Science.gov

Sample records for transmembrane helix structure

  1. Role of Cysteine Residues in Structural Stability and Function of a Transmembrane Helix Bundle*

    E-print Network

    Thomas, David D.

    Role of Cysteine Residues in Structural Stability and Function of a Transmembrane Helix Bundle, Minnesota 55455 To study the structural and functional roles of the cysteine residues at positions 36, 41 three cysteine residues are replaced by Abu. Whereas previous studies have shown that replacement

  2. The evolution of transmembrane helix kinks and the structural diversity of G protein-coupled receptors.

    PubMed

    Yohannan, Sarah; Faham, Salem; Yang, Duan; Whitelegge, Julian P; Bowie, James U

    2004-01-27

    One of the hallmarks of membrane protein structure is the high frequency of transmembrane helix kinks, which commonly occur at proline residues. Because the proline side chain usually precludes normal helix geometry, it is reasonable to expect that proline residues generate these kinks. We observe, however, that the three prolines in bacteriorhodopsin transmembrane helices can be changed to alanine with little structural consequences. This finding leads to a conundrum: if proline is not required for helix bending, why are prolines commonly present at bends in transmembrane helices? We propose an evolutionary hypothesis in which a mutation to proline initially induces the kink. The resulting packing defects are later repaired by further mutation, thereby locking the kink in the structure. Thus, most prolines in extant proteins can be removed without major structural consequences. We further propose that nonproline kinks are places where vestigial prolines were later removed during evolution. Consistent with this hypothesis, at 14 of 17 nonproline kinks in membrane proteins of known structure, we find prolines in homologous sequences. Our analysis allows us to predict kink positions with >90% reliability. Kink prediction indicates that different G protein-coupled receptor proteins have different kink patterns and therefore different structures. PMID:14732697

  3. Membrane physical properties influence transmembrane helix formation

    E-print Network

    Membrane physical properties influence transmembrane helix formation Francisco N. Barrera1 , Justin properties of the bilayer. These results suggest a physical role for helix-membrane interactions, containing hundreds of different lipid types (3) that impart specific physical properties to the bilayer

  4. Modulation of the pHLIP transmembrane helix insertion pathway.

    PubMed

    Karabadzhak, Alexander G; Weerakkody, Dhammika; Wijesinghe, Dayanjali; Thakur, Mak S; Engelman, Donald M; Andreev, Oleg A; Markin, Vladislav S; Reshetnyak, Yana K

    2012-04-18

    The membrane-associated folding/unfolding of pH (low) insertion peptide (pHLIP) provides an opportunity to study how sequence variations influence the kinetics and pathway of peptide insertion into bilayers. Here, we present the results of steady-state and kinetics investigations of several pHLIP variants with different numbers of charged residues, with attached polar cargoes at the peptide's membrane-inserting end, and with three single-Trp variants placed at the beginning, middle, and end of the transmembrane helix. Each pHLIP variant exhibits a pH-dependent interaction with a lipid bilayer. Although the number of protonatable residues at the inserting end does not affect the ultimate formation of helical structure across a membrane, it correlates with the time for peptide insertion, the number of intermediate states on the folding pathway, and the rates of unfolding and exit. The presence of polar cargoes at the peptide's inserting end leads to the appearance of intermediate states on the insertion pathway. Cargo polarity correlates with a decrease of the insertion rate. We conclude that the existence of intermediate states on the folding and unfolding pathways is not mandatory and, in the simple case of a polypeptide with a noncharged and nonpolar inserting end, the folding and unfolding appears as an all-or-none transition. We propose a model for membrane-associated insertion/folding and exit/unfolding and discuss the importance of these observations for the design of new delivery agents for direct translocation of polar therapeutic and diagnostic cargo molecules across cellular membranes. PMID:22768940

  5. De novo design of transmembrane helix-helix interactions and measurement of stability in a biological membrane.

    PubMed

    Nash, Anthony; Notman, Rebecca; Dixon, Ann M

    2015-05-01

    Membrane proteins regulate a large number of cellular functions, and have great potential as tools for manipulation of biological systems. Developing these tools requires a robust and quantitative understanding of membrane protein folding and interactions within the bilayer. With this in mind, we have designed a series of proteins to probe the net thermodynamic contribution of well-known sequence motifs to transmembrane helix-helix association in a biological membrane. The proteins were designed from first principles (de novo) using current knowledge about membrane insertion and stabilizing interaction motifs. A simple poly-Leu "scaffold" was decorated with individual helix interaction motifs (G-XXX-G, polar residues, heptad repeat) to create transmembrane helix-helix interactions of increasing strength. The GALLEX assay, an in vivo assay for measurement of transmembrane helix self-association, was combined with computational methods to characterize the relative strength and mode of interaction for each sequence. In addition, the apparent free energy contribution (??Gapp) of each motif to transmembrane helix self-association was measured in a biological membrane, results that are the first of their kind for these de novo designed sequences, and suggest that the free energy barrier to overcoming weak association is quite small (<1.4 kcal mol(-1)) in a natural membrane. By quantifying and rationalizing the contribution of key motifs to transmembrane helix association, our work offers a route to direct the design of novel sequences for use in biotechnology or synthetic biology (e.g. molecular switches) and to predict the effects of sequence modification in known transmembrane domains (for control of cellular processes). PMID:25732028

  6. Use of Molecular Dynamics Data in Biochemistry Courses: An Amphipathy Scale to Determine Protein [alpha]-Helix Transmembrane Segments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazze, Fernanda M.; Fuzo, Carlos A.; Degreve, Leo; Ciancaglini, Pietro

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this manuscript is to explain the application of an amphipathy scale obtained from molecular dynamics simulations and to demonstrate how it can be useful in the protein structure field. It is shown that this scale is easy to be used with the advantage of revealing domains of transmembrane [alpha]-helix of proteins without the need of…

  7. Transmembrane Helix Association Affinity Can Be Modulated by Flanking and Noninterfacial Residues

    E-print Network

    Lazaridis, Themis

    Transmembrane Helix Association Affinity Can Be Modulated by Flanking and Noninterfacial Residues residues of MCP were substituted for those of GpA (MCP-GpA), association remained significantly weaker than simulations in an implicit membrane (IMM1-GC). The association free energies of GpA29 (GpA with 29 residues

  8. Second Transmembrane Helix (M2) and Long Range Coupling in Ca2+-ATPase*

    PubMed Central

    Daiho, Takashi; Yamasaki, Kazuo; Danko, Stefania; Suzuki, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    The actuator (A) domain of sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase not only plays a catalytic role but also undergoes large rotational movements that influence the distant transport sites through connections with transmembrane helices M1 and M2. Here we explore the importance of long helix M2 and its junction with the A domain by disrupting the helix structure and elongating with insertions of five glycine residues. Insertions into the membrane region of M2 and the top junctional segment impair Ca2+ transport despite reasonable ATPase activity, indicating that they are uncoupled. These mutants fail to occlude Ca2+. Those at the top segment also exhibited accelerated phosphoenzyme isomerization E1P ? E2P. Insertions into the middle of M2 markedly accelerate E2P hydrolysis and cause strong resistance to inhibition by luminal Ca2+. Insertions along almost the entire M2 region inhibit the dephosphorylated enzyme transition E2 ? E1. The results pinpoint which parts of M2 control cytoplasm gating and which are critical for luminal gating at each stage in the transport cycle and suggest that proper gate function requires appropriate interactions, tension, and/or rigidity in the M2 region at appropriate times for coupling with A domain movements and catalysis. PMID:25246522

  9. Quantification of structural distortions in the transmembrane helices of GPCRs.

    PubMed

    Deupi, Xavier

    2012-01-01

    A substantial part of the structural and much of the functional information about G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) comes from studies on rhodopsin. Thus, analysis tools for detailed structure comparison are key to see to what extent this information can be extended to other GPCRs. Among the methods to evaluate protein structures and, in particular, helix distortions, HELANAL has the advantage that it provides data (local bend and twist angles) that can be easily translated to structural effects, as a local opening/tightening of the helix.In this work I show how HELANAL can be used to extract detailed structural information of the transmembrane bundle of GPCRs, and I provide some examples on how these data can be interpreted to study basic principles of protein structure, to compare homologous proteins and to study mechanisms of receptor activation. Also, I show how in combination with the sequence analysis tools provided by the program GMoS, distortions in individual receptors can be put in the context of the whole Class A GPCR family. Specifically, quantification of the strong proline-induced distortions in the transmembrane bundle of rhodopsin shows that they are not standard proline kinks. Moreover, the helix distortions in transmembrane helix (TMH) 5 and TMH 6 of rhodopsin are also present in the rest of GPCR crystal structures obtained so far, and thus, rhodopsin-based homology models have modeled correctly these strongly distorted helices. While in some cases the inherent "rhodopsin bias" of many of the GPCR models to date has not been a disadvantage, the availability of more templates will clearly result in better homology models. This type of analysis can be, of course, applied to any protein, and it may be particularly useful for the structural analysis of other membrane proteins. A detailed knowledge of the local structural changes related to ligand binding and how they are translated into larger-scale movements of transmembrane domains is key to understand receptor activation. PMID:22976031

  10. Differential Regulation of 6- and 7-Transmembrane Helix Variants of ?-Opioid Receptor in Response to Morphine Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Convertino, Marino; Samoshkin, Alexander; Viet, Chi T.; Gauthier, Josee; Li Fraine, Steven P.; Sharif-Naeini, Reza; Schmidt, Brian L.; Maixner, William; Diatchenko, Luda; Dokholyan, Nikolay V.

    2015-01-01

    The pharmacological effect of opioids originates, at the cellular level, by their interaction with the ?-opioid receptor (mOR) resulting in the regulation of voltage-gated Ca2+ channels and inwardly rectifying K+ channels that ultimately modulate the synaptic transmission. Recently, an alternative six trans-membrane helix isoform of mOR, (6TM-mOR) has been identified, but its function and signaling are still largely unknown. Here, we present the structural and functional mechanisms of 6TM-mOR signaling activity upon binding to morphine. Our data suggest that despite the similarity of binding modes of the alternative 6TM-mOR and the dominant seven trans-membrane helix variant (7TM-mOR), the interaction with morphine generates different dynamic responses in the two receptors, thus, promoting the activation of different mOR-specific signaling pathways. We characterize a series of 6TM-mOR-specific cellular responses, and observed that they are significantly different from those for 7TM-mOR. Morphine stimulation of 6TM-mOR does not promote a cellular cAMP response, while it increases the intracellular Ca2+ concentration and reduces the cellular K+ conductance. Our findings indicate that 6TM-mOR has a unique contribution to the cellular opioid responses. Therefore, it should be considered as a relevant target for the development of novel pharmacological tools and medical protocols involving the use of opioids. PMID:26554831

  11. Functional importance of the Gly cluster in transmembrane helix 2 of the Bordetella pertussis CyaA-hemolysin: Implications for toxin oligomerization and pore formation.

    PubMed

    Juntapremjit, Sirikran; Thamwiriyasati, Niramon; Kurehong, Chattip; Prangkio, Panchika; Shank, Lalida; Powthongchin, Busaba; Angsuthanasombat, Chanan

    2015-11-01

    Adenylate cyclase-hemolysin (CyaA) is a major virulence factor of Bordetella pertussis causing whooping cough in humans. We previously showed that two transmembrane helices (?2 and ?3) in the hemolysin domain (CyaA-Hly) are crucially involved in hemolytic activity. Here, PCR-based substitutions were employed to investigate a potential involvement in hemolysis of a series of four Gly residues (Gly(530), Gly(533), Gly(537) and Gly(544)) which map onto one face of a helical wheel plot of pore-lining helix 2. All CyaA-Hly mutant toxins were over-expressed in Escherichia coli as 126-kDa soluble proteins at levels comparable to the wild-type toxin. A drastic reduction in hemolytic activity against sheep erythrocytes was observed for three CyaA-Hly mutants, i.e. G530A, G533A and G537A, but not G544A, suggesting a functional importance of the Gly(530)_Gly(533)_Gly(537) cluster. A homology-based structure of the ?2-loop-?3 hairpin revealed that this crucial Gly cluster arranged as a GXXGXXXG motif is conceivably involved in helix-helix association. Furthermore, a plausible pore model comprising three ?2-loop-?3 hairpins implicated that Gly(530)XXGly(533)XXXGly(537) could function as an important framework for toxin oligomerization. Altogether, our present data signify for the first time that the Gly(530)_Gly(533)_Gly(537) cluster in transmembrane helix 2 serves as a crucial constituent of the CyaA-Hly trimeric pore structure. PMID:26363293

  12. Energetics of the Native and Non-native States of the Glycophorin Transmembrane Helix Dimer

    E-print Network

    Lazaridis, Themis

    understanding of cellular processes as well as attractive targets for drug discovery. Because of technical) domain consists of one or more -helices rich in hydrophobic residues. The function of many membrane example of TM -helix associa

  13. Revisiting Hydrophobic Mismatch with Free Energy Simulation Studies of Transmembrane Helix Tilt and Rotation

    E-print Network

    Kim, Taehoon; Im, Wonpil

    2010-07-01

    Protein-lipid interaction and bilayer regulation of membrane protein functions are largely controlled by the hydrophobic match between the transmembrane (TM) domain of membrane proteins and the surrounding lipid bilayer. ...

  14. The development of a model of Alpha helix formation for transmembrane peptides 

    E-print Network

    Funk, Geoffrey Alexander

    2013-02-22

    . Peptides, once synthesized, are characterized by MALDI mass spectrometry and HPLC and purified peptides are studied using circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy to determine the a-helicity. Initial results suggest that the transmembrane environment...

  15. Translocation of molecules into cells by pH-dependent insertion of a transmembrane helix

    E-print Network

    molecules attached to its C terminus across the plasma membranes of living cells. Translocation is selective control, or cell regulation. drug delivery peptide nucleic acid delivery tumors membrane transport helix, the formation of indepen- dently stable helices across the membrane lipid bilayer occurs first

  16. Order Parameters of a Transmembrane Helix in a Fluid Bilayer: Case Study of a WALP Peptide

    PubMed Central

    Holt, Andrea; Rougier, Léa; Réat, Valérie; Jolibois, Franck; Saurel, Olivier; Czaplicki, Jerzy; Killian, J. Antoinette; Milon, Alain

    2010-01-01

    Abstract A new solid-state NMR-based strategy is established for the precise and efficient analysis of orientation and dynamics of transmembrane peptides in fluid bilayers. For this purpose, several dynamically averaged anisotropic constraints, including 13C and 15N chemical shift anisotropies and 13C-15N dipolar couplings, were determined from two different triple-isotope-labeled WALP23 peptides (2H, 13C, and 15N) and combined with previously published quadrupolar splittings of the same peptide. Chemical shift anisotropy tensor orientations were determined with quantum chemistry. The complete set of experimental constraints was analyzed using a generalized, four-parameter dynamic model of the peptide motion, including tilt and rotation angle and two associated order parameters. A tilt angle of 21° was determined for WALP23 in dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine, which is much larger than the tilt angle of 5.5° previously determined from 2H NMR experiments. This approach provided a realistic value for the tilt angle of WALP23 peptide in the presence of hydrophobic mismatch, and can be applied to any transmembrane helical peptide. The influence of the experimental data set on the solution space is discussed, as are potential sources of error. PMID:20441750

  17. Structural Model of the Bilitranslocase Transmembrane Domain Supported by NMR and FRET Data

    PubMed Central

    Choudhury, Amrita Roy; Sikorska, Emilia; van den Boom, Johannes; Bayer, Peter; Popenda, ?ukasz; Szutkowski, Kosma; Jurga, Stefan; Bonomi, Massimiliano; Sali, Andrej; Zhukov, Igor; Passamonti, Sabina; Novi?, Marjana

    2015-01-01

    We present a 3D model of the four transmembrane (TM) helical regions of bilitranslocase (BTL), a structurally uncharacterized protein that transports organic anions across the cell membrane. The model was computed by considering helix-helix interactions as primary constraints, using Monte Carlo simulations. The interactions between the TM2 and TM3 segments have been confirmed by Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, increasing our confidence in the model. Several insights into the BTL transport mechanism were obtained by analyzing the model. For example, the observed cis-trans Leu-Pro peptide bond isomerization in the TM3 fragment may indicate a key conformational change during anion transport by BTL. Our structural model of BTL may facilitate further studies, including drug discovery. PMID:26291722

  18. Predictions of Tertiary Structures of ?-Helical Membrane Proteins by Replica-Exchange Method with Consideration of Helix Deformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urano, Ryo; Kokubo, Hironori; Okamoto, Yuko

    2015-08-01

    We propose an improved prediction method of the tertiary structures of ?-helical membrane proteins based on the replica-exchange method by taking into account helix deformations. Our method has wide applications because transmembrane helices of native membrane proteins are often distorted. In order to test the effectiveness of the present method, we applied it to the structure predictions of glycophorin A and phospholamban. The results were in good agreement with experiments.

  19. Evidence that Insertion of Tomato Ringspot Nepovirus NTB-VPg Protein in Endoplasmic Reticulum Membranes Is Directed by Two Domains: a C-Terminal Transmembrane Helix and an N-Terminal Amphipathic Helix

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shuo Cheng; Zhang, Guangzhi; Yang, Lanying; Chisholm, Joan; Sanfaçon, Hélène

    2005-01-01

    The NTB-VPg protein of Tomato ringspot nepovirus is an integral membrane protein found in association with endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-derived membranes active in virus replication. A transmembrane helix present in a hydrophobic region at the C terminus of the NTB domain was previously shown to traverse the membranes, resulting in the translocation of the VPg domain in the lumen. We have now conducted an in planta analysis of membrane-targeting domains within NTB-VPg using in-frame fusions to the green fluorescent protein (GFP). As expected, the entire NTB-VPg protein directed the GFP fluorescence to ER membranes. GFP fusion proteins containing the C-terminal 86 amino acids of NTB-VPg also associated with ER membranes, resulting in ER-specific glycosylation at a naturally occurring glycosylation site in the VPg domain. Deletion of the hydrophobic region prevented the membrane association. The N-terminal 80 amino acids of NTB were also sufficient to direct the GFP fluorescence to intracellular membranes. A putative amphipathic helix in this region was necessary and sufficient to promote membrane association of the fusion proteins. Using in vitro membrane association assays and glycosylation site mapping, we show that the N terminus of NTB can be translocated in the lumen at least in vitro. This translocation was dependent on the presence of the putative amphipathic helix, suggesting that oligomeric forms of this helix traverse the membrane. Taken together, our results suggest that at least two distinct elements play a key role in the insertion of NTB-VPg in the membranes: a C-terminal transmembrane helix and an N-terminal amphipathic helix. An updated model of the topology of the protein in the membrane is presented. PMID:16140753

  20. De novo design of a transmembrane Zn[superscript 2+]-transporting four-helix bundle

    E-print Network

    Wang, Tuo

    The design of functional membrane proteins from first principles represents a grand challenge in chemistry and structural biology. Here, we report the design of a membrane-spanning, four-helical bundle that transports ...

  1. De novo design of a transmembrane Zn²?-transporting four-helix bundle.

    PubMed

    Joh, Nathan H; Wang, Tuo; Bhate, Manasi P; Acharya, Rudresh; Wu, Yibing; Grabe, Michael; Hong, Mei; Grigoryan, Gevorg; DeGrado, William F

    2014-12-19

    The design of functional membrane proteins from first principles represents a grand challenge in chemistry and structural biology. Here, we report the design of a membrane-spanning, four-helical bundle that transports first-row transition metal ions Zn(2+) and Co(2+), but not Ca(2+), across membranes. The conduction path was designed to contain two di-metal binding sites that bind with negative cooperativity. X-ray crystallography and solid-state and solution nuclear magnetic resonance indicate that the overall helical bundle is formed from two tightly interacting pairs of helices, which form individual domains that interact weakly along a more dynamic interface. Vesicle flux experiments show that as Zn(2+) ions diffuse down their concentration gradients, protons are antiported. These experiments illustrate the feasibility of designing membrane proteins with predefined structural and dynamic properties. PMID:25525248

  2. De novo design of a transmembrane Zn2+-transporting four-helix bundle

    PubMed Central

    Joh, Nathan H.; Wang, Tuo; Bhate, Manasi P.; Acharya, Rudresh; Wu, Yibing; Grabe, Michael; Hong, Mei; Grigoryan, Gevorg; DeGrado, William F.

    2015-01-01

    The design of functional membrane proteins from first principles represents a grand challenge in chemistry and structural biology. Here, we report the design of a membrane-spanning, four-helical bundle that transports first-row transition metal ions Zn2+ and Co2+, but not Ca2+, across membranes. The conduction path was designed to contain two di-metal binding sites that bind with negative cooperativity. X-ray crystallography and solid-state and solution nuclear magnetic resonance indicate that the overall helical bundle is formed from two tightly interacting pairs of helices, which form individual domains that interact weakly along a more dynamic interface. Vesicle flux experiments show that as Zn2+ ions diffuse down their concentration gradients, protons are antiported. These experiments illustrate the feasibility of designing membrane proteins with predefined structural and dynamic properties. PMID:25525248

  3. Predicting residue-residue contacts and helix-helix interactions in transmembrane proteins using an integrative feature-based random forest approach.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Feng; Chen, Zhen; Wang, Chuan; Yan, Ren-Xiang; Zhang, Ziding; Song, Jiangning

    2011-01-01

    Integral membrane proteins constitute 25-30% of genomes and play crucial roles in many biological processes. However, less than 1% of membrane protein structures are in the Protein Data Bank. In this context, it is important to develop reliable computational methods for predicting the structures of membrane proteins. Here, we present the first application of random forest (RF) for residue-residue contact prediction in transmembrane proteins, which we term as TMhhcp. Rigorous cross-validation tests indicate that the built RF models provide a more favorable prediction performance compared with two state-of-the-art methods, i.e., TMHcon and MEMPACK. Using a strict leave-one-protein-out jackknifing procedure, they were capable of reaching the top L/5 prediction accuracies of 49.5% and 48.8% for two different residue contact definitions, respectively. The predicted residue contacts were further employed to predict interacting helical pairs and achieved the Matthew's correlation coefficients of 0.430 and 0.424, according to two different residue contact definitions, respectively. To facilitate the academic community, the TMhhcp server has been made freely accessible at http://protein.cau.edu.cn/tmhhcp. PMID:22046350

  4. Probabilistic grammatical model for helix?helix contact site classification

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Hidden Markov Models power many state?of?the?art tools in the field of protein bioinformatics. While excelling in their tasks, these methods of protein analysis do not convey directly information on medium? and long?range residue?residue interactions. This requires an expressive power of at least context?free grammars. However, application of more powerful grammar formalisms to protein analysis has been surprisingly limited. Results In this work, we present a probabilistic grammatical framework for problem?specific protein languages and apply it to classification of transmembrane helix?helix pairs configurations. The core of the model consists of a probabilistic context?free grammar, automatically inferred by a genetic algorithm from only a generic set of expert?based rules and positive training samples. The model was applied to produce sequence based descriptors of four classes of transmembrane helix?helix contact site configurations. The highest performance of the classifiers reached AUCROC of 0.70. The analysis of grammar parse trees revealed the ability of representing structural features of helix?helix contact sites. Conclusions We demonstrated that our probabilistic context?free framework for analysis of protein sequences outperforms the state of the art in the task of helix?helix contact site classification. However, this is achieved without necessarily requiring modeling long range dependencies between interacting residues. A significant feature of our approach is that grammar rules and parse trees are human?readable. Thus they could provide biologically meaningful information for molecular biologists. PMID:24350601

  5. Homology modeling of major intrinsic proteins in rice, maize and Arabidopsis: comparative analysis of transmembrane helix association and aromatic/arginine selectivity filters

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Anjali; Sankararamakrishnan, Ramasubbu

    2007-01-01

    Background The major intrinsic proteins (MIPs) facilitate the transport of water and neutral solutes across the lipid bilayers. Plant MIPs are believed to be important in cell division and expansion and in water transport properties in response to environmental conditions. More than 30 MIP sequences have been identified in Arabidopsis thaliana, maize and rice. Plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIPs), tonoplast intrinsic proteins (TIPs), Nod26-like intrinsic protein (NIPs) and small and basic intrinsic proteins (SIPs) are subfamilies of plant MIPs. Despite sequence diversity, all the experimentally determined structures belonging to the MIP superfamily have the same "hour-glass" fold. Results We have structurally characterized 39 rice and 31 maize MIPs and compared them with that of Arabidopsis. Homology models of 105 MIPs from all three plant species were built. Structure-based sequence alignments were generated and the residues in the helix-helix interfaces were analyzed. Small residues (Gly/Ala/Ser/Thr) are found to be highly conserved as a group in the helix-helix interface of MIP structures. Individual families sometimes prefer one or another of the residues from this group. The narrow aromatic/arginine (ar/R) selectivity filter in MIPs has been shown to provide an important constriction for solute permeability. Ar/R regions were analyzed and compared between the three plant species. Seventeen TIP, NIP and SIP members from rice and maize have ar/R signatures that are not found in Arabidopsis. A subgroup of rice and maize NIPs has small residues in three of the four positions in the ar/R tetrad, resulting in a wider constriction. These MIP members could transport larger solute molecules. Conclusion Small residues are group-conserved in the helix-helix interface of MIP structures and they seem to be important for close helix-helix interactions. Such conservation might help to preserve the hour-glass fold in MIP structures. Analysis and comparison of ar/R selectivity filters suggest that rice and maize MIPs could transport more diverse solutes than Arabidopsis MIPs. Thus the MIP members show conservation in helix-helix interfaces and diversity in aromatic/arginine selectivity filters. The former is related to structural stability and the later can be linked to functional diversity. PMID:17445256

  6. Geometry and intrinsic tilt of a tryptophan-anchored transmembrane alpha-helix determined by (2)H NMR.

    PubMed

    van der Wel, Patrick C A; Strandberg, Erik; Killian, J Antoinette; Koeppe, Roger E

    2002-09-01

    We used solid-state deuterium NMR spectroscopy and an approach involving geometric analysis of labeled alanines (GALA method) to examine the structure and orientation of a designed synthetic hydrophobic, membrane-spanning alpha-helical peptide in phosphatidylcholine (PC) bilayers. The 19-amino-acid peptide consists of an alternating leucine and alanine core, flanked by tryptophans that serve as interfacial anchors: acetyl-GWW(LA)(6)LWWA-ethanolamine (WALP19). A single deuterium-labeled alanine was introduced at different positions within the peptide. Peptides were incorporated in oriented bilayers of dilauroyl- (di-C12:0-), dimyristoyl- (di-C14:0-), or dioleoyl- (di-C18:1(c)-) phosphatidylcholine. The NMR data fit well to a WALP19 orientation characterized by a distinctly nonzero tilt, approximately 4 degrees from the membrane normal, and rapid reorientation about the membrane normal in all three lipids. Although the orientation of WALP19 varies slightly in the different lipids, hydrophobic mismatch does not seem to be the dominant factor causing the tilt. We suggest rather that the peptide itself has an inherently preferred tilted orientation, possibly related to peptide surface characteristics or the disposition of tryptophan indole anchors relative to the lipids, the peptide backbone, and the membrane/water interface. Additionally, the data allow us to define more precisely the local alanine geometry in this membrane-spanning alpha-helix. PMID:12202373

  7. Assembly of transmembrane proteins on oil-water interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yunker, Peter; Landry, Corey; Chong, Shaorong; Weitz, David

    2015-03-01

    Transmembrane proteins are difficult to handle by aqueous solution-based biochemical and biophysical approaches, due to the hydrophobicity of transmembrane helices. Detergents can solubilize transmembrane proteins; however, surfactant coated transmembrane proteins are not always functional, and purifying detergent coated proteins in a micellar solution can be difficult. Motivated by this problem, we study the self-assembly of transmembrane proteins on oil-water interfaces. We found that the large water-oil interface of oil drops prevents nascent transmembrane proteins from forming non-functional aggregates. The oil provides a hydrophobic environment for the transmembrane helix, allowing the ectodomain to fold into its natural structure and orientation. Further, modifying the strength or valency of hydrophobic interactions between transmembrane proteins results in the self-assembly of spatially clustered, active proteins on the oil-water interface. Thus, hydrophobic interactions can facilitate, rather than inhibit, the assembly of transmembrane proteins.

  8. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (ABCC7) structure.

    PubMed

    Hunt, John F; Wang, Chi; Ford, Robert C

    2013-02-01

    Structural studies of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) are reviewed. Like many membrane proteins, full-length CFTR has proven to be difficult to express and purify, hence much of the structural data available is for the more tractable, independently expressed soluble domains. Therefore, this chapter covers structural data for individual CFTR domains in addition to the sparser data available for the full-length protein. To set the context for these studies, we will start by reviewing structural information on model proteins from the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter superfamily, to which CFTR belongs. PMID:23378596

  9. Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (ABCC7) Structure

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, John F.; Wang, Chi; Ford, Robert C.

    2013-01-01

    Structural studies of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) are reviewed. Like many membrane proteins, full-length CFTR has proven to be difficult to express and purify, hence much of the structural data available is for the more tractable, independently expressed soluble domains. Therefore, this chapter covers structural data for individual CFTR domains in addition to the sparser data available for the full-length protein. To set the context for these studies, we will start by reviewing structural information on model proteins from the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter superfamily, to which CFTR belongs. PMID:23378596

  10. The Aromatic Residues Trp and Phe Have Different Effects on the Positioning of a Transmembrane Helix in the Microsomal Membrane

    E-print Network

    Nielsen, Steven O.

    The Aromatic Residues Trp and Phe Have Different Effects on the Positioning of a Transmembrane, 1999 ABSTRACT: We have examined the effect of Trp and Phe residues on the positioning of a poly during protein translocation across the microsomal membrane, despite the preference of Trp residues

  11. Solution structure of the transmembrane domain of the mouse erythropoietin receptor in detergent micelles

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qingxin; Lei Wong, Ying; Yueqi Lee, Michelle; Li, Yan; Kang, CongBao

    2015-01-01

    Erythropoiesis is regulated by the erythropoietin receptor (EpoR) binding to its ligand. The transmembrane domain (TMD) and the juxtamembrane (JM) regions of the EpoR are important for signal transduction across the cell membrane. We report a solution NMR study of the mouse erythropoietin receptor (mEpoR) comprising the TMD and the JM regions reconstituted in dodecylphosphocholine (DPC) micelles. The TMD and the C-terminal JM region of the mEpoR are mainly ?-helical, adopting a similar structure to those of the human EpoR. Residues from S216 to T219 in mEpoR form a short helix. Relaxation study demonstrates that the TMD of the mEpoR is rigid whilst the N-terminal region preceding the TMD is flexible. Fluorescence spectroscopy and sequence analysis indicate that the C-terminal JM region is exposed to the solvent. Helix wheel result shows that there is hydrophilic patch in the TMD of the mEpoR formed by residues S231, S238 and T242, and these residues might be important for the receptor dimerization. PMID:26316120

  12. Solution structure of the transmembrane domain of the mouse erythropoietin receptor in detergent micelles.

    PubMed

    Li, Qingxin; Wong, Ying Lei; Yueqi Lee, Michelle; Li, Yan; Kang, CongBao

    2015-01-01

    Erythropoiesis is regulated by the erythropoietin receptor (EpoR) binding to its ligand. The transmembrane domain (TMD) and the juxtamembrane (JM) regions of the EpoR are important for signal transduction across the cell membrane. We report a solution NMR study of the mouse erythropoietin receptor (mEpoR) comprising the TMD and the JM regions reconstituted in dodecylphosphocholine (DPC) micelles. The TMD and the C-terminal JM region of the mEpoR are mainly ?-helical, adopting a similar structure to those of the human EpoR. Residues from S216 to T219 in mEpoR form a short helix. Relaxation study demonstrates that the TMD of the mEpoR is rigid whilst the N-terminal region preceding the TMD is flexible. Fluorescence spectroscopy and sequence analysis indicate that the C-terminal JM region is exposed to the solvent. Helix wheel result shows that there is hydrophilic patch in the TMD of the mEpoR formed by residues S231, S238 and T242, and these residues might be important for the receptor dimerization. PMID:26316120

  13. Structure-based prediction reveals capping motifs that inhibit beta-helix aggregation

    E-print Network

    Bryan, Allen W.

    The parallel beta-helix is a geometrically regular fold commonly found in the proteomes of bacteria, viruses, fungi, archaea, and some vertebrates. beta-helix structure has been observed in monomeric units of some aggregated ...

  14. patGPCR: A Multitemplate Approach for Improving 3D Structure Prediction of Transmembrane Helices of G-Protein-Coupled Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Hongjie; Lü, Qiang; Quan, Lijun; Qian, Peide; Xia, Xiaoyan

    2013-01-01

    The structures of the seven transmembrane helices of G-protein-coupled receptors are critically involved in many aspects of these receptors, such as receptor stability, ligand docking, and molecular function. Most of the previous multitemplate approaches have built a “super” template with very little merging of aligned fragments from different templates. Here, we present a parallelized multitemplate approach, patGPCR, to predict the 3D structures of transmembrane helices of G-protein-coupled receptors. patGPCR, which employs a bundle-packing related energy function that extends on the RosettaMem energy, parallelizes eight pipelines for transmembrane helix refinement and exchanges the optimized helix structures from multiple templates. We have investigated the performance of patGPCR on a test set containing eight determined G-protein-coupled receptors. The results indicate that patGPCR improves the TM RMSD of the predicted models by 33.64% on average against a single-template method. Compared with other homology approaches, the best models for five of the eight targets built by patGPCR had a lower TM RMSD than that obtained from SWISS-MODEL; patGPCR also showed lower average TM RMSD than single-template and multiple-template MODELLER. PMID:23554839

  15. Structural basis for PAS domain heterodimerization in the basic helix--loop--helix-PAS transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor.

    PubMed

    Erbel, Paul J A; Card, Paul B; Karakuzu, Ozgur; Bruick, Richard K; Gardner, Kevin H

    2003-12-23

    Biological responses to oxygen availability play important roles in development, physiological homeostasis, and many disease processes. In mammalian cells, this adaptation is mediated in part by a conserved pathway centered on the hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF). HIF is a heterodimeric protein complex composed of two members of the basic helix-loop-helix Per-ARNT-Sim (PAS) (ARNT, aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator) domain family of transcriptional activators, HIFalpha and ARNT. Although this complex involves protein-protein interactions mediated by basic helix-loop-helix and PAS domains in both proteins, the role played by the PAS domains is poorly understood. To address this issue, we have studied the structure and interactions of the C-terminal PAS domain of human HIF-2alpha by NMR spectroscopy. We demonstrate that HIF-2alpha PAS-B binds the analogous ARNT domain in vitro, showing that residues involved in this interaction are located on the solvent-exposed side of the HIF-2alpha central beta-sheet. Mutating residues at this surface not only disrupts the interaction between isolated PAS domains in vitro but also interferes with the ability of full-length HIF to respond to hypoxia in living cells. Extending our findings to other PAS domains, we find that this beta-sheet interface is widely used for both intra- and intermolecular interactions, suggesting a basis of specificity and regulation of many types of PAS-containing signaling proteins. PMID:14668441

  16. Low-coupling impedance double-helix structure for use in a ferrite kicker magnet

    SciTech Connect

    Giordano, S.

    1983-01-01

    In a machine such as the CBA, the ejection ferrite kicker magnet has a very large longitudinal and transverse coupling impedance which could destroy the beam. Using a double-helix structure that surrounds the beam, the beam-induced fields are confined within the helix and, therefore, decoupled from the kicker; but at the same time the helix is transparent to the external fields of the kicker. At first, this may seem paradoxical that the helix is opaque to the fields generated inside the structure by the beam and simultaneously transparent to the external fields generated by the kicker.

  17. A proposed structure for transmembrane segment 7 of G protein-coupled receptors incorporating an asn-Pro/Asp-Pro motif.

    PubMed Central

    Konvicka, K; Guarnieri, F; Ballesteros, J A; Weinstein, H

    1998-01-01

    Transmembrane segment (TMS) 7 has been shown to play an important role in the signal transduction function of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Although transmembrane segments are most likely to adopt a helical structure, results from a variety of experimental studies involving TMS 7 are inconsistent with it being an ideal alpha-helix. Using results from a search of the structure database and extensive simulated annealing Monte Carlo runs with the new Conformational Memories method, we have identified the conserved (N/D)PxxY region of TMS 7 as the major determinant for deviation of TMS 7 from ideal helicity. The perturbation consists of an Asx turn and a flexible "hinge" region. The Conformational Memories procedure yielded a model structure of TMS 7 which, unlike an ideal alpha-helix, is capable of accommodating all of the experimentally derived geometrical criteria for the interactions of TMS 7 in the transmembrane bundle of GPCRs. In the context of the entire structure of a transmembrane bundle model for the 5HT2a receptor, the specific perturbation of TMS 7 by the NP sequence suggests a structural hypothesis for the pattern of amino acid conservation observed in TMS 1, 2, and 7 of GPCRs. The structure resulting from the incorporation of the (N/D)P motif satisfies fully the H-bonding capabilities of the 100% conserved polar residues in these TMSs, in agreement with results from mutagenesis experiments. The flexibility introduced by the specific structural perturbation produced by the (NP/DP) motif in TMS 7 is proposed to have a significant role in receptor activation. PMID:9675163

  18. Transmembrane and Juxtamembrane Structure of ?L Integrin in Bicelles

    PubMed Central

    Millet, Oscar; Diercks, Tammo; Torres, Jaume

    2013-01-01

    The accepted model for the interaction of ? and ? integrins in the transmembrane (TM) domain is based on the pair ?IIb?3. This involves the so-called outer and inner membrane association clasps (OMC and IMC, respectively). In the ? chain, the OMC involves a GxxxG-like motif, whereas in the IMC a conserved juxtamembrane GFFKR motif experiences a backbone reversal that partially fills the void generated by TM separation towards the cytoplasmic half. However, the GFFKR motif of several ? integrin cytoplasmic tails in non-bicelle environments has been shown to adopt an ?-helical structure that is not membrane-embedded and which was shown to bind a variety of cytoplasmic proteins. Thus it is not known if a membrane-embedded backbone reversal is a conserved structural feature in ? integrins. We have studied the system ?L?2 because of its importance in leukocytes, where integrin deactivation is particularly important. Herein we show that the backbone reversal feature is not only present in ?IIb but also in ?L-TM when reconstituted in bicelles. Additionally, titration with ?2 TM showed eight residues clustering along one side of ?L-TM, forming a plausible interacting face with ?2. The latter orientation is consistent with a previously predicted reported polar interaction between ?L Ser-1071 and ?2 Thr-686. PMID:24069290

  19. Analysis of Full and Partial Agonists Binding to ?2-Adrenergic Receptor Suggests a Role of Transmembrane Helix V in Agonist-Specific Conformational Changes

    PubMed Central

    Katritch, Vsevolod; Reynolds, Kimberly A.; Cherezov, Vadim; Hanson, Michael A.; Roth, Christopher B.; Yeager, Mark; Abagyan, Ruben

    2009-01-01

    The 2.4 Å crystal structure of the ?2-adrenergic receptor (?2AR) in complex with the high-affinity inverse agonist (-)-carazolol provides a detailed structural framework for the analysis of ligand recognition by adrenergic receptors. Insights into agonist binding and the corresponding conformational changes triggering GPCR activation mechanism are of special interest. Here we show that while the carazolol pocket captured in the ?2AR crystal structure accommodates (-)-isoproterenol and other agonists without steric clashes, a finite movement of the flexible extracellular part of TM-V helix (TM-Ve) obtained by receptor optimization in the presence of docked ligand can further improve the calculated binding affinities for agonist compounds. Tilting of TM-Ve towards the receptor axis provides a more complete description of polar receptor/ligand interactions for full and partial agonists, by enabling optimal engagement of agonists with two experimentally identified anchor sites, formed by Asp113/Asn312 and Ser203/Ser204/Ser207 side chains. Further, receptor models incorporating a flexible TM-V backbone allow reliable prediction of binding affinities for a set of diverse ligands, suggesting potential utility of this approach to design of effective and subtype-specific agonists for adrenergic receptors. Systematic differences in capacity of partial, full and inverse agonists to induce TM-V helix tilt in the ?2AR model suggest potential role of TM-V as a conformational “rheostat” involved in the whole spectrum of ?2AR responses to small molecule signals. PMID:19353579

  20. Transformation of a design peptide between the ?-helix and ?-hairpin structures using a helix-strand replica-exchange molecular dynamics simulation.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Hisashi; Itoh, Satoru G

    2013-09-01

    We investigated the transformation between the ?-helix and ?-hairpin structures of an 18-residue design peptide, whose sequence is INYWLAHAKAGYIVHWTA. This peptide has both ?-helix and ?-hairpin structures in aqueous solution. For this purpose, we proposed the helix-strand replica-exchange method. This is one of the Hamiltonian replica-exchange methods in which we exchange parameters for umbrella potentials to enhance the ?-helix or ?-strand structure formation. We performed an all-atom helix-strand replica-exchange molecular dynamics (MD) simulation of this peptide in explicit water solvent with five replicas. Because the suitable umbrella potential was applied, the helix-strand replica-exchange MD simulation reproduced conformations closer to experimental conformations than a temperature replica-exchange MD simulation when the same numbers of the replicas were used, while the temperature replica-exchange MD simulation does not require bias along any specific order parameter. We calculated its free-energy landscape and revealed the transformation pathways between the ?-helix and ?-hairpin structures and the folding pathways from an extended structure. Although the fractions of the ?-helix and ?-hairpin structures are less than those obtained by the experiment, the free-energy difference between the two structures is calculated to be almost zero, which agrees with the experimental results. PMID:23839056

  1. Structure of bacteriophage [phi]29 head fibers has a supercoiled triple repeating helix-turn-helix motif

    SciTech Connect

    Xiang, Ye; Rossmann, Michael G.

    2011-12-22

    The tailed bacteriophage {phi}29 capsid is decorated with 55 fibers attached to quasi-3-fold symmetry positions. Each fiber is a homotrimer of gene product 8.5 (gp8.5) and consists of two major structural parts, a pseudohexagonal base and a protruding fibrous portion that is about 110 {angstrom} in length. The crystal structure of the C-terminal fibrous portion (residues 112-280) has been determined to a resolution of 1.6 {angstrom}. The structure is about 150 {angstrom} long and shows three distinct structural domains designated as head, neck, and stem. The stem region is a unique three-stranded helix-turn-helix supercoil that has not previously been described. When fitted into a cryoelectron microscope reconstruction of the virus, the head structure corresponded to a disconnected density at the distal end of the fiber and the neck structure was located in weak density connecting it to the fiber. Thin section studies of Bacillus subtilis cells infected with fibered or fiberless {phi}29 suggest that the fibers might enhance the attachment of the virions onto the host cell wall.

  2. Helix compactness and stability: Electron structure calculations of conformer dependent thermodynamic functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jákli, Imre; Csizmadia, Imre G.; Fejer, Szilard N.; Farkas, Ödön; Viskolcz, Bela; Knak Jensen, Svend J.; Perczel, Andras

    2013-03-01

    Structure, stability, cooperativity and molecular packing of two major backbone forms: 310-helix and ?-strand are investigated. Long models HCO-(Xxx)n-NH2 Xxx = Gly and (L-)Ala, n ? 34, are studied at two levels of theory including the effect of dispersion forces. Structure and folding preferences are established, the length modulated cooperativity and side-chain determined fold compactness is quantified. By monitoring ?G°??? rather than the electronic energy, ?E???, it appears that Ala is a much better helix forming residue than Gly. The achiral Gly forms a more compact 310-helix than any chiral amino acid residue probed here for L-Ala.

  3. Structure and Mechanism of Proton Transport Through the Transmembrane Tetrameric M2 Protein Bundle of the Influenza A Virus

    SciTech Connect

    R Acharya; V Carnevale; G Fiorin; B Levine; A Polishchuk; V Balannick; I Samish; R Lamb; L Pinto; et al.

    2011-12-31

    The M2 proton channel from influenza A virus is an essential protein that mediates transport of protons across the viral envelope. This protein has a single transmembrane helix, which tetramerizes into the active channel. At the heart of the conduction mechanism is the exchange of protons between the His37 imidazole moieties of M2 and waters confined to the M2 bundle interior. Protons are conducted as the total charge of the four His37 side chains passes through 2{sup +} and 3{sup +} with a pK{sub a} near 6. A 1.65 {angstrom} resolution X-ray structure of the transmembrane protein (residues 25-46), crystallized at pH 6.5, reveals a pore that is lined by alternating layers of sidechains and well-ordered water clusters, which offer a pathway for proton conduction. The His37 residues form a box-like structure, bounded on either side by water clusters with well-ordered oxygen atoms at close distance. The conformation of the protein, which is intermediate between structures previously solved at higher and lower pH, suggests a mechanism by which conformational changes might facilitate asymmetric diffusion through the channel in the presence of a proton gradient. Moreover, protons diffusing through the channel need not be localized to a single His37 imidazole, but instead may be delocalized over the entire His-box and associated water clusters. Thus, the new crystal structure provides a possible unification of the discrete site versus continuum conduction models.

  4. Unraveling the Helix Nebula: Its Structure and Knots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Dell, C. R.; McCullough, Peter R.; Meixner, Margaret

    2004-11-01

    Through Hubble Space Telescope (HST) imaging of the inner part of the main ring of the Helix Nebula, together with CTIO 4 m images of the fainter outer parts, we have a view of unprecedented quality of the nearest bright planetary nebula. These images have allowed us to determine that the main ring of the nebula is composed of an inner disk of about 499" diameter (0.52 pc) surrounded by an outer ring (in reality a torus) of 742" diameter (0.77 pc) whose plane is highly inclined to the plane of the disk. This outer ring is surrounded by an outermost ring of 1500" (1.76 pc) diameter, which is flattened on the side colliding with the ambient interstellar medium. The inner disk has an extended distribution of low-density gas along its rotational axis of symmetry, and the disk is optically thick to ionizing radiation, as is the outer ring. Published radial velocities of the knots provide support for the two-component structure of the main ring of the nebula and for the idea that the knots found there are expanding along with the nebular material from which they recently originated. These velocities indicate a spatial expansion velocity of the inner disk of 40 and 32 km s-1 for the outer ring, which yields expansion ages of 6560 and 12,100 yr, respectively. The outermost ring may be partially ionized through scattered recombination continuum from the inner parts of the nebula, but shocks certainly are occurring in it. This outermost ring probably represents a third period of mass loss by the central star. There is one compact, outer object that is unexplained, showing shock structures indicating a different orientation of the gas flow from that of the nebula. There is a change in the morphology of the knots as a function of the distance from the local ionization front. This supports a scenario in which the knots are formed in or near the ionization front and are then sculpted by the stellar radiation from the central star as the ionization front advances beyond them. Based in part on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555. Based in part on observations obtained at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a Cooperative Agreement with the National Science Foundation.

  5. The close-packed triple helix as a possible new structural motif for collagen

    E-print Network

    Jakob Bohr; Kasper Olsen

    2010-04-11

    The one-dimensional problem of selecting the triple helix with the highest volume fraction is solved and hence the condition for a helix to be close-packed is obtained. The close-packed triple helix is shown to have a pitch angle of $v_{CP} =43.3 ^\\circ$. Contrary to the conventional notion, we suggest that close packing form the underlying principle behind the structure of collagen, and the implications of this suggestion are considered. Further, it is shown that the unique zero-twist structure with no strain-twist coupling is practically identical to the close-packed triple helix. Some of the difficulties for the current understanding of the structure of collagen are reviewed: The ambiguity in assigning crystal structures for collagen-like peptides, and the failure to satisfactorily calculate circular dichroism spectra. Further, the proposed new geometrical structure for collagen is better packed than both the 10/3 and the 7/2 structure. A feature of the suggested collagen structure is the existence of a central channel with negatively charged walls. We find support for this structural feature in some of the early x-ray diffraction data of collagen. The central channel of the structure suggests the possibility of a one-dimensional proton lattice. This geometry can explain the observed magic angle effect seen in NMR studies of collagen. The central channel also offers the possibility of ion transport and may cast new light on various biological and physical phenomena, including biomineralization.

  6. Differential structure-function requirements of the transmembranal domain of the B cell antigen receptor

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    By generating phosphorylcholine (PC)-specific, wild-type (mu), and chimeric (mu-I-A alpha) antigen receptor transfectants of mature B cells, we have shown that the COOH terminus of the mu heavy chain is essential for three major functions: immediate signal transduction (measured as changes in intracellular Ca2+), antigen presentation, and induction of immunoglobulin M secretion. A more detailed analysis of structural requirements of the COOH-terminal domains contributing to these functions was achieved by systematically replacing the spacer, cytoplasmic, and transmembranal domains of the mu-I-A alpha chimeric chain with those of mu. Using this rescue approach, we show that the carboxyl two-thirds of the transmembranal domain (proximal to the cytoplasmic domain) is required for induction of intracellular Ca2+, whereas the complete transmembranal domain is required for the function of antigen presentation but is dispensable for induction of antibody secretion. PMID:1402648

  7. Structure and dynamics of de novo proteins from a designed superfamily of 4-helix bundles

    E-print Network

    Hecht, Michael H.

    .proteinscience.org The structures and dynamics of proteins are dictated by the physical chemistry of the polypeptide sequence interStructure and dynamics of de novo proteins from a designed superfamily of 4-helix bundles ABIGAIL GO,1 SEHO KIM,2 JEAN BAUM,2,3 AND MICHAEL H. HECHT1 1 Department of Chemistry, Princeton University

  8. The discovery of the -helix and -sheet, the principal structural features of proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisenberg, David

    2003-09-01

    PNAS papers by Linus Pauling, Robert Corey, and Herman Branson in the spring of 1951 proposed the -helix and the -sheet, now known to form the backbones of tens of thousands of proteins. They deduced these fundamental building blocks from properties of small molecules, known both from crystal structures and from Pauling's resonance theory of chemical bonding that predicted planar peptide groups. Earlier attempts by others to build models for protein helices had failed both by including nonplanar peptides and by insisting on helices with an integral number of units per turn. In major respects, the Pauling-Corey-Branson models were astoundingly correct, including bond lengths that were not surpassed in accuracy for >40 years. However, they did not consider the hand of the helix or the possibility of bent sheets. They also proposed structures and functions that have not been found, including the -helix.

  9. The close-packed triple helix as a possible new structural motif for collagen

    E-print Network

    Bohr, Jakob

    2010-01-01

    The one-dimensional problem of selecting the triple helix with the highest volume fraction is solved and hence the condition for a helix to be close-packed is obtained. The close-packed triple helix is shown to have a pitch angle of $v_{CP} =43.3 ^\\circ$. Contrary to the conventional notion, we suggest that close packing form the underlying principle behind the structure of collagen, and the implications of this suggestion are considered. Further, it is shown that the unique zero-twist structure with no strain-twist coupling is practically identical to the close-packed triple helix. Some of the difficulties for the current understanding of the structure of collagen are reviewed: The ambiguity in assigning crystal structures for collagen-like peptides, and the failure to satisfactorily calculate circular dichroism spectra. Further, the proposed new geometrical structure for collagen is better packed than both the 10/3 and the 7/2 structure. A feature of the suggested collagen structure is the existence of a ce...

  10. DEAD-Box Helicase Proteins Disrupt RNA Tertiary Structure Through Helix Capture

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Cynthia; Potratz, Jeffrey P.; Cannon, Brian; Simpson, Zachary B.; Ziehr, Jessica L.; Tijerina, Pilar; Russell, Rick

    2014-01-01

    DEAD-box helicase proteins accelerate folding and rearrangements of highly structured RNAs and RNA–protein complexes (RNPs) in many essential cellular processes. Although DEAD-box proteins have been shown to use ATP to unwind short RNA helices, it is not known how they disrupt RNA tertiary structure. Here, we use single molecule fluorescence to show that the DEAD-box protein CYT-19 disrupts tertiary structure in a group I intron using a helix capture mechanism. CYT-19 binds to a helix within the structured RNA only after the helix spontaneously loses its tertiary contacts, and then CYT-19 uses ATP to unwind the helix, liberating the product strands. Ded1, a multifunctional yeast DEAD-box protein, gives analogous results with small but reproducible differences that may reflect its in vivo roles. The requirement for spontaneous dynamics likely targets DEAD-box proteins toward less stable RNA structures, which are likely to experience greater dynamic fluctuations, and provides a satisfying explanation for previous correlations between RNA stability and CYT-19 unfolding efficiency. Biologically, the ability to sense RNA stability probably biases DEAD-box proteins to act preferentially on less stable misfolded structures and thereby to promote native folding while minimizing spurious interactions with stable, natively folded RNAs. In addition, this straightforward mechanism for RNA remodeling does not require any specific structural environment of the helicase core and is likely to be relevant for DEAD-box proteins that promote RNA rearrangements of RNP complexes including the spliceosome and ribosome. PMID:25350280

  11. The trans-membrane cytochrome b561 proteins: structural information and biological function.

    PubMed

    Bérczi, Alajos; Zimányi, László

    2014-01-01

    Cytochrome b561 (CYB561) proteins are ascorbate reducible, trans-membrane proteins consisting of 200-300 amino acids, about half of which are hydrophobic. The first identified CYB561 protein was discovered more than 40 years ago, and is localized in the chromaffin granule membrane of the mammalian adrenal glands. Proteins with similar structural elements and biophysical and biochemical properties were identified in a wide range of animal and plant phyla in the past 15 years. CYB561 proteins have six trans-membrane helices and two b-type hemes, one on each side of the membrane. The two heme-b centers are coordinated by two pairs of His residues localized in the central four trans-membrane domains, probably very close to the membrane interface. The midpoint redox potentials of the two hemes are above 0 mV and about 100 mV apart from each other. These proteins are different in many respects from the well-known two heme-bcontaining, trans-membrane b-type cytochromes localized in the inner membrane of mitochondria, in the chloroplast thylakoids or in the cell membrane. The atomic-level structure of only one CYB561 protein is available to date. In this paper we discuss in detail the biophysical and biochemical properties of the CYB561 proteins and provide a short overview of their known or putative biological functions and significance. PMID:25163754

  12. Transmembrane Domains of Viral Ion Channel Proteins: A

    E-print Network

    Fischer, Wolfgang

    simulations in a fully solvated phospholipid bilayer have been performed on single transmembrane -helices from) do not destabilize helices, if located within a helix that spans a lipid bilayer. However, helix/bilayer mismatch such that a helix ends abruptly within the bilayer core destabilizes the end of the helix

  13. Structure of the Tetrahymena thermophila telomerase RNA helix II template boundary element.

    PubMed

    Richards, Rebecca J; Theimer, Carla A; Finger, L David; Feigon, Juli

    2006-01-01

    Telomere addition by telomerase requires an internal templating sequence located in the RNA subunit of telomerase. The correct boundary definition of this template sequence is essential for the proper addition of the nucleotide repeats. Incorporation of incorrect telomeric repeats onto the ends of chromosomes has been shown to induce chromosomal instability in ciliate, yeast and human cells. A 5' template boundary defining element (TBE) has been identified in human, yeast and ciliate telomerase RNAs. Here, we report the solution structure of the TBE element (helix II) from Tetrahymena thermophila telomerase RNA. Our results indicate that helix II and its capping pentaloop form a well-defined structure including unpaired, stacked adenine nucleotides in the stem and an unusual syn adenine nucleotide in the loop. A comparison of the T.thermophila helix II pentaloop with a pentaloop of the same sequence found in the 23S rRNA of the Haloarcula marismortui ribosome suggests possible RNA and/or protein interactions for the helix II loop within the Tetrahymena telomerase holoenzyme. PMID:16452301

  14. Structure of a Novel Winged-Helix Like Domain from Human NFRKB Protein

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Abhinav; Möcklinghoff, Sabine; Yumoto, Fumiaki; Jaroszewski, Lukasz; Farr, Carol L.; Grzechnik, Anna; Nguyen, Phuong; Weichenberger, Christian X.; Chiu, Hsiu-Ju; Klock, Heath E.; Elsliger, Marc-André; Deacon, Ashley M.; Godzik, Adam; Lesley, Scott A.; Conklin, Bruce R.; Fletterick, Robert J.; Wilson, Ian A.

    2012-01-01

    The human nuclear factor related to kappa-B-binding protein (NFRKB) is a 1299-residue protein that is a component of the metazoan INO80 complex involved in chromatin remodeling, transcription regulation, DNA replication and DNA repair. Although full length NFRKB is predicted to be around 65% disordered, comparative sequence analysis identified several potentially structured sections in the N-terminal region of the protein. These regions were targeted for crystallographic studies, and the structure of one of these regions spanning residues 370–495 was determined using the JCSG high-throughput structure determination pipeline. The structure reveals a novel, mostly helical domain reminiscent of the winged-helix fold typically involved in DNA binding. However, further analysis shows that this domain does not bind DNA, suggesting it may belong to a small group of winged-helix domains involved in protein-protein interactions. PMID:22984442

  15. Disulfide crosslinks to probe the structure and flexibility of a designed four-helix bundle protein.

    PubMed Central

    Regan, L.; Rockwell, A.; Wasserman, Z.; DeGrado, W.

    1994-01-01

    The introduction of disulfide crosslinks is a generally useful method by which to identify regions of a protein that are close together in space. Here we describe the use of disulfide crosslinks to investigate the structure and flexibility of a family of designed 4-helix bundle proteins. The results of these analyses lend support to our working model of the proteins' structure and suggest that the proteins have limited main-chain flexibility. PMID:7756995

  16. Structure based aggregation studies reveal the presence of helix-rich intermediate during ?-Synuclein aggregation

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Dhiman; Singh, Pradeep K.; Sahay, Shruti; Jha, Narendra Nath; Jacob, Reeba S.; Sen, Shamik; Kumar, Ashutosh; Riek, Roland; Maji, Samir K.

    2015-01-01

    Mechanistic understanding of nucleation dependent polymerization by ?-synuclein (?-Syn) into toxic oligomers and amyloids is important for the drug development against Parkinson's disease. However the structural and morphological characterization during nucleation and subsequent fibrillation process of ?-Syn is not clearly understood. Using a variety of complementary biophysical techniques monitoring entire pathway of nine different synucleins, we found that transition of unstructured conformation into ?-sheet rich fibril formation involves helix-rich intermediates. These intermediates are common for all aggregating synucleins, contain high solvent-exposed hydrophobic surfaces, are cytotoxic to SHSY-5Y cells and accelerate ?-Syn aggregation efficiently. A multidimensional NMR study characterizing the intermediate accompanied with site-specific fluorescence study suggests that the N-terminal and central portions mainly participate in the helix-rich intermediate formation while the C-terminus remained in an extended conformation. However, significant conformational transitions occur at the middle and at the C-terminus during helix to ?-sheet transition as evident from Trp fluorescence study. Since partial helix-rich intermediates were also observed for other amyloidogenic proteins such as A? and IAPP, we hypothesize that this class of intermediates may be one of the important intermediates for amyloid formation pathway by many natively unstructured protein/peptides and represent a potential target for drug development against amyloid diseases. PMID:25784353

  17. Structure based aggregation studies reveal the presence of helix-rich intermediate during ?-Synuclein aggregation.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Dhiman; Singh, Pradeep K; Sahay, Shruti; Jha, Narendra Nath; Jacob, Reeba S; Sen, Shamik; Kumar, Ashutosh; Riek, Roland; Maji, Samir K

    2015-01-01

    Mechanistic understanding of nucleation dependent polymerization by ?-synuclein (?-Syn) into toxic oligomers and amyloids is important for the drug development against Parkinson's disease. However the structural and morphological characterization during nucleation and subsequent fibrillation process of ?-Syn is not clearly understood. Using a variety of complementary biophysical techniques monitoring entire pathway of nine different synucleins, we found that transition of unstructured conformation into ?-sheet rich fibril formation involves helix-rich intermediates. These intermediates are common for all aggregating synucleins, contain high solvent-exposed hydrophobic surfaces, are cytotoxic to SHSY-5Y cells and accelerate ?-Syn aggregation efficiently. A multidimensional NMR study characterizing the intermediate accompanied with site-specific fluorescence study suggests that the N-terminal and central portions mainly participate in the helix-rich intermediate formation while the C-terminus remained in an extended conformation. However, significant conformational transitions occur at the middle and at the C-terminus during helix to ?-sheet transition as evident from Trp fluorescence study. Since partial helix-rich intermediates were also observed for other amyloidogenic proteins such as A? and IAPP, we hypothesize that this class of intermediates may be one of the important intermediates for amyloid formation pathway by many natively unstructured protein/peptides and represent a potential target for drug development against amyloid diseases. PMID:25784353

  18. The LxxxA motif in the third transmembrane helix of the maize aquaporin ZmPIP2;5 acts as an ER export signal

    PubMed Central

    Chevalier, Adrien S.; Chaumont, François

    2015-01-01

    The subcellular localization of aquaporins belonging to the plasma membrane intrinsic protein (PIP) subfamily is highly regulated. In maize (Zea mays), ZmPIP1s are retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) whereas ZmPIP2s are able to reach the plasma membrane (PM). We recently identified a new sorting determinant which is buried within the third transmembrane domain (TM3) of ZmPIP2;5. The Leu127 and Ala131 are required for the localization of ZmPIP2;5 in the PM and for its exit from the ER. However, when inserted into ZmPIP1;2, these amino acids were not sufficient to export the protein out of the ER. Here, we show that, when inserted into a truncated version of ZmPIP1;2 consisting only of its TM3 region, Leu127 and Ala131 of ZmPIP2;5 are able to partially bring the protein to the PM, demonstrating the active anterograde sorting function of this motif. PMID:25897469

  19. Structural Investigation of the Transmembrane Domain of KCNE1 in Proteoliposomes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    KCNE1 is a single-transmembrane protein of the KCNE family that modulates the function of voltage-gated potassium channels, including KCNQ1. Hereditary mutations in KCNE1 have been linked to diseases such as long QT syndrome (LQTS), atrial fibrillation, sudden infant death syndrome, and deafness. The transmembrane domain (TMD) of KCNE1 plays a key role in mediating the physical association with KCNQ1 and in subsequent modulation of channel gating kinetics and conductance. However, the mechanisms associated with these roles for the TMD remain poorly understood, highlighting a need for experimental structural studies. A previous solution NMR study of KCNE1 in LMPG micelles revealed a curved transmembrane domain, a structural feature proposed to be critical to KCNE1 function. However, this curvature potentially reflects an artifact of working in detergent micelles. Double electron electron resonance (DEER) measurements were conducted on KCNE1 in LMPG micelles, POPC/POPG proteoliposomes, and POPC/POPG lipodisq nanoparticles to directly compare the structure of the TMD in a variety of different membrane environments. Experimentally derived DEER distances coupled with simulated annealing molecular dynamic simulations were used to probe the bilayer structure of the TMD of KCNE1. The results indicate that the structure is helical in proteoliposomes and is slightly curved, which is consistent with the previously determined solution NMR structure in micelles. The evident resilience of the curvature in the KCNE1 TMD leads us to hypothesize that the curvature is likely to be maintained upon binding of the protein to the KCNQ1 channel. PMID:25234231

  20. Mutations in the transmembrane helix S6 of domain IV confer cockroach sodium channel resistance to sodium channel blocker insecticides and local anesthetics.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Dingxin; Du, Yuzhe; Nomura, Yoshiko; Wang, Xingliang; Wu, Yidong; Zhorov, Boris S; Dong, Ke

    2015-11-01

    Indoxacarb and metaflumizone are two sodium channel blocker insecticides (SCBIs). They preferably bind to and trap sodium channels in the slow-inactivated non-conducting state, a mode of action similar to that of local anesthetics (LAs). Recently, two sodium channel mutations, F1845Y (F(4i15)Y) and V1848I (V(4i18)I), in the transmembrane segment 6 of domain IV (IVS6), were identified to be associated with indoxacarb resistance in Plutella xylostella. F(4i15) is known to be critical for the action of LAs on mammalian sodium channels. Previously, mutation F(4i15)A in a cockroach sodium channel, BgNav1-1a, has been shown to reduce the action of lidocaine, a LA, but not the action of SCBIs. In this study, we introduced mutations F(4i15)Y and V(4i18)A/I individually into the cockroach sodium channel, BgNav1-1a, and conducted functional analysis of the three mutants in Xenopus oocytes. We found that both the F(4i15)Y and V(4i18)I mutations reduced the inhibition of sodium current by indoxacarb, DCJW (an active metabolite of indoxacarb) and metaflumizone. F(4i15)Y and V(4i18)I mutations also reduced the use-dependent block of sodium current by lidocaine. In contrast, substitution V(4i18)A enhanced the action metaflumizone and lidocaine. These results show that both F(4i15)Y and V(4i18)I mutations may contribute to target-site resistance to SCBIs, and provide the first molecular evidence for common amino acid determinants on insect sodium channels involved in action of SCBIs and LA. PMID:26407935

  1. Shielded helix traveling wave cathode ray tube deflection structure

    DOEpatents

    Norris, N.J.; Hudson, C.L.

    1992-12-15

    Various embodiments of a helical coil deflection structure of a CRT are described and illustrated which provide shielding between adjacent turns of the coil on either three or four sides of each turn in the coil. Threaded members formed with either male or female threads and having the same pitch as the deflection coil are utilized for shielding the deflection coil with each turn of the helical coil placed between adjacent threads which act to shield each coil turn from adjacent turns and to confine the field generated by the coil to prevent or inhibit cross-coupling between adjacent turns of the coil to thereby prevent generation of fast fields which might otherwise deflect the beam out of time synchronization with the electron beam pulse. 13 figs.

  2. Shielded helix traveling wave cathode ray tube deflection structure

    DOEpatents

    Norris, Neil J. (Santa Barbara, CA); Hudson, Charles L. (Santa Barbara, CA)

    1992-01-01

    Various embodiments of a helical coil deflection structure of a CRT are described and illustrated which provide shielding between adjacent turns of the coil on either three or four sides of each turn in the coil. Threaded members formed with either male or female threads and having the same pitch as the deflection coil are utilized for shielding the deflection coil with each turn of the helical coil placed between adjacent threads which act to shield each coil turn from adjacent turns and to confine the field generated by the coil to prevent or inhibit cross-coupling between adjacent turns of the coil to thereby prevent generation of fast fields which might otherwise deflect the beam out of time synchronization with the electron beam pulse.

  3. Structural organization of FtsB, a transmembrane protein of the bacterial divisome

    PubMed Central

    LaPointe, Loren M.; Taylor, Keenan C.; Subramaniam, Sabareesh; Khadria, Ambalika; Rayment, Ivan; Senes, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    We report the first structural analysis of an integral membrane protein of the bacterial divisome. FtsB is a single-pass membrane protein with a periplasmic coiled coil. Its heterologous association with its partner FtsL represents an essential event for the recruitment of the late components to the division site. Using a combination of mutagenesis, computational modeling and X-ray crystallography, we determined that FtsB self-associates and we investigated its structural organization. We found that the transmembrane domain of FtsB homo-oligomerizes through an evolutionarily conserved interaction interface where a polar residue (Gln 16) plays a critical role through the formation of an inter-helical hydrogen bond. The crystal structure of the periplasmic domain, solved as a fusion with Gp7, shows that 30 juxta-membrane amino acids of FtsB form a canonical coiled coil. The presence of conserved Gly residue in the linker region suggests that flexibility between the transmembrane and coiled coil domains is functionally important. We hypothesize that the transmembrane helices of FtsB form a stable dimeric core for its association with FtsL into a higher-order oligomer, and that FtsL is required to stabilize the periplasmic domain of FtsB, leading to the formation of a complex that is competent for binding to FtsQ, and to their consequent recruitment to the divisome. The study provides an experimentally validated structural model and identifies point mutations that disrupt association, thereby establishing important groundwork for the functional characterization of FtsB in vivo. PMID:23520975

  4. anthocyanin1 of Petunia Encodes a Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Protein That Directly Activates Transcription of Structural Anthocyanin Genes

    PubMed Central

    Spelt, Cornelis; Quattrocchio, Francesca; Mol, Joseph N. M.; Koes, Ronald

    2000-01-01

    The petunia loci anthocyanin1 (an1), an2, an4, and an11 are required for the transcription of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes in floral organs. The an2 and an11 loci were recently cloned and shown to encode a MYB-domain transcriptional activator and a cytosolic WD40 protein, respectively. Here, we report the isolation of an1 by transposon tagging. an1 encodes a new member of the basic helix-loop-helix family of transcription factors that is functionally and evolutionarily distinct from JAF13, the apparent petunia ortholog of maize RED1 and snapdragon DELILA. We provide genetic evidence that the transcription factors encoded by an1, an2, and an4 operate in an unexpectedly complex regulatory hierarchy. In leaves, ectopic expression of AN2 induces an1 expression, whereas in anthers, an1 expression depends on an4, encoding (or controlling) a MYB protein that is paralogous to AN2. Experiments with transgenic plants expressing a post-translationally controlled AN1–GLUCOCORTICOID RECEPTOR fusion protein indicated that independent of protein synthesis, AN1 directly activates the expression of the dfrA gene encoding the enzyme dihydroflavonol 4-reductase and of Pmyb27 encoding a MYB-domain protein of unknown function. PMID:11006336

  5. Helix 3 acts as a conformational hinge in Class A GPCR activation: An analysis of interhelical interaction energies in crystal structures.

    PubMed

    Lans, Isaias; Dalton, James A R; Giraldo, Jesús

    2015-12-01

    A collection of crystal structures of rhodopsin, ?2-adrenergic and adenosine A2A receptors in active, intermediate and inactive states were selected for structural and energetic analyses to identify the changes involved in the activation/deactivation of Class A GPCRs. A set of helix interactions exclusive to either inactive or active/intermediate states were identified. The analysis of these interactions distinguished some local conformational changes involved in receptor activation, in particular, a packing between the intracellular domains of transmembrane helices H3 and H7 and a separation between those of H2 and H6. Also, differential movements of the extracellular and intracellular domains of these helices are apparent. Moreover, a segment of residues in helix H3, including residues L/I3.40 to L3.43, is identified as a key component of the activation mechanism, acting as a conformational hinge between extracellular and intracellular regions. Remarkably, the influence on the activation process of some glutamic and aspartic acidic residues and, as a consequence, the influence of variations on local pH is highlighted. Structural hypotheses that arose from the analysis of rhodopsin, ?2-adrenergic and adenosine A2A receptors were tested on the active and inactive M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor structures and further discussed in the context of the new mechanistic insights provided by the recently determined active and inactive crystal structures of the ?-opioid receptor. Overall, the structural and energetic analyses of the interhelical interactions present in this collection of Class A GPCRs suggests the existence of a common general activation mechanism featuring a chemical space useful for drug discovery exploration. PMID:26522273

  6. Sequence-structure relationship study in all-? transmembrane proteins using an unsupervised learning approach.

    PubMed

    Esque, Jérémy; Urbain, Aurélie; Etchebest, Catherine; de Brevern, Alexandre G

    2015-11-01

    Transmembrane proteins (TMPs) are major drug targets, but the knowledge of their precise topology structure remains highly limited compared with globular proteins. In spite of the difficulties in obtaining their structures, an important effort has been made these last years to increase their number from an experimental and computational point of view. In view of this emerging challenge, the development of computational methods to extract knowledge from these data is crucial for the better understanding of their functions and in improving the quality of structural models. Here, we revisit an efficient unsupervised learning procedure, called Hybrid Protein Model (HPM), which is applied to the analysis of transmembrane proteins belonging to the all-? structural class. HPM method is an original classification procedure that efficiently combines sequence and structure learning. The procedure was initially applied to the analysis of globular proteins. In the present case, HPM classifies a set of overlapping protein fragments, extracted from a non-redundant databank of TMP 3D structure. After fine-tuning of the learning parameters, the optimal classification results in 65 clusters. They represent at best similar relationships between sequence and local structure properties of TMPs. Interestingly, HPM distinguishes among the resulting clusters two helical regions with distinct hydrophobic patterns. This underlines the complexity of the topology of these proteins. The HPM classification enlightens unusual relationship between amino acids in TMP fragments, which can be useful to elaborate new amino acids substitution matrices. Finally, two challenging applications are described: the first one aims at annotating protein functions (channel or not), the second one intends to assess the quality of the structures (X-ray or models) via a new scoring function deduced from the HPM classification. PMID:26043903

  7. Structural Organization of a Full-Length Gp130/LIF-R Cytokine Receptor Transmembrane Complex

    SciTech Connect

    Skiniotis, G.; Lupardus, P.J.; Martick, M.; Walz, T.; Garcia, K.C.

    2009-05-26

    gp130 is a shared receptor for at least nine cytokines, and can signal either as a homodimer, or as a heterodimer with Leukemia Inhibitory Factor Receptor (LIF-R). Here we biophysically and structurally characterize the full-length, transmembrane form of a quaternary cytokine receptor complex consisting of gp130, LIF-R, the cytokine Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor (CNTF), and its alpha receptor (CNTF-R{alpha}). Thermodynamic analysis indicates that, unlike the cooperative assembly of the symmetric gp130/Interleukin-6/IL-6R{alpha} hexameric complex, CNTF/CNTF-R{alpha} heterodimerizes gp130 and LIF-R via non-cooperative energetics to form an asymmetric 1:1:1:1 complex. Single particle electron microscopic (EM) analysis of the full-length gp130/LIF-R/CNTF-R{alpha}/CNTF quaternary complex elucidates an asymmetric structural arrangement, in which the receptor extracellular and transmembrane segments join as a continuous, rigid unit, poised to sensitively transduce ligand engagement to the membrane-proximal intracellular signaling regions. These studies also enumerate the organizing principles for assembly of the 'tall' class of gp130-family cytokine receptor complexes including LIF, IL-27, IL-12, and others.

  8. All-atom 3D structure prediction of transmembrane ?-barrel proteins from sequences.

    PubMed

    Hayat, Sikander; Sander, Chris; Marks, Debora S; Elofsson, Arne

    2015-04-28

    Transmembrane ?-barrels (TMBs) carry out major functions in substrate transport and protein biogenesis but experimental determination of their 3D structure is challenging. Encouraged by successful de novo 3D structure prediction of globular and ?-helical membrane proteins from sequence alignments alone, we developed an approach to predict the 3D structure of TMBs. The approach combines the maximum-entropy evolutionary coupling method for predicting residue contacts (EVfold) with a machine-learning approach (boctopus2) for predicting ?-strands in the barrel. In a blinded test for 19 TMB proteins of known structure that have a sufficient number of diverse homologous sequences available, this combined method (EVfold_bb) predicts hydrogen-bonded residue pairs between adjacent ?-strands at an accuracy of ?70%. This accuracy is sufficient for the generation of all-atom 3D models. In the transmembrane barrel region, the average 3D structure accuracy [template-modeling (TM) score] of top-ranked models is 0.54 (ranging from 0.36 to 0.85), with a higher (44%) number of residue pairs in correct strand-strand registration than in earlier methods (18%). Although the nonbarrel regions are predicted less accurately overall, the evolutionary couplings identify some highly constrained loop residues and, for FecA protein, the barrel including the structure of a plug domain can be accurately modeled (TM score = 0.68). Lower prediction accuracy tends to be associated with insufficient sequence information and we therefore expect increasing numbers of ?-barrel families to become accessible to accurate 3D structure prediction as the number of available sequences increases. PMID:25858953

  9. All-atom 3D structure prediction of transmembrane ?-barrel proteins from sequences

    PubMed Central

    Hayat, Sikander; Sander, Chris; Marks, Debora S.

    2015-01-01

    Transmembrane ?-barrels (TMBs) carry out major functions in substrate transport and protein biogenesis but experimental determination of their 3D structure is challenging. Encouraged by successful de novo 3D structure prediction of globular and ?-helical membrane proteins from sequence alignments alone, we developed an approach to predict the 3D structure of TMBs. The approach combines the maximum-entropy evolutionary coupling method for predicting residue contacts (EVfold) with a machine-learning approach (boctopus2) for predicting ?-strands in the barrel. In a blinded test for 19 TMB proteins of known structure that have a sufficient number of diverse homologous sequences available, this combined method (EVfold_bb) predicts hydrogen-bonded residue pairs between adjacent ?-strands at an accuracy of ?70%. This accuracy is sufficient for the generation of all-atom 3D models. In the transmembrane barrel region, the average 3D structure accuracy [template-modeling (TM) score] of top-ranked models is 0.54 (ranging from 0.36 to 0.85), with a higher (44%) number of residue pairs in correct strand–strand registration than in earlier methods (18%). Although the nonbarrel regions are predicted less accurately overall, the evolutionary couplings identify some highly constrained loop residues and, for FecA protein, the barrel including the structure of a plug domain can be accurately modeled (TM score = 0.68). Lower prediction accuracy tends to be associated with insufficient sequence information and we therefore expect increasing numbers of ?-barrel families to become accessible to accurate 3D structure prediction as the number of available sequences increases. PMID:25858953

  10. Structure of transmembrane pore induced by Bax-derived peptide: Evidence for lipidic pores

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Shuo; Wang, Wangchen; Yang, Lin; Huang, Huey W.

    2008-01-01

    The structures of transmembrane pores formed by a large family of pore-forming proteins and peptides are unknown. These proteins, whose secondary structures are predominantly ?-helical segments, and many peptides form pores in membranes without a crystallizable protein assembly, contrary to the family of ?-pore-forming proteins, which form crystallizable ?-barrel pores. Nevertheless, a protein-induced pore in membranes is commonly assumed to be a protein channel. Here, we show a type of peptide-induced pore that is not framed by a peptide structure. Peptide-induced pores in multiple bilayers were long-range correlated into a periodically ordered lattice and analyzed by X-ray diffraction. We found the pores induced by Bax-derived helical peptides were at least partially framed by a lipid monolayer. Evidence suggests that the formation of such lipidic pores is a major mechanism for ?-pore-forming proteins, including apoptosis-regulator Bax. PMID:18987313

  11. Characterizing diverse orthologues of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator protein for structural studies.

    PubMed

    Pollock, Naomi L; Rimington, Tracy L; Ford, Robert C

    2015-10-01

    As an ion channel, the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) protein occupies a unique niche within the ABC family. Orthologues of CFTR are extant throughout the animal kingdom from sharks to platypods to sheep, where the osmoregulatory function of the protein has been applied to differing lifestyles and diverse organ systems. In humans, loss-of-function mutations to CFTR cause the disease cystic fibrosis, which is a significant health burden in populations of white European descent. Orthologue screening has proved fruitful in the pursuit of high-resolution structural data for several membrane proteins, and we have applied some of the princples developed in previous studies to the expression and purification of CFTR. We have overexpressed this protein, along with evolutionarily diverse orthologues, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and developed a purification to isolate it in quantities sufficient for structural and functional studies. PMID:26517900

  12. Helix coupling

    DOEpatents

    Ginell, W.S.

    1989-04-25

    A coupling for connecting helix members in series, which consists of a pair of U-shaped elements, one of which is attached to each helix end with the "U" sections of the elements interlocked. The coupling is particularly beneficial for interconnecting helical Nitinol elements utilized in thermal actuators or engines. Each coupling half is attached to the associated helix at two points, thereby providing axial load while being easily removed from the helix, and reusable.

  13. Structure and Biophysical Properties of a Triple-Stranded Beta-Helix Comprising the Central Spike of Bacteriophage T4

    PubMed Central

    Buth, Sergey A.; Menin, Laure; Shneider, Mikhail M.; Engel, Jürgen; Boudko, Sergei P.; Leiman, Petr G.

    2015-01-01

    Gene product 5 (gp5) of bacteriophage T4 is a spike-shaped protein that functions to disrupt the membrane of the target cell during phage infection. Its C-terminal domain is a long and slender ?-helix that is formed by three polypeptide chains wrapped around a common symmetry axis akin to three interdigitated corkscrews. The folding and biophysical properties of such triple-stranded ?-helices, which are topologically related to amyloid fibers, represent an unsolved biophysical problem. Here, we report structural and biophysical characterization of T4 gp5 ?-helix and its truncated mutants of different lengths. A soluble fragment that forms a dimer of trimers and that could comprise a minimal self-folding unit has been identified. Surprisingly, the hydrophobic core of the ?-helix is small. It is located near the C-terminal end of the ?-helix and contains a centrally positioned and hydrated magnesium ion. A large part of the ?-helix interior comprises a large elongated cavity that binds palmitic, stearic, and oleic acids in an extended conformation suggesting that these molecules might participate in the folding of the complete ?-helix. PMID:26295253

  14. Structure and Biophysical Properties of a Triple-Stranded Beta-Helix Comprising the Central Spike of Bacteriophage T4.

    PubMed

    Buth, Sergey A; Menin, Laure; Shneider, Mikhail M; Engel, Jürgen; Boudko, Sergei P; Leiman, Petr G

    2015-08-01

    Gene product 5 (gp5) of bacteriophage T4 is a spike-shaped protein that functions to disrupt the membrane of the target cell during phage infection. Its C-terminal domain is a long and slender ?-helix that is formed by three polypeptide chains wrapped around a common symmetry axis akin to three interdigitated corkscrews. The folding and biophysical properties of such triple-stranded ?-helices, which are topologically related to amyloid fibers, represent an unsolved biophysical problem. Here, we report structural and biophysical characterization of T4 gp5 ?-helix and its truncated mutants of different lengths. A soluble fragment that forms a dimer of trimers and that could comprise a minimal self-folding unit has been identified. Surprisingly, the hydrophobic core of the ?-helix is small. It is located near the C-terminal end of the ?-helix and contains a centrally positioned and hydrated magnesium ion. A large part of the ?-helix interior comprises a large elongated cavity that binds palmitic, stearic, and oleic acids in an extended conformation suggesting that these molecules might participate in the folding of the complete ?-helix. PMID:26295253

  15. Self-organization of amphiphilic macromolecules with local helix structure in concentrated solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glagolev, M. K.; Vasilevskaya, V. V.; Khokhlov, A. R.

    2012-08-01

    Concentrated solutions of amphiphilic macromolecules with local helical structure were studied by means of molecular dynamic simulations. It is shown that in poor solvent the macromolecules are assembled into wire-like aggregates having complex core-shell structure. The core consists of a hydrophobic backbone of the chains which intertwine around each other. It is protected by the shell of hydrophilic side groups. In racemic mixture of right-hand and left-hand helix macromolecules the wire-like complex is a chain of braid bundles of macromolecules with the same chirality stacking at their ends. The average number of macromolecules in the wire cross-section is close to that of separate bundles observed in dilute solutions of such macromolecules. The effects described here could serve as a simple model of self-organization in solutions of macromolecules with local helical structure.

  16. Transmembrane proteins of the tight junctions at the blood-brain barrier: structural and functional aspects.

    PubMed

    Haseloff, Reiner F; Dithmer, Sophie; Winkler, Lars; Wolburg, Hartwig; Blasig, Ingolf E

    2015-02-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is formed by microvascular endothelial cells sealed by tetraspanning tight junction (TJ) proteins, such as claudins and TAMPs (TJ-associated marvel proteins, occludin and tricellulin). Claudins are the major components of the TJs. At the BBB, claudin-5 dominates the TJs by preventing the paracellular permeation of small molecules. On the other hand, TAMPs regulate the structure and function of the TJs; tricellulin may tighten the barrier for large molecules. This review aims at integrating and summarizing the most relevant and recent work on how the BBB is influenced by claudin-1, -3, -5, -12 and the TAMPs occludin and tricellulin, all of which are four-transmembrane TJ proteins. The exact functions of claudin-1, -3, -12 and TAMPs at this barrier still need to be elucidated. PMID:25433243

  17. Structure and multistate function of the transmembrane electron transporter CcdA.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Jessica A; Cho, Seung-Hyun; Ye, Jiqing; Collet, Jean-Francois; Beckwith, Jonathan R; Chou, James J

    2015-10-01

    The mechanism by which transmembrane reductases use a single pair of cysteine residues to relay electrons between protein substrates across biological membranes is a long-standing mystery in thiol-redox biochemistry. Here we show the NMR structure of a reduced-state mimic of archaeal CcdA, a protein that transfers electrons across the inner membrane, by using a redox-active NMR sample. The two cysteine positions in CcdA are separated by 20 Å. Whereas one is accessible to the cytoplasm, the other resides in the protein core, thus implying that conformational exchange is required for periplasmic accessibility. In vivo mixed disulfide-trapping experiments validated the functional positioning of the cysteines, and in vitro accessibility results confirmed conformational exchange. Our NMR and functional data together show the existence of multiple conformational states and suggest a four-state model for relaying electrons from cytosolic to periplasmic redox substrates. PMID:26389738

  18. Predicting RNA 3D structure using a coarse-grain helix-centered model

    PubMed Central

    Kerpedjiev, Peter; Höner zu Siederdissen, Christian; Hofacker, Ivo L.

    2015-01-01

    A 3D model of RNA structure can provide information about its function and regulation that is not possible with just the sequence or secondary structure. Current models suffer from low accuracy and long running times and either neglect or presume knowledge of the long-range interactions which stabilize the tertiary structure. Our coarse-grained, helix-based, tertiary structure model operates with only a few degrees of freedom compared with all-atom models while preserving the ability to sample tertiary structures given a secondary structure. It strikes a balance between the precision of an all-atom tertiary structure model and the simplicity and effectiveness of a secondary structure representation. It provides a simplified tool for exploring global arrangements of helices and loops within RNA structures. We provide an example of a novel energy function relying only on the positions of stems and loops. We show that coupling our model to this energy function produces predictions as good as or better than the current state of the art tools. We propose that given the wide range of conformational space that needs to be explored, a coarse-grain approach can explore more conformations in less iterations than an all-atom model coupled to a fine-grain energy function. Finally, we emphasize the overarching theme of providing an ensemble of predicted structures, something which our tool excels at, rather than providing a handful of the lowest energy structures. PMID:25904133

  19. Predicting three-dimensional structures of transmembrane domains of ?-barrel membrane proteins.

    PubMed

    Naveed, Hammad; Xu, Yun; Jackups, Ronald; Liang, Jie

    2012-01-25

    ?-Barrel membrane proteins are found in the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria, mitochondria, and chloroplasts. They are important for pore formation, membrane anchoring, and enzyme activity. These proteins are also often responsible for bacterial virulence. Due to difficulties in experimental structure determination, they are sparsely represented in the protein structure databank. We have developed a computational method for predicting structures of the transmembrane (TM) domains of ?-barrel membrane proteins. Based on physical principles, our method can predict structures of the TM domain of ?-barrel membrane proteins of novel topology, including those from eukaryotic mitochondria. Our method is based on a model of physical interactions, a discrete conformational state space, an empirical potential function, as well as a model to account for interstrand loop entropy. We are able to construct three-dimensional atomic structure of the TM domains from sequences for a set of 23 nonhomologous proteins (resolution 1.8-3.0 Å). The median rmsd of TM domains containing 75-222 residues between predicted and measured structures is 3.9 Å for main chain atoms. In addition, stability determinants and protein-protein interaction sites can be predicted. Such predictions on eukaryotic mitochondria outer membrane protein Tom40 and VDAC are confirmed by independent mutagenesis and chemical cross-linking studies. These results suggest that our model captures key components of the organization principles of ?-barrel membrane protein assembly. PMID:22148174

  20. Structural propensities and entropy effects in peptide helix-coil transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chemmama, Ilan E.; Pelea, Adam Colt; Bhandari, Yuba R.; Chapagain, Prem P.; Gerstman, Bernard S.

    2012-09-01

    The helix-coil transition in peptides is a critical structural transition leading to functioning proteins. Peptide chains have a large number of possible configurations that must be accounted for in statistical mechanical investigations. Using hydrogen bond and local helix propensity interaction terms, we develop a method for obtaining and incorporating the degeneracy factor that allows the exact calculation of the partition function for a peptide as a function of chain length. The partition function is used in calculations for engineered peptide chains of various lengths that allow comparison with a variety of different types of experimentally measured quantities, such as fraction of helicity as a function of both temperature and chain length, heat capacity, and denaturation studies. When experimental sensitivity in helicity measurements is properly accounted for in the calculations, the calculated curves fit well with the experimental curves. We determine values of interaction energies for comparison with known biochemical interactions, as well as quantify the difference in the number of configurations available to an amino acid in a random coil configuration compared to a helical configuration.

  1. Molecular dynamics simulations of E. coli MsbA transmembrane domain: formation of a semipore structure.

    PubMed

    Haubertin, David Y; Madaoui, Hocine; Sanson, Alain; Guérois, Raphaël; Orlowski, Stéphane

    2006-10-01

    The human P-glycoprotein (MDR1/P-gp) is an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter involved in cellular response to chemical stress and failures of anticancer chemotherapy. In the absence of a high-resolution structure for P-gp, we were interested in the closest P-gp homolog for which a crystal structure is available: the bacterial ABC transporter MsbA. Here we present the molecular dynamics simulations performed on the transmembrane domain of the open-state MsbA in a bilayer composed of palmitoyl oleoyl phosphatidylethanolamine lipids. The system studied contained more than 90,000 atoms and was simulated for 50 ns. This simulation shows that the open-state structure of MsbA can be stable in a membrane environment and provides invaluable insights into the structural relationships between the protein and its surrounding lipids. This study reveals the formation of a semipore-like structure stabilized by two key phospholipids which interact with the hinge region of the protein during the entire simulation. Multiple sequence alignments of ABC transporters reveal that one of the residues involved in the interaction with these two phospholipids are under a strong selection pressure specifically applied on the bacterial homologs of MsbA. Hence, comparison of molecular dynamics simulation and phylogenetic data appears as a powerful approach to investigate the functional relevance of molecular events occurring during simulations. PMID:16782794

  2. Structure and Function of the Intracellular Region of the Plexin-B1 Transmembrane Receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Tong, Yufeng; Hota, Prasanta K.; Penachioni, Junia Y.; Hamaneh, Mehdi B.; Kim, SoonJeung; Alviani, Rebecca S.; Shen, Limin; He, Hao; Tempel, Wolfram; Tamagnone, Luca; Park, Hee-Won; Buck, Matthias

    2010-02-11

    Members of the plexin family are unique transmembrane receptors in that they interact directly with Rho family small GTPases; moreover, they contain a GTPase-activating protein (GAP) domain for R-Ras, which is crucial for plexin-mediated regulation of cell motility. However, the functional role and structural basis of the interactions between the different intracellular domains of plexins remained unclear. Here we present the 2.4 {angstrom} crystal structure of the complete intracellular region of human plexin-B1. The structure is monomeric and reveals that the GAP domain is folded into one structure from two segments, separated by the Rho GTPase binding domain (RBD). The RBD is not dimerized, as observed previously. Instead, binding of a conserved loop region appears to compete with dimerization and anchors the RBD to the GAP domain. Cell-based assays on mutant proteins confirm the functional importance of this coupling loop. Molecular modeling based on structural homology to p120{sup GAP} {center_dot}H-Ras suggests that Ras GTPases can bind to the plexin GAP region. Experimentally, we show that the monomeric intracellular plexin-B1 binds R-Ras but not H-Ras. These findings suggest that the monomeric form of the intracellular region is primed for GAP activity and extend a model for plexin activation.

  3. The Interaction between Influenza HA Fusion Peptide and Transmembrane Domain Affects Membrane Structure.

    PubMed

    Lai, Alex L; Freed, Jack H

    2015-12-15

    Viral glycoproteins, such as influenza hemagglutinin (HA) and human immunodeficiency virus gp41, are anchored by a single helical segment transmembrane domain (TMD) on the viral envelope membrane. The fusion peptides (FP) of the glycoproteins insert into the host membrane and initiate membrane fusion. Our previous study showed that the FP or TMD alone perturbs membrane structure. Interaction between the influenza HA FP and TMD has previously been shown, but its role is unclear. We used PC spin labels dipalmitoylphospatidyl-tempo-choline (on the headgroup), 5PC and 14PC (5-C and 14-C positions on the acyl chain) to detect the combined effect of FP-TMD interaction by titrating HA FP to TMD-reconstituted 1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine/1,2-dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-(1'-rac-glycerol)/cholesterol lipid bilayers using electron spin resonance. We found that the FP-TMD increases the lipid order at all positions, which has a greater lipid ordering effect than the sum of the FP or TMD alone, and this effect reaches deeper into the membranes. Although HA-mediated membrane fusion is pH dependent, this combined effect is observed at both pH 5 and pH 7. In addition to increasing lipid order, multiple components are found for 5PC at increased concentration of FP-TMD, indicating that distinct domains are induced. However, the mutation of Gly1 in the FP and L187 in the TMD eliminates the perturbations, consistent with their fusogenic phenotypes. Electron spin resonance on spin-labeled peptides confirms these observations. We suggest that this interaction may provide a driving force in different stages of membrane fusion: initialization, transition from hemifusion stalk to transmembrane contact, and fusion pore formation. PMID:26682811

  4. Regio-selective detection of dynamic structure of transmembrane alpha-helices as revealed from (13)C NMR spectra of [3-13C]Ala-labeled bacteriorhodopsin in the presence of Mn2+ ion.

    PubMed Central

    Tuzi, S; Hasegawa, J; Kawaminami, R; Naito, A; Saitô, H

    2001-01-01

    13C Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of [3-(13)C]Ala-labeled bacteriorhodopsin (bR) were edited to give rise to regio-selective signals from hydrophobic transmembrane alpha-helices by using NMR relaxation reagent, Mn(2+) ion. As a result of selective suppression of (13)C NMR signals from the surfaces in the presence of Mn(2+) ions, several (13)C NMR signals of Ala residues in the transmembrane alpha-helices were identified on the basis of site-directed mutagenesis without overlaps from (13)C NMR signals of residues located near the bilayer surfaces. The upper bound of the interatomic distances between (13)C nucleus in bR and Mn(2+) ions bound to the hydrophilic surface to cause suppressed peaks by the presence of Mn(2+) ion was estimated as 8.7 A to result in the signal broadening to 100 Hz and consistent with the data based on experimental finding. The Ala C(beta) (13)C NMR peaks corresponding to Ala-51, Ala-53, Ala-81, Ala-84, and Ala-215 located around the extracellular half of the proton channel and Ala-184 located at the kink in the helix F were successfully identified on the basis of (13)C NMR spectra of bR in the presence of Mn(2+) ion and site-directed replacement of Ala by Gly or Val. Utilizing these peaks as probes to observe local structure in the transmembrane alpha-helices, dynamic conformation of the extracellular half of bR at ambient temperature was examined, and the local structures of Ala-215 and 184 were compared with those elucidated at low temperature. Conformational changes in the transmembrane alpha-helices induced in D85N and E204Q and its long-range transmission from the proton release site to the site around the Schiff base in E204Q were also examined. PMID:11423425

  5. Allosteric and hyperekplexic mutant phenotypes investigated on an ?1 glycine receptor transmembrane structure

    PubMed Central

    Moraga-Cid, Gustavo; Sauguet, Ludovic; Huon, Christèle; Malherbe, Laurie; Girard-Blanc, Christine; Petres, Stéphane; Murail, Samuel; Taly, Antoine; Baaden, Marc; Delarue, Marc; Corringer, Pierre-Jean

    2015-01-01

    The glycine receptor (GlyR) is a pentameric ligand-gated ion channel (pLGIC) mediating inhibitory transmission in the nervous system. Its transmembrane domain (TMD) is the target of allosteric modulators such as general anesthetics and ethanol and is a major locus for hyperekplexic congenital mutations altering the allosteric transitions of activation or desensitization. We previously showed that the TMD of the human ?1GlyR could be fused to the extracellular domain of GLIC, a bacterial pLGIC, to form a functional chimera called Lily. Here, we overexpress Lily in Schneider 2 insect cells and solve its structure by X-ray crystallography at 3.5 Å resolution. The TMD of the ?1GlyR adopts a closed-channel conformation involving a single ring of hydrophobic residues at the center of the pore. Electrophysiological recordings show that the phenotypes of key allosteric mutations of the ?1GlyR, scattered all along the pore, are qualitatively preserved in this chimera, including those that confer decreased sensitivity to agonists, constitutive activity, decreased activation kinetics, or increased desensitization kinetics. Combined structural and functional data indicate a pore-opening mechanism for the ?1GlyR, suggesting a structural explanation for the effect of some key hyperekplexic allosteric mutations. The first X-ray structure of the TMD of the ?1GlyR solved here using GLIC as a scaffold paves the way for mechanistic investigation and design of allosteric modulators of a human receptor. PMID:25730860

  6. Membrane transport piece by piece: production of transmembrane peptides for structural and functional studies.

    PubMed

    Kemp, Grant; Fliegel, Larry; Young, Howard S

    2014-01-01

    Membrane proteins are involved in all cellular processes from signaling cascades to nutrient uptake and waste disposal. Because of these essential functions, many membrane proteins are recognized as important, yet elusive, clinical targets. Recent advances in structural biology have answered many questions about how membrane proteins function, yet one of the major bottlenecks remains the ability to obtain sufficient quantities of pure and homogeneous protein. This is particularly true for human membrane proteins, where novel expression strategies and structural techniques are needed to better characterize their function and therapeutic potential. One way to approach this challenge is to determine the structure of smaller pieces of membrane proteins that can be assembled into models of the complete protein. This unit describes the rationale for working with single or multiple transmembrane segments and provides a description of strategies and methods to express and purify them for structural and functional studies using a maltose binding protein (MBP) fusion. The bulk of the unit outlines a detailed methodology and justification for producing these peptides under native-like conditions. PMID:24510677

  7. Analysis of local helix bending in crystal structures of DNA oligonucleotides and DNA-protein complexes.

    PubMed Central

    Young, M A; Ravishanker, G; Beveridge, D L; Berman, H M

    1995-01-01

    Sequence-dependent bending of the helical axes in 112 oligonucleotide duplex crystal structures resident in the Nucleic Acid Database have been analyzed and compared with the use of bending dials, a computer graphics tool. Our analysis includes structures of both A and B forms of DNA and considers both uncomplexed forms of the double helix as well as those bound to drugs and proteins. The patterns in bending preferences in the crystal structures are analyzed by base pair steps, and emerging trends are noted. Analysis of the 66 B-form structures in the Nucleic Acid Database indicates that uniform trends within all pyrimidine-purine and purine-pyrimidine steps are not necessarily observed but are found particularly at CG and GC steps of dodecamers. The results support the idea that AA steps are relatively straight and that larger roll bends occur at or near the junctions of these A-tracts with their flanking sequences. The data on 16 available crystal structures of protein-DNA complexes indicate that the majority of the DNA bends induced via protein binding are sharp localized kinks. The analysis of the 30 available A-form DNA structures indicates that these structures are also bent and show a definitive preference for bending into the deep major groove over the shallow minor groove. PMID:7647248

  8. Structures of Two Arabidopsis thaliana Major Latex Proteins Represent Novel Helix-Grip Folds

    PubMed Central

    Lytle, Betsy L.; Song, Jikui; de la Cruz, Norberto B.; Peterson, Francis C.; Johnson, Kenneth A.; Bingman, Craig A.; Phillips, George N.; Volkman, Brian F.

    2010-01-01

    The major latex proteins (MLP) are a protein family first identified in the latex of opium poppy. They are found only in plants and have 24 identified members in Arabidopsis alone as well as in other plants such as peach, strawberry, melon, cucumber, and soybean. While the function of the MLPs is unknown, they have been associated with fruit and flower development and in pathogen defense responses. Based on modest sequence similarity, they have been characterized as members of the Bet v 1 protein superfamily; however, no structures have yet been reported. As part of an ongoing structural genomics effort, we determined the structures of two Arabidopsis thaliana MLPs: the solution structure of MLP28 (gene product of At1g70830.1) and the crystal structure of At1g24000.1. The structures revealed distinct differences when compared to one another and to the typical Bet v 1 fold. Nevertheless, NMR titration experiments demonstrated that the characteristic Bet v 1 hydrophobic binding pocket of At1g24000.1 is able to bind a ligand, suggesting that it plays a role in the function of the MLPs. A structure-based sequence analysis identified conserved hydrophobic residues in the long alpha helix that contribute to the binding cavity and may specify preferred ligands for the MLP family. PMID:19326460

  9. Solution Structure of an Alternate Conformation of Helix 27 from Escherichia coli 16S rRNA

    E-print Network

    Walter, Nils G.

    Solution Structure of an Alternate Conformation of Helix 27 from Escherichia coli 16S rRNA Meredith ribosomal subunit, comprising nucleotides (nt) 885-912 in E. coli 16S ribosomal (r)RNA (Figure 1A% conserved among bacteria.1 Early sequence alignment of 16S rRNA predicted a base pair between C912 and G888

  10. Production of Disulfide-stabilized Transmembrane Peptide Complexes for Structural Studies

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Pooja; Kaywan-Lutfi, Mariam; Krshnan, Logesvaran; Byrne, Eamon F. X.; Call, Melissa Joy; Call, Matthew Edwin

    2013-01-01

    Physical interactions among the lipid-embedded alpha-helical domains of membrane proteins play a crucial role in folding and assembly of membrane protein complexes and in dynamic processes such as transmembrane (TM) signaling and regulation of cell-surface protein levels. Understanding the structural features driving the association of particular sequences requires sophisticated biophysical and biochemical analyses of TM peptide complexes. However, the extreme hydrophobicity of TM domains makes them very difficult to manipulate using standard peptide chemistry techniques, and production of suitable study material often proves prohibitively challenging. Identifying conditions under which peptides can adopt stable helical conformations and form complexes spontaneously adds a further level of difficulty. Here we present a procedure for the production of homo- or hetero-dimeric TM peptide complexes from materials that are expressed in E. coli, thus allowing incorporation of stable isotope labels for nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) or non-natural amino acids for other applications relatively inexpensively. The key innovation in this method is that TM complexes are produced and purified as covalently associated (disulfide-crosslinked) assemblies that can form stable, stoichiometric and homogeneous structures when reconstituted into detergent, lipid or other membrane-mimetic materials. We also present carefully optimized procedures for expression and purification that are equally applicable whether producing single TM domains or crosslinked complexes and provide advice for adapting these methods to new TM sequences. PMID:23486227

  11. Stabilization of the ?2-adrenergic Receptor 4-3-5 Helix Interface by Mutagenesis of Glu-1223.41, A Critical Residue in GPCR Structure

    PubMed Central

    Roth, Christopher B.; Hanson, Michael A.; Stevens, Raymond C.

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) instability represents one of the most profound obstacles to the structural study of GPCRs that bind diffusible ligands. The introduction of targeted mutations at non-conserved residues that lie proximal to helix interfaces has the potential to enhance the fold stability of the receptor helix bundle while maintaining wild-type receptor function. To test this hypothesis, we studied the effect of amino acid substitutions at Glu-1223.41 in the well studied ?2-adrenergic receptor (?2AR), which was predicted from sequence conservation to lie at a position equivalent to the tryptophan interface between transmembrane domains (TMs) 3, 4, and 5. The data indicate that the replacement of Glu-1223.41 with bulky hydrophobic residues, such as tryptophan, tyrosine and phenylalanine increase the yield of functionally folded ?2AR by as much as 5-fold. Receptor stability in detergent solution was studied by isothermal denaturation and it was found that the E122W and E122Y mutations enhanced the ?2AR thermal half-life by 9.3- and 6.7-fold, respectively at 37 °C. The ?1AR was also stabilized by the introduction of tryptophan at Glu-1473.41, and the effect on protein behavior was similar to the rescue of the unstable wild-type receptor by the antagonist propranolol. Molecular modeling of the E122W and E122Y mutants using a previously published ?2AR homology model revealed that the tryptophan ring edge and tyrosine hydroxyl are positioned proximal to the helical break in TM5 introduced by the conserved Pro-2115.50, and may stabilize the helix by interacting favorably with the unpaired carbonyl oxygen of Val-2065.45. Conformational flexibility of TM5 is believed to be a general property of rhodopsin-like GPCRs and, therefore, engineering of the TM4-3-5 interface at the 3.41 position may provide a general strategy for the stabilization of other receptors. PMID:18222471

  12. The molecular structure of the left-handed supra-molecular helix of eukaryotic polyribosomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Myasnikov, Alexander G.; Afonina, Zhanna A.; Ménétret, Jean-François; Shirokov, Vladimir A.; Spirin, Alexander S.; Klaholz, Bruno P.

    2014-11-01

    During protein synthesis, several ribosomes bind to a single messenger RNA (mRNA) forming large macromolecular assemblies called polyribosomes. Here we report the detailed molecular structure of a 100?MDa eukaryotic poly-ribosome complex derived from cryo electron tomography, sub-tomogram averaging and pseudo-atomic modelling by crystal structure fitting. The structure allowed the visualization of the three functional parts of the polysome assembly, the central core region that forms a rather compact left-handed supra-molecular helix, and the more open regions that harbour the initiation and termination sites at either ends. The helical region forms a continuous mRNA channel where the mRNA strand bridges neighbouring exit and entry sites of the ribosomes and prevents mRNA looping between ribosomes. This structure provides unprecedented insights into protein- and RNA-mediated inter-ribosome contacts that involve conserved sites through 40S subunits and long protruding RNA expansion segments, suggesting a role in stabilizing the overall polyribosomal assembly.

  13. NMR Observable-Based Structure Refinement of DAP12-NKG2C Activating Immunoreceptor Complex in Explicit Membranes

    E-print Network

    Cheng, Xi; Im, Wonpil

    2012-04-04

    create ambiguities in defining critical side chain-side chain interactions. In the recent solution NMR structure of the DAP12-NKG2C immunoreceptor transmembrane helix complex, five functionally required interfacial residues (two Asps and two Thrs...

  14. Crystal Structures of the Response Regulator DosR From Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Suggest a Helix Rearrangement Mechanism for Phosphorylation Activation

    SciTech Connect

    Wisedchaisri, G.; Wu, M.; Sherman, D.R.; Hol, W.G.J.

    2009-05-26

    The response regulator DosR is essential for promoting long-term survival of Mycobacterium tuberculosis under low oxygen conditions in a dormant state and may be responsible for latent tuberculosis in one-third of the world's population. Here, we report crystal structures of full-length unphosphorylated DosR at 2.2 {angstrom} resolution and its C-terminal DNA-binding domain at 1.7 {angstrom} resolution. The full-length DosR structure reveals several features never seen before in other response regulators. The N-terminal domain of the full-length DosR structure has an unexpected ({beta}{alpha}){sub 4} topology instead of the canonical ({beta}{alpha}){sub 5} fold observed in other response regulators. The linker region adopts a unique conformation that contains two helices forming a four-helix bundle with two helices from another subunit, resulting in dimer formation. The C-terminal domain in the full-length DosR structure displays a novel location of helix {alpha}10, which allows Gln199 to interact with the catalytic Asp54 residue of the N-terminal domain. In contrast, the structure of the DosR C-terminal domain alone displays a remarkable unstructured conformation for helix {alpha}10 residues, different from the well-defined helical conformations in all other known structures, indicating considerable flexibility within the C-terminal domain. Our structures suggest a mode of DosR activation by phosphorylation via a helix rearrangement mechanism.

  15. Flanking Polyproline Sequences Inhibit [beta]-Sheet Structure in Polyglutamine Segments by Inducing PPII-like Helix Structure

    SciTech Connect

    Darnell, Gregory; Orgel, Joseph P.R.O.; Pahl, Reinhard; Meredith, Stephen C.

    2008-06-24

    Polyglutamine (poly(Q)) expansion is associated with protein aggregation into {beta}-sheet amyloid fibrils and neuronal cytotoxicity. In the mutant poly(Q) protein huntingtin, associated with Huntington's disease, both aggregation and cytotoxicity may be abrogated by a polyproline (poly(P)) domain flanking the C terminus of the poly(Q) region. To understand structural changes that may occur with the addition of the poly(P) sequence, we synthesized poly(Q) peptides with 3-15 glutamine residues and a corresponding set of poly(Q) peptides flanked on the C terminus by 11 proline residues (poly(Q)-poly(P)), as occurs in the huntingtin sequence. The shorter soluble poly(Q) peptides (three or six glutamine residues) showed polyproline type II-like (PPII)-like helix conformation when examined by circular dichroism spectroscopy and were monomers as judged by size-exclusion chromatography (SEC), while the longer poly(Q) peptides (nine or 15 glutamine residues) showed a {beta}-sheet conformation by CD and defined oligomers by SEC. Soluble poly(Q)-poly(P) peptides showed PPII-like content but SEC showed poorly defined, overlapping oligomeric peaks, and as judged by CD these peptides retained significant PPII-like structure with increasing poly(Q) length. More importantly, addition of the poly(P) domain increased the threshold for fibril formation to {approx} 15 glutamine residues. X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, and film CD showed that, while poly(Q) peptides with {ge} 6 glutamine residues formed {beta}-sheet-rich fibrils, only the longest poly(Q)-poly(P) peptide (15 glutamine residues) did so. From these and other observations, we propose that poly(Q) domains exist in a 'tug-of-war' between two conformations, a PPII-like helix and a {beta}-sheet, while the poly(P) domain is conformationally constrained into a proline type II helix (PPII). Addition of poly(P) to the C terminus of a poly(Q) domain induces a PPII-like structure, which opposes the aggregation-prone {beta}-sheet. These structural observations may shed light on the threshold phenomenon of poly(Q) aggregation, and support the hypothesized evolution of 'protective' poly(P) tracts adjacent to poly(Q) aggregation domains.

  16. Structural characterization of triple transmembrane domain containing fragments of a yeast G protein-coupled receptor in an organic?:?aqueous environment by solution-state NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Fracchiolla, Katrina E; Cohen, Leah S; Arshava, Boris; Poms, Martin; Zerbe, Oliver; Becker, Jeffrey M; Naider, Fred

    2015-03-01

    This report summarizes recent biophysical and protein expression experiments on polypeptides containing the N-terminus, the first, second, and third transmembrane (TM) domains and the contiguous loops of the ?-factor receptor Ste2p, a G protein-coupled receptor. The 131-residue polypeptide Ste2p(G31-R161), TM1-TM3, was investigated by solution NMR in trifluoroethanol/water. TM1-TM3 contains helical TM domains at the predicted locations, supported by continuous sets of medium-range NOEs. In addition, a short helix N-terminal to TM1 was detected, as well as a short helical stretch in the first extracellular loop. Two 161-residue polypeptides, [Ste2p(M1-R161), NT-TM1-TM3], that contain the entire N-terminal sequence, one with a single mutation, were directly expressed and isolated from Escherichia coli in yields as high as 30?mg/L. Based on its increased stability, the L11P mutant will be used in future experiments to determine long-range interactions. The study demonstrated that 3-TM domains of a yeast G protein-coupled receptor can be produced in isotopically labeled form suitable for solution NMR studies. The quality of spectra is superior to data recorded in micelles and allows more rapid data analysis. No tertiary contacts have been determined, and if present, they are likely transient. This observation supports earlier studies by us that secondary structure was retained in smaller fragments, both in organic solvents and in detergent micelles, but that stable tertiary contacts may only be present when the protein is imbedded in lipids. PMID:25645975

  17. Molecular structure of r/GCG/d/TATACGC/ - A DNA-RNA hybrid helix joined to double helical DNA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, A. H.-J.; Fujii, S.; Rich, A.; Van Boom, J. H.; Van Der Marel, G. A.; Van Boeckel, S. A. A.

    1982-01-01

    The molecule r(GCG)d(TATACGC) is self-complementary and forms two DNA-RNA hybrid segments surrounding a central region of double helical DNA; its molecular structure has been solved by X-ray analysis. All three parts of the molecule adopt a conformation which is close to that seen in the 11-fold RNA double helix. The conformation of the ribonucleotides is partly determined by water molecules bridging between the ribose O2' hydroxyl group and cytosine O2. The hybrid-DNA duplex junction contains no structural discontinuities. However, the central DNA TATA sequence has some structural irregularities.

  18. Cu**+ Transporting ATPases: Structure of the Two Transmembrane Cu**+ Transport Sites

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez-Guerrero, M.; Eren, E.; Rawat, S.; Stemmler, T.L.; Arguello, J.M.

    2009-05-18

    Cu{sup +}-ATPases drive metal efflux from the cell cytoplasm. Paramount to this function is the binding of Cu{sup +} within the transmembrane region and its coupled translocation across the permeability barrier. Here, we describe the two transmembrane Cu{sup +} transport sites present in Archaeoglobus fulgidus CopA. Both sites can be independently loaded with Cu{sup +}. However, their simultaneous occupation is associated with enzyme turnover. Site I is constituted by two Cys in transmembrane segment (TM) 6 and a Tyr in TM7. An Asn in TM7 and Met and Ser in TM8 form Site II. Single site x-ray spectroscopic analysis indicates a trigonal coordination in both sites. This architecture is distinct from that observed in Cu{sup +}-trafficking chaperones and classical cuproproteins. The high affinity of these sites for Cu{sup +} (Site I K{sub {alpha}} = 1.3 fM{sup -1}, Site II K{sub {alpha}} = 1.1 fM{sup -1}), in conjunction with reversible direct Cu{sup +} transfer from chaperones, points to a transport mechanism where backward release of free Cu{sup +} to the cytoplasm is largely prevented.

  19. The Arabidopsis Histone Methyltransferase SUVR4 Binds Ubiquitin via a Domain with a Four-Helix Bundle Structure

    PubMed Central

    Rahman, Mohummad Aminur; Kristiansen, Per E.; Veiseth, Silje V.; Andersen, Jan Terje; Yap, Kyoko L.; Zhou, Ming-Ming; Sandlie, Inger; Thorstensen, Tage; Aalen, Reidunn B.

    2014-01-01

    In eukaryotes, different chromatin states facilitate or repress gene expression and restrict the activity of transposable elements. Post-translational modifications (PTMs) of amino acid residues on the N-terminal tails of histones are suggested to define such states. The histone lysine methyltransferase (HKMTase) SU(VAR)3-9 RELATED4 (SUVR4) of Arabidopsis thaliana functions as a repressor of transposon activity. Binding of ubiquitin by the WIYLD domain facilitates the addition of two methyl groups to monomethylated lysine 9 of histone H3. By using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, we identified SUVR4 WIYLD (S4WIYLD) as a domain with a four-helix bundle structure, in contrast to three-helix bundles of other ubiquitin binding domains. NMR titration analyses showed that residues of helix ?1 (Q38, L39, and D40) and helix ?4 (N68, T70, A71, V73, D74, I76, S78, and E82) of S4WIYLD and residues between the first and second ?-strands (T9 and G10) and on ?-strands 3 (R42, G47, K48, and Q49) and 4 (H68, R72, and L73) undergo significant chemical shift changes when the two proteins interact. A model of the complex, generated using HADDOCK, suggests that the N-terminal and C-terminal parts of S4WIYLD constitute a surface that interacts with charged residues close to the hydrophobic patch of ubiquitin. The WIYLD domains of the closely related SUVR1 and SUVR2 Arabidopsis proteins also bind ubiquitin, indicating that this is a general feature of this domain. The question of whether SUVR proteins act as both readers of monoubiquitinated H2B and writers of histone PTMs is discussed. PMID:24625295

  20. Membrane Protein Crystallization in Lipidic Mesophases. Hosting Lipid Effects on the Crystallization and Structure of a Transmembrane Peptide

    SciTech Connect

    Hfer, Nicole; Aragao, David; Lyons, Joseph A.; Caffrey, Martin

    2011-09-28

    Gramicidin is an apolar pentadecapeptide antibiotic consisting of alternating d- and l-amino acids. It functions, in part, by creating pores in membranes of susceptible cells rendering them leaky to monovalent cations. The peptide should be able to traverse the host membrane either as a double-stranded, intertwined double helix (DSDH) or as a head-to-head single-stranded helix (HHSH). Current structure models are based on macromolecular X-ray crystallography (MX) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). However, the HHSH form has only been observed by NMR. The shape and size of the different gramicidin conformations differ. We speculated therefore that reconstituting it into a lipidic mesophase with bilayers of different microstructures would preferentially stabilize one form over the other. By using such mesophases for in meso crystallogenesis, the expectation was that at least one would generate crystals of gramicidin in the HHSH form for structure determination by MX. This was tested using commercial and in-house synthesized lipids that support in meso crystallogenesis. Lipid acyl chain lengths were varied from 14 to 18 carbons to provide mesophases with a range of bilayer thicknesses. Unexpectedly, all lipids produced high-quality, structure-grade crystals with gramicidin only in the DSDH conformation.

  1. Synergistic transmembrane alignment of the antimicrobial heterodimer PGLa/magainin.

    PubMed

    Tremouilhac, Pierre; Strandberg, Erik; Wadhwani, Parvesh; Ulrich, Anne S

    2006-10-27

    The antimicrobial activity of amphipathic alpha-helical peptides is usually attributed to the formation of pores in bacterial membranes, but direct structural information about such a membrane-bound state is sparse. Solid state (2)H-NMR has previously shown that the antimicrobial peptide PGLa undergoes a concentration-dependent realignment from a surface-bound S-state to a tilted T-state. The corresponding change in helix tilt angle from 98 to 125 degrees was interpreted as the formation of PGLa/magainin heterodimers residing on the bilayer surface. Under no conditions so far, has an upright membrane-inserted I-state been observed in which a transmembrane helix alignment would be expected. Here, we have demonstrated that PGLa is able to assume such an I-state in a 1:1 mixture with magainin 2 at a peptide-to-lipid ratio as low as 1:100 in dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine/dimyristoylphosphatidylglycerol model membranes. This (2)H-NMR analysis is based on seven orientational constraints from Ala-3,3,3-d(3) substituted in a non-perturbing manner for four native Ala residues as well as two Ile and one Gly. The observed helix tilt of 158 degrees is rationalized by the formation of heterodimers. This structurally synergistic effect between the two related peptides from the skin of Xenopus laevis correlates very well with their known functional synergistic mode of action. To our knowledge, this example of PGLa is the first case where an alpha-helical antimicrobial peptide is directly shown to assume a transmembrane state that is compatible with the postulated toroidal wormhole pore structure. PMID:16877761

  2. Structural and functional interactions between six-transmembrane ?-opioid receptors and ?2-adrenoreceptors modulate opioid signaling

    PubMed Central

    Samoshkin, Alexander; Convertino, Marino; Viet, Chi T.; Wieskopf, Jeffrey S.; Kambur, Oleg; Marcovitz, Jaclyn; Patel, Pinkal; Stone, Laura S.; Kalso, Eija; Mogil, Jeffrey S.; Schmidt, Brian L.; Maixner, William; Dokholyan, Nikolay V.; Diatchenko, Luda

    2015-01-01

    The primary molecular target for clinically used opioids is the ?-opioid receptor (MOR). Besides the major seven-transmembrane (7TM) receptors, the MOR gene codes for alternatively spliced six-transmembrane (6TM) isoforms, the biological and clinical significance of which remains unclear. Here, we show that the otherwise exclusively intracellular localized 6TM-MOR translocates to the plasma membrane upon coexpression with ?2-adrenergic receptors (?2-ARs) through an interaction with the fifth and sixth helices of ?2-AR. Coexpression of the two receptors in BE(2)-C neuroblastoma cells potentiates calcium responses to a 6TM-MOR ligand, and this calcium response is completely blocked by a selective ?2-antagonist in BE(2)-C cells, and in trigeminal and dorsal root ganglia. Co-administration of 6TM-MOR and ?2-AR ligands leads to substantial analgesic synergy and completely reverses opioid-induced hyperalgesia in rodent behavioral models. Together, our results provide evidence that the heterodimerization of 6TM-MOR with ?2-AR underlies a molecular mechanism for 6TM cellular signaling, presenting a unique functional responses to opioids. This signaling pathway may contribute to the hyperalgesic effects of opioids that can be efficiently blocked by ?2-AR antagonists, providing a new avenue for opioid therapy. PMID:26657998

  3. Solution Structure of an Alternate Conformation of Helix 27 from Escherichia Coli 16S rRNA†

    PubMed Central

    Spano, Meredith Newby; Walter, Nils G.

    2011-01-01

    Helix (H)27 of 16S ribosomal (r)RNA from Escherichia coli was dubbed the “switch helix” when mutagenesis suggested that two alternative base pair registers may have distinct functional roles in the bacterial ribosome. Although more recent genetic analyses suggest that H27 conformational switching is not required for translation, previous solution studies demonstrated that the isolated E. coli H27 can dynamically convert between the 885 and 888 conformations. Here, we have solved the NMR solution structure of a locked 888 conformation. NOE and residual dipolar coupling restraints reveal an architecture that markedly differs from that of the 885 conformation found in crystal structures of the bacterial ribosome. In place of the loop E motif that characterizes the 885 conformer and that the 888 conformer cannot adopt, we find evidence for an asymmetrical A-rich internal loop stabilized by stacking interactions among the unpaired A’s. Comparison of the isolated H27 888 solution structure with the 885 crystal structure within the context of the ribosome suggests a difference in overall length of H27 that presents one plausible reason for the absence of H27 conformational switching within the sterically confining ribosome. PMID:21442607

  4. Evolutionary-guided de novo structure prediction of self-associated transmembrane helical proteins with near-atomic accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Barth, P.

    2015-05-01

    How specific protein associations regulate the function of membrane receptors remains poorly understood. Conformational flexibility currently hinders the structure determination of several classes of membrane receptors and associated oligomers. Here we develop EFDOCK-TM, a general method to predict self-associated transmembrane protein helical (TMH) structures from sequence guided by co-evolutionary information. We show that accurate intermolecular contacts can be identified using a combination of protein sequence covariation and TMH binding surfaces predicted from sequence. When applied to diverse TMH oligomers, including receptors characterized in multiple conformational and functional states, the method reaches unprecedented near-atomic accuracy for most targets. Blind predictions of structurally uncharacterized receptor tyrosine kinase TMH oligomers provide a plausible hypothesis on the molecular mechanisms of disease-associated point mutations and binding surfaces for the rational design of selective inhibitors. The method sets the stage for uncovering novel determinants of molecular recognition and signalling in single-spanning eukaryotic membrane receptors.

  5. Anesthetics target interfacial transmembrane sites in nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Forman, Stuart A; Chiara, David C; Miller, Keith W

    2015-09-01

    General anesthetics are a heterogeneous group of small amphiphilic ligands that interact weakly at multiple allosteric sites on many pentameric ligand gated ion channels (pLGICs), resulting in either inhibition, potentiation of channel activity, or both. Allosteric principles imply that modulator sites must change configuration and ligand affinity during receptor state transitions. Thus, general anesthetics and related compounds are useful both as state-dependent probes of receptor structure and as potentially selective modulators of pLGIC functions. This review focuses on general anesthetic sites in nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, which were among the first anesthetic-sensitive pLGIC experimental models studied, with particular focus on sites formed by transmembrane domain elements. Structural models place many of these sites at interfaces between two or more pLGIC transmembrane helices both within subunits and between adjacent subunits, and between transmembrane helices and either lipids (the lipid-protein interface) or water (i.e. the ion channel). A single general anesthetic may bind at multiple allosteric sites in pLGICs, producing a net effect of either inhibition (e.g. blocking the ion channel) or enhanced channel gating (e.g. inter-subunit sites). Other general anesthetic sites identified by photolabeling or crystallography are tentatively linked to functional effects, including intra-subunit helix bundle sites and the lipid-protein interface. This article is part of the Special Issue entitled 'The Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor: From Molecular Biology to Cognition'. PMID:25316107

  6. The structure of Plasmodium vivax phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein suggests a functional motif containing a left-handed helix

    SciTech Connect

    Arakaki, Tracy; Neely, Helen; Boni, Erica; Mueller, Natasha; Buckner, Frederick S.; Van Voorhis, Wesley C.; Lauricella, Angela; DeTitta, George; Luft, Joseph; Hol, Wim G. J.; Merritt, Ethan A.

    2007-03-01

    The crystal structure of a phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein from P. vivax, a homolog of Raf-kinase inhibitor protein (RKIP), has been solved to a resolution of 1.3 Å. The inferred interaction surface near the anion-binding site is found to include a distinctive left-handed ?-helix. The structure of a putative Raf kinase inhibitor protein (RKIP) homolog from the eukaryotic parasite Plasmodium vivax has been studied to a resolution of 1.3 Å using multiple-wavelength anomalous diffraction at the Se K edge. This protozoan protein is topologically similar to previously studied members of the phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein (PEBP) sequence family, but exhibits a distinctive left-handed ?-helical region at one side of the canonical phospholipid-binding site. Re-examination of previously determined PEBP structures suggests that the P. vivax protein and yeast carboxypeptidase Y inhibitor may represent a structurally distinct subfamily of the diverse PEBP-sequence family.

  7. Conformational rearrangements in the transmembrane domain of CNGA1 channels revealed by single-molecule force spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maity, Sourav; Mazzolini, Monica; Arcangeletti, Manuel; Valbuena, Alejandro; Fabris, Paolo; Lazzarino, Marco; Torre, Vincent

    2015-05-01

    Cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) channels are activated by binding of cyclic nucleotides. Although structural studies have identified the channel pore and selectivity filter, conformation changes associated with gating remain poorly understood. Here we combine single-molecule force spectroscopy (SMFS) with mutagenesis, bioinformatics and electrophysiology to study conformational changes associated with gating. By expressing functional channels with SMFS fingerprints in Xenopus laevis oocytes, we were able to investigate gating of CNGA1 in a physiological-like membrane. Force spectra determined that the S4 transmembrane domain is mechanically coupled to S5 in the closed state, but S3 in the open state. We also show there are multiple pathways for the unfolding of the transmembrane domains, probably caused by a different degree of ?-helix folding. This approach demonstrates that CNG transmembrane domains have dynamic structure and establishes SMFS as a tool for probing conformational change in ion channels.

  8. Structure of H_2 molecular knots in the Helix and Dumbbell nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuura, M.; Speck, A. K.; McHunu, B. M.; Tanaka, I.; Wright, N. J.; Smith, M. D.; Viti, S.; Zijlstra, A. A.

    The recent development of a large field-of-view infrared camera have enabled deep imaging of large planetary nebulae (PNe), and the study of spatial distribution of near-infrared molecular hydrogen emission lines. We have observed the Helix and Dumbbell Nebulae, using the Subaru MOIRCS, which has a 4' × 7' field of view. Molecular hydrogen in these two nebulae is highly collimated in knots. The shapes of knots change from the inner to the outer region. This suggests that PN wind shapes the knots, and that the difference in wind density affects the shapes of knots.

  9. Molecular thermodynamics of trifluoroethanol-induced helix formation: analysis of the solvation structure and free energy by the 3D-RISM theory.

    PubMed

    Imai, Takashi; Kovalenko, Andriy; Hirata, Fumio; Kidera, Akinori

    2009-06-01

    It has been shown that trifluoroethanol (TFE) induces helical structure in peptides and proteins. The molecular mechanism is, however, still not completely elucidated. In this study, the TFE effects on the solvation structure and on the free energy change associated with the helix-coil transition of a polypeptide are analyzed by using the three-dimensional reference interaction site model (3D-RISM) molecular theory of solvation. The theoretical result shows that TFE preferentially solvates at low concentrations around 30 vol% both for the helix and coil structures. However, the characteristic preferential solvation is not as significant in the TFE-induced helix stabilization as generally considered. It is also found that the overall energy contributes to the free energy difference more substantially than the solvation entropy. PMID:20640830

  10. Global topology & stability and local structure & dynamics in a synthetic spin-labeled four-helix bundle protein.

    PubMed

    Gibney, B R; Johansson, J S; Rabanal, F; Skalicky, J J; Wand, A J; Dutton, P L

    1997-03-11

    A maleimide nitroxide spin-label (MAL-6) linked to a cysteine in the hydrophobic core and a coproporphyrin I (CP) appended on the N-terminus of a synthetic helix-loop-helix peptide ([alpha2]) have been used to examine the designed self-association of a four-helix bundle ([alpha2]2), focusing on the bundle topology and stability and the rotational dynamics of the spin-label. Gel-permeation chromatography demonstrated that the [alpha2] peptide and the peptide modified with a spin-label ([MAL-6-alpha2]), a coproporphyrin ([CP-alpha2]) and a coproporphyrin plus a spin-label ([CP-MAL-6-alpha2]) self-associate into four helix bundles in solution as designed. Circular dichroism (CD) spectra prove that all these peptides are highly alpha-helical, confirmed for [alpha2]2 by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic analysis. Electron spin resonance (ESR) spectra of the two attached maleimide spin-labels in [MAL-6-alpha2]2 shows their effective rotational correlation time (tau(c)) is 7.3 +/- 0.5 ns, consistent with that expected for the tumbling of the four helix bundle itself, indicating the labels are immobilized. The ESR spectra were also unaltered by aqueous-phase paramagnetic ions, Ni(II), demonstrating all of the spin-labels are buried within the hydrophobic core. The lack of spin-spin interaction between the buried, immobilized spin-labels indicates they are remote (> 15 A) from each other, indicating an antiparallel topology of the monomers in [MAL-6-alpha2]2. The parent [alpha2]2 and the modified [MAL-6-alpha2]2 and [CP-alpha2]2 peptides are highly stable (deltaG(H2O) approximately 25 kcal/mol) as investigated by guanidine hydrochloride denaturation curves monitored by ESR and CD spectroscopies. Guanidine hydrochloride denaturation leads to a shorter correlation time of the spin-label, tau(c) < 1 ns, approaching that of an unrestricted spin-label in solution. In contrast, trifluoroethanol caused dissociation of [MAL-6-alpha2]2 to yield two [MAL-6-alpha2] monomers with retention of secondary structure and changed the tau(c) to 2.5 +/- 0.5 ns, indicating that a significant degree of motional restriction is imposed on the spin-label by the secondary structure. The coproporphyrin probes covalently attached to the N-termini of [CP-alpha2]2 and [CP-MAL-6-alpha2]2 provided evidence that the helical monomers of both were in a parallel orientation, in contrast to the antiparallel orientation determined for [MAL-6-alpha2]2. Consequently, the ESR spectra of [MAL-6-alpha2]2 and [CP-MAL-6-alpha2]2 reveal major structural differences in the local vicinity of the spin-labels due to the topological difference between these two bundles. The ESR spectra of [CP-MAL-6-alpha2]2 contains two distinct nitroxide populations, indicating that one spin-label remains buried in the hydrophobic core and the other is excluded to solvent in this parallel topology. Alleviation of the steric interactions causing one spin-label in [CP-MAL-6-alpha2]2 to be solvent-exposed by addition of [CP-alpha2]2 results in formation of the heterodimeric [CP-alpha2]/[CP-MAL-6-alpha2], as evidenced by insertion of all the spin-labels into hydrophobic cores. The changes in global topology and local structure as evidenced by this pair of spectral probes have relatively minor effects on the course of guanidine denaturation of these bundles. PMID:9062107

  11. Using experimental information to produce a model of the transmembrane domain of the ion channel phospholamban.

    PubMed Central

    Herzyk, P; Hubbard, R E

    1998-01-01

    Molecular models of the transmembrane domain of the phospholamban pentamer have been generated by a computational method that uses the experimentally measured effects of systematic single-site mutations as a guiding force in the modeling procedure. This method makes the assumptions that 1) the phospholamban transmembrane domain is a parallel five-helix bundle, and 2) nondisruptive mutation positions are lipid exposed, whereas 3) disruptive or partially disruptive mutations are not. Our procedure requires substantially less computer time than systematic search methods, allowing rapid assessment of the effects of different experimental results on the helix arrangement. The effectiveness of the approach is investigated in test calculations on two helix-dimer systems of known structure. Two independently derived sets of mutagenesis data were used to define the restraints for generating models of phospholamban. Both resulting models are left-handed, highly symmetrical pentamers. Although the overall bundle geometry is very similar in the two models, the orientation of individual helices differs by approximately 50 degrees, resulting in different sets of residues facing the pore. This demonstrates how differences in restraints can have an effect on the model structures generated, and how the violation of these restraints can identify inconsistent experimental data. PMID:9512019

  12. Disordered regions in transmembrane proteins.

    PubMed

    Tusnády, Gábor E; Dobson, László; Tompa, Peter

    2015-11-01

    The functions of transmembrane proteins in living cells are widespread; they range from various transport processes to energy production, from cell-cell adhesion to communication. Structurally, they are highly ordered in their membrane-spanning regions, but may contain disordered regions in the cytosolic and extra-cytosolic parts. In this study, we have investigated the disordered regions in transmembrane proteins by a stringent definition of disordered residues on the currently available largest experimental dataset, and show a significant correlation between the spatial distributions of positively charged residues and disordered regions. This finding suggests a new role of disordered regions in transmembrane proteins by providing structural flexibility for stabilizing interactions with negatively charged head groups of the lipid molecules. We also find a preference of structural disorder in the terminal - as opposed to loop - regions in transmembrane proteins, and survey the respective functions involved in recruiting other proteins or mediating allosteric signaling effects. Finally, we critically compare disorder prediction methods on our transmembrane protein set. While there are no major differences between these methods using the usual statistics, such as per residue accuracies, Matthew's correlation coefficients, etc.; substantial differences can be found regarding the spatial distribution of the predicted disordered regions. We conclude that a predictor optimized for transmembrane proteins would be of high value to the field of structural disorder. PMID:26275590

  13. Structure and computational analysis of a novel protein with metallopeptidase-like and circularly permuted winged-helix-turn-helix domains reveals a possible role in modified polysaccharide biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background CA_C2195 from Clostridium acetobutylicum is a protein of unknown function. Sequence analysis predicted that part of the protein contained a metallopeptidase-related domain. There are over 200 homologs of similar size in large sequence databases such as UniProt, with pairwise sequence identities in the range of ~40-60%. CA_C2195 was chosen for crystal structure determination for structure-based function annotation of novel protein sequence space. Results The structure confirmed that CA_C2195 contained an N-terminal metallopeptidase-like domain. The structure revealed two extra domains: an ?+? domain inserted in the metallopeptidase-like domain and a C-terminal circularly permuted winged-helix-turn-helix domain. Conclusions Based on our sequence and structural analyses using the crystal structure of CA_C2195 we provide a view into the possible functions of the protein. From contextual information from gene-neighborhood analysis, we propose that rather than being a peptidase, CA_C2195 and its homologs might play a role in biosynthesis of a modified cell-surface carbohydrate in conjunction with several sugar-modification enzymes. These results provide the groundwork for the experimental verification of the function. PMID:24646163

  14. Sequence and conformational preferences at termini of ?-helices in membrane proteins: role of the helix environment.

    PubMed

    Shelar, Ashish; Bansal, Manju

    2014-12-01

    ?-Helices are amongst the most common secondary structural elements seen in membrane proteins and are packed in the form of helix bundles. These ?-helices encounter varying external environments (hydrophobic, hydrophilic) that may influence the sequence preferences at their N and C-termini. The role of the external environment in stabilization of the helix termini in membrane proteins is still unknown. Here we analyze ?-helices in a high-resolution dataset of integral ?-helical membrane proteins and establish that their sequence and conformational preferences differ from those in globular proteins. We specifically examine these preferences at the N and C-termini in helices initiating/terminating inside the membrane core as well as in linkers connecting these transmembrane helices. We find that the sequence preferences and structural motifs at capping (Ncap and Ccap) and near-helical (N' and C') positions are influenced by a combination of features including the membrane environment and the innate helix initiation and termination property of residues forming structural motifs. We also find that a large number of helix termini which do not form any particular capping motif are stabilized by formation of hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions contributed from the neighboring helices in the membrane protein. We further validate the sequence preferences obtained from our analysis with data from an ultradeep sequencing study that identifies evolutionarily conserved amino acids in the rat neurotensin receptor. The results from our analysis provide insights for the secondary structure prediction, modeling and design of membrane proteins. PMID:25257385

  15. Structural basis of typhod: Salmonella typhi type IVb pilin (PilS) and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Balakrishna, A.; Saxena, A; Mok, H; Swaminathan, K

    2009-01-01

    The type IVb pilus of the enteropathogenic bacteria Salmonella typhi is a major adhesion factor during the entry of this pathogen into gastrointestinal epithelial cells. Its target of adhesion is a stretch of 10 residues from the first extracellular domain of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). The crystal structure of the N-terminal 25 amino acid deleted S. typhi native PilS protein (PilS), which makes the pilus, was determined at 1.9 A resolution by the multiwavelength anomalous dispersion method. Also, the structure of the complex of PilS and a target CFTR peptide, determined at 1.8 A, confirms that residues 113-117 (NKEER) of CFTR are involved in binding with the pilin protein and gives us insight on the amino acids that are essential for binding. Furthermore, we have also explored the role of a conserved disulfide bridge in pilus formation. The subunit structure and assembly architecture are crucial for understanding pilus functions and designing suitable therapeutics against typhoid.

  16. Structural basis of typhoid: Salmonella typhi type IVb pilin (PiLS) and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Balakrishna, A.M.; Saxena, A.; Mok, H. Y.-K.; Swaminathan, K.

    2009-11-01

    The type IVb pilus of the enteropathogenic bacteria Salmonella typhi is a major adhesion factor during the entry of this pathogen into gastrointestinal epithelial cells. Its target of adhesion is a stretch of 10 residues from the first extracellular domain of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). The crystal structure of the N-terminal 25 amino acid deleted S. typhi native PilS protein ({Delta}PilS), which makes the pilus, was determined at 1.9 {angstrom} resolution by the multiwavelength anomalous dispersion method. Also, the structure of the complex of {Delta}PilS and a target CFTR peptide, determined at 1.8 {angstrom}, confirms that residues 113-117 (NKEER) of CFTR are involved in binding with the pilin protein and gives us insight on the amino acids that are essential for binding. Furthermore, we have also explored the role of a conserved disulfide bridge in pilus formation. The subunit structure and assembly architecture are crucial for understanding pilus functions and designing suitable therapeutics against typhoid.

  17. Structural Basis of Typhoid: Salmonella typhi Type IVb pilin (PilS) and Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulatory Interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Balakrishna, A.; Saxena, A; Mok, H; Swaminathan, K

    2009-01-01

    The type IVb pilus of the enteropathogenic bacteria Salmonella typhi is a major adhesion factor during the entry of this pathogen into gastrointestinal epithelial cells. Its target of adhesion is a stretch of 10 residues from the first extracellular domain of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). The crystal structure of the N-terminal 25 amino acid deleted S. typhi native PilS protein (PilS), which makes the pilus, was determined at 1.9 A resolution by the multiwavelength anomalous dispersion method. Also, the structure of the complex of PilS and a target CFTR peptide, determined at 1.8 A, confirms that residues 113-117 (NKEER) of CFTR are involved in binding with the pilin protein and gives us insight on the amino acids that are essential for binding. Furthermore, we have also explored the role of a conserved disulfide bridge in pilus formation. The subunit structure and assembly architecture are crucial for understanding pilus functions and designing suitable therapeutics against typhoid.

  18. Structural Model of the Anion Exchanger 1 (SLC4A1) and Identification of Transmembrane Segments Forming the Transport Site

    PubMed Central

    Barneaud-Rocca, Damien; Etchebest, Catherine; Guizouarn, Hélène

    2013-01-01

    The anion exchanger 1 (AE1), a member of bicarbonate transporter family SLC4, mediates an electroneutral chloride/bicarbonate exchange in physiological conditions. However, some point mutations in AE1 membrane-spanning domain convert the electroneutral anion exchanger into a Na+ and K+ conductance or induce a cation leak in a still functional anion exchanger. The molecular determinants that govern ion movement through this transporter are still unknown. The present study was intended to identify the ion translocation pathway within AE1. In the absence of a resolutive three-dimensional structure of AE1 membrane-spanning domain, in silico modeling combined with site-directed mutagenesis experiments was done. A structural model of AE1 membrane-spanning domain is proposed, and this model is based on the structure of a uracil-proton symporter. This model was used to design cysteine-scanning mutagenesis on transmembrane (TM) segments 3 and 5. By measuring AE1 anion exchange activity or cation leak, it is proposed that there is a unique transport site comprising TM3–5 and TM8 that should function as an anion exchanger and a cation leak. PMID:23846695

  19. Structural and functional studies of Stf76 from the Sulfolobus islandicus plasmid–virus pSSVx: a novel peculiar member of the winged helix–turn–helix transcription factor family

    PubMed Central

    Contursi, Patrizia; Farina, Biancamaria; Pirone, Luciano; Fusco, Salvatore; Russo, Luigi; Bartolucci, Simonetta; Fattorusso, Roberto; Pedone, Emilia

    2014-01-01

    The hybrid plasmid–virus pSSVx from Sulfolobus islandicus presents an open reading frame encoding a 76 amino acid protein, namely Stf76, that does not show significant sequence homology with any protein with known 3D structure. The recombinant protein recognizes specifically two DNA-binding sites located in its own promoter, thus suggesting an auto-regulated role of its expression. Circular dichroism, spectrofluorimetric, light scattering and isothermal titration calorimetry experiments indicated a 2:1 molar ratio (protein:DNA) upon binding to the DNA target containing a single site. Furthermore, the solution structure of Stf76, determined by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) using chemical shift Rosetta software, has shown that the protein assumes a winged helix–turn–helix fold. NMR chemical shift perturbation analysis has been performed for the identification of the residues responsible for DNA interaction. In addition, a model of the Stf76–DNA complex has been built using as template a structurally related homolog. PMID:24682827

  20. Structural and functional studies of Stf76 from the Sulfolobus islandicus plasmid-virus pSSVx: a novel peculiar member of the winged helix-turn-helix transcription factor family.

    PubMed

    Contursi, Patrizia; Farina, Biancamaria; Pirone, Luciano; Fusco, Salvatore; Russo, Luigi; Bartolucci, Simonetta; Fattorusso, Roberto; Pedone, Emilia

    2014-05-01

    The hybrid plasmid-virus pSSVx from Sulfolobus islandicus presents an open reading frame encoding a 76 amino acid protein, namely Stf76, that does not show significant sequence homology with any protein with known 3D structure. The recombinant protein recognizes specifically two DNA-binding sites located in its own promoter, thus suggesting an auto-regulated role of its expression. Circular dichroism, spectrofluorimetric, light scattering and isothermal titration calorimetry experiments indicated a 2:1 molar ratio (protein:DNA) upon binding to the DNA target containing a single site. Furthermore, the solution structure of Stf76, determined by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) using chemical shift Rosetta software, has shown that the protein assumes a winged helix-turn-helix fold. NMR chemical shift perturbation analysis has been performed for the identification of the residues responsible for DNA interaction. In addition, a model of the Stf76-DNA complex has been built using as template a structurally related homolog. PMID:24682827

  1. Crystal structure of the complete integrin [alpha]V[beta]3 ectodomain plus an [alpah/beta] transmembrane fragment

    SciTech Connect

    Xiong, Jian-Ping; Mahalingham, Bhuvaneshwari; Alonso, Jose Luis; Borrelli, Laura Ann; Rui, Xianliang; Anand, Saurabh; Hyman, Bradley T.; Rysiok, Thomas; Müller-Pompalla, Dirk; Goodman, Simon L.; Arnaout, M. Amin

    2010-02-22

    We determined the crystal structure of 1TM-{alpha}V{beta}3, which represents the complete unconstrained ectodomain plus short C-terminal transmembrane stretches of the {alpha}V and {beta}3 subunits. 1TM-{alpha}V{beta}3 is more compact and less active in solution when compared with {Delta}TM-{alpha}V{beta}3, which lacks the short C-terminal stretches. The structure reveals a bent conformation and defines the {alpha}-{beta} interface between IE2 (EGF-like 2) and the thigh domains. Modifying this interface by site-directed mutagenesis leads to robust integrin activation. Fluorescent lifetime imaging microscopy of inactive full-length {alpha}V{beta}3 on live cells yields a donor-membrane acceptor distance, which is consistent with the bent conformation and does not change in the activated integrin. These data are the first direct demonstration of conformational coupling of the integrin leg and head domains, identify the IE2-thigh interface as a critical steric barrier in integrin activation, and suggest that inside-out activation in intact cells may involve conformational changes other than the postulated switch to a genu-linear state.

  2. Solution structure of the transmembrane 2 domain of the human melanocortin-4 receptor in sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micelles and the functional implication of the D90N mutant.

    PubMed

    Yun, Ji-Hye; Kim, Minsup; Kim, Kuglae; Lee, Dongju; Jung, Youngjin; Oh, Daeseok; Ko, Yoon-Joo; Cho, Art E; Cho, Hyun-Soo; Lee, Weontae

    2015-06-01

    The melanocortin receptors (MCRs) are members of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) 1 superfamily with seven transmembrane (TM) domains. Among them, the melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) subtype has been highlighted recently by genetic studies in obese humans. In particular, in a patient with severe early-onset obesity, a novel heterozygous mutation in the MC4R gene was found in an exchange of Asp to Asn in the 90th amino acid residue located in the TM 2 domain (MC4RD90N). Mutations in the MC4R gene are the most frequent monogenic causes of severe obesity and are described as heterozygous with loss of function. We determine solution structures of the TM 2 domain of MC4R (MC4RTM2) and compared secondary structure of Asp90 mutant (MC4RTM2-D90N) in a micelle environment by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. NMR structure shows that MC4RTM2 forms a long ?-helix with a kink at Gly98. Interestingly, the structure of MC4RTM2-D90N is similar to that of MC4RTM2 based on data from CD and NMR spectrum. However, the thermal stability and homogeneity of MC4RD90N is quite different from those of MC4R. The structure from molecular modeling suggests that Asp90(2.50) plays a key role in allosteric sodium ion binding. Our data suggest that the sodium ion interaction of Asp90(2.50) in the allosteric pocket of MC4R is essential to its function, explaining the loss of function of the MC4RD90N mutant. PMID:25753114

  3. Functional and Modeling Studies of the Transmembrane Region of the TRPM8 Channel.

    PubMed

    Bidaux, Gabriel; Sgobba, Miriam; Lemonnier, Loic; Borowiec, Anne-Sophie; Noyer, Lucile; Jovanovic, Srdan; Zholos, Alexander V; Haider, Shozeb

    2015-11-01

    Members of the transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channel family act as polymodal cellular sensors, which aid in regulating Ca(2+) homeostasis. Within the TRP family, TRPM8 is the cold receptor that forms a nonselective homotetrameric cation channel. In the absence of TRPM8 crystal structure, little is known about the relationship between structure and function. Inferences of TRPM8 structure have come from mutagenesis experiments coupled to electrophysiology, mainly regarding the fourth transmembrane helix (S4), which constitutes a moderate voltage-sensing domain, and about cold sensor and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate binding sites, which are both located in the C-terminus of TRPM8. In this study, we use a combination of molecular modeling and experimental techniques to examine the structure of the TRPM8 transmembrane and pore helix region including the conducting conformation of the selectivity filter. The model is consistent with a large amount of functional data and was further tested by mutagenesis. We present structural insight into the role of residues involved in intra- and intersubunit interactions and their link with the channel activity, sensitivity to icilin, menthol and cold, and impact on channel oligomerization. PMID:26536261

  4. The Influence of Hydrophobic Mismatch on Structure and Dynamics of Transmembrane Helices and Lipid Bilayers

    E-print Network

    Kim, Taehoon

    2011-12-31

    regulation of membrane protein functions are largely controlled by the hydrophobic match between the TM domain of membrane proteins and the surrounding lipid bilayer, the interplay between the structure and the energetics of lipid and protein components...

  5. Structural and molecular basis of ZNRF3/RNF43 transmembrane ubiquitin ligase inhibition by the Wnt agonist R-spondin

    PubMed Central

    Zebisch, Matthias; Xu, Yang; Krastev, Christos; MacDonald, Bryan T.; Chen, Maorong; Gilbert, Robert J. C.; He, Xi; Jones, E. Yvonne

    2013-01-01

    The four R-spondin (Rspo) proteins are secreted agonists of Wnt signalling in vertebrates, functioning in embryogenesis and adult stem cell biology. Through ubiquitination and degradation of Wnt receptors, the transmembrane E3 ubiquitin ligase ZNRF3 and related RNF43 antagonize Wnt signalling. Rspo ligands have been reported to inhibit the ligase activity through direct interaction with ZNRF3 and RNF43. Here we report multiple crystal structures of the ZNRF3 ectodomain (ZNRF3ecto), a signalling-competent Furin1–Furin2 (Fu1–Fu2) fragment of Rspo2 (Rspo2Fu1–Fu2), and Rspo2Fu1–Fu2 in complex with ZNRF3ecto, or RNF43ecto. A prominent loop in Fu1 clamps into equivalent grooves in the ZNRF3ecto and RNF43ecto surface. Rspo binding enhances dimerization of ZNRF3ecto but not of RNF43ecto. Comparison of the four Rspo proteins, mutants and chimeras in biophysical and cellular assays shows that their signalling potency depends on their ability to recruit ZNRF3 or RNF43 via Fu1 into a complex with LGR receptors, which interact with Rspo via Fu2. PMID:24225776

  6. Detergents Modulate Dimerization, but not Helicity, of the Glycophorin A Transmembrane Domain

    E-print Network

    Detergents Modulate Dimerization, but not Helicity, of the Glycophorin A Transmembrane Domain to measure dimerization of the glyco- phorin A transmembrane helix in detergent micelles. The observed Kd is at least two orders of magnitude weaker in sodium dodecyl sulfate than it is in zwitterionic detergents

  7. The importance of helix P1 stability for structural pre-organization and ligand binding affinity of the adenine riboswitch aptamer domain

    PubMed Central

    Nozinovic, Senada; Reining, Anke; Kim, Yong-Boum; Noeske, Jonas; Schlepckow, Kai; Wöhnert, Jens; Schwalbe, Harald

    2014-01-01

    We report here an in-depth characterization of the aptamer domain of the transcriptional adenine-sensing riboswitch (pbuE) by NMR and fluorescence spectroscopy. By NMR studies, the structure of two aptamer sequences with different lengths of the helix P1, the central element involved in riboswitch conformational switching, was characterized. Hydrogen-bond interactions could be mapped at nucleotide resolution providing information about secondary and tertiary structure, structure homogeneity and dynamics. Our study reveals that the elongation of helix P1 has pronounced effects not only on the local but on the global structure of the apo aptamer domain. The structural differences induced by stabilizing helix P1 were found to be linked to changes of the ligand binding affinity as revealed from analysis of kinetic and thermodynamic data obtained from stopped-flow fluorescence studies. The results provide new insight into the sequence-dependent fine tuning of the structure and function of purine-sensing riboswitches. PMID:24921630

  8. Transmembrane helices predicted at 95% accuracy.

    PubMed Central

    Rost, B.; Casadio, R.; Fariselli, P.; Sander, C.

    1995-01-01

    We describe a neural network system that predicts the locations of transmembrane helices in integral membrane proteins. By using evolutionary information as input to the network system, the method significantly improved on a previously published neural network prediction method that had been based on single sequence information. The input data were derived from multiple alignments for each position in a window of 13 adjacent residues: amino acid frequency, conservation weights, number of insertions and deletions, and position of the window with respect to the ends of the protein chain. Additional input was the amino acid composition and length of the whole protein. A rigorous cross-validation test on 69 proteins with experimentally determined locations of transmembrane segments yielded an overall two-state per-residue accuracy of 95%. About 94% of all segments were predicted correctly. When applied to known globular proteins as a negative control, the network system incorrectly predicted fewer than 5% of globular proteins as having transmembrane helices. The method was applied to all 269 open reading frames from the complete yeast VIII chromosome. For 59 of these, at least two transmembrane helices were predicted. Thus, the prediction is that about one-fourth of all proteins from yeast VIII contain one transmembrane helix, and some 20%, more than one. PMID:7795533

  9. An Algorithm for Protein Helix Assignment Using Helix Geometry

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Chen; Xu, Shutan; Wang, Lincong

    2015-01-01

    Helices are one of the most common and were among the earliest recognized secondary structure elements in proteins. The assignment of helices in a protein underlies the analysis of its structure and function. Though the mathematical expression for a helical curve is simple, no previous assignment programs have used a genuine helical curve as a model for helix assignment. In this paper we present a two-step assignment algorithm. The first step searches for a series of bona fide helical curves each one best fits the coordinates of four successive backbone C? atoms. The second step uses the best fit helical curves as input to make helix assignment. The application to the protein structures in the PDB (protein data bank) proves that the algorithm is able to assign accurately not only regular ?-helix but also 310 and ? helices as well as their left-handed versions. One salient feature of the algorithm is that the assigned helices are structurally more uniform than those by the previous programs. The structural uniformity should be useful for protein structure classification and prediction while the accurate assignment of a helix to a particular type underlies structure-function relationship in proteins. PMID:26132394

  10. A Specific Interface between Integrin Transmembrane Helices

    E-print Network

    Springer, Timothy A.

    A Specific Interface between Integrin Transmembrane Helices and Affinity for Ligand Bing-Hao Luo of integrins is beginning to be defined by structural work on both domains. However, the role of the a and b elusive. Disulfide bond scanning of the exofacial portions of the integrin aIIb and b3 transmembrane

  11. Structure of the Newcastle disease virus hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) ectodomain reveals a four-helix bundle stalk

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, Ping; Swanson, Kurt A.; Leser, George P.; Paterson, Reay G.; Lamb, Robert A.; Jardetzky, Theodore S.

    2014-10-02

    The paramyxovirus hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) protein plays multiple roles in viral entry and egress, including binding to sialic acid receptors, activating the fusion (F) protein to activate membrane fusion and viral entry, and cleaving sialic acid from carbohydrate chains. HN is an oligomeric integral membrane protein consisting of an N-terminal transmembrane domain, a stalk region, and an enzymatically active neuraminidase (NA) domain. Structures of the HN NA domains have been solved previously; however, the structure of the stalk region has remained elusive. The stalk region contains specificity determinants for F interactions and activation, underlying the requirement for homotypic F and HN interactions in viral entry. Mutations of the Newcastle disease virus HN stalk region have been shown to affect both F activation and NA activities, but a structural basis for understanding these dual affects on HN functions has been lacking. Here, we report the structure of the Newcastle disease virus HN ectodomain, revealing dimers of NA domain dimers flanking the N-terminal stalk domain. The stalk forms a parallel tetrameric coiled-coil bundle (4HB) that allows classification of extensive mutational data, providing insight into the functional roles of the stalk region. Mutations that affect both F activation and NA activities map predominantly to the 4HB hydrophobic core, whereas mutations that affect only F-protein activation map primarily to the 4HB surface. Two of four NA domains interact with the 4HB stalk, and residues at this interface in both the stalk and NA domain have been implicated in HN function.

  12. Energetics of [alpha]-helix formation in peptides and proteins

    E-print Network

    Schubert, Christian Reinhold

    2009-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the energetics of !-helix formation in peptides and proteins. The [alpha]-helix is the most prevalent type of secondary structure found in proteins, and has arguably dominated our thinking about ...

  13. Viral fusion protein transmembrane domain adopts ?-strand structure to facilitate membrane topological changes for virus-cell fusion.

    PubMed

    Yao, Hongwei; Lee, Michelle W; Waring, Alan J; Wong, Gerard C L; Hong, Mei

    2015-09-01

    The C-terminal transmembrane domain (TMD) of viral fusion proteins such as HIV gp41 and influenza hemagglutinin (HA) is traditionally viewed as a passive ?-helical anchor of the protein to the virus envelope during its merger with the cell membrane. The conformation, dynamics, and lipid interaction of these fusion protein TMDs have so far eluded high-resolution structure characterization because of their highly hydrophobic nature. Using magic-angle-spinning solid-state NMR spectroscopy, we show that the TMD of the parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV5) fusion protein adopts lipid-dependent conformations and interactions with the membrane and water. In phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylglycerol (PG) membranes, the TMD is predominantly ?-helical, but in phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) membranes, the TMD changes significantly to the ?-strand conformation. Measured order parameters indicate that the strand segments are immobilized and thus oligomerized. (31)P NMR spectra and small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) data show that this ?-strand-rich conformation converts the PE membrane to a bicontinuous cubic phase, which is rich in negative Gaussian curvature that is characteristic of hemifusion intermediates and fusion pores. (1)H-(31)P 2D correlation spectra and (2)H spectra show that the PE membrane with or without the TMD is much less hydrated than PC and PG membranes, suggesting that the TMD works with the natural dehydration tendency of PE to facilitate membrane merger. These results suggest a new viral-fusion model in which the TMD actively promotes membrane topological changes during fusion using the ?-strand as the fusogenic conformation. PMID:26283363

  14. Backbone Structure of the Amantadine-Blocked Trans-Membrane Domain M2 Proton Channel from Influenza A Virus

    E-print Network

    ; and { National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Tallahassee, Florida ABSTRACT Amantadine is known to block the M2 model of the tetrameric amantadine-blocked M2 trans-membrane channel. The influence of amantadine of artificial and natural mem- brane systems such as oocytes (3), mammalian cells (4), and even lipid bilayers

  15. Structure and function of transmembrane segment XII in osmosensor and osmoprotectant transporter ProP of Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Liu, Feng; Culham, Doreen E; Vernikovska, Yaroslava I; Keates, Robert A B; Boggs, Joan M; Wood, Janet M

    2007-05-15

    Escherichia coli transporter ProP acts as both an osmosensor and an osmoregulator. As medium osmolality rises, ProP is activated and mediates H+-coupled uptake of osmolytes like proline. A homology model of ProP with 12-transmembrane (TM) helices and cytoplasmic termini was created, and the protein's topology was substantiated experimentally. Residues 468-497, at the end of the C-terminal domain and linked to TM XII, form an intermolecular, homodimeric alpha-helical coiled-coil that tunes the transporter's response to osmolality. We aim to further define the structure and function of ProP residues Q415-E440, predicted to include TM XII. Each residue was replaced with cysteine (Cys) in a histidine-tagged, Cys-less ProP variant (ProP*). Cys at positions 415-418 and 438-440 were most reactive with Oregon Green Maleimide (OGM), suggesting that residues 419 through 437 are in the membrane. Except for V429-I433, reactivity of those Cys varied with helical periodicity. Cys predicted to face the interior of ProP were more reactive than Cys predicted to face the lipid. The former may be exposed to hydrated polar residues in the protein interior, particularly on the periplasmic side. Intermolecular cross-links formed when ProP* variants with Cys at positions 419, 420, 422, and 439 were treated with DTME. Thus TM XII can participate, along its entire length, in the dimer interface of ProP. Cys substitution E440C rendered ProP* inactive. All other variants retained more than 30% of the proline uptake activity of ProP* at high osmolality. Most variants with Cys substitutions in the periplasmic half of TM XII activated at lower osmolalities than ProP*. Variants with Cys substitutions on one face of the cytoplasmic half of TM XII required a higher osmolality to activate. They included elements of a GXXXG motif that are predicted to form the interface of TM XII with TM VII. These studies define the position of ProP TM XII within the membrane, further support the predicted structure of ProP, reveal the dimerization interface, and show that the structure of TM XII influences the osmolality at which ProP activates. PMID:17441691

  16. Structures of two Arabidopsis thaliana major latex proteins represent novel helix-grip folds

    SciTech Connect

    Lytle, Betsy L.; Song, Jikui; de la Cruz, Norberto B.; Peterson, Francis C.; Johnson, Kenneth A.; Bingman, Craig A.; Phillips, Jr., George N.; Volkman, Brian F.

    2009-06-02

    Here we report the first structures of two major latex proteins (MLPs) which display unique structural differences from the canonical Bet v 1 fold described earlier. MLP28 (SwissProt/TrEMBL ID Q9SSK9), the product of gene At1g70830.1, and the At1g24000.1 gene product (Swiss- Prot/TrEMBL ID P0C0B0), proteins which share 32% sequence identity, were independently selected as foldspace targets by the Center for Eukaryotic Structural Genomics. The structure of a single domain (residues 17-173) of MLP28 was solved by NMR spectroscopy, while the full-length At1g24000.1 structure was determined by X-ray crystallography. MLP28 displays greater than 30% sequence identity to at least eight MLPs from other species. For example, the MLP28 sequence shares 64% identity to peach Pp-MLP119 and 55% identity to cucumber Csf2.20 In contrast, the At1g24000.1 sequence is highly divergent (see Fig. 1), containing a gap of 33 amino acids when compared with all other known MLPs. Even when the gap is excluded, the sequence identity with MLPs from other species is less than 30%. Unlike some of the MLPs from other species, none of the A. thaliana MLPs have been characterized biochemically. We show by NMR chemical shift mapping that At1g24000.1 binds progesterone, demonstrating that despite its sequence dissimilarity, the hydrophobic binding pocket is conserved and, therefore, may play a role in its biological function and that of the MLP family in general.

  17. Ab initio folding of extended ?-helix: a theoretical study about the role of electrostatic polarization in the folding of helical structures.

    PubMed

    Lazim, Raudah; Wei, Caiyi; Sun, Tiedong; Zhang, Dawei

    2013-09-01

    In this work, we report the ab initio folding of three different extended helical peptides namely 2khk, N36, and C34 through conventional molecular dynamics simulation at room temperature using implicit solvation model. Employing adaptive hydrogen bond specific charge (AHBC) scheme to account for the polarization effect of hydrogen bonds established during the simulation, the effective folding of the three extended helices were observed with best backbone RMSDs in comparison to the experimental structures over the helical region determined to be 1.30 Å for 2khk, 0.73 Å for N36 and 0.72 Å for C34. In this study, 2khk will be used as a benchmark case serving as a means to compare the ability of polarized (AHBC) and nonpolarized force field in the folding of an extended helix. Analyses conducted revealed the ability of the AHBC scheme in effectively folding the extended helix by promoting helix growth through the stabilization of backbone hydrogen bonds upon formation during the folding process. Similar observations were also noted when AHBC scheme was employed during the folding of C34 and N36. However, under Amber03 force field, helical structures formed during the folding of 2khk was not accompanied by stabilization thus highlighting the importance of electrostatic polarization in the folding of helical structures. PMID:23670702

  18. Structural studies of polypeptides: Mechanism of immunoglobin catalysis and helix propagation in hybrid sequence, disulfide containing peptides

    SciTech Connect

    Storrs, R.W.

    1992-08-01

    Catalytic immunoglobin fragments were studied Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy to identify amino acid residues responsible for the catalytic activity. Small, hybrid sequence peptides were analyzed for helix propagation following covalent initiation and for activity related to the protein from which the helical sequence was derived. Hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl carbonates and esters by specific immunoglobins is thought to involve charge complementarity. The pK of the transition state analog P-nitrophenyl phosphate bound to the immunoglobin fragment was determined by [sup 31]P-NMR to verify the juxtaposition of a positively charged amino acid to the binding/catalytic site. Optical studies of immunoglobin mediated photoreversal of cis, syn cyclobutane thymine dimers implicated tryptophan as the photosensitizing chromophore. Research shows the chemical environment of a single tryptophan residue is altered upon binding of the thymine dimer. This tryptophan residue was localized to within 20 [Angstrom] of the binding site through the use of a nitroxide paramagnetic species covalently attached to the thymine dimer. A hybrid sequence peptide was synthesized based on the bee venom peptide apamin in which the helical residues of apamin were replaced with those from the recognition helix of the bacteriophage 434 repressor protein. Oxidation of the disufide bonds occured uniformly in the proper 1-11, 3-15 orientation, stabilizing the 434 sequence in an [alpha]-helix. The glycine residue stopped helix propagation. Helix propagation in 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol mixtures was investigated in a second hybrid sequence peptide using the apamin-derived disulfide scaffold and the S-peptide sequence. The helix-stop signal previously observed was not observed in the NMR NOESY spectrum. Helical connectivities were seen throughout the S-peptide sequence. The apamin/S-peptide hybrid binded to the S-protein (residues 21-166 of ribonuclease A) and reconstituted enzymatic activity.

  19. Structural studies of polypeptides: Mechanism of immunoglobin catalysis and helix propagation in hybrid sequence, disulfide containing peptides

    SciTech Connect

    Storrs, R.W.

    1992-08-01

    Catalytic immunoglobin fragments were studied Nuclear Magnetic Resonance spectroscopy to identify amino acid residues responsible for the catalytic activity. Small, hybrid sequence peptides were analyzed for helix propagation following covalent initiation and for activity related to the protein from which the helical sequence was derived. Hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl carbonates and esters by specific immunoglobins is thought to involve charge complementarity. The pK of the transition state analog P-nitrophenyl phosphate bound to the immunoglobin fragment was determined by {sup 31}P-NMR to verify the juxtaposition of a positively charged amino acid to the binding/catalytic site. Optical studies of immunoglobin mediated photoreversal of cis, syn cyclobutane thymine dimers implicated tryptophan as the photosensitizing chromophore. Research shows the chemical environment of a single tryptophan residue is altered upon binding of the thymine dimer. This tryptophan residue was localized to within 20 {Angstrom} of the binding site through the use of a nitroxide paramagnetic species covalently attached to the thymine dimer. A hybrid sequence peptide was synthesized based on the bee venom peptide apamin in which the helical residues of apamin were replaced with those from the recognition helix of the bacteriophage 434 repressor protein. Oxidation of the disufide bonds occured uniformly in the proper 1-11, 3-15 orientation, stabilizing the 434 sequence in an {alpha}-helix. The glycine residue stopped helix propagation. Helix propagation in 2,2,2-trifluoroethanol mixtures was investigated in a second hybrid sequence peptide using the apamin-derived disulfide scaffold and the S-peptide sequence. The helix-stop signal previously observed was not observed in the NMR NOESY spectrum. Helical connectivities were seen throughout the S-peptide sequence. The apamin/S-peptide hybrid binded to the S-protein (residues 21-166 of ribonuclease A) and reconstituted enzymatic activity.

  20. Effect of secondary structure on the potential of mean force for poly-L-lysine in the alpha-Helix and beta-sheet conformations

    SciTech Connect

    Grigsby, J.J.; Blanch, H.W.; Prausnitz, J.M.

    2001-10-30

    Because poly-L-lysine (PLL) can exist in the {alpha}-helix or {beta}-sheet conformation depending on solution preparation and solution conditions, PLL is a suitable candidate to probe the dependence of protein interactions on secondary structure. The osmotic second virial coefficient and weight-average molecular weight are reported from low-angle laser-light scattering measurements for PLL as a function of NaCl concentration, pH, and {alpha}-helix or {beta}-sheet content. Interactions between PLL molecules become more attractive as salt concentration increases due to screening of PLL charge by salt ions and at low salt concentration become more attractive as pH increases due to decreased net charge on PLL. The experimental results show that interactions are stronger for the {beta}-sheet conformation than for the {alpha}-helix conformation. A spherically-symmetric model for the potential of mean force is used to account for specific interactions not described by DLVO theory and to show how differences in secondary structure affect PLL interactions.

  1. Crystal Structure of an Ecotin-Collagenase Complex Suggests a Model for Recognition and Cleavage of the Collagen Triple Helix

    E-print Network

    Craik, Charles S.

    of the Collagen Triple Helix John J. Perona,,§ Christopher A. Tsu,,| Charles S. Craik,*,, and Robert J. Fletterick interactions in the cleft, with the known sequences at the cleavage site of type I collagen, suggests that the protease binding loop of ecotin adopts a conformation mimicking that of the cleaved strand of collagen

  2. Methods for Transmembrane Protein Topology and Alpha Helix Prediction

    E-print Network

    recognition, and adhesion1. These proteins also comprise the majority of drug targets. However, because is discussed. Algorithms TopPred: Hydrophobicity and the Positive-Inside Rule Gunnar von Heijne pioneered hydrophobicity analysis. von Heijne's method utilizes and builds #12;upon this strategy, adding a step of charge

  3. Mutagenesis and molecular dynamics suggest structural and functional roles for residues in the N-terminal portion of the cytochrome P450 2B1 I helix.

    PubMed

    Scott, Emily E; Liu, Hong; Qun He, You; Li, Weihua; Halpert, James R

    2004-03-15

    To investigate their potential roles in ligand access, binding, and subsequent metabolism, residues in the N-terminal portion of the cytochrome P450 2B1 I helix were mutated to alanine and phenylalanine. Of the 18 mutants from E286 to S294 only 7 yielded holoprotein in an Escherichia coli expression system. Substitutions at positions 289, 290, 292, and 294 caused >/= 2-fold changes in kcat and/or Km for two or more of the 2B1 substrates examined, testosterone, 7-ethoxy-4-trifluoromethylcoumarin, 7-benzyloxyresorufin, and benzphetamine. I290 substitutions had the largest effects on steady-state parameters for three substrates and increased benzphetamine affinity. Steered molecular dynamics simulations of testosterone egress along the I helix identified hydrophobic interactions with I290, L293, and S294 and water bridges to E286 and S294. Sensitivity of holoprotein formation to substitution and effects on substrate binding and metabolism suggest structural and functional roles for residues in the N-terminus of the cytochrome P450 2B1 I helix. PMID:15001391

  4. Solution NMR studies reveal the location of the second transmembrane domain of the human sigma-1 receptor

    PubMed Central

    Ortega-Roldan, Jose Luis; Ossa, Felipe; Amin, Nader T.; Schnell, Jason R.

    2015-01-01

    The sigma-1 receptor (S1R) is a ligand-regulated membrane chaperone protein associated with endoplasmic reticulum stress response, and modulation of ion channel activities at the plasma membrane. We report here a solution NMR study of a S1R construct (S1R(?35)) in which only the first transmembrane domain and the eight-residue N-terminus have been removed. The second transmembrane helix is found to be composed of residues 91–107, which corresponds to the first steroid binding domain-like region. The cytosolic domain is found to contain three helices, and the secondary structure and backbone dynamics of the chaperone domain are consistent with that determined previously for the chaperone domain alone. The position of TM2 provides a framework for ongoing studies of S1R ligand binding and oligomerisation. PMID:25647032

  5. The Infrared Helix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    The Helix nebula exhibits complex structure on the smallest visible scales. It is composed of gaseous shells and disks puffed out by a dying sun-like star.

    In this new image from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope, 'cometary knots' show blue-green heads caused by excitation of their molecular material from shocks or ultraviolet radiation. The tails of the cometary knots appear redder due to being shielded from the central star's ultraviolet radiation and wind by the heads of the knots.

    This image was captured by the telescope's infrared array camera. The false color composite depicts wavelengths of 3.6 microns (blue), 4.5 microns (green), and 8.0 microns (red). The color saturation has been increased to intensify hues.

  6. Measuring the Double Helix

    SciTech Connect

    Mathew-Fenn, R.S.; Das, R.; Harbury, P.A.B.

    2009-05-26

    DNA is thought to behave as a stiff elastic rod with respect to the ubiquitous mechanical deformations inherent to its biology. To test this model at short DNA lengths, we measured the mean and variance of end-to-end length for a series of DNA double helices in solution, using small-angle x-ray scattering interference between gold nanocrystal labels. In the absence of applied tension, DNA is at least one order of magnitude softer than measured by single-molecule stretching experiments. Further, the data rule out the conventional elastic rod model. The variance in end-to-end length follows a quadratic dependence on the number of base pairs rather than the expected linear dependence, indicating that DNA stretching is cooperative over more than two turns of the DNA double helix. Our observations support the idea of long-range allosteric communication through DNA structure.

  7. Stabilization of alpha-helix structure by polar side-chain interactions: complex salt bridges, cation-pi interactions, and C-H em leader O H-bonds.

    PubMed

    Shi, Z; Olson, C A; Bell, A J; Kallenbach, N R

    2001-01-01

    It is generally understood that helical proteins are stabilized by a combination of hydrophobic and packing interactions, together with H-bonds and electrostatic interactions. Here we show that polar side-chain interactions on the surface can play an important role in helix formation and stability. We review studies on model helical peptides that reveal the effect of weak interactions between side chains on helix stability, focusing on some nonclassical side-chain-side-chain interactions: complex salt bridges, cation-pi, and C-H em leader O H-bonding interactions. Each of these can be shown to contribute to helix stability, and thus must be included in a comprehensive catalogue of helix stabilizing effects. The issue of the structure of the unfolded states of helical peptides is also discussed, in the light of recent experiments showing that these contain substantial amounts of polyproline II conformation. PMID:12115147

  8. Current-voltage characteristics of seven-helix proteins from a cubic array of amino acids

    E-print Network

    Alfinito, Eleonora

    2015-01-01

    The electrical properties of a set of seven-helix transmembrane proteins, whose space arrangement (3D structure) is known, are investigated by using regular arrays of the amino acids. These structures, specifically cubes, have topological features similar to those shown by the chosen proteins. The theoretical results show a good agreement between the predicted current-voltage characteristics obtained from a cubic array and those obtained from a detailed 3D structure. The agreement is confirmed by available experiments on bacteriorhodopsin. Furthermore, all the analyzed proteins are found to share the same critical behaviour of the voltage-dependent conductance and of its variance. In particular, the cubic arrangement evidences a short plateau of the excess conductance and its variance at high voltages. The results of the present investigation show the possibility to predict the I-V characteristics of multiple-protein sample even in the absence of a detailed knowledge of their 3D structure.

  9. Current-voltage characteristics of seven-helix proteins from a cubic array of amino acids

    E-print Network

    Eleonora Alfinito; Lino Reggiani

    2015-07-28

    The electrical properties of a set of seven-helix transmembrane proteins, whose space arrangement (3D structure) is known, are investigated by using regular arrays of the amino acids. These structures, specifically cubes, have topological features similar to those shown by the chosen proteins. The theoretical results show a good agreement between the predicted current-voltage characteristics obtained from a cubic array and those obtained from a detailed 3D structure. The agreement is confirmed by available experiments on bacteriorhodopsin. Furthermore, all the analyzed proteins are found to share the same critical behaviour of the voltage-dependent conductance and of its variance. In particular, the cubic arrangement evidences a short plateau of the excess conductance and its variance at high voltages. The results of the present investigation show the possibility to predict the I-V characteristics of multiple-protein sample even in the absence of a detailed knowledge of their 3D structure.

  10. Human ?³,?²-enoyl-CoA isomerase, type 2: a structural enzymology study on the catalytic role of its ACBP domain and helix-10.

    PubMed

    Onwukwe, Goodluck U; Kursula, Petri; Koski, M Kristian; Schmitz, Werner; Wierenga, Rik K

    2015-02-01

    The catalytic domain of the trimeric human ?(3),?(2)-enoyl-CoA isomerase, type 2 (HsECI2), has the typical crotonase fold. In the active site of this fold two main chain NH groups form an oxyanion hole for binding the thioester oxygen of the 3E- or 3Z-enoyl-CoA substrate molecules. A catalytic glutamate is essential for the proton transfer between the substrate C2 and C4 atoms for forming the product 2E-enoyl-CoA, which is a key intermediate in the ?-oxidation pathway. The active site is covered by the C-terminal helix-10. In HsECI2, the isomerase domain is extended at its N terminus by an acyl-CoA binding protein (ACBP) domain. Small angle X-ray scattering analysis of HsECI2 shows that the ACBP domain protrudes out of the central isomerase trimer. X-ray crystallography of the isomerase domain trimer identifies the active site geometry. A tunnel, shaped by loop-2 and extending from the catalytic site to bulk solvent, suggests a likely mode of binding of the fatty acyl chains. Calorimetry data show that the separately expressed ACBP and isomerase domains bind tightly to fatty acyl-CoA molecules. The truncated isomerase variant (without ACBP domain) has significant enoyl-CoA isomerase activity; however, the full-length isomerase is more efficient. Structural enzymological studies of helix-10 variants show the importance of this helix for efficient catalysis. Its hydrophobic side chains, together with residues from loop-2 and loop-4, complete a hydrophobic cluster that covers the active site, thereby fixing the thioester moiety in a mode of binding competent for efficient catalysis. PMID:25515061

  11. Protein Secondary Structures (alpha-helix and beta-sheet) at a Cellular Levle and Protein Fractions in Relation to Rumen Degradation Behaviours of Protein: A New Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Yu,P.

    2007-01-01

    Studying the secondary structure of proteins leads to an understanding of the components that make up a whole protein, and such an understanding of the structure of the whole protein is often vital to understanding its digestive behaviour and nutritive value in animals. The main protein secondary structures are the {alpha}-helix and {beta}-sheet. The percentage of these two structures in protein secondary structures influences protein nutritive value, quality and digestive behaviour. A high percentage of {beta}-sheet structure may partly cause a low access to gastrointestinal digestive enzymes, which results in a low protein value. The objectives of the present study were to use advanced synchrotron-based Fourier transform IR (S-FTIR) microspectroscopy as a new approach to reveal the molecular chemistry of the protein secondary structures of feed tissues affected by heat-processing within intact tissue at a cellular level, and to quantify protein secondary structures using multicomponent peak modelling Gaussian and Lorentzian methods, in relation to protein digestive behaviours and nutritive value in the rumen, which was determined using the Cornell Net Carbohydrate Protein System. The synchrotron-based molecular chemistry research experiment was performed at the National Synchrotron Light Source at Brookhaven National Laboratory, US Department of Energy. The results showed that, with S-FTIR microspectroscopy, the molecular chemistry, ultrastructural chemical make-up and nutritive characteristics could be revealed at a high ultraspatial resolution ({approx}10 {mu}m). S-FTIR microspectroscopy revealed that the secondary structure of protein differed between raw and roasted golden flaxseeds in terms of the percentages and ratio of {alpha}-helixes and {beta}-sheets in the mid-IR range at the cellular level. By using multicomponent peak modelling, the results show that the roasting reduced (P <0.05) the percentage of {alpha}-helixes (from 47.1% to 36.1%: S-FTIR absorption intensity), increased the percentage of {beta}-sheets (from 37.2% to 49.8%: S-FTIR absorption intensity) and reduced the {alpha}-helix to {beta}-sheet ratio (from 0.3 to 0.7) in the golden flaxseeds, which indicated a negative effect of the roasting on protein values, utilisation and bioavailability. These results were proved by the Cornell Net Carbohydrate Protein System in situ animal trial, which also revealed that roasting increased the amount of protein bound to lignin, and well as of the Maillard reaction protein (both of which are poorly used by ruminants), and increased the level of indigestible and undegradable protein in ruminants. The present results demonstrate the potential of highly spatially resolved synchrotron-based infrared microspectroscopy to locate 'pure' protein in feed tissues, and reveal protein secondary structures and digestive behaviour, making a significant step forward in and an important contribution to protein nutritional research. Further study is needed to determine the sensitivities of protein secondary structures to various heat-processing conditions, and to quantify the relationship between protein secondary structures and the nutrient availability and digestive behaviour of various protein sources. Information from the present study arising from the synchrotron-based IR probing of the protein secondary structures of protein sources at the cellular level will be valuable as a guide to maintaining protein quality and predicting digestive behaviours.

  12. Crystal structure of the N-terminal region of human Ash2L shows a winged-helix motif involved in DNA binding

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Yong; Wan, Bingbing; Wang, Kevin C.; Cao, Fang; Yang, Yuting; Protacio, Angeline; Dou, Yali; Chang, Howard Y.; Lei, Ming

    2011-09-06

    Ash2L is a core component of the MLL family histone methyltransferases and has an important role in regulating the methylation of histone H3 on lysine 4. Here, we report the crystal structure of the N-terminal domain of Ash2L and reveal a new function of Ash2L. The structure shows that Ash2L contains an atypical PHD finger that does not have histone tail-binding activity. Unexpectedly, the structure shows a previously unrecognized winged-helix motif that directly binds to DNA. The DNA-binding-deficient mutants of Ash2L reduced Ash2L localization to the HOX locus. Strikingly, a single mutation in Ash2L{sub WH} (K131A) breaks the chromatin domain boundary, suggesting that Ash2L also has a role in chromosome demarcation.

  13. Entropically driven helix formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snir, Yehuda

    2005-03-01

    We investigate a purely entropic approach to understanding the folding of helices that exclusively relies on a local and homogeneous interaction with depleting spheres. We found that by decreasing the size of the depleting spheres for a given volume fraction the helix formed becomes tighter. In the limit of small spheres the helix becomes the optimally tight helix of pitch to radius ratio of 2.5122 often found in alpha helices of protiens. The depletion interaction can be used as a surrogate for hydrophobicity, polymer-polymer interactions, and for boundary layers in elastica and liquid crystals.

  14. Structure of the unique SEFIR domain from human interleukin 17 receptor A reveals a composite ligand-binding site containing a conserved ?-helix for Act1 binding and IL-17 signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Bing; Liu, Caini; Qian, Wen; Han, Yue; Li, Xiaoxia; Deng, Junpeng

    2014-05-01

    Crystal structure of the SEFIR domain from human IL-17 receptor A provides new insights into IL-17 signaling. Interleukin 17 (IL-17) cytokines play a crucial role in mediating inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. A unique intracellular signaling domain termed SEFIR is found within all IL-17 receptors (IL-17Rs) as well as the key adaptor protein Act1. SEFIR-mediated protein–protein interaction is a crucial step in IL-17 cytokine signaling. Here, the 2.3 Å resolution crystal structure of the SEFIR domain of IL-17RA, the most commonly shared receptor for IL-17 cytokine signaling, is reported. The structure includes the complete SEFIR domain and an additional ?-helical C-terminal extension, which pack tightly together to form a compact unit. Structural comparison between the SEFIR domains of IL-17RA and IL-17RB reveals substantial differences in protein topology and folding. The uniquely long insertion between strand ?C and helix ?C in IL-17RA SEFIR is mostly well ordered, displaying a helix (?CC?{sub ins}) and a flexible loop (CC?). The DD? loop in the IL-17RA SEFIR structure is much shorter; it rotates nearly 90° with respect to the counterpart in the IL-17RB SEFIR structure and shifts about 12 Å to accommodate the ?CC?{sub ins} helix without forming any knots. Helix ?C was identified as critical for its interaction with Act1 and IL-17-stimulated gene expression. The data suggest that the heterotypic SEFIR–SEFIR association via helix ?C is a conserved and signature mechanism specific for IL-17 signaling. The structure also suggests that the downstream motif of IL-17RA SEFIR together with helix ?C could provide a composite ligand-binding surface for recruiting Act1 during IL-17 signaling.

  15. Exploration of the transition state for tertiary structure formation between an RNA helix and a large structured RNA.

    PubMed

    Bartley, Laura E; Zhuang, Xiaowei; Das, Rhiju; Chu, Steven; Herschlag, Daniel

    2003-05-16

    Docking of the P1 duplex into the pre-folded core of the Tetrahymena group I ribozyme exemplifies the formation of tertiary interactions in the context of a complex, structured RNA. We have applied Phi-analysis to P1 docking, which compares the effects of modifications on the rate constant for docking (k(dock)) with the effects on the docking equilibrium (K(dock)). To accomplish this we used a single molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer assay that allows direct determination of the rate constants for formation of thermodynamically favorable, as well as unfavorable, states. Modification of the eight groups of the P1 duplex that make tertiary interactions with the core and changes in solution conditions decrease K(dock) up to 500-fold, whereas k(dock) changes by structure formation event and suggest that large, highly structured RNAs may have local regions that are misordered. PMID:12729738

  16. A Helix Replacement Mechanism Directs Metavinculin Functions

    PubMed Central

    Rangarajan, Erumbi S.; Lee, Jun Hyuck; Yogesha, S. D.; Izard, Tina

    2010-01-01

    Cells require distinct adhesion complexes to form contacts with their neighbors or the extracellular matrix, and vinculin links these complexes to the actin cytoskeleton. Metavinculin, an isoform of vinculin that harbors a unique 68-residue insert in its tail domain, has distinct actin bundling and oligomerization properties and plays essential roles in muscle development and homeostasis. Moreover, patients with sporadic or familial mutations in the metavinculin-specific insert invariably develop fatal cardiomyopathies. Here we report the high resolution crystal structure of the metavinculin tail domain, as well as the crystal structures of full-length human native metavinculin (1,134 residues) and of the full-length cardiomyopathy-associated ?Leu954 metavinculin deletion mutant. These structures reveal that an ?-helix (H1?) and extended coil of the metavinculin insert replace ?-helix H1 and its preceding extended coil found in the N-terminal region of the vinculin tail domain to form a new five-helix bundle tail domain. Further, biochemical analyses demonstrate that this helix replacement directs the distinct actin bundling and oligomerization properties of metavinculin. Finally, the cardiomyopathy associated ?Leu954 and Arg975Trp metavinculin mutants reside on the replaced extended coil and the H1? ?-helix, respectively. Thus, a helix replacement mechanism directs metavinculin's unique functions. PMID:20502710

  17. A Helix Replacement Mechanism Directs Metavinculin Functions

    SciTech Connect

    Rangarajan, Erumbi S.; Lee, Jun Hyuck; Yogesha, S.D.; Izard, Tina

    2010-10-11

    Cells require distinct adhesion complexes to form contacts with their neighbors or the extracellular matrix, and vinculin links these complexes to the actin cytoskeleton. Metavinculin, an isoform of vinculin that harbors a unique 68-residue insert in its tail domain, has distinct actin bundling and oligomerization properties and plays essential roles in muscle development and homeostasis. Moreover, patients with sporadic or familial mutations in the metavinculin-specific insert invariably develop fatal cardiomyopathies. Here we report the high resolution crystal structure of the metavinculin tail domain, as well as the crystal structures of full-length human native metavinculin (1,134 residues) and of the full-length cardiomyopathy-associated {Delta}Leu954 metavinculin deletion mutant. These structures reveal that an {alpha}-helix (H1{prime}) and extended coil of the metavinculin insert replace {alpha}-helix H1 and its preceding extended coil found in the N-terminal region of the vinculin tail domain to form a new five-helix bundle tail domain. Further, biochemical analyses demonstrate that this helix replacement directs the distinct actin bundling and oligomerization properties of metavinculin. Finally, the cardiomyopathy associated {Delta}Leu954 and Arg975Trp metavinculin mutants reside on the replaced extended coil and the H1{prime} {alpha}-helix, respectively. Thus, a helix replacement mechanism directs metavinculin's unique functions.

  18. SU-E-T-241: Monte Carlo Simulation Study About the Prediction of Proton-Induced DNA Strand Breakage On the Double Helix Structure

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, J; Park, S; Jeong, J; Jeong, C; Lim, Y; Lee, S; SHIN, D; Incerti, S

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: In particle therapy and radiobiology, the investigation of mechanisms leading to the death of target cancer cells induced by ionising radiation is an active field of research. Recently, several studies based on Monte Carlo simulation codes have been initiated in order to simulate physical interactions of ionising particles at cellular scale and in DNA. Geant4-DNA is the one of them; it is an extension of the general purpose Geant4 Monte Carlo simulation toolkit for the simulation of physical interactions at sub-micrometre scale. In this study, we present Geant4-DNA Monte Carlo simulations for the prediction of DNA strand breakage using a geometrical modelling of DNA structure. Methods: For the simulation of DNA strand breakage, we developed a specific DNA geometrical structure. This structure consists of DNA components, such as the deoxynucleotide pairs, the DNA double helix, the nucleosomes and the chromatin fibre. Each component is made of water because the cross sections models currently available in Geant4-DNA for protons apply to liquid water only. Also, at the macroscopic-scale, protons were generated with various energies available for proton therapy at the National Cancer Center, obtained using validated proton beam simulations developed in previous studies. These multi-scale simulations were combined for the validation of Geant4-DNA in radiobiology. Results: In the double helix structure, the deposited energy in a strand allowed to determine direct DNA damage from physical interaction. In other words, the amount of dose and frequency of damage in microscopic geometries was related to direct radiobiological effect. Conclusion: In this report, we calculated the frequency of DNA strand breakage using Geant4- DNA physics processes for liquid water. This study is now on-going in order to develop geometries which use realistic DNA material, instead of liquid water. This will be tested as soon as cross sections for DNA material become available in Geant4-DNA.

  19. Structure determination of a membrane protein with two trans-membrane helices in aligned phospholipid bicelles by solid-state NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    De Angelis, Anna A; Howell, Stanley C; Nevzorov, Alexander A; Opella, Stanley J

    2006-09-20

    The structure of the membrane protein MerFt was determined in magnetically aligned phospholipid bicelles by solid-state NMR spectroscopy. With two trans-membrane helices and a 10-residue inter-helical loop, this truncated construct of the mercury transport membrane protein MerF has sufficient structural complexity to demonstrate the feasibility of determining the structures of polytopic membrane proteins in their native phospholipid bilayer environment under physiological conditions. PISEMA, SAMMY, and other double-resonance experiments were applied to uniformly and selectively (15)N-labeled samples to resolve and assign the backbone amide resonances and to measure the associated (15)N chemical shift and (1)H-(15)N heteronuclear dipolar coupling frequencies as orientation constraints for structure calculations. (1)H/(13)C/(15)N triple-resonance experiments were applied to selectively (13)C'- and (15)N-labeled samples to complete the resonance assignments, especially for residues in the nonhelical regions of the protein. A single resonance is observed for each labeled site in one- and two-dimensional spectra. Therefore, each residue has a unique conformation, and all protein molecules in the sample have the same three-dimensional structure and are oriented identically in planar phospholipid bilayers. Combined with the absence of significant intensity near the isotropic resonance frequency, this demonstrates that the entire protein, including the loop and terminal regions, has a well-defined, stable structure in phospholipid bilayers. PMID:16967977

  20. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Structure Revealed that the Human Polyomavirus JC Virus Agnoprotein Contains an ?-Helix Encompassing the Leu/Ile/Phe-Rich Domain

    PubMed Central

    Coric, Pascale; Saribas, A. Sami; Abou-Gharbia, Magid; Childers, Wayne; White, Martyn K.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Agnoprotein is a small multifunctional regulatory protein required for sustaining the productive replication of JC virus (JCV). It is a mostly cytoplasmic protein localizing in the perinuclear area and forms highly stable dimers/oligomers through a Leu/Ile/Phe-rich domain. There have been no three-dimensional structural data available for agnoprotein due to difficulties associated with the dynamic conversion from monomers to oligomers. Here, we report the first nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) structure of a synthetic agnoprotein peptide spanning amino acids Thr17 to Glu55 where Lys23 to Phe39 encompassing the Leu/Ile/Phe-rich domain forms an amphipathic ?-helix. On the basis of these structural data, a number of Ala substitution mutations were made to investigate the role of the ?-helix in the structure and function of agnoprotein. Single L29A and L36A mutations exhibited a significant negative effect on both protein stability and viral replication, whereas the L32A mutation did not. In addition, the L29A mutant displayed a highly nuclear localization pattern, in contrast to the pattern for the wild type (WT). Interestingly, a triple mutant, the L29A+L32A+L36A mutant, yielded no detectable agnoprotein expression, and the replication of this JCV mutant was significantly reduced, suggesting that Leu29 and Leu36 are located at the dimer interface, contributing to the structure and stability of agnoprotein. Two other single mutations, L33A and E34A, did not perturb agnoprotein stability as drastically as that observed with the L29A and L36A mutations, but they negatively affected viral replication, suggesting that the role of these residues is functional rather than structural. Thus, the agnoprotein dimerization domain can be targeted for the development of novel drugs active against JCV infection. IMPORTANCE Agnoprotein is a small regulatory protein of JC virus (JCV) and is required for the successful completion of the viral replication cycle. It forms highly stable dimers and oligomers through its hydrophobic (Leu/Ile/Phe-rich) domain, which has been shown to play essential roles in the stability and function of the protein. In this work, the Leu/Ile/Phe-rich domain has been further characterized by NMR studies using an agnoprotein peptide spanning amino acids T17 to Q54. Those studies revealed that the dimerization domain of the protein forms an amphipathic ?-helix. Subsequent NMR structure-based mutational analysis of the region highlighted the critical importance of certain amino acids within the ?-helix for the stability and function of agnoprotein. In conclusion, this study provides a solid foundation for developing effective therapeutic approaches against the dimerization domain of the protein to inhibit its critical roles in JCV infection. PMID:24672035

  1. Hydrophobic Matching Controls the Tilt and Stability of the Dimeric Platelet-derived Growth Factor Receptor (PDGFR) ? Transmembrane Segment*

    PubMed Central

    Muhle-Goll, Claudia; Hoffmann, Silke; Afonin, Sergii; Grage, Stephan L.; Polyansky, Anton A.; Windisch, Dirk; Zeitler, Marcel; Bürck, Jochen; Ulrich, Anne S.

    2012-01-01

    The platelet-derived growth factor receptor ? is a member of the cell surface receptor tyrosine kinase family and dimerizes upon activation. We determined the structure of the transmembrane segment in dodecylphosphocholine micelles by liquid-state NMR and found that it forms a stable left-handed helical dimer. Solid-state NMR and oriented circular dichroism were used to measure the tilt angle of the helical segments in macroscopically aligned model membranes with different acyl chain lengths. Both methods showed that decreasing bilayer thickness (DEPC-POPC-DMPC) led to an increase in the helix tilt angle from 10° to 30° with respect to the bilayer normal. At the same time, reconstitution of the comparatively long hydrophobic segment became less effective, eventually resulting in complete protein aggregation in the short-chain lipid DLPC. Unrestrained molecular dynamics simulations of the dimer were carried out in explicit lipid bilayers (DEPC, POPC, DMPC, sphingomyelin), confirming the observed dependence of the helix tilt angle on bilayer thickness. Notably, molecular dynamics revealed that the left-handed dimer gets tilted en bloc, whereas conformational transitions to alternative (e.g. right-handed dimeric) states were not supported. The experimental data along with the simulation results demonstrate a pronounced interplay between the platelet-directed growth factor receptor ? transmembrane segment and the bilayer thickness. The effect of hydrophobic mismatch might play a key role in the redistribution and activation of the receptor within different lipid microdomains of the plasma membrane in vivo. PMID:22619173

  2. Structural changes in single membranes in response to an applied transmembrane electric potential revealed by time-resolved neutron/X-ray interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tronin, A.; Chen, C.-H.; Gupta, S.; Worcester, D.; Lauter, V.; Strzalka, J.; Kuzmenko, I.; Blasie, J. K.

    2013-08-01

    The profile structure of a hybrid lipid bilayer, tethered to the surface of an inorganic substrate and fully hydrated with a bulk aqueous medium in an electrochemical cell, was investigated as a function of the applied transbilayer electric potential via time-resolved neutron reflectivity, enhanced by interferometry. Significant, and fully reversible structural changes were observed in the distal half (with respect to the substrate surface) of the hybrid bilayer comprised of a zwitterionic phospholipid in response to a +100 mV potential with respect to 0 mV. These arise presumably due to reorientation of the electric dipole present in the polar headgroup of the phospholipid and its resulting effect on the thickness of the phospholipid’s hydrocarbon chain layer within the hybrid bilayer’s profile structure. The profile structure of the voltage-sensor domain from a voltage-gated ion channel protein within a phospholipid bilayer membrane, tethered to the surface of an inorganic substrate and fully hydrated with a bulk aqueous medium in an electrochemical cell, was also investigated as a function of the applied transmembrane electric potential via time-resolved X-ray reflectivity, enhanced by interferometry. Significant, fully-reversible, and different structural changes in the protein were detected in response to ±100 mV potentials with respect to 0 mV. The approach employed is that typical of transient spectroscopy, shown here to be applicable to both neutron and X-ray reflectivity of thin films.

  3. Structural details (kinks and non-alpha conformations) in transmembrane helices are intrahelically determined and can be predicted by sequence pattern descriptors.

    PubMed

    Rigoutsos, Isidore; Riek, Peter; Graham, Robert M; Novotny, Jiri

    2003-08-01

    One of the promising methods of protein structure prediction involves the use of amino acid sequence-derived patterns. Here we report on the creation of non-degenerate motif descriptors derived through data mining of training sets of residues taken from the transmembrane-spanning segments of polytopic proteins. These residues correspond to short regions in which there is a deviation from the regular alpha-helical character (i.e. pi-helices, 3(10)-helices and kinks). A 'search engine' derived from these motif descriptors correctly identifies, and discriminates amongst instances of the above 'non-canonical' helical motifs contained in the SwissProt/TrEMBL database of protein primary structures. Our results suggest that deviations from alpha-helicity are encoded locally in sequence patterns only about 7-9 residues long and can be determined in silico directly from the amino acid sequence. Delineation of such variations in helical habit is critical to understanding the complex structure-function relationships of polytopic proteins and for drug discovery. The success of our current methodology foretells development of similar prediction tools capable of identifying other structural motifs from sequence alone. The method described here has been implemented and is available on the World Wide Web at http://cbcsrv.watson.ibm.com/Ttkw.html. PMID:12888523

  4. Role of GxxxG Motifs in Transmembrane Domain Interactions.

    PubMed

    Teese, Mark G; Langosch, Dieter

    2015-08-25

    Transmembrane (TM) helices of integral membrane proteins can facilitate strong and specific noncovalent protein-protein interactions. Mutagenesis and structural analyses have revealed numerous examples in which the interaction between TM helices of single-pass membrane proteins is dependent on a GxxxG or (small)xxx(small) motif. It is therefore tempting to use the presence of these simple motifs as an indicator of TM helix interactions. In this Current Topic review, we point out that these motifs are quite common, with more than 50% of single-pass TM domains containing a (small)xxx(small) motif. However, the actual interaction strength of motif-containing helices depends strongly on sequence context and membrane properties. In addition, recent studies have revealed several GxxxG-containing TM domains that interact via alternative interfaces involving hydrophobic, polar, aromatic, or even ionizable residues that do not form recognizable motifs. In multipass membrane proteins, GxxxG motifs can be important for protein folding, and not just oligomerization. Our current knowledge thus suggests that the presence of a GxxxG motif alone is a weak predictor of protein dimerization in the membrane. PMID:26244771

  5. Importance of lipid–pore loop interface for potassium channel structure and function

    PubMed Central

    van der Cruijsen, Elwin A. W.; Nand, Deepak; Weingarth, Markus; Prokofyev, Alexander; Hornig, Sönke; Cukkemane, Abhishek Arun; Bonvin, Alexandre M. J. J.; Becker, Stefan; Hulse, Raymond E.; Perozo, Eduardo; Pongs, Olaf; Baldus, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Potassium (i.e., K+) channels allow for the controlled and selective passage of potassium ions across the plasma membrane via a conserved pore domain. In voltage-gated K+ channels, gating is the result of the coordinated action of two coupled gates: an activation gate at the intracellular entrance of the pore and an inactivation gate at the selectivity filter. By using solid-state NMR structural studies, in combination with electrophysiological experiments and molecular dynamics simulations, we show that the turret region connecting the outer transmembrane helix (transmembrane helix 1) and the pore helix behind the selectivity filter contributes to K+ channel inactivation and exhibits a remarkable structural plasticity that correlates to K+ channel inactivation. The transmembrane helix 1 unwinds when the K+ channel enters the inactivated state and rewinds during the transition to the closed state. In addition to well-characterized changes at the K+ ion coordination sites, this process is accompanied by conformational changes within the turret region and the pore helix. Further spectroscopic and computational results show that the same channel domain is critically involved in establishing functional contacts between pore domain and the cellular membrane. Taken together, our results suggest that the interaction between the K+ channel turret region and the lipid bilayer exerts an important influence on the selective passage of potassium ions via the K+ channel pore. PMID:23882077

  6. Importance of lipid-pore loop interface for potassium channel structure and function.

    PubMed

    van der Cruijsen, Elwin A W; Nand, Deepak; Weingarth, Markus; Prokofyev, Alexander; Hornig, Sönke; Cukkemane, Abhishek Arun; Bonvin, Alexandre M J J; Becker, Stefan; Hulse, Raymond E; Perozo, Eduardo; Pongs, Olaf; Baldus, Marc

    2013-08-01

    Potassium (i.e., K(+)) channels allow for the controlled and selective passage of potassium ions across the plasma membrane via a conserved pore domain. In voltage-gated K(+) channels, gating is the result of the coordinated action of two coupled gates: an activation gate at the intracellular entrance of the pore and an inactivation gate at the selectivity filter. By using solid-state NMR structural studies, in combination with electrophysiological experiments and molecular dynamics simulations, we show that the turret region connecting the outer transmembrane helix (transmembrane helix 1) and the pore helix behind the selectivity filter contributes to K(+) channel inactivation and exhibits a remarkable structural plasticity that correlates to K(+) channel inactivation. The transmembrane helix 1 unwinds when the K(+) channel enters the inactivated state and rewinds during the transition to the closed state. In addition to well-characterized changes at the K(+) ion coordination sites, this process is accompanied by conformational changes within the turret region and the pore helix. Further spectroscopic and computational results show that the same channel domain is critically involved in establishing functional contacts between pore domain and the cellular membrane. Taken together, our results suggest that the interaction between the K(+) channel turret region and the lipid bilayer exerts an important influence on the selective passage of potassium ions via the K(+) channel pore. PMID:23882077

  7. Crystal Structure of the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator Inhibitory Factor Cif Reveals Novel Active-Site Features of an Epoxide Hydrolase Virulence Factor

    SciTech Connect

    Bahl, C.; Morisseau, C; Bomberger, J; Stanton, B; Hammock, B; O' Toole, G; Madden, D

    2010-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) inhibitory factor (Cif) is a virulence factor secreted by Pseudomonas aeruginosa that reduces the quantity of CFTR in the apical membrane of human airway epithelial cells. Initial sequence analysis suggested that Cif is an epoxide hydrolase (EH), but its sequence violates two strictly conserved EH motifs and also is compatible with other {alpha}/{beta} hydrolase family members with diverse substrate specificities. To investigate the mechanistic basis of Cif activity, we have determined its structure at 1.8-{angstrom} resolution by X-ray crystallography. The catalytic triad consists of residues Asp129, His297, and Glu153, which are conserved across the family of EHs. At other positions, sequence deviations from canonical EH active-site motifs are stereochemically conservative. Furthermore, detailed enzymatic analysis confirms that Cif catalyzes the hydrolysis of epoxide compounds, with specific activity against both epibromohydrin and cis-stilbene oxide, but with a relatively narrow range of substrate selectivity. Although closely related to two other classes of {alpha}/{beta} hydrolase in both sequence and structure, Cif does not exhibit activity as either a haloacetate dehalogenase or a haloalkane dehalogenase. A reassessment of the structural and functional consequences of the H269A mutation suggests that Cif's effect on host-cell CFTR expression requires the hydrolysis of an extended endogenous epoxide substrate.

  8. Probing the Transmembrane Structure and Topology of Microsomal Cytochrome-P450 by Solid-State NMR on Temperature-Resistant Bicelles

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Kazutoshi; Gildenberg, Melissa; Ahuja, Shivani; Im, Sang-Choul; Pearcy, Paige; Waskell, Lucy; Ramamoorthy, Ayyalusamy

    2013-01-01

    Though the importance of high-resolution structure and dynamics of membrane proteins has been well recognized, optimizing sample conditions to retain the native-like folding and function of membrane proteins for Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) or X-ray measurements has been a major challenge. While bicelles have been shown to stabilize the function of membrane proteins and are increasingly utilized as model membranes, the loss of their magnetic-alignment at low temperatures makes them unsuitable to study heat-sensitive membrane proteins like cytochrome-P450 and protein-protein complexes. In this study, we report temperature resistant bicelles that can magnetically-align for a broad range of temperatures and demonstrate their advantages in the structural studies of full-length microsomal cytochrome-P450 and cytochrome-b5 by solid-state NMR spectroscopy. Our results reveal that the N-terminal region of rabbit cytochromeP4502B4, that is usually cleaved off to obtain crystal structures, is helical and has a transmembrane orientation with ~17° tilt from the lipid bilayer normal. PMID:23989972

  9. The Crystal Structure of Six-transmembrane Epithelial Antigen of the Prostate 4 (Steap4), a Ferri/Cuprireductase, Suggests a Novel Interdomain Flavin-binding Site*

    PubMed Central

    Gauss, George H.; Kleven, Mark D.; Sendamarai, Anoop K.; Fleming, Mark D.; Lawrence, C. Martin

    2013-01-01

    Steap4 is a cell surface metalloreductase linked to obesity-associated insulin resistance. Initial characterization of its cell surface metalloreductase activity has been reported, but thorough biochemical characterization of this activity is lacking. Here, we report detailed kinetic analysis of the Steap4 cell surface metalloreductase activities. Steap4 shows physiologically relevant Km values for both Fe3+ and Cu2+ and retains activity at acidic pH, suggesting it may also function within intracellular organelles to reduce these metals. Flavin-dependent NADPH oxidase activity that was much greater than the equivalent Steap3 construct was observed for the isolated N-terminal oxidoreductase domain. The crystal structure of the Steap4 oxidoreductase domain was determined, providing a structural explanation for these differing activities. Structure-function work also suggested Steap4 utilizes an interdomain flavin-binding site to shuttle electrons between the oxidoreductase and transmembrane domains, and it showed that the disordered N-terminal residues do not contribute to enzymatic activity. PMID:23733181

  10. Autoinhibition of a calmodulin-dependent calcium pump involves a structure in the stalk that connects the transmembrane domain to the ATPase catalytic domain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curran, A. C.; Hwang, I.; Corbin, J.; Martinez, S.; Rayle, D.; Sze, H.; Harper, J. F.; Evans, M. L. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    The regulation of Ca(2+)-pumps is important for controlling [Ca(2+)] in the cytosol and organelles of all eukaryotes. Here, we report a genetic strategy to identify residues that function in autoinhibition of a novel calmodulin-activated Ca(2+)-pump with an N-terminal regulatory domain (isoform ACA2 from Arabidopsis). Mutant pumps with constitutive activity were identified by complementation of a yeast (K616) deficient in two Ca(2+)-pumps. Fifteen mutations were found that disrupted a segment of the N-terminal autoinhibitor located between Lys(23) and Arg(54). Three mutations (E167K, D219N, and E341K) were found associated with the stalk that connects the ATPase catalytic domain (head) and with the transmembrane domain. Enzyme assays indicated that the stalk mutations resulted in calmodulin-independent activity, with V(max), K(mATP), and K(mCa(2+)) similar to that of a pump in which the N-terminal autoinhibitor had been deleted. A highly conservative substitution at Asp(219) (D219E) still produced a deregulated pump, indicating that the autoinhibitory structure in the stalk is highly sensitive to perturbation. In plasma membrane H(+)-ATPases from yeast and plants, similarly positioned mutations resulted in hyperactive pumps. Together, these results suggest that a structural feature of the stalk is of general importance in regulating diverse P-type ATPases.

  11. Effect of variations in the structure of a polyleucine-based alpha-helical transmembrane peptide on its interaction with phosphatidylcholine bilayers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Feng; Lewis, Ruthven N A H; Hodges, Robert S; McElhaney, Ronald N

    2002-07-23

    High-sensitivity differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy were used to study the interaction of an alpha-helical transmembrane peptide, acetyl-Lys2-Leu24-Lys2-amide (L24), and odd-chain members of the homologous series of n-saturated diacylphosphatidylcholines. An analogue of L24, in which the lysine residues were all replaced by 2,3-diaminopropionic acid, and another, in which a leucine residue at each end of the polyLeu sequence was replaced by a tryptophan, were also studied. At low peptide concentrations, the DSC thermograms exhibited by these lipid/peptide mixtures are resolvable into two components. One of these components is fairly narrow, highly cooperative, and exhibits properties which are similar to but not identical with those of the pure lipid. In addition, the transition temperature and cooperativity of this component, and its fractional contribution to the total enthalpy change, decrease with an increase in peptide concentration, more or less independently of phospholipid acyl chain length. The other component is very broad and predominates at high peptide concentrations. These two components have been assigned to the chain-melting phase transitions of populations of peptide-poor and peptide-enriched lipid domains, respectively. Moreover, when the mean hydrophobic thickness of the PC bilayer is less than the peptide hydrophobic length, the peptide-associated lipid melts at higher temperatures than does the bulk lipid and vice versa. In addition, the chain-melting enthalpy of the broad endotherm does not decrease to zero even at high peptide concentrations, suggesting that these peptides reduce somewhat but do not abolish the cooperative gel/liquid-crystalline phase transition of the lipids with which it is in contact. Our DSC results indicate that the width of the broad phase transition observed at high peptide concentration is inversely but discontinuously related to hydrocarbon chain length. Our FTIR spectroscopic data indicate that these peptides form a very stable alpha-helix under all of our experimental conditions but that small distortions of their alpha-helical conformation are induced in response to mismatch between peptide hydrophobic length and gel-state bilayer hydrophobic thickness. We also present evidence that these distortions are localized to the N- and C-terminal regions of these peptides. Interestingly, replacing the terminal Lys residues of L24 by 2,3-diaminopropionic acid residues actually attenuates the hydrophobic mismatch effects of the peptide on the thermotropic phase behavior of the host PC bilayer, in contrast to the predictions of the snorkel hypothesis. We rationalize this attenuated hydrophobic mismatch effect by postulating that the 2,3-diaminopropionic acid residues are too short to engage in significant electrostatic and hydrogen-bonding interactions with the polar headgroups of the host phospholipid bilayer, even in the absence of any hydrophobic mismatch between incorporated peptide and the bilayer. Similarly, the reduced hydrophobic mismatch effect also observed when the two terminal Leu residues of L24 are replaced by Trp residues is rationalized by considering the lower energetic cost of exposing the Trp as opposed to the Leu residues to the aqueous phase in thin PC bilayers and the higher cost of inserting the Trp as opposed to the Leu residues into the hydrophobic cores of thick PC bilayers. PMID:12119034

  12. A distinct three-helix centipede toxin SSD609 inhibits Iks channels by interacting with the KCNE1 auxiliary subunit

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Peibei; Wu, Fangming; Wen, Ming; Yang, Xingwang; Wang, Chenyang; Li, Yiming; He, Shufang; Zhang, Longhua; Zhang, Yun; Tian, Changlin

    2015-01-01

    KCNE1 is a single-span transmembrane auxiliary protein that modulates the voltage-gated potassium channel KCNQ1. The KCNQ1/KCNE1 complex in cardiomyocytes exhibited slow activated potassium (Iks) currents. Recently, a novel 47-residue polypeptide toxin SSD609 was purified from Scolopendra subspinipes dehaani venom and showed Iks current inhibition. Here, chemically synthesized SSD609 was shown to exert Iks inhibition in extracted guinea pig cardiomyocytes and KCNQ1/KCNE1 current attenuation in CHO cells. The K+ current attenuation of SSD609 showed decent selectivity among different auxiliary subunits. Solution nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of SSD609 revealed a distinctive three-helix conformation that was stabilized by a new disulfide bonding pattern as well as segregated surface charge distribution. Structure-activity studies demonstrated that negatively charged Glu19 in the amphipathic extracellular helix of KCNE1 was the key residue that interacted with SSD609. The distinctive three-helix centipede toxin SSD609 is known to be the first polypeptide toxin acting on channel auxiliary subunit KCNE1, which suggests a new type of pharmacological regulation for ion channels in cardiomyocytes. PMID:26307551

  13. The High-Resolution Structure of Activated Opsin Reveals a Conserved Solvent Network in the Transmembrane Region Essential for Activation.

    PubMed

    Blankenship, Elise; Vahedi-Faridi, Ardeschir; Lodowski, David T

    2015-12-01

    Rhodopsin, a light-activated G protein coupled receptor (GPCR), has been the subject of numerous biochemical and structural investigations, serving as a model receptor for GPCRs and their activation. We present the 2.3-Å resolution structure of native source rhodopsin stabilized in a conformation competent for G protein binding. An extensive water-mediated hydrogen bond network linking the chromophore binding site to the site of G protein binding is observed, providing connections to conserved motifs essential for GPCR activation. Comparison of this extensive solvent-mediated hydrogen-bonding network with the positions of ordered solvent in earlier crystallographic structures of rhodopsin photointermediates reveals both static structural and dynamic functional water-protein interactions present during the activation process. When considered along with observations that solvent occupies similar positions in the structures of other GPCRs, these analyses strongly support an integral role for this dynamic ordered water network in both rhodopsin and GPCR activation. PMID:26526852

  14. Modulation of the intrinsic helix propensity of an intrinsically disordered protein reveals long-range helix-helix interactions.

    PubMed

    Iešmantavi?ius, Vytautas; Jensen, Malene Ringkjøbing; Ozenne, Valéry; Blackledge, Martin; Poulsen, Flemming M; Kjaergaard, Magnus

    2013-07-10

    Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) are widespread and important in biology but defy the classical protein structure-function paradigm by being functional in the absence of a stable, folded conformation. Here we investigate the coupling between transient secondary and tertiary structure in the protein activator for thyroid hormone and retinoid receptors (ACTR) by rationally modulating the helical propensity of a partially formed ?-helix via mutations. Eight mutations predicted to affect the population of a transient helix were produced and investigated by NMR spectroscopy. Chemical shift changes distant to the mutation site are observed in regions containing other transient helices indicating that distant helices are stabilized through long-range hydrophobic helix-helix interactions and demonstrating the coupling of transient secondary and tertiary structure. The long-range structure of ACTR is also probed using paramagnetic relaxation enhancements (PRE) and residual dipolar couplings, which reveal an additional long-range contact between the N- and C-terminal segments. Compared to residual dipolar couplings and PRE, modulation of the helical propensity by mutagenesis thus reveals a different set of long-range interactions that may be obscured by stronger interactions that dominate other NMR measurements. This approach thus offers a complementary and generally applicable strategy for probing long-range structure in disordered proteins. PMID:23758617

  15. Hydrophobic Mismatch Drives the Interaction of E5 with the Transmembrane Segment of PDGF Receptor.

    PubMed

    Windisch, Dirk; Ziegler, Colin; Grage, Stephan L; Bürck, Jochen; Zeitler, Marcel; Gor'kov, Peter L; Ulrich, Anne S

    2015-08-18

    The oncogenic E5 protein from bovine papillomavirus is a short (44 amino acids long) integral membrane protein that forms homodimers. It activates platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) ? in a ligand-independent manner by transmembrane helix-helix interactions. The nature of this recognition event remains elusive, as numerous mutations are tolerated in the E5 transmembrane segment, with the exception of one hydrogen-bonding residue. Here, we examined the conformation, stability, and alignment of the E5 protein in fluid lipid membranes of substantially varying bilayer thickness, in both the absence and presence of the PDGFR transmembrane segment. Quantitative synchrotron radiation circular dichroism analysis revealed a very long transmembrane helix for E5 of ?26 amino acids. Oriented circular dichroism and solid-state (15)N-NMR showed that the alignment and stability of this unusually long segment depend critically on the membrane thickness. When reconstituted alone in exceptionally thick DNPC lipid bilayers, the E5 helix was found to be inserted almost upright. In moderately thick bilayers (DErPC and DEiPC), it started to tilt and became slightly deformed, and finally it became aggregated in conventional DOPC, POPC, and DMPC membranes due to hydrophobic mismatch. On the other hand, when E5 was co-reconstituted with the transmembrane segment of PDGFR, it was able to tolerate even the most pronounced mismatch and was stabilized by binding to the receptor, which has the same hydrophobic length. As E5 is known to activate PDGFR within the thin membranes of the Golgi compartment, we suggest that the intrinsic hydrophobic mismatch of these two interaction partners drives them together. They seem to recognize each other by forming a closely packed bundle of mutually aligned transmembrane helices, which is further stabilized by a specific pair of hydrogen-bonding residues. PMID:26287626

  16. Direct Assessment of the ?-Helix Nucleation Time

    PubMed Central

    Serrano, Arnaldo L.; Tucker, Matthew J.; Gai, Feng

    2011-01-01

    The nucleation event in ?-helix formation is a fundamental process in protein folding. However, determining how quickly it takes place based on measurements of the relaxation dynamics of helical peptides is difficult because such relaxations invariably contain contributions from various structural transitions such as, from helical to non-helical states and helical to partial-helical conformations. Herein we measure the temperature-jump (T-jump) relaxation kinetics of three model peptides that fold into a single-turn ?-helix, using time-resolved infrared spectroscopy, aiming to provide a direct assessment of the helix nucleation rate. The ?-helical structure of these peptides is stabilized by a covalent cross-linker formed between the sidechains of two residues at the i and i+4 positions. If we assume that this cross-linker mimics the structural constraint arising from a strong sidechain-sidechain interaction (e.g., a salt-bridge) in proteins, these peptides would represent good models for studying the nucleation process of an ?-helix in a protein environment. Indeed, we find that the T-jump induced relaxation rate of these peptides is approximately (0.6 ?s)?1 at room temperature, which is slower than that of commonly studied alanine-based helical peptides but faster than that of a naturally occurring ?-helix whose folded state is stabilized by a series of sidechain-sidechain interactions. Taken together, our results put an upper limit of about 1 ?s for the helix nucleation time at 20 °C and suggest that the subsequent propagation steps occur with a time constant of about 240 ns. PMID:21568273

  17. Impact of the [delta]F508 Mutation in First Nucleotide-binding Domain of Human Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator on Domain Folding and Structure

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, Hal A.; Zhao, Xun; Wang, Chi; Sauder, J. Michael; Rooney, Isabelle; Noland, Brian W.; Lorimer, Don; Kearins, Margaret C.; Conners, Kris; Condon, Brad; Maloney, Peter C.; Guggino, William B.; Hunt, John F.; Emtage, Spencer

    2010-07-19

    Cystic fibrosis is caused by defects in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), commonly the deletion of residue Phe-508 (DeltaF508) in the first nucleotide-binding domain (NBD1), which results in a severe reduction in the population of functional channels at the epithelial cell surface. Previous studies employing incomplete NBD1 domains have attributed this to aberrant folding of DeltaF508 NBD1. We report structural and biophysical studies on complete human NBD1 domains, which fail to demonstrate significant changes of in vitro stability or folding kinetics in the presence or absence of the DeltaF508 mutation. Crystal structures show minimal changes in protein conformation but substantial changes in local surface topography at the site of the mutation, which is located in the region of NBD1 believed to interact with the first membrane spanning domain of CFTR. These results raise the possibility that the primary effect of DeltaF508 is a disruption of proper interdomain interactions at this site in CFTR rather than interference with the folding of NBD1. Interestingly, increases in the stability of NBD1 constructs are observed upon introduction of second-site mutations that suppress the trafficking defect caused by the DeltaF508 mutation, suggesting that these suppressors might function indirectly by improving the folding efficiency of NBD1 in the context of the full-length protein. The human NBD1 structures also solidify the understanding of CFTR regulation by showing that its two protein segments that can be phosphorylated both adopt multiple conformations that modulate access to the ATPase active site and functional interdomain interfaces.

  18. Solid-state NMR spectroscopy of the HIV gp41 membrane fusion protein supports intermolecular antiparallel ? sheet fusion peptide structure in the final six-helix bundle state

    PubMed Central

    Sackett, Kelly; Nethercott, Matthew J.; Zheng, Zhaoxiong; Weliky, David P.

    2013-01-01

    The HIV gp41 protein catalyzes fusion between viral and target cell membranes. Although the ~20-residue N-terminal fusion peptide (FP) region is critical for fusion, the structure of this region is not well-characterized in large gp41 constructs that model the gp41 state at different times during fusion. This paper describes solid-state NMR (SSNMR) studies of FP structure in a membrane-associated construct (FP-Hairpin) which likely models the final fusion state thought to be thermostable trimers with six-helix bundle structure in the region C-terminal of the FP. The SSNMR data show that there are populations of FP-Hairpin with either ? helical or ? sheet FP conformation. For the ? sheet population, measurements of intermolecular 13C-13C proximities in the FP are consistent with a significant fraction of intermolecular antiparallel ? sheet FP structure with adjacent strand crossing near L7 and F8. There appears to be negligible in-register parallel structure. These findings support assembly of membrane-associated gp41 trimers through inter-leaving of N-terminal FPs from different trimers. Similar SSNMR data are obtained for FP-Hairpin and a construct containing the 70 N-terminal residues of gp41 (N70) which is a model for part of the putative pre-hairpin intermediate state of gp41. FP assembly may therefore occur at an early fusion stage. On a more fundamental level, similar SSNMR data are obtained for FP-Hairpin and a construct containing the 34 N-terminal gp41 residues (FP34) and support the hypothesis that the FP is an autonomous folding domain. PMID:24246500

  19. An automated method for consistent helix assignment using turn information.

    PubMed

    Koch, Oliver; Cole, Jason

    2011-05-01

    A new automated helix assignment method is presented that leads to a more consistent definition of the helix termini, especially of the helix C-terminus. The method assigns a helix to segments of protein chain where adjacent helical turn structures are observed, capped by specific distorted turn types (e.g., open helical turns without a hydrogen bond) or capping motifs (e.g., the Schellman motif). Helix termini are detected by observing the behavior of the NH group in N-termini and the CO group in C-termini; in each case, the respective group must be free to interact with hydrogen bonding partners outside of the putative helix for a helix terminus to be assigned. The presented assignment method and SHAFT-assigned helices are part of Secbase and are made available with Relibase+ 3.0 and the free web version of Relibase 3.0. The method can also be used for the helix assignments of additional protein structures. PMID:21365674

  20. OVERVIEW OF HELIX HOUSE NO. 2 (S87), WITH ANTENNA TOWERS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERVIEW OF HELIX HOUSE NO. 2 (S-87), WITH ANTENNA TOWERS, HELIX HOUSE NO. 1 (S-3) AND TRANSMITTER BLDG. (S-2) AT REAR, LOOKING WEST SOUTHWEST. - Naval Computer & Telecommunications Area Master Station, Eastern Pacific, Radio Transmitter Facility Lualualei, Helix House No. 2, Base of Radio Antenna Structure No. 427, Makaha, Honolulu County, HI

  1. Pred?TM: A Novel ?-Transmembrane Region Prediction Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Roy Choudhury, Amrita; Novi?, Marjana

    2015-01-01

    Predicting the transmembrane regions is an important aspect of understanding the structures and architecture of different ?-barrel membrane proteins. Despite significant efforts, currently available ?-transmembrane region predictors are still limited in terms of prediction accuracy, especially in precision. Here, we describe Pred?TM, a transmembrane region prediction algorithm for ?-barrel proteins. Using amino acid pair frequency information in known ?-transmembrane protein sequences, we have trained a support vector machine classifier to predict ?-transmembrane segments. Position-specific amino acid preference data is incorporated in the final prediction. The predictor does not incorporate evolutionary profile information explicitly, but is based on sequence patterns generated implicitly by encoding the protein segments using amino acid adjacency matrix. With a benchmark set of 35 ?-transmembrane proteins, Pred?TM shows a sensitivity and precision of 83.71% and 72.98%, respectively. The segment overlap score is 82.19%. In comparison with other state-of-art methods, Pred?TM provides a higher precision and segment overlap without compromising with sensitivity. Further, we applied Pred?TM to analyze the ?-barrel membrane proteins without defined transmembrane regions and the uncharacterized protein sequences in eight bacterial genomes and predict possible ?-transmembrane proteins. Pred?TM can be freely accessed on the web at http://transpred.ki.si/. PMID:26694538

  2. Lasing thresholds of helical photonic structures with different positions of a single light-amplifying helix turn

    SciTech Connect

    Blinov, L M; Palto, S P

    2013-09-30

    Numerical simulation is used to assess the lasing threshold of helical structures of cholesteric liquid crystals (CLCs) in which only one turn amplifies light. This turn is located either in the centre of symmetric structures of various sizes or in an arbitrary place in asymmetric structures of preset size. In all cases, we find singularities in light amplification by a one-dimensional CLC structure for the most important band-edge modes (m1, m2 and m3) and plot the threshold gain coefficient k{sub th} against the position of the amplifying turn. For the symmetric structures, the lasing threshold of the m1 mode is shown to vary linearly with the inverse of the square of the cavity length. Moreover, modes with a lower density of photonic states (DOS) in the cavity may have a lower lasing threshold. This can be accounted for by the dependence of the density of photonic states on the position of the amplifying turn and, accordingly, by the nonuniform electromagnetic field intensity distribution along the cavity for different modes. In the asymmetric structures, the same field energy distribution is responsible for a correlation between k{sub th} and DOS curves. (lasers)

  3. Tailored fibro-porous structure of electrospun polyurethane membranes, their size-dependent properties and trans-membrane glucose diffusion

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ning; Burugapalli, Krishna; Song, Wenhui; Halls, Justin; Moussy, Francis; Zheng, Yudong; Ma, Yanxuan; Wu, Zhentao; Li, Kang

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop polyurethane (PU) based fibro-porous membranes and to investigate the size-effect of hierarchical porous structure on permeability and surface properties of the developed electrospun membranes. Non-woven Selectophore™ PU membranes having tailored fibre diameters, pore sizes, and thickness were spun using electrospinning, and their chemical, physical and glucose permeability properties were characterised. Solvents, solution concentration, applied voltage, flow rate and distance to collector, each were systematically investigated, and electrospinning conditions for tailoring fibre diameters were identified. Membranes having average fibre diameters – 347, 738 and 1102 nm were characterized, revealing average pore sizes of 800, 870 and 1060 nm and pore volumes of 44, 63 and 68% respectively. Hydrophobicity increased with increasing fibre diameter and porosity. Effective diffusion coefficients for glucose transport across the electrospun membranes varied as a function of thickness and porosity, indicating high flux rates for mass transport. Electrospun PU membranes having significantly high pore volumes, extensively interconnected porosity and tailorable properties compared to conventional solvent cast membranes can find applications as coatings for sensors requiring analyte exchange. PMID:23170040

  4. Structure and Mutagenesis of the Parainfluenza Virus 5 Hemagglutinin-Neuraminidase Stalk Domain Reveals a Four-Helix Bundle and the Role of the Stalk in Fusion Promotion

    SciTech Connect

    Bose, Sayantan; Welch, Brett D.; Kors, Christopher A.; Yuan, Ping; Jardetzky, Theodore S.; Lamb, Robert A.

    2014-10-02

    Paramyxovirus entry into cells requires the fusion protein (F) and a receptor binding protein (hemagglutinin-neuraminidase [HN], H, or G). The multifunctional HN protein of some paramyxoviruses, besides functioning as the receptor (sialic acid) binding protein (hemagglutinin activity) and the receptor-destroying protein (neuraminidase activity), enhances F activity, presumably by lowering the activation energy required for F to mediate fusion of viral and cellular membranes. Before or upon receptor binding by the HN globular head, F is believed to interact with the HN stalk. Unfortunately, until recently none of the receptor binding protein crystal structures have shown electron density for the stalk domain. Parainfluenza virus 5 (PIV5) HN exists as a noncovalent dimer-of-dimers on the surface of cells, linked by a single disulfide bond in the stalk. Here we present the crystal structure of the PIV5-HN stalk domain at a resolution of 2.65 {angstrom}, revealing a four-helix bundle (4HB) with an upper (N-terminal) straight region and a lower (C-terminal) supercoiled part. The hydrophobic core residues are a mix of an 11-mer repeat and a 3- to 4-heptad repeat. To functionally characterize the role of the HN stalk in F interactions and fusion, we designed mutants along the PIV5-HN stalk that are N-glycosylated to physically disrupt F-HN interactions. By extensive study of receptor binding, neuraminidase activity, oligomerization, and fusion-promoting functions of the mutant proteins, we found a correlation between the position of the N-glycosylation mutants on the stalk structure and their neuraminidase activities as well as their abilities to promote fusion.

  5. Crystallizing Transmembrane Peptides in Lipidic Mesophases

    PubMed Central

    Höfer, Nicole; Aragão, David; Caffrey, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Structure determination of membrane proteins by crystallographic means has been facilitated by crystallization in lipidic mesophases. It has been suggested, however, that this so-called in meso method, as originally implemented, would not apply to small protein targets having ?4 transmembrane crossings. In our study, the hypothesis that the inherent flexibility of the mesophase would enable crystallogenesis of small proteins was tested using a transmembrane pentadecapeptide, linear gramicidin, which produced structure-grade crystals. This result suggests that the in meso method should be considered as a viable means for high-resolution structure determination of integral membrane peptides, many of which are predicted to be coded for in the human genome. PMID:20682243

  6. A deterministic algorithm for constrained enumeration of transmembrane protein folds.

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, William Michael; Young, Malin M.; Sale, Kenneth L.; Faulon, Jean-Loup Michel; Schoeniger, Joseph S.

    2004-07-01

    A deterministic algorithm for enumeration of transmembrane protein folds is presented. Using a set of sparse pairwise atomic distance constraints (such as those obtained from chemical cross-linking, FRET, or dipolar EPR experiments), the algorithm performs an exhaustive search of secondary structure element packing conformations distributed throughout the entire conformational space. The end result is a set of distinct protein conformations, which can be scored and refined as part of a process designed for computational elucidation of transmembrane protein structures.

  7. Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR)

    PubMed Central

    Corradi, Valentina; Vergani, Paola; Tieleman, D. Peter

    2015-01-01

    The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) is a member of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter superfamily. CFTR controls the flow of anions through the apical membrane of epithelia. Dysfunctional CFTR causes the common lethal genetic disease cystic fibrosis. Transitions between open and closed states of CFTR are regulated by ATP binding and hydrolysis on the cytosolic nucleotide binding domains, which are coupled with the transmembrane (TM) domains forming the pathway for anion permeation. Lack of structural data hampers a global understanding of CFTR and thus the development of “rational” approaches directly targeting defective CFTR. In this work, we explored possible conformational states of the CFTR gating cycle by means of homology modeling. As templates, we used structures of homologous ABC transporters, namely TM(287–288), ABC-B10, McjD, and Sav1866. In the light of published experimental results, structural analysis of the transmembrane cavity suggests that the TM(287–288)-based CFTR model could correspond to a commonly occupied closed state, whereas the McjD-based model could represent an open state. The models capture the important role played by Phe-337 as a filter/gating residue and provide structural information on the conformational transition from closed to open channel. PMID:26229102

  8. Into the Eye of the Helix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-02-01

    A deep new image of the magnificent Helix planetary nebula has been obtained using the Wide Field Imager at ESO's La Silla Observatory. The image shows a rich background of distant galaxies, usually not seen in other images of this object. ESO PR Photo 07a/09 The Helix Nebula ESO PR Video 06a/09 Helix Nebula Zoom-in ESO PR Video 06b/09 Pan over the Helix Nebula ESO PR Video 06c/09 Zoom and pan over the Helix Nebula The Helix Nebula, NGC 7293, lies about 700 light-years away in the constellation of Aquarius (the Water Bearer). It is one of the closest and most spectacular examples of a planetary nebula. These exotic objects have nothing to do with planets, but are the final blooming of Sun-like stars before their retirement as white dwarfs. Shells of gas are blown off from a star's surface, often in intricate and beautiful patterns, and shine under the harsh ultraviolet radiation from the faint, but very hot, central star. The main ring of the Helix Nebula is about two light-years across or half the distance between the Sun and its closest stellar neighbour. Despite being photographically very spectacular the Helix is hard to see visually as its light is thinly spread over a large area of sky and the history of its discovery is rather obscure. It first appears in a list of new objects compiled by the German astronomer Karl Ludwig Harding in 1824. The name Helix comes from the rough corkscrew shape seen in the earlier photographs. Although the Helix looks very much like a doughnut, studies have shown that it possibly consists of at least two separate discs with outer rings and filaments. The brighter inner disc seems to be expanding at about 100 000 km/h and to have taken about 12 000 years to have formed. Because the Helix is relatively close -- it covers an area of the sky about a quarter of the full Moon -- it can be studied in much greater detail than most other planetary nebulae and has been found to have an unexpected and complex structure. All around the inside of the ring are small blobs, known as "cometary knots", with faint tails extending away from the central star. They look remarkably like droplets of liquid running down a sheet of glass. Although they look tiny, each knot is about as large as our Solar System. These knots have been extensively studied, both with the ESO Very Large Telescope and with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, but remain only partially understood. A careful look at the central part of this object reveals not only the knots, but also many remote galaxies seen right through the thinly spread glowing gas. Some of these seem to be gathered in separate galaxy groups scattered over various parts of the image.

  9. Transmembrane heme delivery systems

    PubMed Central

    Goldman, Barry S.; Beck, David L.; Monika, Elizabeth M.; Kranz, Robert G.

    1998-01-01

    Heme proteins play pivotal roles in a wealth of biological processes. Despite this, the molecular mechanisms by which heme traverses bilayer membranes for use in biosynthetic reactions are unknown. The biosynthesis of c-type cytochromes requires that heme is transported to the bacterial periplasm or mitochondrial intermembrane space where it is covalently ligated to two reduced cysteinyl residues of the apocytochrome. Results herein suggest that a family of integral membrane proteins in prokaryotes, protozoans, and plants act as transmembrane heme delivery systems for the biogenesis of c-type cytochromes. The complete topology of a representative from each of the three subfamilies was experimentally determined. Key histidinyl residues and a conserved tryptophan-rich region (designated the WWD domain) are positioned at the site of cytochrome c assembly for all three subfamilies. These histidinyl residues were shown to be essential for function in one of the subfamilies, an ABC transporter encoded by helABCD. We believe that a directed heme delivery pathway is vital for the synthesis of cytochromes c, whereby heme iron is protected from oxidation via ligation to histidinyl residues within the delivery proteins. PMID:9560218

  10. The determinants of hydrophobic mismatch response for transmembrane helices.

    PubMed

    de Jesus, Armando J; Allen, Toby W

    2013-02-01

    Hydrophobic mismatch arises from a difference in the hydrophobic thickness of a lipid membrane and a transmembrane protein segment, and is thought to play an important role in the folding, stability and function of membrane proteins. We have investigated the possible adaptations that lipid bilayers and transmembrane ?-helices undergo in response to mismatch, using fully-atomistic molecular dynamics simulations totaling 1.4 ?s. We have created 25 different tryptophan-alanine-leucine transmembrane ?-helical peptide systems, each composed of a hydrophobic alanine-leucine stretch, flanked by 1-4 tryptophan side chains, as well as the ?-helical peptide dimer, gramicidin A. Membrane responses to mismatch include changes in local bilayer thickness and lipid order, varying systematically with peptide length. Adding more flanking tryptophan side chains led to an increase in bilayer thinning for negatively mismatched peptides, though it was also associated with a spreading of the bilayer interface. Peptide tilting, bending and stretching were systematic, with tilting dominating the responses, with values of up to ~45° for the most positively mismatched peptides. Peptide responses were modulated by the number of tryptophan side chains due to their anchoring roles and distributions around the helices. Potential of mean force calculations for local membrane thickness changes, helix tilting, bending and stretching revealed that membrane deformation is the least energetically costly of all mismatch responses, except for positively mismatched peptides where helix tilting also contributes substantially. This comparison of energetic driving forces of mismatch responses allows for deeper insight into protein stability and conformational changes in lipid membranes. PMID:22995244

  11. Analysis of Human Dopamine D3 Receptor Quaternary Structure.

    PubMed

    Marsango, Sara; Caltabiano, Gianluigi; Pou, Chantevy; Varela Liste, María José; Milligan, Graeme

    2015-06-12

    The dopamine D3 receptor is a class A, rhodopsin-like G protein-coupled receptor that can form dimers and/or higher order oligomers. However, the molecular basis for production of these complexes is not well defined. Using combinations of molecular modeling, site-directed mutagenesis, and homogenous time-resolved FRET, the interfaces that allow dopamine D3 receptor monomers to interact were defined and used to describe likely quaternary arrangements of the receptor. These were then compared with published crystal structures of dimeric ?1-adrenoreceptor, ?-opioid, and CXCR4 receptors. The data indicate important contributions of residues from within each of transmembrane domains I, II, IV, V, VI, and VII as well as the intracellular helix VIII in the formation of D3-D3 receptor interfaces within homo-oligomers and are consistent with the D3 receptor adopting a ?1-adrenoreceptor-like quaternary arrangement. Specifically, results suggest that D3 protomers can interact with each other via at least two distinct interfaces: the first one comprising residues from transmembrane domains I and II along with those from helix VIII and a second one involving transmembrane domains IV and V. Moreover, rather than existing only as distinct dimeric species, the results are consistent with the D3 receptor also assuming a quaternary structure in which two transmembrane domain I-II-helix VIII dimers interact to form a "rhombic" tetramer via an interface involving residues from transmembrane domains VI and VII. In addition, the results also provide insights into the potential contribution of molecules of cholesterol to the overall organization and potential stability of the D3 receptor and possibly other GPCR quaternary structures. PMID:25931118

  12. ¹³C- and ¹H-detection under fast MAS for the study of poorly available proteins: application to sub-milligram quantities of a 7 trans-membrane protein.

    PubMed

    Dannatt, Hugh R W; Taylor, Garrick F; Varga, Krisztina; Higman, Victoria A; Pfeil, Marc-Philipp; Asilmovska, Lubica; Judge, Peter J; Watts, Anthony

    2015-05-01

    We demonstrate that (13)C-detected spectra recorded using fast (60 kHz) magic angle spinning on sub-milligram (<10 ?mol) quantities of a protonated 7 trans-membrane helix protein (bacteriorhodopsin) in its native lipid environment are comparable in sensitivity and resolution to those recorded using 15-fold larger sample volumes with conventional solid state NMR methodology. We demonstrate the utility of proton-detected measurements which yield narrow (1)H linewidths under these conditions, and that no structural alterations are observed. We propose that these methods will prove useful to gain structural information on membrane proteins with poor availability, which can be studied in their native lipid environments. PMID:25701262

  13. Genetic systems for monitoring interactions of transmembrane domains in bacterial membranes.

    PubMed

    Tome, Lydia; Steindorf, Dominik; Schneider, Dirk

    2013-01-01

    In recent years several systems have been developed to study interactions of TM domains within the inner membrane of the Gram-negative bacterium Escherichia coli. Mostly, a transmembrane domain of interest is fused to a soluble DNA-binding domain, which dimerizes in E. coli cytoplasm after interactions of the transmembrane domains. The dimeric DNA-binding domain subsequently binds to a promoter/operator region and thereby activates or represses a reporter gene. In 1996 the first bacterial system has been introduced to measure interactions of TM helices within a bacterial membrane, which is based on fusion of a transmembrane helix of interest to the DNA-binding domain of the Vibrio cholerae ToxR protein. Interaction of a transmembrane helix of interest within the membrane environment results in dimerization of the DNA-binding domain in the bacterial cytoplasm, and the dimeric DNA-binding domain then binds to the DNA and activates a reporter gene. Subsequently, systems with improved features, such as the TOXCAT- or POSSYCCAT system, which allow screening of TM domain libraries, or the GALLEX system, which allows measuring heterotypic interactions of TM helices, have been developed and successfully applied. Here we briefly introduce the currently most applied systems and discuss their advantages together with their limitations. PMID:23975772

  14. THE MULTITUDE OF MOLECULAR HYDROGEN KNOTS IN THE HELIX NEBULA1 Margaret Meixner and Peter McCullough

    E-print Network

    Speck, Angela Karen

    THE MULTITUDE OF MOLECULAR HYDROGEN KNOTS IN THE HELIX NEBULA1 Margaret Meixner and Peter Mc in five fields in the Helix Nebula ranging in radial distance from 25000 to 45000 from the central star a mass of $1:5 ; 10Ã?5 M for the individual knots. The H2 emission structure of the entire Helix Nebula

  15. Lipid solvation effects contribute to the affinity of Gly-xxx-Gly motif-mediated helix-helix interactions.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Rachel M; Rath, Arianna; Melnyk, Roman A; Deber, Charles M

    2006-07-18

    Interactions between transmembrane helices are mediated by the concave Gly-xxx-Gly motif surface. Whether Gly residues per se are sufficient for selection of this motif has not been established. Here, we used the in vivo TOXCAT assay to measure the relative affinities of all 18 combinations of Gly, Ala, and Ser "small-xxx-small" mutations in glycophorin A (GpA) and bacteriophage M13 major coat protein (MCP) homodimers. Affinity values were compared with the accessibility to a methylene-sized probe of the total surface area of each helix monomer as a measure of solvation by membrane components. A strong inverse correlation was found between nonpolar-group lipid accessibility and dimer affinity (R = 0.75 for GpA, p = 0.013, and R = 0.81 for MCP, p = 0.004), suggesting that lipid as a poor membrane protein solvent, conceptually analogous to water in soluble protein folding, can contribute to dimer stability and help to define helix-helix interfaces. PMID:16834324

  16. Modeling Transmembrane Domain Dimers/Trimers of Plexin Receptors: Implications for Mechanisms of Signal Transmission across the Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Liqun; Polyansky, Anton; Buck, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Single-pass transmembrane (TM) receptors transmit signals across lipid bilayers by helix association or by configurational changes within preformed dimers. The structure determination for such TM regions is challenging and has mostly been accomplished by NMR spectroscopy. Recently, the computational prediction of TM dimer structures is becoming recognized for providing models, including alternate conformational states, which are important for receptor regulation. Here we pursued a strategy to predict helix oligomers that is based on packing considerations (using the PREDDIMER webserver) and is followed by a refinement of structures, utilizing microsecond all-atom molecular dynamics simulations. We applied this method to plexin TM receptors, a family of 9 human proteins, involved in the regulation of cell guidance and motility. The predicted models show that, overall, the preferences identified by PREDDIMER are preserved in the unrestrained simulations and that TM structures are likely to be diverse across the plexin family. Plexin-B1 and –B3 TM helices are regular and tend to associate, whereas plexin-A1, -A2, –A3, -A4, -C1 and –D1 contain sequence elements, such as poly-Glycine or aromatic residues that distort helix conformation and association. Plexin-B2 does not form stable dimers due to the presence of TM prolines. No experimental structural information on the TM region is available for these proteins, except for plexin-C1 dimeric and plexin-B1 – trimeric structures inferred from X-ray crystal structures of the intracellular regions. Plexin-B1 TM trimers utilize Ser and Thr sidechains for interhelical contacts. We also modeled the juxta-membrane (JM) region of plexin-C1 and plexin-B1 and show that it synergizes with the TM structures. The structure and dynamics of the JM region and TM-JM junction provide determinants for the distance and distribution of the intracellular domains, and for their binding partners relative to the membrane. The structures suggest experimental tests and will be useful for the interpretation of future studies. PMID:25837709

  17. Triple helix purification and sequencing

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Renfeng (Dublin, CA); Smith, Lloyd M. (Madison, WI); Tong, Xinchun E. (Madison, WI)

    1995-01-01

    Disclosed herein are methods, kits, and equipment for purifying single stranded circular DNA and then using the DNA for DNA sequencing purposes. Templates are provided with an insert having a hybridization region. An elongated oligonucleotide has two regions that are complementary to the insert and the oligo is bound to a magnetic anchor. The oligo hybridizes to the insert on two sides to form a stable triple helix complex. The anchor can then be used to drag the template out of solution using a magnet. The system can purify sequencing templates, and if desired the triple helix complex can be opened up to a double helix so that the oligonucleotide will act as a primer for further DNA synthesis.

  18. Triple helix purification and sequencing

    DOEpatents

    Wang, R.; Smith, L.M.; Tong, X.E.

    1995-03-28

    Disclosed herein are methods, kits, and equipment for purifying single stranded circular DNA and then using the DNA for DNA sequencing purposes. Templates are provided with an insert having a hybridization region. An elongated oligonucleotide has two regions that are complementary to the insert and the oligo is bound to a magnetic anchor. The oligo hybridizes to the insert on two sides to form a stable triple helix complex. The anchor can then be used to drag the template out of solution using a magnet. The system can purify sequencing templates, and if desired the triple helix complex can be opened up to a double helix so that the oligonucleotide will act as a primer for further DNA synthesis. 4 figures.

  19. A frequent, GxxxG-mediated, transmembrane association motif is optimized for the formation of interhelical C?-H hydrogen bonds.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Benjamin K; Subramaniam, Sabareesh; Senes, Alessandro

    2014-03-11

    Carbon hydrogen bonds between C?-H donors and carbonyl acceptors are frequently observed between transmembrane helices (C?-H···O=C). Networks of these interactions occur often at helix-helix interfaces mediated by GxxxG and similar patterns. C?-H hydrogen bonds have been hypothesized to be important in membrane protein folding and association, but evidence that they are major determinants of helix association is still lacking. Here we present a comprehensive geometric analysis of homodimeric helices that demonstrates the existence of a single region in conformational space with high propensity for C?-H···O=C hydrogen bond formation. This region corresponds to the most frequent motif for parallel dimers, GASright, whose best-known example is glycophorin A. The finding suggests a causal link between the high frequency of occurrence of GASright and its propensity for carbon hydrogen bond formation. Investigation of the sequence dependency of the motif determined that Gly residues are required at specific positions where only Gly can act as a donor with its "side chain" H?. Gly also reduces the steric barrier for non-Gly amino acids at other positions to act as C? donors, promoting the formation of cooperative hydrogen bonding networks. These findings offer a structural rationale for the occurrence of GxxxG patterns at the GASright interface. The analysis identified the conformational space and the sequence requirement of C?-H···O=C mediated motifs; we took advantage of these results to develop a structural prediction method. The resulting program, CATM, predicts ab initio the known high-resolution structures of homodimeric GASright motifs at near-atomic level. PMID:24569864

  20. Probing ?-310 Transitions in a Voltage-Sensing S4 Helix

    PubMed Central

    Kubota, Tomoya; Lacroix, Jérôme J.; Bezanilla, Francisco; Correa, Ana M.

    2014-01-01

    The S4 helix of voltage sensor domains (VSDs) transfers its gating charges across the membrane electrical field in response to changes of the membrane potential. Recent studies suggest that this process may occur via the helical conversion of the entire S4 between ? and 310 conformations. Here, using LRET and FRET, we tested this hypothesis by measuring dynamic changes in the transmembrane length of S4 from engineered VSDs expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Our results suggest that the native S4 from the Ciona intestinalis voltage-sensitive phosphatase (Ci-VSP) does not exhibit extended and long-lived 310 conformations and remains mostly ?-helical. Although the S4 of NavAb displays a fully extended 310 conformation in x-ray structures, its transplantation in the Ci-VSP VSD scaffold yielded similar results as the native Ci-VSP S4. Taken together, our study does not support the presence of long-lived extended ?-to-310 helical conversions of the S4 in Ci-VSP associated with voltage activation. PMID:25185547

  1. Structure-Activity Relationships of Cyanoquinolines with Corrector-Potentiator Activity in delta-F508-Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator Protein

    PubMed Central

    Knapp, John M.; Wood, Alex B.; Phuan, Puay-Wah; Lodewyk, Michael W.; Tantillo, Dean J.; Verkman, A. S.; Kurth, Mark J.

    2012-01-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is caused by mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) chloride channel. The most common CF-causing mutation, ?F508-CFTR, produces CFTR loss-of-function by impairing its cellular targeting to the plasma membrane and its chloride channel gating. We recently identified, cyanoquinolines with both corrector (“Co”; normalizing ?F508-CFTR targeting) and potentiator (“Po”; normalizing ?F508-CFTR channel gating) activities. Here, we synthesized and characterized twenty-four targeted cyanoquinoline analogues to elucidate the conformational requirements for corrector and potentiator activities. Compounds with potentiator-only, corrector-only and dual potentiator-corrector activities were found. Molecular modeling studies (conformational search ? force-field lowest energy assessment ? geometry optimization] suggest that (1) a flexible tether and (2) a relatively short bridge between the cyanoquinoline and aryl amide moieties are important cyanoquinoline-based CoPo features. Further, these CoPo’s should adopt two distinct ?-stacking conformations to elicit corrector and potentiator activities. PMID:22214395

  2. Torsional properties of helix-reinforced composites fabricated by magnetic freeze casting

    E-print Network

    Meyers, Marc A.

    Torsional properties of helix-reinforced composites fabricated by magnetic freeze casting Michael M September 2014 Keywords: Torsion Helix Bioinspired Freeze casting Magnetic alignment Ceramic composites a b inspiration from these natural structures, a novel materials processing method, known as magnetic freeze

  3. VIEW OF SOUTH ELEVATION OF HELIX HOUSE NO. 2 (S87) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF SOUTH ELEVATION OF HELIX HOUSE NO. 2 (S-87) SHOWING MAIN ENTRY DOOR, LOOKING NORTH NORTHWEST. - Naval Computer & Telecommunications Area Master Station, Eastern Pacific, Radio Transmitter Facility Lualualei, Helix House No. 2, Base of Radio Antenna Structure No. 427, Makaha, Honolulu County, HI

  4. VIEW OF HELIX HOUSE NO. 2 (S87), WITH ANTENNA TOWER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF HELIX HOUSE NO. 2 (S-87), WITH ANTENNA TOWER CABLE SUPPORT IN FOREGROUND, LOOKING SOUTHEAST. - Naval Computer & Telecommunications Area Master Station, Eastern Pacific, Radio Transmitter Facility Lualualei, Helix House No. 2, Base of Radio Antenna Structure No. 427, Makaha, Honolulu County, HI

  5. VIEW OF EAST ELEVATION OF HELIX HOUSE NO. 2 (S87), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF EAST ELEVATION OF HELIX HOUSE NO. 2 (S-87), LOOKING WEST (without scale stick). - Naval Computer & Telecommunications Area Master Station, Eastern Pacific, Radio Transmitter Facility Lualualei, Helix House No. 2, Base of Radio Antenna Structure No. 427, Makaha, Honolulu County, HI

  6. VIEW OF EAST ELEVATION OF HELIX HOUSE NO. 2 (S87), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF EAST ELEVATION OF HELIX HOUSE NO. 2 (S-87), LOOKING WEST (with scale stick). - Naval Computer & Telecommunications Area Master Station, Eastern Pacific, Radio Transmitter Facility Lualualei, Helix House No. 2, Base of Radio Antenna Structure No. 427, Makaha, Honolulu County, HI

  7. Conformational Flexibility in the Transmembrane Protein TSPO.

    PubMed

    Jaremko, ?ukasz; Jaremko, Mariusz; Giller, Karin; Becker, Stefan; Zweckstetter, Markus

    2015-11-01

    The translocator protein (TSPO) is an integral membrane protein that interacts with a wide variety of endogenous ligands, such as cholesterol and porphyrins, and is also the target for several small molecules with substantial in vivo efficacy. When complexed with the TSPO-specific radioligand (R)-PK11195, TSPO folds into a rigid five-helix bundle. However, little is known about the structure and dynamics of TSPO in the absence of high-affinity ligands. By means of NMR spectroscopy, we show that TSPO exchanges between multiple conformations in the absence of (R)-PK11195. Extensive motions on time scales from pico- to microseconds occur all along the primary sequence of the protein, leading to a loss of stable tertiary interactions and local unfolding of the helical structure in the vicinity of the ligand-binding site. The flexible nature of TSPO highlights the importance of conformational plasticity in integral membrane proteins. PMID:26394723

  8. Circular dichroism, molecular modeling, and serology indicate that the structural basis of antigenic variation in foot-and-mouth disease virus is [alpha]-helix formation

    SciTech Connect

    France, L.L.; Piatti, P.G.; Newman, J.F.E.; Brown, F. ); Toth, I.; Gibbons, W.A. )

    1994-08-30

    Seven antigenic variants obtained from a single field isolate of foot-and-mouth disease virus, serotype A12, differ only at residues 148 and 153 in the immunodominant loop of viral protein VP1. Synthetic peptides corresponding to the region 141-160 are highly immunogenic. UV circular dichroism shows that (i) in aqueous solution of the peptides are nearly identical, but in 100% trifluoroethanol they display helix-forming properties which correlate well with their serological crossreactivities for anti-peptide sera, and (ii) these properties are insensitive to substitutions at position 153, except for proline, but are highly sensitive to substitutions at position 148. This pattern can be explained by the effects of these substitutions on the amphiphilic character and positions of helices postulated in the region 146-156. Molecular models indicate that residues 147, 148, 150, 151, 153-155, and 157 are most likely to interact with residues of the antibody paratopes. The data are consistent with the existence of an inverse [gamma]-turn around Pro-153, and a [beta]-turn at the cell-attachment site at residues 145-147. 31 refs., 5 figs.

  9. Does Mitochondrial Fusion Require Transmembrane Potential?

    PubMed

    Karavaeva, I E; Shekhireva, K V; Severin, F F; Knorre, D A

    2015-05-01

    Dissipation of transmembrane potential inhibits mitochondrial fusion and thus prevents reintegration of damaged mitochondria into the mitochondrial network. Consequently, damaged mitochondria are removed by autophagy. Does transmembrane potential directly regulate the mitochondrial fusion machinery? It was shown that inhibition of ATP-synthase induces fragmentation of mitochondria while preserving transmembrane potential. Moreover, mitochondria of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae retain the ability to fuse even in the absence of transmembrane potential. Metazoan mitochondria in some cases retain ability to fuse for a short period even in a depolarized state. It also seems unlikely that transmembrane potential-based regulation of mitochondrial fusion would prevent reintegration of mitochondria with damaged ATP-synthase into the mitochondrial network. Such reintegration could lead to clonal expansion of mtDNAs harboring deleterious mutations in ATP synthase. We speculate that transmembrane potential is not directly involved in regulation of mitochondrial fusion but affects mitochondrial NTP/NDP ratio, which in turn regulates their fusion. PMID:26071772

  10. Cytochromes b561: Ascorbate-Mediated Trans-Membrane Electron Transport

    PubMed Central

    Barbaro, Raffaella; Trost, Paolo; Bérczi, Alajos

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Cytochromes b561 (CYB561s) constitute a family of trans-membrane (TM), di-heme proteins, occurring in a variety of organs and cell types, in plants and animals, and using ascorbate (ASC) as an electron donor. CYB561s function as monodehydroascorbate reductase, regenerating ASC, and as Fe3+-reductases, providing reduced iron for TM transport. A CYB561-core domain is also associated with dopamine ?-monooxygenase redox domains (DOMON) in ubiquitous CYBDOM proteins. In plants, CYBDOMs form large protein families. Physiological functions supported by CYB561s and CYBDOMs include stress defense, cell wall modifications, iron metabolism, tumor suppression, and various neurological processes, including memory retention. CYB561s, therefore, significantly broaden our view on the physiological roles of ASC. Recent Advances: The ubiquitous nature of CYB561s is only recently being recognized. Significant advances have been made through the study of recombinant CYB561s, revealing structural and functional properties of a unique “two-heme four-helix” protein configuration. In addition, the DOMON domains of CYBDOMs are suggested to contain another heme b. Critical Issues: New CYB561 proteins are still being identified, and there is a need to provide an insight and overview on the various roles of these proteins and their structural properties. Future Directions: Mutant studies will reveal in greater detail the mechanisms by which CYB561s and CYBDOMs participate in cell metabolism in plants and animals. Moreover, the availability of efficient heterologous expression systems should allow protein crystallization, more detailed (atomic-level) structural information, and insights into the intra-molecular mechanism of electron transport. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 19, 1026–1035. PMID:23249217

  11. Expression of a chimeric helix-loop-helix gene, Id-SCL, in K562 human leukemic cells is associated with nuclear segmentation.

    PubMed Central

    Goldfarb, A. N.; Wolf, M. L.; Greenberg, J. M.

    1992-01-01

    We have designed a chimeric gene, Id-SCL, in which the 3' helix-loop-helix encoding portion of the presumptive oncogene SCL/tal is joined to the 5' coding portion of Id, an inhibitory helix-loop-helix gene. The predicted protein product of this chimeric gene contains the helix-loop-helix dimerization domain of SCL/tal, but, lacking a basic DNA binding domain, is predicted to have the inhibitory function of the Id product. Expression of the Id-SCL fusion gene in stably transfected K562 cells reproducibly resulted in nuclear segmentation and depressed growth rates; both of these phenotypic effects demonstrated a dosage dependence on the levels of Id-SCL mRNA and protein expressed in the various clones. Electron microscopy of cells expressing high levels of Id-SCL mRNA showed a significant increase in cytoplasmic perinuclear thin filaments and diminution of marginal heterochromatin in the nuclei. No other changes in hematopoietic differentiation status were observed in association with Id-SCL expression. Expression of intact Id and SCL/tal genes, as well as deletion mutants of Id and SCL/tal, independently transfected into K562 cells, indicated that the nuclear segmentation effect is dependent on the presence of a protein possessing a helix-loop-helix domain but lacking a basic domain. Our studies suggest that the balance of transcriptional inhibitory and stimulatory helix-loop-helix proteins in cells may be important determinants of proliferation and of structural organization within cells. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 8 Figure 11 PMID:1443047

  12. Folding and insertion thermodynamics of the transmembrane WALP peptide.

    PubMed

    Bereau, Tristan; Bennett, W F Drew; Pfaendtner, Jim; Deserno, Markus; Karttunen, Mikko

    2015-12-28

    The anchor of most integral membrane proteins consists of one or several helices spanning the lipid bilayer. The WALP peptide, GWW(LA)n (L)WWA, is a common model helix to study the fundamentals of protein insertion and folding, as well as helix-helix association in the membrane. Its structural properties have been illuminated in a large number of experimental and simulation studies. In this combined coarse-grained and atomistic simulation study, we probe the thermodynamics of a single WALP peptide, focusing on both the insertion across the water-membrane interface, as well as folding in both water and a membrane. The potential of mean force characterizing the peptide's insertion into the membrane shows qualitatively similar behavior across peptides and three force fields. However, the Martini force field exhibits a pronounced secondary minimum for an adsorbed interfacial state, which may even become the global minimum-in contrast to both atomistic simulations and the alternative PLUM force field. Even though the two coarse-grained models reproduce the free energy of insertion of individual amino acids side chains, they both underestimate its corresponding value for the full peptide (as compared with atomistic simulations), hinting at cooperative physics beyond the residue level. Folding of WALP in the two environments indicates the helix as the most stable structure, though with different relative stabilities and chain-length dependence. PMID:26723612

  13. Folding and insertion thermodynamics of the transmembrane WALP peptide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bereau, Tristan; Bennett, W. F. Drew; Pfaendtner, Jim; Deserno, Markus; Karttunen, Mikko

    2015-12-01

    The anchor of most integral membrane proteins consists of one or several helices spanning the lipid bilayer. The WALP peptide, GWW(LA)n (L)WWA, is a common model helix to study the fundamentals of protein insertion and folding, as well as helix-helix association in the membrane. Its structural properties have been illuminated in a large number of experimental and simulation studies. In this combined coarse-grained and atomistic simulation study, we probe the thermodynamics of a single WALP peptide, focusing on both the insertion across the water-membrane interface, as well as folding in both water and a membrane. The potential of mean force characterizing the peptide's insertion into the membrane shows qualitatively similar behavior across peptides and three force fields. However, the Martini force field exhibits a pronounced secondary minimum for an adsorbed interfacial state, which may even become the global minimum—in contrast to both atomistic simulations and the alternative PLUM force field. Even though the two coarse-grained models reproduce the free energy of insertion of individual amino acids side chains, they both underestimate its corresponding value for the full peptide (as compared with atomistic simulations), hinting at cooperative physics beyond the residue level. Folding of WALP in the two environments indicates the helix as the most stable structure, though with different relative stabilities and chain-length dependence.

  14. The activation energy for insertion of transmembrane alpha-helices is dependent on membrane composition.

    PubMed

    Meijberg, Wim; Booth, Paula J

    2002-06-01

    The physical mechanisms that govern the folding and assembly of integral membrane proteins are poorly understood. It appears that certain properties of the lipid bilayer affect membrane protein folding in vitro, either by modulating helix insertion or packing. In order to begin to understand the origin of this effect, we investigate the effect of lipid forces on the insertion of a transmembrane alpha-helix using a water-soluble, alanine-based peptide, KKAAAIAAAAAIAAWAAIAAAKKKK-amide. This peptide binds to preformed 1,2-dioleoyl-l-alpha-phosphatidylcholine (DOPC) vesicles at neutral pH, but spontaneous transmembrane helix insertion directly from the aqueous phase only occurs at high pH when the Lys residues are de-protonated. These results suggest that the translocation of charge is a major determinant of the activation energy for insertion. Time-resolved measurements of the insertion process at high pH indicate biphasic kinetics with time constants of ca 30 and 430 seconds. The slower phase seems to correlate with formation of a predominantly transmembrane alpha-helical conformation, as determined from the transfer of the tryptophan residue to the hydrocarbon region of the membrane. Temperature-dependent measurements showed that insertion can proceed only above a certain threshold temperature and that the Arrhenius activation energy is of the order of 90 kJ mol(-1). The kinetics, threshold temperature and the activation energy change with the mole fraction of 1,2-dioleoyl-l-alpha-phosphatidylethanolamine (DOPE) introduced into the DOPC membrane. The activation energy increases with increasing DOPE content, which could reflect the fact that this lipid drives the bilayer towards a non-bilayer transition and increases the lateral pressure in the lipid chain region. This suggests that folding events involving the insertion of helical segments across the bilayer can be controlled by lipid forces. PMID:12054874

  15. Transmembrane protein sorting driven by membrane curvature.

    PubMed

    Strahl, H; Ronneau, S; González, B Solana; Klutsch, D; Schaffner-Barbero, C; Hamoen, L W

    2015-01-01

    The intricate structure of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells depends on the ability to target proteins to specific cellular locations. In most cases, we have a poor understanding of the underlying mechanisms. A typical example is the assembly of bacterial chemoreceptors at cell poles. Here we show that the classical chemoreceptor TlpA of Bacillus subtilis does not localize according to the consensus stochastic nucleation mechanism but accumulates at strongly curved membrane areas generated during cell division. This preference was confirmed by accumulation at non-septal curved membranes. Localization appears to be an intrinsic property of the protein complex and does not rely on chemoreceptor clustering, as was previously shown for Escherichia coli. By constructing specific amino-acid substitutions, we demonstrate that the preference for strongly curved membranes arises from the curved shape of chemoreceptor trimer of dimers. These findings demonstrate that the intrinsic shape of transmembrane proteins can determine their cellular localization. PMID:26522943

  16. Transmembrane protein sorting driven by membrane curvature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strahl, H.; Ronneau, S.; González, B. Solana; Klutsch, D.; Schaffner-Barbero, C.; Hamoen, L. W.

    2015-11-01

    The intricate structure of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells depends on the ability to target proteins to specific cellular locations. In most cases, we have a poor understanding of the underlying mechanisms. A typical example is the assembly of bacterial chemoreceptors at cell poles. Here we show that the classical chemoreceptor TlpA of Bacillus subtilis does not localize according to the consensus stochastic nucleation mechanism but accumulates at strongly curved membrane areas generated during cell division. This preference was confirmed by accumulation at non-septal curved membranes. Localization appears to be an intrinsic property of the protein complex and does not rely on chemoreceptor clustering, as was previously shown for Escherichia coli. By constructing specific amino-acid substitutions, we demonstrate that the preference for strongly curved membranes arises from the curved shape of chemoreceptor trimer of dimers. These findings demonstrate that the intrinsic shape of transmembrane proteins can determine their cellular localization.

  17. Transmembrane protein sorting driven by membrane curvature

    PubMed Central

    Strahl, H.; Ronneau, S.; González, B. Solana; Klutsch, D.; Schaffner-Barbero, C.; Hamoen, L. W.

    2015-01-01

    The intricate structure of prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells depends on the ability to target proteins to specific cellular locations. In most cases, we have a poor understanding of the underlying mechanisms. A typical example is the assembly of bacterial chemoreceptors at cell poles. Here we show that the classical chemoreceptor TlpA of Bacillus subtilis does not localize according to the consensus stochastic nucleation mechanism but accumulates at strongly curved membrane areas generated during cell division. This preference was confirmed by accumulation at non-septal curved membranes. Localization appears to be an intrinsic property of the protein complex and does not rely on chemoreceptor clustering, as was previously shown for Escherichia coli. By constructing specific amino-acid substitutions, we demonstrate that the preference for strongly curved membranes arises from the curved shape of chemoreceptor trimer of dimers. These findings demonstrate that the intrinsic shape of transmembrane proteins can determine their cellular localization. PMID:26522943

  18. HEMOSTASIS, THROMBOSIS, AND VASCULAR BIOLOGY Requirement of and subunit transmembrane helix separation for integrin

    E-print Network

    Springer, Timothy A.

    separation for integrin outside-in signaling Jieqing Zhu,1 Christopher V. Carman,2 Minsoo Kim,3 Motomu of Anesthesia, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA Adhesion to extracellular ligands through integrins regulates cell shape, migration, growth, and survival. How integrins trans- mit signals in the outside

  19. The Roles of Transmembrane Domain Helix-III during Rhodopsin Photoactivation

    E-print Network

    Ou, Wen-bin

    Background: Rhodopsin, the prototypic member of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), undergoes isomerization of 11- cis-retinal to all-trans-retinal upon photoactivation. Although the basic mechanism by which rhodopsin is ...

  20. The Effect of Point Mutations on the Free Energy of Transmembrane aaa-Helix Dimerization

    E-print Network

    of dimeri- zation in a non-denaturing detergent solution and have observed the changes in energy arising from two of the mutants previously studied. Use of the detergent pentaoxyethylene octyl ether (C8E5) is a great advan- tage, since its micelles are neutrally buoyant and the detergent allows a reversible

  1. Dispersion relations for a plasma-filled helix-loaded-waveguide

    SciTech Connect

    Makowski, M.A.; Hooper, E.B.; Stallard, B.W.

    1994-01-01

    The propagation of waves on bounded, magnetized plasma columns arises in connection with a variety of applications. To this end dispersion relations axe developed for a variety of multi-region circularly symmetric configurations. These include, a sheath helix in free space, a plasma column in free space, a plasma filled conducting tube, a plasma filled sheath-helix in free space, a sheath helix within a conducting cylinder, a plasma filled sheath-helix within a conducting cylinder, and a plasma column within a sheath-helix contained within a conducting cylinder. The latter configuration is of the most interest for whistler wave excitation for plasma thruster applications, since it includes the effect of a vacuum region separating the plasma column from the helical excitation structure.

  2. IRS Observations of the Double Helix Nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Mark; Do, Tuan; Uchida, Keven

    2007-05-01

    We propose an IRS study of the Double Helix Nebula in the Galactic Center. This large-scale (30-pc) feature has been interpreted as a torsional Alfven wave driven by the rotation of the circumnuclear disk about the central black hole of the Galaxy. The cause of its infrared emission is likely to be thermal infrared emission by dust, but the mechanism by which the dust is organized into the observed helical structure is unknown. The proposed observations are aimed at learning as much as possible about the characteristics of the dust grains in this feature: their charge state, their size, and their temperature, in order to assess the hypothesis that the strong magnetic field at the Galactic center has played a role levitating the dust to its observed location, and ordering its morphology.

  3. The first transmembrane domain (TM1) of ?2-subunit binds to the transmembrane domain S1 of ?-subunit in BK potassium channels

    PubMed Central

    Morera, Francisco J.; Alioua, Abderrahmane; Kundu, Pallob; Salazar, Marcelo; Gonzalez, Carlos; Martinez, Agustin D.; Stefani, Enrico; Toro, Ligia; Latorre, Ramon

    2012-01-01

    The BK channel is one of the most broadly expressed ion channels in mammals. In many tissues, the BK channel pore-forming ?-subunit is associated to an auxiliary ?-subunit that modulates the voltage- and Ca2+-dependent activation of the channel. Structural components present in ?-subunits that are important for the physical association with the ?-subunit are yet unknown. Here, we show through co-immunoprecipitation that the intracellular C-terminus, the second transmembrane domain (TM2) and the extracellular loop of the ?2-subunit are dispensable for association with the ?-subunit pointing transmembrane domain 1 (TM1) as responsible for the interaction. Indeed, the TOXCAT assay for transmembrane protein–protein interactions demonstrated for the first time that TM1 of the ?2-subunit physically binds to the transmembrane S1 domain of the ?-subunit. PMID:22710124

  4. Light Signal Transduction Pathway from Flavin Chromophore to the J? Helix of Arabidopsis Phototropin1

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Atsushi; Iwata, Tatsuya; Sato, Yoshiaki; Matsuoka, Daisuke; Tokutomi, Satoru; Kandori, Hideki

    2009-01-01

    In the plant blue-light sensor phototropin, illumination of the chromophoric LOV domains causes activation of the serine/threonine kinase domain. Flavin mononucleotide (FMN) is a chromophore molecule in the two LOV domains (LOV1 and LOV2), but only LOV2 is responsible for kinase activation. Previous studies reported an important role of an additional helix connected to the C-terminal of LOV2 (J? helix) for the function of phototropin; however, it remains unclear how the J? helix affects light-induced structural changes in LOV2. In this study we compared light-induced protein structural changes of the LOV2 domain of Arabidopsis phot1 in the absence (LOV2-core) and presence (LOV2-J?) of the J? helix by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. Prominent peaks were observed only in the amide-I region (1650 (?)/1625 (+) cm?1) of LOV2-J? at physiological temperatures (?260 K), corresponding to structural perturbation of the ?-helix. The peaks were diminished by point mutation of functionally important amino acids such as Phe-556 between FMN and the ?-sheet, Gln-575 being hydrogen-bonded with FMN, and Ile-608 on the J? helix. We thus conclude that a light signal is relayed from FMN through these amino acids and eventually changes the interaction between LOV2-core and the J? helix in Arabidopsis phot1. PMID:19348760

  5. Structure of a bacterial homologue of vitamin K epoxide reductase

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Weikai; Schulman, Sol; Dutton, Rachel J.; Boyd, Dana; Beckwith, Jon; Rapoport, Tom A.

    2010-03-19

    Vitamin K epoxide reductase (VKOR) generates vitamin K hydroquinone to sustain {gamma}-carboxylation of many blood coagulation factors. Here, we report the 3.6 {angstrom} crystal structure of a bacterial homologue of VKOR from Synechococcus sp. The structure shows VKOR in complex with its naturally fused redox partner, a thioredoxin-like domain, and corresponds to an arrested state of electron transfer. The catalytic core of VKOR is a four transmembrane helix bundle that surrounds a quinone, connected through an additional transmembrane segment with the periplasmic thioredoxin-like domain. We propose a pathway for how VKOR uses electrons from cysteines of newly synthesized proteins to reduce a quinone, a mechanism confirmed by in vitro reconstitution of vitamin K-dependent disulphide bridge formation. Our results have implications for the mechanism of the mammalian VKOR and explain how mutations can cause resistance to the VKOR inhibitor warfarin, the most commonly used oral anticoagulant.

  6. The C-terminal tail of the gp41 transmembrane envelope glycoprotein of HIV-1 clades A, B, C, and D may exist in two conformations: an analysis of sequence, structure, and function

    SciTech Connect

    Hollier, Mark J.; Dimmock, Nigel J. . E-mail: n.j.dimmock@warwick.ac.uk

    2005-07-05

    In addition to the major ectodomain, the gp41 transmembrane glycoprotein of HIV-1 is now known to have a minor ectodomain that is part of the long C-terminal tail. Both ectodomains are highly antigenic, carry neutralizing and non-neutralizing epitopes, and are involved in virus-mediated fusion activity. However, data have so far been biologically based, and derived solely from T cell line-adapted (TCLA), B clade viruses. Here we have carried out sequence and theoretically based structural analyses of 357 gp41 C-terminal sequences of mainly primary isolates of HIV-1 clades A, B, C, and D. Data show that all these viruses have the potential to form a tail loop structure (the minor ectodomain) supported by three, {beta}-sheet, membrane-spanning domains (MSDs). This means that the first (N-terminal) tyrosine-based sorting signal of the gp41 tail is situated outside the cell membrane and is non-functional, and that gp41 that reaches the cell surface may be recycled back into the cytoplasm through the activity of the second tyrosine-sorting signal. However, we suggest that only a minority of cell-associated gp41 molecules - those destined for incorporation into virions - has 3 MSDs and the minor ectodomain. Most intracellular gp41 has the conventional single MSD, no minor ectodomain, a functional first tyrosine-based sorting signal, and in line with current thinking is degraded intracellularly. The gp41 structural diversity suggested here can be viewed as an evolutionary strategy to minimize HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein expression on the cell surface, and hence possible cytotoxicity and immune attack on the infected cell.

  7. Interaction of a mitochondrial presequence with lipid membranes: role of helix formation for membrane binding and perturbation.

    PubMed

    Wieprecht, T; Apostolov, O; Beyermann, M; Seelig, J

    2000-12-19

    The binding of a peptide to a biological membrane is often accompanied by a transition from a random coil structure to an amphipathic alpha-helix. Recently, we have presented a new approach which allows the determination of the thermodynamic parameters of membrane-induced helix formation [Wieprecht et al. (1999) J. Mol Biol. 294, 785]. It involves a systematic variation of the helix content of a given peptide by double D-substitution and a correlation of the binding parameters with the helicity. Here we have used this method to study membrane-induced helix formation for the presequence of rat mitochondrial rhodanese (RHD). The thermodynamic parameters of binding of the peptide RHD and of four of its double D-isomers were determined for 30 nm (SUVs) and 100 nm (LUVs) unilamellar vesicles composed of phosphatidylcholine/phosphatidylglycerol (3:1) using circular dichroism spectroscopy, fluorescence spectroscopy, and isothermal titration calorimetry. The incremental changes of the thermodynamic parameters of helix formation were found to be very similar for SUVs and LUVs. Membrane-induced helix formation of RHD entailed a negative enthalpy of Delta H(helix) = -0.5 to -0.6 kcal/mol/residue and was opposed by an entropy of about Delta S(helix) = -1 to -1.4 cal/mol K/residue. The free energy of helix formation, Delta G(helix), was about -0.2 kcal/mol, and helix formation accounted for 50-60% of the total free energy of membrane binding. Dye-release experiments were used to assess the role of helix formation for the membrane perturbation potential of the peptides. While helix formation plays a major role for membrane binding, it appears to have little importance for inducing membrane leakiness. PMID:11112515

  8. Membrane Assembly of Simple Helix Homo-Oligomers Studied via Molecular Dynamics Simulations

    E-print Network

    Bu, Lintao; Im, Wonpil; Brooks III, Charles L.

    2007-02-01

    and the native oligomeric conformation. Our approach is applied to predict the structures of transmembrane helices of three proteins—glycophorin A, the M2 proton channel, and phospholamban—using only peptide sequence and the native oligomerization state...

  9. The Origins of Transmembrane Ion Channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pohorille, Andrew; Wilson, Michael A.

    2012-01-01

    Even though membrane proteins that mediate transport of ions and small molecules across cell walls are among the largest and least understood biopolymers in contemporary cells, it is still possible to shed light on their origins and early evolution. The central observation is that transmembrane portions of most ion channels are simply bundles of -helices. By combining results of experimental and computer simulation studies on synthetic models and natural channels, mostly of non-genomic origin, we show that the emergence of -helical channels was protobiologically plausible, and did not require highly specific amino acid sequences. Despite their simple structure, such channels could possess properties that, at the first sight, appear to require markedly larger complexity. Specifically, we explain how the antiamoebin channels, which are made of identical helices, 16 amino acids in length, achieve efficiency comparable to that of highly evolved channels. We further show that antiamoebin channels are extremely flexible, compared to modern, genetically coded channels. On the basis of our results, we propose that channels evolved further towards high structural complexity because they needed to acquire stable rigid structures and mechanisms for precise regulation rather than improve efficiency. In general, even though architectures of membrane proteins are not nearly as diverse as those of water-soluble proteins, they are sufficiently flexible to adapt readily to the functional demands arising during evolution.

  10. Design and synthesis of DNA four-helix bundles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rangnekar, Abhijit; Gothelf, Kurt V.; LaBean, Thomas H.

    2011-06-01

    The field of DNA nanotechnology has evolved significantly in the past decade. Researchers have succeeded in synthesizing tile-based structures and using them to form periodic lattices in one, two and three dimensions. Origami-based structures have also been used to create nanoscale structures in two and three dimensions. Design and construction of DNA bundles with fixed circumference has added a new dimension to the field. Here we report the design and synthesis of a DNA four-helix bundle. It was found to be extremely rigid and stable. When several such bundles were assembled using appropriate sticky-ends, they formed micrometre-long filaments. However, when creation of two-dimensional sheet-like arrays of the four-helix bundles was attempted, nanoscale rings were observed instead. The exact reason behind the nanoring formation is yet to be ascertained, but it provides an exciting prospect for making programmable circular nanostructures using DNA.

  11. Helix Dipole Movement and Conformational Variability Contribute to Allosteric GDP Release in G[alpha] Subunits

    SciTech Connect

    Preininger, Anita M.; Funk, Michael A.; Oldham, William M.; Meier, Scott M.; Johnston, Christopher A.; Adhikary, Suraj; Kimple, Adam J.; Siderovski, David P.; Hamm, Heidi E.; Iverson, Tina M.

    2009-06-01

    Heterotrimeric G proteins (Galphabetagamma) transmit signals from activated G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) to downstream effectors through a guanine nucleotide signaling cycle. Numerous studies indicate that the carboxy-terminal alpha5 helix of Galpha subunits participates in Galpha-receptor binding, and previous EPR studies suggest this receptor-mediated interaction induces a rotation and translation of the alpha5 helix of the Galpha subunit [Oldham, W. M., et al. (2006) Nat. Struct. Mol. Biol. 13, 772-777]. On the basis of this result, an engineered disulfide bond was designed to constrain the alpha5 helix of Galpha(i1) into its EPR-measured receptor-associated conformation through the introduction of cysteines at position 56 in the alpha1 helix and position 333 in the alpha5 helix (I56C/Q333C Galpha(i1)). A functional mimetic of the EPR-measured alpha5 helix dipole movement upon receptor association was additionally created by introduction of a positive charge at the amino terminus of this helix, D328R Galpha(i1). Both proteins exhibit a dramatically elevated level of basal nucleotide exchange. The 2.9 A resolution crystal structure of I56C/Q333C Galpha(i1) in complex with GDP-AlF(4)(-) reveals the shift of the alpha5 helix toward the guanine nucleotide binding site that is anticipated by EPR measurements. The structure of the I56C/Q333C Galpha(i1) subunit further revealed altered positions for the switch regions and throughout the Galpha(i1) subunit, accompanied by significantly elevated crystallographic temperature factors. Combined with previous evidence in the literature, the structural analysis supports the critical role of electrostatics of the alpha5 helix dipole and overall conformational variability during nucleotide release.

  12. Tryptophan at the transmembrane–cytosolic junction modulates thrombopoietin receptor dimerization and activation

    PubMed Central

    Defour, Jean-Philippe; Itaya, Miki; Gryshkova, Vitalina; Brett, Ian C.; Pecquet, Christian; Sato, Takeshi; Smith, Steven O.; Constantinescu, Stefan N.

    2013-01-01

    Dimerization of single-pass membrane receptors is essential for activation. In the human thrombopoietin receptor (TpoR), a unique amphipathic RWQFP motif separates the transmembrane (TM) and intracellular domains. Using a combination of mutagenesis, spectroscopy, and biochemical assays, we show that W515 of this motif impairs dimerization of the upstream TpoR TM helix. TpoR is unusual in that a specific residue is required for this inhibitory function, which prevents receptor self-activation. Mutations as diverse as W515K and W515L cause oncogenic activation of TpoR and lead to human myeloproliferative neoplasms. Two lines of evidence support a general mechanism in which W515 at the intracellular juxtamembrane boundary inhibits dimerization of the TpoR TM helix by increasing the helix tilt angle relative to the membrane bilayer normal, which prevents the formation of stabilizing TM dimer contacts. First, measurements using polarized infrared spectroscopy show that the isolated TM domain of the active W515K mutant has a helix tilt angle closer to the bilayer normal than that of the wild-type receptor. Second, we identify second-site R514W and Q516W mutations that reverse dimerization and tilt angle changes induced by the W515K and W515L mutations. The second-site mutations prevent constitutive activation of TpoR W515K/L, while preserving ligand-induced signaling. The ability of tryptophan to influence the angle and dimerization of the TM helix in wild-type TpoR and in the second-site revertants is likely associated with its strong preference to be buried in the headgroup region of membrane bilayers. PMID:23359689

  13. Modeling the flexibility of alpha helices in protein interfaces : structure based design and prediction of helix-mediated protein-protein interactions

    E-print Network

    Apgar, James R. (James Reasoner)

    2008-01-01

    Protein-protein interactions play an essential role in many biological functions. Prediction and design of these interactions using computational methods requires models that can be used to efficiently sample structural ...

  14. Cooperative Transmembrane Penetration of Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Haizhen; Ji, Qiuju; Huang, Changjin; Zhang, Sulin; Yuan, Bing; Yang, Kai; Ma, Yu-qiang

    2015-01-01

    Physical penetration of lipid bilayer membranes presents an alternative pathway for cellular delivery of nanoparticles (NPs) besides endocytosis. NPs delivered through this pathway could reach the cytoplasm, thereby opening the possibility of organelle-specific targeting. Herein we perform dissipative particle dynamics simulations to elucidate the transmembrane penetration mechanisms of multiple NPs. Our simulations demonstrate that NPs’ translocation proceeds in a cooperative manner, where the interplay of the quantity and surface chemistry of the NPs regulates the translocation efficiency. For NPs with hydrophilic surfaces, the increase of particle quantity facilitates penetration, while for NPs with partly or totally hydrophobic surfaces, the opposite highly possibly holds. Moreover, a set of interesting cooperative ways, such as aggregation, aggregation-dispersion, and aggregation-dispersion-reaggregation of the NPs, are observed during the penetration process. We find that the penetration behaviors of multiple NPs are mostly dominated by the changes of the NP-membrane force components in the membrane plane direction, in addition to that in the penetration direction, suggesting a different interaction mechanism between the multiple NPs and the membrane compared with the one-NP case. These results provide a fundamental understanding in the underlying mechanisms of cooperative penetration of NPs, and shed light on the NP-based drug and gene delivery. PMID:26013284

  15. Hydroxyproline Ring Pucker Causes Frustration of Helix Parameters in the Collagen Triple Helix

    PubMed Central

    Ying Chow, W.; Bihan, Dominique; Forman, Chris J.; Slatter, David A.; Reid, David G.; Wales, David J.; Farndale, Richard W.; Duer, Melinda J.

    2015-01-01

    Collagens, the most abundant proteins in mammals, are defined by their triple-helical structures and distinctive Gly-Xaa-Yaa repeating sequence, where Xaa is often proline and Yaa, hydroxyproline (Hyp/O). It is known that hydroxyproline in the Yaa position stabilises the triple helix, and that lack of proline hydroxylation in vivo leads to dysfunctional collagen extracellular matrix assembly, due to a range of factors such as a change in hydration properties. In addition, we note that in model peptides, when Yaa is unmodified proline, the Xaa proline has a strong propensity to adopt an endo ring conformation, whilst when Yaa is hydroxyproline, the Xaa proline adopts a range of endo and exo conformations. Here we use a combination of solid-state NMR spectroscopy and potential energy landscape modelling of synthetic triple-helical collagen peptides to understand this effect. We show that hydroxylation of the Yaa proline causes the Xaa proline ring conformation to become metastable, which in turn confers flexibility on the triple helix. PMID:26220399

  16. Hydroxyproline Ring Pucker Causes Frustration of Helix Parameters in the Collagen Triple Helix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ying Chow, W.; Bihan, Dominique; Forman, Chris J.; Slatter, David A.; Reid, David G.; Wales, David J.; Farndale, Richard W.; Duer, Melinda J.

    2015-07-01

    Collagens, the most abundant proteins in mammals, are defined by their triple-helical structures and distinctive Gly-Xaa-Yaa repeating sequence, where Xaa is often proline and Yaa, hydroxyproline (Hyp/O). It is known that hydroxyproline in the Yaa position stabilises the triple helix, and that lack of proline hydroxylation in vivo leads to dysfunctional collagen extracellular matrix assembly, due to a range of factors such as a change in hydration properties. In addition, we note that in model peptides, when Yaa is unmodified proline, the Xaa proline has a strong propensity to adopt an endo ring conformation, whilst when Yaa is hydroxyproline, the Xaa proline adopts a range of endo and exo conformations. Here we use a combination of solid-state NMR spectroscopy and potential energy landscape modelling of synthetic triple-helical collagen peptides to understand this effect. We show that hydroxylation of the Yaa proline causes the Xaa proline ring conformation to become metastable, which in turn confers flexibility on the triple helix.

  17. Suppression of mammary epithelial cell differentiation by the helix-loop-helix protein Id-1

    SciTech Connect

    Desprez, P.; Hara, E.; Bissell, M.J.

    1995-06-01

    Cell proliferation and differentiation are precisely coordinated during the development and maturation of the mammary gland, and this balance invariably is disrupted during carcinogenesis. Little is known about the cell-specific transcription factors that regulate these processes in the mammary gland. The mouse mammary epithelial cell line SCp2 grows well under standard culture conditions but arrests growth, forms alveolus-like structures, and expresses {beta}-casein, a differentiation marker, 4 to 5 days after exposure to basement membrane and lactogenic hormones (differentiation signals). The authors show that this differentiation entails a marked decline in the expression of Id-1, a helix-loop-helix (HLH) protein that inactivates basic HLH transcription factors in other cell types. SCp2 cells stably transfected with an Id-1 expression vector grew more rapidly than control cells under standard conditions, but in response to differentiation signals, they lost three-dimensional organization, invaded the basement membrane, and then resumed growth. SCp2 cells expressing an Id-1 antisense vector grew more slowly than controls; in response to differentiation signals, they remained stably growth arrested and fully differentiated, as did control cells. The authors suggest that Id-1 renders cells refractory to differentiation signals and receptive to growth signals by inactivating one or more basic HLH proteins that coordinate growth and differentiation in the mammary epithelium. 53 refs., 6 figs.

  18. The aspartate receptor cytoplasmic domain: in situ chemical analysis of structure, mechanism and dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Bass, Randal B; Falke, Joseph J

    2010-01-01

    Background Site-directed sulfhydryl chemistry and spectroscopy can be used to probe protein structure, mechanism and dynamics in situ. The aspartate receptor of bacterial chemotaxis is representative of a large family of prokaryotic and eukaryotic receptors that regulate histidine kinases in two-component signaling pathways, and has become one of the best characterized transmembrane receptors. We report here the use of cysteine and disulfide scanning to probe the helix-packing architecture of the cytoplasmic domain of the aspartate receptor. Results A series of designed cysteine pairs have been used to detect proximities between cytoplasmic helices in the full-length, membrane-bound receptor by measurement of disulfide-bond formation rates. Upon mild oxidation, 25 disulfide bonds form rapidly between three specific pairs of helices, whereas other helix pairs yield no detectable disulfide-bond formation. Further constraints on helix packing are provided by 14 disulfide bonds that retain receptor function in an in vitro kinase regulation assay. Of these functional disulfides, seven lock the receptor in the conformation that constitutively stimulates kinase activity (‘lock on’), whereas the remaining seven retain normal kinase regulation. Finally, disulfide-trapping experiments in the absence of bound kinase reveal large-amplitude relative motions of adjacent helices, including helix translations and rotations of up to 19 Å and 180°, respectively. Conclusions The 25 rapidly formed and 14 functional disulfide bonds identify helix–helix contacts and theirregister in the full-length, membrane-bound receptor–kinase complex. The results reveal an extended, rather than compact, domain architecture in which the observed helix–helix interactions are best described by a four-helix bundle arrangement. A cluster of six lock-on disulfide bonds pinpoints a region of the subunit interface critical for kinase activation, whereas the signal-retaining disulfides indicate that signal-induced rearrangements of the four-helix bundle are small enough to be accommodated by disulfide-bond flexibility (? 1.2 Å). In the absence of bound kinase, helix packing within the cytoplasmic domain is highly dynamic. PMID:10425684

  19. Activation of integrin -subunit I-like domains by one-turn C-terminal -helix deletions

    E-print Network

    Springer, Timothy A.

    Activation of integrin -subunit I-like domains by one-turn C-terminal -helix deletions Wei Yang Contributed by Timothy A. Springer, December 2, 2003 Integrins contain two structurally homologous of about one turn of -helix. In the case of integrin L 2, each mutant exhibits constitutively high affinity

  20. The solution structure of the amino-terminal HHCC domain of HIV-2 integrase: a three-helix bundle stabilized by zinc

    E-print Network

    Tullius, Thomas D.

    stabilized by zinc Astrid P.A.M. Eijkelenboom*, Fusinita M.I. van den Ent, Arnold Vos, Jurgen F. Doreleijers domain with unknown structure thus far. This domain, which is known to bind zinc, contains a HHCC motif consists of three helices and a helical turn. The zinc is coordinated with His12 via the N2 atom, with His

  1. Gene regulation by transmembrane signaling.

    PubMed

    Braun, Volkmar; Mahren, Susanne; Sauter, Annette

    2006-04-01

    Studies of the ferric citrate transport genes in Escherichia coli K-12 have revealed a novel type of transcriptional regulation. The inducer, ferric citrate, binds to an outer membrane protein and must not be transported into the cells to initiate transcription of the ferric citrate transport genes. Rather, a signaling cascade from the cell surface across the outer membrane, the periplasm, and the cytoplasmic membrane into the cytoplasm transmits information on the presence of the inducer in the culture medium into the cytoplasm, where gene transcription occurs. The outer membrane protein FecA serves as a signal receiver and as a signal transmitter across the outer membrane. The FecR protein serves as a signal receiver in the periplasm and as a signal transmitter across the cytoplasmic membrane into the cytoplasm, where the FecI sigma factor is activated to bind RNA polymerase and specifically initiate transcription of the fecABCDE transport genes by binding to the promoter upstream of the fecA gene. Transcription of the fecI fecR regulatory genes is repressed by Fe2+ bound to the Fur repressor protein. Under iron-limiting conditions, Fur is not loaded with Fe2+, the fecI and fecR genes are transcribed, and the FecI and FecR proteins are synthesized and respond to the presence of ferric citrate in the medium when ferric citrate binds to the FecA protein. Regulation of the fec genes represents the paradigm of a growing number of gene regulation systems involving transmembrane signaling across three cellular compartments. PMID:16718597

  2. Gene regulation by transmembrane signaling.

    PubMed

    Braun, Volkmar; Mahren, Susanne; Sauter, Annette

    2005-10-01

    Studies of the ferric citrate transport genes in Escherichia coli K-12 have revealed a novel type of transcriptional regulation. The inducer, ferric citrate, binds to an outer membrane protein and must not be transported into the cells to initiate transcription of the ferric citrate transport genes. Rather, a signaling cascade from the cell surface across the outer membrane, the periplasm, and the cytoplasmic membrane into the cytoplasm transmits information on the presence of the inducer in the culture medium into the cytoplasm, where gene transcription occurs. The outer membrane protein FecA serves as a signal receiver and as a signal transmitter across the outer membrane. The FecR protein serves as a signal receiver in the periplasm and as a signal transmitter across the cytoplasmic membrane into the cytoplasm, where the FecI sigma factor is activated to bind RNA polymerase and specifically initiate transcription of the fecABCDE transport genes by binding to the promoter upstream of the fecA gene. Transcription of the fecI fecR regulatory genes is repressed by Fe(2+) bound to the Fur repressor protein. Under iron-limiting conditions, Fur is not loaded with Fe(2+), the fecI and fecR genes are transcribed, and the FecI and FecR proteins are synthesized and respond to the presence of ferric citrate in the medium when ferric citrate binds to the FecA protein. Regulation of the fec genes represents the paradigm of a growing number of gene regulation systems involving transmembrane signaling across three cellular compartments. PMID:16333751

  3. Bidirectional Transformation of a Metamorphic Protein between the Water-Soluble and Transmembrane Native States.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Koji; Caaveiro, Jose M M; Tsumoto, Kouhei

    2015-11-24

    The bidirectional transformation of a protein between its native water-soluble and integral transmembrane conformations is demonstrated for FraC, a hemolytic protein of the family of pore-forming toxins. In the presence of biological membranes, the water-soluble conformation of FraC undergoes a remarkable structural reorganization generating cytolytic transmembrane nanopores conducive to cell death. So far, the reverse transformation from the native transmembrane conformation to the native water-soluble conformation has not been reported. We describe the use of detergents with different physicochemical properties to achieve the spontaneous conversion of transmembrane pores of FraC back into the initial water-soluble state. Thermodynamic and kinetic stability data suggest that specific detergents cause an asymmetric change in the energy landscape of the protein, allowing the bidirectional transformation of a membrane protein. PMID:26544760

  4. Homolog Structure of the SLAC1 Anion Channel for Closing Stomata in Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yuhang; Hu, Lei; Punta, Marco; Bruni, Renato; Hillerich, Brandan; Kloss, Brian; Rost, Burkhard; Love, James; Siegelbaum, Steven A.; Hendrickson, Wayne A.

    2012-01-01

    Summary The plant SLAC1 anion channel controls turgor pressure in the aperture-defining guard cells of plant stomata, thereby regulating exchange of water vapor and photosynthetic gases in response to environmental signals such as drought or high levels of carbon dioxide. We determined the crystal structure of a bacterial homolog of SLAC1 at 1.20Å resolution, and we have used structure-inspired mutagenesis to analyze the conductance properties of SLAC1 channels. SLAC1 is a symmetric trimer composed from quasi-symmetric subunits, each having ten transmembrane helices arranged from helical hairpin pairs to form a central five-helix transmembrane pore that is gated by an extremely conserved phenylalanine residue. Conformational features suggest a mechanism for control of gating by kinase activation, and electrostatic features of the pore coupled with electrophysiological characteristics suggest that selectivity among different anions is largely a function of the energetic cost of ion dehydration. PMID:20981093

  5. Homologue structure of the SLAC1 anion channel for closing stomata in leaves.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Hang; Hu, Lei; Punta, Marco; Bruni, Renato; Hillerich, Brandan; Kloss, Brian; Rost, Burkhard; Love, James; Siegelbaum, Steven A; Hendrickson, Wayne A

    2010-10-28

    The plant SLAC1 anion channel controls turgor pressure in the aperture-defining guard cells of plant stomata, thereby regulating the exchange of water vapour and photosynthetic gases in response to environmental signals such as drought or high levels of carbon dioxide. Here we determine the crystal structure of a bacterial homologue (Haemophilus influenzae) of SLAC1 at 1.20 Å resolution, and use structure-inspired mutagenesis to analyse the conductance properties of SLAC1 channels. SLAC1 is a symmetrical trimer composed from quasi-symmetrical subunits, each having ten transmembrane helices arranged from helical hairpin pairs to form a central five-helix transmembrane pore that is gated by an extremely conserved phenylalanine residue. Conformational features indicate a mechanism for control of gating by kinase activation, and electrostatic features of the pore coupled with electrophysiological characteristics indicate that selectivity among different anions is largely a function of the energetic cost of ion dehydration. PMID:20981093

  6. Homologue Structure of the SLAC1 Anion Channel for Closing Stomata in Leaves

    SciTech Connect

    Y Chen; L Hu; M Punta; R Bruni; B Hillerich; B Kloss; B Rost; J Love; S Siegelbaum; W Hendrickson

    2011-12-31

    The plant SLAC1 anion channel controls turgor pressure in the aperture-defining guard cells of plant stomata, thereby regulating the exchange of water vapour and photosynthetic gases in response to environmental signals such as drought or high levels of carbon dioxide. Here we determine the crystal structure of a bacterial homologue (Haemophilus influenzae) of SLAC1 at 1.20 {angstrom} resolution, and use structure-inspired mutagenesis to analyse the conductance properties of SLAC1 channels. SLAC1 is a symmetrical trimer composed from quasi-symmetrical subunits, each having ten transmembrane helices arranged from helical hairpin pairs to form a central five-helix transmembrane pore that is gated by an extremely conserved phenylalanine residue. Conformational features indicate a mechanism for control of gating by kinase activation, and electrostatic features of the pore coupled with electrophysiological characteristics indicate that selectivity among different anions is largely a function of the energetic cost of ion dehydration.

  7. Recent Progresses in Studying Helix-Helix Interactions in Proteins by Incorporating the Wenxiang Diagram into the NMR Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Guo-Ping; Chen, Dong; Liao, Siming; Huang, Ri-Bo

    2016-01-01

    All residues in an alpha helix can be characterized and dispositioned on a 2D the wenxiang diagram, which possesses the following features: (1) the relative locations of the amino acids in the ?-helix can be clearly displayed regardless how long it is; (2) direction of an alphahelix can be indicated; and (3) more information regarding each of the constituent amino acid residues in an alpha helix. Owing to its intuitionism and easy visibility, wenxiang diagrams have had an immense influence on our understanding of protein structure, protein-protein interactions, and the effect of helical structural stability on protein conformational transitions. In this review, we summarize two recent applications of wenxiang diagrams incorporating NMR spectroscopy in the researches of the coiled-coil protein interactions related to the regulation of contraction or relaxation states of vascular smooth muscle cells, and the effects of ?-helical stability on the protein misfolding in prion disease, in hopes that the gained valuable information through these studies can stimulate more and more widely applications of wenxiang diagrams in structural biology. PMID:26286215

  8. Folding and insertion thermodynamics of the transmembrane WALP peptide

    E-print Network

    Bereau, Tristan; Pfaendtner, Jim; Deserno, Markus; Karttunen, Mikko

    2015-01-01

    The anchor of most integral membrane proteins consists of one or several helices spanning the lipid bilayer. The WALP peptide, GWW(LA)$_n$(L)WWA, is a common model helix to study the fundamentals of protein insertion and folding, as well as helix-helix association in the membrane. Its structural properties have been illuminated in a large number of experimental and simulation studies. In this combined coarse-grained and atomistic simulation study, we probe the thermodynamics of a single WALP peptide, focusing on both the insertion across the water-membrane interface, as well as folding in both water and a membrane. The potential of mean force characterizing the peptide's insertion into the membrane shows qualitatively similar behavior across peptides and three force fields. However, the Martini force field exhibits a pronounced secondary minimum for an adsorbed interfacial state, which may even become the global minimum---in contrast to both atomistic simulations and the alternative PLUM force field. Even tho...

  9. A supramolecular helix that disregards chirality.

    PubMed

    Roche, Cécile; Sun, Hao-Jan; Leowanawat, Pawaret; Araoka, Fumito; Partridge, Benjamin E; Peterca, Mihai; Wilson, Daniela A; Prendergast, Margaret E; Heiney, Paul A; Graf, Robert; Spiess, Hans W; Zeng, Xiangbing; Ungar, Goran; Percec, Virgil

    2016-01-01

    The functions of complex crystalline systems derived from supramolecular biological and non-biological assemblies typically emerge from homochiral programmed primary structures via first principles involving secondary, tertiary and quaternary structures. In contrast, heterochiral and racemic compounds yield disordered crystals, amorphous solids or liquids. Here, we report the self-assembly of perylene bisimide derivatives in a supramolecular helix that in turn self-organizes in columnar hexagonal crystalline domains regardless of the enantiomeric purity of the perylene bisimide. We show that both homochiral and racemic perylene bisimide compounds, including a mixture of 21 diastereomers that cannot be deracemized at the molecular level, self-organize to form single-handed helical assemblies with identical single-crystal-like order. We propose that this high crystalline order is generated via a cogwheel mechanism that disregards the chirality of the self-assembling building blocks. We anticipate that this mechanism will facilitate access to previously inaccessible complex crystalline systems from racemic and homochiral building blocks. PMID:26673268

  10. Selecting Optimum Eukaryotic Integral Membrane Proteins for Structure Determination by Rapid

    E-print Network

    Sali, Andrej

    , San Francisco, CA 94158-2517, USA 5 Department of Bioengineering and Therapeutic Sciences, University-exclusion chromatography; SGD, Saccharomyces Genome Database; TMH, transmembrane helix; LIC, ligase-independent cloning

  11. Probing transmembrane mechanical coupling and cytomechanics using magnetic twisting cytometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, N.; Ingber, D. E.

    1995-01-01

    We recently developed a magnetic twisting cytometry technique that allows us to apply controlled mechanical stresses to specific cell surface receptors using ligand-coated ferromagnetic microbeads and to simultaneously measure the mechanical response in living cells. Using this technique, we have previously shown the following: (i) beta 1 integrin receptors mediate mechanical force transfer across the cell surface and to the cytoskeleton, whereas other transmembrane receptors (e.g., scavenger receptors) do not; (ii) cytoskeletal stiffness increases in direct proportion to the level of stress applied to integrins; and (iii) the slope of this linear stiffening response differs depending on the shape of the cell. We now show that different integrins (beta 1, alpha V beta 3, alpha V, alpha 5, alpha 2) and other transmembrane receptors (scavenger receptor, platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule) differ in their ability to mediate force transfer across the cell surface. In addition, the linear stiffening behavior previously observed in endothelial cells was found to be shared by other cell types. Finally, we demonstrate that dynamic changes in cell shape that occur during both cell spreading and retraction are accompanied by coordinate changes in cytoskeletal stiffness. Taken together, these results suggest that the magnetic twisting cytometry technique may be a powerful and versatile tool for studies analyzing the molecular basis of transmembrane mechanical coupling to the cytoskeleton as well as dynamic relations between changes in cytoskeletal structure and alterations in cell form and function.

  12. Investigation of Properties of Infrared Absorption of ?-HELIX Protein Molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Xiao-Feng; Zhang, Huai-Wu

    2006-05-01

    The mechanism and properties of infrared absorption of ?-helix protein molecules are studied by a theory of bio-energy transport established on the basis of molecular structure. From the vibrational energy-spectra of molecules obtained from this theory we know that the infrared lights with wavelengths of 2 µm -7 µm can be absorbed by ?-helix protein molecules. This is basically consistent with experimental data of infrared absorption of collagen and hemoglobin and bivine serum albumen (BSA) proteins with ?-helix structure. From these results we account further for the mechanism and properties of biological effect of infrared lights absorbed by the living systems, i.e., the energy of infrared lights is directly absorbed by the amide-Is in amino acid residues in the protein molecules, which results in vibration of amide-1 and change of conformation of proteins and transport of bio-energy from one place to other along the protein molecular chains in human beings and animals. This is a kind of non-thermally biological effect.

  13. Partial Agonists Activate PPARgamma Using a Helix 12 Independent Mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Bruning, J.B.; Chalmers, M.J.; Prasad, S.; Bushby, S.A.; Kamenecka, T.A.; He, Y.; Nettles, K.W.; Griffin, P.R.

    2009-05-28

    Binding to helix 12 of the ligand-binding domain of PPAR{gamma} is required for full agonist activity. Previously, the degree of stabilization of the activation function 2 (AF-2) surface was thought to correlate with the degree of agonism and transactivation. To examine this mechanism, we probed structural dynamics of PPAR{gamma} with agonists that induced graded transcriptional responses. Here we present crystal structures and amide H/D exchange (HDX) kinetics for six of these complexes. Amide HDX revealed each ligand induced unique changes to the dynamics of the ligand-binding domain (LBD). Full agonists stabilized helix 12, whereas intermediate and partial agonists did not at all, and rather differentially stabilized other regions of the binding pocket. The gradient of PPAR{gamma} transactivation cannot be accounted for solely through changes to the dynamics of AF-2. Thus, our understanding of allosteric signaling must be extended beyond the idea of a dynamic helix 12 acting as a molecular switch.

  14. Motifs in Protein SequencesMotifs in Protein Sequences Examples: Helix-Turn-Helix, Zinc-finger,

    E-print Network

    Narasimhan, Giri

    Motifs in Protein SequencesMotifs in Protein Sequences Examples: Helix-Turn-Helix, Zinc. Examples: Helix-Turn-Helix, Zinc-finger, Homeobox domain, Hairpin-beta motif, Calcium-binding motif, Beta of the motif M? Example: Zinc Finger Motif ...YYKCCGLCCERSFFVEKSALLSRHHORVHHKN... 3 6 19 23 Input

  15. BuD, a helix–loop–helix DNA-binding domain for genome modification

    SciTech Connect

    Stella, Stefano; Molina, Rafael; López-Méndez, Blanca; Juillerat, Alexandre; Bertonati, Claudia; Daboussi, Fayza; Campos-Olivas, Ramon; Duchateau, Phillippe; Montoya, Guillermo

    2014-07-01

    Crystal structures of BurrH and the BurrH–DNA complex are reported. DNA editing offers new possibilities in synthetic biology and biomedicine for modulation or modification of cellular functions to organisms. However, inaccuracy in this process may lead to genome damage. To address this important problem, a strategy allowing specific gene modification has been achieved through the addition, removal or exchange of DNA sequences using customized proteins and the endogenous DNA-repair machinery. Therefore, the engineering of specific protein–DNA interactions in protein scaffolds is key to providing ‘toolkits’ for precise genome modification or regulation of gene expression. In a search for putative DNA-binding domains, BurrH, a protein that recognizes a 19 bp DNA target, was identified. Here, its apo and DNA-bound crystal structures are reported, revealing a central region containing 19 repeats of a helix–loop–helix modular domain (BurrH domain; BuD), which identifies the DNA target by a single residue-to-nucleotide code, thus facilitating its redesign for gene targeting. New DNA-binding specificities have been engineered in this template, showing that BuD-derived nucleases (BuDNs) induce high levels of gene targeting in a locus of the human haemoglobin ? (HBB) gene close to mutations responsible for sickle-cell anaemia. Hence, the unique combination of high efficiency and specificity of the BuD arrays can push forward diverse genome-modification approaches for cell or organism redesign, opening new avenues for gene editing.

  16. Evidence for transmembrane proton transfer in a dihaem-containing membrane protein complex

    PubMed Central

    Madej, M Gregor; Nasiri, Hamid R; Hilgendorff, Nicole S; Schwalbe, Harald; Lancaster, C Roy D

    2006-01-01

    Membrane protein complexes can support both the generation and utilisation of a transmembrane electrochemical proton potential (‘proton-motive force'), either by transmembrane electron transfer coupled to protolytic reactions on opposite sides of the membrane or by transmembrane proton transfer. Here we provide the first evidence that both of these mechanisms are combined in the case of a specific respiratory membrane protein complex, the dihaem-containing quinol:fumarate reductase (QFR) of Wolinella succinogenes, so as to facilitate transmembrane electron transfer by transmembrane proton transfer. We also demonstrate the non-functionality of this novel transmembrane proton transfer pathway (‘E-pathway') in a variant QFR where a key glutamate residue has been replaced. The ‘E-pathway', discussed on the basis of the 1.78-Å-resolution crystal structure of QFR, can be concluded to be essential also for the viability of pathogenic ?-proteobacteria such as Helicobacter pylori and is possibly relevant to proton transfer in other dihaem-containing membrane proteins, performing very different physiological functions. PMID:17024183

  17. Identification of potential transmembrane protease serine 4 inhibitors as anti-cancer agents by integrated computational approach.

    PubMed

    Ilamathi, M; Hemanth, R; Nishanth, S; Sivaramakrishnan, V

    2016-01-21

    Transmembrane protease serine 4 is a well known cell surface protease facilitating the extracellular matrix degradation and epithelial mesenchymal transition in hepatocellular carcinoma. Henceforth targeting transmembrane protease serine 4 is strongly believed to provide therapeutic intervention against hepatocellular carcinoma. Owing to lack of crystal structure for human transmembrane protease serine 4, we predicted its three dimensional structure for the first time in this study. Experimentally proven inhibitor-Tyroserleutide (TSL) against hepatocellular carcinoma via transmembrane protease serine 4 was used as a benchmark to identify structurally similar candidates from PubChem database to create the TSL library. Virtual screening of TSL library against modeled transmembrane protease serine 4 revealed the top four potential inhibitors. Further binding free energy (?Gbind) analysis of the potential inhibitors revealed the best potential lead compound against transmembrane protease serine 4. Drug likeliness nature of the top four potential hits were additionally analyzed in comparison to TSL to confirm on the best potential lead compound with the highest % of human oral absorption. Consequently, e-pharmacophore mapping of the best potential lead compound yielded a six point feature. It was observed to contain four hydrogen bond donor sites (D), one positively ionizable site (P) and one aromatic ring (R). Such e-pharmacophore insight obtained from structural determinants by integrated computational analysis could serve as a framework for further advancement of drug discovery process of new anti-cancer agents with less toxicity and high specificity targeting transmembrane protease serine 4 and hepatocellular carcinoma. PMID:26590327

  18. Heat conductivity of DNA double helix

    E-print Network

    Savin, Alexander V; Kikot, Irina P; Manevitch, Leonid I; Onufriev, Alexey V

    2010-01-01

    A coarse-grain (CG) model of DNA double helix is proposed in which each base is represented by 6 grains; the grains interact via effective potentials inferred from classical molecular dynamics (MD) trajectories based on a well-established all-atom potential function. Comparisons of 10 ns long MD trajectories between the CG and the corresponding all-atom model show similar root-mean-square deviations from the canonical B-form DNA, and similar structural fluctuations. At the same time, the CG model is 10 to 100 times faster depending on the length of the DNA fragment in the simulation. Analysis of dispersion curves derived from the CG model yields longitudinal sound velocity and torsional stiffness in close agreement with the experiment. The computational efficiency of the model makes it possible to calculate thermal conductivity of a single DNA molecule not yet available experimentally. For a uniform (poly-G) DNA the estimated conductivity coefficient is 0.3 W/mK which is half the value of thermal conductivity...

  19. Structure of CrgA, a cell division structural and regulatory protein from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, in lipid bilayers

    PubMed Central

    Das, Nabanita; Dai, Jian; Hung, Ivan; Rajagopalan, Malini; Zhou, Huan-Xiang; Cross, Timothy A.

    2015-01-01

    The 93-residue transmembrane protein CrgA in Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a central component of the divisome, a large macromolecular machine responsible for cell division. Through interactions with multiple other components including FtsZ, FtsQ, FtsI (PBPB), PBPA, and CwsA, CrgA facilitates the recruitment of the proteins essential for peptidoglycan synthesis to the divisome and stabilizes the divisome. CrgA is predicted to have two transmembrane helices. Here, the structure of CrgA was determined in a liquid–crystalline lipid bilayer environment by solid-state NMR spectroscopy. Oriented-sample data yielded orientational restraints, whereas magic-angle spinning data yielded interhelical distance restraints. These data define a complete structure for the transmembrane domain and provide rich information on the conformational ensembles of the partially disordered N-terminal region and interhelical loop. The structure of the transmembrane domain was refined using restrained molecular dynamics simulations in an all-atom representation of the same lipid bilayer environment as in the NMR samples. The two transmembrane helices form a left-handed packing arrangement with a crossing angle of 24° at the conserved Gly39 residue. This helix pair exposes other conserved glycine and alanine residues to the fatty acyl environment, which are potential sites for binding CrgA’s partners such as CwsA and FtsQ. This approach combining oriented-sample and magic-angle spinning NMR spectroscopy in native-like lipid bilayers with restrained molecular dynamics simulations represents a powerful tool for structural characterization of not only isolated membrane proteins, but their complexes, such as those that form macromolecular machines. PMID:25548160

  20. Molecular Insights into the Transmembrane Domain of the Thyrotropin Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Chantreau, Vanessa; Taddese, Bruck; Munier, Mathilde; Gourdin, Louis; Henrion, Daniel; Rodien, Patrice; Chabbert, Marie

    2015-01-01

    The thyrotropin receptor (TSHR) is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) that is member of the leucine-rich repeat subfamily (LGR). In the absence of crystal structure, the success of rational design of ligands targeting the receptor internal cavity depends on the quality of the TSHR models built. In this subfamily, transmembrane helices (TM) 2 and 5 are characterized by the absence of proline compared to most receptors, raising the question of the structural conformation of these helices. To gain insight into the structural properties of these helices, we carried out bioinformatics and experimental studies. Evolutionary analysis of the LGR family revealed a deletion in TM5 but provided no information on TM2. Wild type residues at positions 2.58, 2.59 or 2.60 in TM2 and/or at position 5.50 in TM5 were substituted to proline. Depending on the position of the proline substitution, different effects were observed on membrane expression, glycosylation, constitutive cAMP activity and responses to thyrotropin. Only proline substitution at position 2.59 maintained complex glycosylation and high membrane expression, supporting occurrence of a bulged TM2. The TSHR transmembrane domain was modeled by homology with the orexin 2 receptor, using a protocol that forced the deletion of one residue in the TM5 bulge of the template. The stability of the model was assessed by molecular dynamics simulations. TM5 straightened during the equilibration phase and was stable for the remainder of the simulations. Our data support a structural model of the TSHR transmembrane domain with a bulged TM2 and a straight TM5 that is specific of glycoprotein hormone receptors. PMID:26545118

  1. Single tryptophan and tyrosine comparisons in the N-terminal and C-terminal interface regions of transmembrane GWALP peptides.

    PubMed

    Gleason, Nicholas J; Greathouse, Denise V; Grant, Christopher V; Opella, Stanley J; Koeppe, Roger E

    2013-11-01

    Hydrophobic membrane-spanning helices often are flanked by interfacial aromatic or charged residues. In this paper, we compare the consequences of single Trp ? Tyr substitutions at each interface for the properties of a defined transmembrane helix in the absence of charged residues. The choice of molecular framework is critical for these single-residue experiments because the presence of "too many" aromatic residues (more than one at either membrane-water interface) introduces excess dynamic averaging of solid state NMR observables. To this end, we compare the outcomes when changing W(5) or W(19), or both of them, to tyrosine in the well-characterized transmembrane peptide acetyl-GGALW(5)(LA)6LW(19)LAGA-amide ("GWALP23"). By means of solid-state (2)H and (15)N NMR experiments, we find that Y(19)GW(5)ALP23 displays similar magnitudes of peptide helix tilt as Y(5)GW(19)ALP23 and responds similarly to changes in bilayer thickness, from DLPC to DMPC to DOPC. The presence of Y(19) changes the azimuthal rotation angle ? (about the helix axis) to a similar extent as Y(5), but in the opposite direction. When tyrosines are substituted for both tryptophans to yield GY(5,19)ALP23, the helix tilt angle is again of comparable magnitude, and furthermore, the preferred azimuthal rotation angle ? is relatively unchanged from that of GW(5,19)ALP23. The extent of dynamic averaging increases marginally when Tyr replaces Trp. Yet, importantly, all members of the peptide family having single Tyr or Trp residues near each interface exhibit only moderate and not highly extensive dynamic averaging. The results provide important benchmarks for evaluating conformational and dynamic control of membrane protein function. PMID:24111589

  2. The tails in the Helix Nebula NGC 7293

    E-print Network

    J. E. Dyson; J. M. Pittard; J. Meaburn; S. A. E. G. Falle

    2006-07-03

    We have examined a stream-source model for the production of the cometary tails observed in the Helix Nebula NGC 7293 in which a transonic or moderately supersonic stream of ionized gas overruns a source of ionized gas. Hydrodynamic calculations reveal velocity structures which are in good agreement with the observational data on tail velocities and are consistent with observations of the nebular structure. The results also are indicative of a stellar atmosphere origin for the cometary globules. Tail remnants persist for timescales long enough for their identification with faint striations visible in the nebula gas to be plausible.

  3. CD and UV Resonance Raman Indicate Little arg-glu Side Chain ?-helix Peptide Stabilization

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Zhenmin; Ahmed, Zeeshan

    2011-01-01

    Electrostatic interactions between side chains can control the conformation and folding of peptides and proteins. We used CD and UV resonance Raman spectroscopy (UVRR) to examine the impact of side chain charge on the conformations of two 21 residue mainly polyala peptides with a few arg and glu residues. We expected that attractions between arg-10 and glu-14 side chains would stabilize the ?-helix conformation compared to a peptide with an arg-14. Surprisingly, CD suggests that the peptide with the glu-14 is less helical. In contrast, the UVRR show that these two peptides have similar ?-helix content. We conclude that the peptide with glu-14 has the same net ?-helix content as the peptide with the arg, but has two ?-helices of shorter length. Thus, side chain interactions between arg-10 and glu-14 have a minor impact on ?-helix stability. The thermal melting of these two peptides is similar. However the glu-14 peptide pH induced melting forms type III turn structures that forms ?-helix-turn-?-helix conformations. PMID:21425805

  4. Crystallographic snapshots of initial steps in the collapse of the calmodulin central helix.

    PubMed

    Kursula, Petri

    2014-01-01

    Calmodulin is one of the most well characterized proteins and a widely used model system for calcium binding and large-scale protein conformational changes. Its long central helix is usually cut in half when a target peptide is bound. Here, two new crystal structures of calmodulin are presented, in which conformations possibly representing the first steps of calmodulin conformational collapse have been trapped. The central helix in the two structures is bent in the middle, causing a significant movement of the N- and C-terminal lobes with respect to one another. In both of the bent structures, a nearby polar side chain is inserted into the helical groove, disrupting backbone hydrogen bonding. The structures give an insight into the details of the factors that may be involved in the distortion of the central helix upon ligand peptide binding. PMID:24419375

  5. A conserved charged single ?-helix with a putative steric role in paraspeckle formation.

    PubMed

    Dobson, László; Nyitray, László; Gáspári, Zoltán

    2015-12-01

    Paraspeckles are subnuclear particles involved in the regulation of mRNA expression. They are formed by the association of DBHS family proteins and the NEAT1 long noncoding RNA. Here, we show that a recently identified structural motif, the charged single ?-helix, is largely conserved in the DBHS family. Based on the available structural data and a previously suggested multimerization scheme of DBHS proteins, we built a structural model of a (PSPC1/NONO)n multimer that might have relevance in paraspeckle formation. Our model contains an extended coiled-coil region that is followed by and partially overlaps with the predicted charged single ?-helix. We suggest that the charged single ?-helix can act as an elastic ruler governing the exact positioning of the dimeric core structures relative to each other during paraspeckle assembly along the NEAT1 noncoding RNA. PMID:26428695

  6. Elevated temperature triggers human respiratory syncytial virus F protein six-helix bundle formation

    SciTech Connect

    Yunus, Abdul S.; Jackson, Trent P.; Crisafi, Katherine; Burimski, Irina; Kilgore, Nicole R.; Zoumplis, Dorian; Allaway, Graham P.; Wild, Carl T.; Salzwedel, Karl

    2010-01-20

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a major cause of severe lower respiratory tract infection in infants, immunocompromised patients, and the elderly. The RSV fusion (F) protein mediates fusion of the viral envelope with the target cell membrane during virus entry and is a primary target for antiviral drug and vaccine development. The F protein contains two heptad repeat regions, HR1 and HR2. Peptides corresponding to these regions form a six-helix bundle structure that is thought to play a critical role in membrane fusion. However, characterization of six-helix bundle formation in native RSV F protein has been hindered by the fact that a trigger for F protein conformational change has yet to be identified. Here we demonstrate that RSV F protein on the surface of infected cells undergoes a conformational change following exposure to elevated temperature, resulting in the formation of the six-helix bundle structure. We first generated and characterized six-helix bundle-specific antibodies raised against recombinant peptides modeling the RSV F protein six-helix bundle structure. We then used these antibodies as probes to monitor RSV F protein six-helix bundle formation in response to a diverse array of potential triggers of conformational changes. We found that exposure of 'membrane-anchored' RSV F protein to elevated temperature (45-55 deg. C) was sufficient to trigger six-helix bundle formation. Antibody binding to the six-helix bundle conformation was detected by both flow cytometry and cell-surface immunoprecipitation of the RSV F protein. None of the other treatments, including interaction with a number of potential receptors, resulted in significant binding by six-helix bundle-specific antibodies. We conclude that native, untriggered RSV F protein exists in a metastable state that can be converted in vitro to the more stable, fusogenic six-helix bundle conformation by an increase in thermal energy. These findings help to better define the mechanism of RSV F-mediated membrane fusion and have important implications for the identification of therapeutic strategies and vaccines targeting RSV F protein conformational changes.

  7. J. Phys. Chem. 1993,97, 2991-2999 2991 Simulationof Water around a Model Protein Helix. 2. The Relative Contributions of Packing,

    E-print Network

    Gerstein, Mark

    with the hard-core repulsions. The hydrogen bonds are highly directional and give water a more open structureJ. Phys. Chem. 1993,97, 2991-2999 2991 Simulationof Water around a Model Protein Helix. 2 In the preceding paper, the structure of water around a model protein a-helix (made from polyalanine

  8. The C-Terminal RpoN Domain of sigma54 Forms an unpredictedHelix-Turn-Helix Motif Similar to domains of sigma70

    SciTech Connect

    Doucleff, Michaeleen; Malak, Lawrence T.; Pelton, Jeffrey G.; Wemmer, David E.

    2005-11-01

    The ''{delta}'' subunit of prokaryotic RNA-polymerase allows gene-specific transcription initiation. Two {sigma} families have been identified, {sigma}{sup 70} and {sigma}{sup 54}, which use distinct mechanisms to initiate transcription and share no detectable sequence homology. Although the {sigma}{sup 70}-type factors have been well characterized structurally by x-ray crystallography, no high-resolution structural information is available for the {sigma}{sup 54}-type factors. Here we present the NMR derived structure of the C-terminal domain of {sigma}{sup 54} from Aquifex aeolicus. This domain (Thr323 to Gly389), which contains the highly conserved RpoN box sequence, consists of a poorly structured N-terminal tail followed by a three-helix bundle, which is surprisingly similar to domains of the {sigma}{sup 70}-type proteins. Residues of the RpoN box, which have previously been shown to be critical for DNA binding, form the second helix of an unpredicted helix-turn-helix motif. This structure's homology with other DNA binding proteins, combined with previous biochemical data, suggest how the C-terminal domain of {sigma}{sup 54} binds to DNA.

  9. Interface connections of a transmembrane voltage sensor

    E-print Network

    White, Stephen

    Interface connections of a transmembrane voltage sensor J. Alfredo Freites*, Douglas J. Tobias by the motion of the S4 voltage sensors. These sensors are ­helices that include four or more positively charged of the KvAP K channel [Jiang, et al. (2003) Nature 423, 33­41], posits that the S4 sensors move within

  10. The Crystal Structures of Yeast Get3 Suggest a Mechanism for Tail-Anchored Protein Membrane Insertion

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Junbin; Li, Jingzhi; Qian, Xinguo; Denic, Vlad; Sha, Bingdong

    2010-08-16

    Tail-anchored (TA) proteins represent a unique class of membrane proteins that contain a single C-terminal transmembrane helix. The post-translational insertion of the yeast TA proteins into the ER membrane requires the Golgi ER trafficking (GET) complex which contains Get1, Get2 and Get3. Get3 is an ATPase that recognizes and binds the C-terminal transmembrane domain (TMD) of the TA proteins. We have determined the crystal structures of Get3 from two yeast species, S. cerevisiae and D. hansenii, respectively. These high resolution crystal structures show that Get3 contains a nucleotide-binding domain and a 'finger' domain for binding the TA protein TMD. A large hydrophobic groove on the finger domain of S. cerevisiae Get3 structure might represent the binding site for TMD of TA proteins. A hydrophobic helix from a symmetry-related Get3 molecule sits in the TMD-binding groove and mimics the TA binding scenario. Interestingly, the crystal structures of the Get3 dimers from S. cerevisiae and D. hansenii exhibit distinct conformations. The S. cerevisiae Get3 dimer structure does not contain nucleotides and maintains an 'open' conformation, while the D. hansenii Get3 dimer structure binds ADP and stays in a 'closed' conformation. We propose that the conformational changes to switch the Get3 between the open and closed conformations may facilitate the membrane insertions for TA proteins.

  11. Helix A Stabilization Precedes Amino-terminal Lobe Activation upon Calcium Binding to Calmodulin

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Baowei; Lowry, David; Mayer, M. Uljana; Squier, Thomas C.

    2008-09-02

    The structural coupling between opposing domains of CaM was investigated using the conformationally sensitive biarsenical probe 4,5-bis(1,3,2-dithioarsolan-2-yl)-resorufin (ReAsH), which upon binding to an engineered tetracysteine binding motif near the end of helix A (Thr-5 to Phe-19) becomes highly fluorescent. Changes in conformation and dynamics are reflective of the native CaM structure, as there is no change in the 1H-15N HSQC NMR spectrum in comparison to wild-type CaM. We find evidence of a conformational intermediate associated with CaM activation, where calcium occupancy of sites in the amino-terminal and carboxyl-terminal lobes of CaM differentially affect the fluorescence intensity of bound ReAsH. Insight into the structure of the conformational intermediate is possible from a consideration of calcium-dependent changes in rates of ReAsH binding and helix A mobility, which respectively distinguish secondary structural changes associated with helix A stabilization from the tertiary structural reorganization of the amino-terminal lobe of CaM necessary for high-affinity binding to target proteins. Helix A stabilization is associated with calcium occupancy of sites in the carboxyl-terminal lobe (Kd = 0.36 ? 0.04 ?M), which results in a reduction in the rate of ReAsH binding from 4900 M-1 sec-1 to 370 M-1 sec-1. In comparison, tertiary structural changes involving helix A and other structural elements in the amino-terminal lobe requires calcium-occupancy of amino-terminal sites (Kd = 18 ? 3 ?M). Observed secondary and tertiary structural changes involving helix A in response to the sequential calcium occupancy of carboxyl- and amino-terminal lobe calcium binding sites suggest an important involvement of helix A in mediating the structural coupling between the opposing domains of CaM. These results are discussed in terms of a model in which carboxyl-terminal lobe calcium activation induces secondary structural changes within the interdomain linker that release helix A, thereby facilitating the formation of calcium binding sites in the amino-terminal lobe and linked tertiary structural rearrangements to form a high-affinity binding cleft that can associate with target proteins.

  12. Evolutionary analysis of the segment from helix 3 through helix 5 in vertebrate progesterone receptors.

    PubMed

    Baker, Michael E; Uh, Kayla Y

    2012-10-01

    The interaction between helix 3 and helix 5 in the human mineralocorticoid receptor [MR], progesterone receptor [PR] and glucocorticoid receptor [GR] influences their response to steroids. For the human PR, mutations at Gly-722 on helix 3 and Met-759 on helix 5 alter responses to progesterone. We analyzed the evolution of these two sites and the rest of a 59 residue segment containing helices 3, 4 and 5 in vertebrate PRs and found that a glycine corresponding to Gly-722 on helix 3 in human PR first appears in platypus, a monotreme. In lamprey, skates, fish, amphibians and birds, cysteine is found at this position in helix 3. This suggests that the cysteine to glycine replacement in helix 3 in the PR was important in the evolution of mammals. Interestingly, our analysis of the rest of the 59 residue segment finds 100% sequence conservation in almost all mammal PRs, substantial conservation in reptile and amphibian PRs and divergence of land vertebrate PR sequences from the fish PR sequences. The differences between fish and land vertebrate PRs may be important in the evolution of different biological progestins in fish and mammalian PR, as well as differences in susceptibility to environmental chemicals that disrupt PR-mediated physiology. PMID:22575083

  13. Epicyclic Twin-Helix Ionization Cooling Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Vasiliy Morozov, Yaroslav Derbenev, A. Afanaciev, R.P. Johnson

    2011-04-01

    Parametric-resonance Ionization Cooling (PIC) is proposed as the final 6D cooling stage of a highluminosity muon collider. For the implementation of PIC, we earlier developed an epicyclic twin-helix channel with correlated behavior of the horizontal and vertical betatron motions and dispersion. We now insert absorber plates with short energy-recovering units located next to them at the appropriate locations in the twin-helix channel. We first demonstrate conventional ionization cooling in such a system with the optics uncorrelated. We then adjust the correlated optics state and induce a parametric resonance to study ionization cooling under the resonant condition.

  14. The Transmembrane Domain C of AMPA Receptors is Critically Involved in Receptor Function and Modulation

    PubMed Central

    Terhag, Jan; Gottschling, Kevin; Hollmann, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Ionotropic glutamate receptors are major players in synaptic transmission and are critically involved in many cognitive events. Although receptors of different subfamilies serve different functions, they all show a conserved domain topology. For most of these domains, structure–function relationships have been established and are well understood. However, up to date the role of the transmembrane domain C in receptor function has been investigated only poorly. We have constructed a series of receptor chimeras and point mutants designed to shed light on the structural and/or functional importance of this domain. We here present evidence that the role of transmembrane domain C exceeds that of a mere scaffolding domain and that several amino acid residues located within the domain are crucial for receptor gating and desensitization. Furthermore, our data suggest that the domain may be involved in receptor interaction with transmembrane AMPA receptor regulatory proteins. PMID:21206529

  15. [DNA, 50 years of the double helix: from the concept of molecular hybridization to microarrays].

    PubMed

    Mornet, E

    2003-11-01

    The discovery of the double helix structure of DNA 50 years ago by J.D. Watson and F.H.C. Crick laid the foundation for modern molecular biology. This opened the way of 50 years of research resulting in the elucidation of gene expression mechanisms, in the development of molecular biology tools allowing analyzing and manipulating genes and in medical and forensic applications now routinely used. The discovery of the double helix structure allowed to evidence the DNA property of molecular hybridization on which are based most of the molecular biology tools, from the old Southern blot method to the recently developed microarrays. PMID:14623552

  16. Mechanical coupling of the multiple structural elements of the large-conductance mechanosensitive channel during expansion

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jie; Guo, Jianli; Ou, Xiaomin; Zhang, Mingfeng; Li, Yuezhou; Liu, Zhenfeng

    2015-01-01

    The prokaryotic mechanosensitive channel of large conductance (MscL) is a pressure-relief valve protecting the cell from lysing during acute osmotic downshock. When the membrane is stretched, MscL responds to the increase of membrane tension and opens a nonselective pore to about 30 Å wide, exhibiting a large unitary conductance of ?3 nS. A fundamental step toward understanding the gating mechanism of MscL is to decipher the molecular details of the conformational changes accompanying channel opening. By applying fusion-protein strategy and controlling detergent composition, we have solved the structures of an archaeal MscL homolog from Methanosarcina acetivorans trapped in the closed and expanded intermediate states. The comparative analysis of these two new structures reveals significant conformational rearrangements in the different domains of MscL. The large changes observed in the tilt angles of the two transmembrane helices (TM1 and TM2) fit well with the helix-pivoting model derived from the earlier geometric analyses based on the previous structures. Meanwhile, the periplasmic loop region transforms from a folded structure, containing an ?-shaped loop and a short ?-hairpin, to an extended and partly disordered conformation during channel expansion. Moreover, a significant rotating and sliding of the N-terminal helix (N-helix) is coupled to the tilting movements of TM1 and TM2. The dynamic relationships between the N-helix and TM1/TM2 suggest that the N-helix serves as a membrane-anchored stopper that limits the tilts of TM1 and TM2 in the gating process. These results provide direct mechanistic insights into the highly coordinated movement of the different domains of the MscL channel when it expands. PMID:26261325

  17. Mechanical coupling of the multiple structural elements of the large-conductance mechanosensitive channel during expansion.

    PubMed

    Li, Jie; Guo, Jianli; Ou, Xiaomin; Zhang, Mingfeng; Li, Yuezhou; Liu, Zhenfeng

    2015-08-25

    The prokaryotic mechanosensitive channel of large conductance (MscL) is a pressure-relief valve protecting the cell from lysing during acute osmotic downshock. When the membrane is stretched, MscL responds to the increase of membrane tension and opens a nonselective pore to about 30 Å wide, exhibiting a large unitary conductance of ? 3 nS. A fundamental step toward understanding the gating mechanism of MscL is to decipher the molecular details of the conformational changes accompanying channel opening. By applying fusion-protein strategy and controlling detergent composition, we have solved the structures of an archaeal MscL homolog from Methanosarcina acetivorans trapped in the closed and expanded intermediate states. The comparative analysis of these two new structures reveals significant conformational rearrangements in the different domains of MscL. The large changes observed in the tilt angles of the two transmembrane helices (TM1 and TM2) fit well with the helix-pivoting model derived from the earlier geometric analyses based on the previous structures. Meanwhile, the periplasmic loop region transforms from a folded structure, containing an ?-shaped loop and a short ?-hairpin, to an extended and partly disordered conformation during channel expansion. Moreover, a significant rotating and sliding of the N-terminal helix (N-helix) is coupled to the tilting movements of TM1 and TM2. The dynamic relationships between the N-helix and TM1/TM2 suggest that the N-helix serves as a membrane-anchored stopper that limits the tilts of TM1 and TM2 in the gating process. These results provide direct mechanistic insights into the highly coordinated movement of the different domains of the MscL channel when it expands. PMID:26261325

  18. Cytotoxic Helix-Rich Oligomer Formation by Melittin and Pancreatic Polypeptide

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Pradeep K.; Ghosh, Dhiman; Tewari, Debanjan; Mohite, Ganesh M.; Carvalho, Edmund; Jha, Narendra Nath; Jacob, Reeba S.; Sahay, Shruti; Banerjee, Rinti; Bera, Amal K.; Maji, Samir K.

    2015-01-01

    Conversion of amyloid fibrils by many peptides/proteins involves cytotoxic helix-rich oligomers. However, their toxicity and biophysical studies remain largely unknown due to their highly dynamic nature. To address this, we chose two helical peptides (melittin, Mel and pancreatic polypeptide, PP) and studied their aggregation and toxicity. Mel converted its random coil structure to oligomeric helical structure upon binding to heparin; however, PP remained as helix after oligomerization. Interestingly, similar to Parkinson’s associated ?-synuclein (AS) oligomers, Mel and PP also showed tinctorial properties, higher hydrophobic surface exposure, cellular toxicity and membrane pore formation after oligomerization in the presence of heparin. We suggest that helix-rich oligomers with exposed hydrophobic surface are highly cytotoxic to cells irrespective of their disease association. Moreover as Mel and PP (in the presence of heparin) instantly self-assemble into stable helix-rich amyloidogenic oligomers; they could be represented as models for understanding the biophysical and cytotoxic properties of helix-rich intermediates in detail. PMID:25803428

  19. Nonlocal Helix Formation Is Key to Understanding S-Adenosylmethionine-1 Riboswitch Function

    PubMed Central

    Whitford, Paul C.; Schug, Alexander; Saunders, John; Hennelly, Scott P.; Onuchic, José N.; Sanbonmatsu, Kevin Y.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Riboswitches are noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression in response to changing concentrations of specific metabolites. Switching activity is affected by the interplay between the aptamer domain and expression platform of the riboswitch. The aptamer domain binds the metabolite, locking the riboswitch in a ligand-bound conformation. In absence of the metabolite, the expression platform forms an alternative secondary structure by sequestering the 3? end of a nonlocal helix called P1. We use all-atom structure-based simulations to characterize the folding, unfolding, and metabolite binding of the aptamer domain of the S-adenosylmethionine-1 (SAM-1) riboswitch. Our results suggest that folding of the nonlocal helix (P1) is rate-limiting in aptamer domain formation. Interestingly, SAM assists folding of the P1 helix by reducing the associated free energy barrier. Because the 3? end of the P1 helix is sequestered by an alternative helix in the absence of metabolites, this observed ligand-control of P1 formation provides a mechanistic explanation of expression platform regulation. PMID:19167285

  20. Crystal structure of rhodopsin bound to arrestin by femtosecond X-ray laser.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yanyong; Zhou, X Edward; Gao, Xiang; He, Yuanzheng; Liu, Wei; Ishchenko, Andrii; Barty, Anton; White, Thomas A; Yefanov, Oleksandr; Han, Gye Won; Xu, Qingping; de Waal, Parker W; Ke, Jiyuan; Tan, M H Eileen; Zhang, Chenghai; Moeller, Arne; West, Graham M; Pascal, Bruce D; Van Eps, Ned; Caro, Lydia N; Vishnivetskiy, Sergey A; Lee, Regina J; Suino-Powell, Kelly M; Gu, Xin; Pal, Kuntal; Ma, Jinming; Zhi, Xiaoyong; Boutet, Sébastien; Williams, Garth J; Messerschmidt, Marc; Gati, Cornelius; Zatsepin, Nadia A; Wang, Dingjie; James, Daniel; Basu, Shibom; Roy-Chowdhury, Shatabdi; Conrad, Chelsie E; Coe, Jesse; Liu, Haiguang; Lisova, Stella; Kupitz, Christopher; Grotjohann, Ingo; Fromme, Raimund; Jiang, Yi; Tan, Minjia; Yang, Huaiyu; Li, Jun; Wang, Meitian; Zheng, Zhong; Li, Dianfan; Howe, Nicole; Zhao, Yingming; Standfuss, Jörg; Diederichs, Kay; Dong, Yuhui; Potter, Clinton S; Carragher, Bridget; Caffrey, Martin; Jiang, Hualiang; Chapman, Henry N; Spence, John C H; Fromme, Petra; Weierstall, Uwe; Ernst, Oliver P; Katritch, Vsevolod; Gurevich, Vsevolod V; Griffin, Patrick R; Hubbell, Wayne L; Stevens, Raymond C; Cherezov, Vadim; Melcher, Karsten; Xu, H Eric

    2015-07-30

    G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) signal primarily through G proteins or arrestins. Arrestin binding to GPCRs blocks G protein interaction and redirects signalling to numerous G-protein-independent pathways. Here we report the crystal structure of a constitutively active form of human rhodopsin bound to a pre-activated form of the mouse visual arrestin, determined by serial femtosecond X-ray laser crystallography. Together with extensive biochemical and mutagenesis data, the structure reveals an overall architecture of the rhodopsin-arrestin assembly in which rhodopsin uses distinct structural elements, including transmembrane helix 7 and helix 8, to recruit arrestin. Correspondingly, arrestin adopts the pre-activated conformation, with a ?20° rotation between the amino and carboxy domains, which opens up a cleft in arrestin to accommodate a short helix formed by the second intracellular loop of rhodopsin. This structure provides a basis for understanding GPCR-mediated arrestin-biased signalling and demonstrates the power of X-ray lasers for advancing the frontiers of structural biology. PMID:26200343

  1. The Structure of a Soluble Chemoreceptor Suggests a Mechanism for Propagating Conformational Signals

    SciTech Connect

    Pollard, Abiola M.; Bilwes, Alexandrine M.; Crane, Brian R.; Cornell

    2009-09-02

    Transmembrane chemoreceptors, also known as methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins (MCPs), translate extracellular signals into intracellular responses in the bacterial chemotaxis system. MCP ligand binding domains control the activity of the CheA kinase, situated {approx}200 {angstrom} away, across the cytoplasmic membrane. The 2.17 {angstrom} resolution crystal structure of a Thermotoga maritima soluble receptor (Tm14) reveals distortions in its dimeric four-helix bundle that provide insight into the conformational states available to MCPs for propagating signals. A bulge in one helix generates asymmetry between subunits that displaces the kinase-interacting tip, which resides more than 100 {angstrom} away. The maximum bundle distortion maps to the adaptation region of transmembrane MCPs where reversible methylation of acidic residues tunes receptor activity. Minor alterations in coiled-coil packing geometry translate the bulge distortion to a >25 {angstrom} movement of the tip relative to the bundle stalks. The Tm14 structure discloses how alterations in local helical structure, which could be induced by changes in methylation state and/or by conformational signals from membrane proximal regions, can reposition a remote domain that interacts with the CheA kinase.

  2. Probing the non-native H helix translocation in apomyoglobin folding intermediates.

    PubMed

    Aoto, Phillip C; Nishimura, Chiaki; Dyson, H Jane; Wright, Peter E

    2014-06-17

    Apomyoglobin folds via sequential helical intermediates that are formed by rapid collapse of the A, B, G, and H helix regions. An equilibrium molten globule with a similar structure is formed near pH 4. Previous studies suggested that the folding intermediates are kinetically trapped states in which folding is impeded by non-native packing of the G and H helices. Fluorescence spectra of mutant proteins in which cysteine residues were introduced at several positions in the G and H helices show differential quenching of W14 fluorescence, providing direct evidence of translocation of the H helix relative to helices A and G in both the kinetic and equilibrium intermediates. Förster resonance energy transfer measurements show that a 5-({2-[(acetyl)amino]ethyl}amino)naphthalene-1-sulfonic acid acceptor coupled to K140C (helix H) is closer to Trp14 (helix A) in the equilibrium molten globule than in the native state, by a distance that is consistent with sliding of the H helix in an N-terminal direction by approximately one helical turn. Formation of an S108C-L135C disulfide prevents H helix translocation in the equilibrium molten globule by locking the G and H helices into their native register. By enforcing nativelike packing of the A, G, and H helices, the disulfide resolves local energetic frustration and facilitates transient docking of the E helix region onto the hydrophobic core but has only a small effect on the refolding rate. The apomyoglobin folding landscape is highly rugged, with several energetic bottlenecks that frustrate folding; relief of any one of the major identified bottlenecks is insufficient to speed progression to the transition state. PMID:24857522

  3. Comparative study of metallic and dielectric helix photonic metamaterial

    E-print Network

    Texas at Arlington, University of

    Comparative study of metallic and dielectric helix photonic metamaterial Arvinder Singh Chadha,1 film helix photonic metamaterial numerically. The simulated metal helix provides a 4 m broad band.1585) Chiral media; (160.3918) Metamaterials; (160.4670) Optical materials. References and links 1. A. Saha, K

  4. MODELS OF THE ACTIN-LIKE MREB HELIX IN PROKARYOTES

    E-print Network

    Allard, Jun

    MODELS OF THE ACTIN-LIKE MREB HELIX IN PROKARYOTES by Jun Allard SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT a thesis entitled "Models of the actin-like MreB helix in prokaryotes" by Jun Allard in partial fulfillment Allard Title: Models of the actin-like MreB helix in prokaryotes Department: Physics and Atmospheric

  5. A functional relationship between helix 1 and the 900 tetraloop of 16S ribosomal RNA within the bacterial ribosome.

    PubMed

    Bélanger, François; Théberge-Julien, Gabriel; Cunningham, Philip R; Brakier-Gingras, Léa

    2005-06-01

    The conserved 900 tetraloop that caps helix 27 of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) interacts with helix 24 of 16S rRNA and also with helix 67 of 23S rRNA, forming the intersubunit bridge B2c, proximal to the decoding center. In previous studies, we investigated how the interaction between the 900 tetraloop and helix 24 participates in subunit association and translational fidelity. In the present study, we investigated whether the 900 tetraloop is involved in other undetected interactions with different regions of the Escherichia coli 16S rRNA. Using a genetic complementation approach, we selected mutations in 16S rRNA that compensate for a 900 tetraloop mutation, A900G, which severely impairs subunit association and translational fidelity. Mutations were randomly introduced in 16S rRNA, using either a mutagenic XL1-Red E. coli strain or an error-prone PCR strategy. Gain-offunction mutations were selected in vivo with a specialized ribosome system. Two mutations, the deletion of U12 and the U12C substitution, were thus independently selected in helix 1 of 16S rRNA. This helix is located in the vicinity of helix 27, but does not directly contact the 900 tetraloop in the crystal structures of the ribosome. Both mutations correct the subunit association and translational fidelity defects caused by the A900G mutation, revealing an unanticipated functional interaction between these two regions of 16S rRNA. PMID:15872184

  6. Specificity in transmembrane helixhelix interactions can define a hierarchy of stability for

    E-print Network

    and Biochemistry, Yale University, PO Box 208114, New Haven, CT 06520-8114 Edited by Douglas C. Rees, California­helix interactions, we have used alanine- scanning mutagenesis and sedimentation equilibrium analytical of biophysical and structural work aimed toward understanding chemical principles of helical mem- brane protein

  7. The double helix and immunology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nossal, Gustav J. V.

    2003-01-01

    The immune system can recognize and produce antibodies to virtually any molecule in the Universe. This enormous diversity arises from the ingenious reshuffling of DNA sequences encoding components of the immune system. Immunology is an example of a field completely transformed during the past 50 years by the discovery of the structure of DNA and the emergence of DNA technologies that followed.

  8. Role of solvation in pressure-induced helix stabilization

    E-print Network

    Robert B. Best; Cayla Miller; Jeetain Mittal

    2015-03-12

    In contrast to the well-known destabilization of globular proteins by high pressure, re- cent work has shown that pressure stabilizes the formation of isolated {\\alpha}-helices. However all simulations to date have obtained a qualitatively opposite result within the experimen- tal pressure range. We show that using a protein force field (Amber03w) parametrized in conjunction with an accurate water model (TIP4P/2005) recovers the correct pressure- dependence and an overall stability diagram for helix formation similar to that from experi- ment; on the other hand, we confirm that using TIP3P water results in a very weak pressure destabilization of helices. By carefully analyzing the contributing factors, we show that this is not merely a consequence of different peptide conformations sampled using TIP3P. Rather, there is a critical role for the solvent itself in determining the dependence of total system volume (peptide and solvent) on helix content. Helical peptide structures exclude a smaller volume to water, relative to non-helical structures with both the water models, but the total system volume for helical conformations is higher than non-helical conformations with TIP3P water at low to intermediate pressures, in contrast to TIP4P/2005 water. Our results further emphasize the importance of using an accurate water model to study protein folding under conditions away from standard temperature and pressure.

  9. HelixFlex : bioinspired maneuverable instrument for skull base surgery.

    PubMed

    Gerboni, Giada; Henselmans, Paul W J; Arkenbout, Ewout A; Furth, Wouter R van; Breedveld, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Endoscopic endonasal surgery is currently regarded as the 'gold standard' for operating on pituitary gland tumors, and is becoming more and more accepted for treatment of other skull base lesions. However, endoscopic surgical treatment of most skull base pathologies, including certain pituitary tumors, is severely impaired by current instruments lack of maneuverability. Especially, gaining access to, and visibility of, difficult-to-reach anatomical corners without interference with surrounding neurovascular structures or other instruments, is a challenge. In this context there is the need for instruments that are able to provide a stable shaft position, while both the orientation and the position of the end-effector can be independently controlled. Current instruments that allow for this level of maneuverability are usually mechanically complex, and hence less suitable for mass production. This study therefore focuses on the development of a new actuation technique that allows for the required maneuverability while reducing the construction complexity. This actuation technique, referred to as multi-actuation, integrates multiple cable routings into a single steerable structure. Multi-actuation has been successfully integrated and tested in a handheld prototype instrument called HelixFlex. HelixFlex contains a 4 degrees of freedom maneuverable 5.8 mm (diameter) tip and shows promising results concerning its maneuverability and potential rigidity. PMID:26623568

  10. Role of solvation in pressure-induced helix stabilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Best, Robert B.; Miller, Cayla; Mittal, Jeetain

    2014-12-01

    In contrast to the well-known destabilization of globular proteins by high pressure, recent work has shown that pressure stabilizes the formation of isolated ?-helices. However, all simulations to date have obtained a qualitatively opposite result within the experimental pressure range. We show that using a protein force field (Amber03w) parametrized in conjunction with an accurate water model (TIP4P/2005) recovers the correct pressure-dependence and an overall stability diagram for helix formation similar to that from experiment; on the other hand, we confirm that using TIP3P water results in a very weak pressure destabilization of helices. By carefully analyzing the contributing factors, we show that this is not merely a consequence of different peptide conformations sampled using TIP3P. Rather, there is a critical role for the solvent itself in determining the dependence of total system volume (peptide and solvent) on helix content. Helical peptide structures exclude a smaller volume to water, relative to non-helical structures with both the water models, but the total system volume for helical conformations is higher than non-helical conformations with TIP3P water at low to intermediate pressures, in contrast to TIP4P/2005 water. Our results further emphasize the importance of using an accurate water model to study protein folding under conditions away from standard temperature and pressure.

  11. Dominance of misfolded intermediates in the dynamics of ?-helix folding

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Milo M.; Shorokhov, Dmitry; Zewail, Ahmed H.

    2014-01-01

    Helices are the “hydrogen atoms” of biomolecular complexity; the DNA/RNA double hairpin and protein ?-helix ubiquitously form the building blocks of life’s constituents at the nanometer scale. Nevertheless, the formation processes of these structures, especially the dynamical pathways and rates, remain challenging to predict and control. Here, we present a general analytical method for constructing dynamical free-energy landscapes of helices. Such landscapes contain information about the thermodynamic stabilities of the possible macromolecular conformations, as well as about the dynamic connectivity, thus enabling the visualization and computation of folding pathways and timescales. We elucidate the methodology using the folding of polyalanine, and demonstrate that its ?-helix folding kinetics is dominated by misfolded intermediates. At the physiological temperature of T = 298 K and midfolding time t = 250 ns, the fraction of structures in the native-state (?-helical) basin equals 22%, which is in good agreement with time-resolved experiments and massively distributed, ensemble-convergent molecular-dynamics simulations. We discuss the prominent role of ?-strand–like intermediates in flight toward the native fold, and in relation to the primary conformational change precipitating aggregation in some neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:25246551

  12. The cytosolic tail of the tumor marker protein Trop2 - a structural switch triggered by phosphorylation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavši?, Miha; Ilc, Gregor; Vidmar, Tilen; Plavec, Janez; Lenar?i?, Brigita

    2015-05-01

    Trop2 is a transmembrane signaling glycoprotein upregulated in stem and carcinoma cells. Proliferation-enhancing signaling involves regulated intramembrane proteolytic release of a short cytoplasmic fragment, which is later engaged in a cytosolic signaling complex. We propose that Trop2 function is modulated by phosphorylation of a specific serine residue within this cytosolic region (Ser303), and by proximity effects exerted on the cytosolic tail by Trop2 dimerization. Structural characterization of both the transmembrane (Trop2TM) and cytosolic regions (Trop2IC) support this hypothesis, and shows that the central region of Trop2IC forms an ?-helix. Comparison of NMR structures of non-phosphorylated and phosphorylated forms suggest that phosphorylation of Trop2IC triggers salt bridge reshuffling, resulting in significant conformational changes including ordering of the C-terminal tail. In addition, we demonstrate that the cytosolic regions of two Trop2 subunits can be brought into close proximity via transmembrane part dimerization. Finally, we show that Ser303-phosphorylation significantly affects the structure and accessibility of functionally important regions of the cytosolic tail. These observed structural features of Trop2 at the membrane-cytosol interface could be important for regulation of Trop2 signaling activity.

  13. Screening Helix-threading Peptides for RNA Binding Using a Thiazole Orange Displacement Assay

    PubMed Central

    Krishnamurthy, Malathy; Schirle, Nicole T.; Beal, Peter A.

    2008-01-01

    The fluorescent intercalator displacement assay using thiazole orange has been adapted to the study of RNA-binding helix-threading peptides (HTPs). This assay is highly sensitive with HTP-binding RNAs and provides binding affinity data in good agreement with quantitative ribonuclease footprinting without the need for radiolabeling or gel electrophoresis. The FID assay was used to define structure activity relationships for a small library of helix-threading peptides. Results of these studies indicate their RNA binding is dependent on peptide sequence, ?-amino acid stereochemistry, and cyclization (versus linear peptides), but independent of macrocyclic ring size for the penta-, tetra- and tri peptides analyzed. PMID:18789700

  14. Structure and Selectivity in Bestrophin Ion Channels

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Tingting; Liu, Qun; Kloss, Brian; Bruni, Renato; Kalathur, Ravi; Kloppmann, Edda; Rost, Burkhard; Colecraft, Henry M.; Hendrickson, Wayne A.

    2015-01-01

    Human bestrophin 1 (hBest1) is a calcium-activated chloride channel from the retinal pigment epithelium, where it can suffer mutations associated with vitelliform macular degeneration, or Best disease. We describe the structure of a bacterial homolog (KpBest) of hBest1 and functional characterizations of both channels. KpBest is a pentamer that forms a five-helix transmembrane pore, closed by three rings of conserved hydrophobic residues, and has a cytoplasmic cavern with a restricted exit. From electrophysiological analysis of structure-inspired mutations in KpBest and hBest1, we find a subtle control of ion selectivity in the bestrophins, including reversal of anion/cation selectivity, and dramatic activation by mutations at the exit restriction. A homology model of hBest1 shows the locations of disease-causing mutations and suggests possible roles in regulation. PMID:25324390

  15. Surfactant protein C peptides with salt-bridges (“ion-locks”) promote high surfactant activities by mimicking the ?-helix and membrane topography of the native protein

    PubMed Central

    Waring, Alan J.; Hernández-Juviel, José M.; Ruchala, Piotr; Wang, Zhengdong; Notter, Robert H.; Gordon, Larry M.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Surfactant protein C (SP-C; 35 residues) in lungs has a cationic N-terminal domain with two cysteines covalently linked to palmitoyls and a C-terminal region enriched in Val, Leu and Ile. Native SP-C shows high surface activity, due to SP-C inserting in the bilayer with its cationic N-terminus binding to the polar headgroup and its hydrophobic C-terminus embedded as a tilted, transmembrane ?-helix. The palmitoylcysteines in SP-C act as ‘helical adjuvants’ to maintain activity by overriding the ?-sheet propensities of the native sequences. Objective. We studied SP-C peptides lacking palmitoyls, but containing glutamate and lysine at 4-residue intervals, to assess whether SP-C peptides with salt-bridges (“ion-locks”) promote surface activity by mimicking the ?-helix and membrane topography of native SP-C. Methods. SP-C mimics were synthesized that reproduce native sequences, but without palmitoyls (i.e., SP-Css or SP-Cff, with serines or phenylalanines replacing the two cysteines). Ion-lock SP-C molecules were prepared by incorporating single or double Glu?–Lys+ into the parent SP-C’s. The secondary structures of SP-C mimics were studied with Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and PASTA, an algorithm that predicts ?-sheet propensities based on the energies of the various ?-sheet pairings. The membrane topography of SP-C mimics was investigated with orientated and hydrogen/deuterium (H/D) exchange FTIR, and also Membrane Protein Explorer (MPEx) hydropathy analysis. In vitro surface activity was determined using adsorption surface pressure isotherms and captive bubble surfactometry, and in vivo surface activity from lung function measures in a rabbit model of surfactant deficiency. Results. PASTA calculations predicted that the SP-Css and SP-Cff peptides should each form parallel ?-sheet aggregates, with FTIR spectroscopy confirming high parallel ?-sheet with ‘amyloid-like’ properties. The enhanced ?-sheet properties for SP-Css and SP-Cff are likely responsible for their low surfactant activities in the in vitro and in vivo assays. Although standard 12C-FTIR study showed that the ?-helicity of these SP-C sequences in lipids was uniformly increased with Glu?–Lys+ insertions, elevated surfactant activity was only selectively observed. Additional results from oriented and H/D exchange FTIR experiments indicated that the high surfactant activities depend on the SP-C ion-locks recapitulating both the ?-helicity and the membrane topography of native SP-C. SP-Css ion-lock 1, an SP-Css with a salt-bridge for a Glu?–Lys+ ion-pair predicted from MPEx hydropathy calculations, demonstrated enhanced surfactant activity and a transmembrane helix simulating those of native SP-C. Conclusion. Highly active SP-C mimics were developed that replace the palmitoyls of SP-C with intrapeptide salt-bridges and represent a new class of synthetic surfactants with therapeutic interest. PMID:25083348

  16. Helix 8 of the M1 Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptor: Scanning Mutagenesis Delineates a G Protein Recognition SiteS?

    PubMed Central

    Kaye, Robert G.; Saldanha, José W.; Lu, Zhi-Liang

    2011-01-01

    We have used alanine-scanning mutagenesis followed by functional expression and molecular modeling to analyze the roles of the 14 residues, Asn422 to Cys435, C-terminal to transmembrane (TM) helix 7 of the M1 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor. The results suggest that they form an eighth (H8) helix, associated with the cytoplasmic surface of the cell membrane in the active state of the receptor. We suggest that the amide side chain of Asn422 may act as a cap to the C terminus of TM7, stabilizing its junction with H8, whereas the side chain of Phe429 may restrict the relative movements of H8 and the C terminus of TM7 in the inactive ground state of the receptor. We have identified four residues, Phe425, Arg426, Thr428, and Leu432, which are important for G protein binding and signaling. These may form a docking site for the C-terminal helix of the G protein ? subunit, and collaborate with G protein recognition residues elsewhere in the cytoplasmic domain of the receptor to form a coherent surface for G protein binding in the activated state of the receptor. PMID:21247934

  17. Tuning RNA Flexibility with Helix Length and Junction Sequence.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Julie L; Pollack, Lois

    2015-12-15

    The increasing awareness of RNA's central role in biology calls for a new understanding of how RNAs, like proteins, recognize biological partners. Because RNA is inherently flexible, it assumes a variety of conformations. This conformational flexibility can be a critical aspect of how RNA attracts and binds molecular partners. Structurally, RNA consists of rigid basepaired duplexes, separated by flexible non-basepaired regions. Here, using an RNA system consisting of two short helices, connected by a single-stranded (non-basepaired) junction, we explore the role of helix length and junction sequence in determining the range of conformations available to a model RNA. Single-molecule Förster resonance energy transfer reports on the RNA conformation as a function of either mono- or divalent ion concentration. Electrostatic repulsion between helices dominates at low salt concentration, whereas junction sequence effects determine the conformations at high salt concentration. Near physiological salt concentrations, RNA conformation is sensitive to both helix length and junction sequence, suggesting a means for sensitively tuning RNA conformations. PMID:26682821

  18. Role of solvation in pressure-induced helix stabilization

    E-print Network

    Best, Robert B; Mittal, Jeetain

    2015-01-01

    In contrast to the well-known destabilization of globular proteins by high pressure, re- cent work has shown that pressure stabilizes the formation of isolated {\\alpha}-helices. However all simulations to date have obtained a qualitatively opposite result within the experimen- tal pressure range. We show that using a protein force field (Amber03w) parametrized in conjunction with an accurate water model (TIP4P/2005) recovers the correct pressure- dependence and an overall stability diagram for helix formation similar to that from experi- ment; on the other hand, we confirm that using TIP3P water results in a very weak pressure destabilization of helices. By carefully analyzing the contributing factors, we show that this is not merely a consequence of different peptide conformations sampled using TIP3P. Rather, there is a critical role for the solvent itself in determining the dependence of total system volume (peptide and solvent) on helix content. Helical peptide structures exclude a smaller volume to water,...

  19. An Accurate Model for Biomolecular Helices and Its Application to Helix Visualization

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lincong; Qiao, Hui; Cao, Chen; Xu, Shutan; Zou, Shuxue

    2015-01-01

    Helices are the most abundant secondary structural elements in proteins and the structural forms assumed by double stranded DNAs (dsDNA). Though the mathematical expression for a helical curve is simple, none of the previous models for the biomolecular helices in either proteins or DNAs use a genuine helical curve, likely because of the complexity of fitting backbone atoms to helical curves. In this paper we model a helix as a series of different but all bona fide helical curves; each one best fits the coordinates of four consecutive backbone C? atoms for a protein or P atoms for a DNA molecule. An implementation of the model demonstrates that it is more accurate than the previous ones for the description of the deviation of a helix from a standard helical curve. Furthermore, the accuracy of the model makes it possible to correlate deviations with structural and functional significance. When applied to helix visualization, the ribbon diagrams generated by the model are less choppy or have smaller side chain detachment than those by the previous visualization programs that typically model a helix as a series of low-degree splines. PMID:26126117

  20. LINKIN, a new transmembrane protein necessary for cell adhesion.

    PubMed

    Kato, Mihoko; Chou, Tsui-Fen; Yu, Collin Z; DeModena, John; Sternberg, Paul W

    2014-01-01

    In epithelial collective migration, leader and follower cells migrate while maintaining cell-cell adhesion and tissue polarity. We have identified a conserved protein and interactors required for maintaining cell adhesion during a simple collective migration in the developing C. elegans male gonad. LINKIN is a previously uncharacterized, transmembrane protein conserved throughout Metazoa. We identified seven atypical FG-GAP domains in the extracellular domain, which potentially folds into a ?-propeller structure resembling the ?-integrin ligand-binding domain. C. elegans LNKN-1 localizes to the plasma membrane of all gonadal cells, with apical and lateral bias. We identified the LINKIN interactors RUVBL1, RUVBL2, and ?-tubulin by using SILAC mass spectrometry on human HEK 293T cells and testing candidates for lnkn-1-like function in C. elegans male gonad. We propose that LINKIN promotes adhesion between neighboring cells through its extracellular domain and regulates microtubule dynamics through RUVBL proteins at its intracellular domain. PMID:25437307

  1. Genome-wide identification and analysis of basic helix-loop-helix domains in dog, Canis lupus familiaris.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xu-Hua; Wang, Yong; Liu, A-Ke; Liu, Xiao-Ting; Zhou, Yang; Yao, Qin; Chen, Ke-Ping

    2015-04-01

    The basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) domain is a highly conserved amino acid motif that defines a group of DNA-binding transcription factors. bHLH proteins play essential regulatory roles in a variety of biological processes in animal, plant, and fungus. The domestic dog, Canis lupus familiaris, is a good model organism for genetic, physiological, and behavioral studies. In this study, we identified 115 putative bHLH genes in the dog genome. Based on a phylogenetic analysis, 51, 26, 14, 4, 12, and 4 dog bHLH genes were assigned to six separate groups (A-F); four bHLH genes were categorized as ''orphans''. Within-group evolutionary relationships inferred from the phylogenetic analysis were consistent with positional conservation, other conserved domains flanking the bHLH motif, and highly conserved intron/exon patterns in other vertebrates. Our analytical results confirmed the GenBank annotations of 89 dog bHLH proteins and provided information that could be used to update the annotations of the remaining 26 dog bHLH proteins. These data will provide good references for further studies on the structures and regulatory functions of bHLH proteins in the growth and development of dogs, which may help in understanding the mechanisms that underlie the physical and behavioral differences between dogs and wolves. PMID:25403511

  2. A Transmembrane Domain GGxxG Motif in CD4 Contributes to Its Lck-Independent Function but Does Not Mediate CD4 Dimerization

    PubMed Central

    Parrish, Heather L.; Glassman, Caleb R.; Keenen, Madeline M.; Deshpande, Neha R.; Bronnimann, Matthew P.; Kuhns, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    CD4 interactions with class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules are essential for CD4+ T cell development, activation, and effector functions. While its association with p56lck (Lck), a Src kinase, is important for these functions CD4 also has an Lck-independent role in TCR signaling that is incompletely understood. Here, we identify a conserved GGxxG motif in the CD4 transmembrane domain that is related to the previously described GxxxG motifs of other proteins and predicted to form a flat glycine patch in a transmembrane helix. In other proteins, these patches have been reported to mediate dimerization of transmembrane domains. Here we show that introducing bulky side-chains into this patch (GGxxG to GVxxL) impairs the Lck-independent role of CD4 in T cell activation upon TCR engagement of agonist and weak agonist stimulation. However, using Forster’s Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET), we saw no evidence that these mutations decreased CD4 dimerization either in the unliganded state or upon engagement of pMHC concomitantly with the TCR. This suggests that the CD4 transmembrane domain is either mediating interactions with an unidentified partner, or mediating some other function such as membrane domain localization that is important for its role in T cell activation. PMID:26147390

  3. A Transmembrane Domain GGxxG Motif in CD4 Contributes to Its Lck-Independent Function but Does Not Mediate CD4 Dimerization.

    PubMed

    Parrish, Heather L; Glassman, Caleb R; Keenen, Madeline M; Deshpande, Neha R; Bronnimann, Matthew P; Kuhns, Michael S

    2015-01-01

    CD4 interactions with class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules are essential for CD4+ T cell development, activation, and effector functions. While its association with p56lck (Lck), a Src kinase, is important for these functions CD4 also has an Lck-independent role in TCR signaling that is incompletely understood. Here, we identify a conserved GGxxG motif in the CD4 transmembrane domain that is related to the previously described GxxxG motifs of other proteins and predicted to form a flat glycine patch in a transmembrane helix. In other proteins, these patches have been reported to mediate dimerization of transmembrane domains. Here we show that introducing bulky side-chains into this patch (GGxxG to GVxxL) impairs the Lck-independent role of CD4 in T cell activation upon TCR engagement of agonist and weak agonist stimulation. However, using Forster's Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET), we saw no evidence that these mutations decreased CD4 dimerization either in the unliganded state or upon engagement of pMHC concomitantly with the TCR. This suggests that the CD4 transmembrane domain is either mediating interactions with an unidentified partner, or mediating some other function such as membrane domain localization that is important for its role in T cell activation. PMID:26147390

  4. Structural determination of virus protein U from HIV-1 by NMR in membrane environments.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hua; Lin, Eugene C; Das, Bibhuti B; Tian, Ye; Opella, Stanley J

    2015-11-01

    Virus protein U (Vpu) from HIV-1, a small membrane protein composed of a transmembrane helical domain and two ?-helices in an amphipathic cytoplasmic domain, down modulates several cellular proteins, including CD4, BST-2/CD317/tetherin, NTB-A, and CCR7. The interactions of Vpu with these proteins interfere with the immune system and enhance the release of newly synthesized virus particles. It is essential to characterize the structure and dynamics of Vpu in order to understand the mechanisms of the protein-protein interactions, and potentially to discover antiviral drugs. In this article, we describe investigations of the cytoplasmic domain of Vpu as well as full-length Vpu by NMR spectroscopy. These studies are complementary to earlier analysis of the transmembrane domain of Vpu. The results suggest that the two helices in the cytoplasmic domain form a U-shape. The length of the inter-helical loop in the cytoplasmic domain and the orientation of the third helix vary with the lipid composition, which demonstrate that the C-terminal helix is relatively flexible, providing accessibility for interaction partners. PMID:26362058

  5. Intracellular segment between transmembrane helices S0 and S1 of BK channel ? subunit contains two amphipathic helices connected by a flexible loop

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Pan; High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui, 230031 ; Li, Dong; Lai, Chaohua; Zhang, Longhua; Tian, Changlin; High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui, 230031

    2013-08-02

    Highlights: •The loop between S0 and S1 of BK channel was overexpressed and purified in DPC. •NMR studies indicated BK-IS1 contained two helices connected by a flexible loop. •Mg{sup 2+} titration of BK-IS1 indicated two possible binding sites of divalent ions. -- Abstract: The BK channel, a tetrameric potassium channel with very high conductance, has a central role in numerous physiological functions. The BK channel can be activated by intracellular Ca{sup 2+} and Mg{sup 2+}, as well as by membrane depolarization. Unlike other tetrameric potassium channels, the BK channel has seven transmembrane helices (S0–S6) including an extra helix S0. The intracellular segment between S0 and S1 (BK-IS1) is essential to BK channel functions and Asp99 in BK-IS1 is reported to be responsible for Mg{sup 2+} coordination. In this study, BK-IS1 (44–113) was over-expressed using a bacterial system and purified in the presence of detergent micelles for multidimensional heteronuclear nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) structural studies. Backbone resonance assignment and secondary structure analysis showed that BK-IS1 contains two amphipathic helices connected by a 36-residue loop. Amide {sup 1}H–{sup 15}N heteronuclear NOE analysis indicated that the loop is very flexible, while the two amphipathic helices are possibly stabilized through interaction with the membrane. A solution NMR-based titration assay of BK-IS1 was performed with various concentrations of Mg{sup 2+}. Two residues (Thr45 and Leu46) with chemical shift changes were observed but no, or very minor, chemical shift difference was observed for Asp99, indicating a possible site for binding divalent ions or other modulation partners.

  6. The Nature of Cometary Knots in the Helix Nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkert, A.; O'dell, C. R.

    1996-12-01

    Recent HST observations have revealed heretofore unseen fine scale structure in the Helix Nebula. Thousands of well resolved neutral dark cores have been detected in extinction against the background emission of the nebula. These Cometary Knots (CK) have a remarkably uniform appearance with photoionized cusps and tails trailing away from the cusps on almost radial lines. The total mass of the CK is similar to the total mass of the ionized diffuse gas in the ring which means that they represent an important component of the nebula. We discuss the origin and future of the CK in the Helix. It has been suggested that the CK result from Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities arising at the ionization front of the nebula (Capriotti 1973, 1996). Our hydrodynamical simulations indicate that indeed Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities could lead to filamentary structures within planetary nebulae. The substructure of these fingers differs, however, from the observations in important ways. The observed CK therefore must have a different origin. The knots might represent local density fluctuations which remained behind and were compressed as the main ionization front advanced into the neutral material. Another formation scenario is a thin shell instability which results from the interaction of the nebula with a fast stellar wind. Although no stellar wind features have been detected so far, the brightness distribution of the ionized cusps of the knots indicates that this gas is in pressure equilibrium with a high-temperature surrounding gas which could be generated by a shocked stellar wind. If such a wind would have high velocities and low densities it could fall beneath the threshold for spectroscopic detection although it could be important for understanding the formation and structure of the CK. Detailed high-resolution numerical simulations which take into account a fast wind phase as well as the time variation of the Central Star's UV photon flux are presented.

  7. Transmembrane Domain Three Contributes to the Ion Conductance Pathway of Channelrhodopsin-2

    PubMed Central

    Gaiko, Olga; Dempski, Robert E.

    2013-01-01

    Channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) is a light-activated nonselective cation channel that is found in the eyespot of the unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Despite the wide employment of this protein to control the membrane potential of excitable membranes, the molecular determinants that define the unique ion conductance properties of this protein are not well understood. To elucidate the cation permeability pathway of ion conductance, we performed cysteine scanning mutagenesis of transmembrane domain three followed by labeling with methanethiosulfonate derivatives. An analysis of our experimental results as modeled onto the crystal structure of the C1C2 chimera demonstrate that the ion permeation pathway includes residues on one face of transmembrane domain three at the extracellular side of the channel that face the center of ChR2. Furthermore, we examined the role of a residue at the extracellular side of transmembrane domain three in ion conductance. We show that ion conductance is mediated, in part, by hydrogen bonding at the extracellular side of transmembrane domain three. These results provide a starting point for examining the cation permeability pathway for ChR2. PMID:23528082

  8. Involvement of Transmembrane Domain Interactions in Signal Transduction by / Integrins*

    E-print Network

    Involvement of Transmembrane Domain Interactions in Signal Transduction by / Integrins* Received of / heterodimeric integrins function together to bind ligands in the extracellular region and transduce signals across cellular mem- branes. A possible function for the transmembrane re- gions in integrin signaling

  9. SupplementaryFigure1 SLIDE-HELIX_TM1_PORE-HELIX__

    E-print Network

    Tucker, Stephen J.

    in grey with the inner helices highlighted. For clarity only the water density around the pore is shown indicate the tetramer values and the coloured lines the individual subunits. The average water density within the pore shows that the helix bundle crossing of G137D KirBac6.1 is permeable to water

  10. Photo-active collagen systems with controlled triple helix architecture

    E-print Network

    Tronci, Giuseppe; Wood, David J

    2013-01-01

    The design of photo-active collagen systems is presented as a basis for establishing biomimetic materials with varied network architecture and programmable macroscopic properties. Following in-house isolation of type I collagen, reaction with vinyl-bearing compounds of varied backbone rigidity, i.e. 4-vinylbenzyl chloride (4VBC) and glycidyl methacrylate (GMA), was carried out. TNBS colorimetric assay, 1H-NMR and ATR-FTIR confirmed covalent and tunable functionalization of collagen lysines. Depending on the type and extent of functionalization, controlled stability and thermal denaturation of triple helices were observed via circular dichroism (CD), whereby the hydrogen-bonding capability of introduced moieties was shown to play a major role. Full gel formation was observed following photo-activation of functionalized collagen solutions. The presence of a covalent network only slightly affected collagen triple helix conformation (as observed by WAXS and ATR-FTIR), confirming the structural organization of fun...

  11. Thermostability of membrane protein helix^helix interaction elucidated by statistical analysis

    E-print Network

    Gerstein, Mark

    von Heijne Abstract A prerequisite for the survival of (micro)organisms at high temperatures from eight thermophilic and 12 mesophilic organisms. A comparison of the amino acid compositions indicates that more polar resi- dues can be found in the transmembrane helices of thermophilic organisms

  12. Molecular mechanisms for generating transmembrane proton gradients

    PubMed Central

    Gunner, M.R.; Amin, Muhamed; Zhu, Xuyu; Lu, Jianxun

    2013-01-01

    Membrane proteins use the energy of light or high energy substrates to build a transmembrane proton gradient through a series of reactions leading to proton release into the lower pH compartment (P-side) and proton uptake from the higher pH compartment (N-side). This review considers how the proton affinity of the substrates, cofactors and amino acids are modified in four proteins to drive proton transfers. Bacterial reaction centers (RCs) and photosystem II (PSII) carry out redox chemistry with the species to be oxidized on the P-side while reduction occurs on the N-side of the membrane. Terminal redox cofactors are used which have pKas that are strongly dependent on their redox state, so that protons are lost on oxidation and gained on reduction. Bacteriorhodopsin is a true proton pump. Light activation triggers trans to cis isomerization of a bound retinal. Strong electrostatic interactions within clusters of amino acids are modified by the conformational changes initiated by retinal motion leading to changes in proton affinity, driving transmembrane proton transfer. Cytochrome c oxidase (CcO) catalyzes the reduction of O2 to water. The protons needed for chemistry are bound from the N-side. The reduction chemistry also drives proton pumping from N- to P-side. Overall, in CcO the uptake of 4 electrons to reduce O2 transports 8 charges across the membrane, with each reduction fully coupled to removal of two protons from the N-side, the delivery of one for chemistry and transport of the other to the P-side. PMID:23507617

  13. Structure of the uncleaved ectodomain of the paramyxovirus (hPIV3) fusion protein

    SciTech Connect

    Yin, Hsien-Sheng; Paterson, Reay G.; Wen, Xiaolin; Lamb, Robert A.; Jardetzky, Theodore S.

    2010-03-08

    Class I viral fusion proteins share common mechanistic and structural features but little sequence similarity. Structural insights into the protein conformational changes associated with membrane fusion are based largely on studies of the influenza virus hemagglutinin in pre- and postfusion conformations. Here, we present the crystal structure of the secreted, uncleaved ectodomain of the paramyxovirus, human parainfluenza virus 3 fusion (F) protein, a member of the class I viral fusion protein group. The secreted human parainfluenza virus 3 F forms a trimer with distinct head, neck, and stalk regions. Unexpectedly, the structure reveals a six-helix bundle associated with the postfusion form of F, suggesting that the anchor-minus ectodomain adopts a conformation largely similar to the postfusion state. The transmembrane anchor domains of F may therefore profoundly influence the folding energetics that establish and maintain a metastable, prefusion state.

  14. Visualizing Water Molecules in Transmembrane Proteins Using Radiolytic Labeling Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Orban, T.; Gupta, S; Palczewski, K; Chance, M

    2010-01-01

    Essential to cells and their organelles, water is both shuttled to where it is needed and trapped within cellular compartments and structures. Moreover, ordered waters within protein structures often colocalize with strategically placed polar or charged groups critical for protein function, yet it is unclear if these ordered water molecules provide structural stabilization, mediate conformational changes in signaling, neutralize charged residues, or carry out a combination of all these functions. Structures of many integral membrane proteins, including G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), reveal the presence of ordered water molecules that may act like prosthetic groups in a manner quite unlike bulk water. Identification of 'ordered' waters within a crystalline protein structure requires sufficient occupancy of water to enable its detection in the protein's X-ray diffraction pattern, and thus, the observed waters likely represent a subset of tightly bound functional waters. In this review, we highlight recent studies that suggest the structures of ordered waters within GPCRs are as conserved (and thus as important) as conserved side chains. In addition, methods of radiolysis, coupled to structural mass spectrometry (protein footprinting), reveal dynamic changes in water structure that mediate transmembrane signaling. The idea of water as a prosthetic group mediating chemical reaction dynamics is not new in fields such as catalysis. However, the concept of water as a mediator of conformational dynamics in signaling is just emerging, because of advances in both crystallographic structure determination and new methods of protein footprinting. Although oil and water do not mix, understanding the roles of water is essential to understanding the function of membrane proteins.

  15. Predicting helix orientation for coiled-coil dimers

    PubMed Central

    Apgar, James R.; Gutwin, Karl N.; Keating, Amy E.

    2008-01-01

    The alpha-helical coiled coil is a structurally simple protein oligomerization or interaction motif consisting of two or more alpha helices twisted into a supercoiled bundle. Coiled coils can differ in their stoichiometry, helix orientation and axial alignment. Because of the near degeneracy of many of these variants, coiled coils pose a challenge to fold recognition methods for structure prediction. Whereas distinctions between some protein folds can be discriminated on the basis of hydrophobic/polar patterning or secondary structure propensities, the sequence differences that encode important details of coiled-coil structure can be subtle. This is emblematic of a larger problem in the field of protein structure and interaction prediction: that of establishing specificity between closely similar structures. We tested the behavior of different computational models on the problem of recognizing the correct orientation - parallel vs. antiparallel - of pairs of alpha helices that can form a dimeric coiled coil. For each of 131 examples of known structure, we constructed a large number of both parallel and antiparallel structural models and used these to asses the ability of five energy functions to recognize the correct fold. We also developed and tested three sequenced-based approaches that make use of varying degrees of implicit structural information. The best structural methods performed similarly to the best sequence methods, correctly categorizing ?81% of dimers. Steric compatibility with the fold was important for some coiled coils we investigated. For many examples, the correct orientation was determined by smaller energy differences between parallel and antiparallel structures distributed over many residues and energy components. Prediction methods that used structure but incorporated varying approximations and assumptions showed quite different behaviors when used to investigate energetic contributions to orientation preference. Sequence based methods were sensitive to the choice of residue-pair interactions scored. PMID:18506779

  16. Tah1 helix-swap dimerization prevents mixed Hsp90 co-chaperone complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, Rhodri M. L.; Pal, Mohinder; Roe, S. Mark; Pearl, Laurence H. Prodromou, Chrisostomos

    2015-05-01

    A helix swap involving the fifth helix between two adjacently bound Tah1 molecules restores the normal binding environment of the conserved MEEVD peptide of Hsp90. Dimerization also explains how other monomeric TPR-domain proteins are excluded from forming inappropriate mixed co-chaperone complexes with Hsp90 and Tah1. Specific co-chaperone adaptors facilitate the recruitment of client proteins to the Hsp90 system. Tah1 binds the C-terminal conserved MEEVD motif of Hsp90, thus linking an eclectic set of client proteins to the R2TP complex for their assembly and regulation by Hsp90. Rather than the normal complement of seven ?-helices seen in other tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domains, Tah1 unusually consists of the first five only. Consequently, the methionine of the MEEVD peptide remains exposed to solvent when bound by Tah1. In solution Tah1 appears to be predominantly monomeric, and recent structures have failed to explain how Tah1 appears to prevent the formation of mixed TPR domain-containing complexes such as Cpr6–(Hsp90){sub 2}–Tah1. To understand this further, the crystal structure of Tah1 in complex with the MEEVD peptide of Hsp90 was determined, which shows a helix swap involving the fifth ?-helix between two adjacently bound Tah1 molecules. Dimerization of Tah1 restores the normal binding environment of the bound Hsp90 methionine residue by reconstituting a TPR binding site similar to that in seven-helix-containing TPR domain proteins. Dimerization also explains how other monomeric TPR-domain proteins are excluded from forming inappropriate mixed co-chaperone complexes.

  17. Exploiting aromatic interactions for ?-peptide foldamer helix stabilization: a significant design element.

    PubMed

    Mándity, István M; Monsignori, Antonella; Fülöp, Lívia; Forró, Enikö; Fülöp, Ferenc

    2014-04-14

    Tetrameric H10/12 helix stabilization was achieved by the application of aromatic side-chains in ?-peptide oligomers by intramolecular backbone-side chain CH-? interactions. Because of the enlarged hydrophobic surface of the oligomers, a further aim was the investigation of the self-assembly in a polar medium for the ?-peptide H10/12 helices. NMR, ECD, and molecular modeling results indicated that the oligomers formed by cis-[1S,2S]- or cis-[1R,2R]-1-amino-1,2,3,4-tetrahydronaphthalene-2-carboxylic acid (ATENAC) and cis-[1R,2S]- or cis-[1S,2R]-2-aminocyclohex-3-enecarboxylic acid (ACHEC) residues promote stable H10/12 helix formation with an alternating backbone configuration even at the tetrameric chain length. These results support the view that aromatic side-chains can be applied for helical structure stabilization. Importantly, this is the first observation of a stable H10/12 helix with tetrameric chain-length. The hydrophobically driven self-assembly was achieved for the helix-forming oligomers, seen as vesicles in transmission electron microscopy images. The self-association phenomenon, which supports the helical secondary structure of these oligomers, depends on the hydrophobic surface area, because a higher number of aromatic side-chains yielded larger vesicles. These results serve as an essential element for the design of helices relating to the H10/12 helix. Moreover, they open up a novel area for bioactive foldamer construction, while the hydrophobic area gained through the aromatic side-chains may yield important receptor-ligand interaction surfaces, which can provide amplified binding strength. PMID:24664416

  18. Structural topology of phospholamban pentamer in lipid bilayers by a hybrid solution and solid-state NMR method

    PubMed Central

    Verardi, Raffaello; Shi, Lei; Traaseth, Nathaniel J.; Walsh, Naomi; Veglia, Gianluigi

    2011-01-01

    Phospholamban (PLN) is a type II membrane protein that inhibits the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA), thereby regulating calcium homeostasis in cardiac muscle. In membranes, PLN forms pentamers that have been proposed to function either as a storage for active monomers or as ion channels. Here, we report the T-state structure of pentameric PLN solved by a hybrid solution and solid-state NMR method. In lipid bilayers, PLN adopts a pinwheel topology with a narrow hydrophobic pore, which excludes ion transport. In the T state, the cytoplasmic amphipathic helices (domains Ia) are absorbed into the lipid bilayer with the transmembrane domains arranged in a left-handed coiled-coil configuration, crossing the bilayer with a tilt angle of approximately 11° with respect to the membrane normal. The tilt angle difference between the monomer and pentamer is approximately 13°, showing that intramembrane helix–helix association forces dominate over the hydrophobic mismatch, driving the overall topology of the transmembrane assembly. Our data reveal that both topology and function of PLN are shaped by the interactions with lipids, which fine-tune the regulation of SERCA. PMID:21576492

  19. Infrared Spectroscopic Studies of Cells and Tissues: Triple Helix Proteins as a Potential Biomarker for Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Stelling, Allison L.; Toher, Deirdre; Uckermann, Ortrud; Tavkin, Jelena; Leipnitz, Elke; Schweizer, Julia; Cramm, Holger; Steiner, Gerald; Geiger, Kathrin D.; Kirsch, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    In this work, the infrared (IR) spectra of living neural cells in suspension, native brain tissue, and native brain tumor tissue were investigated. Methods were developed to overcome the strong IR signal of liquid water so that the signal from the cellular biochemicals could be seen. Measurements could be performed during surgeries, within minutes after resection. Comparison between normal tissue, different cell lineages in suspension, and tumors allowed preliminary assignments of IR bands to be made. The most dramatic difference between tissues and cells was found to be in weaker IR absorbances usually assigned to the triple helix of collagens. Triple helix domains are common in larger structural proteins, and are typically found in the extracellular matrix (ECM) of tissues. An algorithm to correct offsets and calculate the band heights and positions of these bands was developed, so the variance between identical measurements could be assessed. The initial results indicate the triple helix signal is surprisingly consistent between different individuals, and is altered in tumor tissues. Taken together, these preliminary investigations indicate this triple helix signal may be a reliable biomarker for a tumor-like microenvironment. Thus, this signal has potential to aid in the intra-operational delineation of brain tumor borders. PMID:23526977

  20. Preserved transmembrane protein mobility in polymer-supported lipid bilayers derived from cell membranes.

    PubMed

    Pace, Hudson; Simonsson Nyström, Lisa; Gunnarsson, Anders; Eck, Elizabeth; Monson, Christopher; Geschwindner, Stefan; Snijder, Arjan; Höök, Fredrik

    2015-09-15

    Supported lipid bilayers (SLBs) have contributed invaluable information about the physiochemical properties of cell membranes, but their compositional simplicity often limits the level of knowledge that can be gained about the structure and function of transmembrane proteins in their native environment. Herein, we demonstrate a generic protocol for producing polymer-supported lipid bilayers on glass surfaces that contain essentially all naturally occurring cell-membrane components of a cell line while still retaining transmembrane protein mobility and activity. This was achieved by merging vesicles made from synthetic lipids (PEGylated lipids and POPC lipids) with native cell-membrane vesicles to generate hybrid vesicles which readily rupture into a continuous polymer-supported lipid bilayer. To investigate the properties of these complex hybrid SLBs and particularly the behavior of their integral membrane-proteins, we used total internal reflection fluorescence imaging to study a transmembrane protease, ?-secretase 1 (BACE1), whose ectoplasmic and cytoplasmic domains could both be specifically targeted with fluorescent reporters. By selectively probing the two different orientations of BACE1 in the resulting hybrid SLBs, the role of the PEG-cushion on transmembrane protein lateral mobility was investigated. The results reveal the necessity of having the PEGylated lipids present during vesicle adsorption to prevent immobilization of transmembrane proteins with protruding domains. The proteolytic activity of BACE1 was unadulterated by the sonication process used to merge the synthetic and native membrane vesicles; importantly it was also conserved in the SLB. The presented strategy could thus serve both fundamental studies of membrane biophysics and the production of surface-based bioanalytical sensor platforms. PMID:26268463

  1. Structural and functional importance of transmembrane domain 3 (TM3) in the aspartate:alanine antiporter AspT: topology and function of the residues of TM3 and oligomerization of AspT.

    PubMed

    Nanatani, Kei; Maloney, Peter C; Abe, Keietsu

    2009-04-01

    AspT, the aspartate:alanine antiporter of Tetragenococcus halophilus, a membrane protein of 543 amino acids with 10 putative transmembrane (TM) helices, is the prototype of the aspartate:alanine exchanger (AAE) family of transporters. Because TM3 (isoleucine 64 to methionine 85) has many amino acid residues that are conserved among members of the AAE family and because TM3 contains two charged residues and four polar residues, it is thought to be located near (or to form part of) the substrate translocation pathway that includes the binding site for the substrates. To elucidate the role of TM3 in the transport process, we carried out cysteine-scanning mutagenesis. The substitutions of tyrosine 75 and serine 84 had the strongest inhibitory effects on transport (initial rates of l-aspartate transport were below 15% of the rate for cysteine-less AspT). Considerable but less-marked effects were observed upon the replacement of methionine 70, phenylalanine 71, glycine 74, arginine 76, serine 83, and methionine 85 (initial rates between 15% and 30% of the rate for cysteine-less AspT). Introduced cysteine residues at the cytoplasmic half of TM3 could be labeled with Oregon green maleimide (OGM), whereas cysteines close to the periplasmic half (residues 64 to 75) were not labeled. These results suggest that TM3 has a hydrophobic core on the periplasmic half and that hydrophilic residues on the cytoplasmic half of TM3 participate in the formation of an aqueous cavity in membranes. Furthermore, the presence of l-aspartate protected the cysteine introduced at glycine 62 against a reaction with OGM. In contrast, l-aspartate stimulated the reactivity of the cysteine introduced at proline 79 with OGM. These results demonstrate that TM3 undergoes l-aspartate-induced conformational alterations. In addition, nonreducing sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analyses and a glutaraldehyde cross-linking assay suggest that functional AspT forms homo-oligomers as a functional unit. PMID:19181816

  2. Structure Modeling of All Identified G Protein–Coupled Receptors in the Human Genome

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yang; DeVries, Mark E; Skolnick, Jeffrey

    2006-01-01

    G protein–coupled receptors (GPCRs), encoded by about 5% of human genes, comprise the largest family of integral membrane proteins and act as cell surface receptors responsible for the transduction of endogenous signal into a cellular response. Although tertiary structural information is crucial for function annotation and drug design, there are few experimentally determined GPCR structures. To address this issue, we employ the recently developed threading assembly refinement (TASSER) method to generate structure predictions for all 907 putative GPCRs in the human genome. Unlike traditional homology modeling approaches, TASSER modeling does not require solved homologous template structures; moreover, it often refines the structures closer to native. These features are essential for the comprehensive modeling of all human GPCRs when close homologous templates are absent. Based on a benchmarked confidence score, approximately 820 predicted models should have the correct folds. The majority of GPCR models share the characteristic seven-transmembrane helix topology, but 45 ORFs are predicted to have different structures. This is due to GPCR fragments that are predominantly from extracellular or intracellular domains as well as database annotation errors. Our preliminary validation includes the automated modeling of bovine rhodopsin, the only solved GPCR in the Protein Data Bank. With homologous templates excluded, the final model built by TASSER has a global C? root-mean-squared deviation from native of 4.6 Å, with a root-mean-squared deviation in the transmembrane helix region of 2.1 Å. Models of several representative GPCRs are compared with mutagenesis and affinity labeling data, and consistent agreement is demonstrated. Structure clustering of the predicted models shows that GPCRs with similar structures tend to belong to a similar functional class even when their sequences are diverse. These results demonstrate the usefulness and robustness of the in silico models for GPCR functional analysis. All predicted GPCR models are freely available for noncommercial users on our Web site (http://www.bioinformatics.buffalo.edu/GPCR). PMID:16485037

  3. System and methods for predicting transmembrane domains in membrane proteins and mining the genome for recognizing G-protein coupled receptors

    DOEpatents

    Trabanino, Rene J; Vaidehi, Nagarajan; Hall, Spencer E; Goddard, William A; Floriano, Wely

    2013-02-05

    The invention provides computer-implemented methods and apparatus implementing a hierarchical protocol using multiscale molecular dynamics and molecular modeling methods to predict the presence of transmembrane regions in proteins, such as G-Protein Coupled Receptors (GPCR), and protein structural models generated according to the protocol. The protocol features a coarse grain sampling method, such as hydrophobicity analysis, to provide a fast and accurate procedure for predicting transmembrane regions. Methods and apparatus of the invention are useful to screen protein or polynucleotide databases for encoded proteins with transmembrane regions, such as GPCRs.

  4. An atomic structure of human ?-secretase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Xiao-Chen; Yan, Chuangye; Yang, Guanghui; Lu, Peilong; Ma, Dan; Sun, Linfeng; Zhou, Rui; Scheres, Sjors H. W.; Shi, Yigong

    2015-09-01

    Dysfunction of the intramembrane protease ?-secretase is thought to cause Alzheimer's disease, with most mutations derived from Alzheimer's disease mapping to the catalytic subunit presenilin 1 (PS1). Here we report an atomic structure of human ?-secretase at 3.4 Å resolution, determined by single-particle cryo-electron microscopy. Mutations derived from Alzheimer's disease affect residues at two hotspots in PS1, each located at the centre of a distinct four transmembrane segment (TM) bundle. TM2 and, to a lesser extent, TM6 exhibit considerable flexibility, yielding a plastic active site and adaptable surrounding elements. The active site of PS1 is accessible from the convex side of the TM horseshoe, suggesting considerable conformational changes in nicastrin extracellular domain after substrate recruitment. Component protein APH-1 serves as a scaffold, anchoring the lone transmembrane helix from nicastrin and supporting the flexible conformation of PS1. Ordered phospholipids stabilize the complex inside the membrane. Our structure serves as a molecular basis for mechanistic understanding of ?-secretase function.

  5. Multi-Facial, Non-Peptidic ?-Helix Mimetics

    PubMed Central

    Lanning, Maryanna E.; Fletcher, Steven

    2015-01-01

    ?-Helices often recognize their target proteins at protein–protein interfaces through more than one recognition face. This review describes the state-of-the-art in the design of non-peptidic ?-helix mimetics that reproduce functionality from multiple faces of an ?-helix. PMID:26404384

  6. Comets Kick up Dust in Helix Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    This infrared image from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope shows the Helix nebula, a cosmic starlet often photographed by amateur astronomers for its vivid colors and eerie resemblance to a giant eye.

    The nebula, located about 700 light-years away in the constellation Aquarius, belongs to a class of objects called planetary nebulae. Discovered in the 18th century, these colorful beauties were named for their resemblance to gas-giant planets like Jupiter.

    Planetary nebulae are the remains of stars that once looked a lot like our sun. When sun-like stars die, they puff out their outer gaseous layers. These layers are heated by the hot core of the dead star, called a white dwarf, and shine with infrared and visible colors. Our own sun will blossom into a planetary nebula when it dies in about five billion years.

    In Spitzer's infrared view of the Helix nebula, the eye looks more like that of a green monster's. Infrared light from the outer gaseous layers is represented in blues and greens. The white dwarf is visible as a tiny white dot in the center of the picture. The red color in the middle of the eye denotes the final layers of gas blown out when the star died.

    The brighter red circle in the very center is the glow of a dusty disk circling the white dwarf (the disk itself is too small to be resolved). This dust, discovered by Spitzer's infrared heat-seeking vision, was most likely kicked up by comets that survived the death of their star. Before the star died, its comets and possibly planets would have orbited the star in an orderly fashion. But when the star blew off its outer layers, the icy bodies and outer planets would have been tossed about and into each other, resulting in an ongoing cosmic dust storm. Any inner planets in the system would have burned up or been swallowed as their dying star expanded.

    So far, the Helix nebula is one of only a few dead-star systems in which evidence for comet survivors has been found.

    This image is made up of data from Spitzer's infrared array camera and multiband imaging photometer. Blue shows infrared light of 3.6 to 4.5 microns; green shows infrared light of 5.8 to 8 microns; and red shows infrared light of 24 microns.

  7. Target genes for OBP3, a Dof transcription factor, include novel basic helix-loop-helix domain proteins inducible by

    E-print Network

    Lin, Chentao

    proteins inducible by salicylic acid Hong-Gu Kang1,y,z , Rhonda C. Foley2,z , Luis OnÄ ate-SaÂnchez2 contributed equally to the paper. Summary Overexpression of a salicylic-acid (SA)-inducible Arabidopsis DNA helix-loop-helix, salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, AtDof3.6. Introduction Although there is considerable

  8. Atomic resolution structure of the E. coli YajR transporter YAM domain.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Daohua; Zhao, Yan; Fan, Junping; Liu, Xuehui; Wu, Yan; Feng, Wei; Zhang, Xuejun C

    2014-07-25

    YajR is an Escherichia coli transporter that belongs to the major facilitator superfamily. Unlike most MFS transporters, YajR contains a carboxyl terminal, cytosolic domain of 67 amino acid residues termed YAM domain. Although it is speculated that the function of this small soluble domain is to regulate the conformational change of the 12-helix transmembrane domain, its precise regulatory role remains unclear. Here, we report the crystal structure of the YAM domain at 1.07-Å resolution, along with its structure determined using nuclear magnetic resonance. Detailed analysis of the high resolution structure revealed a symmetrical dimer in which a belt of well-ordered poly-pentagonal water molecules is embedded. A mutagenesis experiment and a thermal stability assay were used to analyze the putative role of this dimerization in response to changes in halogen concentration. PMID:24952155

  9. Probing the Dynamics of the P1 Helix within the Tetrahymena Group I Intron

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Xuesong; Mollova, Emilia T.; Pljevalj?i?, Goran; Millar, David P.; Herschlag, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    RNA conformational transformations are integral to RNA's biological functions. Further, structured RNA molecules exist as a series of dynamic intermediates in the course of folding or complexation with proteins. Thus, an understanding of RNA folding and function will require deep and incisive understanding of its dynamic behavior. However, existing tools to investigate RNA dynamics are limited. Here we introduce a powerful fluorescence polarization anisotropy approach that utilizes a rare base analog that retains substantial fluorescence when incorporated into helices. We show that 6-methylisoxanthopterin (6-MI) can be used to follow the nanosecond dynamics of individual helices. We then use 6-MI to probe the dynamics of an individual helix, referred to as P1, within the 400nt Tetrahymena group I ribozyme. Comparisons of the dynamics of the P1 helix in wild type and mutant ribozymes and in model constructs reveal a highly immobilized docked state of the P1 helix, as expected, and a relatively mobile ‘open complex’ or undocked state. This latter result rules out a model in which slow docking of the P1 helix into its cognate tertiary interactions arises from a stable alternatively docked conformer. The results are consistent with a model in which stacking and tertiary interactions of the A3 tether connecting the P1 helix to the body of the ribozyme limit P1 mobility and slow its docking, and this model is supported by cross-linking results. The ability to isolate the nanosecond motions of individual helices within complex RNAs and RNA/protein complexes will be valuable in distinguishing between functional models and in discerning the fundamental behavior of important biological species. PMID:19537712

  10. Hexa Helix: Modified Quad Helix Appliance to Correct Anterior and Posterior Crossbites in Mixed Dentition

    PubMed Central

    Yaseen, Syed Mohammed; Acharya, Ravindranath

    2012-01-01

    Among the commonly encountered dental irregularities which constitute developing malocclusion is the crossbite. During primary and mixed dentition phase, the crossbite is seen very often and if left untreated during these phases then a simple problem may be transformed into a more complex problem. Different techniques have been used to correct anterior and posterior crossbites in mixed dentition. This case report describes the use of hexa helix, a modified version of quad helix for the management of anterior crossbite and bilateral posterior crossbite in early mixed dentition. Correction was achieved within 15 weeks with no damage to the tooth or the marginal periodontal tissue. The procedure is a simple and effective method for treating anterior and bilateral posterior crossbites simultaneously. PMID:23119188

  11. E Proteins and ID Proteins: Helix-Loop-Helix Partners in Development and Disease.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lan-Hsin; Baker, Nicholas E

    2015-11-01

    The basic Helix-Loop-Helix (bHLH) proteins represent a well-known class of transcriptional regulators. Many bHLH proteins act as heterodimers with members of a class of ubiquitous partners, the E proteins. A widely expressed class of inhibitory heterodimer partners-the Inhibitor of DNA-binding (ID) proteins-also exists. Genetic and molecular analyses in humans and in knockout mice implicate E proteins and ID proteins in a wide variety of diseases, belying the notion that they are non-specific partner proteins. Here, we explore relationships of E proteins and ID proteins to a variety of disease processes and highlight gaps in knowledge of disease mechanisms. PMID:26555048

  12. Investigating the interaction between peptides of the amphipathic helix of Hcf106 and the phospholipid bilayer by solid-state NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Liu, Lishan; Maltsev, Sergey; Lorigan, Gary A; Dabney-Smith, Carole

    2014-01-01

    The chloroplast twin arginine translocation (cpTat) system transports highly folded precursor proteins into the thylakoid lumen using the protonmotive force as its only energy source. Hcf106, as one of the core components of the cpTat system, is part of the precursor receptor complex and functions in the initial precursor-binding step. Hcf106 is predicted to contain a single amino terminal transmembrane domain followed by a Pro-Gly hinge, a predicted amphipathic ?-helix (APH), and a loosely structured carboxy terminus. Hcf106 has been shown biochemically to insert spontaneously into thylakoid membranes. To better understand the membrane active capabilities of Hcf106, we used solid-state NMR spectroscopy to investigate those properties of the APH. In this study, synthesized peptides of the predicted Hcf106 APH (amino acids 28-65) were incorporated at increasing mol.% into 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-phosphocholine (POPC) and POPC/MGDG (monogalactosyldiacylglycerol; mole ratio 85:15) multilamellar vesicles (MLVs) to probe the peptide-lipid interaction. Solid-state (31)P NMR and (2)H NMR spectroscopic experiments revealed that the peptide perturbs the headgroup and the acyl chain regions of phospholipids as indicated by changes in spectral lineshape, chemical shift anisotropy (CSA) line width, and (2)H order SCD parameters. In addition, the comparison between POPC MLVs and POPC/MGDG MLVs indicated that the lipid bilayer composition affected peptide perturbation of the lipids, and such perturbation appeared to be more intense in a system more closely mimicking a thylakoid membrane. PMID:24144541

  13. ZmZHOUPI, an endosperm-specific basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor involved in maize seed development.

    PubMed

    Grimault, Aurélie; Gendrot, Ghislaine; Chamot, Sophy; Widiez, Thomas; Rabillé, Hervé; Gérentes, Marie-France; Creff, Audrey; Thévenin, Johanne; Dubreucq, Bertrand; Ingram, Gwyneth C; Rogowsky, Peter M; Depège-Fargeix, Nathalie

    2015-11-01

    In angiosperm seeds the embryo is embedded within the endosperm, which is in turn enveloped by the seed coat, making inter-compartmental communication essential for coordinated seed growth. In this context the basic helix-loop-helix domain transcription factor AtZHOUPI (AtZOU) fulfils a key role in both the lysis of the transient endosperm and in embryo cuticle formation in Arabidopsis thaliana. In maize (Zea mays), a cereal with a persistent endosperm, a single gene, ZmZOU, falls into the same phylogenetic clade as AtZOU. Its expression is limited to the endosperm where it peaks during the filling stage. In ZmZOU-RNA interference knock-down lines embryo size is slightly reduced and the embryonic suspensor and the adjacent embryo surrounding region show retarded breakdown. Ectopic expression of ZmZOU reduces stomatal number, possibly due to inappropriate protein interactions. ZmZOU forms functional heterodimers with AtICE/AtSCREAM and the closely related maize proteins ZmICEb and ZmICEc, but its interaction is more efficient with the ZmICEa protein, which shows sequence divergence and only has close homologues in other monocotyledonous species. Consistent with the observation that these complexes can trans-activate target gene promoters from Arabidopsis, ZmZOU partially complements the Atzou-4 mutant. However, structural, trans-activation and gene expression data support the hypothesis that ZmZOU and ZmICEa may have coevolved to form a functional complex unique to monocot seeds. This divergence may explain the reduced functionality of ZmZOU in Arabidopsis, and reflect functional specificities which are unique to the monocotyledon lineage. PMID:26361885

  14. Topological Analysis of Hedgehog Acyltransferase, a Multipalmitoylated Transmembrane Protein*

    PubMed Central

    Konitsiotis, Antonio D.; Jovanovi?, Biljana; Ciepla, Paulina; Spitaler, Martin; Lanyon-Hogg, Thomas; Tate, Edward W.; Magee, Anthony I.

    2015-01-01

    Hedgehog proteins are secreted morphogens that play critical roles in development and disease. During maturation of the proteins through the secretory pathway, they are modified by the addition of N-terminal palmitic acid and C-terminal cholesterol moieties, both of which are critical for their correct function and localization. Hedgehog acyltransferase (HHAT) is the enzyme in the endoplasmic reticulum that palmitoylates Hedgehog proteins, is a member of a small subfamily of membrane-bound O-acyltransferase proteins that acylate secreted proteins, and is an important drug target in cancer. However, little is known about HHAT structure and mode of function. We show that HHAT is comprised of ten transmembrane domains and two reentrant loops with the critical His and Asp residues on opposite sides of the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. We further show that HHAT is palmitoylated on multiple cytosolic cysteines that maintain protein structure within the membrane. Finally, we provide evidence that mutation of the conserved His residue in the hypothesized catalytic domain results in a complete loss of HHAT palmitoylation, providing novel insights into how the protein may function in vivo. PMID:25505265

  15. Topological analysis of Hedgehog acyltransferase, a multipalmitoylated transmembrane protein.

    PubMed

    Konitsiotis, Antonio D; Jovanovi?, Biljana; Ciepla, Paulina; Spitaler, Martin; Lanyon-Hogg, Thomas; Tate, Edward W; Magee, Anthony I

    2015-02-01

    Hedgehog proteins are secreted morphogens that play critical roles in development and disease. During maturation of the proteins through the secretory pathway, they are modified by the addition of N-terminal palmitic acid and C-terminal cholesterol moieties, both of which are critical for their correct function and localization. Hedgehog acyltransferase (HHAT) is the enzyme in the endoplasmic reticulum that palmitoylates Hedgehog proteins, is a member of a small subfamily of membrane-bound O-acyltransferase proteins that acylate secreted proteins, and is an important drug target in cancer. However, little is known about HHAT structure and mode of function. We show that HHAT is comprised of ten transmembrane domains and two reentrant loops with the critical His and Asp residues on opposite sides of the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. We further show that HHAT is palmitoylated on multiple cytosolic cysteines that maintain protein structure within the membrane. Finally, we provide evidence that mutation of the conserved His residue in the hypothesized catalytic domain results in a complete loss of HHAT palmitoylation, providing novel insights into how the protein may function in vivo. PMID:25505265

  16. A Small-Molecule Photoactivatable Optical Sensor of Transmembrane Potential.

    PubMed

    Grenier, Vincent; Walker, Alison S; Miller, Evan W

    2015-09-01

    This paper discloses the design, synthesis, and imaging applications of the first member of a new class of SPOTs, small-molecule photoactivatable optical sensors of transmembrane potential. SPOT2.1.Cl features an established voltage-sensitive dye, VoltageFluor2.1.Cl--or VF--capped with a dimethoxy-o-nitrobenzyl (DMNB) caging group to effectively diminish fluorescence of the VF dye prior to uncaging. SPOT2.1.Cl localizes to cell membranes and displays weak fluorescence until photoactivated. Illumination generates the parent VF dye which then optically reports on changes in the membrane voltage. After photoactivation with spatially restricted light, SPOT2.1.Cl-loaded cells display bright, voltage-sensitive fluorescence associated with the plasma membrane, while neighboring cells remain dark. Activated SPOT reports on action potentials in single trials. SPOT can be activated in neuron cell bodies or uncaged in dendrites to enable structural tracing via "backfilling" of the dye to the soma, followed by functional imaging in the labeled cell. The combination of cellular specificity achieved through spatially defined patterns of illumination, coupled with the fast, sensitive, and noncapacitive voltage sensing characteristics of VF dyes makes SPOT2.1.Cl a useful tool for interrogating both structure and function of neuronal systems. PMID:26247778

  17. Structural basis for alcohol modulation of a pentameric ligand-gated ion channel.

    PubMed

    Howard, Rebecca J; Murail, Samuel; Ondricek, Kathryn E; Corringer, Pierre-Jean; Lindahl, Erik; Trudell, James R; Harris, R Adron

    2011-07-19

    Despite its long history of use and abuse in human culture, the molecular basis for alcohol action in the brain is poorly understood. The recent determination of the atomic-scale structure of GLIC, a prokaryotic member of the pentameric ligand-gated ion channel (pLGIC) family, provides a unique opportunity to characterize the structural basis for modulation of these channels, many of which are alcohol targets in brain. We observed that GLIC recapitulates bimodal modulation by n-alcohols, similar to some eukaryotic pLGICs: methanol and ethanol weakly potentiated proton-activated currents in GLIC, whereas n-alcohols larger than ethanol inhibited them. Mapping of residues important to alcohol modulation of ionotropic receptors for glycine, ?-aminobutyric acid, and acetylcholine onto GLIC revealed their proximity to transmembrane cavities that may accommodate one or more alcohol molecules. Site-directed mutations in the pore-lining M2 helix allowed the identification of four residues that influence alcohol potentiation, with the direction of their effects reflecting ?-helical structure. At one of the potentiation-enhancing residues, decreased side chain volume converted GLIC into a highly ethanol-sensitive channel, comparable to its eukaryotic relatives. Covalent labeling of M2 positions with an alcohol analog, a methanethiosulfonate reagent, further implicated residues at the extracellular end of the helix in alcohol binding. Molecular dynamics simulations elucidated the structural consequences of a potentiation-enhancing mutation and suggested a structural mechanism for alcohol potentiation via interaction with a transmembrane cavity previously termed the "linking tunnel." These results provide a unique structural model for independent potentiating and inhibitory interactions of n-alcohols with a pLGIC family member. PMID:21730162

  18. Determining the N-terminal orientations of recombinant transmembrane proteins in the Escherichia coli plasma membrane

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chien-Hsien; Chou, Chia-Cheng; Hsu, Min-Feng; Wang, Andrew H.-J.

    2015-01-01

    In silico algorithms have been the common approach for transmembrane (TM) protein topology prediction. However, computational tools may produce questionable results and experimental validation has proven difficult. Although biochemical strategies are available to determine the C-terminal orientation of TM proteins, experimental strategies to determine the N-terminal orientation are still limited but needed because the N-terminal end is essential for membrane targeting. Here, we describe a new and easy method to effectively determine the N-terminal orientation of the target TM proteins in Escherichia coli plasma membrane environment. D94N, the mutant of bacteriorhodopsin from Haloarcula marismortui, can be a fusion partner to increase the production of the target TM proteins if their N-termini are in cytoplasm (Nin orientation). To create a suitable linker for orientating the target TM proteins with the periplasmic N-termini (Nout orientation) correctly, we designed a three-TM-helix linker fused at the C-terminus of D94N fusion partner (termed D94N-3TM) and found that D94N-3TM can specifically improve the production of the Nout target TM proteins. In conclusion, D94N and D94N-3TM fusion partners can be applied to determine the N-terminal end of the target TM proteins oriented either Nin or Nout by evaluating the net expression of the fusion proteins. PMID:26462555

  19. Isoflurane alters the structure and dynamics of GLIC.

    PubMed

    Willenbring, Dan; Liu, Lu Tian; Mowrey, David; Xu, Yan; Tang, Pei

    2011-10-19

    Pentameric ligand-gated ion channels are targets of general anesthetics. Although the search for discrete anesthetic binding sites has achieved some degree of success, little is known regarding how anesthetics work after the events of binding. Using the crystal structures of the bacterial Gloeobacter violaceus pentameric ligand-gated ion channel (GLIC), which is sensitive to a variety of general anesthetics, we performed multiple molecular dynamics simulations in the presence and absence of the general anesthetic isoflurane. Isoflurane bound to several locations within GLIC, including the transmembrane pocket identified crystallographically, the extracellular (EC) domain, and the interface of the EC and transmembrane domains. Isoflurane also entered the channel after the pore was dehydrated in one of the simulations. Isoflurane disrupted the quaternary structure of GLIC, as evidenced in a striking association between the binding and breakage of intersubunit salt bridges in the EC domain. The pore-lining helix experienced lateral and inward radial tilting motion that contributed to the channel closure. Isoflurane binding introduced strong anticorrelated motions between different subunits of GLIC. The demonstrated structural and dynamical modulations by isoflurane aid in the understanding of the underlying mechanism of anesthetic inhibition of GLIC and possibly other homologous pentameric ligand-gated ion channels. PMID:22004744

  20. Isoflurane Alters the Structure and Dynamics of GLIC

    PubMed Central

    Willenbring, Dan; Liu, Lu Tian; Mowrey, David; Xu, Yan; Tang, Pei

    2011-01-01

    Pentameric ligand-gated ion channels are targets of general anesthetics. Although the search for discrete anesthetic binding sites has achieved some degree of success, little is known regarding how anesthetics work after the events of binding. Using the crystal structures of the bacterial Gloeobacter violaceus pentameric ligand-gated ion channel (GLIC), which is sensitive to a variety of general anesthetics, we performed multiple molecular dynamics simulations in the presence and absence of the general anesthetic isoflurane. Isoflurane bound to several locations within GLIC, including the transmembrane pocket identified crystallographically, the extracellular (EC) domain, and the interface of the EC and transmembrane domains. Isoflurane also entered the channel after the pore was dehydrated in one of the simulations. Isoflurane disrupted the quaternary structure of GLIC, as evidenced in a striking association between the binding and breakage of intersubunit salt bridges in the EC domain. The pore-lining helix experienced lateral and inward radial tilting motion that contributed to the channel closure. Isoflurane binding introduced strong anticorrelated motions between different subunits of GLIC. The demonstrated structural and dynamical modulations by isoflurane aid in the understanding of the underlying mechanism of anesthetic inhibition of GLIC and possibly other homologous pentameric ligand-gated ion channels. PMID:22004744

  1. Structural models of the MscL gating mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sukharev, S.; Durell, S. R.; Guy, H. R.

    2001-01-01

    Three-dimensional structural models of the mechanosensitive channel of large conductance, MscL, from the bacteria Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Escherichia coli were developed for closed, intermediate, and open conformations. The modeling began with the crystal structure of M. tuberculosis MscL, a homopentamer with two transmembrane alpha-helices, M1 and M2, per subunit. The first 12 N-terminal residues, not resolved in the crystal structure, were modeled as an amphipathic alpha-helix, called S1. A bundle of five parallel S1 helices are postulated to form a cytoplasmic gate. As membrane tension induces expansion, the tilts of M1 and M2 are postulated to increase as they move away from the axis of the pore. Substantial expansion is postulated to occur before the increased stress in the S1 to M1 linkers pulls the S1 bundle apart. During the opening transition, the S1 helices and C-terminus amphipathic alpha-helices, S3, are postulated to dock parallel to the membrane surface on the perimeter of the complex. The proposed gating mechanism reveals critical spatial relationships between the expandable transmembrane barrel formed by M1 and M2, the gate formed by S1 helices, and "strings" that link S1s to M1s. These models are consistent with numerous experimental results and modeling criteria.

  2. Molecular mechanisms of intercellular communication: transmembrane signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Bitensky, M.W.; George, J.S.; Siegel, H.N.; McGregor, D.M.

    1982-01-01

    This short discussion of transmembrane signaling depicts a particular class of signaling devices whose functional characteristics may well be representative of broader classes of membrane switches. These multicomponent aggregates are characterized by tight organization of interacting components which function by conformational interactions to provide sensitive, amplified, rapid, and modulated responses. It is clear that the essential role of such switches in cell-cell interactions necessitated their appearance early in the history of the development of multicellular organisms. It also seems clear that once such devices made their appearance, the conformationally interactive moieties were firmly locked into a regulatory relationship. Since modification of interacting components could perturb or interfere with the functional integrity of the whole switch, genetic drift was only permitted at the input and outflow extremes. However, the GTP binding moiety and its interacting protein domains on contiguous portions of the receptor and readout components were highly conserved. The observed stringent evolutionary conservation of the molecular features of these membrane switches thus applies primarily to the central (GTP binding) elements. An extraordinary degree of variation was permitted within the domains of signal recognition and enzymatic output. Thus, time and evolution have adapted the central logic of the regulatory algorithm to serve a great variety of cellular purposes and to recognize a great variety of chemical and physical signals. This is exemplified by the richness of the hormonal and cellular dialogues found in primates such as man. Here the wealth of intercellular communiation can support the composition and performance of symphonies and the study of cellular immunology.

  3. What the structure of a calcium pump tells us about its mechanism.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, A G; East, J M

    2001-01-01

    The report of the crystal structure of the Ca(2+)-ATPase of skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum in its Ca(2+)-bound form [Toyoshima, Nakasako and Ogawa (2000) Nature (London) 405, 647-655] provides an opportunity to interpret much kinetic and mutagenic data on the ATPase in structural terms. There are no large channels leading from the cytoplasmic surface to the pair of high-affinity Ca(2+) binding sites within the transmembrane region. One possible access pathway involves the charged residues in transmembrane alpha-helix M1, with a Ca(2+) ion passing through the first site to reach the second site. The Ca(2+)-ATPase also contains a pair of binding sites for Ca(2+) that are exposed to the lumen. In the four-site model for transport, phosphorylation of the ATPase leads to transfer of the two bound Ca(2+) ions from the cytoplasmic to the lumenal pair of sites. In the alternating four-site model for transport, phosphorylation leads to release of the bound Ca(2+) ions directly from the cytoplasmic pair of sites, linked to closure of the pair of lumenal binding sites. The lumenal pair of sites could involve a cluster of conserved acidic residues in the loop between M1 and M2. Since there is no obvious pathway from the high-affinity sites to the lumenal surface of the membrane, transport of Ca(2+) ions must involve a significant change in the packing of the transmembrane alpha-helices. The link between the phosphorylation domain and the pair of high-affinity Ca(2+) binding sites is probably provided by two small helices, P1 and P2, in the phosphorylation domain, which contact the loop between transmembrane alpha-helices M6 and M7. PMID:11389676

  4. Discovery of a transiently separable high-speed response component in cholesteric liquid crystals with a uniform lying helix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Yo; Moritake, Hiroshi

    2015-06-01

    We report a novel high-speed response component observed in the transient state in cholesteric liquid crystals (ChLCs) with a uniform lying helix (ULH). When an electric field is applied normal to the helix axis, two well-known physical phenomena are induced: (i) the flexo-electric effect and (ii) the elongation of the helical structure. In this study, we show that the latter effect can be additionally separated into two different components with fast and slow response times, which reorient the LC director along the electric field without and with the helical pitch elongation, respectively.

  5. Guanidinoneomycin B Recognition of an HIV-1 RNA Helix

    PubMed Central

    Staple, David W.; Venditti, Vincenzo; Niccolai, Neri; Elson-Schwab, Lev; Tor, Yitzhak; Butcher, Samuel E.

    2009-01-01

    Aminoglycoside antibiotics are small-molecule drugs that bind RNA. The affinity and specificity of aminoglycoside binding to RNA can be increased through chemical modification, such as guanidinylation. Here, we report the binding of guanidinoneomycin B (GNB) to an RNA helix from the HIV-1 frameshift site. The binding of GNB increases the melting temperature (Tm) of the frameshift-site RNA by at least 10°8C, to a point at which a melting transition is not even observed in 2m urea. A structure of the complex was obtained by using multidimensional heteronuclear NMR spectroscopic methods. We also used a novel paramagnetic-probe assay to identify the site of GNB binding to the surface of the RNA. GNB makes major-groove contacts to two sets of Watson–Crick bases and is in van der Waals contact with a highly structured ACAA tetraloop. Rings I and II of GNB fit into the major groove and form the binding interface with the RNA, whereas rings III and IV are exposed to the solvent and disordered. The binding of GNB causes a broadening of the major groove across the binding site. PMID:18058789

  6. Structure of Concatenated HAMP Domains Provides a Mechanism for Signal Transduction

    SciTech Connect

    Airola, Michael V.; Watts, Kylie J.; Bilwes, Alexandrine M.; Crane, Brian R.

    2010-08-23

    HAMP domains are widespread prokaryotic signaling modules found as single domains or poly-HAMP chains in both transmembrane and soluble proteins. The crystal structure of a three-unit poly-HAMP chain from the Pseudomonas aeruginosa soluble receptor Aer2 defines a universal parallel four-helix bundle architecture for diverse HAMP domains. Two contiguous domains integrate to form a concatenated di-HAMP structure. The three HAMP domains display two distinct conformations that differ by changes in helical register, crossing angle, and rotation. These conformations are stabilized by different subsets of conserved residues. Known signals delivered to HAMP would be expected to switch the relative stability of the two conformations and the position of a coiled-coil phase stutter at the junction with downstream helices. We propose that the two conformations represent opposing HAMP signaling states and suggest a signaling mechanism whereby HAMP domains interconvert between the two states, which alternate down a poly-HAMP chain.

  7. A gatekeeper helix determines the substrate specificity of Sjögren–Larsson Syndrome enzyme fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase

    PubMed Central

    Keller, Markus A.; Zander, Ulrich; Fuchs, Julian E.; Kreutz, Christoph; Watschinger, Katrin; Mueller, Thomas; Golderer, Georg; Liedl, Klaus R.; Ralser, Markus; Kräutler, Bernhard; Werner, Ernst R.; Marquez, Jose A.

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in the gene coding for membrane-bound fatty aldehyde dehydrogenase (FALDH) lead to toxic accumulation of lipid species and development of the Sjögren–Larsson Syndrome (SLS), a rare disorder characterized by skin defects and mental retardation. Here, we present the crystallographic structure of human FALDH, the first model of a membrane-associated aldehyde dehydrogenase. The dimeric FALDH displays a previously unrecognized element in its C-terminal region, a ‘gatekeeper’ helix, which extends over the adjacent subunit, controlling the access to the substrate cavity and helping orientate both substrate cavities towards the membrane surface for efficient substrate transit between membranes and catalytic site. Activity assays demonstrate that the gatekeeper helix is important for directing the substrate specificity of FALDH towards long-chain fatty aldehydes. The gatekeeper feature is conserved across membrane-associated aldehyde dehydrogenases. Finally, we provide insight into the previously elusive molecular basis of SLS-causing mutations. PMID:25047030

  8. A two length scale polymer theory for RNA loop free energies and helix stacking Daniel P. Aalberts and Nagarajan Nandagopal

    E-print Network

    Aalberts, Daniel P.

    A two length scale polymer theory for RNA loop free energies and helix stacking Daniel P. Aalberts). The reliability of RNA secondary structure predictions is subject to the accuracy of the underly- ing free energy formulation of loop free energies, particularly for multibranch loops. RNA loops contain single

  9. Importance of the C-Terminal Helix to the Stability and Enzymatic Activity of Escherichia coli Ribonuclease H

    E-print Network

    Raschke, Tanya M.

    Importance of the C-Terminal Helix to the Stability and Enzymatic Activity of Escherichia coli Escherichia coli is the best-characterized member of the family and serves as a model for structure stable than the E. coli homolog. The HIV domain also shows increased disorder in its C-terminal regions

  10. Insights into Peptoid Helix Folding Cooperativity from an Improved Backbone Potential.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Sudipto; Zhou, Guangfeng; Michel, Chris; Voelz, Vincent A

    2015-12-17

    Peptoids (N-substituted oligoglycines) are biomimetic polymers that can fold into a variety of unique structural scaffolds. Peptoid helices, which result from the incorporation of bulky chiral side chains, are a key peptoid structural motif whose formation has not yet been accurately modeled in molecular simulations. Here, we report that a simple modification of the backbone ?-angle potential in GAFF is able to produce well-folded cis-amide helices of (S)-N-(1-phenylethyl)glycine (Nspe), consistent with experiment. We validate our results against both QM calculations and NMR experiments. For this latter task, we make quantitative comparisons to sparse NOE data using the Bayesian Inference of Conformational Populations (BICePs) algorithm, a method we have recently developed for this purpose. We then performed extensive REMD simulations of Nspe oligomers as a function of chain length and temperature to probe the molecular forces driving cooperative helix formation. Analysis of simulation data by Lifson-Roig helix-coil theory show that the modified potential predicts much more cooperative folding for Nspe helices. Unlike peptides, per-residue entropy changes for helix nucleation and extension are mostly positive, suggesting that steric bulk provides the main driving force for folding. We expect these results to inform future work aimed at predicting and designing peptoid peptidomimetics and tertiary assemblies of peptoid helices. PMID:26584227

  11. Concentration-Temperature Superposition of Helix Folding Rates in Gelatin

    E-print Network

    J. L. Gornall; E. M. Terentjev

    2006-03-05

    We study the kinetics of helix-coil transition in water solutions of gelatin (collagen protein) by optical rotation techniques combined with thermal characterization. By examining the rates of secondary helix folding, and covering a very wide range of solution concentrations, we are able to identify a universal exponential dependence of folding rate on concentration and quench temperature. We demonstrate a new concentration-temperature superposition of data at all temperatures and concentrations, and build the corresponding master curve. The results support the concept of a diffuse helix-coil transition. We find no concentration dependance of the normalized rate constant, suggesting first order (single) kinetics of secondary helix folding dominate in the early stages of renaturation.

  12. Effects of radiation on DNA's double helix

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The blueprint of life, DNA's double helix is found in the cells of everything from bacteria to astronauts. Exposure to radiation(depicted at right) such as X-rays (upper) or heavy ion particles (lower), can damage DNA and cause dire consequences both to the organism itself and to future generations. One of NASA's main goals is to develop better radiation shielding materials to protect astronauts from destructive radiation in space. This is particularly important for long space missions. NASA has selected researchers to study materials that provide better shielding. This research is managed by NASA's Office of Biological and Physical Research and is supported by the Microgravity Science and Applications Department at NASA's Marshall Center. During International Space Station Expedition Six, the Extravehicular Activity Radiation Monitoring (EVARM) will continue to measure radiation dosage encountered by the eyes, internal organs and skin during specific spacewalks, and relate it to the type of activity, location and other factors. An analysis of this information may be useful in mitigating potential exposure to space walkers in the future. (Illustration by Dr. Frank Cucinotta, NASA/Johnson Space Center, and Prem Saganti, Lockheed Martin)

  13. Atomic force microscopy study of surface topography of films of cholesteric oligomer- and polymer-based mixtures with photovariable helix pitch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobrovsky, Alexey; Sinitsyna, Olga; Abramchuk, Sergei; Yaminsky, Igor; Shibaev, Valery

    2013-01-01

    The surface topography of glass-forming polymers and oligomer cholesteric systems with a phototunable helix pitch was studied. For this purpose several mixtures based on nematic polyacrylate and cholesteric cyclosiloxanes doped with chiral-photochromic dopant were prepared and investigated. The molecules of chiral-photochromic dopant consist of isosorbide chiral moiety and cinnamic C=C double bonds capable of E-Z photoisomerizing. UV irradiation of the planarly oriented films of mixtures leads to dopant photoisomerization and changes of its helical twisting power. During this process irreversible changes of helix pitch values take place, which allows one to obtain the same cholesteric systems with different helix pitch values. The films of the annealed mixtures were studied by atomic force microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The correlations between the features of surface topography and helix pitch of cholesteric supramolecular structure were found and discussed.

  14. Structure of a eukaryotic SWEET transporter in a homotrimeric complex.

    PubMed

    Tao, Yuyong; Cheung, Lily S; Li, Shuo; Eom, Joon-Seob; Chen, Li-Qing; Xu, Yan; Perry, Kay; Frommer, Wolf B; Feng, Liang

    2015-11-12

    Eukaryotes rely on efficient distribution of energy and carbon skeletons between organs in the form of sugars. Glucose in animals and sucrose in plants serve as the dominant distribution forms. Cellular sugar uptake and release require vesicular and/or plasma membrane transport proteins. Humans and plants use proteins from three superfamilies for sugar translocation: the major facilitator superfamily (MFS), the sodium solute symporter family (SSF; only in the animal kingdom), and SWEETs. SWEETs carry mono- and disaccharides across vacuolar or plasma membranes. Plant SWEETs play key roles in sugar translocation between compartments, cells, and organs, notably in nectar secretion, phloem loading for long distance translocation, pollen nutrition, and seed filling. Plant SWEETs cause pathogen susceptibility possibly by sugar leakage from infected cells. The vacuolar Arabidopsis thaliana AtSWEET2 sequesters sugars in root vacuoles; loss-of-function mutants show increased susceptibility to Pythium infection. Here we show that its orthologue, the vacuolar glucose transporter OsSWEET2b from rice (Oryza sativa), consists of an asymmetrical pair of triple-helix bundles, connected by an inversion linker transmembrane helix (TM4) to create the translocation pathway. Structural and biochemical analyses show OsSWEET2b in an apparent inward (cytosolic) open state forming homomeric trimers. TM4 tightly interacts with the first triple-helix bundle within a protomer and mediates key contacts among protomers. Structure-guided mutagenesis of the close paralogue SWEET1 from Arabidopsis identified key residues in substrate translocation and protomer crosstalk. Insights into the structure-function relationship of SWEETs are valuable for understanding the transport mechanism of eukaryotic SWEETs and may be useful for engineering sugar flux. PMID:26479032

  15. Substrate-induced changes in the structural properties of LacY

    PubMed Central

    Serdiuk, Tetiana; Madej, M. Gregor; Sugihara, Junichi; Kawamura, Shiho; Mari, Stefania A.; Kaback, H. Ronald; Müller, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    The lactose permease (LacY) of Escherichia coli, a paradigm for the major facilitator superfamily, catalyzes the coupled stoichiometric translocation of a galactopyranoside and an H+ across the cytoplasmic membrane. To catalyze transport, LacY undergoes large conformational changes that allow alternating access of sugar- and H+-binding sites to either side of the membrane. Despite strong evidence for an alternating access mechanism, it remains unclear how H+- and sugar-binding trigger the cascade of interactions leading to alternating conformational states. Here we used dynamic single-molecule force spectroscopy to investigate how substrate binding induces this phenomenon. Galactoside binding strongly modifies kinetic, energetic, and mechanical properties of the N-terminal 6-helix bundle of LacY, whereas the C-terminal 6-helix bundle remains largely unaffected. Within the N-terminal 6-helix bundle, the properties of helix V, which contains residues critical for sugar binding, change most radically. Particularly, secondary structures forming the N-terminal domain exhibit mechanically brittle properties in the unbound state, but highly flexible conformations in the substrate-bound state with significantly increased lifetimes and energetic stability. Thus, sugar binding tunes the properties of the N-terminal domain to initiate galactoside/H+ symport. In contrast to wild-type LacY, the properties of the conformationally restricted mutant Cys154?Gly do not change upon sugar binding. It is also observed that the single mutation of Cys154?Gly alters intramolecular interactions so that individual transmembrane helices manifest different properties. The results support a working model of LacY in which substrate binding induces alternating conformational states and provides insight into their specific kinetic, energetic, and mechanical properties. PMID:24711390

  16. Nucleotide-dependent displacement and dynamics of the ?-1 helix in kinesin revealed by site-directed spin labeling EPR

    SciTech Connect

    Yasuda, Satoshi; Yanagi, Takanori; Yamada, Masafumi D.; Ueki, Shoji; Maruta, Shinsaku; Inoue, Akio; Arata, Toshiaki

    2014-01-17

    Highlights: •Dipolar EPR detects the distance between the spin-labeled kinesin ?-1 and ?-2 helices. •The distance has at least two populations: 1.5 nm (in crystal form: 20%) and >2.5 nm. •The short distance conformer was populated 40% in the apo state with microtubules. •ATP analog or ADP binding caused the 1.5 nm distance to be less populated (?20%). •The ?-1 helix moves closer to the neck-linker (away from ?-2) to facilitate docking. -- Abstract: In kinesin X-ray crystal structures, the N-terminal region of the ?-1 helix is adjacent to the adenine ring of the bound nucleotide, while the C-terminal region of the helix is near the neck-linker (NL). Here, we monitor the displacement of the ?-1 helix within a kinesin monomer bound to microtubules (MTs) in the presence or absence of nucleotides using site-directed spin labeling EPR. Kinesin was doubly spin-labeled at the ?-1 and ?-2 helices, and the resulting EPR spectrum showed dipolar broadening. The inter-helix distance distribution showed that 20% of the spins have a peak characteristic of 1.4–1.7 nm separation, which is similar to what is predicted from the X-ray crystal structure, albeit 80% were beyond the sensitivity limit (>2.5 nm) of the method. Upon MT binding, the fraction of kinesin exhibiting an inter-helix distance of 1.4–1.7 nm in the presence of AMPPNP (a non-hydrolysable ATP analog) and ADP was 20% and 25%, respectively. In the absence of nucleotide, this fraction increased to 40–50%. These nucleotide-induced changes in the fraction of kinesin undergoing displacement of the ?-1 helix were found to be related to the fraction in which the NL undocked from the motor core. It is therefore suggested that a shift in the ?-1 helix conformational equilibrium occurs upon nucleotide binding and release, and this shift controls NL docking onto the motor core.

  17. The basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, Mist1, induces maturation of mouse fetal hepatoblasts

    PubMed Central

    Chikada, Hiromi; Ito, Keiichi; Yanagida, Ayaka; Nakauchi, Hiromitsu; Kamiya, Akihide

    2015-01-01

    Hepatic stem/progenitor cells, hepatoblasts, have a high proliferative ability and can differentiate into mature hepatocytes and cholangiocytes. Therefore, these cells are considered to be useful for regenerative medicine and drug screening for liver diseases. However, it is problem that in vitro maturation of hepatoblasts is insufficient in the present culture system. In this study, a novel regulator to induce hepatic differentiation was identified and the molecular function of this factor was examined in embryonic day 13 hepatoblast culture with maturation factor, oncostatin M and extracellular matrices. Overexpression of the basic helix-loop-helix type transcription factor, Mist1, induced expression of mature hepatocytic markers such as carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase1 and several cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes in this culture system. In contrast, Mist1 suppressed expression of cholangiocytic markers such as Sox9, Sox17, Ck19, and Grhl2. CYP3A metabolic activity was significantly induced by Mist1 in this hepatoblast culture. In addition, Mist1 induced liver-enriched transcription factors, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein ? and Hepatocyte nuclear factor 1?, which are known to be involved in liver functions. These results suggest that Mist1 partially induces mature hepatocytic expression and function accompanied by the down-regulation of cholangiocytic markers. PMID:26456005

  18. The basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, Mist1, induces maturation of mouse fetal hepatoblasts.

    PubMed

    Chikada, Hiromi; Ito, Keiichi; Yanagida, Ayaka; Nakauchi, Hiromitsu; Kamiya, Akihide

    2015-01-01

    Hepatic stem/progenitor cells, hepatoblasts, have a high proliferative ability and can differentiate into mature hepatocytes and cholangiocytes. Therefore, these cells are considered to be useful for regenerative medicine and drug screening for liver diseases. However, it is problem that in vitro maturation of hepatoblasts is insufficient in the present culture system. In this study, a novel regulator to induce hepatic differentiation was identified and the molecular function of this factor was examined in embryonic day 13 hepatoblast culture with maturation factor, oncostatin M and extracellular matrices. Overexpression of the basic helix-loop-helix type transcription factor, Mist1, induced expression of mature hepatocytic markers such as carbamoyl-phosphate synthetase1 and several cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes in this culture system. In contrast, Mist1 suppressed expression of cholangiocytic markers such as Sox9, Sox17, Ck19, and Grhl2. CYP3A metabolic activity was significantly induced by Mist1 in this hepatoblast culture. In addition, Mist1 induced liver-enriched transcription factors, CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein ? and Hepatocyte nuclear factor 1?, which are known to be involved in liver functions. These results suggest that Mist1 partially induces mature hepatocytic expression and function accompanied by the down-regulation of cholangiocytic markers. PMID:26456005

  19. Structural model of the open–closed–inactivated cycle of prokaryotic voltage-gated sodium channels

    PubMed Central

    Bagnéris, Claire; Naylor, Claire E.; McCusker, Emily C.

    2015-01-01

    In excitable cells, the initiation of the action potential results from the opening of voltage-gated sodium channels. These channels undergo a series of conformational changes between open, closed, and inactivated states. Many models have been proposed for the structural transitions that result in these different functional states. Here, we compare the crystal structures of prokaryotic sodium channels captured in the different conformational forms and use them as the basis for examining molecular models for the activation, slow inactivation, and recovery processes. We compare structural similarities and differences in the pore domains, specifically in the transmembrane helices, the constrictions within the pore cavity, the activation gate at the cytoplasmic end of the last transmembrane helix, the C-terminal domain, and the selectivity filter. We discuss the observed differences in the context of previous models for opening, closing, and inactivation, and present a new structure-based model for the functional transitions. Our proposed prokaryotic channel activation mechanism is then compared with the activation transition in eukaryotic sodium channels. PMID:25512599

  20. A functional-phylogenetic classification system for transmembrane solute transporters.

    PubMed

    Saier, M H

    2000-06-01

    A comprehensive classification system for transmembrane molecular transporters has been developed and recently approved by the transport panel of the nomenclature committee of the International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology. This system is based on (i) transporter class and subclass (mode of transport and energy coupling mechanism), (ii) protein phylogenetic family and subfamily, and (iii) substrate specificity. Almost all of the more than 250 identified families of transporters include members that function exclusively in transport. Channels (115 families), secondary active transporters (uniporters, symporters, and antiporters) (78 families), primary active transporters (23 families), group translocators (6 families), and transport proteins of ill-defined function or of unknown mechanism (51 families) constitute distinct categories. Transport mode and energy coupling prove to be relatively immutable characteristics and therefore provide primary bases for classification. Phylogenetic grouping reflects structure, function, mechanism, and often substrate specificity and therefore provides a reliable secondary basis for classification. Substrate specificity and polarity of transport prove to be more readily altered during evolutionary history and therefore provide a tertiary basis for classification. With very few exceptions, a phylogenetic family of transporters includes members that function by a single transport mode and energy coupling mechanism, although a variety of substrates may be transported, sometimes with either inwardly or outwardly directed polarity. In this review, I provide cross-referencing of well-characterized constituent transporters according to (i) transport mode, (ii) energy coupling mechanism, (iii) phylogenetic grouping, and (iv) substrates transported. The structural features and distribution of recognized family members throughout the living world are also evaluated. The tabulations should facilitate familial and functional assignments of newly sequenced transport proteins that will result from future genome sequencing projects. PMID:10839820

  1. COMPUTATIONAL METHODS FOR PREDICTING TRANSMEMBRANE ALPHA HELICES

    E-print Network

    : COMPUTATIONAL MOLECULAR BIOLOGY FINAL PROJECT DECEMBER 6TH , 2002 #12;Introduction: Protein crystal structures structure and there is even a program on the web called EVA at http://cubic.bioc.columbia.edu/eva

  2. New nucleic acid triple helix, Poly(AAU)

    SciTech Connect

    Broitman, S.L.; Im, D.D.; Fresco, J.R.

    1987-05-01

    A polynucleotide helical structure containing two strands of poly(A) and one of poly(U) has been discovered. The stoichiometry of the complex was determined by continuous variation titrations and isosbestic wavelength analysis. Thermal denaturation profiles were used to examine complex stability over a wide range of conditions. The complex forms only when the poly(A) strands are of molecular weight between 9000-50,000 Daltons (dp approx. 28-150), whereas the size of the poly(U) strand has no effect. This limitation may explain why poly(AAU) was not observed in previous investigations. The complex shows inverse dependence of stability on ionic strength, but is not favored by decreasing pH. This behavior, together with the intermediate poly(A) size requirement suggest that the conformational entropy of the poly(A) strands is a critical determinant of the stability of this complex. The potential of the poly(A) tails of mRNA for formation of this triple helix, and of AAU/T triplet formation to contribute to the binding of unique sequence RNA strands to gene-encoding nucleic acid double helices are noted.

  3. Nanoparticle biofabrication using English ivy (Hedera helix)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background English ivy (Hedera helix) is well known for its adhesive properties and climbing ability. Essential to its ability to adhere to vertical surfaces is the secretion of a nanocomposite adhesive containing spherical nanoparticles, 60–85 nm in diameter, produced exclusively by root hairs present on adventitious roots. These organic nanoparticles have shown promise in biomedical and cosmetic applications, and represent a safer alternative to metal oxide nanoparticles currently available. Results It was discovered that the maximum adventitious root production was achieved by a 4 h application of 1 mg/ml indole-3 butyric acid (IBA) to juvenile English ivy shoot segments cultured in custom vessels. After incubation of the shoots under continuous light at 83 ?mol/m2 s at 20°C for 2 weeks, the adventitious roots were harvested from the culture system and it was possible to isolate 90 mg of dry weight nanoparticles per 12 g of roots. The nanoparticle morphology was characterized by atomic force microscopy, and found to be similar to previous studies. Conclusions An enhanced system for the production of English ivy adventitious roots and their nanoparticles by modifying GA7 Magenta boxes and identifying the optimal concentration of IBA for adventitious root growth was developed. This system is the first such platform for growing and harvesting organic nanoparticles from plants, and represents an important step in the development of plant-based nanomanufacturing. It is a significant improvement on the exploitation of plant systems for the formation of metallic nanoparticles, and represents a pathway for the generation of bulk ivy nanoparticles for translation into biomedical applications. PMID:23095780

  4. Regulation of endogenous transmembrane receptors through optogenetic Cry2 clustering

    PubMed Central

    Bugaj, L. J.; Spelke, D. P.; Mesuda, C.K.; Varedi, M.; Kane, R.S.; Schaffer, D.V.

    2015-01-01

    Transmembrane receptors are the predominant conduit through which cells sense and transduce extracellular information into intracellular biochemical signals. Current methods to control and study receptor function, however, suffer from poor resolution in space and time and often employ receptor overexpression, which can introduce experimental artifacts. We report a genetically-encoded approach, termed Clustering Indirectly using Cryptochrome 2 (CLICR), for spatiotemporal control over endogenous transmembrane receptor activation, enabled through the optical regulation of target receptor clustering and downstream signaling using non-covalent interactions with engineered Arabidopsis Cryptochrome 2 (Cry2). CLICR offers a modular platform to enable photocontrol of the clustering of diverse transmembrane receptors including FGFR, PDGFR, and integrins in multiple cell types including neural stem cells. Furthermore, light-inducible manipulation of endogenous receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) activity can modulate cell polarity and establish phototaxis in fibroblasts. The resulting spatiotemporal control over cellular signaling represents a powerful new optogenetic framework for investigating and controlling cell function and fate. PMID:25902152

  5. Elucidation of the aggregation pathways of helix-turn-helix peptides: Stabilization at the turn region is critical for fibril formation

    PubMed Central

    Do, Thanh D.; Chamas, Ali; Zheng, Xueyun; Barnes, Aaron; Chang, Dayna; Veldstra, Tjitske; Takhar, Harmeet; Dressler, Nicolette; Trapp, Benjamin; Miller, Kylie; McMahon, Audrene; Meredith, Stephen C.; Shea, Joan-Emma; Cantrell, Kristi Lazar; Bowers, Michael T.

    2015-01-01

    Aggregation of proteins to fiber-like aggregates often involves a transformation of native monomers to ?-sheet-rich oligomers. This general observation underestimates the importance of ?-helical segments in the aggregation cascade. Here, using a combination of experimental techniques and accelerated molecular dynamics simulations, we investigate the aggregation of a 43-residue, apolipoprotein A-I mimetic peptide and its E21Q and D26N mutants. Our study indicates a strong propensity of helical segments not to adopt cross-? fibrils. The helix-turn-helix monomeric conformation of the peptides is preserved in the mature fibrils. Furthermore, we reveal opposite effects of mutations on and near the turn region in the self-assembly of these peptides. We show that the E21-R24 salt bridge is a major contributor to helix-turn-helix folding, subsequently leading to abundant fibril formation. On the other hand, the K19-D26 interaction is not required to fold the native helix-turn-helix. However, removal of the charged D26 residue decreases the stability of helix-turn-helix monomer, and consequently reduces aggregation. Finally, we provide a more refined assembly model for the helix-turn-helix peptides from apolipoprotein A-I based on the parallel stacking of helix-turn-helix dimers. PMID:26070092

  6. Solution structure and phospholipid interactions of the isolated voltage-sensor domain from KvAP

    PubMed Central

    Butterwick, Joel A.; MacKinnon, Roderick

    2010-01-01

    Voltage-sensor domains (VSDs) are specialized transmembrane segments that confer voltage sensitivity to many proteins such as ion channels and enzymes. The activities of these domains are highly dependent on both the chemical and physical properties of the surrounding membrane environment. To learn about VSD-lipid interactions, we used nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy to determine the structure and phospholipid interface of the VSD from the voltage-dependent K+ channel KvAP. The solution structure of the KvAP VSD solubilized within phospholipid micelles is similar to a previously determined crystal structure solubilized by a non-ionic detergent and complexed with an antibody fragment. Two differences observed include a previously unidentified short amphipathic ?-helix that precedes the first transmembrane helix and a subtle rigid body repositioning of the S3-S4 voltage-sensor paddle. Using 15N relaxation experiments, we show that most of the VSD, including the pronounced kink in S3 and the S3-S4 paddle, is relatively rigid on the ps–ns time scale. In contrast, the kink in S3 is mobile on the ?s–ms time scale and may act as a hinge in the movement of the paddle during channel gating. We characterized the VSD-phospholipid micelle interactions using nuclear Overhauser effect spectroscopy and show that the micelle uniformly coats the KvAP VSD and approximates the chemical environment of a phospholipid bilayer. Using paramagnetically labeled phospholipids, we show that bilayer-forming lipids interact with the S3 and S4 helices more strongly than with S1 and S2. PMID:20851706

  7. Solvent effects in the helix-coil transition model can explain the unusual biophysics of intrinsically disordered proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badasyan, Artem; Mamasakhlisov, Yevgeni Sh.; Podgornik, Rudolf; Parsegian, V. Adrian

    2015-07-01

    We analyze a model statistical description of the polypeptide chain helix-coil transition, where we take into account the specificity of its primary sequence, as quantified by the phase space volume ratio of the number of all accessible states to the number corresponding to a helical conformation. The resulting transition phase diagram is then juxtaposed with the unusual behavior of the secondary structures in Intrinsically Disordered Proteins (IDPs) and a number of similarities are observed, even if the protein folding is a more complex transition than the helix-coil transition. In fact, the deficit in bulky and hydrophobic amino acids observed in IDPs, translated into larger values of phase space volume, allows us to locate the region in parameter space of the helix-coil transition that would correspond to the secondary structure transformations that are intrinsic to conformational transitions in IDPs and that is characterized by a modified phase diagram when compared to globular proteins. Here, we argue how the nature of this modified phase diagram, obtained from a model of the helix-coil transition in a solvent, would illuminate the turned-out response of IDPs to the changes in the environment conditions that follow straightforwardly from the re-entrant (cold denaturation) branch in their folding phase diagram.

  8. Use of 1-4 interaction scaling factors to control the conformational equilibrium between ?-helix and ?-strand.

    PubMed

    Pang, Yuan-Ping

    2015-02-01

    1-4 interaction scaling factors are used in AMBER forcefields to reduce the exaggeration of short-range repulsion caused by the 6-12 Lennard-Jones potential and a nonpolarizable charge model and to obtain better agreements of small-molecule conformational energies with experimental data. However, the effects of these scaling factors on protein secondary structure conformations have not been investigated until now. This article reports the finding that the 1-4 interactions among the protein backbone atoms separated by three consecutive covalent bonds are more repulsive in the ?-helix conformation than in two ?-strand conformations. Therefore, the 1-4 interaction scaling factors of protein backbone torsions ? and ? control the conformational equilibrium between ?-helix and ?-strand. Molecular dynamics simulations confirm that reducing the ? and ? scaling factors readily converts the ?-helix conformation of AcO-(AAQAA)3-NH2 to a ?-strand conformation, and the reverse occurs when these scaling factors are increased. These results suggest that the ? and ? scaling factors can be used to generate the ?-helix or ?-strand conformation in situ and to control the propensities of a forcefield for adopting secondary structure elements. PMID:25543060

  9. [Polymethoxylated flavonoids activate cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator chloride channel].

    PubMed

    Cao, Huan-Huan; Fang, Fang; Yu, Bo; Luan, Jian; Jiang, Yu; Yang, Hong

    2015-04-25

    Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR), a cAMP-dependent chloride channel, plays key roles in fluid secretion in serous epithelial cells. Previously, we identified two polymethoxylated flavonoids, 3',4',5,5',6,7-hexamethoxyflavone (HMF) and 5-hydroxy-6,7,3',4'-tetramethoxyflavone (HTF) which could potentiate CFTR chloride channel activities. The present study was aimed to investigate the potentiation effects of HMF and HTF on CFTR Cl(-) channel activities by using a cell-based fluorescence assay and the short circuit Ussing chamber assay. The results of cell-based fluorescence assay showed that both HMF and HTF could dose-dependently potentiate CFTR Cl(-) channel activities in rapid and reversible ways, and the activations could be reversed by the CFTR blocker CFTRinh-172. Notably, HMF showed the highest affinity (EC50 = 2 ?mol/L) to CFTR protein among the flavonoid CFTR activators identified so far. The activation of CFTR by HMF or HTF was forskolin (FSK) dependent. Both compounds showed additive effect with FSK and 3-Isobutyl-1-methylx (IBMX) in the activation of CFTR, while had no additive effect with genistein (GEN). In ex vivo studies, HMF and HTF could stimulate transepithelial Cl(-) secretion in rat colonic mucosa and enhance fluid secretion in mouse trachea submucosal glands. These results suggest that HMF and HTF may potentiate CFTR Cl(-) channel activities through both elevation of cAMP level and binding to CFTR protein pathways. The results provide new clues in elucidating structure and activity relationship of flavonoid CFTR activators. HMF might be developed as a new drug in the therapy of CFTR-related diseases such as bronchiectasis and habitual constipation. PMID:25896054

  10. STAC-A New Domain Associated with Transmembrane Solute Transport and Two-Component Signal Transduction Systems.

    PubMed

    Korycinski, Mateusz; Albrecht, Reinhard; Ursinus, Astrid; Hartmann, Marcus D; Coles, Murray; Martin, Jörg; Dunin-Horkawicz, Stanislaw; Lupas, Andrei N

    2015-10-01

    Transmembrane receptors are integral components of sensory pathways in prokaryotes. These receptors share a common dimeric architecture, consisting in its basic form of an N-terminal extracellular sensor, transmembrane helices, and an intracellular effector. As an exception, we have identified an archaeal receptor family-exemplified by Af1503 from Archaeoglobus fulgidus-that is C-terminally shortened, lacking a recognizable effector module. Instead, a HAMP domain forms the sole extension for signal transduction in the cytosol. Here, we examine the gene environment of Af1503-like receptors and find a frequent association with transmembrane transport proteins. Furthermore, we identify and define a closely associated new protein domain family, which we characterize structurally using Af1502 from A. fulgidus. Members of this family are found both as stand-alone proteins and as domains within extant receptors. In general, the latter appear as connectors between the solute carrier 5 (SLC5)-like transmembrane domains and two-component signal transduction (TCST) domains. This is seen, for example, in the histidine kinase CbrA, which is a global regulator of metabolism, virulence, and antibiotic resistance in Pseudomonads. We propose that this newly identified domain family mediates signal transduction in systems regulating transport processes and name it STAC, for SLC and TCST-Associated Component. PMID:26321252

  11. Polar residues drive association of polyleucine transmembrane helices

    E-print Network

    Polar residues drive association of polyleucine transmembrane helices Fang Xiao Zhou*, Helen J by Donald M. Engelman, December 14, 2000 Although many polar residues are directly involved in transmem is still unclear. Previous studies have demonstrated that asparagine residues can drive transmem- brane

  12. Transmembrane Protein Oxygen Content and Compartmentalization of Cells

    E-print Network

    Gerstein, Mark

    of compartmentalized cells with atmospheric oxygen concentration. The authors predicted, characterized and correlated with atmospheric oxygen concentrations in geological timescale. They hypothesized that transmembrane proteins to the rise in concentration of atmospheric oxygen. Citation: Sasidharan R, Smith A, Gerstein M (2008

  13. Disrupting integrin transmembrane domain heterodimerization increases ligand binding affinity,

    E-print Network

    Springer, Timothy A.

    Disrupting integrin transmembrane domain heterodimerization increases ligand binding affinity of the integrin IIb- and 3-subunits were identified by mutating each non-Leu residue to Leu. Leu substitutions with and extend the helical interface between the integrin - and -subunit TM domains previously defined

  14. Control of phospholipid flip-flop by transmembrane peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaihara, Masanori; Nakao, Hiroyuki; Yokoyama, Hirokazu; Endo, Hitoshi; Ishihama, Yasushi; Handa, Tetsurou; Nakano, Minoru

    2013-06-01

    We designed three types of transmembrane model peptides whose sequence originates from a frequently used model peptide KALP23, and we investigated their effects on phospholipid flip-flop. Time-resolved small-angle neutron scattering and a dithionite fluorescent quenching assay demonstrated that TMP-L, which has a fully hydrophobic transmembrane region, did not enhance phospholipid flip-flop, whereas TMP-K and TMP-E, which have Lys and Glu, respectively, in the center of their transmembrane regions, enhanced phospholipid flip-flop. Introduction of polar residues in the membrane-spanning helices is considered to produce a locally polar region and enable the lipid head group to interact with the polar side-chain inside the bilayers, thereby reducing the activation energy for the flip-flop. A bioinformatics approach revealed that acidic and basic residues account for 4.5% of the central region of the transmembrane domain in human ER membrane proteins. Therefore, polar residues in ER membrane proteins are considered to provide flippase-like activity.

  15. Stabilization of magnetic helix in exchange-coupled thin films

    PubMed Central

    Dzemiantsova, L. V.; Meier, G.; Röhlsberger, R.

    2015-01-01

    Based on micromagnetic simulations, we report on a novel magnetic helix in a soft magnetic film that is sandwiched between and exchange-coupled to two hard magnetic layers with different anisotropies. We show that such a confined helix stays stable without the presence of an external magnetic field. The magnetic stability is determined by the energy minimization and is a result of an internal magnetic field created by the exchange interaction. We show that this internal field stores a magnetic energy density of a few kJ/m3. We also find that it dramatically modifies ferromagnetic resonances, such that the helix can be used as a ferromagnetic resonance filter and a fast acting attenuator. PMID:26537574

  16. Stabilization of magnetic helix in exchange-coupled thin films.

    PubMed

    Dzemiantsova, L V; Meier, G; Röhlsberger, R

    2015-01-01

    Based on micromagnetic simulations, we report on a novel magnetic helix in a soft magnetic film that is sandwiched between and exchange-coupled to two hard magnetic layers with different anisotropies. We show that such a confined helix stays stable without the presence of an external magnetic field. The magnetic stability is determined by the energy minimization and is a result of an internal magnetic field created by the exchange interaction. We show that this internal field stores a magnetic energy density of a few kJ/m(3). We also find that it dramatically modifies ferromagnetic resonances, such that the helix can be used as a ferromagnetic resonance filter and a fast acting attenuator. PMID:26537574

  17. Stabilization of magnetic helix in exchange-coupled thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzemiantsova, L. V.; Meier, G.; Röhlsberger, R.

    2015-11-01

    Based on micromagnetic simulations, we report on a novel magnetic helix in a soft magnetic film that is sandwiched between and exchange-coupled to two hard magnetic layers with different anisotropies. We show that such a confined helix stays stable without the presence of an external magnetic field. The magnetic stability is determined by the energy minimization and is a result of an internal magnetic field created by the exchange interaction. We show that this internal field stores a magnetic energy density of a few kJ/m3. We also find that it dramatically modifies ferromagnetic resonances, such that the helix can be used as a ferromagnetic resonance filter and a fast acting attenuator.

  18. 21 CFR 866.5900 - Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene mutation detection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene mutation detection system. 866.5900...transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene mutation detection system. (a) Identification . The CFTR gene mutation detection system is a...

  19. 21 CFR 866.5900 - Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene mutation detection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene mutation detection system. 866.5900...transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene mutation detection system. (a) Identification. The CFTR gene mutation detection system is a...

  20. 21 CFR 866.5900 - Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene mutation detection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene mutation detection system. 866.5900...transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene mutation detection system. (a) Identification . The CFTR gene mutation detection system is a...

  1. 21 CFR 866.5900 - Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene mutation detection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene mutation detection system. 866.5900...transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene mutation detection system. (a) Identification . The CFTR gene mutation detection system is a...

  2. 21 CFR 866.5900 - Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene mutation detection system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene mutation detection system. 866.5900...transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene mutation detection system. (a) Identification . The CFTR gene mutation detection system is a...

  3. Mutagenesis and Cysteine Scanning of Transmembrane Domain 10 of the Human Dipeptide Transporter

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Liya; Haworth, Ian S.; Kulkarni, Ashutosh A.; Bolger, Michael B.; Davies, Daryl L.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The human dipeptide transporter (hPEPT1) facilitates transport of dipeptides and drugs from the intestine into the circulation. The role of transmembrane domain 10 (TMD10) of hPEPT1 in substrate translocation was investigated using cysteine-scanning mutagenesis with 2-Trimethylammonioethyl methanethiosulfonate (MTSET). Methods Each amino acid in TMD10 was mutated individually to cysteine, and transport of [3H]Gly-Sar was evaluated with and without MTSET following transfection of each mutant in HEK293 cells. Similar localization and expression levels of wild type (WT) hPEPT1 and all mutants were confirmed by immunostaining and biotinylation followed by western blot analysis. Results E595C- and G594C-hPEPT1 showed negligible Gly-Sar uptake. E595D-hPEPT1 showed similar uptake to WT-hPEPT1, but E595K- and E595R-hPEPT1 did not transport Gly-Sar. Double mutations E595K/R282E and E595R/R282E did not restore uptake. G594A-hPEPT1 showed similar uptake to WT-hPEPT1, but G594V-hPEPT1 eliminated uptake. Y588C-hPEPT1 showed uptake of 20% that of WT-hPEPT1. MTSET modification supported a model of TMD10 with an amphipathic helix from I585 to V600 and increased solvent accessibility from T601 to F605. Conclusions Our results suggest that G594 and E595 in TMD10 of hPEPT1 have key roles in substrate transport and that Y588 may have an important secondary mechanistic role. PMID:19685173

  4. The N–Terminal Tail of hERG Contains an Amphipathic ?–Helix That Regulates Channel Deactivation

    PubMed Central

    Mobli, Mehdi; Ke, Ying; Kuchel, Philip W.; King, Glenn F.; Stock, Daniela; Vandenberg, Jamie I.

    2011-01-01

    The cytoplasmic N–terminal domain of the human ether–a–go–go related gene (hERG) K+ channel is critical for the slow deactivation kinetics of the channel. However, the mechanism(s) by which the N–terminal domain regulates deactivation remains to be determined. Here we show that the solution NMR structure of the N–terminal 135 residues of hERG contains a previously described Per–Arnt–Sim (PAS) domain (residues 26–135) as well as an amphipathic ?–helix (residues 13–23) and an initial unstructured segment (residues 2–9). Deletion of residues 2–25, only the unstructured segment (residues 2–9) or replacement of the ?–helix with a flexible linker all result in enhanced rates of deactivation. Thus, both the initial flexible segment and the ?–helix are required but neither is sufficient to confer slow deactivation kinetics. Alanine scanning mutagenesis identified R5 and G6 in the initial flexible segment as critical for slow deactivation. Alanine mutants in the helical region had less dramatic phenotypes. We propose that the PAS domain is bound close to the central core of the channel and that the N–terminal ?–helix ensures that the flexible tail is correctly orientated for interaction with the activation gating machinery to stabilize the open state of the channel. PMID:21249148

  5. Parametric-Resonance Ionization Cooling in Twin-Helix.

    SciTech Connect

    V.S. Morozov, Ya.S. Derbenev, A. Afanasev, R.P. Johnson, Erdelyi. B., J.A. Maloney

    2011-09-01

    Parametric-resonance Ionization Cooling (PIC) is proposed as the final 6D cooling stage of a highluminosity muon collider. For the implementation of PIC, we developed an epicyclic twin-helix channel with correlated optics. Wedge-shaped absorbers immediately followed by short rf cavities are placed into the twin-helix channel. Parametric resonances are induced in both planes using helical quadrupole harmonics. We demonstrate resonant dynamics and cooling with stochastic effects off using GEANT4/G4beamline. We illustrate compensation of spherical aberrations and benchmark COSY Infinity, a powerful tool for aberration analysis and compensation.

  6. Contact-Induced Structure Transformation in Transmembrane Prion Propagation

    E-print Network

    Chen, Chi-Ming

    - lopathy, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, and Gerstmann-Straussler- Scheinker disease, are fatal on recent experimental evidences of the transmission of prion diseases due to a particular transmem- brane of such conformational diseases, in which a misfolded Ctm PrP induces a similar misfolding of another Ctm PrP. Computer

  7. Molecular parameters and transmembrane transport mechanism of imidazolium-functionalized binols.

    PubMed

    Vidal, Marc; Schmitzer, Andreea

    2014-08-01

    We describe the molecular parameters governing the transmembrane activity of imidazolium-functionalized anion transporters and present a detailed mechanistic study. These ionophores adopt a mobile-carrier mechanism for short methyl and butyl chains, a combined mobile-carrier/transmembrane-pore mechanism for octyl and dodecyl chains, and form transmembrane aggregates for hexadecyl chains. PMID:25043746

  8. Specific Locations of Hydrophilic Amino Acids in Constructed Transmembrane Ligands of the Platelet-

    E-print Network

    Specific Locations of Hydrophilic Amino Acids in Constructed Transmembrane Ligands of the Platelet University, New Haven CT 06510, USA The 44 amino acid E5 transmembrane protein is the primary oncogene in cellular transformation. To investigate the role of transmembrane hydrophilic amino acids in receptor

  9. DNA helix: the importance of being GC-rich.

    PubMed

    Vinogradov, Alexander E

    2003-04-01

    A new explanation for the emergence of heavy (GC-rich) isochores is proposed, based on the study of thermostability, bendability, ability to B-Z transition and curvature of the DNA helix. The absolute values of thermostability, bendability and ability to B-Z transition correlated positively with GC content, whereas curvature correlated negatively. The relative values of these parameters were determined as compared to randomized sequences. In genes and intergenic spacers of warm-blooded animals, both the relative bendability and ability to B-Z transition increased with elevation of GC content, whereas the relative thermostability and curvature decreased. The usage of synonymous codons in GC-rich genes was also found to augment bendability and ability to B-Z transition and to reduce thermostability of DNA (as compared to synonymous codons with the same GC content). The analysis of transposable elements (Alu and B2 repeats in the human and mouse) showed that the level of their divergence from the consensus sequence positively correlated with relative bendability and ability to B-Z transition and negatively with relative thermostability. The bendability and ability to B-Z transition are known to relate to open chromatin and active transcription, whereas curvature facilitates chromatin condensation. Because heavy isochores are known to be gene-rich and show a high level of transcription, it is suggested here that isochores arose not as an adaptation to elevated temperature but because of a certain grade of general organization and correspondingly advanced level of genomic organization, reflected in genome structuring, with physical properties of DNA in the gene-rich regions being optimized for active transcription and in the gene-poor regions for chromatin condensation ('transcription/grade' concept). PMID:12654999

  10. DETAILED MOLECULAR OBSERVATIONS TOWARD THE DOUBLE HELIX NEBULA

    SciTech Connect

    Torii, K.; Enokiya, R.; Hasegawa, K.; Kudo, N.; Fukui, Y.; Morris, M. R.

    2014-07-01

    The Double Helix Nebula (DHN), located 100 pc above Sgr A* in the Galactic center (GC), is a unique structure whose morphology suggests it is a magnetic feature. Recent molecular observations toward the DHN revealed two candidate molecular counterparts of the DHN at radial velocities of –35 km s{sup –1} and 0 km s{sup –1} and discussed the model in which the DHN has its origin at the circumnuclear disk in the GC. In this paper, new CO observations toward the DHN using the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory and Mopra telescopes are presented. The higher-resolution observations of ?1 pc scale reveal the detailed distributions and kinematics of the two CO counterparts (the 0 km s{sup –1} and –35 km s{sup –1} features) and provide new information on their physical conditions. As a result, we find that the 0 km s{sup –1} feature with a mass of 3.3 × 10{sup 4} M {sub ?} coincides with the infrared emission of the DHN, indicating clear association with the DHN. The association of the –35 km s{sup –1} feature, with a mass of 0.8 × 10{sup 4} M {sub ?}, is less clear compared with the 0 km s{sup –1} feature, but the complementary distribution between the molecular gas and the DHN and velocity variation along the DHN support its association with the DHN. The two molecular features are highly excited, as shown by the relatively high CO J = 2-1/J = 1-0 intensity ratios of ?1.0, and have kinetic temperatures of ?30 K, consistent with the typical molecular clouds in the GC.

  11. Molecular thermal hysteresis in helix-dimer formation of sulfonamidohelicene oligomers in solution.

    PubMed

    Shigeno, Masanori; Kushida, Yo; Yamaguchi, Masahiko

    2013-07-29

    Sulfonamidohelicene oligomers up to the nonamer level were synthesized by the repeated coupling reactions of a building block. A tetramer formed a helix dimer in 1,3-difluorobenzene, which unfolded to a random coil with heating. This structural change exhibited thermal hysteresis in which different thermal responses were observed in the course of temperature increase and decrease. The feature of the hysteresis was examined under different heating/cooling modes, and the mechanisms are discussed on the basis of the population change and the presence of an induction period. A proposal regarding the use of thermal hysteresis for sensing a temperature increase/decrease is also given. PMID:23775763

  12. Protein folding of the SAP domain, a naturally occurring two-helix bundle

    PubMed Central

    Dodson, Charlotte A.; Arbely, Eyal

    2015-01-01

    The SAP domain from the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Tho1 protein is comprised of just two helices and a hydrophobic core and is one of the smallest proteins whose folding has been characterised. ?-value analysis revealed that Tho1 SAP folds through a transition state where helix 1 is the most extensively formed element of secondary structure and flickering native-like core contacts from Leu35 are also present. The contacts that contribute most to native state stability of Tho1 SAP are not formed in the transition state. PMID:26073259

  13. Detailed microscopic unfolding pathways of an ?-helix and a ?-hairpin: direct observation and molecular dynamics.

    PubMed

    Jas, Gouri S; Hegefeld, Wendy A; Middaugh, C Russell; Johnson, Carey K; Kuczera, Krzysztof

    2014-07-01

    We present a combined experimental and computational study of unfolding pathways of a model 21-residue ?-helical heteropeptide (W1H5-21) and a 16-residue ?-hairpin (GB41-56). Experimentally, we measured fluorescence energy transfer efficiency as a function of temperature, employing natural tryptophans as donors and dansylated lysines as acceptors. Secondary structural analysis was performed with circular dichroism and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Our studies present markedly different unfolding pathways of the two elementary secondary structural elements. During thermal denaturation, the helical peptide exhibits an initial decrease in length, followed by an increase, while the hairpin undergoes a systematic increase in length. In the complementary computational part of the project, we performed microsecond length replica-exchange molecular dynamics simulations of the peptides in explicit solvent, yielding a detailed microscopic picture of the unfolding processes. For the ?-helical peptide, we found a large heterogeneous population of intermediates that are primarily frayed single helices or helix-turn-helix motifs. Unfolding starts at the termini and proceeds through a stable helical region in the interior of the peptide but shifted off-center toward the C-terminus. The simulations explain the experimentally observed non-monotonic variation of helix length with temperature as due primarily to the presence of frayed-end single-helix intermediate structures. For the ?-hairpin peptide, our simulations indicate that folding is initiated at the turn, followed by formation of the hairpin in zipper-like fashion, with C?···C? contacts propagating from the turn to termini and hairpin hydrogen bonds forming in parallel with these contacts. In the early stages of hairpin formation, the hydrophobic side-chain contacts are only partly populated. Intermediate structures with low numbers of ?-hairpin hydrogen bonds have very low populations. This is in accord with the "broken zipper" model of Scheraga. The monotonic increase in length with temperature may be explained by the zipper-like breaking of the hairpin hydrogen bonds and backbone contacts. PMID:24897620

  14. Sequence selective recognition of double-stranded RNA using triple helix-forming peptide nucleic acids.

    PubMed

    Zengeya, Thomas; Gupta, Pankaj; Rozners, Eriks

    2014-01-01

    Noncoding RNAs are attractive targets for molecular recognition because of the central role they play in gene expression. Since most noncoding RNAs are in a double-helical conformation, recognition of such structures is a formidable problem. Herein, we describe a method for sequence-selective recognition of biologically relevant double-helical RNA (illustrated on ribosomal A-site RNA) using peptide nucleic acids (PNA) that form a triple helix in the major grove of RNA under physiologically relevant conditions. Protocols for PNA preparation and binding studies using isothermal titration calorimetry are described in detail. PMID:24297352

  15. Role of positively charged residues of the second transmembrane domain in the ion transport activity and conformation of human uncoupling protein-2.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Tuan; Matovic, Tijana; Parker, James; Smith, Matthew D; Jelokhani-Niaraki, Masoud

    2015-04-14

    Residing at the inner mitochondrial membrane, uncoupling protein-2 (UCP2) mediates proton transport from the intermembrane space (IMS) to the mitochondrial matrix and consequently reduces the rate of ATP synthesis in the mitochondria. The ubiquitous expression of UCP2 in humans can be attributed to the protein's multiple physiological roles in tissues, including its involvement in protective mechanisms against oxidative stress, as well as glucose and lipid metabolisms. Currently, the structural properties and ion transport mechanism of UCP2 and other UCP homologues remain poorly understood. UCP2-mediated proton transport is activated by fatty acids and inhibited by di- and triphosphate purine nucleotides. UCP2 also transports chloride and some other small anions. Identification of key amino acid residues of UCP2 in its ion transport pathway can shed light on the protein's ion transport function. On the basis of our previous studies, the second transmembrane helix segment (TM2) of UCP2 exhibited chloride channel activity. In addition, it was suggested that the positively charged residues on TM2 domains of UCPs 1 and 2 were important for their chloride transport activity. On this basis, to further understand the role of these positively charged residues on the ion transport activity of UCP2, we recombinantly expressed four TM2 mutants: R76Q, R88Q, R96Q, and K104Q. The wild type UCP2 and its mutants were purified and reconstituted into liposomes, and their conformation and ion (proton and chloride) transport activity were studied. TM2 Arg residues at the matrix interface of UCP2 proved to be crucial for the protein's anion transport function, and their absence resulted in highly diminished Cl(-) transport rates. On the other hand, the two other positively charged residues of TM2, located at the UCP2-IMS interface, could participate in the salt-bridge formation in the protein and promote the interhelical tight packing in the UCP2. Absence of these residues did not influence Cl(-) transport rates, but disturbed the dense packing in UCP2 and resulted in higher UCP2-mediated proton transport rates in the presence of long chain fatty acids. Overall, the outcome of this study provides a deeper and more detailed molecular image of UCP2's ion transport mechanism. PMID:25789405

  16. Cell transmembrane receptors determine tissue pattern stability.

    PubMed

    Beyer, Tilo; Meyer-Hermann, Michael

    2008-10-01

    The analysis of biological systems requires mathematical tools that represent their complexity from the molecular scale up to the tissue level. The formation of cell aggregates by chemotaxis is investigated using Delaunay object dynamics. It is found that when cells migrate fast such that the chemokine distribution is far from equilibrium, the details of the chemokine receptor dynamics can induce an internalization driven instability of cell aggregates. The instability occurs in a parameter regime relevant for lymphoid tissue and is similar to ectopic lymphoid structures. PMID:18851578

  17. Methylatable Signaling Helix Coordinated Inhibitory Receiver Domain in Sensor Kinase Modulates Environmental Stress Response in Bacillus Cereus

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jung-Chi; Liu, Jyung-Hurng; Hsu, Duen-Wei; Shu, Jwu-Ching; Chen, Chien-Yen; Chen, Chien-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    ?B, an alternative transcription factor, controls the response of the cell to a variety of environmental stresses in Bacillus cereus. Previously, we reported that RsbM negatively regulates ?B through the methylation of RsbK, a hybrid sensor kinase, on a signaling helix (S-helix). However, RsbK comprises a C-terminal receiver (REC) domain whose function remains unclear. In this study, deletion of the C-terminal REC domain of RsbK resulted in high constitutive ?B expression independent of environmental stimuli. Thus, the REC domain may serve as an inhibitory element. Mutagenic substitution was employed to modify the putative phospho-acceptor residue D827 in the REC domain of RsbK. The expression of RsbKD827N and RsbKD827E exhibited high constitutive ?B, indicating that D827, if phosphorylatable, possibly participates in ?B regulation. Bacterial two-hybrid analyses demonstrated that RsbK forms a homodimer and the REC domain interacts mainly with the histidine kinase (HK) domain and partly with the S-helix. In particular, co-expression of RsbM strengthens the interaction between the REC domain and the S-helix. Consistently, our structural model predicts a significant interaction between the HK and REC domains of the RsbK intradimer. Here, we demonstrated that coordinated the methylatable S-helix and the REC domain of RsbK is functionally required to modulate ?B-mediated stress response in B. cereus and maybe ubiquitous in microorganisms encoded RsbK-type sensor kinases. PMID:26379238

  18. Planetary Nebula NGC 7293 also Known as the Helix Nebula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Ultraviolet image of the planetary nebula NGC 7293 also known as the Helix Nebula. It is the nearest example of what happens to a star, like our own Sun, as it approaches the end of its life when it runs out of fuel, expels gas outward and evolves into a much hotter, smaller and denser white dwarf star.

  19. Talent Development as a University Mission: The Quadruple Helix

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holm-Nielsen, Lauritz B.; Thorn, Kristian; Olesen, Jeppe Dorup; Huey, Tina

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the authors discuss the rationale behind making talent development at the PhD, post-doctoral and early career levels an equal fourth pillar of the university's mission, alongside the more traditional pillars of the triple helix. Using Denmark and Aarhus University as a case study, the paper describes how increased institutional…

  20. Investigating the context-dependence to apparent helix propensities 

    E-print Network

    Ross, Jennifer Ann

    1999-01-01

    conformations, in an effort to make the peptide more like the canine-based peptides. All of these reptiles were made with alanine and glycine, the two extremes of the propensity scale, at the central position. The reptiles were studied by CD and fraction helix...

  1. Nanoporous microbead supported bilayers: stability, physical characterization, and incorporation of functional transmembrane proteins.

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Ryan W. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Brozik, James A. (University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM); Brozik, Susan Marie; Cox, Jason M.; Lopez, Gabriel P.; Barrick, Todd A.; Flores, Adrean

    2007-03-01

    The introduction of functional transmembrane proteins into supported bilayer-based biomimetic systems presents a significant challenge for biophysics. Among the various methods for producing supported bilayers, liposomal fusion offers a versatile method for the introduction of membrane proteins into supported bilayers on a variety of substrates. In this study, the properties of protein containing unilamellar phosphocholine lipid bilayers on nanoporous silica microspheres are investigated. The effects of the silica substrate, pore structure, and the substrate curvature on the stability of the membrane and the functionality of the membrane protein are determined. Supported bilayers on porous silica microspheres show a significant increase in surface area on surfaces with structures in excess of 10 nm as well as an overall decrease in stability resulting from increasing pore size and curvature. Comparison of the liposomal and detergent-mediated introduction of purified bacteriorhodopsin (bR) and the human type 3 serotonin receptor (5HT3R) are investigated focusing on the resulting protein function, diffusion, orientation, and incorporation efficiency. In both cases, functional proteins are observed; however, the reconstitution efficiency and orientation selectivity are significantly enhanced through detergent-mediated protein reconstitution. The results of these experiments provide a basis for bulk ionic and fluorescent dye-based compartmentalization assays as well as single-molecule optical and single-channel electrochemical interrogation of transmembrane proteins in a biomimetic platform.

  2. Transmembrane signal transduction by peptide hormones via family B G protein-coupled receptors

    PubMed Central

    Culhane, Kelly J.; Liu, Yuting; Cai, Yingying; Yan, Elsa C. Y.

    2015-01-01

    Although family B G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) contain only 15 members, they play key roles in transmembrane signal transduction of hormones. Family B GPCRs are drug targets for developing therapeutics for diseases ranging from metabolic to neurological disorders. Despite their importance, the molecular mechanism of activation of family B GPCRs remains largely unexplored due to the challenges in expression and purification of functional receptors to the quantity for biophysical characterization. Currently, there is no crystal structure available of a full-length family B GPCR. However, structures of key domains, including the extracellular ligand binding regions and seven-helical transmembrane regions, have been solved by X-ray crystallography and NMR, providing insights into the mechanisms of ligand recognition and selectivity, and helical arrangements within the cell membrane. Moreover, biophysical and biochemical methods have been used to explore functions, key residues for signaling, and the kinetics and dynamics of signaling processes. This review summarizes the current knowledge of the signal transduction mechanism of family B GPCRs at the molecular level and comments on the challenges and outlook for mechanistic studies of family B GPCRs. PMID:26594176

  3. The C-terminal helix in the YjeQ zinc-finger domain catalyzes the release of RbfA during 30S ribosome subunit assembly

    PubMed Central

    Jeganathan, Ajitha; Razi, Aida; Thurlow, Brett; Ortega, Joaquin

    2015-01-01

    YjeQ (also called RsgA) and RbfA proteins in Escherichia coli bind to immature 30S ribosome subunits at late stages of assembly to assist folding of the decoding center. A key step for the subunit to enter the pool of actively translating ribosomes is the release of these factors. YjeQ promotes dissociation of RbfA during the final stages of maturation; however, the mechanism implementing this functional interplay has not been elucidated. YjeQ features an amino-terminal oligonucleotide/oligosaccharide binding domain, a central GTPase module and a carboxy-terminal zinc-finger domain. We found that the zinc-finger domain is comprised of two functional motifs: the region coordinating the zinc ion and a carboxy-terminal ?-helix. The first motif is essential for the anchoring of YjeQ to the 30S subunit and the carboxy-terminal ?-helix facilitates the removal of RbfA once the 30S subunit reaches the mature state. Furthermore, the ability of the mature 30S subunit to stimulate YjeQ GTPase activity also depends on the carboxy-terminal ?-helix. Our data are consistent with a model in which YjeQ uses this carboxy-terminal ?-helix as a sensor to gauge the conformation of helix 44, an essential motif of the decoding center. According to this model, the mature conformation of helix 44 is sensed by the carboxy-terminal ?-helix, which in turn stimulates the YjeQ GTPase activity. Hydrolysis of GTP is believed to assist the release of YjeQ from the mature 30S subunit through a still uncharacterized mechanism. These results identify the structural determinants in YjeQ that implement the functional interplay with RbfA. PMID:25904134

  4. 5-Formylcytosine alters the structure of the DNA double helix

    E-print Network

    Raiber, Eun-Ang; Murat, Pierre; Chirgadze, Dimitri Y.; Beraldi, Dario; Luisi, Ben F.; Balasubramanian, Shankar

    2014-12-15

    service DAVID4 via the R API5 (the reported p-values are adjusted Benjamini p-values): R library(RDAVIDWebService) library(data.table) library(org.Mm.eg.db) library(AnnotationFuncs) pm<- fread('../annovar/cpg_runs.fc.annovar.txt') pm<- pm...

  5. Transcriptome analysis reveals transmembrane targets on transplantable midbrain dopamine progenitors

    PubMed Central

    Jönsson, Marie E.; Björklund, Anders; Parish, Clare L.; Thompson, Lachlan H.

    2015-01-01

    An important challenge for the continued development of cell therapy for Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the establishment of procedures that better standardize cell preparations for use in transplantation. Although cell sorting has been an anticipated strategy, its application has been limited by lack of knowledge regarding transmembrane proteins that can be used to target and isolate progenitors for midbrain dopamine (mDA) neurons. We used a “FACS-array” approach to identify 18 genes for transmembrane proteins with high expression in mDA progenitors and describe the utility of four of these targets (Alcam, Chl1, Gfra1, and Igsf8) for isolating mDA progenitors from rat primary ventral mesencephalon through flow cytometry. Alcam and Chl1 facilitated a significant enrichment of mDA neurons following transplantation, while targeting of Gfra1 allowed for robust separation of dopamine and serotonin neurons. Importantly, we also show that mDA progenitors isolated on the basis of transmembrane proteins are capable of extensive, functional innervation of the host striatum and correction of motor impairment in a unilateral model of PD. These results are highly relevant for current efforts to establish safe and effective stem cell-based procedures for PD, where clinical translation will almost certainly require safety and standardization measures in order to deliver well-characterized cell preparations. PMID:25775569

  6. Transcriptome analysis reveals transmembrane targets on transplantable midbrain dopamine progenitors.

    PubMed

    Bye, Chris R; Jönsson, Marie E; Björklund, Anders; Parish, Clare L; Thompson, Lachlan H

    2015-04-14

    An important challenge for the continued development of cell therapy for Parkinson's disease (PD) is the establishment of procedures that better standardize cell preparations for use in transplantation. Although cell sorting has been an anticipated strategy, its application has been limited by lack of knowledge regarding transmembrane proteins that can be used to target and isolate progenitors for midbrain dopamine (mDA) neurons. We used a "FACS-array" approach to identify 18 genes for transmembrane proteins with high expression in mDA progenitors and describe the utility of four of these targets (Alcam, Chl1, Gfra1, and Igsf8) for isolating mDA progenitors from rat primary ventral mesencephalon through flow cytometry. Alcam and Chl1 facilitated a significant enrichment of mDA neurons following transplantation, while targeting of Gfra1 allowed for robust separation of dopamine and serotonin neurons. Importantly, we also show that mDA progenitors isolated on the basis of transmembrane proteins are capable of extensive, functional innervation of the host striatum and correction of motor impairment in a unilateral model of PD. These results are highly relevant for current efforts to establish safe and effective stem cell-based procedures for PD, where clinical translation will almost certainly require safety and standardization measures in order to deliver well-characterized cell preparations. PMID:25775569

  7. A Structural Model for the Membrane-Bound Form of the Juxtamembrane Domain of the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor.

    SciTech Connect

    Choowongkomon, Kiattawee; Carlin, Cathleen R.; Sonnichsen, Frank D.

    2005-06-24

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a member of the receptor tyrosine kinase family involved in the regulation of cellular proliferation and differentiation. Its juxtamembrane domain (JX), the region located between the transmembrane and kinase domains, plays important roles in receptor trafficking. Two sorting signals, a PXXP motif and a 658LL659 motif, are responsible for basolateral sorting in polarized epithelial cells, and a 679LL680 motif targets the ligand-activated receptor for lysosomal degradation. To understand the regulation of these signals, we characterized the structural properties of recombinant JX domain in aqueous solution and in dodecylphosphocholine (DPC) detergent. JX is inherently unstructured in aqueous solution, albeit a nascent helix encompasses the lysosomal sorting signal. In DPC micelles, structures derived from NMR data showed three amphipathic, helical segments. A large, internally inconsistent group of long range nuclear Overhauser effects suggest a close proximity of the helices, and the presence of significant conformational averaging. Models were determined for the average JX conformation using restraints representing the translational restriction due to micelle-surface adsorption, and the helix orientations were determined from residual dipolar couplings. Two equivalent average structural models were obtained that differ only in the relative orientation between first and second helices. In these models, the 658LL659 and 679LL680 motifs are located in the first and second helices and face the micelle surface, whereas the PXXP motif is located in a flexible helix-connecting region. The data suggest that the activity of these signals may be regulated by their membrane association and restricted accessibility in the intact receptor.

  8. Towards understanding the Tat translocation mechanism through structural and biophysical studies of the amphipathic region of TatA from Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Catherine S.; Haney, Evan F.; Vogel, Hans J.; Turner, Raymond J.

    2012-01-01

    The twin-arginine translocase (Tat) system is used by many bacteria and plants to move folded proteins across the cytoplasmic or thylakoid membrane. In most bacteria, the TatA protein is believed to form a defined pore in the membrane through homo-oligomerization with other TatA protomers. The predicted secondary structure of TatA includes a transmembrane helix, an amphipathic helix, and an unstructured C-terminal region. Here biophysical and structural investigations were performed on a synthetic peptide representing the amphipathic region of TatA (residues 22 to 44, abbreviated TatAH2). The C-terminal region of TatA (residues 44–89) was previously shown to be accessible from both the cytoplasmic and periplasmic sides of the membrane only when the membrane potential was intact, suggesting dependence of its topology on an energized membrane (Chan et al. 2007 Biochemistry 46: 7396–404). Such observation suggests that the TatAH2 region would have unique lipid interactions that may be related to the function of TatA during translocation and thus warranted further investigations. NMR and CD spectroscopy of TatAH2 show that it adopts a predominantly helical structure in a membrane environment while remaining unstructured in aqueous solution. Differential scanning calorimetry studies also reveal that TatAH2 interacts with DPPG lipids but not with DPPC, suggesting that negatively charged phospholipid head groups contribute to the membrane interactions with TatA. PMID:21683683

  9. NMR Structures of the Histidine-Rich Peptide LAH4 in Micellar Environments: Membrane Insertion, pH-Dependent Mode of Antimicrobial Action, and DNA Transfection

    PubMed Central

    Georgescu, Julia; Munhoz, Victor H.O.; Bechinger, Burkhard

    2010-01-01

    The LAH4 family of histidine-rich peptides exhibits potent antimicrobial and DNA transfection activities, both of which require interactions with cellular membranes. The bilayer association of the peptides has been shown to be strongly pH-dependent, with in-planar alignments under acidic conditions and transmembrane orientations when the histidines are discharged. Therefore, we investigated the pH- and temperature-dependent conformations of LAH4 in DPC micellar solutions and in a TFE/PBS solvent mixture. In the presence of detergent and at pH 4.1, LAH4 adopts helical conformations between residues 9 and 24 concomitantly with a high hydrophobic moment. At pH 6.1, a helix-loop-helix structure forms with a hinge encompassing residues His10–Ala13. The data suggest that the high density of histidine residues and the resulting electrostatic repulsion lead to both a decrease in the pK values of the histidines and a less stable ?-helical conformation of this region. The hinged structure at pH 6.1 facilitates membrane anchoring and insertion. At pH 7.8, the histidines are uncharged and an extended helical conformation including residues 4–21 is again obtained. LAH4 thus exhibits a high degree of conformational plasticity. The structures provide a stroboscopic view of the conformational changes that occur during membrane insertion, and are discussed in the context of antimicrobial activity and DNA transfection. PMID:20959091

  10. The Amphipathic Helix of Adenovirus Capsid Protein VI Contributes to Penton Release and Postentry Sorting

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Ruben; Schellenberger, Pascale; Vasishtan, Daven; Aknin, Cindy; Austin, Sisley; Dacheux, Denis; Rayne, Fabienne; Siebert, Alistair; Ruzsics, Zsolt; Gruenewald, Kay

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Nuclear delivery of the adenoviral genome requires that the capsid cross the limiting membrane of the endocytic compartment and traverse the cytosol to reach the nucleus. This endosomal escape is initiated upon internalization and involves a highly coordinated process of partial disassembly of the entering capsid to release the membrane lytic internal capsid protein VI. Using wild-type and protein VI-mutated human adenovirus serotype 5 (HAdV-C5), we show that capsid stability and membrane rupture are major determinants of entry-related sorting of incoming adenovirus virions. Furthermore, by using electron cryomicroscopy, as well as penton- and protein VI-specific antibodies, we show that the amphipathic helix of protein VI contributes to capsid stability by preventing premature disassembly and deployment of pentons and protein VI. Thus, the helix has a dual function in maintaining the metastable state of the capsid by preventing premature disassembly and mediating efficient membrane lysis to evade lysosomal targeting. Based on these findings and structural data from cryo-electron microscopy, we suggest a refined disassembly mechanism upon entry. IMPORTANCE In this study, we show the intricate connection of adenovirus particle stability and the entry-dependent release of the membrane-lytic capsid protein VI required for endosomal escape. We show that the amphipathic helix of the adenovirus internal protein VI is required to stabilize pentons in the particle while coinciding with penton release upon entry and that release of protein VI mediates membrane lysis, thereby preventing lysosomal sorting. We suggest that this dual functionality of protein VI ensures an optimal disassembly process by balancing the metastable state of the mature adenovirus particle. PMID:25473051

  11. Poly(A) Tail Recognition by a Viral RNA Element Through Assembly of a Triple Helix

    SciTech Connect

    M Mitton-Fry; S DeGregorio; J Wang; T Steitz; J Steitz

    2011-12-31

    Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus produces a highly abundant, nuclear noncoding RNA, polyadenylated nuclear (PAN) RNA, which contains an element that prevents its decay. The 79-nucleotide expression and nuclear retention element (ENE) was proposed to adopt a secondary structure like that of a box H/ACA small nucleolar RNA (snoRNA), with a U-rich internal loop that hybridizes to and protects the PAN RNA poly(A) tail. The crystal structure of a complex between the 40-nucleotide ENE core and oligo(A){sub 9} RNA at 2.5 angstrom resolution reveals that unlike snoRNAs, the U-rich loop of the ENE engages its target through formation of a major-groove triple helix. A-minor interactions extend the binding interface. Deadenylation assays confirm the functional importance of the triple helix. Thus, the ENE acts as an intramolecular RNA clamp, sequestering the PAN poly(A) tail and preventing the initiation of RNA decay.

  12. TM-MOTIF: an alignment viewer to annotate predicted transmembrane helices and conserved motifs in aligned set of sequences

    PubMed Central

    Nagarathnam, Balasubramanian; Sankar, Kannan; Dharnidharka, Varadhan; Balakrishnan, Veluchamy; Archunan, Govindaraju; Sowdhamini, Ramanathan

    2011-01-01

    Multiple sequence alignments become biologically meaningful only if conserved and functionally important residues and secondary structural elements preserved can be identified at equivalent positions. This is particularly important for transmembrane proteins like G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) with seven transmembrane helices. TM-MOTIF is a software package and an effective alignment viewer to identify and display conserved motifs and amino acid substitutions (AAS) at each position of the aligned set of homologous sequences of GPCRs. The key feature of the package is to display the predicted membrane topology for seven transmembrane helices in seven colours (VIBGYOR colouring scheme) and to map the identified motifs on its respective helices /loop regions. It is an interactive package which provides options to the user to submit query or pre-aligned set of GPCR sequences to align with a reference sequence, like rhodopsin, whose structure has been solved experimentally. It also provides the possibility to identify the nearest homologue from the available inbuilt GPCR or Olfactory Receptor cluster dataset whose association is already known for its receptor type. Availability The database is available for free at mini@ncbs.res.in PMID:22125389

  13. The release of acetylcholine receptor inducing activity (ARIA) from its transmembrane precursor in transfected fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Han, B; Fischbach, G D

    1999-09-10

    Acetylcholine receptor inducing activity (ARIA) is made by motoneurons and is released at the neuromuscular synapse to stimulate the synthesis of acetylcholine receptors by skeletal muscle. ARIA is derived from a transmembrane precursor (pro-ARIA) via proteolytic cleavage of the ectodomain. We studied requirements in the amino acid sequence at the cleavage site with various substitution and deletion mutations. Wild type (WT) and mutant proteins were transiently expressed in COS cells, and release of ARIA into the conditioned medium was measured by tyrosine phosphorylation of its receptor, p185, in L6 cells. Removal of all potential cleavage sites between the extracellular epidermal growth factor domain and the transmembrane domain by substitution and small deletions (<11 amino acid residues out of 21) did not significantly reduce ARIA release, whereas larger deletions abolished it. We propose that cleavage occurs independently of amino acid sequence at a short distance from the epidermal growth factor domain, unless sterically hindered by the nearby secondary structure. A mutant with shorter cytoplasmic domain ("c" isoform) released significantly less ARIA than the WT ("a" isoform), suggesting that the c isoform may be suitable for signaling through direct cell-cell contact. Alternatively, proteolytic conversion of the a isoform to the c isoform may rapidly down-regulate release of ARIA. PMID:10473599

  14. ER-mediated control for abundance, quality, and signaling of transmembrane immune receptors in plants

    PubMed Central

    Tintor, Nico; Saijo, Yusuke

    2014-01-01

    Plants recognize a wide range of microbes with cell-surface and intracellular immune receptors. Transmembrane pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) initiate immune responses upon recognition of cognate ligands characteristic of microbes or aberrant cellular states, designated microbe-associated molecular patterns or danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), respectively.Pattern-triggered immunity provides a first line of defense that restricts the invasion and propagation of both adapted and non-adapted pathogens. Receptor kinases (RKs) and receptor-like proteins (RLPs) with an extracellular leucine-rich repeat or lysine-motif (LysM) domain are extensively used as PRRs. The correct folding of the extracellular domain of these receptors is under quality control (QC) in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), which thus provides a critical step in plant immunity. Genetic and structural insight suggests that ERQC regulates not only the abundance and quality of transmembrane receptors but also affects signal sorting between multi-branched pathways downstream of the receptor. However, ERQC dysfunction can also positively stimulate plant immunity, possibly through cell death and DAMP signaling pathways. PMID:24616730

  15. Transmembrane myosin chitin synthase involved in mollusc shell formation produced in Dictyostelium is active

    SciTech Connect

    Schoenitzer, Veronika; Universitaet Regensburg, Biochemie I, Universitaetsstrasse 31, D-93053 Regensburg ; Eichner, Norbert; Clausen-Schaumann, Hauke; Weiss, Ingrid M.

    2011-12-02

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dictyostelium produces the 264 kDa myosin chitin synthase of bivalve mollusc Atrina. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chitin synthase activity releases chitin, partly associated with the cell surface. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Membrane extracts of transgenic slime molds produce radiolabeled chitin in vitro. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chitin producing Dictyostelium cells can be characterized by atomic force microscopy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This model system enables us to study initial processes of chitin biomineralization. -- Abstract: Several mollusc shells contain chitin, which is formed by a transmembrane myosin motor enzyme. This protein could be involved in sensing mechanical and structural changes of the forming, mineralizing extracellular matrix. Here we report the heterologous expression of the transmembrane myosin chitin synthase Ar-CS1 of the bivalve mollusc Atrina rigida (2286 amino acid residues, M.W. 264 kDa/monomer) in Dictyostelium discoideum, a model organism for myosin motor proteins. Confocal laser scanning immunofluorescence microscopy (CLSM), chitin binding GFP detection of chitin on cells and released to the cell culture medium, and a radiochemical activity assay of membrane extracts revealed expression and enzymatic activity of the mollusc chitin synthase in transgenic slime mold cells. First high-resolution atomic force microscopy (AFM) images of Ar-CS1 transformed cellulose synthase deficient D. discoideumdcsA{sup -} cell lines are shown.

  16. A model for the study of ligand binding to the ribosomal RNA helix h44

    SciTech Connect

    Dibrov, Sergey M.; Parsons, Jerod; Hermann, Thomas

    2010-09-02

    Oligonucleotide models of ribosomal RNA domains are powerful tools to study the binding and molecular recognition of antibiotics that interfere with bacterial translation. Techniques such as selective chemical modification, fluorescence labeling and mutations are cumbersome for the whole ribosome but readily applicable to model RNAs, which are readily crystallized and often give rise to higher resolution crystal structures suitable for detailed analysis of ligand-RNA interactions. Here, we have investigated the HX RNA construct which contains two adjacent ligand binding regions of helix h44 in 16S ribosomal RNA. High-resolution crystal structure analysis confirmed that the HX RNA is a faithful structural model of the ribosomal target. Solution studies showed that HX RNA carrying a fluorescent 2-aminopurine modification provides a model system that can be used to monitor ligand binding to both the ribosomal decoding site and, through an indirect effect, the hygromycin B interaction region.

  17. Selection of heptapeptides that bind helix 69 of bacterial 23S ribosomal RNA

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Moninderpal; Rupasinghe, Chamila N.; Klosi, Edvin; Spaller, Mark R.; Chow, Christine S.

    2013-01-01

    Helix 69 of E. coli 23S rRNA has important roles in specific steps of translation, such as subunit association, translocation, and ribosome recycling. An M13 phage library was used to identify peptide ligands with affinity for helix 69. One selected sequence, NQVANHQ, was shown through a bead assay to interact with helix 69. Electrospray ionization mass spectroscopy revealed an apparent dissociation constant for the amidated peptide and helix 69 in the low micromolar range. This value is comparable to that of aminoglycoside antibiotics binding to the A site of 16S rRNA or helix 69. Helix 69 variants (human) and unrelated RNAs (helix 31 or A site of 16S rRNA) showed two- to four-fold lower affinity for NQVANHQ-NH2. These results suggest that the peptide has desirable features for development as a lead compound for novel antimicrobials. PMID:23375098

  18. Intramolecular interactions that induce helical rearrangement upon rhodopsin activation: light-induced structural changes in metarhodopsin IIa probed by cysteine S-H stretching vibrations.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Yoichi; Nagata, Tomoko; Terakita, Akihisa; Kandori, Hideki; Shichida, Yoshinori; Imamoto, Yasushi

    2014-05-16

    Rhodopsin undergoes rearrangements of its transmembrane helices after photon absorption to transfer a light signal to the G-protein transducin. To investigate the mechanism by which rhodopsin adopts the transducin-activating conformation, the local environmental changes in the transmembrane region were probed using the cysteine S-H group, whose stretching frequency is well isolated from the other protein vibrational modes. The S-H stretching modes of cysteine residues introduced into Helix III, which contains several key residues for the helical movements, and of native cysteine residues were measured by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. This method was applied to metarhodopsin IIa, a precursor of the transducin-activating state in which the intramolecular interactions are likely to produce a state ready for helical movements. No environmental change was observed near the ionic lock between Arg-135 in Helix III and Glu-247 in Helix VI that maintains the inactive conformation. Rather, the cysteine residues that showed environmental changes were located around the chromophore, Ala-164, His-211, and Phe-261. These findings imply that the hydrogen bond between Helix III and Helix V involving Glu-122 and His-211 and the hydrophobic packing between Helix III and Helix VI involving Gly-121, Leu-125, Phe-261, and Trp-265 are altered before the helical rearrangement leading toward the active conformation. PMID:24692562

  19. Crowding effect on helix-coil transition: Beyond entropic stabilization

    SciTech Connect

    Koutsioubas, A.; Lairez, D.; Combet, S.; Longeville, S.; Zalczer, G.

    2012-06-07

    We report circular dichroism measurements on the helix-coil transition of poly(L-glutamic acid) in solution with polyethylene glycol (PEG) as a crowding agent. The PEG solutions have been characterized by small angle neutron scattering and are well described by the picture of a network of mesh size {xi}, usual for semi-dilute chains in good solvent. We show that the increase of PEG concentration stabilizes the helices and increases the transition temperature. But more unexpectedly, we also notice that the increase of concentration of crowding agent reduces the mean helix extent at the transition, or in other words reduces its cooperativity. This result cannot be taken into account for by an entropic stabilization mechanism. Comparing the mean length of helices at the transition and the mesh size of the PEG network, our results strongly suggest two regimes: helices shorter or longer than the mesh size.

  20. Inhibitory properties of double-helix-forming circular oligonucleotides.

    PubMed Central

    Azhayeva, E; Azhayev, A; Auriola, S; Tengvall, U; Urtti, A; Lönnberg

    1997-01-01

    Several circular oligonucleotides were synthesized and characterized by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Experiments on termination of primer extension catalysed by DNA polymerases, Klenow fragment and Tth have demonstrated that a double helix forming circular 2'-deoxyribooligomer containing a 25mer sequence complementary to the target single-stranded DNA along with a 34mer random mismatching stretch appears to be a potent inhibitor of replication in vitro. Studies on inhibition of luciferase gene expression in a cell-free transcription-translation system have shown that a duplex forming circular 2'-deoxyribooligonucleotide containing a 25mer sequence complementary to the target mRNA and a 14mer random mismatching stretch can serve as an effective antisense compound as a standard linear complementary oligomer. Features of double helix forming circular oligonucleotides composed of 2'-deoxyribonucleosides seem to be useful for the design of new antigene and antisense agents. PMID:9396802

  1. A seven-helix coiled coil

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jie; Zheng, Qi; Deng, Yiqun; Cheng, Chao-Sheng; Kallenbach, Neville R.; Lu, Min

    2006-01-01

    Coiled-coil proteins contain a characteristic seven-residue sequence repeat whose positions are designated a to g. The interacting surface between ?-helices in a classical coiled coil is formed by interspersing nonpolar side chains at the a and d positions with hydrophilic residues at the flanking e and g positions. To explore how the chemical nature of these core amino acids dictates the overall coiled-coil architecture, we replaced all eight e and g residues in the GCN4 leucine zipper with nonpolar alanine side chains. Surprisingly, the alanine-containing mutant forms a stable ?-helical heptamer in aqueous solution. The 1.25-Å resolution crystal structure of the heptamer reveals a parallel seven-stranded coiled coil enclosing a large tubular channel with an unusual heptad register shift between adjacent staggered helices. The overall geometry comprises two interleaved hydrophobic helical screws of interacting cross-sectional a and d layers that have not been seen before. Moreover, asparagines at the a positions play an essential role in heptamer formation by participating in a set of buried interhelix hydrogen bonds. These results demonstrate that heptad repeats containing four hydrophobic positions can direct assembly of complex, higher-order coiled-coil structures with rich diversity for close packing of ?-helices. PMID:17030805

  2. Beta-helix core packing within the triple-stranded oligomerization domain of the P22 tailspike.

    PubMed Central

    Kreisberg, J. F.; Betts, S. D.; King, J.

    2000-01-01

    A right-handed parallel beta-helix of 400 residues in 13 tightly packed coils is a major motif of the chains forming the trimeric P22 tailspike adhesin. The beta-helix domains of three identical subunits are side-by-side in the trimer and make predominantly hydrophilic inter-subunit contacts (Steinbacher S et al., 1994, Science 265:383-386). After the 13th coil the three individual beta-helices terminate and the chains wrap around each other to form three interdigitated beta-sheets organized into the walls of a triangular prism. The beta-strands then separate and form antiparallel beta-sheets, but still defining a triangular prism in which each side is a beta-sheet from a different subunit (Seckler R, 1998, J Struct Biol 122:216-222). The subunit interfaces are buried in the triangular core of the prism, which is densely packed with hydrophobic side chains from the three beta-sheets. Examination of this structure reveals that its packed core maintains the same pattern of interior packing found in the left-handed beta-helix, a single-chain structure. This packing is maintained in both the interdigitated parallel region of the prism and the following antiparallel sheet section. This oligomerization motif for the tailspike beta-helices presumably contributes to the very high thermal and detergent stability that is a property of the native tailspike adhesin. PMID:11206055

  3. Six-transmembrane Topology for Golgi Anti-apoptotic Protein (GAAP) and Bax Inhibitor 1 (BI-1) Provides Model for the Transmembrane Bax Inhibitor-containing Motif (TMBIM) Family*

    PubMed Central

    Carrara, Guia; Saraiva, Nuno; Gubser, Caroline; Johnson, Benjamin F.; Smith, Geoffrey L.

    2012-01-01

    The Golgi anti-apoptotic protein (GAAP) is a hydrophobic Golgi protein that regulates intracellular calcium fluxes and apoptosis. GAAP is highly conserved throughout eukaryotes and some strains of vaccinia virus (VACV) and camelpox virus. Based on sequence, phylogeny, and hydrophobicity, GAAPs were classified within the transmembrane Bax inhibitor-containing motif (TMBIM) family. TMBIM members are anti-apoptotic and were predicted to have seven-transmembrane domains (TMDs). However, topology prediction programs are inconsistent and predicted that GAAP and other TMBIM members have six or seven TMDs. To address this discrepancy, we mapped the transmembrane topology of viral (vGAAP) and human (hGAAP), as well as Bax inhibitor (BI-1). Data presented show a six-, not seven-, transmembrane topology for vGAAP with a putative reentrant loop at the C terminus and both termini located in the cytosol. We find that this topology is also conserved in hGAAP and BI-1. This places the charged C terminus in the cytosol, and mutation of these charged residues in hGAAP ablated its anti-apoptotic function. Given the highly conserved hydrophobicity profile within the TMBIM family and recent phylogenetic data indicating that a GAAP-like protein may have been the ancestral progenitor of a subset of the TMBIM family, we propose that this vGAAP topology may be used as a model for the remainder of the TMBIM family of proteins. The topology described provides valuable information on the structure and function of an important but poorly understood family of proteins. PMID:22418439

  4. Classical scattering of charged particles confined on an inhomogeneous helix.

    PubMed

    Zampetaki, A V; Stockhofe, J; Krönke, S; Schmelcher, P

    2013-10-01

    We explore the effects arising due to the coupling of the center of mass and relative motion of two charged particles confined on an inhomogeneous helix with a locally modified radius. It is first proven that a separation of the center of mass and the relative motion is provided if and only if the confining manifold represents a homogeneous helix. In this case, bound states of repulsively Coulomb interacting particles occur. For an inhomogeneous helix, the coupling of the center of mass and relative motion induces an energy transfer between the collective and relative motion, leading to dissociation of initially bound states in a scattering process. Due to the time reversal symmetry, a binding of the particles out of the scattering continuum is thus equally possible. We identify the regimes of dissociation for different initial conditions and provide an analysis of the underlying phase space via Poincaré surfaces of section. Bound states inside the inhomogeneity as well as resonant states are identified. PMID:24229295

  5. The helix nebula viewed in HCO{sup +}: Large-scale mapping of the J = 1 ? 0 transition

    SciTech Connect

    Zeigler, N. R.; Zack, L. N.; Ziurys, L. M.; Woolf, N. J.

    2013-11-20

    The J = 1 ? 0 transition of HCO{sup +} at 89 GHz has been mapped across the Helix Nebula (NGC 7293) with 70'' spatial resolution (1.68 km s{sup –1} velocity resolution) using the Arizona Radio Observatory 12 m telescope. This work is the first large-scale mapping project of a dense gas tracer (n(H{sub 2}) ? 10{sup 5} cm{sup –3}) in old planetary nebulae. Observations of over 200 positions encompassing the classical optical image were conducted with a 3? noise level of ?20 mK. HCO{sup +} was detected at most positions, often exhibiting multiple velocity components indicative of complex kinematic structures in dense gas. The HCO{sup +} spectra suggest that the Helix is composed of a bipolar, barrel-like structure with red- and blue-shifted halves, symmetric with respect to the central star and oriented ?10° east from the line of sight. A second bipolar, higher velocity outflow exists as well, situated along the direction of the Helix 'plumes'. The column density of HCO{sup +} across the Helix is N {sub tot} ? 1.5 × 10{sup 10}-5.0 × 10{sup 11} cm{sup –2}, with an average value N {sub ave} ? 1 × 10{sup 11} cm{sup –2}, corresponding to an abundance, relative to H{sub 2}, of f ? 1.4 × 10{sup –8}. This value is similar to that observed in young PN, and contradicts chemical models, which predict that the abundance of HCO{sup +} decreases with nebular age. This study indicates that polyatomic molecules readily survive the ultraviolet field of the central white dwarf, and can be useful in tracing nebular morphology in the very late stages of stellar evolution.

  6. Long-Circulating 15 nm Micelles Based on Amphiphilic 3-Helix Peptide-PEG Conjugates

    PubMed Central

    Dong, He; Dube, Nikhil; Shu, Jessica Y.; Seo, Jai W.; Mahakian, Lisa M.; Ferrara, Katherine W.; Xu, Ting

    2012-01-01

    Generating stable, multi-functional organic nanocarriers will have a significant impact on drug formulation. However, it remains a significant challenge to generate organic nanocarriers with a long circulation half-life, effective tumor penetration and efficient clearance of metabolites. We have advanced this goal by designing a new family of amphiphiles based on coiled-coil 3-helix bundle forming peptide-poly(ethylene glycol) conjugates. The amphiphiles self-assemble into monodisperse micellar nanoparticles, 15 nm in diameter. Using the 3-helix micelles, a drug loading of ~8 wt% was obtained using doxorubicin (DOX) and the micelles showed minimal cargo leakage after 12 hours of incubation with serum proteins at 37°C. In vivo pharmacokinetics studies using positron emission tomography (PET) showed a circulation half-life of 29.5 hrs and minimal accumulation in the liver and spleen. The demonstrated strategy, by incorporating unique protein tertiary structure in the headgroup of an amphiphile, opens new avenues to generate organic nanoparticles with tunable stability, ligand clustering and controlled disassembly to meet current demands in nanomedicine. PMID:22545944

  7. Initiation of DNA replication by DNA polymerases from primers forming a triple helix

    PubMed Central

    Rocher, Christophe; Dalibart, Renée; Letellier, Thierry; Précigoux, Gilles; Lestienne, Patrick

    2001-01-01

    Despite extensive studies on oligonucleotide-forming triple helices, which were discovered in 1957, their possible relevance in the initiation of DNA replication remains unknown. Using sequences forming triple helices, we have developed a DNA polymerisation assay by using hairpin DNA templates with a 3? dideoxynucleotide end and an unpaired 5?-end extension to be replicated. The T7 DNA polymerase successfully elongated nucleotides to the expected size of the template from the primers forming triple helices composed of 9–14 deoxyguanosine-rich residues. The triple helix-forming primer required for this reaction has to be oriented parallel to the homologous sequence of the hairpin DNA template. Substitution of the deoxyguanosine residues by N7 deazadeoxyguanosines in the hairpin of the template prevented primer elongation, suggesting that the formation of a triple helix is a prerequisite for primer elongation. Furthermore, DNA sequencing could be achieved with the hairpin template through partial elongation of the third DNA strand forming primer. The T4 DNA polymerase and the Klenow fragment of DNA polymerase I provided similar DNA elongation to the T7 polymerase–thioredoxin complex. On the basis of published crystallographic data, we show that the third DNA strand primer fits within the catalytic centre of the T7 DNA polymerase, thus underlying this new property of several DNA polymerases which may be relevant to genome rearrangements and to the evolution of the genetic apparatus, namely the DNA structure and replication processes. PMID:11504869

  8. Nuclear receptor ligand-binding domains: reduction of helix H12 dynamics to favour crystallization

    SciTech Connect

    Nahoum, Virginie; Lipski, Alexandra; Quillard, Fabien; Guichou, Jean-François; Boublik, Yvan; Pérez, Efrèn; Germain, Pierre; Lera, Angel R. de; Bourguet, William

    2008-07-01

    Attempts have been made to crystallize the ligand-binding domain of the human retinoid X receptor in complex with a variety of newly synthesized ligands. An inverse correlation was observed between the ‘crystallizability’ and the structural dynamics of the various receptor–ligand complexes. Crystallization trials of the human retinoid X receptor ? ligand-binding domain (RXR? LBD) in complex with various ligands have been carried out. Using fluorescence anisotropy, it has been found that when compared with agonists these small-molecule effectors enhance the dynamics of the RXR? LBD C-terminal helix H12. In some cases, the mobility of this helix could be dramatically reduced by the addition of a 13-residue co-activator fragment (CoA). In keeping with these observations, crystals have been obtained of the corresponding ternary RXR? LBD–ligand–CoA complexes. In contrast, attempts to crystallize complexes with a highly mobile H12 remained unsuccessful. These experimental observations substantiate the previously recognized role of co-regulator fragments in facilitating the crystallization of nuclear receptor LBDs.

  9. The SRA domain of UHRF1 flips 5-methylcytosine out of the DNA helix

    PubMed Central

    Hashimoto, Hideharu; Horton, John R.; Zhang, Xing; Bostick, Magnolia; Jacobsen, Steven E.; Cheng, Xiaodong

    2008-01-01

    Maintenance methylation of hemimethylated CpG dinucleotides at DNA replication forks is the key to faithful mitotic inheritance of genomic methylation patterns. UHRF1 (ubiquitin-like, containing PHD and RING finger domains 1) is required for maintenance methylation by interacting with DNA nucleotide methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1), the maintenance methyltransferase, and with hemimethylated CpG, the substrate for DNMT1 (refs 1 and 2). Here we present the crystal structure of the SET and RING-associated (SRA) domain of mouse UHRF1 in complex with DNA containing a hemimethylated CpG site. The DNA is contacted in both the major and minor grooves by two loops that penetrate into the middle of the DNA helix. The 5-methylcytosine has flipped completely out of the DNA helix and is positioned in a binding pocket with planar stacking contacts, Watson–Crick polar hydrogen bonds and van der Waals interactions specific for 5-methylcytosine. Hence, UHRF1 contains a previously unknown DNA-binding module and is the first example of a non-enzymatic, sequence-specific DNA-binding protein domain to use the base flipping mechanism to interact with DNA. PMID:18772888

  10. The SRA domain of UHRF1 flips 5-methylcytosine out of the DNA helix

    SciTech Connect

    Hashimoto, H.; Horton, J.R.; Zhang, X.; Bostick, M.; Jacobsen, S.; Cheng, X.

    2008-11-13

    Maintenance methylation of hemimethylated CpG dinucleotides at DNA replication forks is the key to faithful mitotic inheritance of genomic methylation patterns. UHRF1 (ubiquitin-like, containing PHD and RING finger domains 1) is required for maintenance methylation by interacting with DNA nucleotide methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1), the maintenance methyltransferase, and with hemimethylated CpG, the substrate for DNMT1 (refs 1 and 2). Here we present the crystal structure of the SET and RING-associated (SRA) domain of mouse UHRF1 in complex with DNA containing a hemimethylated CpG site. The DNA is contacted in both the major and minor grooves by two loops that penetrate into the middle of the DNA helix. The 5-methylcytosine has flipped completely out of the DNA helix and is positioned in a binding pocket with planar stacking contacts, Watson-Crick polar hydrogen bonds and van der Waals interactions specific for 5-methylcytosine. Hence, UHRF1 contains a previously unknown DNA-binding module and is the first example of a non-enzymatic, sequence-specific DNA-binding protein domain to use the base flipping mechanism to interact with DNA.

  11. TOPOMIMETICS OF AMPHIPATHIC ?-SHEET AND HELIX-FORMING BACTERICIDAL PEPTIDES NEUTRALIZE LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE ENDOTOXINS

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xuemei; Dings, Ruud P.M.; Nesmelova, Irina; Debbert, Stefan; Haseman, Judith R.; Maxwell, Jacques; Hoye, Thomas R.; Mayo, Kevin H.

    2008-01-01

    Release of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) endotoxin from Gram negative bacterial membranes triggers macrophages to produce large quantities of cytokines that can lead to septic shock and eventual death. Agents that bind to and neutralize LPS may provide a means to clinically prevent septic shock upon bacterial infection. Previously, we reported the design of antibacterial helix peptide SC4 and ?-sheet-forming ?pep peptides that neutralize LPS in vitro. We hypothesized that the ability of these and other such peptides to neutralize LPS rested in the common denominator of positively charged amphipathic structure. Here, we describe the design and synthesis of non-peptide, calixarene-based helix/sheet topomimetics that mimic the folded conformations of these peptides in their molecular dimensions, amphipathic surface topology, and compositional properties. From a small library of topomimetics, we identified several compounds that neutralize LPS in the 10?8 M range, making them as effective as bactericidal/permeability increasing (BPI) protein and polymyxin B. In an endotoxemia mouse model, three of the most in vitro effective topomimetics are shown to be at least partially protective against challenges of LPS from different bacterial species. NMR studies provide mechanistic insight by suggesting the site of molecular interaction between topomimetics and the lipid A component of LPS, with binding being mediated by electrostatic and hydrophobic interactions. This research contributes to the development of pharmaceutical agents against endotoxemia and septic shock. PMID:17181157

  12. Secreted and Transmembrane ?Klotho Isoforms Have Different Spatio-Temporal Profiles in the Brain during Aging and Alzheimer's Disease Progression

    PubMed Central

    Massó, Anna; Sánchez, Angela; Gimenez-Llort, Lydia; Lizcano, Jose Miguel; Cañete, Manuel; García, Belen; Torres-Lista, Virginia; Puig, Meritxell; Bosch, Assumpció; Chillon, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    The Klotho protein is a ?-glucuronidase, and its overexpression is associated with life extension. Its mechanism of action is not fully understood, although it has been recently reported that ?Klotho improves synaptic and cognitive functions, and it may also influence a variety of structures and functions during CNS maturation and aging. The ?Klotho gene has two transcripts, one encoding a transmembrane isoform (m-KL), and the other a putative secreted isoform (s-KL). Unfortunately, little is known about the secreted ?Klotho isoform, since available antibodies cannot discriminate s-KL from the KL1 domain cleaved from the transmembrane isoform. This study shows, for the first time, that the klotho transcript produced by alternative splicing generates a stable protein (70 kDa), and that in contrast to the transmembrane Klotho isoform, it is ten times more abundant in the brain than in the kidney suggesting that the two isoforms may have different functions. We also studied whether klotho expression in the CNS was influenced by aging, Alzheimer's disease (AD), or a healthy lifestyle, such as voluntary moderate continuous exercise. We observed a strong correlation between high expression levels of the two klotho transcripts and the healthy status of the animals. Expression of Klotho in brain areas decayed more rapidly in the 3xTg-AD model of AD than in healthy animals, whilst moderate continuous exercise in adulthood prevents the decline in expression of both klotho transcripts. PMID:26599613

  13. Structural studies of Bcl-2-family regulators of apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, P.W. |; Cai, X.; Schiffer, M.

    1996-06-01

    The Bcl-2 family of proteins includes about a dozen different proteins which share two small regions of amino acid homology but otherwise exhibit rather modest sequence similarities. The members of this family function as molecular regulators of apoptosis, some as accelerators of cell death and others as inhibitors of apoptosis. The authors analyzed the predicted secondary structures of Bcl-2-family proteins and found that a series of four amphipathic helices, three short {beta}-strands, and a carboxyl-terminal transmembrane helix were conserved throughout the family. Since the Bcl-2-family proteins do not have homology with any proteins of known three-dimensional structure, it seems likely that the tertiary structure assumed by these conserved Bcl-2-family structural elements will represent a completely new protein fold. The authors have prepared recombinant versions of particular proteins of the Bcl-2-family so that the can analyze their molecular structures experimentally. In addition, since some of the Bcl-2-family members homodimerize, they are using small-zone size-exclusion chromatography to analyze the homodimerization of individual, purified Bcl-2-family proteins in order to determine the association and rate constants for these dimerization reactions using computer-simulation methods previously developed in the group. Since certain of these proteins also interest with each other to form heterodimers, the authors also hope to extend the analyses to similarly analyze the heterodimerization of pairs of purified Bcl-2-family proteins.

  14. The transmembrane channel-like protein family and human papillomaviruses

    PubMed Central

    Horton, Jaime S; Stokes, Alexander J

    2014-01-01

    Epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV) is a rare genodermatosis characterized by increased sensitivity to infection by the ?-subtype of human papillomaviruses (?-HPVs), causing persistent, tinea versicolor-like dermal lesions. In a majority of affected individuals, these macular lesions progress to invasive cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC) in sun-exposed areas. While mutations in transmembrane channel-like 6 (TMC6 / EVER1) and 8 (TMC8 / EVER2) have been causally linked to EV, their molecular functions are unclear. It is likely that their protective effects involve regulation of the ?-HPV life cycle, host keratinocyte apoptosis vs. survival balance and/or T-cell interaction with infected host cells. PMID:24800179

  15. A cosmic double helix in the archetypical quasar 3C273.

    PubMed

    Lobanov, A P; Zensus, J A

    2001-10-01

    Finding direct evidence for plasma instability in extragalactic jets is crucial for understanding the nature of relativistic outflows from active galactic nuclei. Our radio interferometric observations of the quasar 3C273 made with the orbiting radio telescope, HALCA, and an array of ground telescopes have yielded an image in which the emission across the jet is resolved, revealing two threadlike patterns that form a double helix inside the jet. This double helical structure is consistent with a Kelvin-Helmholtz instability, and at least five different instability modes can be identified and modeled by a light jet with a Lorentz factor of 2 and Mach number of 3.5. The model reproduces in detail the internal structure of the jet on scales of up to 30 milli-arc seconds ( approximately 300 parsecs) and is consistent with the general morphology of the jet on scales of up to 1 kiloparsec. PMID:11588254

  16. Molecular dynamics studies of alpha-helix stability in fibril-forming peptides.

    PubMed

    Nordling, Erik; Kallberg, Yvonne; Johansson, Jan; Persson, Bengt

    2008-01-01

    Diseases associated with protein fibril-formation, such as the prion diseases and Alzheimer's disease, are gaining increased attention due to their medical importance and complex origins. Using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations in an aqueous environment, we have studied the stability of the alpha-helix covering positions 15-25 of the amyloid beta-peptide (A beta) involved in Alzheimer's disease. The effects of residue replacements, including the effects of A beta disease related mutations, were also investigated. The MD simulations show a very early (2 ns) loss of alpha-helical structure for the Flemish (A beta(A21G)), Italian (A beta(E22K)), and Iowa (A beta(D23N)) forms associated with hereditary Alzheimer's disease. Similarly, an early (5 ns) loss of alpha-helical structure was observed for the Dutch (A beta(E22Q)) variant. MD here provides a possible explanation for the structural changes. Two variants of A beta, A beta(K16A,L17A,F20A) and A beta(V18A,F19A,F20A), that do not produce fibrils in vitro were also investigated. The A beta(V18A,F19A,F20A) initially loses its helical conformation but refolds into helix several times and spends most of the simulation time in helical conformation. However, the A beta(K16A,L17A,F20A) loses the alpha-helical structure after 5 ns and does not refold. For the wildtype A beta(1-40) and A beta(1-42), the helical conformation is lost after 5 ns or after 40 ns, respectively, while for the "familial" (A beta(A42T)) variant, the MD simulations suggest that a C-terminal beta-strand is stabilised, which could explain the fibrillation. The simulations for the Arctic (A beta(E22G)) variant indicate that the alpha-helix is kept for 2 ns, but reappears 2 ns later, whereafter it disappears after 10 ns. The MD results are in several cases compatible with known experimental data, but the correlation is not perfect, indicating that multimerisation tendency and other factors might also be important for fibril formation. PMID:18058241

  17. Testing the diffusing boundary model for the helix–coil transition in peptides

    PubMed Central

    Neumaier, Sabine; Reiner, Andreas; Büttner, Maren; Fierz, Beat; Kiefhaber, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The dynamics of peptide ?-helices have been studied extensively for many years, and the kinetic mechanism of the helix–coil dynamics has been discussed controversially. Recent experimental results have suggested that equilibrium helix–coil dynamics are governed by movement of the helix/coil boundary along the peptide chain, which leads to slower unfolding kinetics in the helix center compared with the helix ends and position-independent helix formation kinetics. We tested this diffusion of boundary model in helical peptides of different lengths by triplet-triplet energy transfer measurements and compared the data with simulations based on a kinetic linear Ising model. The results show that boundary diffusion in helical peptides can be described by a classical, Einstein-type, 1D diffusion process with a diffusion coefficient of 2.7?107 (amino acids)2/s or 6.1?10?9 cm2/s. In helices with a length longer than about 40 aa, helix unfolding by coil nucleation in a helical region occurs frequently in addition to boundary diffusion. Boundary diffusion is slowed down by helix-stabilizing capping motifs at the helix ends in agreement with predictions from the kinetic linear Ising model. We further tested local and nonlocal effects of amino acid replacements on helix–coil dynamics. Single amino acid replacements locally affect folding and unfolding dynamics with a ?f-value of 0.35, which shows that interactions leading to different helix propensities for different amino acids are already partially present in the transition state for helix formation. Nonlocal effects of amino acid replacements only influence helix unfolding (?f = 0) in agreement with a diffusing boundary mechanism. PMID:23878243

  18. The C-Terminus of Transmembrane Helix 2 (TM2) of the Escherichia coli Tar Chemorecptor Determines Signal Output and Ligand Sensitivity 

    E-print Network

    Adase, Christopher A. 1981-

    2012-11-20

    Methyl-accepting chemotaxis proteins MCPs can bind one or more receptor- specific ligands. In the case of the Tar MCP of Escherichia coli (TarEc), a primary attractant ligand is aspartate. Its binding to the periplasmic ...

  19. Evolutionary domain fusion expanded the substrate specificity of the transmembrane electron transporter DsbD

    PubMed Central

    Katzen, Federico; Deshmukh, Meenal; Daldal, Fevzi; Beckwith, Jon

    2002-01-01

    Modular organization of proteins has been postulated as a widely used strategy for protein evolution. The multidomain transmembrane protein DsbD catalyzes the transfer of electrons from the cytoplasm to the periplasm of Escherichia coli. Most bacterial species do not have DsbD, but instead their genomes encode a much smaller protein, CcdA, which resembles the central hydrophobic domain of DsbD. We used reciprocal heterologous complementation assays between E.coli and Rhodobacter capsulatus to show that, despite their differences in size and structure, DsbD and CcdA are functional homologs. While DsbD transfers reducing potential to periplasmic protein disulfide bond isomerases and to the cytochrome c thioreduction pathway, CcdA appears to be involved only in cytochrome c biogenesis. Our findings strongly suggest that, by the acquisition of additional thiol-redox active domains, DsbD expanded its substrate specificity. PMID:12145197

  20. Self-Assembling Organic Nanopores as Synthetic Transmembrane Channels with Tunable Functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Xiaoxi

    A long-standing goal in the area of supramolecular self-assembly involves the development of synthetic ion/water channels capable of mimicking the mass-transport characteristics of biological channels and pores. Few examples of artificial transmembrane channels with large lumen, high conductivity and selectivity are known. A review of pronounced biological transmembrane protein channels and some representative synthetic models have been provided in Chapter 1, followed by our discovery and initial investigation of shape-persistent oligoamide and phenylene ethynylene macrocycles as synthetic ion/water channels. In Chapter 2, the systematic structural modification of oligoamide macrocycles 1, the so-called first-generation of these shape-persistent macrocycles, has led to third-generation macrocycles 3. The third generation was found to exhibit unprecedented, strong intermolecular association in both the solid state and solution via multiple techniques including X-ray diffraction (XRD), SEM, and 1H NMR. Fluorescence spectroscopy paired with dynamic light scattering (DLS) revealed that macrocycles 3 can assemble into a singly dispersed nanotubular structure in solution. The resultant self-assembling pores consisting of 3 were examined by HPTS-LUVs assays and BLM studies (Chapter 3) and found to form cation-selective (PK+/PCl- = 69:1) transmembrane ion channels with large conductance (200 ˜ 2000 pS for alkali cations) and high stability with open times reaching to 103 seconds. Tuning the aggregation state of macrocycles by choosing an appropriate polar solvent mixture (i.e., 3:1, THF:DMF, v/v) and concentration led to the formation of ion channels with well-defined square top behavior. A parallel study using DLS to examine the size of aggregates was used in conjunction with channel activity assays (LUVs/BLM) to reveal the effects of the aggregation state on channel activity. Empirical evidence now clearly indicates that a preassembled state, perhaps that of a nanotubular assembly, rather than the individual molecules of 3, is required to partition into the lipid bilayer in order for these macrocycles to act as channels. Further structural modification has led to fourth-generation macrocycles 4 having readily-tunable cavities (Chapter 4). Macrocycles 4 , with a hybrid backbone composed half of the oligoamide and half of the phenylene ethynylene moieties, exhibits similar self-assembling behavior by forming nanotubular stacks. The results of a preliminary study based on LUVs-assays and BLM single channel recording experiments are summarized and clearly indicate that ion channels formed by this fourth-generation exhibit high stability and differing ion selectivity largely consistent with the corresponding structural modification of the interior cavity. Especially, the increased anion conductance observed for 4d indicates that our strategy of tuning supramolecular function based on synthetic modification of the backbone and pore is effective. In Chapter 5, our four-residue tetraurea macrocycles 5 have shown significant potency to selectively interact with the G-quadruplex, leading to a strong stabilization effect for G-quadruplex without binding to duplex DNA as observed by UV-melt assays. The ready synthetic availability of these macrocycles makes them amenable to future chemical modification, which allows systematic improvement of binding affinity and specificity. Moreover, it has been discovered that these macrocycles can partition into lipid bilayers and form very stable transmembrane ion channels with a pore size of ˜5 A. Preliminary data shows that this smaller ion channel may lead to exceptional ion conducting selectivity, which is rarely seen in the field of synthetic ion pores. These molecules may serve as a unique platform for the rational development of potent and versatile therapeutic agents. The exceptional ion conducting properties of these channels place aromatic oligoamide macrocycles 3 and 4 at a unique position with both high conductance and long channel-opening duration. These results demonstrate that oligoam

  1. Inhibition of Ebola virus glycoprotein-mediated cytotoxicity by targeting its transmembrane domain and cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Hacke, Moritz; Björkholm, Patrik; Hellwig, Andrea; Himmels, Patricia; de Almodóvar, Carmen Ruiz; Brügger, Britta; Wieland, Felix; Ernst, Andreas M

    2015-01-01

    The high pathogenicity of the Ebola virus reflects multiple concurrent processes on infection. Among other important determinants, Ebola fusogenic glycoprotein (GP) has been associated with the detachment of infected cells and eventually leads to vascular leakage and haemorrhagic fever. Here we report that the membrane-anchored GP is sufficient to induce the detachment of adherent cells. The results show that the detachment induced through either full-length GP1,2 or the subunit GP2 depends on cholesterol and the structure of the transmembrane domain. These data reveal a novel molecular mechanism in which GP regulates Ebola virus assembly and suggest that cholesterol-reducing agents could be useful as therapeutics to counteract GP-mediated cell detachment. PMID:26158910

  2. Toward the semisynthesis of multidomain transmembrane receptors: Modification of Eph tyrosine kinases

    PubMed Central

    Singla, Nikhil; Himanen, Juha Pekka; Muir, Tom W.; Nikolov, Dimitar B.

    2008-01-01

    Expressed protein ligation (EPL) is a protein engineering approach that allows the modification or assembly of a target protein from multiple recombinant and synthetic polypeptides. EPL has been previously used to modify intracellular proteins and small integral membrane proteins for structural and functional studies. Here we describe the semisynthetic site-specific modification of the complete, multidomain extracellular regions of both A and B classes of Eph receptor tyrosine kinases. We show that the ectodomains of these receptors can be ligated to different peptides under carefully established experimental conditions, while their biological activity is retained. This work extends the boundaries of the EPL technique for semisynthesis of multidomain, extracellular, disulfide-bonded, and glycosylated proteins and highlights its potential application for reconstituting entire single-pass transmembrane proteins. PMID:18628240

  3. Discovery of a Potent Stapled Helix Peptide That Binds to the 70N Domain of Replication Protein A

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Stapled helix peptides can serve as useful tools for inhibiting protein–protein interactions but can be difficult to optimize for affinity. Here we describe the discovery and optimization of a stapled helix peptide that binds to the N-terminal domain of the 70 kDa subunit of replication protein A (RPA70N). In addition to applying traditional optimization strategies, we employed a novel approach for efficiently designing peptides containing unnatural amino acids. We discovered hot spots in the target protein using a fragment-based screen, identified the amino acid that binds to the hot spot, and selected an unnatural amino acid to incorporate, based on the structure–activity relationships of small molecules that bind to this site. The resulting stapled helix peptide potently and selectively binds to RPA70N, does not disrupt ssDNA binding, and penetrates cells. This peptide may serve as a probe to explore the therapeutic potential of RPA70N inhibition in cancer. PMID:24491171

  4. Bioenergetics and mitochondrial transmembrane potential during differentiation of cultured osteoblasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Komarova, S. V.; Ataullakhanov, F. I.; Globus, R. K.

    2000-01-01

    To evaluate the relationship between osteoblast differentiation and bioenergetics, cultured primary osteoblasts from fetal rat calvaria were grown in medium supplemented with ascorbate to induce differentiation. Before ascorbate treatment, the rate of glucose consumption was 320 nmol. h(-1). 10(6) cells(-1), respiration was 40 nmol. h(-1). 10(6) cells(-1), and the ratio of lactate production to glucose consumption was approximately 2, indicating that glycolysis was the main energy source for immature osteoblasts. Ascorbate treatment for 14 days led to a fourfold increase in respiration, a threefold increase in ATP production, and a fivefold increase in ATP content compared with that shown in immature cells. Confocal imaging of mitochondria stained with a transmembrane potential-sensitive vital dye showed that mature cells possessed abundant amounts of high-transmembrane-potential mitochondria, which were concentrated near the culture medium-facing surface. Acute treatment of mature osteoblasts with metabolic inhibitors showed that the rate of glycolysis rose to maintain the cellular energy supply constant. Thus progressive differentiation coincided with changes in cellular metabolism and mitochondrial activity, which are likely to play key roles in osteoblast function.

  5. Retromer-Mediated Trafficking of Transmembrane Receptors and Transporters

    PubMed Central

    Klinger, Stine C.; Siupka, Piotr; Nielsen, Morten S.

    2015-01-01

    Transport between the endoplasmatic reticulum, the Golgi-network, the endo-lysosomal system and the cell surface can be categorized as anterograde or retrograde, describing traffic that goes forward or backward, respectively. Traffic going from the plasma membrane to endosomes and lysosomes or the trans-Golgi network (TGN) constitutes the major retrograde transport routes. Several transmembrane proteins undergo retrograde transport as part of a recycling mechanism that contributes to reutilization and maintenance of a steady-state protein localization. In addition, some receptors are hijacked by exotoxins and used for entry and intracellular transport. The physiological relevance of retrograde transport cannot be overstated. Retrograde trafficking of the amyloid precursor protein determines the distribution between organelles, and hence the possibility of cleavage by ?-secretase. Right balancing of the pathways is critical for protection against Alzheimer’s disease. During embryonic development, retrograde transport of Wntless to the TGN is essential for the following release of Wnt from the plasma membrane. Furthermore, overexpression of Wntless has been linked to oncogenesis. Here, we review relevant aspects of the retrograde trafficking of mammalian transmembrane receptors and transporters, with focus on the retromer-mediated transport between endosomes and the TGN. PMID:26154780

  6. Transmembrane proteins--Mining the cattle tick transcriptome.

    PubMed

    Richards, Sabine A; Stutzer, Christian; Bosman, Anna-Mari; Maritz-Olivier, Christine

    2015-09-01

    Managing the spread and load of pathogen-transmitting ticks is an important task worldwide. The cattle tick, Rhipicephalus microplus, not only impacts the economy through losses in dairy and meat production, but also raises concerns for human health in regards to the potential of certain transmitted pathogens becoming zoonotic. However, novel strategies to control R. microplus are hindered by lack of understanding tick biology and the discovery of suitable vaccine or acaricide targets. The importance of transmembrane proteins as vaccine targets are well known, as is the case in tick vaccines with Bm86 as antigen. In this study, we describe the localization and functional annotation of 878 putative transmembrane proteins. Thirty proteins could be confirmed in the R. microplus gut using LC-MS/MS analysis and their roles in tick biology are discussed. To the best of our knowledge, 19 targets have not been reported before in any proteomics study in various tick species and the possibility of using the identified proteins as targets for tick control are discussed. Although tissue expression of identified putative proteins through expansive proteomics is necessary, this study demonstrates the possibility of using bioinformatics for the identification of targets for further evaluation in tick control strategies. PMID:26096851

  7. Stability analysis of the inverse transmembrane potential problem in electrocardiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burger, Martin; Mardal, Kent-André; Nielsen, Bjørn Fredrik

    2010-10-01

    In this paper we study some mathematical properties of an inverse problem arising in connection with electrocardiograms (ECGs). More specifically, we analyze the possibility for recovering the transmembrane potential in the heart from ECG recordings, a challenge currently investigated by a growing number of groups. Our approach is based on the bidomain model for the electrical activity in the myocardium, and leads to a parameter identification problem for elliptic partial differential equations (PDEs). It turns out that this challenge can be split into two subproblems: the task of recovering the potential at the heart surface from body surface recordings; the problem of computing the transmembrane potential inside the heart from the potential determined at the heart surface. Problem (1), which can be formulated as the Cauchy problem for an elliptic PDE, has been extensively studied and is well known to be severely ill-posed. The main purpose of this paper is to prove that problem (2) is stable and well posed if a suitable prior is available. Moreover, our theoretical findings are illuminated by a series of numerical experiments. Finally, we discuss some aspects of uniqueness related to the anisotropy in the heart.

  8. NMR Structure and Ion Channel Activity of the p7 Protein from Hepatitis C Virus*

    PubMed Central

    Montserret, Roland; Saint, Nathalie; Vanbelle, Christophe; Salvay, Andrés Gerardo; Simorre, Jean-Pierre; Ebel, Christine; Sapay, Nicolas; Renisio, Jean-Guillaume; Böckmann, Anja; Steinmann, Eike; Pietschmann, Thomas; Dubuisson, Jean; Chipot, Christophe; Penin, François

    2010-01-01

    The small membrane protein p7 of hepatitis C virus forms oligomers and exhibits ion channel activity essential for virus infectivity. These viroporin features render p7 an attractive target for antiviral drug development. In this study, p7 from strain HCV-J (genotype 1b) was chemically synthesized and purified for ion channel activity measurements and structure analyses. p7 forms cation-selective ion channels in planar lipid bilayers and at the single-channel level by the patch clamp technique. Ion channel activity was shown to be inhibited by hexamethylene amiloride but not by amantadine. Circular dichroism analyses revealed that the structure of p7 is mainly ?-helical, irrespective of the membrane mimetic medium (e.g. lysolipids, detergents, or organic solvent/water mixtures). The secondary structure elements of the monomeric form of p7 were determined by 1H and 13C NMR in trifluoroethanol/water mixtures. Molecular dynamics simulations in a model membrane were combined synergistically with structural data obtained from NMR experiments. This approach allowed us to determine the secondary structure elements of p7, which significantly differ from predictions, and to propose a three-dimensional model of the monomeric form of p7 associated with the phospholipid bilayer. These studies revealed the presence of a turn connecting an unexpected N-terminal ?-helix to the first transmembrane helix, TM1, and a long cytosolic loop bearing the dibasic motif and connecting TM1 to TM2. These results provide the first detailed experimental structural framework for a better understanding of p7 processing, oligomerization, and ion channel gating mechanism. PMID:20667830

  9. Aminoterminal Amphipathic ?-Helix AH1 of Hepatitis C Virus Nonstructural Protein 4B Possesses a Dual Role in RNA Replication and Virus Production

    PubMed Central

    Gouttenoire, Jérôme; Montserret, Roland; Paul, David; Castillo, Rosa; Meister, Simon; Bartenschlager, Ralf; Penin, François; Moradpour, Darius

    2014-01-01

    Nonstructural protein 4B (NS4B) is a key organizer of hepatitis C virus (HCV) replication complex formation. In concert with other nonstructural proteins, it induces a specific membrane rearrangement, designated as membranous web, which serves as a scaffold for the HCV replicase. The N-terminal part of NS4B comprises a predicted and a structurally resolved amphipathic ?-helix, designated as AH1 and AH2, respectively. Here, we report a detailed structure-function analysis of NS4B AH1. Circular dichroism and nuclear magnetic resonance structural analyses revealed that AH1 folds into an amphipathic ?-helix extending from NS4B amino acid 4 to 32, with positively charged residues flanking the helix. These residues are conserved among hepaciviruses. Mutagenesis and selection of pseudorevertants revealed an important role of these residues in RNA replication by affecting the biogenesis of double-membrane vesicles making up the membranous web. Moreover, alanine substitution of conserved acidic residues on the hydrophilic side of the helix reduced infectivity without significantly affecting RNA replication, indicating that AH1 is also involved in virus production. Selective membrane permeabilization and immunofluorescence microscopy analyses of a functional replicon harboring an epitope tag between NS4B AH1 and AH2 revealed a dual membrane topology of the N-terminal part of NS4B during HCV RNA replication. Luminal translocation was unaffected by the mutations introduced into AH1, but was abrogated by mutations introduced into AH2. In conclusion, our study reports the three-dimensional structure of AH1 from HCV NS4B, and highlights the importance of positively charged amino acid residues flanking this amphipathic ?-helix in membranous web formation and RNA replication. In addition, we demonstrate that AH1 possesses a dual role in RNA replication and virus production, potentially governed by different topologies of the N-terminal part of NS4B. PMID:25392992

  10. Spinesin/TMPRSS5, a novel transmembrane serine protease, cloned from human spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Nozomi; Okui, Akira; Yamada, Tatsuo; Nakazato, Hiroshi; Mitsui, Shinichi

    2002-03-01

    A cDNA encoding a novel serine protease, which we designated spinesin, has been cloned from human spinal cord. The longest open reading frame was 457 amino acids. A homology search revealed that the human spinesin gene was located at chromosome 11q23 and contained 13 exons, the gene structure being similar to that of TMPRSS3 whose gene is also located on 11q23. Spinesin has a simple type II transmembrane structure, consisting of, from the N terminus, a short cytoplasmic domain, a transmembrane domain, a stem region containing a scavenger receptor-like domain, and a serine protease domain. Unlike TMPRSS3, it carries no low density lipoprotein receptor domain in the stem region. The extracellular region carries five N-glycosylation sites. The sequence of the protease domain carried the essential triad His, Asp, and Ser and showed some similarity to that of TMPRSS2, hepsin, HAT, MT-SP1, TMPRSS3, and corin, sharing 45.5, 41.9, 41.3, 40.3, 39.1, and 38.5% identity, respectively. The putative mature protease domain preceded by H(6)DDDDK was produced in Escherichia coli, purified, and successfully activated by immobilized enterokinase. Its optimal pH was about 10. It cleaved synthetic substrates for trypsin, which is inhibited by p-amidinophenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride hydrochloride but not by antipain or leupeptin. Northern blot analysis against mRNA from human tissues including liver, lung, placenta, and heart demonstrated a specific expression of spinesin mRNA in the brain. Immunohistochemically, spinesin was predominantly expressed in neurons, in their axons, and at the synapses of motoneurons in the spinal cord. In addition, some oligodendrocytes were clearly stained. These results indicate that spinesin is transported to the synapses through the axons after its synthesis in the cytoplasm and may play important roles at the synapses. Further analyses are required to clarify its roles at the synapses and in oligodendrocytes. PMID:11741986

  11. High-resolution structures of a heterochiral coiled coil.

    PubMed

    Mortenson, David E; Steinkruger, Jay D; Kreitler, Dale F; Perroni, Dominic V; Sorenson, Gregory P; Huang, Lijun; Mittal, Ritesh; Yun, Hyun Gi; Travis, Benjamin R; Mahanthappa, Mahesh K; Forest, Katrina T; Gellman, Samuel H

    2015-10-27

    Interactions between polypeptide chains containing amino acid residues with opposite absolute configurations have long been a source of interest and speculation, but there is very little structural information for such heterochiral associations. The need to address this lacuna has grown in recent years because of increasing interest in the use of peptides generated from d amino acids (d peptides) as specific ligands for natural proteins, e.g., to inhibit deleterious protein-protein interactions. Coiled-coil interactions, between or among ?-helices, represent the most common tertiary and quaternary packing motif in proteins. Heterochiral coiled-coil interactions were predicted over 50 years ago by Crick, and limited experimental data obtained in solution suggest that such interactions can indeed occur. To address the dearth of atomic-level structural characterization of heterochiral helix pairings, we report two independent crystal structures that elucidate coiled-coil packing between l- and d-peptide helices. Both structures resulted from racemic crystallization of a peptide corresponding to the transmembrane segment of the influenza M2 protein. Networks of canonical knobs-into-holes side-chain packing interactions are observed at each helical interface. However, the underlying patterns for these heterochiral coiled coils seem to deviate from the heptad sequence repeat that is characteristic of most homochiral analogs, with an apparent preference for a hendecad repeat pattern. PMID:26460035

  12. Cell Death Triggered by a Putative Amphipathic Helix of Radish mosaic virus Helicase Protein Is Tightly Correlated With Host Membrane Modification.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Masayoshi; Komatsu, Ken; Iwai, Ryo; Keima, Takuya; Maejima, Kensaku; Shiraishi, Takuya; Ishikawa, Kazuya; Yoshida, Tetsuya; Kitazawa, Yugo; Okano, Yukari; Yamaji, Yasuyuki; Namba, Shigetou

    2015-06-01

    Systemic necrosis is one of the most severe symptoms caused by plant RNA viruses. Recently, systemic necrosis has been suggested to have similar features to a defense response referred to as the hypersensitive response (HR), a form of programmed cell death. In virus-infected plant cells, host intracellular membrane structures are changed dramatically for more efficient viral replication. However, little is known about whether this replication-associated membrane modification is the cause of the symptoms. In this study, we identified an amino-terminal amphipathic helix of the helicase encoded by Radish mosaic virus (RaMV) (genus Comovirus) as an elicitor of cell death in RaMV-infected plants. Cell death caused by the amphipathic helix had features similar to HR, such as SGT1-dependence. Mutational analyses and inhibitor assays using cerulenin demonstrated that the amphipathic helix-induced cell death was tightly correlated with dramatic alterations in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane structures. Furthermore, the cell death-inducing activity of the amphipathic helix was conserved in Cowpea mosaic virus (genus Comovirus) and Tobacco ringspot virus (genus Nepovirus), both of which are classified in the family Secoviridae. Together, these results indicate that ER membrane modification associated with viral intracellular replication may be recognized to prime defense responses against plant viruses. PMID:25650831

  13. Distinct helix propensities and membrane interactions of human and rat IAPP(1-19) monomers in anionic lipid bilayers.

    PubMed

    Guo, Cong; Côté, Sébastien; Mousseau, Normand; Wei, Guanghong

    2015-02-26

    Islet amyloid polypeptide, IAPP or amylin, is a 37-residue peptide hormone coexpressed with insulin by pancreatic ?-cells. The aggregation of human IAPP (hIAPP) into amyloid deposits is associated with type II diabetes. Substantial evidence suggests that the interaction of anionic membranes with hIAPP may facilitate peptide aggregation and the N-terminal 1-19 fragment (IAPP(1-19)) plays an important role in peptide-membrane interaction. As a first step to understand how structural differences between human and rat IAPP peptides in membranes may influence the later oligomerization process, we have investigated the structures and orientations of hIAPP(1-19) and the less toxic rIAPP(1-19) (i.e., the H18R mutant of hIAPP(1-19)) monomers in anionic POPG bilayers by performing replica exchange molecular dynamics (REMD) simulations. On the basis of ?20 ?s REMD simulations started from a random coil conformation of the peptide placed in water, we find that unfolded h(r)IAPP(1-19) can insert into the bilayers and the membrane-bound peptide stays mainly at the lipid head-tail interface. hIAPP(1-19) displays higher helix propensity than rIAPP(1-19), especially in the L12-L16 region. The helix is oriented parallel to the bilayer surface and buried in the membrane 0.3-0.8 nm below the phosphorus atoms, consistent with previous electron paramagnetic resonance data. The helical conformation is an amphiphilic helix with its hydrophilic and hydrophobic faces pointing, respectively, to the lipid head and tail regions. The H18R substitution enhances the electrostatic interactions of IAPP(1-19) with the membrane, while it weakens the intrapeptide interactions crucial for helix formation, thus leading to lower helix propensity of rIAPP(1-19). Implications of our simulation results on the membrane-mediated IAPP(1-19) oligomerization are discussed. PMID:25646717

  14. Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Monomers Induce XAO Peptide Polyproline II to Helix Transition

    E-print Network

    Asher, Sanford A.

    Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Monomers Induce XAO Peptide Polyproline II to Helix Transition Zhenmin Hong, Krishnan Damodaran, and Sanford A. Asher* Department of Chemistry, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh

  15. Structure, Function, Self-Assembly and Origin of Simple Membrane Proteins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pohorille, Andrew

    2003-01-01

    Integral membrane proteins perform such essential cellular functions as transport of ions, nutrients and waste products across cell walls, transduction of environmental signals, regulation of cell fusion, recognition of other cells, energy capture and its conversion into high-energy compounds. In fact, 30-40% of genes in modem organisms codes for membrane proteins. Although contemporary membrane proteins or their functional assemblies can be quite complex, their transmembrane fragments are usually remarkably simple. The most common structural motif for these fragments is a bundle of alpha-helices, but occasionally it could be a beta-barrel. In a series of molecular dynamics computer simulations we investigated self-organizing properties of simple membrane proteins based on these structural motifs. Specifically, we studied folding and insertion into membranes of short, nonpolar or amphiphatic peptides. We also investigated glycophorin A, a peptide that forms sequence-specific dimers, and a transmembrane aggregate of four identical alpha-helices that forms an efficient and selective voltage-gated proton channel was investigated. Many peptides are attracted to water-membrane interfaces. Once at the interface, nonpolar peptides spontaneously fold to a-helices. Whenever the sequence permits, peptides that contain both polar and nonpolar amino also adopt helical structures, in which polar and nonpolar amino acid side chains are immersed in water and membrane, respectively. Specific identity of side chains is less important. Helical peptides at the interface could insert into the membrane and adopt a transmembrane conformation. However, insertion of a single helix is unfavorable because polar groups in the peptide become completely dehydrated upon insertion. The unfavorable free energy of insertion can be regained by spontaneous association of peptides in the membrane. The first step in this process is the formation of dimers, although the most common are aggregates of 4-7 helices. The helices could arrange themselves such that they formed pores capable of transporting ions and small molecules across membranes. Stability of transmembrane aggregates of simple proteins is often only marginal and, therefore, it can be regulated by environmental signals or small sequence modifications in the region of interhelical interactions. A key step in the earliest evolution of membrane proteins was the emergence of selectivity for specific substrates. Many channels could become selective if one or only a few properly chosen amino acids are properly placed along the channel, acting as filters or gates. This is a convenient evolutionary solution because it does not require imposing conditions on the whole sequence.

  16. Toxic effects of Cadmium on the garden snail (Helix aspersa)

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, L.K.; DeHaven, J.I.; Botts, R.P.

    1981-05-01

    Spreading treated municipal wastes on agricultural and forest lands is becoming an established method of disposal. However, there is concern about the deleterious effects of toxicants, particularly cadmium, in the sludges. Cadmium concentrations in sewage sludge have been reported as high as 1500 ppM. The work reported here is a part of a larger project to investigate the ecological effects of municipal wastes on forest lands. Snails, Helix aspersa, were chosen to examine the entrance of cadmium into terrestrial food chains. This experiment was designed to determine cadmium accumulation, acute toxicity, and behavioral, reproductive and growth responses with increasing levels of cadmium.

  17. Helix untwisting and bubble formation in circular DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoli, Marco

    2013-05-01

    The base pair fluctuations and helix untwisting are examined for a circular molecule. A realistic mesoscopic model including twisting degrees of freedom and bending of the molecular axis is proposed. The computational method, based on path integral techniques, simulates a distribution of topoisomers with various twist numbers and finds the energetically most favorable molecular conformation as a function of temperature. The method can predict helical repeat, openings loci, and bubble sizes for specific sequences in a broad temperature range. Some results are presented for a short DNA circle recently identified in mammalian cells.

  18. After Embedding in Membranes Antiapoptotic Bcl-XL Protein Binds Both Bcl-2 Homology Region 3 and Helix 1 of Proapoptotic Bax Protein to Inhibit Apoptotic Mitochondrial Permeabilization*

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Jingzhen; Mooers, Blaine H. M.; Zhang, Zhi; Kale, Justin; Falcone, Domina; McNichol, Jamie; Huang, Bo; Zhang, Xuejun C.; Xing, Chengguo; Andrews, David W.; Lin, Jialing

    2014-01-01

    Bcl-XL binds to Bax, inhibiting Bax oligomerization required for mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP) during apoptosis. How Bcl-XL binds to Bax in the membrane is not known. Here, we investigated the structural organization of Bcl-XL·Bax complexes formed in the MOM, including the binding interface and membrane topology, using site-specific cross-linking, compartment-specific labeling, and computational modeling. We found that one heterodimer interface is formed by a specific interaction between the Bcl-2 homology 1–3 (BH1–3) groove of Bcl-XL and the BH3 helix of Bax, as defined previously by the crystal structure of a truncated Bcl-XL protein and a Bax BH3 peptide (Protein Data Bank entry 3PL7). We also discovered a novel interface in the heterodimer formed by equivalent interactions between the helix 1 regions of Bcl-XL and Bax when their helical axes are oriented either in parallel or antiparallel. The two interfaces are located on the cytosolic side of the MOM, whereas helix 9 of Bcl-XL is embedded in the membrane together with helices 5, 6, and 9 of Bax. Formation of the helixhelix 1 interface partially depends on the formation of the groove·BH3 interface because point mutations in the latter interface and the addition of ABT-737, a groove-binding BH3 mimetic, blocked the formation of both interfaces. The mutations and ABT-737 also prevented Bcl-XL from inhibiting Bax oligomerization and subsequent MOMP, suggesting that the structural organization in which interactions at both interfaces contribute to the overall stability and functionality of the complex represents antiapoptotic Bcl-XL·Bax complexes in the MOM. PMID:24616095

  19. Dynamic Conformational Responses of a Human Cannabinoid Receptor-1 Helix Domain to Its Membrane Environment†

    PubMed Central

    Tiburu, Elvis K.; Gulla, Stefano V.; Tiburu, Mark; Janero, David R.; Budil, David E.; Makriyannis, Alexandros

    2009-01-01

    The influence of membrane environment on human cannabinoid 1 (hCB1) receptor transmembrane helix (TMH) conformational dynamics was investigated by solid-state NMR and site-directed spin labeling/EPR with a synthetic peptide, hCB1(T377-E416), corresponding to the receptor’s C-terminal component, i.e., TMH7 and its intracellular ?-helical extension (H8) (TMH7/H8). Solid-state NMR experiments with mechanically aligned hCB1(T377-E416) specifically 2H- or 15N-labeled at Ala380 and reconstituted in membrane-mimetic dimyristoylphosphocholine (DMPC) or 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycerophosphocholine (POPC) bilayers demonstrate that the conformation of the TMH7/H8 peptide is more heterogeneous in the thinner DMPC bilayer than in the thicker POPC bilayer. As revealed by EPR studies on hCB1(T377-E416) spin-labeled at Cys382 and reconstituted into the phospholipid bilayers, the spin label partitions actively between hydrophobic and hydrophilic environments. In the DMPC bilayer, the hydrophobic component dominates, regardless of temperature. Mobility parameters (?H0-1) are 0.3 and 0.73 gauss for the peptide in the DMPC or POPC bilayer environment, respectively. Interspin distances of doubly-labeled hCB1(T377-E416) peptide reconstituted into a TFE/H20 mixture or a POPC or DMPC bilayer were estimated to be 10.6 ± 0.5, 16.8 ± 1, and 11.6 ± 0.8 Å, respectively. The extent of coupling (? 50%) between spin labels located at i and i+4 in a TFE/H20 mixture or a POPC bilayer is indicative of an ?-helical TMH conformation, whereas the much lower coupling (14%) when the peptide is in a DMPC bilayer suggests a high degree of peptide conformational heterogeneity. These data demonstrate that hCB1(T377-E416) backbone dynamics as well as spin-label rotameric freedom are sensitive to and altered by the peptide’s phospholipid bilayer environment, which exerts a dynamic influence on the conformation of a TMH critical to signal transmission by the hCB1 receptor. PMID:19485422

  20. Conformation of gramicidin A in Triton X-100 micelles from CD and FTIR data: a clean example of antiparallel double ?5.6 helix formation.

    PubMed

    Sychev, Sergei V; Barsukov, Leonid I; Ivanov, Vadim T

    2013-07-01

    The linear peptide gramicidin A (gA) forms prototypical ion channels specific for monovalent cations and has been extensively used to study the organization and dynamics of membrane channels. This polymorphic peptide can adopt two different types of structures, the helical dimer ?6.3 ('channel state') and the double helical structure with two intertwined monomers. The structure of gA in micelles of detergent Triton X-100 has been studied using CD, Fourier transform infrared, and fluorescence spectroscopy. The results obtained demonstrate that only one thermodynamically stable gA structure, the antiparallel left-handed double helix ?5.6, is formed in this membrane-mimetic environment. The position of the tryptophan fluorescence maximum at 332?nm is the same as that in phospholipid membranes. The causative factors governing the double helix formation in the micellar medium are discussed on the basis of known physicochemical properties of Triton X-100. PMID:23712944

  1. Functional Isoforms of I?B Kinase ? (IKK?) Lacking Leucine Zipper and Helix-Loop-Helix Domains Reveal that IKK? and IKK? Have Different Activation Requirements

    PubMed Central

    McKenzie, Fergus R.; Connelly, Margery A.; Balzarano, Darlene; Müller, Jurgen R.; Geleziunas, Romas; Marcu, Kenneth B.

    2000-01-01

    The activity of the NF-?B family of transcription factors is regulated principally by phosphorylation and subsequent degradation of their inhibitory I?B subunits. Site-specific serine phosphorylation of I?Bs by two I?B kinases (IKK? [also known as CHUK] and IKK?) targets them for proteolysis. IKK? and -? have a unique structure, with an amino-terminal serine-threonine kinase catalytic domain and carboxy-proximal helix-loop-helix (HLH) and leucine zipper-like (LZip) amphipathic ?-helical domains. Here, we describe the properties of two novel cellular isoforms of IKK?: IKK?-?H and IKK?-?LH. IKK?-?H and IKK?-?LH are differentially spliced isoforms of the IKK? mRNA lacking its HLH domain and both its LZip and HLH domains, respectively. IKK? is the major RNA species in most murine cells and tissues, except for activated T lymphocytes and the brain, where the alternatively spliced isoforms predominate. Remarkably, IKK?-?H and IKK?-?LH, like IKK?, respond to tumor necrosis factor alpha stimulation to potentiate NF-?B activation in HEK293 cells. A mutant, catalytically inactive form of IKK? blocked IKK?-, IKK?-?H-, and IKK?-?LH-mediated NF-?B activation. Akin to IKK?, its carboxy-terminally truncated isoforms associated with the upstream activator NIK (NF-?B-inducing kinase). In contrast to IKK?, IKK?-?LH failed to associate with either itself, IKK?, IKK?, or NEMO-IKK?-IKKAP1, while IKK?-?H complexed with IKK? and IKK? but not with NEMO. Interestingly, each IKK? isoform rescued HEK293 cells from the inhibitory effects of a dominant-negative NEMO mutant, while IKK? could not. IKK?-?Cm, a recombinant mutant of IKK? structurally akin to IKK?-?LH, was equally functional in these assays, but in sharp contrast, IKK?-?Cm, a structurally analogous mutant of IKK?, was inactive. Our results demonstrate that the functional roles of seemingly analogous domains in IKK? and IKK? need not be equivalent and can also exhibit different contextual dependencies. The existence of cytokine-inducible IKK?-?H and IKK?-?LH isoforms illustrates potential modes of NF-?B activation, which are not subject to the same in vivo regulatory constraints as either IKK? or IKK?. PMID:10733566

  2. A R T I C L E S Endocytosis of the seven-transmembrane RGS1

    E-print Network

    Jones, Alan M.

    A R T I C L E S Endocytosis of the seven-transmembrane RGS1 protein activates G is the prototype of a seven-transmembrane receptor fused with an RGS domain. Endocytosis of AtRGS1 by ligand-dependent endocytosis physically uncouples the GTPase-accelerating activity of AtRGS1 from the G protein, permitting

  3. Selection and Characterization of Small Random Transmembrane Proteins that Bind and Activate the

    E-print Network

    transmembrane domain. For example, homodimers of the transmembrane 44-amino acid bovine papillomavirus E5; oncogene; TOXCAT; bovine papillomavirus; E5 protein*Corresponding author Introduction Receptor tyrosine.jmb.2004.03.044 J. Mol. Biol. (2004) 338, 907­920 #12;bovine papillomavirus (BPV) binds and activates

  4. Transmembrane Organization of the Bacillus subtilis Chemoreceptor McpB Deduced by Cysteine

    E-print Network

    Ordal, George W.

    Transmembrane Organization of the Bacillus subtilis Chemoreceptor McpB Deduced by Cysteine The Bacillus subtilis chemoreceptor McpB is a dimer of identical subunits containing two transmembrane (TM differences exist in the signaling mechanism between E. coli and Bacillus subtilis chemoreceptors. Although

  5. Evolutionary and functional divergence between the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator

    E-print Network

    Jordan, King

    Evolutionary and functional divergence between the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance, and approved October 3, 2008 (received for review June 30, 2008) The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance a unique ABC transporter protein. ion channel molecular evolution CFTR Type II divergence Cystic fibrosis

  6. Experimental determination of the vertical alignment between the second and third transmembrane segments of muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptors

    PubMed Central

    Mnatsakanyan, Nelli; Jansen, Michaela

    2013-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) are members of the Cys-loop ligand-gated ion channel superfamily. Muscle nAChR are heteropentamers that assemble from two ?, and one each of ?, ?, and ? subunits. Each subunit is composed of three domains, extracellular, transmembrane and intracellular. The transmembrane domain consists of four ?-helical segments (M1–M4). Pioneering structural information was obtained using electronmicroscopy of Torpedo nAChR. The recently-solved X-ray structure of the first eukaryotic Cys-loop receptor, a truncated (intracellular domain missing) glutamate-gated chloride channel ? (GluCl?)showed the same overall architecture . However, a significant difference with regard to the vertical alignment between the channel-lining segment M2 and segment M3 was observed. Here we used functional studies utilizing disulfide trapping experiments in muscle nAChR to determine the spatial orientation between M2 and M3. Our results are in agreement with the vertical alignment as obtained when using the GluCl? structure as a template to homology model muscle nAChR, however, they cannot be reconciled with the current Torpedo nAChR model. The vertical M2–M3 alignments as observed in X-ray structures of prokaryotic Gloeobacter violaceus ligand-gated ion channel (GLIC) and GluCl? are in agreement. Our results further confirm that this alignment in Cys-loop receptors is conserved between prokaryotes and eukaryotes. PMID:23565737

  7. Distinctly different interactions of anesthetic and nonimmobilizer with transmembrane channel peptides.

    PubMed Central

    Tang, P; Hu, J; Liachenko, S; Xu, Y

    1999-01-01

    Although it plays no clinical role in general anesthesia, gramicidin A, a transmembrane channel peptide, provides an excellent model for studying the specific interaction between volatile anesthetics and membrane proteins at the molecular level. We show here that a pair of structurally similar volatile anesthetic and nonimmobilizer (nonanesthetic), 1-chloro-1,2,2-trifluorocyclobutane (F3) and 1, 2-dichlorohexafluorocyclobutane (F6), respectively, interacts differently with the transmembrane peptide. With 400 microM gramicidin A in a vesicle suspension of 60 mM phosphatidylcholine-phosphatidylglycerol (PC/PG), the intermolecular cross-relaxation rate constants between (19)F of F3 and (1)H in the chemical shift regions for the indole and backbone amide protons were 0.0106 +/- 0.0007 (n = 12) and 0.0105 +/- 0.0014 (n = 8) s(-1), respectively. No cross-relaxation was measurable between (19)F of F6 and protons in these regions. Sodium transport study showed that with 75 microM gramicidin A in a vesicle suspension of 66 mM PC/PG, F3 increased the (23)Na apparent efflux rate constant from 149.7 +/- 7.2 of control (n = 3) to 191.7 +/- 12.2 s(-1) (n = 3), and the apparent influx rate constant from 182.1 +/- 15.4 to 222.8 +/- 21.7 s(-1) (n = 3). In contrast, F6 had no effects on either influx or efflux rate. It is concluded that the ability of general anesthetics to interact with amphipathic residues near the peptide-lipid-water interface and the inability of nonimmobilizer to do the same may represent some characteristics of anesthetic-protein interaction that are of importance to general anesthesia. PMID:10423422

  8. Transmembrane electron transfer catalyzed by phospholipid-linked manganese porphyrins

    SciTech Connect

    Nango, Mamoru; Mizusawa, Atsushi; Miyake, Takenori; Yoshinaga, Junji )

    1990-02-14

    Synthetic models can be very helpful in studying the effect of distance and orientation in electron transfer reactions in biological membrane processes such as occur in photosynthesis and mitochondria. To provide a model for the electron transfer where porphyrin pigments play the key role, the preparation of porphyrin derivatives that are capable of light-induced intra- or intermolecular electron transfer was reported. However, there has been little study of ground-state electron transfer between porphyrin complexes to provide insight into the effect of distance and orientation in the electron transfer so that a vectorial electron transfer system may be constructed in the biological membrane. We now report transmembrane electron transfer catalyzed by manganese complexes of bilayer-active phospholipid-linked porphyrins 1, PE-C{sub n}-MnTTP (n = 0, 5, 11) (Scheme I), which can be easily immersed into the lipid bilayer. The synthetic procedures leading are described.

  9. Reliability of transmembrane predictions in whole-genome data.

    PubMed

    Käll, Lukas; Sonnhammer, Erik L L

    2002-12-18

    Transmembrane prediction methods are generally benchmarked on a set of proteins with experimentally verified topology. We have investigated if the accuracy measured on such datasets can be expected in an unbiased genomic analysis, or if there is a bias towards 'easily predictable' proteins in the benchmark datasets. As a measurement of accuracy, the concordance of the results from five different prediction methods was used (TMHMM, PHD, HMMTOP, MEMSAT, and TOPPRED). The benchmark dataset showed significantly higher levels (up to five times) of agreement between different methods than in 10 tested genomes. We have also analyzed which programs are most prone to make mispredictions by measuring the frequency of one-out-of-five disagreeing predictions. PMID:12482603

  10. Teaching old receptors new tricks: biasing seven-transmembrane receptors

    PubMed Central

    Rajagopal, Sudarshan; Rajagopal, Keshava; Lefkowitz, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Seven-transmembrane receptors (7TMRs; also known as G protein-coupled receptors) are the largest class of receptors in the human genome and are common targets for therapeutics. Originally identified as mediators of 7TMR desensitization, ?-arrestins (arrestin 2 and arrestin 3) are now recognized as true adaptor proteins that transduce signals to multiple effector pathways. Signalling that is mediated by ?-arrestins has distinct biochemical and functional consequences from those mediated by G proteins, and several biased ligands and receptors have been identified that preferentially signal through either G protein- or ?-arrestin-mediated pathways. These ligands are not only useful tools for investigating the biochemistry of 7TMR signalling, they also have the potential to be developed into new classes of therapeutics. PMID:20431569

  11. Type II transmembrane serine protease (TTSP) deregulation in cancer.

    PubMed

    Webb, Siobhan L; Sanders, Andrew J; Mason, Malcolm D; Jiang, Wen G

    2011-01-01

    The Type II transmembrane serine proteases (TTSP) are a relatively newly identified family of proteolytic enzymes that have become the subject of intense scrutiny in the field of cancer research. Advances in genome screening technology have enabled the identification of putative members and the further characterization of existing members. The TTSPs are involved in a diverse range of physiological functions and new roles continue to be discovered. A large majority of these proteases appear to play crucial roles in the development of disease, especially cancer development and progression. This review presents the current knowledge of the biological role of those TTSPs that have been identified in the development and progression of human cancers. PMID:21196187

  12. Decreasing transmembrane segment length greatly decreases perfringolysin O pore size

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Qingqing; Li, Huilin; Wang, Tong; London, Erwin

    2015-04-08

    Perfringolysin O (PFO) is a transmembrane (TM) ?-barrel protein that inserts into mammalian cell membranes. Once inserted into membranes, PFO assembles into pore-forming oligomers containing 30–50 PFO monomers. These form a pore of up to 300 Å, far exceeding the size of most other proteinaceous pores. In this study, we found that altering PFO TM segment length can alter the size of PFO pores. A PFO mutant with lengthened TM segments oligomerized to a similar extent as wild-type PFO, and exhibited pore-forming activity and a pore size very similar to wild-type PFO as measured by electron microscopy and a leakage assay. In contrast, PFO with shortened TM segments exhibited a large reduction in pore-forming activity and pore size. This suggests that the interaction between TM segments can greatly affect the size of pores formed by TM ?-barrel proteins. PFO may be a promising candidate for engineering pore size for various applications.

  13. Pharmacological Distinction between Soluble and Transmembrane Adenylyl Cyclases

    PubMed Central

    Bitterman, Jacob L.; Ramos-Espiritu, Lavoisier; Diaz, Ana; Buck, Jochen

    2013-01-01

    The second messenger cAMP is involved in a number of cellular signaling pathways. In mammals, cAMP is produced by either the hormonally responsive, G protein–regulated transmembrane adenylyl cyclases (tmACs) or by the bicarbonate- and calcium-regulated soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC). To develop tools to differentiate tmAC and sAC signaling, we determined the specificity and potency of commercially available adenylyl cyclase inhibitors. In cellular systems, two inhibitors, KH7 and catechol estrogens, proved specific for sAC, and 2?,5?-dideoxyadenosine proved specific for tmACs. These tools provide a means to define the specific contributions of the different families of adenylyl cyclases in cells and tissues, which will further our understanding of cell signaling. PMID:24091307

  14. Molecular dynamics investigations of the ?-helix to ?-barrel conformational transformation in the RfaH transcription factor.

    PubMed

    Gc, Jeevan B; Bhandari, Yuba R; Gerstman, Bernard S; Chapagain, Prem P

    2014-05-15

    The C-terminal domain (CTD) of the transcription antiterminator RfaH folds to an ?-helix bundle when it interacts with its N-terminal domain (NTD) but it undergoes an all-? to all-? conformational transformation when it does not interact with the NTD. The RfaH-CTD in the all-? topology is involved in regulating transcription whereas in the all-? topology it is involved in stimulating translation by recruiting a ribosome to an mRNA. Because the conformational transformation in RfaH-CTD gives it a different function, it is labeled as a transformer protein, a class that may eventually include many other functional proteins. The structure and function of RfaH is of interest for its own sake, as well as for the value it may serve as a model system for investigating structural transformations in general. We used replica exchange molecular dynamics simulations with implicit solvent to investigate the ?-helix to ?-structure transformation of RfaH-CTD, followed by structural relaxation with detailed all atom simulations for the best replica. The importance of interfacial interactions between the two domains of RfaH is highlighted by the compromised structural integrity of the helical form of the CTD in the absence NTD. Calculations of free-energy landscape and transfer entropy elucidate the details of the RfaH-CTD transformation process. PMID:24758259

  15. Novel Molecular Approaches in Heart Failure: Seven Trans-Membrane Receptors Signaling in the Heart and Circulating Blood Leukocytes

    PubMed Central

    Schiattarella, Gabriele Giacomo; Magliulo, Fabio; Cattaneo, Fabio; Gargiulo, Giuseppe; Sannino, Anna; Franzone, Anna; Oliveti, Marco; Perrino, Cinzia; Trimarco, Bruno; Esposito, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) is the result of molecular, cellular, and structural changes induced by cardiac load or injury. A complex network of signaling pathways have been involved in the development and progression of cardiac dysfunction. In this review, we summarize the pivotal role of seven trans-membrane receptors (7TMRs), also called G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), in HF. Moreover, we will discuss the current knowledge on the potential mirroring of 7TMR signaling between circulating blood leukocytes and the heart, and the related future possibilities in the management of HF patients.

  16. Transmembrane Pores Formed by Human Antimicrobial Peptide LL-37

    SciTech Connect

    Qian, Shuo

    2011-01-01

    Human LL-37 is a multifunctional cathelicidin peptide that has shown a wide spectrum of antimicrobial activity by permeabilizing microbial membranes similar to other antimicrobial peptides; however, its molecular mechanism has not been clarified. Two independent experiments revealed LL-37 bound to membranes in the {alpha}-helical form with the axis lying in the plane of membrane. This led to the conclusion that membrane permeabilization by LL-37 is a nonpore carpet-like mechanism of action. Here we report the detection of transmembrane pores induced by LL-37. The pore formation coincided with LL-37 helices aligning approximately normal to the plane of the membrane. We observed an unusual phenomenon of LL-37 embedded in stacked membranes, which are commonly used in peptide orientation studies. The membrane-bound LL-37 was found in the normal orientation only when the membrane spacing in the multilayers exceeded its fully hydrated value. This was achieved by swelling the stacked membranes with excessive water to a swollen state. The transmembrane pores were detected and investigated in swollen states by means of oriented circular dichroism, neutron in-plane scattering, and x-ray lamellar diffraction. The results are consistent with the effect of LL-37 on giant unilamellar vesicles. The detected pores had a water channel of radius 2333 {angstrom}. The molecular mechanism of pore formation by LL-37 is consistent with the two-state model exhibited by magainin and other small pore-forming peptides. The discovery that peptide-membrane interactions in swollen states are different from those in less hydrated states may have implications for other large membrane-active peptides and proteins studied in stacked membranes.

  17. A functional protein pore with a "retro" transmembrane domain.

    PubMed Central

    Cheley, S.; Braha, O.; Lu, X.; Conlan, S.; Bayley, H.

    1999-01-01

    Extended retro (reversed) peptide sequences have not previously been accommodated within functional proteins. Here, we show that the entire transmembrane portion of the beta-barrel of the pore-forming protein alpha-hemolysin can be formed by retrosequences comprising a total of 175 amino acid residues, 25 contributed by the central sequence of each subunit of the heptameric pore. The properties of wild-type and retro heptamers in planar bilayers are similar. The single-channel conductance of the retro pore is 15% less than that of the wild-type heptamer and its current-voltage relationship denotes close to ohmic behavior, while the wild-type pore is weakly rectifying. Both wild-type and retro pores are very weakly anion selective. These results and the examination of molecular models suggest that beta-barrels may be especially accepting of retro sequences compared to other protein folds. Indeed, the ability to form a retro domain could be diagnostic of a beta-barrel, explaining, for example, the activity of the retro forms of many membrane-permeabilizing peptides. By contrast with the wild-type subunits, monomeric retro subunits undergo premature assembly in the absence of membranes, most likely because the altered central sequence fails to interact with the remainder of the subunit, thereby initiating assembly. Despite this difficulty, a technique was devised for obtaining heteromeric pores containing both wild-type and retro subunits. Most probably as a consequence of unfavorable interstrand side-chain interactions, the heteromeric pores are less stable than either the wild-type or retro homoheptamers, as judged by the presence of subconductance states in single-channel recordings. Knowledge about the extraordinary plasticity of the transmembrane beta-barrel of alpha-hemolysin will be very useful in the de novo design of functional membrane proteins based on the beta-barrel motif. PMID:10386875

  18. Transmembrane Pores Formed by Human Antimicrobial Peptide LL-37

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chang-Chun; Sun, Yen; Qian, Shuo; Huang, Huey W.

    2011-01-01

    Human LL-37 is a multifunctional cathelicidin peptide that has shown a wide spectrum of antimicrobial activity by permeabilizing microbial membranes similar to other antimicrobial peptides; however, its molecular mechanism has not been clarified. Two independent experiments revealed LL-37 bound to membranes in the ?-helical form with the axis lying in the plane of membrane. This led to the conclusion that membrane permeabilization by LL-37 is a nonpore carpet-like mechanism of action. Here we report the detection of transmembrane pores induced by LL-37. The pore formation coincided with LL-37 helices aligning approximately normal to the plane of the membrane. We observed an unusual phenomenon of LL-37 embedded in stacked membranes, which are commonly used in peptide orientation studies. The membrane-bound LL-37 was found in the normal orientation only when the membrane spacing in the multilayers exceeded its fully hydrated value. This was achieved by swelling the stacked membranes with excessive water to a swollen state. The transmembrane pores were detected and investigated in swollen states by means of oriented circular dichroism, neutron in-plane scattering, and x-ray lamellar diffraction. The results are consistent with the effect of LL-37 on giant unilamellar vesicles. The detected pores had a water channel of radius 23–33 Å. The molecular mechanism of pore formation by LL-37 is consistent with the two-state model exhibited by magainin and other small pore-forming peptides. The discovery that peptide-membrane interactions in swollen states are different from those in less hydrated states may have implications for other large membrane-active peptides and proteins studied in stacked membranes. PMID:21463582

  19. Magnetic Resonance Study of the Transmembrane Nitrite Diffusion

    PubMed Central

    Samouilov, A.; Woldman, Ya.Yu.; Zweier, J.L.; Khramtsov, V.V.

    2009-01-01

    Nitrite (NO2-), being a product of metabolism of both nitric oxide (NO•) and nitrate (NO3-), can accumulate in tissues and regenerate NO• by several mechanisms. The effect of NO2- on ischemia/reperfusion injury was also reported. Nevertheless, the mechanisms of intracellular NO2- accumulation are poorly understood. We suggested significant role of nitrite penetration through biological membranes in the form of undissociated nitrous acid (HNO2). This hypothesis has been tested using large unilamellar phosphatidylcholine liposomes and several spectroscopic techniques. HNO2 transport across the phospholipid bilayer of liposomes facilitates proton transfer resulting in intraliposomal acidification, which was measured using pH-sensitive probes. NO2--mediated intraliposomal acidification was confirmed by EPR spectroscopy using membrane-impermeable pH-sensitive nitroxide, 2,2,5,5-tetramethyl-1-oxyl-2,5-dihydro-1H-imidazol-3-ium-4-yl)-aminomethanesulfonic acid (pK 5.25), and by 31P-NMR spectroscopy using inorganic phosphate (pK 6.9). Nitrite accumulates inside liposomes in concentration exceeding its concentration in the bulk solution, when initial transmembrane pH gradient (alkaline inside) is applied. Intraliposomal accumulation of NO2- was observed by direct measurement using chemiluminescence technique. Perfusion of isolated rat hearts with buffer containing 4 ?M NO2- was performed. The nitrite concentrations in the effluent and in the tissue, measured after 1 minute perfusion were close, supporting fast penetration of the nitrite through the tissue. Measurements of the nitrate/nitrate showed that total concentration of NOx in myocardium increased from initial 7.8 ?M to 24.7 ?M after nitrite perfusion. Physiological significance of passive transmembrane transport of NO2- and its coupling with intraliposomal acidification are discussed. PMID:17306575

  20. Energetic decomposition of the alpha-helix-coil equilibrium of a dynamic model system.

    PubMed

    Wang, L; O'Connell, T; Tropsha, A; Hermans, J

    1996-10-01

    Using molecular dynamics simulations to calculate free energies of molecular transformation, we have computed helix-coil transition free energies for alanine oligomers up to 14 residues long. The simulations have been done on the model in vacuo with dielectric constant, epsilon = 1, 5, 25, and infinity and on the model in solution with explicit representation of water molecules and with partial charges on the oligomer set to zero. (The analogous simulations of the solvated model with full charges on the oligomer were reported elsewhere [L. Wang et al. (1995) Proceedings of the National Academy of Science USA 92, 10924-10928]). In vacuo, both entropic and electrostatic contributions oppose formation of a 3-residue helical nucleus in the helix initiation step. The entropy change opposing helix growth is found to be 3 e.u., van der Waals interactions favor helix growth by 1.9 kcal/mol, and electrostatic interactions favor helix growth by 3 kcal/mol (for epsilon = 1; all these values are per residue). In water, helix stability is slightly greater for the zero-charge model than for the full-charge model, i.e., the polypeptide's electrostatic interactions, which include hydrogen bonds, slightly destabilize the helix. The helix stabilizing contribution of the hydrophobic effect was found to be identical to that of the van der Waals interactions in vacuo (i.e., 1.9 kcal/mol per residue). The zero-charge model has nearly identical helix stability in vacuo and in water, the almost identical free energies of transfer of helix and coil state of the zero-charge oligomer from vacuum to water are found to be small. Thus, the results of this systematic variation of the force field afford a meaningful decomposition of the free energies for helix initiation and growth. PMID:8837515

  1. Micelle-Triggered ?-Hairpin to ?-Helix Transition in a 14-Residue Peptide from a Choline-Binding Repeat of the Pneumococcal Autolysin LytA

    PubMed Central

    Zamora-Carreras, Héctor; Maestro, Beatriz; Strandberg, Erik; Ulrich, Anne S; Sanz, Jesús M; Jiménez, M Ángeles

    2015-01-01

    Choline-binding modules (CBMs) have a ??-solenoid structure composed of choline-binding repeats (CBR), which consist of a ?-hairpin followed by a short linker. To find minimal peptides that are able to maintain the CBR native structure and to evaluate their remaining choline-binding ability, we have analysed the third ?-hairpin of the CBM from the pneumococcal LytA autolysin. Circular dichroism and NMR data reveal that this peptide forms a highly stable native-like ?-hairpin both in aqueous solution and in the presence of trifluoroethanol, but, strikingly, the peptide structure is a stable amphipathic ?-helix in both zwitterionic (dodecylphosphocholine) and anionic (sodium dodecylsulfate) detergent micelles, as well as in small unilamellar vesicles. This ?-hairpin to ?-helix conversion is reversible. Given that the ?-hairpin and ?-helix differ greatly in the distribution of hydrophobic and hydrophilic side chains, we propose that the amphipathicity is a requirement for a peptide structure to interact and to be stable in micelles or lipid vesicles. To our knowledge, this “chameleonic” behaviour is the only described case of a micelle-induced structural transition between two ordered peptide structures. PMID:25917218

  2. Micelle-Triggered ?-Hairpin to ?-Helix Transition in a 14-Residue Peptide from a Choline-Binding Repeat of the Pneumococcal Autolysin LytA.

    PubMed

    Zamora-Carreras, Héctor; Maestro, Beatriz; Strandberg, Erik; Ulrich, Anne S; Sanz, Jesús M; Jiménez, M Ángeles

    2015-05-26

    Choline-binding modules (CBMs) have a ??-solenoid structure composed of choline-binding repeats (CBR), which consist of a ?-hairpin followed by a short linker. To find minimal peptides that are able to maintain the CBR native structure and to evaluate their remaining choline-binding ability, we have analysed the third ?-hairpin of the CBM from the pneumococcal LytA autolysin. Circular dichroism and NMR data reveal that this peptide forms a highly stable native-like ?-hairpin both in aqueous solution and in the presence of trifluoroethanol, but, strikingly, the peptide structure is a stable amphipathic ?-helix in both zwitterionic (dodecylphosphocholine) and anionic (sodium dodecylsulfate) detergent micelles, as well as in small unilamellar vesicles. This ?-hairpin to ?-helix conversion is reversible. Given that the ?-hairpin and ?-helix differ greatly in the distribution of hydrophobic and hydrophilic side chains, we propose that the amphipathicity is a requirement for a peptide structure to interact and to be stable in micelles or lipid vesicles. To our knowledge, this "chameleonic" behaviour is the only described case of a micelle-induced structural transition between two ordered peptide structures. PMID:25917218

  3. TRPV1 structures in distinct conformations reveal activation mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Cao, Erhu; Liao, Maofu; Cheng, Yifan; Julius, David

    2013-12-01

    Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are polymodal signal detectors that respond to a wide range of physical and chemical stimuli. Elucidating how these channels integrate and convert physiological signals into channel opening is essential to understanding how they regulate cell excitability under normal and pathophysiological conditions. Here we exploit pharmacological probes (a peptide toxin and small vanilloid agonists) to determine structures of two activated states of the capsaicin receptor, TRPV1. A domain (consisting of transmembrane segments 1-4) that moves during activation of voltage-gated channels remains stationary in TRPV1, highlighting differences in gating mechanisms for these structurally related channel superfamilies. TRPV1 opening is associated with major structural rearrangements in the outer pore, including the pore helix and selectivity filter, as well as pronounced dilation of a hydrophobic constriction at the lower gate, suggesting a dual gating mechanism. Allosteric coupling between upper and lower gates may account for rich physiological modulation exhibited by TRPV1 and other TRP channels. PMID:24305161

  4. Structural basis of ion permeation gating in Slo2.1 K+ channels.

    PubMed

    Garg, Priyanka; Gardner, Alison; Garg, Vivek; Sanguinetti, Michael C

    2013-11-01

    The activation gate of ion channels controls the transmembrane flux of permeant ions. In voltage-gated K(+) channels, the aperture formed by the S6 bundle crossing can widen to open or narrow to close the ion permeation pathway, whereas the selectivity filter gates ion flux in cyclic-nucleotide gated (CNG) and Slo1 channels. Here we explore the structural basis of the activation gate for Slo2.1, a weakly voltage-dependent K(+) channel that is activated by intracellular Na(+) and Cl(-). Slo2.1 channels were heterologously expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes and activated by elevated [NaCl]i or extracellular application of niflumic acid. In contrast to other voltage-gated channels, Slo2.1 was blocked by verapamil in an activation-independent manner, implying that the S6 bundle crossing does not gate the access of verapamil to its central cavity binding site. The structural basis of Slo2.1 activation was probed by Ala scanning mutagenesis of the S6 segment and by mutation of selected residues in the pore helix and S5 segment. Mutation to Ala of three S6 residues caused reduced trafficking of channels to the cell surface and partial (K256A, I263A, Q273A) or complete loss (E275A) of channel function. P271A Slo2.1 channels trafficked normally, but were nonfunctional. Further mutagenesis and intragenic rescue by second site mutations suggest that Pro271 and Glu275 maintain the inner pore in an open configuration by preventing formation of a tight S6 bundle crossing. Mutation of several residues in S6 and S5 predicted by homology modeling to contact residues in the pore helix induced a gain of channel function. Substitution of the pore helix residue Phe240 with polar residues induced constitutive channel activation. Together these findings suggest that (1) the selectivity filter and not the bundle crossing gates ion permeation and (2) dynamic coupling between the pore helix and the S5 and S6 segments mediates Slo2.1 channel activation. PMID:24166878

  5. The region from phenylalanine-28 to lysine-50 of a yeast mitochondrial ATPase inhibitor (IF1) forms an ?-helix in solution.

    PubMed

    Sun, Li; Nakamae, Naomi; Ichikawa, Naoki

    2015-12-01

    A mitochondrial ATPase inhibitor, IF1, is a 63 amino acid residue protein that regulates the activity of ATP synthase (F1Fo-ATPase). In the present study, we constructed mutant IF1 proteins with proline residues inserted into a wide range of their primary structures to determine the location and function of ?-helix in the protein. A total of 11 yeast IF1 protein mutants were expressed and purified. Proline insertions in the region 28-50 reduced ?-helical contents, indicating that the region formed a helix in solution. Oligomer formation of proline mutants at the C-terminal 38-60 region was markedly reduced, indicating that the region is required for oligomerization of the protein. Proline mutants at the N-terminal 18-39 region did not inhibit F1Fo-ATPase, indicating that the region is required for ATPase inhibitory activity. Inhibition of a proline insertion mutant between residues 44 and 45 that lost a large portion of the ?-helix was slower, although the maximal inhibition level of the mutant protein was comparable to that of wild-type IF1. The results suggest that the helix of yeast IF1 facilitates binding to F1 by promoting initial interaction of the proteins. PMID:26420258

  6. Hepatitis C Virus RNA Replication and Virus Particle Assembly Require Specific Dimerization of the NS4A Protein Transmembrane Domain

    PubMed Central

    Kohlway, Andrew; Pirakitikulr, Nathan; Barrera, Francisco N.; Potapova, Olga; Engelman, Donald M.

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS4A is a single-pass transmembrane (TM) protein essential for viral replication and particle assembly. The sequence of the NS4A TM domain is highly conserved, suggesting that it may be important for protein-protein interactions. To test this hypothesis, we measured the potential dimerization of the NS4A TM domain in a well-characterized two-hybrid TM protein interaction system. The NS4A TM domain exhibited a strong homotypic interaction that was comparable in affinity to glycophorin A, a well-studied human blood group antigen that forms TM homodimers. Several mutations predicted to cluster on a common surface of the NS4A TM helix caused significant reductions in dimerization, suggesting that these residues form an interface for NS4A dimerization. Mutations in the NS4A TM domain were further examined in the JFH-1 genotype 2a replicon system; importantly, all mutations that destabilized NS4A dimers also caused defects in RNA replication and/or virus assembly. Computational modeling of NS4A TM interactions suggests a right-handed dimeric interaction of helices with an interface that is consistent with the mutational effects. Furthermore, defects in NS4A oligomerization and virus particle assembly of two mutants were rescued by NS4A A15S, a TM mutation recently identified through forward genetics as a cell culture-adaptive mutation. Together, these data provide the first example of a functionally important TM dimer interface within an HCV nonstructural protein and reveal a fundamental role of the NS4A TM domain in coordinating HCV RNA replication and virus particle assembly. PMID:24173222

  7. Transferring the PRIMO Coarse-Grained Force Field to the Membrane Environment: Simulations of Membrane Proteins and Helix–Helix Association

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    An extension of the recently developed PRIMO coarse-grained force field to membrane environments, PRIMO-M, is described. The membrane environment is modeled with the heterogeneous dielectric generalized Born (HDGB) methodology that simply replaces the standard generalized Born model in PRIMO without further parametrization. The resulting model was validated by comparing amino acid insertion free energy profiles and application in molecular dynamics simulations of membrane proteins and membrane-interacting peptides. Membrane proteins with 148–661 amino acids show stable root-mean-squared-deviations (RMSD) between 2 and 4 Å for most systems. Transmembrane helical peptides maintain helical shape and exhibit tilt angles in good agreement with experimental or other simulation data. The association of two glycophorin A (GpA) helices was simulated using replica exchange molecular dynamics simulations yielding the correct dimer structure with a crossing angle in agreement with previous studies. Finally, conformational sampling of the influenza fusion peptide also generates structures in agreement with previous studies. Overall, these findings suggest that PRIMO-M can be used to study membrane bound peptides and proteins and validates the transferable nature of the PRIMO coarse-grained force field. PMID:25136271

  8. Probing Membrane Protein Structure Using Water Polarization Transfer Solid-State NMR

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Jonathan K.; Hong, Mei

    2014-01-01

    Water plays an essential role in the structure and function of proteins, lipid membranes and other biological macromolecules. Solid-state NMR heteronuclear-detected 1H polarization transfer from water to biomolecules is a versatile approach for studying water-protein, water-membrane, and water-carbohydrate interactions in biology. We review radiofrequency pulse sequences for measuring water polarization transfer to biomolecules, the mechanisms of polarization transfer, and the application of this method to various biological systems. Three polarization transfer mechanisms, chemical exchange, spin diffusion and NOE, manifest themselves at different temperatures, magic-angle-spinning frequencies, and pulse irradiations. Chemical exchange is ubiquitous in all systems examined so far, and spin diffusion plays the key role in polarization transfer within the macromolecule. Tightly bound water molecules with long residence times are rare in proteins at ambient temperature. The water polarization-transfer technique has been used to study the hydration of microcrystalline proteins, lipid membranes, and plant cell wall polysaccharides, and to derive atomic-resolution details of the kinetics and mechanism of ion conduction in channels and pumps. Using this approach, we have measured the water polarization transfer to the transmembrane peptide of the influenza M2 protein to obtain information on the structure of this tetrameric proton channel. At short mixing times, the polarization transfer rates are site-specific and depend on the pH, labile protons, sidechain conformation, as well as the radial position of the residues in this four-helix bundle. Despite the multiple dependences, the initial transfer rates reflect the periodic nature of the residue positions from the water-filled pore, thus this technique provides a way of gleaning secondary structure information, helix tilt angle, and the oligomeric structure of membrane proteins. PMID:25228502

  9. Probing membrane protein structure using water polarization transfer solid-state NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Jonathan K.; Hong, Mei

    2014-10-01

    Water plays an essential role in the structure and function of proteins, lipid membranes and other biological macromolecules. Solid-state NMR heteronuclear-detected 1H polarization transfer from water to biomolecules is a versatile approach for studying water-protein, water-membrane, and water-carbohydrate interactions in biology. We review radiofrequency pulse sequences for measuring water polarization transfer to biomolecules, the mechanisms of polarization transfer, and the application of this method to various biological systems. Three polarization transfer mechanisms, chemical exchange, spin diffusion and NOE, manifest themselves at different temperatures, magic-angle-spinning frequencies, and pulse irradiations. Chemical exchange is ubiquitous in all systems examined so far, and spin diffusion plays the key role in polarization transfer within the macromolecule. Tightly bound water molecules with long residence times are rare in proteins at ambient temperature. The water polarization-transfer technique has been used to study the hydration of microcrystalline proteins, lipid membranes, and plant cell wall polysaccharides, and to derive atomic-resolution details of the kinetics and mechanism of ion conduction in channels and pumps. Using this approach, we have measured the water polarization transfer to the transmembrane domain of the influenza M2 protein to obtain information on the structure of this tetrameric proton channel. At short mixing times, the polarization transfer rates are site-specific and depend on the pH, labile protons, sidechain conformation, as well as the radial position of the residues in this four-helix bundle. Despite the multiple dependences, the initial transfer rates reflect the periodic nature of the residue positions from the water-filled pore, thus this technique provides a way of gleaning secondary structure information, helix tilt angle, and the oligomeric structure of membrane proteins.

  10. Probing membrane protein structure using water polarization transfer solid-state NMR.

    PubMed

    Williams, Jonathan K; Hong, Mei

    2014-10-01

    Water plays an essential role in the structure and function of proteins, lipid membranes and other biological macromolecules. Solid-state NMR heteronuclear-detected (1)H polarization transfer from water to biomolecules is a versatile approach for studying water-protein, water-membrane, and water-carbohydrate interactions in biology. We review radiofrequency pulse sequences for measuring water polarization transfer to biomolecules, the mechanisms of polarization transfer, and the application of this method to various biological systems. Three polarization transfer mechanisms, chemical exchange, spin diffusion and NOE, manifest themselves at different temperatures, magic-angle-spinning frequencies, and pulse irradiations. Chemical exchange is ubiquitous in all systems examined so far, and spin diffusion plays the key role in polarization transfer within the macromolecule. Tightly bound water molecules with long residence times are rare in proteins at ambient temperature. The water polarization-transfer technique has been used to study the hydration of microcrystalline proteins, lipid membranes, and plant cell wall polysaccharides, and to derive atomic-resolution details of the kinetics and mechanism of ion conduction in channels and pumps. Using this approach, we have measured the water polarization transfer to the transmembrane domain of the influenza M2 protein to obtain information on the structure of this tetrameric proton channel. At short mixing times, the polarization transfer rates are site-specific and depend on the pH, labile protons, sidechain conformation, as well as the radial position of the residues in this four-helix bundle. Despite the multiple dependences, the initial transfer rates reflect the periodic nature of the residue positions from the water-filled pore, thus this technique provides a way of gleaning secondary structure information, helix tilt angle, and the oligomeric structure of membrane proteins. PMID:25228502

  11. Self-Assembly of the Second Transmembrane Domain of hCtr1 in Micelles and Interaction with Silver Ion.

    PubMed

    Dong, Zhe; Wang, Yunrui; Wang, Chunyu; Xu, Haoran; Guan, Liping; Li, Zhengqiang; Li, Fei

    2015-07-01

    Human copper transporter 1 (hCtr1) transports copper and silver by a homotrimer. The protein contains three transmembrane domains in which the second transmembrane domain (TMD2) is a key component lining the central pore of the trimer. The MXXXM motif in the C-terminal end of TMD2 plays a significant role in the function of hCtr1. In this study, we characterized the structure and assembly of isolated TMD2 of hCtr1 in sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micelles and the interaction of the micelle-bound peptide with silver ion using nuclear magnetic resonance, circular dichroism, isothermal titration calorimetry and electrophoresis techniques. We detected the formation of a trimer of the isolated hCtr1-TMD2 in SDS micelles and the binding of the trimer to Ag(I) by a chemical stoichiometry of 3:2 of peptide:Ag(I). We showed that either an intensive pretreatment of the TMD2 peptide by 1,1,1,3,3,3-hexafluoro-2-propanol solvent or a conversion from methionine to leucine in the MXXXM motif changes the aggregation structure of the peptide and decreases the binding affinity by 1 order of magnitude. Our results suggest that the intrinsic interaction of the second transmembrane domain itself may be closely associated with the formation of hCtr1 pore in cellular membranes, and two methionine residues in the MXXXM motif may be important for TMD2 both in the trimeric assembly and in a higher-affinity binding to Ag(I). PMID:26061257

  12. Point Mutations in the Transmembrane Region of the Clic1 Ion Channel Selectively Modify Its Biophysical Properties

    PubMed Central

    Averaimo, Stefania; Abeti, Rosella; Savalli, Nicoletta; Brown, Louise J.; Curmi, Paul M. G.; Breit, Samuel N.; Mazzanti, Michele

    2013-01-01

    Chloride intracellular Channel 1 (CLIC1) is a metamorphic protein that changes from a soluble cytoplasmic protein into a transmembrane protein. Once inserted into membranes, CLIC1 multimerises and is able to form chloride selective ion channels. Whilst CLIC1 behaves as an ion channel both in cells and in artificial lipid bilayers, its structure in the soluble form has led to some uncertainty as to whether it really is an ion channel protein. CLIC1 has a single putative transmembrane region that contains only two charged residues: arginine 29 (Arg29) and lysine 37 (Lys37). As charged residues are likely to have a key role in ion channel function, we hypothesized that mutating them to neutral alanine to generate K37A and R29A CLIC1 would alter the electrophysiological characteristics of CLIC1. By using three different electrophysiological approaches: i) single channel Tip-Dip in artificial bilayers using soluble recombinant CLIC1, ii) cell-attached and iii) whole-cell patch clamp recordings in transiently transfected HEK cells, we determined that the K37A mutation altered the single-channel conductance while the R29A mutation affected the single-channel open probability in response to variation in membrane potential. Our results show that mutation of the two charged amino acids (K37 and R29) in the putative transmembrane region of CLIC1 alters the biophysical properties of the ion channel in both artificial bilayers and cells. Hence these charged residues are directly involved in regulating its ion channel activity. This strongly suggests that, despite its unusual structure, CLIC1 itself is able to form a chloride ion channel. PMID:24058583

  13. After the double helix: Rosalind Franklin's research on Tobacco mosaic virus.

    PubMed

    Creager, Angela N H; Morgan, Gregory J

    2008-06-01

    Rosalind Franklin is best known for her informative X-ray diffraction patterns of DNA that provided vital clues for James Watson and Francis Crick's double-stranded helical model. Her scientific career did not end when she left the DNA work at King's College, however. In 1953 Franklin moved to J. D. Bernal's crystallography laboratory at Birkbeck College, where she shifted her focus to the three-dimensional structure of viruses, obtaining diffraction patterns of Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) of unprecedented detail and clarity. During the next five years, while making significant headway on the structural determination of TMV, Franklin maintained an active correspondence with both Watson and Crick, who were also studying aspects of virus structure. Developments in TMV research during the 1950s illustrate the connections in the emerging field of molecular biology between structural studies of nucleic acids and of proteins and viruses. They also reveal how the protagonists of the "race for the double helix" continued to interact personally and professionally during the years when Watson and Crick's model for the double-helical structure of DNA was debated and confirmed. PMID:18702397

  14. The E. coli thioredoxin folding mechanism: the key role of the C-terminal helix.

    PubMed

    Vazquez, Diego S; Sánchez, Ignacio E; Garrote, Ana; Sica, Mauricio P; Santos, Javier

    2015-02-01

    In this work, the unfolding mechanism of oxidized Escherichia coli thioredoxin (EcTRX) was investigated experimentally and computationally. We characterized seven point mutants distributed along the C-terminal ?-helix (CTH) and the preceding loop. The mutations destabilized the protein against global unfolding while leaving the native structure unchanged. Global analysis of the unfolding kinetics of all variants revealed a linear unfolding route with a high-energy on-pathway intermediate state flanked by two transition state ensembles TSE1 and TSE2. The experiments show that CTH is mainly unfolded in TSE1 and the intermediate and becomes structured in TSE2. Structure-based molecular dynamics are in agreement with these experiments and provide protein-wide structural information on transient states. In our model, EcTRX folding starts with structure formation in the ?-sheet, while the protein helices coalesce later. As a whole, our results indicate that the CTH is a critical module in the folding process, restraining a heterogeneous intermediate ensemble into a biologically active native state and providing the native protein with thermodynamic and kinetic stability. PMID:25463044

  15. Genome-wide features of neuroendocrine regulation in Drosophila by the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor DIMMED

    PubMed Central

    Hadži?, Tarik; Park, Dongkook; Abruzzi, Katharine C.; Yang, Lin; Trigg, Jennifer S.; Rohs, Remo; Rosbash, Michael; Taghert, Paul H.

    2015-01-01

    Neuroendocrine (NE) cells use large dense core vesicles (LDCVs) to traffic, process, store and secrete neuropeptide hormones through the regulated secretory pathway. The dimmed (DIMM) basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor of Drosophila controls the level of regulated secretory activity in NE cells. To pursue its mechanisms, we have performed two independent genome-wide analyses of DIMM's activities: (i) in vivo chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) to define genomic sites of DIMM occupancy and (ii) deep sequencing of purified DIMM neurons to characterize their transcriptional profile. By this combined approach, we showed that DIMM binds to conserved E-boxes in enhancers of 212 genes whose expression is enriched in DIMM-expressing NE cells. DIMM binds preferentially to certain E-boxes within first introns of specific gene isoforms. Statistical machine learning revealed that flanking regions of putative DIMM binding sites contribute to its DNA binding specificity. DIMM's transcriptional repertoire features at least 20 LDCV constituents. In addition, DIMM notably targets the pro-secretory transcription factor, creb-A, but significantly, DIMM does not target any neuropeptide genes. DIMM therefore prescribes the scale of secretory activity in NE neurons, by a systematic control of both proximal and distal points in the regulated secretory pathway. PMID:25634895

  16. Defence against oxidative stress in two species of land snails (Helix pomatia and Helix aspersa) subjected to estivation.

    PubMed

    Nowakowska, Anna; Caputa, Micha?; Rogalska, Justyna

    2011-12-01

    During summer, land snails are exposed to estivation/arousal cycles that imposes oxidative stress, but they exhibit different patterns of antioxidant defence. To test the ability of two related species, Helix pomatia and Helix aspersa, to modulate their antioxidant defence mechanism during estivation/arousal cycles, we examined activities of catalase and glutathione-related enzymes and concentrations of glutathione and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS; as products of lipid peroxidation). In both species, estivation evoked changes in activity of total and selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase (GPx), but did not affect activity of catalase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione transferase, and had no effect on concentration of glutathione. Activity of catalase in estivating snails, instead of the expected increase, showed a tendency to diminish. Extremely low activities of catalase in the foot were usually associated with extremely high activities of both forms of GPx. In conclusion, maintenance of relatively high activities of the antioxidant enzymes and accumulation of glutathione, resulting in a low and stable concentration of TBARS, plays an important role in scavenging oxygen free radicals from the organism of both species. PMID:21972193

  17. A novel basic helix-loop-helix protein is expressed in muscle attachment sites of the Drosophila epidermis.

    PubMed Central

    Armand, P; Knapp, A C; Hirsch, A J; Wieschaus, E F; Cole, M D

    1994-01-01

    We have found that a novel basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) protein is expressed almost exclusively in the epidermal attachments sites for the somatic muscles of Drosophila melanogaster. A Drosophila cDNA library was screened with radioactively labeled E12 protein, which can dimerize with many HLH proteins. One clone that emerged from this screen encoded a previously unknown protein of 360 amino acids, named delilah, that contains both basic and HLH domains, similar to a group of cellular transcription factors implicated in cell type determination. Delilah protein formed heterodimers with E12 that bind to the muscle creatine kinase promoter. In situ hybridization with the delilah cDNA localized the expression of the gene to a subset of cells in the epidermis which form a distinct pattern involving both the segmental boundaries and intrasegmental clusters. This pattern was coincident with the known sites of attachment of the somatic muscles to tendon cells in the epidermis. delilah expression persists in snail mutant embryos which lack mesoderm, indicating that expression of the gene was not induced by attachment of the underlying muscles. The similarity of this gene to other bHLH genes suggests that it plays an important role in the differentiation of epidermal cells into muscle attachment sites. Images PMID:8196652

  18. Classification and evolutionary analysis of the basic helix-loop-helix gene family in the green anole lizard, Anolis carolinensis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ake; Wang, Yong; Zhang, Debao; Wang, Xuhua; Song, Huifang; Dang, Chunwang; Yao, Qin; Chen, Keping

    2013-08-01

    Helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins play essential regulatory roles in a variety of biological processes. These highly conserved proteins form a large transcription factor superfamily, and are commonly identified in large numbers within animal, plant, and fungal genomes. The bHLH domain has been well studied in many animal species, but has not yet been characterized in non-avian reptiles. In this study, we identified 102 putative bHLH genes in the genome of the green anole lizard, Anolis carolinensis. Based on phylogenetic analysis, these genes were classified into 43 families, with 43, 24, 16, 3, 10, and 3 members assigned into groups A, B, C, D, E, and F, respectively, and 3 members categorized as "orphans". Within-group evolutionary relationships inferred from the phylogenetic analysis were consistent with highly conserved patterns observed for introns and additional domains. Results from phylogenetic analysis of the H/E(spl) family suggest that genome and tandem gene duplications have contributed to this family's expansion. Our classification and evolutionary analysis has provided insights into the evolutionary diversification of animal bHLH genes, and should aid future studies on bHLH protein regulation of key growth and developmental processes. PMID:23756994

  19. GLABRA2 Directly Suppresses Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factor Genes with Diverse Functions in Root Hair Development

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Qing; Ohashi, Yohei; Kato, Mariko; Tsuge, Tomohiko; Gu, Hongya; Qu, Li-Jia; Aoyama, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    The Arabidopsis thaliana GLABRA2 (GL2) gene encodes a transcription factor involved in the cell differentiation of various epidermal tissues. During root hair pattern formation, GL2 suppresses root hair development in non-hair cells, acting as a node between the gene regulatory networks for cell fate determination and cell differentiation. Despite the importance of GL2 function, its molecular basis remains obscure because the GL2 target genes leading to the network for cell differentiation are unknown. We identified five basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor genes—ROOT HAIR DEFECTIVE6 (RHD6), RHD6-LIKE1 (RSL1), RSL2, LjRHL1-LIKE1 (LRL1), and LRL2—as GL2 direct targets using transcriptional and post-translational induction systems. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis confirmed GL2 binding to upstream regions of these genes in planta. Reporter gene analyses showed that these genes are expressed in various stages of root hair development and are suppressed by GL2 in non-hair cells. GL2 promoter-driven green fluorescent protein fusions of LRL1 and LRL2, but not those of the other bHLH proteins, conferred root hair development on non-hair cells. These results indicate that GL2 directly suppresses bHLH genes with diverse functions in root hair development. PMID:26486447

  20. Recognition of DNA by the Helix-Turn-Helix Global Regulatory Protein Lrp Is Modulated by the Amino Terminus ? †

    PubMed Central

    Hart, Benjamin R.; Mishra, Pankaj K.; Lintner, Robert E.; Hinerman, Jennifer M.; Herr, Andrew B.; Blumenthal, Robert M.

    2011-01-01

    The AsnC/Lrp family of regulatory proteins links bacterial and archaeal transcription patterns to metabolism. In Escherichia coli, Lrp regulates approximately 400 genes, over 200 of them directly. In earlier studies, lrp genes from Vibrio cholerae, Proteus mirabilis, and E. coli were introduced into the same E. coli background and yielded overlapping but significantly different regulons. These differences were seen despite amino acid sequence identities of 92% (Vibrio) and 98% (Proteus) to E. coli Lrp, including complete conservation of the helix-turn-helix motifs. The N-terminal region contains many of the sequence differences among these Lrp orthologs, which led us to investigate its role in Lrp function. Through the generation of hybrid proteins, we found that the N-terminal diversity is responsible for some of the differences between orthologs in terms of DNA binding (as revealed by mobility shift assays) and multimerization (as revealed by gel filtration, dynamic light scattering, and analytical ultracentrifugation). These observations indicate that the N-terminal tail plays a significant role in modulating Lrp function, similar to what is seen for a number of other regulatory proteins. PMID:21642464