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Sample records for transmembrane helix structure

  1. Transmembrane helix structure, dynamics, and interactions: multi-nanosecond molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed Central

    Shen, L; Bassolino, D; Stouch, T

    1997-01-01

    To probe the fundamentals of membrane/protein interactions, all-atom multi-nanosecond molecular dynamics simulations were conducted on a single transmembrane poly(32)alanine helix in a fully solvated dimyristoyphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) bilayer. The central 12 residues, which interact only with the lipid hydrocarbon chains, maintained a very stable helical structure. Helical regions extended beyond these central 12 residues, but interactions with the lipid fatty-acyl ester linkages, the lipid headgroups, and water molecules made the helix less stable in this region. The C and N termini, exposed largely to water, existed as random coils. As a whole, the helix tilted substantially, from perpendicular to the bilayer plane (0 degree) to a 30 degrees tilt. The helix experienced a bend at its middle, and the two halves of the helix at times assumed substantially different tilts. Frequent hydrogen bonding, of up to 0.7 ns in duration, occurred between peptide and lipid molecules. This resulted in correlated translational diffusion between the helix and a few lipid molecules. Because of the large variation in lipid conformation, the lipid environment of the peptide was not well defined in terms of "annular" lipids and on average consisted of 18 lipid molecules. When compared with a "neat" bilayer without peptide, no significant difference was seen in the bilayer thickness, lipid conformations or diffusion, or headgroup orientation. However, the lipid hydrocarbon chain order parameters showed a significant decrease in order, especially in those methylene groups closest to the headgroup. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 14 PMID:9199766

  2. High-accuracy prediction of transmembrane inter-helix contacts and application to GPCR 3D structure modeling

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jing; Jang, Richard; Zhang, Yang; Shen, Hong-Bin

    2013-01-01

    Motivation: Residue–residue contacts across the transmembrane helices dictate the three-dimensional topology of alpha-helical membrane proteins. However, contact determination through experiments is difficult because most transmembrane proteins are hard to crystallize. Results: We present a novel method (MemBrain) to derive transmembrane inter-helix contacts from amino acid sequences by combining correlated mutations and multiple machine learning classifiers. Tested on 60 non-redundant polytopic proteins using a strict leave-one-out cross-validation protocol, MemBrain achieves an average accuracy of 62%, which is 12.5% higher than the current best method from the literature. When applied to 13 recently solved G protein-coupled receptors, the MemBrain contact predictions helped increase the TM-score of the I-TASSER models by 37% in the transmembrane region. The number of foldable cases (TM-score >0.5) increased by 100%, where all G protein-coupled receptor templates and homologous templates with sequence identity >30% were excluded. These results demonstrate significant progress in contact prediction and a potential for contact-driven structure modeling of transmembrane proteins. Availability: www.csbio.sjtu.edu.cn/bioinf/MemBrain/ Contact: hbshen@sjtu.edu.cn or zhng@umich.edu Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:23946502

  3. Entrapment of Water at the Transmembrane Helix-Helix Interface of Quiescin Sulfhydryl Oxidase 2.

    PubMed

    Ried, Christian L; Scharnagl, Christina; Langosch, Dieter

    2016-03-01

    Little is known about how a membrane can regulate interactions between transmembrane helices. Here, we show that strong self-interaction of the transmembrane helix of human quiescin sulfhydryl oxidase 2 rests on a motif of conserved amino acids comprising one face of the helix. Atomistic molecular dynamics simulations suggest that water molecules enter the helix-helix interface and connect serine residues of both partner helices. In addition, an interfacial tyrosine can interact with noninterfacial water or lipid. Dimerization of this transmembrane helix might therefore be controlled by membrane properties controlling water permeation and/or by the lipid composition of the membrane. PMID:26894260

  4. Structure of the archaeal Na+/H+ antiporter NhaP1 and functional role of transmembrane helix 1

    PubMed Central

    Goswami, Panchali; Paulino, Cristina; Hizlan, Dilem; Vonck, Janet; Yildiz, zkan; Khlbrandt, Werner

    2011-01-01

    We have determined the structure of the archaeal sodium/proton antiporter NhaP1 at 7 resolution by electron crystallography of 2D crystals. NhaP1 is a dimer in the membrane, with 13 membrane-spanning ?-helices per protomer, whereas the distantly related bacterial NhaA has 12. Dimer contacts in the two antiporters are very different, but the structure of a six-helix bundle at the tip of the protomer is conserved. The six-helix bundle of NhaA contains two partially unwound ?-helices thought to harbour the ion-translocation site, which is thus similar in NhaP1. A model of NhaP1 based on detailed sequence comparison and the NhaA structure was fitted to the 7 map. The additional N-terminal helix 1 of NhaP1, which appears to be an uncleaved signal sequence, is located near the dimer interface. Similar sequences are present in many eukaryotic homologues of NhaP1, including NHE1. Although fully folded and able to dimerize, NhaP1 constructs without helix 1 are inactive. Possible reasons are investigated and discussed. PMID:21151096

  5. Assignment of Oriented Sample NMR Resonances from a Three Transmembrane Helix Protein

    PubMed Central

    Murray, D. T.; Hung, I.; Cross, T. A.

    2014-01-01

    Oriented sample solid state NMR techniques have been routinely employed to determine the structures of membrane proteins with one or two transmembrane helices. For larger proteins the technique has been limited by spectral resolution and lack of assignment strategies. Here, a strategy for resonance assignment is devised and applied to a three transmembrane helix protein. Sequence specific assignments for all labeled transmembrane amino acid sites are obtained, which provide a set of orientational restraints and helix orientation in the bilayer. Our experiments expand the utility of solid state NMR in membrane protein structure characterization to three transmembrane helix proteins and represent a straightforward strategy for routinely characterizing multiple transmembrane helix protein structures. PMID:24509383

  6. Transmembrane Helix Assembly by Max-Min Ant System Algorithm.

    PubMed

    Sujaree, Kanon; Kitjaruwankul, Sunan; Boonamnaj, Panisak; Supunyabut, Chirayut; Sompornpisut, Pornthep

    2015-12-01

    Because of the rapid progress in biochemical and structural studies of membrane proteins, considerable attention has been given on developing efficient computational methods for solving low-to-medium resolution structures using sparse structural data. In this study, we demonstrate a novel algorithm, max-min ant system (MMAS), designed to find an assembly of α-helical transmembrane proteins using a rigid helix arrangement guided by distance constraints. The new algorithm generates a large variety with finite number of orientations of transmembrane helix bundle and finds the solution that is matched with the provided distance constraints based on the behavior of ants to search for the shortest possible path between their nest and the food source. To demonstrate the efficiency of the novel search algorithm, MMAS is applied to determine the transmembrane packing of KcsA and MscL ion channels from a limited distance information extracted from the crystal structures, and the packing of KvAP voltage sensor domain using a set of 10 experimentally determined constraints, and the results are compared with those of two popular used stochastic methods, simulated annealing Monte Carlo method and genetic algorithm. PMID:26058409

  7. The homology model of PMP22 suggests mutations resulting in peripheral neuropathy disrupt transmembrane helix packing.

    PubMed

    Mittendorf, Kathleen F; Kroncke, Brett M; Meiler, Jens; Sanders, Charles R

    2014-10-01

    Peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22) is a tetraspan membrane protein strongly expressed in myelinating Schwann cells of the peripheral nervous system. Myriad missense mutations in PMP22 result in varying degrees of peripheral neuropathy. We used Rosetta 3.5 to generate a homology model of PMP22 based on the recently published crystal structure of claudin-15. The model suggests that several mutations known to result in neuropathy act by disrupting transmembrane helix packing interactions. Our model also supports suggestions from previous studies that the first transmembrane helix is not tightly associated with the rest of the helical bundle. PMID:25243937

  8. The Homology Model of PMP22 Suggests Mutations Resulting in Peripheral Neuropathy Disrupt Transmembrane Helix Packing

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22) is a tetraspan membrane protein strongly expressed in myelinating Schwann cells of the peripheral nervous system. Myriad missense mutations in PMP22 result in varying degrees of peripheral neuropathy. We used Rosetta 3.5 to generate a homology model of PMP22 based on the recently published crystal structure of claudin-15. The model suggests that several mutations known to result in neuropathy act by disrupting transmembrane helix packing interactions. Our model also supports suggestions from previous studies that the first transmembrane helix is not tightly associated with the rest of the helical bundle. PMID:25243937

  9. SPONTANEOUS TRANSMEMBRANE HELIX INSERTION THERMODYNAMICALLY MIMICS TRANSLOCON-GUIDED INSERTION

    PubMed Central

    Ulmschneider, Martin B.; Ulmschneider, Jakob P.; Schiller, Nina; Wallace, B. A.; von Heijne, Gunnar; White, Stephen H.

    2014-01-01

    The favorable transfer free energy for a transmembrane (TM) α-helix between the aqueous phase and lipid bilayer underlies the stability of membrane proteins. However, the connection between the energetics and process of membrane protein assembly by the Sec61/SecY translocon complex in vivo is not clear. Here, we directly determine the partitioning free energies of a family of designed peptides using three independent approaches: an experimental microsomal Sec61 translocon assay, a biophysical (spectroscopic) characterization of peptide insertion into hydrated planar lipid bilayer arrays, and an unbiased atomic-detail equilibrium folding-partitioning molecular dynamics simulation. Remarkably, the measured free energies of insertion are quantitatively similar for all three approaches. The molecular dynamics simulations show that TM helix insertion involves equilibrium with the membrane interface, suggesting that the interface may play a role in translocon-guided insertion. PMID:25204588

  10. Modulation of the pHLIP transmembrane helix insertion pathway.

    PubMed

    Karabadzhak, Alexander G; Weerakkody, Dhammika; Wijesinghe, Dayanjali; Thakur, Mak S; Engelman, Donald M; Andreev, Oleg A; Markin, Vladislav S; Reshetnyak, Yana K

    2012-04-18

    The membrane-associated folding/unfolding of pH (low) insertion peptide (pHLIP) provides an opportunity to study how sequence variations influence the kinetics and pathway of peptide insertion into bilayers. Here, we present the results of steady-state and kinetics investigations of several pHLIP variants with different numbers of charged residues, with attached polar cargoes at the peptide's membrane-inserting end, and with three single-Trp variants placed at the beginning, middle, and end of the transmembrane helix. Each pHLIP variant exhibits a pH-dependent interaction with a lipid bilayer. Although the number of protonatable residues at the inserting end does not affect the ultimate formation of helical structure across a membrane, it correlates with the time for peptide insertion, the number of intermediate states on the folding pathway, and the rates of unfolding and exit. The presence of polar cargoes at the peptide's inserting end leads to the appearance of intermediate states on the insertion pathway. Cargo polarity correlates with a decrease of the insertion rate. We conclude that the existence of intermediate states on the folding and unfolding pathways is not mandatory and, in the simple case of a polypeptide with a noncharged and nonpolar inserting end, the folding and unfolding appears as an all-or-none transition. We propose a model for membrane-associated insertion/folding and exit/unfolding and discuss the importance of these observations for the design of new delivery agents for direct translocation of polar therapeutic and diagnostic cargo molecules across cellular membranes. PMID:22768940

  11. Sequence-Specific Dimerization of a Transmembrane Helix in Amphipol A8-35

    PubMed Central

    Stangl, Michael; Unger, Sebastian; Keller, Sandro; Schneider, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    As traditional detergents might destabilize or even denature membrane proteins, amphiphilic polymers have moved into the focus of membrane-protein research in recent years. Thus far, Amphipols are the best studied amphiphilic copolymers, having a hydrophilic backbone with short hydrophobic chains. However, since stabilizing as well as destabilizing effects of the Amphipol belt on the structure of membrane proteins have been described, we systematically analyze the impact of the most commonly used Amphipol A8-35 on the structure and stability of a well-defined transmembrane protein model, the glycophorin A transmembrane helix dimer. Amphipols are not able to directly extract proteins from their native membranes, and detergents are typically replaced by Amphipols only after protein extraction from membranes. As Amphipols form mixed micelles with detergents, a better understanding of Amphipol-detergent interactions is required. Therefore, we analyze the interaction of A8-35 with the anionic detergent sodium dodecyl sulfate and describe the impact of the mixed-micelle-like system on the stability of a transmembrane helix dimer. As A8-35 may highly stabilize and thereby rigidify a transmembrane protein structure, modest destabilization by controlled addition of detergents and formation of mixed micellar systems might be helpful to preserve the function of a membrane protein in Amphipol environments. PMID:25347769

  12. De novo design of transmembrane helix-helix interactions and measurement of stability in a biological membrane.

    PubMed

    Nash, Anthony; Notman, Rebecca; Dixon, Ann M

    2015-05-01

    Membrane proteins regulate a large number of cellular functions, and have great potential as tools for manipulation of biological systems. Developing these tools requires a robust and quantitative understanding of membrane protein folding and interactions within the bilayer. With this in mind, we have designed a series of proteins to probe the net thermodynamic contribution of well-known sequence motifs to transmembrane helix-helix association in a biological membrane. The proteins were designed from first principles (de novo) using current knowledge about membrane insertion and stabilizing interaction motifs. A simple poly-Leu "scaffold" was decorated with individual helix interaction motifs (G-XXX-G, polar residues, heptad repeat) to create transmembrane helix-helix interactions of increasing strength. The GALLEX assay, an in vivo assay for measurement of transmembrane helix self-association, was combined with computational methods to characterize the relative strength and mode of interaction for each sequence. In addition, the apparent free energy contribution (ΔΔGapp) of each motif to transmembrane helix self-association was measured in a biological membrane, results that are the first of their kind for these de novo designed sequences, and suggest that the free energy barrier to overcoming weak association is quite small (<1.4 kcal mol(-1)) in a natural membrane. By quantifying and rationalizing the contribution of key motifs to transmembrane helix association, our work offers a route to direct the design of novel sequences for use in biotechnology or synthetic biology (e.g. molecular switches) and to predict the effects of sequence modification in known transmembrane domains (for control of cellular processes). PMID:25732028

  13. Use of Molecular Dynamics Data in Biochemistry Courses: An Amphipathy Scale to Determine Protein [alpha]-Helix Transmembrane Segments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazze, Fernanda M.; Fuzo, Carlos A.; Degreve, Leo; Ciancaglini, Pietro

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this manuscript is to explain the application of an amphipathy scale obtained from molecular dynamics simulations and to demonstrate how it can be useful in the protein structure field. It is shown that this scale is easy to be used with the advantage of revealing domains of transmembrane [alpha]-helix of proteins without the need of…

  14. Use of Molecular Dynamics Data in Biochemistry Courses: An Amphipathy Scale to Determine Protein [alpha]-Helix Transmembrane Segments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazze, Fernanda M.; Fuzo, Carlos A.; Degreve, Leo; Ciancaglini, Pietro

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this manuscript is to explain the application of an amphipathy scale obtained from molecular dynamics simulations and to demonstrate how it can be useful in the protein structure field. It is shown that this scale is easy to be used with the advantage of revealing domains of transmembrane [alpha]-helix of proteins without the need of

  15. On the distribution of amino acid residues in transmembrane alpha-helix bundles.

    PubMed Central

    Samatey, F A; Xu, C; Popot, J L

    1995-01-01

    The periodic distribution of residues in the sequence of 469 putative transmembrane alpha-helices from eukaryotic plasma membrane polytopic proteins has been analyzed with correlation matrices. The method does not involve any a priori assumption about the secondary structure of the segments or about the physicochemical properties of individual amino acid residues. Maximal correlation is observed at 3.6 residues per period, characteristic of alpha-helices. A scale extracted from the data describes the propensity of the various residues to lie on the same or on opposite helix faces. The most polar face of transmembrane helices, presumably that buried in the protein core, shows a strong enrichment in aromatic residues, while residues likely to face the fatty acyl chains of lipids are largely aliphatic. PMID:7753846

  16. Molecular Dynamics Simulation of Membranes and a Transmembrane Helix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duong, Tap Ha; Mehler, Ernest L.; Weinstein, Harel

    1999-05-01

    Three molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of 1.5-ns length were carried out on fully hydrated patches of dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine (DMPC) bilayers in the liquid-crystalline phase. The simulations were performed using different ensembles and electrostatic conditions: a microcanonical ensemble or constant pressure-temperature ensemble, with or without truncated electrostatic interactions. Calculated properties of the membrane patches from the three different protocols were compared to available data from experiments. These data include the resulting overall geometrical dimensions, the order characteristics of the lipid hydrocarbon chains, as well as various measures of the conformations of the polar head groups. The comparisons indicate that the simulation carried out within the microcanonical ensemble with truncated electrostatic interactions yielded results closest to the experimental data, provided that the initial equilibration phase preceding the production run was sufficiently long. The effects of embedding a non-ideal helical protein domain in the membrane patch were studied with the same MD protocols. This simulation was carried out for 2.5 ns. The protein domain corresponds to the seventh transmembrane segment (TMS7) of the human serotonin 5HT 2Areceptor. The peptide is composed of two ?-helical segments linked by a hinge domain around a perturbing Asn-Pro motif that produces at the end of the simulation a kink angle of nearly 80 between the two helices. Several aspects of the TMS7 structure, such as the bending angle, backbone ? and ? torsion angles, the intramolecular hydrogen bonds, and the overall conformation, were found to be very similar to those determined by NMR for the corresponding transmembrane segment of the tachykinin NK-1 receptor. In general, the simulations were found to yield structural and dynamic characteristics that are in good agreement with experiment. These findings support the application of simulation methods to the study of the complex biomolecular systems at the membrane interface of cells.

  17. The transmembrane region of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor: is it an all-helix bundle?

    PubMed

    Ortells, M O; Lunt, G G

    1994-01-01

    The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor is the best characterised member of the Ligand-Gated-Ion-Channel family of receptors. In spite of a wealth of data from molecular cloning studies these receptors have so far eluded all attempts at crystallisation; quantitative structural data are few and are at relatively low resolution. The widely accepted current model for the topology of the receptors is that of a pentameric cylindrical bundle that spans the membrane. The disposition of the transmembrane region of the individual subunits is based on hydropathy profiles calculated from sequence data which are interpreted as indicating a common structural motif of four antiparallel alpha-helices, M1 to M4. Until very recently this model has been unquestioned even though there are few direct experimental data to support it. We have constructed models of this key functional region for the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, building out from the ion-channel. The model of the basic ion-channel comprises a five helical M2 bundle with a left-handed twist. The remainder of the region (M1, M3, M4) was homology modelled, together with M2, as a four helix antiparallel bundle per subunit, using the crystal structure of myohaemerythrin as a template. The models strongly suggest that the four helix bundle model is inappropriate and that recent suggestions of a mixed motif of helix and sheet may better accommodate the existing data. PMID:7521734

  18. Transmembrane Helix Straightening and Buckling Underlies Activation of Mechanosensitive and Thermosensitive K2P Channels

    PubMed Central

    Lolicato, Marco; Riegelhaupt, Paul M.; Arrigoni, Cristina; Clark, Kimberly A.; Minor, Daniel L.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Mechanical and thermal activation of ion channels is central to touch, thermosensation, and pain. The TRAAK/TREK K2P potassium channel subfamily produces background currents that alter neuronal excitability in response to pressure, temperature, signaling lipids, and anesthetics. How such diverse stimuli control channel function is unclear. Here we report structures of K2P4.1 (TRAAK) bearing C-type gate-activating mutations that reveal a tilting and straightening of the M4 inner transmembrane helix and a buckling of the M2 transmembrane helix. These conformational changes move M4 in a direction opposite to that in classical potassium channel activation mechanisms and open a passage lateral to the pore that faces the lipid bilayer inner leaflet. Together, our findings uncover a unique aspect of K2P modulation, indicate a means for how the K2P C-terminal cytoplasmic domain affects the C-type gate which lies ~40 away, and suggest how lipids and bilayer inner leaflet deformations may gate the channel. PMID:25500157

  19. A mixed helix-beta-sheet model of the transmembrane region of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor.

    PubMed

    Ortells, M O; Lunt, G G

    1996-01-01

    We have modelled the transmembrane region of the alpha 7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor as a mixed alpha-helical/beta-sheet structure. The model was mainly based on the crystal structure of a pore-forming toxin, heat-labile enterotoxin. This is a pentameric protein having a central pore or channel composed of five alpha-helices, one from each of the 5 B subunits that form this pentamer. The remainder of this structure is beta-sheet, loops and a short alpha-helix, not included in the model. The model uses this channel as a template to build the transmembrane region, from M1 to the middle of M3. The remainder of M3 and M4 were built de novo as alpha-helices. Great consideration was given to labelling data available for the transmembrane region. In general terms, the shape of the model agrees very well with that obtained independently by electron microscopic analysis and the secondary structure predicted by the model is in accord with that estimated independently by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The M2 helical region of the model is only slightly kinked, contrary to what is inferred from electron microscopic analysis, but has the same overall shape and form. On the membrane face of the model, the presence of deep pockets may provide the structural basis for the distinction between annular and non-annular lipid binding sites. Also, the transmembrane region is clearly asymmetric in the direction perpendicular to the membrane, and this may have strong influence on the surrounding lipid composition of each leaflet of the cytoplasmic membrane. PMID:9053903

  20. PSOFuzzySVM-TMH: identification of transmembrane helix segments using ensemble feature space by incorporated fuzzy support vector machine.

    PubMed

    Hayat, Maqsood; Tahir, Muhammad

    2015-08-01

    Membrane protein is a central component of the cell that manages intra and extracellular processes. Membrane proteins execute a diversity of functions that are vital for the survival of organisms. The topology of transmembrane proteins describes the number of transmembrane (TM) helix segments and its orientation. However, owing to the lack of its recognized structures, the identification of TM helix and its topology through experimental methods is laborious with low throughput. In order to identify TM helix segments reliably, accurately, and effectively from topogenic sequences, we propose the PSOFuzzySVM-TMH model. In this model, evolutionary based information position specific scoring matrix and discrete based information 6-letter exchange group are used to formulate transmembrane protein sequences. The noisy and extraneous attributes are eradicated using an optimization selection technique, particle swarm optimization, from both feature spaces. Finally, the selected feature spaces are combined in order to form ensemble feature space. Fuzzy-support vector Machine is utilized as a classification algorithm. Two benchmark datasets, including low and high resolution datasets, are used. At various levels, the performance of the PSOFuzzySVM-TMH model is assessed through 10-fold cross validation test. The empirical results reveal that the proposed framework PSOFuzzySVM-TMH outperforms in terms of classification performance in the examined datasets. It is ascertained that the proposed model might be a useful and high throughput tool for academia and research community for further structure and functional studies on transmembrane proteins. PMID:26054033

  1. Charge pair interactions in a model transmembrane helix in the ER membrane.

    PubMed

    Chin, C N; von Heijne, G

    2000-10-13

    We have examined the effects of Lys-Asp charge pair interactions on the position of a model poly-Leu transmembrane helix in the ER membrane using the so-called "glycosylation mapping" technique. Based on an analysis of a set of constructs containing pairs of positively charged Lys and negatively charged Asp residues in various positions in the model helix, we show that the helix is located deeper in the membrane when Lys and Asp are placed one helical turn apart than for other spacings of the two residues. These results suggest that salt-bridge formation between residues located on the same face of a transmembrane helix may reduce the free energy of membrane partitioning. PMID:11021965

  2. Transmembrane helix 7 in the Na+/dicarboxylate cotransporter 1 is an outer helix that contains residues critical for function.

    PubMed

    Pajor, Ana M; Sun, Nina N; Joshi, Aditya D; Randolph, Kathleen M

    2011-06-01

    Citric acid cycle intermediates, including succinate and citrate, are absorbed across the apical membrane by the NaDC1 Na+/dicarboxylate cotransporter located in the kidney and small intestine. The secondary structure model of NaDC1 contains 11 transmembrane helices (TM). TM7 was shown previously to contain determinants of citrate affinity, and Arg-349 at the extracellular end of the helix is required for transport. The present study involved cysteine scanning mutagenesis of 26 amino acids in TM7 and the associated loops. All of the mutants were well expressed on the plasma membrane, but many had low or no transport activity: 6 were inactive and 7 had activity less than 25% of the parental. Three of the mutants had notable changes in functional properties. F336C had increased transport activity due to an increased Vmax for succinate. The conserved residue F339C had very low transport activity and a change in substrate selectivity. G356C in the putative extracellular loop was the only cysteine mutant that was affected by the membrane-impermeant cysteine reagent, MTSET. However, direct labeling of G356C with MTSEA-biotin gave a weak signal, indicating that this residue is not readily accessible to more bulky reagents. The results suggest that the amino acids of TM7 are functionally important because their replacement by cysteine had large effects on transport activity. However, most of TM7 does not appear to be accessible to the extracellular fluid and is likely to be an outer helix in contact with the lipid bilayer. PMID:21073858

  3. Predicting transmembrane helix packing arrangements using residue contacts and a force-directed algorithm.

    PubMed

    Nugent, Timothy; Jones, David T

    2010-03-01

    Alpha-helical transmembrane proteins constitute roughly 30% of a typical genome and are involved in a wide variety of important biological processes including cell signalling, transport of membrane-impermeable molecules and cell recognition. Despite significant efforts to predict transmembrane protein topology, comparatively little attention has been directed toward developing a method to pack the helices together. Here, we present a novel approach to predict lipid exposure, residue contacts, helix-helix interactions and finally the optimal helical packing arrangement of transmembrane proteins. Using molecular dynamics data, we have trained and cross-validated a support vector machine (SVM) classifier to predict per residue lipid exposure with 69% accuracy. This information is combined with additional features to train a second SVM to predict residue contacts which are then used to determine helix-helix interaction with up to 65% accuracy under stringent cross-validation on a non-redundant test set. Our method is also able to discriminate native from decoy helical packing arrangements with up to 70% accuracy. Finally, we employ a force-directed algorithm to construct the optimal helical packing arrangement which demonstrates success for proteins containing up to 13 transmembrane helices. This software is freely available as source code from http://bioinf.cs.ucl.ac.uk/memsat/mempack/. PMID:20333233

  4. Thermodynamic and kinetic characterization of transmembrane helix association.

    PubMed

    Pawar, Aiswarya B; Deshpande, Sneha A; Gopal, Srinivasa M; Wassenaar, Tsjerk A; Athale, Chaitanya A; Sengupta, Durba

    2015-01-14

    The transient dimerization of transmembrane proteins is an important event in several cellular processes and computational methods are being increasingly used to quantify their underlying energetics. Here, we probe the thermodynamics and kinetics of a simple transmembrane dimer to understand membrane protein association. A multi-step framework has been developed in which the dimerization profiles are calculated from coarse-grain molecular dynamics simulations, followed by meso-scale simulations using parameters calculated from the coarse-grain model. The calculated value of ?Gassoc is approx. -20 kJ mol(-1) and is consistent between three methods. Interestingly, the meso-scale stochastic model reveals low dimer percentages at physiologically-relevant concentrations, despite a favorable ?Gassoc. We identify generic driving forces arising from the protein backbone and lipid bilayer and complementary factors, such as protein density, that govern self-interactions in membranes. Our results provide an important contribution in understanding membrane protein organization and linking molecular, nano-scale computational studies to meso-scale experimental data. PMID:25427292

  5. Second Transmembrane Helix (M2) and Long Range Coupling in Ca2+-ATPase*

    PubMed Central

    Daiho, Takashi; Yamasaki, Kazuo; Danko, Stefania; Suzuki, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    The actuator (A) domain of sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase not only plays a catalytic role but also undergoes large rotational movements that influence the distant transport sites through connections with transmembrane helices M1 and M2. Here we explore the importance of long helix M2 and its junction with the A domain by disrupting the helix structure and elongating with insertions of five glycine residues. Insertions into the membrane region of M2 and the top junctional segment impair Ca2+ transport despite reasonable ATPase activity, indicating that they are uncoupled. These mutants fail to occlude Ca2+. Those at the top segment also exhibited accelerated phosphoenzyme isomerization E1P ? E2P. Insertions into the middle of M2 markedly accelerate E2P hydrolysis and cause strong resistance to inhibition by luminal Ca2+. Insertions along almost the entire M2 region inhibit the dephosphorylated enzyme transition E2 ? E1. The results pinpoint which parts of M2 control cytoplasm gating and which are critical for luminal gating at each stage in the transport cycle and suggest that proper gate function requires appropriate interactions, tension, and/or rigidity in the M2 region at appropriate times for coupling with A domain movements and catalysis. PMID:25246522

  6. Second transmembrane helix (M2) and long range coupling in Ca?-ATPase.

    PubMed

    Daiho, Takashi; Yamasaki, Kazuo; Danko, Stefania; Suzuki, Hiroshi

    2014-11-01

    The actuator (A) domain of sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase not only plays a catalytic role but also undergoes large rotational movements that influence the distant transport sites through connections with transmembrane helices M1 and M2. Here we explore the importance of long helix M2 and its junction with the A domain by disrupting the helix structure and elongating with insertions of five glycine residues. Insertions into the membrane region of M2 and the top junctional segment impair Ca(2+) transport despite reasonable ATPase activity, indicating that they are uncoupled. These mutants fail to occlude Ca(2+). Those at the top segment also exhibited accelerated phosphoenzyme isomerization E1P ? E2P. Insertions into the middle of M2 markedly accelerate E2P hydrolysis and cause strong resistance to inhibition by luminal Ca(2+). Insertions along almost the entire M2 region inhibit the dephosphorylated enzyme transition E2 ? E1. The results pinpoint which parts of M2 control cytoplasm gating and which are critical for luminal gating at each stage in the transport cycle and suggest that proper gate function requires appropriate interactions, tension, and/or rigidity in the M2 region at appropriate times for coupling with A domain movements and catalysis. PMID:25246522

  7. Juxta-terminal Helix Unwinding as a Stabilizing Factor to Modulate the Dynamics of Transmembrane Helices.

    PubMed

    Mortazavi, Armin; Rajagopalan, Venkatesan; Sparks, Kelsey A; Greathouse, Denise V; Koeppe, Roger E

    2016-03-15

    Transmembrane helices of integral membrane proteins often are flanked by interfacial aromatic residues that can serve as anchors to aid the stabilization of a tilted transmembrane orientation. Yet, physical factors that govern the orientation or dynamic averaging of individual transmembrane helices are not well understood and have not been adequately explained. Using solid-state (2) H NMR spectroscopy to examine lipid bilayer-incorporated model peptides of the GWALP23 (acetyl-GGALW(LA)6 LWLAGA-amide) family, we observed substantial unwinding at the terminals of several tilted helices spanning the membranes of DLPC, DMPC, or DOPC lipid bilayers. The fraying of helix ends might be vital for defining the dynamics and orientations of transmembrane helices in lipid bilayer membranes. PMID:26749271

  8. Structural basis of integrin transmembrane activation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Luo, Bing-Hao

    2010-02-15

    Integrins are cell adhesion receptors that transmit bidirectional signals across plasma membrane and are crucial for many biological functions. Recent structural studies of integrin transmembrane (TM) and cytoplasmic domains have shed light on their conformational changes during integrin activation. A structure of the resting state was solved based on Rosetta computational modeling and experimental data using intact integrins on mammalian cell surface. In this structure, the alpha(IIb) GXXXG motif and their beta(3) counterparts of the TM domains associate with ridge-in-groove packing, and the alpha(IIb) GFFKR motif and the beta(3) Lys-716 in the cytoplasmic segments play a critical role in the alpha/beta association. Comparing this structure with the NMR structures of the monomeric alpha(IIb) and beta(3) (represented as active conformations), the alpha subunit helix remains similar after dissociation whereas beta subunit helix is tilted by embedding additional 5-6 residues into the lipid bilayer. These conformational changes are critical for integrin activation and signaling across the plasma membrane. We thus propose a new model of integrin TM activation in which the recent NMR structure of the alpha(IIb)beta(3) TM/cytoplasmic complex represents an intermediate or transient state, and the electrostatic interaction in the cytoplasmic region is important for priming the initial alpha/beta association, but not absolutely necessary for the resting state. PMID:19950197

  9. Quantification of structural distortions in the transmembrane helices of GPCRs.

    PubMed

    Deupi, Xavier

    2012-01-01

    A substantial part of the structural and much of the functional information about G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) comes from studies on rhodopsin. Thus, analysis tools for detailed structure comparison are key to see to what extent this information can be extended to other GPCRs. Among the methods to evaluate protein structures and, in particular, helix distortions, HELANAL has the advantage that it provides data (local bend and twist angles) that can be easily translated to structural effects, as a local opening/tightening of the helix.In this work I show how HELANAL can be used to extract detailed structural information of the transmembrane bundle of GPCRs, and I provide some examples on how these data can be interpreted to study basic principles of protein structure, to compare homologous proteins and to study mechanisms of receptor activation. Also, I show how in combination with the sequence analysis tools provided by the program GMoS, distortions in individual receptors can be put in the context of the whole Class A GPCR family. Specifically, quantification of the strong proline-induced distortions in the transmembrane bundle of rhodopsin shows that they are not standard proline kinks. Moreover, the helix distortions in transmembrane helix (TMH) 5 and TMH 6 of rhodopsin are also present in the rest of GPCR crystal structures obtained so far, and thus, rhodopsin-based homology models have modeled correctly these strongly distorted helices. While in some cases the inherent "rhodopsin bias" of many of the GPCR models to date has not been a disadvantage, the availability of more templates will clearly result in better homology models. This type of analysis can be, of course, applied to any protein, and it may be particularly useful for the structural analysis of other membrane proteins. A detailed knowledge of the local structural changes related to ligand binding and how they are translated into larger-scale movements of transmembrane domains is key to understand receptor activation. PMID:22976031

  10. Prediction of three-dimensional transmembrane helical protein structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barth, Patrick

    Membrane proteins are critical to living cells and their dysfunction can lead to serious diseases. High-resolution structures of these proteins would provide very valuable information for designing eficient therapies but membrane protein crystallization is a major bottleneck. As an important alternative approach, methods for predicting membrane protein structures have been developed in recent years. This chapter focuses on the problem of modeling the structure of transmembrane helical proteins, and describes recent advancements, current limitations, and future challenges facing de novo modeling, modeling with experimental constraints, and high-resolution comparative modeling of these proteins. Abbreviations: MP, membrane protein; SP, water-soluble protein; RMSD, root-mean square deviation; C? RMSD, root-mean square deviation over C? atoms; TM, transmembrane; TMH, transmembrane helix; GPCR, G protein-coupled receptor; 3D, three dimensional; NMR, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy; EPR, electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy; FTIR, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

  11. Lessons from free energy simulations of delta-opioid receptor homodimers involving the fourth transmembrane helix.

    PubMed

    Provasi, Davide; Johnston, Jennifer M; Filizola, Marta

    2010-08-10

    Several G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), including opioid receptors deltaOR, muOR, and kappaOR, have been reported to form stable dimers or oligomers in lipid bilayers and cell membranes. This notion has been recently challenged by imaging data supporting a transient nature of GPCR association. Here we use umbrella sampling reconstructed free energies of deltaOR homodimers involving the fourth transmembrane helix to predict their association constant. The results of these simulations, combined with estimates of diffusion-limited association rates, suggest a short lifetime for deltaOR homodimers in the membrane, in agreement with recent trends. PMID:20617813

  12. Differential Regulation of 6- and 7-Transmembrane Helix Variants of ?-Opioid Receptor in Response to Morphine Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Convertino, Marino; Samoshkin, Alexander; Viet, Chi T.; Gauthier, Josee; Li Fraine, Steven P.; Sharif-Naeini, Reza; Schmidt, Brian L.; Maixner, William; Diatchenko, Luda; Dokholyan, Nikolay V.

    2015-01-01

    The pharmacological effect of opioids originates, at the cellular level, by their interaction with the ?-opioid receptor (mOR) resulting in the regulation of voltage-gated Ca2+ channels and inwardly rectifying K+ channels that ultimately modulate the synaptic transmission. Recently, an alternative six trans-membrane helix isoform of mOR, (6TM-mOR) has been identified, but its function and signaling are still largely unknown. Here, we present the structural and functional mechanisms of 6TM-mOR signaling activity upon binding to morphine. Our data suggest that despite the similarity of binding modes of the alternative 6TM-mOR and the dominant seven trans-membrane helix variant (7TM-mOR), the interaction with morphine generates different dynamic responses in the two receptors, thus, promoting the activation of different mOR-specific signaling pathways. We characterize a series of 6TM-mOR-specific cellular responses, and observed that they are significantly different from those for 7TM-mOR. Morphine stimulation of 6TM-mOR does not promote a cellular cAMP response, while it increases the intracellular Ca2+ concentration and reduces the cellular K+ conductance. Our findings indicate that 6TM-mOR has a unique contribution to the cellular opioid responses. Therefore, it should be considered as a relevant target for the development of novel pharmacological tools and medical protocols involving the use of opioids. PMID:26554831

  13. Transmembrane helix-helix interactions and accessibility of H2DIDS on labelled band 3, the erythrocyte anion exchange protein.

    PubMed

    Landolt-Marticorena, C; Casey, J R; Reithmeier, R A

    1995-01-01

    4,4'-Diisothiocyanodihydrostilbene-2,2'-disulphonate (H2DIDS), a bifunctional inhibitor of anion exchange in erythrocytes, reacts with Lys-539 in band 3 at neutral pH and crosslinks to Lys-851 at alkaline pH. The accessibility of H2DIDS-labelled band 3 was determined using an anti-H2DIDS antibody and proteolysis. Competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) showed that a polyclonal antibody raised against H2DIDS-labelled keyhole limpet hemocyanin bound a variety of stilbene disulphonates in the following order of affinities, H2DIDS having the highest affinity: H2DIDS > 4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulphonate (DIDS) > 4-acetamido-4'-isothiocyanostilbene-2,2'disulphonate (SITS) > 4,4'-dinitrostilbene-2,2'-disulphonate (DNDS) > 4,4'-diaminostilbene-2,2'-disulphonate (DADS). The antibody readily detected mono- or bifunctionally H2DIDS-labelled band 3 and proteolytic fragments on immunoblots. H2DIDS attached to Lys-539 is retained in a 7.5 kDa membrane-associated peptide after papain treatment of ghost membranes while the sequence around Lys-851 is more accessible. The band 3 proteolytic fragments protected by the membrane from proteolysis remained associated as a specific complex with a Stokes radius slightly smaller than the dimeric membrane domain after solubilization in detergent solution and retained 82% of the amino acid content of the membrane domain. Circular dichroism (CD) measurements of this H2DIDS-labelled complex showed that it had a very high helical content (86%). The loops connecting the transmembrane segments in H2DIDS-labelled band 3 are therefore not required to maintain transmembrane helix-helix interactions. Denatured band 3 prelabelled with H2DIDS was more readily immunoprecipitated with the anti-H2DIDS antibody than was native band 3 in detergent solution. Deglycosylation of band 3 or proteolytic cleavage of the extramembranous loops did not enhance immunoprecipitation of H2DIDS-labelled band 3. The stilbene disulphonate inhibitor site is therefore relatively inaccessible and is bound by a bundle of helices in the native band 3 protein. PMID:7795708

  14. Observation of helix associations for insertion of a retinal molecule and distortions of helix structures in bacteriorhodopsin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urano, Ryo; Okamoto, Yuko

    2015-12-01

    We applied a newly proposed prediction method for membrane protein structures to bacteriorhodopsin that has distorted transmembrane helices in the native structure. This method uses an implicit membrane model, which restricts sampling space during folding in a membrane region, and includes helix bending. Replica-exchange simulations were performed with seven transmembrane helices only without a retinal molecule. Obtained structures were classified into clusters of similar structures, which correspond to local-minimum free energy states. The two lowest free energy states corresponded to a native-like structure with the correct empty space for retinal and a structure with this empty space filled with a helix. Previous experiments of bacteriorhodopsin suggested that association of transmembrane helices enables them to make a room for insertion of a retinal. Our results are consistent with these results. Moreover, distortions of helices in the native-like structures were successfully reproduced. In the distortions, whereas the locations of kinks for all helices were similar to those of Protein Data Bank's data, the amount of bends was more similar for helices away from the retinal than for those close to the retinal in the native structure. This suggests a hypothesis that the amino-acid sequence specifies the location of kinks in transmembrane helices and that the amount of distortions depends on the interactions with the surrounding molecules such as neighboring helices, lipids, and retinal.

  15. Functional importance of the Gly cluster in transmembrane helix 2 of the Bordetella pertussis CyaA-hemolysin: Implications for toxin oligomerization and pore formation.

    PubMed

    Juntapremjit, Sirikran; Thamwiriyasati, Niramon; Kurehong, Chattip; Prangkio, Panchika; Shank, Lalida; Powthongchin, Busaba; Angsuthanasombat, Chanan

    2015-11-01

    Adenylate cyclase-hemolysin (CyaA) is a major virulence factor of Bordetella pertussis causing whooping cough in humans. We previously showed that two transmembrane helices (α2 and α3) in the hemolysin domain (CyaA-Hly) are crucially involved in hemolytic activity. Here, PCR-based substitutions were employed to investigate a potential involvement in hemolysis of a series of four Gly residues (Gly(530), Gly(533), Gly(537) and Gly(544)) which map onto one face of a helical wheel plot of pore-lining helix 2. All CyaA-Hly mutant toxins were over-expressed in Escherichia coli as 126-kDa soluble proteins at levels comparable to the wild-type toxin. A drastic reduction in hemolytic activity against sheep erythrocytes was observed for three CyaA-Hly mutants, i.e. G530A, G533A and G537A, but not G544A, suggesting a functional importance of the Gly(530)_Gly(533)_Gly(537) cluster. A homology-based structure of the α2-loop-α3 hairpin revealed that this crucial Gly cluster arranged as a GXXGXXXG motif is conceivably involved in helix-helix association. Furthermore, a plausible pore model comprising three α2-loop-α3 hairpins implicated that Gly(530)XXGly(533)XXXGly(537) could function as an important framework for toxin oligomerization. Altogether, our present data signify for the first time that the Gly(530)_Gly(533)_Gly(537) cluster in transmembrane helix 2 serves as a crucial constituent of the CyaA-Hly trimeric pore structure. PMID:26363293

  16. Automated method for modeling seven-helix transmembrane receptors from experimental data.

    PubMed Central

    Herzyk, P; Hubbard, R E

    1995-01-01

    A rule-based automated method is presented for modeling the structures of the seven transmembrane helices of G-protein-coupled receptors. The structures are generated by using a simulated annealing Monte Carlo procedure that positions and orients rigid helices to satisfy structural restraints. The restraints are derived from analysis of experimental information from biophysical studies on native and mutant proteins, from analysis of the sequences of related proteins, and from theoretical considerations of protein structure. Calculations are presented for two systems. The method was validated through calculations using appropriate experimental information for bacteriorhodopsin, which produced a model structure with a root mean square (rms) deviation of 1.87 A from the structure determined by electron microscopy. Calculations are also presented using experimental and theoretical information available for bovine rhodopsin to assign the helices to a projection density map and to produce a model of bovine rhodopsin that can be used as a template for modeling other G-protein-coupled receptors. Images FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 8 FIGURE 11 PMID:8599649

  17. Transmembrane Protein Structure: Spin Labeling of Bacteriorhodopsin Mutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altenbach, Christian; Marti, Thomas; Gobind Khorana, H.; Hubbell, Wayne L.

    1990-06-01

    Transmembrane proteins serve important biological functions, yet precise information on their secondary and tertiary structure is very limited. The boundaries and structures of membrane-embedded domains in integral membrane proteins can be determined by a method based on a combination of site-specific mutagenesis and nitroxide spin labeling. The application to one polypeptide segment in bacteriorhodopsin, a transmembrane chromoprotein that functions as a light-driven proton pump is described. Single cysteine residues were introduced at 18 consecutive positions (residues 125 to 142). Each mutant was reacted with a specific spin label and reconstituted into vesicles that were shown to be functional. The relative collision frequency of each spin label with freely diffusing oxygen and membrane-impermeant chromium oxalate was estimated with power saturation EPR (electron paramagnetic resonance) spectroscopy. The results indicate that residues 129 to 131 form a short waterexposed loop, while residues 132 to 1a,2 are membraneembedded. The oxygen accessibility for positions 131 to 138 varies with a periodicity of 3.6 residues, thereby providing a striking demonstration of an a helix. The orientation of this helical segment with respect to the remainder of the protein was determined.

  18. Structure of the Transmembrane Regions of a Bacterial Cyclic Nucleotide-Regulated Channel

    SciTech Connect

    Clayton,G.; Latieri, S.; Heginbotham, L.; Unger, V.; Morais-Cabral, J.

    2008-01-01

    The six-transmembrane helix (6 TM) tetrameric cation channels form the largest ion channel family, some members of which are voltage-gated and others are not. There are no reported channel structures to match the wealth of functional data on the non-voltage-gated members. We determined the structure of the transmembrane regions of the bacterial cyclic nucleotide-regulated channel MlotiK1, a non-voltage-gated 6 TM channel. The structure showed how the S1-S4 domain and its associated linker can serve as a clamp to constrain the gate of the pore and possibly function in concert with ligand-binding domains to regulate the opening of the pore. The structure also led us to hypothesize a new mechanism by which motions of the S6 inner helices can gate the ion conduction pathway at a position along the pore closer to the selectivity filter than the canonical helix bundle crossing.

  19. A conserved motif in transmembrane helix 1 of diphtheria toxin mediates catalytic domain delivery to the cytosol

    PubMed Central

    Ratts, Ryan; Trujillo, Carolina; Bharti, Ajit; vanderSpek, Johanna; Harrison, Robert; Murphy, John R.

    2005-01-01

    A 10-aa motif in transmembrane helix 1 of diphtheria toxin that is conserved in anthrax edema factor, anthrax lethal factor, and botulinum neurotoxin serotypes A, C, and D was identified by blast, clustal w, and meme computational analysis. Using the diphtheria toxin-related fusion protein toxin DAB389IL-2, we demonstrate that introduction of the L221E mutation into a highly conserved residue within this motif results in a nontoxic catalytic domain translocation deficient phenotype. To further probe the function of this motif in the process by which the catalytic domain is delivered from the lumen of early endosomes to the cytosol, we constructed a gene encoding a portion of diphtheria toxin transmembrane helix 1, T1, which carries the motif and is expressed from a CMV promoter. We then isolated stable transfectants of Hut102/6TG cells that express the T1 peptide, Hut102/6TG-T1. In contrast to the parental cell line, Hut102/6TG-T1 cells are ca. 104-fold more resistant to the fusion protein toxin. This resistance is completely reversed by coexpression of small interfering RNA directed against the gene encoding the T1 peptide in Hut102/6TG-T1 cells. We further demonstrate by GST-DT140-271 pull-down experiments in the presence and absence of synthetic T1 peptides the specific binding of coatomer protein complex subunit ? to this region of the diphtheria toxin transmembrane domain. PMID:16230620

  20. A hidden Markov model with molecular mechanics energy-scoring function for transmembrane helix prediction.

    PubMed

    Zheng, W Jim; Spassov, Velin Z; Yan, Lisa; Flook, Paul K; Szalma, Sándor

    2004-10-01

    A range of methods has been developed to predict transmembrane helices and their topologies. Although most of these algorithms give good predictions, no single method consistently outperforms the others. However, combining different algorithms is one approach that can potentially improve the accuracy of the prediction. We developed a new method that initially uses a hidden Markov model to predict alternative models for membrane spanning helices in proteins. The algorithm subsequently identifies the best among models by ranking them using a novel scoring function based on the folding energy of transmembrane helical fragments. This folding of helical fragments and the incorporation into membrane is modeled using CHARMm, extended with the Generalized Born surface area solvent model (GBSA/IM) with implicit membrane. The combined method reported here, TMHGB significantly increases the accuracy of the original hidden Markov model-based algorithm. PMID:15548453

  1. Transmembrane beta-barrel protein structure prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randall, Arlo; Baldi, Pierre

    Transmembrane ?-barrel (TMB) proteins are embedded in the outer membranes of mitochondria, Gram-negative bacteria, and chloroplasts. These proteins perform critical functions, including active ion-transport and passive nutrient intake. Therefore, there is a need for accurate prediction of secondary and tertiary structures of TMB proteins. A variety of methods have been developed for predicting the secondary structure and these predictions are very useful for constructing a coarse topology of TMB structure; however, they do not provide enough information to construct a low-resolution tertiary structure for a TMB protein. In addition, while the overall structural architecture is well conserved among TMB proteins, the amino acid sequences are highly divergent. Thus, traditional homology modeling methods cannot be applied to many putative TMB proteins. Here, we describe the TMBpro: a pipeline of methods for predicting TMB secondary structure, ?-residue contacts, and finally tertiary structure. The tertiary prediction method relies on the specific construction rules that TMB proteins adhere to and on the predicted ?-residue contacts to dramatically reduce the search space for the model building procedure.

  2. Order Parameters of a Transmembrane Helix in a Fluid Bilayer: Case Study of a WALP Peptide

    PubMed Central

    Holt, Andrea; Rougier, La; Rat, Valrie; Jolibois, Franck; Saurel, Olivier; Czaplicki, Jerzy; Killian, J. Antoinette; Milon, Alain

    2010-01-01

    Abstract A new solid-state NMR-based strategy is established for the precise and efficient analysis of orientation and dynamics of transmembrane peptides in fluid bilayers. For this purpose, several dynamically averaged anisotropic constraints, including 13C and 15N chemical shift anisotropies and 13C-15N dipolar couplings, were determined from two different triple-isotope-labeled WALP23 peptides (2H, 13C, and 15N) and combined with previously published quadrupolar splittings of the same peptide. Chemical shift anisotropy tensor orientations were determined with quantum chemistry. The complete set of experimental constraints was analyzed using a generalized, four-parameter dynamic model of the peptide motion, including tilt and rotation angle and two associated order parameters. A tilt angle of 21 was determined for WALP23 in dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine, which is much larger than the tilt angle of 5.5 previously determined from 2H NMR experiments. This approach provided a realistic value for the tilt angle of WALP23 peptide in the presence of hydrophobic mismatch, and can be applied toany transmembrane helical peptide. The influence of the experimental data set on the solution space is discussed, as are potential sources of error. PMID:20441750

  3. Structural Model of the Bilitranslocase Transmembrane Domain Supported by NMR and FRET Data

    PubMed Central

    Choudhury, Amrita Roy; Sikorska, Emilia; van den Boom, Johannes; Bayer, Peter; Popenda, ?ukasz; Szutkowski, Kosma; Jurga, Stefan; Bonomi, Massimiliano; Sali, Andrej; Zhukov, Igor; Passamonti, Sabina; Novi?, Marjana

    2015-01-01

    We present a 3D model of the four transmembrane (TM) helical regions of bilitranslocase (BTL), a structurally uncharacterized protein that transports organic anions across the cell membrane. The model was computed by considering helix-helix interactions as primary constraints, using Monte Carlo simulations. The interactions between the TM2 and TM3 segments have been confirmed by Frster resonance energy transfer (FRET) spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, increasing our confidence in the model. Several insights into the BTL transport mechanism were obtained by analyzing the model. For example, the observed cis-trans Leu-Pro peptide bond isomerization in the TM3 fragment may indicate a key conformational change during anion transport by BTL. Our structural model of BTL may facilitate further studies, including drug discovery. PMID:26291722

  4. De novo design of a transmembrane Zn2+-transporting four-helix bundle

    PubMed Central

    Joh, Nathan H.; Wang, Tuo; Bhate, Manasi P.; Acharya, Rudresh; Wu, Yibing; Grabe, Michael; Hong, Mei; Grigoryan, Gevorg; DeGrado, William F.

    2015-01-01

    The design of functional membrane proteins from first principles represents a grand challenge in chemistry and structural biology. Here, we report the design of a membrane-spanning, four-helical bundle that transports first-row transition metal ions Zn2+ and Co2+, but not Ca2+, across membranes. The conduction path was designed to contain two di-metal binding sites that bind with negative cooperativity. X-ray crystallography and solid-state and solution nuclear magnetic resonance indicate that the overall helical bundle is formed from two tightly interacting pairs of helices, which form individual domains that interact weakly along a more dynamic interface. Vesicle flux experiments show that as Zn2+ ions diffuse down their concentration gradients, protons are antiported. These experiments illustrate the feasibility of designing membrane proteins with predefined structural and dynamic properties. PMID:25525248

  5. Predictions of Tertiary Structures of ?-Helical Membrane Proteins by Replica-Exchange Method with Consideration of Helix Deformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urano, Ryo; Kokubo, Hironori; Okamoto, Yuko

    2015-08-01

    We propose an improved prediction method of the tertiary structures of ?-helical membrane proteins based on the replica-exchange method by taking into account helix deformations. Our method has wide applications because transmembrane helices of native membrane proteins are often distorted. In order to test the effectiveness of the present method, we applied it to the structure predictions of glycophorin A and phospholamban. The results were in good agreement with experiments.

  6. Structure elucidation of dimeric transmembrane domains of bitopic proteins

    PubMed Central

    Volynsky, Pavel E.; Pavlov, Konstantin V.; Efremov, Roman G.; Arseniev, Alexander S.

    2010-01-01

    The interaction between transmembrane helices is of great interest because it directly determines biological activity of a membrane protein. Either destroying or enhancing such interactions can result in many diseases related to dysfunction of different tissues in human body. One much studied form of membrane proteins known as bitopic protein is a dimer containing two membrane-spanning helices associating laterally. Establishing structure-function relationship as well as rational design of new types of drugs targeting membrane proteins requires precise structural information about this class of objects. At present time, to investigate spatial structure and internal dynamics of such transmembrane helical dimers, several strategies were developed based mainly on a combination of NMR spectroscopy, optical spectroscopy, protein engineering and molecular modeling. These approaches were successfully applied to homo- and heterodimeric transmembrane fragments of several bitopic proteins, which play important roles in normal and in pathological conditions of human organism. PMID:20421711

  7. Comparative molecular field analysis using selectivity fields reveals residues in the third transmembrane helix of the serotonin transporter associated with substrate and antagonist recognition

    PubMed Central

    Walline, Crystal C.; Nichols, David E.; Carroll, F. Ivy; Barker, Eric L.

    2009-01-01

    The human serotonin transporter (hSERT) regulates the spatial and temporal actions of serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmission by removing 5-HT from the synapse. Previous studies have identified residues in the third transmembrane helix (TMH) that may be important for substrate translocation or antagonist recognition. We identified hSERT residues in TMH III that are divergent from drosophila SERT (dSERT) and employed species-scanning mutagenesis to generate reciprocal mutants. Transport inhibition assays suggest that the potency of substituted amphetamines was decreased for the hSERT mutants A169D, I172M, and S174M. Additionally, there was a loss of potency for several antidepressants and 3-phenyltropane analogs for the I172M mutant. These results suggest that residues in TMH III may contribute to antagonist recognition. We carried out Comparative Molecular Field Analyses (CoMFA) using selectivity fields to directly visualize the mutation-induced effects of antagonist potency for antidepressants, 3-phenyltropane analogs, and amphetamines. The hSERT I172M selectivity field analysis for the 3-phenyltropane analogs revealed that electrostatic interactions resulted in decreased potency. The amphetamine and antidepressant selectivity field analyses reveal the observed decreases in potencies for the hSERT I172M mutant are due to a change in tertiary structure of the hSERT protein and are not due to disruption of a direct binding site. Finally, the hSERT mutant A169D displayed altered kinetics for sodium binding, indicating that this residue may lie near the putative sodium-binding site. A SERT homology model developed from the Aquifex aeolicus leucine transporter structure provides a structural context for further interpreting the results of the TMH III mutations. PMID:18354055

  8. Structural plasticity of a transmembrane peptide allows self-assembly into biologically active nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Tarasov, Sergey G.; Gaponenko, Vadim; Howard, O. M. Zack; Chen, Yuhong; Oppenheim, Joost J.; Dyba, Marzena A.; Subramaniam, Sriram; Lee, Youngshim; Michejda, Christopher; Tarasova, Nadya I.

    2011-01-01

    Significant efforts have been devoted to the development of nanoparticular delivering systems targeting tumors. However, clinical application of nanoparticles is hampered by insufficient size homogeneity, difficulties in reproducible synthesis and manufacturing, frequent high uptake in the liver, systemic toxicity of the carriers (particularly for inorganic nanoparticles), and insufficient selectivity for tumor cells. We have found that properly modified synthetic analogs of transmembrane domains of membrane proteins can self-assemble into remarkably uniform spherical nanoparticles with innate biological activity. Self-assembly is driven by a structural transition of the peptide that adopts predominantly a beta-hairpin conformation in aqueous solutions, but folds into an alpha-helix upon spontaneous fusion of the nanoparticles with cell membrane. A 24-amino acid peptide corresponding to the second transmembrane helix of the CXCR4 forms self-assembled particles that inhibit CXCR4 function in vitro and hamper CXCR4-dependent tumor metastasis in vivo. Furthermore, such nanoparticles can encapsulate hydrophobic drugs, thus providing a delivery system with the potential for dual biological activity. PMID:21628584

  9. Probing the Transmembrane Structure and Dynamics of Microsomal NADPH-cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase by Solid-State NMR

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Rui; Yamamoto, Kazutoshi; Zhang, Meng; Popovych, Nataliya; Hung, Ivan; Im, Sang-Choul; Gan, Zhehong; Waskell, Lucy; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy

    2014-01-01

    NADPH-cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (CYPOR) is an essential redox partner of the cytochrome P450 (cyt P450) superfamily of metabolic enzymes. In the endoplasmic reticulum of liver cells, such enzymes metabolize ∼75% of the pharmaceuticals in use today. It is known that the transmembrane domain of CYPOR plays a crucial role in aiding the formation of a complex between CYPOR and cyt P450. Here we present the transmembrane structure, topology, and dynamics of the FMN binding domain of CYPOR in a native membrane-like environment. Our solid-state NMR results reveal that the N-terminal transmembrane domain of CYPOR adopts an α-helical conformation in the lipid membrane environment. Most notably, we also show that the transmembrane helix is tilted ∼13° from the lipid bilayer normal, and exhibits motions on a submillisecond timescale including rotational diffusion of the whole helix and fluctuation of the helical director axis. The approaches and the information reported in this study would enable further investigations on the structure and dynamics of the full-length NADPH-cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase and its interaction with other membrane proteins in a membrane environment. PMID:24853741

  10. Geometry and intrinsic tilt of a tryptophan-anchored transmembrane alpha-helix determined by (2)H NMR.

    PubMed Central

    van der Wel, Patrick C A; Strandberg, Erik; Killian, J Antoinette; Koeppe, Roger E

    2002-01-01

    We used solid-state deuterium NMR spectroscopy and an approach involving geometric analysis of labeled alanines (GALA method) to examine the structure and orientation of a designed synthetic hydrophobic, membrane-spanning alpha-helical peptide in phosphatidylcholine (PC) bilayers. The 19-amino-acid peptide consists of an alternating leucine and alanine core, flanked by tryptophans that serve as interfacial anchors: acetyl-GWW(LA)(6)LWWA-ethanolamine (WALP19). A single deuterium-labeled alanine was introduced at different positions within the peptide. Peptides were incorporated in oriented bilayers of dilauroyl- (di-C12:0-), dimyristoyl- (di-C14:0-), or dioleoyl- (di-C18:1(c)-) phosphatidylcholine. The NMR data fit well to a WALP19 orientation characterized by a distinctly nonzero tilt, approximately 4 degrees from the membrane normal, and rapid reorientation about the membrane normal in all three lipids. Although the orientation of WALP19 varies slightly in the different lipids, hydrophobic mismatch does not seem to be the dominant factor causing the tilt. We suggest rather that the peptide itself has an inherently preferred tilted orientation, possibly related to peptide surface characteristics or the disposition of tryptophan indole anchors relative to the lipids, the peptide backbone, and the membrane/water interface. Additionally, the data allow us to define more precisely the local alanine geometry in this membrane-spanning alpha-helix. PMID:12202373

  11. Structural insight into the transmembrane domain and the juxtamembrane region of the erythropoietin receptor in micelles.

    PubMed

    Li, Qingxin; Wong, Ying Lei; Huang, Qiwei; Kang, CongBao

    2014-11-18

    Erythropoietin receptor (EpoR) dimerization is an important step in erythrocyte formation. Its transmembrane domain (TMD) and juxtamembrane (JM) region are essential for signal transduction across the membrane. A construct compassing residues S212-P259 and containing the TMD and JM region of the human EpoR was purified and reconstituted in detergent micelles. The solution structure of the construct was determined in dodecylphosphocholine (DPC) micelles by solution NMR spectroscopy. Structural and dynamic studies demonstrated that the TMD and JM region are an ?-helix in DPC micelles, whereas residues S212-D224 at the N-terminus of the construct are not structured. The JM region is a helix that contains a hydrophobic patch formed by conserved hydrophobic residues (L253, I257, and W258). Nuclear Overhauser effect analysis, fluorescence spectroscopy, and paramagnetic relaxation enhancement experiments suggested that the JM region is exposed to the solvent. The structures of the TMD and JM region of the mouse EpoR were similar to those of the human EpoR. PMID:25418301

  12. The pore-lining regions in cytochrome c oxidases: A computational analysis of caveolin, cholesterol and transmembrane helix contributions to proton movement.

    PubMed

    Morrill, Gene A; Kostellow, Adele B; Gupta, Raj K

    2014-11-01

    Cytochrome c oxidase (CcO) is the terminal enzyme in the electron transfer chain. CcO catalyzes a four electron reduction of O2 to water at a catalytic site formed by high-spin heme (a3) and copper atoms (CuB). While it is recognized that proton movement is coupled to oxygen reduction, the proton channel(s) have not been well defined. Using computational methods developed to study protein topology, membrane channels and 3D packing arrangements within transmembrane (TM) helix arrays, we find that subunit-1 (COX-1), subunit-2 (COX-2) and subunit-3 (COX-3) contribute 139, 46 and 25 residues, respectively, to channel formation between the mitochondrial matrix and intermembrane space. Nine of 12 TM helices in COX-1, both helices in COX-2 and 5 of the 6 TM helices in COX-3 are pore-lining regions (possible channel formers). Heme a3 and the CuB sites (as well as the CuA center of COX-2) are located within the channel that includes TM-6, TM-7, TM-10 and TM-11 of COX-1 and are associated with multiple cholesterol and caveolin-binding (CB) motifs. Sequence analysis identifies five CB motifs within COX-1, two within COX-2 and four within COX-3; each caveolin containing a pore-lining helix C-terminal to a TM helix-turn-helix. Channel formation involves interaction between multiple pore-lining regions within protein subunits and/or dimers. PoreWalker analysis lends support to the D-channel model of proton translocation. Under physiological conditions, caveolins may introduce channel formers juxtaposed to those in COX-1, COX-2 and COX-3, which together with cholesterol may form channel(s) essential for proton translocation through the inner mitochondrial membrane. PMID:25037006

  13. Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (ABCC7) Structure

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, John F.; Wang, Chi; Ford, Robert C.

    2013-01-01

    Structural studies of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) are reviewed. Like many membrane proteins, full-length CFTR has proven to be difficult to express and purify, hence much of the structural data available is for the more tractable, independently expressed soluble domains. Therefore, this chapter covers structural data for individual CFTR domains in addition to the sparser data available for the full-length protein. To set the context for these studies, we will start by reviewing structural information on model proteins from the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter superfamily, to which CFTR belongs. PMID:23378596

  14. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (ABCC7) structure.

    PubMed

    Hunt, John F; Wang, Chi; Ford, Robert C

    2013-02-01

    Structural studies of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) are reviewed. Like many membrane proteins, full-length CFTR has proven to be difficult to express and purify, hence much of the structural data available is for the more tractable, independently expressed soluble domains. Therefore, this chapter covers structural data for individual CFTR domains in addition to the sparser data available for the full-length protein. To set the context for these studies, we will start by reviewing structural information on model proteins from the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter superfamily, to which CFTR belongs. PMID:23378596

  15. Structure of single-wall carbon nanotubes: a graphene helix.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae-Kap; Lee, Sohyung; Kim, Jin-Gyu; Min, Bong-Ki; Kim, Yong-Il; Lee, Kyung-Il; An, Kay Hyeok; John, Phillip

    2014-08-27

    Evidence is presented in this paper that certain single-wall carbon nanotubes are not seamless tubes, but rather adopt a graphene helix resulting from the spiral growth of a nano-graphene ribbon. The residual traces of the helices are confirmed by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The analysis also shows that the tubular graphene material may exhibit a unique armchair structure and the chirality is not a necessary condition for the growth of carbon nanotubes. The description of the structure of the helical carbon nanomaterials is generalized using the plane indices of hexagonal space groups instead of using chiral vectors. It is also proposed that the growth model, via a graphene helix, results in a ubiquitous structure of single-wall carbon nanotubes. PMID:24838196

  16. Structural Basis for High Affinity Volatile Anesthetic Binding in a Natural 4-helix Bundle Protein

    SciTech Connect

    Liu,R.; Loll, P.; Eckenhoff, R.

    2005-01-01

    Physiologic sites for inhaled anesthetics are presumed to be cavities within transmembrane 4-{alpha}-helix bundles of neurotransmitter receptors, but confirmation of binding and structural detail of such sites remains elusive. To provide such detail, we screened soluble proteins containing this structural motif, and found only one that exhibited evidence of strong anesthetic binding. Ferritin is a 24-mer of 4-{alpha}-helix bundles; both halothane and isoflurane bind with K{sub A} values of {approx}10{sup 5} M{sup -1, } higher than any previously reported inhaled anesthetic-protein interaction. The crystal structures of the halothane/apoferritin and isoflurane/apoferritin complexes were determined at 1.75 Angstroms resolution, revealing a common anesthetic binding pocket within an interhelical dimerization interface. The high affinity is explained by several weak polar contacts and an optimal host/guest packing relationship. Neither the acidic protons nor ether oxygen of the anesthetics contribute to the binding interaction. Compared with unliganded apoferritin, the anesthetic produced no detectable alteration of structure or B factors. The remarkably high affinity of the anesthetic/apoferritin complex implies greater selectivity of protein sites than previously thought, and suggests that direct protein actions may underlie effects at lower than surgical levels of anesthetic, including loss of awareness.

  17. The first N-terminal transmembrane helix of each subunit of the antigenic peptide transporter TAP is essential for independent tapasin binding.

    PubMed

    Koch, Joachim; Guntrum, Renate; Tamp, Robert

    2006-07-24

    The heterodimeric ABC transporter TAP translocates proteasomal degradation products from the cytosol into the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum, where these peptides are loaded onto MHC class I molecules by a macromolecular peptide-loading complex (PLC) and subsequently shuttled to the cell surface for inspection by cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Tapasin recruits, as a central adapter protein, other components of the PLC at the unique N-terminal domains of TAP. We found that the N-terminal domains of human TAP1 and TAP2 can independently bind to tapasin, thus providing two separate loading platforms for PLC assembly. Moreover, tapasin binding is dependent on the first N-terminal transmembrane helix of TAP1 and TAP2, demonstrating that these two helices contribute independently to the recruitment of tapasin and associated factors. PMID:16828748

  18. Solution structure of the transmembrane domain of the mouse erythropoietin receptor in detergent micelles

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qingxin; Lei Wong, Ying; Yueqi Lee, Michelle; Li, Yan; Kang, CongBao

    2015-01-01

    Erythropoiesis is regulated by the erythropoietin receptor (EpoR) binding to its ligand. The transmembrane domain (TMD) and the juxtamembrane (JM) regions of the EpoR are important for signal transduction across the cell membrane. We report a solution NMR study of the mouse erythropoietin receptor (mEpoR) comprising the TMD and the JM regions reconstituted in dodecylphosphocholine (DPC) micelles. The TMD and the C-terminal JM region of the mEpoR are mainly ?-helical, adopting a similar structure to those of the human EpoR. Residues from S216 to T219 in mEpoR form a short helix. Relaxation study demonstrates that the TMD of the mEpoR is rigid whilst the N-terminal region preceding the TMD is flexible. Fluorescence spectroscopy and sequence analysis indicate that the C-terminal JM region is exposed to the solvent. Helix wheel result shows that there is hydrophilic patch in the TMD of the mEpoR formed by residues S231, S238 and T242, and these residues might be important for the receptor dimerization. PMID:26316120

  19. A triple helix model for the structure of chromatin fiber.

    PubMed

    Makarov, V; Dimitrov, S; Smirnov, V; Pashev, I

    1985-02-25

    A model of chromatin fiber structure is presented in which a repeating unit of a trinucleosome forms a 3-dimensional zigzag. Twisting and compression of the zigzag result in a triple helix structure. The model is built mainly on the flow linear dichroism data showing that nucleosomal disc faces are tilted relative to the fiber axis, the orientation of nucleosomes does not change upon folding and unfolding of chromatin, and the orientation of nucleosomes is maintained by the globular domain of histone H1. PMID:3972115

  20. Assembly of transmembrane proteins on oil-water interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yunker, Peter; Landry, Corey; Chong, Shaorong; Weitz, David

    2015-03-01

    Transmembrane proteins are difficult to handle by aqueous solution-based biochemical and biophysical approaches, due to the hydrophobicity of transmembrane helices. Detergents can solubilize transmembrane proteins; however, surfactant coated transmembrane proteins are not always functional, and purifying detergent coated proteins in a micellar solution can be difficult. Motivated by this problem, we study the self-assembly of transmembrane proteins on oil-water interfaces. We found that the large water-oil interface of oil drops prevents nascent transmembrane proteins from forming non-functional aggregates. The oil provides a hydrophobic environment for the transmembrane helix, allowing the ectodomain to fold into its natural structure and orientation. Further, modifying the strength or valency of hydrophobic interactions between transmembrane proteins results in the self-assembly of spatially clustered, active proteins on the oil-water interface. Thus, hydrophobic interactions can facilitate, rather than inhibit, the assembly of transmembrane proteins.

  1. Crystal Structure of the Glycophorin A Transmembrane Dimer in Lipidic Cubic Phase.

    PubMed

    Trenker, Raphael; Call, Matthew E; Call, Melissa J

    2015-12-23

    The mechanisms of assembly and function for many important type I/II (single-pass) transmembrane (TM) receptors are proposed to involve the formation and/or alteration of specific interfaces among their membrane-embedded ?-helical TM domains. The application of lipidic cubic phase (LCP) bilayer media for crystallization of single-?-helical TM complexes has the potential to provide valuable structural and mechanistic insights into many such systems. However, the fidelity of the interfaces observed in crowded crystalline arrays has been difficult to establish from the very limited number of such structures determined using X-ray diffraction data. Here we examine this issue using the glycophorin A (GpA) model system, whose homodimeric TM helix interface has been characterized by solution and solid-state NMR and biochemical techniques but never crystallographically. We report that a GpA-TM peptide readily crystallized in a monoolein cubic phase bilayer, yielding a dimeric ?-helical structure that is in excellent agreement with previously reported NMR measurements made in several different types of host media. These results provide compelling support for the wider application of LCP techniques to enable X-ray crystallographic analysis of single-pass TM interactions. PMID:26642914

  2. Structure of the transmembrane domain of human nicastrin-a component of ?-secretase.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Liew, Lynette Sin Yee; Li, Qingxin; Kang, CongBao

    2016-01-01

    Nicastrin is the largest component of ?-secretase that is an intramembrane protease important in the development of Alzheimer's disease. Nicastrin contains a large extracellular domain, a single transmembrane (TM) domain, and a short C-terminus. Its TM domain is important for the ?-secretase complex formation. Here we report nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies of the TM and C-terminal regions of human nicastrin in both sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and dodecylphosphocholine (DPC) micelles. Structural study and dynamic analysis reveal that the TM domain is largely helical and stable under both SDS and DPC micelles with its N-terminal region undergoing intermediate time scale motion. The TM helix contains a hydrophilic patch that is important for TM-TM interactions. The short C-terminus is not structured in solution and a region formed by residues V697-A702 interacts with the membrane, suggesting that these residues may play a role in the ?-secretase complex formation. Our study provides structural insight into the function of the nicastrin TM domain and the C-terminus in ?-secretase complex. PMID:26776682

  3. Structure of the transmembrane domain of human nicastrin-a component of γ-secretase

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan; Liew, Lynette Sin Yee; Li, Qingxin; Kang, CongBao

    2016-01-01

    Nicastrin is the largest component of γ-secretase that is an intramembrane protease important in the development of Alzheimer’s disease. Nicastrin contains a large extracellular domain, a single transmembrane (TM) domain, and a short C-terminus. Its TM domain is important for the γ-secretase complex formation. Here we report nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies of the TM and C-terminal regions of human nicastrin in both sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and dodecylphosphocholine (DPC) micelles. Structural study and dynamic analysis reveal that the TM domain is largely helical and stable under both SDS and DPC micelles with its N-terminal region undergoing intermediate time scale motion. The TM helix contains a hydrophilic patch that is important for TM-TM interactions. The short C-terminus is not structured in solution and a region formed by residues V697-A702 interacts with the membrane, suggesting that these residues may play a role in the γ-secretase complex formation. Our study provides structural insight into the function of the nicastrin TM domain and the C-terminus in γ-secretase complex. PMID:26776682

  4. An affinity-structure database of helix-turn-helix: DNA complexes with a universal coordinate system

    DOE PAGESBeta

    AlQuraishi, Mohammed; Tang, Shengdong; Xia, Xide

    2015-11-19

    Molecular interactions between proteins and DNA molecules underlie many cellular processes, including transcriptional regulation, chromosome replication, and nucleosome positioning. Computational analyses of protein-DNA interactions rely on experimental data characterizing known protein-DNA interactions structurally and biochemically. While many databases exist that contain either structural or biochemical data, few integrate these two data sources in a unified fashion. Such integration is becoming increasingly critical with the rapid growth of structural and biochemical data, and the emergence of algorithms that rely on the synthesis of multiple data types to derive computational models of molecular interactions. We have developed an integrated affinity-structure database inmore » which the experimental and quantitative DNA binding affinities of helix-turn-helix proteins are mapped onto the crystal structures of the corresponding protein-DNA complexes. This database provides access to: (i) protein-DNA structures, (ii) quantitative summaries of protein-DNA binding affinities using position weight matrices, and (iii) raw experimental data of protein-DNA binding instances. Critically, this database establishes a correspondence between experimental structural data and quantitative binding affinity data at the single basepair level. Furthermore, we present a novel alignment algorithm that structurally aligns the protein-DNA complexes in the database and creates a unified residue-level coordinate system for comparing the physico-chemical environments at the interface between complexes. Using this unified coordinate system, we compute the statistics of atomic interactions at the protein-DNA interface of helix-turn-helix proteins. We provide an interactive website for visualization, querying, and analyzing this database, and a downloadable version to facilitate programmatic analysis. Lastly, this database will facilitate the analysis of protein-DNA interactions and the development of programmatic computational methods that capitalize on integration of structural and biochemical datasets. The database can be accessed at http://ProteinDNA.hms.harvard.edu.« less

  5. An affinity-structure database of helix-turn-helix: DNA complexes with a universal coordinate system

    SciTech Connect

    AlQuraishi, Mohammed; Tang, Shengdong; Xia, Xide

    2015-11-19

    Molecular interactions between proteins and DNA molecules underlie many cellular processes, including transcriptional regulation, chromosome replication, and nucleosome positioning. Computational analyses of protein-DNA interactions rely on experimental data characterizing known protein-DNA interactions structurally and biochemically. While many databases exist that contain either structural or biochemical data, few integrate these two data sources in a unified fashion. Such integration is becoming increasingly critical with the rapid growth of structural and biochemical data, and the emergence of algorithms that rely on the synthesis of multiple data types to derive computational models of molecular interactions. We have developed an integrated affinity-structure database in which the experimental and quantitative DNA binding affinities of helix-turn-helix proteins are mapped onto the crystal structures of the corresponding protein-DNA complexes. This database provides access to: (i) protein-DNA structures, (ii) quantitative summaries of protein-DNA binding affinities using position weight matrices, and (iii) raw experimental data of protein-DNA binding instances. Critically, this database establishes a correspondence between experimental structural data and quantitative binding affinity data at the single basepair level. Furthermore, we present a novel alignment algorithm that structurally aligns the protein-DNA complexes in the database and creates a unified residue-level coordinate system for comparing the physico-chemical environments at the interface between complexes. Using this unified coordinate system, we compute the statistics of atomic interactions at the protein-DNA interface of helix-turn-helix proteins. We provide an interactive website for visualization, querying, and analyzing this database, and a downloadable version to facilitate programmatic analysis. Lastly, this database will facilitate the analysis of protein-DNA interactions and the development of programmatic computational methods that capitalize on integration of structural and biochemical datasets. The database can be accessed at http://ProteinDNA.hms.harvard.edu.

  6. Structural basis for PAS domain heterodimerization in the basic helix--loop--helix-PAS transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor.

    PubMed

    Erbel, Paul J A; Card, Paul B; Karakuzu, Ozgur; Bruick, Richard K; Gardner, Kevin H

    2003-12-23

    Biological responses to oxygen availability play important roles in development, physiological homeostasis, and many disease processes. In mammalian cells, this adaptation is mediated in part by a conserved pathway centered on the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF). HIF is a heterodimeric protein complex composed of two members of the basic helix-loop-helix Per-ARNT-Sim (PAS) (ARNT, aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator) domain family of transcriptional activators, HIFalpha and ARNT. Although this complex involves protein-protein interactions mediated by basic helix-loop-helix and PAS domains in both proteins, the role played by the PAS domains is poorly understood. To address this issue, we have studied the structure and interactions of the C-terminal PAS domain of human HIF-2alpha by NMR spectroscopy. We demonstrate that HIF-2alpha PAS-B binds the analogous ARNT domain in vitro, showing that residues involved in this interaction are located on the solvent-exposed side of the HIF-2alpha central beta-sheet. Mutating residues at this surface not only disrupts the interaction between isolated PAS domains in vitro but also interferes with the ability of full-length HIF to respond to hypoxia in living cells. Extending our findings to other PAS domains, we find that this beta-sheet interface is widely used for both intra- and intermolecular interactions, suggesting a basis of specificity and regulation of many types of PAS-containing signaling proteins. PMID:14668441

  7. Low-coupling impedance double-helix structure for use in a ferrite kicker magnet

    SciTech Connect

    Giordano, S.

    1983-01-01

    In a machine such as the CBA, the ejection ferrite kicker magnet has a very large longitudinal and transverse coupling impedance which could destroy the beam. Using a double-helix structure that surrounds the beam, the beam-induced fields are confined within the helix and, therefore, decoupled from the kicker; but at the same time the helix is transparent to the external fields of the kicker. At first, this may seem paradoxical that the helix is opaque to the fields generated inside the structure by the beam and simultaneously transparent to the external fields generated by the kicker.

  8. Transformation of a design peptide between the ?-helix and ?-hairpin structures using a helix-strand replica-exchange molecular dynamics simulation.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Hisashi; Itoh, Satoru G

    2013-09-01

    We investigated the transformation between the ?-helix and ?-hairpin structures of an 18-residue design peptide, whose sequence is INYWLAHAKAGYIVHWTA. This peptide has both ?-helix and ?-hairpin structures in aqueous solution. For this purpose, we proposed the helix-strand replica-exchange method. This is one of the Hamiltonian replica-exchange methods in which we exchange parameters for umbrella potentials to enhance the ?-helix or ?-strand structure formation. We performed an all-atom helix-strand replica-exchange molecular dynamics (MD) simulation of this peptide in explicit water solvent with five replicas. Because the suitable umbrella potential was applied, the helix-strand replica-exchange MD simulation reproduced conformations closer to experimental conformations than a temperature replica-exchange MD simulation when the same numbers of the replicas were used, while the temperature replica-exchange MD simulation does not require bias along any specific order parameter. We calculated its free-energy landscape and revealed the transformation pathways between the ?-helix and ?-hairpin structures and the folding pathways from an extended structure. Although the fractions of the ?-helix and ?-hairpin structures are less than those obtained by the experiment, the free-energy difference between the two structures is calculated to be almost zero, which agrees with the experimental results. PMID:23839056

  9. patGPCR: A Multitemplate Approach for Improving 3D Structure Prediction of Transmembrane Helices of G-Protein-Coupled Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Hongjie; L, Qiang; Quan, Lijun; Qian, Peide; Xia, Xiaoyan

    2013-01-01

    The structures of the seven transmembrane helices of G-protein-coupled receptors are critically involved in many aspects of these receptors, such as receptor stability, ligand docking, and molecular function. Most of the previous multitemplate approaches have built a super template with very little merging of aligned fragments from different templates. Here, we present a parallelized multitemplate approach, patGPCR, to predict the 3D structures of transmembrane helices of G-protein-coupled receptors. patGPCR, which employs a bundle-packing related energy function that extends on the RosettaMem energy, parallelizes eight pipelines for transmembrane helix refinement and exchanges the optimized helix structures from multiple templates. We have investigated the performance of patGPCR on a test set containing eight determined G-protein-coupled receptors. The results indicate that patGPCR improves the TM RMSD of the predicted models by 33.64% on average against a single-template method. Compared with other homology approaches, the best models for five of the eight targets built by patGPCR had a lower TM RMSD than that obtained from SWISS-MODEL; patGPCR also showed lower average TM RMSD than single-template and multiple-template MODELLER. PMID:23554839

  10. Structure of bacteriophage [phi]29 head fibers has a supercoiled triple repeating helix-turn-helix motif

    SciTech Connect

    Xiang, Ye; Rossmann, Michael G.

    2011-12-22

    The tailed bacteriophage {phi}29 capsid is decorated with 55 fibers attached to quasi-3-fold symmetry positions. Each fiber is a homotrimer of gene product 8.5 (gp8.5) and consists of two major structural parts, a pseudohexagonal base and a protruding fibrous portion that is about 110 {angstrom} in length. The crystal structure of the C-terminal fibrous portion (residues 112-280) has been determined to a resolution of 1.6 {angstrom}. The structure is about 150 {angstrom} long and shows three distinct structural domains designated as head, neck, and stem. The stem region is a unique three-stranded helix-turn-helix supercoil that has not previously been described. When fitted into a cryoelectron microscope reconstruction of the virus, the head structure corresponded to a disconnected density at the distal end of the fiber and the neck structure was located in weak density connecting it to the fiber. Thin section studies of Bacillus subtilis cells infected with fibered or fiberless {phi}29 suggest that the fibers might enhance the attachment of the virions onto the host cell wall.

  11. Synaptobrevin transmembrane domain determines the structure and dynamics of the SNARE motif and the linker region.

    PubMed

    Han, Jing; Pluhackova, Kristyna; Bruns, Dieter; Böckmann, Rainer A

    2016-04-01

    The vesicular protein synaptobrevin II (sybII) constitutes a central component of the SNARE complex, which mediates vesicle fusion in neuronal exocytosis. Previous studies revealed that the transmembrane domain (TMD) of sybII is playing a critical role in the fusion process and is involved in all distinct fusion stages from priming to fusion pore opening. Here, we analyzed sequence-dependent effects of sybII and of mutants of sybII on both structure and flexibility of the protein and the interactions with a phospholipid bilayer by means of microsecond atomistic simulations. The sybII TMD was found to direct the folding of both the juxtamembrane helix and of the connecting linker and thus to influence both the intrinsic helicity and flexibility. Fusion active peptides revealed two helical segments, one for the juxtamembrane region and one for the TMD, connected by a flexible linker. In contrast, a fusion-inactive poly-leucine TMD mutant assumes a structure with a comparably rigid linker that is suggested to hinder the formation of the trans-SNARE complex during fusion. Kinking of the TMD at the central glycine together with anchoring of the TMD via conserved tryptophans and a lysine in position 94 likely yields an enhanced flexibility of sybII for different membrane thickness. All studied peptides were found to deform the outer membrane layer by altering the lipid head group orientation, causing partial membrane dehydration and enhancing lipid protrusions. These effects weaken the integrity of the outer membrane layer and are attributed mainly to the highly charged linker and JM regions of sybII. PMID:26851777

  12. Cell-Cell Membrane Fusion Induced by p15 Fusion-associated Small Transmembrane (FAST) Protein Requires a Novel Fusion Peptide Motif Containing a Myristoylated Polyproline Type II Helix*

    PubMed Central

    Top, Deniz; Read, Jolene A.; Dawe, Sandra J.; Syvitski, Raymond T.; Duncan, Roy

    2012-01-01

    The p15 fusion-associated small transmembrane (FAST) protein is a nonstructural viral protein that induces cell-cell fusion and syncytium formation. The exceptionally small, myristoylated N-terminal ectodomain of p15 lacks any of the defining features of a typical viral fusion protein. NMR and CD spectroscopy indicate this small fusion module comprises a left-handed polyproline type II (PPII) helix flanked by small, unstructured N and C termini. Individual prolines in the 6-residue proline-rich motif are highly tolerant of alanine substitutions, but multiple substitutions that disrupt the PPII helix eliminate cell-cell fusion activity. A synthetic p15 ectodomain peptide induces lipid mixing between liposomes, but with unusual kinetics that involve a long lag phase before the onset of rapid lipid mixing, and the length of the lag phase correlates with the kinetics of peptide-induced liposome aggregation. Lipid mixing, liposome aggregation, and stable peptide-membrane interactions are all dependent on both the N-terminal myristate and the presence of the PPII helix. We present a model for the mechanism of action of this novel viral fusion peptide, whereby the N-terminal myristate mediates initial, reversible peptide-membrane binding that is stabilized by subsequent amino acid-membrane interactions. These interactions induce a biphasic membrane fusion reaction, with peptide-induced liposome aggregation representing a distinct, rate-limiting event that precedes membrane merger. Although the prolines in the proline-rich motif do not directly interact with membranes, the PPII helix may function to force solvent exposure of hydrophobic amino acid side chains in the regions flanking the helix to promote membrane binding, apposition, and fusion. PMID:22170056

  13. Helix-packing motifs in membrane proteins.

    PubMed

    Walters, R F S; DeGrado, W F

    2006-09-12

    The fold of a helical membrane protein is largely determined by interactions between membrane-imbedded helices. To elucidate recurring helix-helix interaction motifs, we dissected the crystallographic structures of membrane proteins into a library of interacting helical pairs. The pairs were clustered according to their three-dimensional similarity (rmsd structural features can be understood in terms of simple principles of helix-helix packing. Thus, the universe of common transmembrane helix-pairing motifs is relatively simple. The largest cluster, which comprises 29% of the library members, consists of an antiparallel motif with left-handed packing angles, and it is frequently stabilized by packing of small side chains occurring every seven residues in the sequence. Right-handed parallel and antiparallel structures show a similar tendency to segregate small residues to the helix-helix interface but spaced at four-residue intervals. Position-specific sequence propensities were derived for the most populated motifs. These structural and sequential motifs should be quite useful for the design and structural prediction of membrane proteins. PMID:16954199

  14. Toward a high-resolution structure of phospholamban: design of soluble transmembrane domain mutants.

    PubMed

    Frank, S; Kammerer, R A; Hellstern, S; Pegoraro, S; Stetefeld, J; Lustig, A; Moroder, L; Engel, J

    2000-06-13

    Determination of a high-resolution structure of the phospholamban (PLB) transmembrane domain by X-ray crystallography or NMR is handicapped by the hydrophobic nature of the peptide. Interestingly, the crystal structure of the five-stranded parallel coiled-coil oligomerization domain from cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMPcc) shows marked similarities to a model proposed for the pentameric transmembrane domain of PLB. Contrary to the putative coiled-coil domain of PLB, COMPcc contains mostly hydrophilic amino acids on the surface, resulting in a soluble molecule. Here, we report the design of soluble PLB transmembrane domain variants by combining the surface residues of COMPcc and the hydrophobic interior of the transmembrane domain of PLB. The soluble PLB variants formed pentameric structures as revealed by analytical ultracentrifugation. After redox shuffling, they showed unspecific disulfide bridge patterns similar to that of the chemically synthesized wild-type PLB transmembrane domain. These results suggest a structural homology between the soluble PLB mutants and the wild-type PLB transmembrane domain. Together with the data reported in the literature, they furthermore indicate that residues Leu37, Ile40, Leu44, and Ile47 of the PLB sequence specify pentamer formation. In contrast, a designed recombinant COMPcc mutant, COMP-ARCC, which was engineered to contain the two PLB cysteines that potentially could form an interchain disulfide bridge, formed a specific disulfide bond pattern. This finding indicates structural differences between the transmembrane domain of PLB and COMPcc. The soluble PLB variants may be used to determine a high-resolution structure of the PLB pentamer by X-ray crystallography. PMID:10841762

  15. Molecular modeling correctly predicts the functional importance of Phe594 in transmembrane helix 11 of the multidrug resistance protein, MRP1 (ABCC1).

    PubMed

    Campbell, Jeff D; Koike, Koji; Moreau, Christophe; Sansom, Michael S P; Deeley, Roger G; Cole, Susan P C

    2004-01-01

    The human ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter, multidrug resistance protein 1 (MRP1/ABCC1), confers resistance to a broad range of anti-cancer agents and transports a variety of organic anions. At present, essentially no structural data exists for MRP1 that might be used to elucidate its mechanism of transport. Consequently, we have applied a modeling strategy incorporating crystal and indirect structural data from other ABC transporters to construct a model of the transmembrane domains of the core region of MRP1 that includes the amino acid side chains. Three conserved Trp residues and one non-conserved Tyr residue, shown previously to be of functional importance (Koike, K., Oleschuk, C. J., Haimeur, A., Olsen, S. L., Deeley, R. G., and Cole, S. P. C. (2002) J. Biol. Chem. 277, 49495-49503), were found to line the "pore" in our model proximal to the membrane cytosol interface. A fifth aromatic residue (Phe594) was identified that, with the Trp and Tyr residues, completed a ring or "basket" of aromatic amino acids and, accordingly, we postulated that it would also be of functional importance. To test this idea, MRP1-Phe594 mutants were expressed in human embryonic kidney cells, and their properties were examined using membrane vesicles. Substitution of Phe594 with Ala substantially reduced or eliminated the transport of five organic anion substrates by MRP1 and abrogated the binding of leukotriene C4. On the other hand, the conservatively substituted F594W and F594Y mutants remained transport competent, although significant substrate- and substitution-specific changes were observed. These studies provide some structural insight into a possible substrate binding/transport site of MRP1 at the beginning of a putative substrate translocation pathway and demonstrate the usefulness of modeling for directing structure-function analyses of this transporter. PMID:14561746

  16. Structure and Mechanism of Proton Transport Through the Transmembrane Tetrameric M2 Protein Bundle of the Influenza A Virus

    SciTech Connect

    R Acharya; V Carnevale; G Fiorin; B Levine; A Polishchuk; V Balannick; I Samish; R Lamb; L Pinto; et al.

    2011-12-31

    The M2 proton channel from influenza A virus is an essential protein that mediates transport of protons across the viral envelope. This protein has a single transmembrane helix, which tetramerizes into the active channel. At the heart of the conduction mechanism is the exchange of protons between the His37 imidazole moieties of M2 and waters confined to the M2 bundle interior. Protons are conducted as the total charge of the four His37 side chains passes through 2{sup +} and 3{sup +} with a pK{sub a} near 6. A 1.65 {angstrom} resolution X-ray structure of the transmembrane protein (residues 25-46), crystallized at pH 6.5, reveals a pore that is lined by alternating layers of sidechains and well-ordered water clusters, which offer a pathway for proton conduction. The His37 residues form a box-like structure, bounded on either side by water clusters with well-ordered oxygen atoms at close distance. The conformation of the protein, which is intermediate between structures previously solved at higher and lower pH, suggests a mechanism by which conformational changes might facilitate asymmetric diffusion through the channel in the presence of a proton gradient. Moreover, protons diffusing through the channel need not be localized to a single His37 imidazole, but instead may be delocalized over the entire His-box and associated water clusters. Thus, the new crystal structure provides a possible unification of the discrete site versus continuum conduction models.

  17. Determinants of Cation Permeation and Drug Sensitivity in Predicted Transmembrane Helix 9 and Adjoining Exofacial Re-entrant Loop 5 of Na+/H+ Exchanger NHE1.

    PubMed

    Jinadasa, Tushare; Josephson, Colin B; Boucher, Annie; Orlowski, John

    2015-07-17

    Mammalian Na(+)/H(+) exchangers (NHEs) regulate numerous physiological processes and are involved in the pathogenesis of several diseases, including tissue ischemia and reperfusion injuries, cardiac hypertrophy and failure, and cancer progression. Hence, NHEs are being targeted for pharmaceutical-based clinical therapies, but pertinent information regarding the structural elements involved in cation translocation and drug binding remains incomplete. Molecular manipulations of the prototypical NHE1 isoform have implicated several predicted membrane-spanning (M) helices, most notably M4, M9, and M11, as important determinants of cation permeation and drug sensitivity. Here, we have used substituted-cysteine accessibility mutagenesis and thiol-modifying methanethiosulfonate (MTS) reagents to further probe the involvement of evolutionarily conserved sites within M9 (residues 342-363) and the adjacent exofacial re-entrant loop 5 between M9 and M10 (EL5; residues 364-415) of a cysteine-less variant of rat NHE1 on its kinetic and pharmacological properties. MTS treatment significantly reduced the activity of mutants containing substitutions within M9 (H353C, S355C, and G356C) and EL5 (G403C and S405C). In the absence of MTS, mutants S355C, G403C, and S405C showed modest to significant decreases in their apparent affinities for Na(+) o and/or H(+) i. In addition, mutations Y370C and E395C within EL5, whereas failing to confer sensitivity to MTS, nevertheless, reduced the affinity for Na(+) o, but not for H(+) i. The Y370C mutant also exhibited higher affinity for ethylisopropylamiloride, a competitive antagonist of Na(+) o transport. Collectively, these results further implicate helix M9 and EL5 of NHE1 as important elements involved in cation transport and inhibitor sensitivity, which may inform rational drug design. PMID:26063808

  18. Enhanced Sampling of Coarse-Grained Transmembrane-Peptide Structure Formation from Hydrogen-Bond Replica Exchange.

    PubMed

    Bereau, Tristan; Deserno, Markus

    2015-06-01

    Protein structure formation in the membrane highlights a grand challenge of sampling in computer simulations, because kinetic traps and slow dynamics make it difficult to find the native state. Exploiting increased fluctuations at higher temperatures can help overcome free-energy barriers, provided the membrane's structure remains stable. In this work, we apply Hamiltonian replica-exchange molecular dynamics, where we only tune the backbone hydrogen-bond strength to help reduce the propensity of long-lived misfolded states. Using a recently developed coarse-grained model, we illustrate the robustness of the method by folding different WALP transmembrane helical peptides starting from stretched, unstructured conformations. We show the efficiency of the method by comparing to simulations without enhanced sampling, achieving folding in one example after significantly longer simulation times. Analysis of the bilayer structure during folding provides insight into the local membrane deformation during helix formation as a function of chain length (from 16 to 23 residues). Finally, we apply our method to fold the 50-residue-long major pVIII coat protein (fd coat) of the filamentous fd bacteriophage. Our results agree well with experimental structures and atomistic simulations based on implicit membrane models, suggesting that our explicit CG folding protocol can serve as a starting point for better-refined atomistic simulations in a multiscale framework. PMID:25311530

  19. Ser/Thr Motifs in Transmembrane Proteins: Conservation Patterns and Effects on Local Protein Structure and Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    del Val, Coral; White, Stephen H.

    2014-01-01

    We combined systematic bioinformatics analyses and molecular dynamics simulations to assess the conservation patterns of Ser and Thr motifs in membrane proteins, and the effect of such motifs on the structure and dynamics of α-helical transmembrane (TM) segments. We find that Ser/Thr motifs are often present in β-barrel TM proteins. At least one Ser/Thr motif is present in almost half of the sequences of α-helical proteins analyzed here. The extensive bioinformatics analyses and inspection of protein structures led to the identification of molecular transporters with noticeable numbers of Ser/Thr motifs within the TM region. Given the energetic penalty for burying multiple Ser/Thr groups in the membrane hydrophobic core, the observation of transporters with multiple membrane-embedded Ser/Thr is intriguing and raises the question of how the presence of multiple Ser/Thr affects protein local structure and dynamics. Molecular dynamics simulations of four different Ser-containing model TM peptides indicate that backbone hydrogen bonding of membrane-buried Ser/Thr hydroxyl groups can significantly change the local structure and dynamics of the helix. Ser groups located close to the membrane interface can hydrogen bond to solvent water instead of protein backbone, leading to an enhanced local solvation of the peptide. PMID:22836667

  20. Computer simulations and modeling-assisted ToxR screening in deciphering 3D structures of transmembrane ?-helical dimers: ephrin receptor A1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volynsky, P. E.; Mineeva, E. A.; Goncharuk, M. V.; Ermolyuk, Ya S.; Arseniev, A. S.; Efremov, R. G.

    2010-03-01

    Membrane-spanning segments of numerous proteins (e.g. receptor tyrosine kinases) represent a novel class of pharmacologically important targets, whose activity can be modulated by specially designed artificial peptides, the so-called interceptors. Rational construction of such peptides requires understanding of the main factors driving peptide-peptide association in lipid membranes. Here we present a new method for rapid prediction of the spatial structure of transmembrane (TM) helix-helix complexes. It is based on computer simulations in membrane-like media and subsequent refinement/validation of the results using experimental studies of TM helix dimerization in a bacterial membrane by means of the ToxR system. The approach was applied to TM fragments of the ephrin receptor A1 (EphA1). A set of spatial structures of the dimer was proposed based on Monte Carlo simulations in an implicit membrane followed by molecular dynamics relaxation in an explicit lipid bilayer. The resulting models were employed for rational design of wild-type and mutant genetic constructions for ToxR assays. The computational and the experimental data are self-consistent and provide an unambiguous spatial model of the TM dimer of EphA1. The results of this work can be further used to develop new biologically active 'peptide interceptors' specifically targeting membrane domains of proteins.

  1. Structural basis for amino-acid recognition and transmembrane signalling by tandem Per-Arnt-Sim (tandem PAS) chemoreceptor sensory domains.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu C; Machuca, Mayra A; Beckham, Simone A; Gunzburg, Menachem J; Roujeinikova, Anna

    2015-10-01

    Chemotaxis, mediated by methyl-accepting chemotaxis protein (MCP) receptors, plays an important role in the ecology of bacterial populations. This paper presents the first crystallographic analysis of the structure and ligand-induced conformational changes of the periplasmic tandem Per-Arnt-Sim (PAS) sensing domain (PTPSD) of a characterized MCP chemoreceptor. Analysis of the complex of the Campylobacter jejuni Tlp3 PTPSD with isoleucine (a chemoattractant) revealed that the PTPSD is a dimer in the crystal. The two ligand-binding sites are located in the membrane-distal PAS domains on the faces opposite to the dimer interface. Mutagenesis experiments show that the five strongly conserved residues that stabilize the main-chain moiety of isoleucine are essential for binding, suggesting that the mechanism by which this family of chemoreceptors recognizes amino acids is highly conserved. Although the fold and mode of ligand binding of the PTPSD are different from the aspartic acid receptor Tar, the structural analysis suggests that the PTPSDs of amino-acid chemoreceptors are also likely to signal by a piston displacement mechanism. The PTPSD fluctuates between piston (C-terminal helix) `up' and piston `down' states. Binding of an attractant to the distal PAS domain locks it in the closed form, weakening its association with the proximal domain and resulting in the transition of the latter into an open form, concomitant with a downward (towards the membrane) 4? piston displacement of the C-terminal helix. In vivo, this movement would generate a transmembrane signal by driving a downward displacement of the transmembrane helix 2 towards the cytoplasm. PMID:26457436

  2. In situ iodination and X-ray crystal structure of a foldamer helix bundle.

    PubMed

    Collie, Gavin William; Pulka-Ziach, Karolina; Guichard, Gilles

    2016-01-01

    We report here the efficient in situ iodination of tyrosine-type side-chains located within a foldamer helix bundle, permitting structure determination using single-wavelength anomalous diffraction (SAD) methods. We suggest that this simple method may be of use to those engaged in structural foldamer research as a potential solution to the phase problem. PMID:26607819

  3. The discovery of the ?-helix and ?-sheet, the principal structural features of proteins

    PubMed Central

    Eisenberg, David

    2003-01-01

    PNAS papers by Linus Pauling, Robert Corey, and Herman Branson in the spring of 1951 proposed the ?-helix and the ?-sheet, now known to form the backbones of tens of thousands of proteins. They deduced these fundamental building blocks from properties of small molecules, known both from crystal structures and from Pauling's resonance theory of chemical bonding that predicted planar peptide groups. Earlier attempts by others to build models for protein helices had failed both by including nonplanar peptides and by insisting on helices with an integral number of units per turn. In major respects, the PaulingCoreyBranson models were astoundingly correct, including bond lengths that were not surpassed in accuracy for >40 years. However, they did not consider the hand of the helix or the possibility of bent sheets. They also proposed structures and functions that have not been found, including the ?-helix. PMID:12966187

  4. Degeneracy and inversion of band structure for Wigner crystals on a closed helix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zampetaki, A. V.; Stockhofe, J.; Schmelcher, P.

    2015-02-01

    Constraining long-range interacting particles to move on a curved manifold can drastically alter their effective interactions. As a prototype we explore the structure and vibrational dynamics of crystalline configurations formed on a closed helix. We show that the ground state undergoes a pitchfork bifurcation from a symmetric polygonic to a zigzag-like configuration with increasing radius of the helix. Remarkably, we find that, for a specific value of the helix radius, below the bifurcation point, the vibrational frequency spectrum collapses to a single frequency. This allows for an essentially independent small-amplitude motion of the individual particles and, consequently, localized excitations can propagate in time without significant spreading. Upon increasing the radius beyond the degeneracy point, the band structure is inverted, with the out-of-phase oscillation mode becoming lower in frequency than the mode corresponding to the center-of-mass motion.

  5. Helix compactness and stability: Electron structure calculations of conformer dependent thermodynamic functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jákli, Imre; Csizmadia, Imre G.; Fejer, Szilard N.; Farkas, Ödön; Viskolcz, Bela; Knak Jensen, Svend J.; Perczel, Andras

    2013-03-01

    Structure, stability, cooperativity and molecular packing of two major backbone forms: 310-helix and β-strand are investigated. Long models HCO-(Xxx)n-NH2 Xxx = Gly and (L-)Ala, n ⩽ 34, are studied at two levels of theory including the effect of dispersion forces. Structure and folding preferences are established, the length modulated cooperativity and side-chain determined fold compactness is quantified. By monitoring ΔG°β→α rather than the electronic energy, ΔEβ→α, it appears that Ala is a much better helix forming residue than Gly. The achiral Gly forms a more compact 310-helix than any chiral amino acid residue probed here for L-Ala.

  6. DEAD-Box Helicase Proteins Disrupt RNA Tertiary Structure Through Helix Capture

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Cynthia; Potratz, Jeffrey P.; Cannon, Brian; Simpson, Zachary B.; Ziehr, Jessica L.; Tijerina, Pilar; Russell, Rick

    2014-01-01

    DEAD-box helicase proteins accelerate folding and rearrangements of highly structured RNAs and RNAprotein complexes (RNPs) in many essential cellular processes. Although DEAD-box proteins have been shown to use ATP to unwind short RNA helices, it is not known how they disrupt RNA tertiary structure. Here, we use single molecule fluorescence to show that the DEAD-box protein CYT-19 disrupts tertiary structure in a group I intron using a helix capture mechanism. CYT-19 binds to a helix within the structured RNA only after the helix spontaneously loses its tertiary contacts, and then CYT-19 uses ATP to unwind the helix, liberating the product strands. Ded1, a multifunctional yeast DEAD-box protein, gives analogous results with small but reproducible differences that may reflect its in vivo roles. The requirement for spontaneous dynamics likely targets DEAD-box proteins toward less stable RNA structures, which are likely to experience greater dynamic fluctuations, and provides a satisfying explanation for previous correlations between RNA stability and CYT-19 unfolding efficiency. Biologically, the ability to sense RNA stability probably biases DEAD-box proteins to act preferentially on less stable misfolded structures and thereby to promote native folding while minimizing spurious interactions with stable, natively folded RNAs. In addition, this straightforward mechanism for RNA remodeling does not require any specific structural environment of the helicase core and is likely to be relevant for DEAD-box proteins that promote RNA rearrangements of RNP complexes including the spliceosome and ribosome. PMID:25350280

  7. Structural Analysis of a Peptide Fragment of Transmembrane Transporter Protein Bilitranslocase

    PubMed Central

    Župerl, Špela; Sikorska, Emilia; Zhukov, Igor; Solmajer, Tom; Novič, Marjana

    2012-01-01

    Using a combination of genomic and post-genomic approaches is rapidly altering the number of identified human influx carriers. A transmembrane protein bilitranslocase (TCDB 2.A.65) has long attracted attention because of its function as an organic anion carrier. It has also been identified as a potential membrane transporter for cellular uptake of several drugs and due to its implication in drug uptake, it is extremely important to advance the knowledge about its structure. However, at present, only the primary structure of bilitranslocase is known. In our work, transmembrane subunits of bilitranslocase were predicted by a previously developed chemometrics model and the stability of these polypeptide chains were studied by molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. Furthermore, sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micelles were used as a model of cell membrane and herein we present a high-resolution 3D structure of an 18 amino acid residues long peptide corresponding to the third transmembrane part of bilitranslocase obtained by use of multidimensional NMR spectroscopy. It has been experimentally confirmed that one of the transmembrane segments of bilitranslocase has alpha helical structure with hydrophilic amino acid residues oriented towards one side, thus capable of forming a channel in the membrane. PMID:22745694

  8. The trans-membrane cytochrome b561 proteins: structural information and biological function.

    PubMed

    Brczi, Alajos; Zimnyi, Lszl

    2014-01-01

    Cytochrome b561 (CYB561) proteins are ascorbate reducible, trans-membrane proteins consisting of 200-300 amino acids, about half of which are hydrophobic. The first identified CYB561 protein was discovered more than 40 years ago, and is localized in the chromaffin granule membrane of the mammalian adrenal glands. Proteins with similar structural elements and biophysical and biochemical properties were identified in a wide range of animal and plant phyla in the past 15 years. CYB561 proteins have six trans-membrane helices and two b-type hemes, one on each side of the membrane. The two heme-b centers are coordinated by two pairs of His residues localized in the central four trans-membrane domains, probably very close to the membrane interface. The midpoint redox potentials of the two hemes are above 0 mV and about 100 mV apart from each other. These proteins are different in many respects from the well-known two heme-bcontaining, trans-membrane b-type cytochromes localized in the inner membrane of mitochondria, in the chloroplast thylakoids or in the cell membrane. The atomic-level structure of only one CYB561 protein is available to date. In this paper we discuss in detail the biophysical and biochemical properties of the CYB561 proteins and provide a short overview of their known or putative biological functions and significance. PMID:25163754

  9. Analysis of negative material supported helix slow wave structure for traveling-wave tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purushothaman, N.; Srivastava, V.; Ghosh, S. K.

    2013-06-01

    We investigate the effect of negative materials used as support structures for helix travelling wave tubes (TWTs). Analysis is carried out with materials having negative permittivity or negative permeability and compared with the positive dielectric support materials. The work attempts to focus on the dispersion relation and interaction impedance as a measure to check for the feasibility of using negative materials in TWT.

  10. Biological insertion of computationally designed short transmembrane segments

    PubMed Central

    Baeza-Delgado, Carlos; von Heijne, Gunnar; Marti-Renom, Marc A.; Mingarro, Ismael

    2016-01-01

    The great majority of helical membrane proteins are inserted co-translationally into the ER membrane through a continuous ribosome-translocon channel. The efficiency of membrane insertion depends on transmembrane (TM) helix amino acid composition, the helix length and the position of the amino acids within the helix. In this work, we conducted a computational analysis of the composition and location of amino acids in transmembrane helices found in membrane proteins of known structure to obtain an extensive set of designed polypeptide segments with naturally occurring amino acid distributions. Then, using an in vitro translation system in the presence of biological membranes, we experimentally validated our predictions by analyzing its membrane integration capacity. Coupled with known strategies to control membrane protein topology, these findings may pave the way to de novo membrane protein design. PMID:26987712

  11. Choosing membrane mimetics for NMR structural studies of transmembrane proteins.

    PubMed

    Warschawski, Dror E; Arnold, Alexandre A; Beaugrand, Mawenn; Gravel, Andre; Chartrand, tienne; Marcotte, Isabelle

    2011-08-01

    The native environment of membrane proteins is complex and scientists have felt the need to simplify it to reduce the number of varying parameters. However, experimental problems can also arise from oversimplification which contributes to why membrane proteins are under-represented in the protein structure databank and why they were difficult to study by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Technological progress now allows dealing with more complex models and, in the context of NMR studies, an incredibly large number of membrane mimetics options are available. This review provides a guide to the selection of the appropriate model membrane system for membrane protein study by NMR, depending on the protein and on the type of information that is looked for. Beside bilayers (of various shapes, sizes and lamellarity), bicelles (aligned or isotropic) and detergent micelles, this review will also describe the most recent membrane mimetics such as amphipols, nanodiscs and reverse micelles. Solution and solid-state NMR will be covered as well as more exotic techniques such as DNP and MAOSS. PMID:21477581

  12. RNA secondary structure prediction based on SHAPE data in helix regions.

    PubMed

    Lotfi, Mohadeseh; Zare-Mirakabad, Fatemeh; Montaseri, Soheila

    2015-09-01

    RNA molecules play important and fundamental roles in biological processes. Frequently, the functional form of single-stranded RNA molecules requires a specific tertiary structure. Classically, RNA structure determination has mostly been accomplished by X-Ray crystallography or Nuclear Magnetic Resonance approaches. These experimental methods are time consuming and expensive. In the past two decades, some computational methods and algorithms have been developed for RNA secondary structure prediction. In these algorithms, minimum free energy is known as the best criterion. However, the results of algorithms show that minimum free energy is not a sufficient criterion to predict RNA secondary structure. These algorithms need some additional knowledge about the structure, which has to be added in the methods. Recently, the information obtained from some experimental data, called SHAPE, can greatly improve the consistency between the native and predicted RNA secondary structure. In this paper, we investigate the influence of SHAPE data on four types of RNA substructures, helices, loops, base pairs from the start and end of helices and two base pairs from the start and end of helices. The results show that SHAPE data in helix regions can improve the prediction. We represent a new method to apply SHAPE data in helix regions for finding RNA secondary structure. Finally, we compare the results of the method on a set of RNAs to predict minimum free energy structure based on considering all SHAPE data and only SHAPE data in helix regions as pseudo free energy and without SHAPE data (without any pseudo free energy). The results show that RNA secondary structure prediction based on considering only SHAPE data in helix regions is more successful than not considering SHAPE data and it provides competitive results in comparison with considering all SHAPE data. PMID:26037307

  13. Structure of a Novel Winged-Helix Like Domain from Human NFRKB Protein

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Abhinav; Mcklinghoff, Sabine; Yumoto, Fumiaki; Jaroszewski, Lukasz; Farr, Carol L.; Grzechnik, Anna; Nguyen, Phuong; Weichenberger, Christian X.; Chiu, Hsiu-Ju; Klock, Heath E.; Elsliger, Marc-Andr; Deacon, Ashley M.; Godzik, Adam; Lesley, Scott A.; Conklin, Bruce R.; Fletterick, Robert J.; Wilson, Ian A.

    2012-01-01

    The human nuclear factor related to kappa-B-binding protein (NFRKB) is a 1299-residue protein that is a component of the metazoan INO80 complex involved in chromatin remodeling, transcription regulation, DNA replication and DNA repair. Although full length NFRKB is predicted to be around 65% disordered, comparative sequence analysis identified several potentially structured sections in the N-terminal region of the protein. These regions were targeted for crystallographic studies, and the structure of one of these regions spanning residues 370495 was determined using the JCSG high-throughput structure determination pipeline. The structure reveals a novel, mostly helical domain reminiscent of the winged-helix fold typically involved in DNA binding. However, further analysis shows that this domain does not bind DNA, suggesting it may belong to a small group of winged-helix domains involved in protein-protein interactions. PMID:22984442

  14. Binding of MgtR, a Salmonella Transmembrane Regulatory Peptide, to MgtC, a Mycobacterium tuberculosis Virulence Factor: a Structural Study

    PubMed Central

    Jean-Francois, Frantz L.; Dai, Jian; Yu, Lu; Myrick, Alissa; Rubin, Eric; Fajer, Piotr G.; Song, Likai; Zhou, Huan-Xiang; Cross, Timothy A.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY MgtR, a highly hydrophobic peptide expressed in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium,inhibits growth in macrophages through binding to the membrane protein MgtC that has been identified as essential for replication in macrophages. While the Mycobacterium tuberculosis MgtC is highly homologuous to its S. Typhimurium analogue, there does not appear to be an Mtb homologue for MgtR, raising significant pharmacological interest in this system. Here, solid-state NMR and EPR spectroscopy in lipid bilayer preparations were used to demonstrate the formation of a heterodimer between S. Typhimurium MgtR and the transmembrane helix 4 of Mtb MgtC. Based on the experimental restraints, a structural model of this heterodimer was developed using computational techniques. The result is that MgtR appears to be ideally situated in the membrane to influence the functionality of MgtC. PMID:24140750

  15. End-to-end and end-to-middle interhelical interactions: new classes of interacting helix pairs in protein structures

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, Tarini Shankar; Chaitanya, S. Krishna; Sankararamakrishnan, Ramasubbu

    2009-10-01

    New classes of helix–helix interactions in protein structures are reported in which interactions only occur at the terminal regions or between the terminal region of one helix and the middle region of another helix. Helix–helix interactions are important for the structure, stability and function of α-helical proteins. Helices that either cross in the middle or show extensive contacts between each other, such as coiled coils, have been investigated in previous studies. Interactions between two helices can also occur only at the terminal regions or between the terminal region of one helix and the middle region of another helix. Examples of such helix pairs are found in aquaporin, H{sup +}/Cl{sup −} transporter and Bcl-2 proteins. The frequency of the occurrence of such ‘end-to-end’ (EE) and ‘end-to-middle’ (EM) helix pairs in protein structures is not known. Questions regarding the residue preferences in the interface and the mode of interhelical interactions in such helix pairs also remain unanswered. In this study, high-resolution structures of all-α proteins from the PDB have been systematically analyzed and the helix pairs that interact only in EE or EM fashion have been extracted. EE and EM helix pairs have been categorized into five classes (N–N, N–C, C–C, N–MID and C–MID) depending on the region of interaction. Nearly 13% of 5725 helix pairs belonged to one of the five classes. Analysis of single-residue propensities indicated that hydrophobic and polar residues prefer to occur in the C-terminal and N-terminal regions, respectively. Hydrophobic C-terminal interacting residues and polar N-terminal interacting residues are also highly conserved. A strong correlation exists between some of the residue properties (surface area/volume and length of side chains) and their preferences for occurring in the interface of EE and EM helix pairs. In contrast to interacting non-EE/EM helix pairs, helices in EE and EM pairs are farther apart. In these helix pairs, residues with large surface area/volume and longer side chains are preferred in the interfacial region.

  16. Structure based aggregation studies reveal the presence of helix-rich intermediate during ?-Synuclein aggregation.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Dhiman; Singh, Pradeep K; Sahay, Shruti; Jha, Narendra Nath; Jacob, Reeba S; Sen, Shamik; Kumar, Ashutosh; Riek, Roland; Maji, Samir K

    2015-01-01

    Mechanistic understanding of nucleation dependent polymerization by ?-synuclein (?-Syn) into toxic oligomers and amyloids is important for the drug development against Parkinson's disease. However the structural and morphological characterization during nucleation and subsequent fibrillation process of ?-Syn is not clearly understood. Using a variety of complementary biophysical techniques monitoring entire pathway of nine different synucleins, we found that transition of unstructured conformation into ?-sheet rich fibril formation involves helix-rich intermediates. These intermediates are common for all aggregating synucleins, contain high solvent-exposed hydrophobic surfaces, are cytotoxic to SHSY-5Y cells and accelerate ?-Syn aggregation efficiently. A multidimensional NMR study characterizing the intermediate accompanied with site-specific fluorescence study suggests that the N-terminal and central portions mainly participate in the helix-rich intermediate formation while the C-terminus remained in an extended conformation. However, significant conformational transitions occur at the middle and at the C-terminus during helix to ?-sheet transition as evident from Trp fluorescence study. Since partial helix-rich intermediates were also observed for other amyloidogenic proteins such as A? and IAPP, we hypothesize that this class of intermediates may be one of the important intermediates for amyloid formation pathway by many natively unstructured protein/peptides and represent a potential target for drug development against amyloid diseases. PMID:25784353

  17. Dynamics Of ?-Helix Proteins: Highly Structured Noise Generated By Soliton Modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Marcelo; Lindgrd, Per-Anker

    2005-11-01

    The great advantages of using the new pump-probe techniques and free electron tunable lasers for studying dynamics in proteins, has renewed the interest in more realistic modeling and theories for the non-linear phenomena in bio-molecules. In particular effects originating from solitonic behavior and/or trapped modes may give distinct signatures in the measured spectra (pioneered by Austin et al and Hamm et al). We have constructed a fairly realistic 3D ?-helix model and studied the dynamics, including the effect of thermal noise by means of computer simulations. We use various perturbations to create excitations; in particular a kick at one residue simulating a local lattice deformation caused by the chemical stimulus from a molecule changing quantum states. This generates a multitude of modes, including at least two kinds of solitons: one moving on the Hydrogen-chains along the extremities of the helix, and one Davidov-like soliton moving along the back bone and carrying along a packet of the peptide-bond excitations (Amino-I C-O stretch mode), as well as phononic modes. The unsolved problem with respect to noise is to understand and describe the highly structured propagation of energy, which is found to occur in the model ?-helix and which is probably also present in real ?-helix proteins.

  18. Impact of Histidine Residues on the Transmembrane Helices of Viroporins

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan; Park, Sang Ho; Tian, Ye; Opella, Stanley J.

    2014-01-01

    The role of histidine in channel-forming transmembrane (TM) helices was investigated by comparing the transmembrane helices from Virus protein u (Vpu) and the M2 proton channel. Both proteins are members of the viroporin family of small membrane proteins that exhibit ion channel activity, and have a single TM helix that is capable of forming oligomers. The transmembrane helices from both proteins have a conserved tryptophan towards the C-terminus. Previously, alanine 18 of Vpu was mutated to histidine in order to artificially introduce the same HXXXW motif that is central to the proton channel activity of M2. Interestingly, the mutated Vpu TM resulted in an increase in helix tilt angle of 11 in lipid bilayers compared to the wild-type Vpu TM. Here, we find the reverse, when histidine 37 of the HXXXW motif in M2 was mutated to alanine, it decreased the helix tilt by 10 from that of wild-type M2. The tilt change is independent of both the helix length and the presence of tryptophan. In addition, compared to wild-type M2, the H37A mutant displayed lowered sensitivity to proton concentration. We also found that the solvent accessibility of histidine-containing M2 is greater than without histidine. This suggests that the TM helix may increase the solvent exposure by changing its tilt angle in order to accommodate a polar/charged residue within the hydrophobic membrane region. The comparative results of M2, Vpu and their mutants demonstrated the significance of histidine in a transmembrane helix and the remarkable plasticity of the function and structure of ion channels stemming from changes at a single amino acid site. PMID:24102567

  19. The LxxxA motif in the third transmembrane helix of the maize aquaporin ZmPIP2;5 acts as an ER export signal

    PubMed Central

    Chevalier, Adrien S.; Chaumont, Franois

    2015-01-01

    The subcellular localization of aquaporins belonging to the plasma membrane intrinsic protein (PIP) subfamily is highly regulated. In maize (Zea mays), ZmPIP1s are retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) whereas ZmPIP2s are able to reach the plasma membrane (PM). We recently identified a new sorting determinant which is buried within the third transmembrane domain (TM3) of ZmPIP2;5. The Leu127 and Ala131 are required for the localization of ZmPIP2;5 in the PM and for its exit from the ER. However, when inserted into ZmPIP1;2, these amino acids were not sufficient to export the protein out of the ER. Here, we show that, when inserted into a truncated version of ZmPIP1;2 consisting only of its TM3 region, Leu127 and Ala131 of ZmPIP2;5 are able to partially bring the protein to the PM, demonstrating the active anterograde sorting function of this motif. PMID:25897469

  20. Crystal structure of strychninium chloride dihydrate: Hidden helix in the water/anion tape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bia?o?ska, Agata; Ciunik, Zbigniew

    2005-11-01

    The crystal structure of strychninium chloride dihydrate SH +Cl -2H 2O was determined. The structure is composed of strychnine herring-bone bilayer sheets with channels occupied by the hydrogen bonded anion/water tape between them. Considering different amount of water molecules in isomorphous crystal of SH +Cl -2H 2O and previously described crystal of strychninium chloride sesquihydrate, we found that water molecules and chloride anions form a left-handed helix. Similarly, anions and water molecules in the crystal of strychnine bromide dihydrate form a left-handed helix related by the two-fold screw axis symmetry. Contrary, in the crystals of strychninium chloride sesquihydrate and SH +Cl -2H 2O, the helices are related by only translation vector and are stabilized by one or two water bridges, respectively.

  1. Shielded helix traveling wave cathode ray tube deflection structure

    DOEpatents

    Norris, N.J.; Hudson, C.L.

    1992-12-15

    Various embodiments of a helical coil deflection structure of a CRT are described and illustrated which provide shielding between adjacent turns of the coil on either three or four sides of each turn in the coil. Threaded members formed with either male or female threads and having the same pitch as the deflection coil are utilized for shielding the deflection coil with each turn of the helical coil placed between adjacent threads which act to shield each coil turn from adjacent turns and to confine the field generated by the coil to prevent or inhibit cross-coupling between adjacent turns of the coil to thereby prevent generation of fast fields which might otherwise deflect the beam out of time synchronization with the electron beam pulse. 13 figs.

  2. Shielded helix traveling wave cathode ray tube deflection structure

    DOEpatents

    Norris, Neil J. (Santa Barbara, CA); Hudson, Charles L. (Santa Barbara, CA)

    1992-01-01

    Various embodiments of a helical coil deflection structure of a CRT are described and illustrated which provide shielding between adjacent turns of the coil on either three or four sides of each turn in the coil. Threaded members formed with either male or female threads and having the same pitch as the deflection coil are utilized for shielding the deflection coil with each turn of the helical coil placed between adjacent threads which act to shield each coil turn from adjacent turns and to confine the field generated by the coil to prevent or inhibit cross-coupling between adjacent turns of the coil to thereby prevent generation of fast fields which might otherwise deflect the beam out of time synchronization with the electron beam pulse.

  3. Mutations in the transmembrane helix S6 of domain IV confer cockroach sodium channel resistance to sodium channel blocker insecticides and local anesthetics.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Dingxin; Du, Yuzhe; Nomura, Yoshiko; Wang, Xingliang; Wu, Yidong; Zhorov, Boris S; Dong, Ke

    2015-11-01

    Indoxacarb and metaflumizone are two sodium channel blocker insecticides (SCBIs). They preferably bind to and trap sodium channels in the slow-inactivated non-conducting state, a mode of action similar to that of local anesthetics (LAs). Recently, two sodium channel mutations, F1845Y (F(4i15)Y) and V1848I (V(4i18)I), in the transmembrane segment 6 of domain IV (IVS6), were identified to be associated with indoxacarb resistance in Plutella xylostella. F(4i15) is known to be critical for the action of LAs on mammalian sodium channels. Previously, mutation F(4i15)A in a cockroach sodium channel, BgNav1-1a, has been shown to reduce the action of lidocaine, a LA, but not the action of SCBIs. In this study, we introduced mutations F(4i15)Y and V(4i18)A/I individually into the cockroach sodium channel, BgNav1-1a, and conducted functional analysis of the three mutants in Xenopus oocytes. We found that both the F(4i15)Y and V(4i18)I mutations reduced the inhibition of sodium current by indoxacarb, DCJW (an active metabolite of indoxacarb) and metaflumizone. F(4i15)Y and V(4i18)I mutations also reduced the use-dependent block of sodium current by lidocaine. In contrast, substitution V(4i18)A enhanced the action metaflumizone and lidocaine. These results show that both F(4i15)Y and V(4i18)I mutations may contribute to target-site resistance to SCBIs, and provide the first molecular evidence for common amino acid determinants on insect sodium channels involved in action of SCBIs and LA. PMID:26407935

  4. Structural Investigation of the Transmembrane Domain of KCNE1 in Proteoliposomes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    KCNE1 is a single-transmembrane protein of the KCNE family that modulates the function of voltage-gated potassium channels, including KCNQ1. Hereditary mutations in KCNE1 have been linked to diseases such as long QT syndrome (LQTS), atrial fibrillation, sudden infant death syndrome, and deafness. The transmembrane domain (TMD) of KCNE1 plays a key role in mediating the physical association with KCNQ1 and in subsequent modulation of channel gating kinetics and conductance. However, the mechanisms associated with these roles for the TMD remain poorly understood, highlighting a need for experimental structural studies. A previous solution NMR study of KCNE1 in LMPG micelles revealed a curved transmembrane domain, a structural feature proposed to be critical to KCNE1 function. However, this curvature potentially reflects an artifact of working in detergent micelles. Double electron electron resonance (DEER) measurements were conducted on KCNE1 in LMPG micelles, POPC/POPG proteoliposomes, and POPC/POPG lipodisq nanoparticles to directly compare the structure of the TMD in a variety of different membrane environments. Experimentally derived DEER distances coupled with simulated annealing molecular dynamic simulations were used to probe the bilayer structure of the TMD of KCNE1. The results indicate that the structure is helical in proteoliposomes and is slightly curved, which is consistent with the previously determined solution NMR structure in micelles. The evident resilience of the curvature in the KCNE1 TMD leads us to hypothesize that the curvature is likely to be maintained upon binding of the protein to the KCNQ1 channel. PMID:25234231

  5. The transmembrane domains of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor contain alpha-helical and beta structures.

    PubMed Central

    Grne-Tschelnokow, U; Strecker, A; Kaduk, C; Naumann, D; Hucho, F

    1994-01-01

    The transmembrane domain of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) from Torpedo californica electric tissue contains both alpha-helical and beta structures. The secondary structure was investigated by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy after the extramembrane moieties of the protein from the extracellular and intracellular sides of the membrane were removed by proteolysis using proteinase K. The secondary structure composition of this membrane structure was: alpha-helical 50%, beta structure and turns 40%, random 10%. The alpha-helices are shown to be oriented with respect to the membrane plane in a way allowing them to span the membrane, while no unidirectional structure for the beta structures was observed. These findings contradict previous secondary structure models based on hydropathy plots alone. Images PMID:8313878

  6. Structural studies of E73 from a hyperthermophilic archaeal virus identify the RH3 domain, an elaborated ribbon-helix-helix motif involved in DNA recognition

    PubMed Central

    Schlenker, Casey; Goel, Anupam; Tripet, Brian P.; Menon, Smita; Willi, Taylor; Dlaki?, Mensur; Young, Mark J.; Lawrence, C Martin; Copi, Valrie

    2012-01-01

    Hyperthermophilic archaeal viruses including Sulfolobus spindle-shaped viruses (SSVs) such as SSV-1 and SSV-Ragged Hills exhibit remarkable morphology and genetic diversity. However, they remain poorly understood, in part because their genomes exhibit limited or unrecognizable sequence similarity to genes with known function. Here we report structural and functional studies of E73, a 73-residue homodimeric protein encoded within the SSV-Ragged Hills genome. Despite lacking significant sequence similarity, the NMR structure reveals clear similarity to ribbon-helix-helix (RHH) domains present in numerous proteins involved in transcriptional regulation. In vitro dsDNA binding experiments confirm the ability of E73 to bind dsDNA in a non-specific manner with micromolar affinity, and characterization of the K11E variant confirms the location of the predicted DNA binding surface. E73 is distinct, however, from known RHHs. The RHH motif is elaborated upon by the insertion of a third helix that is tightly integrated into the structural domain, giving rise to the RH3 fold. Within the homodimer, this helix results in the formation of a conserved, symmetric cleft distal to the DNA binding surface, where it may mediate protein-protein interactions, or contribute to the high thermal stability of E73. Analysis of backbone amide dynamics by NMR provides evidence for a rigid core, and fast ps-ns timescale NH bond vector motions for residues located within the antiparallel ?-sheet region of the proposed DNA-binding surface, and slower ?s to ms timescale motions for residues in the ?1-?2 loop. The role of E73 and its SSV homologs in the viral life cycle are discussed. PMID:22409376

  7. Structure of the Membrane Anchor of Pestivirus Glycoprotein Erns, a Long Tilted Amphipathic Helix

    PubMed Central

    Aberle, Daniel; Muhle-Goll, Claudia; Bürck, Jochen; Wolf, Moritz; Reißer, Sabine; Luy, Burkhard; Wenzel, Wolfgang; Ulrich, Anne S.; Meyers, Gregor

    2014-01-01

    Erns is an essential virion glycoprotein with RNase activity that suppresses host cellular innate immune responses upon being partially secreted from the infected cells. Its unusual C-terminus plays multiple roles, as the amphiphilic helix acts as a membrane anchor, as a signal peptidase cleavage site, and as a retention/secretion signal. We analyzed the structure and membrane binding properties of this sequence to gain a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms. CD spectroscopy in different setups, as well as Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics simulations confirmed the helical folding and showed that the helix is accommodated in the amphiphilic region of the lipid bilayer with a slight tilt rather than lying parallel to the surface. This model was confirmed by NMR analyses that also identified a central stretch of 15 residues within the helix that is fully shielded from the aqueous layer, which is C-terminally followed by a putative hairpin structure. These findings explain the strong membrane binding of the protein and provide clues to establishing the Erns membrane contact, processing and secretion. PMID:24586172

  8. Structure of the membrane anchor of pestivirus glycoprotein E(rns), a long tilted amphipathic helix.

    PubMed

    Aberle, Daniel; Muhle-Goll, Claudia; Bürck, Jochen; Wolf, Moritz; Reißer, Sabine; Luy, Burkhard; Wenzel, Wolfgang; Ulrich, Anne S; Meyers, Gregor

    2014-02-01

    E(rns) is an essential virion glycoprotein with RNase activity that suppresses host cellular innate immune responses upon being partially secreted from the infected cells. Its unusual C-terminus plays multiple roles, as the amphiphilic helix acts as a membrane anchor, as a signal peptidase cleavage site, and as a retention/secretion signal. We analyzed the structure and membrane binding properties of this sequence to gain a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms. CD spectroscopy in different setups, as well as Monte Carlo and molecular dynamics simulations confirmed the helical folding and showed that the helix is accommodated in the amphiphilic region of the lipid bilayer with a slight tilt rather than lying parallel to the surface. This model was confirmed by NMR analyses that also identified a central stretch of 15 residues within the helix that is fully shielded from the aqueous layer, which is C-terminally followed by a putative hairpin structure. These findings explain the strong membrane binding of the protein and provide clues to establishing the E(rns) membrane contact, processing and secretion. PMID:24586172

  9. anthocyanin1 of Petunia Encodes a Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Protein That Directly Activates Transcription of Structural Anthocyanin Genes

    PubMed Central

    Spelt, Cornelis; Quattrocchio, Francesca; Mol, Joseph N. M.; Koes, Ronald

    2000-01-01

    The petunia loci anthocyanin1 (an1), an2, an4, and an11 are required for the transcription of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes in floral organs. The an2 and an11 loci were recently cloned and shown to encode a MYB-domain transcriptional activator and a cytosolic WD40 protein, respectively. Here, we report the isolation of an1 by transposon tagging. an1 encodes a new member of the basic helix-loop-helix family of transcription factors that is functionally and evolutionarily distinct from JAF13, the apparent petunia ortholog of maize RED1 and snapdragon DELILA. We provide genetic evidence that the transcription factors encoded by an1, an2, and an4 operate in an unexpectedly complex regulatory hierarchy. In leaves, ectopic expression of AN2 induces an1 expression, whereas in anthers, an1 expression depends on an4, encoding (or controlling) a MYB protein that is paralogous to AN2. Experiments with transgenic plants expressing a post-translationally controlled AN1GLUCOCORTICOID RECEPTOR fusion protein indicated that independent of protein synthesis, AN1 directly activates the expression of the dfrA gene encoding the enzyme dihydroflavonol 4-reductase and of Pmyb27 encoding a MYB-domain protein of unknown function. PMID:11006336

  10. Structural organization of FtsB, a transmembrane protein of the bacterial divisome

    PubMed Central

    LaPointe, Loren M.; Taylor, Keenan C.; Subramaniam, Sabareesh; Khadria, Ambalika; Rayment, Ivan; Senes, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    We report the first structural analysis of an integral membrane protein of the bacterial divisome. FtsB is a single-pass membrane protein with a periplasmic coiled coil. Its heterologous association with its partner FtsL represents an essential event for the recruitment of the late components to the division site. Using a combination of mutagenesis, computational modeling and X-ray crystallography, we determined that FtsB self-associates and we investigated its structural organization. We found that the transmembrane domain of FtsB homo-oligomerizes through an evolutionarily conserved interaction interface where a polar residue (Gln 16) plays a critical role through the formation of an inter-helical hydrogen bond. The crystal structure of the periplasmic domain, solved as a fusion with Gp7, shows that 30 juxta-membrane amino acids of FtsB form a canonical coiled coil. The presence of conserved Gly residue in the linker region suggests that flexibility between the transmembrane and coiled coil domains is functionally important. We hypothesize that the transmembrane helices of FtsB form a stable dimeric core for its association with FtsL into a higher-order oligomer, and that FtsL is required to stabilize the periplasmic domain of FtsB, leading to the formation of a complex that is competent for binding to FtsQ, and to their consequent recruitment to the divisome. The study provides an experimentally validated structural model and identifies point mutations that disrupt association, thereby establishing important groundwork for the functional characterization of FtsB in vivo. PMID:23520975

  11. Sequence-structure relationship study in all-? transmembrane proteins using an unsupervised learning approach.

    PubMed

    Esque, Jrmy; Urbain, Aurlie; Etchebest, Catherine; de Brevern, Alexandre G

    2015-11-01

    Transmembrane proteins (TMPs) are major drug targets, but the knowledge of their precise topology structure remains highly limited compared with globular proteins. In spite of the difficulties in obtaining their structures, an important effort has been made these last years to increase their number from an experimental and computational point of view. In view of this emerging challenge, the development of computational methods to extract knowledge from these data is crucial for the better understanding of their functions and in improving the quality of structural models. Here, we revisit an efficient unsupervised learning procedure, called Hybrid Protein Model (HPM), which is applied to the analysis of transmembrane proteins belonging to the all-? structural class. HPM method is an original classification procedure that efficiently combines sequence and structure learning. The procedure was initially applied to the analysis of globular proteins. In the present case, HPM classifies a set of overlapping protein fragments, extracted from a non-redundant databank of TMP 3D structure. After fine-tuning of the learning parameters, the optimal classification results in 65 clusters. They represent at best similar relationships between sequence and local structure properties of TMPs. Interestingly, HPM distinguishes among the resulting clusters two helical regions with distinct hydrophobic patterns. This underlines the complexity of the topology of these proteins. The HPM classification enlightens unusual relationship between amino acids in TMP fragments, which can be useful to elaborate new amino acids substitution matrices. Finally, two challenging applications are described: the first one aims at annotating protein functions (channel or not), the second one intends to assess the quality of the structures (X-ray or models) via a new scoring function deduced from the HPM classification. PMID:26043903

  12. Symmetry of helicoidal biopolymers in the frameworks of algebraic geometry: ?-helix and DNA structures.

    PubMed

    Samoylovich, Mikhail; Talis, Alexander

    2014-03-01

    The chain of algebraic geometry and topology constructions is mapped on a structural level that allows one to single out a special class of discrete helicoidal structures. A structure that belongs to this class is locally periodic, topologically stable in three-dimensional Euclidean space and corresponds to the bifurcation domain. Singular points of its bounding minimal surface are related by transformations determined by symmetries of the second coordination sphere of the eight-dimensional crystallographic lattice E8. These points represent cluster vertices, whose helicoid joining determines the topology and structural parameters of linear biopolymers. In particular, structural parameters of the ?-helix are determined by the seven-vertex face-to-face joining of tetrahedra with the E8 non-integer helical axis 40/11 having a rotation angle of 99, and the development of its surface coincides with the cylindrical development of the ?-helix. Also, packing models have been created which determine the topology of the A, B and Z forms of DNA. PMID:24572320

  13. Structural Organization of a Full-Length Gp130/LIF-R Cytokine Receptor Transmembrane Complex

    SciTech Connect

    Skiniotis, G.; Lupardus, P.J.; Martick, M.; Walz, T.; Garcia, K.C.

    2009-05-26

    gp130 is a shared receptor for at least nine cytokines, and can signal either as a homodimer, or as a heterodimer with Leukemia Inhibitory Factor Receptor (LIF-R). Here we biophysically and structurally characterize the full-length, transmembrane form of a quaternary cytokine receptor complex consisting of gp130, LIF-R, the cytokine Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor (CNTF), and its alpha receptor (CNTF-R{alpha}). Thermodynamic analysis indicates that, unlike the cooperative assembly of the symmetric gp130/Interleukin-6/IL-6R{alpha} hexameric complex, CNTF/CNTF-R{alpha} heterodimerizes gp130 and LIF-R via non-cooperative energetics to form an asymmetric 1:1:1:1 complex. Single particle electron microscopic (EM) analysis of the full-length gp130/LIF-R/CNTF-R{alpha}/CNTF quaternary complex elucidates an asymmetric structural arrangement, in which the receptor extracellular and transmembrane segments join as a continuous, rigid unit, poised to sensitively transduce ligand engagement to the membrane-proximal intracellular signaling regions. These studies also enumerate the organizing principles for assembly of the 'tall' class of gp130-family cytokine receptor complexes including LIF, IL-27, IL-12, and others.

  14. All-atom 3D structure prediction of transmembrane ?-barrel proteins from sequences

    PubMed Central

    Hayat, Sikander; Sander, Chris; Marks, Debora S.

    2015-01-01

    Transmembrane ?-barrels (TMBs) carry out major functions in substrate transport and protein biogenesis but experimental determination of their 3D structure is challenging. Encouraged by successful de novo 3D structure prediction of globular and ?-helical membrane proteins from sequence alignments alone, we developed an approach to predict the 3D structure of TMBs. The approach combines the maximum-entropy evolutionary coupling method for predicting residue contacts (EVfold) with a machine-learning approach (boctopus2) for predicting ?-strands in the barrel. In a blinded test for 19 TMB proteins of known structure that have a sufficient number of diverse homologous sequences available, this combined method (EVfold_bb) predicts hydrogen-bonded residue pairs between adjacent ?-strands at an accuracy of ?70%. This accuracy is sufficient for the generation of all-atom 3D models. In the transmembrane barrel region, the average 3D structure accuracy [template-modeling (TM) score] of top-ranked models is 0.54 (ranging from 0.36 to 0.85), with a higher (44%) number of residue pairs in correct strandstrand registration than in earlier methods (18%). Although the nonbarrel regions are predicted less accurately overall, the evolutionary couplings identify some highly constrained loop residues and, for FecA protein, the barrel including the structure of a plug domain can be accurately modeled (TM score = 0.68). Lower prediction accuracy tends to be associated with insufficient sequence information and we therefore expect increasing numbers of ?-barrel families to become accessible to accurate 3D structure prediction as the number of available sequences increases. PMID:25858953

  15. Structure of transmembrane pore induced by Bax-derived peptide: Evidence for lipidic pores

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Shuo; Wang, Wangchen; Yang, Lin; Huang, Huey W.

    2008-01-01

    The structures of transmembrane pores formed by a large family of pore-forming proteins and peptides are unknown. These proteins, whose secondary structures are predominantly ?-helical segments, and many peptides form pores in membranes without a crystallizable protein assembly, contrary to the family of ?-pore-forming proteins, which form crystallizable ?-barrel pores. Nevertheless, a protein-induced pore in membranes is commonly assumed to be a protein channel. Here, we show a type of peptide-induced pore that is not framed by a peptide structure. Peptide-induced pores in multiple bilayers were long-range correlated into a periodically ordered lattice and analyzed by X-ray diffraction. We found the pores induced by Bax-derived helical peptides were at least partially framed by a lipid monolayer. Evidence suggests that the formation of such lipidic pores is a major mechanism for ?-pore-forming proteins, including apoptosis-regulator Bax. PMID:18987313

  16. Helix 3 acts as a conformational hinge in Class A GPCR activation: An analysis of interhelical interaction energies in crystal structures.

    PubMed

    Lans, Isaias; Dalton, James A R; Giraldo, Jess

    2015-12-01

    A collection of crystal structures of rhodopsin, ?2-adrenergic and adenosine A2A receptors in active, intermediate and inactive states were selected for structural and energetic analyses to identify the changes involved in the activation/deactivation of Class A GPCRs. A set of helix interactions exclusive to either inactive or active/intermediate states were identified. The analysis of these interactions distinguished some local conformational changes involved in receptor activation, in particular, a packing between the intracellular domains of transmembrane helices H3 and H7 and a separation between those of H2 and H6. Also, differential movements of the extracellular and intracellular domains of these helices are apparent. Moreover, a segment of residues in helix H3, including residues L/I3.40 to L3.43, is identified as a key component of the activation mechanism, acting as a conformational hinge between extracellular and intracellular regions. Remarkably, the influence on the activation process of some glutamic and aspartic acidic residues and, as a consequence, the influence of variations on local pH is highlighted. Structural hypotheses that arose from the analysis of rhodopsin, ?2-adrenergic and adenosine A2A receptors were tested on the active and inactive M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor structures and further discussed in the context of the new mechanistic insights provided by the recently determined active and inactive crystal structures of the ?-opioid receptor. Overall, the structural and energetic analyses of the interhelical interactions present in this collection of Class A GPCRs suggests the existence of a common general activation mechanism featuring a chemical space useful for drug discovery exploration. PMID:26522273

  17. Characterizing diverse orthologues of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator protein for structural studies.

    PubMed

    Pollock, Naomi L; Rimington, Tracy L; Ford, Robert C

    2015-10-01

    As an ion channel, the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein occupies a unique niche within the ABC family. Orthologues of CFTR are extant throughout the animal kingdom from sharks to platypods to sheep, where the osmoregulatory function of the protein has been applied to differing lifestyles and diverse organ systems. In humans, loss-of-function mutations to CFTR cause the disease cystic fibrosis, which is a significant health burden in populations of white European descent. Orthologue screening has proved fruitful in the pursuit of high-resolution structural data for several membrane proteins, and we have applied some of the princples developed in previous studies to the expression and purification of CFTR. We have overexpressed this protein, along with evolutionarily diverse orthologues, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and developed a purification to isolate it in quantities sufficient for structural and functional studies. PMID:26517900

  18. PolyprOnline: polyproline helix II and secondary structure assignment database

    PubMed Central

    Chebrek, Romain; Leonard, Sylvain; de Brevern, Alexandre G.; Gelly, Jean-Christophe

    2014-01-01

    The polyproline helix type II (PPII) is a regular protein secondary structure with remarkable features. Many studies have highlighted different crucial biological roles supported by this local conformation, e.g. in the interactions between biological macromolecules. Although PPII is less frequently present than regular secondary structures such as canonical alpha helices and beta strands, it corresponds to 3–10% of residues. Up to now, PPII is not assigned by most popular assignment tools, and therefore, remains insufficiently studied. PolyprOnline database is, therefore, dedicated to PPII structure assignment and analysis to facilitate the study of PPII structure and functional roles. This database is freely accessible from www.dsimb.inserm.fr/dsimb_tools/polyproline. PMID:25380779

  19. Helix coupling

    DOEpatents

    Ginell, W.S.

    1989-04-25

    A coupling for connecting helix members in series, which consists of a pair of U-shaped elements, one of which is attached to each helix end with the "U" sections of the elements interlocked. The coupling is particularly beneficial for interconnecting helical Nitinol elements utilized in thermal actuators or engines. Each coupling half is attached to the associated helix at two points, thereby providing axial load while being easily removed from the helix, and reusable.

  20. Helix coupling

    DOEpatents

    Ginell, W.S.

    1982-03-17

    A coupling for connecting helix members in series, which consists of a pair of U-shaped elements, one of which is attached to each helix end with the U sections of the elements interlocked. The coupling is particularly beneficial for interconnecting helical Nitinol elements utilized in thermal actuators or engines. Each coupling half is attached to the associated helix at two points, thereby providing axial load while being easily removed from the helix, and reusable.

  1. High-Resolution Modeling of Transmembrane Helical Protein Structures from Distant Homologues

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Kuang-Yui M.; Sun, Jiaming; Salvo, Jason S.; Baker, David; Barth, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Eukaryotic transmembrane helical (TMH) proteins perform a wide diversity of critical cellular functions, but remain structurally largely uncharacterized and their high-resolution structure prediction is currently hindered by the lack of close structural homologues. To address this problem, we present a novel and generic method for accurately modeling large TMH protein structures from distant homologues exhibiting distinct loop and TMH conformations. Models of the adenosine A2AR and chemokine CXCR4 receptors were first ranked in GPCR-DOCK blind prediction contests in the receptor structure accuracy category. In a benchmark of 50 TMH protein homolog pairs of diverse topology (from 5 to 12 TMHs), size (from 183 to 420 residues) and sequence identity (from 15% to 70%), the method improves most starting templates, and achieves near-atomic accuracy prediction of membrane-embedded regions. Unlike starting templates, the models are of suitable quality for computer-based protein engineering: redesigned models and redesigned X-ray structures exhibit very similar native interactions. The method should prove useful for the atom-level modeling and design of a large fraction of structurally uncharacterized TMH proteins from a wide range of structural homologues. PMID:24854015

  2. Structure and Biophysical Properties of a Triple-Stranded Beta-Helix Comprising the Central Spike of Bacteriophage T4

    PubMed Central

    Buth, Sergey A.; Menin, Laure; Shneider, Mikhail M.; Engel, Jrgen; Boudko, Sergei P.; Leiman, Petr G.

    2015-01-01

    Gene product 5 (gp5) of bacteriophage T4 is a spike-shaped protein that functions to disrupt the membrane of the target cell during phage infection. Its C-terminal domain is a long and slender ?-helix that is formed by three polypeptide chains wrapped around a common symmetry axis akin to three interdigitated corkscrews. The folding and biophysical properties of such triple-stranded ?-helices, which are topologically related to amyloid fibers, represent an unsolved biophysical problem. Here, we report structural and biophysical characterization of T4 gp5 ?-helix and its truncated mutants of different lengths. A soluble fragment that forms a dimer of trimers and that could comprise a minimal self-folding unit has been identified. Surprisingly, the hydrophobic core of the ?-helix is small. It is located near the C-terminal end of the ?-helix and contains a centrally positioned and hydrated magnesium ion. A large part of the ?-helix interior comprises a large elongated cavity that binds palmitic, stearic, and oleic acids in an extended conformation suggesting that these molecules might participate in the folding of the complete ?-helix. PMID:26295253

  3. Structure and Biophysical Properties of a Triple-Stranded Beta-Helix Comprising the Central Spike of Bacteriophage T4.

    PubMed

    Buth, Sergey A; Menin, Laure; Shneider, Mikhail M; Engel, Jrgen; Boudko, Sergei P; Leiman, Petr G

    2015-08-01

    Gene product 5 (gp5) of bacteriophage T4 is a spike-shaped protein that functions to disrupt the membrane of the target cell during phage infection. Its C-terminal domain is a long and slender ?-helix that is formed by three polypeptide chains wrapped around a common symmetry axis akin to three interdigitated corkscrews. The folding and biophysical properties of such triple-stranded ?-helices, which are topologically related to amyloid fibers, represent an unsolved biophysical problem. Here, we report structural and biophysical characterization of T4 gp5 ?-helix and its truncated mutants of different lengths. A soluble fragment that forms a dimer of trimers and that could comprise a minimal self-folding unit has been identified. Surprisingly, the hydrophobic core of the ?-helix is small. It is located near the C-terminal end of the ?-helix and contains a centrally positioned and hydrated magnesium ion. A large part of the ?-helix interior comprises a large elongated cavity that binds palmitic, stearic, and oleic acids in an extended conformation suggesting that these molecules might participate in the folding of the complete ?-helix. PMID:26295253

  4. NMR structures and localization of the potential fusion peptides and the pre-transmembrane region of SARS-CoV: Implications in membrane fusion.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Mukesh; Bhattacharjya, Surajit

    2015-02-01

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome-associated coronavirus (SARS-CoV) poses a serious public health hazard. The S2 subunit of the S glycoprotein of SARS-CoV carries out fusion between the virus and the host cells. However, the exact mechanism of the cell fusion process is not well understood. Current model suggests that a conformational transition, upon receptor recognition, of the two heptad core regions of S2 may expose the hydrophobic fusogenic peptide or fusion peptide for membrane insertion. Three regions of the S2 subunit have been proposed to be involved in cell-cell fusion. The N-terminal fusion peptide (FP, residues 770-788), an internal fusion peptide (IFP, residues 873-888) and the pre-transmembrane region (PTM, residues 1185-1202) demonstrated interactions with model lipid membranes and potentially involved in the fusion process. Here, we have determined atomic resolution structures of these three peptides in DPC detergent micelles by solution NMR. FP assumes ?-helical conformation with significant distortion at the central Gly residues; enabling a close packing among sidechains of aromatic residues including W, Y and F. The 3-D structure of PMT is characterized by a helix-loop-helix with extensive aromatic interactions within the helices. IFP adopts a rather straight ?-helical conformation defined by packing among sidechains of aromatic and aliphatic residues. Paramagnetic spin labeled NMR has demonstrated surface localization of PMT whereas FP and IFP inserted into the micelles. Collectively, data presented in this study will aid in understanding fusion mechanism of SARS-CoV. PMID:25475644

  5. Genomic structure of SAS, a member of the transmembrane 4 superfamily amplified in human sarcomas

    SciTech Connect

    Jankowski, S.A.; De Jong, P.; Meltzer, P.S.

    1995-01-20

    SAS is a recently identified member of the transmembrane 4 superfamily (TM4SF) that is frequently amplified in human sarcomas. To further its characterization and to confirm its classification, the genomic structure of the SAS gene was determined. The SAS gene covers approximately 3.2 kb of DNA. It contains six exons within its translated region, three of which are highly conserved in the TM4SF. 5{prime} to the translation start site are two putative transcription start sites, two CCAAT consensus sequences, and potential binding sites for both Sp1 and ATF transcription factors. Comparison of SAS organization to human ME491, CD9, and CD53 and murine CD53 and TAPA-1 confirms that SAS is a member of this family of genes and is consistent with the theory that these genes arose through duplication and divergent evolution. 44 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Structure and multistate function of the transmembrane electron transporter CcdA.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Jessica A; Cho, Seung-Hyun; Ye, Jiqing; Collet, Jean-Francois; Beckwith, Jonathan R; Chou, James J

    2015-10-01

    The mechanism by which transmembrane reductases use a single pair of cysteine residues to relay electrons between protein substrates across biological membranes is a long-standing mystery in thiol-redox biochemistry. Here we show the NMR structure of a reduced-state mimic of archaeal CcdA, a protein that transfers electrons across the inner membrane, by using a redox-active NMR sample. The two cysteine positions in CcdA are separated by 20 . Whereas one is accessible to the cytoplasm, the other resides in the protein core, thus implying that conformational exchange is required for periplasmic accessibility. In vivo mixed disulfide-trapping experiments validated the functional positioning of the cysteines, and in vitro accessibility results confirmed conformational exchange. Our NMR and functional data together show the existence of multiple conformational states and suggest a four-state model for relaying electrons from cytosolic to periplasmic redox substrates. PMID:26389738

  7. Transmembrane proteins of the tight junctions at the blood-brain barrier: structural and functional aspects.

    PubMed

    Haseloff, Reiner F; Dithmer, Sophie; Winkler, Lars; Wolburg, Hartwig; Blasig, Ingolf E

    2015-02-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is formed by microvascular endothelial cells sealed by tetraspanning tight junction (TJ) proteins, such as claudins and TAMPs (TJ-associated marvel proteins, occludin and tricellulin). Claudins are the major components of the TJs. At the BBB, claudin-5 dominates the TJs by preventing the paracellular permeation of small molecules. On the other hand, TAMPs regulate the structure and function of the TJs; tricellulin may tighten the barrier for large molecules. This review aims at integrating and summarizing the most relevant and recent work on how the BBB is influenced by claudin-1, -3, -5, -12 and the TAMPs occludin and tricellulin, all of which are four-transmembrane TJ proteins. The exact functions of claudin-1, -3, -12 and TAMPs at this barrier still need to be elucidated. PMID:25433243

  8. Predicting RNA 3D structure using a coarse-grain helix-centered model

    PubMed Central

    Kerpedjiev, Peter; Höner zu Siederdissen, Christian; Hofacker, Ivo L.

    2015-01-01

    A 3D model of RNA structure can provide information about its function and regulation that is not possible with just the sequence or secondary structure. Current models suffer from low accuracy and long running times and either neglect or presume knowledge of the long-range interactions which stabilize the tertiary structure. Our coarse-grained, helix-based, tertiary structure model operates with only a few degrees of freedom compared with all-atom models while preserving the ability to sample tertiary structures given a secondary structure. It strikes a balance between the precision of an all-atom tertiary structure model and the simplicity and effectiveness of a secondary structure representation. It provides a simplified tool for exploring global arrangements of helices and loops within RNA structures. We provide an example of a novel energy function relying only on the positions of stems and loops. We show that coupling our model to this energy function produces predictions as good as or better than the current state of the art tools. We propose that given the wide range of conformational space that needs to be explored, a coarse-grain approach can explore more conformations in less iterations than an all-atom model coupled to a fine-grain energy function. Finally, we emphasize the overarching theme of providing an ensemble of predicted structures, something which our tool excels at, rather than providing a handful of the lowest energy structures. PMID:25904133

  9. Predicting three-dimensional structures of transmembrane domains of ?-barrel membrane proteins.

    PubMed

    Naveed, Hammad; Xu, Yun; Jackups, Ronald; Liang, Jie

    2012-01-25

    ?-Barrel membrane proteins are found in the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria, mitochondria, and chloroplasts. They are important for pore formation, membrane anchoring, and enzyme activity. These proteins are also often responsible for bacterial virulence. Due to difficulties in experimental structure determination, they are sparsely represented in the protein structure databank. We have developed a computational method for predicting structures of the transmembrane (TM) domains of ?-barrel membrane proteins. Based on physical principles, our method can predict structures of the TM domain of ?-barrel membrane proteins of novel topology, including those from eukaryotic mitochondria. Our method is based on a model of physical interactions, a discrete conformational state space, an empirical potential function, as well as a model to account for interstrand loop entropy. We are able to construct three-dimensional atomic structure of the TM domains from sequences for a set of 23 nonhomologous proteins (resolution 1.8-3.0 ). The median rmsd of TM domains containing 75-222 residues between predicted and measured structures is 3.9 for main chain atoms. In addition, stability determinants and protein-protein interaction sites can be predicted. Such predictions on eukaryotic mitochondria outer membrane protein Tom40 and VDAC are confirmed by independent mutagenesis and chemical cross-linking studies. These results suggest that our model captures key components of the organization principles of ?-barrel membrane protein assembly. PMID:22148174

  10. An empirical energy function for structural assessment of protein transmembrane domains.

    PubMed

    Postic, Guillaume; Ghouzam, Yassine; Gelly, Jean-Christophe

    2015-08-01

    Knowing the structure of a protein is essential to characterize its function and mechanism at the molecular level. Despite major advances in solving structures experimentally, most membrane protein native conformations remain unknown. This lack of available structures, along with the physical constraints imposed by the lipid bilayer environment, constitutes a difficulty for the modeling of membrane protein structures. Assessing the quality of membrane protein models is therefore critical. Using a non-redundant set of 66 membrane protein structures (41 alpha and 25 beta), we have developed an empirical energy function for the structural assessment of alpha-helical and beta-sheet transmembrane domains. This statistical potential quantifies the interatomic distance between residues located in the lipid bilayer. To minimize the problem of insufficient sampling, we have used kernel density estimations of the distance distributions. Following a leave-one-out cross-validation procedure, we show that our method outperforms current statistical potentials in discriminating correct from incorrect membrane protein models. Furthermore, the comparison of our distance-dependent statistical potential with one optimized on globular proteins provides insights into the rules by which residues interact within the lipid bilayer. PMID:26044650

  11. Molecular dynamics simulations of E. coli MsbA transmembrane domain: formation of a semipore structure.

    PubMed

    Haubertin, David Y; Madaoui, Hocine; Sanson, Alain; Gurois, Raphal; Orlowski, Stphane

    2006-10-01

    The human P-glycoprotein (MDR1/P-gp) is an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter involved in cellular response to chemical stress and failures of anticancer chemotherapy. In the absence of a high-resolution structure for P-gp, we were interested in the closest P-gp homolog for which a crystal structure is available: the bacterial ABC transporter MsbA. Here we present the molecular dynamics simulations performed on the transmembrane domain of the open-state MsbA in a bilayer composed of palmitoyl oleoyl phosphatidylethanolamine lipids. The system studied contained more than 90,000 atoms and was simulated for 50 ns. This simulation shows that the open-state structure of MsbA can be stable in a membrane environment and provides invaluable insights into the structural relationships between the protein and its surrounding lipids. This study reveals the formation of a semipore-like structure stabilized by two key phospholipids which interact with the hinge region of the protein during the entire simulation. Multiple sequence alignments of ABC transporters reveal that one of the residues involved in the interaction with these two phospholipids are under a strong selection pressure specifically applied on the bacterial homologs of MsbA. Hence, comparison of molecular dynamics simulation and phylogenetic data appears as a powerful approach to investigate the functional relevance of molecular events occurring during simulations. PMID:16782794

  12. Structure and Function of the Intracellular Region of the Plexin-B1 Transmembrane Receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Tong, Yufeng; Hota, Prasanta K.; Penachioni, Junia Y.; Hamaneh, Mehdi B.; Kim, SoonJeung; Alviani, Rebecca S.; Shen, Limin; He, Hao; Tempel, Wolfram; Tamagnone, Luca; Park, Hee-Won; Buck, Matthias

    2010-02-11

    Members of the plexin family are unique transmembrane receptors in that they interact directly with Rho family small GTPases; moreover, they contain a GTPase-activating protein (GAP) domain for R-Ras, which is crucial for plexin-mediated regulation of cell motility. However, the functional role and structural basis of the interactions between the different intracellular domains of plexins remained unclear. Here we present the 2.4 {angstrom} crystal structure of the complete intracellular region of human plexin-B1. The structure is monomeric and reveals that the GAP domain is folded into one structure from two segments, separated by the Rho GTPase binding domain (RBD). The RBD is not dimerized, as observed previously. Instead, binding of a conserved loop region appears to compete with dimerization and anchors the RBD to the GAP domain. Cell-based assays on mutant proteins confirm the functional importance of this coupling loop. Molecular modeling based on structural homology to p120{sup GAP} {center_dot}H-Ras suggests that Ras GTPases can bind to the plexin GAP region. Experimentally, we show that the monomeric intracellular plexin-B1 binds R-Ras but not H-Ras. These findings suggest that the monomeric form of the intracellular region is primed for GAP activity and extend a model for plexin activation.

  13. Crystal Structure of the Signaling Helix Coiled-coil Domain of the b1 Subunit of the Soluble guanylyl Cyclase

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, X.; Beuve, A; van den Akker, F

    2010-01-01

    The soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC) is a heterodimeric enzyme that, upon activation by nitric oxide, stimulates the production of the second messenger cGMP. Each sGC subunit harbor four domains three of which are used for heterodimerization: H-NOXA/H-NOBA domain, coiled-coil domain (CC), and catalytic guanylyl cyclase domain. The CC domain has previously been postulated to be part of a larger CC family termed the signaling helix (S-helix) family. Homodimers of sGC have also been observed but are not functionally active yet are likely transient awaiting their intended heterodimeric partner. To investigate the structure of the CC S-helix region, we crystallized and determined the structure of the CC domain of the sGC{beta}1 subunit comprising residues 348-409. The crystal structure was refined to 2.15 {angstrom} resolution. The CC structure of sGC{beta}1 revealed a tetrameric arrangement comprised of a dimer of CC dimers. Each monomer is comprised of a long a-helix, a turn near residue P399, and a short second a-helix. The CC structure also offers insights as to how sGC homodimers are not as stable as (functionally) active heterodimers via a possible role for inter-helix salt-bridge formation. The structure also yielded insights into the residues involved in dimerization. In addition, the CC region is also known to harbor a number of congenital and man-made mutations in both membrane and soluble guanylyl cyclases and those function-affecting mutations have been mapped onto the CC structure. This mutant analysis indicated an importance for not only certain dimerization residue positions, but also an important role for other faces of the CC dimer which might perhaps interact with adjacent domains. Our results also extend beyond guanylyl cyclases as the CC structure is, to our knowledge, the first S-helix structure and serves as a model for all S-helix containing family members.

  14. The Interaction between Influenza HA Fusion Peptide and Transmembrane Domain Affects Membrane Structure.

    PubMed

    Lai, Alex L; Freed, Jack H

    2015-12-15

    Viral glycoproteins, such as influenza hemagglutinin (HA) and human immunodeficiency virus gp41, are anchored by a single helical segment transmembrane domain (TMD) on the viral envelope membrane. The fusion peptides (FP) of the glycoproteins insert into the host membrane and initiate membrane fusion. Our previous study showed that the FP or TMD alone perturbs membrane structure. Interaction between the influenza HA FP and TMD has previously been shown, but its role is unclear. We used PC spin labels dipalmitoylphospatidyl-tempo-choline (on the headgroup), 5PC and 14PC (5-C and 14-C positions on the acyl chain) to detect the combined effect of FP-TMD interaction by titrating HA FP to TMD-reconstituted 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine/1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-(1'-rac-glycerol)/cholesterol lipid bilayers using electron spin resonance. We found that the FP-TMD increases the lipid order at all positions, which has a greater lipid ordering effect than the sum of the FP or TMD alone, and this effect reaches deeper into the membranes. Although HA-mediated membrane fusion is pH dependent, this combined effect is observed at both pH 5 and pH 7. In addition to increasing lipid order, multiple components are found for 5PC at increased concentration of FP-TMD, indicating that distinct domains are induced. However, the mutation of Gly1 in the FP and L187 in the TMD eliminates the perturbations, consistent with their fusogenic phenotypes. Electron spin resonance on spin-labeled peptides confirms these observations. We suggest that this interaction may provide a driving force in different stages of membrane fusion: initialization, transition from hemifusion stalk to transmembrane contact, and fusion pore formation. PMID:26682811

  15. Allosteric and hyperekplexic mutant phenotypes investigated on an ?1 glycine receptor transmembrane structure

    PubMed Central

    Moraga-Cid, Gustavo; Sauguet, Ludovic; Huon, Christle; Malherbe, Laurie; Girard-Blanc, Christine; Petres, Stphane; Murail, Samuel; Taly, Antoine; Baaden, Marc; Delarue, Marc; Corringer, Pierre-Jean

    2015-01-01

    The glycine receptor (GlyR) is a pentameric ligand-gated ion channel (pLGIC) mediating inhibitory transmission in the nervous system. Its transmembrane domain (TMD) is the target of allosteric modulators such as general anesthetics and ethanol and is a major locus for hyperekplexic congenital mutations altering the allosteric transitions of activation or desensitization. We previously showed that the TMD of the human ?1GlyR could be fused to the extracellular domain of GLIC, a bacterial pLGIC, to form a functional chimera called Lily. Here, we overexpress Lily in Schneider 2 insect cells and solve its structure by X-ray crystallography at 3.5 resolution. The TMD of the ?1GlyR adopts a closed-channel conformation involving a single ring of hydrophobic residues at the center of the pore. Electrophysiological recordings show that the phenotypes of key allosteric mutations of the ?1GlyR, scattered all along the pore, are qualitatively preserved in this chimera, including those that confer decreased sensitivity to agonists, constitutive activity, decreased activation kinetics, or increased desensitization kinetics. Combined structural and functional data indicate a pore-opening mechanism for the ?1GlyR, suggesting a structural explanation for the effect of some key hyperekplexic allosteric mutations. The first X-ray structure of the TMD of the ?1GlyR solved here using GLIC as a scaffold paves the way for mechanistic investigation and design of allosteric modulators of a human receptor. PMID:25730860

  16. Membrane transport piece by piece: production of transmembrane peptides for structural and functional studies.

    PubMed

    Kemp, Grant; Fliegel, Larry; Young, Howard S

    2014-01-01

    Membrane proteins are involved in all cellular processes from signaling cascades to nutrient uptake and waste disposal. Because of these essential functions, many membrane proteins are recognized as important, yet elusive, clinical targets. Recent advances in structural biology have answered many questions about how membrane proteins function, yet one of the major bottlenecks remains the ability to obtain sufficient quantities of pure and homogeneous protein. This is particularly true for human membrane proteins, where novel expression strategies and structural techniques are needed to better characterize their function and therapeutic potential. One way to approach this challenge is to determine the structure of smaller pieces of membrane proteins that can be assembled into models of the complete protein. This unit describes the rationale for working with single or multiple transmembrane segments and provides a description of strategies and methods to express and purify them for structural and functional studies using a maltose binding protein (MBP) fusion. The bulk of the unit outlines a detailed methodology and justification for producing these peptides under native-like conditions. PMID:24510677

  17. Structures of Two Arabidopsis thaliana Major Latex Proteins Represent Novel Helix-Grip Folds

    PubMed Central

    Lytle, Betsy L.; Song, Jikui; de la Cruz, Norberto B.; Peterson, Francis C.; Johnson, Kenneth A.; Bingman, Craig A.; Phillips, George N.; Volkman, Brian F.

    2010-01-01

    The major latex proteins (MLP) are a protein family first identified in the latex of opium poppy. They are found only in plants and have 24 identified members in Arabidopsis alone as well as in other plants such as peach, strawberry, melon, cucumber, and soybean. While the function of the MLPs is unknown, they have been associated with fruit and flower development and in pathogen defense responses. Based on modest sequence similarity, they have been characterized as members of the Bet v 1 protein superfamily; however, no structures have yet been reported. As part of an ongoing structural genomics effort, we determined the structures of two Arabidopsis thaliana MLPs: the solution structure of MLP28 (gene product of At1g70830.1) and the crystal structure of At1g24000.1. The structures revealed distinct differences when compared to one another and to the typical Bet v 1 fold. Nevertheless, NMR titration experiments demonstrated that the characteristic Bet v 1 hydrophobic binding pocket of At1g24000.1 is able to bind a ligand, suggesting that it plays a role in the function of the MLPs. A structure-based sequence analysis identified conserved hydrophobic residues in the long alpha helix that contribute to the binding cavity and may specify preferred ligands for the MLP family. PMID:19326460

  18. Crystal structures of CusC review conformational changes accompanying folding and transmembrane channel formation

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Hsiang-Ting; Bolla, Jani Reddy; Su, Chih-Chia; Yu, Edward W.

    2016-01-01

    Gram-negative bacteria, such as Escherichia coli, frequently utilize tripartite efflux complexes in the resistance-nodulation-division (RND) family to expel diverse toxic compounds from the cell. These complexes span both the inner and outer membranes of the bacterium via an α-helical, inner membrane transporter; a periplasmic membrane fusion protein; and a β-barrel, outer membrane channel. One such efflux system CusCBA is responsible for extruding biocidal Cu(I) and Ag(I) ions. To remove these toxic ions, the CusC outer membrane channel must form a β-barrel structural domain, which creates a pore and spans the entire outer membrane. We here report the crystal structures of wild-type CusC as well as two CusC mutants, suggesting that the first N-terminal cysteine residue plays an important role in protein-membrane interactions and is critical for the insertion of this channel protein into the outer membrane. These structures provide insight into the mechanisms on CusC folding and transmembrane channel formation. It is also found that the interactions between CusC and membrane may be crucial for controlling the opening and closing of this β-barrel, outer membrane channel. PMID:24099674

  19. Transmembrane TNF-α: structure, function and interaction with anti-TNF agents

    PubMed Central

    Mitoma, Hiroki; Harashima, Shin-ichi; Tsukamoto, Hiroshi; Shimoda, Terufumi

    2010-01-01

    Transmembrane TNF-α, a precursor of the soluble form of TNF-α, is expressed on activated macrophages and lymphocytes as well as other cell types. After processing by TNF-α-converting enzyme (TACE), the soluble form of TNF-α is cleaved from transmembrane TNF-α and mediates its biological activities through binding to Types 1 and 2 TNF receptors (TNF-R1 and -R2) of remote tissues. Accumulating evidence suggests that not only soluble TNF-α, but also transmembrane TNF-α is involved in the inflammatory response. Transmembrane TNF-α acts as a bipolar molecule that transmits signals both as a ligand and as a receptor in a cell-to-cell contact fashion. Transmembrane TNF-α on TNF-α-producing cells binds to TNF-R1 and -R2, and transmits signals to the target cells as a ligand, whereas transmembrane TNF-α also acts as a receptor that transmits outside-to-inside (reverse) signals back to the cells after binding to its native receptors. Anti-TNF agents infliximab, adalimumab and etanercept bind to and neutralize soluble TNF-α, but exert different effects on transmembrane TNF-α-expressing cells (TNF-α-producing cells). In the clinical settings, these three anti-TNF agents are equally effective for RA, but etanercept is not effective for granulomatous diseases. Moreover, infliximab induces granulomatous infections more frequently than etanercept. Considering the important role of transmembrane TNF-α in granulomatous inflammation, reviewing the biology of transmembrane TNF-α and its interaction with anti-TNF agents will contribute to understanding the bases of differential clinical efficacy of these promising treatment modalities. PMID:20194223

  20. Transmembrane TNF-alpha: structure, function and interaction with anti-TNF agents.

    PubMed

    Horiuchi, Takahiko; Mitoma, Hiroki; Harashima, Shin-ichi; Tsukamoto, Hiroshi; Shimoda, Terufumi

    2010-07-01

    Transmembrane TNF-alpha, a precursor of the soluble form of TNF-alpha, is expressed on activated macrophages and lymphocytes as well as other cell types. After processing by TNF-alpha-converting enzyme (TACE), the soluble form of TNF-alpha is cleaved from transmembrane TNF-alpha and mediates its biological activities through binding to Types 1 and 2 TNF receptors (TNF-R1 and -R2) of remote tissues. Accumulating evidence suggests that not only soluble TNF-alpha, but also transmembrane TNF-alpha is involved in the inflammatory response. Transmembrane TNF-alpha acts as a bipolar molecule that transmits signals both as a ligand and as a receptor in a cell-to-cell contact fashion. Transmembrane TNF-alpha on TNF-alpha-producing cells binds to TNF-R1 and -R2, and transmits signals to the target cells as a ligand, whereas transmembrane TNF-alpha also acts as a receptor that transmits outside-to-inside (reverse) signals back to the cells after binding to its native receptors. Anti-TNF agents infliximab, adalimumab and etanercept bind to and neutralize soluble TNF-alpha, but exert different effects on transmembrane TNF-alpha-expressing cells (TNF-alpha-producing cells). In the clinical settings, these three anti-TNF agents are equally effective for RA, but etanercept is not effective for granulomatous diseases. Moreover, infliximab induces granulomatous infections more frequently than etanercept. Considering the important role of transmembrane TNF-alpha in granulomatous inflammation, reviewing the biology of transmembrane TNF-alpha and its interaction with anti-TNF agents will contribute to understanding the bases of differential clinical efficacy of these promising treatment modalities. PMID:20194223

  1. Transmembrane and Juxtamembrane Structure of αL Integrin in Bicelles

    PubMed Central

    Millet, Oscar; Diercks, Tammo; Torres, Jaume

    2013-01-01

    The accepted model for the interaction of α and β integrins in the transmembrane (TM) domain is based on the pair αIIbβ3. This involves the so-called outer and inner membrane association clasps (OMC and IMC, respectively). In the α chain, the OMC involves a GxxxG-like motif, whereas in the IMC a conserved juxtamembrane GFFKR motif experiences a backbone reversal that partially fills the void generated by TM separation towards the cytoplasmic half. However, the GFFKR motif of several α integrin cytoplasmic tails in non-bicelle environments has been shown to adopt an α-helical structure that is not membrane-embedded and which was shown to bind a variety of cytoplasmic proteins. Thus it is not known if a membrane-embedded backbone reversal is a conserved structural feature in α integrins. We have studied the system αLβ2 because of its importance in leukocytes, where integrin deactivation is particularly important. Herein we show that the backbone reversal feature is not only present in αIIb but also in αL-TM when reconstituted in bicelles. Additionally, titration with β2 TM showed eight residues clustering along one side of αL-TM, forming a plausible interacting face with β2. The latter orientation is consistent with a previously predicted reported polar interaction between αL Ser-1071 and β2 Thr-686. PMID:24069290

  2. Probabilistic grammatical model for helix‐helix contact site classification

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Hidden Markov Models power many state‐of‐the‐art tools in the field of protein bioinformatics. While excelling in their tasks, these methods of protein analysis do not convey directly information on medium‐ and long‐range residue‐residue interactions. This requires an expressive power of at least context‐free grammars. However, application of more powerful grammar formalisms to protein analysis has been surprisingly limited. Results In this work, we present a probabilistic grammatical framework for problem‐specific protein languages and apply it to classification of transmembrane helix‐helix pairs configurations. The core of the model consists of a probabilistic context‐free grammar, automatically inferred by a genetic algorithm from only a generic set of expert‐based rules and positive training samples. The model was applied to produce sequence based descriptors of four classes of transmembrane helix‐helix contact site configurations. The highest performance of the classifiers reached AUCROC of 0.70. The analysis of grammar parse trees revealed the ability of representing structural features of helix‐helix contact sites. Conclusions We demonstrated that our probabilistic context‐free framework for analysis of protein sequences outperforms the state of the art in the task of helix‐helix contact site classification. However, this is achieved without necessarily requiring modeling long range dependencies between interacting residues. A significant feature of our approach is that grammar rules and parse trees are human‐readable. Thus they could provide biologically meaningful information for molecular biologists. PMID:24350601

  3. The molecular structure of the left-handed supra-molecular helix of eukaryotic polyribosomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myasnikov, Alexander G.; Afonina, Zhanna A.; Mntret, Jean-Franois; Shirokov, Vladimir A.; Spirin, Alexander S.; Klaholz, Bruno P.

    2014-11-01

    During protein synthesis, several ribosomes bind to a single messenger RNA (mRNA) forming large macromolecular assemblies called polyribosomes. Here we report the detailed molecular structure of a 100?MDa eukaryotic poly-ribosome complex derived from cryo electron tomography, sub-tomogram averaging and pseudo-atomic modelling by crystal structure fitting. The structure allowed the visualization of the three functional parts of the polysome assembly, the central core region that forms a rather compact left-handed supra-molecular helix, and the more open regions that harbour the initiation and termination sites at either ends. The helical region forms a continuous mRNA channel where the mRNA strand bridges neighbouring exit and entry sites of the ribosomes and prevents mRNA looping between ribosomes. This structure provides unprecedented insights into protein- and RNA-mediated inter-ribosome contacts that involve conserved sites through 40S subunits and long protruding RNA expansion segments, suggesting a role in stabilizing the overall polyribosomal assembly.

  4. Structure modulation of helix 69 from Escherichia coli 23S ribosomal RNA by pseudouridylations

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Jun; Aduri, Raviprasad; Chow, Christine S.; SantaLucia, John

    2014-01-01

    Helix 69 (H69) is a 19-nt stem-loop region from the large subunit ribosomal RNA. Three pseudouridine (?) modifications clustered in H69 are conserved across phylogeny and known to affect ribosome function. To explore the effects of ? on the conformations of Escherichia coli H69 in solution, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to reveal the structural differences between H69 with (???) and without (UUU) ? modifications. Comparison of the two structures shows that H69 ??? has the following unique features: (i) the loop region is closed by a WatsonCrick base pair between ?1911 and A1919, which is potentially reinforced by interactions involving ?1911N1H and (ii) ? modifications at loop residues 1915 and 1917 promote base stacking from ?1915 to A1918. In contrast, the H69 UUU loop region, which lacks ? modifications, is less organized. Structure modulation by ? leads to alteration in conformational behavior of the 5' half of the H69 loop region, observed as broadening of C1914 non-exchangeable base proton resonances in the H69 ??? nuclear magnetic resonance spectra, and plays an important biological role in establishing the ribosomal intersubunit bridge B2a and mediating translational fidelity. PMID:24371282

  5. Mimicry of ice structure by surface hydroxyls and water of a beta-helix antifreeze protein.

    PubMed

    Liou, Y C; Tocilj, A; Davies, P L; Jia, Z

    2000-07-20

    Insect antifreeze proteins (AFP) are much more effective than fish AFPs at depressing solution freezing points by ice-growth inhibition. AFP from the beetle Tenebrio molitor is a small protein (8.4 kDa) composed of tandem 12-residue repeats (TCTxSxxCxxAx). Here we report its 1.4-A resolution crystal structure, showing that this repetitive sequence translates into an exceptionally regular beta-helix. Not only are the 12-amino-acid loops almost identical in the backbone, but also the conserved side chains are positioned in essentially identical orientations, making this AFP perhaps the most regular protein structure yet observed. The protein has almost no hydrophobic core but is stabilized by numerous disulphide and hydrogen bonds. On the conserved side of the protein, threonine-cysteine-threonine motifs are arrayed to form a flat beta-sheet, the putative ice-binding surface. The threonine side chains have exactly the same rotameric conformation and the spacing between OH groups is a near-perfect match to the ice lattice. Together with tightly bound co-planar external water, three ranks of oxygen atoms form a two-dimensional array, mimicking an ice section. PMID:10917536

  6. Modulating immunogenic properties of HIV-1 gp41 membrane-proximal external region by destabilizing six-helix bundle structure.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Saikat; Shi, Heliang; Habte, Habtom H; Qin, Yali; Cho, Michael W

    2016-03-01

    The C-terminal alpha-helix of gp41 membrane-proximal external region (MPER; (671)NWFDITNWLWYIK(683)) encompassing 4E10/10E8 epitopes is an attractive target for HIV-1 vaccine development. We previously reported that gp41-HR1-54Q, a trimeric protein comprised of the MPER in the context of a stable six-helix bundle (6HB), induced strong immune responses against the helix, but antibodies were directed primarily against the non-neutralizing face of the helix. To better target 4E10/10E8 epitopes, we generated four putative fusion intermediates by introducing double point mutations or deletions in the heptad repeat region 1 (HR1) that destabilize 6HB in varying degrees. One variant, HR1-?10-54K, elicited antibodies in rabbits that targeted W672, I675 and L679, which are critical for 4E10/10E8 recognition. Overall, the results demonstrated that altering structural parameters of 6HB can influence immunogenic properties of the MPER and antibody targeting. Further exploration of this strategy could allow development of immunogens that could lead to induction of 4E10/10E8-like antibodies. PMID:26803471

  7. Occurrence, solution structure and stability of DNA hairpins stabilized by a GA/CG helix unit.

    PubMed Central

    Sandusky, P; Wooten, E W; Kurochkin, A V; Kavanaugh, T; Mandecki, W; Zuiderweg, E R

    1995-01-01

    The occurrence and NMR solution structure of a class of biloop hairpins containing the sequence 5'-CGXYAG are presented. These hairpins, which are variations on a sequence found in the reverse transcript of the human T-cell leukemia virus 2 (HLV2), show elevated melting points and high chemical stability toward denaturation by urea. Hairpins with the 5'-CGXYAG configuration have melting points 18-20 degrees higher than hairpins with 5'-CAXYGG or 5'-GGXYAC configurations. The identities of the looping bases, X and Y above, play a negligible role in determining the stability of this DNA hairpin stability. This is very different from G-A based loops in RNA, where the third base must be a purine for high stability [the GNRA loops; V.P. Antao, S.Y. Lai and I. Tinoco, Jr (1991) Nucleic Acids Res., 19, 5901-5905]. We show that these properties are associated with a four base helix unit that contains both a sheared GA base pair and a Watson-Crick CG base pair upon which it is stacked. As an understanding of the significance of AG base pairs has become increasingly important in the structural biology of nucleic acids, we compute an 0.7-0.9 A precision ensemble of NMR solution structures using iterative relaxation matrix methods. Calculations performed on NMR-derived structures indicate that neither base-base electrostatic interactions, nor base-solvent dispersive interactions, are significant factors in determining the observed differences in hairpin stability. Thus the stability of the 5'-CGXYAG configuration would appear to derive from favorable base-base London/van der Waals interactions. Images PMID:8524666

  8. Crystal Structures of the Response Regulator DosR From Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Suggest a Helix Rearrangement Mechanism for Phosphorylation Activation

    SciTech Connect

    Wisedchaisri, G.; Wu, M.; Sherman, D.R.; Hol, W.G.J.

    2009-05-26

    The response regulator DosR is essential for promoting long-term survival of Mycobacterium tuberculosis under low oxygen conditions in a dormant state and may be responsible for latent tuberculosis in one-third of the world's population. Here, we report crystal structures of full-length unphosphorylated DosR at 2.2 {angstrom} resolution and its C-terminal DNA-binding domain at 1.7 {angstrom} resolution. The full-length DosR structure reveals several features never seen before in other response regulators. The N-terminal domain of the full-length DosR structure has an unexpected ({beta}{alpha}){sub 4} topology instead of the canonical ({beta}{alpha}){sub 5} fold observed in other response regulators. The linker region adopts a unique conformation that contains two helices forming a four-helix bundle with two helices from another subunit, resulting in dimer formation. The C-terminal domain in the full-length DosR structure displays a novel location of helix {alpha}10, which allows Gln199 to interact with the catalytic Asp54 residue of the N-terminal domain. In contrast, the structure of the DosR C-terminal domain alone displays a remarkable unstructured conformation for helix {alpha}10 residues, different from the well-defined helical conformations in all other known structures, indicating considerable flexibility within the C-terminal domain. Our structures suggest a mode of DosR activation by phosphorylation via a helix rearrangement mechanism.

  9. A Structural Role for the Synaptobrevin 2 Transmembrane Domain in Dense-Core Vesicle Fusion Pores

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Che-Wei; Hui, Enfu; Bai, Jihong; Bruns, Dieter; Chapman, Edwin R.

    2015-01-01

    Ca2+-triggered release of neurotransmitters and hormones depends on soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors (SNAREs) to drive the fusion of the vesicle and plasma membranes. The formation of the SNARE complex by the vesicle SNARE synaptobrevin 2 (syb2) and the two plasma membrane SNAREs syntaxin (syx) and SNAP-25 draws the two membranes together, but the events that follow membrane juxtaposition, and the ways that SNAREs remodel lipid membranes remain poorly understood. The SNAREs syx and syb2 have transmembrane domains (TMDs) that can exert force directly on the lipid bilayers. The TMD of syx influences fusion pore flux in a manner that suggests it lines the nascent fusion pore through the plasma membrane. The TMD of syb2 traverses the vesicle membrane and is the most likely partner to syx in completing a proteinaceous fusion pore through the vesicle membrane, but the role of this vesicle SNARE in fusion pores has yet to be tested. Here amperometry and conductance measurements were performed to probe the function of the syb2 TMD in fusion pores formed during catecholamine exocytosis in mouse chromaffin cells. Fusion pore flux was sensitive to the size and charge of TMD residues near the N terminus; fusion pore conductance was altered by substitutions at these sites. Unlike syx, the syb2 residues that influence fusion pore permeation fell along two ?-helical faces of its TMD, rather than one. These results indicate a role for the syb2 TMD in nascent fusion pores, but in a very different structural arrangement from that of the syx TMD. PMID:25855187

  10. Flanking Polyproline Sequences Inhibit [beta]-Sheet Structure in Polyglutamine Segments by Inducing PPII-like Helix Structure

    SciTech Connect

    Darnell, Gregory; Orgel, Joseph P.R.O.; Pahl, Reinhard; Meredith, Stephen C.

    2008-06-24

    Polyglutamine (poly(Q)) expansion is associated with protein aggregation into {beta}-sheet amyloid fibrils and neuronal cytotoxicity. In the mutant poly(Q) protein huntingtin, associated with Huntington's disease, both aggregation and cytotoxicity may be abrogated by a polyproline (poly(P)) domain flanking the C terminus of the poly(Q) region. To understand structural changes that may occur with the addition of the poly(P) sequence, we synthesized poly(Q) peptides with 3-15 glutamine residues and a corresponding set of poly(Q) peptides flanked on the C terminus by 11 proline residues (poly(Q)-poly(P)), as occurs in the huntingtin sequence. The shorter soluble poly(Q) peptides (three or six glutamine residues) showed polyproline type II-like (PPII)-like helix conformation when examined by circular dichroism spectroscopy and were monomers as judged by size-exclusion chromatography (SEC), while the longer poly(Q) peptides (nine or 15 glutamine residues) showed a {beta}-sheet conformation by CD and defined oligomers by SEC. Soluble poly(Q)-poly(P) peptides showed PPII-like content but SEC showed poorly defined, overlapping oligomeric peaks, and as judged by CD these peptides retained significant PPII-like structure with increasing poly(Q) length. More importantly, addition of the poly(P) domain increased the threshold for fibril formation to {approx} 15 glutamine residues. X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, and film CD showed that, while poly(Q) peptides with {ge} 6 glutamine residues formed {beta}-sheet-rich fibrils, only the longest poly(Q)-poly(P) peptide (15 glutamine residues) did so. From these and other observations, we propose that poly(Q) domains exist in a 'tug-of-war' between two conformations, a PPII-like helix and a {beta}-sheet, while the poly(P) domain is conformationally constrained into a proline type II helix (PPII). Addition of poly(P) to the C terminus of a poly(Q) domain induces a PPII-like structure, which opposes the aggregation-prone {beta}-sheet. These structural observations may shed light on the threshold phenomenon of poly(Q) aggregation, and support the hypothesized evolution of 'protective' poly(P) tracts adjacent to poly(Q) aggregation domains.

  11. Structures of OppA and PstS from Yersinia pestis indicate variability of interactions with transmembrane domains.

    PubMed

    Tanabe, Mikio; Mirza, Osman; Bertrand, Thomas; Atkins, Helen S; Titball, Richard W; Iwata, So; Brown, Katherine A; Byrne, Bernadette

    2007-11-01

    Bacterial ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transport systems couple ATP hydrolysis with the uptake and efflux of a wide range of substances across bacterial membranes. These systems are comprised of transmembrane domains, nucleotide binding domains and, in the case of uptake systems, periplasmic binding proteins responsible for binding and presentation of substrate to the transmembrane domains. In pathogenic bacteria, ABC systems are known to play roles in virulence and pathogenicity and the surface localization of some components has made them attractive targets for both vaccine and anti-infective development. Here, the crystallization of five proteins (OppA, PstS, PiuA, YrbD and CysP) from Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of plague, are reported that diffracted to resolution limits ranging from 1.6 to 5 A. The first crystal structures of ABC system components from Y. pestis, OppA and PstS, are also reported here as complexes with their substrates. Comparisons of these two structures with known structures of related proteins suggest that these proteins possess versatility in substrate recognition and variations in protein-protein interactions with their cognate transmembrane domains. PMID:18007034

  12. Structural regularities of helicoidally-like biopolymers in the framework of algebraic topology: II. {alpha}-Helix and DNA structures

    SciTech Connect

    Samoylovich, M. I.; Talis, A. L.

    2013-09-15

    The developed apparatus of the 'structural application' of algebraic geometry and topology makes it possible to determine topologically stable helicoidally-like packings of polyhedra (clusters). A packing found is limited by a minimal surface with zero instability index; this surface is set by the Weierstrass representation and corresponds to the bifurcation point. The symmetries of the packings under consideration are determined by four-dimensional polyhedra (polytopes) from a closed sequence, which begins with diamondlike polytope (240). One example of these packings is a packing of tetrahedra, which arises as a result of the multiplication of a peculiar starting aggregation of tetrahedra by a fractional 40/11 axis with an angle of helical rotation of 99 Degree-Sign . The arrangement of atoms in particular positions of this starting aggregation allows one to obtain a model of the {alpha}-helix. This apparatus makes it possible to determine a priori the symmetry parameters of DNA double helices.

  13. Cu**+ Transporting ATPases: Structure of the Two Transmembrane Cu**+ Transport Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez-Guerrero, M.; Eren, E.; Rawat, S.; Stemmler, T.L.; Arguello, J.M.

    2009-05-18

    Cu{sup +}-ATPases drive metal efflux from the cell cytoplasm. Paramount to this function is the binding of Cu{sup +} within the transmembrane region and its coupled translocation across the permeability barrier. Here, we describe the two transmembrane Cu{sup +} transport sites present in Archaeoglobus fulgidus CopA. Both sites can be independently loaded with Cu{sup +}. However, their simultaneous occupation is associated with enzyme turnover. Site I is constituted by two Cys in transmembrane segment (TM) 6 and a Tyr in TM7. An Asn in TM7 and Met and Ser in TM8 form Site II. Single site x-ray spectroscopic analysis indicates a trigonal coordination in both sites. This architecture is distinct from that observed in Cu{sup +}-trafficking chaperones and classical cuproproteins. The high affinity of these sites for Cu{sup +} (Site I K{sub {alpha}} = 1.3 fM{sup -1}, Site II K{sub {alpha}} = 1.1 fM{sup -1}), in conjunction with reversible direct Cu{sup +} transfer from chaperones, points to a transport mechanism where backward release of free Cu{sup +} to the cytoplasm is largely prevented.

  14. Molecular structure of r/GCG/d/TATACGC/ - A DNA-RNA hybrid helix joined to double helical DNA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, A. H.-J.; Fujii, S.; Rich, A.; Van Boom, J. H.; Van Der Marel, G. A.; Van Boeckel, S. A. A.

    1982-01-01

    The molecule r(GCG)d(TATACGC) is self-complementary and forms two DNA-RNA hybrid segments surrounding a central region of double helical DNA; its molecular structure has been solved by X-ray analysis. All three parts of the molecule adopt a conformation which is close to that seen in the 11-fold RNA double helix. The conformation of the ribonucleotides is partly determined by water molecules bridging between the ribose O2' hydroxyl group and cytosine O2. The hybrid-DNA duplex junction contains no structural discontinuities. However, the central DNA TATA sequence has some structural irregularities.

  15. Loop-to-helix transition in the structure of multidrug regulator AcrR at the entrance of the drug-binding cavity.

    PubMed

    Manjasetty, Babu A; Halavaty, Andrei S; Luan, Chi-Hao; Osipiuk, Jerzy; Mulligan, Rory; Kwon, Keehwan; Anderson, Wayne F; Joachimiak, Andrzej

    2016-04-01

    Multidrug transcription regulator AcrR from Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium str. LT2 belongs to the tetracycline repressor family, one of the largest groups of bacterial transcription factors. The crystal structure of dimeric AcrR was determined and refined to 1.56Å resolution. The tertiary and quaternary structures of AcrR are similar to those of its homologs. The multidrug binding site was identified based on structural alignment with homologous proteins and has a di(hydroxyethyl)ether molecule bound. Residues from helices α4 and α7 shape the entry into this binding site. The structure of AcrR reveals that the extended helical conformation of helix α4 is stabilized by the hydrogen bond between Glu67 (helix α4) and Gln130 (helix α7). Based on the structural comparison with the closest homolog structure, the Escherichia coli AcrR, we propose that this hydrogen bond is responsible for control of the loop-to-helix transition within helix α4. This local conformational switch of helix α4 may be a key step in accessing the multidrug binding site and securing ligands at the binding site. Solution small-molecule binding studies suggest that AcrR binds ligands with their core chemical structure resembling the tetracyclic ring of cholesterol. PMID:26796657

  16. The arabidopsis histone methyltransferase SUVR4 binds ubiquitin via a domain with a four-helix bundle structure.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Mohummad Aminur; Kristiansen, Per E; Veiseth, Silje V; Andersen, Jan Terje; Yap, Kyoko L; Zhou, Ming-Ming; Sandlie, Inger; Thorstensen, Tage; Aalen, Reidunn B

    2014-04-01

    In eukaryotes, different chromatin states facilitate or repress gene expression and restrict the activity of transposable elements. Post-translational modifications (PTMs) of amino acid residues on the N-terminal tails of histones are suggested to define such states. The histone lysine methyltransferase (HKMTase) SU(VAR)3-9 RELATED4 (SUVR4) of Arabidopsis thaliana functions as a repressor of transposon activity. Binding of ubiquitin by the WIYLD domain facilitates the addition of two methyl groups to monomethylated lysine 9 of histone H3. By using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, we identified SUVR4 WIYLD (S4WIYLD) as a domain with a four-helix bundle structure, in contrast to three-helix bundles of other ubiquitin binding domains. NMR titration analyses showed that residues of helix ?1 (Q38, L39, and D40) and helix ?4 (N68, T70, A71, V73, D74, I76, S78, and E82) of S4WIYLD and residues between the first and second ?-strands (T9 and G10) and on ?-strands 3 (R42, G47, K48, and Q49) and 4 (H68, R72, and L73) undergo significant chemical shift changes when the two proteins interact. A model of the complex, generated using HADDOCK, suggests that the N-terminal and C-terminal parts of S4WIYLD constitute a surface that interacts with charged residues close to the hydrophobic patch of ubiquitin. The WIYLD domains of the closely related SUVR1 and SUVR2 Arabidopsis proteins also bind ubiquitin, indicating that this is a general feature of this domain. The question of whether SUVR proteins act as both readers of monoubiquitinated H2B and writers of histone PTMs is discussed. PMID:24625295

  17. Comparison Analysis of Primary Ligand Binding Sites in Seven-Helix Membrane Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Pabuwal, Vagmita; Li, Zhijun

    2010-01-01

    Seven-helix transmembrane proteins, including the G-protein coupled receptors, mediate a broad range of fundamental cellular activities through binding to a wide range of ligands. Understanding the structural basis for the ligand-binding selectivity of these proteins is of significance to their structure-based drug design. Comparison analysis of proteins ligand binding sites provides a useful way to study their structure-activity relationships. Various computational methods have been developed for the binding site comparison of soluble proteins. In this work, we applied this approach to the analysis of the primary ligand-binding sites of 92 seven-helix transmembrane proteins. Results of the studies confirmed that the binding site of bacterial rhodopsins is indeed different from all G-protein coupled receptors. In the latter group, further comparison of the binding sites indicated a group of residues that could be responsible for ligand-binding selectivity and important for structure-based drug design. Further, unexpected binding site dissimilarities were observed among adrenergic and adenosine receptors, suggesting that the percentage of the overall sequence identity between a target protein and a template protein alone is not sufficient for selecting the best template for homology modeling of seven-helix membrane proteins. These results provided novel insight into the structural basis of ligand-binding selectivity of seven-helix membrane proteins and are of practical use to the computational modeling of these proteins. PMID:20672377

  18. Structural studies of the natriuretic peptide receptor: a novel hormone-induced rotation mechanism for transmembrane signal transduction.

    PubMed

    Misono, Kunio S; Ogawa, Haruo; Qiu, Yue; Ogata, Craig M

    2005-06-01

    The atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) receptor is a single-span transmembrane receptor that is coupled to its intrinsic intracellular guanylate cyclase (GCase) catalytic activity. To investigate the mechanisms of hormone binding and signal transduction, we have expressed the extracellular hormone-binding domain of the ANP receptor (ANPR) and characterized its structure and function. The disulfide-bond structure, state of glycosylation, binding-site residues, chloride-dependence of ANP binding, dimerization, and binding stoichiometry have been determined. More recently, the crystal structures of both the apoANPR dimer and ANP-bound complex have been determined. The structural comparison between the two has shown that, upon ANP binding, two ANPR molecules in the dimer undergo an inter-molecular twist with little intra-molecular conformational change. This motion produces a Ferris wheel-like translocation of two juxtamembrane domains with essentially no change in the inter-domain distance. This movement alters the relative orientation of the two domains equivalent to counter-clockwise rotation of each by 24 degrees . These results suggest that transmembrane signaling by the ANP receptor is mediated by a novel hormone-induced rotation mechanism. PMID:15911065

  19. Membrane Protein Crystallization in Lipidic Mesophases. Hosting Lipid Effects on the Crystallization and Structure of a Transmembrane Peptide

    SciTech Connect

    Hfer, Nicole; Aragao, David; Lyons, Joseph A.; Caffrey, Martin

    2011-09-28

    Gramicidin is an apolar pentadecapeptide antibiotic consisting of alternating d- and l-amino acids. It functions, in part, by creating pores in membranes of susceptible cells rendering them leaky to monovalent cations. The peptide should be able to traverse the host membrane either as a double-stranded, intertwined double helix (DSDH) or as a head-to-head single-stranded helix (HHSH). Current structure models are based on macromolecular X-ray crystallography (MX) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). However, the HHSH form has only been observed by NMR. The shape and size of the different gramicidin conformations differ. We speculated therefore that reconstituting it into a lipidic mesophase with bilayers of different microstructures would preferentially stabilize one form over the other. By using such mesophases for in meso crystallogenesis, the expectation was that at least one would generate crystals of gramicidin in the HHSH form for structure determination by MX. This was tested using commercial and in-house synthesized lipids that support in meso crystallogenesis. Lipid acyl chain lengths were varied from 14 to 18 carbons to provide mesophases with a range of bilayer thicknesses. Unexpectedly, all lipids produced high-quality, structure-grade crystals with gramicidin only in the DSDH conformation.

  20. Temperature dependence of the DNA double helix at the nanoscale: structure, elasticity, and fluctuations.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Sam; Jost, Daniel; Theodorakopoulos, Nikos; Peyrard, Michel; Lavery, Richard; Everaers, Ralf

    2013-10-15

    Biological organisms exist over a broad temperature range of -15C to +120C, where many molecular processes involving DNA depend on the nanoscale properties of the double helix. Here, we present results of extensive molecular dynamics simulations of DNA oligomers at different temperatures. We show that internal basepair conformations are strongly temperature-dependent, particularly in the stretch and opening degrees of freedom whose harmonic fluctuations can be considered the initial steps of the DNA melting pathway. The basepair step elasticity contains a weaker, but detectable, entropic contribution in the roll, tilt, and rise degrees of freedom. To extend the validity of our results to the temperature interval beyond the standard melting transition relevant to extremophiles, we estimate the effects of superhelical stress on the stability of the basepair steps, as computed from the Benham model. We predict that although the average twist decreases with temperature in vitro, the stabilizing external torque in vivo results in an increase of ?1/bp (or a superhelical density of ?? ? +0.03) in the interval 0-100C. In the final step, we show that the experimentally observed apparent bending persistence length of torsionally unconstrained DNA can be calculated from a hybrid model that accounts for the softening of the double helix and the presence of transient denaturation bubbles. Although the latter dominate the behavior close to the melting transition, the inclusion of helix softening is important around standard physiological temperatures. PMID:24138866

  1. Temperature Dependence of the DNA Double Helix at the Nanoscale: Structure, Elasticity, and Fluctuations

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Sam; Jost, Daniel; Theodorakopoulos, Nikos; Peyrard, Michel; Lavery, Richard; Everaers, Ralf

    2013-01-01

    Biological organisms exist over a broad temperature range of ?15C to+120C, where many molecular processes involving DNA depend on the nanoscale properties of the double helix. Here, we present results of extensive molecular dynamics simulations of DNA oligomers at different temperatures. We show that internal basepair conformations are strongly temperature-dependent, particularly in the stretch and opening degrees of freedom whose harmonic fluctuations can be considered the initial steps of the DNA melting pathway. The basepair step elasticity contains a weaker, but detectable, entropic contribution in the roll, tilt, and rise degrees of freedom. To extend the validity of our results to the temperature interval beyond the standard melting transition relevant to extremophiles, we estimate the effects of superhelical stress on the stability of the basepair steps, as computed from the Benham model. We predict that although the average twist decreases with temperature invitro, the stabilizing external torque invivo results in an increase of ?1/bp (or a superhelical density of ???+0.03) in the interval 0100C. In the final step, we show that the experimentally observed apparent bending persistence length of torsionally unconstrained DNA can be calculated from a hybrid model that accounts for the softening of the double helix and the presence of transient denaturation bubbles. Although the latter dominate the behavior close to the melting transition, the inclusion of helix softening is important around standard physiological temperatures. PMID:24138866

  2. Structural and functional interactions between six-transmembrane ?-opioid receptors and ?2-adrenoreceptors modulate opioid signaling.

    PubMed

    Samoshkin, Alexander; Convertino, Marino; Viet, Chi T; Wieskopf, Jeffrey S; Kambur, Oleg; Marcovitz, Jaclyn; Patel, Pinkal; Stone, Laura S; Kalso, Eija; Mogil, Jeffrey S; Schmidt, Brian L; Maixner, William; Dokholyan, Nikolay V; Diatchenko, Luda

    2015-01-01

    The primary molecular target for clinically used opioids is the ?-opioid receptor (MOR). Besides the major seven-transmembrane (7TM) receptors, the MOR gene codes for alternatively spliced six-transmembrane (6TM) isoforms, the biological and clinical significance of which remains unclear. Here, we show that the otherwise exclusively intracellular localized 6TM-MOR translocates to the plasma membrane upon coexpression with ?2-adrenergic receptors (?2-ARs) through an interaction with the fifth and sixth helices of ?2-AR. Coexpression of the two receptors in BE(2)-C neuroblastoma cells potentiates calcium responses to a 6TM-MOR ligand, and this calcium response is completely blocked by a selective ?2-antagonist in BE(2)-C cells, and in trigeminal and dorsal root ganglia. Co-administration of 6TM-MOR and ?2-AR ligands leads to substantial analgesic synergy and completely reverses opioid-induced hyperalgesia in rodent behavioral models. Together, our results provide evidence that the heterodimerization of 6TM-MOR with ?2-AR underlies a molecular mechanism for 6TM cellular signaling, presenting a unique functional responses to opioids. This signaling pathway may contribute to the hyperalgesic effects of opioids that can be efficiently blocked by ?2-AR antagonists, providing a new avenue for opioid therapy. PMID:26657998

  3. BUNDLE: a program for building the transmembrane domains of G-protein-coupled receptors.

    PubMed

    Filizola, M; Perez, J J; Carten-Farina, M

    1998-03-01

    The only information available at present about the structural features of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) comes from low resolution electron density maps of rhodopsin obtained from electron microscopy studies on 2D crystals. Despite their low resolution, maps can be used to extract information about transmembrane helix relative positions and their tilt. This information, together with a reliable algorithm to assess the residues involved in each of the membrane spanning regions, can be used to construct a 3D model of the transmembrane domains of rhodopsin at atomic resolution. In the present work, we describe an automated procedure applicable to generate such a model and, in general, to construct a 3D model of any given GPCR with the only assumption that it adopts the same helix arrangement as in rhodopsin. The present approach avoids uncertainties associated with other procedures available for constructing models of GPCRs based on a template, since sequence identity among GPCRs of different families in most of the cases is not significant. The steps involved in the construction of the model are: (i) locate the centers of the helices according to the low-resolution electron density map; (ii) compute the tilt of each helix based on the elliptical shape observed by each helix in the map; (iii) define a local coordinate system for each of the helices; (iv) bring them together in an antiparallel orientation; (v) rotate each helix through the helical axis in such a way that its hydrophobic moment points in the same direction of the bisector formed between three consecutive helices in the bundle; (vi) rotate each helix through an axis perpendicular to the helical one to assign a proper tilt; and (vii) translate each helix to its center deduced from the projection map. PMID:9690171

  4. Structural studies of Helix aspersa agglutinin complexed with GalNAc: A lectin that serves as a diagnostic tool.

    PubMed

    Pietrzyk, Agnieszka J; Bujacz, Anna; Mak, Pawe?; Potempa, Barbara; Niedziela, Tomasz

    2015-11-01

    Lectins belong to a differentiated group of proteins known to possess sugar-binding properties. Due to this fact, they are interesting research targets in medical diagnostics. Helix aspersa agglutinin (HAA) is a lectin that recognizes the epitopes containing ?-d-N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc), which is present at the surface of metastatic cancer cells. Although several reports have already described the use of HAA as a diagnostic tool, this protein was not characterized on the molecular level. Here, we present for the first time the structural information about lectin isolated from mucus of Helix aspersa (garden snail). The amino acid sequence of this agglutinin was determined by Edman degradation and tertiary as well as quaternary structure by X-ray crystallography. The high resolution crystal structure (1.38) and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry analysis provide the detailed information about a large part of the HAA natural glycan chain. The topology of the GalNAc binding cleft and interaction with lectin are very well defined in the structure and fully confirmed by STD HSQC NMR spectroscopy. Together, this provides structural clues regarding HAA specificity and opens possibilities to rational modifications of this important diagnostic tool. PMID:26416237

  5. On the use of the transmembrane domain of bacteriorhodopsin as a template for modeling the three-dimensional structure of guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory protein-coupled receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Pardo, L; Ballesteros, J A; Osman, R; Weinstein, H

    1992-01-01

    The molecular architecture of bacteriorhodopsin (BR) is commonly regarded as a structural template for the three-dimensional structure of membrane receptors that are functionally coupled to guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory proteins (GPCR). More recently, specific molecular models of such GPCR were constructed on the basis of the functional and structural relation of rhodopsin to BR as well as the sequence homology between rhodopsin and the GPCR. Such models of GPCR leave unresolved the difficulty caused by the apparent lack of any significant degree of sequence homology between the seven transmembrane helices (TMH) of BR and the portions in the sequence of the various GPCR that are considered to constitute their transmembrane domains. Evolutionary arguments offered in favor of the structural relation between BR and the opsins, and hence the GPCR, prompted our investigation of the possibility that the sequence homology, including any similarity in the distribution of kink-inducing proline residues among the helices, might have been obscured by the assumption that the TMH maintained their sequential order from BR in the evolution of the mammalian proteins. With a definition of the TMH in the neurotransmitter GPCR guided by hydropathicity predictions, and additional criteria used to define the span of each helix, optimal alignment of each pair of sequences was determined with no gaps allowed in the matching. The resulting alignment proposed here reveals considerable homology between the TMH in BR and those in GPCR, if the sequential order of the helices is ignored. These findings suggest the possibility that exon shuffling could have occurred in the proposed evolution of the GPCR gene from BR and point to a modification of the BR template to account for the correct packing of the helices in the tertiary structures of GPCR. These findings could guide the construction of three-dimensional models of the neurotransmitter GPCR on the basis of specific interhelical interactions observed in BR. Images PMID:1315046

  6. Solution Structure of an Alternate Conformation of Helix 27 from Escherichia Coli 16S rRNA

    PubMed Central

    Spano, Meredith Newby; Walter, Nils G.

    2011-01-01

    Helix (H)27 of 16S ribosomal (r)RNA from Escherichia coli was dubbed the switch helix when mutagenesis suggested that two alternative base pair registers may have distinct functional roles in the bacterial ribosome. Although more recent genetic analyses suggest that H27 conformational switching is not required for translation, previous solution studies demonstrated that the isolated E. coli H27 can dynamically convert between the 885 and 888 conformations. Here, we have solved the NMR solution structure of a locked 888 conformation. NOE and residual dipolar coupling restraints reveal an architecture that markedly differs from that of the 885 conformation found in crystal structures of the bacterial ribosome. In place of the loop E motif that characterizes the 885 conformer and that the 888 conformer cannot adopt, we find evidence for an asymmetrical A-rich internal loop stabilized by stacking interactions among the unpaired As. Comparison of the isolated H27 888 solution structure with the 885 crystal structure within the context of the ribosome suggests a difference in overall length of H27 that presents one plausible reason for the absence of H27 conformational switching within the sterically confining ribosome. PMID:21442607

  7. Evolutionary-guided de novo structure prediction of self-associated transmembrane helical proteins with near-atomic accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Barth, P.

    2015-05-01

    How specific protein associations regulate the function of membrane receptors remains poorly understood. Conformational flexibility currently hinders the structure determination of several classes of membrane receptors and associated oligomers. Here we develop EFDOCK-TM, a general method to predict self-associated transmembrane protein helical (TMH) structures from sequence guided by co-evolutionary information. We show that accurate intermolecular contacts can be identified using a combination of protein sequence covariation and TMH binding surfaces predicted from sequence. When applied to diverse TMH oligomers, including receptors characterized in multiple conformational and functional states, the method reaches unprecedented near-atomic accuracy for most targets. Blind predictions of structurally uncharacterized receptor tyrosine kinase TMH oligomers provide a plausible hypothesis on the molecular mechanisms of disease-associated point mutations and binding surfaces for the rational design of selective inhibitors. The method sets the stage for uncovering novel determinants of molecular recognition and signalling in single-spanning eukaryotic membrane receptors.

  8. Structure and regulatory role of the C-terminal winged helix domain of the archaeal minichromosome maintenance complex.

    PubMed

    Wiedemann, Christoph; Szambowska, Anna; Hfner, Sabine; Ohlenschlger, Oliver; Ghrs, Karl-Heinz; Grlach, Matthias

    2015-03-11

    The minichromosome maintenance complex (MCM) represents the replicative DNA helicase both in eukaryotes and archaea. Here, we describe the solution structure of the C-terminal domains of the archaeal MCMs of Sulfolobus solfataricus (Sso) and Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus (Mth). Those domains consist of a structurally conserved truncated winged helix (WH) domain lacking the two typical 'wings' of canonical WH domains. A less conserved N-terminal extension links this WH module to the MCM AAA+ domain forming the ATPase center. In the Sso MCM this linker contains a short ?-helical element. Using Sso MCM mutants, including chimeric constructs containing Mth C-terminal domain elements, we show that the ATPase and helicase activity of the Sso MCM is significantly modulated by the short ?-helical linker element and by N-terminal residues of the first ?-helix of the truncated WH module. Finally, based on our structural and functional data, we present a docking-derived model of the Sso MCM, which implies an allosteric control of the ATPase center by the C-terminal domain. PMID:25712103

  9. Structure and regulatory role of the C-terminal winged helix domain of the archaeal minichromosome maintenance complex

    PubMed Central

    Wiedemann, Christoph; Szambowska, Anna; Hfner, Sabine; Ohlenschlger, Oliver; Ghrs, Karl-Heinz; Grlach, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    The minichromosome maintenance complex (MCM) represents the replicative DNA helicase both in eukaryotes and archaea. Here, we describe the solution structure of the C-terminal domains of the archaeal MCMs of Sulfolobus solfataricus (Sso) and Methanothermobacter thermautotrophicus (Mth). Those domains consist of a structurally conserved truncated winged helix (WH) domain lacking the two typical wings of canonical WH domains. A less conserved N-terminal extension links this WH module to the MCM AAA+ domain forming the ATPase center. In the Sso MCM this linker contains a short ?-helical element. Using Sso MCM mutants, including chimeric constructs containing Mth C-terminal domain elements, we show that the ATPase and helicase activity of the Sso MCM is significantly modulated by the short ?-helical linker element and by N-terminal residues of the first ?-helix of the truncated WH module. Finally, based on our structural and functional data, we present a docking-derived model of the Sso MCM, which implies an allosteric control of the ATPase center by the C-terminal domain. PMID:25712103

  10. The structure of Plasmodium vivax phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein suggests a functional motif containing a left-handed helix

    SciTech Connect

    Arakaki, Tracy; Neely, Helen; Boni, Erica; Mueller, Natasha; Buckner, Frederick S.; Van Voorhis, Wesley C.; Lauricella, Angela; DeTitta, George; Luft, Joseph; Hol, Wim G. J.; Merritt, Ethan A.

    2007-03-01

    The crystal structure of a phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein from P. vivax, a homolog of Raf-kinase inhibitor protein (RKIP), has been solved to a resolution of 1.3 . The inferred interaction surface near the anion-binding site is found to include a distinctive left-handed ?-helix. The structure of a putative Raf kinase inhibitor protein (RKIP) homolog from the eukaryotic parasite Plasmodium vivax has been studied to a resolution of 1.3 using multiple-wavelength anomalous diffraction at the Se K edge. This protozoan protein is topologically similar to previously studied members of the phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein (PEBP) sequence family, but exhibits a distinctive left-handed ?-helical region at one side of the canonical phospholipid-binding site. Re-examination of previously determined PEBP structures suggests that the P. vivax protein and yeast carboxypeptidase Y inhibitor may represent a structurally distinct subfamily of the diverse PEBP-sequence family.

  11. Structure of a Virulence Regulatory Factor CvfB Reveals a Novel Winged-helix RNA Binding Module

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Yasuhiko; Xu, Qingping; Miyazaki, Shinya; Kaito, Chikara; Farr, Carol L.; Axelrod, Herbert L.; Chiu, Hsiu-Ju; Klock, Heath E.; Knuth, Mark W.; Miller, Mitchell D.; Elsliger, Marc-Andr; Deacon, Ashley M.; Godzik, Adam; Lesley, Scott A.; Sekimizu, Kazuhisa; Wilson, Ian A.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY CvfB is a conserved regulatory protein important for the virulence of Staphylococcus aureus. We show here that CvfB binds RNA. The crystal structure of the CvfB ortholog from Streptococcus pneumoniae at 1.4 resolution reveals a unique RNA binding protein that is formed from a concatenation of well-known structural modules that bind nucleic acids: three consecutive S1 RNA-binding domains and a winged-helix (WH) domain. The third S1 and the WH domains are required for cooperative RNA binding and form a continuous surface that likely contributes to the RNA interaction. The WH domain is critical to CvfB function and contains a unique structural motif. Thus CvfB represents a novel assembly of modules for binding RNA. PMID:20399190

  12. Synergistic transmembrane alignment of the antimicrobial heterodimer PGLa/magainin.

    PubMed

    Tremouilhac, Pierre; Strandberg, Erik; Wadhwani, Parvesh; Ulrich, Anne S

    2006-10-27

    The antimicrobial activity of amphipathic alpha-helical peptides is usually attributed to the formation of pores in bacterial membranes, but direct structural information about such a membrane-bound state is sparse. Solid state (2)H-NMR has previously shown that the antimicrobial peptide PGLa undergoes a concentration-dependent realignment from a surface-bound S-state to a tilted T-state. The corresponding change in helix tilt angle from 98 to 125 degrees was interpreted as the formation of PGLa/magainin heterodimers residing on the bilayer surface. Under no conditions so far, has an upright membrane-inserted I-state been observed in which a transmembrane helix alignment would be expected. Here, we have demonstrated that PGLa is able to assume such an I-state in a 1:1 mixture with magainin 2 at a peptide-to-lipid ratio as low as 1:100 in dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine/dimyristoylphosphatidylglycerol model membranes. This (2)H-NMR analysis is based on seven orientational constraints from Ala-3,3,3-d(3) substituted in a non-perturbing manner for four native Ala residues as well as two Ile and one Gly. The observed helix tilt of 158 degrees is rationalized by the formation of heterodimers. This structurally synergistic effect between the two related peptides from the skin of Xenopus laevis correlates very well with their known functional synergistic mode of action. To our knowledge, this example of PGLa is the first case where an alpha-helical antimicrobial peptide is directly shown to assume a transmembrane state that is compatible with the postulated toroidal wormhole pore structure. PMID:16877761

  13. Localization phenomena in a DNA double-helix structure: A twisted ladder model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundu, Sourav; Karmakar, S. N.

    2014-03-01

    In this work we propose a model for the DNA double helix within the tight-binding framework that incorporates the helicity of the molecules. We have studied the localization properties of three DNA sequences, the periodic poly(dG)-poly(dC) and poly(dA)-poly(dT) sequences and the random ATGC sequence (where A is adenine, T is thymine, G is guanine, and C is cytosine), all of which are coupled to the backbone with random site energies representing the environmental fluctuations. We observe that due to the helicity of DNA, electron transport is greatly enhanced and there exists an almost disorder-strength-independent critical value of the hopping integral, which accounts for the helicity of DNA, for which the electronic states become maximally extended. We have also investigated the effect of backbone energetics on the transmission and I-V characteristics of DNA.

  14. Probing polyproline structure and dynamics by photoinduced electron transfer provides evidence for deviations from a regular polyproline type II helix

    PubMed Central

    Doose, Sren; Neuweiler, Hannes; Barsch, Hannes; Sauer, Markus

    2007-01-01

    Polyprolines are well known for adopting a regular polyproline type II helix in aqueous solution, rendering them a popular standard as molecular ruler in structural molecular biology. However, single-molecule spectroscopy studies based on Frster resonance energy transfer (FRET) have revealed deviations of experimentally observed end-to-end distances of polyprolines from theoretical predictions, and it was proposed that the discrepancy resulted from dynamic flexibility of the polyproline helix. Here, we probe end-to-end distances and conformational dynamics of poly-l-prolines with 110 residues using fluorescence quenching by photoinduced-electron transfer (PET). A single fluorophore and a tryptophan residue, introduced at the termini of polyproline peptides, serve as sensitive probes for distance changes on the subnanometer length scale. Using a combination of ensemble fluorescence and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy, we demonstrate that polyproline samples exhibit static structural heterogeneity with subpopulations of distinct end-to-end distances that do not interconvert on time scales from nano- to milliseconds. By observing prolyl isomerization through changes in PET quenching interactions, we provide experimental evidence that the observed heterogeneity can be explained by interspersed cis isomers. Computer simulations elucidate the influence of trans/cis isomerization on polyproline structures in terms of end-to-end distance and provide a structural justification for the experimentally observed effects. Our results demonstrate that structural heterogeneity inherent in polyprolines, which to date are commonly applied as a molecular ruler, disqualifies them as appropriate tool for an accurate determination of absolute distances at a molecular scale. PMID:17956989

  15. A tyrosine-containing motif mediates ER retention of CD3-epsilon and adopts a helix-turn structure.

    PubMed Central

    Mallabiabarrena, A; Jimnez, M A; Rico, M; Alarcn, B

    1995-01-01

    The CD3-epsilon endoplasmic reticulum (ER) retention motif has been characterized by mutagenesis and NMR spectroscopy. Tyr177, Leu180 and Arg183 are involved in ER retention. The motif forms an elongated alpha-helix in which the tyrosine and leucine residues are closely apposed, followed by a beta I' turn that places Arg183 in the vicinity of Leu180. The structure formed by Tyr177 and the leucine in position +3 is reminiscent of the beta-turn structure adopted by tyrosine-containing endocytosis signals. Moreover, substitution of the transferrin receptor (TfR) internalization sequence by the CD3-epsilon motif still allowed the rapid internalization of the TfR and, conversely, the chimeric protein resulting from the substitution of the CD3-epsilon motif by the endocytosis signal of the low density lipoprotein receptor was ER located. These data support the idea of a functional homology between the two types of signal. Images PMID:7774584

  16. Anesthetics target interfacial transmembrane sites in nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Forman, Stuart A; Chiara, David C; Miller, Keith W

    2015-09-01

    General anesthetics are a heterogeneous group of small amphiphilic ligands that interact weakly at multiple allosteric sites on many pentameric ligand gated ion channels (pLGICs), resulting in either inhibition, potentiation of channel activity, or both. Allosteric principles imply that modulator sites must change configuration and ligand affinity during receptor state transitions. Thus, general anesthetics and related compounds are useful both as state-dependent probes of receptor structure and as potentially selective modulators of pLGIC functions. This review focuses on general anesthetic sites in nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, which were among the first anesthetic-sensitive pLGIC experimental models studied, with particular focus on sites formed by transmembrane domain elements. Structural models place many of these sites at interfaces between two or more pLGIC transmembrane helices both within subunits and between adjacent subunits, and between transmembrane helices and either lipids (the lipid-protein interface) or water (i.e. the ion channel). A single general anesthetic may bind at multiple allosteric sites in pLGICs, producing a net effect of either inhibition (e.g. blocking the ion channel) or enhanced channel gating (e.g. inter-subunit sites). Other general anesthetic sites identified by photolabeling or crystallography are tentatively linked to functional effects, including intra-subunit helix bundle sites and the lipid-protein interface. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'The Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor: From Molecular Biology to Cognition'. PMID:25316107

  17. Protein-protein interactions among West Nile non-structural proteins and transmembrane complex formation in mammalian cells.

    PubMed

    Yu, Li; Takeda, Kazuyo; Markoff, Lewis

    2013-11-01

    To study the membrane orientation of flavivirus non-structural proteins (NSPs) in the replication complex, the seven major West Nile (WN) NSPs were separately expressed in monkey cells, and their subcellular localization was investigated by imaging-based techniques. First, we observed by confocal microscopy that four small transmembrane proteins (TP) (NS2A, NS2B, NS4A, and NS4B) were located to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), whereas the largest NSPs, NS1, NS3, and NS5 were not. We then analyzed the colocalization and the association of WN NSPs using the methods of confocal microscopy, fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), and biologic fluorescence complementation (BiFC). Through these combined imaging techniques, protein-protein interactions (PPI) among WNNSPs were detected. Our data demonstrate that there are interactions between NS2A and NS4A, and interactions of NS2B with three other TPs (NS2A, NS4A, and NS4B) as well as the expected interaction with NS3. PPI between NS2A and NS4B or between NS4A and NS4B were not detected. By the criteria of these techniques, NS5 interacted only with NS3, and NS1 was not shown to be in close proximity with other NSPs. In addition, homo-oligomerization of some NSPs was observed and three-way interactions between NS2A, NS4A, and NA4B with NS2B-NS3 were also observed, respectively. Our results suggest that the four TPs are required for formation of transmembrane complex. NS2B protein seems to play a key role in bringing the TPs together on the ER membrane and in bridging the TPs with non-membrane-associated proteins (NS3 and NS5). PMID:24074601

  18. Disordered regions in transmembrane proteins.

    PubMed

    Tusndy, Gbor E; Dobson, Lszl; Tompa, Peter

    2015-11-01

    The functions of transmembrane proteins in living cells are widespread; they range from various transport processes to energy production, from cell-cell adhesion to communication. Structurally, they are highly ordered in their membrane-spanning regions, but may contain disordered regions in the cytosolic and extra-cytosolic parts. In this study, we have investigated the disordered regions in transmembrane proteins by a stringent definition of disordered residues on the currently available largest experimental dataset, and show a significant correlation between the spatial distributions of positively charged residues and disordered regions. This finding suggests a new role of disordered regions in transmembrane proteins by providing structural flexibility for stabilizing interactions with negatively charged head groups of the lipid molecules. We also find a preference of structural disorder in the terminal - as opposed to loop - regions in transmembrane proteins, and survey the respective functions involved in recruiting other proteins or mediating allosteric signaling effects. Finally, we critically compare disorder prediction methods on our transmembrane protein set. While there are no major differences between these methods using the usual statistics, such as per residue accuracies, Matthew's correlation coefficients, etc.; substantial differences can be found regarding the spatial distribution of the predicted disordered regions. We conclude that a predictor optimized for transmembrane proteins would be of high value to the field of structural disorder. PMID:26275590

  19. Structural basis of typhod: Salmonella typhi type IVb pilin (PilS) and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Balakrishna, A.; Saxena, A; Mok, H; Swaminathan, K

    2009-01-01

    The type IVb pilus of the enteropathogenic bacteria Salmonella typhi is a major adhesion factor during the entry of this pathogen into gastrointestinal epithelial cells. Its target of adhesion is a stretch of 10 residues from the first extracellular domain of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). The crystal structure of the N-terminal 25 amino acid deleted S. typhi native PilS protein (PilS), which makes the pilus, was determined at 1.9 A resolution by the multiwavelength anomalous dispersion method. Also, the structure of the complex of PilS and a target CFTR peptide, determined at 1.8 A, confirms that residues 113-117 (NKEER) of CFTR are involved in binding with the pilin protein and gives us insight on the amino acids that are essential for binding. Furthermore, we have also explored the role of a conserved disulfide bridge in pilus formation. The subunit structure and assembly architecture are crucial for understanding pilus functions and designing suitable therapeutics against typhoid.

  20. Structural Basis of Typhoid: Salmonella typhi Type IVb pilin (PilS) and Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulatory Interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Balakrishna, A.; Saxena, A; Mok, H; Swaminathan, K

    2009-01-01

    The type IVb pilus of the enteropathogenic bacteria Salmonella typhi is a major adhesion factor during the entry of this pathogen into gastrointestinal epithelial cells. Its target of adhesion is a stretch of 10 residues from the first extracellular domain of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). The crystal structure of the N-terminal 25 amino acid deleted S. typhi native PilS protein (PilS), which makes the pilus, was determined at 1.9 A resolution by the multiwavelength anomalous dispersion method. Also, the structure of the complex of PilS and a target CFTR peptide, determined at 1.8 A, confirms that residues 113-117 (NKEER) of CFTR are involved in binding with the pilin protein and gives us insight on the amino acids that are essential for binding. Furthermore, we have also explored the role of a conserved disulfide bridge in pilus formation. The subunit structure and assembly architecture are crucial for understanding pilus functions and designing suitable therapeutics against typhoid.

  1. Structural basis of typhoid: Salmonella typhi type IVb pilin (PiLS) and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Balakrishna, A.M.; Saxena, A.; Mok, H. Y.-K.; Swaminathan, K.

    2009-11-01

    The type IVb pilus of the enteropathogenic bacteria Salmonella typhi is a major adhesion factor during the entry of this pathogen into gastrointestinal epithelial cells. Its target of adhesion is a stretch of 10 residues from the first extracellular domain of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). The crystal structure of the N-terminal 25 amino acid deleted S. typhi native PilS protein ({Delta}PilS), which makes the pilus, was determined at 1.9 {angstrom} resolution by the multiwavelength anomalous dispersion method. Also, the structure of the complex of {Delta}PilS and a target CFTR peptide, determined at 1.8 {angstrom}, confirms that residues 113-117 (NKEER) of CFTR are involved in binding with the pilin protein and gives us insight on the amino acids that are essential for binding. Furthermore, we have also explored the role of a conserved disulfide bridge in pilus formation. The subunit structure and assembly architecture are crucial for understanding pilus functions and designing suitable therapeutics against typhoid.

  2. Structural Model of the Anion Exchanger 1 (SLC4A1) and Identification of Transmembrane Segments Forming the Transport Site

    PubMed Central

    Barneaud-Rocca, Damien; Etchebest, Catherine; Guizouarn, Hlne

    2013-01-01

    The anion exchanger 1 (AE1), a member of bicarbonate transporter family SLC4, mediates an electroneutral chloride/bicarbonate exchange in physiological conditions. However, some point mutations in AE1 membrane-spanning domain convert the electroneutral anion exchanger into a Na+ and K+ conductance or induce a cation leak in a still functional anion exchanger. The molecular determinants that govern ion movement through this transporter are still unknown. The present study was intended to identify the ion translocation pathway within AE1. In the absence of a resolutive three-dimensional structure of AE1 membrane-spanning domain, in silico modeling combined with site-directed mutagenesis experiments was done. A structural model of AE1 membrane-spanning domain is proposed, and this model is based on the structure of a uracil-proton symporter. This model was used to design cysteine-scanning mutagenesis on transmembrane (TM) segments 3 and 5. By measuring AE1 anion exchange activity or cation leak, it is proposed that there is a unique transport site comprising TM35 and TM8 that should function as an anion exchanger and a cation leak. PMID:23846695

  3. Conformational rearrangements in the transmembrane domain of CNGA1 channels revealed by single-molecule force spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Maity, Sourav; Mazzolini, Monica; Arcangeletti, Manuel; Valbuena, Alejandro; Fabris, Paolo; Lazzarino, Marco; Torre, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) channels are activated by binding of cyclic nucleotides. Although structural studies have identified the channel pore and selectivity filter, conformation changes associated with gating remain poorly understood. Here we combine single-molecule force spectroscopy (SMFS) with mutagenesis, bioinformatics and electrophysiology to study conformational changes associated with gating. By expressing functional channels with SMFS fingerprints in Xenopus laevis oocytes, we were able to investigate gating of CNGA1 in a physiological-like membrane. Force spectra determined that the S4 transmembrane domain is mechanically coupled to S5 in the closed state, but S3 in the open state. We also show there are multiple pathways for the unfolding of the transmembrane domains, probably caused by a different degree of α-helix folding. This approach demonstrates that CNG transmembrane domains have dynamic structure and establishes SMFS as a tool for probing conformational change in ion channels. PMID:25963832

  4. Conformational rearrangements in the transmembrane domain of CNGA1 channels revealed by single-molecule force spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maity, Sourav; Mazzolini, Monica; Arcangeletti, Manuel; Valbuena, Alejandro; Fabris, Paolo; Lazzarino, Marco; Torre, Vincent

    2015-05-01

    Cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) channels are activated by binding of cyclic nucleotides. Although structural studies have identified the channel pore and selectivity filter, conformation changes associated with gating remain poorly understood. Here we combine single-molecule force spectroscopy (SMFS) with mutagenesis, bioinformatics and electrophysiology to study conformational changes associated with gating. By expressing functional channels with SMFS fingerprints in Xenopus laevis oocytes, we were able to investigate gating of CNGA1 in a physiological-like membrane. Force spectra determined that the S4 transmembrane domain is mechanically coupled to S5 in the closed state, but S3 in the open state. We also show there are multiple pathways for the unfolding of the transmembrane domains, probably caused by a different degree of α-helix folding. This approach demonstrates that CNG transmembrane domains have dynamic structure and establishes SMFS as a tool for probing conformational change in ion channels.

  5. Conformational rearrangements in the transmembrane domain of CNGA1 channels revealed by single-molecule force spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Maity, Sourav; Mazzolini, Monica; Arcangeletti, Manuel; Valbuena, Alejandro; Fabris, Paolo; Lazzarino, Marco; Torre, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) channels are activated by binding of cyclic nucleotides. Although structural studies have identified the channel pore and selectivity filter, conformation changes associated with gating remain poorly understood. Here we combine single-molecule force spectroscopy (SMFS) with mutagenesis, bioinformatics and electrophysiology to study conformational changes associated with gating. By expressing functional channels with SMFS fingerprints in Xenopus laevis oocytes, we were able to investigate gating of CNGA1 in a physiological-like membrane. Force spectra determined that the S4 transmembrane domain is mechanically coupled to S5 in the closed state, but S3 in the open state. We also show there are multiple pathways for the unfolding of the transmembrane domains, probably caused by a different degree of ?-helix folding. This approach demonstrates that CNG transmembrane domains have dynamic structure and establishes SMFS as a tool for probing conformational change in ion channels. PMID:25963832

  6. Solution Structure and DNA-binding Properties of the Winged Helix Domain of the Meiotic Recombination HOP2 Protein*

    PubMed Central

    Moktan, Hem; Guiraldelli, Michel F.; Eyster, Craig A.; Zhao, Weixing; Lee, Chih-Ying; Mather, Timothy; Camerini-Otero, R. Daniel; Sung, Patrick; Zhou, Donghua H.; Pezza, Roberto J.

    2014-01-01

    The HOP2 protein is required for efficient double-strand break repair which ensures the proper synapsis of homologous chromosomes and normal meiotic progression. We previously showed that in vitro HOP2 shows two distinctive activities: when it is incorporated into a HOP2-MND1 heterodimer, it stimulates DMC1 and RAD51 recombination activities, and the purified HOP2 alone is proficient in promoting strand invasion. The structural and biochemical basis of HOP2 action in recombination are poorly understood; therefore, they are the focus of this work. Herein, we present the solution structure of the amino-terminal portion of mouse HOP2, which contains a typical winged helix DNA-binding domain. Together with NMR spectral changes in the presence of double-stranded DNA, protein docking on DNA, and mutation analysis to identify the amino acids involved in DNA coordination, our results on the three-dimensional structure of HOP2 provide key information on the fundamental structural and biochemical requirements directing the interaction of HOP2 with DNA. These results, in combination with mutational experiments showing the role of a coiled-coil structural feature involved in HOP2 self-association, allow us to explain important aspects of the function of HOP2 in recombination. PMID:24711446

  7. Structural and functional studies of Stf76 from the Sulfolobus islandicus plasmidvirus pSSVx: a novel peculiar member of the winged helixturnhelix transcription factor family

    PubMed Central

    Contursi, Patrizia; Farina, Biancamaria; Pirone, Luciano; Fusco, Salvatore; Russo, Luigi; Bartolucci, Simonetta; Fattorusso, Roberto; Pedone, Emilia

    2014-01-01

    The hybrid plasmidvirus pSSVx from Sulfolobus islandicus presents an open reading frame encoding a 76 amino acid protein, namely Stf76, that does not show significant sequence homology with any protein with known 3D structure. The recombinant protein recognizes specifically two DNA-binding sites located in its own promoter, thus suggesting an auto-regulated role of its expression. Circular dichroism, spectrofluorimetric, light scattering and isothermal titration calorimetry experiments indicated a 2:1 molar ratio (protein:DNA) upon binding to the DNA target containing a single site. Furthermore, the solution structure of Stf76, determined by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) using chemical shift Rosetta software, has shown that the protein assumes a winged helixturnhelix fold. NMR chemical shift perturbation analysis has been performed for the identification of the residues responsible for DNA interaction. In addition, a model of the Stf76DNA complex has been built using as template a structurally related homolog. PMID:24682827

  8. Crystal structure of the complete integrin [alpha]V[beta]3 ectodomain plus an [alpah/beta] transmembrane fragment

    SciTech Connect

    Xiong, Jian-Ping; Mahalingham, Bhuvaneshwari; Alonso, Jose Luis; Borrelli, Laura Ann; Rui, Xianliang; Anand, Saurabh; Hyman, Bradley T.; Rysiok, Thomas; Mller-Pompalla, Dirk; Goodman, Simon L.; Arnaout, M. Amin

    2010-02-22

    We determined the crystal structure of 1TM-{alpha}V{beta}3, which represents the complete unconstrained ectodomain plus short C-terminal transmembrane stretches of the {alpha}V and {beta}3 subunits. 1TM-{alpha}V{beta}3 is more compact and less active in solution when compared with {Delta}TM-{alpha}V{beta}3, which lacks the short C-terminal stretches. The structure reveals a bent conformation and defines the {alpha}-{beta} interface between IE2 (EGF-like 2) and the thigh domains. Modifying this interface by site-directed mutagenesis leads to robust integrin activation. Fluorescent lifetime imaging microscopy of inactive full-length {alpha}V{beta}3 on live cells yields a donor-membrane acceptor distance, which is consistent with the bent conformation and does not change in the activated integrin. These data are the first direct demonstration of conformational coupling of the integrin leg and head domains, identify the IE2-thigh interface as a critical steric barrier in integrin activation, and suggest that inside-out activation in intact cells may involve conformational changes other than the postulated switch to a genu-linear state.

  9. The conserved transmembrane proteoglycan Perdido/Kon-tiki is essential for myofibrillogenesis and sarcomeric structure in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Prez-Moreno, Juan J.; Bischoff, Marcus; Martn-Bermudo, Maria D.; Estrada, Beatriz

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Muscle differentiation requires the assembly of high-order structures called myofibrils, composed of sarcomeres. Even though the molecular organization of sarcomeres is well known, the mechanisms underlying myofibrillogenesis are poorly understood. It has been proposed that integrin-dependent adhesion nucleates myofibrils at the periphery of the muscle cell to sustain sarcomere assembly. Here, we report a role for the gene perdido (perd, also known as kon-tiki, a transmembrane chondroitin proteoglycan) in myofibrillogenesis. Expression of perd RNAi in muscles, prior to adult myogenesis, can induce misorientation and detachment of Drosophila adult abdominal muscles. In comparison to controls, perd-depleted muscles contain fewer myofibrils, which are localized at the cell periphery. These myofibrils are detached from each other and display a defective sarcomeric structure. Our results demonstrate that the extracellular matrix receptor Perd has a specific role in the assembly of myofibrils and in sarcomeric organization. We suggest that Perd acts downstream or in parallel to integrins to enable the connection of nascent myofibrils to the Z-bands. Our work identifies the Drosophila adult abdominal muscles as a model to investigate in vivo the mechanisms behind myofibrillogenesis. PMID:24794494

  10. Structural and molecular basis of ZNRF3/RNF43 transmembrane ubiquitin ligase inhibition by the Wnt agonist R-spondin

    PubMed Central

    Zebisch, Matthias; Xu, Yang; Krastev, Christos; MacDonald, Bryan T.; Chen, Maorong; Gilbert, Robert J. C.; He, Xi; Jones, E. Yvonne

    2013-01-01

    The four R-spondin (Rspo) proteins are secreted agonists of Wnt signalling in vertebrates, functioning in embryogenesis and adult stem cell biology. Through ubiquitination and degradation of Wnt receptors, the transmembrane E3 ubiquitin ligase ZNRF3 and related RNF43 antagonize Wnt signalling. Rspo ligands have been reported to inhibit the ligase activity through direct interaction with ZNRF3 and RNF43. Here we report multiple crystal structures of the ZNRF3 ectodomain (ZNRF3ecto), a signalling-competent Furin1Furin2 (Fu1Fu2) fragment of Rspo2 (Rspo2Fu1Fu2), and Rspo2Fu1Fu2 in complex with ZNRF3ecto, or RNF43ecto. A prominent loop in Fu1 clamps into equivalent grooves in the ZNRF3ecto and RNF43ecto surface. Rspo binding enhances dimerization of ZNRF3ecto but not of RNF43ecto. Comparison of the four Rspo proteins, mutants and chimeras in biophysical and cellular assays shows that their signalling potency depends on their ability to recruit ZNRF3 or RNF43 via Fu1 into a complex with LGR receptors, which interact with Rspo via Fu2. PMID:24225776

  11. Solution structure of the transmembrane 2 domain of the human melanocortin-4 receptor in sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micelles and the functional implication of the D90N mutant.

    PubMed

    Yun, Ji-Hye; Kim, Minsup; Kim, Kuglae; Lee, Dongju; Jung, Youngjin; Oh, Daeseok; Ko, Yoon-Joo; Cho, Art E; Cho, Hyun-Soo; Lee, Weontae

    2015-06-01

    The melanocortin receptors (MCRs) are members of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) 1 superfamily with seven transmembrane (TM) domains. Among them, the melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) subtype has been highlighted recently by genetic studies in obese humans. In particular, in a patient with severe early-onset obesity, a novel heterozygous mutation in the MC4R gene was found in an exchange of Asp to Asn in the 90th amino acid residue located in the TM 2 domain (MC4RD90N). Mutations in the MC4R gene are the most frequent monogenic causes of severe obesity and are described as heterozygous with loss of function. We determine solution structures of the TM 2 domain of MC4R (MC4RTM2) and compared secondary structure of Asp90 mutant (MC4RTM2-D90N) in a micelle environment by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. NMR structure shows that MC4RTM2 forms a long ?-helix with a kink at Gly98. Interestingly, the structure of MC4RTM2-D90N is similar to that of MC4RTM2 based on data from CD and NMR spectrum. However, the thermal stability and homogeneity of MC4RD90N is quite different from those of MC4R. The structure from molecular modeling suggests that Asp90(2.50) plays a key role in allosteric sodium ion binding. Our data suggest that the sodium ion interaction of Asp90(2.50) in the allosteric pocket of MC4R is essential to its function, explaining the loss of function of the MC4RD90N mutant. PMID:25753114

  12. Global force-torque phase diagram for the DNA double helix: structural transitions, triple points and collapsed plectonemes

    PubMed Central

    Marko, John F.; Neukirch, Sbastien

    2014-01-01

    We present a free energy model for structural transitions of the DNA double helix driven by tensile and torsional stress. Our model is coarse grained, and is based on semiflexible polymer descriptions of B-DNA, underwound L-DNA, and highly overwound P-DNA. The statistical-mechanical model of plectonemic supercoiling previously developed for B-DNA is applied to semiflexible polymer models of P and L-DNA, to obtain a model of DNA structural transitions in quantitative accord with experiment. We identify two distinct plectonemic states, one inflated by electrostatic repulsion and thermal fluctuations, and the other collapsed, with the two double helices inside the supercoils driven to close contact. We find that supercoiled B and L are stable only in inflated form, while supercoiled P is always collapsed. We also predict the behavior and experimental signatures of highly underwound Q-DNA, the left-handed analog of P-DNA; as for P, supercoiled Q is always collapsed. Overstretched S-DNA and strand-separated stress-melted DNA are also included in our model, allowing prediction of a global phase diagram for forces up to 1000 pN and torques between 60 pN nm, or in terms of linking number density, from ? = ?5 to +3. PMID:24483501

  13. Structural basis for recognition of breast and colon cancer epitopes Tn antigen and Forssman disaccharide by Helix pomatia lectin.

    PubMed

    Lescar, Julien; Sanchez, Jean-Frederic; Audfray, Aymeric; Coll, Jean-Luc; Breton, Christelle; Mitchell, Edward P; Imberty, Anne

    2007-10-01

    Helix pomatia agglutinin (HPA) is a lectin that has been used extensively in histopathology, since its binding to tissue sections from breast and colon cancers is correlated with the worst prognosis for the patients. The lectin recognizes alpha-d-N-acetylgalactosamine (alphaGalNAc) containing epitopes which are only present in cancer cell lines having a high likelihood to undergo metastasis, such as the HT29 cancer colon cell line. Several breast cancer cell lines have also been shown to be labeled, although IGROV1, an ovarian cancer cell line, is not. Inhibition studies, using GalNAc monosaccharides, are reported here, showing that the labeling is dependent upon the presence of carbohydrate epitopes. The crystal structures of the lectin complexed with two GalNAc containing epitopes associated with cancer, the Tn (alphaGalNAc-Ser) and Forssman (alphaGalNAc1-3GalNAc) antigens, show the lectin's specificity for GalNAc is due to a particular network of hydrogen bonds. A histidine residue makes hydrophobic contact with the aglycon, rationalizing the preference for GalNAc bearing an additional sugar or amino acid in the alpha position. These structures provide the molecular basis for the use of HPA in metastasis research. PMID:17652409

  14. Global force-torque phase diagram for the DNA double helix: Structural transitions, triple points, and collapsed plectonemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marko, John F.; Neukirch, Sbastien

    2013-12-01

    We present a free energy model for structural transitions of the DNA double helix driven by tensile and torsional stress. Our model is coarse grained and is based on semiflexible polymer descriptions of B-DNA, underwound L-DNA, and highly overwound P-DNA. The statistical-mechanical model of plectonemic supercoiling previously developed for B-DNA is applied to semiflexible polymer models of P- and L-DNA to obtain a model of DNA structural transitions in quantitative accord with experiment. We identify two distinct plectonemic states, one "inflated" by electrostatic repulsion and thermal fluctuations and the other "collapsed," with the two double helices inside the supercoils driven to close contact. We find that supercoiled B and L are stable only in the inflated form, while supercoiled P is always collapsed. We also predict the behavior and experimental signatures of highly underwound "Q"-DNA, the left-handed analog of P-DNA; as for P, supercoiled Q is always collapsed. Overstretched "S"-DNA and strand-separated "stress-melted" DNA are also included in our model, allowing prediction of a global phase diagram for forces up to 1000 pN and torques between 60 pN nm, or, in terms of linking number density, from ? =-5 to +3.

  15. Sequence and conformational preferences at termini of ?-helices in membrane proteins: role of the helix environment.

    PubMed

    Shelar, Ashish; Bansal, Manju

    2014-12-01

    ?-Helices are amongst the most common secondary structural elements seen in membrane proteins and are packed in the form of helix bundles. These ?-helices encounter varying external environments (hydrophobic, hydrophilic) that may influence the sequence preferences at their N and C-termini. The role of the external environment in stabilization of the helix termini in membrane proteins is still unknown. Here we analyze ?-helices in a high-resolution dataset of integral ?-helical membrane proteins and establish that their sequence and conformational preferences differ from those in globular proteins. We specifically examine these preferences at the N and C-termini in helices initiating/terminating inside the membrane core as well as in linkers connecting these transmembrane helices. We find that the sequence preferences and structural motifs at capping (Ncap and Ccap) and near-helical (N' and C') positions are influenced by a combination of features including the membrane environment and the innate helix initiation and termination property of residues forming structural motifs. We also find that a large number of helix termini which do not form any particular capping motif are stabilized by formation of hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions contributed from the neighboring helices in the membrane protein. We further validate the sequence preferences obtained from our analysis with data from an ultradeep sequencing study that identifies evolutionarily conserved amino acids in the rat neurotensin receptor. The results from our analysis provide insights for the secondary structure prediction, modeling and design of membrane proteins. PMID:25257385

  16. The dimeric transmembrane domain of prolyl dipeptidase DPP-IV contributes to its quaternary structure and enzymatic activities

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Kuei-Min; Cheng, Jai-Hong; Suen, Ching-Shu; Huang, Chih-Hsiang; Tsai, Cheng-Han; Huang, Li-Hao; Chen, Yi-Rong; Wang, Andrew H-J; Jiaang, Weir-Torn; Hwang, Ming-Jing; Chen, Xin

    2010-01-01

    Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) is a drug target in the treatment of human type II diabetes. It is a type II membrane protein with a single transmembrane domain (TMD) anchoring the extracellular catalytic domain to the membrane. DPP-IV is active as a dimer, with two dimer interacting surfaces located extracellularly. In this study, we demonstrate that the TM of DPP-IV promotes DPP-IV dimerization and rescues monomeric DPP-IV mutants into partial dimers, which is specific and irreplaceable by TMs of other type II membrane proteins. By bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) and peptide electrophoresis, we found that the TM domain of DPP-IV is dimerized in mammalian cells and in vitro. The TM dimer interaction is very stable, based on our results with TM site-directed mutagenesis. None of the mutations, including the introduction of two prolines, resulted in their complete disruption to monomers. However, these TM proline mutations result in a significant reduction of DPP-IV enzymatic activity, comparable to what is found with mutations near the active site. A systematic analysis of TM structures deposited in the Protein Data Bank showed that prolines in the TM generally produce much bigger kinking angles than occur in nonproline-containing TMs. Thus, the proline-dependent reduction in enzyme activity may result from propagated conformational changes from the TM to the extracellular active site. Our results demonstrate that TM dimerization and conformation contribute significantly to the structure and activity of DPP-IV. Optimal enzymatic activity of DPP-IV requires an optimal interaction of all three dimer interfaces, including its TM. PMID:20572019

  17. The importance of helix P1 stability for structural pre-organization and ligand binding affinity of the adenine riboswitch aptamer domain

    PubMed Central

    Nozinovic, Senada; Reining, Anke; Kim, Yong-Boum; Noeske, Jonas; Schlepckow, Kai; Whnert, Jens; Schwalbe, Harald

    2014-01-01

    We report here an in-depth characterization of the aptamer domain of the transcriptional adenine-sensing riboswitch (pbuE) by NMR and fluorescence spectroscopy. By NMR studies, the structure of two aptamer sequences with different lengths of the helix P1, the central element involved in riboswitch conformational switching, was characterized. Hydrogen-bond interactions could be mapped at nucleotide resolution providing information about secondary and tertiary structure, structure homogeneity and dynamics. Our study reveals that the elongation of helix P1 has pronounced effects not only on the local but on the global structure of the apo aptamer domain. The structural differences induced by stabilizing helix P1 were found to be linked to changes of the ligand binding affinity as revealed from analysis of kinetic and thermodynamic data obtained from stopped-flow fluorescence studies. The results provide new insight into the sequence-dependent fine tuning of the structure and function of purine-sensing riboswitches. PMID:24921630

  18. Polysaccharide hydrogels with tunable stiffness and provasculogenic properties via α-helix to β-sheet switch in secondary structure

    PubMed Central

    Forget, Aurelien; Christensen, Jon; Lüdeke, Steffen; Kohler, Esther; Tobias, Simon; Matloubi, Maziar; Thomann, Ralf; Shastri, V. Prasad

    2013-01-01

    Mechanical aspects of the cellular environment can influence cell function, and in this context hydrogels can serve as an instructive matrix. Here we report that physicochemical properties of hydrogels derived from polysaccharides (agarose, κ-carrageenan) having an α-helical backbone can be tailored by inducing a switch in the secondary structure from α-helix to β-sheet through carboxylation. This enables the gel modulus to be tuned over four orders of magnitude (G′ 6 Pa–3.6 × 104 Pa) independently of polymer concentration and molecular weight. Using carboxylated agarose gels as a screening platform, we demonstrate that soft-carboxylated agarose provides a unique environment for the polarization of endothelial cells in the presence of soluble and bound signals, which notably does not occur in fibrin and collagen gels. Furthermore, endothelial cells organize into freestanding lumens over 100 μm in length. The finding that a biomaterial can modulate soluble and bound signals provides impetus for exploring mechanobiology paradigms in regenerative therapies. PMID:23886665

  19. Solution structure of a DNA double helix with consecutive metal-mediated base pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johannsen, Silke; Megger, Nicole; Bhme, Dominik; Sigel, Roland K. O.; Mller, Jens

    2010-03-01

    Metal-mediated base pairs represent a powerful tool for the site-specific functionalization of nucleic acids with metal ions. The development of applications of the metal-modified nucleic acids will depend on the availability of structural information on these double helices. We present here the NMR solution structure of a self-complementary DNA oligonucleotide with three consecutive imidazole nucleotides in its centre. In the absence of transition-metal ions, a hairpin structure is adopted with the artificial nucleotides forming the loop. In the presence of Ag(I) ions, a duplex comprising three imidazole-Ag+-imidazole base pairs is formed. Direct proof for the formation of metal-mediated base pairs was obtained from 1J(15N,107/109Ag) couplings upon incorporation of 15N-labelled imidazole. The duplex adopts a B-type conformation with only minor deviations in the region of the artificial bases. This work represents the first structural characterization of a metal-modified nucleic acid with a continuous stretch of metal-mediated base pairs.

  20. Structure of the Newcastle disease virus hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) ectodomain reveals a four-helix bundle stalk

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, Ping; Swanson, Kurt A.; Leser, George P.; Paterson, Reay G.; Lamb, Robert A.; Jardetzky, Theodore S.

    2014-10-02

    The paramyxovirus hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein plays multiple roles in viral entry and egress, including binding to sialic acid receptors, activating the fusion (F) protein to activate membrane fusion and viral entry, and cleaving sialic acid from carbohydrate chains. HN is an oligomeric integral membrane protein consisting of an N-terminal transmembrane domain, a stalk region, and an enzymatically active neuraminidase (NA) domain. Structures of the HN NA domains have been solved previously; however, the structure of the stalk region has remained elusive. The stalk region contains specificity determinants for F interactions and activation, underlying the requirement for homotypic F and HN interactions in viral entry. Mutations of the Newcastle disease virus HN stalk region have been shown to affect both F activation and NA activities, but a structural basis for understanding these dual affects on HN functions has been lacking. Here, we report the structure of the Newcastle disease virus HN ectodomain, revealing dimers of NA domain dimers flanking the N-terminal stalk domain. The stalk forms a parallel tetrameric coiled-coil bundle (4HB) that allows classification of extensive mutational data, providing insight into the functional roles of the stalk region. Mutations that affect both F activation and NA activities map predominantly to the 4HB hydrophobic core, whereas mutations that affect only F-protein activation map primarily to the 4HB surface. Two of four NA domains interact with the 4HB stalk, and residues at this interface in both the stalk and NA domain have been implicated in HN function.

  1. Viral fusion protein transmembrane domain adopts ?-strand structure to facilitate membrane topological changes for virus-cell fusion.

    PubMed

    Yao, Hongwei; Lee, Michelle W; Waring, Alan J; Wong, Gerard C L; Hong, Mei

    2015-09-01

    The C-terminal transmembrane domain (TMD) of viral fusion proteins such as HIV gp41 and influenza hemagglutinin (HA) is traditionally viewed as a passive ?-helical anchor of the protein to the virus envelope during its merger with the cell membrane. The conformation, dynamics, and lipid interaction of these fusion protein TMDs have so far eluded high-resolution structure characterization because of their highly hydrophobic nature. Using magic-angle-spinning solid-state NMR spectroscopy, we show that the TMD of the parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV5) fusion protein adopts lipid-dependent conformations and interactions with the membrane and water. In phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylglycerol (PG) membranes, the TMD is predominantly ?-helical, but in phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) membranes, the TMD changes significantly to the ?-strand conformation. Measured order parameters indicate that the strand segments are immobilized and thus oligomerized. (31)P NMR spectra and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) data show that this ?-strand-rich conformation converts the PE membrane to a bicontinuous cubic phase, which is rich in negative Gaussian curvature that is characteristic of hemifusion intermediates and fusion pores. (1)H-(31)P 2D correlation spectra and (2)H spectra show that the PE membrane with or without the TMD is much less hydrated than PC and PG membranes, suggesting that the TMD works with the natural dehydration tendency of PE to facilitate membrane merger. These results suggest a new viral-fusion model in which the TMD actively promotes membrane topological changes during fusion using the ?-strand as the fusogenic conformation. PMID:26283363

  2. Viral fusion protein transmembrane domain adopts β-strand structure to facilitate membrane topological changes for virus–cell fusion

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Hongwei; Lee, Michelle W.; Waring, Alan J.; Wong, Gerard C. L.; Hong, Mei

    2015-01-01

    The C-terminal transmembrane domain (TMD) of viral fusion proteins such as HIV gp41 and influenza hemagglutinin (HA) is traditionally viewed as a passive α-helical anchor of the protein to the virus envelope during its merger with the cell membrane. The conformation, dynamics, and lipid interaction of these fusion protein TMDs have so far eluded high-resolution structure characterization because of their highly hydrophobic nature. Using magic-angle-spinning solid-state NMR spectroscopy, we show that the TMD of the parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV5) fusion protein adopts lipid-dependent conformations and interactions with the membrane and water. In phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylglycerol (PG) membranes, the TMD is predominantly α-helical, but in phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) membranes, the TMD changes significantly to the β-strand conformation. Measured order parameters indicate that the strand segments are immobilized and thus oligomerized. 31P NMR spectra and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) data show that this β-strand–rich conformation converts the PE membrane to a bicontinuous cubic phase, which is rich in negative Gaussian curvature that is characteristic of hemifusion intermediates and fusion pores. 1H-31P 2D correlation spectra and 2H spectra show that the PE membrane with or without the TMD is much less hydrated than PC and PG membranes, suggesting that the TMD works with the natural dehydration tendency of PE to facilitate membrane merger. These results suggest a new viral-fusion model in which the TMD actively promotes membrane topological changes during fusion using the β-strand as the fusogenic conformation. PMID:26283363

  3. Structures of two Arabidopsis thaliana major latex proteins represent novel helix-grip folds

    SciTech Connect

    Lytle, Betsy L.; Song, Jikui; de la Cruz, Norberto B.; Peterson, Francis C.; Johnson, Kenneth A.; Bingman, Craig A.; Phillips, Jr., George N.; Volkman, Brian F.

    2009-06-02

    Here we report the first structures of two major latex proteins (MLPs) which display unique structural differences from the canonical Bet v 1 fold described earlier. MLP28 (SwissProt/TrEMBL ID Q9SSK9), the product of gene At1g70830.1, and the At1g24000.1 gene product (Swiss- Prot/TrEMBL ID P0C0B0), proteins which share 32% sequence identity, were independently selected as foldspace targets by the Center for Eukaryotic Structural Genomics. The structure of a single domain (residues 17-173) of MLP28 was solved by NMR spectroscopy, while the full-length At1g24000.1 structure was determined by X-ray crystallography. MLP28 displays greater than 30% sequence identity to at least eight MLPs from other species. For example, the MLP28 sequence shares 64% identity to peach Pp-MLP119 and 55% identity to cucumber Csf2.20 In contrast, the At1g24000.1 sequence is highly divergent (see Fig. 1), containing a gap of 33 amino acids when compared with all other known MLPs. Even when the gap is excluded, the sequence identity with MLPs from other species is less than 30%. Unlike some of the MLPs from other species, none of the A. thaliana MLPs have been characterized biochemically. We show by NMR chemical shift mapping that At1g24000.1 binds progesterone, demonstrating that despite its sequence dissimilarity, the hydrophobic binding pocket is conserved and, therefore, may play a role in its biological function and that of the MLP family in general.

  4. Three-dimensional structure of P-glycoprotein: the transmembrane regions adopt an asymmetric configuration in the nucleotide-bound state.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Mark F; Callaghan, Richard; Modok, Szabolcs; Higgins, Christopher F; Ford, Robert C

    2005-01-28

    Multidrug resistance of cancer cells and pathogens is a serious clinical problem. A major factor contributing to drug resistance in cancer is the over-expression of P-glycoprotein, a plasma membrane ATP-binding cassette (ABC) drug efflux pump. Three-dimensional structural data with a resolution limit of approximately 8 A have been obtained from two-dimensional crystals of P-glycoprotein trapped in the nucleotide-bound state. Each of the two transmembrane domains of P-glycoprotein consists of six long alpha-helical segments. Five of the alpha-helices from each transmembrane domain are related by a pseudo-2-fold symmetry, whereas the sixth breaks the symmetry. The two alpha-helices positioned closest to the (pseudo-) symmetry axis at the center of the molecule appear to be kinked. A large loop of density at the extracellular surface of the transporter is likely to correspond to the glycosylated first extracellular loop, whereas two globular densities at the cytoplasmic side correspond to the hydrophilic, nucleotide-binding domains. This is the first three-dimensional structure for an intact eukaryotic ABC transporter. Comparison with the structures of two prokaryotic ABC transporters suggests significant differences in the packing of the transmembrane alpha-helices within this protein family. PMID:15485807

  5. Structural and Dynamic Study of the Tetramerization Region of Non-Erythroid α-Spectrin: A Frayed Helix Revealed by Site-Directed Spin Labeling EPR†

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qufei; Fung, L. W.-M.

    2009-01-01

    The N-terminal region of α-spectrin is responsible for its association with β-spectrin in a heterodimer to form functional tetramers. Non-erythroid alpha spectrin (αII-spectrin) has significantly higher association affinity with β-spectrin than the homologous erythroid alpha spectrin (αI-spectrin). We have previously determined the solution structure of the N-terminal region of αI-spectrin by NMR methods, but currently no structural information is available for αII-spectrin. We have now used cysteine scanning, spin labeling EPR and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) methods to study the tetramerization region of αII-spectrin. EPR data clearly showed that, in αII-spectrin, the first 9 N-terminal residues were unstructured, followed by an irregular helix (Helix C′), frayed at the N-terminal end, but rigid at the C-terminal end, which merges into the putative triple helical structural domain. The region corresponding to the important unstructured junction region linking Helix C′ to the first structural domain in αI-spectrin was clearly structured. Based on the published model for aligning Helices A′, B′ and C′, important interactions amongst residues in Helix C′ of αI/II-spectrin and Helices A′ and B′ of βI/II-spectrin are identified, suggesting similar coiled coil helical bundling for spectrin I and II in forming tetramers. The differences in affinities are likely due to the differences in the conformation of the junction regions. Equilibrium dissociation constants of spin labeled αII and βI complexes from ITC measurements indicate that residues 15, 19, 37 and 40 are functionally important residues in αII-spectrin. Interestingly, all four corresponding homologous residues in αI-spectrin (residues 24, 28, 46 and 49) have been reported to be clinically significant residues involved in hematological diseases. PMID:19072330

  6. An Algorithm for Protein Helix Assignment Using Helix Geometry

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Chen; Xu, Shutan; Wang, Lincong

    2015-01-01

    Helices are one of the most common and were among the earliest recognized secondary structure elements in proteins. The assignment of helices in a protein underlies the analysis of its structure and function. Though the mathematical expression for a helical curve is simple, no previous assignment programs have used a genuine helical curve as a model for helix assignment. In this paper we present a two-step assignment algorithm. The first step searches for a series of bona fide helical curves each one best fits the coordinates of four successive backbone Cα atoms. The second step uses the best fit helical curves as input to make helix assignment. The application to the protein structures in the PDB (protein data bank) proves that the algorithm is able to assign accurately not only regular α-helix but also 310 and π helices as well as their left-handed versions. One salient feature of the algorithm is that the assigned helices are structurally more uniform than those by the previous programs. The structural uniformity should be useful for protein structure classification and prediction while the accurate assignment of a helix to a particular type underlies structure-function relationship in proteins. PMID:26132394

  7. Structure and function of transmembrane segment XII in osmosensor and osmoprotectant transporter ProP of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Liu, Feng; Culham, Doreen E; Vernikovska, Yaroslava I; Keates, Robert A B; Boggs, Joan M; Wood, Janet M

    2007-05-15

    Escherichia coli transporter ProP acts as both an osmosensor and an osmoregulator. As medium osmolality rises, ProP is activated and mediates H+-coupled uptake of osmolytes like proline. A homology model of ProP with 12-transmembrane (TM) helices and cytoplasmic termini was created, and the protein's topology was substantiated experimentally. Residues 468-497, at the end of the C-terminal domain and linked to TM XII, form an intermolecular, homodimeric alpha-helical coiled-coil that tunes the transporter's response to osmolality. We aim to further define the structure and function of ProP residues Q415-E440, predicted to include TM XII. Each residue was replaced with cysteine (Cys) in a histidine-tagged, Cys-less ProP variant (ProP*). Cys at positions 415-418 and 438-440 were most reactive with Oregon Green Maleimide (OGM), suggesting that residues 419 through 437 are in the membrane. Except for V429-I433, reactivity of those Cys varied with helical periodicity. Cys predicted to face the interior of ProP were more reactive than Cys predicted to face the lipid. The former may be exposed to hydrated polar residues in the protein interior, particularly on the periplasmic side. Intermolecular cross-links formed when ProP* variants with Cys at positions 419, 420, 422, and 439 were treated with DTME. Thus TM XII can participate, along its entire length, in the dimer interface of ProP. Cys substitution E440C rendered ProP* inactive. All other variants retained more than 30% of the proline uptake activity of ProP* at high osmolality. Most variants with Cys substitutions in the periplasmic half of TM XII activated at lower osmolalities than ProP*. Variants with Cys substitutions on one face of the cytoplasmic half of TM XII required a higher osmolality to activate. They included elements of a GXXXG motif that are predicted to form the interface of TM XII with TM VII. These studies define the position of ProP TM XII within the membrane, further support the predicted structure of ProP, reveal the dimerization interface, and show that the structure of TM XII influences the osmolality at which ProP activates. PMID:17441691

  8. Functional and Modeling Studies of the Transmembrane Region of the TRPM8 Channel.

    PubMed

    Bidaux, Gabriel; Sgobba, Miriam; Lemonnier, Loic; Borowiec, Anne-Sophie; Noyer, Lucile; Jovanovic, Srdan; Zholos, Alexander V; Haider, Shozeb

    2015-11-01

    Members of the transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channel family act as polymodal cellular sensors, which aid in regulating Ca(2+) homeostasis. Within the TRP family, TRPM8 is the cold receptor that forms a nonselective homotetrameric cation channel. In the absence of TRPM8 crystal structure, little is known about the relationship between structure and function. Inferences of TRPM8 structure have come from mutagenesis experiments coupled to electrophysiology, mainly regarding the fourth transmembrane helix (S4), which constitutes a moderate voltage-sensing domain, and about cold sensor and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate binding sites, which are both located in the C-terminus of TRPM8. In this study, we use a combination of molecular modeling and experimental techniques to examine the structure of the TRPM8 transmembrane and pore helix region including the conducting conformation of the selectivity filter. The model is consistent with a large amount of functional data and was further tested by mutagenesis. We present structural insight into the role of residues involved in intra- and intersubunit interactions and their link with the channel activity, sensitivity to icilin, menthol and cold, and impact on channel oligomerization. PMID:26536261

  9. Transmembrane helices predicted at 95% accuracy.

    PubMed Central

    Rost, B.; Casadio, R.; Fariselli, P.; Sander, C.

    1995-01-01

    We describe a neural network system that predicts the locations of transmembrane helices in integral membrane proteins. By using evolutionary information as input to the network system, the method significantly improved on a previously published neural network prediction method that had been based on single sequence information. The input data were derived from multiple alignments for each position in a window of 13 adjacent residues: amino acid frequency, conservation weights, number of insertions and deletions, and position of the window with respect to the ends of the protein chain. Additional input was the amino acid composition and length of the whole protein. A rigorous cross-validation test on 69 proteins with experimentally determined locations of transmembrane segments yielded an overall two-state per-residue accuracy of 95%. About 94% of all segments were predicted correctly. When applied to known globular proteins as a negative control, the network system incorrectly predicted fewer than 5% of globular proteins as having transmembrane helices. The method was applied to all 269 open reading frames from the complete yeast VIII chromosome. For 59 of these, at least two transmembrane helices were predicted. Thus, the prediction is that about one-fourth of all proteins from yeast VIII contain one transmembrane helix, and some 20%, more than one. PMID:7795533

  10. An atomic model for the structure of bacteriorhodopsin, a seven-helix membrane protein.

    PubMed

    Ceska, T A; Henderson, R; Baldwin, J M; Zemlin, F; Beckmann, E; Downing, K

    1992-01-01

    A three-dimensional map of bacteriorhodopsin has been obtained, at near-atomic resolution, by collecting and analysing electron diffraction patterns and electron micrographs from crystals of bacteriorhodopsin preserved at very low temperatures. The map shows a resolution of 3.5 degrees in a direction parallel to the plane of the membrane, but poorer resolution perpendicular. It shows many features well resolved from the main density of the seven alpha-helices, which we interpret as the bulky sidechains of tyrosine, phenylalanine and tryptophan, as well as a very dense feature, which is the beta-ionone ring of the retinal chromophore. Using these bulky side chains as starting points and taking account of bulges of density for the smaller side chains such as leucine, we built an atomic model for the residues between 8 and 225. There are 21 amino acids from all 7 helices surrounding the retinal and 26 amino acids contributed by 5 helices that form the proton channel. Ten of the amino acids in the middle of the proton channel are also part of the retinal-binding site. The model provides a useful basis for considering the mechanism of proton pumping and in the interpretation of other experimental data. In particular, the model suggests that the pK changes in the Schiff base must act as the means by which light energy is converted to proton pumping through the channel. Asp-96 is on the pathway from the cytoplasm to the Schiff base and asp-85 on the pathway from the Schiff base to the extracellular surface. The experimental map and the building of the model of the structure will be described, as well as our interpretation of the structural basis of the mechanism. PMID:1449073

  11. Structure of the 5th transmembrane segment of the Na,K-ATPase alpha subunit: a cysteine-scanning mutagenesis study.

    PubMed

    Guennoun, S; Horisberger, J D

    2000-09-29

    To study the structure of the pathway of cations across the Na, K-ATPase, we applied the substituted cysteine accessibility method to the putative 5th transmembrane segment of the alpha subunit of the Na,K-ATPase of the toad Bufo marinus. Only the most extracellular amino acid position (A(796)) was accessible from the extracellular side in the native Na,K-pump. After treatment with palytoxin, six other positions (Y(778), L(780), S(782), P(785), E(786) and L(791)), distributed along the whole length of the segment, became readily accessible to a small-size methanethiosulfonate compound (2-aminoethyl methanethiosulfonate). The accessible residues are not located on the same side of an alpha-helical model but the pattern of reactivity would rather suggest a beta-sheet structure for the inner half of the putative transmembrane segment. These results demonstrate the contribution of the 5th transmembrane segment to the palytoxin-induced channel and indicate which amino acid positions are exposed to the pore of this channel. PMID:11018538

  12. Structural studies of polypeptides: Mechanism of immunoglobin catalysis and helix propagation in hybrid sequence, disulfide containing peptides

    SciTech Connect

    Storrs, R.W.

    1992-08-01

    Catalytic immunoglobin fragments were studied Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy to identify amino acid residues responsible for the catalytic activity. Small, hybrid sequence peptides were analyzed for helix propagation following covalent initiation and for activity related to the protein from which the helical sequence was derived. Hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl carbonates and esters by specific immunoglobins is thought to involve charge complementarity. The pK of the transition state analog P-nitrophenyl phosphate bound to the immunoglobin fragment was determined by [sup 31]P-NMR to verify the juxtaposition of a positively charged amino acid to the binding/catalytic site. Optical studies of immunoglobin mediated photoreversal of cis, syn cyclobutane thymine dimers implicated tryptophan as the photosensitizing chromophore. Research shows the chemical environment of a single tryptophan residue is altered upon binding of the thymine dimer. This tryptophan residue was localized to within 20 [Angstrom] of the binding site through the use of a nitroxide paramagnetic species covalently attached to the thymine dimer. A hybrid sequence peptide was synthesized based on the bee venom peptide apamin in which the helical residues of apamin were replaced with those from the recognition helix of the bacteriophage 434 repressor protein. Oxidation of the disufide bonds occured uniformly in the proper 1-11, 3-15 orientation, stabilizing the 434 sequence in an [alpha]-helix. The glycine residue stopped helix propagation. Helix propagation in 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol mixtures was investigated in a second hybrid sequence peptide using the apamin-derived disulfide scaffold and the S-peptide sequence. The helix-stop signal previously observed was not observed in the NMR NOESY spectrum. Helical connectivities were seen throughout the S-peptide sequence. The apamin/S-peptide hybrid binded to the S-protein (residues 21-166 of ribonuclease A) and reconstituted enzymatic activity.

  13. Structural studies of polypeptides: Mechanism of immunoglobin catalysis and helix propagation in hybrid sequence, disulfide containing peptides

    SciTech Connect

    Storrs, R.W.

    1992-08-01

    Catalytic immunoglobin fragments were studied Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy to identify amino acid residues responsible for the catalytic activity. Small, hybrid sequence peptides were analyzed for helix propagation following covalent initiation and for activity related to the protein from which the helical sequence was derived. Hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl carbonates and esters by specific immunoglobins is thought to involve charge complementarity. The pK of the transition state analog P-nitrophenyl phosphate bound to the immunoglobin fragment was determined by {sup 31}P-NMR to verify the juxtaposition of a positively charged amino acid to the binding/catalytic site. Optical studies of immunoglobin mediated photoreversal of cis, syn cyclobutane thymine dimers implicated tryptophan as the photosensitizing chromophore. Research shows the chemical environment of a single tryptophan residue is altered upon binding of the thymine dimer. This tryptophan residue was localized to within 20 {Angstrom} of the binding site through the use of a nitroxide paramagnetic species covalently attached to the thymine dimer. A hybrid sequence peptide was synthesized based on the bee venom peptide apamin in which the helical residues of apamin were replaced with those from the recognition helix of the bacteriophage 434 repressor protein. Oxidation of the disufide bonds occured uniformly in the proper 1-11, 3-15 orientation, stabilizing the 434 sequence in an {alpha}-helix. The glycine residue stopped helix propagation. Helix propagation in 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol mixtures was investigated in a second hybrid sequence peptide using the apamin-derived disulfide scaffold and the S-peptide sequence. The helix-stop signal previously observed was not observed in the NMR NOESY spectrum. Helical connectivities were seen throughout the S-peptide sequence. The apamin/S-peptide hybrid binded to the S-protein (residues 21-166 of ribonuclease A) and reconstituted enzymatic activity.

  14. Ab initio folding of extended ?-helix: a theoretical study about the role of electrostatic polarization in the folding of helical structures.

    PubMed

    Lazim, Raudah; Wei, Caiyi; Sun, Tiedong; Zhang, Dawei

    2013-09-01

    In this work, we report the ab initio folding of three different extended helical peptides namely 2khk, N36, and C34 through conventional molecular dynamics simulation at room temperature using implicit solvation model. Employing adaptive hydrogen bond specific charge (AHBC) scheme to account for the polarization effect of hydrogen bonds established during the simulation, the effective folding of the three extended helices were observed with best backbone RMSDs in comparison to the experimental structures over the helical region determined to be 1.30 for 2khk, 0.73 for N36 and 0.72 for C34. In this study, 2khk will be used as a benchmark case serving as a means to compare the ability of polarized (AHBC) and nonpolarized force field in the folding of an extended helix. Analyses conducted revealed the ability of the AHBC scheme in effectively folding the extended helix by promoting helix growth through the stabilization of backbone hydrogen bonds upon formation during the folding process. Similar observations were also noted when AHBC scheme was employed during the folding of C34 and N36. However, under Amber03 force field, helical structures formed during the folding of 2khk was not accompanied by stabilization thus highlighting the importance of electrostatic polarization in the folding of helical structures. PMID:23670702

  15. The domain structure of talin: Residues 1815–1973 form a five-helix bundle containing a cryptic vinculin-binding site

    PubMed Central

    Goult, Benjamin T.; Gingras, Alexandre R.; Bate, Neil; Barsukov, Igor L.; Critchley, David R.; Roberts, Gordon C.K.

    2010-01-01

    Talin is a large flexible rod-shaped protein that activates the integrin family of cell adhesion molecules and couples them to cytoskeletal actin. Its rod region consists of a series of helical bundles. Here we show that residues 1815–1973 form a 5-helix bundle, with a topology unique to talin which is optimally suited for formation of a long rod such as talin. This is much more stable than the 4-helix (1843–1973) domain described earlier and as a result its vinculin binding sequence is inaccessible to vinculin at room temperature, with implications for the overall mechanism of the talin-vinculin interaction. Structured summary MINT-7722300, MINT-7760951: Talin-1 (uniprotkb:P26039) and Vinculin (uniprotkb:P12003) bind (MI:0407) by molecular sieving (MI:0071) PMID:20399778

  16. Effect of secondary structure on the potential of mean force for poly-L-lysine in the alpha-Helix and beta-sheet conformations

    SciTech Connect

    Grigsby, J.J.; Blanch, H.W.; Prausnitz, J.M.

    2001-10-30

    Because poly-L-lysine (PLL) can exist in the {alpha}-helix or {beta}-sheet conformation depending on solution preparation and solution conditions, PLL is a suitable candidate to probe the dependence of protein interactions on secondary structure. The osmotic second virial coefficient and weight-average molecular weight are reported from low-angle laser-light scattering measurements for PLL as a function of NaCl concentration, pH, and {alpha}-helix or {beta}-sheet content. Interactions between PLL molecules become more attractive as salt concentration increases due to screening of PLL charge by salt ions and at low salt concentration become more attractive as pH increases due to decreased net charge on PLL. The experimental results show that interactions are stronger for the {beta}-sheet conformation than for the {alpha}-helix conformation. A spherically-symmetric model for the potential of mean force is used to account for specific interactions not described by DLVO theory and to show how differences in secondary structure affect PLL interactions.

  17. Mutagenesis and molecular dynamics suggest structural and functional roles for residues in the N-terminal portion of the cytochrome P450 2B1 I helix.

    PubMed

    Scott, Emily E; Liu, Hong; Qun He, You; Li, Weihua; Halpert, James R

    2004-03-15

    To investigate their potential roles in ligand access, binding, and subsequent metabolism, residues in the N-terminal portion of the cytochrome P450 2B1 I helix were mutated to alanine and phenylalanine. Of the 18 mutants from E286 to S294 only 7 yielded holoprotein in an Escherichia coli expression system. Substitutions at positions 289, 290, 292, and 294 caused >/= 2-fold changes in kcat and/or Km for two or more of the 2B1 substrates examined, testosterone, 7-ethoxy-4-trifluoromethylcoumarin, 7-benzyloxyresorufin, and benzphetamine. I290 substitutions had the largest effects on steady-state parameters for three substrates and increased benzphetamine affinity. Steered molecular dynamics simulations of testosterone egress along the I helix identified hydrophobic interactions with I290, L293, and S294 and water bridges to E286 and S294. Sensitivity of holoprotein formation to substitution and effects on substrate binding and metabolism suggest structural and functional roles for residues in the N-terminus of the cytochrome P450 2B1 I helix. PMID:15001391

  18. A Trigger Residue for Transmembrane Signaling in the Escherichia coli Serine Chemoreceptor

    PubMed Central

    Kitanovic, Smiljka; Ames, Peter

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The transmembrane Tsr protein of Escherichia coli mediates chemotactic responses to environmental serine gradients. Serine binds to the periplasmic domain of the homodimeric Tsr molecule, promoting a small inward displacement of one transmembrane helix (TM2). TM2 piston displacements, in turn, modulate the structural stability of the Tsr-HAMP domain on the cytoplasmic side of the membrane to control the autophosphorylation activity of the signaling CheA kinase bound to the membrane-distal cytoplasmic tip of Tsr. A five-residue control cable segment connects TM2 to the AS1 helix of HAMP and transmits stimulus and sensory adaptation signals between them. To explore the possible role of control cable helicity in transmembrane signaling by Tsr, we characterized the signaling properties of mutant receptors with various control cable alterations. An all-alanine control cable shifted Tsr output toward the kinase-on state, whereas an all-glycine control cable prevented Tsr from reaching either a fully on or fully off output state. Restoration of the native isoleucine (I214) in these synthetic control cables largely alleviated their signaling defects. Single amino acid replacements at Tsr-I214 shifted output toward the kinase-off (L, N, H, and R) or kinase-on (A and G) states, whereas other control cable residues tolerated most amino acid replacements with little change in signaling behavior. These findings indicate that changes in control cable helicity might mediate transitions between the kinase-on and kinase-off states during transmembrane signaling by chemoreceptors. Moreover, the Tsr-I214 side chain plays a key role, possibly through interaction with the membrane interfacial environment, in triggering signaling changes in response to TM2 piston displacements. IMPORTANCE The Tsr protein of E. coli mediates chemotactic responses to environmental serine gradients. Stimulus signals from the Tsr periplasmic sensing domain reach its cytoplasmic kinase control domain through piston displacements of a membrane-spanning helix and an adjoining five-residue control cable segment. We characterized the signaling properties of Tsr variants to elucidate the transmembrane signaling role of the control cable, an element present in many microbial sensory proteins. Both the kinase-on and kinase-off output states of Tsr depended on control cable helicity, but only one residue, I214, was critical for triggering responses to attractant inputs. These findings suggest that signal transmission in Tsr involves modulation of control cable helicity through interaction of the I214 side chain with the cytoplasmic membrane. PMID:26013490

  19. Structural Determinants of Nitroxide Motion in Spin-labeled Proteins: Tertiary Contact and Solvent-inaccessible Sties in Helix G of T4 Lysozyme

    SciTech Connect

    Guo,Z.; Cascio, D.; Hideg, K.; Kalai, T.; Hubbell, W.

    2007-01-01

    A nitroxide side chain (R1) has been substituted at single sites along a helix-turn-helix motif in T4 lysozyme (residues 114-135). Together with previously published data, the new sites reported complete a continuous scan through the motif. Mutants with R1 at sites 115 and 118 were selected for crystallographic analysis to identify the structural origins of the corresponding two-component EPR spectra. At 115, R1 is shown to occupy two rotamers in the room temperature crystal structure, one of which has not been previously reported. The two components in the EPR spectrum apparently arise from differential interactions of the two rotamers with the surrounding structure, the most important of which is a hydrophobic interaction of the nitroxide ring. Interestingly, the crystal structure at 100 K reveals a single rotamer, emphasizing the possibility of rotamer selection in low-temperature crystal structures. Residue 118 is at a solvent-inaccessible site in the protein core, and the structure of 118R1, the first reported for the R1 side chain at a buried site, reveals how the side chain is accommodated in an overpacked core.

  20. Remeasuring the double helix

    SciTech Connect

    Mathew-Fenn, Rebecca S.; Das, Rhiju; Harbury, Pehr A.B.

    2008-10-20

    DNA is thought to behave as a stiff elastic rod with respect to the ubiquitous mechanical deformations inherent to its biology. To test this model at short DNA lengths, we measured the mean and variance of end-to-end length for a series of DNA double helices in solution, using small-angle x-ray scattering interference between gold nanocrystal labels. In the absence of applied tension, DNA is at least one order of magnitude softer than measured by single-molecule stretching experiments. Further, the data rule out the conventional elastic rod model. The variance in end-to-end length follows a quadratic dependence on the number of base pairs rather than the expected linear dependence, indicating that DNA stretching is cooperative over more than two turns of the DNA double helix. Our observations support the idea of long-range allosteric communication through DNA structure.

  1. Measuring the Double Helix

    SciTech Connect

    Mathew-Fenn, R.S.; Das, R.; Harbury, P.A.B.

    2009-05-26

    DNA is thought to behave as a stiff elastic rod with respect to the ubiquitous mechanical deformations inherent to its biology. To test this model at short DNA lengths, we measured the mean and variance of end-to-end length for a series of DNA double helices in solution, using small-angle x-ray scattering interference between gold nanocrystal labels. In the absence of applied tension, DNA is at least one order of magnitude softer than measured by single-molecule stretching experiments. Further, the data rule out the conventional elastic rod model. The variance in end-to-end length follows a quadratic dependence on the number of base pairs rather than the expected linear dependence, indicating that DNA stretching is cooperative over more than two turns of the DNA double helix. Our observations support the idea of long-range allosteric communication through DNA structure.

  2. The Infrared Helix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    The Helix nebula exhibits complex structure on the smallest visible scales. It is composed of gaseous shells and disks puffed out by a dying sun-like star.

    In this new image from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope, 'cometary knots' show blue-green heads caused by excitation of their molecular material from shocks or ultraviolet radiation. The tails of the cometary knots appear redder due to being shielded from the central star's ultraviolet radiation and wind by the heads of the knots.

    This image was captured by the telescope's infrared array camera. The false color composite depicts wavelengths of 3.6 microns (blue), 4.5 microns (green), and 8.0 microns (red). The color saturation has been increased to intensify hues.

  3. Structural and functional interactions between six-transmembrane μ-opioid receptors and β2-adrenoreceptors modulate opioid signaling

    PubMed Central

    Samoshkin, Alexander; Convertino, Marino; Viet, Chi T.; Wieskopf, Jeffrey S.; Kambur, Oleg; Marcovitz, Jaclyn; Patel, Pinkal; Stone, Laura S.; Kalso, Eija; Mogil, Jeffrey S.; Schmidt, Brian L.; Maixner, William; Dokholyan, Nikolay V.; Diatchenko, Luda

    2015-01-01

    The primary molecular target for clinically used opioids is the μ-opioid receptor (MOR). Besides the major seven-transmembrane (7TM) receptors, the MOR gene codes for alternatively spliced six-transmembrane (6TM) isoforms, the biological and clinical significance of which remains unclear. Here, we show that the otherwise exclusively intracellular localized 6TM-MOR translocates to the plasma membrane upon coexpression with β2-adrenergic receptors (β2-ARs) through an interaction with the fifth and sixth helices of β2-AR. Coexpression of the two receptors in BE(2)-C neuroblastoma cells potentiates calcium responses to a 6TM-MOR ligand, and this calcium response is completely blocked by a selective β2-antagonist in BE(2)-C cells, and in trigeminal and dorsal root ganglia. Co-administration of 6TM-MOR and β2-AR ligands leads to substantial analgesic synergy and completely reverses opioid-induced hyperalgesia in rodent behavioral models. Together, our results provide evidence that the heterodimerization of 6TM-MOR with β2-AR underlies a molecular mechanism for 6TM cellular signaling, presenting a unique functional responses to opioids. This signaling pathway may contribute to the hyperalgesic effects of opioids that can be efficiently blocked by β2-AR antagonists, providing a new avenue for opioid therapy. PMID:26657998

  4. The double-helix microscope super-resolves extended biological structures by localizing single blinking molecules in three dimensions with nanoscale precision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hsiao-lu D.; Sahl, Steffen J.; Lew, Matthew D.; Moerner, W. E.

    2012-04-01

    The double-helix point spread function microscope encodes the axial (z) position information of single emitters in wide-field (x,y) images, thus enabling localization in three dimensions (3D) inside extended volumes. We experimentally determine the statistical localization precision ? of this approach using single emitters in a cell under typical background conditions, demonstrating ? < 20 nm laterally and <30 nm axially for N ? 1180 photons per localization. Combined with light-induced blinking of single-molecule labels, we present proof-of-concept imaging beyond the optical diffraction limit of microtubule network structures in fixed mammalian cells over a large axial range in three dimensions.

  5. A Gly-zipper motif mediates homodimerization of the transmembrane domain of the mitochondrial kinase ADCK3.

    PubMed

    Khadria, Ambalika S; Mueller, Benjamin K; Stefely, Jonathan A; Tan, Chin Huat; Pagliarini, David J; Senes, Alessandro

    2014-10-01

    Interactions between ?-helices within the hydrophobic environment of lipid bilayers are integral to the folding and function of transmembrane proteins; however, the major forces that mediate these interactions remain debated, and our ability to predict these interactions is still largely untested. We recently demonstrated that the frequent transmembrane association motif GASright, the GxxxG-containing fold of the glycophorin A dimer, is optimal for the formation of extended networks of C?-H hydrogen bonds, supporting the hypothesis that these bonds are major contributors to association. We also found that optimization of C?-H hydrogen bonding and interhelical packing is sufficient to computationally predict the structure of known GASright dimers at near atomic level. Here, we demonstrate that this computational method can be used to characterize the structure of a protein not previously known to dimerize, by predicting and validating the transmembrane dimer of ADCK3, a mitochondrial kinase. ADCK3 is involved in the biosynthesis of the redox active lipid, ubiquinone, and human ADCK3 mutations cause a cerebellar ataxia associated with ubiquinone deficiency, but the biochemical functions of ADCK3 remain largely undefined. Our experimental analyses show that the transmembrane helix of ADCK3 oligomerizes, with an interface based on an extended Gly-zipper motif, as predicted by our models. The data provide strong evidence for the hypothesis that optimization of C?-H hydrogen bonding is an important factor in the association of transmembrane helices. This work also provides a structural foundation for investigating the role of transmembrane association in regulating the biological activity of ADCK3. PMID:25216398

  6. Rosalind Franklin and the Double Helix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elkin, Lynne Osman

    2003-03-01

    Although she made essential contributions toward elucidating the structure of DNA, Rosalind Franklin is known to many only as seen through the distorting lens of James Watson's book, The Double Helix.

  7. Modified helix-like instability structure on imploding z-pinch liners that are pre-imposed with a uniform axial magnetic field

    SciTech Connect

    Awe, T. J. Jennings, C. A.; McBride, R. D.; Cuneo, M. E.; Lamppa, D. C.; Martin, M. R.; Rovang, D. C.; Sinars, D. B.; Slutz, S. A.; Owen, A. C.; Gomez, M. R.; Hansen, S. B.; Herrmann, M. C.; Jones, M. C.; McKenney, J. L.; Robertson, G. K.; Rochau, G. A.; Savage, M. E.; Stygar, W. A.; Tomlinson, K.; and others

    2014-05-15

    Recent experiments at the Sandia National Laboratories Z Facility have, for the first time, studied the implosion dynamics of magnetized liner inertial fusion (MagLIF) style liners that were pre-imposed with a uniform axial magnetic field. As reported [T. J. Awe et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 235005 (2013)] when premagnetized with a 7 or 10 T axial field, these liners developed 3D-helix-like hydrodynamic instabilities; such instabilities starkly contrast with the azimuthally correlated magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor (MRT) instabilities that have been consistently observed in many earlier non-premagnetized experiments. The helical structure persisted throughout the implosion, even though the azimuthal drive field greatly exceeded the expected axial field at the liner's outer wall for all but the earliest stages of the experiment. Whether this modified instability structure has practical importance for magneto-inertial fusion concepts depends primarily on whether the modified instability structure is more stable than standard azimuthally correlated MRT instabilities. In this manuscript, we discuss the evolution of the helix-like instability observed on premagnetized liners. While a first principles explanation of this observation remains elusive, recent 3D simulations suggest that if a small amplitude helical perturbation can be seeded on the liner's outer surface, no further influence from the axial field is required for the instability to grow.

  8. Reovirus FAST Proteins Drive Pore Formation and Syncytiogenesis Using a Novel Helix-Loop-Helix Fusion-Inducing Lipid Packing Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Sarker, Muzaddid; de Antueno, Roberto; Langelaan, David N.; Parmar, Hiren B.; Shin, Kyungsoo; Rainey, Jan K.; Duncan, Roy

    2015-01-01

    Pore formation is the most energy-demanding step during virus-induced membrane fusion, where high curvature of the fusion pore rim increases the spacing between lipid headgroups, exposing the hydrophobic interior of the membrane to water. How protein fusogens breach this thermodynamic barrier to pore formation is unclear. We identified a novel fusion-inducing lipid packing sensor (FLiPS) in the cytosolic endodomain of the baboon reovirus p15 fusion-associated small transmembrane (FAST) protein that is essential for pore formation during cell-cell fusion and syncytiogenesis. NMR spectroscopy and mutational studies indicate the dependence of this FLiPS on a hydrophobic helix-loop-helix structure. Biochemical and biophysical assays reveal the p15 FLiPS preferentially partitions into membranes with high positive curvature, and this partitioning is impeded by bis-ANS, a small molecule that inserts into hydrophobic defects in membranes. Most notably, the p15 FLiPS can be functionally replaced by heterologous amphipathic lipid packing sensors (ALPS) but not by other membrane-interactive amphipathic helices. Furthermore, a previously unrecognized amphipathic helix in the cytosolic domain of the reptilian reovirus p14 FAST protein can functionally replace the p15 FLiPS, and is itself replaceable by a heterologous ALPS motif. Anchored near the cytoplasmic leaflet by the FAST protein transmembrane domain, the FLiPS is perfectly positioned to insert into hydrophobic defects that begin to appear in the highly curved rim of nascent fusion pores, thereby lowering the energy barrier to stable pore formation. PMID:26061049

  9. Reovirus FAST Proteins Drive Pore Formation and Syncytiogenesis Using a Novel Helix-Loop-Helix Fusion-Inducing Lipid Packing Sensor.

    PubMed

    Read, Jolene; Clancy, Eileen K; Sarker, Muzaddid; de Antueno, Roberto; Langelaan, David N; Parmar, Hiren B; Shin, Kyungsoo; Rainey, Jan K; Duncan, Roy

    2015-06-01

    Pore formation is the most energy-demanding step during virus-induced membrane fusion, where high curvature of the fusion pore rim increases the spacing between lipid headgroups, exposing the hydrophobic interior of the membrane to water. How protein fusogens breach this thermodynamic barrier to pore formation is unclear. We identified a novel fusion-inducing lipid packing sensor (FLiPS) in the cytosolic endodomain of the baboon reovirus p15 fusion-associated small transmembrane (FAST) protein that is essential for pore formation during cell-cell fusion and syncytiogenesis. NMR spectroscopy and mutational studies indicate the dependence of this FLiPS on a hydrophobic helix-loop-helix structure. Biochemical and biophysical assays reveal the p15 FLiPS preferentially partitions into membranes with high positive curvature, and this partitioning is impeded by bis-ANS, a small molecule that inserts into hydrophobic defects in membranes. Most notably, the p15 FLiPS can be functionally replaced by heterologous amphipathic lipid packing sensors (ALPS) but not by other membrane-interactive amphipathic helices. Furthermore, a previously unrecognized amphipathic helix in the cytosolic domain of the reptilian reovirus p14 FAST protein can functionally replace the p15 FLiPS, and is itself replaceable by a heterologous ALPS motif. Anchored near the cytoplasmic leaflet by the FAST protein transmembrane domain, the FLiPS is perfectly positioned to insert into hydrophobic defects that begin to appear in the highly curved rim of nascent fusion pores, thereby lowering the energy barrier to stable pore formation. PMID:26061049

  10. Solution NMR studies reveal the location of the second transmembrane domain of the human sigma-1 receptor

    PubMed Central

    Ortega-Roldan, Jose Luis; Ossa, Felipe; Amin, Nader T.; Schnell, Jason R.

    2015-01-01

    The sigma-1 receptor (S1R) is a ligand-regulated membrane chaperone protein associated with endoplasmic reticulum stress response, and modulation of ion channel activities at the plasma membrane. We report here a solution NMR study of a S1R construct (S1R(?35)) in which only the first transmembrane domain and the eight-residue N-terminus have been removed. The second transmembrane helix is found to be composed of residues 91107, which corresponds to the first steroid binding domain-like region. The cytosolic domain is found to contain three helices, and the secondary structure and backbone dynamics of the chaperone domain are consistent with that determined previously for the chaperone domain alone. The position of TM2 provides a framework for ongoing studies of S1R ligand binding and oligomerisation. PMID:25647032

  11. Human ?,?-enoyl-CoA isomerase, type 2: a structural enzymology study on the catalytic role of its ACBP domain and helix-10.

    PubMed

    Onwukwe, Goodluck U; Kursula, Petri; Koski, M Kristian; Schmitz, Werner; Wierenga, Rik K

    2015-02-01

    The catalytic domain of the trimeric human ?(3),?(2)-enoyl-CoA isomerase, type 2 (HsECI2), has the typical crotonase fold. In the active site of this fold two main chain NH groups form an oxyanion hole for binding the thioester oxygen of the 3E- or 3Z-enoyl-CoA substrate molecules. A catalytic glutamate is essential for the proton transfer between the substrate C2 and C4 atoms for forming the product 2E-enoyl-CoA, which is a key intermediate in the ?-oxidation pathway. The active site is covered by the C-terminal helix-10. In HsECI2, the isomerase domain is extended at its N terminus by an acyl-CoA binding protein (ACBP) domain. Small angle X-ray scattering analysis of HsECI2 shows that the ACBP domain protrudes out of the central isomerase trimer. X-ray crystallography of the isomerase domain trimer identifies the active site geometry. A tunnel, shaped by loop-2 and extending from the catalytic site to bulk solvent, suggests a likely mode of binding of the fatty acyl chains. Calorimetry data show that the separately expressed ACBP and isomerase domains bind tightly to fatty acyl-CoA molecules. The truncated isomerase variant (without ACBP domain) has significant enoyl-CoA isomerase activity; however, the full-length isomerase is more efficient. Structural enzymological studies of helix-10 variants show the importance of this helix for efficient catalysis. Its hydrophobic side chains, together with residues from loop-2 and loop-4, complete a hydrophobic cluster that covers the active site, thereby fixing the thioester moiety in a mode of binding competent for efficient catalysis. PMID:25515061

  12. A left-handed alpha-helix containing both L- and D-amino acids: the solution structure of the antimicrobial lipodepsipeptide tolaasin.

    PubMed

    Jourdan, Fabrice; Lazzaroni, Silvia; Mndez, Blanca Lpez; Lo Cantore, Pietro; de Julio, Marianna; Amodeo, Pietro; Iacobellis, Nicola S; Evidente, Antonio; Motta, Andrea

    2003-09-01

    The 18-amino acid cytolytic lipodepsipeptide tolaasin, produced in culture by virulent strains of Pseudomonas tolaasii, is the causal agent of the brown blotch disease of the cultivated mushroom. Tolaasin has a sequence of D-amino acids in its N-terminal region, then alternates L- and D-amino acids, and bears a C-terminal lactone macrocycle composed of 5-residues. The solution structure of tolaasin in sodium dodecyl sulfate was studied by 2D-NMR spectroscopy and molecular dynamics simulated annealing calculations. Tolaasin forms an amphipathic left-handed alpha-helix in the regionDPro2-DalloThr14 comprising the sequence of seven D-amino acids and the adjacent L-D-L-D-D-region. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first recognized example of a left-handed alpha-helix including both D- and L-amino acids. The lactone macrocycle adopts a "boat-like" conformation and is shifted from the helical axis as to form a "golf-club" overall conformation. These structural features will be of importance in understanding, and preventing, tolaasin's role in the bacterial colonization of the host plant, and its toxic action on cells. Furthermore, the observed antimicrobial activity together with the potential resistance to enzymatic degradation and the increased antigenicity (both due to the presence of L- and D-amino acids) strongly suggests for tolaasin a potential role as a template model for the design of new therapeutic antibacterial molecules. PMID:12910453

  13. Contributions of the C-terminal helix to the structural stability of a hyperthermophilic Fe-superoxide dismutase (TcSOD).

    PubMed

    Wang, Sha; Yan, Yong-Bin; Dong, Zhi-Yang

    2009-12-01

    Hyperthermophilic superoxide dismutases (SODs) are of particular interest due to their potential industrial importance and scientific merit in studying the molecular mechanisms of protein folding and stability. Compared to the mesophilic SODs, the hyperthermostable Fe-SODs (TcSOD and ApSOD) have an extended C-terminal helix, which forms an additional ion-pairing network. In this research, the role of the extended C-terminus in the structural stability of TcSOD was studied by investigating the properties of two deletion mutants. The results indicated that the ion-pairing network at the C-terminus had limited contributions to the stability of TcSOD against heat- and GdnHCl-induced inactivation. The intactness of the C-terminal helix had dissimilar impact on the two stages of TcSOD unfolding induced by guanidinium chloride. The mutations slightly decreased the Gibbs free energy of the dissociation of the tetrameric enzymes, while greatly affected the stability of the molten globule-like intermediate. These results suggested that the additional ion-pairing network mainly enhanced the structural stability of TcSOD by stabilizing the monomers. PMID:20054483

  14. Protein secondary structures (alpha-helix and beta-sheet) at a cellular level and protein fractions in relation to rumen degradation behaviours of protein: a new approach.

    PubMed

    Yu, Peiqiang

    2005-11-01

    Studying the secondary structure of proteins leads to an understanding of the components that make up a whole protein, and such an understanding of the structure of the whole protein is often vital to understanding its digestive behaviour and nutritive value in animals. The main protein secondary structures are the alpha-helix and beta-sheet. The percentage of these two structures in protein secondary structures influences protein nutritive value, quality and digestive behaviour. A high percentage of beta-sheet structure may partly cause a low access to gastrointestinal digestive enzymes, which results in a low protein value. The objectives of the present study were to use advanced synchrotron-based Fourier transform IR (S-FTIR) microspectroscopy as a new approach to reveal the molecular chemistry of the protein secondary structures of feed tissues affected by heat-processing within intact tissue at a cellular level, and to quantify protein secondary structures using multicomponent peak modelling Gaussian and Lorentzian methods, in relation to protein digestive behaviours and nutritive value in the rumen, which was determined using the Cornell Net Carbohydrate Protein System. The synchrotron-based molecular chemistry research experiment was performed at the National Synchrotron Light Source at Brookhaven National Laboratory, US Department of Energy. The results showed that, with S-FTIR microspectroscopy, the molecular chemistry, ultrastructural chemical make-up and nutritive characteristics could be revealed at a high ultraspatial resolution ( approximately 10 microm). S-FTIR microspectroscopy revealed that the secondary structure of protein differed between raw and roasted golden flaxseeds in terms of the percentages and ratio of alpha-helixes and beta-sheets in the mid-IR range at the cellular level. By using multicomponent peak modelling, the results show that the roasting reduced (P<0.05) the percentage of alpha-helixes (from 47.1 % to 36.1 %: S-FTIR absorption intensity), increased the percentage of beta-sheets (from 37.2 % to 49.8 %: S-FTIR absorption intensity) and reduced the alpha-helix to beta-sheet ratio (from 0.3 to 0.7) in the golden flaxseeds, which indicated a negative effect of the roasting on protein values, utilisation and bioavailability. These results were proved by the Cornell Net Carbohydrate Protein System in situ animal trial, which also revealed that roasting increased the amount of protein bound to lignin, and well as of the Maillard reaction protein (both of which are poorly used by ruminants), and increased the level of indigestible and undegradable protein in ruminants. The present results demonstrate the potential of highly spatially resolved synchrotron-based infrared microspectroscopy to locate 'pure' protein in feed tissues, and reveal protein secondary structures and digestive behaviour, making a significant step forward in and an important contribution to protein nutritional research. Further study is needed to determine the sensitivities of protein secondary structures to various heat-processing conditions, and to quantify the relationship between protein secondary structures and the nutrient availability and digestive behaviour of various protein sources. Information from the present study arising from the synchrotron-based IR probing of the protein secondary structures of protein sources at the cellular level will be valuable as a guide to maintaining protein quality and predicting digestive behaviours. PMID:16277766

  15. Protein Secondary Structures (alpha-helix and beta-sheet) at a Cellular Levle and Protein Fractions in Relation to Rumen Degradation Behaviours of Protein: A New Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Yu,P.

    2007-01-01

    Studying the secondary structure of proteins leads to an understanding of the components that make up a whole protein, and such an understanding of the structure of the whole protein is often vital to understanding its digestive behaviour and nutritive value in animals. The main protein secondary structures are the {alpha}-helix and {beta}-sheet. The percentage of these two structures in protein secondary structures influences protein nutritive value, quality and digestive behaviour. A high percentage of {beta}-sheet structure may partly cause a low access to gastrointestinal digestive enzymes, which results in a low protein value. The objectives of the present study were to use advanced synchrotron-based Fourier transform IR (S-FTIR) microspectroscopy as a new approach to reveal the molecular chemistry of the protein secondary structures of feed tissues affected by heat-processing within intact tissue at a cellular level, and to quantify protein secondary structures using multicomponent peak modelling Gaussian and Lorentzian methods, in relation to protein digestive behaviours and nutritive value in the rumen, which was determined using the Cornell Net Carbohydrate Protein System. The synchrotron-based molecular chemistry research experiment was performed at the National Synchrotron Light Source at Brookhaven National Laboratory, US Department of Energy. The results showed that, with S-FTIR microspectroscopy, the molecular chemistry, ultrastructural chemical make-up and nutritive characteristics could be revealed at a high ultraspatial resolution ({approx}10 {mu}m). S-FTIR microspectroscopy revealed that the secondary structure of protein differed between raw and roasted golden flaxseeds in terms of the percentages and ratio of {alpha}-helixes and {beta}-sheets in the mid-IR range at the cellular level. By using multicomponent peak modelling, the results show that the roasting reduced (P <0.05) the percentage of {alpha}-helixes (from 47.1% to 36.1%: S-FTIR absorption intensity), increased the percentage of {beta}-sheets (from 37.2% to 49.8%: S-FTIR absorption intensity) and reduced the {alpha}-helix to {beta}-sheet ratio (from 0.3 to 0.7) in the golden flaxseeds, which indicated a negative effect of the roasting on protein values, utilisation and bioavailability. These results were proved by the Cornell Net Carbohydrate Protein System in situ animal trial, which also revealed that roasting increased the amount of protein bound to lignin, and well as of the Maillard reaction protein (both of which are poorly used by ruminants), and increased the level of indigestible and undegradable protein in ruminants. The present results demonstrate the potential of highly spatially resolved synchrotron-based infrared microspectroscopy to locate 'pure' protein in feed tissues, and reveal protein secondary structures and digestive behaviour, making a significant step forward in and an important contribution to protein nutritional research. Further study is needed to determine the sensitivities of protein secondary structures to various heat-processing conditions, and to quantify the relationship between protein secondary structures and the nutrient availability and digestive behaviour of various protein sources. Information from the present study arising from the synchrotron-based IR probing of the protein secondary structures of protein sources at the cellular level will be valuable as a guide to maintaining protein quality and predicting digestive behaviours.

  16. Crystal structure of the N-terminal region of human Ash2L shows a winged-helix motif involved in DNA binding

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yong; Wan, Bingbing; Wang, Kevin C.; Cao, Fang; Yang, Yuting; Protacio, Angeline; Dou, Yali; Chang, Howard Y.; Lei, Ming

    2011-09-06

    Ash2L is a core component of the MLL family histone methyltransferases and has an important role in regulating the methylation of histone H3 on lysine 4. Here, we report the crystal structure of the N-terminal domain of Ash2L and reveal a new function of Ash2L. The structure shows that Ash2L contains an atypical PHD finger that does not have histone tail-binding activity. Unexpectedly, the structure shows a previously unrecognized winged-helix motif that directly binds to DNA. The DNA-binding-deficient mutants of Ash2L reduced Ash2L localization to the HOX locus. Strikingly, a single mutation in Ash2L{sub WH} (K131A) breaks the chromatin domain boundary, suggesting that Ash2L also has a role in chromosome demarcation.

  17. Transmembrane signaling and assembly of the cytochrome b6f-lipidic charge transfer complex.

    PubMed

    Saif Hasan, S; Yamashita, Eiki; Cramer, William A

    2013-01-01

    Structure-function properties of the cytochrome b6f complex are sufficiently unique compared to those of the cytochrome bc1 complex that b6f should not be considered a trivially modified bc1 complex. A unique property of the dimeric b6f complex is its involvement in transmembrane signaling associated with the p-side oxidation of plastoquinol. Structure analysis of lipid binding sites in the cyanobacterial b6f complex prepared by hydrophobic chromatography shows that the space occupied by the H transmembrane helix in the cytochrome b subunit of the bc1 complex is mostly filled by a lipid in the b6f crystal structure. It is suggested that this space can be filled by the domain of a transmembrane signaling protein. The identification of lipid sites and likely function defines the intra-membrane conserved central core of the b6f complex, consisting of the seven trans-membrane helices of the cytochrome b and subunit IV polypeptides. The other six TM helices, contributed by cytochrome f, the iron-sulfur protein, and the four peripheral single span subunits, define a peripheral less conserved domain of the complex. The distribution of conserved and non-conserved domains of each monomer of the complex, and the position and inferred function of a number of the lipids, suggests a model for the sequential assembly in the membrane of the eight subunits of the b6f complex, in which the assembly is initiated by formation of the cytochrome b6-subunit IV core sub-complex in a monomer unit. Two conformations of the unique lipidic chlorophyll a, defined in crystal structures, are described, and functions of the outlying ?-carotene, a possible 'latch' in supercomplex formation, are discussed. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Respiratory complex III and related bc complexes. PMID:23507619

  18. The Crystal Structure of GXGD Membrane Protease FlaK

    SciTech Connect

    J Hu; Y Xue; S Lee; Y Ha

    2011-12-31

    The GXGD proteases are polytopic membrane proteins with catalytic activities against membrane-spanning substrates that require a pair of aspartyl residues. Representative members of the family include preflagellin peptidase, type 4 prepilin peptidase, presenilin and signal peptide peptidase. Many GXGD proteases are important in medicine. For example, type 4 prepilin peptidase may contribute to bacterial pathogenesis, and mutations in presenilin are associated with Alzheimer's disease. As yet, there is no atomic-resolution structure in this protease family. Here we report the crystal structure of FlaK, a preflagellin peptidase from Methanococcus maripaludis, solved at 3.6 {angstrom} resolution. The structure contains six transmembrane helices. The GXGD motif and a short transmembrane helix, helix 4, are positioned at the centre, surrounded by other transmembrane helices. The crystal structure indicates that the protease must undergo conformational changes to bring the GXGD motif and a second essential aspartyl residue from transmembrane helix 1 into close proximity for catalysis. A comparison of the crystal structure with models of presenilin derived from biochemical analysis reveals three common transmembrane segments that are similarly arranged around the active site. This observation reinforces the idea that the prokaryotic and human proteases are evolutionarily related. The crystal structure presented here provides a framework for understanding the mechanism of the GXGD proteases, and may facilitate the rational design of inhibitors that target specific members of the family.

  19. The crystal structure of GXGD membrane protease FlaK

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Jian; Xue, Yi; Lee, Sangwon; Ha, Ya

    2011-09-20

    The GXGD proteases are polytopic membrane proteins with catalytic activities against membrane-spanning substrates that require a pair of aspartyl residues. Representative members of the family include preflagellin peptidase, type 4 prepilin peptidase, presenilin and signal peptide peptidase. Many GXGD proteases are important in medicine. For example, type 4 prepilin peptidase may contribute to bacterial pathogenesis, and mutations in presenilin are associated with Alzheimer's disease. As yet, there is no atomic-resolution structure in this protease family. Here we report the crystal structure of FlaK, a preflagellin peptidase from Methanococcus maripaludis, solved at 3.6 {angstrom} resolution. The structure contains six transmembrane helices. The GXGD motif and a short transmembrane helix, helix 4, are positioned at the centre, surrounded by other transmembrane helices. The crystal structure indicates that the protease must undergo conformational changes to bring the GXGD motif and a second essential aspartyl residue from transmembrane helix 1 into close proximity for catalysis. A comparison of the crystal structure with models of presenilin derived from biochemical analysis reveals three common transmembrane segments that are similarly arranged around the active site. This observation reinforces the idea that the prokaryotic and human proteases are evolutionarily related. The crystal structure presented here provides a framework for understanding the mechanism of the GXGD proteases, and may facilitate the rational design of inhibitors that target specific members of the family.

  20. Revisting the Double Helix

    SciTech Connect

    Ha, Taekjip

    2010-12-08

    Properties of DNA double helix have been studied for over 60 years. Yet as more sensitive tools become available, fundamental assumptions in our understanding of these properties are being challenged. One such question is over the flexibility of DNA. Looping or bending of DNA on short length scales is essential for many cellular processes but it is highly controversial exactly how flexible the DNA is. Using a new, single-molecule based method, we found that DNA of lengths as short as 50 base pairs can form a circle more than 108 times faster than theoretical predictions. Another question concerns the physical principles governing the reversible, helix-coil transitions of DNA between the double helix and single strands. Using porous nanocontainers, we found that the rate of double helix formation shows an abrupt 100 fold change depending on whether there are 7 or more contiguous base pairs or not.

  1. Structure of the unique SEFIR domain from human interleukin 17 receptor A reveals a composite ligand-binding site containing a conserved α-helix for Act1 binding and IL-17 signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Bing; Liu, Caini; Qian, Wen; Han, Yue; Li, Xiaoxia; Deng, Junpeng

    2014-05-01

    Crystal structure of the SEFIR domain from human IL-17 receptor A provides new insights into IL-17 signaling. Interleukin 17 (IL-17) cytokines play a crucial role in mediating inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. A unique intracellular signaling domain termed SEFIR is found within all IL-17 receptors (IL-17Rs) as well as the key adaptor protein Act1. SEFIR-mediated protein–protein interaction is a crucial step in IL-17 cytokine signaling. Here, the 2.3 Å resolution crystal structure of the SEFIR domain of IL-17RA, the most commonly shared receptor for IL-17 cytokine signaling, is reported. The structure includes the complete SEFIR domain and an additional α-helical C-terminal extension, which pack tightly together to form a compact unit. Structural comparison between the SEFIR domains of IL-17RA and IL-17RB reveals substantial differences in protein topology and folding. The uniquely long insertion between strand βC and helix αC in IL-17RA SEFIR is mostly well ordered, displaying a helix (αCC′{sub ins}) and a flexible loop (CC′). The DD′ loop in the IL-17RA SEFIR structure is much shorter; it rotates nearly 90° with respect to the counterpart in the IL-17RB SEFIR structure and shifts about 12 Å to accommodate the αCC′{sub ins} helix without forming any knots. Helix αC was identified as critical for its interaction with Act1 and IL-17-stimulated gene expression. The data suggest that the heterotypic SEFIR–SEFIR association via helix αC is a conserved and signature mechanism specific for IL-17 signaling. The structure also suggests that the downstream motif of IL-17RA SEFIR together with helix αC could provide a composite ligand-binding surface for recruiting Act1 during IL-17 signaling.

  2. SU-E-T-241: Monte Carlo Simulation Study About the Prediction of Proton-Induced DNA Strand Breakage On the Double Helix Structure

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, J; Park, S; Jeong, J; Jeong, C; Lim, Y; Lee, S; SHIN, D; Incerti, S

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: In particle therapy and radiobiology, the investigation of mechanisms leading to the death of target cancer cells induced by ionising radiation is an active field of research. Recently, several studies based on Monte Carlo simulation codes have been initiated in order to simulate physical interactions of ionising particles at cellular scale and in DNA. Geant4-DNA is the one of them; it is an extension of the general purpose Geant4 Monte Carlo simulation toolkit for the simulation of physical interactions at sub-micrometre scale. In this study, we present Geant4-DNA Monte Carlo simulations for the prediction of DNA strand breakage using a geometrical modelling of DNA structure. Methods: For the simulation of DNA strand breakage, we developed a specific DNA geometrical structure. This structure consists of DNA components, such as the deoxynucleotide pairs, the DNA double helix, the nucleosomes and the chromatin fibre. Each component is made of water because the cross sections models currently available in Geant4-DNA for protons apply to liquid water only. Also, at the macroscopic-scale, protons were generated with various energies available for proton therapy at the National Cancer Center, obtained using validated proton beam simulations developed in previous studies. These multi-scale simulations were combined for the validation of Geant4-DNA in radiobiology. Results: In the double helix structure, the deposited energy in a strand allowed to determine direct DNA damage from physical interaction. In other words, the amount of dose and frequency of damage in microscopic geometries was related to direct radiobiological effect. Conclusion: In this report, we calculated the frequency of DNA strand breakage using Geant4- DNA physics processes for liquid water. This study is now on-going in order to develop geometries which use realistic DNA material, instead of liquid water. This will be tested as soon as cross sections for DNA material become available in Geant4-DNA.

  3. A Helix Replacement Mechanism Directs Metavinculin Functions

    SciTech Connect

    Rangarajan, Erumbi S.; Lee, Jun Hyuck; Yogesha, S.D.; Izard, Tina

    2010-10-11

    Cells require distinct adhesion complexes to form contacts with their neighbors or the extracellular matrix, and vinculin links these complexes to the actin cytoskeleton. Metavinculin, an isoform of vinculin that harbors a unique 68-residue insert in its tail domain, has distinct actin bundling and oligomerization properties and plays essential roles in muscle development and homeostasis. Moreover, patients with sporadic or familial mutations in the metavinculin-specific insert invariably develop fatal cardiomyopathies. Here we report the high resolution crystal structure of the metavinculin tail domain, as well as the crystal structures of full-length human native metavinculin (1,134 residues) and of the full-length cardiomyopathy-associated {Delta}Leu954 metavinculin deletion mutant. These structures reveal that an {alpha}-helix (H1{prime}) and extended coil of the metavinculin insert replace {alpha}-helix H1 and its preceding extended coil found in the N-terminal region of the vinculin tail domain to form a new five-helix bundle tail domain. Further, biochemical analyses demonstrate that this helix replacement directs the distinct actin bundling and oligomerization properties of metavinculin. Finally, the cardiomyopathy associated {Delta}Leu954 and Arg975Trp metavinculin mutants reside on the replaced extended coil and the H1{prime} {alpha}-helix, respectively. Thus, a helix replacement mechanism directs metavinculin's unique functions.

  4. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Structure Revealed that the Human Polyomavirus JC Virus Agnoprotein Contains an α-Helix Encompassing the Leu/Ile/Phe-Rich Domain

    PubMed Central

    Coric, Pascale; Saribas, A. Sami; Abou-Gharbia, Magid; Childers, Wayne; White, Martyn K.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Agnoprotein is a small multifunctional regulatory protein required for sustaining the productive replication of JC virus (JCV). It is a mostly cytoplasmic protein localizing in the perinuclear area and forms highly stable dimers/oligomers through a Leu/Ile/Phe-rich domain. There have been no three-dimensional structural data available for agnoprotein due to difficulties associated with the dynamic conversion from monomers to oligomers. Here, we report the first nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) structure of a synthetic agnoprotein peptide spanning amino acids Thr17 to Glu55 where Lys23 to Phe39 encompassing the Leu/Ile/Phe-rich domain forms an amphipathic α-helix. On the basis of these structural data, a number of Ala substitution mutations were made to investigate the role of the α-helix in the structure and function of agnoprotein. Single L29A and L36A mutations exhibited a significant negative effect on both protein stability and viral replication, whereas the L32A mutation did not. In addition, the L29A mutant displayed a highly nuclear localization pattern, in contrast to the pattern for the wild type (WT). Interestingly, a triple mutant, the L29A+L32A+L36A mutant, yielded no detectable agnoprotein expression, and the replication of this JCV mutant was significantly reduced, suggesting that Leu29 and Leu36 are located at the dimer interface, contributing to the structure and stability of agnoprotein. Two other single mutations, L33A and E34A, did not perturb agnoprotein stability as drastically as that observed with the L29A and L36A mutations, but they negatively affected viral replication, suggesting that the role of these residues is functional rather than structural. Thus, the agnoprotein dimerization domain can be targeted for the development of novel drugs active against JCV infection. IMPORTANCE Agnoprotein is a small regulatory protein of JC virus (JCV) and is required for the successful completion of the viral replication cycle. It forms highly stable dimers and oligomers through its hydrophobic (Leu/Ile/Phe-rich) domain, which has been shown to play essential roles in the stability and function of the protein. In this work, the Leu/Ile/Phe-rich domain has been further characterized by NMR studies using an agnoprotein peptide spanning amino acids T17 to Q54. Those studies revealed that the dimerization domain of the protein forms an amphipathic α-helix. Subsequent NMR structure-based mutational analysis of the region highlighted the critical importance of certain amino acids within the α-helix for the stability and function of agnoprotein. In conclusion, this study provides a solid foundation for developing effective therapeutic approaches against the dimerization domain of the protein to inhibit its critical roles in JCV infection. PMID:24672035

  5. Response of GWALP transmembrane peptides to changes in the tryptophan anchor positions.

    PubMed

    Vostrikov, Vitaly V; Koeppe, Roger E

    2011-09-01

    While the interfacial partitioning of charged or aromatic anchor residues may determine the preferred orientations of transmembrane peptide helices, the dependence of helix orientation on anchor residue position is not well understood. When anchor residue locations are changed systematically, some adaptations of the peptide-lipid interactions may be required to compensate for the altered interfacial interactions. Recently, we have developed a novel transmembrane peptide, termed GW(5,19)ALP23 (acetyl-GGALW(5)LALALALALALALW(19)LAGA-ethanolamide), which proves to be a well-behaved sequence for an orderly investigation of protein-lipid interactions. Its roughly symmetric nature allows for shifting the anchoring Trp residues by one Leu-Ala pair inward (GW(7,17)ALP23) or outward (GW(3,21)ALP23), thus providing fine adjustments of the formal distance between the tryptophan residues. With no other obvious anchoring features present, we postulate that the inter-Trp distance may be crucial for aspects of the peptide-lipid interaction. Importantly, the amino acid composition is identical for each of the resulting related GWALP23 sequences, and the radial separation between the pairs of Trp residues on each side of the transmembrane ?-helix remains similar. Here we address the adaptation of the aforementioned peptides to the varying Trp locations by means of solid-state (2)H nuclear magnetic resonance experiments in varying lipid bilayer membrane environments. All of the GW(x,y)ALP23 sequence isomers adopt transmembrane orientations in DOPC, DMPC, and DLPC environments, even when the Trp residues are quite closely spaced, in GW(7,17)ALP23. Furthermore, the dynamics for each peptide isomer are less extensive than for peptides possessing additional interfacial Trp residues. The helical secondary structure is maintained more strongly within the Trp-flanked core region than outside of the Trp boundaries. Deuterium-labeled tryptophan indole rings in the GW(x,y)ALP23 peptides provide additional insights into the behavior of the Trp side chains. A Trp side chain near the C-terminus adopts a different orientation and undergoes somewhat faster dynamics than a corresponding Trp side chain located an equivalent distance from the N-terminus. In contrast, as the inter-Trp distance changes, the variations among the average orientations of the Trp indole rings at either terminus are systematic yet fairly small. We conclude that subtle adjustments to the peptide tilt, and to the N- and C-terminal Trp side chain torsion angles, permit the GW(x,y)ALP23 peptides to maintain preferred transmembrane orientations while adapting to lipid bilayers with differing hydrophobic thicknesses. PMID:21800919

  6. Structure of transmembrane domain of lysosome-associated membrane protein type 2a (LAMP-2A) reveals key features for substrate specificity in chaperone-mediated autophagy.

    PubMed

    Rout, Ashok K; Strub, Marie-Paule; Piszczek, Grzegorz; Tjandra, Nico

    2014-12-19

    Chaperone-mediated autophagy (CMA) is a highly regulated cellular process that mediates the degradation of a selective subset of cytosolic proteins in lysosomes. Increasing CMA activity is one way for a cell to respond to stress, and it leads to enhanced turnover of non-critical cytosolic proteins into sources of energy or clearance of unwanted or damaged proteins from the cytosol. The lysosome-associated membrane protein type 2a (LAMP-2A) together with a complex of chaperones and co-chaperones are key regulators of CMA. LAMP-2A is a transmembrane protein component for protein translocation to the lysosome. Here we present a study of the structure and dynamics of the transmembrane domain of human LAMP-2A in n-dodecylphosphocholine micelles by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). We showed that LAMP-2A exists as a homotrimer in which the membrane-spanning helices wrap around each other to form a parallel coiled coil conformation, whereas its cytosolic tail is flexible and exposed to the cytosol. This cytosolic tail of LAMP-2A interacts with chaperone Hsc70 and a CMA substrate RNase A with comparable affinity but not with Hsp40 and RNase S peptide. Because the substrates and the chaperone complex can bind at the same time, thus creating a bimodal interaction, we propose that substrate recognition by chaperones and targeting to the lysosomal membrane by LAMP-2A are coupled. This can increase substrate affinity and specificity as well as prevent substrate aggregation, assist in the unfolding of the substrate, and promote the formation of the higher order complex of LAMP-2A required for translocation. PMID:25342746

  7. The Atlastin C-terminal Tail Is an Amphipathic Helix That Perturbs the Bilayer Structure during Endoplasmic Reticulum Homotypic Fusion

    PubMed Central

    Faust, Joseph E.; Desai, Tanvi; Verma, Avani; Ulengin, Idil; Sun, Tzu-Lin; Moss, Tyler J.; Betancourt-Solis, Miguel A.; Huang, Huey W.; Lee, Tina; McNew, James A.

    2015-01-01

    Fusion of tubular membranes is required to form three-way junctions found in reticular subdomains of the endoplasmic reticulum. The large GTPase Atlastin has recently been shown to drive endoplasmic reticulum membrane fusion and three-way junction formation. The mechanism of Atlastin-mediated membrane fusion is distinct from SNARE-mediated membrane fusion, and many details remain unclear. In particular, the role of the amphipathic C-terminal tail of Atlastin is still unknown. We found that a peptide corresponding to the Atlastin C-terminal tail binds to membranes as a parallel ? helix, induces bilayer thinning, and increases acyl chain disorder. The function of the C-terminal tail is conserved in human Atlastin. Mutations in the C-terminal tail decrease fusion activity in vitro, but not GTPase activity, and impair Atlastin function in vivo. In the context of unstable lipid bilayers, the requirement for the C-terminal tail is abrogated. These data suggest that the C-terminal tail of Atlastin locally destabilizes bilayers to facilitate membrane fusion. PMID:25555915

  8. Helix mimetics: Recent developments.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Andrew J

    2015-10-01

    The development of protein-protein interaction (PPIs) inhibitors represents a challenging goal in chemical biology and drug discovery. PPIs are problematic targets because they involve large surfaces with less well defined features and recognition motifs that are less amenable to conventional experimental and computational ligand discovery methodologies. α-Helix mediated PPIs represent a sub group with a clearly defined interface and thus may be more amenable to the development of generic ligand discovery methods. Indeed, this is borne out in numerous studies using peptides covalently constrained into a helical conformation resulting in improvement of myriad biophysical and cellular properties. It is however desirable to have small molecule alternatives: a helix mimetic (proteomimetic) is a generic small molecule scaffold that projects functional groups in a similar spatial orientation so as to mimic the presentation of key amino acid side chains from the helix that mediates the PPI. The first true example of a helix mimetic was described over a decade ago however this approach has not yet been elaborated to the extent that it receives similar levels of attention to constrained peptides. This review explores recent significant developments in the area of small molecule α-helix mimetics and provides a critical overview of success stories, potential limitations of the approach, and areas for future development. PMID:26048776

  9. Structural details (kinks and non-alpha conformations) in transmembrane helices are intrahelically determined and can be predicted by sequence pattern descriptors.

    PubMed

    Rigoutsos, Isidore; Riek, Peter; Graham, Robert M; Novotny, Jiri

    2003-08-01

    One of the promising methods of protein structure prediction involves the use of amino acid sequence-derived patterns. Here we report on the creation of non-degenerate motif descriptors derived through data mining of training sets of residues taken from the transmembrane-spanning segments of polytopic proteins. These residues correspond to short regions in which there is a deviation from the regular alpha-helical character (i.e. pi-helices, 3(10)-helices and kinks). A 'search engine' derived from these motif descriptors correctly identifies, and discriminates amongst instances of the above 'non-canonical' helical motifs contained in the SwissProt/TrEMBL database of protein primary structures. Our results suggest that deviations from alpha-helicity are encoded locally in sequence patterns only about 7-9 residues long and can be determined in silico directly from the amino acid sequence. Delineation of such variations in helical habit is critical to understanding the complex structure-function relationships of polytopic proteins and for drug discovery. The success of our current methodology foretells development of similar prediction tools capable of identifying other structural motifs from sequence alone. The method described here has been implemented and is available on the World Wide Web at http://cbcsrv.watson.ibm.com/Ttkw.html. PMID:12888523

  10. Elongation factor G-induced structural change in helix 34 of 16S rRNA related to translocation on the ribosome.

    PubMed Central

    Matassova, A B; Rodnina, M V; Wintermeyer, W

    2001-01-01

    During the translocation step of the elongation cycle, two tRNAs together with the mRNA move synchronously and rapidly on the ribosome. The movement is catalyzed by the binding of elongation factor G (EF-G) and driven by GTP hydrolysis. Here we study structural changes of the ribosome related to EF-G binding and translocation by monitoring the accessibility of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) for chemical modification by dimethyl sulfate or cleavage by hydroxyl radicals generated by Fe(II)-EDTA. In the state of the ribosome that is formed upon binding of EF-G but before the movement of the tRNAs takes place, residues 1054,1196, and 1201 in helix 34 in 16S rRNA are strongly protected. The protections depend on EF-G binding, but do not require GTP hydrolysis, and are lost upon translocation. Mutants of EF-G, which are active in ribosome binding and GTP hydrolysis but impaired in translocation, do not bring about the protections. According to cryo-electron microscopy (Stark et al., Cell, 2000, 100:301-309), there is no contact of EF-G with the protected residues of helix 34 in the pretranslocation state, suggesting that the observed protections are due to an induced conformational change. Thus, the present results indicate that EF-G binding to the pretranslocation ribosome induces a structural change of the head of the 30S subunit that is essential for subsequent tRNA-mRNA movement in translocation. PMID:11780642

  11. Probing the Transmembrane Structure and Topology of Microsomal Cytochrome-P450 by Solid-State NMR on Temperature-Resistant Bicelles

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Kazutoshi; Gildenberg, Melissa; Ahuja, Shivani; Im, Sang-Choul; Pearcy, Paige; Waskell, Lucy; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy

    2013-01-01

    Though the importance of high-resolution structure and dynamics of membrane proteins has been well recognized, optimizing sample conditions to retain the native-like folding and function of membrane proteins for Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) or X-ray measurements has been a major challenge. While bicelles have been shown to stabilize the function of membrane proteins and are increasingly utilized as model membranes, the loss of their magnetic-alignment at low temperatures makes them unsuitable to study heat-sensitive membrane proteins like cytochrome-P450 and protein-protein complexes. In this study, we report temperature resistant bicelles that can magnetically-align for a broad range of temperatures and demonstrate their advantages in the structural studies of full-length microsomal cytochrome-P450 and cytochrome-b5 by solid-state NMR spectroscopy. Our results reveal that the N-terminal region of rabbit cytochromeP4502B4, that is usually cleaved off to obtain crystal structures, is helical and has a transmembrane orientation with ~17° tilt from the lipid bilayer normal. PMID:23989972

  12. Crystal Structure of the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator Inhibitory Factor Cif Reveals Novel Active-Site Features of an Epoxide Hydrolase Virulence Factor

    SciTech Connect

    Bahl, C.; Morisseau, C; Bomberger, J; Stanton, B; Hammock, B; O' Toole, G; Madden, D

    2010-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) inhibitory factor (Cif) is a virulence factor secreted by Pseudomonas aeruginosa that reduces the quantity of CFTR in the apical membrane of human airway epithelial cells. Initial sequence analysis suggested that Cif is an epoxide hydrolase (EH), but its sequence violates two strictly conserved EH motifs and also is compatible with other {alpha}/{beta} hydrolase family members with diverse substrate specificities. To investigate the mechanistic basis of Cif activity, we have determined its structure at 1.8-{angstrom} resolution by X-ray crystallography. The catalytic triad consists of residues Asp129, His297, and Glu153, which are conserved across the family of EHs. At other positions, sequence deviations from canonical EH active-site motifs are stereochemically conservative. Furthermore, detailed enzymatic analysis confirms that Cif catalyzes the hydrolysis of epoxide compounds, with specific activity against both epibromohydrin and cis-stilbene oxide, but with a relatively narrow range of substrate selectivity. Although closely related to two other classes of {alpha}/{beta} hydrolase in both sequence and structure, Cif does not exhibit activity as either a haloacetate dehalogenase or a haloalkane dehalogenase. A reassessment of the structural and functional consequences of the H269A mutation suggests that Cif's effect on host-cell CFTR expression requires the hydrolysis of an extended endogenous epoxide substrate.

  13. Double-helix stellarator

    SciTech Connect

    Moroz, P.E.

    1997-09-01

    A new stellarator configuration, the Double-Helix Stellarator (DHS), is introduced. This novel configuration features a double-helix center post as the only helical element of the stellarator coil system. The DHS configuration has many unique characteristics. One of them is the extreme low plasma aspect ratio, A {approx} 1--1.2. Other advantages include a high enclosed volume, appreciable rotational transform, and a possibility of extreme-high-{beta} MHD equilibria. Moreover, the DHS features improved transport characteristics caused by the absence of the magnetic field ripple on the outboard of the torus. Compactness, simplicity and modularity of the coil system add to the DHS advantages for fusion applications.

  14. Structural Determinants of Nitroxide Motion in Spin-Labeled Proteins: Solvent-Exposed Sites in Helix B of T4 Lysozyme

    SciTech Connect

    Guo,Z.; Cascio, D.; Hideg, K.; Hubbell, W.

    2008-01-01

    Site-directed spin labeling provides a means for exploring structure and dynamics in proteins. To interpret the complex EPR spectra that often arise, it is necessary to characterize the rotamers of the spin-labeled side chain and the interactions they make with the local environment in proteins of known structure. For this purpose, crystal structures have been determined for T4 lysozyme bearing a nitroxide side chain (R1) at the solvent-exposed helical sites 41 and 44 in the B helix. These sites are of particular interest in that the corresponding EPR spectra reveal two dynamic states of R1, one of which is relatively immobilized suggesting interactions of the nitroxide with the environment. The crystal structures together with the effect of mutagenesis of nearest neighbors on the motion of R1 suggest intrahelical interactions of 41R1 with the i + 4 residue and of 44R1 with the i + 1 residue. Such interactions appear to be specific to particular rotamers of the R1 side chain.

  15. Hydrophobic Matching Controls the Tilt and Stability of the Dimeric Platelet-derived Growth Factor Receptor (PDGFR) ? Transmembrane Segment*

    PubMed Central

    Muhle-Goll, Claudia; Hoffmann, Silke; Afonin, Sergii; Grage, Stephan L.; Polyansky, Anton A.; Windisch, Dirk; Zeitler, Marcel; Brck, Jochen; Ulrich, Anne S.

    2012-01-01

    The platelet-derived growth factor receptor ? is a member of the cell surface receptor tyrosine kinase family and dimerizes upon activation. We determined the structure of the transmembrane segment in dodecylphosphocholine micelles by liquid-state NMR and found that it forms a stable left-handed helical dimer. Solid-state NMR and oriented circular dichroism were used to measure the tilt angle of the helical segments in macroscopically aligned model membranes with different acyl chain lengths. Both methods showed that decreasing bilayer thickness (DEPC-POPC-DMPC) led to an increase in the helix tilt angle from 10 to 30 with respect to the bilayer normal. At the same time, reconstitution of the comparatively long hydrophobic segment became less effective, eventually resulting in complete protein aggregation in the short-chain lipid DLPC. Unrestrained molecular dynamics simulations of the dimer were carried out in explicit lipid bilayers (DEPC, POPC, DMPC, sphingomyelin), confirming the observed dependence of the helix tilt angle on bilayer thickness. Notably, molecular dynamics revealed that the left-handed dimer gets tilted en bloc, whereas conformational transitions to alternative (e.g. right-handed dimeric) states were not supported. The experimental data along with the simulation results demonstrate a pronounced interplay between the platelet-directed growth factor receptor ? transmembrane segment and the bilayer thickness. The effect of hydrophobic mismatch might play a key role in the redistribution and activation of the receptor within different lipid microdomains of the plasma membrane in vivo. PMID:22619173

  16. A small nonerythropoietic helix B surface peptide based upon erythropoietin structure is cardioprotective against ischemic myocardial damage.

    PubMed

    Ahmet, Ismayil; Tae, Hyun-Jin; Juhaszova, Magdalena; Riordon, Daniel R; Boheler, Kenneth R; Sollott, Steven J; Brines, Michael; Cerami, Anthony; Lakatta, Edward G; Talan, Mark I

    2011-01-01

    Strong cardioprotective properties of erythropoietin (EPO) reported over the last 10 years have been difficult to translate to clinical applications for ischemic cardioprotection owing to undesirable parallel activation of erythropoiesis and thrombogenesis. A pyroglutamate helix B surface peptide (pHBP), recently engineered to include only a part of the EPO molecule that does not bind to EPO receptor and thus, is not erythropoietic, retains tissue protective properties of EPO. Here we compared the ability of pHBP and EPO to protect cardiac myocytes from oxidative stress in vitro and cardiac tissue from ischemic damage in vivo. HBP, similar to EPO, increased the reactive oxygen species (ROS) threshold for induction of the mitochondrial permeability transition by 40%. In an experimental model of myocardial infarction induced by permanent ligation of a coronary artery in rats, a single bolus injection of 60 μg/kg of pHBP immediately after coronary ligation, similar to EPO, reduced apoptosis in the myocardial area at risk, examined 24 h later, by 80% and inflammation by 34%. Myocardial infarction (MI) measured 24 h after coronary ligation was similarly reduced by 50% in both pHBP- and EPO-treated rats. Two wks after surgery, left ventricular remodeling (ventricular dilation) and functional decline (fall in ejection fraction) assessed by echocardiography were significantly and similarly attenuated in pHBP- and EPO-treated rats, and MI size was reduced by 25%. The effect was retained during the 6-wk follow-up. A single bolus injection of pHBP immediately after coronary ligation was effective in reduction of MI size in a dose as low as 1 μg/kg, but was ineffective at a 60 μg/kg dose if administered 24 h after MI induction. We conclude that pHBP is equally cardioprotective with EPO and deserves further consideration as a safer alternative to rhEPO in the search for therapeutic options to reduce myocardial damage following blockade of the coronary circulation. PMID:21170473

  17. Autoinhibition of a calmodulin-dependent calcium pump involves a structure in the stalk that connects the transmembrane domain to the ATPase catalytic domain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curran, A. C.; Hwang, I.; Corbin, J.; Martinez, S.; Rayle, D.; Sze, H.; Harper, J. F.; Evans, M. L. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    The regulation of Ca(2+)-pumps is important for controlling [Ca(2+)] in the cytosol and organelles of all eukaryotes. Here, we report a genetic strategy to identify residues that function in autoinhibition of a novel calmodulin-activated Ca(2+)-pump with an N-terminal regulatory domain (isoform ACA2 from Arabidopsis). Mutant pumps with constitutive activity were identified by complementation of a yeast (K616) deficient in two Ca(2+)-pumps. Fifteen mutations were found that disrupted a segment of the N-terminal autoinhibitor located between Lys(23) and Arg(54). Three mutations (E167K, D219N, and E341K) were found associated with the stalk that connects the ATPase catalytic domain (head) and with the transmembrane domain. Enzyme assays indicated that the stalk mutations resulted in calmodulin-independent activity, with V(max), K(mATP), and K(mCa(2+)) similar to that of a pump in which the N-terminal autoinhibitor had been deleted. A highly conservative substitution at Asp(219) (D219E) still produced a deregulated pump, indicating that the autoinhibitory structure in the stalk is highly sensitive to perturbation. In plasma membrane H(+)-ATPases from yeast and plants, similarly positioned mutations resulted in hyperactive pumps. Together, these results suggest that a structural feature of the stalk is of general importance in regulating diverse P-type ATPases.

  18. Double Helix Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glickstein, Neil M.

    1995-01-01

    Describes the use of James Watson's book, "The Double Helix," as a multidisciplinary way of introducing students to actual science; the scientific method; dilemmas encountered in the world of research; and the rich setting of personalities, politics, and history in post-World War II Europe. (MKR)

  19. Role of GxxxG Motifs in Transmembrane Domain Interactions.

    PubMed

    Teese, Mark G; Langosch, Dieter

    2015-08-25

    Transmembrane (TM) helices of integral membrane proteins can facilitate strong and specific noncovalent protein-protein interactions. Mutagenesis and structural analyses have revealed numerous examples in which the interaction between TM helices of single-pass membrane proteins is dependent on a GxxxG or (small)xxx(small) motif. It is therefore tempting to use the presence of these simple motifs as an indicator of TM helix interactions. In this Current Topic review, we point out that these motifs are quite common, with more than 50% of single-pass TM domains containing a (small)xxx(small) motif. However, the actual interaction strength of motif-containing helices depends strongly on sequence context and membrane properties. In addition, recent studies have revealed several GxxxG-containing TM domains that interact via alternative interfaces involving hydrophobic, polar, aromatic, or even ionizable residues that do not form recognizable motifs. In multipass membrane proteins, GxxxG motifs can be important for protein folding, and not just oligomerization. Our current knowledge thus suggests that the presence of a GxxxG motif alone is a weak predictor of protein dimerization in the membrane. PMID:26244771

  20. Functional analysis of the C-terminal boundary of the second nucleotide binding domain of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator and structural implications.

    PubMed Central

    Gentzsch, Martina; Aleksandrov, Andrei; Aleksandrov, Luba; Riordan, John R

    2002-01-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) contains two nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs) or ATP-binding cassettes (ABCs) that characterize a large family of membrane transporters. Although the three-dimensional structures of these domains from several ABC proteins have been determined, this is not the case for CFTR, and hence the domains are defined simply on the basis of sequence alignment. The functional C-terminal boundary of NBD1 of CFTR was located by analysis of chloride channel function [Chan, Csanady, Seto-Young, Nairn and Gadsby (2000) J. Gen. Physiol. 116, 163-180]. However, the boundary between the C-terminal end of NBD2 and sequences further downstream in the whole protein, that are important for its cellular localization and endocytotic turnover, has not been defined. We have now done this by assaying the influence of progressive C-terminal truncations on photolabelling of NBD2 by 8-azido-ATP, which reflects hydrolysis, as well as binding, at that domain, and on NBD2-dependent channel gating itself. The boundary defined in this way is between residues 1420 and 1424, which corresponds to the final beta-strand in aligned NBDs whose structures have been determined. Utilization of this information should facilitate the generation of monodisperse NBD2 polypeptides for structural analysis, which until now has not been possible. The established boundary includes within NBD2 a hydrophobic patch of four residues (1413-1416) previously shown to be essential for CFTR maturation and stability [Gentzsch and Riordan (2001) J. Biol. Chem. 276, 1291-1298]. This hydrophobic cluster is conserved in most ABC proteins, and on alignment with ones of known structure constitutes the penultimate beta-strand of the domain which is likely to participate in essential structure-stabilizing beta-sheet formation. PMID:12020354

  1. A left-hand beta-helix revealed by the crystal structure of a carbonic anhydrase from the archaeon Methanosarcina thermophila.

    PubMed Central

    Kisker, C; Schindelin, H; Alber, B E; Ferry, J G; Rees, D C

    1996-01-01

    A carbonic anhydrase from the thermophilic archaeon Methanosarcina thermophila that exhibits no significant sequence similarity to known carbonic anhydrases has recently been characterized. Here we present the structure of this enzyme, which adopts a left-handed parallel beta-helix fold. This fold is of particular interest since it contains only left-handed crossover connections between the parallel beta-strands, which so far have been observed very infrequently. The active form of the enzyme is a trimer with three zinc-containing active sites, each located at the interface between two monomers. While the arrangement of active site groups differs between this enzyme and the carbonic anhydrases from higher vertebrates, there are structural similarities in the zinc coordination environment, suggestive of convergent evolution dictated by the chemical requirements for catalysis of the same reaction. Based on sequence similarities, the structure of this enzyme is the prototype of a new class of carbonic anhydrases with representatives in all three phylogenetic domains of life. Images PMID:8665839

  2. Characterization of a helix-loop-helix (EF hand) motif of silver hake parvalbumin isoform B.

    PubMed Central

    Revett, S. P.; King, G.; Shabanowitz, J.; Hunt, D. F.; Hartman, K. L.; Laue, T. M.; Nelson, D. J.

    1997-01-01

    Parvalbumins are a class of calcium-binding proteins characterized by the presence of several helix-loop-helix (EF-hand) motifs. It is suspected that these proteins evolved via intragene duplication from a single EF-hand. Silver hake parvalbumin (SHPV) consists of three EF-type helix-loop-helix regions, two of which have the ability to bind calcium. The three helix-loop-helix motifs are designated AB, CD, and EF, respectively. In this study, native silver hake parvalbumin isoform B (SHPV-B) has been sequenced by mass spectrometry. The sequence indicates that this parvalbumin is a beta-lineage parvalbumin. SHPV-B was cleaved into two major fragments, consisting of the ABCD and EF regions of the native protein. The 33-amino acid EF fragment (residues 76-108), containing one of the calcium ion binding sites in native SHPV-B, has been isolated and studied for its structural characteristics, ability to bind divalent and trivalent cations, and for its propensity to undergo metal ion-induced self-association. The presence of Ca2+ does not induce significant secondary structure in the EF fragment. However, NMR and CD results indicate significant secondary structure promotion in the EF fragment in the presence of the higher charge-density trivalent cations. Sedimentation equilibrium analysis results show that the EF fragment exists in a monomer-dimer equilibrium when complexed with La3+. PMID:9385642

  3. Isolation and characterization of an alpha-macroglobulin from the gastropod mollusc Helix pomatia with tetrameric structure and preserved activity after methylamine treatment.

    PubMed

    Yigzaw, Y; Gielens, C; Praux, G

    2001-02-01

    A proteinase inhibitor with M(r) 697000 and 20.3% (w/w) carbohydrate was isolated from the haemolymph of the snail Helix pomatia and characterized. It was shown to have a tetrameric structure with subunits disulphide linked by two. It inhibited the activity of several types of proteinases against large substrates but not that of trypsin against N-alpha-benzoyl-DL-arginine-4-nitroanilide. This indicated a nonspecific and steric hindrance mode of inhibition. The ratio of trypsin molecules inactivated per inhibitor amounted to 1.5. This interaction led to a cleavage of the subunits into two equal fragments and to a slow to fast conformational change of the whole molecules. Experiments with 125I-labelled trypsin indicated that the proteinase had become covalently linked to one of the fragments. Heating of the inhibitor led to autolytic cleavage products but not when methylamine treated. Thiol titration after trypsin or methylamine treatment indicated the presence of one thiol ester bond per subunit. These facts are all indicative of an alpha-macroglobulin type of inhibitor. However, unlike for most of them the methylamine treatment did not induce a conformational change nor suppress its proteinase inhibitory activity. Moreover, invertebrate alpha-macroglobulins are mostly dimeric in structure but tetramers likewise do occur in Biomphalaria glabrata. PMID:11342036

  4. Impact of the [delta]F508 Mutation in First Nucleotide-binding Domain of Human Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator on Domain Folding and Structure

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, Hal A.; Zhao, Xun; Wang, Chi; Sauder, J. Michael; Rooney, Isabelle; Noland, Brian W.; Lorimer, Don; Kearins, Margaret C.; Conners, Kris; Condon, Brad; Maloney, Peter C.; Guggino, William B.; Hunt, John F.; Emtage, Spencer

    2010-07-19

    Cystic fibrosis is caused by defects in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), commonly the deletion of residue Phe-508 (DeltaF508) in the first nucleotide-binding domain (NBD1), which results in a severe reduction in the population of functional channels at the epithelial cell surface. Previous studies employing incomplete NBD1 domains have attributed this to aberrant folding of DeltaF508 NBD1. We report structural and biophysical studies on complete human NBD1 domains, which fail to demonstrate significant changes of in vitro stability or folding kinetics in the presence or absence of the DeltaF508 mutation. Crystal structures show minimal changes in protein conformation but substantial changes in local surface topography at the site of the mutation, which is located in the region of NBD1 believed to interact with the first membrane spanning domain of CFTR. These results raise the possibility that the primary effect of DeltaF508 is a disruption of proper interdomain interactions at this site in CFTR rather than interference with the folding of NBD1. Interestingly, increases in the stability of NBD1 constructs are observed upon introduction of second-site mutations that suppress the trafficking defect caused by the DeltaF508 mutation, suggesting that these suppressors might function indirectly by improving the folding efficiency of NBD1 in the context of the full-length protein. The human NBD1 structures also solidify the understanding of CFTR regulation by showing that its two protein segments that can be phosphorylated both adopt multiple conformations that modulate access to the ATPase active site and functional interdomain interfaces.

  5. Crystal structure of the E230Q mutant of cAMP-dependent protein kinase reveals an unexpected apoenzyme conformation and an extended N-terminal A helix

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jian; Yang, Jie; Kannan, Natarajan; Madhusudan; Xuong, Nguyen-Huu; Ten Eyck, Lynn F.; Taylor, Susan S.

    2005-01-01

    Glu230, one of the acidic residues that cluster around the active site of the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase, plays an important role in substrate recognition. Specifically, its side chain forms a direct salt-bridge interaction with the substrates P-2 Arg. Previous studies showed that mutation of Glu230 to Gln (E230Q) caused significant decreases not only in substrate binding but also in the rate of phosphoryl transfer. To better understand the importance of Glu230 for structure and function, we solved the crystal structure of the E230Q mutant at 2.8 resolution. Surprisingly, the mutant preferred an open conformation with no bound ligands observed, even though the crystals were grown in the presence of MgATP and the inhibitor peptide, IP20. This is in contrast to the wild-type protein that, under the same conditions, prefers the closed conformation of a ternary complex. The structure highlights the importance of the electrostatic surface not only for substrate binding and catalysis, but also for the mechanism for closing the active site cleft. This surface mutation clearly disrupts the recognition and binding of substrate peptide so that the enzyme prefers an open conformation that cannot trap ATP. This is consistent with the reinforcing concepts of conformational dynamics and the synergistic binding of ATP and substrate peptide. Another unusual feature of the structure is the observation of the entire N terminus (Gly1Thr32) assumes an extended ?-helix conformation. Finally, based on temperature factors, this mutant structure is more stable than the wild-type C-subunit in the apo state. PMID:16253959

  6. Tailored fibro-porous structure of electrospun polyurethane membranes, their size-dependent properties and trans-membrane glucose diffusion

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ning; Burugapalli, Krishna; Song, Wenhui; Halls, Justin; Moussy, Francis; Zheng, Yudong; Ma, Yanxuan; Wu, Zhentao; Li, Kang

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop polyurethane (PU) based fibro-porous membranes and to investigate the size-effect of hierarchical porous structure on permeability and surface properties of the developed electrospun membranes. Non-woven Selectophore™ PU membranes having tailored fibre diameters, pore sizes, and thickness were spun using electrospinning, and their chemical, physical and glucose permeability properties were characterised. Solvents, solution concentration, applied voltage, flow rate and distance to collector, each were systematically investigated, and electrospinning conditions for tailoring fibre diameters were identified. Membranes having average fibre diameters – 347, 738 and 1102 nm were characterized, revealing average pore sizes of 800, 870 and 1060 nm and pore volumes of 44, 63 and 68% respectively. Hydrophobicity increased with increasing fibre diameter and porosity. Effective diffusion coefficients for glucose transport across the electrospun membranes varied as a function of thickness and porosity, indicating high flux rates for mass transport. Electrospun PU membranes having significantly high pore volumes, extensively interconnected porosity and tailorable properties compared to conventional solvent cast membranes can find applications as coatings for sensors requiring analyte exchange. PMID:23170040

  7. The structure of Plasmodium vivax phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein suggests a functional motif containing a left-handed helix

    PubMed Central

    Arakaki, Tracy; Neely, Helen; Boni, Erica; Mueller, Natasha; Buckner, Frederick S.; Van Voorhis, Wesley C.; Lauricella, Angela; DeTitta, George; Luft, Joseph; Hol, Wim G. J.; Merritt, Ethan A.

    2007-01-01

    The structure of a putative Raf kinase inhibitor protein (RKIP) homolog from the eukaryotic parasite Plasmodium vivax has been studied to a resolution of 1.3? using multiple-wavelength anomalous diffraction at the Se?K edge. This protozoan protein is topologically similar to previously studied members of the phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein (PEBP) sequence family, but exhibits a distinctive left-handed ?-helical region at one side of the canonical phospholipid-binding site. Re-examination of previously determined PEBP structures suggests that the P. vivax protein and yeast carboxypeptidase Y inhibitor may represent a structurally distinct subfamily of the diverse PEBP-sequence family. PMID:17329808

  8. Synaptobrevin Transmembrane Domain Dimerization Studied by Multiscale Molecular Dynamics Simulations.

    PubMed

    Han, Jing; Pluhackova, Kristyna; Wassenaar, Tsjerk A; Bckmann, Rainer A

    2015-08-18

    Synaptic vesicle fusion requires assembly of the SNARE complex composed of SNAP-25, syntaxin-1, and synaptobrevin-2 (sybII) proteins. The SNARE proteins found in vesicle membranes have previously been shown to dimerize via transmembrane (TM) domain interactions. While syntaxin homodimerization is supposed to promote the transition from hemifusion to complete fusion, the role of synaptobrevin's TM domain association in the fusion process remains poorly understood. Here, we combined coarse-grained and atomistic simulations to model the homodimerization of the sybII transmembrane domain and of selected TM mutants. The wild-type helix is shown to form a stable, right-handed dimer with the most populated helix-helix interface, including key residues predicted in a previous mutagenesis study. In addition, two alternative binding interfaces were discovered, which are essential to explain the experimentally observed higher-order oligomerization of sybII. In contrast, only one dimerization interface was found for a fusion-inactive poly-Leu mutant. Moreover, the association kinetics found for this mutant is lower as compared to the wild-type. These differences in dimerization between the wild-type and the poly-Leu mutant are suggested to be responsible for the reported differences in fusogenic activity between these peptides. This study provides molecular insight into the role of TM sequence specificity for peptide aggregation in membranes. PMID:26287628

  9. A Novel Topology of Proline-rich Transmembrane Protein 2 (PRRT2): HINTS FOR AN INTRACELLULAR FUNCTION AT THE SYNAPSE.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Pia; Sterlini, Bruno; Castroflorio, Enrico; Marte, Antonella; Onofri, Franco; Valtorta, Flavia; Maragliano, Luca; Corradi, Anna; Benfenati, Fabio

    2016-03-18

    Proline-rich transmembrane protein 2 (PRRT2) has been identified as the single causative gene for a group of paroxysmal syndromes of infancy, including epilepsy, paroxysmal movement disorders, and migraine. On the basis of topology predictions, PRRT2 has been assigned to the recently characterized family of Dispanins, whose members share the two-transmembrane domain topology with a large N terminus and short C terminus oriented toward the outside of the cell. Because PRRT2 plays a role at the synapse, it is important to confirm the exact orientation of its N and C termini with respect to the plasma membrane to get clues regarding its possible function. Using a combination of different experimental approaches, including live immunolabeling, immunogold electron microscopy, surface biotinylation and computational modeling, we demonstrate a novel topology for this protein. PRRT2 is a type II transmembrane protein in which only the second hydrophobic segment spans the plasma membrane, whereas the first one is associated with the internal surface of the membrane and forms a helix-loop-helix structure without crossing it. Most importantly, the large proline-rich N-terminal domain is not exposed to the extracellular space but is localized intracellularly, and only the short C terminus is extracellular (Ncyt/Cexo topology). Accordingly, we show that PRRT2 interacts with the Src homology 3 domain-bearing protein Intersectin 1, an intracellular protein involved in synaptic vesicle cycling. These findings will contribute to the clarification of the role of PRRT2 at the synapse and the understanding of pathogenic mechanisms on the basis of PRRT2-related neurological disorders. PMID:26797119

  10. Lasing thresholds of helical photonic structures with different positions of a single light-amplifying helix turn

    SciTech Connect

    Blinov, L M; Palto, S P

    2013-09-30

    Numerical simulation is used to assess the lasing threshold of helical structures of cholesteric liquid crystals (CLCs) in which only one turn amplifies light. This turn is located either in the centre of symmetric structures of various sizes or in an arbitrary place in asymmetric structures of preset size. In all cases, we find singularities in light amplification by a one-dimensional CLC structure for the most important band-edge modes (m1, m2 and m3) and plot the threshold gain coefficient k{sub th} against the position of the amplifying turn. For the symmetric structures, the lasing threshold of the m1 mode is shown to vary linearly with the inverse of the square of the cavity length. Moreover, modes with a lower density of photonic states (DOS) in the cavity may have a lower lasing threshold. This can be accounted for by the dependence of the density of photonic states on the position of the amplifying turn and, accordingly, by the nonuniform electromagnetic field intensity distribution along the cavity for different modes. In the asymmetric structures, the same field energy distribution is responsible for a correlation between k{sub th} and DOS curves. (lasers)

  11. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and site-directed isotope labeling as a probe of local secondary structure in the transmembrane domain of phospholamban.

    PubMed Central

    Ludlam, C F; Arkin, I T; Liu, X M; Rothman, M S; Rath, P; Aimoto, S; Smith, S O; Engelman, D M; Rothschild, K J

    1996-01-01

    Phospholamban is a 52-amino acid residue membrane protein that regulates Ca(2+)-ATPase activity in the sarcoplasmic reticulum of cardiac muscle cells. The hydrophobic C-terminal 28 amino acid fragment of phospholamban (hPLB) anchors the protein in the membrane and may form part of a Ca(2+)-selective ion channel. We have used polarized attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy along with site-directed isotope labeling to probe the local structure of hPLB. The frequency and dichroism of the amide I and II bands appearing at 1658 cm-1 and 1544 cm-1, respectively, show that dehydrated and hydrated hPLB reconstituted into dimyristoylphosphatidycholine bilayer membranes is predominantly alpha-helical and has a net transmembrane orientation. Specific local secondary structure of hPLB was probed by incorporating 13C at two positions in the protein backbone. A small band seen near 1614 cm-1 is assigned to the amide I mode of the 13C-labeled amide carbonyl group(s). The frequency and dichroism of this band indicate that residues 39 and 46 are alpha-helical, with an axial orientation that is approximately 30 degrees relative to the membrane normal. Upon exposure to 2H2O (D2O), 30% of the peptide amide groups in hPLB undergo a slow deuterium/hydrogen exchange. The remainder of the protein, including the peptide groups of Leu-39 and Leu-42, appear inaccessible to exchange, indicating that most of the hPLB fragment is embedded in the lipid bilayer. By extending spectroscopic characterization of PLB to include hydrated, deuterated as well as site-directed isotope-labeled hPLB films, our results strongly support models of PLB that predict the existence of an alpha-helical hydrophobic region spanning the membrane domain. PMID:8785331

  12. Waves in tape helix loaded liquid crystal optical fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghasemi, Masih; Choudhury, P. K.

    2014-08-01

    This communication describes a rather new type of optical fiber composed of three layers with the outermost region being radially anisotropic liquid crystal, and the inner dielectric core-clad interface is loaded with conducting tape helix structure. Similarly to the fibers embedded with conducting sheath helix, the introduction of tape helix too would throw the impact of altering the dispersion features of the guide. However, the situation becomes more complex in the sense that, apart from the helix pitch angle (as generally considered in the case of sheath), the width of tape helix structure becomes the additional factor to affect the dispersion characteristics. We consider the core and the inner clad sections as made of linear, homogeneous and isotropic dielectrics, and the anisotropy remains in the outermost section due to the presence of nematic radially anisotropic liquid crystal material. Taking into account the zero-order guided modes in the fiber structure, effects on confinements due to the amalgamation of birefringence (optical property of liquid crystal) and tape helix pitch (geometrical/structural property of prefect conductor) are reported. Results reveal that such liquid crystal fibers with conducting tape helix loadings would be more useful than the sheath helix loaded fibers.

  13. Malleable conformation of the elastic PEVK segment of titin: non-co-operative interconversion of polyproline II helix, beta-turn and unordered structures.

    PubMed

    Ma, Kan; Wang, Kuan

    2003-09-15

    To understand the structural basis of molecular elasticity and protein interaction of the elastic PEVK (Pro-Glu-Val-Lys) segment of the giant muscle protein titin, we carried out a detailed analysis of a representative PEVK module and a 16-module PEVK protein under various environmental conditions. Three conformational states, polyproline II (PPII) helix, beta-turn and unordered coil were identified by CD and NMR. These motifs interconvert without long-range co-operativity. As a general trend, the relative content of PPII increases with lower temperature and higher polarity, beta-turn increases with lower temperature and lower polarity, and unordered coil increases with higher temperature and higher polarity. NMR studies demonstrate that trans -proline residues are the predominant form at room temperature (22 degrees C), with little trans -to- cis isomerization below 35 degrees C. Ionic strength affects salt bridges between charged side chains, but not the backbone conformation. We conclude that titin PEVK conformation is malleable and responds to subtle environmental changes without co-operativity. This gradual conformational transition may represent a regulatory mechanism for fine-tuning protein interactions and elasticity. PMID:12816538

  14. The crystal structure of Z-(Aib)10 -OH at 0.65? resolution: three complete turns of 310 -helix.

    PubMed

    Gessmann, Renate; Brckner, Hans; Petratos, Kyriacos

    2016-02-01

    The synthetic peptide Z-(Aib)10 -OH was crystallized from hot methanol by slow evaporation. The crystal used for data collection reflected synchrotron radiation to sub-atomic resolution, where the bonding electron density becomes visible between the non-hydrogen atoms. Crystals belong to the centrosymmetric space group P 1. Both molecules in the asymmetric unit form regular 310 -helices. All residues in each molecule possess the same handedness, which is in contrast to all other crystal structure determined to date of longer Aib-homopeptides. These other peptides are C-terminal protected by OtBu or OMe. In these cases, because of the missing ability of the C-terminal protection group to form a hydrogen bond to the residue i-3, the sense of the helix is reversed in the last residue. Here, the C-terminal OH-groups form hydrogen bonds to the residues i-3, in part mediated by water molecules. This makes Z-(Aib)10 -OH an Aib-homopeptide with three complete 310 -helical turns in spite of the shorter length it has compared with Z-(Aib)11 -OtBu, the only homopeptide to date with three complete turns. PMID:26680663

  15. Importance of lipidpore loop interface for potassium channel structure and function

    PubMed Central

    van der Cruijsen, Elwin A. W.; Nand, Deepak; Weingarth, Markus; Prokofyev, Alexander; Hornig, Snke; Cukkemane, Abhishek Arun; Bonvin, Alexandre M. J. J.; Becker, Stefan; Hulse, Raymond E.; Perozo, Eduardo; Pongs, Olaf; Baldus, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Potassium (i.e., K+) channels allow for the controlled and selective passage of potassium ions across the plasma membrane via a conserved pore domain. In voltage-gated K+ channels, gating is the result of the coordinated action of two coupled gates: an activation gate at the intracellular entrance of the pore and an inactivation gate at the selectivity filter. By using solid-state NMR structural studies, in combination with electrophysiological experiments and molecular dynamics simulations, we show that the turret region connecting the outer transmembrane helix (transmembrane helix 1) and the pore helix behind the selectivity filter contributes to K+ channel inactivation and exhibits a remarkable structural plasticity that correlates to K+ channel inactivation. The transmembrane helix 1 unwinds when the K+ channel enters the inactivated state and rewinds during the transition to the closed state. In addition to well-characterized changes at the K+ ion coordination sites, this process is accompanied by conformational changes within the turret region and the pore helix. Further spectroscopic and computational results show that the same channel domain is critically involved in establishing functional contacts between pore domain and the cellular membrane. Taken together, our results suggest that the interaction between the K+ channel turret region and the lipid bilayer exerts an important influence on the selective passage of potassium ions via the K+ channel pore. PMID:23882077

  16. Importance of lipid-pore loop interface for potassium channel structure and function.

    PubMed

    van der Cruijsen, Elwin A W; Nand, Deepak; Weingarth, Markus; Prokofyev, Alexander; Hornig, Snke; Cukkemane, Abhishek Arun; Bonvin, Alexandre M J J; Becker, Stefan; Hulse, Raymond E; Perozo, Eduardo; Pongs, Olaf; Baldus, Marc

    2013-08-01

    Potassium (i.e., K(+)) channels allow for the controlled and selective passage of potassium ions across the plasma membrane via a conserved pore domain. In voltage-gated K(+) channels, gating is the result of the coordinated action of two coupled gates: an activation gate at the intracellular entrance of the pore and an inactivation gate at the selectivity filter. By using solid-state NMR structural studies, in combination with electrophysiological experiments and molecular dynamics simulations, we show that the turret region connecting the outer transmembrane helix (transmembrane helix 1) and the pore helix behind the selectivity filter contributes to K(+) channel inactivation and exhibits a remarkable structural plasticity that correlates to K(+) channel inactivation. The transmembrane helix 1 unwinds when the K(+) channel enters the inactivated state and rewinds during the transition to the closed state. In addition to well-characterized changes at the K(+) ion coordination sites, this process is accompanied by conformational changes within the turret region and the pore helix. Further spectroscopic and computational results show that the same channel domain is critically involved in establishing functional contacts between pore domain and the cellular membrane. Taken together, our results suggest that the interaction between the K(+) channel turret region and the lipid bilayer exerts an important influence on the selective passage of potassium ions via the K(+) channel pore. PMID:23882077

  17. A distinct three-helix centipede toxin SSD609 inhibits Iks channels by interacting with the KCNE1 auxiliary subunit

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Peibei; Wu, Fangming; Wen, Ming; Yang, Xingwang; Wang, Chenyang; Li, Yiming; He, Shufang; Zhang, Longhua; Zhang, Yun; Tian, Changlin

    2015-01-01

    KCNE1 is a single-span transmembrane auxiliary protein that modulates the voltage-gated potassium channel KCNQ1. The KCNQ1/KCNE1 complex in cardiomyocytes exhibited slow activated potassium (Iks) currents. Recently, a novel 47-residue polypeptide toxin SSD609 was purified from Scolopendra subspinipes dehaani venom and showed Iks current inhibition. Here, chemically synthesized SSD609 was shown to exert Iks inhibition in extracted guinea pig cardiomyocytes and KCNQ1/KCNE1 current attenuation in CHO cells. The K+ current attenuation of SSD609 showed decent selectivity among different auxiliary subunits. Solution nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of SSD609 revealed a distinctive three-helix conformation that was stabilized by a new disulfide bonding pattern as well as segregated surface charge distribution. Structure-activity studies demonstrated that negatively charged Glu19 in the amphipathic extracellular helix of KCNE1 was the key residue that interacted with SSD609. The distinctive three-helix centipede toxin SSD609 is known to be the first polypeptide toxin acting on channel auxiliary subunit KCNE1, which suggests a new type of pharmacological regulation for ion channels in cardiomyocytes. PMID:26307551

  18. Structure and Mutagenesis of the Parainfluenza Virus 5 Hemagglutinin-Neuraminidase Stalk Domain Reveals a Four-Helix Bundle and the Role of the Stalk in Fusion Promotion

    SciTech Connect

    Bose, Sayantan; Welch, Brett D.; Kors, Christopher A.; Yuan, Ping; Jardetzky, Theodore S.; Lamb, Robert A.

    2014-10-02

    Paramyxovirus entry into cells requires the fusion protein (F) and a receptor binding protein (hemagglutinin-neuraminidase [HN], H, or G). The multifunctional HN protein of some paramyxoviruses, besides functioning as the receptor (sialic acid) binding protein (hemagglutinin activity) and the receptor-destroying protein (neuraminidase activity), enhances F activity, presumably by lowering the activation energy required for F to mediate fusion of viral and cellular membranes. Before or upon receptor binding by the HN globular head, F is believed to interact with the HN stalk. Unfortunately, until recently none of the receptor binding protein crystal structures have shown electron density for the stalk domain. Parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV5) HN exists as a noncovalent dimer-of-dimers on the surface of cells, linked by a single disulfide bond in the stalk. Here we present the crystal structure of the PIV5-HN stalk domain at a resolution of 2.65 {angstrom}, revealing a four-helix bundle (4HB) with an upper (N-terminal) straight region and a lower (C-terminal) supercoiled part. The hydrophobic core residues are a mix of an 11-mer repeat and a 3- to 4-heptad repeat. To functionally characterize the role of the HN stalk in F interactions and fusion, we designed mutants along the PIV5-HN stalk that are N-glycosylated to physically disrupt F-HN interactions. By extensive study of receptor binding, neuraminidase activity, oligomerization, and fusion-promoting functions of the mutant proteins, we found a correlation between the position of the N-glycosylation mutants on the stalk structure and their neuraminidase activities as well as their abilities to promote fusion.

  19. Thermal and Structural Analysis of Co-axial Coupler used in High Power Helix Traveling-Wave Tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gahlaut, Vishant; Alvi, Parvez Ahmad; Ghosh, Sanjay Kumar

    2014-07-01

    In traveling-wave tubes (TWTs), coaxial couplers or window assemblies are used for coupling milliwatt (mW) to hundreds of watts of average power. For the proper transformation of impedance of interaction structure to the standard connector, coaxial couplers are suitably modeled as multi-section coaxial transformer. Due to high average power propagation, center conductor of coupler gets heated and the dimensions of multi-section coupler get deformed from its cold condition which causes impedance mismatch and increase of thermal load. Due to impedance mismatch, reflection of RF signal occurs from the couplers causing oscillation and finally leads of destruction of the TWT. This paper presents the thermal and structural analysis of coaxial coupler to quantify the temperature distribution at different regions, deformation of cold dimensions and stress due to material property of window disc.

  20. The substrates of the gamma-aminobutyric acid transporter GAT-1 induce structural rearrangements around the interface of transmembrane domains 1 and 6.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Alex; Kanner, Baruch I

    2008-05-23

    The sodium- and chloride-coupled gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transporter GAT-1 is essential for efficient synaptic transmission by this neurotransmitter. GAT-1 is the first cloned member of the neurotransmitter-sodium-symporter family. Here we address the idea that during transport the extracellular halves of transmembrane domains (TM) 1 and 6, TM 1b/TM 6a, move relative to the binding pocket. Therefore, we have probed the aqueous accessibility of TM 6a and its proximity to TM 1b in the presence and absence of its substrates. Cysteines were introduced, one by one, at all TM 6a positions. In several mutants, transport activity was inhibited by the impermeant sulfhydryl reagent (2-trimethylammonium)methanethiosulfonate, whereas wild type GAT-1 was basically insensitive. This inhibition was potentiated by sodium, whereas GABA was protective. Moreover, we used paired cysteine mutagenesis in conjunction with treatments with copper(II)(1,10-phenanthroline)(3) (CuPh). CuPh did not affect the activity of wild type GAT-1 but potently inhibited transport by the TM 6a mutant D287C. Such inhibition was not observed with D287C/C74A, indicating that Asp-287 is close to Cys-74 of TM 1b. Inhibition of transport of D287C by CuPh, but not by (2-trimethylammonium)methanethiosulfonate, was potentiated when sodium and GABA were both removed. Thus, the degree of inhibition by CuPh is not a simple function of the accessibility of the individual cysteines but also involves structural rearrangements around the TM 1b/TM 6a interface. PMID:18381286

  1. Efflux by Small Multidrug Resistance Proteins Is Inhibited by Membrane-interactive Helix-stapled Peptides*

    PubMed Central

    Bellmann-Sickert, Kathrin; Stone, Tracy A.; Poulsen, Bradley E.; Deber, Charles M.

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial cell membranes contain several protein pumps that resist the toxic effects of drugs by efficiently extruding them. One family of these pumps, the small multidrug resistance proteins (SMRs), consists of proteins of about 110 residues that need to oligomerize to form a structural pathway for substrate extrusion. As such, SMR oligomerization sites should constitute viable targets for efflux inhibition, by disrupting protein-protein interactions between helical segments. To explore this proposition, we are using Hsmr, an SMR from Halobacter salinarum that dimerizes to extrude toxicants. Our previous work established that (i) Hsmr dimerization is mediated by a helix-helix interface in Hsmr transmembrane (TM) helix 4 (residues 90GLALIVAGV98); and (ii) a peptide comprised of the full TM4(85105) sequence inhibits Hsmr-mediated ethidium bromide efflux from bacterial cells. Here we define the minimal linear sequence for inhibitor activity (determined as TM4(88100), and then staple this sequence via Grubbs metathesis to produce peptides typified by acetyl-A-(Sar)3-88VVGLXLIZXGVVV100-KKK-NH2 (X = 2-(4?-pentenyl)alanine at positions 92 and 96; Z = Val, Gly, or Asn at position 95)). The Asn95 peptide displayed specific efflux inhibition and resensitization of Hsmr-expressing cells to ethidium bromide; and was non-hemolytic to human red blood cells. Stapling essentially prevented peptide degradation in blood plasma and liver homogenates versus an unstapled counterpart. The overall results confirm that the stapled analog of TM4(88100) retains the structural complementarity required to disrupt the Hsmr TM4-TM4 locus in Hsmr, and portend the general validity of stapled peptides as therapeutics for the disruption of functional protein-protein interactions in membranes. PMID:25425644

  2. PPARγ helix 12 exhibits an antagonist conformation.

    PubMed

    Fratev, Filip

    2016-03-23

    Although the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) is one of the most studied nuclear receptors (NR), it is still unknown whether its activation helix (helix 12, H12) could exhibit an antagonist conformation as previously demonstrated for most of the NRs. The high H12 flexibility in the apo PPARγ form and the lack of appropriate antagonist ligands complicate the structural and dynamics description by most of the experimental techniques. Based on intensive (≈12 μs) accelerated molecular dynamics (aMD) simulations together with metadynamics and conventional MD runs, we reveal that H12 could exist in an antagonist conformation. This H12 state and the well-known agonist configuration have virtually identical free energy. Notably, significant deviations in the H12 conformations are detected in a homodimer. In chain A the activation helix is stabilized only in a full agonist conformation whereas in chain B, due to agonist to antagonist state exchanges, H12 is oriented toward helix 4. In summary, the results provide an explanation of the observed asymmetry in most of the PPARγ homodimer crystal structures. They also suggest selection guidance for protein moieties and structure candidates that would best serve as potential ligand binding sites to achieve a stable antagonist form of the receptor. PMID:26975214

  3. Transmembrane segments of complement receptor 3 do not participate in cytotoxic activities but determine receptor structure required for action of Bordetella adenylate cyclase toxin.

    PubMed

    Wald, Tomas; Osickova, Adriana; Masin, Jiri; Liskova, Petra M; Petry-Podgorska, Inga; Matousek, Tomas; Sebo, Peter; Osicka, Radim

    2016-04-01

    Adenylate cyclase toxin-hemolysin (CyaA, ACT or AC-Hly) of the whooping cough agent Bordetella pertussis penetrates phagocytes expressing the integrin complement receptor 3 (CR3, CD11b/CD18, αMβ2 or Mac-1). CyaA translocates its adenylate cyclase (AC) enzyme domain into cell cytosol and catalyzes unregulated conversion of ATP to cAMP, thereby subverting cellular signaling. In parallel, CyaA forms small cation-selective membrane pores that permeabilize cells for potassium efflux, contributing to cytotoxicity of CyaA and eventually provoking colloid-osmotic cell lysis. To investigate whether the single-pass α-helical transmembrane segments of CR3 subunits CD11b and CD18 do directly participate in AC domain translocation and/or pore formation by the toxin, we expressed in CHO cells variants of CR3 that contained artificial transmembrane segments, or lacked the transmembrane segment(s) at all. The results demonstrate that the transmembrane segments of CR3 are not directly involved in the cytotoxic activities of CyaA but serve for maintaining CR3 in a conformation that is required for efficient toxin binding and action. PMID:26802078

  4. Induced alpha-helix structure in the aryl hydrocarbon receptor transactivation domain modulates protein-protein interactions.

    PubMed

    Watt, Kate; Jess, Thomas J; Kelly, Sharon M; Price, Nicholas C; McEwan, Iain J

    2005-01-18

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is an intracellular receptor protein that regulates gene transcription in response to both man-made and natural ligands. A modular transactivaton domain (TAD) has been mapped to the 304 C-terminal amino acids and consists of acidic, Q-rich, and P/S/T-rich subdomains. We have used steady-state intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence and circular dichroism spectroscopy to investigate the conformation of the acidic Q-rich region. The results reveal that this region of the protein is structurally flexible but adopts a more folded conformation in the presence of the natural osmolyte trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) and the solvent trifluoroethanol (TFE). In protein-protein interaction studies, the acidic Q-rich region bound to components of the general transcription machinery [TATA-binding protein (TBP), TAF4, and TAF6] as well as the coactivator proteins SRC-1a and TIF2. The binding site for TBP mapped to the acidic subdomain, while SRC-1a bound preferentially to the Q-rich sequence. Significantly, the binding of TBP was modulated by induced folding of the TAD with TMAO. The results indicate that the AhR TAD makes multiple interactions with the transcriptional machinery and protein conformation plays a critical role in receptor function. Taken together, these findings support a role for protein folding in AhR action and suggest possible mechanisms of receptor-dependent gene activation. PMID:15641800

  5. Accurate prediction of helix interactions and residue contacts in membrane proteins.

    PubMed

    Hönigschmid, Peter; Frishman, Dmitrij

    2016-04-01

    Accurate prediction of intra-molecular interactions from amino acid sequence is an important pre-requisite for obtaining high-quality protein models. Over the recent years, remarkable progress in this area has been achieved through the application of novel co-variation algorithms, which eliminate transitive evolutionary connections between residues. In this work we present a new contact prediction method for α-helical transmembrane proteins, MemConP, in which evolutionary couplings are combined with a machine learning approach. MemConP achieves a substantially improved accuracy (precision: 56.0%, recall: 17.5%, MCC: 0.288) compared to the use of either machine learning or co-evolution methods alone. The method also achieves 91.4% precision, 42.1% recall and a MCC of 0.490 in predicting helix-helix interactions based on predicted contacts. The approach was trained and rigorously benchmarked by cross-validation and independent testing on up-to-date non-redundant datasets of 90 and 30 experimental three dimensional structures, respectively. MemConP is a standalone tool that can be downloaded together with the associated training data from http://webclu.bio.wzw.tum.de/MemConP. PMID:26851352

  6. Helix design, prediction and stability.

    PubMed

    Muoz, V; Serrano, L

    1995-08-01

    Recent work revealing that our knowledge is now sufficient to build a reasonable quantitative model for the helix/coil transition in heteropolypeptides represents a watershed in research into alpha-helix stability, prediction and design. The opportunity is presented to design specific alpha-helix propensity patterns that may be used both to modify thermodynamic properties of target proteins and peptides, and for de novo protein design. Despite these advances, the picture is not yet complete and further studies of still poorly characterized factors are required to obtain a more precise understanding of alpha-helix stability. PMID:7579647

  7. The domain structure of talin: residues 1815-1973 form a five-helix bundle containing a cryptic vinculin-binding site.

    PubMed

    Goult, Benjamin T; Gingras, Alexandre R; Bate, Neil; Barsukov, Igor L; Critchley, David R; Roberts, Gordon C K

    2010-06-01

    Talin is a large flexible rod-shaped protein that activates the integrin family of cell adhesion molecules and couples them to cytoskeletal actin. Its rod region consists of a series of helical bundles. Here we show that residues 1815-1973 form a 5-helix bundle, with a topology unique to talin which is optimally suited for formation of a long rod such as talin. This is much more stable than the 4-helix (1843-1973) domain described earlier and as a result its vinculin binding sequence is inaccessible to vinculin at room temperature, with implications for the overall mechanism of the talin-vinculin interaction. PMID:20399778

  8. OVERVIEW OF HELIX HOUSE NO. 2 (S87), WITH ANTENNA TOWERS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERVIEW OF HELIX HOUSE NO. 2 (S-87), WITH ANTENNA TOWERS, HELIX HOUSE NO. 1 (S-3) AND TRANSMITTER BLDG. (S-2) AT REAR, LOOKING WEST SOUTHWEST. - Naval Computer & Telecommunications Area Master Station, Eastern Pacific, Radio Transmitter Facility Lualualei, Helix House No. 2, Base of Radio Antenna Structure No. 427, Makaha, Honolulu County, HI

  9. Helix control in polymers

    PubMed Central

    Totsingan, Filbert; Jain, Vipul; Green, Mark M.

    2012-01-01

    The helix is a critical conformation exhibited by biological macromolecules and plays a key role in fundamental biological processes. Biological helical polymers exist in a single helical sense arising from the chiral effect of their primary units—for example, DNA and proteins adopt predominantly a right-handed helix conformation in response to the asymmetric conformational propensity of D-sugars and L-amino acids, respectively. In using these homochiral systems, nature blocks our observations of some fascinating aspects of the cooperativity in helical systems, although when useful for a specific purpose, “wrong” enantiomers may be incorporated in specific places. In synthetic helical systems, on the contrary, incorporation of non-racemic chirality is an additional burden, and the findings discussed in this review show that this burden may be considerably alleviated by taking advantage of the amplification of chirality, in which small chiral influences lead to large consequences. Peptide nucleic acid (PNA), which is a non-chiral synthetic DNA mimic, shows a cooperative response to a small chiral effect induced by a chiral amino acid, which is limited, however, due to the highly flexible nature of this oligomeric chimera. The lack of internal stereochemical bias is an important factor which makes PNA an ideal system to understand some cooperative features that are not directly accessible from DNA. PMID:22772039

  10. Structural determinants of human proton-coupled folate transporter oligomerization: role of GXXXG motifs and identification of oligomeric interfaces at transmembrane domains 3 and 6

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Mike R.; Kugel, Sita; Huang, Jenny; Wilson, Lucas J.; Wloszczynski, Patrick A.; Ye, Jun; Matherly, Larry H.; Hou, Zhanjun

    2016-01-01

    The human proton-coupled folate transporter (hPCFT) is expressed in solid tumours and is active at pHs characterizing the tumour microenvironment. Recent attention focused on exploiting hPCFT for targeting solid tumours with novel cytotoxic anti-folates. hPCFT has 12 transmembrane domains (TMDs) and forms homo-oligomers with functional significance. The hPCFT primary sequence includes GXXXG motifs in TMD2 (G93XXXG97) and TMD4 (G155XXXG159). To investigate roles of these motifs in hPCFT function, stability and surface expression, we mutated glycine to leucine to generate single or multiple substitution mutants. Only the G93L and G159L mutants preserved substantial [3H]methotrexate (Mtx) transport when expressed in hPCFT-null (R1-11) HeLa cells. Transport activity of the glycine-to-leucine mutants correlated with surface hPCFT by surface biotinylation and confocal microscopy with ECFP*-tagged hPCFTs, suggesting a role for GXXXG in hPCFT stability and intracellular trafficking. When co-expressed in R1-11 cells, haemagglutinin-tagged glycine-to-leucine mutants and His10-tagged wild-type (WT) hPCFT co-associated on nickel affinity columns, suggesting that the GXXXG motifs are not directly involved in hPCFT oligomerization. This was substantiated by in situ FRET experiments with co-expressed ECFP*- and YFP-tagged hPCFT. Molecular modelling of dimeric hPCFT structures showed juxtaposed TMDs 2, 3, 4 and 6 as potential structural interfaces between monomers. hPCFT cysteine insertion mutants in TMD3 (Q136C and L137C) and TMD6 (W213C, L214C, L224C, A227C, F228C, F230C and G231C) were expressed in R1-11 cells and cross-linked with 1,6-hexanediyl bismethanethiosulfonate, confirming TMD juxtapositions. Altogether, our results imply that TMDs 3 and 6 provide critical interfaces for formation of hPCFT oligomers, which might be facilitated by the GXXXG motifs in TMD2 and TMD4. PMID:25877470

  11. Membrane helix orientation from linear dichroism of infrared attenuated total reflection spectra.

    PubMed Central

    Bechinger, B; Ruysschaert, J M; Goormaghtigh, E

    1999-01-01

    Oriented multilamellar systems containing phospholipids and peptides have been formed on a germanium internal reflection element. Attenuated total reflection infrared spectra have been recorded and the linear dichroism of peptide amide I and amide II bands measured. Using peptides for which the orientation had been previously studied under similar experimental conditions by 15N solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, important conclusions were drawn on the approach to be used to derive secondary structure orientation in a membrane from dichroic ratios. In particular, it is shown that the influence of the film thickness and refractive index on the orientation determination can be evaluated from the value of RATRiso, i.e., the dichroic ratio of a dipole oriented at the magic angle or with isotropic mobility. A series of peptides was used to test the validity of our suggestions on various helix orientations in the membrane. These include magainin 2 and hydrophobic (hPhi20) model peptides, the transmembrane segment of glycophorin (GLY), and LAH4, a designed peptide antibiotic that changes between a transmembrane and an in-plane orientation in a pH-dependent manner. PMID:9876168

  12. Pred?TM: A Novel ?-Transmembrane Region Prediction Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Roy Choudhury, Amrita; Novi?, Marjana

    2015-01-01

    Predicting the transmembrane regions is an important aspect of understanding the structures and architecture of different ?-barrel membrane proteins. Despite significant efforts, currently available ?-transmembrane region predictors are still limited in terms of prediction accuracy, especially in precision. Here, we describe Pred?TM, a transmembrane region prediction algorithm for ?-barrel proteins. Using amino acid pair frequency information in known ?-transmembrane protein sequences, we have trained a support vector machine classifier to predict ?-transmembrane segments. Position-specific amino acid preference data is incorporated in the final prediction. The predictor does not incorporate evolutionary profile information explicitly, but is based on sequence patterns generated implicitly by encoding the protein segments using amino acid adjacency matrix. With a benchmark set of 35 ?-transmembrane proteins, Pred?TM shows a sensitivity and precision of 83.71% and 72.98%, respectively. The segment overlap score is 82.19%. In comparison with other state-of-art methods, Pred?TM provides a higher precision and segment overlap without compromising with sensitivity. Further, we applied Pred?TM to analyze the ?-barrel membrane proteins without defined transmembrane regions and the uncharacterized protein sequences in eight bacterial genomes and predict possible ?-transmembrane proteins. Pred?TM can be freely accessed on the web at http://transpred.ki.si/. PMID:26694538

  13. Energetic Frustration of Apomyoglobin Folding: Role of the B Helix

    PubMed Central

    Nishimura, Chiaki; Dyson, H. Jane; Wright, Peter E.

    2010-01-01

    Apomyoglobin folds by a sequential mechanism in which the A, G, and H helix regions undergo rapid collapse to form a compact intermediate onto which the central portion of the B helix subsequently docks. To investigate the factors that frustrate folding, we have made mutations in the N-terminus of the B helix to stabilize helical structure (in the mutant G23A/G25A) and to promote native-like hydrophobic packing interactions with helix G (in the mutant H24L/H119F). The kinetic and equilibrium intermediates of G23A/G25A and H24L/H119F were studied by hydrogen exchange pulse labeling and interrupted hydrogen/deuterium exchange combined with NMR. For both mutants, stabilization of helical structure in the N-terminal region of the B-helix is confirmed by increased exchange protection in the equilibrium molten globule states near pH 4. Increased protection is also observed in the G-H turn region in the G23A/G25A mutant, suggesting that stabilization of the B-helix facilitates native-like interactions with the C-terminal region of helix G. These interactions are further enhanced in H24L/H119F. The kinetic burst phase intermediates of both mutants show increased protection, relative to wild type protein, of amides in the N-terminus of the B helix and in part of the E helix. Stabilization of the E helix in the intermediate is attributed to direct interactions between E helix residues and the newly stabilized N-terminus of helix B. Stabilization of native packing between the B and G helices in H24L/H119F also favors formation of native-like interactions in the GH turn and between the G and H helices in the ensemble of burst phase intermediates. We conclude that instability at the N-terminus of the B helix of apomyoglobin contributes to the energetic frustration of folding by preventing docking and stabilization of the E helix. PMID:20043917

  14. Structures of bacterial homologues of SWEET transporters in two distinct conformations.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yan; Tao, Yuyong; Cheung, Lily S; Fan, Chao; Chen, Li-Qing; Xu, Sophia; Perry, Kay; Frommer, Wolf B; Feng, Liang

    2014-11-20

    SWEETs and their prokaryotic homologues are monosaccharide and disaccharide transporters that are present from Archaea to plants and humans. SWEETs play crucial roles in cellular sugar efflux processes: that is, in phloem loading, pollen nutrition and nectar secretion. Their bacterial homologues, which are called SemiSWEETs, are among the smallest known transporters. Here we show that SemiSWEET molecules, which consist of a triple-helix bundle, form symmetrical, parallel dimers, thereby generating the translocation pathway. Two SemiSWEET isoforms were crystallized, one in an apparently open state and one in an occluded state, indicating that SemiSWEETs and SWEETs are transporters that undergo rocking-type movements during the transport cycle. The topology of the triple-helix bundle is similar yet distinct to that of the basic building block of animal and plant major facilitator superfamily (MFS) transporters (for example, GLUTs and SUTs). This finding indicates two possibilities: that SWEETs and MFS transporters evolved from an ancestral triple-helix bundle or that the triple-helix bundle represents convergent evolution. In SemiSWEETs and SWEETs, two triple-helix bundles are arranged in a parallel configuration to produce the 6- and 6+1-transmembrane-helix pores, respectively. In the 12-transmembrane-helix MFS transporters, four triple-helix bundles are arranged into an alternating antiparallel configuration, resulting in a much larger 2נ2 triple-helix bundle forming the pore. Given the similarity of SemiSWEETs and SWEETs to PQ-loop amino acid transporters and to mitochondrial pyruvate carriers (MPCs), the structures characterized here may also be relevant to other transporters in the MtN3 clan. The insight gained from the structures of these transporters and from the analysis of mutations of conserved residues will improve the understanding of the transport mechanism, as well as allow comparative studies of the different superfamilies involved in sugar transport and the evolution of transporters in general. PMID:25186729

  15. Into the Eye of the Helix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-02-01

    A deep new image of the magnificent Helix planetary nebula has been obtained using the Wide Field Imager at ESO's La Silla Observatory. The image shows a rich background of distant galaxies, usually not seen in other images of this object. ESO PR Photo 07a/09 The Helix Nebula ESO PR Video 06a/09 Helix Nebula Zoom-in ESO PR Video 06b/09 Pan over the Helix Nebula ESO PR Video 06c/09 Zoom and pan over the Helix Nebula The Helix Nebula, NGC 7293, lies about 700 light-years away in the constellation of Aquarius (the Water Bearer). It is one of the closest and most spectacular examples of a planetary nebula. These exotic objects have nothing to do with planets, but are the final blooming of Sun-like stars before their retirement as white dwarfs. Shells of gas are blown off from a star's surface, often in intricate and beautiful patterns, and shine under the harsh ultraviolet radiation from the faint, but very hot, central star. The main ring of the Helix Nebula is about two light-years across or half the distance between the Sun and its closest stellar neighbour. Despite being photographically very spectacular the Helix is hard to see visually as its light is thinly spread over a large area of sky and the history of its discovery is rather obscure. It first appears in a list of new objects compiled by the German astronomer Karl Ludwig Harding in 1824. The name Helix comes from the rough corkscrew shape seen in the earlier photographs. Although the Helix looks very much like a doughnut, studies have shown that it possibly consists of at least two separate discs with outer rings and filaments. The brighter inner disc seems to be expanding at about 100 000 km/h and to have taken about 12 000 years to have formed. Because the Helix is relatively close -- it covers an area of the sky about a quarter of the full Moon -- it can be studied in much greater detail than most other planetary nebulae and has been found to have an unexpected and complex structure. All around the inside of the ring are small blobs, known as "cometary knots", with faint tails extending away from the central star. They look remarkably like droplets of liquid running down a sheet of glass. Although they look tiny, each knot is about as large as our Solar System. These knots have been extensively studied, both with the ESO Very Large Telescope and with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, but remain only partially understood. A careful look at the central part of this object reveals not only the knots, but also many remote galaxies seen right through the thinly spread glowing gas. Some of these seem to be gathered in separate galaxy groups scattered over various parts of the image.

  16. A deterministic algorithm for constrained enumeration of transmembrane protein folds.

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, William Michael; Young, Malin M.; Sale, Kenneth L.; Faulon, Jean-Loup Michel; Schoeniger, Joseph S.

    2004-07-01

    A deterministic algorithm for enumeration of transmembrane protein folds is presented. Using a set of sparse pairwise atomic distance constraints (such as those obtained from chemical cross-linking, FRET, or dipolar EPR experiments), the algorithm performs an exhaustive search of secondary structure element packing conformations distributed throughout the entire conformational space. The end result is a set of distinct protein conformations, which can be scored and refined as part of a process designed for computational elucidation of transmembrane protein structures.

  17. Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR)

    PubMed Central

    Corradi, Valentina; Vergani, Paola; Tieleman, D. Peter

    2015-01-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a member of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter superfamily. CFTR controls the flow of anions through the apical membrane of epithelia. Dysfunctional CFTR causes the common lethal genetic disease cystic fibrosis. Transitions between open and closed states of CFTR are regulated by ATP binding and hydrolysis on the cytosolic nucleotide binding domains, which are coupled with the transmembrane (TM) domains forming the pathway for anion permeation. Lack of structural data hampers a global understanding of CFTR and thus the development of “rational” approaches directly targeting defective CFTR. In this work, we explored possible conformational states of the CFTR gating cycle by means of homology modeling. As templates, we used structures of homologous ABC transporters, namely TM(287–288), ABC-B10, McjD, and Sav1866. In the light of published experimental results, structural analysis of the transmembrane cavity suggests that the TM(287–288)-based CFTR model could correspond to a commonly occupied closed state, whereas the McjD-based model could represent an open state. The models capture the important role played by Phe-337 as a filter/gating residue and provide structural information on the conformational transition from closed to open channel. PMID:26229102

  18. Modelling Sodium Channel Kinetics using the Sliding Helix Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chancey, C. C.; George, S. A.

    1998-03-01

    The activation of sodium channels is central to all excitable cell function. The S4 segment of the transmembrane channel molecule is the putative voltage sensor for voltage-gated channels. Elementary physical models have recently been successful in modelling several aspects BTX-modified channels: the activation curve and dwell time histograms, in particular. Such models have failed, however, in reproducing the channels' sensitivity to temperature. This report discusses recent attempts at adding a temperature dependence in a model based on the sliding helix concept.

  19. Converting One-Face α-Helix Mimetics into Amphiphilic α-Helix Mimetics as Potent Inhibitors of Protein-Protein Interactions.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji Hoon; Oh, Misook; Kim, Hyun Soo; Lee, Huisun; Im, Wonpil; Lim, Hyun-Suk

    2016-01-11

    Many biologically active α-helical peptides adopt amphiphilic helical structures that contain hydrophobic residues on one side and hydrophilic residues on the other side. Therefore, α-helix mimetics capable of mimicking such amphiphilic helical peptides should possess higher binding affinity and specificity to target proteins. Here we describe an efficient method for generating amphiphilic α-helix mimetics. One-face α-helix mimetics having hydrophobic side chains on one side was readily converted into amphiphilic α-helix mimetics by introducing appropriate charged residues on the opposite side. We also demonstrate that such two-face amphiphilic α-helix mimetics indeed show remarkably improved binding affinity to a target protein, compared to one-face hydrophobic α-helix mimetics. We believe that generating a large combinatorial library of these amphiphilic α-helix mimetics can be valuable for rapid discovery of highly potent and specific modulators of protein-protein interactions. PMID:26651509

  20. Deducing the transmembrane domain organization of presenilin-1 in gamma-secretase by cysteine disulfide cross-linking.

    PubMed

    Kornilova, Anna Y; Kim, Jennifer; Laudon, Hanna; Wolfe, Michael S

    2006-06-20

    Gamma-secretase is a founding member of membrane-embedded aspartyl proteases that cleave substrates within transmembrane domains, and this enzyme is an important target for the development of therapeutics for Alzheimer's disease. The structure of gamma-secretase and its precise catalytic mechanism still remain largely unknown. Gamma-secretase is a complex of four integral membrane proteins, with presenilin (PS) as the catalytic component. To gain structural and functional information about the nine-transmembrane domain (TMD) presenilin, we employed a cysteine mutagenesis/disulfide cross-linking approach. Here we report that native Cys92 is close to both Cys410 and Cys419, strongly implying that TMD1 and TMD8 are adjacent to each other. This structural arrangement also suggests that TMD8 is distorted from an ideal helix. Importantly, binding of an active site directed inhibitor, but not a docking site directed inhibitor, reduces the ability of the native cysteine pairs of PS1 to cross-link upon oxidation. These findings suggest that the conserved cysteines of TMD1 and TMD8 contribute to or allosterically interact with the active site of gamma-secretase. PMID:16768455

  1. Salvador-Warts-Hippo pathway in a developmental checkpoint monitoring Helix-Loop-Helix proteins

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lan-Hsin; Baker, Nicholas E.

    2014-01-01

    The E-proteins and Id-proteins are, respectively, the positive and negative heterodimer partners for the basic-helix-loop-helix protein family, and as such contribute to a remarkably large number of cell fate decisions. E-proteins and Id-proteins also function to inhibit or promote cell proliferation and cancer. Using a genetic modifier screen in Drosophila, we show that the Id-protein Extramacrochaetae enables growth by suppressing activation of the Salvador-Warts-Hippo pathway of tumor suppressors, activation that requires transcriptional activation of the expanded gene by the E-protein Daughterless. Daughterless protein binds to an intronic enhancer in the expanded gene, both activating the SWH pathway independently of the transmembrane protein Crumbs, and bypassing the negative feedback regulation that targets the same expanded enhancer. Thus the Salvador-Warts-Hippo pathway has a cell-autonomous function to prevent inappropriate differentiation due to transcription factor imbalance, and monitors the intrinsic developmental status of progenitor cells, distinct from any responses to cell-cell interactions. PMID:25579975

  2. Salvador-Warts-Hippo pathway in a developmental checkpoint monitoring helix-loop-helix proteins.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lan-Hsin; Baker, Nicholas E

    2015-01-26

    The E proteins and Id proteins are, respectively, the positive and negative heterodimer partners for the basic-helix-loop-helix protein family and as such contribute to a remarkably large number of cell-fate decisions. E proteins and Id proteins also function to inhibit or promote cell proliferation and cancer. Using a genetic modifier screen in Drosophila, we show that the Id protein Extramacrochaetae enables growth by suppressing activation of the Salvador-Warts-Hippo pathway of tumor suppressors, activation that requires transcriptional activation of the expanded gene by the E protein Daughterless. Daughterless protein binds to an intronic enhancer in the expanded gene, both activating the SWH pathway independently of the transmembrane protein Crumbs and bypassing the negative feedback regulation that targets the same expanded enhancer. Thus, the Salvador-Warts-Hippo pathway has a cell-autonomous function to prevent inappropriate differentiation due to transcription factor imbalance and monitors the intrinsic developmental status of progenitor cells, distinct from any responses to cell-cell interactions. PMID:25579975

  3. The infrared dichroism of transmembrane helical polypeptides.

    PubMed Central

    Axelsen, P H; Kaufman, B K; McElhaney, R N; Lewis, R N

    1995-01-01

    Polarized attenuated total internal reflectance techniques were applied to study the infrared dichroism of the amide I transition moment in two membrane-bound peptides that are known to form oriented transmembrane helices: gramicidin A in a supported phospholipid monolayer and Ac-Lys2-Leu24-Lys2-amide (L24) in oriented multibilayers. These studies were performed to test the ability of these techniques to determine the orientation of these peptides, to verify the value of optical parameters used to calculate electric field strengths, to examine the common assumptions regarding the amide I transition moment orientation, and to ascertain the effect of surface imperfections on molecular disorder. The two peptides exhibit marked differences in the shape and frequency of their amide I absorption bands. Yet both peptides are highly ordered and oriented with their helical axes perpendicular to the membrane surface. In the alpha-helix formed by L24, there is evidence for a mode with type E1 symmetry contributing to amide I, and the amide I transition moment must be more closely aligned with the peptide C=O (< 34 degrees) than earlier studies have suggested. These results indicate that long-standing assumptions about the orientation of amide I in a peptide require some revision, but that in general, infrared spectroscopy yields reliable information about the orientation of membrane-bound helical peptides. Images FIGURE 1 PMID:8599683

  4. Direct folding simulation of a long helix in explicit water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Ya; Lu, Xiaoliang; Duan, Lili; Zhang, Dawei; Mei, Ye; Zhang, John Z. H.

    2013-05-01

    A recently proposed Polarizable Hydrogen Bond (PHB) method has been employed to simulate the folding of a 53 amino acid helix (PDB ID 2KHK) in explicit water. Under PHB simulation, starting from a fully extended structure, the peptide folds into the native state as confirmed by measured time evolutions of radius of gyration, root mean square deviation (RMSD), and native hydrogen bond. Free energy and cluster analysis show that the folded helix is thermally stable under the PHB model. Comparison of simulation results under, respectively, PHB and standard nonpolarizable force field demonstrates that polarization is critical for stable folding of this long ?-helix.

  5. Ferromagnetic transition in a multiply-twisted helix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ugajin, R.; Ishibashi, A.; Hirata, S.; Ishimoto, C.; Mori, Y.

    2000-10-01

    We investigated ferromagnetic transition in a multiply-twisted helix, in which a helical chain of components is twisted, producing a doubly-twisted helix, which if itself is twisted produces a triply-twisted helix, and so on, in which there are couplings between adjacent rounds of helices. The critical temperature of the ferromagnetic transition is controlled by adjusting the number of components in a round of helices, i.e. N, as is suggested by the results of our numerical experiments based on the standard Monte Carlo simulation. As N increases, the magnetization curve develops a shoulder below the critical temperature. This is caused by the hierarchical structure of our multiply-twisted helix, just as a structure possessing ultrametric topology.

  6. Gap Junction Channel Structure in the Early 21st Century: Facts and Fantasies

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Andrew L.

    2009-01-01

    Gap junction channels connect the cytoplasms of adjacent cells through the end-to-end docking of single-membrane structures called connexons, formed by a ring of six connexin monomers. Each monomer contains 4 transmembrane ?-helices, for a total of 24 ?-helices in a connexon. The fundamental structure of the connexon pore is probably similar in unpaired connexons and junctional channels, and for channels formed by different connexin isoforms. Nevertheless, variability in results from structurally-focused mutagenesis and electrophysiological studies raise uncertainty about the specific assignments of the transmembrane helices. Mapping of human mutations onto a suggested C? model predicts that mutations that disrupt helix-helix packing impair channel function. An experimentally determined structure at atomic resolution will be essential to confirm and resolve these concepts. PMID:17945477

  7. The transmembrane domain 6 of vacuolar H(+)-pyrophosphatase mediates protein targeting and proton transport.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yih-Jiuan; Lee, Chien-Hsien; Hsu, Shen-Hsing; Huang, Yun-Tzu; Lee, Ching-Hung; Liu, Tseng-Huang; Chen, Yen-Wei; Lin, Shih-Ming; Pan, Rong-Long

    2011-01-01

    Vacuolar H(+)-pyrophosphatase (V-PPase; EC 3.6.1.1) plays a significant role in the maintenance of the pH in cytoplasm and vacuoles via proton translocation from the cytosol to the vacuolar lumen at the expense of PP(i) hydrolysis. The topology of V-PPase as predicted by TopPred II suggests that the catalytic site is putatively located in loop e and exposed to the cytosol. The adjacent transmembrane domain 6 (TM6) is highly conserved and believed to participate in the catalytic function and conformational stability of V-PPase. In this study, alanine-scanning mutagenesis along TM6 of the mung bean V-PPase was carried out to identify its structural and functional role. Mutants Y299A, A306S and L317A exhibited gross impairment in both PP(i) hydrolysis and proton translocation. Meanwhile, mutations at L307 and N318 completely abolished the targeting of the enzyme, causing broad cytosolic localization and implicating a possible role of these residues in protein translocation. The location of these amino acid residues was on the same side of the helix wheel, suggesting their involvement in maintaining the stability of enzyme conformation. G297A, E301A and A305S mutants showed declines in proton translocation but not in PP(i) hydrolysis, consequently resulting in decreases in the coupling efficiency. These amino acid residues cluster at one face of the helix wheel, indicating their direct/indirect participation in proton translocation. Taken together, these data indicate that TM6 is crucial to vacuolar H(+)-pyrophosphatase, probably mediating protein targeting, proton transport, and the maintenance of enzyme structure. PMID:20937245

  8. Capping Motif for Peptide Helix Formation.

    PubMed

    Zabuga, Aleksandra V; Rizzo, Thomas R

    2015-05-01

    It is known that a C-terminal lysine stabilizes helix formation in polyalanine peptides that have seven or more residues. Using a combination of cold ion spectroscopy and DFT calculations, we demonstrate that even a three-residue peptide, Ac-Phe-Ala-LysH(+), adopts a structure in which the lysine side chain forms three hydrogen bonds with backbone carbonyls, reproducing the capping motif of larger polyalanine helices. This is confirmed by comparison with Ac-Phe-(Ala)5-LysH(+), which forms a 310 helix containing the same structural feature. In both molecules, we identified the vibrational bands of the N- and C-terminal amide NH stretches, which lack strong hydrogen bonds with carbonyls and consequently appear in a characteristic region above 3400 cm(-1). A similar pattern is also present in the even longer peptide Ac-Phe-(Ala)10-LysH(+), illustrating the generality of this capping motif. The two longer peptides contain additional, characteristic amide NH stretch bands below 3400 cm(-1), which form the core of the helix. PMID:26263303

  9. A distinct three-helix centipede toxin SSD609 inhibits I(ks) channels by interacting with the KCNE1 auxiliary subunit.

    PubMed

    Sun, Peibei; Wu, Fangming; Wen, Ming; Yang, Xingwang; Wang, Chenyang; Li, Yiming; He, Shufang; Zhang, Longhua; Zhang, Yun; Tian, Changlin

    2015-01-01

    KCNE1 is a single-span transmembrane auxiliary protein that modulates the voltage-gated potassium channel KCNQ1. The KCNQ1/KCNE1 complex in cardiomyocytes exhibited slow activated potassium (I(ks)) currents. Recently, a novel 47-residue polypeptide toxin SSD609 was purified from Scolopendra subspinipes dehaani venom and showed I(ks) current inhibition. Here, chemically synthesized SSD609 was shown to exert I(ks) inhibition in extracted guinea pig cardiomyocytes and KCNQ1/KCNE1 current attenuation in CHO cells. The K(+) current attenuation of SSD609 showed decent selectivity among different auxiliary subunits. Solution nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of SSD609 revealed a distinctive three-helix conformation that was stabilized by a new disulfide bonding pattern as well as segregated surface charge distribution. Structure-activity studies demonstrated that negatively charged Glu19 in the amphipathic extracellular helix of KCNE1 was the key residue that interacted with SSD609. The distinctive three-helix centipede toxin SSD609 is known to be the first polypeptide toxin acting on channel auxiliary subunit KCNE1, which suggests a new type of pharmacological regulation for ion channels in cardiomyocytes. PMID:26307551

  10. Evidence for new homotypic and heterotypic interactions between transmembrane helices of proteins involved in receptor tyrosine kinase and neuropilin signaling.

    PubMed

    Sawma, Paul; Roth, Lise; Blanchard, Ccile; Bagnard, Dominique; Crmel, Grard; Bouveret, Emmanuelle; Duneau, Jean-Pierre; Sturgis, James N; Hubert, Pierre

    2014-12-12

    Signaling in eukaryotic cells frequently relies on dynamic interactions of single-pass membrane receptors involving their transmembrane (TM) domains. To search for new such interactions, we have developed a bacterial two-hybrid system to screen for both homotypic and heterotypic interactions between TM helices. We have explored the dimerization of TM domains from 16 proteins involved in both receptor tyrosine kinase and neuropilin signaling. This study has revealed several new interactions. We found that the TM domain of Mucin-4, a putative intramembrane ligand for erbB2, dimerizes not only with erbB2 but also with all four members of the erbB family. In the Neuropilin/Plexin family of receptors, we showed that the TM domains of Neuropilins 1 and 2 dimerize with themselves and also with Plexin-A1, Plexin-B1, and L1CAM, but we were unable to observe interactions with several other TM domains notably those of members of the VEGF receptor family. The potentially important Neuropilin 1/Plexin-A1 interaction was confirmed using a surface plasmon resonance assay. This work shows that TM domain interactions can be highly specific. Exploring further the propensities of TM helix-helix association in cell membrane should have important practical implications related to our understanding of the structure-function of bitopic proteins' assembly and subsequent function, especially in the regulation of signal transduction. PMID:25315821

  11. A general method for determining helix packing in membrane proteins in situ: Helices I and II are close to helix VII in the lactose permease of Escherichia?coli

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jianhua; Kaback, H.?Ronald

    1996-01-01

    It was previously shown that coexpression of the lactose permease of Escherichia coli in two contiguous fragments leads to functional complementation. We demonstrate here that site-directed thiol crosslinking of coexpressed permease fragments can be used to determine helix proximity in situ without the necessity of purifying the permease. After coexpression of the six N-terminal (N6) and six C-terminal (C6) transmembrane helices, each with a single Cys residue, crosslinking was carried out in native membranes and assessed by the mobility of anti-C-terminal-reactive polypeptides on immunoblots. A Cys residue at position 242 or 245 (helix VII) forms a disulfide with a Cys residue at either position 28 or 29 (helix I), but not with a Cys residue at position 27, which is on the opposite face of helix I, thereby indicating that the face of helix I containing Pro-28 and Phe-29 is close to helix VII. Similarly, a Cys residue at position 242 or 245 (helix VII) forms a disulfide with a Cys residue at either position 52 or 53 (helix II), but not with a Cys residue at position 54. Furthermore, low-efficiency crosslinking is observed between a Cys residue at position 52 or 53 and a Cys residue at position 361 (helix XI). The results indicate that helix VII lies in close proximity to both helices I and II and that helix II is also close to helix XI. The method should be applicable to a number of different polytopic membrane proteins. PMID:8962080

  12. C- and H-detection under fast MAS for the study of poorly available proteins: application to sub-milligram quantities of a 7 trans-membrane protein.

    PubMed

    Dannatt, Hugh R W; Taylor, Garrick F; Varga, Krisztina; Higman, Victoria A; Pfeil, Marc-Philipp; Asilmovska, Lubica; Judge, Peter J; Watts, Anthony

    2015-05-01

    We demonstrate that (13)C-detected spectra recorded using fast (60 kHz) magic angle spinning on sub-milligram (<10 ?mol) quantities of a protonated 7 trans-membrane helix protein (bacteriorhodopsin) in its native lipid environment are comparable in sensitivity and resolution to those recorded using 15-fold larger sample volumes with conventional solid state NMR methodology. We demonstrate the utility of proton-detected measurements which yield narrow (1)H linewidths under these conditions, and that no structural alterations are observed. We propose that these methods will prove useful to gain structural information on membrane proteins with poor availability, which can be studied in their native lipid environments. PMID:25701262

  13. Polyproline and Triple Helix Motifs in Host-Pathogen Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Berisio, Rita; Vitagliano, Luigi

    2012-01-01

    Secondary structure elements often mediate protein-protein interactions. Despite their low abundance in folded proteins, polyproline II (PPII) and its variant, the triple helix, are frequently involved in protein-protein interactions, likely due to their peculiar propensity to be solvent-exposed. We here review the role of PPII and triple helix in mediating host-pathogen interactions, with a particular emphasis to the structural aspects of these processes. After a brief description of the basic structural features of these elements, examples of host-pathogen interactions involving these motifs are illustrated. Literature data suggest that the role played by PPII motif in these processes is twofold. Indeed, PPII regions may directly mediate interactions between proteins of the host and the pathogen. Alternatively, PPII may act as structural spacers needed for the correct positioning of the elements needed for adhesion and infectivity. Recent investigations have highlighted that collagen triple helix is also a common target for bacterial adhesins. Although structural data on complexes between adhesins and collagen models are rather limited, experimental and theoretical studies have unveiled some interesting clues of the recognition process. Interestingly, very recent data show that not only is the triple helix used by pathogens as a target in the host-pathogen interaction but it may also act as a bait in these processes since bacterial proteins containing triple helix regions have been shown to interact with host proteins. As both PPII and triple helix expose several main chain non-satisfied hydrogen bond acceptors and donors, both elements are highly solvated. The preservation of the solvation state of both PPII and triple helix upon protein-protein interaction is an emerging aspect that will be here thoroughly discussed. PMID:23305370

  14. Characterization of Disease-Associated Mutations in Human Transmembrane Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Molnár, János; Szakács, Gergely; Tusnády, Gábor E.

    2016-01-01

    Transmembrane protein coding genes are commonly associated with human diseases. We characterized disease causing mutations and natural polymorphisms in transmembrane proteins by mapping missense genetic variations from the UniProt database on the transmembrane protein topology listed in the Human Transmembrane Proteome database. We found characteristic differences in the spectrum of amino acid changes within transmembrane regions: in the case of disease associated mutations the non-polar to non-polar and non-polar to charged amino acid changes are equally frequent. In contrast, in the case of natural polymorphisms non-polar to charged amino acid changes are rare while non-polar to non-polar changes are common. The majority of disease associated mutations result in glycine to arginine and leucine to proline substitutions. Mutations to positively charged amino acids are more common in the center of the lipid bilayer, where they cause more severe structural and functional anomalies. Our analysis contributes to the better understanding of the effect of disease associated mutations in transmembrane proteins, which can help prioritize genetic variations in personal genomic investigations. PMID:26986070

  15. Triple helix purification and sequencing

    DOEpatents

    Wang, R.; Smith, L.M.; Tong, X.E.

    1995-03-28

    Disclosed herein are methods, kits, and equipment for purifying single stranded circular DNA and then using the DNA for DNA sequencing purposes. Templates are provided with an insert having a hybridization region. An elongated oligonucleotide has two regions that are complementary to the insert and the oligo is bound to a magnetic anchor. The oligo hybridizes to the insert on two sides to form a stable triple helix complex. The anchor can then be used to drag the template out of solution using a magnet. The system can purify sequencing templates, and if desired the triple helix complex can be opened up to a double helix so that the oligonucleotide will act as a primer for further DNA synthesis. 4 figures.

  16. Triple helix purification and sequencing

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Renfeng (Dublin, CA); Smith, Lloyd M. (Madison, WI); Tong, Xinchun E. (Madison, WI)

    1995-01-01

    Disclosed herein are methods, kits, and equipment for purifying single stranded circular DNA and then using the DNA for DNA sequencing purposes. Templates are provided with an insert having a hybridization region. An elongated oligonucleotide has two regions that are complementary to the insert and the oligo is bound to a magnetic anchor. The oligo hybridizes to the insert on two sides to form a stable triple helix complex. The anchor can then be used to drag the template out of solution using a magnet. The system can purify sequencing templates, and if desired the triple helix complex can be opened up to a double helix so that the oligonucleotide will act as a primer for further DNA synthesis.

  17. Misplaced helix slows down ultrafast pressure-jump protein folding

    PubMed Central

    Prigozhin, Maxim B.; Liu, Yanxin; Wirth, Anna Jean; Kapoor, Shobhna; Winter, Roland; Schulten, Klaus; Gruebele, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Using a newly developed microsecond pressure-jump apparatus, we monitor the refolding kinetics of the helix-stabilized five-helix bundle protein λ*YA, the Y22W/Q33Y/G46,48A mutant of λ-repressor fragment 6–85, from 3 μs to 5 ms after a 1,200-bar P-drop. In addition to a microsecond phase, we observe a slower 1.4-ms phase during refolding to the native state. Unlike temperature denaturation, pressure denaturation produces a highly reversible helix-coil-rich state. This difference highlights the importance of the denatured initial condition in folding experiments and leads us to assign a compact nonnative helical trap as the reason for slower P-jump–induced refolding. To complement the experiments, we performed over 50 μs of all-atom molecular dynamics P-drop refolding simulations with four different force fields. Two of the force fields yield compact nonnative states with misplaced α-helix content within a few microseconds of the P-drop. Our overall conclusion from experiment and simulation is that the pressure-denatured state of λ*YA contains mainly residual helix and little β-sheet; following a fast P-drop, at least some λ*YA forms misplaced helical structure within microseconds. We hypothesize that nonnative helix at helix-turn interfaces traps the protein in compact nonnative conformations. These traps delay the folding of at least some of the population for 1.4 ms en route to the native state. Based on molecular dynamics, we predict specific mutations at the helix-turn interfaces that should speed up refolding from the pressure-denatured state, if this hypothesis is correct. PMID:23620522

  18. Analysis of Human Dopamine D3 Receptor Quaternary Structure.

    PubMed

    Marsango, Sara; Caltabiano, Gianluigi; Pou, Chantevy; Varela Liste, Mara Jos; Milligan, Graeme

    2015-06-12

    The dopamine D3 receptor is a class A, rhodopsin-like G protein-coupled receptor that can form dimers and/or higher order oligomers. However, the molecular basis for production of these complexes is not well defined. Using combinations of molecular modeling, site-directed mutagenesis, and homogenous time-resolved FRET, the interfaces that allow dopamine D3 receptor monomers to interact were defined and used to describe likely quaternary arrangements of the receptor. These were then compared with published crystal structures of dimeric ?1-adrenoreceptor, ?-opioid, and CXCR4 receptors. The data indicate important contributions of residues from within each of transmembrane domains I, II, IV, V, VI, and VII as well as the intracellular helix VIII in the formation of D3-D3 receptor interfaces within homo-oligomers and are consistent with the D3 receptor adopting a ?1-adrenoreceptor-like quaternary arrangement. Specifically, results suggest that D3 protomers can interact with each other via at least two distinct interfaces: the first one comprising residues from transmembrane domains I and II along with those from helix VIII and a second one involving transmembrane domains IV and V. Moreover, rather than existing only as distinct dimeric species, the results are consistent with the D3 receptor also assuming a quaternary structure in which two transmembrane domain I-II-helix VIII dimers interact to form a "rhombic" tetramer via an interface involving residues from transmembrane domains VI and VII. In addition, the results also provide insights into the potential contribution of molecules of cholesterol to the overall organization and potential stability of the D3 receptor and possibly other GPCR quaternary structures. PMID:25931118

  19. Self-recognition behavior of a helix-loop-helix domain by a fragment scan.

    PubMed

    Beisswenger, Michael; Cabrele, Chiara

    2014-09-01

    The inhibitors of DNA binding Id1-4 are helix-loop-helix (HLH) proteins that exert their biological function by interacting with members of the basic-HLH (bHLH) transcription-factor family. The HLH domains of the Id and bHLH proteins allow both self- and hetero-association. Due to their abnormal expression in cancer cells, the Id proteins are potential protein targets for cancer treatment. Suitable Id-protein inactivators should promote self-association and/or prevent hetero-association. In this work we evaluated the ability of the Id-protein HLH domain to recognize itself in form of short sequences extracted from the helical and loop regions. We performed a peptide scan of the Id1 HLH domain 64-106 based on three-residue overlapping octapeptides. Interaction of each octapeptide with the natively folded Id1 HLH domain was investigated by CD and fluorescence spectroscopy. The results from both techniques showed that the helix-based but not the loop-based octapeptides interacted with the Id1 HLH domain in the low-micromolar range. In contrast, a nitrotyrosine-containing analog of the Id1 HLH region, which was unable to reproduce the native-like conformation, quenched only the 2-amino-benzoyl-(Abz)-labeled loop-based octapeptides. This opposite self-recognition pattern suggests that the short helix-based and loop-based sequences should be able to distinguish different folding states of the Id1 HLH domain. This feature may be biologically relevant, as the Id proteins are predicted to behave as intrinsically disordered proteins, being in equilibrium between rapidly exchanging monomeric conformations and structurally better-defined homo-/heterodimers displaying the parallel four-helix bundle. PMID:24981796

  20. The Other Double Helix--The Fascinating Chemistry of Starch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hancock, Robert D.; Tarbet, Bryon J.

    2000-08-01

    Current textbooks deal only briefly with the chemistry of starch. A short review with 21 references is presented, describing the structure of starch and indicating the double helix structure of A-type and B-type starch. The structure of the starch granule is examined, pointing out the existence of growth rings of alternating crystalline and noncrystalline starch, with growing amylopectin molecules extending from the hilum (point of origin) to the surface of the starch granule. The swelling of starch granules in water, above the gelatinization temperature of about 60 °C, is discussed. The process of gelatinization involves unraveling of the starch helix and a manyfold increase in volume of the starch granule as water is imbibed and bound to the unraveled starch polymer by hydrogen bonding. Baking bread or pastries causes unraveling of the starch helix, and the process by which these products become stale corresponds primarily to the re-forming of the starch helix. The importance of this phenomenon in food science is discussed. The absorption of nonpolar linear molecules such as I2, or linear nonpolar portions of molecules such as n-butanol or fats and phospholipids, by the C-type helix of starch is examined. The way in which starch is structurally modified to retard staling is discussed in relation to food technology.

  1. Modeling Transmembrane Domain Dimers/Trimers of Plexin Receptors: Implications for Mechanisms of Signal Transmission across the Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Liqun; Polyansky, Anton; Buck, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Single-pass transmembrane (TM) receptors transmit signals across lipid bilayers by helix association or by configurational changes within preformed dimers. The structure determination for such TM regions is challenging and has mostly been accomplished by NMR spectroscopy. Recently, the computational prediction of TM dimer structures is becoming recognized for providing models, including alternate conformational states, which are important for receptor regulation. Here we pursued a strategy to predict helix oligomers that is based on packing considerations (using the PREDDIMER webserver) and is followed by a refinement of structures, utilizing microsecond all-atom molecular dynamics simulations. We applied this method to plexin TM receptors, a family of 9 human proteins, involved in the regulation of cell guidance and motility. The predicted models show that, overall, the preferences identified by PREDDIMER are preserved in the unrestrained simulations and that TM structures are likely to be diverse across the plexin family. Plexin-B1 and B3 TM helices are regular and tend to associate, whereas plexin-A1, -A2, A3, -A4, -C1 and D1 contain sequence elements, such as poly-Glycine or aromatic residues that distort helix conformation and association. Plexin-B2 does not form stable dimers due to the presence of TM prolines. No experimental structural information on the TM region is available for these proteins, except for plexin-C1 dimeric and plexin-B1 trimeric structures inferred from X-ray crystal structures of the intracellular regions. Plexin-B1 TM trimers utilize Ser and Thr sidechains for interhelical contacts. We also modeled the juxta-membrane (JM) region of plexin-C1 and plexin-B1 and show that it synergizes with the TM structures. The structure and dynamics of the JM region and TM-JM junction provide determinants for the distance and distribution of the intracellular domains, and for their binding partners relative to the membrane. The structures suggest experimental tests and will be useful for the interpretation of future studies. PMID:25837709

  2. Single-spanning transmembrane domains in cell growth and cell-cell interactions

    PubMed Central

    Sawma, Paul; Duneau, Jean-Pierre; Khao, Jonathan; Hénin, Jélerôme; Bagnard, Dominique; Sturgis, James

    2010-01-01

    As a whole, integral membrane proteins represent about one third of sequenced genomes, and more than 50% of currently available drugs target membrane proteins, often cell surface receptors. Some membrane protein classes, with a defined number of transmembrane (TM) helices, are receiving much attention because of their great functional and pharmacological importance, such as G protein-coupled receptors possessing 7 TM segments. Although they represent roughly half of all membrane proteins, bitopic proteins (with only 1 TM helix) have so far been less well characterized. Though they include many essential families of receptors, such as adhesion molecules and receptor tyrosine kinases, many of which are excellent targets for biopharmaceuticals (peptides, antibodies, et al.). A growing body of evidence suggests a major role for interactions between TM domains of these receptors in signaling, through homo and heteromeric associations, conformational changes, assembly of signaling platforms, etc. Significantly, mutations within single domains are frequent in human disease, such as cancer or developmental disorders. This review attempts to give an overview of current knowledge about these interactions, from structural data to therapeutic perspectives, focusing on bitopic proteins involved in cell signaling. PMID:20543559

  3. Connecting two proteins using a fusion alpha helix stabilized by a chemical cross linker

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Woo Hyeon; Lee, Haerim; Song, Dong Hyun; Eom, Jae-Hoon; Kim, Sun Chang; Lee, Hee-Seung; Lee, Hayyoung; Lee, Jie-Oh

    2016-01-01

    Building a sophisticated protein nano-assembly requires a method for linking protein components in a predictable and stable structure. Most of the cross linkers available have flexible spacers. Because of this, the linked hybrids have significant structural flexibility and the relative structure between their two components is largely unpredictable. Here we describe a method of connecting two proteins via a ‘fusion α helix' formed by joining two pre-existing helices into a single extended helix. Because simple ligation of two helices does not guarantee the formation of a continuous helix, we used EY-CBS, a synthetic cross linker that has been shown to react selectively with cysteines in α-helices, to stabilize the connecting helix. Formation and stabilization of the fusion helix was confirmed by determining the crystal structures of the fusion proteins with and without bound EY-CBS. Our method should be widely applicable for linking protein building blocks to generate predictable structures. PMID:26980593

  4. Spontaneous and Deterministic Three-dimensional Curling of Pre-strained Elastomeric Strips: From Hemi-helix to Helix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jiangshui; Liu, Jia; Kroll, Benedikt; Bertoldi, Katia; Suo, Zhigang; Clarke, David

    2012-02-01

    A variety of three dimensional curls are produced by a simple generic process consisting of pre-straining one elastomeric strip, joining it to another and then releasing the bi-strip. The hemi-helix, one kind of three dimensional curls, consists of multiple, alternating helical sections of half wavelength in opposite chiralities and separated by perversions. The hemi-helix wavelength and the number of perversions are determined by the strip cross-section, the constitutive behavior of the elastomer and the value of the pre-strain. Topologically, the perversions also separate regions of the helix deforming principally by bending from those where twisting dominates. Changing the prestrain and the ratio between the thickness and the width induce a phase separation of hemi-helical structure, helical structure and hybrid structure which have similarities to coiled polymer molecules and plant tendrils.

  5. Molecular Dynamics Studies of the Transmembrane Domain of Gp41 from HIV-1

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jong Hwa; Hartley, Taryn L.; Curran, A. Rachael; Engelman, Donald M.

    2009-01-01

    Helix-helix interactions in the putative three-helix bundle formation of the gp41 transmembrane (TM) domain may contribute to the process of virus-cell membrane fusion in HIV-1 infection. In this study, molecular dynamics is used to analyze and compare the conformations of monomeric and trimeric forms of the TM domain in various solvent systems over the course of 4 to 23-ns simulations. The trimeric bundles of the TM domain were stable as helices and remained associated in a hydrated POPE lipid bilayer for the duration of the 23-ns simulation. Several stable inter-chain hydrogen bonds, mostly among the three deprotonated arginine residues located at the center of each of the three TM domains, formed in a right-handed bundle embedded in the lipid bilayer. No such bonds were observed when the bundle was left-handed or when the central arginine residue in each of the three TM helices was replaced with isoleucine (R_I mutant), suggesting that the central arginine residues may play an essential role in maintaining the integrity of the three-helix bundle. These observations suggest that formation of the three-helix bundle of the TM domain may play a role in the trimerization of gp41, thought to occur during the virus-cell membrane fusion process. PMID:19540828

  6. Transmembrane Segment II of NhaA Na+/H+ Antiporter Lines the Cation Passage, and Asp65 Is Critical for pH Activation of the Antiporter*

    PubMed Central

    Herz, Katia; Rimon, Abraham; Olkhova, Elena; Kozachkov, Lena; Padan, Etana

    2010-01-01

    The crystal structure of Escherichia coli NhaA determined at pH 4 has provided insights into the mechanism of activity of a pH-regulated Na+/H+ antiporter. However, because NhaA is activated at physiological pH (pH 5.58.5), many questions related to the active state of NhaA have remained elusive. Our experimental results at physiological pH and computational analyses reveal that amino acid residues in transmembrane segment II contribute to the cation pathway of NhaA and its pH regulation: 1) transmembrane segment II is a highly conserved helix and the conserved amino acid residues are located on one side of the helix facing either the cytoplasmic or periplasmic funnels of NhaA structure. 2) Cys replacements of the conserved residues and measuring their antiporter activity in everted membrane vesicles showed that D65C, L67C, E78C, and E82C increased the apparent Km to Na+ and Li+ and changed the pH response of the antiporter. 3) Introduced Cys replacements, L60C, N64C, F71C, F72C, and E78C, were significantly alkylated by [14C]N-ethylmaleimide implying the presence of water-filled cavities in NhaA. 4) Several Cys replacements were modified by MTSES and/or MTSET, membrane impermeant, negatively and positively charged reagents, respectively, that could reach Cys replacements from the periplasm only via water-filled funnel(s). Remarkably, the reactivity of D65C to MTSES increased with increasing pH and chemical modification by MTSES but not by MTSET, decreased the apparent Km of the antiporter at pH 7.5 (10-fold) but not at pH 8.5, implying the importance of Asp65 negative charge for pH activation of the antiporter. PMID:19923224

  7. Circular dichroism, molecular modeling, and serology indicate that the structural basis of antigenic variation in foot-and-mouth disease virus is [alpha]-helix formation

    SciTech Connect

    France, L.L.; Piatti, P.G.; Newman, J.F.E.; Brown, F. ); Toth, I.; Gibbons, W.A. )

    1994-08-30

    Seven antigenic variants obtained from a single field isolate of foot-and-mouth disease virus, serotype A12, differ only at residues 148 and 153 in the immunodominant loop of viral protein VP1. Synthetic peptides corresponding to the region 141-160 are highly immunogenic. UV circular dichroism shows that (i) in aqueous solution of the peptides are nearly identical, but in 100% trifluoroethanol they display helix-forming properties which correlate well with their serological crossreactivities for anti-peptide sera, and (ii) these properties are insensitive to substitutions at position 153, except for proline, but are highly sensitive to substitutions at position 148. This pattern can be explained by the effects of these substitutions on the amphiphilic character and positions of helices postulated in the region 146-156. Molecular models indicate that residues 147, 148, 150, 151, 153-155, and 157 are most likely to interact with residues of the antibody paratopes. The data are consistent with the existence of an inverse [gamma]-turn around Pro-153, and a [beta]-turn at the cell-attachment site at residues 145-147. 31 refs., 5 figs.

  8. Conformational Flexibility in the Transmembrane Protein TSPO.

    PubMed

    Jaremko, ?ukasz; Jaremko, Mariusz; Giller, Karin; Becker, Stefan; Zweckstetter, Markus

    2015-11-01

    The translocator protein (TSPO) is an integral membrane protein that interacts with a wide variety of endogenous ligands, such as cholesterol and porphyrins, and is also the target for several small molecules with substantial in vivo efficacy. When complexed with the TSPO-specific radioligand (R)-PK11195, TSPO folds into a rigid five-helix bundle. However, little is known about the structure and dynamics of TSPO in the absence of high-affinity ligands. By means of NMR spectroscopy, we show that TSPO exchanges between multiple conformations in the absence of (R)-PK11195. Extensive motions on time scales from pico- to microseconds occur all along the primary sequence of the protein, leading to a loss of stable tertiary interactions and local unfolding of the helical structure in the vicinity of the ligand-binding site. The flexible nature of TSPO highlights the importance of conformational plasticity in integral membrane proteins. PMID:26394723

  9. Integrin ?IIb?3 Transmembrane Domain Separation Mediates Bi-Directional Signaling across the Plasma Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Ping; Luo, Bing-Hao

    2015-01-01

    Integrins play an essential role in hemostasis, thrombosis, and cell migration, and they transmit bidirectional signals. Transmembrane/cytoplasmic domains are hypothesized to associate in the resting integrins; whereas, ligand binding and intracellular activating signals induce transmembrane domain separation. However, how this conformational change affects integrin outside-in signaling and whether the ? subunit cytoplasmic domain is important for this signaling remain elusive. Using Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells that stably expressed different integrin ?IIb?3 constructs, we discovered that an ?IIb cytoplasmic domain truncation led to integrin activation but not defective outside-in signaling. In contrast, preventing transmembrane domain separation abolished both inside-out and outside-in signaling regardless of removing the ?IIb cytoplasmic tail. Truncation of the ?IIb cytoplasmic tail did not obviously affect adhesion-induced outside-in signaling. Our research revealed that transmembrane domain separation is a downstream conformational change after the cytoplasmic domain dissociation in inside-out activation and indispensable for ligand-induced outside-in signaling. The result implicates that the ? TM helix rearrangement after dissociation is essential for integrin transmembrane signaling. Furthermore, we discovered that the PI3K/Akt pathway is not essential for cell spreading but spreading-induced Erk1/2 activation is PI3K dependent implicating requirement of the kinase for cell survival in outside-in signaling. PMID:25617834

  10. A frequent, GxxxG-mediated, transmembrane association motif is optimized for the formation of interhelical C?-H hydrogen bonds.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Benjamin K; Subramaniam, Sabareesh; Senes, Alessandro

    2014-03-11

    Carbon hydrogen bonds between C?-H donors and carbonyl acceptors are frequently observed between transmembrane helices (C?-HO=C). Networks of these interactions occur often at helix-helix interfaces mediated by GxxxG and similar patterns. C?-H hydrogen bonds have been hypothesized to be important in membrane protein folding and association, but evidence that they are major determinants of helix association is still lacking. Here we present a comprehensive geometric analysis of homodimeric helices that demonstrates the existence of a single region in conformational space with high propensity for C?-HO=C hydrogen bond formation. This region corresponds to the most frequent motif for parallel dimers, GASright, whose best-known example is glycophorin A. The finding suggests a causal link between the high frequency of occurrence of GASright and its propensity for carbon hydrogen bond formation. Investigation of the sequence dependency of the motif determined that Gly residues are required at specific positions where only Gly can act as a donor with its "side chain" H?. Gly also reduces the steric barrier for non-Gly amino acids at other positions to act as C? donors, promoting the formation of cooperative hydrogen bonding networks. These findings offer a structural rationale for the occurrence of GxxxG patterns at the GASright interface. The analysis identified the conformational space and the sequence requirement of C?-HO=C mediated motifs; we took advantage of these results to develop a structural prediction method. The resulting program, CATM, predicts ab initio the known high-resolution structures of homodimeric GASright motifs at near-atomic level. PMID:24569864

  11. Probing ?-3(10) transitions in a voltage-sensing S4 helix.

    PubMed

    Kubota, Tomoya; Lacroix, Jrme J; Bezanilla, Francisco; Correa, Ana M

    2014-09-01

    The S4 helix of voltage sensor domains (VSDs) transfers its gating charges across the membrane electrical field in response to changes of the membrane potential. Recent studies suggest that this process may occur via the helical conversion of the entire S4 between ? and 310 conformations. Here, using LRET and FRET, we tested this hypothesis by measuring dynamic changes in the transmembrane length of S4 from engineered VSDs expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Our results suggest that the native S4 from the Ciona intestinalis voltage-sensitive phosphatase (Ci-VSP) does not exhibit extended and long-lived 310 conformations and remains mostly ?-helical. Although the S4 of NavAb displays a fully extended 310 conformation in x-ray structures, its transplantation in the Ci-VSP VSD scaffold yielded similar results as the native Ci-VSP S4. Taken together, our study does not support the presence of long-lived extended ?-to-310 helical conversions of the S4 in Ci-VSP associated with voltage activation. PMID:25185547

  12. Transmembrane domain oligomerization propensity determined by ToxR assay.

    PubMed

    Joce, Catherine; Wiener, Alyssa; Yin, Hang

    2011-01-01

    The oversimplified view of protein transmembrane domains as merely anchors in phospholipid bilayers has long since been disproven. In many cases membrane-spanning proteins have evolved highly sophisticated mechanisms of action. One way in which membrane proteins can modulate their structures and functions is by direct and specific contact of hydrophobic helices, forming structured transmembrane oligomers. Much recent work has focused on the distribution of amino acids preferentially found in the membrane environment in comparison to aqueous solution and the different intermolecular forces that drive protein association. Nevertheless, studies of molecular recognition at the transmembrane domain of proteins still lags behind those of water-soluble regions. A major hurdle remains: despite the remarkable specificity and affinity that transmembrane oligomerization can achieve, direct measurement of their association is challenging. Traditional methodologies applied to the study of integral membrane protein function can be hampered by the inherent insolubility of the sequences under examination. Biophysical insights gained from studying synthetic peptides representing transmembrane domains can provide useful structural insight. However, the biological relevance of the detergent micellar or liposome systems used in these studies to mimic cellular membranes is often questioned; do peptides adopt a native-like structure under these conditions and does their functional behaviour truly reflect the mode of action within a native membrane? In order to study the interactions of transmembrane sequences in natural phospholipid bilayers, the Langosch lab developed ToxR transcriptional reporter assays. The transmembrane domain of interest is expressed as a chimeric protein with maltose binding protein for location to the periplasm and ToxR to provide a report of the level of oligomerization (Figure 1). In the last decade, several other groups (e.g. Engelman, DeGrado, Shai) further optimized and applied this ToxR reporter assay. The various ToxR assays have become a gold standard to test protein-protein interactions in cell membranes. We herein demonstrate a typical experimental operation conducted in our laboratory that primarily follows protocols developed by Langosch. This generally applicable method is useful for the analysis of transmembrane domain self-association in E. coli, where β-galactosidase production is used to assess the TMD oligomerization propensity. Upon TMD-induced dimerization, ToxR binds to the ctx promoter causing up-regulation of the LacZ gene for β-galactosidase. A colorimetric readout is obtained by addition of ONPG to lyzed cells. Hydrolytic cleavage of ONPG by β-galactosidase results in the production of the light absorbing species o-nitrophenolate (ONP) (Figure 2). PMID:21654625

  13. VIEW OF SOUTH ELEVATION OF HELIX HOUSE NO. 2 (S87) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF SOUTH ELEVATION OF HELIX HOUSE NO. 2 (S-87) SHOWING MAIN ENTRY DOOR, LOOKING NORTH NORTHWEST. - Naval Computer & Telecommunications Area Master Station, Eastern Pacific, Radio Transmitter Facility Lualualei, Helix House No. 2, Base of Radio Antenna Structure No. 427, Makaha, Honolulu County, HI

  14. VIEW OF EAST ELEVATION OF HELIX HOUSE NO. 2 (S87), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF EAST ELEVATION OF HELIX HOUSE NO. 2 (S-87), LOOKING WEST (with scale stick). - Naval Computer & Telecommunications Area Master Station, Eastern Pacific, Radio Transmitter Facility Lualualei, Helix House No. 2, Base of Radio Antenna Structure No. 427, Makaha, Honolulu County, HI

  15. VIEW OF HELIX HOUSE NO. 2 (S87), WITH ANTENNA TOWER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF HELIX HOUSE NO. 2 (S-87), WITH ANTENNA TOWER CABLE SUPPORT IN FOREGROUND, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - Naval Computer & Telecommunications Area Master Station, Eastern Pacific, Radio Transmitter Facility Lualualei, Helix House No. 2, Base of Radio Antenna Structure No. 427, Makaha, Honolulu County, HI

  16. VIEW OF EAST ELEVATION OF HELIX HOUSE NO. 2 (S87), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF EAST ELEVATION OF HELIX HOUSE NO. 2 (S-87), LOOKING WEST (without scale stick). - Naval Computer & Telecommunications Area Master Station, Eastern Pacific, Radio Transmitter Facility Lualualei, Helix House No. 2, Base of Radio Antenna Structure No. 427, Makaha, Honolulu County, HI

  17. Artificial metalloenzymes derived from three-helix bundles.

    PubMed

    Tebo, Alison G; Pecoraro, Vincent L

    2015-04-01

    Three-helix bundles and coiled-coil motifs are well-established de novo designed scaffolds that have been investigated for their metal-binding and catalytic properties. Satisfaction of the primary coordination sphere for a given metal is sufficient to introduce catalytic activity and a given structure may catalyze different reactions dependent on the identity of the incorporated metal. Here we describe recent contributions in the de novo design of metalloenzymes based on three-helix bundles and coiled-coil motifs, focusing on non-heme systems for hydrolytic and redox chemistry. PMID:25579452

  18. Helix 8 Plays a Crucial Role in Bradykinin B2 Receptor Trafficking and Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Feierler, Jens; Wirth, Markus; Welte, Benjamin; Schssler, Steffen; Jochum, Marianne; Faussner, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Upon activation the human bradykinin B2 receptor (B2R) acts as guanine nucleotide exchange factor for the G proteins Gq/11 and Gi. Thereafter, it gets phosphorylated by G protein-coupled receptor kinases (GRKs) and recruits ?-arrestins, which block further G protein activation and promote B2R internalization via clathrin-coated pits. As for most G protein-coupled receptors of family A, an intracellular helix 8 after transmembrane domain 7 is also predicted for the B2R. We show here that disruption of helix 8 in the B2R by either C-terminal truncation or just by mutation of a central amino acid (Lys-315) to a helix-breaking proline resulted in strong reduction of surface expression. Interestingly, this malfunction could be overcome by the addition of the membrane-permeable B2R antagonist JSM10292, suggesting that helix 8 has a general role for conformational stabilization that can be accounted for by an appropriate antagonist. Intriguingly, an intact helix 8, but not the C terminus with its phosphorylation sites, was indispensable for receptor sequestration and for interaction of the B2R with GRK2/3 and ?-arrestin2 as shown by co-immunoprecipitation. Recruitment of ?-arrestin1, however, required the presence of the C terminus. Taken together, our results demonstrate that helix 8 of the B2R plays a crucial role not only in efficient trafficking to the plasma membrane or the activation of G proteins but also for the interaction of the B2R with GRK2/3 and ?-arrestins. Additional data obtained with chimera of B2R with other G protein-coupled receptors of family A suggest that helix 8 might have similar functions in other GPCRs as well. PMID:22016392

  19. Folding and insertion thermodynamics of the transmembrane WALP peptide.

    PubMed

    Bereau, Tristan; Bennett, W F Drew; Pfaendtner, Jim; Deserno, Markus; Karttunen, Mikko

    2015-12-28

    The anchor of most integral membrane proteins consists of one or several helices spanning the lipid bilayer. The WALP peptide, GWW(LA)n (L)WWA, is a common model helix to study the fundamentals of protein insertion and folding, as well as helix-helix association in the membrane. Its structural properties have been illuminated in a large number of experimental and simulation studies. In this combined coarse-grained and atomistic simulation study, we probe the thermodynamics of a single WALP peptide, focusing on both the insertion across the water-membrane interface, as well as folding in both water and a membrane. The potential of mean force characterizing the peptide's insertion into the membrane shows qualitatively similar behavior across peptides and three force fields. However, the Martini force field exhibits a pronounced secondary minimum for an adsorbed interfacial state, which may even become the global minimum-in contrast to both atomistic simulations and the alternative PLUM force field. Even though the two coarse-grained models reproduce the free energy of insertion of individual amino acids side chains, they both underestimate its corresponding value for the full peptide (as compared with atomistic simulations), hinting at cooperative physics beyond the residue level. Folding of WALP in the two environments indicates the helix as the most stable structure, though with different relative stabilities and chain-length dependence. PMID:26723612

  20. Folding and insertion thermodynamics of the transmembrane WALP peptide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bereau, Tristan; Bennett, W. F. Drew; Pfaendtner, Jim; Deserno, Markus; Karttunen, Mikko

    2015-12-01

    The anchor of most integral membrane proteins consists of one or several helices spanning the lipid bilayer. The WALP peptide, GWW(LA)n (L)WWA, is a common model helix to study the fundamentals of protein insertion and folding, as well as helix-helix association in the membrane. Its structural properties have been illuminated in a large number of experimental and simulation studies. In this combined coarse-grained and atomistic simulation study, we probe the thermodynamics of a single WALP peptide, focusing on both the insertion across the water-membrane interface, as well as folding in both water and a membrane. The potential of mean force characterizing the peptide's insertion into the membrane shows qualitatively similar behavior across peptides and three force fields. However, the Martini force field exhibits a pronounced secondary minimum for an adsorbed interfacial state, which may even become the global minimumin contrast to both atomistic simulations and the alternative PLUM force field. Even though the two coarse-grained models reproduce the free energy of insertion of individual amino acids side chains, they both underestimate its corresponding value for the full peptide (as compared with atomistic simulations), hinting at cooperative physics beyond the residue level. Folding of WALP in the two environments indicates the helix as the most stable structure, though with different relative stabilities and chain-length dependence.

  1. Surfactant Bilayers Maintain Transmembrane Protein Activity

    PubMed Central

    Rayan, Gamal; Adrien, Vladimir; Reffay, Myriam; Picard, Martin; Ducruix, Arnaud; Schmutz, Marc; Urbach, Wladimir; Taulier, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    In vitro studies of membrane proteins are of interest only if their structure and function are significantly preserved. One approach is to insert them into the lipid bilayers of highly viscous cubic phases rendering the insertion and manipulation of proteins difficult. Less viscous lipid sponge phases are sometimes used, but their relatively narrow domain of existence can be easily disrupted by protein insertion. We present here a sponge phase consisting of nonionic surfactant bilayers. Its extended domain of existence and its low viscosity allow easy insertion and manipulation of membrane proteins. We show for the first time, to our knowledge, that transmembrane proteins, such as bacteriorhodopsin, sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ATPase (SERCA1a), and its associated enzymes, are fully active in a surfactant phase. PMID:25185548

  2. Surfactant bilayers maintain transmembrane protein activity.

    PubMed

    Rayan, Gamal; Adrien, Vladimir; Reffay, Myriam; Picard, Martin; Ducruix, Arnaud; Schmutz, Marc; Urbach, Wladimir; Taulier, Nicolas

    2014-09-01

    In vitro studies of membrane proteins are of interest only if their structure and function are significantly preserved. One approach is to insert them into the lipid bilayers of highly viscous cubic phases rendering the insertion and manipulation of proteins difficult. Less viscous lipid sponge phases are sometimes used, but their relatively narrow domain of existence can be easily disrupted by protein insertion. We present here a sponge phase consisting of nonionic surfactant bilayers. Its extended domain of existence and its low viscosity allow easy insertion and manipulation of membrane proteins. We show for the first time, to our knowledge, that transmembrane proteins, such as bacteriorhodopsin, sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)ATPase (SERCA1a), and its associated enzymes, are fully active in a surfactant phase. PMID:25185548

  3. Transmembrane protein sorting driven by membrane curvature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strahl, H.; Ronneau, S.; González, B. Solana; Klutsch, D.; Schaffner-Barbero, C.; Hamoen, L. W.

    2015-11-01

    The intricate structure of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells depends on the ability to target proteins to specific cellular locations. In most cases, we have a poor understanding of the underlying mechanisms. A typical example is the assembly of bacterial chemoreceptors at cell poles. Here we show that the classical chemoreceptor TlpA of Bacillus subtilis does not localize according to the consensus stochastic nucleation mechanism but accumulates at strongly curved membrane areas generated during cell division. This preference was confirmed by accumulation at non-septal curved membranes. Localization appears to be an intrinsic property of the protein complex and does not rely on chemoreceptor clustering, as was previously shown for Escherichia coli. By constructing specific amino-acid substitutions, we demonstrate that the preference for strongly curved membranes arises from the curved shape of chemoreceptor trimer of dimers. These findings demonstrate that the intrinsic shape of transmembrane proteins can determine their cellular localization.

  4. Transmembrane protein sorting driven by membrane curvature

    PubMed Central

    Strahl, H.; Ronneau, S.; González, B. Solana; Klutsch, D.; Schaffner-Barbero, C.; Hamoen, L. W.

    2015-01-01

    The intricate structure of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells depends on the ability to target proteins to specific cellular locations. In most cases, we have a poor understanding of the underlying mechanisms. A typical example is the assembly of bacterial chemoreceptors at cell poles. Here we show that the classical chemoreceptor TlpA of Bacillus subtilis does not localize according to the consensus stochastic nucleation mechanism but accumulates at strongly curved membrane areas generated during cell division. This preference was confirmed by accumulation at non-septal curved membranes. Localization appears to be an intrinsic property of the protein complex and does not rely on chemoreceptor clustering, as was previously shown for Escherichia coli. By constructing specific amino-acid substitutions, we demonstrate that the preference for strongly curved membranes arises from the curved shape of chemoreceptor trimer of dimers. These findings demonstrate that the intrinsic shape of transmembrane proteins can determine their cellular localization. PMID:26522943

  5. Transmembrane protein sorting driven by membrane curvature.

    PubMed

    Strahl, H; Ronneau, S; Gonzlez, B Solana; Klutsch, D; Schaffner-Barbero, C; Hamoen, L W

    2015-01-01

    The intricate structure of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells depends on the ability to target proteins to specific cellular locations. In most cases, we have a poor understanding of the underlying mechanisms. A typical example is the assembly of bacterial chemoreceptors at cell poles. Here we show that the classical chemoreceptor TlpA of Bacillus subtilis does not localize according to the consensus stochastic nucleation mechanism but accumulates at strongly curved membrane areas generated during cell division. This preference was confirmed by accumulation at non-septal curved membranes. Localization appears to be an intrinsic property of the protein complex and does not rely on chemoreceptor clustering, as was previously shown for Escherichia coli. By constructing specific amino-acid substitutions, we demonstrate that the preference for strongly curved membranes arises from the curved shape of chemoreceptor trimer of dimers. These findings demonstrate that the intrinsic shape of transmembrane proteins can determine their cellular localization. PMID:26522943

  6. Expression of a chimeric helix-loop-helix gene, Id-SCL, in K562 human leukemic cells is associated with nuclear segmentation.

    PubMed Central

    Goldfarb, A. N.; Wolf, M. L.; Greenberg, J. M.

    1992-01-01

    We have designed a chimeric gene, Id-SCL, in which the 3' helix-loop-helix encoding portion of the presumptive oncogene SCL/tal is joined to the 5' coding portion of Id, an inhibitory helix-loop-helix gene. The predicted protein product of this chimeric gene contains the helix-loop-helix dimerization domain of SCL/tal, but, lacking a basic DNA binding domain, is predicted to have the inhibitory function of the Id product. Expression of the Id-SCL fusion gene in stably transfected K562 cells reproducibly resulted in nuclear segmentation and depressed growth rates; both of these phenotypic effects demonstrated a dosage dependence on the levels of Id-SCL mRNA and protein expressed in the various clones. Electron microscopy of cells expressing high levels of Id-SCL mRNA showed a significant increase in cytoplasmic perinuclear thin filaments and diminution of marginal heterochromatin in the nuclei. No other changes in hematopoietic differentiation status were observed in association with Id-SCL expression. Expression of intact Id and SCL/tal genes, as well as deletion mutants of Id and SCL/tal, independently transfected into K562 cells, indicated that the nuclear segmentation effect is dependent on the presence of a protein possessing a helix-loop-helix domain but lacking a basic domain. Our studies suggest that the balance of transcriptional inhibitory and stimulatory helix-loop-helix proteins in cells may be important determinants of proliferation and of structural organization within cells. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 8 Figure 11 PMID:1443047

  7. An Autonomously Reciprocating Transmembrane Nanoactuator.

    PubMed

    Watson, Matthew A; Cockroft, Scott L

    2016-01-01

    Biological molecular machines operate far from equilibrium by coupling chemical potential to repeated cycles of dissipative nanomechanical motion. This principle has been exploited in supramolecular systems that exhibit true machine behavior in solution and on surfaces. However, designed membrane-spanning assemblies developed to date have been limited to simple switches or stochastic shuttles, and true machine behavior has remained elusive. Herein, we present a transmembrane nanoactuator that turns over chemical fuel to drive autonomous reciprocating (back-and-forth) nanomechanical motion. Ratcheted reciprocating motion of a DNA/PEG copolymer threaded through a single ?-hemolysin pore was induced by a combination of DNA strand displacement processes and enzyme-catalyzed reactions. Ion-current recordings revealed saw-tooth patterns, indicating that the assemblies operated in autonomous, asymmetric cycles of conformational change at rates of up to one cycle per minute. PMID:26661295

  8. Do parallel beta-helix proteins have a unique fourier transform infrared spectrum?

    PubMed Central

    Khurana, R; Fink, A L

    2000-01-01

    Several polypeptides have been found to adopt an unusual domain structure known as the parallel beta-helix. These domains are characterized by parallel beta-strands, three of which form a single parallel beta-helix coil, and lead to long, extended beta-sheets. We have used ATR-FTIR (attenuated total reflectance-fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) to analyze the secondary structure of representative examples of this class of protein. Because the three-dimensional structures of parallel beta-helix proteins are unique, we initiated this study to determine if there was a corresponding unique FTIR signal associated with the parallel beta-helix conformation. Analysis of the amide I region, emanating from the carbonyl stretch vibration, reveals a strong absorbance band at 1638 cm(-1) in each of the parallel beta-helix proteins. This band is assigned to the parallel beta-sheet structure. However, components at this frequency are also commonly observed for beta-sheets in many classes of globular proteins. Thus we conclude that there is no unique infrared signature for parallel beta-helix structure. Additional contributions in the 1638 cm(-1) region, and at lower frequencies, were ascribed to hydrogen bonding between the coils in the loop/turn regions and amide side-chain interactions, respectively. A 13-residue peptide that forms fibrils and has been proposed to form beta-helical structure was also examined, and its FTIR spectrum was compared to that of the parallel beta-helix proteins. PMID:10653812

  9. A model for the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor ion channel: structure of the transmembrane M2 segments as a pentameric assembly in a lipid bilayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saiz, Leonor; Klein, Michael L.

    2003-03-01

    The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) is the neurotransmitter gated ion channel responsible for the fast propagation of electrical signals between cells at the nerve-muscle synapse and neurons. The current model for the pore region of the nAChR consists of a bundle of five M2 alpha helices, which is supported by recent solution and solid-state NMR spectroscopy experiments on micelle samples and oriented (DMPC) bilayers. In order to investigate the structure and properties of pore forming region of a simple model for the nAChR, we have performed a molecular dynamics simulation study of the homo-pentameric bundle of M2 peptides in a DMPC lipid bilayer at similar conditions to those of the NMR experiments. During the nanosecond time scale investigated, the peptide bundle adopts a left-handed supercoil structure and the calculated average tilt of the helices agrees well with the recent NMR data. The water filled bundle displays a funnel-like structure. We focuss on those aspects of the structure and dynamics relevant to the function of the channel.

  10. Identification of a cluster of residues in transmembrane segment 6 of domain III of the cockroach sodium channel essential for the action of pyrethroid insecticides.

    PubMed

    Du, Yuzhe; Lee, Jung-Eun; Nomura, Yoshiko; Zhang, Tianxiang; Zhorov, Boris S; Dong, Ke

    2009-04-15

    A phenylalanine residue (Phe1519) in the sixth transmembrane segment of domain III (IIIS6) of the cockroach BgNa(v) sodium channel is required for the binding and action of pyrethroids. However, whether or not other residues in IIIS6 participate in the action of pyrethroids remains to be determined. In the present study, we conducted a systematic analysis of 20 residues in IIIS6 of the BgNa(v) channel using alanine-scanning mutagenesis. Our results show that alanine substitutions of four residues, Ile1514, Gly1516, Phe1518 and Asn1522, altered sodium channel sensitivity to pyrethroid insecticides. Whereas the G1516A, F1518A and N1522A substitutions diminished sodium channel sensitivity to all seven pyrethroids examined, including four type I (lacking the alpha-cyano group at the phenoxybenzyl alcohol) and three type II (containing the alpha-cyano group) pyrethroids, the I1514A substitution enhanced sodium channel sensitivity to four type I and type II pyrethroids that contain the phenoxybenzyl alcohol only. We also show that alanine/lysine substitutions of Leu1521 and Ser1517 affected the action of BTX (batrachotoxin), but not pyrethroids. In the Kv1.2-based homology model of the open sodium channel, side chains of Ile1514, Phe1518 and Asn1522 are exposed towards helix IIS5 and linker IIS4-IIS5, which contain previously identified pyrethroid-interacting residues, whereas Ser1517 and Leu1521 face the inner pore where the BTX receptor is located. Thus the present study provides further evidence for structural models in which pyrethroids bind to the lipid-exposed interface formed by helices IIIS6, IIS5 and linker helix IIS4-IIS5, whereas BTX binds to the pore-exposed side of the IIIS6 helix. PMID:19154185

  11. Phasing and structure of bestrophin-1: a case study in the use of heavy-atom cluster compounds with multi-subunit transmembrane proteins

    PubMed Central

    Kane Dickson, Veronica

    2016-01-01

    The purification and three-dimensional crystallization of membrane proteins are commonly affected by a cumulation of pathologies that are less prevalent in their soluble counterparts. This may include severe anisotropy, poor spot shape, poor to moderate-resolution diffraction, crystal twinning, translational pseudo-symmetry and poor uptake of heavy atoms for derivatization. Such challenges must be circumvented by adaptations in the approach to crystallization and/or phasing. Here, an example of a protein that exhibited all of the above-mentioned complications is presented. Bestrophin-1 is a eukaryotic calcium-activated chloride channel, the structure of which was recently determined in complex with monoclonal antibody fragments using SAD phasing with tantalum bromide clusters (Ta6Br12·Br2). Some of the obstacles to obtaining improved diffraction and phasing for this particular channel are discussed, as well as the approach and adaptations that were key to determining the structure. PMID:26960119

  12. Phasing and structure of bestrophin-1: a case study in the use of heavy-atom cluster compounds with multi-subunit transmembrane proteins.

    PubMed

    Kane Dickson, Veronica

    2016-03-01

    The purification and three-dimensional crystallization of membrane proteins are commonly affected by a cumulation of pathologies that are less prevalent in their soluble counterparts. This may include severe anisotropy, poor spot shape, poor to moderate-resolution diffraction, crystal twinning, translational pseudo-symmetry and poor uptake of heavy atoms for derivatization. Such challenges must be circumvented by adaptations in the approach to crystallization and/or phasing. Here, an example of a protein that exhibited all of the above-mentioned complications is presented. Bestrophin-1 is a eukaryotic calcium-activated chloride channel, the structure of which was recently determined in complex with monoclonal antibody fragments using SAD phasing with tantalum bromide clusters (Ta6Br12·Br2). Some of the obstacles to obtaining improved diffraction and phasing for this particular channel are discussed, as well as the approach and adaptations that were key to determining the structure. PMID:26960119

  13. Trimerization of the HIV Transmembrane Domain in Lipid Bilayers Modulates Broadly Neutralizing Antibody Binding.

    PubMed

    Reichart, Timothy M; Baksh, Michael M; Rhee, Jin-Kyu; Fiedler, Jason D; Sligar, Stephen G; Finn, M G; Zwick, Michael B; Dawson, Philip E

    2016-02-01

    The membrane-proximal external region (MPER) of HIV gp41 is an established target of antibodies that neutralize a broad range of HIV isolates. To evaluate the role of the transmembrane (TM) domain, synthetic MPER-derived peptides were incorporated into lipid nanoparticles using natural and designed TM domains, and antibody affinity was measured using immobilized and solution-based techniques. Peptides incorporating the native HIV TM domain exhibit significantly stronger interactions with neutralizing antibodies than peptides with a monomeric TM domain. Furthermore, a peptide with a trimeric, three-helix bundle TM domain recapitulates the binding profile of the native sequence. These studies suggest that neutralizing antibodies can bind the MPER when the TM domain is a three-helix bundle and this presentation could influence the binding of neutralizing antibodies to the virus. Lipid-bilayer presentation of viral antigens in Nanodiscs is a new platform for evaluating neutralizing antibodies. PMID:26799917

  14. Lessons from Free Energy Simulations of δ-Opioid Receptor Homodimers Involving the Fourth Transmembrane Helix†

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Several G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), including opioid receptors δOR, μOR, and κOR, have been reported to form stable dimers or oligomers in lipid bilayers and cell membranes. This notion has been recently challenged by imaging data supporting a transient nature of GPCR association. Here we use umbrella sampling reconstructed free energies of δOR homodimers involving the fourth transmembrane helix to predict their association constant. The results of these simulations, combined with estimates of diffusion-limited association rates, suggest a short lifetime for δOR homodimers in the membrane, in agreement with recent trends. PMID:20617813

  15. IRS Observations of the Double Helix Nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Mark; Do, Tuan; Uchida, Keven

    2007-05-01

    We propose an IRS study of the Double Helix Nebula in the Galactic Center. This large-scale (30-pc) feature has been interpreted as a torsional Alfven wave driven by the rotation of the circumnuclear disk about the central black hole of the Galaxy. The cause of its infrared emission is likely to be thermal infrared emission by dust, but the mechanism by which the dust is organized into the observed helical structure is unknown. The proposed observations are aimed at learning as much as possible about the characteristics of the dust grains in this feature: their charge state, their size, and their temperature, in order to assess the hypothesis that the strong magnetic field at the Galactic center has played a role levitating the dust to its observed location, and ordering its morphology.

  16. Conformational dynamics of a seven transmembrane helical protein Anabaena Sensory Rhodopsin probed by solid-state NMR.

    PubMed

    Good, Daryl B; Wang, Shenlin; Ward, Meaghan E; Struppe, Jochem; Brown, Leonid S; Lewandowski, Józef R; Ladizhansky, Vladimir

    2014-02-19

    The ability to detect and characterize molecular motions represents one of the unique strengths of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. In this study, we report solid-state NMR site-specific measurements of the dipolar order parameters and (15)N rotating frame spin-lattice (R1ρ) relaxation rates in a seven transmembrane helical protein Anabaena Sensory Rhodopsin reconstituted in lipids. The magnitudes of the observed order parameters indicate that both the well-defined transmembrane regions and the less structured intramembrane loops undergo restricted submicrosecond time scale motions. In contrast, the R1ρ rates, which were measured under fast magic angle spinning conditions, vary by an order of magnitude between the TM and exposed regions and suggest the presence of intermediate time scale motions. Using a simple model, which assumes a single exponential autocorrelation function, we estimated the time scales of dominant stochastic motions to be on the order of low tens of nanoseconds for most residues within the TM helices and tens to hundreds of nanoseconds for the extracellular B-C and F-G loops. These relatively slow time scales could be attributed to collective anisotropic motions. We used the 3D Gaussian axial fluctuations model to estimate amplitudes, directions, and time scales of overall motions for helices and the extracellular B-C and F-G loops. Within this model, the TM helices A,B,C,D,E,F undergo rigid body motions on a time scale of tens of nanoseconds, while the time scale for the seventh helix G approaches 100 ns. Similar time scales of roughly 100-200 ns are estimated for the B-C and F-G loops. PMID:24467417

  17. The C-terminal tail of the gp41 transmembrane envelope glycoprotein of HIV-1 clades A, B, C, and D may exist in two conformations: an analysis of sequence, structure, and function

    SciTech Connect

    Hollier, Mark J.; Dimmock, Nigel J. . E-mail: n.j.dimmock@warwick.ac.uk

    2005-07-05

    In addition to the major ectodomain, the gp41 transmembrane glycoprotein of HIV-1 is now known to have a minor ectodomain that is part of the long C-terminal tail. Both ectodomains are highly antigenic, carry neutralizing and non-neutralizing epitopes, and are involved in virus-mediated fusion activity. However, data have so far been biologically based, and derived solely from T cell line-adapted (TCLA), B clade viruses. Here we have carried out sequence and theoretically based structural analyses of 357 gp41 C-terminal sequences of mainly primary isolates of HIV-1 clades A, B, C, and D. Data show that all these viruses have the potential to form a tail loop structure (the minor ectodomain) supported by three, {beta}-sheet, membrane-spanning domains (MSDs). This means that the first (N-terminal) tyrosine-based sorting signal of the gp41 tail is situated outside the cell membrane and is non-functional, and that gp41 that reaches the cell surface may be recycled back into the cytoplasm through the activity of the second tyrosine-sorting signal. However, we suggest that only a minority of cell-associated gp41 molecules - those destined for incorporation into virions - has 3 MSDs and the minor ectodomain. Most intracellular gp41 has the conventional single MSD, no minor ectodomain, a functional first tyrosine-based sorting signal, and in line with current thinking is degraded intracellularly. The gp41 structural diversity suggested here can be viewed as an evolutionary strategy to minimize HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein expression on the cell surface, and hence possible cytotoxicity and immune attack on the infected cell.

  18. Reversible dimerization of acid-denatured ACBP controlled by helix A4.

    PubMed

    Fieber, Wolfgang; Kragelund, Birthe B; Meldal, Morten; Poulsen, Flemming M

    2005-02-01

    The peptide segment corresponding to helix A4 in acyl-coenzyme-A-binding protein (ACBP) is an exceptionally stable helix in the denatured state of the protein as well as in its isolated form. Circular dichroism spectroscopy showed an alpha-helix content in the helix A4 peptide (HA4) of 45%, and under denaturing conditions at pH 2.3, helix conformations are still populated in 24% of the ensemble of molecules. The structure of HA4 at atomic resolution was assessed using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Long-range NOEs between remote residues at opposite peptide ends suggested the formation of an antiparallel homodimer, and the resulting structure was treated as the minimum higher-order structure. The dimerization property of helix A4 is maintained in the full-length protein under denaturing conditions. NMR diffusion studies and concentration-dependent experiments on ACBP at low pH proved the formation of dimers and revealed a cooperative stabilization of helix A4 in this process. This emphasizes its special role in the structure formation in the denatured state of ACBP. No dimers are formed in the presence of guanidine hydrochloride, which underlines the fundamental difference between the nature of these two denatured states. PMID:15683223

  19. Dual circular polarization gaps in helix photonic metamaterials.

    PubMed

    Kao, Tzu-Hung; Chien, Lung-Yu Chang; Hung, Yu-Chueh

    2015-09-21

    Chiral structures exhibit strong interactions with circularly polarized light, and have been demonstrated to show many polarization-dependent properties. Various chiral structures exhibit some level of circular dichroism, where right-handed and left-handed circularly polarized waves experience different transmission. In this study, we use a dielectric helix array as a model system to examine the interactions of circularly polarized light with helical structures. Our results show that circular polarization band gaps can be formed in a dielectric helix array not only by light having the same handedness with the structure but also by light with the opposite handedness, resulting from additional chiral motifs induced by the arrangement of helices. Dual polarization band gaps can thus be tailored by varying the geometrical parameters, and circular-polarization dependent properties can be manipulated for optoelectronic devices and applications. PMID:26406646

  20. Design and synthesis of peptides with hybrid helix-turn-helix (HTH) motif and their conformational study.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Gangavaram V M; Thodupunuri, Prashanth; Sirisha, Katukuri; Basha, Shaik Jeelani; Gurava Reddy, Pottireddygari; Sarma, Akella V S

    2014-09-19

    The present study is aimed at the design and synthesis of peptides with hybrid helix-turn-helix (HTH) motif and their conformational analysis (NMR, MD, and CD studies). The requisite peptides with heterogeneous backbones were prepared from ?-, ?-, and ?-amino acids with carbohydrate side chains and ?-amino acid, L-Ala. The ?/?-peptides were prepared from (S)-?-Caa(l) (C-linked carbo-?-amino acid with D-lyxo furanoside side chain) and L-Ala with a 1:1 alternation. The ?/?-peptides with "helix-turn" motif displayed a 11/9-helix nucleating a 13-atom H-bonding turn. The ?/?-octapeptides showed the presence of HTH structures with bifurcated 11/15-H-bonded turn. Further, the ?/?-hexapeptide with HT motif, independently on coupling with ?/?/?/?- and ?/?/?/?-tetrapeptides at the C-terminus provided access to the decapeptides with "hybrid HTH" motifs. The decapeptide ("?-?-?-?-?-?-?-?-?-?") showed a hybrid HTH with "11/9/11/9/11/16/9/12/10" H-bonding, while the decapeptide ("?-?-?-?-?-?-?-?-?-?") revealed the presence of a "11/9/11/9/11/17/9/13/11" helical pattern. The above peptides thus have shown compatibility between different types of helices and serendipitous bifurcated 11/16- and 11/17-turns. The present study thus provided the first opportunity for the design and study of "hybrid HTH" motifs with more than one kind of helical structures in them. PMID:25180942

  1. Crystal Structure of the Interferon Gamma Receptor Alpha Chain from Chicken Reveals an Undetected Extra Helix Compared with the Human Counterparts

    PubMed Central

    Ping, Zhiguang; Qi, Jianxun; Sun, Yanling; Lu, Guangwen; Shi, Yi; Wang, Xiaojia

    2014-01-01

    Interferon gamma (IFN-γ) is an important cytokine that induces antiviral, antiproliferative, and immunomodulatory effects on target cells, and is also crucial in the early defense against intracellular parasites, such as Listeria monocytogenes and Toxoplasma gondii. The biological activity of IFN-γ relies upon the formation of a complex with its 2 receptors, the interferon gamma alpha chain (IFNGR1) and beta chain (IFNGR2), which are type II cytokine receptors. Structural models of ligand–receptor interaction and complex structure of chicken IFNs with their receptors have remained elusive. Here we report the first structure of Gallus gallus (chicken) IFNGR1 (chIFNGR1) at 2.0 Å by molecule replacement according to the structure of selenomethionine substituted chIFNGR1. The structural comparison reveals its structural similarities with other class II cytokine receptors, despite divergent primary sequences. We further investigate the ligand–receptor interaction properties of chicken IFN-γ (chIFN-γ) and chIFNGR1 using size-exclusion chromatography and surface plasmon resonance techniques. These data aid in the understanding of the interaction of chicken (avian) IFN-γ with its receptors and its signal transduction. PMID:24283193

  2. Cooperative transmembrane penetration of nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haizhen; Ji, Qiuju; Huang, Changjin; Zhang, Sulin; Yuan, Bing; Yang, Kai; Ma, Yu-qiang

    2015-01-01

    Physical penetration of lipid bilayer membranes presents an alternative pathway for cellular delivery of nanoparticles (NPs) besides endocytosis. NPs delivered through this pathway could reach the cytoplasm, thereby opening the possibility of organelle-specific targeting. Herein we perform dissipative particle dynamics simulations to elucidate the transmembrane penetration mechanisms of multiple NPs. Our simulations demonstrate that NPs' translocation proceeds in a cooperative manner, where the interplay of the quantity and surface chemistry of the NPs regulates the translocation efficiency. For NPs with hydrophilic surfaces, the increase of particle quantity facilitates penetration, while for NPs with partly or totally hydrophobic surfaces, the opposite highly possibly holds. Moreover, a set of interesting cooperative ways, such as aggregation, aggregation-dispersion, and aggregation-dispersion-reaggregation of the NPs, are observed during the penetration process. We find that the penetration behaviors of multiple NPs are mostly dominated by the changes of the NP-membrane force components in the membrane plane direction, in addition to that in the penetration direction, suggesting a different interaction mechanism between the multiple NPs and the membrane compared with the one-NP case. These results provide a fundamental understanding in the underlying mechanisms of cooperative penetration of NPs, and shed light on the NP-based drug and gene delivery. PMID:26013284

  3. Cooperative Transmembrane Penetration of Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Haizhen; Ji, Qiuju; Huang, Changjin; Zhang, Sulin; Yuan, Bing; Yang, Kai; Ma, Yu-qiang

    2015-01-01

    Physical penetration of lipid bilayer membranes presents an alternative pathway for cellular delivery of nanoparticles (NPs) besides endocytosis. NPs delivered through this pathway could reach the cytoplasm, thereby opening the possibility of organelle-specific targeting. Herein we perform dissipative particle dynamics simulations to elucidate the transmembrane penetration mechanisms of multiple NPs. Our simulations demonstrate that NPs translocation proceeds in a cooperative manner, where the interplay of the quantity and surface chemistry of the NPs regulates the translocation efficiency. For NPs with hydrophilic surfaces, the increase of particle quantity facilitates penetration, while for NPs with partly or totally hydrophobic surfaces, the opposite highly possibly holds. Moreover, a set of interesting cooperative ways, such as aggregation, aggregation-dispersion, and aggregation-dispersion-reaggregation of the NPs, are observed during the penetration process. We find that the penetration behaviors of multiple NPs are mostly dominated by the changes of the NP-membrane force components in the membrane plane direction, in addition to that in the penetration direction, suggesting a different interaction mechanism between the multiple NPs and the membrane compared with the one-NP case. These results provide a fundamental understanding in the underlying mechanisms of cooperative penetration of NPs, and shed light on the NP-based drug and gene delivery. PMID:26013284

  4. Lightweight S-band helix antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cribb, H. E.

    1970-01-01

    Pyrotechnically operated S-band helical antenna is developed in which helix is deployed subsequent to antenna placement. Antenna is small, lightweight, and novel in that deployable helix is used in place of fixed dish or horn. It can be designed to cover L- and X-band frequencies.

  5. The Origins of Transmembrane Ion Channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pohorille, Andrew; Wilson, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    Even though membrane proteins that mediate transport of ions and small molecules across cell walls are among the largest and least understood biopolymers in contemporary cells, it is still possible to shed light on their origins and early evolution. The central observation is that transmembrane portions of most ion channels are simply bundles of -helices. By combining results of experimental and computer simulation studies on synthetic models and natural channels, mostly of non-genomic origin, we show that the emergence of -helical channels was protobiologically plausible, and did not require highly specific amino acid sequences. Despite their simple structure, such channels could possess properties that, at the first sight, appear to require markedly larger complexity. Specifically, we explain how the antiamoebin channels, which are made of identical helices, 16 amino acids in length, achieve efficiency comparable to that of highly evolved channels. We further show that antiamoebin channels are extremely flexible, compared to modern, genetically coded channels. On the basis of our results, we propose that channels evolved further towards high structural complexity because they needed to acquire stable rigid structures and mechanisms for precise regulation rather than improve efficiency. In general, even though architectures of membrane proteins are not nearly as diverse as those of water-soluble proteins, they are sufficiently flexible to adapt readily to the functional demands arising during evolution.

  6. Mutational analysis of trans-membrane helices M3, M4, M5 and M7 of the fast-twitch Ca2+-ATPase.

    PubMed Central

    Adams, P; East, J M; Lee, A G; O'Connor, C D

    1998-01-01

    Mutational analysis of trans-membrane helices M3, M4, M5 and M7 of the Ca2+-ATPase revealed a novel phenotypic variant, M4 [Y295A (the one-letter symbols are used for amino acid residues throughout)], displaying an increased affinity for Pi and decreased affinity for MgATP, while retaining the ability to translocate Ca2+ ions across the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. The properties of this mutant suggest that the E1-E2 equilibrium is shifted towards E2, and indicate a key role for this aromatic residue (Y295) at the end of trans-membrane helix M4. A mutant containing three amino acid residue substitutions at the end of the seventh trans-membrane helix, M7 (F834A, F835A, T837F), showed a complete loss of ATPase activity and a reduced ability to phosphorylate with Pi, although MgATP-initiated phosphorylation was unaffected. The observation that single mutations in this cluster of residues had no effect on Ca2+ transport suggests that correct anchoring of the helix at the lipid-water interface by these aromatic residues is important in the functioning of the ATPase. Mutation of polar residues in helix M3 did not affect inhibition of the ATPase by thapsigargin, thapsivillosin A or t-butyl hydroquinone, suggesting that hydrogen-bonding partners for the essential -OH groups on these inhibitors lie elsewhere in the ATPase. PMID:9742222

  7. Partitivirus Structure Reveals a 120-Subunit, Helix-Rich Capsid with Distinctive Surface Arches Formed by Quasisymmetric Coat-Protein Dimers

    PubMed Central

    Ochoa, Wendy F.; Havens, Wendy M.; Sinkovits, Robert S.; Nibert, Max L.; Ghabrial, Said A.; Baker, Timothy S.

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY Two distinct partitiviruses, Penicillium stoloniferum viruses S and F, can be isolated from the fungus Penicillium stoloniferum. The bisegmented dsRNA genomes of these viruses are separately packaged in icosahedral capsids containing 120 coat-protein subunits. We used transmission electron cryomicroscopy and three-dimensional image reconstruction to determine the structure of Penicillium stoloniferum virus S at 7.3-Å resolution. The capsid, ~350 Å in outer diameter, contains 12 pentons, each of which is topped by five arched protrusions. Each of these protrusions is in turn formed by a quasisymmetric dimer of coat protein, for a total of 60 such dimers per particle. The density map shows numerous tubular features, characteristic of α-helices and consistent with secondary-structure predictions for the coat protein. This is the first three-dimensional structure of a virus from the family Partitiviridae and exhibits both similarities to and differences from the so-called “T=2” capsids of other dsRNA viruses. PMID:18462682

  8. Role of predicted transmembrane domains for type III translocation, pore formation, and signaling by the Yersinia pseudotuberculosis YopB protein.

    PubMed

    Ryndak, Michelle B; Chung, Hachung; London, Erwin; Bliska, James B

    2005-04-01

    YopB is a 401-amino-acid protein that is secreted by a plasmid-encoded type III secretion system in pathogenic Yersinia species. YopB is required for Yersinia spp. to translocate across the host plasma membrane a set of secreted effector proteins that function to counteract immune signaling responses and to induce apoptosis. YopB contains two predicted transmembrane helices (residues 166 to 188 and 228 to 250) that are thought to insert into the host plasma membrane during translocation. YopB is also required for pore formation and host-cell-signaling responses to the type III machinery, and these functions of YopB may also require membrane insertion. To elucidate the importance of membrane insertion for YopB function, YopB proteins containing helix-disrupting double consecutive proline substitutions in the center of each transmembrane domain were constructed. Yersinia pseudotuberculosis strains expressing the mutant YopB proteins were used to infect macrophages or epithelial cells. Effector translocation, pore formation, and host-cell-signaling responses were studied. Introduction of helix-disrupting substitutions into the second transmembrane domain of YopB resulted in a nonfunctional protein that was not secreted by the type III machinery. Introduction of helix-disrupting substitutions into the first transmembrane domain of YopB resulted in a protein that was fully functional for secretion and for interaction with YopD, another component of the translocation machinery. However, the YopB protein with helix-disrupting substitutions in the first transmembrane domain was partially defective for translocation, pore formation, and signaling, suggesting that all three functions of YopB involve insertion into host membrane. PMID:15784589

  9. Role of Predicted Transmembrane Domains for Type III Translocation, Pore Formation, and Signaling by the Yersinia pseudotuberculosis YopB Protein

    PubMed Central

    Ryndak, Michelle B.; Chung, Hachung; London, Erwin; Bliska, James B.

    2005-01-01

    YopB is a 401-amino-acid protein that is secreted by a plasmid-encoded type III secretion system in pathogenic Yersinia species. YopB is required for Yersinia spp. to translocate across the host plasma membrane a set of secreted effector proteins that function to counteract immune signaling responses and to induce apoptosis. YopB contains two predicted transmembrane helices (residues 166 to 188 and 228 to 250) that are thought to insert into the host plasma membrane during translocation. YopB is also required for pore formation and host-cell-signaling responses to the type III machinery, and these functions of YopB may also require membrane insertion. To elucidate the importance of membrane insertion for YopB function, YopB proteins containing helix-disrupting double consecutive proline substitutions in the center of each transmembrane domain were constructed. Yersinia pseudotuberculosis strains expressing the mutant YopB proteins were used to infect macrophages or epithelial cells. Effector translocation, pore formation, and host-cell-signaling responses were studied. Introduction of helix-disrupting substitutions into the second transmembrane domain of YopB resulted in a nonfunctional protein that was not secreted by the type III machinery. Introduction of helix-disrupting substitutions into the first transmembrane domain of YopB resulted in a protein that was fully functional for secretion and for interaction with YopD, another component of the translocation machinery. However, the YopB protein with helix-disrupting substitutions in the first transmembrane domain was partially defective for translocation, pore formation, and signaling, suggesting that all three functions of YopB involve insertion into host membrane. PMID:15784589

  10. The first transmembrane domain (TM1) of ?2-subunit binds to the transmembrane domain S1 of ?-subunit in BK potassium channels

    PubMed Central

    Morera, Francisco J.; Alioua, Abderrahmane; Kundu, Pallob; Salazar, Marcelo; Gonzalez, Carlos; Martinez, Agustin D.; Stefani, Enrico; Toro, Ligia; Latorre, Ramon

    2012-01-01

    The BK channel is one of the most broadly expressed ion channels in mammals. In many tissues, the BK channel pore-forming ?-subunit is associated to an auxiliary ?-subunit that modulates the voltage- and Ca2+-dependent activation of the channel. Structural components present in ?-subunits that are important for the physical association with the ?-subunit are yet unknown. Here, we show through co-immunoprecipitation that the intracellular C-terminus, the second transmembrane domain (TM2) and the extracellular loop of the ?2-subunit are dispensable for association with the ?-subunit pointing transmembrane domain 1 (TM1) as responsible for the interaction. Indeed, the TOXCAT assay for transmembrane proteinprotein interactions demonstrated for the first time that TM1 of the ?2-subunit physically binds to the transmembrane S1 domain of the ?-subunit. PMID:22710124

  11. Interaction of a mitochondrial presequence with lipid membranes: role of helix formation for membrane binding and perturbation.

    PubMed

    Wieprecht, T; Apostolov, O; Beyermann, M; Seelig, J

    2000-12-19

    The binding of a peptide to a biological membrane is often accompanied by a transition from a random coil structure to an amphipathic alpha-helix. Recently, we have presented a new approach which allows the determination of the thermodynamic parameters of membrane-induced helix formation [Wieprecht et al. (1999) J. Mol Biol. 294, 785]. It involves a systematic variation of the helix content of a given peptide by double D-substitution and a correlation of the binding parameters with the helicity. Here we have used this method to study membrane-induced helix formation for the presequence of rat mitochondrial rhodanese (RHD). The thermodynamic parameters of binding of the peptide RHD and of four of its double D-isomers were determined for 30 nm (SUVs) and 100 nm (LUVs) unilamellar vesicles composed of phosphatidylcholine/phosphatidylglycerol (3:1) using circular dichroism spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, and isothermal titration calorimetry. The incremental changes of the thermodynamic parameters of helix formation were found to be very similar for SUVs and LUVs. Membrane-induced helix formation of RHD entailed a negative enthalpy of Delta H(helix) = -0.5 to -0.6 kcal/mol/residue and was opposed by an entropy of about Delta S(helix) = -1 to -1.4 cal/mol K/residue. The free energy of helix formation, Delta G(helix), was about -0.2 kcal/mol, and helix formation accounted for 50-60% of the total free energy of membrane binding. Dye-release experiments were used to assess the role of helix formation for the membrane perturbation potential of the peptides. While helix formation plays a major role for membrane binding, it appears to have little importance for inducing membrane leakiness. PMID:11112515

  12. Helix Dipole Movement and Conformational Variability Contribute to Allosteric GDP Release in G[alpha] Subunits

    SciTech Connect

    Preininger, Anita M.; Funk, Michael A.; Oldham, William M.; Meier, Scott M.; Johnston, Christopher A.; Adhikary, Suraj; Kimple, Adam J.; Siderovski, David P.; Hamm, Heidi E.; Iverson, Tina M.

    2009-06-01

    Heterotrimeric G proteins (Galphabetagamma) transmit signals from activated G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) to downstream effectors through a guanine nucleotide signaling cycle. Numerous studies indicate that the carboxy-terminal alpha5 helix of Galpha subunits participates in Galpha-receptor binding, and previous EPR studies suggest this receptor-mediated interaction induces a rotation and translation of the alpha5 helix of the Galpha subunit [Oldham, W. M., et al. (2006) Nat. Struct. Mol. Biol. 13, 772-777]. On the basis of this result, an engineered disulfide bond was designed to constrain the alpha5 helix of Galpha(i1) into its EPR-measured receptor-associated conformation through the introduction of cysteines at position 56 in the alpha1 helix and position 333 in the alpha5 helix (I56C/Q333C Galpha(i1)). A functional mimetic of the EPR-measured alpha5 helix dipole movement upon receptor association was additionally created by introduction of a positive charge at the amino terminus of this helix, D328R Galpha(i1). Both proteins exhibit a dramatically elevated level of basal nucleotide exchange. The 2.9 A resolution crystal structure of I56C/Q333C Galpha(i1) in complex with GDP-AlF(4)(-) reveals the shift of the alpha5 helix toward the guanine nucleotide binding site that is anticipated by EPR measurements. The structure of the I56C/Q333C Galpha(i1) subunit further revealed altered positions for the switch regions and throughout the Galpha(i1) subunit, accompanied by significantly elevated crystallographic temperature factors. Combined with previous evidence in the literature, the structural analysis supports the critical role of electrostatics of the alpha5 helix dipole and overall conformational variability during nucleotide release.

  13. Consequences of Stabilizing the Natively Disordered F helix for the Folding Pathway of Apomyoglobin

    PubMed Central

    Nishimura, Chiaki; Dyson, H. Jane; Wright, Peter E.

    2011-01-01

    The F helix region of sperm whale apomyoglobin (apoMb) is disordered, undergoing conformational fluctuations between a folded helical conformation and one or more locally unfolded states. In order to examine the effects of F helix stabilization on the folding pathway of apoMb, we have introduced mutations to augment intrinsic helical structure in the F helix of the kinetic folding intermediate and to increase its propensity to fold early in the pathway, using predictions based on plots of the average area buried upon folding (AABUF) derived from the primary sequence. Two mutant proteins were prepared, a double mutant P88K/S92K (F2) and a quadruple mutant, P88K/A90L/S92K/A94L (F4). Whereas the AABUF for F2 predicts that the F helix will not fold early in the pathway, the F helix in F4 shows a significantly increased AABUF and is therefore predicted to fold early. Protection of amide protons by formation of hydrogen-bonded helical structure during the early folding events has been analyzed by pH-pulse labeling. Consistent with the AABUF prediction, many of the F helix residues for F4 are significantly protected in the kinetic intermediate but are not protected in the F2 mutant. F4 folds via a kinetically trapped burst phase intermediate that contains stabilized secondary structure in the A, B, F, G, and H helix regions. Rapid folding of the F helix stabilizes the central core of the misfolded intermediate and inhibits translocation of the H helix back to its native position, thereby decreasing the overall folding rate. PMID:21640124

  14. Tryptophan at the transmembranecytosolic junction modulates thrombopoietin receptor dimerization and activation

    PubMed Central

    Defour, Jean-Philippe; Itaya, Miki; Gryshkova, Vitalina; Brett, Ian C.; Pecquet, Christian; Sato, Takeshi; Smith, Steven O.; Constantinescu, Stefan N.

    2013-01-01

    Dimerization of single-pass membrane receptors is essential for activation. In the human thrombopoietin receptor (TpoR), a unique amphipathic RWQFP motif separates the transmembrane (TM) and intracellular domains. Using a combination of mutagenesis, spectroscopy, and biochemical assays, we show that W515 of this motif impairs dimerization of the upstream TpoR TM helix. TpoR is unusual in that a specific residue is required for this inhibitory function, which prevents receptor self-activation. Mutations as diverse as W515K and W515L cause oncogenic activation of TpoR and lead to human myeloproliferative neoplasms. Two lines of evidence support a general mechanism in which W515 at the intracellular juxtamembrane boundary inhibits dimerization of the TpoR TM helix by increasing the helix tilt angle relative to the membrane bilayer normal, which prevents the formation of stabilizing TM dimer contacts. First, measurements using polarized infrared spectroscopy show that the isolated TM domain of the active W515K mutant has a helix tilt angle closer to the bilayer normal than that of the wild-type receptor. Second, we identify second-site R514W and Q516W mutations that reverse dimerization and tilt angle changes induced by the W515K and W515L mutations. The second-site mutations prevent constitutive activation of TpoR W515K/L, while preserving ligand-induced signaling. The ability of tryptophan to influence the angle and dimerization of the TM helix in wild-type TpoR and in the second-site revertants is likely associated with its strong preference to be buried in the headgroup region of membrane bilayers. PMID:23359689

  15. Suppression of mammary epithelial cell differentiation by the helix-loop-helix protein Id-1

    SciTech Connect

    Desprez, P.; Hara, E.; Bissell, M.J.

    1995-06-01

    Cell proliferation and differentiation are precisely coordinated during the development and maturation of the mammary gland, and this balance invariably is disrupted during carcinogenesis. Little is known about the cell-specific transcription factors that regulate these processes in the mammary gland. The mouse mammary epithelial cell line SCp2 grows well under standard culture conditions but arrests growth, forms alveolus-like structures, and expresses {beta}-casein, a differentiation marker, 4 to 5 days after exposure to basement membrane and lactogenic hormones (differentiation signals). The authors show that this differentiation entails a marked decline in the expression of Id-1, a helix-loop-helix (HLH) protein that inactivates basic HLH transcription factors in other cell types. SCp2 cells stably transfected with an Id-1 expression vector grew more rapidly than control cells under standard conditions, but in response to differentiation signals, they lost three-dimensional organization, invaded the basement membrane, and then resumed growth. SCp2 cells expressing an Id-1 antisense vector grew more slowly than controls; in response to differentiation signals, they remained stably growth arrested and fully differentiated, as did control cells. The authors suggest that Id-1 renders cells refractory to differentiation signals and receptive to growth signals by inactivating one or more basic HLH proteins that coordinate growth and differentiation in the mammary epithelium. 53 refs., 6 figs.

  16. A genome-wide survey on basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors in giant panda.

    PubMed

    Dang, Chunwang; Wang, Yong; Zhang, Debao; Yao, Qin; Chen, Keping

    2011-01-01

    The giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) is a critically endangered mammalian species. Studies on functions of regulatory proteins involved in developmental processes would facilitate understanding of specific behavior in giant panda. The basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins play essential roles in a wide range of developmental processes in higher organisms. bHLH family members have been identified in over 20 organisms, including fruit fly, zebrafish, mouse and human. Our present study identified 107 bHLH family members being encoded in giant panda genome. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that they belong to 44 bHLH families with 46, 25, 15, 4, 11 and 3 members in group A, B, C, D, E and F, respectively, while the remaining 3 members were assigned into "orphan". Compared to mouse, the giant panda does not encode seven bHLH proteins namely Beta3a, Mesp2, Sclerax, S-Myc, Hes5 (or Hes6), EBF4 and Orphan 1. These results provide useful background information for future studies on structure and function of bHLH proteins in the regulation of giant panda development. PMID:22096504

  17. Hydroxyproline Ring Pucker Causes Frustration of Helix Parameters in the Collagen Triple Helix

    PubMed Central

    Ying Chow, W.; Bihan, Dominique; Forman, Chris J.; Slatter, David A.; Reid, David G.; Wales, David J.; Farndale, Richard W.; Duer, Melinda J.

    2015-01-01

    Collagens, the most abundant proteins in mammals, are defined by their triple-helical structures and distinctive Gly-Xaa-Yaa repeating sequence, where Xaa is often proline and Yaa, hydroxyproline (Hyp/O). It is known that hydroxyproline in the Yaa position stabilises the triple helix, and that lack of proline hydroxylation in vivo leads to dysfunctional collagen extracellular matrix assembly, due to a range of factors such as a change in hydration properties. In addition, we note that in model peptides, when Yaa is unmodified proline, the Xaa proline has a strong propensity to adopt an endo ring conformation, whilst when Yaa is hydroxyproline, the Xaa proline adopts a range of endo and exo conformations. Here we use a combination of solid-state NMR spectroscopy and potential energy landscape modelling of synthetic triple-helical collagen peptides to understand this effect. We show that hydroxylation of the Yaa proline causes the Xaa proline ring conformation to become metastable, which in turn confers flexibility on the triple helix. PMID:26220399

  18. BuD, a helixloophelix DNA-binding domain for genome modification

    PubMed Central

    Stella, Stefano; Molina, Rafael; Lpez-Mndez, Blanca; Juillerat, Alexandre; Bertonati, Claudia; Daboussi, Fayza; Campos-Olivas, Ramon; Duchateau, Phillippe; Montoya, Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    DNA editing offers new possibilities in synthetic biology and biomedicine for modulation or modification of cellular functions to organisms. However, inaccuracy in this process may lead to genome damage. To address this important problem, a strategy allowing specific gene modification has been achieved through the addition, removal or exchange of DNA sequences using customized proteins and the endogenous DNA-repair machinery. Therefore, the engineering of specific proteinDNA interactions in protein scaffolds is key to providing toolkits for precise genome modification or regulation of gene expression. In a search for putative DNA-binding domains, BurrH, a protein that recognizes a 19?bp DNA target, was identified. Here, its apo and DNA-bound crystal structures are reported, revealing a central region containing 19 repeats of a helixloophelix modular domain (BurrH domain; BuD), which identifies the DNA target by a single residue-to-nucleotide code, thus facilitating its redesign for gene targeting. New DNA-binding specificities have been engineered in this template, showing that BuD-derived nucleases (BuDNs) induce high levels of gene targeting in a locus of the human haemoglobin ? (HBB) gene close to mutations responsible for sickle-cell anaemia. Hence, the unique combination of high efficiency and specificity of the BuD arrays can push forward diverse genome-modification approaches for cell or organism redesign, opening new avenues for gene editing. PMID:25004980

  19. Hydroxyproline Ring Pucker Causes Frustration of Helix Parameters in the Collagen Triple Helix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ying Chow, W.; Bihan, Dominique; Forman, Chris J.; Slatter, David A.; Reid, David G.; Wales, David J.; Farndale, Richard W.; Duer, Melinda J.

    2015-07-01

    Collagens, the most abundant proteins in mammals, are defined by their triple-helical structures and distinctive Gly-Xaa-Yaa repeating sequence, where Xaa is often proline and Yaa, hydroxyproline (Hyp/O). It is known that hydroxyproline in the Yaa position stabilises the triple helix, and that lack of proline hydroxylation in vivo leads to dysfunctional collagen extracellular matrix assembly, due to a range of factors such as a change in hydration properties. In addition, we note that in model peptides, when Yaa is unmodified proline, the Xaa proline has a strong propensity to adopt an endo ring conformation, whilst when Yaa is hydroxyproline, the Xaa proline adopts a range of endo and exo conformations. Here we use a combination of solid-state NMR spectroscopy and potential energy landscape modelling of synthetic triple-helical collagen peptides to understand this effect. We show that hydroxylation of the Yaa proline causes the Xaa proline ring conformation to become metastable, which in turn confers flexibility on the triple helix.

  20. Nucleobase-Modified PNA Suppresses Translation by Forming a Triple Helix with a Hairpin Structure in mRNA In?Vitro and in Cells.

    PubMed

    Endoh, Tamaki; Hnedzko, Dziyana; Rozners, Eriks; Sugimoto, Naoki

    2016-01-01

    Compounds that bind specifically to double-stranded regions of RNA have potential as regulators of structure-based RNA function; however, sequence-selective recognition of double-stranded RNA is challenging. The modification of peptide nucleic acid (PNA) with unnatural nucleobases enables the formation of PNA-RNA triplexes. Herein, we demonstrate that a 9-mer PNA forms a sequence-specific PNA-RNA triplex with a dissociation constant of less than 1?nm at physiological pH. The triplex formed within the 5' untranslated region of an mRNA reduces the protein expression levels both in?vitro and in cells. A single triplet mismatch destabilizes the complex, and in this case, no translation suppression is observed. The triplex-forming PNAs are unique and potent compounds that hold promise as inhibitors of cellular functions that are controlled by double-stranded RNAs, such as RNA interference, RNA editing, and RNA localization mediated by protein-RNA interactions. PMID:26473504

  1. Structure of an atypical FeoB G-domain reveals a putative domain-swapped dimer

    PubMed Central

    Deshpande, Chandrika N.; McGrath, Aaron P.; Font, Josep; Guilfoyle, Amy P.; Maher, Megan J.; Jormakka, Mika

    2013-01-01

    FeoB is a transmembrane protein involved in ferrous iron uptake in prokaryotic organisms. FeoB comprises a cytoplasmic soluble domain termed NFeoB and a C-terminal polytopic transmembrane domain. Recent structures of NFeoB have revealed two structural subdomains: a canonical GTPase domain and a five-helix helical domain. The GTPase domain hydrolyses GTP to GDP through a well characterized mechanism, a process which is required for Fe2+ transport. In contrast, the precise role of the helical domain has not yet been fully determined. Here, the structure of the cytoplasmic domain of FeoB from Gallionella capsiferriformans is reported. Unlike recent structures of NFeoB, the G. capsiferriformans NFeoB structure is highly unusual in that it does not contain a helical domain. The crystal structures of both apo and GDP-bound protein forms a domain-swapped dimer. PMID:23545645

  2. Structure of an atypical FeoB G-domain reveals a putative domain-swapped dimer.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, Chandrika N; McGrath, Aaron P; Font, Josep; Guilfoyle, Amy P; Maher, Megan J; Jormakka, Mika

    2013-04-01

    FeoB is a transmembrane protein involved in ferrous iron uptake in prokaryotic organisms. FeoB comprises a cytoplasmic soluble domain termed NFeoB and a C-terminal polytopic transmembrane domain. Recent structures of NFeoB have revealed two structural subdomains: a canonical GTPase domain and a five-helix helical domain. The GTPase domain hydrolyses GTP to GDP through a well characterized mechanism, a process which is required for Fe(2+) transport. In contrast, the precise role of the helical domain has not yet been fully determined. Here, the structure of the cytoplasmic domain of FeoB from Gallionella capsiferriformans is reported. Unlike recent structures of NFeoB, the G. capsiferriformans NFeoB structure is highly unusual in that it does not contain a helical domain. The crystal structures of both apo and GDP-bound protein forms a domain-swapped dimer. PMID:23545645

  3. The Mtr4 ratchet helix and arch domain both function to promote RNA unwinding

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Lacy L.; Jackson, Ryan N.; Rexhepaj, Megi; King, Alejandra Klauer; Lott, Lindsey K.; vanHoof, Ambro; Johnson, Sean J.

    2014-01-01

    Mtr4 is a conserved Ski2-like RNA helicase and a subunit of the TRAMP complex that activates exosome-mediated 3?-5? turnover in nuclear RNA surveillance and processing pathways. Prominent features of the Mtr4 structure include a four-domain ring-like helicase core and a large arch domain that spans the core. The ratchet helix is positioned to interact with RNA substrates as they move through the helicase. However, the contribution of the ratchet helix in Mtr4 activity is poorly understood. Here we show that strict conservation along the ratchet helix is particularly extensive for Ski2-like RNA helicases compared to related helicases. Mutation of residues along the ratchet helix alters in vitro activity in Mtr4 and TRAMP and causes slow growth phenotypes in vivo. We also identify a residue on the ratchet helix that influences Mtr4 affinity for polyadenylated substrates. Previous work indicated that deletion of the arch domain has minimal effect on Mtr4 unwinding activity. We now show that combining the arch deletion with ratchet helix mutations abolishes helicase activity and produces a lethal in vivo phenotype. These studies demonstrate that the ratchet helix modulates helicase activity and suggest that the arch domain plays a previously unrecognized role in unwinding substrates. PMID:25414331

  4. A supramolecular helix that disregards chirality.

    PubMed

    Roche, Ccile; Sun, Hao-Jan; Leowanawat, Pawaret; Araoka, Fumito; Partridge, Benjamin E; Peterca, Mihai; Wilson, Daniela A; Prendergast, Margaret E; Heiney, Paul A; Graf, Robert; Spiess, Hans W; Zeng, Xiangbing; Ungar, Goran; Percec, Virgil

    2016-01-01

    The functions of complex crystalline systems derived from supramolecular biological and non-biological assemblies typically emerge from homochiral programmed primary structures via first principles involving secondary, tertiary and quaternary structures. In contrast, heterochiral and racemic compounds yield disordered crystals, amorphous solids or liquids. Here, we report the self-assembly of perylene bisimide derivatives in a supramolecular helix that in turn self-organizes in columnar hexagonal crystalline domains regardless of the enantiomeric purity of the perylene bisimide. We show that both homochiral and racemic perylene bisimide compounds, including a mixture of 21 diastereomers that cannot be deracemized at the molecular level, self-organize to form single-handed helical assemblies with identical single-crystal-like order. We propose that this high crystalline order is generated via a cogwheel mechanism that disregards the chirality of the self-assembling building blocks. We anticipate that this mechanism will facilitate access to previously inaccessible complex crystalline systems from racemic and homochiral building blocks. PMID:26673268

  5. A supramolecular helix that disregards chirality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roche, Cécile; Sun, Hao-Jan; Leowanawat, Pawaret; Araoka, Fumito; Partridge, Benjamin E.; Peterca, Mihai; Wilson, Daniela A.; Prendergast, Margaret E.; Heiney, Paul A.; Graf, Robert; Spiess, Hans W.; Zeng, Xiangbing; Ungar, Goran; Percec, Virgil

    2016-01-01

    The functions of complex crystalline systems derived from supramolecular biological and non-biological assemblies typically emerge from homochiral programmed primary structures via first principles involving secondary, tertiary and quaternary structures. In contrast, heterochiral and racemic compounds yield disordered crystals, amorphous solids or liquids. Here, we report the self-assembly of perylene bisimide derivatives in a supramolecular helix that in turn self-organizes in columnar hexagonal crystalline domains regardless of the enantiomeric purity of the perylene bisimide. We show that both homochiral and racemic perylene bisimide compounds, including a mixture of 21 diastereomers that cannot be deracemized at the molecular level, self-organize to form single-handed helical assemblies with identical single-crystal-like order. We propose that this high crystalline order is generated via a cogwheel mechanism that disregards the chirality of the self-assembling building blocks. We anticipate that this mechanism will facilitate access to previously inaccessible complex crystalline systems from racemic and homochiral building blocks.

  6. Structures of SemiSWEET transporters in two distinct conformations

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Chao; Chen, Li-Qing; Xu, Sophia; Perry, Kay; Frommer, Wolf B.; Feng, Liang

    2015-01-01

    SemiSWEETs and SWEETs are mono- and disaccharide transporters present from Archaea to higher plants and humans1-3. SWEETs play crucial roles in cellular sugar efflux processes, i.e. phloem loading4, pollen nutrition5 and nectar secretion6. Their bacterial homologs, SemiSWEETs, are among the smallest known transporters1,3. Here we show SemiSWEET, consisting of a triple-helix-bundle (THB), forms a symmetric parallel dimer to create the translocation pathway. Two SemiSWEET isoforms were crystallized in apparent open and occluded states, indicating that SemiSWEETs/SWEETs are transporters that undergo rocking-type movements during the transport cycle. The topology of THB is similar to the basic building block in MFS transporters (GLUTs, SUTs), indicating that they may have evolved from an ancestral THB into a parallel configuration to produce 6/6+1 transmembrane-helix pores for SemiSWEETs/SWEETs, and an antiparallel configuration of 2×2 THBs to generate 12 transmembrane-helix pores for MFS transporters. Given the similarity of SemiSWEETs/SWEETs to PQ-loop amino acid transporters and mitochondrial MPC organic acid transporters, the structures characterized here may also be relevant for other MtN3 clan transporters7-9. PMID:25186729

  7. Structure of a bacterial homologue of vitamin K epoxide reductase.

    PubMed

    Li, Weikai; Schulman, Sol; Dutton, Rachel J; Boyd, Dana; Beckwith, Jon; Rapoport, Tom A

    2010-01-28

    Vitamin K epoxide reductase (VKOR) generates vitamin K hydroquinone to sustain gamma-carboxylation of many blood coagulation factors. Here, we report the 3.6 A crystal structure of a bacterial homologue of VKOR from Synechococcus sp. The structure shows VKOR in complex with its naturally fused redox partner, a thioredoxin-like domain, and corresponds to an arrested state of electron transfer. The catalytic core of VKOR is a four transmembrane helix bundle that surrounds a quinone, connected through an additional transmembrane segment with the periplasmic thioredoxin-like domain. We propose a pathway for how VKOR uses electrons from cysteines of newly synthesized proteins to reduce a quinone, a mechanism confirmed by in vitro reconstitution of vitamin K-dependent disulphide bridge formation. Our results have implications for the mechanism of the mammalian VKOR and explain how mutations can cause resistance to the VKOR inhibitor warfarin, the most commonly used oral anticoagulant. PMID:20110994

  8. Structure of a bacterial homologue of vitamin K epoxide reductase

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Weikai; Schulman, Sol; Dutton, Rachel J.; Boyd, Dana; Beckwith, Jon; Rapoport, Tom A.

    2010-03-19

    Vitamin K epoxide reductase (VKOR) generates vitamin K hydroquinone to sustain {gamma}-carboxylation of many blood coagulation factors. Here, we report the 3.6 {angstrom} crystal structure of a bacterial homologue of VKOR from Synechococcus sp. The structure shows VKOR in complex with its naturally fused redox partner, a thioredoxin-like domain, and corresponds to an arrested state of electron transfer. The catalytic core of VKOR is a four transmembrane helix bundle that surrounds a quinone, connected through an additional transmembrane segment with the periplasmic thioredoxin-like domain. We propose a pathway for how VKOR uses electrons from cysteines of newly synthesized proteins to reduce a quinone, a mechanism confirmed by in vitro reconstitution of vitamin K-dependent disulphide bridge formation. Our results have implications for the mechanism of the mammalian VKOR and explain how mutations can cause resistance to the VKOR inhibitor warfarin, the most commonly used oral anticoagulant.

  9. Comparison of design strategies for ?-helix backbone modification in a protein tertiary fold.

    PubMed

    Tavenor, Nathan A; Reinert, Zachary E; Lengyel, George A; Griffith, Brian D; Horne, W Seth

    2016-02-25

    We report here the comparison of five classes of unnatural amino acid building blocks for their ability to be accommodated into an ?-helix in a protein tertiary fold context. High-resolution structural characterization and analysis of folding thermodynamics yield new insights into the relationship between backbone composition and folding energetics in ?-helix mimetics and suggest refined design rules for engineering the backbones of natural sequences. PMID:26853882

  10. Recent Progresses in Studying Helix-Helix Interactions in Proteins by Incorporating the Wenxiang Diagram into the NMR Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Guo-Ping; Chen, Dong; Liao, Siming; Huang, Ri-Bo

    2016-01-01

    All residues in an alpha helix can be characterized and dispositioned on a 2D the wenxiang diagram, which possesses the following features: (1) the relative locations of the amino acids in the ?-helix can be clearly displayed regardless how long it is; (2) direction of an alphahelix can be indicated; and (3) more information regarding each of the constituent amino acid residues in an alpha helix. Owing to its intuitionism and easy visibility, wenxiang diagrams have had an immense influence on our understanding of protein structure, protein-protein interactions, and the effect of helical structural stability on protein conformational transitions. In this review, we summarize two recent applications of wenxiang diagrams incorporating NMR spectroscopy in the researches of the coiled-coil protein interactions related to the regulation of contraction or relaxation states of vascular smooth muscle cells, and the effects of ?-helical stability on the protein misfolding in prion disease, in hopes that the gained valuable information through these studies can stimulate more and more widely applications of wenxiang diagrams in structural biology. PMID:26286215

  11. Investigation of Properties of Infrared Absorption of ?-HELIX Protein Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Xiao-Feng; Zhang, Huai-Wu

    2006-05-01

    The mechanism and properties of infrared absorption of ?-helix protein molecules are studied by a theory of bio-energy transport established on the basis of molecular structure. From the vibrational energy-spectra of molecules obtained from this theory we know that the infrared lights with wavelengths of 2 m -7 m can be absorbed by ?-helix protein molecules. This is basically consistent with experimental data of infrared absorption of collagen and hemoglobin and bivine serum albumen (BSA) proteins with ?-helix structure. From these results we account further for the mechanism and properties of biological effect of infrared lights absorbed by the living systems, i.e., the energy of infrared lights is directly absorbed by the amide-Is in amino acid residues in the protein molecules, which results in vibration of amide-1 and change of conformation of proteins and transport of bio-energy from one place to other along the protein molecular chains in human beings and animals. This is a kind of non-thermally biological effect.

  12. Partial Agonists Activate PPARgamma Using a Helix 12 Independent Mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Bruning, J.B.; Chalmers, M.J.; Prasad, S.; Bushby, S.A.; Kamenecka, T.A.; He, Y.; Nettles, K.W.; Griffin, P.R.

    2009-05-28

    Binding to helix 12 of the ligand-binding domain of PPAR{gamma} is required for full agonist activity. Previously, the degree of stabilization of the activation function 2 (AF-2) surface was thought to correlate with the degree of agonism and transactivation. To examine this mechanism, we probed structural dynamics of PPAR{gamma} with agonists that induced graded transcriptional responses. Here we present crystal structures and amide H/D exchange (HDX) kinetics for six of these complexes. Amide HDX revealed each ligand induced unique changes to the dynamics of the ligand-binding domain (LBD). Full agonists stabilized helix 12, whereas intermediate and partial agonists did not at all, and rather differentially stabilized other regions of the binding pocket. The gradient of PPAR{gamma} transactivation cannot be accounted for solely through changes to the dynamics of AF-2. Thus, our understanding of allosteric signaling must be extended beyond the idea of a dynamic helix 12 acting as a molecular switch.

  13. Uropathogenic E. coli adhesin-induced host cell receptor conformational changes: implications in transmembrane signaling transduction

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Huaibin; Min, Guangwei; Glockshuber, Rudi; Sun, Tung-Tien; Kong, Xiang-Peng

    2009-01-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is the second most common infectious disease, and is caused predominantly by type 1-fimbriated uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC). UPEC initiates infection by attaching to uroplakin Ia, its urothelial surface receptor, via the FimH adhesins capping the distal end of its fimbriae. Uroplakin Ia, together with uroplakins Ib, II and IIIa, forms a 16 nm receptor complex that is assembled into hexagonally packed two-dimensional crystals (urothelial plaques) covering >90% of the urothelial apical surface. Recent studies indicate that FimH is the invasin of UPEC as its attachment to the urothelial surface can induce cellular signaling events including calcium elevation and the phosphorylation of the uroplakin IIIa cytoplasmic tail, leading to cytoskeletal rearrangements and bacterial invasion. However, it remains unknown how the binding of FimH to the uroplakin receptor triggers a signal that can be transmitted through the highly impermeable urothelial apical membrane. We show here by cryo-electron microscopy that FimH-binding to the extracellular domain of UPIa induces global conformational changes in the entire uroplakin receptor complex, including a coordinated movement of the tightly bundled transmembrane helices. This movement of the transmembrane helix bundles can cause a corresponding lateral translocation of the uroplakin cytoplasmic tails, which can be sufficient to trigger downstream signaling events. Our results suggest a novel pathogen-induced transmembrane signal transduction mechanism that plays a key role in the initial stages of UPEC invasion and receptor-mediated bacterial invasion in general. PMID:19577575

  14. Suppression of mammary epithelial cell differentiation by the helix-loop-helix protein Id-1.

    PubMed Central

    Desprez, P Y; Hara, E; Bissell, M J; Campisi, J

    1995-01-01

    Cell proliferation and differentiation are precisely coordinated during the development and maturation of the mammary gland, and this balance invariably is disrupted during carcinogenesis. Little is known about the cell-specific transcription factors that regulate these processes in the mammary gland. The mouse mammary epithelial cell line SCp2 grows well under standard culture conditions but arrests growth, forms alveolus-like structures, and expresses beta-casein, a differentiation marker, 4 to 5 days after exposure to basement membrane and lactogenic hormones (differentiation signals). We show that this differentiation entails a marked decline in the expression of Id-1, a helix-loop-helix (HLH) protein that inactivates basic HLH transcription factors in other cell types. SCp2 cells stably transfected with an Id-1 expression vector grew more rapidly than control cells under standard conditions, but in response to differentiation signals, they arrested growth and formed three-dimensional structures similar to those of control cells. Id-1-expressing cells did not, however, express beta-casein. Moreover, 8 to 10 days after receiving differentiation signals, they lost three-dimensional organization, invaded the basement membrane, and then resumed growth. SCp2 cells expressing an Id-1 antisense vector grew more slowly than controls; in response to differentiation signals, they remained stably growth arrested and fully differentiated, as did control cells. We suggest that Id-1 renders cells refractory to differentiation signals and receptive to growth signals by inactivating one or more basic HLH proteins that coordinate growth and differentiation in the mammary epithelium. PMID:7760836

  15. Probing transmembrane mechanical coupling and cytomechanics using magnetic twisting cytometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, N.; Ingber, D. E.

    1995-01-01

    We recently developed a magnetic twisting cytometry technique that allows us to apply controlled mechanical stresses to specific cell surface receptors using ligand-coated ferromagnetic microbeads and to simultaneously measure the mechanical response in living cells. Using this technique, we have previously shown the following: (i) beta 1 integrin receptors mediate mechanical force transfer across the cell surface and to the cytoskeleton, whereas other transmembrane receptors (e.g., scavenger receptors) do not; (ii) cytoskeletal stiffness increases in direct proportion to the level of stress applied to integrins; and (iii) the slope of this linear stiffening response differs depending on the shape of the cell. We now show that different integrins (beta 1, alpha V beta 3, alpha V, alpha 5, alpha 2) and other transmembrane receptors (scavenger receptor, platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule) differ in their ability to mediate force transfer across the cell surface. In addition, the linear stiffening behavior previously observed in endothelial cells was found to be shared by other cell types. Finally, we demonstrate that dynamic changes in cell shape that occur during both cell spreading and retraction are accompanied by coordinate changes in cytoskeletal stiffness. Taken together, these results suggest that the magnetic twisting cytometry technique may be a powerful and versatile tool for studies analyzing the molecular basis of transmembrane mechanical coupling to the cytoskeleton as well as dynamic relations between changes in cytoskeletal structure and alterations in cell form and function.

  16. Bidirectional Transformation of a Metamorphic Protein between the Water-Soluble and Transmembrane Native States.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Koji; Caaveiro, Jose M M; Tsumoto, Kouhei

    2015-11-24

    The bidirectional transformation of a protein between its native water-soluble and integral transmembrane conformations is demonstrated for FraC, a hemolytic protein of the family of pore-forming toxins. In the presence of biological membranes, the water-soluble conformation of FraC undergoes a remarkable structural reorganization generating cytolytic transmembrane nanopores conducive to cell death. So far, the reverse transformation from the native transmembrane conformation to the native water-soluble conformation has not been reported. We describe the use of detergents with different physicochemical properties to achieve the spontaneous conversion of transmembrane pores of FraC back into the initial water-soluble state. Thermodynamic and kinetic stability data suggest that specific detergents cause an asymmetric change in the energy landscape of the protein, allowing the bidirectional transformation of a membrane protein. PMID:26544760

  17. Proline residues in transmembrane segment IV are critical for activity, expression and targeting of the Na+/H+ exchanger isoform 1.

    PubMed Central

    Slepkov, Emily R; Chow, Signy; Lemieux, M Joanne; Fliegel, Larry

    2004-01-01

    NHE1 (Na+/H+ exchanger isoform 1) is a ubiquitously expressed integral membrane protein that regulates intracellular pH in mammalian cells. Proline residues within transmembrane segments have unusual properties, acting as helix breakers and increasing flexibility of membrane segments, since they lack an amide hydrogen. We examined the importance of three conserved proline residues in TM IV (transmembrane segment IV) of NHE1. Pro167 and Pro168 were mutated to Gly, Ala or Cys, and Pro178 was mutated to Ala. Pro168 and Pro178 mutant proteins were expressed at levels similar to wild-type NHE1 and were targeted to the plasma membrane. However, the mutants P167G (Pro167-->Gly), P167A and P167C were expressed at lower levels compared with wild-type NHE1, and a significant portion of P167G and P167C were retained intracellularly, possibly indicating induced changes in the structure of TM IV. P167G, P167C, P168A and P168C mutations abolished NHE activity, and P167A and P168G mutations caused markedly decreased activity. In contrast, the activity of the P178A mutant was not significantly different from that of wild-type NHE1. The results indicate that both Pro167 and Pro168 in TM IV of NHE1 are required for normal NHE activity. In addition, mutation of Pro167 affects the expression and membrane targeting of the exchanger. Thus both Pro167 and Pro168 are strictly required for NHE function and may play critical roles in the structure of TM IV of the NHE. PMID:14680478

  18. Structure of a prokaryotic fumarate transporter reveals the architecture of the SLC26 family.

    PubMed

    Geertsma, Eric R; Chang, Yung-Ning; Shaik, Farooque R; Neldner, Yvonne; Pardon, Els; Steyaert, Jan; Dutzler, Raimund

    2015-10-01

    The SLC26 family of membrane proteins combines a variety of functions within a conserved molecular scaffold. Its members, besides coupled anion transporters and channels, include the motor protein Prestin, which confers electromotility to cochlear outer hair cells. To gain insight into the architecture of this protein family, we characterized the structure and function of SLC26Dg, a facilitator of proton-coupled fumarate symport, from the bacterium Deinococcus geothermalis. Its modular structure combines a transmembrane unit and a cytoplasmic STAS domain. The membrane-inserted domain consists of two intertwined inverted repeats of seven transmembrane segments each and resembles the fold of the unrelated transporter UraA. It shows an inward-facing, ligand-free conformation with a potential substrate-binding site at the interface between two helix termini at the center of the membrane. This structure defines the common framework for the diverse functional behavior of the SLC26 family. PMID:26367249

  19. The aspartate receptor cytoplasmic domain: in situ chemical analysis of structure, mechanism and dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Bass, Randal B; Falke, Joseph J

    2010-01-01

    Background Site-directed sulfhydryl chemistry and spectroscopy can be used to probe protein structure, mechanism and dynamics in situ. The aspartate receptor of bacterial chemotaxis is representative of a large family of prokaryotic and eukaryotic receptors that regulate histidine kinases in two-component signaling pathways, and has become one of the best characterized transmembrane receptors. We report here the use of cysteine and disulfide scanning to probe the helix-packing architecture of the cytoplasmic domain of the aspartate receptor. Results A series of designed cysteine pairs have been used to detect proximities between cytoplasmic helices in the full-length, membrane-bound receptor by measurement of disulfide-bond formation rates. Upon mild oxidation, 25 disulfide bonds form rapidly between three specific pairs of helices, whereas other helix pairs yield no detectable disulfide-bond formation. Further constraints on helix packing are provided by 14 disulfide bonds that retain receptor function in an in vitro kinase regulation assay. Of these functional disulfides, seven lock the receptor in the conformation that constitutively stimulates kinase activity (lock on), whereas the remaining seven retain normal kinase regulation. Finally, disulfide-trapping experiments in the absence of bound kinase reveal large-amplitude relative motions of adjacent helices, including helix translations and rotations of up to 19 and 180, respectively. Conclusions The 25 rapidly formed and 14 functional disulfide bonds identify helixhelix contacts and theirregister in the full-length, membrane-bound receptorkinase complex. The results reveal an extended, rather than compact, domain architecture in which the observed helixhelix interactions are best described by a four-helix bundle arrangement. A cluster of six lock-on disulfide bonds pinpoints a region of the subunit interface critical for kinase activation, whereas the signal-retaining disulfides indicate that signal-induced rearrangements of the four-helix bundle are small enough to be accommodated by disulfide-bond flexibility (? 1.2 ). In the absence of bound kinase, helix packing within the cytoplasmic domain is highly dynamic. PMID:10425684

  20. A role for U2/U6 helix Ib in 5' splice site selection.

    PubMed Central

    Luukkonen, B G; Sraphin, B

    1998-01-01

    Selection of pre-mRNA splice sites is a highly accurate process involving many trans-acting factors. Recently, we described a role for U6 snRNA position G52 in selection of the first intron nucleotide (+1G). Because some U2 alleles suppress U6-G52 mutations, we investigated whether the corresponding U2 snRNA region also influenced 5' splice site selection. Our results demonstrate that U2 snRNAs mutated at position U23, but not adjacent nucleotides, specifically affect 5' splice site cleavage. Furthermore, all U2 position U23 mutations are synthetic lethal with the thermosensitive U6-G52U allele. Interestingly, the U2-U23C substitution has an unprecedented hyperaccurate splicing phenotype in which cleavage of introns with a +1G substitution is reduced, whereas the strain grows with wild-type kinetics. U2 position U23 forms the first base pair with U6 position A59 in U2/U6 helix Ib. Restoration of the helical structure suppresses 5' splice site cleavage defects, showing an important role for the helix Ib structure in 5' splice site selection. U2/U6 helix Ib and helix II have recently been described as being functionally redundant. This report demonstrates a unique role for helix Ib in 5' splice site selection that is not shared with helix II. PMID:9701283

  1. A helix-loop-helix protein related to the immunoglobulin E box-binding proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Carr, C S; Sharp, P A

    1990-01-01

    A human cDNA encoding a novel protein in the helix-loop-helix family has been isolated by screening a bacteriophage expression library with a probe containing the binding site for major late transcription factor. The protein encoded by this cDNA, TFEB, probably recognizes E-box sequences in the heavy-chain immunoglobulin enhancer. Images PMID:2115126

  2. A smallest 6 kda metalloprotease, mini-matrilysin, in living world: a revolutionary conserved zinc-dependent proteolytic domain- helix-loop-helix catalytic zinc binding domain (ZBD)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The Aim of this study is to study the minimum zinc dependent metalloprotease catalytic folding motif, helix B Met loop-helix C, with proteolytic catalytic activities in metzincin super family. The metzincin super family share a catalytic domain consisting of a twisted five-stranded β sheet and three long α helices (A, B and C). The catalytic zinc is at the bottom of the cleft and is ligated by three His residues in the consensus sequence motif, HEXXHXXGXXH, which is located in helix B and part of the adjacent Met turn region. An interesting question is - what is the minimum portion of the enzyme that still possesses catalytic and inhibitor recognition?” Methods We have expressed a 60-residue truncated form of matrilysin which retains only the helix B-Met turn-helix C region and deletes helix A and the five-stranded β sheet which form the upper portion of the active cleft. This is only 1/4 of the full catalytic domain. The E. coli derived 6 kDa MMP-7 ZBD fragments were purified and refolded. The proteolytic activities were analyzed by Mca-Pro-Leu-Gly-Leu-Dpa-Ala-Arg-NH2 peptide assay and CM-transferrin zymography analysis. SC44463, BB94 and Phosphoramidon were computationally docked into the 3day structure of the human MMP7 ZBD and TAD and thermolysin using the docking program GOLD. Results This minimal 6 kDa matrilysin has been refolded and shown to have proteolytic activity in the Mca-Pro-Leu-Gly-Leu-Dpa-Ala-Arg-NH2 peptide assay. Triton X-100 and heparin are important factors in the refolding environment for this mini-enzyme matrilysin. This minienzyme has the proteolytic activity towards peptide substrate, but the hexamer and octamer of the mini MMP-7 complex demonstrates the CM-transferrin proteolytic activities in zymographic analysis. Peptide digestion is inhibited by SC44463, specific MMP7 inhibitors, but not phosphorimadon. Interestingly, the mini MMP-7 can be processed by autolysis and producing ~ 6 ~ 7 kDa fragments. Thus, many of the functions of the enzyme are retained indicating that the helix B-Met loop-helix C is the minimal functional “domain” found to date for the matrixin family. Conclusions The helix B-Met loop-helix C folding conserved in metalloprotease metzincin super family is able to facilitate proteolytic catalysis for specific substrate and inhibitor recognition. The autolysis processing and producing 6 kDa mini MMP-7 is the smallest metalloprotease in living world. PMID:22642296

  3. Molecular Insights into the Transmembrane Domain of the Thyrotropin Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Chantreau, Vanessa; Taddese, Bruck; Munier, Mathilde; Gourdin, Louis; Henrion, Daniel; Rodien, Patrice; Chabbert, Marie

    2015-01-01

    The thyrotropin receptor (TSHR) is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that is member of the leucine-rich repeat subfamily (LGR). In the absence of crystal structure, the success of rational design of ligands targeting the receptor internal cavity depends on the quality of the TSHR models built. In this subfamily, transmembrane helices (TM) 2 and 5 are characterized by the absence of proline compared to most receptors, raising the question of the structural conformation of these helices. To gain insight into the structural properties of these helices, we carried out bioinformatics and experimental studies. Evolutionary analysis of the LGR family revealed a deletion in TM5 but provided no information on TM2. Wild type residues at positions 2.58, 2.59 or 2.60 in TM2 and/or at position 5.50 in TM5 were substituted to proline. Depending on the position of the proline substitution, different effects were observed on membrane expression, glycosylation, constitutive cAMP activity and responses to thyrotropin. Only proline substitution at position 2.59 maintained complex glycosylation and high membrane expression, supporting occurrence of a bulged TM2. The TSHR transmembrane domain was modeled by homology with the orexin 2 receptor, using a protocol that forced the deletion of one residue in the TM5 bulge of the template. The stability of the model was assessed by molecular dynamics simulations. TM5 straightened during the equilibration phase and was stable for the remainder of the simulations. Our data support a structural model of the TSHR transmembrane domain with a bulged TM2 and a straight TM5 that is specific of glycoprotein hormone receptors. PMID:26545118

  4. Solution NMR Structure of Membrane-Integral Diacylglycerol Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Van Horn, Wade D.; Kim, Hak-Jun; Ellis, Charles D.; Hadziselimovic, Arina; Sulistijo, Endah S.; Karra, Murthy D.; Tian, Changlin; Snnichsen, Frank D.; Sanders, Charles R.

    2009-01-01

    Escherichia coli diacylglycerol kinase (DAGK) represents a family of integral membrane enzymes that is unrelated to all other phosphotransferases. We have determined the three-dimensional structure of the DAGK homotrimer using solution NMR. The third transmembrane helix from each subunit is domain-swapped with the first and second transmembrane segments from an adjacent subunit. Each of DAGKs three active sites resembles a portico. The cornice of the portico appears to be the determinant of DAGKs lipid substrate specificity and overhangs the site of phosphoryl transfer near the water-membrane interface. Mutations to cysteine that caused severe misfolding were located in or near the active site, indicating a high degree of overlap between sites responsible for folding and for catalysis. PMID:19556511

  5. Direct imaging of DNA fibers: the visage of double helix.

    PubMed

    Gentile, Francesco; Moretti, Manola; Limongi, Tania; Falqui, Andrea; Bertoni, Giovanni; Scarpellini, Alice; Santoriello, Stefania; Maragliano, Luca; Proietti Zaccaria, Remo; di Fabrizio, Enzo

    2012-12-12

    Direct imaging becomes important when the knowledge at few/single molecule level is requested and where the diffraction does not allow to get structural and functional information. Here we report on the direct imaging of double stranded (ds) ?-DNA in the A conformation, obtained by combining a novel sample preparation method based on super hydrophobic DNA molecules self-aggregation process with transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The experimental breakthrough is the production of robust and highly ordered paired DNA nanofibers that allowed its direct TEM imaging and the double helix structure revealing. PMID:23171353

  6. A helix scaffold for the assembly of active protein kinases.

    PubMed

    Kornev, Alexandr P; Taylor, Susan S; Ten Eyck, Lynn F

    2008-09-23

    Structures of set of serine-threonine and tyrosine kinases were investigated by the recently developed bioinformatics tool Local Spatial Patterns (LSP) alignment. We report a set of conserved motifs comprised mostly of hydrophobic residues. These residues are scattered throughout the protein sequence and thus were not previously detected by traditional methods. These motifs traverse the conserved protein kinase core and play integrating and regulatory roles. They are anchored to the F-helix, which acts as an organizing "hub" providing precise positioning of the key catalytic and regulatory elements. Consideration of these discovered structures helps to explain previously inexplicable results. PMID:18787129

  7. A helix scaffold for the assembly of active protein kinases

    PubMed Central

    Kornev, Alexandr P.; Taylor, Susan S.; Ten Eyck, Lynn F.

    2008-01-01

    Structures of set of serine-threonine and tyrosine kinases were investigated by the recently developed bioinformatics tool Local Spatial Patterns (LSP) alignment. We report a set of conserved motifs comprised mostly of hydrophobic residues. These residues are scattered throughout the protein sequence and thus were not previously detected by traditional methods. These motifs traverse the conserved protein kinase core and play integrating and regulatory roles. They are anchored to the F-helix, which acts as an organizing hub providing precise positioning of the key catalytic and regulatory elements. Consideration of these discovered structures helps to explain previously inexplicable results. PMID:18787129

  8. Structure and function of the C-terminal domain of MrpA in the Bacillus subtilis Mrp-antiporter complex--the evolutionary progenitor of the long horizontal helix in complex I.

    PubMed

    Virzintiene, Egle; Moparthi, Vamsi K; Al-Eryani, Yusra; Shumbe, Leonard; Grecki, Kamil; Hgerhll, Cecilia

    2013-10-11

    MrpA and MrpD are homologous to NuoL, NuoM and NuoN in complex I over the first 14 transmembrane helices. In this work, the C-terminal domain of MrpA, outside this conserved area, was investigated. The transmembrane orientation was found to correspond to that of NuoJ in complex I. We have previously demonstrated that the subunit NuoK is homologous to MrpC. The function of the MrpA C-terminus was tested by expression in a previously used Bacillus subtilis model system. At neutral pH, the truncated MrpA still worked, but at pH 8.4, where Mrp-complex formation is needed for function, the C-terminal domain of MrpA was absolutely required. PMID:24021651

  9. Evidence for transmembrane proton transfer in a dihaem-containing membrane protein complex

    PubMed Central

    Madej, M Gregor; Nasiri, Hamid R; Hilgendorff, Nicole S; Schwalbe, Harald; Lancaster, C Roy D

    2006-01-01

    Membrane protein complexes can support both the generation and utilisation of a transmembrane electrochemical proton potential (proton-motive force'), either by transmembrane electron transfer coupled to protolytic reactions on opposite sides of the membrane or by transmembrane proton transfer. Here we provide the first evidence that both of these mechanisms are combined in the case of a specific respiratory membrane protein complex, the dihaem-containing quinol:fumarate reductase (QFR) of Wolinella succinogenes, so as to facilitate transmembrane electron transfer by transmembrane proton transfer. We also demonstrate the non-functionality of this novel transmembrane proton transfer pathway (E-pathway') in a variant QFR where a key glutamate residue has been replaced. The E-pathway', discussed on the basis of the 1.78--resolution crystal structure of QFR, can be concluded to be essential also for the viability of pathogenic ?-proteobacteria such as Helicobacter pylori and is possibly relevant to proton transfer in other dihaem-containing membrane proteins, performing very different physiological functions. PMID:17024183

  10. Glycines: Role in ?-Helical Membrane Protein Structures and a Potential Indicator for Native Conformation

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Hao; Sharma, Mukesh; Zhou, Huan-Xiang; Cross, Timothy A.

    2012-01-01

    Among the growing number of membrane protein structures in the Protein Data Bank, there are many transmembrane domains that appear to be native-like; at the same time there are others that appear to have less than complete native-like character. Hence there is an increasing need for validation tools that distinguish native-like from nonnative-like structures. Membrane mimetics used in protein structural characterizations differ in numerous physicochemical properties from native membranes and provide many opportunities for introducing nonnative-like features into membrane protein structures. One possible approach for validating membrane protein structures is based on the use of glycine residues in transmembrane domains. Here, we have reviewed the membrane protein structure database and identified a set of benchmark proteins that appear to be native like. In these structures, conserved glycine residues rarely face the lipid interstices, and many of them participate in close helix-helix packing. Glycine-based validation allowed the identification of nonnative-like features in several membrane proteins and also shows the potential for verifying the native-like character for numerous other membrane protein structures. PMID:22650985

  11. Light Stress-Induced One-Helix Protein of the Chlorophyll a/b-Binding Family Associated with Photosystem I1

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, Ulrica; Heddad, Mounia; Adamska, Iwona

    2003-01-01

    The superfamily of light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b-binding (Lhc) proteins in higher plants and green algae is composed of more than 20 different antenna proteins associated either with photosystem I (PSI) or photosystem II (PSII). Several distant relatives of this family with conserved chlorophyll-binding residues and proposed photoprotective functions are induced transiently under various stress conditions. Whereas “classical” Lhc proteins contain three-transmembrane α-helices, their distant relatives span the membrane with between one and four transmembrane segments. Here, we report the identification and isolation of a novel member of the Lhc family from Arabidopsis with one predicted transmembrane α-helix closely related to helix I of Lhc protein from PSI (Lhca4) that we named Ohp2 (for a second one-helix protein of Lhc family described from higher plants). We showed that the Ohp2 gene expression is triggered by light stress and that the Ohp2 transcript and protein accumulated in a light intensity-dependent manner. Other stress conditions did not up-regulate the expression of the Ohp2 gene. Localization studies revealed that Ohp2 is associated with PSI under low- or high-light conditions. Because all stress-induced Lhc relatives reported so far were found in PSII, we propose that the accumulation of Ohp2 might represent a novel photoprotective strategy induced within PSI in response to light stress. PMID:12805611

  12. Rigidity of transmembrane proteins determines their cluster shape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jafarinia, Hamidreza; Khoshnood, Atefeh; Jalali, Mir Abbas

    2016-01-01

    Protein aggregation in cell membrane is vital for the majority of biological functions. Recent experimental results suggest that transmembrane domains of proteins such as α -helices and β -sheets have different structural rigidities. We use molecular dynamics simulation of a coarse-grained model of protein-embedded lipid membranes to investigate the mechanisms of protein clustering. For a variety of protein concentrations, our simulations under thermal equilibrium conditions reveal that the structural rigidity of transmembrane domains dramatically affects interactions and changes the shape of the cluster. We have observed stable large aggregates even in the absence of hydrophobic mismatch, which has been previously proposed as the mechanism of protein aggregation. According to our results, semiflexible proteins aggregate to form two-dimensional clusters, while rigid proteins, by contrast, form one-dimensional string-like structures. By assuming two probable scenarios for the formation of a two-dimensional triangular structure, we calculate the lipid density around protein clusters and find that the difference in lipid distribution around rigid and semiflexible proteins determines the one- or two-dimensional nature of aggregates. It is found that lipids move faster around semiflexible proteins than rigid ones. The aggregation mechanism suggested in this paper can be tested by current state-of-the-art experimental facilities.

  13. Epicyclic Twin-Helix Ionization Cooling Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Vasiliy Morozov, Yaroslav Derbenev, A. Afanaciev, R.P. Johnson

    2011-04-01

    Parametric-resonance Ionization Cooling (PIC) is proposed as the final 6D cooling stage of a highluminosity muon collider. For the implementation of PIC, we earlier developed an epicyclic twin-helix channel with correlated behavior of the horizontal and vertical betatron motions and dispersion. We now insert absorber plates with short energy-recovering units located next to them at the appropriate locations in the twin-helix channel. We first demonstrate conventional ionization cooling in such a system with the optics uncorrelated. We then adjust the correlated optics state and induce a parametric resonance to study ionization cooling under the resonant condition.

  14. A conserved charged single ?-helix with a putative steric role in paraspeckle formation.

    PubMed

    Dobson, Lszl; Nyitray, Lszl; Gspri, Zoltn

    2015-12-01

    Paraspeckles are subnuclear particles involved in the regulation of mRNA expression. They are formed by the association of DBHS family proteins and the NEAT1 long noncoding RNA. Here, we show that a recently identified structural motif, the charged single ?-helix, is largely conserved in the DBHS family. Based on the available structural data and a previously suggested multimerization scheme of DBHS proteins, we built a structural model of a (PSPC1/NONO)n multimer that might have relevance in paraspeckle formation. Our model contains an extended coiled-coil region that is followed by and partially overlaps with the predicted charged single ?-helix. We suggest that the charged single ?-helix can act as an elastic ruler governing the exact positioning of the dimeric core structures relative to each other during paraspeckle assembly along the NEAT1 noncoding RNA. PMID:26428695

  15. Evolutionary analysis of the segment from helix 3 through helix 5 in vertebrate progesterone receptors.

    PubMed

    Baker, Michael E; Uh, Kayla Y

    2012-10-01

    The interaction between helix 3 and helix 5 in the human mineralocorticoid receptor [MR], progesterone receptor [PR] and glucocorticoid receptor [GR] influences their response to steroids. For the human PR, mutations at Gly-722 on helix 3 and Met-759 on helix 5 alter responses to progesterone. We analyzed the evolution of these two sites and the rest of a 59 residue segment containing helices 3, 4 and 5 in vertebrate PRs and found that a glycine corresponding to Gly-722 on helix 3 in human PR first appears in platypus, a monotreme. In lamprey, skates, fish, amphibians and birds, cysteine is found at this position in helix 3. This suggests that the cysteine to glycine replacement in helix 3 in the PR was important in the evolution of mammals. Interestingly, our analysis of the rest of the 59 residue segment finds 100% sequence conservation in almost all mammal PRs, substantial conservation in reptile and amphibian PRs and divergence of land vertebrate PR sequences from the fish PR sequences. The differences between fish and land vertebrate PRs may be important in the evolution of different biological progestins in fish and mammalian PR, as well as differences in susceptibility to environmental chemicals that disrupt PR-mediated physiology. PMID:22575083

  16. Molecular modelling approaches for cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator studies.

    PubMed

    Odolczyk, Norbert; Zielenkiewicz, Piotr

    2014-07-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is one of the most common genetic disorders, caused by loss of function mutations in the gene encoding the CF transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein. CFTR is a member of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters superfamily and functions as an ATP-gated anion channel. This review summarises the vast majority of the efforts which utilised molecular modelling approaches to gain insight into the various aspects of CFTR protein, related to its structure, dynamic properties, function and interactions with other protein partners, or drug-like compounds, with emphasis to its relation to CF disease. PMID:24735712

  17. Homologue Structure of the SLAC1 Anion Channel for Closing Stomata in Leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Y Chen; L Hu; M Punta; R Bruni; B Hillerich; B Kloss; B Rost; J Love; S Siegelbaum; W Hendrickson

    2011-12-31

    The plant SLAC1 anion channel controls turgor pressure in the aperture-defining guard cells of plant stomata, thereby regulating the exchange of water vapour and photosynthetic gases in response to environmental signals such as drought or high levels of carbon dioxide. Here we determine the crystal structure of a bacterial homologue (Haemophilus influenzae) of SLAC1 at 1.20 {angstrom} resolution, and use structure-inspired mutagenesis to analyse the conductance properties of SLAC1 channels. SLAC1 is a symmetrical trimer composed from quasi-symmetrical subunits, each having ten transmembrane helices arranged from helical hairpin pairs to form a central five-helix transmembrane pore that is gated by an extremely conserved phenylalanine residue. Conformational features indicate a mechanism for control of gating by kinase activation, and electrostatic features of the pore coupled with electrophysiological characteristics indicate that selectivity among different anions is largely a function of the energetic cost of ion dehydration.

  18. Elevated temperature triggers human respiratory syncytial virus F protein six-helix bundle formation

    SciTech Connect

    Yunus, Abdul S.; Jackson, Trent P.; Crisafi, Katherine; Burimski, Irina; Kilgore, Nicole R.; Zoumplis, Dorian; Allaway, Graham P.; Wild, Carl T.; Salzwedel, Karl

    2010-01-20

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of severe lower respiratory tract infection in infants, immunocompromised patients, and the elderly. The RSV fusion (F) protein mediates fusion of the viral envelope with the target cell membrane during virus entry and is a primary target for antiviral drug and vaccine development. The F protein contains two heptad repeat regions, HR1 and HR2. Peptides corresponding to these regions form a six-helix bundle structure that is thought to play a critical role in membrane fusion. However, characterization of six-helix bundle formation in native RSV F protein has been hindered by the fact that a trigger for F protein conformational change has yet to be identified. Here we demonstrate that RSV F protein on the surface of infected cells undergoes a conformational change following exposure to elevated temperature, resulting in the formation of the six-helix bundle structure. We first generated and characterized six-helix bundle-specific antibodies raised against recombinant peptides modeling the RSV F protein six-helix bundle structure. We then used these antibodies as probes to monitor RSV F protein six-helix bundle formation in response to a diverse array of potential triggers of conformational changes. We found that exposure of 'membrane-anchored' RSV F protein to elevated temperature (45-55 deg. C) was sufficient to trigger six-helix bundle formation. Antibody binding to the six-helix bundle conformation was detected by both flow cytometry and cell-surface immunoprecipitation of the RSV F protein. None of the other treatments, including interaction with a number of potential receptors, resulted in significant binding by six-helix bundle-specific antibodies. We conclude that native, untriggered RSV F protein exists in a metastable state that can be converted in vitro to the more stable, fusogenic six-helix bundle conformation by an increase in thermal energy. These findings help to better define the mechanism of RSV F-mediated membrane fusion and have important implications for the identification of therapeutic strategies and vaccines targeting RSV F protein conformational changes.

  19. Identification of potential transmembrane protease serine 4 inhibitors as anti-cancer agents by integrated computational approach.

    PubMed

    Ilamathi, M; Hemanth, R; Nishanth, S; Sivaramakrishnan, V

    2016-01-21

    Transmembrane protease serine 4 is a well known cell surface protease facilitating the extracellular matrix degradation and epithelial mesenchymal transition in hepatocellular carcinoma. Henceforth targeting transmembrane protease serine 4 is strongly believed to provide therapeutic intervention against hepatocellular carcinoma. Owing to lack of crystal structure for human transmembrane protease serine 4, we predicted its three dimensional structure for the first time in this study. Experimentally proven inhibitor-Tyroserleutide (TSL) against hepatocellular carcinoma via transmembrane protease serine 4 was used as a benchmark to identify structurally similar candidates from PubChem database to create the TSL library. Virtual screening of TSL library against modeled transmembrane protease serine 4 revealed the top four potential inhibitors. Further binding free energy (?Gbind) analysis of the potential inhibitors revealed the best potential lead compound against transmembrane protease serine 4. Drug likeliness nature of the top four potential hits were additionally analyzed in comparison to TSL to confirm on the best potential lead compound with the highest % of human oral absorption. Consequently, e-pharmacophore mapping of the best potential lead compound yielded a six point feature. It was observed to contain four hydrogen bond donor sites (D), one positively ionizable site (P) and one aromatic ring (R). Such e-pharmacophore insight obtained from structural determinants by integrated computational analysis could serve as a framework for further advancement of drug discovery process of new anti-cancer agents with less toxicity and high specificity targeting transmembrane protease serine 4 and hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:26590327

  20. The C-Terminal RpoN Domain of sigma54 Forms an unpredictedHelix-Turn-Helix Motif Similar to domains of sigma70

    SciTech Connect

    Doucleff, Michaeleen; Malak, Lawrence T.; Pelton, Jeffrey G.; Wemmer, David E.

    2005-11-01

    The ''{delta}'' subunit of prokaryotic RNA-polymerase allows gene-specific transcription initiation. Two {sigma} families have been identified, {sigma}{sup 70} and {sigma}{sup 54}, which use distinct mechanisms to initiate transcription and share no detectable sequence homology. Although the {sigma}{sup 70}-type factors have been well characterized structurally by x-ray crystallography, no high-resolution structural information is available for the {sigma}{sup 54}-type factors. Here we present the NMR derived structure of the C-terminal domain of {sigma}{sup 54} from Aquifex aeolicus. This domain (Thr323 to Gly389), which contains the highly conserved RpoN box sequence, consists of a poorly structured N-terminal tail followed by a three-helix bundle, which is surprisingly similar to domains of the {sigma}{sup 70}-type proteins. Residues of the RpoN box, which have previously been shown to be critical for DNA binding, form the second helix of an unpredicted helix-turn-helix motif. This structure's homology with other DNA binding proteins, combined with previous biochemical data, suggest how the C-terminal domain of {sigma}{sup 54} binds to DNA.

  1. Structural Basis for the Trembler-J Phenotype of Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease

    PubMed Central

    Sakakura, Masayoshi; Hadziselimovic, Arina; Wang, Zhen; Schey, Kevin L.; Sanders, Charles R.

    2011-01-01

    Summary Mutations in peripheral myelin protein 22 (PMP22) can result in the common peripheral neuropathy, Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMTD). The Leu16Pro mutation in PMP22 results in misassembly of the protein, which causes the Trembler-J (TrJ) disease phenotype. Here we elucidate the structural defects present in a partially folded state of TrJ PMP22 that are decisive in promoting CMTD-causing misfolding. In this state transmembrane helices 2-4 (TM2-4) form a molten-globular bundle while transmembrane helix 1 (TM1) is dissociated from this bundle. The TrJ mutation was seen to profoundly disrupt the TM1 helix, resulting in increased backbone dynamics and changes in the tertiary interactions of TM1 with the PMP22 TM2-4 core in the folded state. Consequently, TM1 undergoes enhanced dissociation from the other transmembrane segments in TrJ PMP22, becoming available for recognition and sequestration by protein folding quality control, leading to loss of function and toxic accumulation of aggregates that results in CMTD. PMID:21827951

  2. Helix A Stabilization Precedes Amino-terminal Lobe Activation upon Calcium Binding to Calmodulin

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Baowei; Lowry, David; Mayer, M. Uljana; Squier, Thomas C.

    2008-09-02

    The structural coupling between opposing domains of CaM was investigated using the conformationally sensitive biarsenical probe 4,5-bis(1,3,2-dithioarsolan-2-yl)-resorufin (ReAsH), which upon binding to an engineered tetracysteine binding motif near the end of helix A (Thr-5 to Phe-19) becomes highly fluorescent. Changes in conformation and dynamics are reflective of the native CaM structure, as there is no change in the 1H-15N HSQC NMR spectrum in comparison to wild-type CaM. We find evidence of a conformational intermediate associated with CaM activation, where calcium occupancy of sites in the amino-terminal and carboxyl-terminal lobes of CaM differentially affect the fluorescence intensity of bound ReAsH. Insight into the structure of the conformational intermediate is possible from a consideration of calcium-dependent changes in rates of ReAsH binding and helix A mobility, which respectively distinguish secondary structural changes associated with helix A stabilization from the tertiary structural reorganization of the amino-terminal lobe of CaM necessary for high-affinity binding to target proteins. Helix A stabilization is associated with calcium occupancy of sites in the carboxyl-terminal lobe (Kd = 0.36 ? 0.04 ?M), which results in a reduction in the rate of ReAsH binding from 4900 M-1 sec-1 to 370 M-1 sec-1. In comparison, tertiary structural changes involving helix A and other structural elements in the amino-terminal lobe requires calcium-occupancy of amino-terminal sites (Kd = 18 ? 3 ?M). Observed secondary and tertiary structural changes involving helix A in response to the sequential calcium occupancy of carboxyl- and amino-terminal lobe calcium binding sites suggest an important involvement of helix A in mediating the structural coupling between the opposing domains of CaM. These results are discussed in terms of a model in which carboxyl-terminal lobe calcium activation induces secondary structural changes within the interdomain linker that release helix A, thereby facilitating the formation of calcium binding sites in the amino-terminal lobe and linked tertiary structural rearrangements to form a high-affinity binding cleft that can associate with target proteins.

  3. Double helix quinine-based supergelator.

    PubMed

    Roszak, Kinga; Piasecka, Monika; Katrusiak, Andrzej; Kacprzak, Karol

    2016-02-01

    10,11-Didehydroquinine is a simple, low molecular weight supergelator which forms, in nonpolar media, stable chiral organogels composed of unique double-helix nano-sized fibers. A novel gelation mechanism involves a hydrogen bonding network formed by an acidic alkyne proton of the Cinchona gelator and the carbonyl group of ethyl acetate used as a solvent. PMID:26701368

  4. Myocardial activation of the human cardiac alpha-actin promoter by helix-loop-helix proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Sartorelli, V; Hong, N A; Bishopric, N H; Kedes, L

    1992-01-01

    The cardiac alpha-actin gene is expressed in both heart and skeletal muscle. In skeletal myogenic cells, the 177-base-pair promoter of the human cardiac alpha-actin (HCA) gene requires three transcription factors for activation: Sp1, serum response factor (SRF), and MyoD. However, MyoD is undetectable in heart. To search for a functional equivalent of MyoD, we analyzed the transcriptional regulation of the HCA promoter in primary cultures of rat cardiac myocytes. The same DNA sequence elements recognized by SRF, Sp1, and MyoD and required for HCA transcription in skeletal muscle cells were also found to be necessary for expression in cardiomyocytes. Overexpression of Id, a negative regulator of basic helix-loop-helix proteins, selectively attenuated expression of the HCA promoter. Cardiomyocyte nuclei contain a protein complex that specifically interacts with the same required sequence (E box) in the HCA promoter that is bound by MyoD in skeletal myogenic cells. Furthermore, these complexes contain a peptide that is a member of the E2A family of basic helix-loop-helix proteins. Cardiomyocyte nuclei appear to be enriched for a protein that can bind to the E-box site as dimers with the E12 protein. These results suggest that a member of the basic helix-loop-helix family, together with SRF and Sp1, activates the HCA promoter in heart. Alternative strategies for myocardial transcription of HCA are discussed. Images PMID:1570331

  5. Engineered two-helix small proteins for molecular recognition.

    PubMed

    Webster, Jack M; Zhang, Rong; Gambhir, Sanjiv S; Cheng, Zhen; Syud, Faisal A

    2009-05-25

    Less is more: By starting with a high-affinity HER2-binding 3-helix affibody molecule, we successfully developed 2-helix small protein binders with 5 nM affinities by using a combination of several different strategies. Our efforts clearly suggest that 2-helix small proteins against important tumor targets can be obtained by rational protein design and engineering. PMID:19422008

  6. Structure of the membrane domain of respiratory complex I.

    PubMed

    Efremov, Rouslan G; Sazanov, Leonid A

    2011-08-25

    Complex I is the first and largest enzyme of the respiratory chain, coupling electron transfer between NADH and ubiquinone to the translocation of four protons across the membrane. It has a central role in cellular energy production and has been implicated in many human neurodegenerative diseases. The L-shaped enzyme consists of hydrophilic and membrane domains. Previously, we determined the structure of the hydrophilic domain. Here we report the crystal structure of the Esherichia coli complex I membrane domain at 3.0? resolution. It includes six subunits, NuoL, NuoM, NuoN, NuoA, NuoJ and NuoK, with 55 transmembrane helices. The fold of the homologous antiporter-like subunits L, M and N is novel, with two inverted structural repeats of five transmembrane helices arranged, unusually, face-to-back. Each repeat includes a discontinuous transmembrane helix and forms half of a channel across the membrane. A network of conserved polar residues connects the two half-channels, completing the proton translocation pathway. Unexpectedly, lysines rather than carboxylate residues act as the main elements of the proton pump in these subunits. The fourth probable proton-translocation channel is at the interface of subunits N, K, J and A. The structure indicates that proton translocation in complex I, uniquely, involves coordinated conformational changes in six symmetrical structural elements. PMID:21822288

  7. A designed branched three-helix bundle protein dimer.

    PubMed

    Dolphin, Gunnar T

    2006-06-01

    The ultimate goals of de novo protein design are the construction of novel tertiary structures and functions. Here is presented the design and synthesis of a uniquely branched three-helix bundle that folds into a well-folded dimeric protein. The branching of this protein was performed by the method of native chemical ligation, which provides a chemoselective and stable amide bond between the unprotected fragments. This ligation strategy was possible by the presented facile preparation of a peptide (43 amino acids) with a specific side chain thioester, which is synthesized by general Fmoc solid phase peptide synthesis. From the presented structural analysis, it is seen that the folded protein is present as a stable and highly helical dimer, thus forming a six-helix bundle. This unique tertiary structure, composed of a dimer of three individual alpha-helices branched together, offers different possibilities for protein engineering, such as metal and cofactor binding sites, as well as for the construction of novel functions. PMID:16734482

  8. Structure of CrgA, a cell division structural and regulatory protein from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, in lipid bilayers

    PubMed Central

    Das, Nabanita; Dai, Jian; Hung, Ivan; Rajagopalan, Malini; Zhou, Huan-Xiang; Cross, Timothy A.

    2015-01-01

    The 93-residue transmembrane protein CrgA in Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a central component of the divisome, a large macromolecular machine responsible for cell division. Through interactions with multiple other components including FtsZ, FtsQ, FtsI (PBPB), PBPA, and CwsA, CrgA facilitates the recruitment of the proteins essential for peptidoglycan synthesis to the divisome and stabilizes the divisome. CrgA is predicted to have two transmembrane helices. Here, the structure of CrgA was determined in a liquidcrystalline lipid bilayer environment by solid-state NMR spectroscopy. Oriented-sample data yielded orientational restraints, whereas magic-angle spinning data yielded interhelical distance restraints. These data define a complete structure for the transmembrane domain and provide rich information on the conformational ensembles of the partially disordered N-terminal region and interhelical loop. The structure of the transmembrane domain was refined using restrained molecular dynamics simulations in an all-atom representation of the same lipid bilayer environment as in the NMR samples. The two transmembrane helices form a left-handed packing arrangement with a crossing angle of 24 at the conserved Gly39 residue. This helix pair exposes other conserved glycine and alanine residues to the fatty acyl environment, which are potential sites for binding CrgAs partners such as CwsA and FtsQ. This approach combining oriented-sample and magic-angle spinning NMR spectroscopy in native-like lipid bilayers with restrained molecular dynamics simulations represents a powerful tool for structural characterization of not only isolated membrane proteins, but their complexes, such as those that form macromolecular machines. PMID:25548160

  9. Structure of CrgA, a cell division structural and regulatory protein from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, in lipid bilayers.

    PubMed

    Das, Nabanita; Dai, Jian; Hung, Ivan; Rajagopalan, Malini R; Rajagopalan, Malini R; Zhou, Huan-Xiang; Cross, Timothy A

    2015-01-13

    The 93-residue transmembrane protein CrgA in Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a central component of the divisome, a large macromolecular machine responsible for cell division. Through interactions with multiple other components including FtsZ, FtsQ, FtsI (PBPB), PBPA, and CwsA, CrgA facilitates the recruitment of the proteins essential for peptidoglycan synthesis to the divisome and stabilizes the divisome. CrgA is predicted to have two transmembrane helices. Here, the structure of CrgA was determined in a liquid-crystalline lipid bilayer environment by solid-state NMR spectroscopy. Oriented-sample data yielded orientational restraints, whereas magic-angle spinning data yielded interhelical distance restraints. These data define a complete structure for the transmembrane domain and provide rich information on the conformational ensembles of the partially disordered N-terminal region and interhelical loop. The structure of the transmembrane domain was refined using restrained molecular dynamics simulations in an all-atom representation of the same lipid bilayer environment as in the NMR samples. The two transmembrane helices form a left-handed packing arrangement with a crossing angle of 24° at the conserved Gly39 residue. This helix pair exposes other conserved glycine and alanine residues to the fatty acyl environment, which are potential sites for binding CrgA's partners such as CwsA and FtsQ. This approach combining oriented-sample and magic-angle spinning NMR spectroscopy in native-like lipid bilayers with restrained molecular dynamics simulations represents a powerful tool for structural characterization of not only isolated membrane proteins, but their complexes, such as those that form macromolecular machines. PMID:25548160

  10. The 'helix clamp' in HIV-1 reverse transcriptase: a new nucleic acid binding motif common in nucleic acid polymerases.

    PubMed Central

    Hermann, T; Meier, T; Gtte, M; Heumann, H

    1994-01-01

    Amino acid sequences homologous to 259KLVGKL (X)16KLLR284 of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 reverse transcriptase (HIV-1 RT) are conserved in several nucleotide polymerizing enzymes. This amino acid motif has been identified in the crystal structure model as an element of the enzyme's nucleic acid binding apparatus. It is part of the helix-turn-helix structure, alpha H-turn-alpha I, within the 'thumb' region of HIV-1 RT. The motif grasps the complexed nucleic acid at one side. Molecular modeling studies on HIV-1 RT in complex with a nucleic acid fragment suggest that the motif has binding function in the p66 subunit as well as in the p51 subunit, acting as a kind of 'helix clamp'. Given its wide distribution within the nucleic acid polymerases, the helix clamp motif is assumed to be a structure of general significance for nucleic acid binding. Images PMID:7527138

  11. Local protein structure and dynamics at kinked transmembrane ?-helices of [1- 13C]Pro-labeled bacteriorhodopsin as revealed by site-directed solid-state 13C NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuzi, Satoru; Naito, Akira; Sait, Hazime

    2003-06-01

    We have recorded 13C NMR spectra of [1- 13C]Pro-labeled bacteriorhodopsin (bR) and P50G, P91G, and P186A mutants under fully hydrated condition, by high-resolution solid-state NMR utilizing cross polarization-magic angle spinning (CP-MAS) and dipolar decoupled-magic angle spinning (DD-MAS) techniques. Seven well-resolved 13C NMR signals including a shoulder peak were distinguished by CP-MAS NMR, although only two signals were resolved by DD-MAS NMR. We assigned these 13C NMR signals among them to Pro50, 91 and 186 residues at the kinks in the inner part of the transmembrane ?-helices, on the basis of compared peak-intensities between wild type bR and the above-mentioned site-directed mutants, together with aid of Mn 2+-induced suppression of peaks from residues located near at the surfaces due to accelerated spin-spin relaxation times. It turned out that these Pro 13C NMR signals of wild type were appreciably broadened at temperature below -40 C as in [3- 13C]Ala-bR, as a result of superposition of a variety of frozen conformers of the transmembrane ?-helices exhibiting dispersion of chemical shifts. This means that the dynamic behavior of bR as viewed from Pro residue is very similar to that of ordinary amino acid residues such as Ala, Val, Phe, etc. Further, it was found that no appreciable conformational change was noted for wild type bR within a temperature range between -20 and 35 C at these kinked portions, although such change was noted at 35 C for Y185F mutant which lacks interchain hydrogen bonding interaction as observed for wild type bR between the side-chains of Asp212 and Tyr185.

  12. Cytotoxic Helix-Rich Oligomer Formation by Melittin and Pancreatic Polypeptide

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Pradeep K.; Ghosh, Dhiman; Tewari, Debanjan; Mohite, Ganesh M.; Carvalho, Edmund; Jha, Narendra Nath; Jacob, Reeba S.; Sahay, Shruti; Banerjee, Rinti; Bera, Amal K.; Maji, Samir K.

    2015-01-01

    Conversion of amyloid fibrils by many peptides/proteins involves cytotoxic helix-rich oligomers. However, their toxicity and biophysical studies remain largely unknown due to their highly dynamic nature. To address this, we chose two helical peptides (melittin, Mel and pancreatic polypeptide, PP) and studied their aggregation and toxicity. Mel converted its random coil structure to oligomeric helical structure upon binding to heparin; however, PP remained as helix after oligomerization. Interestingly, similar to Parkinson’s associated α-synuclein (AS) oligomers, Mel and PP also showed tinctorial properties, higher hydrophobic surface exposure, cellular toxicity and membrane pore formation after oligomerization in the presence of heparin. We suggest that helix-rich oligomers with exposed hydrophobic surface are highly cytotoxic to cells irrespective of their disease association. Moreover as Mel and PP (in the presence of heparin) instantly self-assemble into stable helix-rich amyloidogenic oligomers; they could be represented as models for understanding the biophysical and cytotoxic properties of helix-rich intermediates in detail. PMID:25803428

  13. Probing the non-native H helix translocation in apomyoglobin folding intermediates.

    PubMed

    Aoto, Phillip C; Nishimura, Chiaki; Dyson, H Jane; Wright, Peter E

    2014-06-17

    Apomyoglobin folds via sequential helical intermediates that are formed by rapid collapse of the A, B, G, and H helix regions. An equilibrium molten globule with a similar structure is formed near pH 4. Previous studies suggested that the folding intermediates are kinetically trapped states in which folding is impeded by non-native packing of the G and H helices. Fluorescence spectra of mutant proteins in which cysteine residues were introduced at several positions in the G and H helices show differential quenching of W14 fluorescence, providing direct evidence of translocation of the H helix relative to helices A and G in both the kinetic and equilibrium intermediates. Förster resonance energy transfer measurements show that a 5-({2-[(acetyl)amino]ethyl}amino)naphthalene-1-sulfonic acid acceptor coupled to K140C (helix H) is closer to Trp14 (helix A) in the equilibrium molten globule than in the native state, by a distance that is consistent with sliding of the H helix in an N-terminal direction by approximately one helical turn. Formation of an S108C-L135C disulfide prevents H helix translocation in the equilibrium molten globule by locking the G and H helices into their native register. By enforcing nativelike packing of the A, G, and H helices, the disulfide resolves local energetic frustration and facilitates transient docking of the E helix region onto the hydrophobic core but has only a small effect on the refolding rate. The apomyoglobin folding landscape is highly rugged, with several energetic bottlenecks that frustrate folding; relief of any one of the major identified bottlenecks is insufficient to speed progression to the transition state. PMID:24857522

  14. Probing the Non-Native H Helix Translocation in Apomyoglobin Folding Intermediates

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Apomyoglobin folds via sequential helical intermediates that are formed by rapid collapse of the A, B, G, and H helix regions. An equilibrium molten globule with a similar structure is formed near pH 4. Previous studies suggested that the folding intermediates are kinetically trapped states in which folding is impeded by non-native packing of the G and H helices. Fluorescence spectra of mutant proteins in which cysteine residues were introduced at several positions in the G and H helices show differential quenching of W14 fluorescence, providing direct evidence of translocation of the H helix relative to helices A and G in both the kinetic and equilibrium intermediates. Frster resonance energy transfer measurements show that a 5-({2-[(acetyl)amino]ethyl}amino)naphthalene-1-sulfonic acid acceptor coupled to K140C (helix H) is closer to Trp14 (helix A) in the equilibrium molten globule than in the native state, by a distance that is consistent with sliding of the H helix in an N-terminal direction by approximately one helical turn. Formation of an S108CL135C disulfide prevents H helix translocation in the equilibrium molten globule by locking the G and H helices into their native register. By enforcing nativelike packing of the A, G, and H helices, the disulfide resolves local energetic frustration and facilitates transient docking of the E helix region onto the hydrophobic core but has only a small effect on the refolding rate. The apomyoglobin folding landscape is highly rugged, with several energetic bottlenecks that frustrate folding; relief of any one of the major identified bottlenecks is insufficient to speed progression to the transition state. PMID:24857522

  15. Role of the Lipid Environment in the Dimerization of Transmembrane Domains of Glycophorin A

    PubMed Central

    Kuznetsov, A. S.; Volynsky, P. E.; Efremov, R. G.

    2015-01-01

    An efficient computational approach is developed to quantify the free energy of a spontaneous association of the ?-helices of proteins in the membrane environment. The approach is based on the numerical decomposition of the free energy profiles of the transmembrane (TM) helices into components corresponding to protein-protein, protein-lipid, and protein-water interactions. The method was tested for the TM segments of human glycophorin A (GpA) and two mutant forms, Gly83Ala and Thr87Val. It was shown that lipids make a significant negative contribution to the free energy of dimerization, while amino acid residues forming the interface of the helix-helix contact may be unfavorable in terms of free energy. The detailed balance between different energy contributions is highly dependent on the amino acid sequence of the TM protein segment. The results show the dominant role of the environment in the interaction of membrane proteins that is changing our notion of the driving force behind the spontaneous association of TM ?-helices. Adequate estimation of the contribution of the water-lipid environment thus becomes an extremely urgent task for a rational design of new molecules targeting bitopic membrane proteins, including receptor tyrosine kinases. PMID:26798499

  16. Role of the Lipid Environment in the Dimerization of Transmembrane Domains of Glycophorin A.

    PubMed

    Kuznetsov, A S; Volynsky, P E; Efremov, R G

    2015-01-01

    An efficient computational approach is developed to quantify the free energy of a spontaneous association of the ?-helices of proteins in the membrane environment. The approach is based on the numerical decomposition of the free energy profiles of the transmembrane (TM) helices into components corresponding to protein-protein, protein-lipid, and protein-water interactions. The method was tested for the TM segments of human glycophorin A (GpA) and two mutant forms, Gly83Ala and Thr87Val. It was shown that lipids make a significant negative contribution to the free energy of dimerization, while amino acid residues forming the interface of the helix-helix contact may be unfavorable in terms of free energy. The detailed balance between different energy contributions is highly dependent on the amino acid sequence of the TM protein segment. The results show the dominant role of the environment in the interaction of membrane proteins that is changing our notion of the driving force behind the spontaneous association of TM ?-helices. Adequate estimation of the contribution of the water-lipid environment thus becomes an extremely urgent task for a rational design of new molecules targeting bitopic membrane proteins, including receptor tyrosine kinases. PMID:26798499

  17. Solution nuclear magnetic resonance structure of membrane-integral diacylglycerol kinase.

    PubMed

    Van Horn, Wade D; Kim, Hak-Jun; Ellis, Charles D; Hadziselimovic, Arina; Sulistijo, Endah S; Karra, Murthy D; Tian, Changlin; Snnichsen, Frank D; Sanders, Charles R

    2009-06-26

    Escherichia coli diacylglycerol kinase (DAGK) represents a family of integral membrane enzymes that is unrelated to all other phosphotransferases. We have determined the three-dimensional structure of the DAGK homotrimer with the use of solution nuclear magnetic resonance. The third transmembrane helix from each subunit is domain-swapped with the first and second transmembrane segments from an adjacent subunit. Each of DAGK's three active sites resembles a portico. The cornice of the portico appears to be the determinant of DAGK's lipid substrate specificity and overhangs the site of phosphoryl transfer near the water-membrane interface. Mutations to cysteine that caused severe misfolding were located in or near the active site, indicating a high degree of overlap between sites responsible for folding and for catalysis. PMID:19556511

  18. The mechanisms of HAMP-mediated signaling in transmembrane receptors.

    PubMed

    Ferris, Hedda U; Dunin-Horkawicz, Stanislaw; Mondéjar, Laura García; Hulko, Michael; Hantke, Klaus; Martin, Jörg; Schultz, Joachim E; Zeth, Kornelius; Lupas, Andrei N; Coles, Murray

    2011-03-01

    HAMP domains mediate signal transduction in over 7500 enzyme-coupled receptors represented in all kingdoms of life. The HAMP domain of the putative archaeal receptor Af1503 has a parallel, dimeric, four-helical coiled coil structure, but with unusual core packing, related to canonical packing by concerted axial rotation of the helices. This has led to the gearbox model for signal transduction, whereby the alternate packing modes correspond to signaling states. Here we present structures of a series of Af1503 HAMP variants. We show that substitution of a conserved small side chain within the domain core (A291) for larger residues induces a gradual transition in packing mode, involving both changes in helix rotation and bundle shape, which are most prominent at the C-terminal, output end of the domain. These are correlated with activity and ligand response in vitro and in vivo by incorporating Af1503 HAMP into mycobacterial adenylyl cyclase assay systems. PMID:21397188

  19. Structure of an E. coli integral membrane sulfurtransferase and its structural transition upon SCN‑ binding defined by EPR-based hybrid method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Shenglong; Wang, Wei; Yu, Lu; Peng, Junhui; Cai, Xiaoying; Xiong, Ying; Hayati, Zahra; Zhang, Longhua; Zhang, Zhiyong; Song, Likai; Tian, Changlin

    2016-01-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR)-based hybrid experimental and computational approaches were applied to determine the structure of a full-length E. coli integral membrane sulfurtransferase, dimeric YgaP, and its structural and dynamic changes upon ligand binding. The solution NMR structures of the YgaP transmembrane domain (TMD) and cytosolic catalytic rhodanese domain were reported recently, but the tertiary fold of full-length YgaP was not yet available. Here, systematic site-specific EPR analysis defined a helix-loop-helix secondary structure of the YagP-TMD monomers using mobility, accessibility and membrane immersion measurements. The tertiary folds of dimeric YgaP-TMD and full-length YgaP in detergent micelles were determined through inter- and intra-monomer distance mapping and rigid-body computation. Further EPR analysis demonstrated the tight packing of the two YgaP second transmembrane helices upon binding of the catalytic product SCN‑, which provides insight into the thiocyanate exportation mechanism of YgaP in the E. coli membrane.

  20. Structure of an E. coli integral membrane sulfurtransferase and its structural transition upon SCN(-) binding defined by EPR-based hybrid method.

    PubMed

    Ling, Shenglong; Wang, Wei; Yu, Lu; Peng, Junhui; Cai, Xiaoying; Xiong, Ying; Hayati, Zahra; Zhang, Longhua; Zhang, Zhiyong; Song, Likai; Tian, Changlin

    2016-01-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR)-based hybrid experimental and computational approaches were applied to determine the structure of a full-length E. coli integral membrane sulfurtransferase, dimeric YgaP, and its structural and dynamic changes upon ligand binding. The solution NMR structures of the YgaP transmembrane domain (TMD) and cytosolic catalytic rhodanese domain were reported recently, but the tertiary fold of full-length YgaP was not yet available. Here, systematic site-specific EPR analysis defined a helix-loop-helix secondary structure of the YagP-TMD monomers using mobility, accessibility and membrane immersion measurements. The tertiary folds of dimeric YgaP-TMD and full-length YgaP in detergent micelles were determined through inter- and intra-monomer distance mapping and rigid-body computation. Further EPR analysis demonstrated the tight packing of the two YgaP second transmembrane helices upon binding of the catalytic product SCN(-), which provides insight into the thiocyanate exportation mechanism of YgaP in the E. coli membrane. PMID:26817826

  1. Structure of an E. coli integral membrane sulfurtransferase and its structural transition upon SCN− binding defined by EPR-based hybrid method

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Shenglong; Wang, Wei; Yu, Lu; Peng, Junhui; Cai, Xiaoying; Xiong, Ying; Hayati, Zahra; Zhang, Longhua; Zhang, Zhiyong; Song, Likai; Tian, Changlin

    2016-01-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR)-based hybrid experimental and computational approaches were applied to determine the structure of a full-length E. coli integral membrane sulfurtransferase, dimeric YgaP, and its structural and dynamic changes upon ligand binding. The solution NMR structures of the YgaP transmembrane domain (TMD) and cytosolic catalytic rhodanese domain were reported recently, but the tertiary fold of full-length YgaP was not yet available. Here, systematic site-specific EPR analysis defined a helix-loop-helix secondary structure of the YagP-TMD monomers using mobility, accessibility and membrane immersion measurements. The tertiary folds of dimeric YgaP-TMD and full-length YgaP in detergent micelles were determined through inter- and intra-monomer distance mapping and rigid-body computation. Further EPR analysis demonstrated the tight packing of the two YgaP second transmembrane helices upon binding of the catalytic product SCN−, which provides insight into the thiocyanate exportation mechanism of YgaP in the E. coli membrane. PMID:26817826

  2. Role of solvation in pressure-induced helix stabilization

    PubMed Central

    Best, Robert B.; Miller, Cayla

    2014-01-01

    In contrast to the well-known destabilization of globular proteins by high pressure, recent work has shown that pressure stabilizes the formation of isolated ?-helices. However, all simulations to date have obtained a qualitatively opposite result within the experimental pressure range. We show that using a protein force field (Amber03w) parametrized in conjunction with an accurate water model (TIP4P/2005) recovers the correct pressure-dependence and an overall stability diagram for helix formation similar to that from experiment; on the other hand, we confirm that using TIP3P water results in a very weak pressure destabilization of helices. By carefully analyzing the contributing factors, we show that this is not merely a consequence of different peptide conformations sampled using TIP3P. Rather, there is a critical role for the solvent itself in determining the dependence of total system volume (peptide and solvent) on helix content. Helical peptide structures exclude a smaller volume to water, relative to non-helical structures with both the water models, but the total system volume for helical conformations is higher than non-helical conformations with TIP3P water at low to intermediate pressures, in contrast to TIP4P/2005 water. Our results further emphasize the importance of using an accurate water model to study protein folding under conditions away from standard temperature and pressure. PMID:25494793

  3. Dominance of misfolded intermediates in the dynamics of ?-helix folding

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Milo M.; Shorokhov, Dmitry; Zewail, Ahmed H.

    2014-01-01

    Helices are the hydrogen atoms of biomolecular complexity; the DNA/RNA double hairpin and protein ?-helix ubiquitously form the building blocks of lifes constituents at the nanometer scale. Nevertheless, the formation processes of these structures, especially the dynamical pathways and rates, remain challenging to predict and control. Here, we present a general analytical method for constructing dynamical free-energy landscapes of helices. Such landscapes contain information about the thermodynamic stabilities of the possible macromolecular conformations, as well as about the dynamic connectivity, thus enabling the visualization and computation of folding pathways and timescales. We elucidate the methodology using the folding of polyalanine, and demonstrate that its ?-helix folding kinetics is dominated by misfolded intermediates. At the physiological temperature of T = 298 K and midfolding time t = 250 ns, the fraction of structures in the native-state (?-helical) basin equals 22%, which is in good agreement with time-resolved experiments and massively distributed, ensemble-convergent molecular-dynamics simulations. We discuss the prominent role of ?-strandlike intermediates in flight toward the native fold, and in relation to the primary conformational change precipitating aggregation in some neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:25246551

  4. Hydrophobic mismatch of mobile transmembrane helices: Merging theory and experiments.

    PubMed

    Strandberg, Erik; Esteban-Martn, Santi; Ulrich, Anne S; Salgado, Jess

    2012-05-01

    Hydrophobic mismatch still represents a puzzle for transmembrane peptides, despite the apparent simplicity of this concept and its demonstrated validity in natural membranes. Using a wealth of available experimental ((2))H NMR data, we provide here a comprehensive explanation of the orientation and dynamics of model peptides in lipid bilayers, which shows how they can adapt to membranes of different thickness. The orientational adjustment of transmembrane ?-helices can be understood as the result of a competition between the thermodynamically unfavorable lipid repacking associated with peptide tilting and the optimization of peptide/membrane hydrophobic coupling. In the positive mismatch regime (long-peptide/thin-membrane) the helices adapt mainly via changing their tilt angle, as expected from simple geometrical predictions. However, the adaptation mechanism varies with the peptide sequence in the flanking regions, suggesting additional effects that modulate hydrophobic coupling. These originate from re-adjustments of the peptide hydrophobic length and they depend on the hydrophobicity of the flanking region, the strength of interfacial anchoring, the structural flexibility of anchoring side-chains and the presence of alternative anchoring residues. PMID:22326890

  5. A functional relationship between helix 1 and the 900 tetraloop of 16S ribosomal RNA within the bacterial ribosome.

    PubMed

    Bélanger, François; Théberge-Julien, Gabriel; Cunningham, Philip R; Brakier-Gingras, Léa

    2005-06-01

    The conserved 900 tetraloop that caps helix 27 of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) interacts with helix 24 of 16S rRNA and also with helix 67 of 23S rRNA, forming the intersubunit bridge B2c, proximal to the decoding center. In previous studies, we investigated how the interaction between the 900 tetraloop and helix 24 participates in subunit association and translational fidelity. In the present study, we investigated whether the 900 tetraloop is involved in other undetected interactions with different regions of the Escherichia coli 16S rRNA. Using a genetic complementation approach, we selected mutations in 16S rRNA that compensate for a 900 tetraloop mutation, A900G, which severely impairs subunit association and translational fidelity. Mutations were randomly introduced in 16S rRNA, using either a mutagenic XL1-Red E. coli strain or an error-prone PCR strategy. Gain-offunction mutations were selected in vivo with a specialized ribosome system. Two mutations, the deletion of U12 and the U12C substitution, were thus independently selected in helix 1 of 16S rRNA. This helix is located in the vicinity of helix 27, but does not directly contact the 900 tetraloop in the crystal structures of the ribosome. Both mutations correct the subunit association and translational fidelity defects caused by the A900G mutation, revealing an unanticipated functional interaction between these two regions of 16S rRNA. PMID:15872184

  6. A functional relationship between helix 1 and the 900 tetraloop of 16S ribosomal RNA within the bacterial ribosome

    PubMed Central

    BÉLANGER, FRANÇOIS; THÉBERGE-JULIEN, GABRIEL; CUNNINGHAM, PHILIP R.; BRAKIER-GINGRAS, LÉA

    2005-01-01

    The conserved 900 tetraloop that caps helix 27 of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) interacts with helix 24 of 16S rRNA and also with helix 67 of 23S rRNA, forming the intersubunit bridge B2c, proximal to the decoding center. In previous studies, we investigated how the interaction between the 900 tetraloop and helix 24 participates in subunit association and translational fidelity. In the present study, we investigated whether the 900 tetraloop is involved in other undetected interactions with different regions of the Escherichia coli 16S rRNA. Using a genetic complementation approach, we selected mutations in 16S rRNA that compensate for a 900 tetraloop mutation, A900G, which severely impairs subunit association and translational fidelity. Mutations were randomly introduced in 16S rRNA, using either a mutagenic XL1-Red E. coli strain or an error-prone PCR strategy. Gain-offunction mutations were selected in vivo with a specialized ribosome system. Two mutations, the deletion of U12 and the U12C substitution, were thus independently selected in helix 1 of 16S rRNA. This helix is located in the vicinity of helix 27, but does not directly contact the 900 tetraloop in the crystal structures of the ribosome. Both mutations correct the subunit association and translational fidelity defects caused by the A900G mutation, revealing an unanticipated functional interaction between these two regions of 16S rRNA. PMID:15872184

  7. Mixed FE analysis of viscoelastic cylindrical helixes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ar?ba?, . N.; Omurtag, M. H.

    2012-09-01

    In this study, analysis of viscoelastic cylindrical helixes with circular and square cross section is investigated by using the mixed FEM based on Timoshenko beam theory. The Kelvin model is used for the viscoelastic behavior. The analysis is performed in the Laplace domain and the results are transformed back to time domain numerically by Modified Durbin algorithm. The outcome is quite satisfactory besides the necessary engineering precision.

  8. The Crystal Structures of Yeast Get3 Suggest a Mechanism for Tail-Anchored Protein Membrane Insertion

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Junbin; Li, Jingzhi; Qian, Xinguo; Denic, Vlad; Sha, Bingdong

    2010-08-16

    Tail-anchored (TA) proteins represent a unique class of membrane proteins that contain a single C-terminal transmembrane helix. The post-translational insertion of the yeast TA proteins into the ER membrane requires the Golgi ER trafficking (GET) complex which contains Get1, Get2 and Get3. Get3 is an ATPase that recognizes and binds the C-terminal transmembrane domain (TMD) of the TA proteins. We have determined the crystal structures of Get3 from two yeast species, S. cerevisiae and D. hansenii, respectively. These high resolution crystal structures show that Get3 contains a nucleotide-binding domain and a 'finger' domain for binding the TA protein TMD. A large hydrophobic groove on the finger domain of S. cerevisiae Get3 structure might represent the binding site for TMD of TA proteins. A hydrophobic helix from a symmetry-related Get3 molecule sits in the TMD-binding groove and mimics the TA binding scenario. Interestingly, the crystal structures of the Get3 dimers from S. cerevisiae and D. hansenii exhibit distinct conformations. The S. cerevisiae Get3 dimer structure does not contain nucleotides and maintains an 'open' conformation, while the D. hansenii Get3 dimer structure binds ADP and stays in a 'closed' conformation. We propose that the conformational changes to switch the Get3 between the open and closed conformations may facilitate the membrane insertions for TA proteins.

  9. Helix formation in a pentapeptide: experiment and force-field dependent dynamics.

    PubMed

    Hegefeld, Wendy A; Chen, Shen-En; DeLeon, Kristine Y; Kuczera, Krzysztof; Jas, Gouri S

    2010-12-01

    We used a combined approach of experiment and simulation to determine the helical population and folding pathway of a small helix forming blocked pentapeptide, Ac-(Ala)(5)-NH(2). Experimental structural characterization of this blocked peptide was carried out with far UV circular dichroism spectroscopy, FTIR, and NMR measurements. These measurements confirm the presence of the ?-helical state in a buffer solution. Direct molecular dynamics and replica-exchange simulations of the pentapeptide were performed using several popular force fields with explicit solvent. The simulations yielded statistically reliable estimates of helix populations, melting curves, folding, and nucleation times. The distributions of conformer populations are used to measure folding cooperativity. Finally, a statistical analysis of the sample of helix-coil transition paths was performed. The details of the calculated helix populations, folding kinetics and pathways vary with the employed force field. Interestingly, the helix populations, folding, and unfolding times obtained from most of the studied force fields are in qualitative agreement with each other and with available experimental data, with the deviations corresponding to several kcal/mol in energy at 300 K. Most of the force fields also predict qualitatively similar transition paths, with unfolding initiated at the C-terminus. Accuracy of potential energy parameters, rather than conformational sampling may be the limiting factor in current molecular simulations. PMID:21058639

  10. Site-directed spin labeling and chemical crosslinking demonstrate that helix V is close to helices VII and VIII in the lactose permease of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Wu, J; Voss, J; Hubbell, W L; Kaback, H R

    1996-01-01

    Site-directed chemical cleavage of lactose permease indicates that helix V is in close proximity to helices VII and VIII. To test this conclusion further, permease containing a biotin-acceptor domain and paired Cys residues at positions 148 (helix V) and 228 (helix VII), 148 and 226 (helix VII), or 148 and 275 (helix VIII) was affinity purified and labeled with a sulfhydryl-specific nitroxide spin label. Spin-spin interactions are observed with the 148/228 and 148/275 pairs, indicating close proximity between appropriate faces of helix V and helices VII and VIII. Little or no interaction is evident with the 148/226 pair, in all likelihood because position 226 is on the opposite face of helix VII from position 228. Broadening of the electron paramagnetic resonance spectra in the frozen state was used to estimate distance between the 148/228 and the 148/275 pairs. The nitroxides at positions 148 and 228 or 148 and 275 are within approximately 13-15 A. Finally, Cys residues at positions 148 and 228 are crosslinked by dibromobimane, a bifunctional crosslinker that is approximately 5 A. long, while no crosslinking is detected between Cys residues at positions 148 and 275 or 148 and 226. The results provide strong support for a structure in which helix V is in close proximity to both helices VII and VIII and is oriented in such a fashion that Cys-148 is closer to helix VII. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 6 PMID:8816762

  11. Screening Helix-threading Peptides for RNA Binding Using a Thiazole Orange Displacement Assay

    PubMed Central

    Krishnamurthy, Malathy; Schirle, Nicole T.; Beal, Peter A.

    2008-01-01

    The fluorescent intercalator displacement assay using thiazole orange has been adapted to the study of RNA-binding helix-threading peptides (HTPs). This assay is highly sensitive with HTP-binding RNAs and provides binding affinity data in good agreement with quantitative ribonuclease footprinting without the need for radiolabeling or gel electrophoresis. The FID assay was used to define structure activity relationships for a small library of helix-threading peptides. Results of these studies indicate their RNA binding is dependent on peptide sequence, ?-amino acid stereochemistry, and cyclization (versus linear peptides), but independent of macrocyclic ring size for the penta-, tetra- and tri peptides analyzed. PMID:18789700

  12. Backbone structure of a small helical integral membrane protein: A unique structural characterization

    PubMed Central

    Page, Richard C; Lee, Sangwon; Moore, Jacob D; Opella, Stanley J; Cross, Timothy A

    2009-01-01

    The structural characterization of small integral membrane proteins pose a significant challenge for structural biology because of the multitude of molecular interactions between the protein and its heterogeneous environment. Here, the three-dimensional backbone structure of Rv1761c from Mycobacterium tuberculosis has been characterized using solution NMR spectroscopy and dodecylphosphocholine (DPC) micelles as a membrane mimetic environment. This 127 residue single transmembrane helix protein has a significant (10 kDa) C-terminal extramembranous domain. Five hundred and ninety distance, backbone dihedral, and orientational restraints were employed resulting in a 1.16 rmsd backbone structure with a transmembrane domain defined at 0.40 . The structure determination approach utilized residual dipolar coupling orientation data from partially aligned samples, long-range paramagnetic relaxation enhancement derived distances, and dihedral restraints from chemical shift indices to determine the global fold. This structural model of Rv1761c displays some influences by the membrane mimetic illustrating that the structure of these membrane proteins is dictated by a combination of the amino acid sequence and the protein's environment. These results demonstrate both the efficacy of the structural approach and the necessity to consider the biophysical properties of membrane mimetics when interpreting structural data of integral membrane proteins and, in particular, small integral membrane proteins. PMID:19177358

  13. Helix packing of lactose permease in Escherichia coli studied by site-directed chemical cleavage.

    PubMed Central

    Wu, J; Perrin, D M; Sigman, D S; Kaback, H R

    1995-01-01

    Biotinylated lactose permease from Escherichia coli containing a single-cysteine residue at position 330 (helix X) or at position 147, 148, or 149 (helix V) was purified by avidin-affinity chromatography and derivatized with 5-(alpha-bromoacetamido)-1,10-phenanthroline-copper [OP(Cu)]. Studies with purified, OP(Cu)-labeled Leu-330 --> Cys permease in dodecyl-beta-D-maltopyranoside demonstrate that after incubation in the presence of ascorbate, cleavage products of approximately 19 and 6-8 kDa are observed on immunoblots with anti-C-terminal antibody. Remarkably, the same cleavage products are observed with permease embedded in the native membrane. Comparison with the C-terminal half of the permease expressed independently as a standard indicates that the 19-kDa product results from cleavage near the cytoplasmic end of helix VII, whereas the 6- to 8-kDa fragment probably results from fragmentation near the cytoplasmic end of helix XI. Results are entirely consistent with a tertiary-structure model of the C-terminal half of the permease derived from earlier site-directed fluorescence and site-directed mutagenesis studies. Similar studies with OP(Cu)-labeled Cys-148 permease exhibit cleavage products at approximately 19 kDa and at 15-16 kDa. The larger fragment probably reflects cleavage at a site near the cytoplasmic end of helix VII, whereas the 15- to 16-kDa fragment is consistent with cleavage near the cytoplasmic end of helix VIII. When OP(Cu) is moved 100 degrees to position 149 (Val-149 --> Cys permease), a single product is observed at 19 kDa, suggesting fragmentation at the cytoplasmic end of helix VII. However, when the reagent is moved 100 degrees in the other direction to position 147 (Gly-147 --> Cys permease), cleavage is not observed. The results suggest that helix V is in close proximity to helices VII and VIII with position 148 in the interface between the helices, position 149 facing helix VII, and position 147 facing the lipid bilayer. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:7568098

  14. Do carotenoids serve as transmembrane radical channels?

    PubMed

    Johnson, James D

    2009-08-01

    Carotenoids are a diverse group of terpenoid pigments that originated in prokaryotes over 3 billion years ago. Their primary function in plants is to serve as photomodulators of the oxidizing side of Photosystem II. In animals, which must acquire carotenoids from their diets, carotenoids serve a host of functions and are viewed primarily as efficient scavengers of singlet oxygen and radicals within the domain of membranes where they reside. Recently it has been demonstrated that carotenoids react cooperatively and synergistically with vitamin C and E, serving to regenerate a pro-oxidant radical carotenoid after the antioxidant reduction of a radical species. The exact location and behavior of carotenoids within biological membrane systems remain largely unknown. A hypothesis is proposed suggesting that carotenoids may serve as transmembrane radical channels. In this capacity carotenoids may reduce radicals in one biological compartment, while simultaneously being reduced in another. The benefit of rapid radical quenching across membrane compartments by transmembrane-spanning carotenoids such as zeaxanthin and lutein may be especially advantageous to intra- and extracellular redox control. PMID:19446633

  15. Evolution of vertebrate interferon inducible transmembrane proteins

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Interferon inducible transmembrane proteins (IFITMs) have diverse roles, including the control of cell proliferation, promotion of homotypic cell adhesion, protection against viral infection, promotion of bone matrix maturation and mineralisation, and mediating germ cell development. Most IFITMs have been well characterised in human and mouse but little published data exists for other animals. This study characterised IFITMs in two distantly related marsupial species, the Australian tammar wallaby and the South American grey short-tailed opossum, and analysed the phylogeny of the IFITM family in vertebrates. Results Five IFITM paralogues were identified in both the tammar and opossum. As in eutherians, most marsupial IFITM genes exist within a cluster, contain two exons and encode proteins with two transmembrane domains. Only two IFITM genes, IFITM5 and IFITM10, have orthologues in both marsupials and eutherians. IFITM5 arose in bony fish and IFITM10 in tetrapods. The bone-specific expression of IFITM5 appears to be restricted to therian mammals, suggesting that its specialised role in bone production is a recent adaptation specific to mammals. IFITM10 is the most highly conserved IFITM, sharing at least 85% amino acid identity between birds, reptiles and mammals and suggesting an important role for this presently uncharacterised protein. Conclusions Like eutherians, marsupials also have multiple IFITM genes that exist in a gene cluster. The differing expression patterns for many of the paralogues, together with poor sequence conservation between species, suggests that IFITM genes have acquired many different roles during vertebrate evolution. PMID:22537233

  16. Tuning RNA Flexibility with Helix Length and Junction Sequence.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Julie L; Pollack, Lois

    2015-12-15

    The increasing awareness of RNA's central role in biology calls for a new understanding of how RNAs, like proteins, recognize biological partners. Because RNA is inherently flexible, it assumes a variety of conformations. This conformational flexibility can be a critical aspect of how RNA attracts and binds molecular partners. Structurally, RNA consists of rigid basepaired duplexes, separated by flexible non-basepaired regions. Here, using an RNA system consisting of two short helices, connected by a single-stranded (non-basepaired) junction, we explore the role of helix length and junction sequence in determining the range of conformations available to a model RNA. Single-molecule Frster resonance energy transfer reports on the RNA conformation as a function of either mono- or divalent ion concentration. Electrostatic repulsion between helices dominates at low salt concentration, whereas junction sequence effects determine the conformations at high salt concentration. Near physiological salt concentrations, RNA conformation is sensitive to both helix length and junction sequence, suggesting a means for sensitively tuning RNA conformations. PMID:26682821

  17. Protein unfolding is essential for cleavage within the ?-helix of a model protein substrate by the serine protease, thrombin.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Amy L; Headey, Stephen J; Ng, Natasha M; Wijeyewickrema, Lakshmi C; Scanlon, Martin J; Pike, Robert N; Bottomley, Stephen P

    2016-03-01

    Proteolysis has a critical role in transmitting information within a biological system and therefore an important element of biology is to determine the subset of proteins amenable to proteolysis. Until recently, it has been thought that proteases cleave native protein substrates only within solvent exposed loops, but recent evidence indicates that cleavage sites located within ?-helices can also be cleaved by proteases, despite the conformation of this secondary structure being generally incompatible with binding into an active site of a protease. In this study, we address the mechanism by which a serine endopeptidase, thrombin, recognizes and cleaves a target sequence located within an ?-helix. Thrombin was able to cleave a model substrate, protein G, within its ?-helix when a suitable cleavage sequence for the enzyme was introduced into this region. However, structural data for the complex revealed that thrombin was not perturbing the structure of the ?-helix, thus it was not destabilizing the helix in order to allow it to fit within its active site. This indicated that thrombin was only cleaving within the ?-helix when it was in an unfolded state. In support of this, the introduction of destabilizing mutations within the protein increased the efficiency of cleavage by the enzyme. Our data suggest that a folded ?-helix cannot be proteolytically cleaved by thrombin, but the species targeted are the unfolded conformations of the native state ensemble. PMID:26403495

  18. Mechanical coupling of the multiple structural elements of the large-conductance mechanosensitive channel during expansion.

    PubMed

    Li, Jie; Guo, Jianli; Ou, Xiaomin; Zhang, Mingfeng; Li, Yuezhou; Liu, Zhenfeng

    2015-08-25

    The prokaryotic mechanosensitive channel of large conductance (MscL) is a pressure-relief valve protecting the cell from lysing during acute osmotic downshock. When the membrane is stretched, MscL responds to the increase of membrane tension and opens a nonselective pore to about 30 wide, exhibiting a large unitary conductance of ? 3 nS. A fundamental step toward understanding the gating mechanism of MscL is to decipher the molecular details of the conformational changes accompanying channel opening. By applying fusion-protein strategy and controlling detergent composition, we have solved the structures of an archaeal MscL homolog from Methanosarcina acetivorans trapped in the closed and expanded intermediate states. The comparative analysis of these two new structures reveals significant conformational rearrangements in the different domains of MscL. The large changes observed in the tilt angles of the two transmembrane helices (TM1 and TM2) fit well with the helix-pivoting model derived from the earlier geometric analyses based on the previous structures. Meanwhile, the periplasmic loop region transforms from a folded structure, containing an ?-shaped loop and a short ?-hairpin, to an extended and partly disordered conformation during channel expansion. Moreover, a significant rotating and sliding of the N-terminal helix (N-helix) is coupled to the tilting movements of TM1 and TM2. The dynamic relationships between the N-helix and TM1/TM2 suggest that the N-helix serves as a membrane-anchored stopper that limits the tilts of TM1 and TM2 in the gating process. These results provide direct mechanistic insights into the highly coordinated movement of the different domains of the MscL channel when it expands. PMID:26261325

  19. Mechanical coupling of the multiple structural elements of the large-conductance mechanosensitive channel during expansion

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jie; Guo, Jianli; Ou, Xiaomin; Zhang, Mingfeng; Li, Yuezhou; Liu, Zhenfeng

    2015-01-01

    The prokaryotic mechanosensitive channel of large conductance (MscL) is a pressure-relief valve protecting the cell from lysing during acute osmotic downshock. When the membrane is stretched, MscL responds to the increase of membrane tension and opens a nonselective pore to about 30 Å wide, exhibiting a large unitary conductance of ∼3 nS. A fundamental step toward understanding the gating mechanism of MscL is to decipher the molecular details of the conformational changes accompanying channel opening. By applying fusion-protein strategy and controlling detergent composition, we have solved the structures of an archaeal MscL homolog from Methanosarcina acetivorans trapped in the closed and expanded intermediate states. The comparative analysis of these two new structures reveals significant conformational rearrangements in the different domains of MscL. The large changes observed in the tilt angles of the two transmembrane helices (TM1 and TM2) fit well with the helix-pivoting model derived from the earlier geometric analyses based on the previous structures. Meanwhile, the periplasmic loop region transforms from a folded structure, containing an ω-shaped loop and a short β-hairpin, to an extended and partly disordered conformation during channel expansion. Moreover, a significant rotating and sliding of the N-terminal helix (N-helix) is coupled to the tilting movements of TM1 and TM2. The dynamic relationships between the N-helix and TM1/TM2 suggest that the N-helix serves as a membrane-anchored stopper that limits the tilts of TM1 and TM2 in the gating process. These results provide direct mechanistic insights into the highly coordinated movement of the different domains of the MscL channel when it expands. PMID:26261325

  20. The structure, dynamics and orientation of antimicrobial peptides in membranes by multidimensional solid-state NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Bechinger, B

    1999-12-15

    Linear peptide antibiotics have been isolated from amphibians, insects and humans and used as templates to design cheaper and more potent analogues for medical applications. Peptides such as cecropins or magainins are < or = 40 amino acids in length. Many of them have been prepared by solid-phase peptide synthesis with isotopic labels incorporated at selected sites. Structural analysis by solid-state NMR spectroscopy and other biophysical techniques indicates that these peptide antibiotics strongly interact with lipid membranes. In bilayer environments they exhibit amphipathic alpha-helical conformations and alignments of the helix axis parallel to the membrane surface. This contrasts the transmembrane orientations observed for alamethicin or gramicidin A. Models that have been proposed to explain the antibiotic and pore-forming activities of membrane-associated peptides, as well as other experimental results, include transmembrane helical bundles, wormholes, carpets, detergent-like effects or the in-plane diffusion of peptide-induced bilayer instabilities. PMID:10590307

  1. Use of thiol-disulfide equilibria to measure the energetics of assembly of transmembrane helices in phospholipid bilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristian, Lidia; Lear, James D.; Degrado, William F.

    2003-12-01

    Despite significant efforts and promising progress, the understanding of membrane protein folding lags behind that of soluble proteins. Insights into the energetics of membrane protein folding have been gained from biophysical studies in membrane-mimicking environments (primarily detergent micelles). However, the development of techniques for studying the thermodynamics of folding in phospholipid bilayers remains a considerable challenge. We had previously used thiol-disulfide exchange to study the thermodynamics of association of transmembrane -helices in detergent micelles; here, we extend this methodology to phospholipid bilayers. The system for this study is the homotetrameric M2 proton channel protein from the influenza A virus. Transmembrane peptides from this protein specifically self-assemble into tetramers that retain the ability to bind to the drug amantadine. Thiol-disulfide exchange under equilibrium conditions was used to quantitatively measure the thermodynamics of this folding interaction in phospholipid bilayers. The effects of phospholipid acyl chain length and cholesterol on the peptide association were investigated. The association of the helices strongly depends on the thickness of the bilayer and cholesterol levels present in the phospholipid bilayer. The most favorable folding occurred when there was a good match between the width of the apolar region of the bilayer and the hydrophobic length of the transmembrane helix. Physiologically relevant variations in the cholesterol level are sufficient to strongly influence the association. Evaluation of the energetics of peptide association in the presence and absence of cholesterol showed a significantly tighter association upon inclusion of cholesterol in the lipid bilayers.

  2. Heterogeneous H-bonding in a foldamer helix.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Brian F; Guo, Li; Dolinar, Brian S; Guzei, Ilia A; Gellman, Samuel H

    2015-05-27

    Structural characterization of new ?/?-peptide foldamers containing the cyclically constrained ?-amino acid I is described. Crystallographic and 2D NMR analysis shows that ? residue I promotes the formation of a 12/10-helical secondary structure in ?/?-peptides. This helix contains two different types of internal H-bond, and the data show that the 12-atom C?O(i) ? H-N(i+3) H-bond is more favorable than the 10-atom C?O(i) ? H-N(i-1) H-bond. Several foldamer helices featuring topologically distinct H-bonds have been discovered, but our findings are the first to show that such H-bonds may differ in their favorability. PMID:25974390

  3. Crystal structure of rhodopsin bound to arrestin by femtosecond X-ray laser.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yanyong; Zhou, X Edward; Gao, Xiang; He, Yuanzheng; Liu, Wei; Ishchenko, Andrii; Barty, Anton; White, Thomas A; Yefanov, Oleksandr; Han, Gye Won; Xu, Qingping; de Waal, Parker W; Ke, Jiyuan; Tan, M H Eileen; Zhang, Chenghai; Moeller, Arne; West, Graham M; Pascal, Bruce D; Van Eps, Ned; Caro, Lydia N; Vishnivetskiy, Sergey A; Lee, Regina J; Suino-Powell, Kelly M; Gu, Xin; Pal, Kuntal; Ma, Jinming; Zhi, Xiaoyong; Boutet, Sébastien; Williams, Garth J; Messerschmidt, Marc; Gati, Cornelius; Zatsepin, Nadia A; Wang, Dingjie; James, Daniel; Basu, Shibom; Roy-Chowdhury, Shatabdi; Conrad, Chelsie E; Coe, Jesse; Liu, Haiguang; Lisova, Stella; Kupitz, Christopher; Grotjohann, Ingo; Fromme, Raimund; Jiang, Yi; Tan, Minjia; Yang, Huaiyu; Li, Jun; Wang, Meitian; Zheng, Zhong; Li, Dianfan; Howe, Nicole; Zhao, Yingming; Standfuss, Jörg; Diederichs, Kay; Dong, Yuhui; Potter, Clinton S; Carragher, Bridget; Caffrey, Martin; Jiang, Hualiang; Chapman, Henry N; Spence, John C H; Fromme, Petra; Weierstall, Uwe; Ernst, Oliver P; Katritch, Vsevolod; Gurevich, Vsevolod V; Griffin, Patrick R; Hubbell, Wayne L; Stevens, Raymond C; Cherezov, Vadim; Melcher, Karsten; Xu, H Eric

    2015-07-30

    G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) signal primarily through G proteins or arrestins. Arrestin binding to GPCRs blocks G protein interaction and redirects signalling to numerous G-protein-independent pathways. Here we report the crystal structure of a constitutively active form of human rhodopsin bound to a pre-activated form of the mouse visual arrestin, determined by serial femtosecond X-ray laser crystallography. Together with extensive biochemical and mutagenesis data, the structure reveals an overall architecture of the rhodopsin-arrestin assembly in which rhodopsin uses distinct structural elements, including transmembrane helix 7 and helix 8, to recruit arrestin. Correspondingly, arrestin adopts the pre-activated conformation, with a ∼20° rotation between the amino and carboxy domains, which opens up a cleft in arrestin to accommodate a short helix formed by the second intracellular loop of rhodopsin. This structure provides a basis for understanding GPCR-mediated arrestin-biased signalling and demonstrates the power of X-ray lasers for advancing the frontiers of structural biology. PMID:26200343

  4. A helix initiation signal in T4 lysozyme identified by polyalanine mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xue-jun; Baase, Walter A; Matthews, Brian W

    2002-12-10

    To better understand the relation between sequence and structure, and in an attempt to simplify the protein folding problem, a series of alanine substitutions was introduced into bacteriophage T4 lysozyme. In contrast to previous studies in this system, which were restricted to single alpha-helices, the present analysis included a helix-turn-helix region, a loop-helix region, and two alpha-helices that were well separated in the three-dimensional structure. It was shown previously that T4 lysozyme is very tolerant of alanine substitutions within alpha-helices, especially at solvent-exposed sites. The present study shows that the protein is also tolerant of such substitutions in turn and loop regions, although less than in helices. The results confirm that the structural information in the amino acid sequence is highly redundant. For example, the protein with the sequence 127AAAAAALAAAAWAAA141 folds normally, has melting temperature only 0.8 degrees C lower than wildtype, and has a crystal structure that is also very similar to wildtype. Polyalanine substitutions within turns or loops can, however, lead to differences in structure and in folding. In one example the triple substitution K35A/S36A/P37A caused this region of the molecule to change to a more helical conformation. In a second case the mutant with the sequence 34AAAAALAAAKAALAAA49, which spans a loop-helix region, had a dramatically altered thermal unfolding transition, suggesting that this region may tend to form a single, uninterrupted, helix. Substitution of Ala38 in the above construct with aspartic acid caused the unfolding to be more like wildtype, suggesting that residue 38, which is at a helix-capping position in the wildtype structure, provides an initiation signal that is essential in the polyalanine mutant for the correct formation of alpha-helix 39-50. In a typical protein, the information that codes for the 3D structure is presumably distributed over many amino acids. The present results suggest that in simplified sequences the key folding information may be restricted to a subset of critical residues, and so be more readily accessible to experimental analysis. PMID:12487988

  5. Genome-wide identification and analysis of basic helix-loop-helix domains in dog, Canis lupus familiaris.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xu-Hua; Wang, Yong; Liu, A-Ke; Liu, Xiao-Ting; Zhou, Yang; Yao, Qin; Chen, Ke-Ping

    2015-04-01

    The basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) domain is a highly conserved amino acid motif that defines a group of DNA-binding transcription factors. bHLH proteins play essential regulatory roles in a variety of biological processes in animal, plant, and fungus. The domestic dog, Canis lupus familiaris, is a good model organism for genetic, physiological, and behavioral studies. In this study, we identified 115 putative bHLH genes in the dog genome. Based on a phylogenetic analysis, 51, 26, 14, 4, 12, and 4 dog bHLH genes were assigned to six separate groups (A-F); four bHLH genes were categorized as ''orphans''. Within-group evolutionary relationships inferred from the phylogenetic analysis were consistent with positional conservation, other conserved domains flanking the bHLH motif, and highly conserved intron/exon patterns in other vertebrates. Our analytical results confirmed the GenBank annotations of 89 dog bHLH proteins and provided information that could be used to update the annotations of the remaining 26 dog bHLH proteins. These data will provide good references for further studies on the structures and regulatory functions of bHLH proteins in the growth and development of dogs, which may help in understanding the mechanisms that underlie the physical and behavioral differences between dogs and wolves. PMID:25403511

  6. The basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper transcription factor Mitf is conserved in Drosophila and functions in eye development.

    PubMed Central

    Hallsson, Jón H; Haflidadóttir, Benedikta S; Stivers, Chad; Odenwald, Ward; Arnheiter, Heinz; Pignoni, Francesca; Steingrímsson, Eiríkur

    2004-01-01

    The MITF protein is a member of the MYC family of basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper (bHLH-Zip) transcription factors and is most closely related to the TFE3, TFEC, and TFEB proteins. In the mouse, MITF is required for the development of several different cell types, including the retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells of the eye. In Mitf mutant mice, the presumptive RPE cells hyperproliferate, abnormally express the retinal transcriptional regulator Pax6, and form an ectopic neural retina. Here we report the structure of the Mitf gene in Drosophila and demonstrate expression during embryonic development and in the eye-antennal imaginal disc. In vitro, transcriptional regulation by Drosophila Mitf, like its mouse counterpart, is modified by the Eyeless (Drosophila Pax6) transcription factor. In vivo, targeted expression of wild-type or dominant-negative Drosophila Mitf results in developmental abnormalities reminiscent of Mitf function in mouse eye development. Our results suggest that the Mitf gene is the original member of the Mitf-Tfe subfamily of bHLH-Zip proteins and that its developmental function is at least partially conserved between vertebrates and invertebrates. These findings further support the common origin of the vertebrate and invertebrate eyes. PMID:15166150

  7. A basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor DvIVS determines flower color intensity in cyanic dahlia cultivars.

    PubMed

    Ohno, Sho; Deguchi, Ayumi; Hosokawa, Munetaka; Tatsuzawa, Fumi; Doi, Motoaki

    2013-08-01

    The study was aimed to identify the factors that regulate the intensity of flower color in cyanic dahlia (Dahlia variabilis), using fifteen cultivars with different color intensities in their petals. The cultivars were classified into three groups based on their flavonoid composition: ivory white cultivars with flavones; purple and pink cultivars with flavones and anthocyanins; and red cultivars with flavones, anthocyanins, and chalcones. Among the purple, pink, and ivory white cultivars, an inverse relationship was detected between lightness, which was used as an indicator for color intensity and anthocyanin content. A positive correlation was detected between anthocyanin contents and the expression of some structural genes in the anthocyanin synthesis pathway that are regulated by DvIVS, a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor. A positive correlation between anthocyanin content and expression of DvIVS was also found. The promoter region of DvIVS was classified into three types, with cultivars carrying Type 1 promoter exhibited deep coloring, those carrying Type 2 and/or Type 3 exhibited pale coloring, and those carrying Type 1 and Type 2 and/or Type 3 exhibited medium coloring. The transcripts of the genes from these promoters encoded full-length predicted proteins. These results suggested that the genotype of the promoter region in DvIVS is one of the key factors determining the flower color intensity. PMID:23689377

  8. The Structure of a Soluble Chemoreceptor Suggests a Mechanism for Propagating Conformational Signals

    SciTech Connect

    Pollard, Abiola M.; Bilwes, Alexandrine M.; Crane, Brian R.; Cornell

    2009-09-02

    Transmembrane chemoreceptors, also known as methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins (MCPs), translate extracellular signals into intracellular responses in the bacterial chemotaxis system. MCP ligand binding domains control the activity of the CheA kinase, situated {approx}200 {angstrom} away, across the cytoplasmic membrane. The 2.17 {angstrom} resolution crystal structure of a Thermotoga maritima soluble receptor (Tm14) reveals distortions in its dimeric four-helix bundle that provide insight into the conformational states available to MCPs for propagating signals. A bulge in one helix generates asymmetry between subunits that displaces the kinase-interacting tip, which resides more than 100 {angstrom} away. The maximum bundle distortion maps to the adaptation region of transmembrane MCPs where reversible methylation of acidic residues tunes receptor activity. Minor alterations in coiled-coil packing geometry translate the bulge distortion to a >25 {angstrom} movement of the tip relative to the bundle stalks. The Tm14 structure discloses how alterations in local helical structure, which could be induced by changes in methylation state and/or by conformational signals from membrane proximal regions, can reposition a remote domain that interacts with the CheA kinase.

  9. Effects of ligands on unfolding of the amyloid ?-peptide central helix: mechanistic insights from molecular dynamics simulations.

    PubMed

    Ito, Mika; Johansson, Jan; Strmberg, Roger; Nilsson, Lennart

    2012-01-01

    Polymerization of the amyloid ?-peptide (A?), a process which requires that the helical structure of A? unfolds beforehand, is suspected to cause neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease. According to recent experimental studies, stabilization of the A? central helix counteracts A? polymerization into toxic assemblies. The effects of two ligands (Dec-DETA and Pep1b), which were designed to bind to and stabilize the A? central helix, on unfolding of the A? central helix were investigated by molecular dynamics simulations. It was quantitatively demonstrated that the stability of the A? central helix is increased by both ligands, and more effectively by Pep1b than by Dec-DETA. In addition, it was shown that Dec-DETA forms parallel conformations with ?-strand-like A?, whereas Pep1b does not and instead tends to bend unwound A?. The molecular dynamics results correlate well with previous experiments for these ligands, which suggest that the simulation method should be useful in predicting the effectiveness of novel ligands in stabilizing the A? central helix. Detailed A? structural changes upon loss of helicity in the presence of the ligands are also revealed, which gives further insight into which ligand may lead to which path subsequent to unwinding of the A? central helix. PMID:22291970

  10. Deletion mutations in N-terminal α1 helix render heat labile enterotoxin B subunit susceptible to degradation

    PubMed Central

    Alone, Pankaj V.; Malik, Gunjan; Krishnan, Anuja; Garg, Lalit C.

    2007-01-01

    Heat-labile enterotoxin (LT) from enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli is a heterohexameric protein consisting of an enzymatically active A subunit, LTA, and a carrier pentameric B subunit, LTB. It is clear from the crystal structure of LTB that the N-terminal α1 helix lies outside the core structure. However, the function of the N-terminal α1 helix of LTB is unknown. The present work was carried out to investigate the effect of site-directed mutagenesis of the α1 helix on LTB synthesis. Six amino acids (PQSITE) located at positions 2–7 from the N terminus, including 4 aa from the α1 helix, were deleted by site-directed mutagenesis. The deletion resulted in complete inhibition of LTB expression in E. coli when expressed along with its signal sequence. A single amino acid deletion within the α1 helix also resulted in loss of expression. However, a single amino acid deletion outside the α1 helix did not affect LTB synthesis. Mutant proteins, whose synthesis was not detected in vivo, could be successfully translated in vitro by using the coupled transcription–translation system. Immunoblot analysis, Northern blot analysis, and in vitro transcription–translation data collectively indicate that the lack of synthesis of the mutant proteins is caused by the immediate degradation of the expressed product by cellular proteases rather than by faulty translation of mutant LTB mRNA. Coexpression of the LTA could not rescue the degradation of LTB mutants. PMID:17911243

  11. An Accurate Model for Biomolecular Helices and Its Application to Helix Visualization

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lincong; Qiao, Hui; Cao, Chen; Xu, Shutan; Zou, Shuxue

    2015-01-01

    Helices are the most abundant secondary structural elements in proteins and the structural forms assumed by double stranded DNAs (dsDNA). Though the mathematical expression for a helical curve is simple, none of the previous models for the biomolecular helices in either proteins or DNAs use a genuine helical curve, likely because of the complexity of fitting backbone atoms to helical curves. In this paper we model a helix as a series of different but all bona fide helical curves; each one best fits the coordinates of four consecutive backbone C? atoms for a protein or P atoms for a DNA molecule. An implementation of the model demonstrates that it is more accurate than the previous ones for the description of the deviation of a helix from a standard helical curve. Furthermore, the accuracy of the model makes it possible to correlate deviations with structural and functional significance. When applied to helix visualization, the ribbon diagrams generated by the model are less choppy or have smaller side chain detachment than those by the previous visualization programs that typically model a helix as a series of low-degree splines. PMID:26126117

  12. Seven-Transmembrane Receptors and Ubiquitination

    PubMed Central

    Shenoy, Sudha K.

    2007-01-01

    Regulation of protein function by post-translational modification plays an important role in many biological pathways. The most well known among such modifications is protein phosphorylation performed by highly specific protein kinases. In the past decade, however, covalent linkage of the low molecular weight protein ubiquitin to substrate proteins (protein ubiquitination) has proven to be yet another widely utilized mechanism of protein regulation playing a crucial role in virtually all aspects of cellular functions. This review highlights some of the recently discovered and provocative roles for ubiquitination in the regulation of the life cycle and signal transduction properties of seven-transmembrane receptors, which serve to integrate many biological functions and play fundamental roles in cardiovascular homeostasis. PMID:17463329

  13. Surfactant protein C peptides with salt-bridges (ion-locks) promote high surfactant activities by mimicking the ?-helix and membrane topography of the native protein

    PubMed Central

    Waring, Alan J.; Hernndez-Juviel, Jos M.; Ruchala, Piotr; Wang, Zhengdong; Notter, Robert H.; Gordon, Larry M.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Surfactant protein C (SP-C; 35 residues) in lungs has a cationic N-terminal domain with two cysteines covalently linked to palmitoyls and a C-terminal region enriched in Val, Leu and Ile. Native SP-C shows high surface activity, due to SP-C inserting in the bilayer with its cationic N-terminus binding to the polar headgroup and its hydrophobic C-terminus embedded as a tilted, transmembrane ?-helix. The palmitoylcysteines in SP-C act as helical adjuvants to maintain activity by overriding the ?-sheet propensities of the native sequences. Objective. We studied SP-C peptides lacking palmitoyls, but containing glutamate and lysine at 4-residue intervals, to assess whether SP-C peptides with salt-bridges (ion-locks) promote surface activity by mimicking the ?-helix and membrane topography of native SP-C. Methods. SP-C mimics were synthesized that reproduce native sequences, but without palmitoyls (i.e., SP-Css or SP-Cff, with serines or phenylalanines replacing the two cysteines). Ion-lock SP-C molecules were prepared by incorporating single or double Glu?Lys+ into the parent SP-Cs. The secondary structures of SP-C mimics were studied with Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and PASTA, an algorithm that predicts ?-sheet propensities based on the energies of the various ?-sheet pairings. The membrane topography of SP-C mimics was investigated with orientated and hydrogen/deuterium (H/D) exchange FTIR, and also Membrane Protein Explorer (MPEx) hydropathy analysis. In vitro surface activity was determined using adsorption surface pressure isotherms and captive bubble surfactometry, and in vivo surface activity from lung function measures in a rabbit model of surfactant deficiency. Results. PASTA calculations predicted that the SP-Css and SP-Cff peptides should each form parallel ?-sheet aggregates, with FTIR spectroscopy confirming high parallel ?-sheet with amyloid-like properties. The enhanced ?-sheet properties for SP-Css and SP-Cff are likely responsible for their low surfactant activities in the in vitro and in vivo assays. Although standard 12C-FTIR study showed that the ?-helicity of these SP-C sequences in lipids was uniformly increased with Glu?Lys+ insertions, elevated surfactant activity was only selectively observed. Additional results from oriented and H/D exchange FTIR experiments indicated that the high surfactant activities depend on the SP-C ion-locks recapitulating both the ?-helicity and the membrane topography of native SP-C. SP-Css ion-lock 1, an SP-Css with a salt-bridge for a Glu?Lys+ ion-pair predicted from MPEx hydropathy calculations, demonstrated enhanced surfactant activity and a transmembrane helix simulating those of native SP-C. Conclusion. Highly active SP-C mimics were developed that replace the palmitoyls of SP-C with intrapeptide salt-bridges and represent a new class of synthetic surfactants with therapeutic interest. PMID:25083348

  14. Specificity of Transmembrane Protein Palmitoylation in Yeast

    PubMed Central

    González Montoro, Ayelén; Chumpen Ramirez, Sabrina; Quiroga, Rodrigo; Valdez Taubas, Javier

    2011-01-01

    Many proteins are modified after their synthesis, by the addition of a lipid molecule to one or more cysteine residues, through a thioester bond. This modification is called S-acylation, and more commonly palmitoylation. This reaction is carried out by a family of enzymes, called palmitoyltransferases (PATs), characterized by the presence of a conserved 50- aminoacids domain called “Asp-His-His-Cys- Cysteine Rich Domain” (DHHC-CRD). There are 7 members of this family in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and each of these proteins is thought to be responsible for the palmitoylation of a subset of substrates. Substrate specificity of PATs, however, is not yet fully understood. Several yeast PATs seem to have overlapping specificity, and it has been proposed that the machinery responsible for palmitoylating peripheral membrane proteins in mammalian cells, lacks specificity altogether. Here we investigate the specificity of transmembrane protein palmitoylation in S. cerevisiae, which is carried out predominantly by two PATs, Swf1 and Pfa4. We show that palmitoylation of transmembrane substrates requires dedicated PATs, since other yeast PATs are mostly unable to perform Swf1 or Pfa4 functions, even when overexpressed. Furthermore, we find that Swf1 is highly specific for its substrates, as it is unable to substitute for other PATs. To identify where Swf1 specificity lies, we carried out a bioinformatics survey to identify amino acids responsible for the determination of specificity or Specificity Determination Positions (SDPs) and showed experimentally, that mutation of the two best SDP candidates, A145 and K148, results in complete and partial loss of function, respectively. These residues are located within the conserved catalytic DHHC domain suggesting that it could also be involved in the determination of specificity. Finally, we show that modifying the position of the cysteines in Tlg1, a Swf1 substrate, results in lack of palmitoylation, as expected for a highly specific enzymatic reaction. PMID:21383992

  15. Molecular mechanisms for generating transmembrane proton gradients

    PubMed Central

    Gunner, M.R.; Amin, Muhamed; Zhu, Xuyu; Lu, Jianxun

    2013-01-01

    Membrane proteins use the energy of light or high energy substrates to build a transmembrane proton gradient through a series of reactions leading to proton release into the lower pH compartment (P-side) and proton uptake from the higher pH compartment (N-side). This review considers how the proton affinity of the substrates, cofactors and amino acids are modified in four proteins to drive proton transfers. Bacterial reaction centers (RCs) and photosystem II (PSII) carry out redox chemistry with the species to be oxidized on the P-side while reduction occurs on the N-side of the membrane. Terminal redox cofactors are used which have pKas that are strongly dependent on their redox state, so that protons are lost on oxidation and gained on reduction. Bacteriorhodopsin is a true proton pump. Light activation triggers trans to cis isomerization of a bound retinal. Strong electrostatic interactions within clusters of amino acids are modified by the conformational changes initiated by retinal motion leading to changes in proton affinity, driving transmembrane proton transfer. Cytochrome c oxidase (CcO) catalyzes the reduction of O2 to water. The protons needed for chemistry are bound from the N-side. The reduction chemistry also drives proton pumping from N- to P-side. Overall, in CcO the uptake of 4 electrons to reduce O2 transports 8 charges across the membrane, with each reduction fully coupled to removal of two protons from the N-side, the delivery of one for chemistry and transport of the other to the P-side. PMID:23507617

  16. Mechanical performance of PPy helix tube microactuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahrami Samani, Mehrdad; Spinks, Geoffrey M.; Cook, Christopher

    2004-02-01

    Conducting polymer actuators with favourable properties such as linearity, high power density and compliance are of increasing demand in micro applications. These materials generate forces over two times larger than produced by mammalian skeletal muscles. They operate to convert electro chemical energy to mechanical stress and strain. On the other hand, the application of conducting polymers is limited by the lack of a full description of the relation between four essential parameters: stress, strain, voltage and current. In this paper, polypyrrole helix tube micro actuator mechanical characteristics are investigated. The electrolyte is propylene carbonate and the dopant is TBA. PF6. The experiments are both in isotonic and isometric conditions and the input parameters are both electrical and mechanical. A dual mode force and length control and potentiostat / galvanostat are utilized for this purpose. Ultimately, the viscoelastic behaviour of the actuator is presented in this paper by a standard stress relaxation test. The effect of electrical stimulus on mechanical parameters is also explored by cyclic voltametry at different scan rates to obtain the best understanding of the actuation mechanism. The results demonstrate that the linear viscoelastic model, which performed well on conducting polymer film actuators, has to be modified to explain the mechanical behaviour of PPy helix tube fibre micro actuators. Secondly, the changes in mechanical properties of PPy need to be considered when modelling electromechanical behaviour.

  17. Structural and functional importance of transmembrane domain 3 (TM3) in the aspartate:alanine antiporter AspT: topology and function of the residues of TM3 and oligomerization of AspT.

    PubMed

    Nanatani, Kei; Maloney, Peter C; Abe, Keietsu

    2009-04-01

    AspT, the aspartate:alanine antiporter of Tetragenococcus halophilus, a membrane protein of 543 amino acids with 10 putative transmembrane (TM) helices, is the prototype of the aspartate:alanine exchanger (AAE) family of transporters. Because TM3 (isoleucine 64 to methionine 85) has many amino acid residues that are conserved among members of the AAE family and because TM3 contains two charged residues and four polar residues, it is thought to be located near (or to form part of) the substrate translocation pathway that includes the binding site for the substrates. To elucidate the role of TM3 in the transport process, we carried out cysteine-scanning mutagenesis. The substitutions of tyrosine 75 and serine 84 had the strongest inhibitory effects on transport (initial rates of l-aspartate transport were below 15% of the rate for cysteine-less AspT). Considerable but less-marked effects were observed upon the replacement of methionine 70, phenylalanine 71, glycine 74, arginine 76, serine 83, and methionine 85 (initial rates between 15% and 30% of the rate for cysteine-less AspT). Introduced cysteine residues at the cytoplasmic half of TM3 could be labeled with Oregon green maleimide (OGM), whereas cysteines close to the periplasmic half (residues 64 to 75) were not labeled. These results suggest that TM3 has a hydrophobic core on the periplasmic half and that hydrophilic residues on the cytoplasmic half of TM3 participate in the formation of an aqueous cavity in membranes. Furthermore, the presence of l-aspartate protected the cysteine introduced at glycine 62 against a reaction with OGM. In contrast, l-aspartate stimulated the reactivity of the cysteine introduced at proline 79 with OGM. These results demonstrate that TM3 undergoes l-aspartate-induced conformational alterations. In addition, nonreducing sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analyses and a glutaraldehyde cross-linking assay suggest that functional AspT forms homo-oligomers as a functional unit. PMID:19181816

  18. Structure and Selectivity in Bestrophin Ion Channels

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Tingting; Liu, Qun; Kloss, Brian; Bruni, Renato; Kalathur, Ravi; Kloppmann, Edda; Rost, Burkhard; Colecraft, Henry M.; Hendrickson, Wayne A.

    2015-01-01

    Human bestrophin 1 (hBest1) is a calcium-activated chloride channel from the retinal pigment epithelium, where it can suffer mutations associated with vitelliform macular degeneration, or Best disease. We describe the structure of a bacterial homolog (KpBest) of hBest1 and functional characterizations of both channels. KpBest is a pentamer that forms a five-helix transmembrane pore, closed by three rings of conserved hydrophobic residues, and has a cytoplasmic cavern with a restricted exit. From electrophysiological analysis of structure-inspired mutations in KpBest and hBest1, we find a subtle control of ion selectivity in the bestrophins, including reversal of anion/cation selectivity, and dramatic activation by mutations at the exit restriction. A homology model of hBest1 shows the locations of disease-causing mutations and suggests possible roles in regulation. PMID:25324390

  19. Importance of Hydrophilic Hydration and Intramolecular Interactions in the Thermodynamics of Helix-Coil Transition and Helix-Helix Assembly in a Deca-Alanine Peptide.

    PubMed

    Tomar, Dheeraj S; Weber, Valry; Pettitt, B Montgomery; Asthagiri, D

    2016-01-14

    For a model deca-alanine peptide the cavity (ideal hydrophobic) contribution to hydration favors the helix state over extended states and the paired helix bundle in the assembly of two helices. The energetic contributions of attractive protein-solvent interactions are separated into quasi-chemical components consisting of a short-range part arising from interactions with solvent in the first hydration shell and the remaining long-range part that is well described by a Gaussian. In the helix-coil transition, short-range attractive protein-solvent interactions outweigh hydrophobic hydration and favor the extended coil states. Analysis of enthalpic effects shows that it is the favorable hydration of the peptide backbone that favors the unfolded state. Protein intramolecular interactions favor the helix state and are decisive in favoring folding. In the pairing of two helices, the cavity contribution outweighs the short-range attractive protein-water interactions. However, long-range, protein-solvent attractive interactions can either enhance or reverse this trend depending on the mutual orientation of the helices. In helix-helix assembly, change in enthalpy arising from change in attractive protein-solvent interactions favors disassembly. In helix pairing as well, favorable protein intramolecular interactions are found to be as important as hydration effects. Overall, hydrophilic protein-solvent interactions and protein intramolecular interactions are found to play a significant role in the thermodynamics of folding and assembly in the system studied. PMID:26649757

  20. Pore Structure and Synergy in Antimicrobial Peptides of the Magainin Family

    PubMed Central

    Pino-Angeles, Almudena; Leveritt, John M.; Lazaridis, Themis

    2016-01-01

    Magainin 2 and PGLa are among the best-studied cationic antimicrobial peptides. They bind preferentially to negatively charged membranes and apparently cause their disruption by the formation of transmembrane pores, whose detailed structure is still unclear. Here we report the results of 5–9 μs all-atom molecular dynamics simulations starting from tetrameric transmembrane helical bundles of these two peptides, as well as their stoichiometric mixture, and the analog MG-H