinsic protein (ZmPIP) aquaporin subfamily, which is divided into two sequence-related groups (ZmPIP1s and ZmPIP2s). When expressed alone in mesophyll protoplasts, ZmPIP2s are efficiently targeted to the plasma membrane, whereas ZmPIP1s are retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). A protein domain-swapping approach was utilized to demonstrate that the transmembrane domain3 (TM3), together with the previously identified N-terminal ER export diacidic motif, account for the differential localization of these proteins. In addition to protoplasts, leaf epidermal cells transiently transformed by biolistic particle delivery were used to confirm and refine these results. By generating artificial proteins consisting of a single transmembrane domain, we demonstrated that the TM3 of ZmPIP1;2 or ZmPIP2;5 discriminates between ER and plasma membrane localization, respectively. More specifically, a new LxxxA motif in the TM3 of ZmPIP2;5, which is highly conserved in plant PIP2s, was shown to regulate its anterograde routing along the secretory pathway, particularly its export from the ER. PMID:24989232

  4. Flanking Polyproline Sequences Inhibit ?-Sheet Structure in Polyglutamine Segments by Inducing PPII-like Helix Structure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregory Darnell; Joseph P. R. O. Orgel; Reinhard Pahl; Stephen C. Meredith

    2007-01-01

    Polyglutamine (poly(Q)) expansion is associated with protein aggregation into ?-sheet amyloid fibrils and neuronal cytotoxicity. In the mutant poly(Q) protein huntingtin, associated with Huntington's disease, both aggregation and cytotoxicity may be abrogated by a polyproline (poly(P)) domain flanking the C terminus of the poly(Q) region. To understand structural changes that may occur with the addition of the poly(P) sequence, we

  5. Structural mutants of dengue virus 2 transmembrane domains exhibit host-range phenotype

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background There are over 700 known arboviruses and at least 80 immunologically distinct types that cause disease in humans. Arboviruses are transmitted among vertebrates by biting insects, chiefly mosquitoes and ticks. These viruses are widely distributed throughout the world, depending on the presence of appropriate hosts (birds, horses, domestic animals, humans) and vectors. Mosquito-borne arboviruses present some of the most important examples of emerging and resurgent diseases of global significance. Methods A strategy has been developed by which host-range mutants of Dengue virus can be constructed by generating deletions in the transmembrane domain (TMD) of the E glycoprotein. The host-range mutants produced and selected favored growth in the insect hosts. Mouse trials were conducted to determine if these mutants could initiate an immune response in an in vivo system. Results The DV2 E protein TMD defined as amino acids 452SWTMKILIGVIITWIG467 was found to contain specific residues which were required for the production of this host-range phenotype. Deletion mutants were found to be stable in vitro for 4 sequential passages in both host cell lines. The host-range mutants elicited neutralizing antibody above that seen for wild-type virus in mice and warrant further testing in primates as potential vaccine candidates. Conclusions Novel host-range mutants of DV2 were created that have preferential growth in insect cells and impaired infectivity in mammalian cells. This method for creating live, attenuated viral mutants that generate safe and effective immunity may be applied to many other insect-borne viral diseases for which no current effective therapies exist. PMID:21658241

  6. Structure of a Virulence Regulatory Factor CvfB Reveals a Novel Winged-helix RNA Binding Module

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Yasuhiko; Xu, Qingping; Miyazaki, Shinya; Kaito, Chikara; Farr, Carol L.; Axelrod, Herbert L.; Chiu, Hsiu-Ju; Klock, Heath E.; Knuth, Mark W.; Miller, Mitchell D.; Elsliger, Marc-André; Deacon, Ashley M.; Godzik, Adam; Lesley, Scott A.; Sekimizu, Kazuhisa; Wilson, Ian A.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY CvfB is a conserved regulatory protein important for the virulence of Staphylococcus aureus. We show here that CvfB binds RNA. The crystal structure of the CvfB ortholog from Streptococcus pneumoniae at 1.4 Å resolution reveals a unique RNA binding protein that is formed from a concatenation of well-known structural modules that bind nucleic acids: three consecutive S1 RNA-binding domains and a winged-helix (WH) domain. The third S1 and the WH domains are required for cooperative RNA binding and form a continuous surface that likely contributes to the RNA interaction. The WH domain is critical to CvfB function and contains a unique structural motif. Thus CvfB represents a novel assembly of modules for binding RNA. PMID:20399190

  7. Triple helix-specific ligands.

    PubMed

    Mergny, J L; Duval-Valentin, G; Nguyen, C H; Perrouault, L; Faucon, B; Rougée, M; Montenay-Garestier, T; Bisagni, E; Hélène, C

    1992-06-19

    A triple helix is formed upon binding of an oligodeoxynucleotide to the major groove of duplex DNA. A benzo[e]pyridoindole derivative (BePI) strongly stabilized this structure and showed preferential binding to a triplex rather than to a duplex. Energy transfer experiments suggest that BePI intercalates within the triple helix. Sequence-specific inhibition of transcription initiation of a specific gene by Escherichia coli RNA polymerase by a triplex-forming oligodeoxynucleotide is strongly enhanced when the triplex is stabilized by BePI. Upon irradiation with ultraviolet light, BePI induces covalent modifications of the target within the triple helix structure. PMID:1609278

  8. Conformational Changes in Talin on Binding to Anionic Phospholipid Membranes Facilitate Signaling by Integrin Transmembrane Helices

    PubMed Central

    Kalli, Antreas C.; Campbell, Iain D.; Sansom, Mark S. P.

    2013-01-01

    Integrins are heterodimeric (??) cell surface receptors that are activated to a high affinity state by the formation of a complex involving the ?/? integrin transmembrane helix dimer, the head domain of talin (a cytoplasmic protein that links integrins to actin), and the membrane. The talin head domain contains four sub-domains (F0, F1, F2 and F3) with a long cationic loop inserted in the F1 domain. Here, we model the binding and interactions of the complete talin head domain with a phospholipid bilayer, using multiscale molecular dynamics simulations. The role of the inserted F1 loop, which is missing from the crystal structure of the talin head, PDB:3IVF, is explored. The results show that the talin head domain binds to the membrane predominantly via cationic regions on the F2 and F3 subdomains and the F1 loop. Upon binding, the intact talin head adopts a novel V-shaped conformation which optimizes its interactions with the membrane. Simulations of the complex of talin with the integrin ?/? TM helix dimer in a membrane, show how this complex promotes a rearrangement, and eventual dissociation of, the integrin ? and ? transmembrane helices. A model for the talin-mediated integrin activation is proposed which describes how the mutual interplay of interactions between transmembrane helices, the cytoplasmic talin protein, and the lipid bilayer promotes integrin inside-out activation. PMID:24204243

  9. Conformational changes in talin on binding to anionic phospholipid membranes facilitate signaling by integrin transmembrane helices.

    PubMed

    Kalli, Antreas C; Campbell, Iain D; Sansom, Mark S P

    2013-10-01

    Integrins are heterodimeric (??) cell surface receptors that are activated to a high affinity state by the formation of a complex involving the ?/? integrin transmembrane helix dimer, the head domain of talin (a cytoplasmic protein that links integrins to actin), and the membrane. The talin head domain contains four sub-domains (F0, F1, F2 and F3) with a long cationic loop inserted in the F1 domain. Here, we model the binding and interactions of the complete talin head domain with a phospholipid bilayer, using multiscale molecular dynamics simulations. The role of the inserted F1 loop, which is missing from the crystal structure of the talin head, PDB:3IVF, is explored. The results show that the talin head domain binds to the membrane predominantly via cationic regions on the F2 and F3 subdomains and the F1 loop. Upon binding, the intact talin head adopts a novel V-shaped conformation which optimizes its interactions with the membrane. Simulations of the complex of talin with the integrin ?/? TM helix dimer in a membrane, show how this complex promotes a rearrangement, and eventual dissociation of, the integrin ? and ? transmembrane helices. A model for the talin-mediated integrin activation is proposed which describes how the mutual interplay of interactions between transmembrane helices, the cytoplasmic talin protein, and the lipid bilayer promotes integrin inside-out activation. PMID:24204243

  10. Structural basis of typhoid: Salmonella typhi type IVb pilin (PiLS) and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Balakrishna, A.M.; Saxena, A.; Mok, H. Y.-K.; Swaminathan, K.

    2009-11-01

    The type IVb pilus of the enteropathogenic bacteria Salmonella typhi is a major adhesion factor during the entry of this pathogen into gastrointestinal epithelial cells. Its target of adhesion is a stretch of 10 residues from the first extracellular domain of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). The crystal structure of the N-terminal 25 amino acid deleted S. typhi native PilS protein ({Delta}PilS), which makes the pilus, was determined at 1.9 {angstrom} resolution by the multiwavelength anomalous dispersion method. Also, the structure of the complex of {Delta}PilS and a target CFTR peptide, determined at 1.8 {angstrom}, confirms that residues 113-117 (NKEER) of CFTR are involved in binding with the pilin protein and gives us insight on the amino acids that are essential for binding. Furthermore, we have also explored the role of a conserved disulfide bridge in pilus formation. The subunit structure and assembly architecture are crucial for understanding pilus functions and designing suitable therapeutics against typhoid.

  11. Structural Basis of Typhoid: Salmonella typhi Type IVb pilin (PilS) and Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulatory Interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Balakrishna, A.; Saxena, A; Mok, H; Swaminathan, K

    2009-01-01

    The type IVb pilus of the enteropathogenic bacteria Salmonella typhi is a major adhesion factor during the entry of this pathogen into gastrointestinal epithelial cells. Its target of adhesion is a stretch of 10 residues from the first extracellular domain of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). The crystal structure of the N-terminal 25 amino acid deleted S. typhi native PilS protein (PilS), which makes the pilus, was determined at 1.9 A resolution by the multiwavelength anomalous dispersion method. Also, the structure of the complex of PilS and a target CFTR peptide, determined at 1.8 A, confirms that residues 113-117 (NKEER) of CFTR are involved in binding with the pilin protein and gives us insight on the amino acids that are essential for binding. Furthermore, we have also explored the role of a conserved disulfide bridge in pilus formation. The subunit structure and assembly architecture are crucial for understanding pilus functions and designing suitable therapeutics against typhoid.

  12. Structural basis of typhod: Salmonella typhi type IVb pilin (PilS) and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Balakrishna, A.; Saxena, A; Mok, H; Swaminathan, K

    2009-01-01

    The type IVb pilus of the enteropathogenic bacteria Salmonella typhi is a major adhesion factor during the entry of this pathogen into gastrointestinal epithelial cells. Its target of adhesion is a stretch of 10 residues from the first extracellular domain of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). The crystal structure of the N-terminal 25 amino acid deleted S. typhi native PilS protein (PilS), which makes the pilus, was determined at 1.9 A resolution by the multiwavelength anomalous dispersion method. Also, the structure of the complex of PilS and a target CFTR peptide, determined at 1.8 A, confirms that residues 113-117 (NKEER) of CFTR are involved in binding with the pilin protein and gives us insight on the amino acids that are essential for binding. Furthermore, we have also explored the role of a conserved disulfide bridge in pilus formation. The subunit structure and assembly architecture are crucial for understanding pilus functions and designing suitable therapeutics against typhoid.

  13. Structural Model of the Anion Exchanger 1 (SLC4A1) and Identification of Transmembrane Segments Forming the Transport Site

    PubMed Central

    Barneaud-Rocca, Damien; Etchebest, Catherine; Guizouarn, Hélène

    2013-01-01

    The anion exchanger 1 (AE1), a member of bicarbonate transporter family SLC4, mediates an electroneutral chloride/bicarbonate exchange in physiological conditions. However, some point mutations in AE1 membrane-spanning domain convert the electroneutral anion exchanger into a Na+ and K+ conductance or induce a cation leak in a still functional anion exchanger. The molecular determinants that govern ion movement through this transporter are still unknown. The present study was intended to identify the ion translocation pathway within AE1. In the absence of a resolutive three-dimensional structure of AE1 membrane-spanning domain, in silico modeling combined with site-directed mutagenesis experiments was done. A structural model of AE1 membrane-spanning domain is proposed, and this model is based on the structure of a uracil-proton symporter. This model was used to design cysteine-scanning mutagenesis on transmembrane (TM) segments 3 and 5. By measuring AE1 anion exchange activity or cation leak, it is proposed that there is a unique transport site comprising TM3–5 and TM8 that should function as an anion exchanger and a cation leak. PMID:23846695

  14. PoreWalker: A Novel Tool for the Identification and Characterization of Channels in Transmembrane Proteins from Their Three-Dimensional Structure

    PubMed Central

    Thornton, Janet M.

    2009-01-01

    Transmembrane channel proteins play pivotal roles in maintaining the homeostasis and responsiveness of cells and the cross-membrane electrochemical gradient by mediating the transport of ions and molecules through biological membranes. Therefore, computational methods which, given a set of 3D coordinates, can automatically identify and describe channels in transmembrane proteins are key tools to provide insights into how they function. Herein we present PoreWalker, a fully automated method, which detects and fully characterises channels in transmembrane proteins from their 3D structures. A stepwise procedure is followed in which the pore centre and pore axis are first identified and optimised using geometric criteria, and then the biggest and longest cavity through the channel is detected. Finally, pore features, including diameter profiles, pore-lining residues, size, shape and regularity of the pore are calculated, providing a quantitative and visual characterization of the channel. To illustrate the use of this tool, the method was applied to several structures of transmembrane channel proteins and was able to identify shape/size/residue features representative of specific channel families. The software is available as a web-based resource at http://www.ebi.ac.uk/thornton-srv/software/PoreWalker/. PMID:19609355

  15. Similar Structures to the E-to-H Helix Unit in the Globin-Like Fold are Found in Other Helical Folds

    PubMed Central

    Matsuoka, Masanari; Fujita, Aoi; Kawai, Yosuke; Kikuchi, Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    A protein in the globin-like fold contains six alpha-helices, A, B, E, F, G and H. Among them, the E-to-H helix unit (E, F, G and H helices) forms a compact structure. In this study, we searched similar structures to the E-to-H helix of leghomoglobin in the whole protein structure space using the Dali program. Several similar structures were found in other helical folds, such as KaiA/RbsU domain and Type III secretion system domain. These observations suggest that the E-to-H helix unit may be a common subunit in the whole protein 3D structure space. In addition, the common conserved hydrophobic residues were found among the similar structures to the E-to-H helix unit. Hydrophobic interactions between the conserved residues may stabilize the 3D structures of the unit. We also predicted the possible compact regions of the units using the average distance method. PMID:24970216

  16. Structure and computational analysis of a novel protein with metallopeptidase-like and circularly permuted winged-helix-turn-helix domains reveals a possible role in modified polysaccharide biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background CA_C2195 from Clostridium acetobutylicum is a protein of unknown function. Sequence analysis predicted that part of the protein contained a metallopeptidase-related domain. There are over 200 homologs of similar size in large sequence databases such as UniProt, with pairwise sequence identities in the range of ~40-60%. CA_C2195 was chosen for crystal structure determination for structure-based function annotation of novel protein sequence space. Results The structure confirmed that CA_C2195 contained an N-terminal metallopeptidase-like domain. The structure revealed two extra domains: an ?+? domain inserted in the metallopeptidase-like domain and a C-terminal circularly permuted winged-helix-turn-helix domain. Conclusions Based on our sequence and structural analyses using the crystal structure of CA_C2195 we provide a view into the possible functions of the protein. From contextual information from gene-neighborhood analysis, we propose that rather than being a peptidase, CA_C2195 and its homologs might play a role in biosynthesis of a modified cell-surface carbohydrate in conjunction with several sugar-modification enzymes. These results provide the groundwork for the experimental verification of the function. PMID:24646163

  17. Localization phenomena in a DNA double-helix structure: A twisted ladder model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundu, Sourav; Karmakar, S. N.

    2014-03-01

    In this work we propose a model for the DNA double helix within the tight-binding framework that incorporates the helicity of the molecules. We have studied the localization properties of three DNA sequences, the periodic poly(dG)-poly(dC) and poly(dA)-poly(dT) sequences and the random ATGC sequence (where A is adenine, T is thymine, G is guanine, and C is cytosine), all of which are coupled to the backbone with random site energies representing the environmental fluctuations. We observe that due to the helicity of DNA, electron transport is greatly enhanced and there exists an almost disorder-strength-independent critical value of the hopping integral, which accounts for the helicity of DNA, for which the electronic states become maximally extended. We have also investigated the effect of backbone energetics on the transmission and I-V characteristics of DNA.

  18. Field induced chirality in the helix structure of Dy/Y multilayer films and experimental evidence for Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction on the interfaces.

    PubMed

    Grigoriev, S V; Chetverikov, Yu O; Lott, D; Schreyer, A

    2008-05-16

    Polarized neutron scattering experiments have demonstrated that Dy/Y multilayer structures possess a coherent spin helix with a preferable chirality induced by the magnetic field. The average chirality, being proportional to the difference in the left- and right-handed helix population numbers, is measured as a polarization-dependent asymmetric part of the magnetic neutron scattering. The magnetic field applied in the plane of the sample upon cooling below T(N) is able to repopulate the otherwise equal population numbers for the left- and right-handed helixes. The experimental results strongly indicate that the chirality is caused by Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction due to the lack of the symmetry inversion on the interfaces. PMID:18518483

  19. Structural insight into a molecular switch in tandem winged-helix motifs from elongation factor SelB.

    PubMed

    Soler, Nicolas; Fourmy, Dominique; Yoshizawa, Satoko

    2007-07-20

    Elongation factor SelB is responsible for co-translational incorporation of selenocysteine (Sec) into proteins. The UGA stop codon is recoded as a Sec codon in the presence of a downstream mRNA hairpin. In prokaryotes, in addition to the EF-Tu-like N-terminal domains, a C-terminal extension containing four tandem winged-helix motifs (WH1-4) recognizes the mRNA hairpin. The 2.3-A resolution crystal structure of the Escherichia coli WH3/4 domains bound to mRNA with mutagenesis data reveal that the two WH motifs use the same structural elements to bind RNA. The structure together with the 2.6-A resolution structure of the WH1-4 domains from Moorella thermoacetica bound to RNA revealed that a salt bridge connecting WH2 to WH3 modules is disrupted upon mRNA binding. The results provide a structural basis for the molecular switch that may allow communication between tRNA and mRNA binding sites and illustrate how RNA acts as an activator of the switch. The structures show that tandem WH motifs not only provide an excellent scaffold for RNA binding but can also have an active role in the function of protein-RNA complexes. PMID:17537456

  20. Dimerization of the EphA1 Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Transmembrane Domain: Insights into the Mechanism of Receptor Activation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    EphA1 is a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) that plays a key role in developmental processes, including guidance of the migration of axons and cells in the nervous system. EphA1, in common with other RTKs, contains an N-terminal extracellular domain, a single transmembrane (TM) ?-helix, and a C-terminal intracellular kinase domain. The TM helix forms a dimer, as seen in recent NMR studies. We have modeled the EphA1 TM dimer using a multiscale approach combining coarse-grain (CG) and atomistic molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The one-dimensional potential of mean force (PMF) for this system, based on interhelix separation, has been calculated using CG MD simulations. This provides a view of the free energy landscape for helix–helix interactions of the TM dimer in a lipid bilayer. The resulting PMF profiles suggest two states, consistent with a rotation-coupled activation mechanism. The more stable state corresponds to a right-handed helix dimer interacting via an N-terminal glycine zipper motif, consistent with a recent NMR structure (2K1K). A second metastable state corresponds to a structure in which the glycine zipper motif is not involved. Analysis of unrestrained CG MD simulations based on representative models from the PMF calculations or on the NMR structure reveals possible pathways of interconversion between these two states, involving helix rotations about their long axes. This suggests that the interaction of TM helices in EphA1 dimers may be intrinsically dynamic. This provides a potential mechanism for signaling whereby extracellular events drive a shift in the repopulation of the underlying TM helix dimer energy landscape. PMID:25286141

  1. Dual roles of the sixth transmembrane segment of the CFTR chloride channel in gating and permeation.

    PubMed

    Bai, Yonghong; Li, Min; Hwang, Tzyh-Chang

    2010-09-01

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is the only member of the adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette (ABC) transporter superfamily that functions as a chloride channel. Previous work has suggested that the external side of the sixth transmembrane segment (TM6) plays an important role in governing chloride permeation, but the function of the internal side remains relatively obscure. Here, on a cysless background, we performed cysteine-scanning mutagenesis and modification to screen the entire TM6 with intracellularly applied thiol-specific methanethiosulfonate reagents. Single-channel amplitude was reduced in seven cysteine-substituted mutants, suggesting a role of these residues in maintaining the pore structure for normal ion permeation. The reactivity pattern of differently charged reagents suggests that the cytoplasmic part of TM6 assumes a secondary structure of an alpha helix, and that reactive sites (341, 344, 345, 348, 352, and 353) reside in two neighboring faces of the helix. Although, as expected, modification by negatively charged reagents inhibits anion permeation, interestingly, modification by positively charged reagents of cysteine thiolates on one face (344, 348, and 352) of the helix affects gating. For I344C and M348C, the open time was prolonged and the closed time was shortened after modification, suggesting that depositions of positive charges at these positions stabilize the open state but destabilize the closed state. For R352C, which exhibited reduced single-channel amplitude, modifications by two positively charged reagents with different chemical properties completely restored the single-channel amplitude but had distinct effects on both the open time and the closed time. These results corroborate the idea that a helix rotation of TM6, which has been proposed to be part of the molecular motions during transport cycles in other ABC transporters, is associated with gating of the CFTR pore. PMID:20805575

  2. Role of sequence and membrane composition in structure of transmembrane domain of Amyloid Precursor Protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straub, John

    2013-03-01

    Aggregation of proteins of known sequence is linked to a variety of neurodegenerative disorders. The amyloid ? (A ?) protein associated with Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is derived from cleavage of the 99 amino acid C-terminal fragment of Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP-C99) by ?-secretase. Certain familial mutations of APP-C99 have been shown to lead to altered production of A ? protein and the early onset of AD. We describe simulation studies exploring the structure of APP-C99 in micelle and membrane environments. Our studies explore how changes in sequence and membrane composition influence (1) the structure of monomeric APP-C99 and (2) APP-C99 homodimer structure and stability. Comparison of simulation results with recent NMR studies of APP-C99 monomers and dimers in micelle and bicelle environments provide insight into how critical aspects of APP-C99 structure and dimerization correlate with secretase processing, an essential component of the A ? protein aggregation pathway and AD.

  3. Detergents Modulate Dimerization, but not Helicity, of the Glycophorin A Transmembrane Domain

    E-print Network

    Detergents Modulate Dimerization, but not Helicity, of the Glycophorin A Transmembrane Domain to measure dimerization of the glyco- phorin A transmembrane helix in detergent micelles. The observed Kd is at least two orders of magnitude weaker in sodium dodecyl sulfate than it is in zwitterionic detergents

  4. Rigid multibody simulation of a helix-like structure: the dynamics of bacterial adhesion pili.

    PubMed

    Zakrisson, Johan; Wiklund, Krister; Servin, Martin; Axner, Ove; Lacoursière, Claude; Andersson, Magnus

    2015-07-01

    We present a coarse-grained rigid multibody model of a subunit assembled helix-like polymer, e.g., adhesion pili expressed by bacteria, that is capable of describing the polymer's force-extension response. With building blocks representing individual subunits, the model appropriately describes the complex behavior of pili expressed by the gram-negative uropathogenic Escherichia coli bacteria under the action of an external force. Numerical simulations show that the dynamics of the model, which include the effects of both unwinding and rewinding, are in good quantitative agreement with the characteristic force-extension response as observed experimentally for type 1 and P pili. By tuning the model, it is also possible to reproduce the force-extension response in the presence of anti-shaft antibodies, which dramatically changes the mechanical properties. Thus, the model and results in this work give enhanced understanding of how a pilus unwinds under the action of external forces and provide a new perspective of the complex bacterial adhesion processes. PMID:25851543

  5. Structural and functional studies of Stf76 from the Sulfolobus islandicus plasmid–virus pSSVx: a novel peculiar member of the winged helix–turn–helix transcription factor family

    PubMed Central

    Contursi, Patrizia; Farina, Biancamaria; Pirone, Luciano; Fusco, Salvatore; Russo, Luigi; Bartolucci, Simonetta; Fattorusso, Roberto; Pedone, Emilia

    2014-01-01

    The hybrid plasmid–virus pSSVx from Sulfolobus islandicus presents an open reading frame encoding a 76 amino acid protein, namely Stf76, that does not show significant sequence homology with any protein with known 3D structure. The recombinant protein recognizes specifically two DNA-binding sites located in its own promoter, thus suggesting an auto-regulated role of its expression. Circular dichroism, spectrofluorimetric, light scattering and isothermal titration calorimetry experiments indicated a 2:1 molar ratio (protein:DNA) upon binding to the DNA target containing a single site. Furthermore, the solution structure of Stf76, determined by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) using chemical shift Rosetta software, has shown that the protein assumes a winged helix–turn–helix fold. NMR chemical shift perturbation analysis has been performed for the identification of the residues responsible for DNA interaction. In addition, a model of the Stf76–DNA complex has been built using as template a structurally related homolog. PMID:24682827

  6. Theoretical Studies of the M2 Transmembrane Segment of the Glycine Receptor: Models of the Open Pore Structure and Current-Voltage Characteristics

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mary Hongying Cheng; Michael Cascio; Rob D. Coalson

    2005-01-01

    The pentameric glycine receptor (GlyR), a member of the nicotinicoid superfamily of ligand-gated ion channels, is an inhibitory Cl? channel that is gated by glycine. Using recently published NMR data of the second transmembrane segment (M2) of the human ?1 GlyR, structural models of pentameric assemblies embedded in a lipid bilayer were constructed using a combination of experimentally determined constraints

  7. Transmembrane helices predicted at 95% accuracy.

    PubMed Central

    Rost, B.; Casadio, R.; Fariselli, P.; Sander, C.

    1995-01-01

    We describe a neural network system that predicts the locations of transmembrane helices in integral membrane proteins. By using evolutionary information as input to the network system, the method significantly improved on a previously published neural network prediction method that had been based on single sequence information. The input data were derived from multiple alignments for each position in a window of 13 adjacent residues: amino acid frequency, conservation weights, number of insertions and deletions, and position of the window with respect to the ends of the protein chain. Additional input was the amino acid composition and length of the whole protein. A rigorous cross-validation test on 69 proteins with experimentally determined locations of transmembrane segments yielded an overall two-state per-residue accuracy of 95%. About 94% of all segments were predicted correctly. When applied to known globular proteins as a negative control, the network system incorrectly predicted fewer than 5% of globular proteins as having transmembrane helices. The method was applied to all 269 open reading frames from the complete yeast VIII chromosome. For 59 of these, at least two transmembrane helices were predicted. Thus, the prediction is that about one-fourth of all proteins from yeast VIII contain one transmembrane helix, and some 20%, more than one. PMID:7795533

  8. The importance of helix P1 stability for structural pre-organization and ligand binding affinity of the adenine riboswitch aptamer domain.

    PubMed

    Nozinovic, Senada; Reining, Anke; Kim, Yong-Boum; Noeske, Jonas; Schlepckow, Kai; Wöhnert, Jens; Schwalbe, Harald

    2014-01-01

    We report here an in-depth characterization of the aptamer domain of the transcriptional adenine-sensing riboswitch (pbuE) by NMR and fluorescence spectroscopy. By NMR studies, the structure of two aptamer sequences with different lengths of the helix P1, the central element involved in riboswitch conformational switching, was characterized. Hydrogen-bond interactions could be mapped at nucleotide resolution providing information about secondary and tertiary structure, structure homogeneity and dynamics. Our study reveals that the elongation of helix P1 has pronounced effects not only on the local but on the global structure of the apo aptamer domain. The structural differences induced by stabilizing helix P1 were found to be linked to changes of the ligand binding affinity as revealed from analysis of kinetic and thermodynamic data obtained from stopped-flow fluorescence studies. The results provide new insight into the sequence-dependent fine tuning of the structure and function of purine-sensing riboswitches. PMID:24921630

  9. The importance of helix P1 stability for structural pre-organization and ligand binding affinity of the adenine riboswitch aptamer domain

    PubMed Central

    Nozinovic, Senada; Reining, Anke; Kim, Yong-Boum; Noeske, Jonas; Schlepckow, Kai; Wöhnert, Jens; Schwalbe, Harald

    2014-01-01

    We report here an in-depth characterization of the aptamer domain of the transcriptional adenine-sensing riboswitch (pbuE) by NMR and fluorescence spectroscopy. By NMR studies, the structure of two aptamer sequences with different lengths of the helix P1, the central element involved in riboswitch conformational switching, was characterized. Hydrogen-bond interactions could be mapped at nucleotide resolution providing information about secondary and tertiary structure, structure homogeneity and dynamics. Our study reveals that the elongation of helix P1 has pronounced effects not only on the local but on the global structure of the apo aptamer domain. The structural differences induced by stabilizing helix P1 were found to be linked to changes of the ligand binding affinity as revealed from analysis of kinetic and thermodynamic data obtained from stopped-flow fluorescence studies. The results provide new insight into the sequence-dependent fine tuning of the structure and function of purine-sensing riboswitches. PMID:24921630

  10. Ectopic Expression of a Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Gene Transactivates Parallel Pathways of Proanthocyanidin Biosynthesis. Structure, Expression Analysis, and Genetic Control of Leucoanthocyanidin 4-Reductase and Anthocyanidin Reductase Genes in Lotus corniculatus1[W

    PubMed Central

    Paolocci, Francesco; Robbins, Mark P.; Madeo, Laura; Arcioni, Sergio; Martens, Stefan; Damiani, Francesco

    2007-01-01

    Proanthocyanidins (PAs) are plant secondary metabolites and are composed primarily of catechin and epicatechin units in higher plant species. Due to the ability of PAs to bind reversibly with plant proteins to improve digestion and reduce bloat, engineering this pathway in leaves is a major goal for forage breeders. Here, we report the cloning and expression analysis of anthocyanidin reductase (ANR) and leucoanthocyanidin 4-reductase (LAR), two genes encoding enzymes committed to epicatechin and catechin biosynthesis, respectively, in Lotus corniculatus. We show the presence of two LAR gene families (LAR1 and LAR2) and that the steady-state levels of ANR and LAR1 genes correlate with the levels of PAs in leaves of wild-type and transgenic plants. Interestingly, ANR and LAR1, but not LAR2, genes produced active proteins following heterologous expression in Escherichia coli and are affected by the same basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that promotes PA accumulation in cells of palisade and spongy mesophyll. This study provides direct evidence that the same subclass of transcription factors can mediate the expression of the structural genes of both branches of PA biosynthesis. PMID:17098849

  11. Global force-torque phase diagram for the DNA double helix: structural transitions, triple points and collapsed plectonemes

    PubMed Central

    Marko, John F.; Neukirch, Sébastien

    2014-01-01

    We present a free energy model for structural transitions of the DNA double helix driven by tensile and torsional stress. Our model is coarse grained, and is based on semiflexible polymer descriptions of B-DNA, underwound L-DNA, and highly overwound P-DNA. The statistical-mechanical model of plectonemic supercoiling previously developed for B-DNA is applied to semiflexible polymer models of P and L-DNA, to obtain a model of DNA structural transitions in quantitative accord with experiment. We identify two distinct plectonemic states, one “inflated” by electrostatic repulsion and thermal fluctuations, and the other “collapsed”, with the two double helices inside the supercoils driven to close contact. We find that supercoiled B and L are stable only in inflated form, while supercoiled P is always collapsed. We also predict the behavior and experimental signatures of highly underwound “Q”-DNA, the left-handed analog of P-DNA; as for P, supercoiled Q is always collapsed. Overstretched “S”-DNA and strand-separated “stress-melted” DNA are also included in our model, allowing prediction of a global phase diagram for forces up to 1000 pN and torques between ±60 pN nm, or in terms of linking number density, from ? = ?5 to +3. PMID:24483501

  12. Structural Basis for Autoinhibition of CTP:Phosphocholine Cytidylyltransferase (CCT), the Regulatory Enzyme in Phosphatidylcholine Synthesis, by Its Membrane-binding Amphipathic Helix*

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jaeyong; Taneva, Svetla G.; Holland, Bryan W.; Tieleman, D. Peter; Cornell, Rosemary B.

    2014-01-01

    CTP:phosphocholine cytidylyltransferase (CCT) interconverts between an inactive soluble and active membrane-bound form in response to changes in membrane lipid composition. Activation involves disruption of an inhibitory interaction between the ?E helices at the base of the active site and an autoinhibitory (AI) segment in the regulatory M domain and membrane insertion of the M domain as an amphipathic helix. We show that in the CCT soluble form the AI segment functions to suppress kcat and elevate the Km for CTP. The crystal structure of a CCT dimer composed of the catalytic and AI segments reveals an AI-?E interaction as a cluster of four amphipathic helices (two ?E and two AI helices) at the base of the active sites. This interaction corroborates mutagenesis implicating multiple hydrophobic residues within the AI segment that contribute to its silencing function. The AI-?E interaction directs the turn at the C-terminal end of the AI helix into backbone-to-backbone contact with a loop (L2) at the opening to the active site, which houses the key catalytic residue, lysine 122. Molecular dynamics simulations suggest that lysine 122 side-chain orientations are constrained by contacts with the AI helix-turn, which could obstruct its engagement with substrates. This work deciphers how the CCT regulatory amphipathic helix functions as a silencing device. PMID:24275660

  13. Structural consequences of beta-amino acid preorganization in a self-assembling alpha/beta-peptide: fundamental studies of foldameric helix bundles.

    PubMed

    Price, Joshua L; Horne, W Seth; Gellman, Samuel H

    2010-09-01

    We report high-resolution crystal structures of six new alpha/beta-peptide foldamers that have a regular alpha-residue/alpha-residue/beta-residue (alphaalphabeta) backbone repeat pattern. All of these foldamers were crystallized from aqueous solution, and all display four-helix bundle quaternary structure in the crystalline state. These oligomers are based on the well-studied 33-residue alpha-peptide GCN4-pLI, which is an engineered derivative of the dimerization domain of GCN4, a yeast transcription factor. GCN4-pLI forms a stable tetramer in solution and crystallizes as a four-helix bundle (Harbury et al. Science 1993, 262, 1401-1407). Previously we described a foldamer (designated 1 here) that was generated from GCN4-pLI by replacing every third alpha-amino acid residue with the homologous beta(3)-amino acid residue; this alphaalphabeta oligomer retains the side chain sequence of the original alpha-peptide, but the backbone contains 11 additional CH(2) units, which are evenly distributed (Horne et al. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2008, 105, 9151-9156). Despite the expanded backbone, 1 was found to retain the ability to form a tetrameric quaternary structure in which the individual molecules adopt an alpha-helix-like conformation. Here we compare nine analogues of 1 that have the same alphaalphabeta backbone but in which one or more of the flexible beta(3)-amino acid residues is/are replaced with an analogous cyclic beta-residue. The motivation for beta(3)-->cyclic replacements is to enhance conformational stability; however, a crystal structure of the one previously reported example (designated 2 here) revealed a "stammer" distortion of the helix-bundle architecture relative to 1. The results reported here suggest that the stammer is a peculiarity of 2, because all six of the new alpha/beta-peptides display undistorted four-helix bundle quaternary structures. More broadly, our results indicate that beta(3)-->cyclic replacements are generally well-accommodated in helix-bundle quaternary structure, but that such replacements can be destabilizing in certain instances. PMID:20718422

  14. Energetics of [alpha]-helix formation in peptides and proteins

    E-print Network

    Schubert, Christian Reinhold

    2009-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the energetics of !-helix formation in peptides and proteins. The [alpha]-helix is the most prevalent type of secondary structure found in proteins, and has arguably dominated our thinking about ...

  15. An Algorithm for Protein Helix Assignment Using Helix Geometry

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Chen; Xu, Shutan; Wang, Lincong

    2015-01-01

    Helices are one of the most common and were among the earliest recognized secondary structure elements in proteins. The assignment of helices in a protein underlies the analysis of its structure and function. Though the mathematical expression for a helical curve is simple, no previous assignment programs have used a genuine helical curve as a model for helix assignment. In this paper we present a two-step assignment algorithm. The first step searches for a series of bona fide helical curves each one best fits the coordinates of four successive backbone C? atoms. The second step uses the best fit helical curves as input to make helix assignment. The application to the protein structures in the PDB (protein data bank) proves that the algorithm is able to assign accurately not only regular ?-helix but also 310 and ? helices as well as their left-handed versions. One salient feature of the algorithm is that the assigned helices are structurally more uniform than those by the previous programs. The structural uniformity should be useful for protein structure classification and prediction while the accurate assignment of a helix to a particular type underlies structure-function relationship in proteins. PMID:26132394

  16. Structural and dynamic study of the tetramerization region of non-erythroid alpha-spectrin: a frayed helix revealed by site-directed spin labeling electron paramagnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    Li, Qufei; Fung, L W-M

    2009-01-13

    The N-terminal region of alpha-spectrin is responsible for its association with beta-spectrin in a heterodimer, forming functional tetramers. Non-erythroid alpha-spectrin (alphaII-spectrin) has a significantly higher association affinity for beta-spectrin than the homologous erythroid alpha-spectrin (alphaI-spectrin). We have previously determined the solution structure of the N-terminal region of alphaI-spectrin by NMR methods, but currently no structural information is available for alphaII-spectrin. We have used cysteine scanning, spin labeling electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR), and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) methods to study the tetramerization region of alphaII-spectrin. EPR data clearly show that, in alphaII-spectrin, the first nine N-terminal residues were unstructured, followed by an irregular helix (helix C'), frayed at the N-terminal end, but rigid at the C-terminal end, which merges into the putative triple-helical structural domain. The region corresponding to the important unstructured junction region linking helix C' to the first structural domain in alphaI-spectrin was clearly structured. On the basis of the published model for aligning helices A', B', and C', important interactions among residues in helix C' of alphaI- and alphaII-spectrin and helices A' and B' of betaI- and betaII-spectrin are identified, suggesting similar coiled coil helical bundling for spectrin I and II in forming tetramers. The differences in affinity are likely due to the differences in the conformation of the junction regions. Equilibrium dissociation constants of spin-labeled alphaII and betaI complexes from ITC measurements indicate that residues 15, 19, 37, and 40 are functionally important residues in alphaII-spectrin. Interestingly, all four corresponding homologous residues in alphaI-spectrin (residues 24, 28, 46, and 49) have been reported to be clinically significant residues involved in hematological diseases. PMID:19072330

  17. Nanosecond UV Resonance Raman Examination of Initial Steps in r-Helix Secondary Structure

    E-print Network

    Asher, Sanford A.

    the earliest events in protein structural evolution. We examine the thermal unfolding of the 21 amino acid R find that the unfolding rate constants show Arrhenius-type behavior with an apparent 7 kcal/mol barrier.14-16 These amide Raman bands sensitively depend on secondary structure. We recently determined

  18. Structural change in a B-DNA helix with hydrostatic pressure

    PubMed Central

    Wilton, David J.; Ghosh, Mahua; Chary, K. V. A.; Akasaka, Kazuyuki; Williamson, Mike P.

    2008-01-01

    Study of the effects of pressure on macromolecular structure improves our understanding of the forces governing structure, provides details on the relevance of cavities and packing in structure, increases our understanding of hydration and provides a basis to understand the biology of high-pressure organisms. A study of DNA, in particular, helps us to understand how pressure can affect gene activity. Here we present the first high-resolution experimental study of B-DNA structure at high pressure, using NMR data acquired at pressures up to 200 MPa (2 kbar). The structure of DNA compresses very little, but is distorted so as to widen the minor groove, and to compress hydrogen bonds, with AT pairs compressing more than GC pairs. The minor groove changes are suggested to lead to a compression of the hydration water in the minor groove. PMID:18515837

  19. A common motif organizes the structure of multi-helix loops in 16 S and 23 S ribosomal RNAs 1 1 Edited by K. Nagai

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Neocles B. Leontis; Eric Westhof

    1998-01-01

    Phylogenetic and chemical probing data indicate that a modular RNA motif, common to loop E of eucaryotic 5 S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and the ?-sarcin\\/ricin loop of 23 S rRNA, organizes the structure of multi-helix loops in 16 S and 23 S ribosomal RNAs. The motif occurs in the 3? domain of 16 S rRNA at positions 1345–1350\\/1372–1376 (Escherichia coli

  20. Sensitivity of immune response quality to influenza helix 190 antigen structure displayed on a modular virus-like particle.

    PubMed

    Anggraeni, Melisa R; Connors, Natalie K; Wu, Yang; Chuan, Yap P; Lua, Linda H L; Middelberg, Anton P J

    2013-09-13

    Biomolecular engineering enables synthesis of improved proteins through synergistic fusion of modules from unrelated biomolecules. Modularization of peptide antigen from an unrelated pathogen for presentation on a modular virus-like particle (VLP) represents a new and promising approach to synthesize safe and efficacious vaccines. Addressing a key knowledge gap in modular VLP engineering, this study investigates the underlying fundamentals affecting the ability of induced antibodies to recognize the native pathogen. Specifically, this quality of immune response is correlated to the peptide antigen module structure. We modularized a helical peptide antigen element, helix 190 (H190) from the influenza hemagglutinin (HA) receptor binding region, for presentation on murine polyomavirus VLP, using two strategies aimed to promote H190 helicity on the VLP. In the first strategy, H190 was flanked by GCN4 structure-promoting elements within the antigen module; in the second, dual H190 copies were arrayed as tandem repeats in the module. Molecular dynamics simulation predicted that tandem repeat arraying would minimize secondary structural deviation of modularized H190 from its native conformation. In vivo testing supported this finding, showing that although both modularization strategies conferred high H190-specific immunogenicity, tandem repeat arraying of H190 led to a strikingly higher immune response quality, as measured by ability to generate antibodies recognizing a recombinant HA domain and split influenza virion. These findings provide new insights into the rational engineering of VLP vaccines, and could ultimately enable safe and efficacious vaccine design as an alternative to conventional approaches necessitating pathogen cultivation. PMID:23845811

  1. Methionine Adenosyltransferase ?-Helix Structure Unfolds at Lower Temperatures than ?-Sheet: A 2DIR Study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ibon Iloro; Rosana Chehín; Félix M. Goñi; María A. Pajares; José-Luis R. Arrondo

    2004-01-01

    Two-dimensional infrared spectroscopy has been used to characterize rat liver methionine adenosyltransferase and the events taking place during its thermal unfolding. Secondary structure data have been obtained for the native recombinant enzyme by fitting the amide I band of infrared spectra. Thermal denaturation studies allow the identification of events associated with individual secondary-structure elements during temperature-induced unfolding. They are correlated

  2. Solution NMR studies reveal the location of the second transmembrane domain of the human sigma-1 receptor

    PubMed Central

    Ortega-Roldan, Jose Luis; Ossa, Felipe; Amin, Nader T.; Schnell, Jason R.

    2015-01-01

    The sigma-1 receptor (S1R) is a ligand-regulated membrane chaperone protein associated with endoplasmic reticulum stress response, and modulation of ion channel activities at the plasma membrane. We report here a solution NMR study of a S1R construct (S1R(?35)) in which only the first transmembrane domain and the eight-residue N-terminus have been removed. The second transmembrane helix is found to be composed of residues 91–107, which corresponds to the first steroid binding domain-like region. The cytosolic domain is found to contain three helices, and the secondary structure and backbone dynamics of the chaperone domain are consistent with that determined previously for the chaperone domain alone. The position of TM2 provides a framework for ongoing studies of S1R ligand binding and oligomerisation. PMID:25647032

  3. Solution NMR studies reveal the location of the second transmembrane domain of the human sigma-1 receptor.

    PubMed

    Ortega-Roldan, Jose Luis; Ossa, Felipe; Amin, Nader T; Schnell, Jason R

    2015-02-27

    The sigma-1 receptor (S1R) is a ligand-regulated membrane chaperone protein associated with endoplasmic reticulum stress response, and modulation of ion channel activities at the plasma membrane. We report here a solution NMR study of a S1R construct (S1R(?35)) in which only the first transmembrane domain and the eight-residue N-terminus have been removed. The second transmembrane helix is found to be composed of residues 91-107, which corresponds to the first steroid binding domain-like region. The cytosolic domain is found to contain three helices, and the secondary structure and backbone dynamics of the chaperone domain are consistent with that determined previously for the chaperone domain alone. The position of TM2 provides a framework for ongoing studies of S1R ligand binding and oligomerisation. PMID:25647032

  4. The domain structure of talin: Residues 1815–1973 form a five-helix bundle containing a cryptic vinculin-binding site

    PubMed Central

    Goult, Benjamin T.; Gingras, Alexandre R.; Bate, Neil; Barsukov, Igor L.; Critchley, David R.; Roberts, Gordon C.K.

    2010-01-01

    Talin is a large flexible rod-shaped protein that activates the integrin family of cell adhesion molecules and couples them to cytoskeletal actin. Its rod region consists of a series of helical bundles. Here we show that residues 1815–1973 form a 5-helix bundle, with a topology unique to talin which is optimally suited for formation of a long rod such as talin. This is much more stable than the 4-helix (1843–1973) domain described earlier and as a result its vinculin binding sequence is inaccessible to vinculin at room temperature, with implications for the overall mechanism of the talin-vinculin interaction. Structured summary MINT-7722300, MINT-7760951: Talin-1 (uniprotkb:P26039) and Vinculin (uniprotkb:P12003) bind (MI:0407) by molecular sieving (MI:0071) PMID:20399778

  5. Reovirus FAST Proteins Drive Pore Formation and Syncytiogenesis Using a Novel Helix-Loop-Helix Fusion-Inducing Lipid Packing Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Sarker, Muzaddid; de Antueno, Roberto; Langelaan, David N.; Parmar, Hiren B.; Shin, Kyungsoo; Rainey, Jan K.; Duncan, Roy

    2015-01-01

    Pore formation is the most energy-demanding step during virus-induced membrane fusion, where high curvature of the fusion pore rim increases the spacing between lipid headgroups, exposing the hydrophobic interior of the membrane to water. How protein fusogens breach this thermodynamic barrier to pore formation is unclear. We identified a novel fusion-inducing lipid packing sensor (FLiPS) in the cytosolic endodomain of the baboon reovirus p15 fusion-associated small transmembrane (FAST) protein that is essential for pore formation during cell-cell fusion and syncytiogenesis. NMR spectroscopy and mutational studies indicate the dependence of this FLiPS on a hydrophobic helix-loop-helix structure. Biochemical and biophysical assays reveal the p15 FLiPS preferentially partitions into membranes with high positive curvature, and this partitioning is impeded by bis-ANS, a small molecule that inserts into hydrophobic defects in membranes. Most notably, the p15 FLiPS can be functionally replaced by heterologous amphipathic lipid packing sensors (ALPS) but not by other membrane-interactive amphipathic helices. Furthermore, a previously unrecognized amphipathic helix in the cytosolic domain of the reptilian reovirus p14 FAST protein can functionally replace the p15 FLiPS, and is itself replaceable by a heterologous ALPS motif. Anchored near the cytoplasmic leaflet by the FAST protein transmembrane domain, the FLiPS is perfectly positioned to insert into hydrophobic defects that begin to appear in the highly curved rim of nascent fusion pores, thereby lowering the energy barrier to stable pore formation. PMID:26061049

  6. Crystal Structure of an Ecotin-Collagenase Complex Suggests a Model for Recognition and Cleavage of the Collagen Triple Helix

    E-print Network

    Craik, Charles S.

    of the Collagen Triple Helix John J. Perona,,§ Christopher A. Tsu,,| Charles S. Craik,*,, and Robert J. Fletterick interactions in the cleft, with the known sequences at the cleavage site of type I collagen, suggests that the protease binding loop of ecotin adopts a conformation mimicking that of the cleaved strand of collagen

  7. Transmembrane Complexes of DAP12 Crystallized in Lipid Membranes Provide Insights into Control of Oligomerization in Immunoreceptor Assembly.

    PubMed

    Knoblich, Konstantin; Park, Soohyung; Lutfi, Mariam; van 't Hag, Leonie; Conn, Charlotte E; Seabrook, Shane A; Newman, Janet; Czabotar, Peter E; Im, Wonpil; Call, Matthew E; Call, Melissa J

    2015-05-26

    The membrane-spanning ? helices of single-pass receptors play crucial roles in stabilizing oligomeric structures and transducing biochemical signals across the membrane. Probing intermolecular transmembrane interactions in single-pass receptors presents unique challenges, reflected in a gross underrepresentation of their membrane-embedded domains in structural databases. Here, we present two high-resolution structures of transmembrane assemblies from a eukaryotic single-pass protein crystallized in a lipidic membrane environment. Trimeric and tetrameric structures of the immunoreceptor signaling module DAP12, determined to 1.77-Å and 2.14-Å resolution, respectively, are organized by the same polar surfaces that govern intramembrane assembly with client receptors. We demonstrate that, in addition to the well-studied dimeric form, these trimeric and tetrameric structures are made in cells, and their formation is competitive with receptor association in the ER. The polar transmembrane sequences therefore act as primary determinants of oligomerization specificity through interplay between charge shielding and sequestration of polar surfaces within helix interfaces. PMID:25981043

  8. Structural determinants of nitroxide motion in spin-labeled proteins: tertiary contact and solvent-inaccessible sites in helix G of T4 lysozyme.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhefeng; Cascio, Duilio; Hideg, Kálmán; Kálái, Támás; Hubbell, Wayne L

    2007-06-01

    A nitroxide side chain (R1) has been substituted at single sites along a helix-turn-helix motif in T4 lysozyme (residues 114-135). Together with previously published data, the new sites reported complete a continuous scan through the motif. Mutants with R1 at sites 115 and 118 were selected for crystallographic analysis to identify the structural origins of the corresponding two-component EPR spectra. At 115, R1 is shown to occupy two rotamers in the room temperature crystal structure, one of which has not been previously reported. The two components in the EPR spectrum apparently arise from differential interactions of the two rotamers with the surrounding structure, the most important of which is a hydrophobic interaction of the nitroxide ring. Interestingly, the crystal structure at 100 K reveals a single rotamer, emphasizing the possibility of rotamer selection in low-temperature crystal structures. Residue 118 is at a solvent-inaccessible site in the protein core, and the structure of 118R1, the first reported for the R1 side chain at a buried site, reveals how the side chain is accommodated in an overpacked core. PMID:17473014

  9. Transmembrane TNF  mediates \\

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hailong Zhang; Dan Yan; Xu Shi; Huifang Liang; Yan Pang; Nalin Qin; Hui Chen; Jing Wang; Bingjiao Yin; Xiaodan Jiang; Wei Feng; Wenjie Zhang; Muxiang Zhou; Zhuoya Li

    2008-01-01

    Interestingly, some lymphoma cells, ex- pressing high levels of transmembrane (tm)TNF-, are resistant to secretory (s)TNF--induced necrosis but sensitive to tmTNF- and result in apoptosis. As tmTNF- mediates \\

  10. Comparative model building of interleukin-7 using interleukin-4 as a template: a structural hypothesis that displays atypical surface chemistry in helix D important for receptor activation.

    PubMed Central

    Cosenza, L.; Rosenbach, A.; White, J. V.; Murphy, J. R.; Smith, T.

    2000-01-01

    Using a combination of theoretical sequence structure recognition predictions and experimental disulfide bond assignments, a three-dimensional (3D) model of human interleukin-7 (hIL-7) was constructed that predicts atypical surface chemistry in helix D that is important for receptor activation. A 3D model of hIL-7 was built using the X-ray crystal structure of interleukin-4 (IL-4) as a template (Walter MR et al., 1992, J Mol Biol. 224:1075-1085; Walter MR et al., 1992, J Biol Chem 267:20371-20376). Core secondary structures were constructed from sequences of hIL-7 predicted to form helices. The model was constructed by superimposing IL-7 helices onto the IL-4 template and connecting them together in an up-up down-down topology. The model was finished by incorporating the disulfide bond assignments (Cys3, Cys142), (Cys35, Cys130), and (Cys48, Cys93), which were determined by MALDI mass spectroscopy and site-directed mutagenesis (Cosenza L, Sweeney E, Murphy JR, 1997, J Biol Chem 272:32995-33000). Quality analysis of the hIL-7 model identified poor structural features in the carboxyl terminus that, when further studied using hydrophobic moment analysis, detected an atypical structural property in helix D, which contains Cys 130 and Cys142. This analysis demonstrated that helix D had a hydrophobic surface exposed to bulk solvent that accounted for the poor quality of the model, but was suggestive of a region in IL-7 that maybe important for protein interactions. Alanine (Ala) substitution scanning mutagenesis was performed to test if the predicted atypical surface chemistry of helix D in the hIL-7 model is important for receptor activation. This analysis resulted in the construction, purification, and characterization of four hIL-7 variants, hIL-7(K121A), hIL-7(L136A), hIL-7(K140A), and hIL-7(W143A), that displayed reduced or abrogated ability to stimulate a murine IL-7 dependent pre-B cell proliferation. The mutant hIL-7(W143A), which is biologically inactive and displaces [125I]-hIL-7, is the first reported IL-7R system antagonist. PMID:10850801

  11. A Crystalline Fragment of the Double Helix: The Structure of the Dinucleoside Phosphate Guanylyl-3?,5?-Cytidine

    PubMed Central

    Day, Roberta Ogilvie; Seeman, Nadrian C.; Rosenberg, John M.; Rich, Alexander

    1973-01-01

    The sodium salt of guanylyl-3?,5?-cytidine crystallizes in a monoclinic unit cell with one molecule in the asymmetric unit. Each molecule is related to another molecule by a 2-fold rotation axis which results in the formation of an antiparallel, right-handed double helix with complementary hydrogen bonding between the guanine and cytosine residues. The crystal is heavily hydrated with 36 water molecules in the unit cell. The geometry of this crystalline double helix is very similar to those which have been derived from studies of fiber x-ray diffraction patterns of double-stranded RNA, even though the latter do not yield data at atomic resolution. PMID:4514996

  12. Structure of a group A streptococcal phage-encoded virulence factor reveals a catalytically active triple-stranded beta-helix.

    PubMed

    Smith, Nicola L; Taylor, Edward J; Lindsay, Anna-Marie; Charnock, Simon J; Turkenburg, Johan P; Dodson, Eleanor J; Davies, Gideon J; Black, Gary W

    2005-12-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes (group A Streptococcus) causes severe invasive infections including scarlet fever, pharyngitis (streptococcal sore throat), skin infections, necrotizing fasciitis (flesh-eating disease), septicemia, erysipelas, cellulitis, acute rheumatic fever, and toxic shock. The conversion from nonpathogenic to toxigenic strains of S. pyogenes is frequently mediated by bacteriophage infection. One of the key bacteriophage-encoded virulence factors is a putative "hyaluronidase," HylP1, a phage tail-fiber protein responsible for the digestion of the S. pyogenes hyaluronan capsule during phage infection. Here we demonstrate that HylP1 is a hyaluronate lyase. The 3D structure, at 1.8-angstroms resolution, reveals an unusual triple-stranded beta-helical structure and provides insight into the structural basis for phage tail assembly and the role of phage tail proteins in virulence. Unlike the triple-stranded beta-helix assemblies of the bacteriophage T4 injection machinery and the tailspike endosialidase of the Escherichia coli K1 bacteriophage K1F, HylP1 possesses three copies of the active center on the triple-helical fiber itself without the need for an accessory catalytic domain. The triple-stranded beta-helix is not simply a structural scaffold, as previously envisaged; it is harnessed to provide a 200-angstroms-long substrate-binding groove for the optimal reduction in hyaluronan viscosity to aid phage penetration of the capsule. PMID:16314578

  13. A triple helix of double helicates: three hierarchical levels of self-assembly in a single structure.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, Andrew; Ward, Michael D

    2012-04-14

    The bis-bidentate bridging ligand L reacts with Ag(I) ions to form a conventional dinuclear [Ag(2)L(2)](2+) double helicate; individual double helicate units assemble via Ag···Ag interactions into infinite chains, three of which wrap around a central spine of anions to give a triple helical braid, which is therefore an infinite triple helix composed of molecular double helicate subunits. PMID:22395311

  14. Structure of AmpC ?-lactamase (AmpCD) from an Escherichia coli clinical isolate with a tripeptide deletion (Gly286-Ser287-Asp288) in the H10 helix

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, Yoshihiro; Sato, Genta; Yamagata, Yuriko; Doi, Yohei; Wachino, Jun-ichi; Arakawa, Yoshichika; Matsuda, Koki; Kurosaki, Hiromasa

    2009-01-01

    The X-ray crystal structure of AmpC ?-lactamase (AmpCD) with a tripeptide deletion (Gly286-Ser287-Asp288) produced by Escherichia coli HKY28, a ceftazidime-resistant strain, was determined at a resolution of 1.7?Å. The structure of AmpCD suggests that the tripeptide deletion at positions 286–288 located in the H10 helix causes a structural change of the Asn289–Asn294 region from the ?-helix present in the native AmpC ?-lactamase of E. coli to a loop structure, which results in a widening of the substrate-binding site. PMID:19478427

  15. Structural Basis for a pH Sensitive Calcium Leak across Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Yanqi; Bruni, Renato; Kloss, Brian; Assur, Zahra; Kloppmann, Edda; Rost, Burkhard; Hendrickson, Wayne A.; Liu, Qun

    2014-01-01

    Calcium homeostasis balances passive calcium leak and active calcium uptake. Human Bax inhibitor 1 (hBI-1) is an anti-apoptotic protein that mediates a calcium leak and is representative of highly conserved and widely distributed family, the transmembrane Bax inhibitor motif (TMBIM) proteins. Here we present crystal structures of a bacterial homolog and characterize its calcium leak activity. The structure has a seven-transmembrane-helix fold that features two triple-helix sandwiches wrapped around a central C-terminal helix. Structures obtained in closed and open conformations are reversibly inter-convertible by change of pH. A hydrogen-bonded, pKa-perturbed pair of conserved aspartate residues explains the pH dependence of this equilibrium, and biochemical studies show that pH regulates calcium influx in proteoliposomes. Homology models for hBI-1 provide insights into TMBIM-mediated calcium leak and cytoprotective activity. PMID:24904158

  16. Modified helix-like instability structure on imploding z-pinch liners that are pre-imposed with a uniform axial magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Awe, T. J., E-mail: tjawe@sandia.gov; Jennings, C. A.; McBride, R. D.; Cuneo, M. E.; Lamppa, D. C.; Martin, M. R.; Rovang, D. C.; Sinars, D. B.; Slutz, S. A.; Owen, A. C.; Gomez, M. R.; Hansen, S. B.; Herrmann, M. C.; Jones, M. C.; McKenney, J. L.; Robertson, G. K.; Rochau, G. A.; Savage, M. E.; Stygar, W. A. [Sandia National Laboratories, P.O. Box 5800, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States)] [Sandia National Laboratories, P.O. Box 5800, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185 (United States); Tomlinson, K. [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92121 (United States)] [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92121 (United States); and others

    2014-05-15

    Recent experiments at the Sandia National Laboratories Z Facility have, for the first time, studied the implosion dynamics of magnetized liner inertial fusion (MagLIF) style liners that were pre-imposed with a uniform axial magnetic field. As reported [T. J. Awe et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 235005 (2013)] when premagnetized with a 7 or 10?T axial field, these liners developed 3D-helix-like hydrodynamic instabilities; such instabilities starkly contrast with the azimuthally correlated magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor (MRT) instabilities that have been consistently observed in many earlier non-premagnetized experiments. The helical structure persisted throughout the implosion, even though the azimuthal drive field greatly exceeded the expected axial field at the liner's outer wall for all but the earliest stages of the experiment. Whether this modified instability structure has practical importance for magneto-inertial fusion concepts depends primarily on whether the modified instability structure is more stable than standard azimuthally correlated MRT instabilities. In this manuscript, we discuss the evolution of the helix-like instability observed on premagnetized liners. While a first principles explanation of this observation remains elusive, recent 3D simulations suggest that if a small amplitude helical perturbation can be seeded on the liner's outer surface, no further influence from the axial field is required for the instability to grow.

  17. Structural changes in single membranes in response to an applied transmembrane electric potential revealed by time-resolved neutron/X-ray interferometry

    PubMed Central

    Tronin, A.; Chen, C-H.; Gupta, S.; Worcester, D.; Lauter, V.; Strzalka, J.; Kuzmenko, I.; Blasie, J. K.

    2013-01-01

    The profile structure of a hybrid lipid bilayer, tethered to the surface of an inorganic substrate and fully hydrated with a bulk aqueous medium in an electrochemical cell, was investigated as a function of the applied transbilayer electric potential via time-resolved neutron reflectivity, enhanced by interferometry. Significant, and fully reversible structural changes were observed in the distal half (with respect to the substrate surface) of the hybrid bilayer comprised of a zwitterionic phospholipid in response to a +100mV potential with respect to 0mV. These arise presumably due to reorientation of the electric dipole present in the polar headgroup of the phospholipid and its resulting effect on the thickness of the phospholipid’s hydrocarbon chain layer within the hybrid bilayer’s profile structure. The profile structure of the voltage-sensor domain from a voltage-gated ion channel protein within a phospholipid bilayer membrane, tethered to the surface of an inorganic substrate and fully hydrated with a bulk aqueous medium in an electrochemical cell, was also investigated as a function of the applied transmembrane electric potential via time-resolved X-ray reflectivity, enhanced by interferometry. Significant, fully-reversible, and different structural changes in the protein were detected in response to ±100mV potentials with respect to 0mV. The approach employed is that typical of transient spectroscopy, shown here to be applicable to both neutron and X-ray reflectivity of thin films. PMID:24222930

  18. Structural changes in single membranes in response to an applied transmembrane electric potential revealed by time-resolved neutron/X-ray interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tronin, A.; Chen, C.-H.; Gupta, S.; Worcester, D.; Lauter, V.; Strzalka, J.; Kuzmenko, I.; Blasie, J. K.

    2013-08-01

    The profile structure of a hybrid lipid bilayer, tethered to the surface of an inorganic substrate and fully hydrated with a bulk aqueous medium in an electrochemical cell, was investigated as a function of the applied transbilayer electric potential via time-resolved neutron reflectivity, enhanced by interferometry. Significant, and fully reversible structural changes were observed in the distal half (with respect to the substrate surface) of the hybrid bilayer comprised of a zwitterionic phospholipid in response to a +100 mV potential with respect to 0 mV. These arise presumably due to reorientation of the electric dipole present in the polar headgroup of the phospholipid and its resulting effect on the thickness of the phospholipid’s hydrocarbon chain layer within the hybrid bilayer’s profile structure. The profile structure of the voltage-sensor domain from a voltage-gated ion channel protein within a phospholipid bilayer membrane, tethered to the surface of an inorganic substrate and fully hydrated with a bulk aqueous medium in an electrochemical cell, was also investigated as a function of the applied transmembrane electric potential via time-resolved X-ray reflectivity, enhanced by interferometry. Significant, fully-reversible, and different structural changes in the protein were detected in response to ±100 mV potentials with respect to 0 mV. The approach employed is that typical of transient spectroscopy, shown here to be applicable to both neutron and X-ray reflectivity of thin films.

  19. Structure of the unique SEFIR domain from human interleukin 17 receptor A reveals a composite ligand-binding site containing a conserved ?-helix for Act1 binding and IL-17 signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Bing [Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078 (United States); Liu, Caini; Qian, Wen [Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland Clinic, 9500 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44195 (United States); Han, Yue [Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078 (United States); Li, Xiaoxia, E-mail: lix@ccf.org [Lerner Research Institute, Cleveland Clinic, 9500 Euclid Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44195 (United States); Deng, Junpeng, E-mail: lix@ccf.org [Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078 (United States)

    2014-05-01

    Crystal structure of the SEFIR domain from human IL-17 receptor A provides new insights into IL-17 signaling. Interleukin 17 (IL-17) cytokines play a crucial role in mediating inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. A unique intracellular signaling domain termed SEFIR is found within all IL-17 receptors (IL-17Rs) as well as the key adaptor protein Act1. SEFIR-mediated protein–protein interaction is a crucial step in IL-17 cytokine signaling. Here, the 2.3 Å resolution crystal structure of the SEFIR domain of IL-17RA, the most commonly shared receptor for IL-17 cytokine signaling, is reported. The structure includes the complete SEFIR domain and an additional ?-helical C-terminal extension, which pack tightly together to form a compact unit. Structural comparison between the SEFIR domains of IL-17RA and IL-17RB reveals substantial differences in protein topology and folding. The uniquely long insertion between strand ?C and helix ?C in IL-17RA SEFIR is mostly well ordered, displaying a helix (?CC?{sub ins}) and a flexible loop (CC?). The DD? loop in the IL-17RA SEFIR structure is much shorter; it rotates nearly 90° with respect to the counterpart in the IL-17RB SEFIR structure and shifts about 12 Å to accommodate the ?CC?{sub ins} helix without forming any knots. Helix ?C was identified as critical for its interaction with Act1 and IL-17-stimulated gene expression. The data suggest that the heterotypic SEFIR–SEFIR association via helix ?C is a conserved and signature mechanism specific for IL-17 signaling. The structure also suggests that the downstream motif of IL-17RA SEFIR together with helix ?C could provide a composite ligand-binding surface for recruiting Act1 during IL-17 signaling.

  20. Flanking Polyproline Sequences Inhibit [beta]Sheet Structure in Polyglutamine Segments by Inducing PPII-like Helix Structure

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Gregory Darnell; Joseph P. R. O. Orgel; Reinhard Pahl; Stephen C. Meredith

    2008-01-01

    Polyglutamine (poly(Q)) expansion is associated with protein aggregation into β-sheet amyloid fibrils and neuronal cytotoxicity. In the mutant poly(Q) protein huntingtin, associated with Huntington's disease, both aggregation and cytotoxicity may be abrogated by a polyproline (poly(P)) domain flanking the C terminus of the poly(Q) region. To understand structural changes that may occur with the addition of the poly(P) sequence, we

  1. A Helix Replacement Mechanism Directs Metavinculin Functions

    SciTech Connect

    Rangarajan, Erumbi S.; Lee, Jun Hyuck; Yogesha, S.D.; Izard, Tina (Scripps)

    2010-10-11

    Cells require distinct adhesion complexes to form contacts with their neighbors or the extracellular matrix, and vinculin links these complexes to the actin cytoskeleton. Metavinculin, an isoform of vinculin that harbors a unique 68-residue insert in its tail domain, has distinct actin bundling and oligomerization properties and plays essential roles in muscle development and homeostasis. Moreover, patients with sporadic or familial mutations in the metavinculin-specific insert invariably develop fatal cardiomyopathies. Here we report the high resolution crystal structure of the metavinculin tail domain, as well as the crystal structures of full-length human native metavinculin (1,134 residues) and of the full-length cardiomyopathy-associated {Delta}Leu954 metavinculin deletion mutant. These structures reveal that an {alpha}-helix (H1{prime}) and extended coil of the metavinculin insert replace {alpha}-helix H1 and its preceding extended coil found in the N-terminal region of the vinculin tail domain to form a new five-helix bundle tail domain. Further, biochemical analyses demonstrate that this helix replacement directs the distinct actin bundling and oligomerization properties of metavinculin. Finally, the cardiomyopathy associated {Delta}Leu954 and Arg975Trp metavinculin mutants reside on the replaced extended coil and the H1{prime} {alpha}-helix, respectively. Thus, a helix replacement mechanism directs metavinculin's unique functions.

  2. Solution state NMR structure and dynamics of KpOmpA, a 210 residue transmembrane domain possessing a high potential for immunological applications.

    PubMed

    Renault, Marie; Saurel, Olivier; Czaplicki, Jerzy; Demange, Pascal; Gervais, Virginie; Löhr, Frank; Réat, Valérie; Piotto, Martial; Milon, Alain

    2009-01-01

    The three-dimensional structure of the outer membrane protein A from Klebsiella pneumoniae transmembrane domain was determined by NMR.This protein induces specific humoral and cytotoxic responses, and is a potent carrier protein. This is one of the largest integral membrane proteins(210 residues) for which nearly complete resonance assignment, including side chains, has been achieved so far. The methodology rested on the use of 900 MHz 3D and 4D TROSY experiments recorded on a uniformly 15N,13C,2H-labeled sample and on a perdeuterated methyl protonated sample. The structure was refined from 920 experimental constraints, giving an ensemble of 20 best structures with an r.m.s. deviation of 0.54 A for the main chain atoms in the core eight-stranded beta-barrel. The protein dynamics was assessed, in a residue-specific manner, by 1H-15N NOEs (pico- to nanosecond timescale), exchange broadening (millisecond to second) and 1H-2H chemical exchange (hour-weeks). PMID:18952100

  3. Probing the Transmembrane Structure and Topology of Microsomal Cytochrome-P450 by Solid-State NMR on Temperature-Resistant Bicelles

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Kazutoshi; Gildenberg, Melissa; Ahuja, Shivani; Im, Sang-Choul; Pearcy, Paige; Waskell, Lucy; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy

    2013-01-01

    Though the importance of high-resolution structure and dynamics of membrane proteins has been well recognized, optimizing sample conditions to retain the native-like folding and function of membrane proteins for Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) or X-ray measurements has been a major challenge. While bicelles have been shown to stabilize the function of membrane proteins and are increasingly utilized as model membranes, the loss of their magnetic-alignment at low temperatures makes them unsuitable to study heat-sensitive membrane proteins like cytochrome-P450 and protein-protein complexes. In this study, we report temperature resistant bicelles that can magnetically-align for a broad range of temperatures and demonstrate their advantages in the structural studies of full-length microsomal cytochrome-P450 and cytochrome-b5 by solid-state NMR spectroscopy. Our results reveal that the N-terminal region of rabbit cytochromeP4502B4, that is usually cleaved off to obtain crystal structures, is helical and has a transmembrane orientation with ~17° tilt from the lipid bilayer normal. PMID:23989972

  4. Crystal Structure of the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator Inhibitory Factor Cif Reveals Novel Active-Site Features of an Epoxide Hydrolase Virulence Factor

    SciTech Connect

    Bahl, C.; Morisseau, C; Bomberger, J; Stanton, B; Hammock, B; O& apos; Toole, G; Madden, D

    2010-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) inhibitory factor (Cif) is a virulence factor secreted by Pseudomonas aeruginosa that reduces the quantity of CFTR in the apical membrane of human airway epithelial cells. Initial sequence analysis suggested that Cif is an epoxide hydrolase (EH), but its sequence violates two strictly conserved EH motifs and also is compatible with other {alpha}/{beta} hydrolase family members with diverse substrate specificities. To investigate the mechanistic basis of Cif activity, we have determined its structure at 1.8-{angstrom} resolution by X-ray crystallography. The catalytic triad consists of residues Asp129, His297, and Glu153, which are conserved across the family of EHs. At other positions, sequence deviations from canonical EH active-site motifs are stereochemically conservative. Furthermore, detailed enzymatic analysis confirms that Cif catalyzes the hydrolysis of epoxide compounds, with specific activity against both epibromohydrin and cis-stilbene oxide, but with a relatively narrow range of substrate selectivity. Although closely related to two other classes of {alpha}/{beta} hydrolase in both sequence and structure, Cif does not exhibit activity as either a haloacetate dehalogenase or a haloalkane dehalogenase. A reassessment of the structural and functional consequences of the H269A mutation suggests that Cif's effect on host-cell CFTR expression requires the hydrolysis of an extended endogenous epoxide substrate.

  5. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Structure Revealed that the Human Polyomavirus JC Virus Agnoprotein Contains an ?-Helix Encompassing the Leu/Ile/Phe-Rich Domain

    PubMed Central

    Coric, Pascale; Saribas, A. Sami; Abou-Gharbia, Magid; Childers, Wayne; White, Martyn K.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Agnoprotein is a small multifunctional regulatory protein required for sustaining the productive replication of JC virus (JCV). It is a mostly cytoplasmic protein localizing in the perinuclear area and forms highly stable dimers/oligomers through a Leu/Ile/Phe-rich domain. There have been no three-dimensional structural data available for agnoprotein due to difficulties associated with the dynamic conversion from monomers to oligomers. Here, we report the first nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) structure of a synthetic agnoprotein peptide spanning amino acids Thr17 to Glu55 where Lys23 to Phe39 encompassing the Leu/Ile/Phe-rich domain forms an amphipathic ?-helix. On the basis of these structural data, a number of Ala substitution mutations were made to investigate the role of the ?-helix in the structure and function of agnoprotein. Single L29A and L36A mutations exhibited a significant negative effect on both protein stability and viral replication, whereas the L32A mutation did not. In addition, the L29A mutant displayed a highly nuclear localization pattern, in contrast to the pattern for the wild type (WT). Interestingly, a triple mutant, the L29A+L32A+L36A mutant, yielded no detectable agnoprotein expression, and the replication of this JCV mutant was significantly reduced, suggesting that Leu29 and Leu36 are located at the dimer interface, contributing to the structure and stability of agnoprotein. Two other single mutations, L33A and E34A, did not perturb agnoprotein stability as drastically as that observed with the L29A and L36A mutations, but they negatively affected viral replication, suggesting that the role of these residues is functional rather than structural. Thus, the agnoprotein dimerization domain can be targeted for the development of novel drugs active against JCV infection. IMPORTANCE Agnoprotein is a small regulatory protein of JC virus (JCV) and is required for the successful completion of the viral replication cycle. It forms highly stable dimers and oligomers through its hydrophobic (Leu/Ile/Phe-rich) domain, which has been shown to play essential roles in the stability and function of the protein. In this work, the Leu/Ile/Phe-rich domain has been further characterized by NMR studies using an agnoprotein peptide spanning amino acids T17 to Q54. Those studies revealed that the dimerization domain of the protein forms an amphipathic ?-helix. Subsequent NMR structure-based mutational analysis of the region highlighted the critical importance of certain amino acids within the ?-helix for the stability and function of agnoprotein. In conclusion, this study provides a solid foundation for developing effective therapeutic approaches against the dimerization domain of the protein to inhibit its critical roles in JCV infection. PMID:24672035

  6. The transmembrane domains of the bacterial cell division proteins FtsB and FtsL form a stable high-order oligomer

    PubMed Central

    Khadria, Ambalika S.; Senes, Alessandro

    2014-01-01

    FtsB and FtsL are two essential integral membrane proteins of the bacterial division complex or “divisome”, both characterized by a single transmembrane helix and a juxta-membrane coiled coil domain. The two domains are important for the association of FtsB and FtsL, a key event for their recruitment to the divisome, that in turn enables recruitment of the late divisomal components to the Z-ring and subsequent completion of the division process. Here we present a biophysical analysis performed in vitro that shows that the transmembrane domains of FtsB and FtsL associate strongly in isolation. Using FRET, we have measured the oligomerization of fluorophore-labeled transmembrane domains of FtsB and FtsL in both detergent and lipid. The data indicates that the transmembrane helices are likely a major contributor to the stability of the FtsB-FtsL complex. Our analyses show that FtsB and FtsL form a 1:1 higher-order oligomeric complex, possibly a tetramer. This finding suggests that the FtsB-FtsL complex is capable of multi-valent binding to FtsQ and other divisome components, a hypothesis that is consistent with the possibility that the FtsB-FtsL complex has a structural role in the stabilization of the Z-ring. PMID:24083359

  7. Revisting the Double Helix

    SciTech Connect

    Ha, Taekjip (University of Illinois) [University of Illinois

    2010-12-08

    Properties of DNA double helix have been studied for over 60 years. Yet as more sensitive tools become available, fundamental assumptions in our understanding of these properties are being challenged. One such question is over the flexibility of DNA. Looping or bending of DNA on short length scales is essential for many cellular processes but it is highly controversial exactly how flexible the DNA is. Using a new, single-molecule based method, we found that DNA of lengths as short as 50 base pairs can form a circle more than 108 times faster than theoretical predictions. Another question concerns the physical principles governing the reversible, helix-coil transitions of DNA between the double helix and single strands. Using porous nanocontainers, we found that the rate of double helix formation shows an abrupt 100 fold change depending on whether there are 7 or more contiguous base pairs or not.

  8. Tryptophan scanning mutagenesis reveals distortions in the helical structure of the ?M4 transmembrane domain of the Torpedo californica nicotinic acetylcholine receptor

    PubMed Central

    Caballero-Rivera, Daniel; Cruz-Nieves, Omar A.; Oyola-Cintrón, Jessica; Torres-Núñez, David A.; Otero-Cruz, José D.; Lasalde-Dominicci, José A.

    2012-01-01

    The lipid-protein interface is an important domain of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) that has recently garnered increased relevance. Several studies have made significant advances toward determining the structure and dynamics of the lipid-exposed domains of the nAChR. However, there is still a need to gain insight into the mechanism by which lipid-protein interactions regulate the function and conformational transitions of the nAChR. In this study, we extended the tryptophan scanning mutagenesis (TrpScanM) approach to dissect secondary structure and monitor the conformational changes experienced by the ?M4 transmembrane domain (TMD) of the Torpedo californica nAChR, and to identify which positions on this domain are potentially linked to the regulation of ion channel kinetics. The difference in oscillation patterns between the closed- and open-channel states suggests a substantial conformational change along this domain as a consequence of channel activation. Furthermore, TrpScanM revealed distortions along the helical structure of this TMD that are not present on current models of the nAChR. Our results show that a Thr-Pro motif at positions 462–463 markedly bends the helical structure of the TMD, consistent with the recent crystallographic structure of the GluCl Cys-loop receptor which reveals a highly bent TMD4 in each subunit. This Thr-Pro motif acts as a molecular hinge that delineates two gating blocks in the ?M4 TMD. These results suggest a model in which a hinge-bending motion that tilts the helical structure is combined with a spring-like motion during transition between the closed- and open-channel states of the ?M4 TMD. PMID:22622285

  9. Structure, Dynamics and Energetics of Initiation Sites in Protein Folding: I. Analysis of a 1 ns Molecular Dynamics Trajectory of an Early Folding Unit in Water: The Helix I\\/Loop I-Fragment of Barnase

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Michael Braxenthaler; Franc Avbelj; John Moult

    1995-01-01

    The dynamic and energetic behavior of an initiation site of protein folding (helix I\\/loop I fragment of barnase) isolated from the tertiary environment of the rest protein is investigated in a 1 ns molecular dynamics simulation. All atom representation, explicit solvent description, and periodic boundary conditions are applied. In the course of the simulation several steps of structural disintegration are

  10. Structural features of the apelin receptor N-terminal tail and first transmembrane segment implicated in ligand binding and receptor trafficking.

    PubMed

    Langelaan, David N; Reddy, Tyler; Banks, Aaron W; Dellaire, Graham; Dupré, Denis J; Rainey, Jan K

    2013-06-01

    G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) comprise a large family of membrane proteins with rich functional diversity. Signaling through the apelin receptor (AR or APJ) influences the cardiovascular system, central nervous system and glucose regulation. Pathophysiological involvement of apelin has been shown in atherosclerosis, cancer, human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) infection and obesity. Here, we present the high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy-based structure of the N-terminus and first transmembrane (TM) segment of AR (residues 1-55, AR55) in dodecylphosphocholine micelles. AR55 consists of two disrupted helices, spanning residues D14-K25 and A29-R55(1.59). Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of AR built from a hybrid of experimental NMR and homology model-based restraints allowed validation of the AR55 structure in the context of the full-length receptor in a hydrated bilayer. AR55 structural features were functionally probed using mutagenesis in full-length AR through monitoring of apelin-induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation in transiently transfected human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293A cells. Residues E20 and D23 form an extracellular anionic face and interact with lipid headgroups during MD simulations in the absence of ligand, producing an ideal binding site for a cationic apelin ligand proximal to the membrane-water interface, lending credence to membrane-catalyzed apelin-AR binding. In the TM region of AR55, N46(1.50) is central to a disruption in helical character. G42(1.46), G45(1.49) and N46(1.50), which are all involved in the TM helical disruption, are essential for proper trafficking of AR. In summary, we introduce a new correlative NMR spectroscopy and computational biochemistry methodology and demonstrate its utility in providing some of the first high-resolution structural information for a peptide-activated GPCR TM domain. PMID:23438363

  11. The role of transmembrane domain III in the lactose permease of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Sahin-Tóth, M.; Frillingos, S.; Bibi, E.; Gonzalez, A.; Kaback, H. R.

    1994-01-01

    Deletion of putative transmembrane helix III from the lactose permease of Escherichia coli results in complete loss of transport activity. Similarly, replacement of this region en bloc with 23 contiguous Ala, Leu, or Phe residues abolishes active lactose transport. The observations suggest that helix III may contain functionally important residues; therefore, this region was subjected to Cys-scanning mutagenesis. Using a functional mutant devoid of Cys residues (C-less permease) each residue from Tyr 75 to Leu 99 was individually replaced with Cys. Twenty-one of the 25 mutants accumulate lactose to > 70% of the steady-state exhibited by C-less permease, and an additional 3 mutants transport to lower, but significant levels (40-60% of C-less). Cys replacement for Leu 76 results in low transport activity (18% of C-less). However, when placed in the wild-type background, mutant Leu 76-->Cys exhibits highly significant rates of transport (55% of wild type) and steady-state levels of lactose accumulation (65% of wild type). Immunoblots reveal that the mutants are inserted into the membrane at concentrations comparable to wild type. Studies with N-ethylmaleimide show that mutant Gly 96-->Cys is rapidly inactivated, whereas the other single-Cys mutants are not altered significantly by the alkylating agent. Moreover, the rate of inactivation of Gly 96-->Cys permease is enhanced at least 2-fold in the presence of beta-galactopyranosyl 1-thio-beta, D-galactopyranoside. The observations demonstrate that although no residue per se appears to be essential, structural properties of helix III are important for active lactose transport. PMID:7756986

  12. NMR structures of the human ?7 nAChR transmembrane domain and associated anesthetic binding sites

    PubMed Central

    Bondarenko, Vasyl; Mowrey, David D.; Tillman, Tommy S.; Seyoum, Edom; Xu, Yan; Tang, Pei

    2014-01-01

    The ?7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR), assembled as homomeric pentameric ligand-gated ion channels, is one of the most abundant nAChR subtypes in the brain. Despite its importance in memory, learning and cognition, no structure has been determined for the ?7 nAChR TM domain, a target for allosteric modulators. Using solution state NMR, we determined the structure of the human ?7 nAChR TM domain (PDB ID: 2MAW) and demonstrated that the ?7 TM domain formed functional channels in Xenopus oocytes. We identified the associated binding sites for the anesthetics halothane and ketamine; the former cannot sensitively inhibit ?7 function, but latter can. The ?7 TM domain folds into the expected four-helical bundle motif, but the intra-subunit cavity at the extracellular end of the ?7 TM domain is smaller than the equivalent cavity in the ?4?2 nAChRs (PDB IDs: 2LLY; 2LM2). Neither drug binds to the extracellular end of the ?7 TM domain, but two halothane molecules or one ketamine molecule bind to the intracellular end of the ?7 TM domain. Halothane and ketamine binding sites are partially overlapped. Ketamine, but not halothane, perturbed the ?7 channel-gate residue L9?. Furthermore, halothane did not induce profound dynamics changes in the ?7 channel as observed in ?4?2. The study offers a novel high-resolution structure for the human ?7 nAChR TM domain that is invaluable for developing ?7-specific therapeutics. It also provides evidence to support the hypothesis: only when anesthetic binding perturbs the channel pore or alters the channel motion, can binding generate functional consequences. PMID:24384062

  13. Specific recognition of the collagen triple helix by chaperone HSP47: minimal structural requirement and spatial molecular orientation.

    PubMed

    Koide, Takaki; Asada, Shinichi; Takahara, Yoshifumi; Nishikawa, Yoshimi; Nagata, Kazuhiro; Kitagawa, Kouki

    2006-02-10

    The unique folding of procollagens in the endoplasmic reticulum is achieved with the assistance of procollagen-specific molecular chaperones. Heat-shock protein 47 (HSP47) is an endoplasmic reticulum-resident chaperone that plays an essential role in normal procollagen folding, although its molecular function has not yet been clarified. Recent advances in studies on the binding specificity of HSP47 have revealed that Arg residues at Yaa positions in collagenous Gly-Xaa-Yaa repeats are critical for its interactions (Koide, T., Takahara, Y., Asada, S., and Nagata, K. (2002) J. Biol. Chem. 277, 6178-6182; Tasab, M., Jenkinson, L., and Bulleid, N. J. (2002) J. Biol. Chem. 277, 35007-35012). In the present study, we further examined the client recognition mechanism of HSP47 by taking advantage of systems employing engineered collagen model peptides. First, in vitro binding studies using conformationally constrained collagen-like peptides revealed that HSP47 only recognized correctly folded triple helices and that the interaction with the corresponding single-chain polypeptides was negligible. Second, a binding study using heterotrimeric model clients for HSP47 demonstrated a minimal requirement for the number of Arg residues in the triple helix. Finally, a cross-linking study using photoreactive collagenous peptides provided information about the spatial orientation of an HSP47 molecule in the chaperone-collagen complex. The obtained results led to the development of a new model of HSP47-collagen complexes that differs completely from the previously proposed "flying capstan model" (Dafforn, T. R., Della, M., and Miller, A. D. (2001) J. Biol. Chem. 276, 49310-49319). PMID:16326708

  14. Efflux by small multidrug resistance proteins is inhibited by membrane-interactive helix-stapled peptides.

    PubMed

    Bellmann-Sickert, Kathrin; Stone, Tracy A; Poulsen, Bradley E; Deber, Charles M

    2015-01-16

    Bacterial cell membranes contain several protein pumps that resist the toxic effects of drugs by efficiently extruding them. One family of these pumps, the small multidrug resistance proteins (SMRs), consists of proteins of about 110 residues that need to oligomerize to form a structural pathway for substrate extrusion. As such, SMR oligomerization sites should constitute viable targets for efflux inhibition, by disrupting protein-protein interactions between helical segments. To explore this proposition, we are using Hsmr, an SMR from Halobacter salinarum that dimerizes to extrude toxicants. Our previous work established that (i) Hsmr dimerization is mediated by a helix-helix interface in Hsmr transmembrane (TM) helix 4 (residues (90)GLALIVAGV(98)); and (ii) a peptide comprised of the full TM4(85-105) sequence inhibits Hsmr-mediated ethidium bromide efflux from bacterial cells. Here we define the minimal linear sequence for inhibitor activity (determined as TM4(88-100), and then "staple" this sequence via Grubbs metathesis to produce peptides typified by acetyl-A-(Sar)3-(88)VVGLXLIZXGVVV(100)-KKK-NH2 (X = 2-(4'-pentenyl)alanine at positions 92 and 96; Z = Val, Gly, or Asn at position 95)). The Asn(95) peptide displayed specific efflux inhibition and resensitization of Hsmr-expressing cells to ethidium bromide; and was non-hemolytic to human red blood cells. Stapling essentially prevented peptide degradation in blood plasma and liver homogenates versus an unstapled counterpart. The overall results confirm that the stapled analog of TM4(88-100) retains the structural complementarity required to disrupt the Hsmr TM4-TM4 locus in Hsmr, and portend the general validity of stapled peptides as therapeutics for the disruption of functional protein-protein interactions in membranes. PMID:25425644

  15. Insertion of short transmembrane helices by the Sec61 translocon

    PubMed Central

    Jaud, Simon; Fernández-Vidal, Mónica; Nilsson, IngMarie; Meindl-Beinker, Nadja M.; Hübner, Nadja C.; Tobias, Douglas J.; von Heijne, Gunnar; White, Stephen H.

    2009-01-01

    The insertion efficiency of transmembrane (TM) helices by the Sec61 translocon depends on helix amino acid composition, the positions of the amino acids within the helix, and helix length. We have used an in vitro expression system to examine systematically the insertion efficiency of short polyleucine segments (Ln, n = 4 … 12) flanked at either end by 4-residue sequences of the form XXPX-Ln-XPXX with X = G, N, D, or K. Except for X = K, insertion efficiency (p) is <10% for n < 8, but rises steeply to 100% for n = 12. For X = K, p is already close to 100% for n = 10. A similar pattern is observed for synthetic peptides incorporated into oriented phospholipid bilayer arrays, consistent with the idea that recognition of TM segments by the translocon critically involves physical partitioning of nascent peptide chains into the lipid bilayer. Molecular dynamics simulations suggest that insertion efficiency is determined primarily by the energetic cost of distorting the bilayer in the vicinity of the TM helix. Very short lysine-flanked leucine segments can reduce the energetic cost by extensive hydrogen bonding with water and lipid phosphate groups (snorkeling) and by partial unfolding. PMID:19581593

  16. Tailored fibro-porous structure of electrospun polyurethane membranes, their size-dependent properties and trans-membrane glucose diffusion.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ning; Burugapalli, Krishna; Song, Wenhui; Halls, Justin; Moussy, Francis; Zheng, Yudong; Ma, Yanxuan; Wu, Zhentao; Li, Kang

    2013-01-15

    The aim of this study was to develop polyurethane (PU) based fibro-porous membranes and to investigate the size-effect of hierarchical porous structure on permeability and surface properties of the developed electrospun membranes. Non-woven Selectophore™ PU membranes having tailored fibre diameters, pore sizes, and thickness were spun using electrospinning, and their chemical, physical and glucose permeability properties were characterised. Solvents, solution concentration, applied voltage, flow rate and distance to collector, each were systematically investigated, and electrospinning conditions for tailoring fibre diameters were identified. Membranes having average fibre diameters - 347, 738 and 1102 nm were characterized, revealing average pore sizes of 800, 870 and 1060 nm and pore volumes of 44, 63 and 68% respectively. Hydrophobicity increased with increasing fibre diameter and porosity. Effective diffusion coefficients for glucose transport across the electrospun membranes varied as a function of thickness and porosity, indicating high flux rates for mass transport. Electrospun PU membranes having significantly high pore volumes, extensively interconnected porosity and tailorable properties compared to conventional solvent cast membranes can find applications as coatings for sensors requiring analyte exchange. PMID:23170040

  17. Marginally hydrophobic transmembrane ?-helices shaping membrane protein folding.

    PubMed

    De Marothy, Minttu T; Elofsson, Arne

    2015-07-01

    Cells have developed an incredible machinery to facilitate the insertion of membrane proteins into the membrane. While we have a fairly good understanding of the mechanism and determinants of membrane integration, more data is needed to understand the insertion of membrane proteins with more complex insertion and folding pathways. This review will focus on marginally hydrophobic transmembrane helices and their influence on membrane protein folding. These weakly hydrophobic transmembrane segments are by themselves not recognized by the translocon and therefore rely on local sequence context for membrane integration. How can such segments reside within the membrane? We will discuss this in the light of features found in the protein itself as well as the environment it resides in. Several characteristics in proteins have been described to influence the insertion of marginally hydrophobic helices. Additionally, the influence of biological membranes is significant. To begin with, the actual cost for having polar groups within the membrane may not be as high as expected; the presence of proteins in the membrane as well as characteristics of some amino acids may enable a transmembrane helix to harbor a charged residue. The lipid environment has also been shown to directly influence the topology as well as membrane boundaries of transmembrane helices-implying a dynamic relationship between membrane proteins and their environment. PMID:25970811

  18. [The helix of life].

    PubMed

    Kahn, Axel

    2003-04-01

    The discovery of DNA's double helix 50 years ago was the founding event of molecular biology. It was also the moment that forged the reputation of two of biology's most compelling figures, no doubt in perpetuity. However, Jim Watson and Francis Crick were not the only players of this outstanding fest whose certain circumstances remain today rather singular. PMID:12836225

  19. Insights into Avian Influenza Virus Pathogenicity: the Hemagglutinin Precursor HA0 of Subtype H16 Has an Alpha-Helix Structure in Its Cleavage Site with Inefficient HA1/HA2 Cleavage

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Xishan; Shi, Yi; Gao, Feng; Xiao, Haixia; Wang, Ming; Qi, Jianxun

    2012-01-01

    With a new serotype (H17) of hemagglutinin (HA) recently being discovered, there are now 17 serotypes (H1 to H17) of influenza A viruses in total. It is believed that HA is initially expressed as a precursor of HA0 and then cleaved into HA1 and HA2, forming a disulfide bond-linked complex, for its full function. Structural data show that a loop structure exists in the cleavage site between HA1 and HA2, and this flexible loop is crucial for the efficient cleavage of HA0. Here, the crystal structures of H16 (a low-pathogenicity avian influenza virus) in their HA0 form (H16HA0) have been solved at 1.7-? and 2.0-? resolutions. To our surprise, an ?-helix element in the cleavage site which inserts into the negatively charged cavity with the key residue R329 hidden behind the helix was observed. In vitro trypsin cleavage experiments demonstrated inefficient cleavage of H16HA0 under both neutral and low-pH conditions. The results provide new insights into influenza A virus pathogenicity; both the relatively stable ?-helix structure in the flexible cleavage loop and inaccessibility of the cleavage site likely contribute to the low pathogenicity of avian influenza A virus. Furthermore, compared to all of the HAs whose structures have been solved, H16 is a good reference for assigning the HA subtypes into two groups on the basis of the three-dimensional structure, which is consistent with the phylogenetic grouping. We conclude that in light of the current H16HA0 structure, the natural ?-helix element might provide a new opportunity for influenza virus inhibitor design. PMID:22993148

  20. Insights into avian influenza virus pathogenicity: the hemagglutinin precursor HA0 of subtype H16 has an alpha-helix structure in its cleavage site with inefficient HA1/HA2 cleavage.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xishan; Shi, Yi; Gao, Feng; Xiao, Haixia; Wang, Ming; Qi, Jianxun; Gao, George F

    2012-12-01

    With a new serotype (H17) of hemagglutinin (HA) recently being discovered, there are now 17 serotypes (H1 to H17) of influenza A viruses in total. It is believed that HA is initially expressed as a precursor of HA0 and then cleaved into HA1 and HA2, forming a disulfide bond-linked complex, for its full function. Structural data show that a loop structure exists in the cleavage site between HA1 and HA2, and this flexible loop is crucial for the efficient cleavage of HA0. Here, the crystal structures of H16 (a low-pathogenicity avian influenza virus) in their HA0 form (H16HA0) have been solved at 1.7-? and 2.0-? resolutions. To our surprise, an ?-helix element in the cleavage site which inserts into the negatively charged cavity with the key residue R329 hidden behind the helix was observed. In vitro trypsin cleavage experiments demonstrated inefficient cleavage of H16HA0 under both neutral and low-pH conditions. The results provide new insights into influenza A virus pathogenicity; both the relatively stable ?-helix structure in the flexible cleavage loop and inaccessibility of the cleavage site likely contribute to the low pathogenicity of avian influenza A virus. Furthermore, compared to all of the HAs whose structures have been solved, H16 is a good reference for assigning the HA subtypes into two groups on the basis of the three-dimensional structure, which is consistent with the phylogenetic grouping. We conclude that in light of the current H16HA0 structure, the natural ?-helix element might provide a new opportunity for influenza virus inhibitor design. PMID:22993148

  1. Crystallizing Transmembrane Peptides in Lipidic Mesophases

    SciTech Connect

    Höfer, Nicole; Aragão, David; Caffrey, Martin (Trinity)

    2011-09-28

    Structure determination of membrane proteins by crystallographic means has been facilitated by crystallization in lipidic mesophases. It has been suggested, however, that this so-called in meso method, as originally implemented, would not apply to small protein targets having {le}4 transmembrane crossings. In our study, the hypothesis that the inherent flexibility of the mesophase would enable crystallogenesis of small proteins was tested using a transmembrane pentadecapeptide, linear gramicidin, which produced structure-grade crystals. This result suggests that the in meso method should be considered as a viable means for high-resolution structure determination of integral membrane peptides, many of which are predicted to be coded for in the human genome.

  2. Organogense et cytodiffrenciation de la prostate de l'Escargot Helix aspersa Mller

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Organogenèse et cytodifférenciation de la prostate de l'Escargot Helix aspersa Müller J. ENÉE L gland of the snail, Helix aspersa Muller. Organogenesis of the prostate gland of the pulmonate stylommatophora, Helix aspersa Muller, has been divided into four stages which culminate in a tubular structure

  3. Dynamic relationships among type IIa bacteriocins: temperature effects on antimicrobial activity and on structure of the C-terminal amphipathic alpha helix as a receptor-binding region.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Kamaljit; Andrew, Lena C; Wishart, David S; Vederas, John C

    2004-07-20

    Dynamic aspects of structural relationships among class IIa bacteriocins, which are antimicrobial peptides from lactic acid bacteria (LAB), have been examined by use of circular dichroism (CD), molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, and activity testing. Pediocin PA-1 is a potent class IIa bacteriocin, which contains a second C-terminal disulfide bond in addition to the highly conserved N-terminal disulfide bond. A mutant of pediocin PA-1, ped[M31Nle], wherein the replacement of methionine by norleucine (Nle) gives enhanced stability toward aerobic oxidation, was synthesized by solid-phase peptide synthesis to study the activity of the peptide in relation to its structure. The secondary structural analysis from CD spectra of ped[M31Nle], carnobacteriocin B2 (cbn B2), and leucocin A (leuA) at different temperatures suggests that the alpha-helical region of these peptides is important for target recognition and activity. Using molecular modeling and dynamic simulations, complete models of pediocin PA-1, enterocin P, sakacin P, and curvacin A in 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol (TFE) were generated to compare structural relationships among this class of bacteriocins. Their high sequence similarity allows for the use of homology modeling techniques. Starting from homology models based on solution structures of leuA (PDB code 1CW6) and cbnB2 (PDB code 1CW5), results of 2-4 ns MD simulations in TFE and water at 298 and 313 K are reported. The results indicate that these peptides have a common helical C-terminal domain in TFE but a more variable beta sheet or coiled N terminus. At elevated temperatures, pediocin PA-1 maintains its overall structure, whereas peptides without the second C-terminal disulfide bond, such as enterocin P, sakacin P, curvacin A, leuA, and cbnB2 experience partial disruption of the helical section. Pediocin PA-1 and ped[M31Nle] were found to be equally active at different temperatures, whereas the other peptides that lack the second C-terminal disulfide bond are 30-50 times less antimicrobially potent at 310 K (37 degrees C) than at 298 K (25 degrees C). These results indicate that the structural changes in the helical region observed at elevated temperatures account for the loss of activity of these peptides. The presence of C-terminal hydrophobic residues on one side of the amphipathic helix in class IIa bacteriocins is an important feature for receptor recognition and specificity toward particular organisms. This study assists in the understanding of structure-activity relationships in type IIa bacteriocins and demonstrates the importance of the conserved C-terminal amphipathic alpha helix for activity. PMID:15248758

  4. FMRFamide receptors of Helix aspersa

    SciTech Connect

    Payza, K.

    1988-01-01

    A receptor binding assay and an isolated heart bioassay were used to identify and characterize the FMRFamide receptors in Helix. In the heart bioassay, FMRFamide increased myocardial contraction force. A potent FMRFamide analog, desaminoTyr-Phe-norLeu-arg-Phe-amide (daYFnLRFamide), was used as a radioiodinated receptor ligand. The high affinity binding of {sup 125}I-daYFnLRFamide at 0{degree}C to Helix brain membranes was reversible, saturable, pH-dependent and specific, with a K{sub D} of 13-14 nM. A lower affinity (245 nM) site was also observed. Radioligand binding sites were also identified in the heart, male reproductive organs and digestive organs. The structure-activity relations (SAR) of cardiostimulation correlated with the specificity of {sup 125}I-daYFnLRFamide binding to brain and heart receptors. The SAR were similar to those of other molluscan FMRFamide bioassays, except that they showed a marked preference for some analogs with blocked amino-terminals.

  5. The structure of Plasmodium vivax phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein suggests a functional motif containing a left-handed helix

    PubMed Central

    Arakaki, Tracy; Neely, Helen; Boni, Erica; Mueller, Natasha; Buckner, Frederick S.; Van Voorhis, Wesley C.; Lauricella, Angela; DeTitta, George; Luft, Joseph; Hol, Wim G. J.; Merritt, Ethan A.

    2007-01-01

    The structure of a putative Raf kinase inhibitor protein (RKIP) homolog from the eukaryotic parasite Plasmodium vivax has been studied to a resolution of 1.3?Å using multiple-wavelength anomalous diffraction at the Se?K edge. This protozoan protein is topologically similar to previously studied members of the phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein (PEBP) sequence family, but exhibits a distinctive left-handed ?-helical region at one side of the canonical phospholipid-binding site. Re-examination of previously determined PEBP structures suggests that the P. vivax protein and yeast carboxypeptidase Y inhibitor may represent a structurally distinct subfamily of the diverse PEBP-sequence family. PMID:17329808

  6. The structure of Plasmodium vivax phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein suggests a functional motif containing a left-handed helix.

    PubMed

    Arakaki, Tracy; Neely, Helen; Boni, Erica; Mueller, Natasha; Buckner, Frederick S; Van Voorhis, Wesley C; Lauricella, Angela; DeTitta, George; Luft, Joseph; Hol, Wim G J; Merritt, Ethan A

    2007-03-01

    The structure of a putative Raf kinase inhibitor protein (RKIP) homolog from the eukaryotic parasite Plasmodium vivax has been studied to a resolution of 1.3 A using multiple-wavelength anomalous diffraction at the Se K edge. This protozoan protein is topologically similar to previously studied members of the phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein (PEBP) sequence family, but exhibits a distinctive left-handed alpha-helical region at one side of the canonical phospholipid-binding site. Re-examination of previously determined PEBP structures suggests that the P. vivax protein and yeast carboxypeptidase Y inhibitor may represent a structurally distinct subfamily of the diverse PEBP-sequence family. PMID:17329808

  7. Structure of the reaction center from Rhodobacter sphaeroides R-26: the protein subunits.

    PubMed Central

    Allen, J P; Feher, G; Yeates, T O; Komiya, H; Rees, D C

    1987-01-01

    The three-dimensional structure of the protein subunits of the reaction center (RC) of Rhodobacter sphaeroides has been determined by x-ray diffraction at a resolution of 2.8 A with an R factor of 26%. The L and M subunits each contain five transmembrane helices and several helices that do not span the membrane. The L and M subunits are related to each other by a 2-fold rotational symmetry axis that is approximately the same as that determined for the cofactors. The H subunit has one transmembrane helix and a globular domain on the cytoplasmic side, which contains a helix that does not span the membrane and several beta-sheets. The structural homology with RCs from other purple bacteria is discussed. A structure of the complex formed between the water soluble cytochrome c2 and the RC from Rb. sphaeroides is proposed. Images PMID:2819866

  8. Lasing thresholds of helical photonic structures with different positions of a single light-amplifying helix turn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blinov, L. M.; Palto, S. P.

    2013-09-01

    Numerical simulation is used to assess the lasing threshold of helical structures of cholesteric liquid crystals (CLCs) in which only one turn amplifies light. This turn is located either in the centre of symmetric structures of various sizes or in an arbitrary place in asymmetric structures of preset size. In all cases, we find singularities in light amplification by a one-dimensional CLC structure for the most important band-edge modes (m1, m2 and m3) and plot the threshold gain coefficient kth against the position of the amplifying turn. For the symmetric structures, the lasing threshold of the m1 mode is shown to vary linearly with the inverse of the square of the cavity length. Moreover, modes with a lower density of photonic states (DOS) in the cavity may have a lower lasing threshold. This can be accounted for by the dependence of the density of photonic states on the position of the amplifying turn and, accordingly, by the nonuniform electromagnetic field intensity distribution along the cavity for different modes. In the asymmetric structures, the same field energy distribution is responsible for a correlation between kth and DOS curves.

  9. The Influenza Virus M 2Ion Channel Protein: Probing the Structure of the Transmembrane Domain in Intact Cells by Using Engineered Disulfide Cross-Linking

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Christina M. Bauer; Lawrence H. Pinto; Timothy A. Cross; Robert A. Lamb

    1999-01-01

    The influenza A virus M2integral membrane protein is an ion channel that permits protons to enter virus particles during uncoating of virions in endosomes, and it also modulates the pH of thetrans-Golgi network in virus-infected cells. M2protein is a homo-oligomer of 97 residues with a single transmembrane (TM) domain whose residues encompass the pore region of the channel and the

  10. Evidence for new homotypic and heterotypic interactions between transmembrane helices of proteins involved in receptor tyrosine kinase and neuropilin signaling.

    PubMed

    Sawma, Paul; Roth, Lise; Blanchard, Cécile; Bagnard, Dominique; Crémel, Gérard; Bouveret, Emmanuelle; Duneau, Jean-Pierre; Sturgis, James N; Hubert, Pierre

    2014-12-12

    Signaling in eukaryotic cells frequently relies on dynamic interactions of single-pass membrane receptors involving their transmembrane (TM) domains. To search for new such interactions, we have developed a bacterial two-hybrid system to screen for both homotypic and heterotypic interactions between TM helices. We have explored the dimerization of TM domains from 16 proteins involved in both receptor tyrosine kinase and neuropilin signaling. This study has revealed several new interactions. We found that the TM domain of Mucin-4, a putative intramembrane ligand for erbB2, dimerizes not only with erbB2 but also with all four members of the erbB family. In the Neuropilin/Plexin family of receptors, we showed that the TM domains of Neuropilins 1 and 2 dimerize with themselves and also with Plexin-A1, Plexin-B1, and L1CAM, but we were unable to observe interactions with several other TM domains notably those of members of the VEGF receptor family. The potentially important Neuropilin 1/Plexin-A1 interaction was confirmed using a surface plasmon resonance assay. This work shows that TM domain interactions can be highly specific. Exploring further the propensities of TM helix-helix association in cell membrane should have important practical implications related to our understanding of the structure-function of bitopic proteins' assembly and subsequent function, especially in the regulation of signal transduction. PMID:25315821

  11. Analysis of Human Dopamine D3 Receptor Quaternary Structure*

    PubMed Central

    Marsango, Sara; Caltabiano, Gianluigi; Pou, Chantevy; Varela Liste, María José; Milligan, Graeme

    2015-01-01

    The dopamine D3 receptor is a class A, rhodopsin-like G protein-coupled receptor that can form dimers and/or higher order oligomers. However, the molecular basis for production of these complexes is not well defined. Using combinations of molecular modeling, site-directed mutagenesis, and homogenous time-resolved FRET, the interfaces that allow dopamine D3 receptor monomers to interact were defined and used to describe likely quaternary arrangements of the receptor. These were then compared with published crystal structures of dimeric ?1-adrenoreceptor, ?-opioid, and CXCR4 receptors. The data indicate important contributions of residues from within each of transmembrane domains I, II, IV, V, VI, and VII as well as the intracellular helix VIII in the formation of D3-D3 receptor interfaces within homo-oligomers and are consistent with the D3 receptor adopting a ?1-adrenoreceptor-like quaternary arrangement. Specifically, results suggest that D3 protomers can interact with each other via at least two distinct interfaces: the first one comprising residues from transmembrane domains I and II along with those from helix VIII and a second one involving transmembrane domains IV and V. Moreover, rather than existing only as distinct dimeric species, the results are consistent with the D3 receptor also assuming a quaternary structure in which two transmembrane domain I-II-helix VIII dimers interact to form a ”rhombic” tetramer via an interface involving residues from transmembrane domains VI and VII. In addition, the results also provide insights into the potential contribution of molecules of cholesterol to the overall organization and potential stability of the D3 receptor and possibly other GPCR quaternary structures. PMID:25931118

  12. Helix control in polymers

    PubMed Central

    Totsingan, Filbert; Jain, Vipul; Green, Mark M.

    2012-01-01

    The helix is a critical conformation exhibited by biological macromolecules and plays a key role in fundamental biological processes. Biological helical polymers exist in a single helical sense arising from the chiral effect of their primary units—for example, DNA and proteins adopt predominantly a right-handed helix conformation in response to the asymmetric conformational propensity of D-sugars and L-amino acids, respectively. In using these homochiral systems, nature blocks our observations of some fascinating aspects of the cooperativity in helical systems, although when useful for a specific purpose, “wrong” enantiomers may be incorporated in specific places. In synthetic helical systems, on the contrary, incorporation of non-racemic chirality is an additional burden, and the findings discussed in this review show that this burden may be considerably alleviated by taking advantage of the amplification of chirality, in which small chiral influences lead to large consequences. Peptide nucleic acid (PNA), which is a non-chiral synthetic DNA mimic, shows a cooperative response to a small chiral effect induced by a chiral amino acid, which is limited, however, due to the highly flexible nature of this oligomeric chimera. The lack of internal stereochemical bias is an important factor which makes PNA an ideal system to understand some cooperative features that are not directly accessible from DNA. PMID:22772039

  13. Alternative C-Terminal Helix Orientation Alters Chemokine Function

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Je-Hung; Chen, Ya-Ping; Liu, Jai-Shin; Dubrac, Alexandre; Quemener, Cathy; Prats, Hervé; Bikfalvi, Andreas; Wu, Wen-guey; Sue, Shih-Che

    2013-01-01

    Chemokines, a subfamily of cytokines, are small, secreted proteins that mediate a variety of biological processes. Various chemokines adopt remarkable conserved tertiary structure comprising an anti-parallel ?-sheet core domain followed by a C-terminal helix that packs onto the ?-sheet. The conserved structural feature has been considered critical for chemokine function, including binding to cell surface receptor. The recently isolated variant, CXCL4L1, is a homologue of CXCL4 chemokine (or platelet factor 4) with potent anti-angiogenic activity and differed only in three amino acid residues of P58L, K66E, and L67H. In this study we show by x-ray structural determination that CXCL4L1 adopts a previously unrecognized structure at its C terminus. The orientation of the C-terminal helix protrudes into the aqueous space to expose the entire helix. The alternative helix orientation modifies the overall chemokine shape and surface properties. The L67H mutation is mainly responsible for the swing-out effect of the helix, whereas mutations of P58L and K66E only act secondarily. This is the first observation that reports an open conformation of the C-terminal helix in a chemokine. This change leads to a decrease of its glycosaminoglycan binding properties and to an enhancement of its anti-angiogenic and anti-tumor effects. This unique structure is recent in evolution and has allowed CXCL4L1 to gain novel functional properties. PMID:23536183

  14. Structural model for the protein-translocating element of the twin-arginine transport system.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Fernanda; Rouse, Sarah L; Tait, Claudia E; Harmer, Jeffrey; De Riso, Antonio; Timmel, Christiane R; Sansom, Mark S P; Berks, Ben C; Schnell, Jason R

    2013-03-19

    The twin-arginine translocase (Tat) carries out the remarkable process of translocating fully folded proteins across the cytoplasmic membrane of prokaryotes and the thylakoid membrane of plant chloroplasts. Tat is required for bacterial pathogenesis and for photosynthesis in plants. TatA, the protein-translocating element of the Tat system, is a small transmembrane protein that assembles into ring-like oligomers of variable size. We have determined a structural model of the Escherichia coli TatA complex in detergent solution by NMR. TatA assembly is mediated entirely by the transmembrane helix. The amphipathic helix extends outwards from the ring of transmembrane helices, permitting assembly of complexes with variable subunit numbers. Transmembrane residue Gln8 points inward, resulting in a short hydrophobic pore in the center of the complex. Simulations of the TatA complex in lipid bilayers indicate that the short transmembrane domain distorts the membrane. This finding suggests that TatA facilitates protein transport by sensitizing the membrane to transient rupture. PMID:23471988

  15. Structural model for the protein-translocating element of the twin-arginine transport system

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Fernanda; Rouse, Sarah L.; Tait, Claudia E.; Harmer, Jeffrey; De Riso, Antonio; Timmel, Christiane R.; Sansom, Mark S. P.; Berks, Ben C.; Schnell, Jason R.

    2013-01-01

    The twin-arginine translocase (Tat) carries out the remarkable process of translocating fully folded proteins across the cytoplasmic membrane of prokaryotes and the thylakoid membrane of plant chloroplasts. Tat is required for bacterial pathogenesis and for photosynthesis in plants. TatA, the protein-translocating element of the Tat system, is a small transmembrane protein that assembles into ring-like oligomers of variable size. We have determined a structural model of the Escherichia coli TatA complex in detergent solution by NMR. TatA assembly is mediated entirely by the transmembrane helix. The amphipathic helix extends outwards from the ring of transmembrane helices, permitting assembly of complexes with variable subunit numbers. Transmembrane residue Gln8 points inward, resulting in a short hydrophobic pore in the center of the complex. Simulations of the TatA complex in lipid bilayers indicate that the short transmembrane domain distorts the membrane. This finding suggests that TatA facilitates protein transport by sensitizing the membrane to transient rupture. PMID:23471988

  16. Fourier transform coupled tryptophan scanning mutagenesis identifies a bending point on the lipid-exposed ?M3 transmembrane domain of the Torpedo californica nicotinic acetylcholine receptor

    PubMed Central

    Caballero-Rivera, Daniel; Cruz-Nieves, Omar A; Oyola-Cintrón, Jessica; Torres-Núñez, David A; Otero-Cruz, José D

    2011-01-01

    The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) is a member of a family of ligand-gated ion channels that mediate diverse physiological functions, including fast synaptic transmission along the peripheral and central nervous systems. Several studies have made significant advances toward determining the structure and dynamics of the lipid-exposed domains of the nAChR. However, a high-resolution atomic structure of the nAChR still remains elusive. In this study, we extended the Fourier transform coupled tryptophan scanning mutagenesis (FT-TrpScanM) approach to gain insight into the secondary structure of the ?M3 transmembrane domain of the Torpedo californica nAChR, to monitor conformational changes experienced by this domain during channel gating, and to identify which lipid-exposed positions are linked to the regulation of ion channel kinetics. The perturbations produced by periodic tryptophan substitutions along the ?M3 transmembrane domain were characterized by two-electrode voltage clamp and 125I-labeled ?-bungarotoxin binding assays. The periodicity profiles and Fourier transform spectra of this domain revealed similar helical structures for the closed- and open-channel states. However, changes in the oscillation patterns observed between positions Val-299 and Val-304 during transition between the closed- and open-channel states can be explained by the structural effects caused by the presence of a bending point introduced by a Thr-Gly motif at positions 300–301. The changes in periodicity and localization of residues between the closed-and open-channel states could indicate a structural transition between helix types in this segment of the domain. Overall, the data further demonstrate a functional link between the lipid-exposed transmembrane domain and the nAChR gating machinery. PMID:21785268

  17. Amantadine-induced conformational and dynamical changes of the influenza M2 transmembrane proton channel

    PubMed Central

    Cady, Sarah D.; Hong, Mei

    2008-01-01

    The M2 protein of influenza A virus forms a transmembrane proton channel important for viral infection and replication. Amantadine blocks this channel, thus inhibiting viral replication. Elucidating the high-resolution structure of the M2 protein and its change upon amantadine binding is crucial for designing antiviral drugs to combat the growing resistance of influenza A viruses against amantadine. We used magic-angle-spinning solid-state NMR to determine the conformation and dynamics of the transmembrane domain of the protein M2TMP in the apo- and amantadine-bound states in lipid bilayers. 13C chemical shifts and torsion angles of the protein in 1,2-dilauroyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine (DLPC) bilayers indicate that M2TMP is ?-helical in both states, but the average conformation differs subtly, especially at the G34–I35 linkage and V27 side chain. In the liquid-crystalline membrane, the complexed M2TMP shows dramatically narrower lines than the apo peptide. Analysis of the homogeneous and inhomogeneous line widths indicates that the apo-M2TMP undergoes significant microsecond-time scale motion, and amantadine binding alters the motional rates, causing line-narrowing. Amantadine also reduces the conformational heterogeneity of specific residues, including the G34/I35 pair and several side chains. Finally, amantadine causes the helical segment N-terminal to G34 to increase its tilt angle by 3°, and the G34–I35 torsion angles cause a kink of 5° in the amantadine-bound helix. These data indicate that amantadine affects the M2 proton channel mainly by changing the distribution and exchange rates among multiple low-energy conformations and only subtly alters the average conformation and orientation. Amantadine-resistant mutations thus may arise from binding-incompetent changes in the conformational equilibrium. PMID:18230730

  18. Proline localized to the interaction interface can mediate self-association of transmembrane domains.

    PubMed

    Sal-Man, Neta; Gerber, Doron; Shai, Yechiel

    2014-09-01

    Assembly of transmembrane domains (TMDs) is a critical step in the function of membrane proteins. In recent years, the role of specific amino acids in TMD-TMD interactions has been better characterized, with more emphasis on polar and aromatic residues. Despite the high abundance of proline residues in TMDs, contribution of proline to TMD-TMD association has not been intensively studied. Here, we evaluated statistically the frequency of appearance, and experimentally the contribution of proline, compared to other hydrophobic amino acids (Gly, Ala, Val, Leu, Ile, and Met), with regard to TMD-TMD self-assembly. Our model system is the assembly motif ((22)QxxS(25)) found previously in TMDs of the Escherichia coli aspartate receptor (Tar-1). Statistically, our data revealed that all different motifs, except PxxS (P/S), have frequencies similar to their theoretical random expectancy within a database of 41916 sequences of TMDs, while PxxS motif is underrepresented. Experimentally, using the ToxR assembly system, the SDS-gel running pattern of biotin-conjugated TMD peptides, and FRET experiments between fluorescence-labeled peptides, we found that only the P/S motif preserves the dimerization ability of wild-type Tar-1 TMD. Although proline is known as a helix breaker in solution, Circular Dichroism spectroscopy revealed that the secondary structure of the P/S and the wild-type peptides are similar. All together, these data suggest that proline can stabilize TM self-assembly when localized to the interaction interface of a transmembrane oligomer. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Interfacially Active Peptides and Proteins. Guest Editors: William C. Wimley and Kalina Hristova. PMID:24841754

  19. PDBTM: Protein Data Bank of transmembrane proteins after 8 years

    PubMed Central

    Kozma, Dániel; Simon, István; Tusnády, Gábor E.

    2013-01-01

    The PDBTM database (available at http://pdbtm.enzim.hu), the first comprehensive and up-to-date transmembrane protein selection of the Protein Data Bank, was launched in 2004. The database was created and has been continuously updated by the TMDET algorithm that is able to distinguish between transmembrane and non-transmembrane proteins using their 3D atomic coordinates only. The TMDET algorithm can locate the spatial positions of transmembrane proteins in lipid bilayer as well. During the last 8 years not only the size of the PDBTM database has been steadily growing from ?400 to 1700 entries but also new structural elements have been identified, in addition to the well-known ?-helical bundle and ?-barrel structures. Numerous ‘exotic’ transmembrane protein structures have been solved since the first release, which has made it necessary to define these new structural elements, such as membrane loops or interfacial helices in the database. This article reports the new features of the PDBTM database that have been added since its first release, and our current efforts to keep the database up-to-date and easy to use so that it may continue to serve as a fundamental resource for the scientific community. PMID:23203988

  20. C Correlation Spectroscopy of Membrane-Associated Influenza Virus Fusion Peptide Strongly Supports a Helix-Turn-Helix Motif and Two Turn

    E-print Network

    Weliky, David

    Supports a Helix-Turn-Helix Motif and Two Turn Conformations Yan Sun and David P. Weliky* Department by liquid-state NMR and, at pH 5.0, showed an N-terminal helix from residues 2-10 followed by a turn 2-9 followed by a turn and C-terminal extended structure.8 In membranes, there is substantial

  1. DNA-like double helix formed by peptide nucleic acid

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Pernilla Wittung; Peter E. Nielsen; Ole Buchardt; Michael Egholm; Bengt Nordén

    1994-01-01

    ALTHOUGH the importance of the nucleobases in the DNA double helix is well understood, the evolutionary significance of the deoxyribose phosphate backbone and the contribution of this chemical entity to the overall helical structure and stability of the double helix is not so clear. Peptide nucleic acid (PNA)1-7 is a DNA analogue with a backbone consisting of N-(2-aminoethyl)glycine units (Fig.

  2. Fluctuations of an Exposed ?-Helix Involved in Lipoxygenase Substrate Recognition

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The second helix in lipoxygenases adapts to permit substrate access to the active site, but details of this process are varied and poorly understood. We therefore examined the dynamics of helix 2 in solutions of spin-labeled soybean lipoxygenase-1 and spin relaxation at 60 K of the spin-labels by catalytic iron. Helix 2 in soybean lipoxygenase structures is surface-exposed and contains one turn of ?-helix, centrally located. A site-directed spin-label scan of 18 of the 21 helix 2 residues, and electron paramagnetic resonance, showed that the ?-helical segment became unusually mobile, on a nanosecond time scale, under conditions favoring substrate binding (pH 9 and lipid addition), while segments before and after had relatively unchanged dynamics. Backbone dynamics of residues in the ?-helical segment appeared to be correlated, at pH 9. Samples also were frozen to examine the polarity and proticity of the local environments, the effect of the local environment on intrinsic relaxation, and dipolar relaxation by two symmetries of catalytic iron. The average hyperfine tensor component, Azz, of four ?-helix residues decreased by 1.75 G, with an increase in pH from 7 to 9, while it remained unaffected for nearby buried residues. Power saturation data suggested the change in polarity specific to the ?-helix altered the intrinsic relaxation rates. Different symmetries of iron contributed to distance-dependent magnetic relaxation. We interpret these data to mean that a ?-helix in the second helix of plant lipoxygenases is highly dynamic and is the site where lipid chains penetrate to inner helices that outline the substrate pocket. PMID:25036469

  3. The Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Factor Olig2 Is Essential for the Development of Motoneuron and Oligodendrocyte Lineages

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hirohide Takebayashi; Yoko Nabeshima; Shosei Yoshida; Osamu Chisaka; Kazuhiro Ikenaka; Yo-ichi Nabeshima

    2002-01-01

    Sonic hedgehog (Shh), an organizing signal from ventral midline structures, is essential for the induction and maintenance of many ventral cell types in the embryonic neural tube. Olig1 and Olig2 are related basic helix-loop-helix factors induced by Shh in the ventral neural tube. Although expression analyses and gain-of–function experiments suggested that these factors were involved in motoneuron and oligodendrocyte development,

  4. Myotonia-related mutations in the distal C-terminus of ClC-1 and ClC-0 chloride channels affect the structure of a poly-proline helix

    PubMed Central

    Macías, María J.; Teijido, Oscar; Zifarelli, Giovanni; Martin, Pau; Ramirez-Espain, Ximena; Zorzano, Antonio; Palacín, Manuel; Pusch, Michael; Estévez, Raúl

    2006-01-01

    Myotonia is a state of hyperexcitability of skeletal-muscle fibres. Mutations in the ClC-1 Cl? channel cause recessive and dominant forms of this disease. Mutations have been described throughout the protein-coding region, including three sequence variations (A885P, R894X and P932L) in a distal C-terminal stretch of residues [CTD (C-terminal domain) region] that are not conserved between CLC proteins. We show that surface expression of these mutants is reduced in Xenopus oocytes compared with wild-type ClC-1. Functional, biochemical and NMR spectroscopy studies revealed that the CTD region encompasses a segment conserved in most voltage-dependent CLC channels that folds with a secondary structure containing a short type II poly-proline helix. We found that the myotonia-causing mutation A885P disturbs this structure by extending the poly-proline helix. We hypothesize that this structural modification results in the observed alteration of the common gate that acts on both pores of the channel. We provide the first experimental investigation of structural changes resulting from myotonia-causing mutations. PMID:17107341

  5. Crystal structure of YwpF from Staphylococcus aureus reveals its architecture comprised of a ?-barrel core domain resembling type VI secretion system proteins and a two-helix pair.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Jae; Lee, Kyu-Yeon; Lee, Ki-Young; Kim, Dong-Gyun; Kim, Soon-Jong; Lee, Bong-Jin

    2015-04-01

    The ywpF gene (SAV2097) of the Staphylococcus aureus strain Mu50 encodes the YwpF protein, which may play a role in antibiotic resistance. Here, we report the first crystal structure of the YwpF superfamily from S. aureus at 2.5-Å resolution. The YwpF structure consists of two regions: an N-terminal core ?-barrel domain that shows structural similarity to type VI secretion system (T6SS) proteins (e.g., Hcp1, Hcp3, and EvpC) and a C-terminal two-helix pair. Although the monomer structure of S. aureus YwpF resembles those of T6SS proteins, the dimer/tetramer model of S. aureus YwpF is distinct from the functionally important hexameric ring of T6SS proteins. We therefore suggest that the S. aureus YwpF may have a different function compared to T6SS proteins. PMID:25663006

  6. Inter- and intrasubunit interactions between transmembrane helices in the open state of P2X receptor channels

    PubMed Central

    Heymann, Gabriel; Dai, Jian; Silberberg, Shai D.; Zhou, Huan-Xiang; Swartz, Kenton J.

    2013-01-01

    P2X receptor channels open in response to the binding of extracellular ATP, a property that is essential for purinergic sensory signaling. Apo and ATP-bound X-ray structures of the detergent-solubilized zebrafish P2X4 receptor provide a blueprint for receptor mechanisms but unexpectedly showed large crevices between subunits within the transmembrane (TM) domain of the ATP-bound structure. Here we investigate both intersubunit and intrasubunit interactions between TM helices of P2X receptors in membranes using both computational and functional approaches. Our results suggest that intersubunit crevices found in the TM domain of the ATP-bound crystal structure are not present in membrane-embedded receptors but substantiate helix interactions within individual subunits and identify a hot spot at the internal end of the pore where both the gating and permeation properties of P2X receptors can be tuned. We propose a model for the structure of the open state that has stabilizing intersubunit interactions and that is compatible with available structural constraints from functional channels in membrane environments. PMID:24082111

  7. Complex patterns of histidine, hydroxylated amino acids and the GxxxG motif mediate high-affinity transmembrane domain interactions.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Jana R; Panitz, Johanna C; Unterreitmeier, Stephanie; Fuchs, Angelika; Frishman, Dmitrij; Langosch, Dieter

    2009-01-23

    Specific interactions of transmembrane helices play a pivotal role in the folding and oligomerization of integral membrane proteins. The helix-helix interfaces frequently depend on specific amino acid patterns. In this study, a heptad repeat pattern was randomized with all naturally occurring amino acids to uncover novel sequence motifs promoting transmembrane domain interactions. Self-interacting transmembrane domains were selected from the resulting combinatorial library by means of the ToxR/POSSYCCAT system. A comparison of the amino acid composition of high-and low-affinity sequences revealed that high-affinity transmembrane domains exhibit position-specific enrichment of histidine. Further, sequences containing His preferentially display Gly, Ser, and/or Thr residues at flanking positions and frequently contain a C-terminal GxxxG motif. Mutational analysis of selected sequences confirmed the importance of these residues in homotypic interaction. Probing heterotypic interaction indicated that His interacts in trans with hydroxylated residues. Reconstruction of minimal interaction motifs within the context of an oligo-Leu sequence confirmed that His is part of a hydrogen bonded cluster that is brought into register by the GxxxG motif. Notably, a similar motif contributes to self-interaction of the BNIP3 transmembrane domain. PMID:19007788

  8. GEOTROPIC EXCITATION IN HELIX

    PubMed Central

    Hoagland, H.; Crozier, W. J.

    1931-01-01

    Rotation of an inclined surface on which Helix is creeping straight upward, such that the axis of the animal is turned at a right angle to its previous position, but in the same plane, leads to negatively geotropic orientation after a measurable latent period or reaction time. The duration of the latent period is a function of the slope of the surface. The magnitude of the standard deviation of the mean latent period is directly proportional to the mean latent period itself, so that the relative variability of response is constant. The dependence of reaction time upon extent of displacement from symmetrical orientation in the gravitational field is found also by tilting the supporting surface, without rotation in the animal's own plane. On slopes up to 55°, the relation between latent period and the sine of the slope is hyperbolic; above this inclination, the latent period sharply declines. This change in the curve is not affected by the attachment of moderate loads to the snail's shell (up to 1/3 of its own mass), and is probably a consequence of loss of passive stable equilibrium when rotated. When added loads do not too greatly extend the snail's anterior musculature, the latent period for the geotropic reaction is decreased, and, proportionately, its ?. These facts are discussed from the standpoint that geotropic excitation in these gasteropods is due to impressed muscle-tensions. PMID:19872624

  9. Integrin ?IIb?3 Transmembrane Domain Separation Mediates Bi-Directional Signaling across the Plasma Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Ping; Luo, Bing-Hao

    2015-01-01

    Integrins play an essential role in hemostasis, thrombosis, and cell migration, and they transmit bidirectional signals. Transmembrane/cytoplasmic domains are hypothesized to associate in the resting integrins; whereas, ligand binding and intracellular activating signals induce transmembrane domain separation. However, how this conformational change affects integrin outside-in signaling and whether the ? subunit cytoplasmic domain is important for this signaling remain elusive. Using Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells that stably expressed different integrin ?IIb?3 constructs, we discovered that an ?IIb cytoplasmic domain truncation led to integrin activation but not defective outside-in signaling. In contrast, preventing transmembrane domain separation abolished both inside-out and outside-in signaling regardless of removing the ?IIb cytoplasmic tail. Truncation of the ?IIb cytoplasmic tail did not obviously affect adhesion-induced outside-in signaling. Our research revealed that transmembrane domain separation is a downstream conformational change after the cytoplasmic domain dissociation in inside-out activation and indispensable for ligand-induced outside-in signaling. The result implicates that the ? TM helix rearrangement after dissociation is essential for integrin transmembrane signaling. Furthermore, we discovered that the PI3K/Akt pathway is not essential for cell spreading but spreading-induced Erk1/2 activation is PI3K dependent implicating requirement of the kinase for cell survival in outside-in signaling. PMID:25617834

  10. Unusually Stable Helix Formation in Short Alanine-Based Peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marqusee, Susan; Robbins, Virginia H.; Baldwin, Robert L.

    1989-07-01

    Short, 16-residue, alanine-based peptides show stable ? -helix formation in H2O. This result is surprising when contrasted with the classical view that regards the ? -helix as a marginally stable structure in H2O and considers short helices unstable. The alanine-based peptides are solubilized by insertion of three or more residues of a single charge type, lysine (+) or glutamic acid (-). The results cannot be explained by helix stabilization resulting from concentration-dependent association or by the interaction of charged residues with the helix dipole. Our results are not predicted by the parameters for alanine and lysine that have been determined by the ``host-guest'' method: these parameters predict that a 16-residue peptide should not show measurable ? -helix formation. Analysis of the role of the hydrophobic interaction in ? -helix formation [Richards, F. M. & Richmond, T. (1978) in Molecular Interactions and Activity in Proteins, Ciba Foundation Symposium 60, ed. Wolstenholme, G. E. (Excepta Medica Amsterdam), pp. 23-25] does not show an unusually strong hydrophobic interaction in a helical block of alanine residues. The likely explanation for our results is, therefore, that individual alanine residues have a high helical potential. It is not yet known whether any other amino acids show this property, and the origin of this property is also unknown.

  11. alpha-Helix region prediction with stochastic rule learning.

    PubMed

    Mamitsuka, H; Yamanishi, K

    1995-08-01

    We propose a new method, based on the theory of stochastic rule learning, for predicting alpha-helix regions in a given protein sequence. Our method (hereafter referred to as the SR method) produces stochastic rules, each of which assigns, to any region in an amino acid sequence, the probability that it is an alpha-helix region. When learning a stochastic rule from a particular alpha-helix region, our method makes use of positive training examples obtained from a number of regions that are homologous to that region. Each stochastic rule is optimized using the minimum description length (MDL) principle, and such optimized stochastic rules are used to predict alpha-helix regions of any given protein sequence. In our experiments, using 25 proteins selected from the HSSP database as training examples, we applied the SR method to the problem of predicting alpha-helix regions in test examples, which consisted of > 5000 residues with 38% alpha-helix content. Each of these test examples possesses < 25% homology to any proteins in the training and other test examples. Our method achieved 81% average prediction accuracy for the test examples; this compares favorably to Qian and Sejnowski's method, which attains no more than 75% average accuracy, and further which compares to Rost and Sander's method which has proven to be one of the best secondary structure prediction methods. PMID:8521049

  12. Structural-functional analysis of the third transmembrane domain of the corticotropin-releasing factor type 1 receptor: role in activation and allosteric antagonism.

    PubMed

    Spyridaki, Katerina; Matsoukas, Minos-Timotheos; Cordomi, Arnau; Gkountelias, Kostas; Papadokostaki, Maria; Mavromoustakos, Thomas; Logothetis, Diomedes E; Margioris, Andrew N; Pardo, Leonardo; Liapakis, George

    2014-07-01

    The corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) type 1 receptor (CRF1R) for the 41-amino acid peptide CRF is a class B G protein-coupled receptor, which plays a key role in the response of our body to stressful stimuli and the maintenance of homeostasis by regulating neural and endocrine functions. CRF and related peptides, such as sauvagine, bind to the extracellular regions of CRF1R and activate the receptor. In contrast, small nonpeptide antagonists, which are effective against stress-related disorders, such as depression and anxiety, have been proposed to interact with the helical transmembrane domains (TMs) of CRF1R and allosterically antagonize peptide binding and receptor activation. Here, we aimed to elucidate the role of the third TM (TM3) in the molecular mechanisms underlying activation of CRF1R. TM3 was selected because its tilted orientation, relative to the membrane, allows its residues to establish key interactions with ligands, other TM helices, and the G protein. Using a combination of pharmacological, biochemical, and computational approaches, we found that Phe-203(3.40) and Gly-210(3.47) in TM3 play an important role in receptor activation. Our experimental findings also suggest that Phe-203(3.40) interacts with nonpeptide antagonists. PMID:24838244

  13. Predicted alpha-helix/beta-sheet secondary structures for the zinc-binding motifs of human papillomavirus E7 and E6 proteins by consensus prediction averaging and spectroscopic studies of E7.

    PubMed Central

    Ullman, C G; Haris, P I; Galloway, D A; Emery, V C; Perkins, S J

    1996-01-01

    The E7 and E6 proteins are the main oncoproteins of human papillomavirus types 16 and 18 (HPV-16 and HPV-18), and possess unknown protein structures. E7 interacts with the cellular tumour-suppressor protein pRB and contains a zinc-binding site with two Cys-Xaa2-Cys motifs spaced 29 or 30 residues apart. E6 interacts with another cellular tumour-suppressor protein p53 and contains two zinc-binding sites, each with two Cys-Xaa2-Cys motifs at a similar spacing of 29 or 30 residues. By using the GOR I/III, Chou-Fasman, SAPIENS and PHD methods, the effectiveness of consensus secondary structure predictions on zinc-finger proteins was first tested with sequences for 160 transcription factors and 72 nuclear hormone receptors. These contain Cys2His2 and Cys2Cys2 zinc-binding regions respectively, and possess known atomic structures. Despite the zinc- and DNA-binding properties of these protein folds, the major alpha-helix structures in both zinc-binding regions were correctly identified. Thus validated, the use of these prediction methods with 47 E7 sequences indicated four well-defined alpha-helix (alpha) and beta-sheet (beta) secondary structure elements in the order beta beta alpha beta in the zinc-binding region of E7 at its C-terminus. The prediction was tested by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy of recombinant HPV-16 E7 in H2O and 2H2O buffers. Quantitative integration showed that E7 contained similar amounts of alpha-helix and beta-sheet structures, in good agreement with the averaged prediction of alpha-helix and beta-sheet structures in E7 and also with previous circular dichroism studies. Protein fold recognition analyses predicted that the structure of the zinc-binding region in E7 was similar to a beta beta alpha beta motif found in the structure of Protein G. This is consistent with the E7 structure predictions, despite the low sequence similarities with E7. This predicted motif is able to position four Cys residues in proximity to a zinc atom. A model for the zinc-binding motif of E7 was constructed by combining the Protein G coordinates with those for the zinc-binding site in transcription factor TFIIS. Similar analyses for the two zinc-binding motifs in E6 showed that they have different alpha/beta secondary structures from that in E7. When compared with 12 other zinc-binding proteins, these results show that E7 and E6 are predicted to possess novel types of zinc-binding structure. PMID:8870673

  14. Transmembrane Domain Interactions Control Biological Functions of Neuropilin-1

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Lise; Nasarre, Cécile; Dirrig-Grosch, Sylvie; Aunis, Dominique; Crémel, Gérard; Hubert, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    Neuropilin-1 (NRP1) is a transmembrane receptor playing a pivotal role in the control of semaphorins and VEGF signaling pathways. The exact mechanism controlling semaphorin receptor complex formation is unknown. A structural analysis and modeling of NRP1 revealed a putative dimerization GxxxG motif potentially important for NRP1 dimerization and oligomerization. Our data show that this motif mediates the dimerization of the transmembrane domain of NRP1 as demonstrated by a dimerization assay (ToxLuc assay) performed in natural membrane and FRET analysis. A synthetic peptide derived from the transmembrane segment of NRP1 abolished the inhibitory effect of Sema3A. This effect depends on the capacity of the peptide to interfere with NRP1 dimerization and the formation of oligomeric complexes. Mutation of the GxxxG dimerization motif in the transmembrane domain of NRP1 confirmed its biological importance for Sema3A signaling. Overall, our results shed light on an essential step required for semaphorin signaling and provide novel evidence for the crucial role of transmembrane domain of bitopic protein containing GxxxG motif in the formation of receptor complexes that are a prerequisite for cell signaling. PMID:18045991

  15. How protein transmembrane segments sense the lipid environment

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Thomas K. M. Nyholm; Suat Özdirekcan; J. Antoinette Killian

    2007-01-01

    Integral membrane proteins have central roles in a vast number of vital cellular processes. A structural feature that most membrane proteins have in common is the presence of one or more R-helices with which they traverse the lipid bilayer. Because of the interaction with the surrounding lipids, the organization of these transmembrane helices will be sensitive to lipid properties like

  16. HUNT: launch of a full-length cDNA database from the Helix Research Institute

    PubMed Central

    Yudate, Henrik T.; Suwa, Makiko; Irie, Ryotaro; Matsui, Hiroshi; Nishikawa, Tetsuo; Nakamura, Yoshitaka; Yamaguchi, Daisuke; Peng, Zhang Zhi; Yamamoto, Tomoyuki; Nagai, Keiichi; Hayashi, Koji; Otsuki, Tetsuji; Sugiyama, Tomoyasu; Ota, Toshio; Suzuki, Yutaka; Sugano, Sumio; Isogai, Takao; Masuho, Yasuhiko

    2001-01-01

    The Helix Research Institute (HRI) in Japan is releasing 4356 HUman Novel Transcripts and related information in the newly established HUNT database. The institute is a joint research project principally funded by the Japanese Ministry of International Trade and Industry, and the clones were sequenced in the governmental New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO) Human cDNA Sequencing Project. The HUNT database contains an extensive amount of annotation from advanced analysis and represents an essential bioinformatics contribution towards understanding of the gene function. The HRI human cDNA clones were obtained from full-length enriched cDNA libraries constructed with the oligo-capping method and have resulted in novel full-length cDNA sequences. A large fraction has little similarity to any proteins of known function and to obtain clues about possible function we have developed original analysis procedures. Any putative function deduced here can be validated or refuted by complementary analysis results. The user can also extract information from specific categories like PROSITE patterns, PFAM domains, PSORT localization, transmembrane helices and clones with GENIUS structure assignments. The HUNT database can be accessed at http://www.hri.co.jp/HUNT. PMID:11125086

  17. Triple helix purification and sequencing

    DOEpatents

    Wang, R.; Smith, L.M.; Tong, X.E.

    1995-03-28

    Disclosed herein are methods, kits, and equipment for purifying single stranded circular DNA and then using the DNA for DNA sequencing purposes. Templates are provided with an insert having a hybridization region. An elongated oligonucleotide has two regions that are complementary to the insert and the oligo is bound to a magnetic anchor. The oligo hybridizes to the insert on two sides to form a stable triple helix complex. The anchor can then be used to drag the template out of solution using a magnet. The system can purify sequencing templates, and if desired the triple helix complex can be opened up to a double helix so that the oligonucleotide will act as a primer for further DNA synthesis. 4 figures.

  18. pH jump induced ?-helix folding.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donten, M. L.; Hamm, P.

    2013-03-01

    pH can be used to impact the folding equilibrium of peptides and proteins. This fact is utilized, similarly to temperature jumps, in pH jump experiments employing laser time-resolved spectroscopy to study the function and structural dynamics of these molecules. Here the application of pH jumps in folding experiments was investigated. Experiments with poly-L-glutamic acid alpha-helix formation shown the critical aspects of pH jump experiments and yielded direct information about the folding kinetics monitored with the amide I IR band.

  19. Cytochromes b561: Ascorbate-Mediated Trans-Membrane Electron Transport

    PubMed Central

    Barbaro, Raffaella; Trost, Paolo; Bérczi, Alajos

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Cytochromes b561 (CYB561s) constitute a family of trans-membrane (TM), di-heme proteins, occurring in a variety of organs and cell types, in plants and animals, and using ascorbate (ASC) as an electron donor. CYB561s function as monodehydroascorbate reductase, regenerating ASC, and as Fe3+-reductases, providing reduced iron for TM transport. A CYB561-core domain is also associated with dopamine ?-monooxygenase redox domains (DOMON) in ubiquitous CYBDOM proteins. In plants, CYBDOMs form large protein families. Physiological functions supported by CYB561s and CYBDOMs include stress defense, cell wall modifications, iron metabolism, tumor suppression, and various neurological processes, including memory retention. CYB561s, therefore, significantly broaden our view on the physiological roles of ASC. Recent Advances: The ubiquitous nature of CYB561s is only recently being recognized. Significant advances have been made through the study of recombinant CYB561s, revealing structural and functional properties of a unique “two-heme four-helix” protein configuration. In addition, the DOMON domains of CYBDOMs are suggested to contain another heme b. Critical Issues: New CYB561 proteins are still being identified, and there is a need to provide an insight and overview on the various roles of these proteins and their structural properties. Future Directions: Mutant studies will reveal in greater detail the mechanisms by which CYB561s and CYBDOMs participate in cell metabolism in plants and animals. Moreover, the availability of efficient heterologous expression systems should allow protein crystallization, more detailed (atomic-level) structural information, and insights into the intra-molecular mechanism of electron transport. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 19, 1026–1035. PMID:23249217

  20. VIEW OF EAST ELEVATION OF HELIX HOUSE NO. 2 (S87), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF EAST ELEVATION OF HELIX HOUSE NO. 2 (S-87), LOOKING WEST (without scale stick). - Naval Computer & Telecommunications Area Master Station, Eastern Pacific, Radio Transmitter Facility Lualualei, Helix House No. 2, Base of Radio Antenna Structure No. 427, Makaha, Honolulu County, HI

  1. VIEW OF EAST ELEVATION OF HELIX HOUSE NO. 2 (S87), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF EAST ELEVATION OF HELIX HOUSE NO. 2 (S-87), LOOKING WEST (with scale stick). - Naval Computer & Telecommunications Area Master Station, Eastern Pacific, Radio Transmitter Facility Lualualei, Helix House No. 2, Base of Radio Antenna Structure No. 427, Makaha, Honolulu County, HI

  2. VIEW OF SOUTH ELEVATION OF HELIX HOUSE NO. 2 (S87) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF SOUTH ELEVATION OF HELIX HOUSE NO. 2 (S-87) SHOWING MAIN ENTRY DOOR, LOOKING NORTH NORTHWEST. - Naval Computer & Telecommunications Area Master Station, Eastern Pacific, Radio Transmitter Facility Lualualei, Helix House No. 2, Base of Radio Antenna Structure No. 427, Makaha, Honolulu County, HI

  3. An inverse correlation between loop length and stability in a four-helix-bundle protein

    E-print Network

    Mochrie, Simon

    An inverse correlation between loop length and stability in a four-helix-bundle protein Athena D Nagi and Lynne Regan Background: The loops in proteins are less well characterized than the secondary structural elements that they connect. We have used the four-helix- bundle protein Rop as a model system

  4. Surfactant bilayers maintain transmembrane protein activity.

    PubMed

    Rayan, Gamal; Adrien, Vladimir; Reffay, Myriam; Picard, Martin; Ducruix, Arnaud; Schmutz, Marc; Urbach, Wladimir; Taulier, Nicolas

    2014-09-01

    In vitro studies of membrane proteins are of interest only if their structure and function are significantly preserved. One approach is to insert them into the lipid bilayers of highly viscous cubic phases rendering the insertion and manipulation of proteins difficult. Less viscous lipid sponge phases are sometimes used, but their relatively narrow domain of existence can be easily disrupted by protein insertion. We present here a sponge phase consisting of nonionic surfactant bilayers. Its extended domain of existence and its low viscosity allow easy insertion and manipulation of membrane proteins. We show for the first time, to our knowledge, that transmembrane proteins, such as bacteriorhodopsin, sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)ATPase (SERCA1a), and its associated enzymes, are fully active in a surfactant phase. PMID:25185548

  5. Folding simulations of gramicidin A into the ?-helix conformations: Simulated annealing molecular dynamics study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Takaharu; Okamoto, Yuko

    2009-10-01

    Gramicidin A is a linear hydrophobic 15-residue peptide which consists of alternating D- and L-amino acids and forms a unique tertiary structure, called the ?6.3-helix, to act as a cation-selective ion channel in the natural conditions. In order to investigate the intrinsic ability of the gramicidin A monomer to form secondary structures, we performed the folding simulation of gramicidin A using a simulated annealing molecular dynamics (MD) method in vacuum mimicking the low-dielectric, homogeneous membrane environment. The initial conformation was a fully extended one. From the 200 different MD runs, we obtained a right-handed ?4.4-helix as the lowest-potential-energy structure, and left-handed ?4.4-helix, right-handed and left-handed ?6.3-helix as local-minimum energy states. These results are in accord with those of the experiments of gramicidin A in homogeneous organic solvent. Our simulations showed a slight right-hand sense in the lower-energy conformations and a quite ?-sheet-forming tendency throughout almost the entire sequence. In order to examine the stability of the obtained right-handed ?6.3-helix and ?4.4-helix structures in more realistic membrane environment, we have also performed all-atom MD simulations in explicit water, ion, and lipid molecules, starting from these ?-helix structures. The results suggested that ?6.3-helix is more stable than ?4.4-helix in the inhomogeneous, explicit membrane environment, where the pore water and the hydrogen bonds between Trp side-chains and lipid-head groups have a role to further stabilize the ?6.3-helix conformation.

  6. A critical role of helix 3–helix 5 interaction in steroid hormone receptor function

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Junhui; Simisky, Jessica; Tsai, Francis T. F.; Geller, David S.

    2005-01-01

    The ligand-binding domains of steroid hormone receptors possess a conserved structure with 12 ?-helices surrounding a central hydrophobic core. On agonist binding, a repositioned helix 12 forms a pocket with helix 3 (H3) and helix 5 (H5), where transcriptional coactivators bind. The precise molecular interactions responsible for activation of these receptors remain to be elucidated. We previously identified a H3–H5 interaction that permits progesterone-mediated activation of a mutant mineralocorticoid receptor. We were intrigued to note that the potential for such interaction is widely conserved in the nuclear receptor family, indicating a possible functional significance. Here, we demonstrate via transcriptional activation studies in cell culture that alteration of residues involved in H3–H5 interaction consistently produces a gain of function in steroid hormone receptors. These data suggest that H3–H5 interaction may function as a molecular switch regulating the activity of nuclear receptors and suggest this site as a general target for pharmacologic intervention. Furthermore, they reveal a general mechanism for the creation of nuclear receptors bearing increased activity, providing a potentially powerful tool for the study of physiologic pathways in vivo. PMID:15710879

  7. Evolution of the synaptonemal complex in Helix aspersa spermatocytes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    P. Esponda; J. C. Stockert

    1972-01-01

    In spermatocytes of Helix aspersa, the structure of the synaptonemal complexes undergoes changes in the course of the pachytene, the lateral elements being transformed into wide bands of lesser density than the chromatin. By using the uranyl-EDTA-lead sequence, which preferentially stains RNA, the lateral elements can be made to appear positive in the early pachytene while the corresponding areas, which

  8. Expression of a chimeric helix-loop-helix gene, Id-SCL, in K562 human leukemic cells is associated with nuclear segmentation.

    PubMed Central

    Goldfarb, A. N.; Wolf, M. L.; Greenberg, J. M.

    1992-01-01

    We have designed a chimeric gene, Id-SCL, in which the 3' helix-loop-helix encoding portion of the presumptive oncogene SCL/tal is joined to the 5' coding portion of Id, an inhibitory helix-loop-helix gene. The predicted protein product of this chimeric gene contains the helix-loop-helix dimerization domain of SCL/tal, but, lacking a basic DNA binding domain, is predicted to have the inhibitory function of the Id product. Expression of the Id-SCL fusion gene in stably transfected K562 cells reproducibly resulted in nuclear segmentation and depressed growth rates; both of these phenotypic effects demonstrated a dosage dependence on the levels of Id-SCL mRNA and protein expressed in the various clones. Electron microscopy of cells expressing high levels of Id-SCL mRNA showed a significant increase in cytoplasmic perinuclear thin filaments and diminution of marginal heterochromatin in the nuclei. No other changes in hematopoietic differentiation status were observed in association with Id-SCL expression. Expression of intact Id and SCL/tal genes, as well as deletion mutants of Id and SCL/tal, independently transfected into K562 cells, indicated that the nuclear segmentation effect is dependent on the presence of a protein possessing a helix-loop-helix domain but lacking a basic domain. Our studies suggest that the balance of transcriptional inhibitory and stimulatory helix-loop-helix proteins in cells may be important determinants of proliferation and of structural organization within cells. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 8 Figure 11 PMID:1443047

  9. Proline-induced Disruption of a Transmembrane aaa-Helix in its Natural Environment

    E-print Network

    Nielsen, Steven O.

    Karolinska Institute, NOVUM S-141 57 Huddinge, Sweden 3 Deptartment of Laboratory Medicine, Divsion with high precision. As a ®rst application of this technique, we have investigated the conformation- al precision using in

  10. The development of a model of Alpha helix formation for transmembrane peptides

    E-print Network

    Funk, Geoffrey Alexander

    2013-02-22

    into the phospholipid bilayer of the cell. To this end, we have been working on the synthesis of a group of peptides with the general sequence +H3N-Ala2-Leu3-Ala7-Trp-Ala-X-Ala10-Lys6-COOH, where we will substitute all twenty naturally occurring amino acids...

  11. The Effect of Point Mutations on the Free Energy of Transmembrane aaa-Helix Dimerization

    E-print Network

    of dimeri- zation in a non-denaturing detergent solution and have observed the changes in energy arising from two of the mutants previously studied. Use of the detergent pentaoxyethylene octyl ether (C8E5) is a great advan- tage, since its micelles are neutrally buoyant and the detergent allows a reversible

  12. Structure of a bacterial homologue of vitamin K epoxide reductase

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Weikai; Schulman, Sol; Dutton, Rachel J.; Boyd, Dana; Beckwith, Jon; Rapoport, Tom A. (Harvard-Med); (HHMI)

    2010-03-19

    Vitamin K epoxide reductase (VKOR) generates vitamin K hydroquinone to sustain {gamma}-carboxylation of many blood coagulation factors. Here, we report the 3.6 {angstrom} crystal structure of a bacterial homologue of VKOR from Synechococcus sp. The structure shows VKOR in complex with its naturally fused redox partner, a thioredoxin-like domain, and corresponds to an arrested state of electron transfer. The catalytic core of VKOR is a four transmembrane helix bundle that surrounds a quinone, connected through an additional transmembrane segment with the periplasmic thioredoxin-like domain. We propose a pathway for how VKOR uses electrons from cysteines of newly synthesized proteins to reduce a quinone, a mechanism confirmed by in vitro reconstitution of vitamin K-dependent disulphide bridge formation. Our results have implications for the mechanism of the mammalian VKOR and explain how mutations can cause resistance to the VKOR inhibitor warfarin, the most commonly used oral anticoagulant.

  13. Structures of SemiSWEET transporters in two distinct conformations

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Chao; Chen, Li-Qing; Xu, Sophia; Perry, Kay; Frommer, Wolf B.; Feng, Liang

    2015-01-01

    SemiSWEETs and SWEETs are mono- and disaccharide transporters present from Archaea to higher plants and humans1-3. SWEETs play crucial roles in cellular sugar efflux processes, i.e. phloem loading4, pollen nutrition5 and nectar secretion6. Their bacterial homologs, SemiSWEETs, are among the smallest known transporters1,3. Here we show SemiSWEET, consisting of a triple-helix-bundle (THB), forms a symmetric parallel dimer to create the translocation pathway. Two SemiSWEET isoforms were crystallized in apparent open and occluded states, indicating that SemiSWEETs/SWEETs are transporters that undergo rocking-type movements during the transport cycle. The topology of THB is similar to the basic building block in MFS transporters (GLUTs, SUTs), indicating that they may have evolved from an ancestral THB into a parallel configuration to produce 6/6+1 transmembrane-helix pores for SemiSWEETs/SWEETs, and an antiparallel configuration of 2×2 THBs to generate 12 transmembrane-helix pores for MFS transporters. Given the similarity of SemiSWEETs/SWEETs to PQ-loop amino acid transporters and mitochondrial MPC organic acid transporters, the structures characterized here may also be relevant for other MtN3 clan transporters7-9. PMID:25186729

  14. A modular strategy for the semi-synthesis of a K+ channel: Investigating interactions of the pore helix

    PubMed Central

    Komarov, Alexander G.; Linn, Kellie M.; Devereaux, Jordan J.; Valiyaveetil, Francis I.

    2009-01-01

    Chemical synthesis is a powerful method for precise modification of the structural and electronic properties of proteins. The difficulties in the synthesis and purification of peptides containing transmembrane segments have presented obstacles to the chemical synthesis of integral membrane proteins. Here, we present a modular strategy for the semi-synthesis of integral membrane proteins in which solid phase peptide synthesis is limited to the region of interest, while the rest of the protein is obtained by recombinant means. This modular strategy considerably simplifies the synthesis and purification steps that have previously hindered the chemical synthesis of integral membrane proteins. We develop a sumo-fusion and proteolysis approach for obtaining the N-terminal cysteine containing membrane spanning peptides required for the semi-synthesis. We demonstrate the feasibility of the modular approach by the semi-synthesis of full-length KcsA K+ channels in which only regions of interest, such as the selectivity filter or the pore helix, are obtained by chemical synthesis. The modular approach is used to investigate the hydrogen bond interactions of a tryptophan residue in the pore helix, tryptophan 68, by substituting it with the iso-steric analog, ?-(3-benzothienyl)-L-alanine (3BT). A functional analysis of the 3BT mutant channels indicates that the K+ conduction and selectivity of the 3BT mutant channels are similar to the wild type, but the mutant channels show a three-fold increase in Rb+ conduction. These results suggest that the hydrogen bond interactions of tryptophan 68 are essential for optimizing the selectivity filter for K+ conduction over Rb+ conduction. PMID:19803500

  15. Addition of a peptide fragment on an alpha-helical depsipeptide induces alpha/3(10)-conjugated helix: synthesis, crystal structure, and CD spectra of Boc-Leu-Leu-Ala-(Leu-Leu-Lac)3-Leu-Leu-OEt.

    PubMed

    Oku, Hiroyuki; Ohyama, Takafumi; Hiroki, Akihiro; Yamada, Keiichi; Fukuyama, Keiichi; Kawaguchi, Hiroyuki; Katakai, Ryoichi

    2004-10-15

    The depsipeptide Boc(1)-Leu(2)-Leu(3)-Ala(4)-Leu(5)-Leu(6)-Lac(7)-Leu(8)-Leu(9)-Lac(10)-Leu(11)-Leu(12)-Lac(13)-Leu(14)-Leu(15)-OEt(16) (1) (Boc = tert-butyloxycarbonyl, Lac = L-lactic acid residue) has been synthesized from the peptide Boc-Leu-Leu-Ala-OEt (2) and a depsipeptide, Boc-(Leu-Leu-Lac)(3)-Leu-Leu-OEt (3). Single crystals of 1 were successfully obtained and the structure has been solved by direct methods (such as Sir2002 and Shake-and-Bake). Interestingly, 1 adopts an alpha/3(10)-conjugated helix containing a kink at the junction of peptide and depsipeptide segments, Leu3-Lac7. This is significantly different from the conformation of 3, which has a straight alpha-helical structure with standard phi and psi angles. Microcrystalline CD spectra were also studied to compare structural properties of 1 and 3. The differences between alpha/3(10)- and alpha-helices appear in these CD spectra. PMID:15316916

  16. Transmembrane Domain Interactions Control Biological Functions of Neuropilin-1

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Lise Roth; Cecile Nasarre; Sylvie Dirrig-Grosch; Dominique Aunis; Gerard Cremel; Pierre Hubert; Dominique Bagnard

    2008-01-01

    Neuropilin-1 (NRP1) is a transmembrane receptor playing a pivotal role in the control of semaphorins and VEGF signaling pathways. The exact mechanism controlling semaphorin receptor complex formation is unknown. A structural analysis and modeling of NRP1 revealed a putative dimerization GxxxG motif potentially important for NRP1 dimer- ization and oligomerization. Our data show that this motif mediates the dimerization of

  17. Tryptophan at the transmembrane–cytosolic junction modulates thrombopoietin receptor dimerization and activation

    PubMed Central

    Defour, Jean-Philippe; Itaya, Miki; Gryshkova, Vitalina; Brett, Ian C.; Pecquet, Christian; Sato, Takeshi; Smith, Steven O.; Constantinescu, Stefan N.

    2013-01-01

    Dimerization of single-pass membrane receptors is essential for activation. In the human thrombopoietin receptor (TpoR), a unique amphipathic RWQFP motif separates the transmembrane (TM) and intracellular domains. Using a combination of mutagenesis, spectroscopy, and biochemical assays, we show that W515 of this motif impairs dimerization of the upstream TpoR TM helix. TpoR is unusual in that a specific residue is required for this inhibitory function, which prevents receptor self-activation. Mutations as diverse as W515K and W515L cause oncogenic activation of TpoR and lead to human myeloproliferative neoplasms. Two lines of evidence support a general mechanism in which W515 at the intracellular juxtamembrane boundary inhibits dimerization of the TpoR TM helix by increasing the helix tilt angle relative to the membrane bilayer normal, which prevents the formation of stabilizing TM dimer contacts. First, measurements using polarized infrared spectroscopy show that the isolated TM domain of the active W515K mutant has a helix tilt angle closer to the bilayer normal than that of the wild-type receptor. Second, we identify second-site R514W and Q516W mutations that reverse dimerization and tilt angle changes induced by the W515K and W515L mutations. The second-site mutations prevent constitutive activation of TpoR W515K/L, while preserving ligand-induced signaling. The ability of tryptophan to influence the angle and dimerization of the TM helix in wild-type TpoR and in the second-site revertants is likely associated with its strong preference to be buried in the headgroup region of membrane bilayers. PMID:23359689

  18. Functional Isoforms of IkB Kinase a (IKKa) Lacking Leucine Zipper and Helix-Loop-Helix Domains Reveal that IKKa and IKKb Have Different Activation Requirements

    Microsoft Academic Search

    FERGUS R. MCKENZIE; MARGERY A. CONNELLY; DARLENE BALZARANO; JURGEN R. MULLER; ROMAS GELEZIUNAS; KENNETH B. MARCU

    2000-01-01

    The activity of the NF-kB family of transcription factors is regulated principally by phosphorylation and subsequent degradation of their inhibitory IkB subunits. Site-specific serine phosphorylation of IkBs by two IkB kinases (IKKa (also known as CHUK) and IKKb) targets them for proteolysis. IKKa and -b have a unique structure, with an amino-terminal serine-threonine kinase catalytic domain and carboxy-proximal helix-loop-helix (HLH)

  19. Cooperative Transmembrane Penetration of Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Haizhen; Ji, Qiuju; Huang, Changjin; Zhang, Sulin; Yuan, Bing; Yang, Kai; Ma, Yu-qiang

    2015-01-01

    Physical penetration of lipid bilayer membranes presents an alternative pathway for cellular delivery of nanoparticles (NPs) besides endocytosis. NPs delivered through this pathway could reach the cytoplasm, thereby opening the possibility of organelle-specific targeting. Herein we perform dissipative particle dynamics simulations to elucidate the transmembrane penetration mechanisms of multiple NPs. Our simulations demonstrate that NPs’ translocation proceeds in a cooperative manner, where the interplay of the quantity and surface chemistry of the NPs regulates the translocation efficiency. For NPs with hydrophilic surfaces, the increase of particle quantity facilitates penetration, while for NPs with partly or totally hydrophobic surfaces, the opposite highly possibly holds. Moreover, a set of interesting cooperative ways, such as aggregation, aggregation-dispersion, and aggregation-dispersion-reaggregation of the NPs, are observed during the penetration process. We find that the penetration behaviors of multiple NPs are mostly dominated by the changes of the NP-membrane force components in the membrane plane direction, in addition to that in the penetration direction, suggesting a different interaction mechanism between the multiple NPs and the membrane compared with the one-NP case. These results provide a fundamental understanding in the underlying mechanisms of cooperative penetration of NPs, and shed light on the NP-based drug and gene delivery. PMID:26013284

  20. Cooperative transmembrane penetration of nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haizhen; Ji, Qiuju; Huang, Changjin; Zhang, Sulin; Yuan, Bing; Yang, Kai; Ma, Yu-Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Physical penetration of lipid bilayer membranes presents an alternative pathway for cellular delivery of nanoparticles (NPs) besides endocytosis. NPs delivered through this pathway could reach the cytoplasm, thereby opening the possibility of organelle-specific targeting. Herein we perform dissipative particle dynamics simulations to elucidate the transmembrane penetration mechanisms of multiple NPs. Our simulations demonstrate that NPs' translocation proceeds in a cooperative manner, where the interplay of the quantity and surface chemistry of the NPs regulates the translocation efficiency. For NPs with hydrophilic surfaces, the increase of particle quantity facilitates penetration, while for NPs with partly or totally hydrophobic surfaces, the opposite highly possibly holds. Moreover, a set of interesting cooperative ways, such as aggregation, aggregation-dispersion, and aggregation-dispersion-reaggregation of the NPs, are observed during the penetration process. We find that the penetration behaviors of multiple NPs are mostly dominated by the changes of the NP-membrane force components in the membrane plane direction, in addition to that in the penetration direction, suggesting a different interaction mechanism between the multiple NPs and the membrane compared with the one-NP case. These results provide a fundamental understanding in the underlying mechanisms of cooperative penetration of NPs, and shed light on the NP-based drug and gene delivery. PMID:26013284

  1. Design and synthesis of peptides with hybrid helix-turn-helix (HTH) motif and their conformational study.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Gangavaram V M; Thodupunuri, Prashanth; Sirisha, Katukuri; Basha, Shaik Jeelani; Gurava Reddy, Pottireddygari; Sarma, Akella V S

    2014-09-19

    The present study is aimed at the design and synthesis of peptides with hybrid helix-turn-helix (HTH) motif and their conformational analysis (NMR, MD, and CD studies). The requisite peptides with heterogeneous backbones were prepared from ?-, ?-, and ?-amino acids with carbohydrate side chains and ?-amino acid, L-Ala. The ?/?-peptides were prepared from (S)-?-Caa(l) (C-linked carbo-?-amino acid with D-lyxo furanoside side chain) and L-Ala with a 1:1 alternation. The ?/?-peptides with "helix-turn" motif displayed a 11/9-helix nucleating a 13-atom H-bonding turn. The ?/?-octapeptides showed the presence of HTH structures with bifurcated 11/15-H-bonded turn. Further, the ?/?-hexapeptide with HT motif, independently on coupling with ?/?/?/?- and ?/?/?/?-tetrapeptides at the C-terminus provided access to the decapeptides with "hybrid HTH" motifs. The decapeptide ("?-?-?-?-?-?-?-?-?-?") showed a hybrid HTH with "11/9/11/9/11/16/9/12/10" H-bonding, while the decapeptide ("?-?-?-?-?-?-?-?-?-?") revealed the presence of a "11/9/11/9/11/17/9/13/11" helical pattern. The above peptides thus have shown compatibility between different types of helices and serendipitous bifurcated 11/16- and 11/17-turns. The present study thus provided the first opportunity for the design and study of "hybrid HTH" motifs with more than one kind of helical structures in them. PMID:25180942

  2. A Specific Interface between Integrin Transmembrane Helices

    E-print Network

    Springer, Timothy A.

    , Timothy A. Springer* , Junichi Takagi¤1 Center for Blood Research (CBR) Institute for Biomedical Research Conformational communication across the plasma membrane between the extracellular and intracellular domains domain and lateral separation of transmembrane helices. Introduction of disulfide bridges to prevent

  3. Spatial organization of transmembrane receptor signalling

    PubMed Central

    Bethani, Ioanna; Skånland, Sigrid S; Dikic, Ivan; Acker-Palmer, Amparo

    2010-01-01

    The spatial organization of transmembrane receptors is a critical step in signal transduction and receptor trafficking in cells. Transmembrane receptors engage in lateral homotypic and heterotypic cis-interactions as well as intercellular trans-interactions that result in the formation of signalling foci for the initiation of different signalling networks. Several aspects of ligand-induced receptor clustering and association with signalling proteins are also influenced by the lipid composition of membranes. Thus, lipid microdomains have a function in tuning the activity of many transmembrane receptors by positively or negatively affecting receptor clustering and signal transduction. We review the current knowledge about the functions of clustering of transmembrane receptors and lipid–protein interactions important for the spatial organization of signalling at the membrane. PMID:20717138

  4. Tryptophan supports interaction of transmembrane helices.

    PubMed

    Ridder, Anja; Skupjen, Paulina; Unterreitmeier, Stephanie; Langosch, Dieter

    2005-12-01

    Interactions of transmembrane helices play an important role in folding and oligomerization of integral membrane proteins. The interfacial residues of these helices frequently correspond to heptad repeat motifs. In order to uncover novel mechanisms underlying these interactions, we randomised a heptad repeat pattern with a complete set of amino acids. Those sequences that were capable of high-affinity self-interaction upon integration into bacterial inner membranes were selected by means of the POSSYCCAT system. A comparison between selected and non-selected sequences reveals that high-affinity sequences were strongly enriched in tryptophan residues that accumulated at specific positions of the heptad motif. Mutation of Trp in selected clones significantly reduced self-interaction of the transmembrane segments without affecting their efficiency of membrane integration. Conversely, grafting Trp onto artificial transmembrane segments strongly enhanced their interaction. We conclude that tryptophan supports interaction of transmembrane segments. PMID:16280130

  5. Structural basis for TatA oligomerization: an NMR study of Escherichia coli TatA dimeric structure.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Hu, Yunfei; Li, Hongwei; Jin, Changwen

    2014-01-01

    Many proteins are transported across lipid membranes by protein translocation systems in living cells. The twin-arginine transport (Tat) system identified in bacteria and plant chloroplasts is a unique system that transports proteins across membranes in their fully-folded states. Up to date, the detailed molecular mechanism of this process remains largely unclear. The Escherichia coli Tat system consists of three essential transmembrane proteins: TatA, TatB and TatC. Among them, TatB and TatC form a tight complex and function in substrate recognition. The major component TatA contains a single transmembrane helix followed by an amphipathic helix, and is suggested to form the translocation pore via self-oligomerization. Since the TatA oligomer has to accommodate substrate proteins of various sizes and shapes, the process of its assembly stands essential for understanding the translocation mechanism. A structure model of TatA oligomer was recently proposed based on NMR and EPR observations, revealing contacts between the transmembrane helices from adjacent subunits. Herein we report the construction and stabilization of a dimeric TatA, as well as the structure determination by solution NMR spectroscopy. In addition to more extensive inter-subunit contacts between the transmembrane helices, we were also able to observe interactions between neighbouring amphipathic helices. The side-by-side packing of the amphipathic helices extends the solvent-exposed hydrophilic surface of the protein, which might be favourable for interactions with substrate proteins. The dimeric TatA structure offers more detailed information of TatA oligomeric interface and provides new insights on Tat translocation mechanism. PMID:25090434

  6. Rationally Designed Transmembrane Peptide Mimics of the Multidrug Transporter Protein Cdr1 Act as Antagonists to Selectively Block Drug Efflux and Chemosensitize Azole-resistant Clinical Isolates of Candida albicans*?

    PubMed Central

    Maurya, Indresh Kumar; Thota, Chaitanya Kumar; Verma, Sachin Dev; Sharma, Jyotsna; Rawal, Manpreet Kaur; Ravikumar, Balaguru; Sen, Sobhan; Chauhan, Neeraj; Lynn, Andrew M.; Chauhan, Virander Singh; Prasad, Rajendra

    2013-01-01

    Drug-resistant pathogenic fungi use several families of membrane-embedded transporters to efflux antifungal drugs from the cells. The efflux pump Cdr1 (Candida drug resistance 1) belongs to the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) superfamily of transporters. Cdr1 is one of the most predominant mechanisms of multidrug resistance in azole-resistant (AR) clinical isolates of Candida albicans. Blocking drug efflux represents an attractive approach to combat the multidrug resistance of this opportunistic human pathogen. In this study, we rationally designed and synthesized transmembrane peptide mimics (TMPMs) of Cdr1 protein (Cdr1p) that correspond to each of the 12 transmembrane helices (TMHs) of the two transmembrane domains of the protein to target the primary structure of the Cdr1p. Several FITC-tagged TMPMs specifically bound to Cdr1p and blocked the efflux of entrapped fluorescent dyes from the AR (Gu5) isolate. These TMPMs did not affect the efflux of entrapped fluorescent dye from cells expressing the Cdr1p homologue Cdr2p or from cells expressing a non-ABC transporter Mdr1p. Notably, the time correlation of single photon counting fluorescence measurements confirmed the specific interaction of FITC-tagged TMPMs with their respective TMH. By using mutant variants of Cdr1p, we show that these TMPM antagonists contain the structural information necessary to target their respective TMHs of Cdr1p and specific binding sites that mediate the interactions between the mimics and its respective helix. Additionally, TMPMs that were devoid of any demonstrable hemolytic, cytotoxic, and antifungal activities chemosensitize AR clinical isolates and demonstrate synergy with drugs that further improved the therapeutic potential of fluconazole in vivo. PMID:23592791

  7. Predicting helix-helix interactions from residue contacts in membrane proteins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Allan Lo; Yi-yuan Chiu; Einar Andreas Rødland; Ping-chiang Lyu; Ting-yi Sung; Wen-lian Hsu

    2009-01-01

    Motivation: Helix-helix interactions play a critical role in the struc- ture assembly, stability, and function of membrane proteins. On the molecular level, the interactions are mediated by one or more resi- due contacts. Although previous studies focused on helix-packing patterns and sequence motifs, few of them developed methods spe- cifically for contact prediction. Results: We present a new hierarchical framework

  8. Structural requirements of transmembrane domain 3 for activation by the M1 muscarinic receptor agonists AC-42, AC-260584, clozapine, and N-desmethylclozapine: evidence for three distinct modes of receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Spalding, Tracy A; Ma, Jian-Nong; Ott, Thomas R; Friberg, Mikael; Bajpai, Abhishek; Bradley, Stefania Risso; Davis, Robert E; Brann, Mark R; Burstein, Ethan S

    2006-12-01

    Transmembrane domain 3 (TM3) plays a crucial role mediating muscarinic acetylcholine receptor activation by acetylcholine, carbachol, and other muscarinic agonists. We compared the effects of point mutations throughout TM3 on the interactions of carbachol, 4-n-butyl-1-[4-(2-methylphenyl)-4-oxo-1-butyl] piperidine hydrogen chloride (AC-42), a potent structural analog of AC-42 called 4-[3-(4-butylpiperidin-1-yl)-propyl]-7-fluoro-4H-benzo[1,4]oxazin-3-one (AC-260584), N-desmethylclozapine, and clozapine with the M(1) muscarinic receptor. The binding and activation profiles of these ligands fell into three distinct patterns; one exemplified by orthosteric compounds like carbachol, another by structural analogs of AC-42, and a third by structural analogs of N-desmethylclozapine. All mutations tested severely reduced carbachol binding and activation of M(1). In contrast, the agonist actions of AC-42 and AC-260584 were greatly potentiated by the W101A mutation, slightly reduced by Y106A, and slightly increased by S109A. Clozapine and N-desmethylclozapine displayed substantially increased maximum responses at the Y106A and W101A mutants, slightly lower activity at S109A, but no substantial changes in potency. At L102A and N110A, agonist responses to AC-42, AC-260584, clozapine, and N-desmethylclozapine were all substantially reduced, but usually less than carbachol. D105A showed no functional responses to all ligands. Displacement and dissociation rate experiments demonstrated clear allosteric properties of AC-42 and AC-260584 but not for N-desmethylclozapine and clozapine, indicating that they may contact different residues than carbachol to activate M(1) but occupy substantially overlapping spaces, in contrast to AC-42 and AC-260584, which occupy separable spaces. These results show that M(1) receptors can be activated in at least three distinct ways and that there is no requirement for potent muscarinic agonists to mimic acetylcholine interactions with TM3. PMID:16959945

  9. Homologue Structure of the SLAC1 Anion Channel for Closing Stomata in Leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Y Chen; L Hu; M Punta; R Bruni; B Hillerich; B Kloss; B Rost; J Love; S Siegelbaum; W Hendrickson

    2011-12-31

    The plant SLAC1 anion channel controls turgor pressure in the aperture-defining guard cells of plant stomata, thereby regulating the exchange of water vapour and photosynthetic gases in response to environmental signals such as drought or high levels of carbon dioxide. Here we determine the crystal structure of a bacterial homologue (Haemophilus influenzae) of SLAC1 at 1.20 {angstrom} resolution, and use structure-inspired mutagenesis to analyse the conductance properties of SLAC1 channels. SLAC1 is a symmetrical trimer composed from quasi-symmetrical subunits, each having ten transmembrane helices arranged from helical hairpin pairs to form a central five-helix transmembrane pore that is gated by an extremely conserved phenylalanine residue. Conformational features indicate a mechanism for control of gating by kinase activation, and electrostatic features of the pore coupled with electrophysiological characteristics indicate that selectivity among different anions is largely a function of the energetic cost of ion dehydration.

  10. Systematic molecular dynamics searching in a lipid bilayer: Application to the glycophorin A and oncogenic ErbB-2 transmembrane domains

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Andrew J. Beevers; Andreas Kukol

    2006-01-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of proteins in a lipid bilayer environment are usually undertaken with one or a few starting structures. Here we report a search protocol for systematically exploring the possible interactions in helical bundle transmembrane proteins, a frequently occurring structural motif. The search protocol correctly identifies the experimentally known structure of the dimeric human glycophorin A transmembrane domain

  11. The role of proline in the membrane re-entrant helix of caveolin-1.

    PubMed

    Aoki, Satoko; Thomas, Annick; Decaffmeyer, Marc; Brasseur, Robert; Epand, Richard M

    2010-10-22

    Caveolin-1 has a segment of hydrophobic amino acids comprising approximately residues 103-122. We have performed an in silico analysis of the conformational preference of this segment of caveolin-1 using PepLook. We find that there is one main group of stable conformations corresponding to a hydrophobic U bent model that would not traverse the membrane. Furthermore, the calculations predict that substituting the Pro(110) residue with an Ala will change the conformation to a straight hydrophobic helix that would traverse the membrane. We have expressed the P110A mutant of caveolin-1, with a FLAG tag at the N terminus, in HEK 293 cells. We evaluate the topology of the proteins with confocal immunofluorescence microscopy in these cells. We find that FLAG tag at the N terminus of the wild type caveolin-1 is not reactive with antibodies unless the cell membrane is permeabilized with detergent. This indicates that in these cells, the hydrophobic segment of this protein is not transmembrane but takes up a bent conformation, making the protein monotopic. In contrast, the FLAG tag at the N terminus of the P110A mutant is equally exposed to antibodies, before and after membrane permeabilization. We also find that the P110A mutation causes a large reduction of endocytosis of caveolae, cellular lipid accumulation, and lipid droplet formulation. In addition, we find that this mutation markedly reduces the ability of caveolin-1 to form structures with the characteristic morphology of caveolae or to partition into the detergent-resistant membranes of these cells. Thus, the single Pro residue in the membrane-inserting segment of caveolin-1 plays an important role in both the membrane topology and localization of the protein as well as its functions. PMID:20729193

  12. Helix Antennas Dr. Sandra Cruz-Pol

    E-print Network

    Cruz-Pol, Sandra L.

    , circular or linear (vertical), depending on which receiver is being used. Narrow Band Antennas Circularly11 Helix Antennas Dr. Sandra Cruz-Pol INEL 5305 UPRM Antenna Theory and Design Helix antenna geométricas. Axial Mode Most widely used mode Pattern has form: where Axial Mode 3/4

  13. Macrocyclic Scaffold for the Collagen Triple Helix

    E-print Network

    Raines, Ronald T.

    Macrocyclic Scaffold for the Collagen Triple Helix Jia-Cherng Horng, Andrew J. Hawk, Qian Zhao@biochem.wisc.edu Received July 18, 2006 ABSTRACT Three strands of natural collagen are linked by covalent bonds prior to their folding into a triple helix. We report on a synthetic collagen in which the strands are pendent on a rigid

  14. The triple-helix motif in proteins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    BARBARA BRODSKY; NAINA K. SHAH

    1995-01-01

    The triple-helix conformation has long been associated with collagen. Its recognition as a more general protein motif has come with the identification of the triple he- lix in the family of collectins and several membrane proteins, as well as a large number of extraceilular matrix molecules. The role of the triple-helix domain relates to its ability to associate in a

  15. Primary structure of a novel subunit in ba3-cytochrome oxidase from Thermus thermophilus.

    PubMed Central

    Soulimane, T.; Than, M. E.; Dewor, M.; Huber, R.; Buse, G.

    2000-01-01

    The bax-type cytochrome c oxidase from Thermus thermophilus is known as a two subunit enzyme. Deduced from the crystal structure of this enzyme, we discovered the presence of an additional transmembrane helix "subunit IIa" spanning the membrane. The hydrophobic N-terminally blocked protein was isolated in high yield using high-performance liquid chromatography. Its complete amino acid sequence was determined by a combination of automated Edman degradation of both the deformylated and the cyanogen bromide cleaved protein and automated C-terminal sequencing of the native protein. The molecular mass of 3,794 Da as determined by MALDI-MS and by ESI requires the N-terminal methionine to be formylated and is in good agreement with the value calculated from the formylmethionine containing sequence (3,766.5 Da + 28 Da = 3,794.5 Da). This subunit consits of 34 residues forming one helix across the membrane (Lys5-Ala34), which corresponds in space to the first transmembrane helix of subunit II of the cytochrome c oxidases from Paracoccus denitrificans and bovine heart, however, with opposite polarity. It is 35% identical to subunit IV of the ba3-cytochrome oxidase from Natronobacterium pharaonis. The open reading frame encoding this new subunit IIa (cbaD) is located upstream of cbaB in the same operon as the genes for subunit I (cbaA) and subunit II (cbaB). PMID:11152118

  16. Modeling the flexibility of alpha helices in protein interfaces : structure based design and prediction of helix-mediated protein-protein interactions

    E-print Network

    Apgar, James R. (James Reasoner)

    2008-01-01

    Protein-protein interactions play an essential role in many biological functions. Prediction and design of these interactions using computational methods requires models that can be used to efficiently sample structural ...

  17. Linus Pauling' s manuscript describing incorrect triple helix, Peter PaulingSite: DNA Interactive (www.dnai.org)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2008-10-06

    Interviewee: Peter Pauling DNAi Location:Code>Finding the Structure>players The triple helix In 1952, Peter Pauling was a student at Cambridge when his father, Linus, sent him a paper proposing that DNA was a triple helix. James (Jim) Watson eagerly read the paper and realized that Pauling got it wrong.

  18. The Fifth Transmembrane Segment of Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator Contributes to Its Anion Permeation Pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingyao; Hwang, Tzyh-Chang

    2015-06-23

    Previous studies have identified several transmembrane segments (TMs), including TM1, TM3, TM6, TM9, TM11, and TM12, as pore-lining segments in cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), but the role of TM5 in pore construction remains controversial. In this study, we employed substituted cysteine accessibility methodology (SCAM) to screen the entire TM5 defined by the original topology model and its cytoplasmic extension in a Cysless background. We found six positions (A299, R303, N306, S307, F310, and F311) where engineered cysteines react to intracellular 2-sulfonatoethyl methanethiosulfonate (MTSES(-)). Quantification of the modification rate of engineered cysteines in the presence or absence of ATP suggests that these six residues are accessible in both the open and closed states. Whole-cell experiments with external MTSES(-) identified only two positive positions (L323 and A326), resulting in a segment containing 11 consecutive amino acids, where substituted cysteines respond to neither internal nor external MTSES(-), a unique feature not seen previously in CFTR's pore-lining segments. The observation that these positions are inaccessible to channel-permeant thiol-specific reagent [Au(CN)2](-) suggests that this segment of TM5 between F311 and L323 is concealed from the pore by other TMs and/or lipid bilayers. In addition, our data support the idea that the positively charged arginine at position 303 poses a pure electrostatic action in determining the single-channel current amplitude of CFTR and the effect of an open-channel blocker glibencalmide. Collectively, we conclude that the cytoplasmic portion of CFTR's TM5 lines the pore. Our functional data are remarkably consistent with predicted structural arrangements of TM5 in some homology models of CFTR. PMID:26024338

  19. G-helix of Maspin Mediates Effects on Cell Migration and Adhesion*

    PubMed Central

    Ravenhill, Lorna; Wagstaff, Laura; Edwards, Dylan R.; Ellis, Vincent; Bass, Rosemary

    2010-01-01

    Maspin is a member of the serine protease inhibitor (serpin) superfamily that lacks protease inhibitory ability, although displaying tumor metastasis-suppressing activity resulting from its influence on cell migration, invasion, proliferation, apoptosis, and adhesion. The molecular mechanisms of these actions of maspin are as yet undefined. Here, we sought to identify critical functional motifs by the expression of maspin with point mutations at sites potentially involved in protein-protein interactions: the G ?-helix (G-helix), an internal salt bridge or the P1 position of the reactive center loop. Our findings indicate that only mutations in the G-helix attenuated inhibition of cell migration by maspin and that this structural element is also involved in the effect of maspin on cell adhesion. The action of maspin on cell migration could be mimicked by a 15-mer G-helix peptide, indicating that the G-helix is both essential and sufficient for this effect. In addition, we provide evidence that the effects of the G-helix of maspin are dependent on ?1 integrins. These data reveal that the major extracellular functions associated with the tumor suppressive action of maspin likely involve interactions in which the G-helix plays a key role. PMID:20837467

  20. BuD, a helix–loop–helix DNA-binding domain for genome modification

    PubMed Central

    Stella, Stefano; Molina, Rafael; López-Méndez, Blanca; Juillerat, Alexandre; Bertonati, Claudia; Daboussi, Fayza; Campos-Olivas, Ramon; Duchateau, Phillippe; Montoya, Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    DNA editing offers new possibilities in synthetic biology and biomedicine for modulation or modification of cellular functions to organisms. However, inaccuracy in this process may lead to genome damage. To address this important problem, a strategy allowing specific gene modification has been achieved through the addition, removal or exchange of DNA sequences using customized proteins and the endogenous DNA-repair machinery. Therefore, the engineering of specific protein–DNA interactions in protein scaffolds is key to providing ‘toolkits’ for precise genome modification or regulation of gene expression. In a search for putative DNA-binding domains, BurrH, a protein that recognizes a 19?bp DNA target, was identified. Here, its apo and DNA-bound crystal structures are reported, revealing a central region containing 19 repeats of a helix–loop–helix modular domain (BurrH domain; BuD), which identifies the DNA target by a single residue-to-nucleotide code, thus facilitating its redesign for gene targeting. New DNA-binding specificities have been engineered in this template, showing that BuD-derived nucleases (BuDNs) induce high levels of gene targeting in a locus of the human haemoglobin ? (HBB) gene close to mutations responsible for sickle-cell anaemia. Hence, the unique combination of high efficiency and specificity of the BuD arrays can push forward diverse genome-modification approaches for cell or organism redesign, opening new avenues for gene editing. PMID:25004980

  1. The solution structure of the amino-terminal HHCC domain of HIV-2 integrase: a three-helix bundle stabilized by zinc

    E-print Network

    Tullius, Thomas D.

    stabilized by zinc Astrid P.A.M. Eijkelenboom*, Fusinita M.I. van den Ent, Arnold Vos, Jurgen F. Doreleijers domain with unknown structure thus far. This domain, which is known to bind zinc, contains a HHCC motif consists of three helices and a helical turn. The zinc is coordinated with His12 via the N2 atom, with His

  2. How Membranes Shape Protein Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Stephen

    2004-03-01

    The slowly accumulating crystallographic structures of membrane proteins (MPs) reveal that MPs are far more complex than bacteriorhodopsin, which is often taken as the archetypal MP. Because of the slow rate of progress in structure determination and the importance of MPs as drug targets, the prediction of structure from sequence remains a significant and pressing goal. The prediction of 3D structure from sequence requires a detailed understanding of (1) the thermodynamic stability of proteins in the unexpectedly complex environment of the lipid bilayer and (2) the rules the translocon follows during the constitutive assembly of MPs. Several aspects of membrane protein folding will be discussed, including X-ray and neutron diffraction studies fluid lipid bilayers, experimentally-determined whole-residue hydrophobicity scales, folding in bilayer interfaces, transmembrane (TM) helix energetics, and translocon-assisted MP folding. The diffraction studies reveal the complex nature of the bilayer milieu, especially the chemically heterogeneous interfaces whose combined thickness equals that of the hydrocarbon core. The single most important thermodynamic result is that the free energy of membrane protein folding is dominated by the unfavorable costs of partitioning peptide bonds into the interfaces and hydrocarbon core. Hydrogen bonding reduces, but does not eliminate these costs. Even small reductions, however, provide a remarkably strong driving force for secondary structure formation in interfaces. For TM helix insertion, the helix backbone dehydration penalty acts very strongly against the favorable hydrophobic-effect free energy associated with non-polar sidechains. The accurate prediction of TM helices from hydropathy plots demands that these opposing free energies be determined accurately. We have established a complete experiment-based whole-residue hydrophobicity scale for TM helix insertion based on physicochemical measurements. An important question concerns the relationship between this scale and the biological process of MP assembly. In collaboration with Gunnar von Heijne, we have begun to answer this question through studies of translocon-assisted TM helix insertion. A first-draft of a biological hydrophobicity scale based upon translocon-assisted helix insertion will be presented.

  3. pH-dependent helix folding dynamics of poly-glutamic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gooding, Edward A.; Sharma, Sapna; Petty, Sarah A.; Fouts, Elizabeth A.; Palmer, Colin J.; Nolan, Brian E.; Volk, Martin

    2013-08-01

    Poly-L-glutamic acid (PGA) is an ideal model system for investigating the transition between ?-helical and random coil peptide conformations, since its secondary structure is highly sensitive not only to temperature, but also to pH. Laser pulse-induced temperature jumps were used to observe pH-dependent PGA helix-coil relaxation dynamics on the microsecond time scale. The relaxation was found to be non-exponential, particularly if only short helical segments are present before the temperature jump, indicating the multi-step nature of the process which involves helix nucleation and propagation. Helix-coil relaxation is slowest near the mid-point of the pH-induced helix-coil transition, in agreement with theoretical predictions.

  4. Structural investigation of the C-terminal catalytic fragment of presenilin 1

    PubMed Central

    Dötsch, Volker

    2010-01-01

    The ?-secretase complex has a decisive role in the development of Alzheimer’s disease, in that it cleaves a precursor to create the amyloid ? peptide whose aggregates form the senile plaques encountered in the brains of patients. ?-secretase is a member of the intramembrane-cleaving proteases which process their transmembrane substrates within the bilayer. Many of the mutations encountered in early onset familial Alzheimer’s disease are linked to presenilin 1, the catalytic component of ?-secretase, whose active form requires its endoproteolytic cleavage into N-terminal and C-terminal fragments. Although there is general agreement regarding the topology of the N-terminal fragment, studies of the C-terminal fragment have yielded ambiguous and contradictory results that may be difficult to reconcile in the absence of structural information. Here we present the first structure of the C-terminal fragment of human presenilin 1, as obtained from NMR studies in SDS micelles. The structure reveals a topology where the membrane is likely traversed three times in accordance with the more generally accepted nine transmembrane domain model of presenilin 1, but contains unique structural features adapted to accommodate the unusual intramembrane catalysis. These include a putative half-membrane-spanning helix N-terminally harboring the catalytic aspartate, a severely kinked helical structure toward the C terminus as well as a soluble helix in the assumed-to-be unstructured N-terminal loop. PMID:20445084

  5. Structural investigation of the C-terminal catalytic fragment of presenilin 1.

    PubMed

    Sobhanifar, Solmaz; Schneider, Birgit; Löhr, Frank; Gottstein, Daniel; Ikeya, Teppei; Mlynarczyk, Krzysztof; Pulawski, Wojciech; Ghoshdastider, Umesh; Kolinski, Michal; Filipek, Slawomir; Güntert, Peter; Bernhard, Frank; Dötsch, Volker

    2010-05-25

    The gamma-secretase complex has a decisive role in the development of Alzheimer's disease, in that it cleaves a precursor to create the amyloid beta peptide whose aggregates form the senile plaques encountered in the brains of patients. Gamma-secretase is a member of the intramembrane-cleaving proteases which process their transmembrane substrates within the bilayer. Many of the mutations encountered in early onset familial Alzheimer's disease are linked to presenilin 1, the catalytic component of gamma-secretase, whose active form requires its endoproteolytic cleavage into N-terminal and C-terminal fragments. Although there is general agreement regarding the topology of the N-terminal fragment, studies of the C-terminal fragment have yielded ambiguous and contradictory results that may be difficult to reconcile in the absence of structural information. Here we present the first structure of the C-terminal fragment of human presenilin 1, as obtained from NMR studies in SDS micelles. The structure reveals a topology where the membrane is likely traversed three times in accordance with the more generally accepted nine transmembrane domain model of presenilin 1, but contains unique structural features adapted to accommodate the unusual intramembrane catalysis. These include a putative half-membrane-spanning helix N-terminally harboring the catalytic aspartate, a severely kinked helical structure toward the C terminus as well as a soluble helix in the assumed-to-be unstructured N-terminal loop. PMID:20445084

  6. ?-Helix targeting reduces amyloid-? peptide toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Nerelius, C.; Sandegren, A.; Sargsyan, H.; Raunak, R.; Leijonmarck, H.; Chatterjee, U.; Fisahn, A.; Imarisio, S.; Lomas, D. A.; Crowther, D. C.; Strömberg, R.; Johansson, J.

    2009-01-01

    The amyloid-? peptide (A?) can generate cytotoxic oligomers, and their accumulation is thought to underlie the neuropathologic changes found in Alzheimer's disease. Known inhibitors of A? polymerization bind to undefined structures and can work as nonspecific aggregators, and inhibitors that target conformations that also occur in larger A? assemblies may even increase oligomer-derived toxicity. Here we report on an alternative approach whereby ligands are designed to bind and stabilize the 13–26 region of A? in an ?-helical conformation, inspired by the postulated A? native structure. This is achieved with 2 different classes of compounds that also reduce A? toxicity to cells in culture and to hippocampal slice preparations, and that do not show any nonspecific aggregatory properties. In addition, when these inhibitors are administered to Drosophila melanogaster expressing human A?1–42 in the central nervous system, a prolonged lifespan, increased locomotor activity, and reduced neurodegeneration is observed. We conclude that stabilization of the central A? ?-helix counteracts polymerization into toxic assemblies and provides a strategy for development of specific inhibitors of A? polymerization. PMID:19458258

  7. Light Stress-Induced One-Helix Protein of the Chlorophyll a/b-Binding Family Associated with Photosystem I1

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, Ulrica; Heddad, Mounia; Adamska, Iwona

    2003-01-01

    The superfamily of light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b-binding (Lhc) proteins in higher plants and green algae is composed of more than 20 different antenna proteins associated either with photosystem I (PSI) or photosystem II (PSII). Several distant relatives of this family with conserved chlorophyll-binding residues and proposed photoprotective functions are induced transiently under various stress conditions. Whereas “classical” Lhc proteins contain three-transmembrane ?-helices, their distant relatives span the membrane with between one and four transmembrane segments. Here, we report the identification and isolation of a novel member of the Lhc family from Arabidopsis with one predicted transmembrane ?-helix closely related to helix I of Lhc protein from PSI (Lhca4) that we named Ohp2 (for a second one-helix protein of Lhc family described from higher plants). We showed that the Ohp2 gene expression is triggered by light stress and that the Ohp2 transcript and protein accumulated in a light intensity-dependent manner. Other stress conditions did not up-regulate the expression of the Ohp2 gene. Localization studies revealed that Ohp2 is associated with PSI under low- or high-light conditions. Because all stress-induced Lhc relatives reported so far were found in PSII, we propose that the accumulation of Ohp2 might represent a novel photoprotective strategy induced within PSI in response to light stress. PMID:12805611

  8. How do helix-helix interactions help determine the folds of membrane proteins? Perspectives from the study of homo-oligomeric helical bundles

    Microsoft Academic Search

    WILLIAM F. DEGRADO; HOLLY GRATKOWSKI; JAMES D. LEAR

    2007-01-01

    The final, structure-determining step in the folding of membrane proteins involves the coalescence of preformed transmembrane helices to form the native tertiary structure. Here, we review recent studies on small peptide and protein systems that are providing quantitative data on the interactions that drive this process. Gel electrophoresis, analytical ultracentrifugation, and fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) are useful methods for

  9. The Crystal Structures of Yeast Get3 Suggest a Mechanism for Tail-Anchored Protein Membrane Insertion

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Junbin; Li, Jingzhi; Qian, Xinguo; Denic, Vlad; Sha, Bingdong; (UAB); (Harvard)

    2010-08-16

    Tail-anchored (TA) proteins represent a unique class of membrane proteins that contain a single C-terminal transmembrane helix. The post-translational insertion of the yeast TA proteins into the ER membrane requires the Golgi ER trafficking (GET) complex which contains Get1, Get2 and Get3. Get3 is an ATPase that recognizes and binds the C-terminal transmembrane domain (TMD) of the TA proteins. We have determined the crystal structures of Get3 from two yeast species, S. cerevisiae and D. hansenii, respectively. These high resolution crystal structures show that Get3 contains a nucleotide-binding domain and a 'finger' domain for binding the TA protein TMD. A large hydrophobic groove on the finger domain of S. cerevisiae Get3 structure might represent the binding site for TMD of TA proteins. A hydrophobic helix from a symmetry-related Get3 molecule sits in the TMD-binding groove and mimics the TA binding scenario. Interestingly, the crystal structures of the Get3 dimers from S. cerevisiae and D. hansenii exhibit distinct conformations. The S. cerevisiae Get3 dimer structure does not contain nucleotides and maintains an 'open' conformation, while the D. hansenii Get3 dimer structure binds ADP and stays in a 'closed' conformation. We propose that the conformational changes to switch the Get3 between the open and closed conformations may facilitate the membrane insertions for TA proteins.

  10. Linus Pauling's triple DNA helix model, 3D animation with basic narrationSite: DNA Interactive (www.dnai.org)

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    2008-10-06

    DNAi Location:Code>Finding the Structure>pieces of the puzzle>Pauling's triple helix This is Linus Pauling's failed attempt to predict the structure of DNA. The problem with his triple helix model is that the phosphates form the helical core, with the bases pointing outwards. This would be impossible under normal cellular conditions. Each phosphate group is negatively charged, and so many negative charges forced together would repel each other, literally driving the structure apart.

  11. Motifs in Protein SequencesMotifs in Protein Sequences Examples: Helix-Turn-Helix, Zinc-finger,

    E-print Network

    Narasimhan, Giri

    Motifs in Protein SequencesMotifs in Protein Sequences Examples: Helix-Turn-Helix, Zinc. Examples: Helix-Turn-Helix, Zinc-finger, Homeobox domain, Hairpin-beta motif, Calcium-binding motif, Beta of the motif M? Example: Zinc Finger Motif ...YYKCCGLCCERSFFVEKSALLSRHHORVHHKN... 3 6 19 23 Input

  12. BuD, a helix–loop–helix DNA-binding domain for genome modification

    SciTech Connect

    Stella, Stefano [Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO), Calle de Melchor Fernández Almagro 3, 28029 Madrid (Spain); University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 3B, 2200 Copenhagen (Denmark); Molina, Rafael; López-Méndez, Blanca [Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO), Calle de Melchor Fernández Almagro 3, 28029 Madrid (Spain); Juillerat, Alexandre; Bertonati, Claudia; Daboussi, Fayza [Cellectis, 8 Rue de la Croix Jarry, 75013 Paris (France); Campos-Olivas, Ramon [Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO), Calle de Melchor Fernández Almagro 3, 28029 Madrid (Spain); Duchateau, Phillippe [Cellectis, 8 Rue de la Croix Jarry, 75013 Paris (France); Montoya, Guillermo, E-mail: guillermo.montoya@cpr.ku.dk [Spanish National Cancer Research Centre (CNIO), Calle de Melchor Fernández Almagro 3, 28029 Madrid (Spain); University of Copenhagen, Blegdamsvej 3B, 2200 Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2014-07-01

    Crystal structures of BurrH and the BurrH–DNA complex are reported. DNA editing offers new possibilities in synthetic biology and biomedicine for modulation or modification of cellular functions to organisms. However, inaccuracy in this process may lead to genome damage. To address this important problem, a strategy allowing specific gene modification has been achieved through the addition, removal or exchange of DNA sequences using customized proteins and the endogenous DNA-repair machinery. Therefore, the engineering of specific protein–DNA interactions in protein scaffolds is key to providing ‘toolkits’ for precise genome modification or regulation of gene expression. In a search for putative DNA-binding domains, BurrH, a protein that recognizes a 19 bp DNA target, was identified. Here, its apo and DNA-bound crystal structures are reported, revealing a central region containing 19 repeats of a helix–loop–helix modular domain (BurrH domain; BuD), which identifies the DNA target by a single residue-to-nucleotide code, thus facilitating its redesign for gene targeting. New DNA-binding specificities have been engineered in this template, showing that BuD-derived nucleases (BuDNs) induce high levels of gene targeting in a locus of the human haemoglobin ? (HBB) gene close to mutations responsible for sickle-cell anaemia. Hence, the unique combination of high efficiency and specificity of the BuD arrays can push forward diverse genome-modification approaches for cell or organism redesign, opening new avenues for gene editing.

  13. 50?Hz electromagnetic field produced changes in FTIR spectroscopy associated with mitochondrial transmembrane potential reduction in neuronal-like SH-SY5Y cells.

    PubMed

    Calabrò, Emanuele; Condello, Salvatore; Currò, Monica; Ferlazzo, Nadia; Vecchio, Mercurio; Caccamo, Daniela; Magazù, Salvatore; Ientile, Riccardo

    2013-01-01

    SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells were used as an experimental model to study the effects of 50 Hz electromagnetic field, in the range from 50 µ T to 1.4 mT. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis evidenced a reduction in intensity of the amide A band and a slight increase of vibration bands at 2921 cm(-1) and 2853 cm(-1) corresponding to methylene groups. A further increase of the magnetic field intensity of exposure up to 0.8 mT and 1.4 mT produced a clear increase in intensity of CH2 vibration bands. Moreover, it has been observed some alterations in the amide I region, such as a shifted peak of the amide I band to a smaller wavenumber, probably due to protein conformational changes. These results suggested that exposure to extremely low electromagnetic fields influenced lipid components of cellular membrane and the N-H in-plane bending and C-N stretching vibrations of peptide linkages, modifying the secondary structures of ? -helix and ? -sheet contents and producing unfolding process in cell membrane proteins. The observed changes after exposure to 50 Hz electromagnetic field higher than 0.8 mT were associated with a significant reduction of cell viability and reduced mitochondrial transmembrane potential. PMID:23970948

  14. Solubilization of V-ATPase transmembrane peptides by amphipol A8-35.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Afonso M S; Wolfs, Cor J A M; Koehorst, Rob B M; Popot, Jean-Luc; Hemminga, Marcus A

    2008-04-01

    Two transmembrane peptides encompassing the seventh transmembrane section of subunit a from V-ATPase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae were studied as complexes with APols A8-35 by CD and fluorescence spectroscopy, with the goal to use APols to provide a membrane-mimicking environment for the peptides. CD spectroscopy was used to obtain the overall secondary structure of the peptides, whereas fluorescence spectroscopy provided information about the local environment of their tryptophan residues. The fluorescence results indicate that both peptides are trapped by APols and the CD results that they adopt a beta-sheet conformation. This result is in contrast with previous work that showed that the same peptides are alpha-helical in SDS micelles and organic solvents. These observations are discussed in the context of APol physical-chemical properties and transmembrane peptide structural propensity. PMID:18098332

  15. Direct imaging of DNA fibers: the visage of double helix.

    PubMed

    Gentile, Francesco; Moretti, Manola; Limongi, Tania; Falqui, Andrea; Bertoni, Giovanni; Scarpellini, Alice; Santoriello, Stefania; Maragliano, Luca; Proietti Zaccaria, Remo; di Fabrizio, Enzo

    2012-12-12

    Direct imaging becomes important when the knowledge at few/single molecule level is requested and where the diffraction does not allow to get structural and functional information. Here we report on the direct imaging of double stranded (ds) ?-DNA in the A conformation, obtained by combining a novel sample preparation method based on super hydrophobic DNA molecules self-aggregation process with transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The experimental breakthrough is the production of robust and highly ordered paired DNA nanofibers that allowed its direct TEM imaging and the double helix structure revealing. PMID:23171353

  16. Green laser light (532nm) activates a chloride current in the C1 neuron of Helix aspersa.

    PubMed

    Reece, Peter J; Dholakia, Kishan; Thomas, Roger C; Cottrell, Glen A

    2008-03-15

    Five hundred and thirty-two nanometers laser light evokes neuron-specific electrical responses in identified neurons of Helix ganglia. Such responses are intensity-dependent over the range 25-1500 mW, readily reversible and repeatable. Detailed experiments on the C1 neuron, which is inhibited by 532 nm light, showed that inhibition results from a selective increase in transmembrane Cl(-) ion conductance. Experiments with calcium-sensitive microelectrodes suggest that the response does not result from an increase in [Ca(2+)](i). The change in Cl(-) ion conductance probably occurs in the extensive plasmalemma infoldings of the proximal axon. PMID:18258365

  17. Elevated temperature triggers human respiratory syncytial virus F protein six-helix bundle formation

    SciTech Connect

    Yunus, Abdul S.; Jackson, Trent P.; Crisafi, Katherine; Burimski, Irina; Kilgore, Nicole R.; Zoumplis, Dorian; Allaway, Graham P.; Wild, Carl T. [Panacos Pharmaceuticals, Inc., 209 Perry Parkway, Suite 7, Gaithersburg, MD 20877 (United States); Salzwedel, Karl, E-mail: salzwedelkd@niaid.nih.go [Panacos Pharmaceuticals, Inc., 209 Perry Parkway, Suite 7, Gaithersburg, MD 20877 (United States)

    2010-01-20

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of severe lower respiratory tract infection in infants, immunocompromised patients, and the elderly. The RSV fusion (F) protein mediates fusion of the viral envelope with the target cell membrane during virus entry and is a primary target for antiviral drug and vaccine development. The F protein contains two heptad repeat regions, HR1 and HR2. Peptides corresponding to these regions form a six-helix bundle structure that is thought to play a critical role in membrane fusion. However, characterization of six-helix bundle formation in native RSV F protein has been hindered by the fact that a trigger for F protein conformational change has yet to be identified. Here we demonstrate that RSV F protein on the surface of infected cells undergoes a conformational change following exposure to elevated temperature, resulting in the formation of the six-helix bundle structure. We first generated and characterized six-helix bundle-specific antibodies raised against recombinant peptides modeling the RSV F protein six-helix bundle structure. We then used these antibodies as probes to monitor RSV F protein six-helix bundle formation in response to a diverse array of potential triggers of conformational changes. We found that exposure of 'membrane-anchored' RSV F protein to elevated temperature (45-55 deg. C) was sufficient to trigger six-helix bundle formation. Antibody binding to the six-helix bundle conformation was detected by both flow cytometry and cell-surface immunoprecipitation of the RSV F protein. None of the other treatments, including interaction with a number of potential receptors, resulted in significant binding by six-helix bundle-specific antibodies. We conclude that native, untriggered RSV F protein exists in a metastable state that can be converted in vitro to the more stable, fusogenic six-helix bundle conformation by an increase in thermal energy. These findings help to better define the mechanism of RSV F-mediated membrane fusion and have important implications for the identification of therapeutic strategies and vaccines targeting RSV F protein conformational changes.

  18. Metal concentrations in Helix pomatia, Helix aspersa and Arion rufus: a comparative study

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C Menta; V Parisi

    2001-01-01

    In this study we evaluated the differences between concentrations of copper, iron, zinc, manganese, lead and cadmium in three terrestrial gastropods: Helix pomatia, Helix aspersa and Arion rufus, collected in a semi-rural location in Northern Italy. Metal concentrations in the foot and in the digestive gland were measured. In the hepatopancreas, copper and zinc did not differ significantly in the

  19. Interstrand Dipole-Dipole Interactions Can Stabilize the Collagen Triple Helix*S

    E-print Network

    Raines, Ronald T.

    Interstrand Dipole-Dipole Interactions Can Stabilize the Collagen Triple Helix*S Received sequence of collagen is composed of GlyXaaYaa repeats. A prevailing paradigm maintains that stable collagen. Anomalously, an amino acid sequence in an invertebrate collagen has (2S,4R)-4-hydroxy- proline (Hyp), a C -exo

  20. Targeting of Drosophila Rhodopsin Requires Helix 8 but Not the Distal C-Terminus

    PubMed Central

    Kock, Ines; Bulgakova, Natalia A.; Knust, Elisabeth; Sinning, Irmgard; Panneels, Valérie

    2009-01-01

    Background The fundamental role of the light receptor rhodopsin in visual function and photoreceptor cell development has been widely studied. Proper trafficking of rhodopsin to the photoreceptor membrane is of great importance. In human, mutations in rhodopsin involving its intracellular mislocalization, are the most frequent cause of autosomal dominant Retinitis Pigmentosa, a degenerative retinal pathology characterized by progressive blindness. Drosophila is widely used as an animal model in visual and retinal degeneration research. So far, little is known about the requirements for proper rhodopsin targeting in Drosophila. Methodology/Principal Findings Different truncated fly-rhodopsin Rh1 variants were expressed in the eyes of Drosophila and their localization was analyzed in vivo or by immunofluorescence. A mutant lacking the last 23 amino acids was found to properly localize in the rhabdomeres, the light-sensing organelle of the photoreceptor cells. This constitutes a major difference to trafficking in vertebrates, which involves a conserved QVxPA motif at the very C-terminus. Further truncations of Rh1 indicated that proper localization requires the last amino acid residues of a region called helix 8 following directly the last transmembrane domain. Interestingly, the very C-terminus of invertebrate visual rhodopsins is extremely variable but helix 8 shows conserved amino acid residues that are not conserved in vertebrate homologs. Conclusions/Significance Despite impressive similarities in the folding and photoactivation of vertebrate and invertebrate visual rhodopsins, a striking difference exists between mammalian and fly rhodopsins in their requirements for proper targeting. Most importantly, the distal part of helix 8 plays a central role in invertebrates. Since the last amino acid residues of helix 8 are dispensable for rhodopsin folding and function, we propose that this domain participates in the recognition of targeting factors involved in transport to the rhabdomeres. PMID:19572012

  1. Phylogenetic analyses of vector mosquito basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Zhang, D B; Wang, Y; Liu, A K; Wang, X H; Dang, C W; Yao, Q; Chen, K P

    2013-10-01

    Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors play critical roles in the regulation of a wide range of developmental processes in higher organisms and have been identified in more than 20 organisms. Mosquitoes are important vectors of certain human diseases. In this study, Aedes aegypti, Anopheles gambiae str. PEST and Culex quinquefasciatus genomes were found to encode 55, 55 and 57 bHLH genes, respectively. Further phylogenetic analyses and OrthoDB and Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes orthology database searches led us to define orthology for all the identified mosquito bHLHs successfully. This provides useful information with which to update annotations to 40 Ae.?aegypti, 55 An.?gambiae and 38 C.?quinquefasciatus?bHLH genes in VectorBase. The mosquito lineage has more bHLH genes in the Atonal, neurogenin (Ngn) and Hes-related with YRPW motif (Hey) families than do other insect species, suggesting that mosquitoes have evolved to be more sensitive to vibration, light and chemicals. Mosquito bHLH genes generally have higher evolutionary rates than other insect species. However, no pervasive positive selection occurred in the evolution of insect bHLH genes. Only episodic positive selection was found to affect evolution of bHLH genes in 11 families. Besides, coding regions of several Ae.?aegypti?bHLH motifs have unusually long introns in which multiple copies of transposable elements have been identified. These data provide a solid basis for further studies on structures and functions of bHLH proteins in the regulation of mosquito development and for prevention and control of mosquito-mediated human diseases. PMID:23906262

  2. Membrane shape modulates transmembrane protein distribution

    PubMed Central

    Aimon, Sophie; Callan-Jones, Andrew; Berthaud, Alice; Pinot, Mathieu; Toombes, Gilman E. S.; Bassereau, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Summary Although membrane shape varies greatly throughout the cell, the contribution of membrane curvature to transmembrane protein targeting is unknown due to the numerous sorting mechanisms taking place concurrently in cells. To isolate the effect of membrane shape, cellsized Giant Unilamellar Vesicles (GUVs) containing either the potassium channel, KvAP, or water channel, AQP0, were used to form membrane nanotubes with controlled radii. While the AQP0 concentrations in flat and curved membranes were indistinguishable, KvAP was enriched in the tubes, with greater enrichment in more highly curved membranes. FRAP measurements showed that both proteins could freely diffuse through the neck between the tube and GUV, and the effect of each protein on membrane shape and stiffness was characterized using a thermodynamic sorting model. This study establishes the importance of membrane shape for targeting transmembrane proteins, and provides a method for determining the effective shape and flexibility of membrane proteins. PMID:24480645

  3. Exploring Transmembrane Diffusion Pathways With Molecular Dynamics

    NSDL National Science Digital Library

    Yi Wang (University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign)

    2010-06-01

    Transmembrane exchange of materials is a fundamental process in biology. Molecular dynamics provides a powerful method to investigate in great detail various aspects of the phenomenon, particularly the permeation of small uncharged molecules, which continues to pose a challenge to experimental studies. We will discuss some of the recent simulation studies investigating the role of lipid-mediated and protein-mediated mechanisms in permeation of water and gas molecules across the membrane.

  4. Localization of binding sites of Ulex europaeus I, Helix pomatia and Griffonia simplicifolia IB 4 lectins and analysis of their backbone structures by several glycosidases and poly- N -acetyllactosamine-specific lectins in human breast carcinomas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nobuaki Ito; Shunsuke Imai; Satoshi Haga; Chieko Nagaike; Yoshihumi Morimura; Katsuhiko Hatake

    1996-01-01

    Several studies have shown the deletion of blood group A or B antigens and the accumulation of H antigens in human breast\\u000a carcinomas. Other studies have independently demonstrated that the binding sites of lectins such asHelix pomatia agglutinin (HPA) andGriffonia simplicifolia agglutinin I-B4 (GSAI-B4) are highly expressed in these cells. In order to clarify the molecular mechanisms of malignant transformation

  5. Localization of binding sites of Ulex europaeus I, Helix pomatia and Griffonia simplicifolia IB 4 lectins and analysis of their backbone structures by several glycosidases and poly- N -acetyllactosamine-specific lectins in human breast carcinomas

    Microsoft Academic Search

    N. Ito; Shunsuke Imai; Satoshi Haga; Chieko Nagaike; Yoshihumi Morimura; Katsuhiko Hatake

    1996-01-01

    Several studies have shown the deletion of blood group A or B antigens and the accumulation of H antigens in human breast\\u000a carcinomas. Other studies have independently demonstrated that the binding sites of lectins such as Helix pomatia agglutinin (HPA) and Griffonia simplicifolia agglutinin I-B4 (GSAI-B4) are highly expressed in these cells. In order to clarify the molecular mechanisms of

  6. The helix-loop-helix transcription factor SEF-2 regulates the activity of a novel initiator element in the promoter of the human somatostatin receptor II gene.

    PubMed

    Pscherer, A; Dörflinger, U; Kirfel, J; Gawlas, K; Rüschoff, J; Buettner, R; Schüle, R

    1996-12-01

    The effects of somatostatin hormones are mediated by a family of five different seven-helix transmembrane spanning receptors (SSTR1-5). The expression of the five different SSTR subtypes displays a complex temporal- and tissue-specific pattern. To investigate the molecular mechanisms controlling the different expression patterns of the SSTRs, we cloned the 5'-flanking region of the human SSTR2 gene. Characterization of the SSTR2 promoter resulted in the identification of a novel initiator element (SSTR2inr). Transcriptional activity of the SSTR2inr is dependent on the presence of a binding site (E-box) for basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors. By screening a mouse brain cDNA expression library we isolated a cDNA coding for the bHLH transcription factor SEF-2. SEF-2 binds to the E-box present in the SSTR2inr, both in vitro and in vivo and activates transcription from the SSTR2inr. A single point mutation within the E-box eliminates binding of SEF-2 and results in a complete loss of transcriptional activity of the SSTR2inr. Furthermore, DNA binding studies demonstrate that the basal transcription factor TFIIB can be tethered to the SSTR2inr through physical interaction with SEF-2. In summary, the SSTR2inr represents a novel type of initiator element that confers gene expression in the absence of a TATA-box or binding sites for other known initiator factors, like YY-1 or USF. PMID:8978694

  7. Different role of the Jalpha helix in the light-induced activation of the LOV2 domains in various phototropins.

    PubMed

    Koyama, Takayuki; Iwata, Tatsuya; Yamamoto, Atsushi; Sato, Yoshiaki; Matsuoka, Daisuke; Tokutomi, Satoru; Kandori, Hideki

    2009-08-18

    Phototropins (phot) are blue light receptors in plants which are involved in phototropism, stomatal opening, and chloroplast movements. Phototropin has two LOV domains (LOV1 and LOV2), and the LOV2 domain is responsible for activation of Ser/Thr kinase. There is an alpha-helix at the C-terminal side of the LOV2 domain, which is called the Jalpha helix. The functional importance of the Jalpha helix has been established for Arabidopsis phot1, where light-induced structural perturbation takes place in the Jalpha helix during the photocycle of LOV2 domains. However, the present FTIR study reports a different role of the Jalpha helix in light-induced signal transduction of LOV2 domains. Here we construct LOV2 domains with (LOV-Jalpha) and without (LOV-core) the Jalpha helix for Arabidopsis phot1 and phot2 and Adiantum neochrome 1 and compare their light-induced difference FTIR spectra. Light-induced protein structural changes differ significantly between LOV-Jalpha and LOV-core for Arabidopsis phot1 [Yamamoto, A., Iwata, T., Sato, Y., Matsuoka, D., Tokutomi, S., and Kandori, H. (2009) Biophys. J. 96, 2771-2778]. In contrast, the difference spectra are identical between LOV-Jalpha and LOV-core for Adiantum neochrome 1. In Arabidopsis phot2, the protein structural changes are intermediate between Arabidopsis phot1 and Adiantum neochrome 1. These results suggest that the conformational changes of the Jalpha helix and the interaction between the LOV-core and the Jalpha helix are different among phototropins. The role of the Jalpha helix for signal transduction in phototropins is discussed. PMID:19601589

  8. PHYSICAL REVIEW E 85, 031914 (2012) Ion fluxes through nanopores and transmembrane channels

    E-print Network

    Levin, Yan

    2012-01-01

    with chemical modified surface [4], which allows one to construct functionalized nanotubes that mimic and transmembrane channels. The method relies on a dual-control-volume grand-canonical molecular dynamics (DCV channels are structures formed when specific proteins are incorporated into the phospholipid membrane [1

  9. Organization of model helical peptides in lipid bilayers: insight into the behavior of single-span protein transmembrane domains.

    PubMed Central

    Sharpe, Simon; Barber, Kathryn R; Grant, Chris W M; Goodyear, David; Morrow, Michael R

    2002-01-01

    Selectively deuterated transmembrane peptides comprising alternating leucine-alanine subunits were examined in fluid bilayer membranes by solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy in an effort to gain insight into the behavior of membrane proteins. Two groups of peptides were studied: 21-mers having a 17-amino-acid hydrophobic domain calculated to be close in length to the hydrophobic thickness of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl phosphatidylcholine and 26-mers having a 22-amino-acid hydrophobic domain calculated to exceed the membrane hydrophobic thickness. (2)H NMR spectral features similar to ones observed for transmembrane peptides from single-span receptors of higher animal cells were identified which apparently correspond to effectively monomeric peptide. Spectral observations suggested significant distortion of the transmembrane alpha-helix, and/or potential for restriction of rotation about the tilted helix long axis for even simple peptides. Quadrupole splittings arising from the 26-mer were consistent with greater peptide "tilt" than were those of the analogous 21-mer. Quadrupole splittings associated with monomeric peptide were relatively insensitive to concentration and temperature over the range studied, indicating stable average conformations, and a well-ordered rotation axis. At high peptide concentration (6 mol% relative to phospholipid) it appeared that the peptide predicted to be longer than the membrane thickness had a particular tendency toward reversible peptide-peptide interactions occurring on a timescale comparable with or faster than approximately 10(-5) s. This interaction may be direct or lipid-mediated and was manifest as line broadening. Peptide rotational diffusion rates within the membrane, calculated from quadrupolar relaxation times, T(2e), were consistent with such interactions. In the case of the peptide predicted to be equal to the membrane thickness, at low peptide concentration spectral lineshape indicated the additional presence of a population of peptide having rotational motion that was restricted on a timescale of 10(-5) s. PMID:12080125

  10. The cytosolic tail of the tumor marker protein Trop2 - a structural switch triggered by phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Pavši?, Miha; Ilc, Gregor; Vidmar, Tilen; Plavec, Janez; Lenar?i?, Brigita

    2015-01-01

    Trop2 is a transmembrane signaling glycoprotein upregulated in stem and carcinoma cells. Proliferation-enhancing signaling involves regulated intramembrane proteolytic release of a short cytoplasmic fragment, which is later engaged in a cytosolic signaling complex. We propose that Trop2 function is modulated by phosphorylation of a specific serine residue within this cytosolic region (Ser303), and by proximity effects exerted on the cytosolic tail by Trop2 dimerization. Structural characterization of both the transmembrane (Trop2TM) and cytosolic regions (Trop2IC) support this hypothesis, and shows that the central region of Trop2IC forms an ?-helix. Comparison of NMR structures of non-phosphorylated and phosphorylated forms suggest that phosphorylation of Trop2IC triggers salt bridge reshuffling, resulting in significant conformational changes including ordering of the C-terminal tail. In addition, we demonstrate that the cytosolic regions of two Trop2 subunits can be brought into close proximity via transmembrane part dimerization. Finally, we show that Ser303-phosphorylation significantly affects the structure and accessibility of functionally important regions of the cytosolic tail. These observed structural features of Trop2 at the membrane-cytosol interface could be important for regulation of Trop2 signaling activity. PMID:25981199

  11. The cytosolic tail of the tumor marker protein Trop2 - a structural switch triggered by phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Pavši?, Miha; Ilc, Gregor; Vidmar, Tilen; Plavec, Janez; Lenar?i?, Brigita

    2015-01-01

    Trop2 is a transmembrane signaling glycoprotein upregulated in stem and carcinoma cells. Proliferation-enhancing signaling involves regulated intramembrane proteolytic release of a short cytoplasmic fragment, which is later engaged in a cytosolic signaling complex. We propose that Trop2 function is modulated by phosphorylation of a specific serine residue within this cytosolic region (Ser303), and by proximity effects exerted on the cytosolic tail by Trop2 dimerization. Structural characterization of both the transmembrane (Trop2TM) and cytosolic regions (Trop2IC) support this hypothesis, and shows that the central region of Trop2IC forms an ?-helix. Comparison of NMR structures of non-phosphorylated and phosphorylated forms suggest that phosphorylation of Trop2IC triggers salt bridge reshuffling, resulting in significant conformational changes including ordering of the C-terminal tail. In addition, we demonstrate that the cytosolic regions of two Trop2 subunits can be brought into close proximity via transmembrane part dimerization. Finally, we show that Ser303-phosphorylation significantly affects the structure and accessibility of functionally important regions of the cytosolic tail. These observed structural features of Trop2 at the membrane-cytosol interface could be important for regulation of Trop2 signaling activity. PMID:25981199

  12. Epicyclic Twin-Helix Ionization Cooling Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Vasiliy Morozov, Yaroslav Derbenev, A. Afanaciev, R.P. Johnson

    2011-04-01

    Parametric-resonance Ionization Cooling (PIC) is proposed as the final 6D cooling stage of a highluminosity muon collider. For the implementation of PIC, we earlier developed an epicyclic twin-helix channel with correlated behavior of the horizontal and vertical betatron motions and dispersion. We now insert absorber plates with short energy-recovering units located next to them at the appropriate locations in the twin-helix channel. We first demonstrate conventional ionization cooling in such a system with the optics uncorrelated. We then adjust the correlated optics state and induce a parametric resonance to study ionization cooling under the resonant condition.

  13. Caveolin-Na/K-ATPase interactions: role of transmembrane topology in non-genomic steroid signal transduction.

    PubMed

    Morrill, Gene A; Kostellow, Adele B; Askari, Amir

    2012-09-01

    Progesterone and its polar metabolite(s) trigger the meiotic divisions in the amphibian oocyte through a non-genomic signaling system at the plasma membrane. Published site-directed mutagenesis studies of ouabain binding and progesterone-ouabain competition studies indicate that progesterone binds to a 23 amino acid extracellular loop of the plasma membrane ?-subunit of Na/K-ATPase. Integral membrane proteins such as caveolins are reported to form Na/K-ATPase-peptide complexes essential for signal transduction. We have characterized the progesterone-induced Na/K-ATPase-caveolin (CAV-1)-steroid 5?-reductase interactions initiating the meiotic divisions. Peptide sequence analysis algorithms indicate that CAV-1 contains two plasma membrane spanning helices, separated by as few as 1-2 amino acid residues at the cell surface. The CAV-1 scaffolding domain, reported to interact with CAV-1 binding (CB) motifs in signaling proteins, overlaps transmembrane (TM) helix 1. The ?-subunit of Na/K-ATPase (10 TM helices) contains double CB motifs within TM-1 and TM-10. Steroid 5?-reductase (6 TM helices), an initial step in polar steroid formation, contains CB motifs overlapping TM-1 and TM-6. Computer analysis predicts that interaction between antipathic strands may bring CB motifs and scaffolding domains into close proximity, initiating allostearic changes. Progesterone binding to the ?-subunit may thus facilitate CB motif:CAV-1 interaction, which in turn induces helix-helix interaction and generates both a signaling cascade and formation of polar steroids. PMID:22579740

  14. Cytotoxic helix-rich oligomer formation by melittin and pancreatic polypeptide.

    PubMed

    Singh, Pradeep K; Ghosh, Dhiman; Tewari, Debanjan; Mohite, Ganesh M; Carvalho, Edmund; Jha, Narendra Nath; Jacob, Reeba S; Sahay, Shruti; Banerjee, Rinti; Bera, Amal K; Maji, Samir K

    2015-01-01

    Conversion of amyloid fibrils by many peptides/proteins involves cytotoxic helix-rich oligomers. However, their toxicity and biophysical studies remain largely unknown due to their highly dynamic nature. To address this, we chose two helical peptides (melittin, Mel and pancreatic polypeptide, PP) and studied their aggregation and toxicity. Mel converted its random coil structure to oligomeric helical structure upon binding to heparin; however, PP remained as helix after oligomerization. Interestingly, similar to Parkinson's associated ?-synuclein (AS) oligomers, Mel and PP also showed tinctorial properties, higher hydrophobic surface exposure, cellular toxicity and membrane pore formation after oligomerization in the presence of heparin. We suggest that helix-rich oligomers with exposed hydrophobic surface are highly cytotoxic to cells irrespective of their disease association. Moreover as Mel and PP (in the presence of heparin) instantly self-assemble into stable helix-rich amyloidogenic oligomers; they could be represented as models for understanding the biophysical and cytotoxic properties of helix-rich intermediates in detail. PMID:25803428

  15. Structure and Selectivity in Bestrophin Ion Channels

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Tingting; Liu, Qun; Kloss, Brian; Bruni, Renato; Kalathur, Ravi; Kloppmann, Edda; Rost, Burkhard; Colecraft, Henry M.; Hendrickson, Wayne A.

    2015-01-01

    Human bestrophin 1 (hBest1) is a calcium-activated chloride channel from the retinal pigment epithelium, where it can suffer mutations associated with vitelliform macular degeneration, or Best disease. We describe the structure of a bacterial homolog (KpBest) of hBest1 and functional characterizations of both channels. KpBest is a pentamer that forms a five-helix transmembrane pore, closed by three rings of conserved hydrophobic residues, and has a cytoplasmic cavern with a restricted exit. From electrophysiological analysis of structure-inspired mutations in KpBest and hBest1, we find a subtle control of ion selectivity in the bestrophins, including reversal of anion/cation selectivity, and dramatic activation by mutations at the exit restriction. A homology model of hBest1 shows the locations of disease-causing mutations and suggests possible roles in regulation. PMID:25324390

  16. Crystal structure of aura virus capsid protease and its complex with dioxane: new insights into capsid-glycoprotein molecular contacts.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Megha; Tapas, Satya; Preeti; Siwach, Anjul; Kumar, Pravindra; Kuhn, Richard J; Tomar, Shailly

    2012-01-01

    The nucleocapsid core interaction with endodomains of glycoproteins plays a critical role in the alphavirus life cycle that is essential to virus budding. Recent cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) studies provide structural insights into key interactions between capsid protein (CP) and trans-membrane glycoproteins E1 and E2. CP possesses a chymotrypsin-like fold with a hydrophobic pocket at the surface responsible for interaction with glycoproteins. In the present study, crystal structures of the protease domain of CP from Aura virus and its complex with dioxane were determined at 1.81 and 1.98 Å resolution respectively. Due to the absence of crystal structures, homology models of E1 and E2 from Aura virus were generated. The crystal structure of CP and structural models of E1 and E2 were fitted into the cryo-EM density map of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) for detailed analysis of CP-glycoprotein interactions. Structural analysis revealed that the E2 endodomain consists of a helix-loop-helix motif where the loop region fits into the hydrophobic pocket of CP. Our studies suggest that Cys397, Cys418 and Tyr401 residues of E2 are involved in stabilizing the structure of E2 endodomain. Density map fitting analysis revealed that Pro405, a conserved E2 residue is present in the loop region of the E2 endodomain helix-loop-helix structure and makes intermolecular hydrophobic contacts with the capsid. In the Aura virus capsid protease (AVCP)-dioxane complex structure, dioxane occupies the hydrophobic pocket on CP and structurally mimics the hydrophobic pyrollidine ring of Pro405 in the loop region of E2. PMID:23251484

  17. Probing the Non-Native H Helix Translocation in Apomyoglobin Folding Intermediates

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Apomyoglobin folds via sequential helical intermediates that are formed by rapid collapse of the A, B, G, and H helix regions. An equilibrium molten globule with a similar structure is formed near pH 4. Previous studies suggested that the folding intermediates are kinetically trapped states in which folding is impeded by non-native packing of the G and H helices. Fluorescence spectra of mutant proteins in which cysteine residues were introduced at several positions in the G and H helices show differential quenching of W14 fluorescence, providing direct evidence of translocation of the H helix relative to helices A and G in both the kinetic and equilibrium intermediates. Förster resonance energy transfer measurements show that a 5-({2-[(acetyl)amino]ethyl}amino)naphthalene-1-sulfonic acid acceptor coupled to K140C (helix H) is closer to Trp14 (helix A) in the equilibrium molten globule than in the native state, by a distance that is consistent with sliding of the H helix in an N-terminal direction by approximately one helical turn. Formation of an S108C–L135C disulfide prevents H helix translocation in the equilibrium molten globule by locking the G and H helices into their native register. By enforcing nativelike packing of the A, G, and H helices, the disulfide resolves local energetic frustration and facilitates transient docking of the E helix region onto the hydrophobic core but has only a small effect on the refolding rate. The apomyoglobin folding landscape is highly rugged, with several energetic bottlenecks that frustrate folding; relief of any one of the major identified bottlenecks is insufficient to speed progression to the transition state. PMID:24857522

  18. A functional relationship between helix 1 and the 900 tetraloop of 16S ribosomal RNA within the bacterial ribosome.

    PubMed

    Bélanger, François; Théberge-Julien, Gabriel; Cunningham, Philip R; Brakier-Gingras, Léa

    2005-06-01

    The conserved 900 tetraloop that caps helix 27 of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) interacts with helix 24 of 16S rRNA and also with helix 67 of 23S rRNA, forming the intersubunit bridge B2c, proximal to the decoding center. In previous studies, we investigated how the interaction between the 900 tetraloop and helix 24 participates in subunit association and translational fidelity. In the present study, we investigated whether the 900 tetraloop is involved in other undetected interactions with different regions of the Escherichia coli 16S rRNA. Using a genetic complementation approach, we selected mutations in 16S rRNA that compensate for a 900 tetraloop mutation, A900G, which severely impairs subunit association and translational fidelity. Mutations were randomly introduced in 16S rRNA, using either a mutagenic XL1-Red E. coli strain or an error-prone PCR strategy. Gain-offunction mutations were selected in vivo with a specialized ribosome system. Two mutations, the deletion of U12 and the U12C substitution, were thus independently selected in helix 1 of 16S rRNA. This helix is located in the vicinity of helix 27, but does not directly contact the 900 tetraloop in the crystal structures of the ribosome. Both mutations correct the subunit association and translational fidelity defects caused by the A900G mutation, revealing an unanticipated functional interaction between these two regions of 16S rRNA. PMID:15872184

  19. MODELS OF THE ACTIN-LIKE MREB HELIX IN PROKARYOTES

    E-print Network

    Allard, Jun

    MODELS OF THE ACTIN-LIKE MREB HELIX IN PROKARYOTES by Jun Allard SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT a thesis entitled "Models of the actin-like MreB helix in prokaryotes" by Jun Allard in partial fulfillment Allard Title: Models of the actin-like MreB helix in prokaryotes Department: Physics and Atmospheric

  20. Low profile cavity antenna with small pitch angle helix feed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keen, K. M.

    1993-03-01

    A simple, circularly polarized, cavity-backed antenna is described which has a two turn low pitch angle helix feed. The helix is terminated in a strip monopole for improved axial ratio. The antenna is approximately one third of the size of an equivalent conventional monofilar helix antenna.

  1. TPR proteins: the versatile helix

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Luca D. D'Andrea; Lynne Regan

    2003-01-01

    Tetratrico peptide repeat (TPR) proteins have several interesting properties, including their folding characteristics, modular architecture and range of binding specificities. In the past five years, many 3D structures of TPR domains have been solved, revealing at a molecular level the versatility of this basic fold. Here, we discuss the structure of TPRs and highlight the diversity of arrangements and functions

  2. Helix–loop–helix/basic helix–loop–helix transcription factor network represses cell elongation in Arabidopsis through an apparent incoherent feed-forward loop

    PubMed Central

    Zhiponova, Miroslava K.; Morohashi, Kengo; Vanhoutte, Isabelle; Machemer-Noonan, Katja; Revalska, Miglena; Van Montagu, Marc; Grotewold, Erich; Russinova, Eugenia

    2014-01-01

    Cell elongation is promoted by different environmental and hormonal signals, involving light, temperature, brassinosteroid (BR), and gibberellin, that inhibit the atypical basic helix–loop–helix (bHLH) transcription factor INCREASED LEAF INCLINATION1 BINDING bHLH1 (IBH1). Ectopic accumulation of IBH1 causes a severe dwarf phenotype, but the cell elongation suppression mechanism is still not well understood. Here, we identified a close homolog of IBH1, IBH1-LIKE1 (IBL1), that also antagonized BR responses and cell elongation. Genome-wide expression analyses showed that IBH1 and IBL1 act interdependently downstream of the BRASSINAZOLE-RESISTANT1 (BZR1)–PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTOR 4 (PIF4)–DELLA module. Although characterized as non-DNA binding, IBH1 repressed direct IBL1 transcription, and they both acted in tandem to suppress the expression of a common downstream helix–loop–helix (HLH)/bHLH network, thus forming an incoherent feed-forward loop. IBH1 and IBL1 together repressed the expression of PIF4, known to stimulate skotomorphogenesis synergistically with BZR1. Strikingly, PIF4 bound all direct and down-regulated HLH/bHLH targets of IBH1 and IBL1. Additional genome-wide comparisons suggested a model in which IBH1 antagonized PIF4 but not the PIF4–BZR1 dimer. PMID:24505057

  3. A triple helix-loop-helix/basic helix-loop-helix cascade controls cell elongation downstream of multiple hormonal and environmental signaling pathways in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Bai, Ming-Yi; Fan, Min; Oh, Eunkyoo; Wang, Zhi-Yong

    2012-12-01

    Environmental and endogenous signals, including light, temperature, brassinosteroid (BR), and gibberellin (GA), regulate cell elongation largely by influencing the expression of the paclobutrazol-resistant (PRE) family helix-loop-helix (HLH) factors, which promote cell elongation by interacting antagonistically with another HLH factor, IBH1. However, the molecular mechanism by which PREs and IBH1 regulate gene expression has remained unknown. Here, we show that IBH1 interacts with and inhibits a DNA binding basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) protein, HBI1, in Arabidopsis thaliana. Overexpression of HBI1 increased hypocotyl and petiole elongation, whereas dominant inactivation of HBI1 and its homologs caused a dwarf phenotype, indicating that HBI1 is a positive regulator of cell elongation. In vitro and in vivo experiments showed that HBI1 directly bound to the promoters and activated two EXPANSIN genes encoding cell wall-loosening enzymes; HBI1's DNA binding and transcriptional activities were inhibited by IBH1, but the inhibitory effects of IBH1 were abolished by PRE1. The results indicate that PREs activate the DNA binding bHLH factor HBI1 by sequestering its inhibitor IBH1. Altering each of the three factors affected plant sensitivities to BR, GA, temperature, and light. Our study demonstrates that PREs, IBH1, and HBI1 form a chain of antagonistic switches that regulates cell elongation downstream of multiple external and endogenous signals. PMID:23221598

  4. DNA binding, nucleotide flipping, and the helix-turn-helix motif in base repair by O6-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase and its implications for cancer chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Tubbs, Julie L.; Pegg, Anthony E.; Tainer, John A.

    2007-01-01

    O6-alkylguanine-DNA alkyltransferase (AGT) is a crucial target both for the prevention of cancer and for chemotherapy, since it repairs mutagenic lesions in DNA, and it limits the effectiveness of alkylating chemotherapies. AGT catalyzes the unique, single-step, direct damage reversal repair of O6-alkylguanines by selectively transferring the O6-alkyl adduct to an internal cysteine residue. Recent crystal structures of human AGT alone and in complex with substrate DNA reveal a two-domain a/? fold and a bound zinc ion. AGT uses its helix-turn-helix motif to bind substrate DNA via the minor groove. The alkylated guanine is then flipped out from the base stack into the AGT active site for repair by covalent transfer of the alkyl adduct to Cys145. An asparagine hinge (Asn137) couples the helix-turn-helix DNA binding and active site motifs. An arginine finger (Arg128) stabilizes the extrahelical DNA conformation. With this newly improved structural understanding of AGT and its interactions with biologically relevant substrates, we can now begin to unravel the role it plays in preserving genetic integrity and discover how it promotes resistance to anticancer therapies. PMID:17485252

  5. Genomic Organization, Sequence, and Chromosomal Localization of the Human Helix–Loop–Helix Id1 Gene

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jan O. Nehlin; Eiji Hara; Wen-Lin Kuo; Colin Collins; Judith Campisi

    1997-01-01

    The helix–loop–helix protein Id-1 regulates growth and differentiation in many mammalian cells. In human fibroblasts, Id1 and Id1?, a putative splicing variant, are cell cycle regulated, essential for proliferation, repressed by senescence, and overexpressed by some tumor cells. To better understand Id1, we determined the complete sequence, transcriptional start, and localization of the human Id1 gene. Human Id1 has two

  6. Phylogenetic analysis of the human basic helix-loop-helix proteins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Valérie Ledent; Odier Paquet; Michel Vervoort

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins are a large and complex multigene family of transcription factors with important roles in animal development, including that of fruitflies, nematodes and vertebrates. The identification of orthologous relationships among the bHLH genes from these widely divergent taxa allows reconstruction of the putative complement of bHLH genes present in the genome of their last common

  7. The HAND1 Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factor Regulates Trophoblast Differentiation via Multiple Mechanisms

    Microsoft Academic Search

    IAN C. SCOTT; LYNN ANSON-CARTWRIGHT; PAUL RILEY; DANNY REDA; JAMES C. CROSS

    2000-01-01

    The basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor genes Hand1 and Mash2 are essential for placental development in mice. Hand1 promotes differentiation of trophoblast giant cells, whereas Mash2 is required for the maintenance of giant cell precursors, and its overexpression prevents giant cell differentiation. We found that Hand1 expression and Mash2 expression overlap in the ectoplacental cone and spongiotrophoblast, layers of the

  8. Regulation of TCF ETS-domain transcription factors by helix-loop-helix motifs

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Julie Stinson; Toshiaki Inoue; Paula Yates; Anne Clancy; John D. Norton; Andrew D. Sharrocks

    2003-01-01

    DNA binding by the ternary complex factor (TCF) subfamily of ETS-domain transcription factors is tightly regulated by intramolecular and intermolecu- lar interactions. The helix-loop-helix (HLH)-contain- ing Id proteins are trans-acting negative regulators of DNA binding by the TCFs. In the TCF, SAP-2\\/Net\\/ ERP, intramolecular inhibition of DNA binding is promoted by the cis-acting NID region that also con- tains an

  9. Evolutionary aspects of developmentally regulated helix-loop-helix transcription factors in striated muscle of jellyfish

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Peter Müller; Katja Seipel; Nathalie Yanze; Susanne Reber-Müller; Ruth Streitwolf-Engel; Michael Stierwald; J. ürg Spring; Volker Schmid

    2003-01-01

    The function of basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins in cell differentiation was shown to be conserved from Drosophila to vertebrates, exemplified by the function of MyoD in striated muscle differentiation. In phylogeny striated muscle tissue appears first in jellyfish and the question of its evolutionary position is controversially discussed. For this reason we have studied the developmental role of myogenic bHLH

  10. Folding Dynamics of an ? Helix and a ? Hairpin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofrichter, James

    1998-03-01

    What processes limit the rate at which proteins fold? In an effort to address this question we have begun to study the dynamics of the formation of loops, ? helices and the minimal ? structural element, a ? hairpin, which must occur on the pathway from random coils to folded proteins. Because these processes occur on time scales of 10-5-10-9 seconds and experimental access to these time scales has been limited, the kinetics of these processes have not been extensively studied. The expectation is that a more complete understanding of the dynamics of these microprocesses will provide constraints on possible mechanisms for the overall folding of more complex structures. We have explored the kinetics of the helix-coil transition of a synthetic, 21-residue peptide: Ac-WAAAH^+(AAARA)_3A-NH2 and of the folding of a 16 residue ? hairpin from protein G B1 using the nanosecond temperature jump technique. Both processes were studied by monitoring tryptophan fluorescence. In the helical peptide, the quantum yield of tryptophan decreases as a result of the interaction between tryptophan in position 1 with the protonated histidine in position 5. In the native conformation of the hairpin, it increases because it forms part of a hydrophobic cluster which stabilizes the native conformation (in a peptide in which a dansylated lysine is incorporated at the C-terminus the fluorescence is quenched). At 300 K, the relaxation time for the helix-coil transition is ~ 250 ns and that for the hairpin-coil transition is ~ 2.2 ?s, about 10 times slower. The apparent activation energies are 6.8 kcal/mol for the helix and 10 kcal/mol for the hairpin. We have developed simple kinetic models for these processes which incorporate the sequence- and position-dependent properties known from equilibrium studies and the single-sequence approximation. These models provide a remarkably consistent picture of the dynamics, permitting us to extract information on both the microscopic rates for the c leftharpoons h (where h denotes either helix or native hairpin conformations) transitions of individual residues and the overall barrier between the coil and native states of the peptides. The models also make specific predictions which are being tested in modified peptides.

  11. Comparisons of Interfacial Phe, Tyr, and Trp Residues as Determinants of Orientation and Dynamics for GWALP Transmembrane Peptides

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Aromatic amino acids often flank the transmembrane alpha helices of integral membrane proteins. By favoring locations within the membrane–water interface of the lipid bilayer, aromatic residues Trp, Tyr, and sometimes Phe may serve as anchors to help stabilize a transmembrane orientation. In this work, we compare the influence of interfacial Trp, Tyr, or Phe residues upon the properties of tilted helical transmembrane peptides. For such comparisons, it has been critical to start with no more than one interfacial aromatic residue near each end of a transmembrane helix, for example, that of GWALP23 (acetyl-GGALW5(LA)6LW19LAGA-[ethanol]amide). To this end, we have employed 2H-labeled alanines and solid-state NMR spectroscopy to investigate the consequences of moving or replacing W5 or W19 in GWALP23 with selected Tyr, Phe, or Trp residues at the same or proximate locations. We find that GWALP23 peptides having F5, Y5, or W5 exhibit essentially the same average tilt and similar dynamics in bilayer membranes of 1,2-dilauroylphosphatidylcholine (DLPC) or 1,2-dioleoylphosphatidylcholine (DOPC). When double Tyr anchors are present, in Y4,5GWALP23 the NMR observables are markedly more subject to dynamic averaging and at the same time are less responsive to the bilayer thickness. Decreased dynamics are nevertheless observed when ring hydrogen bonding is removed, such that F4,5GWALP23 exhibits a similar extent of low dynamic averaging as GWALP23 itself. When F5 is the sole aromatic group in the N-interfacial region, the dynamic averaging is (only) slightly more extensive than with W5, Y5, or Y4 alone or with F4,5, yet it is much less than that observed for Y4,5GWALP23. Interestingly, moving Y5 to Y4 or W19 to W18, while retaining only one hydrogen-bond-capable aromatic ring at each interface, maintains the low level of dynamic averaging but alters the helix azimuthal rotation. The rotation change is about 40° for Y4 regardless of whether the host lipid bilayer is DLPC or DOPC. The rotational change (??) is more dramatic and more complex when W19 is moved to W18, as ?? is about +90° in DLPC but about ?60° in DOPC. Possible reasons for this curious lipid-dependent helix rotation could include not only the separation distances between flanking aromatic or hydrophobic residues but also the absolute location of the W19 indole ring. For the more usual cases, when the helix azimuthal rotation shows little dependence on the host bilayer identity, excepting W18GWALP23, the transmembrane helices adapt to different lipids primarily by changing the magnitude of their tilt. We conclude that, in the absence of other functional groups, interfacial aromatic residues determine the preferred orientations and dynamics of membrane-spanning peptides. The results furthermore suggest possibilities for rotational and dynamic control of membrane protein function. PMID:24829070

  12. Role of solvation in pressure-induced helix stabilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Best, Robert B.; Miller, Cayla; Mittal, Jeetain

    2014-12-01

    In contrast to the well-known destabilization of globular proteins by high pressure, recent work has shown that pressure stabilizes the formation of isolated ?-helices. However, all simulations to date have obtained a qualitatively opposite result within the experimental pressure range. We show that using a protein force field (Amber03w) parametrized in conjunction with an accurate water model (TIP4P/2005) recovers the correct pressure-dependence and an overall stability diagram for helix formation similar to that from experiment; on the other hand, we confirm that using TIP3P water results in a very weak pressure destabilization of helices. By carefully analyzing the contributing factors, we show that this is not merely a consequence of different peptide conformations sampled using TIP3P. Rather, there is a critical role for the solvent itself in determining the dependence of total system volume (peptide and solvent) on helix content. Helical peptide structures exclude a smaller volume to water, relative to non-helical structures with both the water models, but the total system volume for helical conformations is higher than non-helical conformations with TIP3P water at low to intermediate pressures, in contrast to TIP4P/2005 water. Our results further emphasize the importance of using an accurate water model to study protein folding under conditions away from standard temperature and pressure.

  13. Dominance of misfolded intermediates in the dynamics of ?-helix folding

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Milo M.; Shorokhov, Dmitry; Zewail, Ahmed H.

    2014-01-01

    Helices are the “hydrogen atoms” of biomolecular complexity; the DNA/RNA double hairpin and protein ?-helix ubiquitously form the building blocks of life’s constituents at the nanometer scale. Nevertheless, the formation processes of these structures, especially the dynamical pathways and rates, remain challenging to predict and control. Here, we present a general analytical method for constructing dynamical free-energy landscapes of helices. Such landscapes contain information about the thermodynamic stabilities of the possible macromolecular conformations, as well as about the dynamic connectivity, thus enabling the visualization and computation of folding pathways and timescales. We elucidate the methodology using the folding of polyalanine, and demonstrate that its ?-helix folding kinetics is dominated by misfolded intermediates. At the physiological temperature of T = 298 K and midfolding time t = 250 ns, the fraction of structures in the native-state (?-helical) basin equals 22%, which is in good agreement with time-resolved experiments and massively distributed, ensemble-convergent molecular-dynamics simulations. We discuss the prominent role of ?-strand–like intermediates in flight toward the native fold, and in relation to the primary conformational change precipitating aggregation in some neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:25246551

  14. Screening Helix-threading Peptides for RNA Binding Using a Thiazole Orange Displacement Assay

    PubMed Central

    Krishnamurthy, Malathy; Schirle, Nicole T.; Beal, Peter A.

    2008-01-01

    The fluorescent intercalator displacement assay using thiazole orange has been adapted to the study of RNA-binding helix-threading peptides (HTPs). This assay is highly sensitive with HTP-binding RNAs and provides binding affinity data in good agreement with quantitative ribonuclease footprinting without the need for radiolabeling or gel electrophoresis. The FID assay was used to define structure activity relationships for a small library of helix-threading peptides. Results of these studies indicate their RNA binding is dependent on peptide sequence, ?-amino acid stereochemistry, and cyclization (versus linear peptides), but independent of macrocyclic ring size for the penta-, tetra- and tri peptides analyzed. PMID:18789700

  15. Alpha-synuclein binds large unilamellar vesicles as an extended helix.

    PubMed

    Trexler, Adam J; Rhoades, Elizabeth

    2009-03-24

    Interactions between the synaptic protein alpha-Synuclein and cellular membranes may be relevant both to its native function as well as its role in Parkinson's disease. We use single molecule Forster resonance energy transfer to probe the structure of alpha-Synuclein bound to detergent micelles and lipid vesicles. We find evidence that it forms a bent-helix when bound to highly curved detergent micelles, whereas it binds more physiological 100 nm diameter lipid vesicles as an elongated helix. Our results highlight the influence of membrane curvature in determining alpha-Synuclein conformation, which may be important for both its normal and disease-associated functions. PMID:19220042

  16. A Transmembrane Domain GGxxG Motif in CD4 Contributes to Its Lck-Independent Function but Does Not Mediate CD4 Dimerization

    PubMed Central

    Parrish, Heather L.; Glassman, Caleb R.; Keenen, Madeline M.; Deshpande, Neha R.; Bronnimann, Matthew P.; Kuhns, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    CD4 interactions with class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules are essential for CD4+ T cell development, activation, and effector functions. While its association with p56lck (Lck), a Src kinase, is important for these functions CD4 also has an Lck-independent role in TCR signaling that is incompletely understood. Here, we identify a conserved GGxxG motif in the CD4 transmembrane domain that is related to the previously described GxxxG motifs of other proteins and predicted to form a flat glycine patch in a transmembrane helix. In other proteins, these patches have been reported to mediate dimerization of transmembrane domains. Here we show that introducing bulky side-chains into this patch (GGxxG to GVxxL) impairs the Lck-independent role of CD4 in T cell activation upon TCR engagement of agonist and weak agonist stimulation. However, using Forster’s Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET), we saw no evidence that these mutations decreased CD4 dimerization either in the unliganded state or upon engagement of pMHC concomitantly with the TCR. This suggests that the CD4 transmembrane domain is either mediating interactions with an unidentified partner, or mediating some other function such as membrane domain localization that is important for its role in T cell activation. PMID:26147390

  17. Evidence for Genetic Control of Adult Weight Plasticity in the Snail Helix aspersa

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Mathieu Ros; Daniel Sorensen; Rasmus Waagepetersen; Mathilde Dupont-Nivet; Magali SanCristobal; Jean-Claude Bonnet; Jacques Mallard

    2004-01-01

    Phenotypic plasticity and canalization are important topics in quantitative genetics and evolution. Both concepts are related to environmental sensitivity. The latter can be modeled using a model with genetically structured environmental variance. This work reports the results of a genetic analysis of adult weight in the snail Helix aspersa. Several models of heterogeneous variance are fitted using a Bayesian, MCMC

  18. Molecular dynamics simulation of polymer helix formation using rigid-link methods D. C. Rapaport*

    E-print Network

    Rapaport, Dennis C.

    Molecular dynamics simulation of polymer helix formation using rigid-link methods D. C. Rapaport July 2002 Molecular dynamics simulations are used to study structure formation in simple model polymer. The computational techniques span an equally broad range; they include molecular dynamics MD simulation employing

  19. Astronomical Journal revision September 2007 Interpretation of the Helix Planetary Nebula using

    E-print Network

    Wang, Deli

    Astronomical Journal revision September 2007 Interpretation of the Helix Planetary Nebula using nebulae (PNe) within PGCs. The dying central star of a PNe slowly accretes JPP mass to grow the white-planet atmospheres. Subject headings: ISM: structure ­ Planetary Nebula: general ­ Cosmology: theory ­ Galaxy: halo

  20. A Mechanism for the -helix to -hairpin Transition , Jose M. Borreguero1

    E-print Network

    Buldyrev, Sergey

    and prion disease. During an aggregation process, protein secondary structure elements peptide--an -helix in its native state. For a certain range of side-chain interaction strengths, we find of the environment in the aggregation propensity of a peptide. I. INTRODUCTION A number of misfolded proteins

  1. Elongation of Outer Transmembrane Domain Alters Function of Miniature K + Channel Kcv

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Brigitte Hertel; Sascha Tayefeh; Mario Mehmel; Stefan M. Kast; James Van Etten; Anna Moroni; Gerhard Thiel

    2006-01-01

    The virus-coded channel Kcv has the typical structure of a two-transmembrane domain K+ channel. Exceptional are its cytoplasmic domains: the C terminus basically ends inside the membrane and, hence, precludes\\u000a the formation of a cytoplasmic gate by the so-called bundle crossing; the cytoplasmic N terminus is composed of only 12 amino\\u000a acids. According to structural predictions, it is positioned in

  2. The Auto-Inhibitory Role of the EPAC Hinge Helix as Mapped by NMR

    PubMed Central

    Selvaratnam, Rajeevan; Mazhab-Jafari, Mohammad T.; Das, Rahul; Melacini, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    The cyclic-AMP binding domain (CBD) is the central regulatory unit of exchange proteins activated by cAMP (EPAC). The CBD maintains EPAC in a state of auto-inhibition in the absence of the allosteric effector, cAMP. When cAMP binds to the CBD such auto-inhibition is released, leading to EPAC activation. It has been shown that a key feature of such cAMP-dependent activation process is the partial destabilization of a structurally conserved hinge helix at the C-terminus of the CBD. However, the role of this helix in auto-inhibition is currently not fully understood. Here we utilize a series of progressive deletion mutants that mimic the hinge helix destabilization caused by cAMP to show that such helix is also a pivotal auto-inhibitory element of apo-EPAC. The effect of the deletion mutations on the auto-inhibitory apo/inactive vs. apo/active equilibrium was evaluated using recently developed NMR chemical shift projection and covariance analysis methods. Our results show that, even in the absence of cAMP, the C-terminal region of the hinge helix is tightly coupled to other conserved allosteric structural elements of the CBD and perturbations that destabilize the hinge helix shift the auto-inhibitory equilibrium toward the apo/active conformations. These findings explain the apparently counterintuitive observation that cAMP binds more tightly to shorter than longer EPAC constructs. These results are relevant for CBDs in general and rationalize why substrates sensitize CBD-containing systems to cAMP. Furthermore, the NMR analyses presented here are expected to be generally useful to quantitatively evaluate how mutations affect conformational equilibria. PMID:23185272

  3. The double helix and immunology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nossal, Gustav J. V.

    2003-01-01

    The immune system can recognize and produce antibodies to virtually any molecule in the Universe. This enormous diversity arises from the ingenious reshuffling of DNA sequences encoding components of the immune system. Immunology is an example of a field completely transformed during the past 50 years by the discovery of the structure of DNA and the emergence of DNA technologies that followed.

  4. Intracellular segment between transmembrane helices S0 and S1 of BK channel ? subunit contains two amphipathic helices connected by a flexible loop

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Pan [Hefei National Laboratory of Microscale Physical Sciences, School of Life Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, 230027 (China) [Hefei National Laboratory of Microscale Physical Sciences, School of Life Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, 230027 (China); High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui, 230031 (China); Li, Dong; Lai, Chaohua [Hefei National Laboratory of Microscale Physical Sciences, School of Life Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, 230027 (China)] [Hefei National Laboratory of Microscale Physical Sciences, School of Life Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, 230027 (China); Zhang, Longhua, E-mail: zlhustc@ustc.edu.cn [Hefei National Laboratory of Microscale Physical Sciences, School of Life Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, 230027 (China)] [Hefei National Laboratory of Microscale Physical Sciences, School of Life Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, 230027 (China); Tian, Changlin, E-mail: cltian@ustc.edu.cn [Hefei National Laboratory of Microscale Physical Sciences, School of Life Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, 230027 (China) [Hefei National Laboratory of Microscale Physical Sciences, School of Life Sciences, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui, 230027 (China); High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui, 230031 (China)

    2013-08-02

    Highlights: •The loop between S0 and S1 of BK channel was overexpressed and purified in DPC. •NMR studies indicated BK-IS1 contained two helices connected by a flexible loop. •Mg{sup 2+} titration of BK-IS1 indicated two possible binding sites of divalent ions. -- Abstract: The BK channel, a tetrameric potassium channel with very high conductance, has a central role in numerous physiological functions. The BK channel can be activated by intracellular Ca{sup 2+} and Mg{sup 2+}, as well as by membrane depolarization. Unlike other tetrameric potassium channels, the BK channel has seven transmembrane helices (S0–S6) including an extra helix S0. The intracellular segment between S0 and S1 (BK-IS1) is essential to BK channel functions and Asp99 in BK-IS1 is reported to be responsible for Mg{sup 2+} coordination. In this study, BK-IS1 (44–113) was over-expressed using a bacterial system and purified in the presence of detergent micelles for multidimensional heteronuclear nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) structural studies. Backbone resonance assignment and secondary structure analysis showed that BK-IS1 contains two amphipathic helices connected by a 36-residue loop. Amide {sup 1}H–{sup 15}N heteronuclear NOE analysis indicated that the loop is very flexible, while the two amphipathic helices are possibly stabilized through interaction with the membrane. A solution NMR-based titration assay of BK-IS1 was performed with various concentrations of Mg{sup 2+}. Two residues (Thr45 and Leu46) with chemical shift changes were observed but no, or very minor, chemical shift difference was observed for Asp99, indicating a possible site for binding divalent ions or other modulation partners.

  5. Helix 8 of the M1 Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptor: Scanning Mutagenesis Delineates a G Protein Recognition SiteS?

    PubMed Central

    Kaye, Robert G.; Saldanha, José W.; Lu, Zhi-Liang

    2011-01-01

    We have used alanine-scanning mutagenesis followed by functional expression and molecular modeling to analyze the roles of the 14 residues, Asn422 to Cys435, C-terminal to transmembrane (TM) helix 7 of the M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor. The results suggest that they form an eighth (H8) helix, associated with the cytoplasmic surface of the cell membrane in the active state of the receptor. We suggest that the amide side chain of Asn422 may act as a cap to the C terminus of TM7, stabilizing its junction with H8, whereas the side chain of Phe429 may restrict the relative movements of H8 and the C terminus of TM7 in the inactive ground state of the receptor. We have identified four residues, Phe425, Arg426, Thr428, and Leu432, which are important for G protein binding and signaling. These may form a docking site for the C-terminal helix of the G protein ? subunit, and collaborate with G protein recognition residues elsewhere in the cytoplasmic domain of the receptor to form a coherent surface for G protein binding in the activated state of the receptor. PMID:21247934

  6. An Accurate Model for Biomolecular Helices and Its Application to Helix Visualization

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lincong; Qiao, Hui; Cao, Chen; Xu, Shutan; Zou, Shuxue

    2015-01-01

    Helices are the most abundant secondary structural elements in proteins and the structural forms assumed by double stranded DNAs (dsDNA). Though the mathematical expression for a helical curve is simple, none of the previous models for the biomolecular helices in either proteins or DNAs use a genuine helical curve, likely because of the complexity of fitting backbone atoms to helical curves. In this paper we model a helix as a series of different but all bona fide helical curves; each one best fits the coordinates of four consecutive backbone C? atoms for a protein or P atoms for a DNA molecule. An implementation of the model demonstrates that it is more accurate than the previous ones for the description of the deviation of a helix from a standard helical curve. Furthermore, the accuracy of the model makes it possible to correlate deviations with structural and functional significance. When applied to helix visualization, the ribbon diagrams generated by the model are less choppy or have smaller side chain detachment than those by the previous visualization programs that typically model a helix as a series of low-degree splines. PMID:26126117

  7. Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Regulator Correctors and Potentiators

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, Steven M.; Verkman, Alan S.

    2014-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by loss-of-function mutations in the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein, a cAMP-regulated anion channel expressed primarily at the apical plasma membrane of secretory epithelia. Nearly 2000 mutations in the CFTR gene have been identified that cause disease by impairing its translation, cellular processing, and/or chloride channel gating. The fundamental premise of CFTR corrector and potentiator therapy for CF is that addressing the underlying defects in the cellular processing and chloride channel function of CF-causing mutant CFTR alleles will result in clinical benefit by addressing the basic defect underlying CF. Correctors are principally targeted at F508del cellular misprocessing, whereas potentiators are intended to restore cAMP-dependent chloride channel activity to mutant CFTRs at the cell surface. This article reviews the discovery of CFTR potentiators and correctors, what is known regarding their mechanistic basis, and encouraging results achieved in clinical testing. PMID:23818513

  8. Mixed FE analysis of viscoelastic cylindrical helixes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ar?ba?, Ü. N.; Omurtag, M. H.

    2012-09-01

    In this study, analysis of viscoelastic cylindrical helixes with circular and square cross section is investigated by using the mixed FEM based on Timoshenko beam theory. The Kelvin model is used for the viscoelastic behavior. The analysis is performed in the Laplace domain and the results are transformed back to time domain numerically by Modified Durbin algorithm. The outcome is quite satisfactory besides the necessary engineering precision.

  9. Structure of the uncleaved ectodomain of the paramyxovirus (hPIV3) fusion protein

    SciTech Connect

    Yin, Hsien-Sheng; Paterson, Reay G.; Wen, Xiaolin; Lamb, Robert A.; Jardetzky, Theodore S. (NWU)

    2010-03-08

    Class I viral fusion proteins share common mechanistic and structural features but little sequence similarity. Structural insights into the protein conformational changes associated with membrane fusion are based largely on studies of the influenza virus hemagglutinin in pre- and postfusion conformations. Here, we present the crystal structure of the secreted, uncleaved ectodomain of the paramyxovirus, human parainfluenza virus 3 fusion (F) protein, a member of the class I viral fusion protein group. The secreted human parainfluenza virus 3 F forms a trimer with distinct head, neck, and stalk regions. Unexpectedly, the structure reveals a six-helix bundle associated with the postfusion form of F, suggesting that the anchor-minus ectodomain adopts a conformation largely similar to the postfusion state. The transmembrane anchor domains of F may therefore profoundly influence the folding energetics that establish and maintain a metastable, prefusion state.

  10. 3-Helix Micelles Stabilized by Polymer Springs

    PubMed Central

    Dong, He; Shu, Jessica Y.; Dube, Nikhil; Ma, Yufei; Tirrell, Matthew V.; Downing, Kenneth H.; Xu, Ting

    2014-01-01

    Despite increasing demands to employ amphiphilic micelles as nanocarriers and nanoreactors, it remains a significant challenge to simultaneously reduce the particle size and enhance the particle stability. Complementary to covalent chemical bonding and attractive intermolecular interactions, entropic repulsion can be incorporated by rational design in the headgroup of an amphiphile to generate small micelles with enhanced stability. A new family of amphiphilic peptide-polymer conjugates is presented where the hydrophilic headgroup is composed of a 3-helix coiled-coil with poly(ethylene glycol) attached to the exterior of the helix bundle. When micelles form, the PEG chains are confined in close proximity and are compressed to act as a spring to general lateral pressure. The formation of 3-helix bundles determines the location and the directionalities of the force vector of each PEG elastic spring so as to slow down amphiphile desorption. Since each component of the amphiphile can be readily tailored, these micelles provide numerous opportunities to meet current demands for organic nanocarriers with tunable stability in life science and energy science. Furthermore, present studies open new avenues to use energy arising from entropic polymer chain deformation to self-assemble energetically stable single nanoscopic objects, much like repulsion that stabilizes bulk assemblies of colloidal particles. PMID:22731391

  11. Visualizing Water Molecules in Transmembrane Proteins Using Radiolytic Labeling Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Orban, T.; Gupta, S; Palczewski, K; Chance, M

    2010-01-01

    Essential to cells and their organelles, water is both shuttled to where it is needed and trapped within cellular compartments and structures. Moreover, ordered waters within protein structures often colocalize with strategically placed polar or charged groups critical for protein function, yet it is unclear if these ordered water molecules provide structural stabilization, mediate conformational changes in signaling, neutralize charged residues, or carry out a combination of all these functions. Structures of many integral membrane proteins, including G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), reveal the presence of ordered water molecules that may act like prosthetic groups in a manner quite unlike bulk water. Identification of 'ordered' waters within a crystalline protein structure requires sufficient occupancy of water to enable its detection in the protein's X-ray diffraction pattern, and thus, the observed waters likely represent a subset of tightly bound functional waters. In this review, we highlight recent studies that suggest the structures of ordered waters within GPCRs are as conserved (and thus as important) as conserved side chains. In addition, methods of radiolysis, coupled to structural mass spectrometry (protein footprinting), reveal dynamic changes in water structure that mediate transmembrane signaling. The idea of water as a prosthetic group mediating chemical reaction dynamics is not new in fields such as catalysis. However, the concept of water as a mediator of conformational dynamics in signaling is just emerging, because of advances in both crystallographic structure determination and new methods of protein footprinting. Although oil and water do not mix, understanding the roles of water is essential to understanding the function of membrane proteins.

  12. Crystal structure of the gramicidin/potassium thiocyanate complex.

    PubMed

    Doyle, D A; Wallace, B A

    1997-03-14

    The hydrophobic channel-forming polypeptide gramicidin adopts a left-handed antiparallel double helix conformation with 6.4 residues per turn when in complex with monovalent cation salts in a methanol environment. The crystal structure of the gramicidin/potassium thiocyanate complex (a = 32.06 A, b = 51.80 A, and c = 31.04 A; space group P2(1)2(1)2(1)) has been solved to 2.5 A with an R-factor of 0.193. In the structure, binding sites for the cations are formed by the polypeptide backbone carbonyl groups tilting away from the helix axis toward the ions located in the central lumen. The polypeptide backbone conformations and the side-chain orientations in this potassium complex are significantly different from those in the previously solved gramicidin/caesium chloride crystal complex, due to the requirements for interactions with the smaller sized potassium cation. The locations and numbers of potassium binding sites also differ considerably from the locations and numbers of caesium binding sites in the other structure. Combining information from all the cation binding sites in the two gramicidin/ion complexes produces different views of the three-dimensional structures of a cation as it is transported along a transmembrane pore, and provides an experimental structural basis for modeling the dynamics of peptide-ion binding and ion transport. PMID:9086274

  13. 13C-13C rotational resonance in a transmembrane peptide: A comparison of the fluid and gel phases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langlais, Denis B.; Hodges, Robert S.; Davis, James H.

    1999-05-01

    A comparative study of two doubly 13C labeled amphiphilic transmembrane peptides was undertaken to determine the potential of rotational resonance for measuring internuclear distances through the direct dipolar coupling in the presence of motion. The two peptides, having the sequence acetyl-K2-G-L16-K2-A-amide, differed only in the position of 13C labels. The first peptide, [1-13C]leu11:[?-13C]leu12, had labels on adjacent residues, at the carbonyl of leu11 and the ? carbon of leu12. The second, [1-13C]leu8:[?-13\\|C]leu11, was labeled on consecutive turns of the ?-helical peptide. The internuclear distance between labeled positions of the first peptide, which for an ideal ? helix has a value of 2.48 Å, is relatively independent of internal flexibility or peptide conformational change. The dipolar coupling between these two nuclei is sensitive to motional averaging by molecular reorientation, however, making this peptide ideal for investigating these motions. The internuclear distance between labels on the second peptide has an expected static ideal ?-helix value of 4.6 Å, but this is sensitive to internal flexibility. In addition, the dipolar coupling between these two nuclei is much weaker because of their larger separation, making this peptide a much more difficult test of the rotational resonance technique. The dipolar couplings between the labeled nuclei of these two peptides were measured by rotational resonance in the dry peptide powders and in multilamellar dispersions with dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine in the gel phase, at -10 °C, and in the fluid phase, at 40 °C. The results for the peptide having adjacent labels can be readily interpreted in terms of a simple model for the peptide motion. The results for the second peptide show that, in the fluid phase, the motionally averaged dipolar coupling is too small to be measured by rotational resonance. Rotational resonance, rotational echo double resonance, and related techniques can be used to obtain reliable and valuable dipolar couplings in static solid and membrane systems. The interpretation of these couplings in terms of internuclear distances is straightforward in the absence of molecular motion. These techniques hold considerable promise for membrane protein structural studies under conditions, such as at low temperatures, where molecular motion does not modulate the dipolar couplings. However, a typical membrane at physiological temperatures exhibits complex molecular motions. In the absence of an accurate and detailed description of both internal and whole body molecular motions, it is unlikely that techniques of this type, which are based on extracting distances from direct internuclear dipolar couplings, can be used to study molecular structure under these conditions. Furthermore, the reduction in the strengths of the dipolar couplings by these motions dramatically reduces the useful range of distances which can be measured.

  14. Transmembrane potential induced in a spherical cell model under low-frequency magnetic stimulation.

    PubMed

    Ye, Hui; Cotic, Marija; Carlen, Peter L

    2007-09-01

    Time-varying magnetic fields can induce electric fields in the neuronal tissue, a phenomenon that has been recently explored in clinical applications such as peripheral nerve stimulation and transcranial magnetic stimulation. Although the transmembrane potential induced during direct electric stimulation has already been the subject of a number of theoretical studies, an analytical solution for the magnetically induced transmembrane potential change is still unavailable. In addition, although several studies have analyzed the impact of stimulation parameters, including stimulation intensity and frequency, as well as coil design and position, on the amount of tissue polarization, the effects of tissue non-homogeneity on cell polarization have not been fully elucidated. In this study, we have derived an analytical expression for the transmembrane potential induced by a low-frequency magnetic field in a spherical neuronal structure. This model is representative of a spherical cell body or any neuronal structure of a similar shape. The model cell is located in an extracellular medium and possesses a low-conductive membrane and an internal cytoplasm. These three regions represent the basic tissue non-homogeneity of a neuron at a microscopic level. The sensitivity of the induced transmembrane potential to the coil position and to the geometrical and electrical parameters of the model structure was studied in a broad physiologically relevant range. Our results demonstrate that the structure is regionally polarized, with the pattern of polarization depending on the relative positioning between the model cell and the stimulation coil. In addition, both the geometrical and electrical parameters of the structure affect the amount of polarization. These results may be generalized to other neuronal tissues that possess similar non-homogenous properties, but different shapes, such as an axon. Our results support the idea that aside from coil design and position, tissue non-homogeneity could play an important role in determining the effects of magnetic stimulation. PMID:17873431

  15. The Brichos domain of prosurfactant protein C can hold and fold a transmembrane segment

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Hanna; Eriksson, Maria; Nordling, Kerstin; Presto, Jenny; Johansson, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Prosurfactant protein C (proSP-C) is a 197-residue integral membrane protein, in which the C-terminal domain (CTC, positions 59–197) is localized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) lumen and contains a Brichos domain (positions 94–197). Mature SP-C corresponds largely to the transmembrane (TM) region of proSP-C. CTC binds to SP-C, provided that it is in nonhelical conformation, and can prevent formation of intracellular amyloid-like inclusions of proSP-C that harbor mutations linked to interstitial lung disease (ILD). Herein it is shown that expression of proSP-C (1–58), that is, the N-terminal propeptide and the TM region, in HEK293 cells results in virtually no detectable protein, while coexpression of CTC in trans yields SDS-soluble monomeric proSP-C (1–58). Recombinant human (rh) CTC binds to cellulose-bound peptides derived from the nonpolar TM region, but not the polar cytosolic part, of proSP-C, and requires ?5-residues for maximal binding. Binding of rhCTC to a nonhelical peptide derived from SP-C results in ?-helix formation provided that it contains a long TM segment. Finally, rhCTC and rhCTC Brichos domain shows very similar substrate specificities, but rhCTCL188Q, a mutation linked to ILD is unable to bind all peptides analyzed. These data indicate that the Brichos domain of proSP-C is a chaperone that induces ?-helix formation of an aggregation-prone TM region. PMID:19472327

  16. Evaluation of Diverse ?/? Backbone Patterns for Functional ?-Helix Mimicry: Analogues of the Bim BH3 Domain

    PubMed Central

    Boersma, Melissa D.; Haase, Holly S.; Peterson-Kaufman, Kimberly J.; Lee, Erinna F.; Clarke, Oliver B.; Colman, Peter M.; Smith, Brian J.; Horne, W. Seth; Fairlie, W. Douglas; Gellman, Samuel H.

    2012-01-01

    Peptidic oligomers that contain both ?- and ?-amino acid residues, in regular patterns throughout the backbone, are emerging as structural mimics of ?-helix-forming conventional peptides (composed exclusively of ?-amino acid residues). Here we describe a comprehensive evaluation of diverse ?/?-peptide homologues of the Bim BH3 domain in terms of their ability to bind to the BH3-recognition sites on two partner proteins, Bcl-xL and Mcl-1. These proteins are members of the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 family, and both bind tightly to the Bim BH3 domain itself. All ?/?-peptide homologues retain the side chain sequence of the Bim BH3 domain, but each homologue contains periodic ?-residue ? ?3-residue substitutions. Previous work has shown that the ??????? pattern, which aligns the ?3-residues in a 'stripe' along one side of the helix, can support functional ?-helix mimicry, and the results reported here support this conclusion. The present study provides the first evaluation of functional mimicry by ??? and ???? patterns, which cause the ?3-residues to spiral around the helix periphery. We find that the ???? pattern can support effective mimicry of the Bim BH3 domain, as manifested by the crystal structure of an ?/?-peptide bound to Bcl-xL, affinity for a variety of Bcl-2 family proteins, and induction of apoptotic signaling in mouse embryonic fibroblast extracts. The best ???? homologue shows substantial protection from proteolytic degradation relative to the Bim BH3 ?-peptide. PMID:22040025

  17. Crystal Structure of the Marburg Virus GP2 Core Domain in its Post-Fusion Conformation†

    PubMed Central

    Koellhoffer, Jayne F.; Malashkevich, Vladimir N.; Harrison, Joseph S.; Toro, Rafael; Bhosle, Rahul C.; Chandran, Kartik; Almo, Steven C.; Lai, Jonathan R.

    2012-01-01

    Marburg virus (MARV) and Ebola virus (EBOV) are members of the family Filoviridae (‘filoviruses’) that cause severe hemorrhagic fever with human case fatality rates of up to 90%. Filovirus infection requires fusion of the host cell and virus membranes, a process that is mediated by the envelope glycoprotein (GP). GP contains two subunits, the surface subunit (GP1), which is responsible for cell attachment, and the transmembrane subunit (GP2), which catalyzes membrane fusion. The GP2 ectodomain contains two heptad repeat regions, N-terminal and C-terminal (NHR and CHR, respectively) that adopt a six-helix bundle during the fusion process. The refolding of this six-helix bundle provides the thermodynamic driving force to overcome barriers associated with membrane fusion. Here we report the crystal structure of the MARV GP2 core domain in its post-fusion (six-helix bundle) conformation at 1.9 Å resolution. The MARV GP2 core domain backbone conformation is virtually identical to that of EBOV GP2 (reported previously), and consists of a central NHR core trimeric coiled-coil packed against peripheral CHR ?-helices and an intervening loop/helix-turn-helix segment. We previously reported that the stability of the MARV GP2 post-fusion structure is highly pH-dependent, with increasing stability at lower pH [Harrison, J.S.; Koellhoffer, J. K.; Chandran, K.; and Lai, J. R. Biochemistry, 2012, 51, 2515–2525]. We hypothesized that this pH-dependent stability provides a mechanism for conformational control such that the post-fusion six helix bundle is promoted in the environments of appropriately matured endosomes. In this report, a structural rationale for this pH-dependent stability is described, and involves a high-density array of core and surface acidic side chains at the midsection of the structure, termed the ‘anion stripe.’ In addition, many surface-exposed salt bridges likely contribute to stabilizing the post-fusion structure at low pH. These results provide structural insights into the mechanism of MARV GP2-mediated membrane fusion. PMID:22935026

  18. Deer mouse hemoglobin exhibits a lowered oxygen affinity owing to mobility of the E helix.

    PubMed

    Inoguchi, Noriko; Oshlo, Jake R; Natarajan, Chandrasekhar; Weber, Roy E; Fago, Angela; Storz, Jay F; Moriyama, Hideaki

    2013-04-01

    The deer mouse, Peromyscus maniculatus, exhibits altitude-associated variation in hemoglobin oxygen affinity. To examine the structural basis of this functional variation, the structure of the hemoglobin was solved. Recombinant hemoglobin was expressed in Escherichia coli and was purified by ion-exchange chromatography. Recombinant hemoglobin was crystallized by the hanging-drop vapor-diffusion method using polyethylene glycol as a precipitant. The obtained orthorhombic crystal contained two subunits in the asymmetric unit. The refined structure was interpreted as the aquo-met form. Structural comparisons were performed among hemoglobins from deer mouse, house mouse and human. In contrast to human hemoglobin, deer mouse hemoglobin lacks the hydrogen bond between ?1Trp14 in the A helix and ?1Thr67 in the E helix owing to the Thr67Ala substitution. In addition, deer mouse hemoglobin has a unique hydrogen bond at the ?1?1 interface between residues ?1Cys34 and ?1Ser128. PMID:23545644

  19. The Transmembrane Domain of the Acetylcholine Receptor: Insights from Simulations on Synthetic Peptide Models

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Leonor Saiz; Michael L. Klein

    2005-01-01

    We have studied the structure and properties of a bundle of ?-helical peptides embedded in a 1,2-dimyristoyl-3-phosphatidylcholine phospholipid bilayer by molecular dynamics simulations. The bundle of five transmembrane ?M2 segments constitutes the model for the pore region of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, which is the neurotransmitter-gated ion-channel responsible for the fast propagation of electrical signals between cells at the nerve-muscle

  20. Structure of the class B human glucagon G protein coupled receptor

    PubMed Central

    Siu, Fai Yiu; He, Min; de Graaf, Chris; Han, Gye Won; Yang, Dehua; Zhang, Zhiyun; Zhou, Caihong; Xu, Qingping; Wacker, Daniel; Joseph, Jeremiah S.; Liu, Wei; Lau, Jesper; Cherezov, Vadim; Katritch, Vsevolod; Wang, Ming-Wei; Stevens, Raymond C.

    2013-01-01

    Binding of the glucagon peptide to the glucagon receptor (GCGR) triggers the release of glucose from the liver during fasting, thus GCGR plays an important role in glucose homeostasis. Here we report the crystal structure of the seven transmembrane (7TM) helical domain of human GCGR at 3.4 Å resolution, complemented by extensive site-specific mutagenesis, and a hybrid model of glucagon bound to GCGR to understand the molecular recognition of the receptor for its natural ligand. Beyond the shared 7TM fold, the GCGR transmembrane domain deviates from class A G protein-coupled receptors with a large ligand binding pocket and the first transmembrane helix having a “stalk” region that extends three alpha-helical turns above the plane of the membrane. The stalk orients the extracellular domain (~12 kDa) relative to the membrane to form the glucagon binding site that captures the peptide and facilitates the insertion of glucagon’s N-terminus into the 7TM domain. PMID:23863937

  1. Molecular Basis and Structural Insight of Vascular KATP Channel Gating by S-Glutathionylation*

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yang; Shi, Weiwei; Chen, Xianfeng; Cui, Ningren; Konduru, Anuhya S.; Shi, Yun; Trower, Timothy C.; Zhang, Shuang; Jiang, Chun

    2011-01-01

    The vascular ATP-sensitive K+ (KATP) channel is targeted by a variety of vasoactive substances, playing an important role in vascular tone regulation. Our recent studies indicate that the vascular KATP channel is inhibited in oxidative stress via S-glutathionylation. Here we show evidence for the molecular basis of the S-glutathionylation and its structural impact on channel gating. By comparing the oxidant responses of the Kir6.1/SUR2B channel with the Kir6.2/SUR2B channel, we found that the Kir6.1 subunit was responsible for oxidant sensitivity. Oxidant screening of Kir6.1-Kir6.2 chimeras demonstrated that the N terminus and transmembrane domains of Kir6.1 were crucial. Systematic mutational analysis revealed three cysteine residues in these domains: Cys43, Cys120, and Cys176. Among them, Cys176 was prominent, contributing to >80% of the oxidant sensitivity. The Kir6.1-C176A/SUR2B mutant channel, however, remained sensitive to both channel opener and inhibitor, which indicated that Cys176 is not a general gating site in Kir6.1, in contrast to its counterpart (Cys166) in Kir6.2. A protein pull-down assay with biotinylated glutathione ethyl ester showed that mutation of Cys176 impaired oxidant-induced incorporation of glutathione (GSH) into the Kir6.1 subunit. In contrast to Cys176, Cys43 had only a modest contribution to S-glutathionylation, and Cys120 was modulated by extracellular oxidants but not intracellular GSSG. Simulation modeling of Kir6.1 S-glutathionylation suggested that after incorporation to residue 176, the GSH moiety occupied a space between the slide helix and two transmembrane helices. This prevented the inner transmembrane helix from undergoing conformational changes necessary for channel gating, retaining the channel in its closed state. PMID:21216949

  2. Microsurgical replantation of a partial helix of the ear.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwang Seog; Kim, Eui Sik; Hwang, Jae Ha; Lee, Sam Yong

    2009-01-01

    Microsurgical ear replantation is a significant challenge because vessel sizes are diminutive. Furthermore, as ear vessels are larger in the medial portion than in the lateral portion, microsurgical replantation of a replant including only the helix is extremely difficult. The authors replanted a partial helix of the ear using a single arterial anastomosis. As no suitable veins could be identified, medicinal leech therapy and systemic heparinization were used to achieve venous drainage. The replanted helix survived completely and the cosmetic result was excellent. Microsurgical replantation should be considered the treatment of choice in helix amputation cases, even though amount of replant is small. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Microsurgery 2009. PMID:19306389

  3. A Herschel study of the Helix nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van de Steene, G.

    2014-04-01

    The Herschel Guaranteed Time Key Project “MESS” (Mass loss of Evolved StarS) has observed a wide variety of evolved stellar objects in spectroscopic and photometric mode using both the PACS and SPIRE instruments on board the Herschel satellite. The aims of the project are to study the nebular morphology at far infrared wavelengths, the mass loss history of the central star, and the properties of the dust that was formed in the ejecta. In the poster we presented the results of the Herschel PACS and SPIRE imaging of the dust shell of the Helix planetary nebula NGC 7293.

  4. Large Deformation of Helix F during the Photoreaction Cycle of Pharaonis Halorhodopsin in Complex with Azide

    PubMed Central

    Nakanishi, Taichi; Kanada, Soun; Murakami, Midori; Ihara, Kunio; Kouyama, Tsutomu

    2013-01-01

    Halorhodopsin from Natronomonas pharaonis (pHR), a retinylidene protein that functions as a light-driven chloride ion pump, is converted into a proton pump in the presence of azide ion. To clarify this conversion, we investigated light-induced structural changes in pHR using a C2 crystal that was prepared in the presence of Cl? and subsequently soaked in a solution containing azide ion. When the pHR-azide complex was illuminated at pH 9, a profound outward movement (?4 Å) of the cytoplasmic half of helix F was observed in a subunit with the EF loop facing an open space. This movement created a long water channel between the retinal Schiff base and the cytoplasmic surface, along which a proton could be transported. Meanwhile, the middle moiety of helix C moved inward, leading to shrinkage of the primary anion-binding site (site I), and the azide molecule in site I was expelled out to the extracellular medium. The results suggest that the cytoplasmic half of helix F and the middle moiety of helix C act as different types of valves for active proton transport. PMID:23442859

  5. Characterization by immunocytochemistry of ionic channels in Helix aspersa suboesophageal brain ganglia neurons.

    PubMed

    Azanza, M J; Pérez-Castejón, C; Pes, N; Pérez-Bruzón, R N; Aisa, J; Junquera, C; Maestú, C; Lahoz, M; Martínez-Ciriano, C; Vera-Gil, A; Del Moral, A

    2008-04-01

    The aim of this work was to characterize several ionic channels in nervous cells of the suboesophageal visceral, left and right parietal, and left and right pleural brain ganglia complex of the snail Helix aspersa by immunocytochemistry. We have studied the immunostaining reaction for a wide panel of eleven polyclonal antibodies raised against mammal antigens as follows: voltage-gated-Na+ channel; voltage-gated-delayed-rectifier-K+ channel; SK2-small-conductance-Ca2+-dependent-K+ channel apamin sensitive; SK3 potassium channel; charybdotoxin-sensitive voltage-dependent potassium channel; BKCa-maxi-conductance-Ca2+-dependent-K+ channel; hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated potassium channel 4; G-protein-activated inwardly rectifying potassium channel GIRK2 and voltage-gated-calcium of L, N and P/Q type channels. Our results show positive reaction in neurons, but neither in glia cells nor in processes in the Helix suboesophageal ganglia. Our results suggest the occurrence of molecules in Helix neurons sharing antigenic determinants with mammal ionic channels. The reaction density and distribution of immunoreactive staining within neurons is specific for each one of the antisera tested. The studies of co-localization of immunoreaction, on alternate serial sections of the anterior right parietal ganglion, have shown for several recognized mapped neurons that they can simultaneously be expressed among two and seven different ionic protein channels. These results are considered a key structural support for the interpretation of Helix aspersa neuron electrophysiological activity. PMID:18228196

  6. Nucleic acid helices: I. Structure of M1 RNA from E. coli as determined bypsoralen crosslinking. II. Thermodynamics of the helix-coil transition of DNA oligonucleotides in solutions containing 3. 0 M tetramethylammonium chloride

    SciTech Connect

    Lipson, S.E.

    1987-01-01

    This work includes two different investigations examining nucleic acid helices. The first study discusses secondary and tertiary interactions in the RNA moiety of ribonuclease P from Escherichia coli. The second study discusses the thermodynamics of the helix-coil transition of DNA oligonucleotides in solutions containing tetramethylammonium chloride. The RNA moiety of ribonuclease P from Escherichia coli (M1 RNA) has been photoreacted with 4{prime}-hydroxymethyl-4,5{prime}8-trimethylpsoralen and long wave UV light (320-380 nm) in a buffer in which the M1 RNA alone acts as a true catalyst of tRNA processing. Limited specific digestion followed by two dimensional gel electrophoresis yields fragments crosslinked by HMT. The positions of the crosslinks have been determined to within {plus minus}15 nucleotides by photoreversal of the isolated crosslinked fragments and enzymatic sequencing of the resulting RNA. Further assignments of the exact locations of the crosslinks have been made on the known photoreactivity of the psoralen with different bases.

  7. Functional impact of a single mutation within the transmembrane domain of the multidrug ABC transporter Pdr5.

    PubMed

    Kueppers, Petra; Gupta, Rakeshkumar P; Stindt, Jan; Smits, Sander H J; Schmitt, Lutz

    2013-04-01

    The pleiotropic drug resistance network in budding yeast presents a first line of defense against xenobiotics, which is formed by primary and secondary active membrane transporters. Among these transporters, the ABC transporter Pdr5 is a key component, because it confers resistance against a broad spectrum of such cytotoxic agents. Furthermore, it represents a model system for homologous transporters from pathogenic fungi and has been intensively studied in the past. In addition to other mutational studies, the S1360F mutation of Pdr5 was found to modulate substrate specificity and resistance. Notably, in the S1360F background, the resistance against the immunosuppressant FK506 is drastically increased. We present a detailed analysis of this mutation that is located in the predicted cytosolic part of transmembrane helix 11. Our data demonstrate that kinetic and thermodynamic parameters of the S1360F mutant are similar to those of the wild-type protein, except for FK506-inhibited ATPase activity and the degree of competitive inhibition. In summary, our results indicate that the S1360F mutation within the transmembrane domain interferes drastically with the ability of the nucleotide-binding domains to hydrolyze ATP by interfering with interdomain crosstalk. PMID:23464591

  8. PKHD1, the Polycystic Kidney and Hepatic Disease 1 Gene, Encodes a Novel Large Protein Containing Multiple Immunoglobulin-Like Plexin-Transcription–Factor Domains and Parallel Beta-Helix 1 Repeats

    PubMed Central

    Onuchic, Luiz F.; Furu, Laszlo; Nagasawa, Yasuyuki; Hou, Xiaoying; Eggermann, Thomas; Ren, Zhiyong; Bergmann, Carsten; Senderek, Jan; Esquivel, Ernie; Zeltner, Raoul; Rudnik-Schöneborn, Sabine; Mrug, Michael; Sweeney, William; Avner, Ellis D.; Zerres, Klaus; Guay-Woodford, Lisa M.; Somlo, Stefan; Germino, Gregory G.

    2002-01-01

    Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD) is a severe form of polycystic kidney disease that presents primarily in infancy and childhood and that is characterized by enlarged kidneys and congenital hepatic fibrosis. We have identified PKHD1, the gene mutated in ARPKD. PKHD1 extends over ?469 kb, is primarily expressed in human fetal and adult kidney, and includes a minimum of 86 exons that are variably assembled into a number of alternatively spliced transcripts. The longest continuous open reading frame encodes a 4,074-amino-acid protein, polyductin, that is predicted to have a single transmembrane (TM)-spanning domain near its carboxyl terminus, immunoglobulin-like plexin-transcription–factor domains, and parallel beta-helix 1 repeats in its amino terminus. Several transcripts encode truncated products that lack the TM and that may be secreted if translated. The PKHD1-gene products are members of a novel class of proteins that share structural features with hepatocyte growth-factor receptor and plexins and that belong to a superfamily of proteins involved in regulation of cell proliferation and of cellular adhesion and repulsion. PMID:11898128

  9. Remodelling the cavity of a transmembrane pore by genetic engineering 

    E-print Network

    Jung, Yunhee

    2006-08-16

    The cavity within the transmembrane staphylococcal ?-hemolysin (?HL) pore is roughly a sphere of diameter ~45 Ã? (volume ~32,600 Ã?3). The alpha-hemolysin gene was modified to introduce exogenous polypeptide ...

  10. Supplementary Note 1. Stage 1: Finding human -helical transmembrane domains

    E-print Network

    Adolphs, Ralph

    transmembrane domain sequences were attempted to be modeled using ModPipe11-13 , which relies on PSI-BLAST14. A representative model for each alignment was then chosen by ranking based on the atomic distance

  11. Open and Closed Conformations of the Isolated Transmembrane Domain of Death Receptor 5 Support a New Model of Activation

    E-print Network

    Thomas, David D.

    that has been used previously to study TM helix architecture and dynamics (5,6), and potential- of and Department of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology, and Biophysics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis-turn downstream (3). Our recent study of the structurally homologous TNFR1 showed that receptor activation

  12. Structural models of the MscL gating mechanism.

    PubMed Central

    Sukharev, S; Durell, S R; Guy, H R

    2001-01-01

    Three-dimensional structural models of the mechanosensitive channel of large conductance, MscL, from the bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Escherichia coli were developed for closed, intermediate, and open conformations. The modeling began with the crystal structure of M. tuberculosis MscL, a homopentamer with two transmembrane alpha-helices, M1 and M2, per subunit. The first 12 N-terminal residues, not resolved in the crystal structure, were modeled as an amphipathic alpha-helix, called S1. A bundle of five parallel S1 helices are postulated to form a cytoplasmic gate. As membrane tension induces expansion, the tilts of M1 and M2 are postulated to increase as they move away from the axis of the pore. Substantial expansion is postulated to occur before the increased stress in the S1 to M1 linkers pulls the S1 bundle apart. During the opening transition, the S1 helices and C-terminus amphipathic alpha-helices, S3, are postulated to dock parallel to the membrane surface on the perimeter of the complex. The proposed gating mechanism reveals critical spatial relationships between the expandable transmembrane barrel formed by M1 and M2, the gate formed by S1 helices, and "strings" that link S1s to M1s. These models are consistent with numerous experimental results and modeling criteria. PMID:11463635

  13. A new family of ?-helix proteins with similarities to the polysaccharide lyases.

    PubMed

    Close, Devin W; D'Angelo, Sara; Bradbury, Andrew R M

    2014-10-01

    Microorganisms that degrade biomass produce diverse assortments of carbohydrate-active enzymes and binding modules. Despite tremendous advances in the genomic sequencing of these organisms, many genes do not have an ascribed function owing to low sequence identity to genes that have been annotated. Consequently, biochemical and structural characterization of genes with unknown function is required to complement the rapidly growing pool of genomic sequencing data. A protein with previously unknown function (Cthe_2159) was recently isolated in a genome-wide screen using phage display to identify cellulose-binding protein domains from the biomass-degrading bacterium Clostridium thermocellum. Here, the crystal structure of Cthe_2159 is presented and it is shown that it is a unique right-handed parallel ?-helix protein. Despite very low sequence identity to known ?-helix or carbohydrate-active proteins, Cthe_2159 displays structural features that are very similar to those of polysaccharide lyase (PL) families 1, 3, 6 and 9. Cthe_2159 is conserved across bacteria and some archaea and is a member of the domain of unknown function family DUF4353. This suggests that Cthe_2159 is the first representative of a previously unknown family of cellulose and/or acid-sugar binding ?-helix proteins that share structural similarities with PLs. Importantly, these results demonstrate how functional annotation by biochemical and structural analysis remains a critical tool in the characterization of new gene products. PMID:25286843

  14. Autonomous Transmembrane Segment S4 of the Voltage Sensor Domain Partitions into the Lipid Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Tiriveedhi, Venkataswarup; Miller, Melissa; Butko, Peter; Li, Min

    2012-01-01

    The S4 transmembrane segment in voltage-gated ion channels, a highly basic ? helix, responds to changes in membrane potential and induces channel opening. Earlier work by others indicates that the S4 segment interacts with lipids in plasma membrane, but its mechanism is unclear. Working with synthetic tryptophan-labeled S4 peptides, we characterized binding of autonomous S4 to lipid membranes. The binding free energy (5.2 ± 0.2 kcal/mol) of the peptide-lipid interaction was estimated from the apparent dissociation constants, determined from the changes in anisotropy of tryptophan fluorescence induced by addition of lipid vesicles with 30 mol% phosphatidylglycerol. The results are in good agreement with the prediction based on the Wimley-White hydrophobicity scale for interfacial (IF) binding of an alpha-helical peptide to the lipid bilayer (6.98 kcal/mol). High salt inhibited the interaction, thus indicating that the peptide/membrane interaction has both electrostatic and non-electrostatic components. Furthermore, the synthetic S4 corresponding to the Shaker potassium channel was found to spontaneously penetrate into the negatively charged lipid membrane to a depth of about 9 Å. Our results revealed important biophysical parameters that influence the interaction of S4 with the membrane: they include fluidity, surface charge, and surface pressure of the membrane, and the ? helicity and regular spacing of basic amino-acid residues in the S4 sequence. PMID:22465069

  15. A Eukaryotic Specific Transmembrane Segment is Required for Tetramerization in AMPA Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Salussolia, Catherine L.; Gan, Quan; Kazi, Rashek; Singh, Puja; Allopenna, Janet; Furukawa, Hiro; Wollmuth, Lonnie P.

    2013-01-01

    Most fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the nervous system is mediated by glutamate acting through ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs). iGluRs (AMPA, kainate, and NMDA receptor subtypes) are tetrameric assemblies, formed as a dimer of dimers. Still, the mechanism underlying tetramerization – the necessary step for the formation of functional receptors that can be inserted into the plasma membrane – is unknown. All eukaryotic compared to prokaryotic iGluR subunits have an additional transmembrane segment, the M4 segment, which positions the physiologically critical C-terminal domain on the cytoplasmic side of the membrane. AMPA receptor (AMPAR) subunits lacking M4 do not express on the plasma membrane. Here, we show that these constructs are retained in the endoplasmic reticulum, the major cellular compartment mediating protein oligomerization. Using approaches to assay the native oligomeric state of AMPAR subunits, we find that subunits lacking M4 or containing single amino-acid substitutions along an ‘interacting’ face of the M4 helix that block surface expression, no longer tetramerize in either homo- or heteromeric assemblies. In contrast, subunit dimerization appears to be largely intact. These experiments define the M4 segment as a unique functional unit in AMPARs that is required for the critical dimer to tetramer transition. PMID:23739980

  16. Orbital dynamics in the Tevatron double helix

    SciTech Connect

    Michelotti, L.; Saritepe, S.

    1989-03-01

    A key feature of the Tevatron upgrade is the placement of proton and anti-proton bunches on the branches of a double helix which winds around the current closed orbit. Electrostatic separators will transfer the bunches on and off the double helix so that they experience head-on collisions only at the experimental areas, BO and DO, all other encounters occurring at large transverse separation. In this way the number of bunches, and the luminosity, can be increased without a proportional growth in the beam-beam tune shift. The scenario raises a number of beam dynamics issues, especially the consequences of sampling magnetic fields far from the magnets' center lines, and the effects of the long-range beam-beam interaction. This report presents the results of (admittedly incomplete) calculations and simulations done to date to explore: a Fermilab team have been studying, both experimentally and theoretically, but we shall not review those efforts here. The constraint of a page limit has forced us to bound this discussion rather stringently, but a more complete paper will be available as a Fermilab Technical Memo. 7 refs., 7 figs.

  17. Mechanical performance of PPy helix tube microactuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahrami Samani, Mehrdad; Spinks, Geoffrey M.; Cook, Christopher

    2004-02-01

    Conducting polymer actuators with favourable properties such as linearity, high power density and compliance are of increasing demand in micro applications. These materials generate forces over two times larger than produced by mammalian skeletal muscles. They operate to convert electro chemical energy to mechanical stress and strain. On the other hand, the application of conducting polymers is limited by the lack of a full description of the relation between four essential parameters: stress, strain, voltage and current. In this paper, polypyrrole helix tube micro actuator mechanical characteristics are investigated. The electrolyte is propylene carbonate and the dopant is TBA. PF6. The experiments are both in isotonic and isometric conditions and the input parameters are both electrical and mechanical. A dual mode force and length control and potentiostat / galvanostat are utilized for this purpose. Ultimately, the viscoelastic behaviour of the actuator is presented in this paper by a standard stress relaxation test. The effect of electrical stimulus on mechanical parameters is also explored by cyclic voltametry at different scan rates to obtain the best understanding of the actuation mechanism. The results demonstrate that the linear viscoelastic model, which performed well on conducting polymer film actuators, has to be modified to explain the mechanical behaviour of PPy helix tube fibre micro actuators. Secondly, the changes in mechanical properties of PPy need to be considered when modelling electromechanical behaviour.

  18. Mapping the Homodimer Interface of an Optimized, Artificial, Transmembrane Protein Activator of the Human Erythropoietin Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Bears, Zachary; Barrera, Francisco N.; Alonso, Miriam; Engelman, Donald M.; DiMaio, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Transmembrane proteins constitute a large fraction of cellular proteins, and specific interactions involving membrane-spanning protein segments play an important role in protein oligomerization, folding, and function. We previously isolated an artificial, dimeric, 44-amino acid transmembrane protein that activates the human erythropoietin receptor (hEPOR) in trans. This artificial protein supports limited erythroid differentiation of primary human hematopoietic progenitor cells in vitro, even though it does not resemble erythropoietin, the natural ligand of this receptor. Here, we used a directed-evolution approach to explore the structural basis for the ability of transmembrane proteins to activate the hEPOR. A library that expresses thousands of mutants of the transmembrane activator was screened for variants that were more active than the original isolate at inducing growth factor independence in mouse cells expressing the hEPOR. The most active mutant, EBC5-16, supports erythroid differentiation in human cells with activity approaching that of EPO, as assessed by cell-surface expression of glycophorin A, a late-stage marker of erythroid differentiation. EBC5-16 contains a single isoleucine to serine substitution at position 25, which increases its ability to form dimers. Genetic studies confirmed the importance of dimerization for activity and identified the residues constituting the homodimer interface of EBC5-16. The interface requires a GxxxG dimer packing motif and a small amino acid at position 25 for maximal activity, implying that tight packing of the EBC5-16 dimer is a crucial determinant of activity. These experiments identified an artificial protein that causes robust activation of its target in a natural host cell, demonstrated the importance of dimerization of this protein for engagement of the hEPOR, and provided the framework for future structure-function studies of this novel mechanism of receptor activation. PMID:24788775

  19. Molecular mechanisms of intercellular communication: transmembrane signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Bitensky, M.W.; George, J.S.; Siegel, H.N.; McGregor, D.M.

    1982-01-01

    This short discussion of transmembrane signaling depicts a particular class of signaling devices whose functional characteristics may well be representative of broader classes of membrane switches. These multicomponent aggregates are characterized by tight organization of interacting components which function by conformational interactions to provide sensitive, amplified, rapid, and modulated responses. It is clear that the essential role of such switches in cell-cell interactions necessitated their appearance early in the history of the development of multicellular organisms. It also seems clear that once such devices made their appearance, the conformationally interactive moieties were firmly locked into a regulatory relationship. Since modification of interacting components could perturb or interfere with the functional integrity of the whole switch, genetic drift was only permitted at the input and outflow extremes. However, the GTP binding moiety and its interacting protein domains on contiguous portions of the receptor and readout components were highly conserved. The observed stringent evolutionary conservation of the molecular features of these membrane switches thus applies primarily to the central (GTP binding) elements. An extraordinary degree of variation was permitted within the domains of signal recognition and enzymatic output. Thus, time and evolution have adapted the central logic of the regulatory algorithm to serve a great variety of cellular purposes and to recognize a great variety of chemical and physical signals. This is exemplified by the richness of the hormonal and cellular dialogues found in primates such as man. Here the wealth of intercellular communiation can support the composition and performance of symphonies and the study of cellular immunology.

  20. Investigating the interaction between peptides of the amphipathic helix of Hcf106 and the phospholipid bilayer by solid-state NMR spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lei; Liu, Lishan; Maltsev, Sergey; Lorigan, Gary A.; Dabney-Smith, Carole

    2013-01-01

    The chloroplast twin arginine translocation (cpTat) system transports highly folded precursor proteins into the thylakoid lumen using the protonmotive force as its only energy source. Hcf106, as one of the core components of the cpTat system, is part of the precursor receptor complex and functions in the initial precursor-binding step. Hcf106 is predicted to contain a single amino terminal transmembrane domain followed by a Pro-Gly hinge, a predicted amphipathic ?-helix (APH), and a loosely structured carboxy terminus. Hcf106 has been shown biochemically to insert spontaneously into thylakoid membranes. To better understand the membrane active capabilities of Hcf106, we used solid-state NMR spectroscopy to investigate those properties of the APH. In this study, synthesized peptides of the predicted Hcf106 APH (amino acids 28–65) were incorporated at increasing mol% into 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-phosphocholine (POPC) and POPC/MGDG (monogalactosyldiacylglycerol; mole ratio 85:15) multilamellar vesicles (MLVs) to probe the peptide-lipid interaction. Solid-state 31P NMR and 2H NMR spectroscopic experiments revealed that the peptide perturbs the headgroup and the acyl chain regions of phospholipids as indicated by changes in spectral lineshape, chemical shift anisotropy (CSA) line width, and 2H order SCD parameters. In addition, the comparison between POPC MLVs and POPC/MGDG MLVs indicated that the lipid bilayer composition affected peptide perturbation of the lipids, and such perturbation appeared to be more intense in a system more closely mimicking a thylakoid membrane. PMID:24144541

  1. Investigating the interaction between peptides of the amphipathic helix of Hcf106 and the phospholipid bilayer by solid-state NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Liu, Lishan; Maltsev, Sergey; Lorigan, Gary A; Dabney-Smith, Carole

    2014-01-01

    The chloroplast twin arginine translocation (cpTat) system transports highly folded precursor proteins into the thylakoid lumen using the protonmotive force as its only energy source. Hcf106, as one of the core components of the cpTat system, is part of the precursor receptor complex and functions in the initial precursor-binding step. Hcf106 is predicted to contain a single amino terminal transmembrane domain followed by a Pro-Gly hinge, a predicted amphipathic ?-helix (APH), and a loosely structured carboxy terminus. Hcf106 has been shown biochemically to insert spontaneously into thylakoid membranes. To better understand the membrane active capabilities of Hcf106, we used solid-state NMR spectroscopy to investigate those properties of the APH. In this study, synthesized peptides of the predicted Hcf106 APH (amino acids 28-65) were incorporated at increasing mol.% into 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-phosphocholine (POPC) and POPC/MGDG (monogalactosyldiacylglycerol; mole ratio 85:15) multilamellar vesicles (MLVs) to probe the peptide-lipid interaction. Solid-state (31)P NMR and (2)H NMR spectroscopic experiments revealed that the peptide perturbs the headgroup and the acyl chain regions of phospholipids as indicated by changes in spectral lineshape, chemical shift anisotropy (CSA) line width, and (2)H order SCD parameters. In addition, the comparison between POPC MLVs and POPC/MGDG MLVs indicated that the lipid bilayer composition affected peptide perturbation of the lipids, and such perturbation appeared to be more intense in a system more closely mimicking a thylakoid membrane. PMID:24144541

  2. Helicity of Carbon Nanotubes and Helix-shaped Carbon Nanotubes

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ji-Peng Cheng; Xiao-Bin Zhang

    2006-01-01

    Determination of the helicity of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is useful for CNTs in nanoelectronic device applications. Using electron diffraction to measure chiral angle with a high precision is reviewed, and helix-shaped carbon nanostructures are introduced and characterized by transmission electron microscopy. The possible formation mechanism of helix-shaped CNTs is also referred in the paper

  3. Multiple transmembrane binding sites for p-trifluoromethyldiazirinyl-etomidate, a photoreactive Torpedo nicotinic acetylcholine receptor allosteric inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Hamouda, Ayman K; Stewart, Deirdre S; Husain, S Shaukat; Cohen, Jonathan B

    2011-06-10

    Photoreactive derivatives of the general anesthetic etomidate have been developed to identify their binding sites in ?-aminobutyric acid, type A and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. One such drug, [(3)H]TDBzl-etomidate (4-[3-(trifluoromethyl)-3H-diazirin-3-yl]benzyl-[(3)H]1-(1-phenylethyl)-1H-imidazole-5-carboxylate), acts as a positive allosteric potentiator of Torpedo nACh receptor (nAChR) and binds to a novel site in the transmembrane domain at the ?-? subunit interface. To extend our understanding of the locations of allosteric modulator binding sites in the nAChR, we now characterize the interactions of a second aryl diazirine etomidate derivative, TFD-etomidate (ethyl-1-(1-(4-(3-trifluoromethyl)-3H-diazirin-3-yl)phenylethyl)-1H-imidazole-5-carboxylate). TFD-etomidate inhibited acetylcholine-induced currents with an IC(50) = 4 ?M, whereas it inhibited the binding of [(3)H]phencyclidine to the Torpedo nAChR ion channel in the resting and desensitized states with IC(50) values of 2.5 and 0.7 mm, respectively. Similar to [(3)H]TDBzl-etomidate, [(3)H]TFD-etomidate bound to a site at the ?-? subunit interface, photolabeling ?M2-10 (?Ser-252) and ?Met-295 and ?Met-299 within ?M3, and to a site in the ion channel, photolabeling amino acids within each subunit M2 helix that line the lumen of the ion channel. In addition, [(3)H]TFD-etomidate photolabeled in an agonist-dependent manner amino acids within the ? subunit M2-M3 loop (?Ile-288) and the ? subunit transmembrane helix bundle (?Phe-232 and ?Cys-236 within ?M1). The fact that TFD-etomidate does not compete with ion channel blockers at concentrations that inhibit acetylcholine responses indicates that binding to sites at the ?-? subunit interface and/or within ? subunit helix bundle mediates the TFD-etomidate inhibitory effect. These results also suggest that the ?-? subunit interface is a binding site for Torpedo nAChR negative allosteric modulators (TFD-etomidate) and for positive modulators (TDBzl-etomidate). PMID:21498509

  4. Helix-coiled gold nanowires for molecular sensing.

    PubMed

    Chae, Weon-Sik; Kim, Eun-Mee; Yu, Hyunung; Jeon, Seokwoo; Jung, Jin-Seung

    2012-04-01

    Helix-coiled gold nanowires were fabricated by a templating route using unique composite templates consisting of anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) nanotubular membrane and confined mesoporous silica therein. A different degree of confinement energy induces a different degree of helix curvature of confined porous silica nanochannels in an AAO, which works as a hard template for the electrochemical deposition of gold, thereby rationally enabling a different degree of helix curvature of gold nano-replicas. From surface-enhanced Raman scattering experiments, we first found that helix-coiled gold nanowires show more distinctly enhanced molecule sensing efficiency than those from simple smooth gold nanowires, and gold nanowires with the narrower lateral width show more enhanced molecule sensing efficiency than those of thicker width helix nanowires. PMID:22849155

  5. Coxsackie B3 virus protein 2B contains cationic amphipathic helix that is required for viral RNA replication.

    PubMed Central

    van Kuppeveld, F J; Galama, J M; Zoll, J; van den Hurk, P J; Melchers, W J

    1996-01-01

    Enterovirus protein 2B has been shown to increase plasma membrane permeability. We have identified a conserved putative amphipathic alpha-helix with a narrow hydrophilic face and an arrangement of cationic residues that is typical for the so-called lytic polypeptides. To examine the functional and structural roles of this putative amphipathic alpha-helix, we have constructed nine coxsackie B3 virus mutants by site-directed mutagenesis of an infectious cDNA clone. Six mutants contained substitutions of the charged residues in the hydrophilic face of the alpha-helix. Three mutants contained insertions of leucine residues between the charged residues, causing a disturbance of the amphipathic character of the alpha-helix. The effect of the mutations on virus viability was assayed by transfection of cells with copy RNA transcripts. The effect on positive-strand RNA replication was examined by introduction of the mutations in a subgenomic luciferase replicon and analysis of luciferase accumulation following the transfection of BGM cells with RNA transcripts. It is shown that both the amphipathy of the domain and the presence of cationic residues in the hydrophilic face of the alpha-helix are required for virus growth. Mutations that disturbed either one of these features caused defects in viral RNA synthesis. In vitro translation reactions and the analysis of viral protein synthesis in vivo demonstrated that the mutations did not affect synthesis and processing of the viral polyprotein. These results suggest that a cationic amphipathic alpha-helix is a major determinant for a function of protein 2B, and possibly its precursor 2BC, in viral RNA synthesis. The potential role of the amphipathic alpha-helix in the permeabilization of cellular membranes is discussed. PMID:8648724

  6. Prediction of re-entrant regions and other structural features beyond traditional topology models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granseth, Erik

    A topology model of a membrane protein is a two-dimensional representation of the three-dimensional structure. Most often, it is the only structural information available and it can either come from computer predictions, experiments or a combination of both. However, it has lately become clear that some membrane protein structures contain features that cannot be described by a traditional topology model. They might contain kinks in their transmembrane helices, have interface helices that lie parallel to the membrane surface or contain re-entrant regions that only partially enter the membrane. Since these structural features are almost always functionally important and there are more and more structures available each year, there has been an increasing effort in predicting them. This chapter describes transmembrane helix kinks, interface helices, amphipathic membrane anchors, and re-entrant regions in detail, both from a biological perspective and from the methods that try to predict them. Additionally, prediction of free energy of membrane insertion and Z-coordinates is also covered.

  7. Energetic analysis of the rhodopsin-G-protein complex links the ?5 helix to GDP release.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Nathan S; Preininger, Anita M; Kaya, Ali I; Stein, Richard A; Hamm, Heidi E; Meiler, Jens

    2014-01-01

    We present a model of interaction of Gi protein with the activated receptor (R*) rhodopsin, which pinpoints energetic contributions to activation and reconciles the ?2 adrenergic receptor-Gs crystal structure with new and previously published experimental data. In silico analysis demonstrated energetic changes when the G? C-terminal helix (?5) interacts with the R* cytoplasmic pocket, thus leading to displacement of the helical domain and GDP release. The model features a less dramatic domain opening compared with the crystal structure. The ?5 helix undergoes a 63° rotation, accompanied by a 5.7-Å translation, that reorganizes interfaces between ?5 and ?1 helices and between ?5 and ?6-?5. Changes in the ?6-?5 loop displace ?G. All of these movements lead to opening of the GDP-binding pocket. The model creates a roadmap for experimental studies of receptor-mediated G-protein activation. PMID:24292645

  8. The Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factor PIF5 Acts on Ethylene Biosynthesis and Phytochrome Signaling by Distinct Mechanisms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    HYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTOR5 (PIF5), a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, interacts specifically with the photoactivated form of phytochrome B (phyB). Here, we report that dark-grown Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings overexpressing PIF5 (PIF5-OX) exhibit exaggerated apical hooks and short h...

  9. COMPUTATIONAL METHODS FOR PREDICTING TRANSMEMBRANE ALPHA HELICES

    E-print Network

    : COMPUTATIONAL MOLECULAR BIOLOGY FINAL PROJECT DECEMBER 6TH , 2002 #12;Introduction: Protein crystal structures. Jung, et al. (2001). "Protein structure prediction." Current Opinion in Chemical Biology 5(1): 51-56. 2." Journal of Structural Biology 134(2-3): 204-218. 4 Rost, B. (2001). "Review: Protein secondary structure

  10. NMR analysis of helix I from the 5S RNA of Escherichia coli

    Microsoft Academic Search

    S. A. White; M. Nilges; A. Huang; A. T. Bruenger; P. B. Moore

    1992-01-01

    The structure of helix I of the 5S rRNA from Escherichia coli has been determined using a nucleolytic digest fragment of the intact molecule. The fragment analyzed, which corresponds to bases (-1)-11 and 108-120 of intact 5S rRNA, contains a G-U pair and has unpaired bases at its termini. Its proton resonances were assigned by two-dimensional NMR methods, and both

  11. Influence of C-terminal ?-helix hydrophobicity and aromatic amino acid content on apolipoprotein AI functionality

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Nicholas N. Lyssenko; Mami Hata; Padmaja Dhanasekaran; Margaret Nickel; David Nguyen; Palaniappan Sevugan Chetty; Hiroyuki Saito; Sissel Lund-Katz; Michael C. Phillips

    The apoA-I molecule adopts a two-domain tertiary structure and the properties of these domains modulate the ability to form HDL particles. Thus, human apoA-I differs from mouse apoA-I in that it can form smaller HDL particles; the C-terminal ?-helix is important in this process and human apoA-I is unusual in containing aromatic amino acids in the non-polar face of this

  12. A unique phenylalanine in the transmembrane domain strengthens homodimerization of the syndecan-2 transmembrane domain and functionally regulates syndecan-2.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Mi-Jung; Choi, Youngsil; Yun, Ji-Hye; Lee, Weontae; Han, Inn-Oc; Oh, Eok-Soo

    2015-02-27

    The syndecans are a type of cell surface adhesion receptor that initiates intracellular signaling events through receptor clustering mediated by their highly conserved transmembrane domains (TMDs). However, the exact function of the syndecan TMD is not yet fully understood. Here, we investigated the specific regulatory role of the syndecan-2 TMD. We found that syndecan-2 mutants in which the TMD had been replaced with that of syndecan-4 were defective in syndecan-2-mediated functions, suggesting that the TMD of syndecan-2 plays one or more specific roles. Interestingly, syndecan-2 has a stronger tendency to form sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)-resistant homodimers than syndecan-4. Our structural studies showed that a unique phenylalanine residue (Phe(167)) enables an additional molecular interaction between the TMDs of the syndecan-2 homodimer. The presence of Phe(167) was correlated with a higher tendency toward oligomerization, and its replacement with isoleucine significantly reduced the SDS-resistant dimer formation and cellular functions of syndecan-2 (e.g. cell migration). Conversely, replacement of isoleucine with phenylalanine at this position in the syndecan-4 TMD rescued the defects observed in a mutant syndecan-2 harboring the syndecan-4 TMD. Taken together, these data suggest that Phe(167) in the TMD of syndecan-2 endows the protein with specific functions. Our work offers new insights into the signaling mediated by the TMD of syndecan family members. PMID:25572401

  13. Bioassay-guided Isolation of Constituents of Piper sarmentosum Using a Mitochondrial Transmembrane Potential Assay

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Li; Matthew, Susan; Lantvit, Daniel D.; Zhang, Xiaoli; Ninh, Tran Ngoc; Chai, Heebyung; de Blanco, Esperanza J. Carcache; Soejarto, Djaja D.; Swanson, Steven M.; Kinghorn, A. Douglas

    2011-01-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation was conducted on a chloroform-soluble extract of the aerial parts of Piper sarmentosum collected in Vietnam, monitored by a mitochondrial transmembrane potential (MTP) assay using HT-29 human colon cancer cells. This led to the isolation of four new C-benzylated dihydroflavones, sarmentosumins A-D (1-4), as well as 14 known compounds. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data interpretation. Among these compounds, 1-4 as well as five known C-benzylated dihydroflavones (5-9), and pipercallosine, a piperamide (11), were found to induce apoptosis in HT-29 cells by moderately reducing the mitochondrial transmembrane potential (??m), with ED50 values ranging from 1.6 to 13.6 ?M. Furthermore, 7-methoxydichamanetin (8) and pinocembrin (10) exhibited proteasome inhibitory activities in a human 20S proteasome bioassay with IC50 values of 3.45 ± 0.18 ?M and 2.87 ± 0.26 ?M, respectively. This is the first time that C-benzylated dihydroflavones have been reported to demonstrate an apoptotic effect associated with disruption of the mitochondrial transmembrane potential. PMID:21973101

  14. Lack of Cytosolic and Transmembrane Domains of Type XIII Collagen Results in Progressive Myopathy

    PubMed Central

    Kvist, Ari-Pekka; Latvanlehto, Anne; Sund, Malin; Eklund, Lauri; Väisänen, Timo; Hägg, Pasi; Sormunen, Raija; Komulainen, Jyrki; Fässler, Reinhard; Pihlajaniemi, Taina

    2001-01-01

    Type XIII collagen is a type II transmembrane protein found at many sites of cell adhesion in tissues. Homologous recombination was used to generate a transgenic mouse line (Col13a1N/N) that expresses N-terminally altered type XIII collagen molecules lacking the short cytosolic and transmembrane domains but retaining the large collagenous ectodomain. The mutant molecules were correctly transported to focal adhesions in cultured fibroblasts derived from the Col13a1N/N mice, but the cells showed decreased adhesion when plated on type IV collagen. These mice were viable and fertile, and in immunofluorescence stainings the mutant protein was located in adhesive tissue structures in the same manner as normal ?1(XIII) chains. In immunoelectron microscopy of wild-type mice type XIII collagen was detected at the plasma membrane of skeletal muscle cells whereas in the mutant mice the protein was located in the adjacent extracellular matrix. Affected skeletal muscles showed abnormal myofibers with a fuzzy plasma membrane-basement membrane interphase along the muscle fiber and at the myotendinous junctions, disorganized myofilaments, and streaming of z-disks. The findings were progressive and the phenotype was aggravated by exercise. Thus type XIII collagen seems to participate in the linkage between muscle fiber and basement membrane, a function impaired by lack of the cytosolic and transmembrane domains. PMID:11583983

  15. Discovery of a transiently separable high-speed response component in cholesteric liquid crystals with a uniform lying helix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Yo; Moritake, Hiroshi

    2015-06-01

    We report a novel high-speed response component observed in the transient state in cholesteric liquid crystals (ChLCs) with a uniform lying helix (ULH). When an electric field is applied normal to the helix axis, two well-known physical phenomena are induced: (i) the flexo-electric effect and (ii) the elongation of the helical structure. In this study, we show that the latter effect can be additionally separated into two different components with fast and slow response times, which reorient the LC director along the electric field without and with the helical pitch elongation, respectively.

  16. Substrate-induced changes in the structural properties of LacY

    PubMed Central

    Serdiuk, Tetiana; Madej, M. Gregor; Sugihara, Junichi; Kawamura, Shiho; Mari, Stefania A.; Kaback, H. Ronald; Müller, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    The lactose permease (LacY) of Escherichia coli, a paradigm for the major facilitator superfamily, catalyzes the coupled stoichiometric translocation of a galactopyranoside and an H+ across the cytoplasmic membrane. To catalyze transport, LacY undergoes large conformational changes that allow alternating access of sugar- and H+-binding sites to either side of the membrane. Despite strong evidence for an alternating access mechanism, it remains unclear how H+- and sugar-binding trigger the cascade of interactions leading to alternating conformational states. Here we used dynamic single-molecule force spectroscopy to investigate how substrate binding induces this phenomenon. Galactoside binding strongly modifies kinetic, energetic, and mechanical properties of the N-terminal 6-helix bundle of LacY, whereas the C-terminal 6-helix bundle remains largely unaffected. Within the N-terminal 6-helix bundle, the properties of helix V, which contains residues critical for sugar binding, change most radically. Particularly, secondary structures forming the N-terminal domain exhibit mechanically brittle properties in the unbound state, but highly flexible conformations in the substrate-bound state with significantly increased lifetimes and energetic stability. Thus, sugar binding tunes the properties of the N-terminal domain to initiate galactoside/H+ symport. In contrast to wild-type LacY, the properties of the conformationally restricted mutant Cys154?Gly do not change upon sugar binding. It is also observed that the single mutation of Cys154?Gly alters intramolecular interactions so that individual transmembrane helices manifest different properties. The results support a working model of LacY in which substrate binding induces alternating conformational states and provides insight into their specific kinetic, energetic, and mechanical properties. PMID:24711390

  17. A density functional theory based estimation of the anharmonic contributions to the free energy of a polypeptide helix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismer, Lars; Ireta, Joel; Neugebauer, Jörg

    2011-08-01

    We have employed density functional theory to determine the temperature dependence of the intrinsic stability of an infinite poly-L-alanine helix. The most relevant helix types, i.e., the ?- and the 310 - helix, and several unfolded conformations, which serve as reference for the stability analysis, have been included. For the calculation of the free energies for the various chain conformations we have explicitly included both, harmonic and anharmonic contributions. The latter have been calculated by means of a thermodynamic integration approach employing stochastic Langevin molecular dynamics, which is shown to provide a dramatic increase in the computational efficiency as compared to commonly employed deterministic molecular dynamics schemes. Employing this approach we demonstrate that the anharmonic part of the free energy amounts to the order of 0.1-0.4 kcal/mol per peptide unit for all analysed conformations. Although small, the anharmonic contribution stabilizes the helical conformations with respect to the fully extended structure.

  18. Identifying DNA-binding proteins using structural motifs and the electrostatic potential

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hugh P. Shanahan; Mario A. Garcia; Susan Jones; Janet M. Thornton

    2004-01-01

    Robust methods to detect DNA-binding proteins from structures of unknown function are important for structural biology. This paper describes a method for identifying such proteins that (i) have a solvent accessible structural motif necessary for DNA- binding and (ii) a positive electrostatic potential in the region of the binding region. We focus on three structural motifs: helix-turn-helix (HTH), helix- hairpin-helix

  19. Plasma effect in tape helix traveling-wave tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saviz, S.; Salehizadeh, F.

    2014-05-01

    A linearized relativistic field theory of a plasma-loaded helix traveling-wave tube is presented for a configuration where a solid electron beam propagate through a sheath helix enclosed within a loss-free wall in which the gap between the helix and the outer wall is filled with a dielectric. Numerical study of the effect of plasma density on the phase velocity and growth rate has been done. Numerical results show that the plasma have different behaviors in different density limits.

  20. Six-helix bundle assembly and characterization of heptad repeat regions from the F protein of Newcastle disease virus

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Ming Yu; Enxiu Wang; Youfang Liu; Dianjun Cao; Ningyi Jin; Catherine W.-H. Zhang; Mark Bartlam; Zihe Rao; Po Tien; George F. Gao

    2002-01-01

    Paramyxoviruses may adopt a similar fusion mech- anism to other enveloped viruses, in which an anti- parallel six-helix bundle structure is formed post- fusion in the heptad repeat (HR) regions of the envelope fusion protein. In order to understand the fusion mechanism and identify fusion inhibitors of Newcastle disease virus (NDV), a member of the Paramyxoviridae family, we have developed

  1. 12 Helix Bundle DNA Origami Folding Protocol This protocol describes the folding reaction for creating DNA origami from a long

    E-print Network

    12 Helix Bundle DNA Origami Folding Protocol This protocol describes the folding reaction for creating DNA origami from a long ssDNA scaffold strand may need to be run in water baths to prevent hot gels from melting origami structures

  2. The structure of an integrin/talin complex reveals the basis of inside-out signal transduction

    PubMed Central

    Anthis, Nicholas J; Wegener, Kate L; Ye, Feng; Kim, Chungho; Goult, Benjamin T; Lowe, Edward D; Vakonakis, Ioannis; Bate, Neil; Critchley, David R; Ginsberg, Mark H; Campbell, Iain D

    2009-01-01

    Fundamental to cell adhesion and migration, integrins are large heterodimeric membrane proteins that uniquely mediate inside-out signal transduction, whereby adhesion to the extracellular matrix is activated from within the cell by direct binding of talin to the cytoplasmic tail of the ? integrin subunit. Here, we report the first structure of talin bound to an authentic full-length ? integrin tail. Using biophysical and whole cell measurements, we show that a specific ionic interaction between the talin F3 domain and the membrane–proximal helix of the ? tail disrupts an integrin ?/? salt bridge that helps maintain the integrin inactive state. Second, we identify a positively charged surface on the talin F2 domain that precisely orients talin to disrupt the heterodimeric integrin transmembrane (TM) complex. These results show key structural features that explain the ability of talin to mediate inside-out TM signalling. PMID:19798053

  3. A gatekeeper helix determines the substrate specificity of Sjögren-Larsson Syndrome enzyme fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Keller, Markus A; Zander, Ulrich; Fuchs, Julian E; Kreutz, Christoph; Watschinger, Katrin; Mueller, Thomas; Golderer, Georg; Liedl, Klaus R; Ralser, Markus; Kräutler, Bernhard; Werner, Ernst R; Marquez, Jose A

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in the gene coding for membrane-bound fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase (FALDH) lead to toxic accumulation of lipid species and development of the Sjögren-Larsson Syndrome (SLS), a rare disorder characterized by skin defects and mental retardation. Here, we present the crystallographic structure of human FALDH, the first model of a membrane-associated aldehyde dehydrogenase. The dimeric FALDH displays a previously unrecognized element in its C-terminal region, a 'gatekeeper' helix, which extends over the adjacent subunit, controlling the access to the substrate cavity and helping orientate both substrate cavities towards the membrane surface for efficient substrate transit between membranes and catalytic site. Activity assays demonstrate that the gatekeeper helix is important for directing the substrate specificity of FALDH towards long-chain fatty aldehydes. The gatekeeper feature is conserved across membrane-associated aldehyde dehydrogenases. Finally, we provide insight into the previously elusive molecular basis of SLS-causing mutations. PMID:25047030

  4. Trypanosoma cruzi macrophage infectivity potentiator has a rotamase core and a highly exposed alpha-helix.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Pedro José Barbosa; Vega, M Cristina; González-Rey, Elena; Fernández-Carazo, Rafael; Macedo-Ribeiro, Sandra; Gomis-Rüth, F Xavier; González, Antonio; Coll, Miquel

    2002-01-01

    The macrophage infectivity potentiator protein from Trypanosoma cruzi (TcMIP) is a major virulence factor secreted by the etiological agent of Chagas' disease. It is functionally involved in host cell invasion. We have determined the three-dimensional crystal structure of TcMIP at 1.7 A resolution. The monomeric protein displays a peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase (PPIase) core, encompassing the characteristic rotamase hydrophobic active site, thus explaining the strong inhibition of TcMIP by the immunosuppressant FK506 and related drugs. In TcMIP, the twisted beta-sheet of the core is extended by an extra beta-strand, preceded by a long, exposed N-terminal alpha-helix, which might be a target recognition element. An invasion assay shows that the MIP protein from Legionella pneumophila (LpMIP), which has an equivalent N-terminal alpha-helix, can substitute for TcMIP. An additional exposed alpha-helix, this one unique to TcMIP, is located in the C-terminus of the protein. The high-resolution structure reported here opens the possibility for the design of new inhibitory drugs that might be useful for the clinical treatment of American trypanosomiasis. PMID:11751578

  5. Conformational stability and activity of p73 require a second helix in the tetramerization domain.

    PubMed

    Coutandin, D; Löhr, F; Niesen, F H; Ikeya, T; Weber, T A; Schäfer, B; Zielonka, E M; Bullock, A N; Yang, A; Güntert, P; Knapp, S; McKeon, F; Ou, H D; Dötsch, V

    2009-12-01

    p73 and p63, the two ancestral members of the p53 family, are involved in neurogenesis, epithelial stem cell maintenance and quality control of female germ cells. The highly conserved oligomerization domain (OD) of tumor suppressor p53 is essential for its biological functions, and its structure was believed to be the prototype for all three proteins. However, we report that the ODs of p73 and p63 differ from the OD of p53 by containing an additional alpha-helix that is not present in the structure of the p53 OD. Deletion of this helix causes a dissociation of the OD into dimers; it also causes conformational instability and reduces the transcriptional activity of p73. Moreover, we show that ODs of p73 and p63 strongly interact and that a large number of different heterotetramers are supported by the additional helix. Detailed analysis shows that the heterotetramer consisting of two homodimers is thermodynamically more stable than the two homotetramers. No heterooligomerization between p53 and the p73/p63 subfamily was observed, supporting the notion of functional orthogonality within the p53 family. PMID:19763140

  6. Opioid receptor three-dimensional structures from distance geometry calculations with hydrogen bonding constraints.

    PubMed Central

    Pogozheva, I D; Lomize, A L; Mosberg, H I

    1998-01-01

    Three-dimensional structures of the transmembrane, seven alpha-helical domains and extracellular loops of delta, mu, and kappa opioid receptors, were calculated using the distance geometry algorithm, with hydrogen bonding constraints based on the previously developed general model of the transmembrane alpha-bundle for rhodopsin-like G-protein coupled receptors (Biophys. J. 1997. 70:1963). Each calculated opioid receptor structure has an extensive network of interhelical hydrogen bonds and a ligand-binding crevice that is partially covered by a beta-hairpin formed by the second extracellular loop. The binding cavities consist of an inner "conserved region" composed of 18 residues that are identical in delta, mu, and kappa opioid receptors, and a peripheral "variable region," composed of 19 residues that are different in delta, mu, and kappa subtypes and are responsible for the subtype specificity of various ligands. Sixteen delta-, mu-, or kappa-selective, conformationally constrained peptide and nonpeptide opioid agonists and antagonists and affinity labels were fit into the binding pockets of the opioid receptors. All ligands considered have a similar spatial arrangement in the receptors, with the tyramine moiety of alkaloids or Tyr1 of opioid peptides interacting with conserved residues in the bottom of the pocket and the tyramine N+ and OH groups forming ionic interactions or H-bonds with a conserved aspartate from helix III and a conserved histidine from helix VI, respectively. The central, conformationally constrained fragments of the opioids (the disulfide-bridged cycles of the peptides and various ring structures in the nonpeptide ligands) are oriented approximately perpendicular to the tyramine and directed toward the extracellular surface. The results obtained are qualitatively consistent with ligand affinities, cross-linking studies, and mutagenesis data. PMID:9675164

  7. Identification of a critical residue in the transmembrane domain 2 of tachykinin neurokinin 3 receptor affecting the dissociation kinetics and antagonism mode of osanetant (SR 142801) and piperidine-based structures.

    PubMed

    Malherbe, Pari; Kratzeisen, Claudia; Marcuz, Anne; Zenner, Marie-Thérèse; Nettekoven, Matthias H; Ratni, Hasane; Wettstein, Joseph G; Bissantz, Caterina

    2009-11-26

    In this study, we show that compound 3 (osanetant) binds with a pseudoirreversible, apparent noncompetitive mode of antagonism at the guinea pig NK(3), while it behaves competitively at the human NK(3). This difference is caused by a slower dissociation rate of compound 3 at the guinea pig NK(3) compared to human NK(3). The only amino acid difference between the human and guinea pig NK(3) in the binding site (Thr139(2.58) in human, corresponding to Ala114(2.58) in guinea pig) has been shown to be responsible for the different behavior. Compound 1 (talnetant), however, behaves competitively at both receptors. Using these data, 3D homology modeling, and site-directed mutagenesis, a model has been developed to predict the mode of antagonism of NK(3) antagonists based on their binding mode. This model was successfully used to predict the mode of antagonism of compounds of another chemical series including piperidine-based structures at human and guinea pig NK(3). PMID:19817444

  8. Etude histologique et ultrastructurale de la gonade d'Helix aspersa Mller l'closion

    E-print Network

    Paris-Sud XI, Université de

    Etude histologique et ultrastructurale de la gonade d'Helix aspersa Müller à l'éclosion Bernadette of the gonad of Helix aspersa Mbiler at hatching. The gonad of young Helix aspersa, studied by light ultrastructurale de la gonade d'Helix aspersa élevés au laboratoire, en nous limitant à la première semaine qui

  9. [Polymethoxylated flavonoids activate cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator chloride channel].

    PubMed

    Cao, Huan-Huan; Fang, Fang; Yu, Bo; Luan, Jian; Jiang, Yu; Yang, Hong

    2015-04-25

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), a cAMP-dependent chloride channel, plays key roles in fluid secretion in serous epithelial cells. Previously, we identified two polymethoxylated flavonoids, 3',4',5,5',6,7-hexamethoxyflavone (HMF) and 5-hydroxy-6,7,3',4'-tetramethoxyflavone (HTF) which could potentiate CFTR chloride channel activities. The present study was aimed to investigate the potentiation effects of HMF and HTF on CFTR Cl(-) channel activities by using a cell-based fluorescence assay and the short circuit Ussing chamber assay. The results of cell-based fluorescence assay showed that both HMF and HTF could dose-dependently potentiate CFTR Cl(-) channel activities in rapid and reversible ways, and the activations could be reversed by the CFTR blocker CFTRinh-172. Notably, HMF showed the highest affinity (EC50 = 2 ?mol/L) to CFTR protein among the flavonoid CFTR activators identified so far. The activation of CFTR by HMF or HTF was forskolin (FSK) dependent. Both compounds showed additive effect with FSK and 3-Isobutyl-1-methylx (IBMX) in the activation of CFTR, while had no additive effect with genistein (GEN). In ex vivo studies, HMF and HTF could stimulate transepithelial Cl(-) secretion in rat colonic mucosa and enhance fluid secretion in mouse trachea submucosal glands. These results suggest that HMF and HTF may potentiate CFTR Cl(-) channel activities through both elevation of cAMP level and binding to CFTR protein pathways. The results provide new clues in elucidating structure and activity relationship of flavonoid CFTR activators. HMF might be developed as a new drug in the therapy of CFTR-related diseases such as bronchiectasis and habitual constipation. PMID:25896054

  10. Concentration-Temperature Superposition of Helix Folding Rates in Gelatin

    E-print Network

    J. L. Gornall; E. M. Terentjev

    2006-03-05

    We study the kinetics of helix-coil transition in water solutions of gelatin (collagen protein) by optical rotation techniques combined with thermal characterization. By examining the rates of secondary helix folding, and covering a very wide range of solution concentrations, we are able to identify a universal exponential dependence of folding rate on concentration and quench temperature. We demonstrate a new concentration-temperature superposition of data at all temperatures and concentrations, and build the corresponding master curve. The results support the concept of a diffuse helix-coil transition. We find no concentration dependance of the normalized rate constant, suggesting first order (single) kinetics of secondary helix folding dominate in the early stages of renaturation.

  11. Helix Nebula (NGC 7293) www.nasa.gov

    E-print Network

    larger than our entire solar system. The Helix Nebula is the nearest example of what happens to a star Center, Greenbelt, Maryland. South Korea and France are the international partners in the mission

  12. Evidence supporting the existence of a NUPR1-like family of helix-loop-helix chromatin proteins related to, yet distinct from, AT hook-containing HMG proteins.

    PubMed

    Urrutia, Raul; Velez, Gabriel; Lin, Marisa; Lomberk, Gwen; Neira, Jose Luis; Iovanna, Juan

    2014-08-01

    NUPR1, a small chromatin protein, plays a critical role in cancer development, progression, and resistance to therapy. Here, using a combination of structural bioinformatics and molecular modeling methods, we report several novel findings that enhance our understanding of the biochemical function of this protein. We find that NUPR1 has been conserved throughout evolution, and over time it has undergone duplications and transpositions to form other transcriptional regulators. Using threading, homology-based molecular modeling, molecular mechanics calculations, and molecular dynamics simulations, we generated structural models for four of these proteins: NUPR1a, NUPR1b, NUPR2, and the NUPR-like domain of GTF2-I. Comparative analyses of these models combined with extensive linear motif identification reveal that these four proteins, though similar in their propensities for folding, differ in size, surface changes, and sites amenable for posttranslational modification. Lastly, taking NUPR1a as the paradigm for this family, we built models of a NUPR-DNA complex. Additional structural comparisons revealed that NUPR1 defines a new family of small-groove-binding proteins that share structural features with, yet are distinct from, helix-loop-helix AT-hook-containing HMG proteins. These models and inferences should lead to a better understanding of the function of this group of chromatin proteins, which play a critical role in the development of human malignant diseases. PMID:25056123

  13. The linker histone homolog Hho1p from Saccharomyces cerevisiae represents a winged helix–turn–helix fold as determined by NMR spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Ono, Katsuki; Kusano, Osamu; Shimotakahara, Sakurako; Shimizu, Mitsuhiro; Yamazaki, Toshimasa; Shindo, Heisaburo

    2003-01-01

    Hho1p is assumed to serve as a linker histone in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and, notably, it possesses two putative globular domains, designated HD1 (residues 41–118) and HD2 (residues 171–252), that are homologous to histone H5 from chicken erythrocytes. We have determined the three-dimensional structure of globular domain HD1 with high precision by heteronuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The structure had a winged helix–turn–helix motif composed of an ?????? fold and closely resembled the structure of the globular domain of histone H5. Interestingly, the second globular domain, HD2, in Hho1p was unstructured under physiological conditions. Gel mobility assay demonstrated that Hho1p preferentially binds to supercoiled DNA over linearized DNA. Furthermore, NMR analysis of the complex of a deletion mutant protein (residues 1–118) of Hho1p with a linear DNA duplex revealed that four regions within the globular domain HD1 are involved in the DNA binding. The above results suggested that Hho1p possesses properties similar to those of linker histones in higher eukaryotes in terms of the structure and binding preference towards supercoiled DNA. PMID:14654695

  14. Protonation-mediated structural flexibility in the F conjugation regulatory protein, TraM

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jun; Edwards, Ross A; Wong, Joyce J W; Manchak, Jan; Scott, Paul G; Frost, Laura S; Glover, J N Mark

    2006-01-01

    TraM is essential for F plasmid-mediated bacterial conjugation, where it binds to the plasmid DNA near the origin of transfer, and recognizes a component of the transmembrane DNA transfer complex, TraD. Here we report the 1.40 ? crystal structure of the TraM core tetramer (TraM58–127). TraM58–127 is a compact eight-helical bundle, in which the N-terminal helices from each protomer interact to form a central, parallel four-stranded coiled-coil, whereas each C-terminal helix packs in an antiparallel arrangement around the outside of the structure. Four protonated glutamic acid residues (Glu88) are packed in a hydrogen-bonded arrangement within the central four-helix bundle. Mutational and biophysical analyses indicate that this protonated state is in equilibrium with a deprotonated tetrameric form characterized by a lower helical content at physiological pH and temperature. Comparison of TraM to its Glu88 mutants predicted to stabilize the helical structure suggests that the protonated state is the active form for binding TraD in conjugation. PMID:16710295

  15. Cytoplasmic and transmembrane domains of integrin beta 1 and beta 3 subunits are functionally interchangeable

    PubMed Central

    1991-01-01

    Integrin beta subunits combine with specific sets of alpha subunits to form functional adhesion receptors. The structure and binding properties of integrins suggest the presence of domains controlling at least three major functions: subunit association, ligand binding, and cytoskeletal interactions. To more carefully define structure/function relationships, a cDNA construct consisting of the extracellular domain of the avian beta 1 subunit and the cytoplasmic and transmembrane domains of the human beta 3 subunit was prepared and expressed in murine 3T3 cells. The resulting chimeric beta 1/3 subunit formed heterodimers with alpha subunits from the beta 1 subfamily, could not interact with alpha IIb from the beta 3 subfamily, was targeted to focal contacts, and formed functional complexes within the focal contacts. A second cDNA construct was prepared that coded for an avian beta 1 subunit without a transmembrane or cytoplasmic domain. This subunit was not found in association with an accompanying alpha subunit, nor was it found expressed on the cell surface. Instead, it accumulated in vesicles within the cytoplasm and was eventually shed from the cell. The results from studies of the behavior of these two cDNA constructs demonstrate that the transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains play no role in alpha subunit selection, that the cytoplasmic domain of beta 3 is capable of functioning in the context of alpha subunits with which it is not normally paired, and that both integrin subunits must be membrane associated for normal assembly and transport to cell surface adhesive structures. PMID:1908469

  16. The effects of transmembrane sequence and dimerization on cleavage of the p75 neurotrophin receptor by ?-secretase.

    PubMed

    Sykes, Alex M; Palstra, Nickless; Abankwa, Daniel; Hill, Justine M; Skeldal, Sune; Matusica, Dusan; Venkatraman, Prahatha; Hancock, John F; Coulson, Elizabeth J

    2012-12-21

    Cleavage of transmembrane receptors by ?-secretase is the final step in the process of regulated intramembrane proteolysis (RIP) and has a significant impact on receptor function. Although relatively little is known about the molecular mechanism of ?-secretase enzymatic activity, it is becoming clear that substrate dimerization and/or the ?-helical structure of the substrate can regulate the site and rate of ?-secretase activity. Here we show that the transmembrane domain of the pan-neurotrophin receptor p75(NTR), best known for regulating neuronal death, is sufficient for its homodimerization. Although the p75(NTR) ligands NGF and pro-NGF do not induce homerdimerization or RIP, homodimers of p75(NTR) are ?-secretase substrates. However, dimerization is not a requirement for p75(NTR) cleavage, suggesting that ?-secretase has the ability to recognize and cleave each receptor molecule independently. The transmembrane cysteine 257, which mediates covalent p75(NTR) interactions, is not crucial for homodimerization, but this residue is required for normal rates of ?-secretase cleavage. Similarly, mutation of the residues alanine 262 and glycine 266 of an AXXXG dimerization motif flanking the ?-secretase cleavage site within the p75(NTR) transmembrane domain alters the orientation of the domain and inhibits ?-secretase cleavage of p75(NTR). Nonetheless, heteromer interactions of p75(NTR) with TrkA increase full-length p75(NTR) homodimerization, which in turn potentiates the rate of ?-cleavage following TrkA activation independently of rates of ?-cleavage. These results provide support for the idea that the helical structure of the p75(NTR) transmembrane domain, which may be affected by co-receptor interactions, is a key element in ?-secretase-catalyzed cleavage. PMID:23105112

  17. The Effects of Transmembrane Sequence and Dimerization on Cleavage of the p75 Neurotrophin Receptor by ?-Secretase*

    PubMed Central

    Sykes, Alex M.; Palstra, Nickless; Abankwa, Daniel; Hill, Justine M.; Skeldal, Sune; Matusica, Dusan; Venkatraman, Prahatha; Hancock, John F.; Coulson, Elizabeth J.

    2012-01-01

    Cleavage of transmembrane receptors by ?-secretase is the final step in the process of regulated intramembrane proteolysis (RIP) and has a significant impact on receptor function. Although relatively little is known about the molecular mechanism of ?-secretase enzymatic activity, it is becoming clear that substrate dimerization and/or the ?-helical structure of the substrate can regulate the site and rate of ?-secretase activity. Here we show that the transmembrane domain of the pan-neurotrophin receptor p75NTR, best known for regulating neuronal death, is sufficient for its homodimerization. Although the p75NTR ligands NGF and pro-NGF do not induce homerdimerization or RIP, homodimers of p75NTR are ?-secretase substrates. However, dimerization is not a requirement for p75NTR cleavage, suggesting that ?-secretase has the ability to recognize and cleave each receptor molecule independently. The transmembrane cysteine 257, which mediates covalent p75NTR interactions, is not crucial for homodimerization, but this residue is required for normal rates of ?-secretase cleavage. Similarly, mutation of the residues alanine 262 and glycine 266 of an AXXXG dimerization motif flanking the ?-secretase cleavage site within the p75NTR transmembrane domain alters the orientation of the domain and inhibits ?-secretase cleavage of p75NTR. Nonetheless, heteromer interactions of p75NTR with TrkA increase full-length p75NTR homodimerization, which in turn potentiates the rate of ?-cleavage following TrkA activation independently of rates of ?-cleavage. These results provide support for the idea that the helical structure of the p75NTR transmembrane domain, which may be affected by co-receptor interactions, is a key element in ?-secretase-catalyzed cleavage. PMID:23105112

  18. 6th Golden Helix Pharmacogenomics Day: pharmacogenomics and individualized therapy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The Golden Helix Pharmacogenomics Days are international scientific meetings aiming to educate healthcare professionals and biomedical scientists about pharmacogenomics and personalized medicine. In this meeting report, we provide an overview of the scientific lectures and the topics discussed during the 6th Golden Helix Pharmacogenomics Day that was held in Belgrade, Serbia last June 5, 2012. The scientific program included lectures by the local and international speakers from Europe and the United States. PMID:23157848

  19. Über die Wirkungsweise der Urease von Helix Pomatia

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Renate Russ

    1956-01-01

    1.Für Untersuchungen mit Helix-Urease eignet sich 75% ige Krebs-Rtnger-Lösung am besten. Pflanzliche Urease zeigt dagegen in Phosphatund Citratpuffer eine stärkere Spaltung als in Krebs-Ringer-Lösung.2.Wie bei der pflanzlichen Urease folgt die Spaltung des Harnstoffs durch Helix-Urease einer Reaktion nullter Ordnung. Das Ferment besitzt ebenso wie die pflanzliche Urease eine absolute Substratspezifität und wird durch Spaltprodukte gehemmt. Von den untersuchten Harnstoffderivaten vermindern

  20. 6th Golden Helix Pharmacogenomics Day: pharmacogenomics and individualized therapy.

    PubMed

    Stojiljkovic, Maja; Fazlagic, Amira; Dokmanovic-Krivokapic, Lidija; Nikcevic, Gordana; Patrinos, George P; Pavlovic, Sonja; Zukic, Branka

    2012-01-01

    The Golden Helix Pharmacogenomics Days are international scientific meetings aiming to educate healthcare professionals and biomedical scientists about pharmacogenomics and personalized medicine. In this meeting report, we provide an overview of the scientific lectures and the topics discussed during the 6th Golden Helix Pharmacogenomics Day that was held in Belgrade, Serbia last June 5, 2012. The scientific program included lectures by the local and international speakers from Europe and the United States. PMID:23157848

  1. Nucleotide-dependent displacement and dynamics of the ?-1 helix in kinesin revealed by site-directed spin labeling EPR

    SciTech Connect

    Yasuda, Satoshi; Yanagi, Takanori [Department of Biological Sciences, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan)] [Department of Biological Sciences, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Yamada, Masafumi D. [Division of Bioengineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Soka University, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-8577 (Japan)] [Division of Bioengineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Soka University, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-8577 (Japan); Ueki, Shoji [Kagawa School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tokushima Bunri University, Shido 1314-1, Samuki, Kagawa 769-2193 (Japan)] [Kagawa School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Tokushima Bunri University, Shido 1314-1, Samuki, Kagawa 769-2193 (Japan); Maruta, Shinsaku [Division of Bioengineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Soka University, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-8577 (Japan)] [Division of Bioengineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Soka University, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-8577 (Japan); Inoue, Akio [Department of Biological Sciences, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan)] [Department of Biological Sciences, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Arata, Toshiaki, E-mail: arata@bio.sci.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Biological Sciences, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan)] [Department of Biological Sciences, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan)

    2014-01-17

    Highlights: •Dipolar EPR detects the distance between the spin-labeled kinesin ?-1 and ?-2 helices. •The distance has at least two populations: 1.5 nm (in crystal form: 20%) and >2.5 nm. •The short distance conformer was populated 40% in the apo state with microtubules. •ATP analog or ADP binding caused the 1.5 nm distance to be less populated (?20%). •The ?-1 helix moves closer to the neck-linker (away from ?-2) to facilitate docking. -- Abstract: In kinesin X-ray crystal structures, the N-terminal region of the ?-1 helix is adjacent to the adenine ring of the bound nucleotide, while the C-terminal region of the helix is near the neck-linker (NL). Here, we monitor the displacement of the ?-1 helix within a kinesin monomer bound to microtubules (MTs) in the presence or absence of nucleotides using site-directed spin labeling EPR. Kinesin was doubly spin-labeled at the ?-1 and ?-2 helices, and the resulting EPR spectrum showed dipolar broadening. The inter-helix distance distribution showed that 20% of the spins have a peak characteristic of 1.4–1.7 nm separation, which is similar to what is predicted from the X-ray crystal structure, albeit 80% were beyond the sensitivity limit (>2.5 nm) of the method. Upon MT binding, the fraction of kinesin exhibiting an inter-helix distance of 1.4–1.7 nm in the presence of AMPPNP (a non-hydrolysable ATP analog) and ADP was 20% and 25%, respectively. In the absence of nucleotide, this fraction increased to 40–50%. These nucleotide-induced changes in the fraction of kinesin undergoing displacement of the ?-1 helix were found to be related to the fraction in which the NL undocked from the motor core. It is therefore suggested that a shift in the ?-1 helix conformational equilibrium occurs upon nucleotide binding and release, and this shift controls NL docking onto the motor core.

  2. Structural mechanism of voltage-dependent gating in an isolated voltage-sensing domain.

    PubMed

    Li, Qufei; Wanderling, Sherry; Paduch, Marcin; Medovoy, David; Singharoy, Abhishek; McGreevy, Ryan; Villalba-Galea, Carlos A; Hulse, Raymond E; Roux, Benoît; Schulten, Klaus; Kossiakoff, Anthony; Perozo, Eduardo

    2014-03-01

    The transduction of transmembrane electric fields into protein motion has an essential role in the generation and propagation of cellular signals. Voltage-sensing domains (VSDs) carry out these functions through reorientations of positive charges in the S4 helix. Here, we determined crystal structures of the Ciona intestinalis VSD (Ci-VSD) in putatively active and resting conformations. S4 undergoes an ~5-Å displacement along its main axis, accompanied by an ~60° rotation. This movement is stabilized by an exchange in countercharge partners in helices S1 and S3 that generates an estimated net charge transfer of ~1 eo. Gating charges move relative to a ''hydrophobic gasket' that electrically divides intra- and extracellular compartments. EPR spectroscopy confirms the limited nature of S4 movement in a membrane environment. These results provide an explicit mechanism for voltage sensing and set the basis for electromechanical coupling in voltage-dependent enzymes and ion channels. PMID:24487958

  3. Prefusion structure of syntaxin-1A suggests pathway for folding into neuronal trans-SNARE complex fusion intermediate.

    PubMed

    Liang, Binyong; Kiessling, Volker; Tamm, Lukas K

    2013-11-26

    The assembly of the three neuronal soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein (SNAP) receptor (SNARE) proteins synaptobrevin 2, syntaxin-1A, and SNAP-25 is the key step that leads to exocytotic fusion of synaptic vesicles. In the fully assembled SNARE complex, these three proteins form a coiled-coil four-helix bundle structure by interaction of their respective SNARE motifs. Although biochemical and mutational analyses strongly suggest that the heptad-repeat SNARE motifs zipper into the final structure, little is known about the prefusion state of individual membrane-bound SNAREs and how they change conformation from the unzippered prefusion to the zippered postfusion state in a membrane environment. We have solved the solution NMR structure of micelle-bound syntaxin-1A in its prefusion conformation. In addition to the transmembrane helix, the SNARE motif consists of two well-ordered, membrane-bound helices separated by the "0-layer" residue Gln226. This unexpected structural order of the N- and C-terminal halves of the uncomplexed SNARE motif suggests the formation of partially zippered SNARE complex intermediates, with the 0-layer serving as a proofreading site for correct SNARE assembly. Interferometric fluorescence measurements in lipid bilayers confirm that the open SNARE motif helices of syntaxin interact with lipid bilayers and that association with the other target-membrane SNARE SNAP-25 lifts the SNARE motif off the membrane as a critical prerequisite for SNARE complex assembly and membrane fusion. PMID:24218570

  4. Effects of radiation on DNA's double helix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The blueprint of life, DNA's double helix is found in the cells of everything from bacteria to astronauts. Exposure to radiation(depicted at right) such as X-rays (upper) or heavy ion particles (lower), can damage DNA and cause dire consequences both to the organism itself and to future generations. One of NASA's main goals is to develop better radiation shielding materials to protect astronauts from destructive radiation in space. This is particularly important for long space missions. NASA has selected researchers to study materials that provide better shielding. This research is managed by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research and is supported by the Microgravity Science and Applications Department at NASA's Marshall Center. During International Space Station Expedition Six, the Extravehicular Activity Radiation Monitoring (EVARM) will continue to measure radiation dosage encountered by the eyes, internal organs and skin during specific spacewalks, and relate it to the type of activity, location and other factors. An analysis of this information may be useful in mitigating potential exposure to space walkers in the future. (Illustration by Dr. Frank Cucinotta, NASA/Johnson Space Center, and Prem Saganti, Lockheed Martin)

  5. Repair of triple helix directed psoralen adducts in human cells.

    PubMed Central

    Sandor, Z; Bredberg, A

    1994-01-01

    Triple helix forming oligonucleotides can direct DNA damaging agents at specific sites in an intact double helix. In our study, triple helix formation was demonstrated in a SV40 based shuttle vector treated with psoralen linked to a 22-mer purine rich oligonucleotide. UVA irradiation caused a covalent linkage of the oligonucleotide through the psoralen to the mutational supF marker gene of the plasmid. After passage in the Jurkat human cell line the recovered vector was analysed in an indicator bacterial strain and mutants were collected. The presence of adducts in the target sequence did not reduce the yield of replicated progeny vector molecules, indicating repair of triple helix associated monoadducts and cross-links. Mutations were highly targeted to a six nucleotide long region of the target sequence. The number of target sequence mutants obtained after triple helix directed psoralen treatment was approximately 160 times higher than with free psoralen. A further investigation of the exact mechanism of the mutational process could make triple helix directed mutagenesis a more useful tool in gene therapy, antiviral therapy, and in studies on DNA repair and genome organisation. Images PMID:8029011

  6. ROLE OF RECEPTOR TYROSINE KINASE TRANSMEMBRANE DOMAINS IN CELL SIGNALING AND HUMAN PATHOLOGIES

    PubMed Central

    Li, Edwin; Hristova, Kalina

    2015-01-01

    Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) conduct biochemical signals via lateral dimerization in thwe plasma membrane, and their transmembrane (TM) domains play an important role in the dimerization process. Here we present two models of RTK-mediated signaling, and we discuss the role of the TM domains within the framework of these two models. We summarize findings of single amino acid mutations in RTK TM domains that induce unregulated signaling and, as a consequence, pathological phenotypes. We review current knowledge of pathology induction mechanisms due to these mutations, focusing on the structural and thermodynamic basis of pathogenic dimer stabilization. PMID:16700535

  7. Intramembrane Bis-Heme Motif for Transmembrane Electron

    E-print Network

    Manstein, Dietmar J.

    Intramembrane Bis-Heme Motif for Transmembrane Electron Transport Conserved in a Yeast Iron is required for iron uptake in yeast (10). FRE1 is required for the major (90%) extracellular ferric reductase and then transported into the cell by the high-affinity iron uptake sys- tem (11). Thus, this iron reductase of yeast

  8. Anoctamin and transmembrane channel-like proteins are evolutionarily related

    PubMed Central

    HAHN, YOONSOO; KIM, DONG SEON; PASTAN, IRA H.; LEE, BYUNGKOOK

    2009-01-01

    Anoctamin (ANO) family of proteins, consisting of 10 members in mammals, are transmembrane proteins that have Ca2+-activated Cl- channel activities. Transmembrane channel-like (TMC) family of proteins, consisting of 8 members in mammals, are also transmembrane proteins of which mutations are implicated in various human conditions, such as hearing loss and epidermodysplasia verruciformis. Here we show that ANO and TMC proteins share high sequence similarity and probably the same membrane topology, indicating that these proteins are evolutionarily related. We found many conserved amino acid residues between the two families of proteins, especially in regions spanning the transmembrane domains TM1, TM4-TM5, and TM6-TM7. These findings imply that these proteins form one large family, which we term ANO/TMC superfamily and that TMC proteins may also function as channels for Cl- or possibly other ions. The ANO/TMC superfamily proteins are present in almost all the diverse groups of eukaryotic organisms, suggesting that the proteins function in important biological processes, such as ion homeostasis, in eukaryotic cells. PMID:19513534

  9. Double Cushions Preserve Transmembrane Protein Mobility in Supported Bilayer Systems

    E-print Network

    of various molecular weights to a glass substrate that has first been passivated with a sacrificial layer with underlying planar glass supports. These include van der Waals, electrostatic, hydrophobic, and steric the protein and the underlying substrate. Herein, we demonstrate a highly mobile fraction for a transmembrane

  10. Double Cushions Preserve Transmembrane Protein Mobility in Supported Bilayer Systems

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, Arnaldo J.; Albertorio, Fernando; Daniel, Susan; Cremer, Paul S.

    2012-01-01

    Supported lipid bilayers (SLBs) have been widely used as model systems to study cell membrane processes because they preserve the same 2D membrane fluidity found in living cells. One of the most significant limitations of this platform, however, is its inability to incorporate mobile transmembrane species. It is often postulated that transmembrane proteins reconstituted in SLBs lose their mobility because of direct interactions between the protein and the underlying substrate. Herein, we demonstrate a highly mobile fraction for a transmembrane protein, annexin V. Our strategy involves supporting the lipid bilayer on a double cushion, where we not only create a large space to accommodate the transmembrane portion of the macromolecule but also passivate the underlying substrate to reduce nonspecific protein–substrate interactions. The thickness of the confined water layer can be tuned by fusing vesicles containing polyethyleneglycol (PEG)-conjugated lipids of various molecular weights to a glass substrate that has first been passivated with a sacrificial layer of bovine serum albumin (BSA). The 2D fluidity of these systems was characterized by fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) measurements. Uniform, mobile phospholipid bilayers with lipid diffusion coefficients of around 3 × 10?8 cm2/s and percent mobile fractions of over 95% were obtained. Moreover, we obtained annexin V diffusion coefficients that were also around 3 × 10?8 cm2/s with mobile fractions of up to 75%. This represents a significant improvement over bilayer platforms fabricated directly on glass or using single cushion strategies. PMID:18510376

  11. Control of phospholipid flip-flop by transmembrane peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaihara, Masanori; Nakao, Hiroyuki; Yokoyama, Hirokazu; Endo, Hitoshi; Ishihama, Yasushi; Handa, Tetsurou; Nakano, Minoru

    2013-06-01

    We designed three types of transmembrane model peptides whose sequence originates from a frequently used model peptide KALP23, and we investigated their effects on phospholipid flip-flop. Time-resolved small-angle neutron scattering and a dithionite fluorescent quenching assay demonstrated that TMP-L, which has a fully hydrophobic transmembrane region, did not enhance phospholipid flip-flop, whereas TMP-K and TMP-E, which have Lys and Glu, respectively, in the center of their transmembrane regions, enhanced phospholipid flip-flop. Introduction of polar residues in the membrane-spanning helices is considered to produce a locally polar region and enable the lipid head group to interact with the polar side-chain inside the bilayers, thereby reducing the activation energy for the flip-flop. A bioinformatics approach revealed that acidic and basic residues account for 4.5% of the central region of the transmembrane domain in human ER membrane proteins. Therefore, polar residues in ER membrane proteins are considered to provide flippase-like activity.

  12. Calculating the Free Energy of Association of Transmembrane Helices

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Jinming Zhang; Themis Lazaridis

    2006-01-01

    A large number of experimental studies have been devoted to quantifying the interaction between transmembrane (TM) helices in detergent micelles and, more recently, in bilayers. Theoretical calculation of association free energy of TM helices would be useful for predicting the propensity of given sequences to oligomerize and for understanding the difference between association in micelles and in bilayers. In this

  13. Transmembrane Protein Oxygen Content and Compartmentalization of Cells

    E-print Network

    Gerstein, Mark

    macroevolutionary time scales where the authors observed a correlation between the geological time of appearance with atmospheric oxygen concentrations in geological timescale. They hypothesized that transmembrane proteins. However, the events that led to this shift are not clear. On a sample size of 19 proteomes that comprised

  14. Molecular cloning and chromosomal localization of the murine homolog of the human helix-loop-helix gene SCL

    Microsoft Academic Search

    C. G. Begley; J. Visvader; A. R. Green; D. Metcalf; N. M. Gough; P. D. Aplan; I. R. Kirsch

    1991-01-01

    The human SCL gene is a member of the family of genes that encode the helix-loop-helix (HLH) class of DNA-binding proteins. A murine SCL cDNA was isolated from a normal macrophage cDNA library by using HLH-specific oligonucleotides as hybridiazation probes. The coding region is 987 base pairs and encodes a predicted protein of 34 kDa. The nucleotide sequence of the

  15. The dual role of helix – loop – helix-zipper protein USF in ribosomal RNA gene transcription in vivo

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Asish K Ghosh; Prasun K Datta; Samson T Jacob

    1997-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that the core promoter of rat ribosomal RNA gene (rDNA) contains an E-box-like sequence to which the core promoter binding factor CPBF binds and that the 44 kDa subunit of this protein is immunologically related to USF1, the helix – loop – helix-zipper DNA binding protein. Further, we showed that RNA polymerase I (pol I) transcription

  16. Caught Red-Handed: Rc Encodes a Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Protein Conditioning Red Pericarp in Rice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Megan T. Sweeney; Michael J. Thomson; Bernard E. Pfeil; Susan McCoucha

    2006-01-01

    Rc is a domestication-related gene required for red pericarp in rice (Oryza sativa). The red grain color is ubiquitous among the wild ancestors of O. sativa, in which it is closely associated with seed shattering and dormancy. Rc encodes a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) protein that was fine-mapped to an 18.5-kb region on rice chromosome 7 using a cross between Oryza

  17. Identification of a Novel Family of Oligodendrocyte Lineage-Specific Basic Helix–Loop–Helix Transcription Factors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Qiao Zhou; Songli Wang; David J. Anderson

    2000-01-01

    Basic helix–loop–helix (bHLH) transcription factors have been identified for neurons and their precursors but not for glial cells. We have identified two bHLH factors, Oligo1 and Oligo2, that are specifically expressed in zones of neuroepithelium from which oligodendrocyte precursors emerge, as well as in the precursors themselves. Expression of Oligo2 in the spinal cord precedes that of platelet-derived growth factor

  18. Neuronal Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Proteins (NEX, neuroD, NDRF): Spatiotemporal Expression and Targeted Disruption of the NEX Gene in Transgenic Mice

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Markus H. Schwab; Silke Druffel-Augustin; Peter Gass; Martin Jung; Matthias Klugmann; Angelika Bartholomae; Moritz J. Rossner; Klaus-Armin Nave

    1998-01-01

    Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) genes have emerged as impor- tant regulators of neuronal determination and differentiation in vertebrates. Three putative neuronal differentiation factors (NEX for neuronal helix-loop-helix protein-1 (mammalian atonal homolog-2), neuroD (b-2), and NDRF for neuroD-related factor (neuroD2)) are highly homologous to each other in the bHLH region and comprise a new bHLH subfamily. To study the role of NEX,

  19. 21 CFR 866.5900 - Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene mutation detection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene mutation detection system. 866.5900...transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene mutation detection system. (a) Identification . The CFTR gene mutation detection system is a...

  20. 21 CFR 866.5900 - Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene mutation detection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene mutation detection system. 866.5900...transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene mutation detection system. (a) Identification . The CFTR gene mutation detection system is a...

  1. Gelsolin-like activation of villin: calcium sensitivity of the long helix in domain 6.

    PubMed

    Fedechkin, Stanislav O; Brockerman, Jacob; Pfaff, Danielle A; Burns, Lucian; Webb, Terry; Nelson, Alexander; Zhang, Fengli; Sabantsev, Anton V; Melnikov, Alexey S; McKnight, C James; Smirnov, Serge L

    2013-11-12

    Villin is a gelsolin-like cytoskeleton regulator localized in the brush border at the apical end of epithelial cells. Villin regulates microvilli by bundling F-actin at low calcium levels and severing it at high calcium levels. The villin polypeptide consists of six gelsolin-like repeats (V1-V6) and the unique, actin binding C-terminal headpiece domain (HP). Villin modular fragment V6-HP requires calcium to stay monomeric and bundle F-actin. Our data show that isolated V6 is monomeric and does not bind F-actin at any level of calcium. We propose that the 40-residue unfolded V6-to-HP linker can be a key regulatory element in villin's functions such as its interactions with F-actin. Here we report a calcium-bound solution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) structure of V6, which has a gelsolin-like fold with the long ?-helix in the extended conformation. Intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence quenching reveals two-Kd calcium binding in V6 (Kd1 of 22 ?M and Kd2 of 2.8 mM). According to our NMR data, the conformation of V6 responds the most to micromolar calcium. We show that the long ?-helix and the adjacent residues form the calcium-sensitive elements in V6. These observations are consistent with the calcium activation of F-actin severing by villin analogous to the gelsolin helix-straightening mechanism. PMID:24070253

  2. Ligatoxin B, a new cytotoxic protein with a novel helix-turn-helix DNA-binding domain from the mistletoe Phoradendron liga.

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shi-Sheng; Gullbo, Joachim; Lindholm, Petra; Larsson, Rolf; Thunberg, Eva; Samuelsson, Gunnar; Bohlin, Lars; Claeson, Per

    2002-01-01

    A new basic protein, designated ligatoxin B, containing 46 amino acid residues has been isolated from the mistletoe Phoradendron liga (Gill.) Eichl. (Viscaceae). The protein's primary structure, determined unambiguously using a combination of automated Edman degradation, trypsin enzymic digestion, and tandem MS analysis, was 1-KSCCPSTTAR-NIYNTCRLTG-ASRSVCASLS-GCKIISGSTC-DSGWNH-46. Ligatoxin B exhibited in vitro cytotoxic activities on the human lymphoma cell line U-937-GTB and the primary multidrug-resistant renal adenocarcinoma cell line ACHN, with IC50 values of 1.8 microM and 3.2 microM respectively. Sequence alignment with other thionins identified a new member of the class 3 thionins, ligatoxin B, which is similar to the earlier described ligatoxin A. As predicted by the method of homology modelling, ligatoxin B shares a three-dimensional structure with the viscotoxins and purothionins and so may have the same mode of cytotoxic action. The novel similarities observed by structural comparison of the helix-turn-helix (HTH) motifs of the thionins, including ligatoxin B, and the HTH DNA-binding proteins, led us to propose the working hypothesis that thionins represent a new group of DNA-binding proteins. This working hypothesis could be useful in further dissecting the molecular mechanisms of thionin cytotoxicity and of thionin opposition to multidrug resistance, and useful in clarifying the physiological function of thionins in plants. PMID:12049612

  3. Regulation of Arabidopsis Brassinosteroid Signaling by Atypical Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Proteins[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hao; Zhu, Yongyou; Fujioka, Shozo; Asami, Tadao; Li, Jiayang; Li, Jianming

    2009-01-01

    Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins are highly conserved transcription factors critical for cell proliferation and differentiation. Recent studies have implicated bHLH proteins in many plant signaling processes, including brassinosteroid (BR) signaling. Here, we report identification of two families of atypical bHLH proteins capable of modulating BR signaling. We found that activation-tagged bri1 suppressor 1-Dominant (atbs1-D), previously identified as a dominant suppressor of a weak BR receptor mutant bri1-301, was caused by overexpression of a 93–amino acid atypical bHLH protein lacking amino acids critical for DNA binding. Interestingly, atbs1-D only suppresses weak BR mutants, while overexpression of a truncated ATBS1 lacking the basic motif also rescues bri1-301, suggesting that ATBS1 likely stimulates BR signaling by sequestering negative BR signaling components. A yeast two-hybrid screen using ATBS1 as bait discovered four ATBS1-Interacting Factors (AIFs) that are members of another atypical bHLH protein subfamily. AIF1 exhibits an overlapping expression pattern with ATBS1 and its homologs and interacts with ATBS1 in vitro and in vivo. AIF1 overexpression nullifies the suppressive effect of atbs1-D on bri1-301 and results in dwarf transgenic plants resembling BR mutants. By contrast, silencing of AIF1 partially suppressed the bri1-301 phenotype. Our results suggested that plants use these atypical bHLH proteins to regulate BR signaling. PMID:20023194

  4. Regulation of TCF ETS-domain transcription factors by helix-loop-helix motifs.

    PubMed

    Stinson, Julie; Inoue, Toshiaki; Yates, Paula; Clancy, Anne; Norton, John D; Sharrocks, Andrew D

    2003-08-15

    DNA binding by the ternary complex factor (TCF) subfamily of ETS-domain transcription factors is tightly regulated by intramolecular and intermolecular interactions. The helix-loop-helix (HLH)-containing Id proteins are trans-acting negative regulators of DNA binding by the TCFs. In the TCF, SAP-2/Net/ERP, intramolecular inhibition of DNA binding is promoted by the cis-acting NID region that also contains an HLH-like motif. The NID also acts as a transcriptional repression domain. Here, we have studied the role of HLH motifs in regulating DNA binding and transcription by the TCF protein SAP-1 and how Cdk-mediated phosphorylation affects the inhibitory activity of the Id proteins towards the TCFs. We demonstrate that the NID region of SAP-1 is an autoinhibitory motif that acts to inhibit DNA binding and also functions as a transcription repression domain. This region can be functionally replaced by fusion of Id proteins to SAP-1, whereby the Id moiety then acts to repress DNA binding in cis. Phosphorylation of the Ids by cyclin-Cdk complexes results in reduction in protein-protein interactions between the Ids and TCFs and relief of their DNA-binding inhibitory activity. In revealing distinct mechanisms through which HLH motifs modulate the activity of TCFs, our results therefore provide further insight into the role of HLH motifs in regulating TCF function and how the inhibitory properties of the trans-acting Id HLH proteins are themselves regulated by phosphorylation. PMID:12907712

  5. Use of 1-4 interaction scaling factors to control the conformational equilibrium between ?-helix and ?-strand.

    PubMed

    Pang, Yuan-Ping

    2015-02-01

    1-4 interaction scaling factors are used in AMBER forcefields to reduce the exaggeration of short-range repulsion caused by the 6-12 Lennard-Jones potential and a nonpolarizable charge model and to obtain better agreements of small-molecule conformational energies with experimental data. However, the effects of these scaling factors on protein secondary structure conformations have not been investigated until now. This article reports the finding that the 1-4 interactions among the protein backbone atoms separated by three consecutive covalent bonds are more repulsive in the ?-helix conformation than in two ?-strand conformations. Therefore, the 1-4 interaction scaling factors of protein backbone torsions ? and ? control the conformational equilibrium between ?-helix and ?-strand. Molecular dynamics simulations confirm that reducing the ? and ? scaling factors readily converts the ?-helix conformation of AcO-(AAQAA)3-NH2 to a ?-strand conformation, and the reverse occurs when these scaling factors are increased. These results suggest that the ? and ? scaling factors can be used to generate the ?-helix or ?-strand conformation in situ and to control the propensities of a forcefield for adopting secondary structure elements. PMID:25543060

  6. Solvent effects in the helix-coil transition model can explain the unusual biophysics of intrinsically disordered proteins.

    PubMed

    Badasyan, Artem; Mamasakhlisov, Yevgeni Sh; Podgornik, Rudolf; Parsegian, V Adrian

    2015-07-01

    We analyze a model statistical description of the polypeptide chain helix-coil transition, where we take into account the specificity of its primary sequence, as quantified by the phase space volume ratio of the number of all accessible states to the number corresponding to a helical conformation. The resulting transition phase diagram is then juxtaposed with the unusual behavior of the secondary structures in Intrinsically Disordered Proteins (IDPs) and a number of similarities are observed, even if the protein folding is a more complex transition than the helix-coil transition. In fact, the deficit in bulky and hydrophobic amino acids observed in IDPs, translated into larger values of phase space volume, allows us to locate the region in parameter space of the helix-coil transition that would correspond to the secondary structure transformations that are intrinsic to conformational transitions in IDPs and that is characterized by a modified phase diagram when compared to globular proteins. Here, we argue how the nature of this modified phase diagram, obtained from a model of the helix-coil transition in a solvent, would illuminate the turned-out response of IDPs to the changes in the environment conditions that follow straightforwardly from the re-entrant (cold denaturation) branch in their folding phase diagram. PMID:26156460

  7. Elucidation of the Aggregation Pathways of Helix-Turn-Helix Peptides: Stabilization at the Turn Region Is Critical for Fibril Formation.

    PubMed

    Do, Thanh D; Chamas, Ali; Zheng, Xueyun; Barnes, Aaron; Chang, Dayna; Veldstra, Tjitske; Takhar, Harmeet; Dressler, Nicolette; Trapp, Benjamin; Miller, Kylie; McMahon, Audrene; Meredith, Stephen C; Shea, Joan-Emma; Lazar Cantrell, Kristi; Bowers, Michael T

    2015-07-01

    Aggregation of proteins to fiberlike aggregates often involves a transformation of native monomers to ?-sheet-rich oligomers. This general observation underestimates the importance of ?-helical segments in the aggregation cascade. Here, using a combination of experimental techniques and accelerated molecular dynamics simulations, we investigate the aggregation of a 43-residue, apolipoprotein A-I mimetic peptide and its E21Q and D26N mutants. Our study indicates a strong propensity of helical segments not to adopt cross-?-fibrils. The helix-turn-helix monomeric conformation of the peptides is preserved in the mature fibrils. Furthermore, we reveal opposite effects of mutations on and near the turn region in the self-assembly of these peptides. We show that the E21-R24 salt bridge is a major contributor to helix-turn-helix folding, subsequently leading to abundant fibril formation. On the other hand, the K19-D26 interaction is not required to fold the native helix-turn-helix peptide. However, removal of the charged D26 residue decreases the stability of the helix-turn-helix monomer and consequently reduces the level of aggregation. Finally, we provide a more refined assembly model for the helix-turn-helix peptides from apolipoprotein A-I based on the parallel stacking of helix-turn-helix dimers. PMID:26070092

  8. DNA-bridging by a palindromic alpha-helix.

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, M

    1992-01-01

    The nucleosomal DNA repeat of 240 base pairs in the chromatin structure of sea urchin sperm is exceptionally long and is accompanied by the presence of a histone H1 molecule larger than is usual in most species of chromatin. I propose how these two features are correlated and how they fit into the solenoidal model for the 300-A-diameter fiber of chromatin. Comparison of the sequence of spermatogenous H1 with other H1 sequences reveals an insert of 55 amino acid residues (residues 122-176). A 37-residue sequence in the insert (residues 140-176) has a palindromic character. I propose that each half of the palindromic sequence constitutes an alpha-helical DNA-binding unit and that the continuous alpha-helix made up of the two halves, by virtue of its palindromic nature, stabilizes the formation of an extra superhelical turn by the long linker DNA between two nucleosome cores. The N-terminal-C-terminal "polarity" of each alpha-helical section of half the palindromic sequence indicates how the arginine/lysine-rich DNA-binding surface of the alpha-helical section is used. The polarity of the H1 insertion sequence supports the so-called "reverse-loop" model or a "figure-eight" model for the path of the DNA within the solenoid structure; i.e., the linker DNA forms a right-handed superhelical turn toward the center of the solenoid structure. This use of a pair of a palindromically related alpha-helical sections has a similarity with the "scissors-grip" model for the interaction of the leucine-zipper proteins with DNA. Images PMID:1528886

  9. Substituted cysteine accessibility reveals a novel transmembrane 2-3 reentrant loop and functional role for transmembrane domain 2 in the human proton-coupled folate transporter.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Mike R; Hou, Zhanjun; Matherly, Larry H

    2014-09-01

    The proton-coupled folate transporter (PCFT) is a folate-proton symporter highly expressed in solid tumors that can selectively target cytotoxic antifolates to tumors under acidic microenvironment conditions. Predicted topology models for PCFT suggest that the loop domain between transmembrane domains (TMDs) 2 and 3 resides in the cytosol. Mutations involving Asp-109 or Arg-113 in the TMD2-3 loop result in loss of activity. By structural homology to other solute carriers, TMD2 may form part of the PCFT substrate binding domain. In this study we mutated the seven cysteine (Cys) residues of human PCFT to serine, creating Cys-less PCFT. Thirty-three single-Cys mutants spanning TMD2 and the TMD2-3 loop in a Cys-less PCFT background were transfected into PCFT-null HeLa cells. All 33 mutants were detected by Western blotting, and 28 were active for [(3)H]methotrexate uptake at pH 5.5. For the active residues, we performed pulldown assays with membrane-impermeable 2-aminoethyl methanethiosulfonate-biotin and streptavidin beads to determine their aqueous-accessibilities. Multiple residues in TMD2 and the TMD2-3 loop domain reacted with 2-aminoethyl methanethiosulfonate-biotin, establishing aqueous accessibilities. Pemetrexed pretreatment inhibited biotinylation of TMD2 mutants G93C and F94C, and biotinylation of these residues inhibited methotrexate transport activity. Our results suggest that the TMD 2-3 loop domain is aqueous-accessible and forms a novel reentrant loop structure. Residues in TMD2 form an aqueous transmembrane pathway for folate substrates, and Gly-93 and Phe-94 may contribute to a substrate binding domain. Characterization of PCFT structure is essential to understanding the transport mechanism including the critical determinants of substrate binding. PMID:25053408

  10. Structure based annotation of Helicobacter pylori strain 26695 proteome.

    PubMed

    Singh, Swati; Guttula, Praveen Kumar; Guruprasad, Lalitha

    2014-01-01

    The availability of complete genome sequences of H. pylori 26695 has provided a wealth of information enabling us to carry out in silico studies to identify new molecular targets for pharmaceutical treatment. In order to construe the structural and functional information of complete proteome, use of computational methods are more relevant since these methods are reliable and provide a solution to the time consuming and expensive experimental methods. Out of 1590 predicted protein coding genes in H. pylori, experimentally determined structures are available for only 145 proteins in the PDB. In the absence of experimental structures, computational studies on the three dimensional (3D) structural organization would help in deciphering the protein fold, structure and active site. Functional annotation of each protein was carried out based on structural fold and binding site based ligand association. Most of these proteins are uncharacterized in this proteome and through our annotation pipeline we were able to annotate most of them. We could assign structural folds to 464 uncharacterized proteins from an initial list of 557 sequences. Of the 1195 known structural folds present in the SCOP database, 411 (34% of all known folds) are observed in the whole H. pylori 26695 proteome, with greater inclination for domains belonging to ?/? class (36.63%). Top folds include P-loop containing nucleoside triphosphate hydrolases (22.6%), TIM barrel (16.7%), transmembrane helix hairpin (16.05%), alpha-alpha superhelix (11.1%) and S-adenosyl-L-methionine-dependent methyltransferases (10.7%). PMID:25549250

  11. Mean-Field Interactions between Nucleic-Acid-Base Dipoles can Drive the Formation of a Double Helix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Yi; Maciejczyk, Maciej; O?dziej, Stanis?aw; Scheraga, Harold A.; Liwo, Adam

    2013-03-01

    A proposed coarse-grained model of nucleic acids demonstrates that average interactions between base dipoles, together with chain connectivity and excluded-volume interactions, are sufficient to form double-helical structures of DNA and RNA molecules. Additionally, local interactions determine helix handedness and direction of strand packing. This result, and earlier research on reduced protein models, suggests that mean-field multipole-multipole interactions are the principal factors responsible for the formation of regular structure of biomolecules.

  12. The viral transmembrane superfamily: possible divergence of Arenavirus and Filovirus glycoproteins from a common RNA virus ancestor

    Microsoft Academic Search

    William R. Gallaher; Christopher DiSimone; Michael J. Buchmeier

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recent studies of viral entry proteins from influenza, measles, human immunodeficiency virus, type 1 (HIV-1), and Ebola virus have shown, first with molecular modeling, and then X-ray crystallographic or other biophysical studies, that these disparate viruses share a coiled-coil type of entry protein. RESULTS: Structural models of the transmembrane glycoproteins (GP-2) of the Arenaviruses, lymphochoriomeningitis virus (LCMV) and Lassa

  13. Cloning and Sequencing of Porcine LH-hCG Receptor cDNA: Variants Lacking Transmembrane Domain

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Hugues Loosfelt; Micheline Misrahi; Michel Atger; Roland Salesse; Mai Tu Vu Hai-Luu Thi; Andre Jolivet; Anne Guiochon-Mantel; Sokhavuth Sar; Bahija Jallal; Jean Garnier; Edwin Milgrom

    1989-01-01

    Complementary DNA clones, encoding the LH-hCG (luteinizing hormone-human choriogonadotropic hormone) receptor were isolated by screening a lambda gt11 library with monoclonal antibodies. The primary structure of the protein was deduced from the DNA sequence analysis; the protein contains 696 amino acids with a putative signal peptide of 27 amino acids. Hydropathy analysis suggests the existence of seven transmembrane domains that

  14. The Disabled 1 Phosphotyrosine-Binding Domain Binds to the Internalization Signals of Transmembrane Glycoproteins and to Phospholipids

    Microsoft Academic Search

    BRIAN W. HOWELL; LORENE M. LANIER; RONALD FRANK; FRANK B. GERTLER; JONATHAN A. COOPER

    1999-01-01

    Disabled gene products are important for nervous system development in drosophila and mammals. In mice, the Dab1 protein is thought to function downstream of the extracellular protein Reln during neuronal positioning. The structures of Dab proteins suggest that they mediate protein-protein or protein-membrane docking functions. Here we show that the amino-terminal phosphotyrosine-binding (PTB) domain of Dab1 binds to the transmembrane

  15. Tris-thiourea tripodal-based molecules as chloride transmembrane transporters: insights from molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Marques, Igor; Colaço, Ana R; Costa, Paulo J; Busschaert, Nathalie; Gale, Philip A; Félix, Vítor

    2014-05-28

    The interaction of six tripodal synthetic chloride transmembrane transporters with a POPC bilayer was investigated by means of molecular dynamics simulations using the general Amber force field (GAFF) for the transporters and the LIPID11 force field for phospholipids. These transporters are structurally simple molecules, based on the tris(2-aminoethyl)amine scaffold, containing three thiourea binding units coupled with three n-butyl (1), phenyl (2), fluorophenyl (3), pentafluorophenyl (4), trifluoromethylphenyl (5), or bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl (6) substituents. The passive diffusion of 1-6? Cl(-) was evaluated with the complexes initially positioned either in the water phase or inside the bilayer. In the first scenario the chloride is released in the water solution before the synthetic molecules achieve the water-lipid interface and permeate the membrane. In the latter one, only when the chloride complex reaches the interface is the anion released to the water phase, with the transporter losing the initial ggg tripodal shape. Independently of the transporter used in the membrane system, the bilayer structure is preserved and the synthetic molecules interact with the POPC molecules at the phosphate headgroup level, via N-H···O hydrogen bonds. Overall, the molecular dynamics simulations' results indicate that the small tripodal molecules in this series have a low impact on the bilayer and are able to diffuse with chloride inside the lipid environment. Indeed, these are essential conditions for these molecules to promote the transmembrane transport as anion carriers, in agreement with experimental efflux data. PMID:24663079

  16. Nanoporous microbead supported bilayers: stability, physical characterization, and incorporation of functional transmembrane proteins.

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Ryan W. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Brozik, James A. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Brozik, Susan Marie; Cox, Jason M. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Lopez, Gabriel P. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Barrick, Todd A. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Flores, Adrean (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM)

    2007-03-01

    The introduction of functional transmembrane proteins into supported bilayer-based biomimetic systems presents a significant challenge for biophysics. Among the various methods for producing supported bilayers, liposomal fusion offers a versatile method for the introduction of membrane proteins into supported bilayers on a variety of substrates. In this study, the properties of protein containing unilamellar phosphocholine lipid bilayers on nanoporous silica microspheres are investigated. The effects of the silica substrate, pore structure, and the substrate curvature on the stability of the membrane and the functionality of the membrane protein are determined. Supported bilayers on porous silica microspheres show a significant increase in surface area on surfaces with structures in excess of 10 nm as well as an overall decrease in stability resulting from increasing pore size and curvature. Comparison of the liposomal and detergent-mediated introduction of purified bacteriorhodopsin (bR) and the human type 3 serotonin receptor (5HT3R) are investigated focusing on the resulting protein function, diffusion, orientation, and incorporation efficiency. In both cases, functional proteins are observed; however, the reconstitution efficiency and orientation selectivity are significantly enhanced through detergent-mediated protein reconstitution. The results of these experiments provide a basis for bulk ionic and fluorescent dye-based compartmentalization assays as well as single-molecule optical and single-channel electrochemical interrogation of transmembrane proteins in a biomimetic platform.

  17. Evaluation of Doxorubicin-loaded 3-Helix Micelles as Nanocarriers

    PubMed Central

    Dube, Nikhil; Shu, Jessica Y.; Dong, He; Seo, Jai W.; Ingham, Elizabeth; Kheirolomoom, Azadeh; Chen, Pin-Yuan; Forsayeth, John; Bankiewicz, Krystof; Ferrara, Katherine W.; Xu, Ting

    2013-01-01

    Designing stable drug nanocarriers, 10-30 nm in size, would have significant impact on their transport in circulation, tumor penetration and therapeutic efficacy. In the present study, biological properties of 3-helix micelles loaded with 8 wt% doxorubicin (DOX), ~15 nm in size, were characterized to validate their potential as a nanocarrier platform. DOX-loaded micelles exhibited high stability in terms of size and drug retention in concentrated protein environments similar to conditions after intravenous injections. DOX-loaded micelles were cytotoxic to PPC-1 and 4T1 cancer cells at levels comparable to free DOX. 3-helix micelles can be disassembled by proteolytic degradation of peptide shell to enable drug release and clearance to minimize long-term accumulation. Local administration to normal rat striatum by convection enhanced delivery (CED) showed greater extent of drug distribution and reduced toxicity relative to free drug. Intravenous administration of DOX-loaded 3-helix micelles demonstrated improved tumor half-life and reduced toxicity to healthy tissues in comparison to free DOX. In vivo delivery of DOX-loaded 3-helix micelles through two different routes clearly indicates the potential of 3-helix micelles as safe and effective nanocarriers for cancer therapeutics. PMID:24050265

  18. Residue-Specific ?-Helix Propensities from Molecular Simulation

    PubMed Central

    Best, Robert B.; de Sancho, David; Mittal, Jeetain

    2012-01-01

    Formation of ?-helices is a fundamental process in protein folding and assembly. By studying helix formation in molecular simulations of a series of alanine-based peptides, we obtain the temperature-dependent ?-helix propensities of all 20 naturally occurring residues with two recent additive force fields, Amber ff03w and Amber ff99SB?. Encouragingly, we find that the overall helix propensity of many residues is captured well by both energy functions, with Amber ff99SB? being more accurate. Nonetheless, there are some residues that deviate considerably from experiment, which can be attributed to two aspects of the energy function: i), variations of the charge model used to determine the atomic partial charges, with residues whose backbone charges differ most from alanine tending to have the largest error; ii), side-chain torsion potentials, as illustrated by the effect of modifications to the torsion angles of I, L, D, N. We find that constrained refitting of residue charges for charged residues in Amber ff99SB? significantly improves their helix propensity. The resulting parameters should more faithfully reproduce helix propensities in simulations of protein folding and disordered proteins. PMID:22455930

  19. DFT studies on helix formation in N-acetyl-( L-alanyl) n- N'-methylamide for n=1-20

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elstner, M.; Jalkanen, K. J.; Knapp-Mohammady, M.; Frauenheim, Th.; Suhai, S.

    2000-05-01

    We compare the geometries and relative energies of important secondary structural elements, the 3.6 13 helix, 3 10 helix and C 5ext structures, for a set of blocked peptide models, N-acetyl-( L-alanyl) n- N'-methylamide, for n=1-20. We use full density-functional theory (DFT) calculations at the B3LYP/6-31G* level (for peptides up to 11 residues), the self-consistent-charge density-functional tight binding (SCC-DFTB) and the semiempirical AM1 method. The 3.6 13 and 3 10 structures are found to be not inherently stable in general. Their stability is dependent on peptide length, other structural motifs and aqueous or membrane environments. For short peptides with less than eight residues, the 3.6 13 helix relaxes into the 3 10 structure. For longer peptides, the 3.6 13 is stable in the middle of the chain, while the ends assume 3 10 conformations, at the C-terminus additionally a ?II type turn is formed. The relative energies and structures calculated with the recently developed SCC-DFTB method are in very good agreement with the results from the B3LYP density-functional calculations. Therefore, we use the SCC-DFTB method to look at helix formation in N-acetyl-( L-alanyl) n- N'-methylamide for n=11, 14, 17 and 20. On the SCC-DFTB potential energy surface, we find the 3 10 helix to be more stable than the 3.6 13 helix for all peptide sizes. However, the effects of solution might change this picture and favor the 3.6 13 motif.

  20. Tubular Unimolecular Transmembrane Channels: Construction Strategy and Transport Activities.

    PubMed

    Si, Wen; Xin, Pengyang; Li, Zhan-Ting; Hou, Jun-Li

    2015-06-16

    Lipid bilayer membranes separate living cells from their environment. Membrane proteins are responsible for the processing of ion and molecular inputs and exports, sensing stimuli and signals across the bilayers, which may operate in a channel or carrier mechanism. Inspired by these wide-ranging functions of membrane proteins, chemists have made great efforts in constructing synthetic mimics in order to understand the transport mechanisms, create materials for separation, and develop therapeutic agents. Since the report of an alkylated cyclodextrin for transporting Cu(2+) and Co(2+) by Tabushi and co-workers in 1982, chemists have constructed a variety of artificial transmembrane channels by making use of either the multimolecular self-assembly or unimolecular strategy. In the context of the design of unimolecular channels, important advances have been made, including, among others, the tethering of natural gramicidin A or alamethicin and the modification of various macrocycles such as crown ethers, cyclodextrins, calixarenes, and cucurbiturils. Many of these unimolecular channels exhibit high transport ability for metal ions, particularly K(+) and Na(+). Concerning the development of artificial channels based on macrocyclic frameworks, one straightforward and efficient approach is to introduce discrete chains to reinforce their capability to insert into bilayers. Currently, this approach has found the widest applications in the systems of crown ethers and calixarenes. We envisioned that for macrocycle-based unimolecular channels, control of the arrangement of the appended chains in the upward and/or downward direction would favor the insertion of the molecular systems into bilayers, while the introduction of additional interactions among the chains would further stabilize a tubular conformation. Both factors should be helpful for the formation of new efficient channels. In this Account, we discuss our efforts in designing new unimolecular artificial channels from tubular pillar[n]arenes by extending their lengths with various ester, hydrazide, and short peptide chains. We have utilized well-defined pillar[5]arene and pillar[6]arene as rigid frameworks that allow the appended chains to afford extended tubular structures. We demonstrate that the hydrazide and peptide chains form intramolecular N-H···O?C hydrogen bonds that enhance the tubular conformation of the whole molecule. The new pillar[n]arene derivatives have been successfully applied as unimolecular channels for the selective transport of protons, water, and amino acids and the voltage-gated transport of K(+). We also show that aromatic hydrazide helices and macrocycles appended with peptide chains are able to mediate the selective transport of NH4(+). PMID:26017272

  1. Teaching old receptors new tricks: biasing seven-transmembrane receptors

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Sudarshan Rajagopal; Keshava Rajagopal; Robert J. Lefkowitz

    2010-01-01

    Seven-transmembrane receptors (7TMRs; also known as G protein-coupled receptors) are the largest class of receptors in the human genome and are common targets for therapeutics. Originally identified as mediators of 7TMR desensitization, ?-arrestins (arrestin 2 and arrestin 3) are now recognized as true adaptor proteins that transduce signals to multiple effector pathways. Signalling that is mediated by ?-arrestins has distinct

  2. Phylogenetic Characterization of the MIP Family of Transmembrane Channel Proteins

    Microsoft Academic Search

    J. H. Park

    1996-01-01

    .   The ubiquitous major intrinsic protein (MIP) family includes several transmembrane channel proteins known to exhibit specificity\\u000a for water and\\/or neutral solutes. We have identified 84 fully or partially sequenced members of this family, have multiply\\u000a aligned over 50 representative, divergent, fully sequenced members, have used the resultant multiple alignment to derive current\\u000a MIP family-specific signature sequences, and have constructed

  3. Transmembrane current imaging in the heart during pacing and fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Gray, Richard A; Mashburn, David N; Sidorov, Veniamin Y; Roth, Bradley J; Pathmanathan, Pras; Wikswo, John P

    2013-10-01

    Recently, we described a method to quantify the time course of total transmembrane current (Im) and the relative role of its two components, a capacitive current (Ic) and a resistive current (Iion), corresponding to the cardiac action potential during stable propagation. That approach involved recording high-fidelity (200 kHz) transmembrane potential (Vm) signals with glass microelectrodes at one site using a spatiotemporal coordinate transformation via measured conduction velocity. Here we extend our method to compute these transmembrane currents during stable and unstable propagation from fluorescence signals of Vm at thousands of sites (3 kHz), thereby introducing transmembrane current imaging. In contrast to commonly used linear Laplacians of extracellular potential (Ve) to compute Im, we utilized nonlinear image processing to compute the required second spatial derivatives of Vm. We quantified the dynamic spatial patterns of current density of Im and Iion for both depolarization and repolarization during pacing (including nonplanar patterns) by calibrating data with the microelectrode signals. Compared to planar propagation, we found that the magnitude of Iion was significantly reduced at sites of wave collision during depolarization but not repolarization. Finally, we present uncalibrated dynamic patterns of Im during ventricular fibrillation and show that Im at singularity sites was monophasic and positive with a significant nonzero charge (Im integrated over 10 ms) in contrast with nonsingularity sites. Our approach should greatly enhance the understanding of the relative roles of functional (e.g., rate-dependent membrane dynamics and propagation patterns) and static spatial heterogeneities (e.g., spatial differences in tissue resistance) via recordings during normal and compromised propagation, including arrhythmias. PMID:24094412

  4. Inhibition of plasma membrane and mitochondrial transmembrane potentials by ethanol

    Microsoft Academic Search

    Yasmin M. Samynathan; Stephen C. Bondy

    1995-01-01

    The actions of ethanol and its primary oxidative metabolite, acetaldehyde, on plasma membrane and mitochondrial transmembrane potentials were examined in rat brain using fluorescence techniques. Subchronic treatment of adult rats with ethanol resulted in a significant depolarization of both the plasma and mitochondrial membranes when the mean blood ethanol level of the rats was 59±11 mM (mean±SEM, n=6). Acute dosing

  5. CW-EPR studies revealed different motional properties and oligomeric states of the integrin ?1a transmembrane domain in detergent micelles or liposomes

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Lu; Wang, Wei; Ling, Shenglong; Liu, Sanling; Xiao, Liang; Xin, Yanlong; Lai, Chaohua; Xiong, Ying; Zhang, Longhua; Tian, Changlin

    2015-01-01

    Integrins are heterodimeric membrane proteins that regulate essential processes: cell migration, cell growth, extracellular matrix assembly and tumor metastasis. Each integrin ? or ? subunit contains a large extracellular domain, a single transmembrane (TM) domain, and a short cytoplasmic tail. The integrin TM domains are important for heterodimeric association and dissociation during the conversion from inactive to active states. Moreover, integrin clustering occurs by homo-oligomeric interactions between the TM helices. Here, the transmembrane and cytoplasmic (TMC) domains of integrin ?1a were overexpressed, and the protein was purified in detergent micelles and/or reconstituted in liposomes. To investigate the TM domain conformational properties of integrin ?1a, 26 consecutive single cysteine mutants were generated for site-directed spin labeling and continuous-wave electron paramagnetic resonance (CW-EPR) mobility and accessibility analyses. The mobility analysis identified two integrin ?1a-TM regions with different motional properties in micelles and a non-continuous integrin ?1a-TM helix with high immobility in liposomes. The accessibility analysis verified the TM range (Val737-Lys752) of the integrin ?1a-TMC in micelles. Further mobility and accessibility comparisons of the integrin ?1a-TMC domains in micelles or liposomes identified distinctively different oligomeric states of integrin ?1a-TM, namely a monomer embedded in detergent micelles and leucine-zipper-like homo-oligomeric clusters in liposomes. PMID:25597475

  6. Mutations adjacent to the end of transmembrane helices 6 and 7 independently affect drug efflux capacity of yeast ABC transporter Pdr5p.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhigang; Li, Jingkai; Wang, Wei; Guo, Xiaoxian; Li, Yongquan; Mao, Xuming; Chen, Xinyu; Guan, Wenjun

    2014-03-01

    As a mammalian p-glycoprotein homolog, Pdr5p is a major ATP-binding cassette transporter for cellular detoxification in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this study, two novel loss-of-function mutations located adjacent to the ends of the predicted transmembrane helices of Pdr5p were identified. C793F and S1230L mutations considerably impaired the transport activity of Pdr5p without affecting the ATPase activity and the expression level of the protein. Our results demonstrate that the size of residue 793 and the hydrophobicity of residue 1230 are important for Pdr5p efflux function. It reveals that amino acid residues located near the end of transmembrane helix play an important role in drug efflux of Pdr5p. Molecular docking results further suggest that these two single mutations might have disturbed interactions between the drugs and Pdr5p, preventing the drugs from approaching the intracellular or extracellular portal and subsequently from being exported by Pdr5p. PMID:24333836

  7. How helix-coil transition influences translocation of a single-stranded DNA and kinetics of its fluctuation inside the channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Kulveer; Sain, Anirban

    2013-10-01

    Many biopolymers like proteins, RNA, single-stranded DNA form secondary structures, namely helices and loops. These polymers often get transported from one compartment of the cell to another through narrow protein channels. Motivated by recent experimental results on translocation of polymers through channels and helix-coil transition inside the channel, we have constructed a two-dimensional toy model to study how secondary structures influence such processes. Through a Langevin dynamics simulation we investigated the statistics of translocation as well as how channel width, force and temperature affect the helix-coil transition inside a channel. Our results are in qualitative agreement with experimental data.

  8. Regulation of endogenous transmembrane receptors through optogenetic Cry2 clustering.

    PubMed

    Bugaj, L J; Spelke, D P; Mesuda, C K; Varedi, M; Kane, R S; Schaffer, D V

    2015-01-01

    Transmembrane receptors are the predominant conduit through which cells sense and transduce extracellular information into intracellular biochemical signals. Current methods to control and study receptor function, however, suffer from poor resolution in space and time and often employ receptor overexpression, which can introduce experimental artefacts. We report a genetically encoded approach, termed Clustering Indirectly using Cryptochrome 2 (CLICR), for spatiotemporal control over endogenous transmembrane receptor activation, enabled through the optical regulation of target receptor clustering and downstream signalling using noncovalent interactions with engineered Arabidopsis Cryptochrome 2 (Cry2). CLICR offers a modular platform to enable photocontrol of the clustering of diverse transmembrane receptors including fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR), platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) and integrins in multiple cell types including neural stem cells. Furthermore, light-inducible manipulation of endogenous receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) activity can modulate cell polarity and establish phototaxis in fibroblasts. The resulting spatiotemporal control over cellular signalling represents a powerful new optogenetic framework for investigating and controlling cell function and fate. PMID:25902152

  9. Protein folding of the SAP domain, a naturally occurring two-helix bundle.

    PubMed

    Dodson, Charlotte A; Arbely, Eyal

    2015-07-01

    The SAP domain from the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Tho1 protein is comprised of just two helices and a hydrophobic core and is one of the smallest proteins whose folding has been characterised. ?-value analysis revealed that Tho1 SAP folds through a transition state where helix 1 is the most extensively formed element of secondary structure and flickering native-like core contacts from Leu35 are also present. The contacts that contribute most to native state stability of Tho1 SAP are not formed in the transition state. PMID:26073259

  10. Parametric-Resonance Ionization Cooling in Twin-Helix.

    SciTech Connect

    V.S. Morozov, Ya.S. Derbenev, A. Afanasev, R.P. Johnson, Erdelyi. B., J.A. Maloney

    2011-09-01

    Parametric-resonance Ionization Cooling (PIC) is proposed as the final 6D cooling stage of a highluminosity muon collider. For the implementation of PIC, we developed an epicyclic twin-helix channel with correlated optics. Wedge-shaped absorbers immediately followed by short rf cavities are placed into the twin-helix channel. Parametric resonances are induced in both planes using helical quadrupole harmonics. We demonstrate resonant dynamics and cooling with stochastic effects off using GEANT4/G4beamline. We illustrate compensation of spherical aberrations and benchmark COSY Infinity, a powerful tool for aberration analysis and compensation.

  11. Characterization of Mycobacterium tuberculosis EsxA membrane insertion: roles of N- and C-terminal flexible arms and central helix-turn-helix motif.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yue; Keil, Verena; Sun, Jianjun

    2015-03-13

    EsxA (ESAT-6), an important virulence factor of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, plays an essential role in phagosome rupture and bacterial cytosolic translocation within host macrophages. Our previous study showed that EsxA exhibits a unique membrane-interacting activity that is not found in its ortholog from nonpathogenic Mycobacterium smegmatis. However, the molecular mechanism of EsxA membrane insertion remains unknown. In this study, we generated truncated EsxA proteins with deletions of the N- and/or C-terminal flexible arm. Using a fluorescence-based liposome leakage assay, we found that both the N- and C-terminal arms were required for membrane disruption. Moreover, we found that, upon acidification, EsxA converted into a more organized structure with increased ?-helical content, which was evidenced by CD analysis and intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence. Finally, using an environmentally sensitive fluorescent dye, we obtained direct evidence that the central helix-turn-helix motif of EsxA inserted into the membranes and formed a membrane-spanning pore. A model of EsxA membrane insertion is proposed and discussed. PMID:25645924

  12. A Structural Model for the Membrane-Bound Form of the Juxtamembrane Domain of the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor.

    SciTech Connect

    Choowongkomon, Kiattawee; Carlin, Cathleen R.; Sonnichsen, Frank D.

    2005-06-24

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a member of the receptor tyrosine kinase family involved in the regulation of cellular proliferation and differentiation. Its juxtamembrane domain (JX), the region located between the transmembrane and kinase domains, plays important roles in receptor trafficking. Two sorting signals, a PXXP motif and a 658LL659 motif, are responsible for basolateral sorting in polarized epithelial cells, and a 679LL680 motif targets the ligand-activated receptor for lysosomal degradation. To understand the regulation of these signals, we characterized the structural properties of recombinant JX domain in aqueous solution and in dodecylphosphocholine (DPC) detergent. JX is inherently unstructured in aqueous solution, albeit a nascent helix encompasses the lysosomal sorting signal. In DPC micelles, structures derived from NMR data showed three amphipathic, helical segments. A large, internally inconsistent group of long range nuclear Overhauser effects suggest a close proximity of the helices, and the presence of significant conformational averaging. Models were determined for the average JX conformation using restraints representing the translational restriction due to micelle-surface adsorption, and the helix orientations were determined from residual dipolar couplings. Two equivalent average structural models were obtained that differ only in the relative orientation between first and second helices. In these models, the 658LL659 and 679LL680 motifs are located in the first and second helices and face the micelle surface, whereas the PXXP motif is located in a flexible helix-connecting region. The data suggest that the activity of these signals may be regulated by their membrane association and restricted accessibility in the intact receptor.

  13. DETAILED MOLECULAR OBSERVATIONS TOWARD THE DOUBLE HELIX NEBULA

    SciTech Connect

    Torii, K.; Enokiya, R.; Hasegawa, K.; Kudo, N.; Fukui, Y. [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, Nagoya University, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8601 (Japan); Morris, M. R., E-mail: torii@a.phys.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States)

    2014-07-01

    The Double Helix Nebula (DHN), located 100 pc above Sgr A* in the Galactic center (GC), is a unique structure whose morphology suggests it is a magnetic feature. Recent molecular observations toward the DHN revealed two candidate molecular counterparts of the DHN at radial velocities of –35 km s{sup –1} and 0 km s{sup –1} and discussed the model in which the DHN has its origin at the circumnuclear disk in the GC. In this paper, new CO observations toward the DHN using the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory and Mopra telescopes are presented. The higher-resolution observations of ?1 pc scale reveal the detailed distributions and kinematics of the two CO counterparts (the 0 km s{sup –1} and –35 km s{sup –1} features) and provide new information on their physical conditions. As a result, we find that the 0 km s{sup –1} feature with a mass of 3.3 × 10{sup 4} M {sub ?} coincides with the infrared emission of the DHN, indicating clear association with the DHN. The association of the –35 km s{sup –1} feature, with a mass of 0.8 × 10{sup 4} M {sub ?}, is less clear compared with the 0 km s{sup –1} feature, but the complementary distribution between the molecular gas and the DHN and velocity variation along the DHN support its association with the DHN. The two molecular features are highly excited, as shown by the relatively high CO J = 2-1/J = 1-0 intensity ratios of ?1.0, and have kinetic temperatures of ?30 K, consistent with the typical molecular clouds in the GC.

  14. Small expression tags enhance bacterial expression of the first three transmembrane segments of the apelin receptor

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Aditya; Sarker, Muzaddid; Liu, Xiang-Qin; Rainey, Jan K.

    2014-01-01

    G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) are inherently dynamic membrane protein modulators of various important cellular signaling cascades. The apelin receptor (AR or APJ) is a class A GPCR involved in numerous physiological processes, implicated in angiogenesis during tumour formation and as a CD4 co-receptor for entry of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) to cells. Due to the lack of efficient methods to produce full-length GPCRs enriched with nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) active 15N, 13C and/or 2H isotopes, small GPCR fragments typically comprising 1-2 transmembrane segments are frequently studied using NMR spectroscopy. Here, we report successful overexpression of transmembrane segments 1-3 of AR (AR_TM1-3) in the C41(DE3) strain of Escherichia coli using an AT-rich gene tag previously reported to enhance cell-free expression yields. The resulting protein, with 6 additional N-terminal residues due to the expression tag, was purified using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Far-ultraviolet circular dichroism spectropolarimetry demonstrates that AR_TM1-3 has the predicted ~40% ?-helical character in membrane-mimetic environments. 1H-15N HSQC NMR experiments imply amenability to high-resolution NMR structural characterization and stability in solution for weeks. Notably, this small expression tag approach may also be generally applicable to other membrane proteins that are difficult to express in E. coli. PMID:24943103

  15. Presenilin-1 maintains a nine-transmembrane topology throughout the secretory pathway.

    PubMed

    Spasic, Dragana; Tolia, Alexandra; Dillen, Katleen; Baert, Veerle; De Strooper, Bart; Vrijens, Stefan; Annaert, Wim

    2006-09-01

    Presenilin-1 is a polytopic membrane protein that assembles with nicastrin, PEN-2, and APH-1 into an active gamma-secretase complex required for intramembrane proteolysis of type I transmembrane proteins. Although essential for a correct understanding of structure-function relationships, its exact topology remains an issue of strong controversy. We revisited presenilin-1 topology by inserting glycosylation consensus sequences in human PS1 and expressing the obtained mutants in a presenilin-1 and 2 knock-out background. Based on the glycosylation status of these variants we provide evidence that presenilin-1 traffics through the Golgi after a conformational change induced by complex assembly. Based on our glycosylation variants of presenilin-1 we hypothesize that complex assembly occurs during transport between the endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi apparatus. Furthermore, our data indicate that presenilin-1 has a nine-transmembrane domain topology with the COOH terminus exposed to the lumen/extracellular surface. This topology is independently underscored by lysine mutagenesis, cell surface biotinylation, and cysteine derivation strategies and is compatible with the different physiological functions assigned to presenilin-1. PMID:16846981

  16. Alteration of CFTR transmembrane span integration by disease-causing mutations

    PubMed Central

    Patrick, Anna E.; Karamyshev, Andrey L.; Millen, Linda; Thomas, Philip J.

    2011-01-01

    Many missense mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator protein (CFTR) result in its misfolding, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) accumulation, and, thus, cystic fibrosis. A number of these mutations are located in the predicted CFTR transmembrane (TM) spans and have been projected to alter span integration. However, the boundaries of the spans have not been precisely defined experimentally. In this study, the ER luminal integration profiles of TM1 and TM2 were determined using the ER glycosylation machinery, and the effects of the CF-causing mutations G85E and G91R thereon were assessed. The mutations either destabilize the integrated conformation or alter the TM1 ER integration profile. G85E misfolding is based in TM1 destabilization by glutamic acid and loss of glycine and correlates with the temperature-insensitive ER accumulation of immature full-length CFTR harboring the mutation. By contrast, temperature-dependent misfolding owing to the G91R mutation depends on the introduction of the basic side chain rather than the loss of the glycine. This work demonstrates that CF-causing mutations predicted to have similar effects on CFTR structure actually result in disparate molecular perturbations that underlie ER accumulation and the pathology of CF. PMID:21998193

  17. Structure and function of a membrane component SecDF that enhances protein export.

    PubMed

    Tsukazaki, Tomoya; Mori, Hiroyuki; Echizen, Yuka; Ishitani, Ryuichiro; Fukai, Shuya; Tanaka, Takeshi; Perederina, Anna; Vassylyev, Dmitry G; Kohno, Toshiyuki; Maturana, Andrés D; Ito, Koreaki; Nureki, Osamu

    2011-06-01

    Protein translocation across the bacterial membrane, mediated by the secretory translocon SecYEG and the SecA ATPase, is enhanced by proton motive force and membrane-integrated SecDF, which associates with SecYEG. The role of SecDF has remained unclear, although it is proposed to function in later stages of translocation as well as in membrane protein biogenesis. Here, we determined the crystal structure of Thermus thermophilus SecDF at 3.3?Å resolution, revealing a pseudo-symmetrical, 12-helix transmembrane domain belonging to the RND superfamily and two major periplasmic domains, P1 and P4. Higher-resolution analysis of the periplasmic domains suggested that P1, which binds an unfolded protein, undergoes functionally important conformational changes. In vitro analyses identified an ATP-independent step of protein translocation that requires both SecDF and proton motive force. Electrophysiological analyses revealed that SecDF conducts protons in a manner dependent on pH and the presence of an unfolded protein, with conserved Asp and Arg residues at the transmembrane interface between SecD and SecF playing essential roles in the movements of protons and preproteins. Therefore, we propose that SecDF functions as a membrane-integrated chaperone, powered by proton motive force, to achieve ATP-independent protein translocation. PMID:21562494

  18. The C-terminal helix in the YjeQ zinc-finger domain catalyzes the release of RbfA during 30S ribosome subunit assembly

    PubMed Central

    Jeganathan, Ajitha; Razi, Aida; Thurlow, Brett; Ortega, Joaquin

    2015-01-01

    YjeQ (also called RsgA) and RbfA proteins in Escherichia coli bind to immature 30S ribosome subunits at late stages of assembly to assist folding of the decoding center. A key step for the subunit to enter the pool of actively translating ribosomes is the release of these factors. YjeQ promotes dissociation of RbfA during the final stages of maturation; however, the mechanism implementing this functional interplay has not been elucidated. YjeQ features an amino-terminal oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide binding domain, a central GTPase module and a carboxy-terminal zinc-finger domain. We found that the zinc-finger domain is comprised of two functional motifs: the region coordinating the zinc ion and a carboxy-terminal ?-helix. The first motif is essential for the anchoring of YjeQ to the 30S subunit and the carboxy-terminal ?-helix facilitates the removal of RbfA once the 30S subunit reaches the mature state. Furthermore, the ability of the mature 30S subunit to stimulate YjeQ GTPase activity also depends on the carboxy-terminal ?-helix. Our data are consistent with a model in which YjeQ uses this carboxy-terminal ?-helix as a sensor to gauge the conformation of helix 44, an essential motif of the decoding center. According to this model, the mature conformation of helix 44 is sensed by the carboxy-terminal ?-helix, which in turn stimulates the YjeQ GTPase activity. Hydrolysis of GTP is believed to assist the release of YjeQ from the mature 30S subunit through a still uncharacterized mechanism. These results identify the structural determinants in YjeQ that implement the functional interplay with RbfA. PMID:25904134

  19. The C-terminal helix in the YjeQ zinc-finger domain catalyzes the release of RbfA during 30S ribosome subunit assembly.

    PubMed

    Jeganathan, Ajitha; Razi, Aida; Thurlow, Brett; Ortega, Joaquin

    2015-06-01

    YjeQ (also called RsgA) and RbfA proteins in Escherichia coli bind to immature 30S ribosome subunits at late stages of assembly to assist folding of the decoding center. A key step for the subunit to enter the pool of actively translating ribosomes is the release of these factors. YjeQ promotes dissociation of RbfA during the final stages of maturation; however, the mechanism implementing this functional interplay has not been elucidated. YjeQ features an amino-terminal oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide binding domain, a central GTPase module and a carboxy-terminal zinc-finger domain. We found that the zinc-finger domain is comprised of two functional motifs: the region coordinating the zinc ion and a carboxy-terminal ?-helix. The first motif is essential for the anchoring of YjeQ to the 30S subunit and the carboxy-terminal ?-helix facilitates the removal of RbfA once the 30S subunit reaches the mature state. Furthermore, the ability of the mature 30S subunit to stimulate YjeQ GTPase activity also depends on the carboxy-terminal ?-helix. Our data are consistent with a model in which YjeQ uses this carboxy-terminal ?-helix as a sensor to gauge the conformation of helix 44, an essential motif of the decoding center. According to this model, the mature conformation of helix 44 is sensed by the carboxy-terminal ?-helix, which in turn stimulates the YjeQ GTPase activity. Hydrolysis of GTP is believed to assist the release of YjeQ from the mature 30S subunit through a still uncharacterized mechanism. These results identify the structural determinants in YjeQ that implement the functional interplay with RbfA. PMID:25904134

  20. Imaging of transmembrane proteins directly incorporated within supported lipid bilayers using atomic force microscopy.

    PubMed

    Levy, Daniel; Milhiet, Pierre-Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    Structural analysis of transmembrane proteins remains a challenge in biology, mainly due to their difficulty in being overexpressed and the required use of detergents that impair different steps of biochemistry classically used to obtain 3D crystals. In this context, we have developed a new technique for protein incorporation within supported lipid bilayers that only requires a few picomoles of protein per assay. Proteins are directly inserted into a detergent-destabilized bilayer that can be imaged in buffer with atomic force microscopy (AFM) allowing structural analysis down to sub-nanometer lateral resolution. In this chapter, we describe the main guidelines for this technique, from the choice of detergent to the requirements for AFM high-resolution imaging. PMID:23086884